How leadership and management dynamics by

How  leadership  and  management  dynamics  by
How leadership and management dynamics
contribute to school effectiveness
by
OLOLADE KAZEEM SHONUBI
B.Sc. (Ed.) (LASU); M. Ed. (Lagos); MNIM
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
In the Department of Education Management and Policy Studies
University of Pretoria
Supervisor: Dr. I. J. Prinsloo
Co-supervisor: Prof. W. J. Fraser
March, 2012
© University of Pretoria
Declaration of Originality
I, Ololade Kazeem Shonubi hereby declare that this thesis has not been previously submitted
by me for a degree or diploma at this or any other university. Hence, this is my own work in
design, execution and every source used in this thesis has been duly acknowledged. More
so, all research procedures reported in this thesis received the approval of the relevant ethics
committee of the University of Pretoria (see Appendix 2).
Signature:
.................................................................
Ololade Kazeem Shonubi
Date:
..................................................................
i
Abstract
This study compares an effective school and ineffective school, in terms of how internal
leadership and management of each school contribute its effectiveness. As a result, the study
explores why one of two schools located within the same socio-economic environment,
funded uniformly and controlled by the government at same levels of commitments is
effective, while the other seems ineffective. Therefore, this thesis raises questions to know
how internal school stakeholders‟ leadership and management practices contribute to school
effectiveness in each of the schools. A comparison was undertaken by firstly exploring how
school leadership and management practices of School Leadership and Management Teams
(SLMT) and secondly, understanding how teachers‟ classroom leadership and management
contribute to school effectiveness respectively. Therefore, in an attempt to answer the main
research question: How do leadership and management dynamics contribute to school
effectiveness? Other identified sub-questions were raised. Furthermore, a review of relevant
literature uncovered what makes good and quality school leadership, management and;
classroom leadership and management in ensuring school effectiveness. Data was collected
from identified key role players within the two sampled schools. They include a school
principal, vice-principal, Head of Departments (HOD), a teacher and classroom student leader
(class captain) each, making-up a total of ten participants in the study - (five participants from
each school). The researcher utilised one-on-one semi-structured interview, observations and
document analysis or review in order to obtain rich qualitative data. By adopting the a-priori
approach of data analysis, codes were generated manually from the interviews, observations
and documents analysis/reviewed and measured against identified school leadership and
management and; classroom leadership and management sub-themes/criteria in the
literature reviewed in this study. From the data obtained, analysed and discussed, it was
found that School A was exceptional in terms of leadership and management practises
compared to School B. Although School A and B showed similar, but negligible
characteristics in school planning, organising, management of change and; coordination of
school teaching and learning, School A‟s strength in terms of management of the school, lies
in its availability of school policy on teaching, decision-making, delegating, control, motivating,
communicating, management of interpersonal relationships, school climate, culture, change,
management of conflict and school school-community relationships. In addition, even though
School A and B teacher exhibited similar elements like, teaching methods ability, planning of
ii
their teaching and they both lack written classroom policy in their classroom leadership and
management practices, differences like classroom leadership, motivation, communication,
classroom climate and control exhibited by School A teacher during teaching and learning
makes him far better, in comparison to School B teacher. Conclusively, the exceptional
leadership and management practices by the School Leadership and Management (SLMT) of
School A and its teacher in comparison to School B brought about multiplicity of other
findings in this study. In the overall, it is believed that the interrelatedness of the exceptional
leadership and management behaviour and practices of school A SLMT and teacher, is a
consequence of the culture of the school, which has been built and maintained over the years
and thus, influenced its climate in contributing to school effectiveness.
iii
Acknowledgements
I am grateful to almighty God who enabled me to come this far in my studies, stemming from
his abundant grace. I also wish to express my gratitude to my Supervisor, Dr. I. J. Prinsloo
and Co-supervisor, Professor W. J. Fraser for their critical, generous academic assistance,
advice and guidance throughout my study. They provided me with mentorship and other
means of academic growth and exposure in my area of study specialization.
My gratitude also goes to Mrs Selina Davids, Mrs M. Nieman, Mrs Marthie Barnard, Mrs
Susan Smith, Mrs Daphney Mabuza, Mr. L. Mnguni, Mrs M. M. M Kazeni, Mareliza Naude,
Lizzy Jane Mafora, Dr. F. R. Aluko. In addition, I acknowledge other members of staff in the
Department of Education management and Policy Studies and the entire staff of the Faculty
of Education, University of Pretoria. Their kind words and assistance gave me courage and
strength to carry on with my studies. My gratitude also goes to my colleagues and friends, Mr.
Hammed Adesanya, George Fringe, Mr. Kolawole Elutilo, Mr. Charles Adebanji, Mr. Innocent
Mulalo, Mr. Mabasa Highton Akani and Mr Mokoinihi Nelson.
My penultimate thanks go to my immediate family, especially to my special wife, Mrs N. M.
Shonubi, Masters Habeeb Oluwafemi and Hakeem Oluwashina‟yomi Shonubi. They all
tolerated my long journey away from home, to study at the University of Pretoria in South
Africa. I also express my gratitude to my parents, cousins, extended family members,
brothers and sisters; friends and some of my colleagues at work whose calls to check on me
rekindled my motivation to go-on with my studies.
iv
Key Words
School leadership
School management
School effectiveness
Classroom leadership
Classroom management
Secondary schools
Principal
Vice-principal
Head of Department (HOD)
Teacher
Student
Departmental
v
List of abbreviations
SLMT: Senior Leadership and Management Team
HOD: Head of Department
FME: Federal Ministry of Education
TESCOM: Teaching Service Commission
JSS: Junior Secondary School
SSS: Senior Secondary School
Ofsted: Office for standard in education
SER: School Effectiveness Research
SBM: School Based Management
vi
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE ..........................................................................................................................1
1.1
Introduction to the study ............................................................................................1
1.2
Context of the study ....................................................................................................3
1.3
Rationale of the study .................................................................................................4
1.4
Problem statement ......................................................................................................5
1.5
Research questions ....................................................................................................7
1.6
Aims and objectives of the study ...............................................................................7
1.7
Significance of the study ............................................................................................8
1.8
Theoretical framework ................................................................................................8
1.9
Research paradigm ................................................................................................. 100
1.10
Research method/design ........................................................................................ 111
1.10.1
Research sample and sampling technique....................................................... 122
1.10.2
Data-gathering methods .................................................................................. 133
1.11
Trustworthiness ...................................................................................................... 155
1.12
Data analysis ........................................................................................................... 155
1.13
Ethical considerations ............................................................................................ 166
1.14
Delimitations to the Study ...................................................................................... 166
1.15
Structure of the research ........................................................................................ 177
CHAPTER TWO .......................................................................................................................19
Dynamics of leadership and management contributing to school effectiveness .19
2.1
Introduction ...............................................................................................................19
2.2
Clarification of concepts ....................................................................................... 2020
2.2.1
Leadership.................. .................................................................................... 211
2.2.2
Authority............ ............................................................................................. 222
2.2.3
Power.................. ........................................................................................... 222
2.3
Management ............................................................................................................ 244
2.3.1
Responsibility.... ............................................................................................. 255
2.3.2
Accountability... .............................................................................................. 265
2.4
The Relationship between leadership and management ...................................... 266
2.5
School effectiveness ............................................................................................... 277
vii
2.5.1
A review of previous studies relating to leadership and management and school
effectiveness.................................................................................................... 29
2.6
Theories and models of education management and leadership ........................ 332
2.6.1
Bureaucratic (formal) model ............................................................................ 343
2.6.2
Managerial leadership model .......................................................................... 355
2.6.3
Collegiality model of management ................................................................... 366
2.6.4
Transformational leadership model .................................................................. 36
2.6.5
Political micro-politics model ............................................................................ 38
2.6.6
Transactional leadership model ........................................................................ 39
2.6.7
Culture management model ............................................................................. 40
2.6.8
Moral leadership model .................................................................................... 41
2.6.9
Visionary Leadership ....................................................................................... 42
2.6.10
Instructional leadership model .......................................................................... 43
2.7
2.7.1
2.8
Education leadership and management model .......................................................44
Brief description of the model ........................................................................... 44
Conceptual management (skills) contributing to effective task execution in a
school ........................................................................................................................47
2.8.1
Planning and visualizing .................................................................................. 47
2.8.2
Organising in schools ...................................................................................... 57
2.9
Human Skills..............................................................................................................69
2.9.1
Motivation.......... ............................................................................................. 710
2.9.2
Communication ................................................................................................ 77
2.9.3
The establishment of sound human relationships in a school ............................ 79
2.10
Internal management dimensions contributing to a the creation of a healthy
school environment ..................................................................................................81
2.10.1
School climate and culture ............................................................................... 81
2.10.2
Management of change ................................................................................... 87
2.10.3
Managing conflict ............................................................................................. 89
2.11
Managerial areas ...................................................................................... ................ 92
2.11.1
The management of administrative affairs ........................................................ 92
2.11.2
The management of physical facilities .............................................................. 93
2.11.3
The management of human resources ............................................................. 94
2.11.4
The management of curriculum and student activities ....................................... 95
2.11.5
The management of school finance .................................................................. 96
viii
2.11.6
The management of school-community relationships ........................................ 97
2.12
Management of the external school environment ...................................................98
2.13
Conclusion.................................................................................................................98
CHAPTER THREE ................................................................................................................. 103
Dynamics of classroom leadership and management contributing to school
effectiveness ........................................................................................................... 103
3.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 103
3.2
The essence of classroom management ............................................................... 104
3.3
Teacher effectiveness and classroom management ............................................ 107
3.4
The relationship between the theoretical framework of scheerens and
classroom leadership and management................................................................ 110
3.5
3.5.1
3.6
Classroom leadership dimensions and styles ...................................................... 114
Classroom leadership styles ........................................................................... 115
Management in the classroom ............................................................................... 123
3.6.1
Planning.............. ........................................................................................... 123
3.6.2
Classroom policy ............................................................................................ 130
3.6.3
Classroom organizing ..................................................................................... 131
3.7
Classroom management: Motivation and communication ................................... 133
3.7.1
Motivation.......... ............................................................................................. 133
3.7.2
Classroom communication .............................................................................. 136
3.8
Classroom management: Classroom climate and culture ................................... 138
3.8.1
Classroom climate .......................................................................................... 137
3.8.2
Classroom culture ........................................................................................... 138
3.9
Classroom control ................................................................................................... 140
3.9.1
Monitoring......... ............................................................................................. 144
3.9.2
Assessment and assessment feedback ........................................................... 145
3.9.3
Reflection........... ............................................................................................ 148
3.10
Conclusion............................................................................................................... 149
CHAPTER FOUR ................................................................................................................... 152
Research designandmethodoldy ........................................................................... 152
4.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 152
ix
4.2
Research paradigm ................................................................................................. 152
4.2.1
Ontology............. ............................................................................................ 152
4.2.2
Epistemology.... .............................................................................................. 152
4.3
The qualitative research applicable to the investigation ...................................... 154
4.4
Research method/design ........................................................................................ 154
4.5
Research sample and sampling technique ........................................................... 158
4.6
Data-gathering methods ......................................................................................... 161
4.6.1
The literature.... .............................................................................................. 161
4.6.2
Interviews (semi-structured) ............................................................................ 161
4.6.3
Observations..... ............................................................................................. 163
4.6.4
Document analysis/review............................................................................... 164
4.6.5
Field notes......... ............................................................................................. 165
4.6.6
Reflective diary ............................................................................................... 166
4.7
Trustworthiness ...................................................................................................... 166
4.8
Data analysis ........................................................................................................... 168
4.9
Ethical considerations ............................................................................................ 169
CHAPTER FIVE...................................................................................................................... 171
Data analysis, reporting and discussion of results on leadership and
management contributing to school effectiveness............................................... 171
5.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 171
5.2.1
Literature review ....................................................................................................... 172
5.2.2
Individual interviews ......................................................................................... 172
5.2.3
School observations ......................................................................................... 172
5.3
Analysis of field-work: Observation of School A .................................................. 173
5.3.1
Introduction............. ......................................................................................... 173
5.3.2
Observation: School A (achieving school) ......................................................... 174
5.3.3
Observation: School B (under-achieving school) ............................................... 178
5.4
Analysis of the relationship between the dynamics of school leadership and
school effectiveness (School A and B) .................................................................. 182
5.4.1
Introduction….……........................................................................................... 182
5.4.2
School leadership sub-themes.........................................................................183
5.4.3
Analysis and discussion of the interviews to determine the relationship between
the dynamics of leadership contributing to school effectiveness in School B .... 184
x
5.5
An analysis and discussion of the interviews to determine the relationship
between the dynamics of leadership contributing to school effectiveness in
(School B) ................................................................................................................ 192
5.6
Summary .................................................................................................................. 198
5.7
Analysis of the relationship between the dynamics of school management and
school effectiveness (School A and B) .................................................................. 200
5.7.1
Introduction...... .............................................................................................. 200
5.7.2
Relationship between the dynamics of school management and school
effectiveness (School A)........... ...................................................................... 201
5.8
Relationship between the dynamics of school management and school
effectiveness (School B) ......................................................................................... 222
5.9
Summary .................................................................................................................. 246
CHAPTER SIX ........................................................................................................................ 251
Data analysis, reporting and discussion of results on classroom leadership
and management contributing to school effectiveness ....................................... 251
6.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 151
6.2
Analysis of the classroom observation at School A and B .................................. 252
6.2.1
Introduction...... .............................................................................................. 252
6.2.2
Classroom observation: School A (achieving school) ....................................... 253
6.2.3
Classroom observation: School B (under-achieving school) ......................... 25756
6.3
Summary .................................................................................................................. 260
6.4
Analysis and discussion of the relationship between the dynamics of
classroom leadership, management & school effectiveness (School A and B) . 261
6.4.1
Introduction...... .............................................................................................. 261
6.4.2
The relationship between the dynamics of classroom leadership, management
and school effectiveness (School A) ................................................................ 262
6.4.3
Relationship between the dynamics of classroom leadership, management and
school effectiveness (School B) ...................................................................... 271
6.5
Summary .................................................................................................................. 281
6.6
Teacher’s reflections (School A and B) ................................................................. 284
6.6.1
Introduction...... .............................................................................................. 284
6.6.2
Teacher‟s reflection (School A) ....................................................................... 284
6.6.3
Teacher‟s reflection (School B) ....................................................................... 285
xi
6.7
Conclusion............................................................................................................... 286
CHAPTER SEVEN ................................................................................................................. 291
Conclusion............................................................................................................... 291
7.1
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 291
7.2
Summary of the findings ........................................................................................ 291
7.2.1
Overview of findings regarding school leadership contributing to school
effectiveness in School A ................................................................................ 291
7.2.2
Overview of findings regarding school leadership contributing to school
effectiveness in School B...................................... .......................................... 293
7.2.3
Overview of findings regarding school management contributing to school
effectiveness In School A............................ .................................................... 294
7.2.4
Overview of findings regarding school management contributing to school
effectiveness In School B............................ .................................................... 295
7.2.5
Overview
of
findings
regarding
classroom
leadership
and
management
contributing to school effectiveness in School A .............................................. 297
7.2.6
Overview
of
findings
regarding
classroom
leadership
and
management
contributing to school effectiveness in School B .............................................. 298
7.3
Overview and comparison of the findings in terms of the relationship between
school leadership and management and; classroom leadership and
management contributing to school effectiveness in School A and B. ...... 299
7.3.1
7.3.2
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………......299
Comparison findings between School leadership and school effectiveness
in School A and B………………………………………………………………………...299
7.3.3
Comparison findings between School management and school effectiveness
in School A and B…………………………………………………………………………300
7.4
Contributions of the study to the body of knowledge………………………….......303
7.5
Limitations of the study .......................................................................................... 305
7.6
Recommendations of the study ............................................................................. 306
7.6.1
Recommendations for practice ........................................................................ 307
7.6.2
Recommendations for further studies .............................................................. 308
7.7
Reflections on this study ........................................................................................ 309
7.8
Concluding remarks ................................................................................................ 310
xii
References ............................................................................................................................ 312
xiii
List of Figures
Fig. 1.1
School effectiveness model .......................................................................... 10
Fig. 2.1
Education leadership and management model ............................................. 49
Fig. 2.2
Decision making processes .......................................................................... 57
Fig.2.3
The motivational cycle .................................................................................. 71
Fig. 2.4
Abraham Maslow‟s needs hierarchy ............................................................. 73
Fig. 2.5
Comparison between the Theories of Maslow and Herzberg ........................ 76
Fig. 2.6
Post enrichment ............................................................................................ 77
Fig. 2.7
Illustration of school organisational climate ................................................... 84
Fig. 2.8
Illustration of school organisational culture.................................................... 86
Fig. 3.1
A basic Systems Model of school functioning.............................................. 112
Fig. 3.2
Human task dimension in the classroom ..................................................... 115
Fig. 3.3
Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership .............................................. 123
Fig. 3.4
Steps in classroom planning ....................................................................... 126
Fig. 3.5
Motivational motives ................................................................................... 135
xiv
Lists of Tables
Table 1.1 Category of samples in the interview ............................................................ 13
Table 2.1 Typology of management and leadership models ......................................... 33
Table 2.2 Illustration of a practical application of Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs ............. 74
Table 2.3 Formal channels of communication............................................................... 80
Table 4.1 Profiles of achieving and under-achieving school........................................ 157
Table 4.2 Categories of samples for interview ............................................................ 161
Table 5.1 Organogram showing data collection methods and SLMT participants in
the Study.........................................................................................................175
Table 5.2 Organogram showing data collection methods and classroom participants
in the study.......................................................................................................254
xv
List of Appendixes
Appendix 1:
Letter of consent .................................................................................... 343
Appendix 2:
Ethical clearance .................................................................................... 344
Appendix 3:
Letter of introduction to participants........................................................ 345
Appendix 4:
Letter of consents from participants........................................................ 347
Appendix 5:
Senior Management and Leadership Team (SLMT) interview ................ 348
Appendix 6:
Interview schedule: English teacher ....................................................... 349
Appendix 7:
Interview schedule: Student leader......................................................... 350
Appendix 8:
School observation schedule .................................................................. 351
Appendix 9:
Classroom observation schedule............................................................ 352
xvi
CHAPTER ONE
1.1
Introduction to the study
The purpose of the study is to explore how leadership and management dynamics (between
principals, vice-principals, Heads of Departments (HOD) - [SLMT], teachers and students)
influence secondary school effectiveness in Lagos State schools. Measuring a school‟s
performance is not just be about a hasty review of the traditional indicators of school
effectiveness, but a complete understanding of the leadership and management dynamics
that contribute to an effective school system. That is, it requires a review, analysis and
understanding of the influence of the internal leadership and management context, the
practical interaction process between internal key role-players, display of expertise, time and
commitment to the task of teaching in the school.
“Urban high schools have a unique set of challenges. They have larger enrolments than suburban or rural schools; even the teachers experience fewer resources and have less control
over curriculum. Moreover, there are morale issues and significantly higher rates of discipline
problems, the students have fears associated with safety, spend less time on homework,
have higher absentee rates and are more likely to take weapons to school. In addition,
students lack family stability and high teacher absentee rates and recruitment difficulties are
associated with hiring excellent teachers” (Calabrese, Goodvin and Niles, 2005: 437).
Problems associated with urban schools will not be solved instantly. The leadership and
management dynamics of different schools which may contribute to school effectiveness
have been of great interest to the researcher. This is because while some schools attain high
levels of academic achievement, others do not; therefore, understanding the process by
which those results are being achieved or not, are important.
Wrigly (2004: 288) writes that he “would not wish to argue against the existence of a „school
effect‟. Despite uncertainty about certain claims and proofs, it seems indisputable that some
schools not only achieve superior success in examination and test results, but also in terms
of a broader view of educational achievement than other schools in similar environments. The
problem lies rather in an inadequate articulation of what counts as success”. The question
1
thus is that, the reason some schools achieve success to a superior extent, while other
schools may merely aspire towards it is not glaring.
The “results of school effectiveness research suggest that instructional leadership and
management are important characteristic of effective schools. Effective principals appear to
be characterized by the performance of leadership tasks which are positively connected to
student achievements such as, emphasis on basic subjects, provision of an orderly
atmosphere and a learning climate, setting instructional strategies, coordination of
instructional programmes, supervising and supporting teachers, orientation towards
educational development, innovation, mission-orientation and dissemination of school‟s
vision” (Kruger, Witziers and Sleegers, 2007: 2), with emphasis on students support,
assessment and academic reports and thus, the realization of educational goal (Buckridge
and Guest, 2007:133-146).
The concept of effectiveness (Sheerens, 1992:37) is clearly related to a means-end
relationship. When applied to educational phenomena, effectiveness refers to “the extent to
which educational means or processes result in the attainment of education goals through
focus on the quality of instructional leadership”. This position with respect to leadership and
school management implies that effective school leaders should not just concern themselves
with classroom management alone, but should also take care of the smooth running of
administrative and organizational matters, such as instructional leadership, learning and
teaching in the classrooms and the records of student achievement (Scheerens, 1990:69).
The ability of schools to transform themselves (Davidoff and Lazarus, 1997:153-154) is to a
great extent “dependent on the quality of leadership in the school”. Therefore, Sterling and
Davidoff (2000:27-29) state that commitment to lead may be an initial step to take in changing
a negative situation to a positive one. Therefore, a conscious choice has to be made in order
to be a leader and; grow as a leader in order to become an effective leader. However,
leadership pledge absolves a school leader from making justifications why an unpleasant
condition cannot be reversed to a positive one.
2
1.2
Context of the study
Legislation on Secondary education in Nigeria is hinged on the concurrent legislative list of
the constitution (FGN, 1999) according to which the Federated States, as well as the Federal
Government can legislate on laws regulating education. Therefore, there are Federal
Government owned and managed schools, including individual Federated States owned and
managed schools, which are controlled by the States‟ Ministries of Education via the
Teaching Service Commission (TESCOM). The TESCOM is also responsible for teacher
recruitment, deployment, remuneration, welfare, discipline and disbursement of funds to
secondary schools. Individual secondary school‟s leadership and management are headed
by a principal, with the collaboration of the vice-principal and Head of Departments (HODs) to
achieve school success. Each school‟s principal is accountable to the Teaching Service
Commission (TESCOM) in each Federated State and Lagos State schools are no exemption.
Secondary education is a comprehensive type of education that runs between September in
a particular year up till July in the following year; it also carries a core curriculum, designed to
broaden the knowledge and outlook of students. Secondary schools are segmented into
junior and senior secondary schools of three years each (FME, 2000). On successful
completion of Junior Secondary School (JSS), students are expected to proceed to the next
level of Senior Secondary School (SSS) programme. The medium of instruction at both the
JSS and SSS level is English, being the official language in Nigeria. The schools used in this
study are located within the same socio-economic environment (less than five kilometres
apart from each other). In addition, both sampled schools in this study are exclusively
controlled and operated by the Lagos State Government in Nigeria, based on equal financial
and administrative decisions.
The Senior Secondary School Certificate (SSSC) is awarded to students on completion of the
final senior secondary examinations. The examinations are organized and administered by
two different examination bodies - the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and the
National Examination Council [NECO] (FME, 2000). These two examination bodies share
similar objectives of examining the final year (SSS 3) students, in order to prepare successful
and qualified students for higher level of education (University, polytechnic or Colleges of
Education).
3
1.3
Rationale of the study
Kruger, Witziers and Sleegers (2007:1-20) believe that “there has been a growing research
attention to the influence of school leadership on school effectiveness and school
improvement, but little is known about how principals‟ affect student outcomes, which
strategies they use in order to improve their schools and; how educational management and
leadership is affected by a range of institutional and contextual factors like, school size,
school location and type of students”. The reservation to the above is noted by Sun,
Creemers and de Jong (2005:92-122), when they clarify that, “due to differences in
development, degrees of centralization and decentralization, purposes and approaches to
education in the different countries of the world, contextual factors dictate the indicators of
school effectiveness, as effective learning for a student occurs when there is a compatible
match among these factors”.
Kruger, et. al. (2007:1-20) add that in schools “the most important and practical issues
entailed in understanding the principal‟s role in contributing to school effectiveness, concern
the means by which principals have an impact on school outcomes, as well as the interplay
with contextual forces that influence the exercise of school leadership”. They agree that even
researchers “could not resolve the most important and practical issues involve in
understanding the principal‟s role which contribute to school effectiveness”. Bell (2002:
407-424) in his reaction believes that principals cannot manage schools alone. Moreover,
they can neither convey the burden of motivating to others reach the objectives of the school,
nor complete school tasks without outstanding backings from their co-workers.
“Perhaps the most significant weakness in the school effectiveness discourse is the
fundamental vacuum at its very core. It lacks any clear conceptual rationale that links the
characteristics that commonly describe an effective school, with a dynamic model of school
leadership and management in such a way that it might be possible to explain the
relationships between those characteristics and improved student performance. The precise
nature of the relationships between an effective principal, the classroom performance of the
teacher and the learning of a particular student is largely ignored in the school effectiveness
literature” (Bell, 2002:407-424).
4
In order to solve the ineffective nature of schools leadership, Huber (2004:669-684) proposes
professionalism, thus he establishes that professional school leadership is “described as a
firm and purposeful, based on sharing leadership responsibilities, involvement in and
knowledge about what goes on in the classroom. That means that, it is important to have
decisive and goal-oriented participation of others in leadership tasks, real empowerment in
terms of true delegation of leadership power (distributed leadership) and, that there is a
dedicated interest in and knowledge about what happens during lessons - (effective and
professional school leadership action focuses on teaching and learning, and uses the
school‟s goals as a benchmark)”.
Kruger, et. al. (2007:1-20 ) acknowledge that “systematic empirical validation of the different
research models” on how a principal‟s leadership influence student outcome “is missing and
more research is needed, in which not only the question as to whether principals affect school
outcomes, but also the question about through which paths such effects are achieved”. My
over-riding rationale for this study is my patriotic concern for the plight of secondary students
who under-achieve academically, while their counterparts achieve in similar schools located
within the same context, operated and; managed under the same financial and administrative
considerations by the Lagos State government.
1.4
Problem statement
Positive academic outcomes of students indicate a benchmark of effective schools, because
the school and the teacher in particular are held responsible for students‟ progress in terms of
measurable learning goals, both in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domain
(Mortimore, 1998). Kruger, et. al. (2007:1-20) maintains that the “principal is presented as the
locus of management expertise and an individual who carries the burden of responsibility for
planning. Thus, the principal is located within a hierarchical view of school management in
which the principal is the solitary, heroic and accountable leader who personifies the totality
of leadership skills and managerial” competencies.
Boyd (2004:160-173) concludes that “education and efficiency are not antithetical, because if
we want to use educational resources as wisely and effectively as possible in order to benefit
as many students as possible, we must evaluate the relative success of alternative policies
and practices. Therefore, whether teachers like it or not, the pressures for greater efficiency,
5
effectiveness and accountability in education by the principal are inescapable and will not
disappear”. The question that arises then is, whether some schools were themselves the
cause of superior gains in academic achievement, as a result of the reflection of their more
advantaged managerial effectiveness, distinctive policies, processes and practices from an
overall perspective (Kruger et. al., 2007:1-20).
Arguing against the overall importance of school context as a predictor of managerial
relevance, Newell and Van Ryzin (2007:465-471) states that “the field of school improvement
has been criticized, but nevertheless with some merit for sometimes giving the impression
that school context is not absolutely important and that any school can with appropriate
action, improve significantly. However, “from a theoretical perspective, leadership theory has
posited that situations and contexts are crucial for establishing effective leadership. There are
numerous aspects of the context within which leadership takes place could influence the
nature of leadership and management” (Goldring, Huff, May and Camburn, 2008:332-352).
In reaction to the statement above, Wrigly (2004:227-244) declares that “despite scepticism
about certain claims and proofs about key players in the school, it seems indisputable that
some schools achieve greater success not only in examination and test results, but also in
terms of a broader view of educational achievement, than other schools in similar
environments. He also raises alarm that managerial goals are being offered as a substitute
for a more fundamental debate on curriculum and pedagogy”. Bell (2002:407-424) continues
that “principals and their staff move towards inclusive forms of management and leadership
that are collegial rather than hierarchical, holistic rather than fragmented and instrumental”.
Coincidentally, the development of a knowledge base among education researchers on
school effectiveness and school improvement reveals that school management and teachers
really make a difference (Barber, 2004:3-7). Based on that, Creemers and Reezigt
(2005:259-371) made known their convictions that school effectiveness better focused on
discovering “what works” in education and “why”. Therefore, the problem that puzzles the
researcher is, to understand why students from two secondary schools situated not far from
each other (less than five kilometres apart) and in the same socio-economic environment in
Lagos State; but do not obtain comparable academic achievements. To this extent, the
exploration of how school leadership and management dynamics contribute to school
effectiveness is the focus of this study.
6
1.5
Research questions
The main research question for the thesis is formulated as follows:

How
do
leadership
and
management
dynamics
contribute
to
school
effectiveness?
For the purpose of clarity, the following sub-research questions were asked:

What does the literature inform about school leadership and management dynamics
contributing to school effectiveness?

What does the literature inform about classroom leadership and management
dynamics contributing to school effectiveness?

What is the relationship between the dynamics of school leadership and school
effectiveness?

What is the relationship between the dynamics of school management and school
effectiveness?

What is the relationship between the dynamics of classroom leadership, management
and classroom effectiveness?
1.6
Aims and objectives of the study
The aim of this study is be explore how leadership and management dynamics contribute to
school effectiveness.
The objectives of the study are to determine:

What the literature informs about school leadership and management dynamics
contributing to school effectiveness.

What the literature informs about classroom leadership and management dynamics
contributing to school effectiveness.

The relationship between the dynamics of
effectiveness?
7
school leadership and school

The relationship between the dynamics of school management and school
effectiveness.

The relationship between the dynamics of classroom leadership, management and
school effectiveness.
1.7

Significance of the study
The researcher hopes that this study will extend knowledge and understanding of how
the practices of leadership and management of internal key role players in the school SLMT, the teacher and student leader - may contribute to an effective school.

The study hopes to also reveal the understanding of how the leadership and
management practices of the school SLMT, may influence teacher leadership and
management practices towards the attainment of effective teaching and learning in the
classroom, hence, effective school.

It is also hoped that the findings of this study will inform policy and practice on ways of
ensuring enhanced leadership and management practices in schools in order to attain
effectiveness.
1.8
Theoretical framework
The theoretical framework of this research is built on the school effectiveness concept of
Scheerens (1990) and Prinsloo‟s leadership and management model (2009). They both
consist of contextual, multi-level and multi-factor internal variable factors such as school
leadership/management variables, educational facilities, positive school culture and climate
variables and other achievement goal-oriented variables which may influence student
achievement. The conceptual models of the study assisted the researcher to investigate how
school leadership and management may assist a school in promoting a positive learning
environment for all students, which in turn influence their academic achievement.
In addition, Scheeren‟s conceptual framework (1990) and the Prinsloo‟s (2009) model both
consist of external variable factors such as student socio-economic background, state and
8
district educational policy, teachers union and community variables which may influence
school leadership and management. Moreover, both Scheerens‟s conceptual framework
(1990) and the Prinsloo‟s (2009) model guided the research questions in the study to in order
to generate a better understanding of the phenomenon under study (see details in Fig. 1.1
and Chapter 2, Fig. 2.1 for details).
The major dissimilarities between the conceptual framework and the model used in this study
are: in utilising the classroom level of the conceptual framework of Scheerens, it is clear that
detailed classroom factors leading to student achievement at the classroom level, e.g.
teacher quality, instructional strategies, assessment and evaluation of student progress,
monitoring of pupils and per pupil expenditure variables could contribute to effective school.
However, these variables will undoubtedly continue to assert a positive influence on student
achievement, because they serve as inputs towards the attainment of school effectiveness.
On the other hand, Prinsloo‟s (2009) education management and leadership model shows a
clear internal leadership and management variables such as school culture, climate, change,
conflict management, conceptual skills and human relations skills required by the internal
school SLMT.
Therefore, the conceptual framework of Scheerens (1990) guided the researcher in
developing a relevant literature in Chapter 3 and was also used in finding answers to the fifth
research question, through focus on the classroom level of the conceptual framework; while
Prinsloo‟s education leadership and management model was utilized to develop the literature
in Chapter 2 and also used to find answers to the third and fourth research questions.
In summary, the features of both the conceptual framework and the model were concurrently
used as a means of understanding and explaining the findings of the study, as they shed
detailed light on some of the variables in the diagram similarly and differently. They however
both provide insight on the mechanism of achieving school effectiveness. Conclusively,
based on the conceptual framework of Scheerens (1990) and Prinsloo‟s (2009) school
leadership and management model (2009), I argue that if all the levels of variables and
conditions in the conceptual framework and model were completely met, students will have a
positive attitude towards learning, thus resulting in school effectiveness.
9
Context



achievement stimulants from higher administrative levels
development of educational consumerism
“co-variables”, such as school size, student-body composition,
school category, urban/rural.
PROCESS
Inputs
 Teacher
experience
 Per pupil
expenditure
 Parent
support
School level






degree of an achievement-oriented
policy
educational leadership
consensus, co-operative planning of
teachers
quality of school curricula in terms of
content covered, and formal structure
orderly atmosphere
evaluative potential
Outputs
Student
Achievement
adjusted for:
 Previous
achievement
 intelligence
 SES
Classroom level






time on task (including homework)
structured teaching
opportunity to learn
high expectations of pupils‟ progress
degree of evaluation &monitoring of
pupils‟ progress
reinforcement
Figure 1.1: School effectiveness model developed by Scheerens (1990:69)
1.9
Research paradigm
According to Denzin and Lincoln (2005:183), a research paradigm is a basic set of belief that
guide actions, dealing with the first principles, „ultimates‟ or the researcher‟s worldview. The
study was located in the pragmatist‟s research paradigm. Such research paradigm does not
constitute any one system of philosophy or world-view, but draws on what fits best from the
different philosophical paradigms. For the pragmatists the researcher is free to choose
methods and techniques that best meet their needs (Cresswell, 2007:19).
10
The qualitative approach was used and the researcher accepts that there are many realities,
and not a single universal one is applicable in the research world. That is, the researcher
accepts that reality is subjective and constructed by the participant. The researcher also
assumes that reality consists of an individual‟s mental constructions of the object with which
he or she engages, thus the engagements impact on the observer and the situation being
observed. Therefore reality is best understood from the perspective of the participant who
experiences it (Nieuwenhuis, 2007:54).
This research is founded on the constructivist paradigm which is premised on a particular
pattern or set of assumptions concerning reality (ontology); method of knowing reality (the
knower and the known). That is, to understand the phenomenon well, the researcher closely
interacted
with
the
participants‟
through
interviews,
observations
and
document
analysis/reviews of what occurs in the natural setting (epistemology) and particular ways of
knowing about reality (methodology).
Constructivism postulates that meaning is socially constructed and since meanings attached
to a phenomenon may be multiple, varied, subjective, it should be arrived at through
discussions and interactions with participants who experience the phenomenon. Moreover,
the phenomenon should be understood by focusing on the context in which the participant
live and work (Cresswell, 2007:20-21).
1.10
Research method/design
The case study research design was employed in this study. Cohen, Manion and Morrison
(2007:254) suggest that case studies could be used “to portray „what it is like‟ to be in a
certain state of affairs, to catch the close-up reality and the „thick description of participants‟
lived experiences of, thoughts about and feelings for a situation”. Cresswell (2008:265)
“defines case study as an in-depth exploration of a bounded system (e.g. an activity, an
event, process) based on extensive data collection”. This study explores in-depth, leadership
and management practices and experiences of internal school stakeholders (SLMT, teachers
and students) in its real-life context, through different types of data. These data are
descriptive and detailed, with a narrow focus and combines subjective and objective data.
11
The case study design was utilized, whereby two cases are described and compared to
provide insight into an issue (Cresswell, 2008:465). Hence, the researcher developed an indepth comparison of two different secondary schools located within the geographical and
same socio-economic environment, in order to know how the internal school leadership and
management dynamics of the SLMT, teacher and student leader (class captain) in each
school contribute to its performance or under-performance. In order to establish a thorough
understanding of each school, the following profiles were explored:

History of the school

Socio-economic environment of the school

Climate and culture of the school

Principal‟s previous experience and qualifications

Number of teachers in each school and their qualifications

student enrolment

teacher-student ratio

Parental support and;

Technical support (for example, laboratory and laboratory equipment; teaching
equipments and materials), School physical structure and facilities and their
maintenance, guidance and counselling, and so on, were considered to give
supporting evidence to the reasons for students‟ academic results at each school.
1.10.1 Research sample and sampling technique
Two public secondary schools were purposefully sampled from the same socio-economic
environment. One achieving and under-achieving school respectively, were sampled in one of
the six existing education districts in Lagos State. These schools were purposively sampled,
as they constitute a sample that satisfies the specific needs of the investigation (Cohen, et.
al., 2007:114-115). The effective and ineffective status of the two purposively sampled
schools was gathered through evidence of students‟ academic performances kept by the
Education District. More so, the schools are located in the sub-urban area. In each of the two
sampled schools, a principal, vice-principal, Head of Department (HOD‟s) – [SLMT], teacher
and student leader - otherwise called class captain, were sampled from each of the two
12
schools. By implication, five participants emerged from each of the sampled schools, adding
up to a total of ten participants in the study.
Table 1.1: Categories of samples in the interview
Categories
Students
Teachers
HODs
Principals
of Schools
Achieving
Vice-
Total
principals
01
01
01
01
01
05
01
01
01
01
01
05
02
02
02
02
02
10
school
UnderAchieving
School
Total
1.10.2 Data-gathering methods
Data gathering is was done using interviews, observation and document analysis technique,
In addition, the final academic records of students‟ performance in each school for the past
three years were retrieved from the national examination body - West African Examinations
Council (WAEC) - for check and verification, in order for the researcher to ascertain the
performance and under-performance status of the two sampled schools. The literature was
also used to identify and develop leadership and management indicators of school
effectiveness which were used to analyse the data collected.
The a priori approach was adopted in the analysis of data. Accordingly, a priori themes are
(predetermined themes) which are developed before data collection begins, based on a
theory which has been developed, conceptual frameworks, previous research findings and
other sources (Teddlie and Tashakkori, 2009:329). They are also referred to pre-existing or a
priori codes (“pre-figured categories”) that guide the coding process often from a theoretical
model or the literature (Cresswell, 2009:152).
13
1.10.2.1 Interviews (semi-structured)
The principal, vice-principal and Head of Department (HOD) - SLMT- of each sampled
schools were interviewed in-depth, on how school leadership and management practices and
behaviour may contribute to effectiveness of their school. Moreover, the teachers and the
students were interviewed on how teacher leadership and management in the classroom may
contribute to student academic performance, hence school effectiveness.
1.10.2.2 Observations
Complete observation of each of the sampled schools was carried out by the researcher. The
final year examination records of students in each of the school were observed as well and
checked for verification at the Education District office concerning the performance and
under-performance status of the sampled schools. Moreover, the profile of individual
performing and under-performing was observed and reviewed (see 4.1). The researcher also
observed teachers‟ classroom leadership, management and students‟ conducts during
lessons, according to identified indicators in the conceptual framework and the literature. This
was done in order to find answers to the research questions in the study (see observation
details and observation schedules in 4.6.3and Appendix 8 and 9 respectively).
1.10.2.3 Document analysis
Analysis of documents such as school policies, code of conduct for regulating teaching and
learning, lesson plans, academic records of students and other records that were made
available to the researcher by the participants were analysed for triangulating the interview
and observation data.
1.10.2.4 Field notes
Field notes were also used to record what the researcher hears, sees (observes),
experiences and thinks in the course of collecting and reflecting on the process of data
collection. The interview guide was also used as the main instrument to obtain first-hand and
in-depth information.
14
1.10.2.5 Reflective diary
The researcher encouraged each of the teachers observed to keep a reflective diary or notes,
which contained details of their informed self-judgments on each of their lessons, with a view
to improving their teaching practice in subsequent observations made done by the
researcher. The reflective diary that contained reflexive opinions of the sampled teachers as
regards the reflections of their teaching and classroom management in the classroom was
documented (see 6.6).
1.11
Trustworthiness
In an effort to establish the trustworthiness of data collection and analysis, followed the
Lincoln and Guba‟s (2005:24) criteria of „credibility‟, „transferability‟, „dependability‟,
„confirmability‟, which are the naturalists equivalent to the conventional terms „internal
validity‟, external validity‟, „reliability‟, and „objectivity‟ respectively. Triangulation was used to
determine points of similarities and differences in qualitative data collected from participants
through interviews, observations and documents analysis of the study, as a basis for
credibility and trustworthiness of the research findings.
Moreover, trustworthiness of the research was established through the use of multiple source
of data collection. Multiple sources of evidence from literature review, interviews, participants‟
observation and documentary sources of data were utilized and that process, made available
chains of evidence that were triangulated and compared for the purpose of data enrichment
and credibility. Nevertheless, member check was done on transcribed data by the participants
in the study.
1.12
Data analysis
Qualitative data analysis is usually based on an interpretive philosophy that is aimed at
examining meaningful and symbolic content of qualitative data (Nieuwenhuis, 2007:99).
Therefore, it assisted in determining relationships between emerging patterns/themes through
qualitative inferences identified and also discussed similarities and differences that
corroborate or disagree with the conceptual framework and the model used in this study. The
15
contents of the interviews, observations and documents were reviewed and coded to
determine their relationship with the identified a priori themes and codes in the literature.
The themes of this study are leadership and management. Therefore, Chapter 2 and 3 of the
literature were used to expose and determine the most important indicators or sub-themes of
leadership and management, which may contribute to school and classroom effectiveness
respectively. By implication, criteria which could be used to measure the leadership and
management actions of education leaders were developed from the literature, based on
explanatory a priori. The a priori sub-themes were used to determine whether the leadership
and management codes generated from the interviews, observations and document analysis,
deviate or are similar to the criteria laid down in the sub-themes of school and classroom
leadership and management, spelt out in the literature review in Chapters 2 and 3
respectively.
1.13
Ethical considerations
The ethical considerations of the University of Pretoria, designed to guide the conduct of a
research of this type were strictly adhered to. As a result, ethical clearance was applied for
and obtained through the University of Pretoria Ethics Committee. Thus, the researcher
obtained permission (Informed consent) from participants and relevant authorities involved in
the research in order that their rights and dignity are protected in the course of the research.
1.14
Delimitations to the study
This study is delimited to leadership and management and their influence on school
effectiveness in Lagos - Nigeria. Although there are many sub-themes, indicators or criteria of
school leadership and management themes in the literature and because a single study of
this nature cannot exhaust all of them, the researcher only addressed few of them in order to
understand how they influence school effectiveness. Also, the study does not acknowledge
other school variables which determine student achievement, for example, socio-economic
status of parents/sponsor, parental style, environmental influence, positive self-concept,
individual student‟s learning style, motivation to learn and so on.
16
School effectiveness variables are many, complex and complicated and their impact cannot
be entirely explored in a single research project. Therefore, for the problem to be addressed
in its totality, data should also be gathered from parents and the education department as
they may become part of other studies. That will enable future researchers to be able to
probe adequately into other aspects of variables, which could lead to school effectiveness
and student academic achievement in Lagos State-Nigeria.
1.15 Structure of the research
The structure of the thesis are briefly outlined and explained as follow.
Chapter One
This opening chapter consists of the introduction, context, rationale, problem statement
research questions, aims and objectives, theoretical framework/model, methodology, ethical
consideration, limitations and the conceptual clarification of the study.
Chapter Two
This chapter focuses on leadership, management, school effectiveness details indicating how
they may contribute to school effectiveness.
Chapter Three
The chapter discusses literature on classroom leadership and management showing how
they may enhance school effectiveness.
Chapter Four
The chapter focuses on the philosophical foundation underpinning of the study, detailed
research design and methodology of the study.
Chapter Five
This chapter reveals the empirical aspect of the study. Thus, it includes the data analysis
interpretation and discussion of the data collected on school leadership and management
contributing to school effectiveness.
17
Chapter Six
This chapter reveals the empirical aspect of the study. Thus, it includes the data analysis
interpretation and discussion of the data collected on classroom leadership and management
contributing to school effectiveness.
Chapter Seven
Chapter Seven deals with the overall conclusion on the thesis and these include summary of
the thesis, findings, empirical and theoretical significance and recommendations of the study.
18
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review on the dynamics of leadership and management
contributing to school effectiveness
2.1
Introduction
This literature review illuminates how leadership and management may contribute to school
effectiveness. In the last couple of years, escalating devotion has been paid to the meaning
and significance of leadership. The have also been series of books and articles published in
subject of leadership and nonetheless, leadership programmes leading to qualification
awards flourish (Storey, 2004:249-260). Research around the world is also contributing to an
increasingly rich understanding of how educational institutions are led and managed.
According to Bush (2007:391), excessive interest in the subject of leadership started at the
beginning of the 21st century and that is attributed to the extensive believe that leadership
quality makes a substantial difference in the school, hence, student achievement. In addition,
“as the global economy gathers pace, more governments are realizing that their main assets
are their people and that remaining or becoming competitive depends increasingly on the
development of a highly skilled workforce, which requires trained and committed teachers, as
well as the leadership of highly effective principals and the support of other senior managers”.
Therefore, this study is viewed in the light of “School-Based Management (SBM) which is
often assumed as an important approach to improving school practices to meet the diverse
expectations of
stakeholders
in a changing
environment through autonomy and
decentralization” (Cheng and Moc, 2007:517-542; Wong, 2009:157-179). Thus in this
literature review, the key role players within the school system will be otherwise referred to as
leaders and managers.
According to Bottery (2004), even though claims about educational leaders cannot be
universal, there are lots of empowered western world leaders who derive pleasure and
fulfilment from their jobs. “Perhaps most importantly, because of the conventional absence of
any unique dependent variable internationally and across all countries, against which to
19
assess the various influences of the independent variables; which make the analysis of the
causal factors determining the nature of educational systems in different countries” a
difficulty. However, Earley and Weindling (2004) maintain that “leadership and management
at all levels in school should be judged by their effect on the quality and standards of the
school, despite the fact that school leaders have a broad (some would say), ever-burgeoning
array of responsibilities”.
Leadership provides the “drive and direction for raising achievement, whereas management
makes best use of resources and processes to make this happen, it also requires effective
evaluation, planning, performance management and staff development. Management is
focused more on providing order and constituency in organisations whereas leadership is
focused on producing change and movement” Earley and Weindling (2004).
In addition to the functions of leadership above, (Huber, 2004) states that leadership and
management “oriented activities such as suitable application and utilization of resources for
teaching, agreeing upon goals, promoting cooperative relationships between staff (e.g.
preparing lessons cooperatively), evaluation and counselling of teachers during lessons
through classroom observations, structured feedback and coaching” are actions geared
towards school effectiveness through emphasis on the relevance of instruction
In summary, the introduction to this literature review study asserts the definition of leadership,
which is about the provision of direction and the utilization of resources for the purpose of
organizational (e.g. school) effectiveness and that is held world-wide. Even though leadership
and management have been overwhelmingly acknowledged by education leadership and
management scholars as having impacts on school effectiveness, the context in which it is
exhibited world-wide, differs. The understanding of the concept of leadership and
management is however necessary.
2.2
Clarification of concepts
According to Bush (2007:391), schools in many parts of the world acknowledge that effective
leaders and managers are required, in order to provide the best education for their children.
In the following paragraphs different definitions of leadership and management will be
discussed with a view to determining how their dynamics contribute to school effectiveness.
20
2.2.1 Leadership
Hallinger and Heck (2010:149-147) state that a considerable number of scholars have
studied the influence of school leadership on student learning over a period of time;
Moreover, majority of these researchers have “framed leadership as an independent variable
or driver for change, in relation to school effectiveness and school improvement. Yet, most
scholars have observed that leadership is also influenced by features of the organisational
setting in which it is enacted and they have framed leadership, sometimes explicitly, but more
often implicitly as an independent variable that drives school change and effectiveness”.
Leadership is the procedure whereby a person influences another individual or group
member towards goal setting and goal achievement with no force or coercion (Greenberg and
Baron, 1993:444; Mosley, Meggins and Pietri, 1993:260; Van Fleet, 1991:157). According to
Kerry and Murdock (1993:221-230), “leadership is not a matter of passive status or of the
mere possession of some combination of traits”. Hence, “It appears rather to be a working
relationship among members of a group, in which the leader acquires status through active
participation and demonstration of his/her capacity for carrying cooperative tasks through to
completion” (Leipzig, 2004:128-135).
Based on the above assertion, Gharehbaghi and Mcmanus (2003:56-58); Fry (2003:693-727)
maintain that “leaders achieve objectives through energized and excited subordinates who
share their passion, vision and direction and they feel confident to challenge the status quo
and finding efficient, as well as long term solutions to leadership challenges; they develop
through a never-ending process of self-analysis and the utilization of education, training and
experience”. That is, leaders they make use of uninterrupted working and studying to improve
their leadership skills. Regarded as one of the fundamental management functions,
leadership is defined by Cronje, Du Toit, Marais and Motlatla (2004:174) as the process of
directing the behaviour of others towards the accomplishment of pre-determined goals, thus
involves elements such as influencing people, giving orders, managing conflict ,
communicating with subordinates and motivating people - either as individuals or in groups.
According to Gerber, Nel and Van Dyk (1998:229), leadership is generally defined as one or
other form of dominance in which the subordinates more or less have to accept the
commands and control of the leader. All theories of leadership contain two important
21
concepts: authority and power. Thus, Earley and Weindling (2004) enumerate that any
analysis of leadership ought to acknowledge at first based on two fundamental factors
namely: the relationship between leadership, power and authority, which are discussed
below.
2.2.2 Authority
Smith and Cronje (1992:117) maintain that every manager, regardless of his or her
management level is also on occasion, a leader who ensures that subordinates work together
to achieve the enterprise's (school) stated objectives. Authority has to do with the right of the
manager to enforce certain actions within specific guidelines (policy) and the right to take
action against those who will not cooperate to achieve certain goals. From the foregoing, it
may be inferred that authority is related to leadership. In the school situation for example, the
school principal as the executive officer of the school, is given authority by the head of
education to enforce his/her authority within the school. It is therefore important to understand
the difference between authority and power. According to Gerber, Nel and Van Dyk
(1998:300), many people have authority (that is conferred), but do not possess power (which
has to be acquired) to assert the authority effectively. Thus, it may be concluded accordingly
that power is the basis for leadership.
2.2.3 Power
Subordinates give power to a leader or manager so that the leaders can influence them and
exercise authority effectively, because they (leaders) ought to have some sort of power in
order to be called leaders. In other words, power (the ability to influence the behaviour of
others) has nothing to do with the hierarchical position an education leader holds and is not
acquired along with a title or job description in an organisation (such as a school); however,
the leader has to earn it (Smith et. al., 1992:117).
French and Raven (in Gerber et. al., 1998:301) distinguish between the following types of
power:

Legitimate power: Also known as position power and it is the delegated authority given
22
to a position.

Power by reward: This is used either to give rewards or to withhold them. Such
rewards include recognition and appreciation, challenging work, post-enrichment
opportunities, opportunities for development, merits and promotions, etc.

Coercive power: This is enforced by inspiring fear in followers, whether through
psychological or physical means. It is however necessary for the education leader to
use his or her coercive power under certain circumstances. For example, through a
disciplinary interview, oral and written warnings, reprimands, etc.

Referent power: This is also known as personal power and it is a rather abstract
concept. Subordinates follow a leader with referent power simply because they like,
respect, or identify with the leader.

Expert power: This is based on expertise. A leader with this type of power wields it
over those that need the knowledge and expertise. In education, expert power plays
an important role. That is why for instance, students are dependent on the superior
knowledge and experience of their education leaders (e.g. teacher). For instance,
expert power indicates the capacity of a teacher, a lawyer, auditor, doctor, etc. All
these professionals are respected for their specialised knowledge or expertise.
Teachers will nonetheless be respected by colleagues, the parent-community and
students for their specialised knowledge and expertise.
From the above definitions of leadership, it can be deduced that leadership is basically
concerned about goal achievement and the initiation of change through the participation of
group members or followers via communication, directing, and influencing; while at the same
time, successful leadership is also about the willingness of energized followers, based on the
commands or control of followers through the leader‟s influence, power (that is, knowledge or
expertise, etc.) and authority.
Vesting of certain powers and authority on school leaders is not enough. It is important that
they use their leadership authority and power to ensure successful task execution in a school,
but the leaders should also realise that people must execute tasks. Therefore, it is important
to create a school environment in which staff members‟ actions are directed by good
leadership whereby human relationships are made important, people are happy and
experience job satisfaction. In other words, an education leader must maintain a healthy
23
balance between a task-oriented and a people-oriented leadership style. Discussed below
are the concept of management and its processes within the school system.
2.3
Management
A common view is that "management is getting things done through others” (McNamara,
2008;
Earley
and
Weindly,
2004;
Shead
(www.leadership501.com/definition-of-
management/21/). In addition, management is about making sure that set organisational
goals are achieved and it is the overarching concept within which leadership is subsumed
(Bush and Bell, 2002; Donald, Lazarus and Lolwana, 2004), thus it is not an end in itself. The
central goal of positive school management is “the promotion of effective teaching and
learning (quality education). The task of management in the provision of education service at
all levels is to ultimately create favourable conditions which teachers and their students
optimize during teaching and learning. The extent, to which effective learning is achieved
therefore, becomes the criterion against which the quality of management is to be judged”
(Bush, 2007:391-406).
Management simply plans, executes and measures and this process is an on-going cyclical
process in schools (Shead, www.leadership501.com/definition-of-management/21/), thus, the
four basic management functions that make up the management process are described as
follow.
Planning: McNamara (2008) defines planning as the process of identifying the needs of the
school and determining the goals, objectives and resources needed to realize the goals and
objectives in order to carry out the planned tasks, responsibilities and dates for completion of
school tasks.
Organising: Organising is the assignment of tasks which originate through the planning
process; these tasks are distributed to individuals or groups within the organization for
implementation,
thereby
putting
into
actions
already
crafted
plans
www.managementinnovations.wordpress.com/.../define-management-its-f.
Leading/influencing: This is an act of motivating, leading and or directing. It is also an act of
guidance provision to subordinates, towards the direction of organizational goal(s) fulfilment.
24
The essence of influencing is to produce higher levels of outcome over a long term
www.managementinnovations.wordpress.com/.../define-management-its-f.
Controlling: Controlling aims at collecting information that could be used to evaluate, that is,
evaluation of performance through pre-established performance criteria. It is also used to
determine the next plan of action by a school principal, for example, in order to make
adjustments towards the pre-determined goals and objectives, hence, controlling it is a
continuous process www.managementinnovations.wordpress.com/.../define-management-its-f.
In summary, it is also clear that managers are people who get work done through people, in
order to effectively and efficiently reach school goals and objectives; act as a communication
channel in the organisation, are responsible and accountable and; act as a mediator to
negotiate differences, resolve conflicts and makes decisions.
Two concepts which are closely linked to leadership and management and the realisation of
the vision, aims and objectives of a school are: responsibility and accountability. Both of
these concepts are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.
2.3.1 Responsibility
Responsibility refers to the duties of a person in terms of his/her post and the work allocated
to him/her. The work need not necessarily be done by the person (e.g. principal) himself or
herself. He or she may delegate tasks to other educational leaders and hold them responsible
for the effective execution of the work delegated. These “goals can only be realized by
ensuring that teachers are equipped with the knowledge of the subject matter of their tasks,
an evidence and standards-based repertoire of pedagogical skills that are demonstrably
effective in meeting the developmental and learning needs of all students for whom they have
responsibility” (Darling-Hammond and Bransford, 2005). In addition, through strong
instructional guidance by the principal, driven by aligned curriculum frameworks, teacher
development, assessment, and learning support materials, substantial and sustained
improvement could be achieved in schools (Fleish, 2006:369-382).
25
2.3.2 Accountability
Accountability is an essential element and professional repertoire of a modern school leader,
thefore, “accountability refers to a person‟s duty to give an account of having executed his or
her work in terms of set criteria and pre-determined standards” (Perry and McWilliam,
2007:32-43). Accountability places a duty or obligation on a person to act in accordance with
a standard or expectation set for his/her performance or behaviour. In other words, every
person must be able to account for their actions in relation to the standard or expectation set
for those actions in specific situation (Nieuwenhuis, 2007:104). Teachers are particularly
required to show proficiency and responsibility, as well as making as well as making essential
professional judgements towards the discharge of their tasks (Kyriakides, Demetrious and
Charalambus, 2006:1-20). Nevertheless, teachers are not only accountable to their superiors;
they are also accountable to the parents and the students they teach in order to ensure
quality education (Joubert and Prinsloo, 2009:231).
It is understood that taking responsibility as a manager (principal), implies taking care of
teacher development and the provision of the latest strategies and technologies to help in
achieving the instructional desires of the students. The measurement of teacher effectiveness
based on their answerability and acceptance of blame are necessary tools of school
management. Therefore at this stage, it is necessary to examine the relationship between
leadership and management in order to clarify how both concepts can contribute to school
effectiveness. Hence the paragraph below discusses the interrelatedness between leadership
and management.
2.4
The relationship between leadership and management
Earley and Weindling (2004) affirm that there are many scholars who distinguish between
leadership and management. For instance Bush and Bell (2002), Daresh (2006), Wallace and
Paulson (2003); Tomlinson (2000) acknowledges that the two concepts overlap and that both
are essential for the success of an organisation. Earley and Weindling (2004) affirm the Office
for Standards in Education (Ofsted) (2003:3) findings regarding leadership and management
as follow, that: “strong leadership and good management are very important in bringing about
improvement in schools, particularly in schools which are implementing special programmes
26
to address low achievement and social inclusion and those facing challenging circumstances;
monitoring, evaluation and development of teaching and; the school‟s strategy for appraisal
and performance management are aspects of management which are still in need of
improvement in many schools; there is a strong link between the quality of leadership and
management of the head-teacher (Principal and the key staff member in a school) and the
quality of teaching; strong leadership and good management are very important in ensuring a
broad and balanced curriculum in primary schools and good subject teaching in secondary
schools and; the way in which the characteristics of strong leadership and good management
are applied in different circumstances is of fundamental importance”.
Bush and Bell (2002); Huber (2004) believe that any dichotomy drawn between leadership
and management is false and dangerous, because effective schools require good leadership
and good management. However, Donald, et. al. (2004) clarify that “leadership is providing
vision and direction in a school, whereas management is ensuring that the organisational
goals are achieved”. Moreover, Moorosi and Bush (2011:59-75) affirm that “equal prominence
for leadership and management need to be given equal prominence if schools are to operate
effectively and achieve their objectives, even though leading and managing are distinct, they
are both important”. They also add that in the day-to-day work of the schools, principals “are
rarely aware whether they are leading or managing in practice; they are simply carrying out
their work on behalf of the school and the students”.
It is clear from the definitions of leadership and management that the two concepts are
related and both are concerned with the realization of quality education in a school. However,
the essence of management and leadership in a school is hinged on effectiveness.
Therefore, the concept of school effectiveness is elaborately discussed below.
2.5
School effectiveness
“One of the primary concerns of School Effectiveness Research (SER) is the question of what
constitutes school effectiveness. It is seen as a concept often used in the literature of school
management and improvement and often confused with school efficiency. That is, the
capacity of a school to maximize its functions or the degree to which a school can perform
school functions, given a fixed amount of school input” (Saleem, 2010:161-183). In addition,
school effectiveness research is thus concerned with exploring differences within and
27
between schools and the objective is to investigate the relationship between explanatory and
outcome factors. This involves choosing an outcome variable, such as examination
achievement and studying differences between schools after adjusting for relevant
background variables” (Creemers and Kyriakide, 2006:347-366). Some school effectiveness
scholars write that “it is a concept that needs to be sub-classified under five levels - individual,
institutional, community, society and international. Moreover, it can also be classified under
five components-economic, social, political, cultural and educational” (Saleem, 2010:161183).
Effective schools tend to share common characteristics. They are distinguished and are well
organized, school activities are planned properly and above all, those who lead such schools
adopt a consultative management approach, tend to be proactive and have a powerful vision.
They have foresight and therefore always plan ahead, adopt a positive attitude towards life
despite all the challenges and perplexities that may come their way, believe in striving for
excellence and quality work didactically and outside the classroom environment. More so, all
their stakeholders embrace the spirit and attitude of win-win and communicate effectively with
themselves (Covey, 1992:235).
Some of the factors that contribute to school effectiveness according to Raynolds (2006:536560) are: “the level of the distinct behaviour exhibited by teachers such as; clarity of
questioning, high expectations, a pledge to academic achievement, lesson structuring which
formed the core constructs of the teacher effectiveness tradition”. Raynolds (2006:536-560)
concluded that “whilst a conceptual factor such as „„the quality of the principal‟‟ is a universal
factor determining the level of a school‟s effectiveness in all the various countries of the
world, work done within the precise operationalization of the effective principal differed
according to the cultural context of individual societies”.
Although school effectiveness research and characteristics abound, but some of the identified
characteristics shared by effective schools according to few SER scholars include the
leadership role of the principal, productive school climate and culture, the crucial factor of
well managed institutions, school concerning more of their efforts on teaching itself, while at
the same time promoting empathetic student care and learning–centred approaches in the
classroom, monitoring of student progress, orderly and discipline school environment, on-site
staff development to ensure a happy and efficient staff, the quality of the staff, keeping
28
parents informed and involved in students leaning and activities, effective instructional
organisation and teaching and high expectations and requirement of students (Scheerens,
1990; Henderson and Mapp, 2002; Reynolds, Creemers, Stringfield, Teddlie and Schaffer,
2002; Verdis, Kriemadis and Parshiardis, 2003:155-169; Van de Grift, et.al., 2006:255-273).
The above conceptualization of school effectiveness informs us of the fact that there are
several characteristics that can be used to measure school effectiveness, but most
importantly, school effectiveness scholars like Sheerens (1999:1-50); Reynolds, Sammons,
De Fraine, Townsend and Van Damme (2011:1-43) and so on, caution that context matters in
the application of each or some of the school effectiveness characteristic to deal with student
achievement oriented problems. Below is a review of previous studies relating to leadership
and management in developing countries and elsewhere is discussed below.
2.5.1 A review of previous studies relating to leadership and
management and school effectiveness
“Effective schools factors have been rarely examined in developing countries and it was
found that in over 100 studies, effective schools factors were examined only three or four
times” (Teodorovic, 2011:215-136). Therefore, previous researches on leadership and
management in relation to school effectiveness have been reported in fragmentary manners,
however, this study deals with a holistic exploration of leadership and management practices
contributing to school effectiveness. In addition many studies have not recognized the multilevel nature of schooling impact (e.g. student, teacher, classroom, school, and District/State)
level of academic performance. In these studies, the most significant issue of concern is the
use of effectiveness concept and its association with concept of efficiency in the literature
(Jansen, 1995:181-200).
Nevertheless, “it is equally evident that the efforts towards effective schooling in Sub-Saharan
African countries must be peculiar to their contexts, national cultures and various local
conditions in Africa. Therefore it is essential to review school effectiveness research studies
conducted in Sub-Saharan settings in order to identify factors that are unique in promoting or
discouraging effective schooling in relevant and particular contexts” (Guoxing, 2007).
29
Scheerens (1990:1-50) reviewed school effectiveness research evidences from developed
and developing countries and findings in sum indicate a moderate impact of resource input,
school organisational factors and a medium-sized impact on instructional conditions. It was
further revealed that developing countries show a strong predominance of the input-processoutput production function type in terms of school effectiveness. The review of school
effectiveness in developing countries also shows greater frequency of resource input factors
have a more significant impact than in the case of industrialized countries, as against little
evidence on the impact of instructional conditions.
Moreover Adewuyi‟s (2008) study which dealt with school effectiveness and English language
certification in Nigeria indicates support for many school effectiveness characteristics that
have been attested to in the literature Characteristics such as; strong and purposeful school
leadership, clear and articulated goals, high students achievement expectations, and so on.
He also found that extramural lessons seemed to be an important feature in certain schools
that achieved effective examination results, despite the fact that they lacked effectiveness
characteristics and which he assumes might be peculiar to a third world country like Nigeria.
Furthermore, Adewuyi (2008) found that language-focused instructional strategies utilized by
effective language teachers in Nigeria yielded differential results when compared to the
meditational instructional strategies used by effective language teachers in Californian
classrooms in the United States of America. Thus, it was concluded that these differences
were a result of contextual cultural dissimilarity in the two developed and developing world
domains.
Guoxing (2007) reviews other empirical research studies relating to school effectiveness in
Sub-Saharan African countries such as Ethiopia, South Africa, Tanzania, Nigeria and Kenya
respectively. In Ethiopia, “the central aim of the SER was to understand how school-based
interventions could boost female enrolment and achievement. Extensive differences in girls‟
persistence throughout the primary schools were found. That is, girls attending schools in
urban areas persisted at a higher rate and achieved better results in the national examination.
On the other hand, girls attending larger, more formalized schools persisted longer, after
controlling the influence of community factors”.
30
The review of SER was “based on the theme of black schooling in South Africa. Black
students were reported to have perceived that the operation of schools is complex and
sometimes contradictory in context, even though the schools may have similar socioeconomic background as defined in many quantitative school effectiveness studies. Similarly,
in relation to values of democratic school management in developing countries towards the
improvement of school effectiveness, an assessment of whether school councils assisted
school effectiveness was carried out in two secondary schools in Tanzania. The review of
findings revealed that the advantages of having school councils outweighed the
disadvantages in the two schools”.
In addition, a review of research findings which examine “the effect of single-sex and coeducational schooling on Ninth Grade students in two public schools was carried out in
Nigeria. The study compared the effects of these two school organisational types on students‟
academic achievements and stereotyped views of mathematics based on students‟ sex. It
was revealed that single-sex schooling affects the Nigerian girls positively in increasing
mathematics achievement and in engendering less stereotyped views on mathematics
learning. It was thus assumed that such schools had a powerful and positive effect on their
female students”.
In continuation of review of SER evidence in developing countries, Guoxing (2007) also cites
research findings which investigated the likelihood of dropout and academic achievement of
adolescent girls and boys in rural areas of three districts in Kenya, as the outcome measures
of the effects of school quality (for instance, teacher credentials, teacher in-service training,
instruction on-time/not interrupted, only English spoken in classes, etc.). It was reported
among other things that school quality did not matter much for school dropout, particularly in
the case of girls.
Guoxing (2007) concluded his reviews that “although systematic searching and identification
of empirical studies were conducted in Sub-Saharan African countries, the empirical studies
reviewed were not exhaustive. That suggests paucity of research conducted from the 1990s
compared with the 1970s-1980s. Therefore there was an urgent need for more empirical
studies to be conducted for sustainable and sufficient understanding of issues surrounding
school effectiveness”. Nevertheless in these reviews Guoxing (2007) deliberately “kept an
open-ended conclusion in order to welcome suggestion and advice, which would serve as a
31
basis to facilitate on-going discussions on school effectiveness research in Sub-Saharan
African countries”.
Beyond the continent of Africa, a study aimed at improving research capacity and the
evaluation of educational quality in China was conducted by Peng, Thomas, Yang and Li
(2006:135-154) and they established that a significant difference in value-added processes
appear to exist between senior secondary schools . Value added process is a relative boost
that a school gives to pupils‟ previous attainment in comparison with similar pupils in other
schools in attaining school effectiveness. Thus, it was found that some schools were more
effective in one subject than another. That is, some schools were not always consistently
effective in two subject areas – Mathematics and English Language – because assessment
and raw results were only used as measures of school effectiveness.
Based on the year 2000 reports on the relationships between schooling outcomes and
various school policies and practices in 13 Latin American Countries (Argentina, Bolivia,
Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, the
Dominican Republic, and Venezuela). Consequently, it was found in all the 13 countries that
“the most effective schools appear to be those possessing the following: schools with high
levels of resources in the school; whose classrooms were not multi-grade and whose
students were not grouped by ability; schools where students where children in the classroom
were tested frequently; with classrooms and schools with a high level of parental involvement;
school classrooms that have conducive climate, particularly with respect to classroom
discipline”.
From the above, it may be concluded that research on internal school leadership and
management, including its influence on school effectiveness has not been explored
holistically. Thus a good combination of leadership and management skills possession should
assist a school principal to achieve set objectives and goals of the school, through committed
and competent teachers who share similar passion and vision to achieve quality education.
Hence different theories/models of leadership and management are discussed in the
paragraphs that follow.
32
2.6
Theories and models of education management and leadership
The concept of „theory‟ relates to ideas and views formulated by individuals in a certain
scientific area (in this case, leadership and management). A theory usually consists of a
number of assumptions and presuppositions (hypotheses) that are established by means of
research and each theory offers an explanation of events and behaviour of people in
educational institutions (2007:2007:391-406). Furthermore, Bush (2007:2007:391-406)
categorizes the main theories on education management into eight major models with their
corresponding leadership models, but the numbers of the models have been reduced to fit
into this research. The reason for reducing the number of the models is that only four pairs of
the selected models from Bush‟s (2007:394) typology of management and leadership models
match the structure of this study as indicated in Table 2.1 below.
Table 2.1:
Typology of management and leadership models (Bush, 2007:391-406)
Management model
Leadership model
Bureaucratic (Formal)
Managerial
Collegial
Transformational
Political (micro)
Transactional
Cultural
Moral
Visionary
Instructional
An organisation, like a school does not always represent a specific model. Rather and very
often, it is a mixture or combination of models. Bush (1995:20) remarks as follows in this
regard: “… it is rare for a single model to capture the reality of management in any particular
school or college. Rather, aspects of several perspectives are present in different proportions
of each institution”.
Models of education management provide separate aspects of school administration and role
players in the school may apply them consciously or unconsciously in a bid to attain school
effectiveness (Bush, 2002). The different elements in the models could also be considered as
dynamics leading to school effectiveness. The link between the different models in the table
33
above indicates that leadership and management can be given equal prominence if schools
operate effectively (Bush, 2007:391-406). According to Table 2.1 below, management models
are linked to one or more leadership models. In the following paragraphs the management
and leadership models will be briefly discussed.
2.6.1 Bureaucratic (formal) model
The concept of bureaucracy is associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max
Weber and has been the most powerful and pervasive theory of educational management
that is most preferred in many countries of the world. Bush (2002) quotes Weber:
The purely bureaucratic type of administrative organisation is, from a technical point of
view, capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency and is in this sense formally
the most rational means of carrying out imperative control over human beings. It is
superior to any other form in precision, in stability, in its stringency of its discipline and
in its reliability.
“Bureaucracy is not a neutral form of organisation. It carries with it too, a host of values,
beliefs, assumptions, forms of communication and processes for making decisions,
prioritizing issues time consideration, resources. It is harbours a powerful culture that may be
distributed to all the other cultures” (Brown, 2004:112). “From a cultural perspective, when
power distance is high, school staff members that heavily rely on the principal may not be
able to improve their personal mastery, because they may perceive themselves to have little
power and few opportunities to make changes in school processes. In addition, from a
broader perspective, principals may also not perceive themselves powerful enough to make
changes, because of a centralized bureaucracy. This reliance on bureaucratic processes may
reduce teacher‟s motivation to create personal and shared visions, towards working
collectively to develop learning schools (Abu-Tineh, Khasawneh, and Al-Omari, 2008:648660; Alavi and McCormic, 2004:408-416).
Features of bureaucracy
Hierarchical authority structure: According to Bush (2007:391-406), this structure is
designed to allow vertical staff to be accountable to their super-ordinate in the hierarchy. In
schools teachers are accountable to the principal through middle managers such as Head of
34
Departments (HOD), because in most cases, power resides in the principal based on legal
authority and accountability.
School goals: Schools and colleges are goal-oriented (achievement-oriented) and staff
members are expected to work towards achieving those aims set by school leaders.
Division of labour: There is a division of labour with staff specializing on the basis of
expertise.
Rules and regulations: Decisions and behaviour are governed by rules and regulations
rather than personal initiative. Schools usually have rules for students and teachers‟
behaviour. These rules may be extended to the central issue of curriculum and pedagogy.
A threat to professionalism is one of the articulate criticisms of bureaucracy. When
curriculums are tightly defined, teachers have limited scope to use their professional
judgment to tailor provision to the specific needs of the students. The essence of bureaucracy
is to lead by fear and create a system of control that contribute to the use of the least levels of
effort, organisational commitment and output (Fry, 2003:693-727). Bush (2007:391-406)
further illustrates how the above discussed management model links with the managerial
leadership model in the next paragraph.
2.6.2 Managerial leadership model
According to Bush (2007:391-406), “managerial leadership assumes that the focus of the
leader ought to be on the functions, tasks and behaviour. If these functions are carried out
competently, the work of others in the organisation will be facilitated. Most approaches to
managerial leadership also assume that the behaviour of organisational members is largely
rational. Authority and influence are allocated to formal positions in proportion to the status of
different individuals in the organisational hierarchy”.
Bush (2007:391-406) further explains that “it is significant that managerial type of leadership
does not include the concept of vision, which is central to most leadership models, that is,
managerial leadership is focused on managing existing activities successfully rather than
envisioning a better future for the school. This approach is very suitable for school leaders
35
working in centralized systems as it prioritizes the efficient implementation of external
imperatives, notably those prescribed by higher levels within the bureaucratic hierarchy”.
Bush (2007:391-406) also states that “managerial leadership still remains important in the 21st
century and that the importance of achieving functional schools is an essential requirement if
learning is to take place - school effectiveness requires calm and orderly schools and
classrooms. Managerial leadership is also suggestive of an older notion of leadership. One
that characterizes the leader as a „know-all manager‟ based on the assumption that if the
leader is performing well; the organisation will also do better. Juli and Atmadja (2005:99-112)
argue that “leaders should be proactive and empowering which, requires both high
managerial and leadership skills, rather than being reactive and de-energizing, which is
characterised by low managerial and leadership skills”.
2.6.3 Collegiality model of management
Collegiality is an attractive model for educational organisation, because it provides for the
participation of teachers in those decisions which affect their work lives. “More recent
conceptions of educational leadership reveal a move away from authoritarian models of
decision-making towards more collegial views, on role relations between school principals
and staff” (Steyn, 2005:44-49).
Features of collegiality model

Collegiality assumes an authority of expertise in contrast to the positional authority
associated with bureaucracy. That is, teachers have specific expertise as subject
specialists as well as general competence as educational professionals. The authority
of expertise also refers to the expert power of the teacher.

Teachers have a common sense of values emanating from the socialization which
occurs during the training and professional practice. These common values are taught
in order to lead to shared aims.
The transformational leadership model is discussed below. This model has a link with the
collegial model of management discusses above.
36
2.6.4 Transformational leadership model
Transformational leadership assumes that the fundamental emphasis of leadership ought to
be about commitments and capacities of organisational members. Transformational
leadership ensures commitment from the followers. Both leaders and followers want to
achieve and become the best and are united in the pursuit of the higher-level goals common
to them. Also, both leaders and followers want to shape the school in a certain direction. The
transformational approach seems to be more people oriented (Leithwood et. al., 1999:9).
Wilmore and Thomas‟s (2001:115-123) description of transformational leadership is about
power sharing between the leader and the followers, rather than the leaders‟ sole exercise of
power over followers. The transformational leaders “are often associated with charisma, even
though these types of leaders have additional characteristics such as vision development and
abilities to motivate the followers, both of which reside in the relationship between the leaders
and followers” (Juli and Atmanja, 2005: 99-112; Abu-Tineh, et. al., 2008:648-660). In addition,
transformational leadership empowers followers, therefore the goal of leaders is to use their
power to help followers “to accomplish what they think are important, help them become
successful and experience a greater sense of efficiency”. Anderson (2008:8-17) discusses
the possibility of teachers being transformational in the classroom context and asserts that
transformational leadership by teachers does exist in the classroom where effective teaching
is practised. However, the main finding of Ross and Gray‟s (2006:179-199) study reveals that
collective teacher efficacy is a partial rather than a complete mediator of the effects of
transformation leadership on teacher commitment to organisational values.
Although relatively modest in size, the body of empirical evidence about the effects of
transformational leadership in school contexts attests to its suitability in schools, but faced
with a significant challenge for change and greater accountability (Day, Hall and Coles, 2000;
Leithwood, et. al., 1999). It supports the contribution of this form of leadership, when
exercised by principals to a wide array of individual and organisational outcomes (e.g.
Leithwood et al., 1994) paralleling claims made for this approach to leadership in non-school
contexts.
Hence, Eshbach and Henderson (2010:16-48) found that new elementary principals not only
perceive their style of leadership to be more transformational in nature, but realize the
37
significant role that transformational leadership plays in effectively managing, building and
maintaining the role of instructional leader. They concluded that principals‟ have strong
understanding that a more transformational approach to leadership is more conducive to
success as a principal.
Leithwood (1994) in Bush (2007:391-406) “conceptualises transformational leadership along
eight dimensions as follow: building school vision; establishing school goals; providing
intellectual stimulation, offering individualised support; modeling best practices and important
values, demonstrating high performance expectations, creating a productive school culture
and developing structures to foster participation in the school decisions”. Niemann and Kotze
(2006:609-624) thus claim that the arts of encouraging, modelling and encouraging the heart
through principals engagement in challenging the process, were significantly related to the
dimension of solidarity that should exist in a school with a positive culture.
Murphy (2005) as quoted by Anderson (2008:8-17) concludes:
“We have also learned that leadership is as much a property of the school and its
culture as it is a dimension of administrative roles. In the current teacher leadership
scenario it is not simply the principal that must be the instructional leader, butalso
teachers by going wider and deeper: wider in extending their leadership to school wide
concerns and deeper in using this school wide influence to increase teaching efficacy
in the classroom”.
“In a very real sense, transformational leadership is conceptualized as time bounded and
dependent on frontier thinking, but most people spend their work lives being led by individuals
in an uninspired organisational core. However, inspired leadership occurs at a particular point
in time, in a particular place during revolutionary moments and originate from the edges of
organisations. This workforce goes about completing the day-to-day work that needs to be
accomplished for the organisation to maintain its current operations and structure” (Leipzip,
2004:128-135).
The micro (political) model is discussed below.
38
2.6.5 Political micro-politics model
Micro-politics refer to political activity which takes place inside the school or colleges. It may
be contrasted with macro-politics which relate to debate and disagreement within the wider
policy-making process (Bush, 2007:391-406). Giese, Slate, Brown and Tejedo-Delgade
(2009:1-10) suggest that at best principals strive to provide vision and unity of purpose within
challenging, dynamic and highly political settings.
Features of micro-politics model

Departmental and sectional approach to decision-making, because of focus on group
activity rather than the whole institution.

Individuals have a variety of interests which they pursue within the organisation.

Individual groups and interest groups make conflict prevalent as a result of micropolitics.

Interests are promoted in committees and decisions are reached during informal
meetings, where differences may be resolved after a multi-stage process.

The idea of power is central to micro-politics as decisions are made based on relative
power of participants.

The transactional leadership model is discussed below and it links with the
political/micro-political management model above.
2.6.6 Transactional leadership model
“Transactional leadership is leadership in which relationships with teachers are based upon
an exchange for some valued resource in the school” (Bush, 2007:391-406). Thus
transactional leadership is pre-determined on exchange of rewards as against performance
and focuses on motivating employees by pleasing their higher demand needs. (Fry,
2003:693-727 and Thomas, 2000) explains that transactional leadership can be seen as a
contract between the leader and his or her followers. The leader gets an agreement from the
followers that they would work towards the achievement of organisational goals, while the
leader agrees to good working conditions and the satisfaction of the followers‟ needs, which
thus leads to a condition of motivation.
39
In addition “though the contribution of transactional leadership may lead to a high level of
intrinsic motivation in the workplace, but it requires some degree of autonomy or selfmanagement. Intrinsically motivated workers feel competence and relatedness through
working in empowered teams that directs team activities toward a meaningful purpose and
doing something the staff members regard as significant and meaningful. Individuals in
empowered teams have a sense of ownership of the work and are completely engaged in its
tasks, which require their best thinking and creativity. They take pride in their work and are
excited in having a sense of progress and seeing the results of their efforts” Extrinsic
motivation otherwise comprise of activities that facilitate issues external to the individual. For
example, promotions, pay increases, bonus cheques, pressure to perform, insurance
benefits, and vacation time (Fry, 2003: 693-727). Extrinsic rewards originate externally and
require meeting or exceeding the expectations of others. Under extrinsic motivation,
individuals feel compelled to engage in task behaviour from an outside source, to satisfy
lower order needs and to provide what they need (e.g. money) to survive.
Factors considered within the sphere of transactional leadership according to Harms and
Knobloch (2005:101-124) are: “Contingent reward leaders – those leaders who engage in a
constructive path-goal transaction of reward for performance, clarify expectations, exchange
promises and resources, arrange mutually satisfactory agreements, negotiate for resources,
exchange assistance for effort and provide commendations for successful follower
performance; Management-by-Exception (active) leaders: these are leaders who monitor
follower‟s performance and take corrective action if deviations from standards occur and
enforce rules to avoid mistakes. and; Management-by-Exception (passive) leaders: those are
leaders who fail to intervene until problems become serious and wait to take action until
mistakes are brought to their attention”. However, such transactional leadership will only bring
about mediocre or worse results at work (Juli and Atmadja, 2005: 99-112).
2.6.7 Culture management model
Culture may be regarded as one of several alternative means of understanding organisations,
or a holistic way of understanding the concept. The concept of organisational culture
emphasizes the values, beliefs and norms of people in the organisation and how these
individual perceptions combine to form shared organisational meanings (Bush, 2007:391406).
40
Leithwood and Jantzi (2006:201-227) state that “there is a general consensus on the impact
of lack of the existence of cultural resources on efficiency and effectiveness. For instance,
legitimate teacher appraisal and evaluation in effective schools studies are non-existent,
owing to a lack of consensus on the fundamental evaluation principles, evaluation criteria and
evaluation instruments. While crucial initiatives on quality education surface through policy
and public debate at all levels of government, the gap between policy and practical
implementation of school culture is widening minute by minute”.
An investigation on learning-centred leadership establishes the central role of the school
principal and leadership team and illustrates the extent to which school culture facilitates
school improvement and shown the need to focus on raising achievement (Barker, 2003:2143). The following are the features of cultural model:
Features of organisational culture model

The central focus of organisational culture is on the values, beliefs and attitudes of
individuals within the schools and colleges, but they may not always be explicit. Many
beliefs are however so deeply buried that individuals do not even know what they are.
Individual values combined gradually lead to shared norms and meaning which
become parts of the school or college, symbolizing “the ways we do things around
here”.

School culture is usually expressed through rituals and ceremonies such as
assemblies‟ symbols, price „givings‟, religious occasions and graduation ceremonies
which are used to celebrate beliefs and norms. Culture assumes the existence of
heroes and heroines as an embodiment of the school and the school gives
prominence to those whose triumphs (e.g. in sport, music, drama, etc) match the
aspirations of the school.
The relevance of the link between the cultural and the moral management model is apparent
in the discussion of the following moral leadership model.
41
2.6.8 Moral leadership model
According to Bush (2007:400), moral leadership is linked to the cultural model of
management. “This model assumes that the critical focus of leadership ought to be on the
values, beliefs, and ethics of leaders themselves. Authority and influence are to be derived
from defensible conceptions of what is right or good. Excellent schools have central zones
composed of values and beliefs that take on sacred or cultural characteristics” and; moral
leadership bring about the display of vision, deep humanitarian values; create vision and the
core values of humility, altruistic love and genuineness that are also common to all ethics and
value-based approaches to leadership (Fry, 2003:693-727).
Brown and Anafara Jr. (2003:16-34) “provide evidence that moral and ethical leadership
allows teachers, parents, and kids to trust in the school. They always know there are honesty,
integrity, mutual respect and trust, which create a culture in a school that allows all things to
be possible when morals are exhibited”. In addition, Easley ll (2008:25-38) found in her
research that principals recognize teachers as professionals and support them through
dialogue and focussing on the right things.
Principled-centred leaders exercise the above named elements of moral value principles from
the „inside-out‟ and at the personal, interpersonal, managerial, and organisational levels to
unleash the creativity, talent and energy of a workforce. Bush (2007:391-406) also states that
“moral and managerial leadership are required to develop a learning community”. He writes
further that the challenges of leadership for the principal are to make peace with the
competing moral and managerial aspects of leadership, because they are two imperatives
and the neglect of either creates problems.
The visionary leadership which may give rise to positive instructional leadership is discussed
below.
2.6.9 Visionary leadership
In exhibiting visionary leadership (Nahavandi, 2003; Juli and Atmanja, 2005: 99-112; AbuTineh, et. al., 2008:648-660), the principal must be focused, be concerned to enhance
individual student performance, through comprehensive and flexible curriculum and improved
42
status and means of teachers. Brown and Anafara Jr. (2003:16-34) research findings indicate
that visionary leadership in action involves an initial exploration of possible change areas,
discussions and education regarding the issues involved and support, commitment, and
ownership. Niemann and Kotze (2006:609-642) found that a strong relationship between a
principal's behaviour as regards an inspiration of a shared vision and his/her attempts to
enable the staff to act in nurture sociable element in the school culture.
The combination of the education leadership and management models irrespective of the
products of their paired links, categorically results in effective instructional delivery by
teachers in the classroom, leading to school effectiveness. Therefore, the instructional
leadership model is discussed below.
2.6.10 Instructional leadership model
“Instructional leadership is a very important dimension because it targets the school‟s central
activities, teaching and learning. However, this paradigm underestimates other aspects of
school life, such as sport, socialisation, student welfare, and self-esteem. Instructional
leadership is strongly concerned with teaching and learning, including the professional learning
of teachers as well as students‟ growth” (Bush, 2006:391-406). Good school instructional
management must promote a positive school climate or hold an image or a vision of what
should be accomplished (Greenfield, 1987:190). Also, it focuses on matters related to
instruction and the classroom performance of teachers (Greenfield, 1987:60). Khan, Ahmad, Ali
and ur-Rehman (2011:2668-2678) found that “school principals are aware of the importance
and value of providing professional support and treating staff professionally, expecting a high
standard of professionalism in return”.
In a study of highly effective primary schools in England, Earley and Weindling (2004) found
that the emphasis of learning was on giving feedback by both staff and students. The senior
staff members were regarded with high esteem, offered much respect, credibility and seen as
first-rate practitioners and as „leaders of learning‟ by the school head. Quinn (2002:447-467)
and (Printy, Marks and Bowers, 2009:504-532) also describe the principal as “an effective
instructional leader performing at high school level in four areas – resources provider,
instructional resource, communicator, rational planner and providing visible provision in the
43
school”. This aims at improving students‟ achievement and also has a direct impact on
teachers‟ instruction in the classroom. By implication, principals of schools strive to promote
academic excellence in their schools by giving prominence to academic achievers.
However, the findings of Kruger (2003:206-211) indicate that principals did not have the time
to practice instructional or educational leadership as they wished to. That is, many of the
formal or structured instructional leadership tasks, which include aspects of curriculum
management and supervision, are delegated to heads of department or subject heads and
that, they as principals influenced the instructional programme in a more indirect way. In
essence, the direct supervision of teaching in both schools is delegated to the various subject
heads; hence, it was not effectively carried out, but Atanda and Jaiyeoba found a significant
relationship between supervision of instruction by school principals, hence students‟
academic achievement.
In summary, the comparison between the various models of leadership and management
point to some similarities and inter-relatedness. It also indicates that effective schools are
characterized by hierarchical authority structures based on accountability of subordinates to
superiors within the school (bureaucracy) and the ultimate regard for procedures, rules and
regulations which are achieved through successful management of existing activities based
on the vision of the school (managerial leadership). More so, collegiality is through a more
participative and consensus decision making between key role players within the school
(principal, vice-principal, HODs, teachers and students‟ leaders) and could result in
mentorship and increased leadership capacities of the teachers and students.
More so, conflicts in effective school are also solved through the process of negotiation and
consensus (political), which results in the exchange of values, for instance, reward for
performance or vice-versa (transactional). These stem from the values, beliefs and norms
that are consciously designed to constitute the culture of the school (cultural) and which are
morally bounded - the formulation of what is accepted as good or bad - to regulate the
activities of individuals in the school (morals). As a consequence, the connectivity of these
models will definitely lead to the effective achievement of the core mission of the school
through the instructional model, which is pivotal to the essence of a school.
44
Having briefly discussed the leadership and management models and their inter-relatedness,
it is necessary to discuss how the literature contributes to the components of the theoretical
model adopted in this research and in relation to school effectiveness.
2.7
Education leadership and management model
2.7.1 Brief description of the model
As indicated in paragraph 2.5, the concept “model”, relates to the grouping or joining of a
number of theories in a single model. A model is a representation of a matter in a reduced
form. The Education Leadership and Management Model gives a holistic picture of the
leadership and management roles of educational leaders in schools. The point of departure of
the model is that education leadership and management ought to be basically concerned with
the aim of education namely; to ensure quality teaching and learning. It also acknowledges
the central role of the educational leader to direct the actions and activities of teachers,
students and parents.
The model also recognizes the existence of the different management and leadership models
from which education leaders can select from, when facing problems and dealing with every
day issues. The model further acknowledges the managerial (bureaucratic), transformational,
contingency, moral and instructional roles of the educational leader in the school. The
Education Leadership and Management Model is however, a brief summary of the leadership
and management role and task required of the principal and other members of the SLMT in a
school (University of Pretoria, 2010:38).
Education leaders‟ decisions make the difference between conflict and harmony, disruption
and stability, prosperity and decline, success and failure, work satisfaction and
dissatisfaction, cooperation and obstruction and whether the school attains its goals or fails to
do so. The principal and other SLMT members decide directly on cardinal matters such as,
the vision, mission and the aims of the school; the quality of its service and the use and
implementation of existing and new resources. Whatever management decides has a direct
influence on the students, teachers, parents and indirectly, the broader community (Van
Deventer and Kruger, 2003:65-68).
45
According to the Education Management and Leadership Model (adapted from Prinsloo 2009,
illustrated in Figure 2.1 below), every actions and activities in a school revolves around the
most important resources (middle circle) in the school. These include human resources (staff,
students and parents, etc.), school finance (money), physical resources (buildings, furniture,
text books, exercise books, educational aids, etc.) and time (tuition time-table). The effective
utilization and development of resources in a school are dependent on the management and
leadership skills of education leaders and they may have an influence on school
effectiveness.
Kroon (1991:17) briefly describes the three basic management skills that managers should
have, as follows:

Conceptual management skills are the mental ability to see the organisation as a
whole, co-ordinate, integrate all the interests and activities thereof. They mainly relate
to effective task execution.

Human skills are concerned with the ability to work with people, appreciate and to
motivate them. This includes leadership abilities to lead, motivate individuals,
enhancement of effective group communication and establishment of sound
interpersonal relationships.

Technical management skills concern the everyday ability to use techniques and
procedures which aid the school‟s everyday smooth operation.
As stated earlier, excellence in a school relates to the quality of the discharge of its core
activities - teaching and learning. Effective teaching and learning are not possible unless
there is a healthy internal management environment in which optimal teaching and learning
can take place. Knowledge of conceptual, human and technical management skills is
required to create a positive organisational culture and climate in schools and to encourage
change. In addition, the relationship between teachers, students, parents and the State
Ministry of Education is regulated by legislation and policy, but leaders must also take into
account the political, socio-economic, technological, demographic factors, because the
school itself is also dynamically interactive with its external settings (Owens, 2001:143).
Effective leadership and management are crucial, because the present and future state of
any school depends on its leader‟s ability to lead and manage a school effectively. The basic
46
responsibilities of any education leader are the realization of the school‟s vision and the
achievement of predetermined aims and objectives; by means of effective planning, making
or
implementing
policy,
decision-making,
problem-solving,
organising,
delegating,
coordinating and control.
The first responsibility focuses on effective and successful task execution in order to
contribute to school effectiveness. Therefore an education leader should be concerned with
the level at which predetermined set of aims and objectives of the school are achieved; he
should also make sure that followers define tasks according to predetermined standards and;
should also see to it that the pre-determined aims and objectives are achieved according to a
set time schedule (University of Pretoria, 2010:43).
2.8
Conceptual management (skills) contributing to effective task
execution in a school
Conceptual skill consists of the ability of a school manager to analyze a situation, and
differentiate between cause and effect. They are often gained through formal education,
reflection and experience (Jones and George, 2009:17-18); and such skills are mostly vital in
leadership (Mumford, Campion and Morgeson, 2007:154-166). Conceptual skills help
managers to analyse complex situations (Robbins, 2000: 548). These comprise of skills
related to competences such as collecting, processing, learning, disseminating information
through oral and written communication (Mumford, Campion and Morgeson, 2007:154-166).
Thus, school principals need more conceptual skills and less technical skills than teachers
(Robbins, 2000:548). Moreover, position such as that of the school principal has been found
to be significant in enacting a school‟s vision and performance (Voges, Tworoger and
Bendixen, 2009:27-48).
The conceptual management skills are planning and visualizing (policy-making, decisionmaking and problem-solving; organizing, coordinating and control and will briefly are
discussed as follow.
47
2.8.1 Planning and visualizing
Effective planning and visualizing is dependent on clear set aims and objectives, well
formulated policy, informed decision-making and problem-solving. Planning is one of the most
important skills to be mastered in order to become a successful principal or educational
leader and it is dependent on a clear set of aims and objectives, well formulated policy,
informed decision-making and problem-solving, forward thinking and assessment, as well as
planning and deciding on priorities. The planning aspect of teaching and educating is so
important that it alone can determine the failure or success of an education leader (University
of Pretoria, 2010:45).
48
Figure 2.1:
Education leadership and management model (Adapted from Prinsloo,
2009)
49
Planning can therefore be regarded as one of the most important functions of education
managers, because it forms the basis of all the other management functions. Effective
planning is time consuming and may be regarded as a creative/critical thinking activity, or
often referred to as visualization. The leader has to think well ahead and focus attention on
what is to be done, how and where it is to be done; who should do it and have a good reason
for each step in order to achieve the aims and objectives of a school (Van Deventer,
2003:78).
Planning and visualizing is an essential process of team work and it describes the manner in
which a team organizes its tasks. To plan one must first have a clear vision of the desired
future for the organisation. A pioneer in interactive planning emphasizes that a picture of the
organisation's aspirations and where it ultimately wants to be, are essential. Creating a vision
is an integral part of the planning stage of interactive planning, where the current system is
redesigned to create an idealized future design (Steinbacher and Smith, 2009:30-36), hence,
Kung‟s (2008:31-46) finding explains that “when the extra-time and energy demanded by
planning and decision-making are balanced by real authority, teachers report satisfaction and
enthusiasm”.
The development, communication and accomplishment of the school‟s vision are among the
education leader‟s most important tasks. Leadership has much to do with what is going to
happen in the future of the school (Love, 1994:123). Creating a vision for the school is like
allowing the leader‟s creative imagination to develop what his or her school would be like
when its potential is fully realised. Vision building is like imagining the end result and vision
implementation in doing everything that is necessary to get to planned objectives and goal. It
is the task of the education leader to accomplish this (Sterling and Davidoff, 2000:89; Love,
1994:124). Moreover, vision provides direction and a challenge towards something
worthwhile to work for and to strive after. It is however, important that all stakeholders in the
school identify with the vision (Sterling and Davidoff, 2000:89). The vision of a school should
include:
Focus on teaching and learning - The visions of different schools will probably be the same
in the sense that they will focus on the core business of schools, namely teaching and
learning, but each school may formulate its vision differently depending on the context within
which the school functions.
50
Values and vision - As values are at the heart of the vision formulation process, it is
essential for the school leader to remember that the values that the leader embodies may
tend to be the values shared by the staff and parent-community.
The vision should be inspirational - The vision must motivate everyone in the school
community, so it needs to play on their imagination and willingness to strive towards an ideal.
The right words to achieve this are important as it is the ability to formulate an ideal that is
inspiring (Sterling and Davidoff, 2000:93).
The vision should be realistic - The vision must build on the school‟s real circumstances,
strengths and possibilities for it needs to be realistic and achievable. If it is not, people will not
be motivated to strive for it (Sterling and Davidoff, 2000:93-95).
The vision should be communicated - Education leaders need to take every opportunity to
communicate the vision of the school to the school community orally and in a written format
that is clear, regular, systematic and convincing manner. It is also important to always
remember that an education leader is the most important communicators of the school vision
(Love, 1994:132-133).
The vision should be implemented - This implies that there is no sense in formulating a
vision that is not implemented.
Planning involves answering three basic questions, namely:

Where are we now? (Assessment of the present situation/identifying the needs of the
school)

Where do we want to be? (Setting the aims and objectives)

How can we get there (from here)? (Planning process)
The principal as the head of the school management team should “encourage the team
planning process to involve cognitive and verbal elements, whereby team members jointly
conceptualize and comprehend the various components of their task, its purpose and
meaning to the team and how best to proceed with task execution” (DeChurch and Hass,
2008:542-568). Planning in the case of public secondary schools allows for the enhancement
of the level of efficiency, effectiveness and quality education.
51
For planning to be effective, it must adhere to different requirements. For example, it must be
realistic and feasible and requires much detailed attention before an activity is initiated. It
should take place within the framework of national and regional educational policy; begin with
the principal and be confirmed in writing, various people may contribute to the planning
process, it should be ascertained that everyone concerned understands the plan and that it
is interpreted correctly, the process of planning should include setting aims and objectives
(Cele, 2005:223-236).
2.8.1.1
Setting aims and objectives
Aims and objectives give rise to planning, vision and mission. Aims and objectives are some
of the platforms on which aims and objectives can be built. Some of these platforms can be
very confusing, but the essence of all four concepts is directed at achieving specific results in
the future and they are directly related to effective planning (University of Pretoria, 2010).
They are:
Vision: This refers to a future expectation or idea (a dream) relating to the school. For
example, when the sculptor looks at a dry tree trunk he has the ability to visualize the figure
he wants to carve from the wood.
Mission: This refers to questions like: Why are we here? What is the purpose of our school?
The answer to such questions will be, the mission of our school is to render a service of
quality education with a view to educate independent and responsible citizens, etc.
Aims: Aims refer to the broad medium or long-term aims of your school. The following are
examples of aims: to create a safe school environment in which effective teaching and
learning can take place; to improve our Mathematics Grade 12 results within two years from
45% to 60% and to improve our parent involvement at school activities etc.
Objectives: Objectives refer to the more measurable, short-term objectives that should be
accomplished in a specific time. Objectives could be used to achieve the aims of the school,
for example: aims could be to improve the Mathematics results; hence the following
objectives could be, to arrange extra Mathematics classes on Saturdays by an expert or to
52
encourage the teachers responsible for Mathematics to improve their qualifications in
mathematics etc.
In conclusion, it is clear from the above that effective planning and visualizing is a product of
conscious and modelled teamwork based on foresight. For planning to be effective, there
must be aims and objectives and team members‟ vital contribution based on collective critical
thinking ahead of what is to be done. All SLMT members must be incorporated in the
planning of programmes in dealing with problems relating to curriculum issues in the school,
because their contribution(s) will constitute part of the future goals (vision) of the school.
However, decisions reached based on the internal planning in the school must be within the
framework of regional or state and national education framework. The school principal should
also let every SLMT member understand the various components and challenges of their task
in the process of planning to enable a level of expected efficiency and effectiveness that will
aid quality educational results.
Planning gives rise to policy-making, decision making and problem-solving; organizing,
delegating coordinating and ultimately, controlling. In the next paragraph the importance of
policy making will be discussed.
2.8.1.2
Policy making
In relation to the school, policy usually means some general plan of action that is designed to
achieve the aims and objectives of the school. Policy consists of general statements or
interpretations that guide the thinking of education leaders when making decisions. Since
policy serves as a guideline for decision-making, it implies that management must allow some
discretion by those who implement the policy otherwise it would be formulated as a set of
rules (Prinsloo, 2003:42; Kruger and Van Schalkwyk, 1997:34). It should also serve as a
guideline to the actions and behaviour of school teaching and non-teaching staff, students
and parents (Prinsloo, 1993:42; Kruger and Van Schalkwyk, 1997:34). In any school, there
should be well formulated policy regarding the six managerial areas in a school namely: The
management of staff affairs; the management of student affairs (curriculum and extracurriculum); the management of school finance; the management of the physical facilities; the
management of school community relationships and the management of school
administrative affairs.
53
According to Kruger and Van Deventer (2003:92), five steps in drawing up and administering
policy are:
Step 1: Formulating policy: This starts by determining the purpose of the policy, development
of a tentative outline, discussion of alternative courses of action, asking who will be affected
by the policy, who will finally be responsible for the implementation and what the effect will be
on the quality of education at the school?
Step 2: Approving policy: Review draft policy for accuracy, brevity and comprehensiveness,
ascertain who should clear it before taking further action and find out what level of authority is
required for the final recommendations.
Step 3: Releasing and interpreting policy: This implies Timing of the policy to be released, the
manner of release and ensuring that every teacher receives a copy of the approved policy.
Step 4: Putting policies into effect: This is about ensuring responsibility, accountability and
authority for putting policy into effect and clarification of administrative controls and
determining who is accountable for what and the control that is established by the policy.
Step 5: Keeping policy up-to-date: Review, evaluate and report on the results of carrying out
the policy.
Policy-making is never a once-off planning action. Schools are part of a dynamic and
changing environment and it entails continuous management task. It also creates broad
general guidelines, implies planning, relates to school aims and is based on values. It
influences the management task of the educational leader and manager, has long-term
validity and involves the utilization of resources (Van der Westhuizen, 1997:151). “The policymaking capacity of schools ought to therefore be developed as a concept and its possible
application to other activities in schools should also be tested” (Vanhoof, et. al., 2009:667686).
Policy makers at executive departmental level of education hold principals accountable for
student achievement, but principals‟ ability to meet this challenge depends on their expertise
(Spillane, White and Stephan, 2009:128-151). Hence, findings of Legotlo, Maaga, Sebego,
54
van der Westhuizen, Mosoge, Nieuwoudt and Steyn (2003:113-118) indicate that “some
schools did not have clear policies relating to the instructional programme, such as classroom
visits, homework policy, comprehensive subject policies that included policy on assessment
and computation of final examination marks”.
In summary, school policy is a general plan of action regarding the running of the school
management areas namely; staff affairs, management of the curriculum, school finance,
physical facilities, administrative affairs and the management of school-community
relationships. Well-thought-out and good formulated school rules, procedures and policy
serve as a detailed plan for school management. School rules and procedures also ensure
that everybody knows what to do, when to do it and how to do it, especially where it concerns
programmed or routine decisions. Thus decision-making and problem-solving will be briefly
discussed in the next paragraph as it is a consequence of policy making.
2.8.1.3
Decision-making and problem-solving
According to Van Deventer (2003:95-97) decision-making involves a choice between one or
more alternatives. It is a thought process directed at the achievement of the school‟s aims
and objectives. Problem-solving is the process of making and carrying out a decision that will
overcome an obstacle that stands in the way of achieving an aim or objective. The
effectiveness of decisions plays a decisive role in determining the success of planning and
eliminating
problems.
Furthermore,
decision-making
and
problem-solving
are
two
fundamental activities of the management process. The reason is that almost every
management task, be it planning, organizing, leading, or control, involves a decision on a
problem that must be solved; or a decision to overcome an obstacle, or to address a situation
that needs to be changed. Every plan of action requires taking decisions on how to execute it
and in the most effective way, who will be responsible for the execution and when it must be
completed.
Decision-making is an attempt to solve problem(s) in the school. According to Lunenburg and
Ornstein (1991) and Van Deventer (2003:103), an important principle of decision-making is
participation in the decision-making process by all interested parties. Although, it is not
possible for an education leader to consult everybody every time before he or she can make
a decision or solve a problem, it is however important to involve those staff members,
55
students or parents in the decision-making process when it affects them. Participative
management contributes to:
Increase decision quality: In a group, there is a greater sum total of expertise, knowledge
and information than in any one individual.
Decision creativity: Group members have different perspectives from different frames of
reference and experience which contribute to more creative thinking and thus to more
feasible solutions to problems.
Decision acceptance: Participation increases the likelihood of the solution and the
subsequent decision being accepted.
Decision understanding: Teachers who are involved in the decision-making process will
have a better understanding of the context of the decision and will need no further
information. Better cooperation between staff and staff members who feel involved are
motivated to work together.
The first step in the decision-making process takes the form of asking questions as to when,
where, how, why, of a problem in a bid to understand the nature and origin of the problem.
Secondly, it‟s about the identification and understanding of the obstacles that stand in the
way of solving the problem. Thirdly, is the identification of alternative solutions to the problem.
The fourth step is about the evaluation of the different alternative solutions and deciding
which one offers the best outcome. Lastly, it‟s about informing those that are likely to be
affected by the preferred alternative and thereafter, the implementation of the decision
chosen among the alternatives (Van Deventer, 2003:98-97). The Figure 3 below summarizes
the decision-making process.
56
Figure 2.2: Decision-Making Processes (Kruger and Van Deventer, 2003:97)
The ideal decision-making process includes defining the problem clearly (principle of
definition), all the relevant information required (principle of adequate evidence or
information), having possible solutions or courses (the principle of differing perceptions).
Although the following steps of the decision-making process may look relatively simple,
decision-making and problem-solving are sometimes very difficult or even painful tasks. One
of the greatest dangers is not to make any decisions at all, whenever a problem appears (Van
Deventer 2003:97).
Research points to a changing role of the principal towards being the instructional leader of
the school, good policy-makers and decision-makers (Lawrence and Spillane, 2008:435-468;
Spillane, White and Stephan 2009:435-468). Spillane, White and Stephan‟s (2009:128-151)
in their study, explained that proficient principals interpret and reflect on problem, reflect on
their individual actions compared to intending principals.
57
Also, Kruger (2003:206-211) reveals that global changes are taking place in education that
are resulting in the decentralisation of decision-making powers to school management level,
which is further reinforces the principal to been recognized as the major the role of the
principal as a key figure person providing effective teaching and learning.
It is clear from the foregoing that decision-making involves a choice between two or more
alternatives to eliminate a problem. Therefore, for a school problem relating to the curriculum
or student achievement to be solved, the school SLMT must work together through the
necessary steps to solve problems; from the identification of the problem to the consideration
of alternative solutions, through evaluation and the collective selection of the perceived best
solution, down to the implementation and monitoring of the impact of the adopted solution to
the problem. The process must however lead to a decision that leads to effective curriculum
achievement. The best interest of the student and quality education should however always
be taken into account when any curriculum-related decision is taken.
2.8.2 Organising in schools
Organising is the process of creating a structure for the school that enables its people to work
together effectively towards achieving the school‟s aims and objectives. It is the
implementation of what was planned and also based on the principle that tasks should be
carried out effectively by people in the school in order to ensure the cultivation of a culture of
teaching and learning. Organising involves developing actions or mechanisms that will
contribute to the realisation of the school's aims and objectives.
In addition, organizing involves the implementation of planning and it is an indispensable step
in the management process of a school (Van der Westhuizen, 1997:161; Prinsloo, 1993:52;
Cronjé et. al., 1993: 94). Organising is a function that is most visibly and directly concerned
with the systematic coordination of the many tasks of the school and consequently, of formal
relationships between the people who perform these tasks (Smit and Cronjé, 1999:209). It is
also the grouping of activities necessary to achieving common objectives. It however involves
the assignment of each grouping to a manager with the authority necessary to perform the
activities (Van Deventer: 207:150). Organizing is an indispensable step in the management
process of a school based on the subsequent reasons:
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Organizing - leads to a structure that indicates clearly who is responsible for what tasks in an
organisation. It clarifies the staff's responsibilities.
Accountability- Whereby staff members account for the outcomes of the tasks that they are
responsible for. Accountability links results directly to the actions of an individual or a group.
Clear channels of communication are established -This ensures that communication is
effective and all information required by employees to perform their jobs effectively reaches
them through the correct channels. If the meaningful distribution of resources is done,
organizing helps.
The principle of synergy enhances the effectiveness and quality of the work performed.
The total workload of the school is divided into activities to be performed by an individual or a
group of individuals.
Organizing means systematically grouping a variety of tasks, procedures and resources,
because the organising process entails in-depth analysis of the work to be done, so each
person is aware of his/her duties.
The related tasks and activities of employees are grouped together meaningfully, in
specialized departments so that experts in various fields can deal with certain tasks.
The school structure is responsible for creating a mechanism to coordinate the entire school
(Smit and Cronjé, 1999:209). The organizing process in a school entails the work performed
by managers in the school in arranging the workload and assigning the tasks necessary to
achieve the objectives of the relevant departments or groups. It also provides the necessary
co-ordination to ensure that these departments or groups work together as units – arranging
the workload, assigning the tasks involved and setting up a framework or structure in
accordance with which the work is to be done (Van Deventer, 2003:115).
In the process of organizing, the following questions must be answered: What must be done?
Exposition of work - How should the work be divided? (Division of work – delegating tasks);
which tasks must be grouped together? - Combination of work which tasks must be grouped
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together? How should the work of the organisation be co-ordinated? - (Synchronise people
and tasks to achieve the set aims and objectives) and How to evaluate and reorganize the
work? – control and re-organisation - (Van Deventer, 2003:115). However, the following
aspects of organizing must also be taken into consideration, that is, resources available to do
the work (human; finance; physical/ and time); competency and willingness of staff members,
time schedule to indicate when work should be completed, channels of communication to
facilitate co-operation and leadership to guide and direct the work (Van Deventer, 2003:109).
Without organizing the successful implementation of plans and strategies would not be
possible and the aim of creating a school environment in which effective teaching and
learning will not be attained. It is imperative that there must be a systematic allocation of
resources and people to execute the plans and this must be managed effectively (Kruger and
Van Deventer, 2003:117).
Schools have various grouped structures, opportunities and processes for reflecting on
teaching and organizing in a collective, all-encompassing way. This might have reflected in
the way tasks and resources are distributed among the individuals or departments to set a
plan or strategy in motion based on any of the four principles such as specialization and
division of work, departmentalization, organisational structures and establishment of relations
(Van der Merwe, 2003:111).
Without organizing, the successful implementation of plans and strategies would not be
possible and the aim of creating a culture of effective teaching and learning would not be
achieved. It is imperative that there should be a systematic allocation of resources (physical
facilities, finance, educational aids, etc.) and competent people to execute the plans, and that
this be managed effectively. Leadership and control is not possible if it does not clearly state
who is responsible for carrying out and coordinating specific tasks (Van Deventer, 2003:
117-118). Therefore it is important to discuss the most efficient way to delegate tasks,
responsibility to execute the task effectively and the authority to take independent decisions
within the broad guidelines of departmental and school policy. Delegating will be discussed in
the following paragraph.
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2.8.2.1
Delegating tasks and responsibilities
The process by which the manager in a school distributes a portion of the total work load of
teaching and learning to others is called delegation. It implies that the purpose of teaching
and learning activities, extra-curricular and administrative works are entrusted in teachers and
administrative staff by means of assignment. Hence, principals are held responsible not only
for their performance, but also for the performance of all the teachers in the school (Van
Deventer, 2003:108).
Capco (2007:2-3) explains that effective delegation “is usually methodical and meaningful.
That is, the task that needs to be accomplished and the reason for it must firstly be identified.
The expected results, timeframes and deadlines to get the information must also be clearly
stated. Ultimate success with delegation includes a clear definition of what is to be
accomplished, asking for commitment, showing support as a leader, and holding the person
delegated for the task to be accountable. Therefore, the following steps must be followed
consistently as a leader, when delegating: define the project, the goal, and deadline of the
task, ask if there are any questions and make sure everyone is clear about the expectations;
obtain an oral agreement to complete the task within the specified timeframe, let the staff
know that the leader or leaders are available if any questions come up, provide a gentle
reminder when the deadline is approaching, mark your calendar and ask for the results when
the project is due and, say „thank you‟ and acknowledge a job well done”.
Delegation is the work managers perform when they entrust others with responsibilities and
authority and when they create accountability for results. When managers delegate, they
oblige others to do the work and to make decisions that otherwise would be theirs. When the
principal delegate duties and tasks to a teacher, the responsibility and authority associated
with the task must also be delegated. Through the delegating of authority teachers are given
the authority they need to carry out their assigned responsibilities. By accepting responsibility
and authority, teachers also agree to accept credit or blame for the way in which they carry
out their assigned work (Van Deventer, 2003:118).
The concept of accountability has an added dimension for the principal. Principals are held
responsible not only for their own performance, but also for the performance of all the
teachers in the school. Thus, in spite of the fact that delegating means that responsibility and
61
authority are entrusted to others, the principal in this case the delegator remains primarily
responsible and accountable for all activities as well as their execution. The principal's
accountability cannot therefore be delegated to somebody else (Viljoen and Möller,
1992:151). What is however, important to understand is that deputy principals, HODs and
teachers are not only accountable to the principal, but they are also accountable to the
students and the parents-community.
There are different steps in the delegation process which should result in more effective
delegation. According to Smit and Cronjé (1999:249), delegation starts when the educational
leader analyses the work with members of his or her SLMT, analyse the work and then
decides on the aims and objectives that must be realized. The second step is to divide the
work into different activities and determine what results are expected, keeping the time limits
and available resources in mind. In the third place, the educational leaders have to decide
which tasks should be delegated. Tasks needing expertise can serve to develop teachers and
should be delegated.
The next step is to start planning the delegation by deciding on the applicable authority and
responsibility, incorporating expected standards and feedback mechanisms. It is important to
take note of the level of delegation, the specific task, the level of authority and responsibility.
These factors are important to determine who would be the most appropriate member of staff
that the task could be delegated. The delegator she has to explain the aim and importance of
the task and provide sufficient information on what needs to be done. The leader must also
ensure that the necessary resources are available, that the person understands his or her
responsibility and accepts the delegation. Standards of performance must be set and there
must be an indication to whom and when the person must report back (Smit and Cronjé,
1999:249).
The last step in the process is to follow up to ascertain if more guidance is needed or to
provide feedback and recognition for a task well done. This is in-line with what was stated
earlier that, managers are not only accountable for their own performance, but they are also
accountable for the performance of their subordinates (Smit and Cronjé, 1999:249).
Smit and Cronjé (1999:249) further provide the following principles of effective delegation:
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Set standards and objectives: This is part of the planning process and it is specifically
participative planning, in which staff members participate in the process of formulating
objectives and agree with the criteria laid down for measuring performance. For example, if
the teachers in the school are part of the planning process for setting a higher standard with
regard to academic achievements, they would comply with the criteria of regular tests,
examination and revision of work, as well as keeping the parents informed of the progress of
their children.
Ensure clarity of authority and responsibility: Teachers must understand the tasks of
teaching and learning and the authority to carry out these tasks assigned to them; recognize
their responsibility for achieving better academic results and be held accountable for the
results that they achieve.
Involve staff members: Managers should motivate staff members by including them in the
decision-making process, informing them properly at all times and improving their skills.
Request the completion of tasks: By providing the necessary direction and assistance,
managers can ensure that teachers complete the tasks assigned to them.
The principle of willingness and proficiency: A task should not be delegated to a person
who is unwilling or not qualified to complete it successfully (Van der Westhuizen, 1997:174).
It may be concluded that, because of the complexities inherent in the leadership and
management of the curriculum, the principal can for example, delegate the task, responsibility
and the authority to supervise how successful the curriculum is being implemented in the
classrooms. Once order has been created and the work in a school has been divided and
delegated to individual staff members, the education leaders must see to it that all parts
function together and efficiently like a system. Effective coordinating of people, work,
resources, time-schedules and activities of a school will accomplish this (Van Deventer,
2003:122).
The management task of coordinating will be discussed in the next paragraph.
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2.8.2.2
Coordinating
Van Deventer (2003:123) describes the concept of coordinating as dividing teaching and
learning into specialized functions and departments in order to increase productivity,
efficiency and at the same time, creating the need for the coordination of the divided work
activities, thus integrating the aims and objectives of the individual or one department with
those of all staff members as well as with those of the school as a whole. Effective
coordination starts with sound viewpoints, attitudes, planning, staff competence, mutual
confidence, the continuous, consistent integration of staff activities, positive team spirit and
high morale, none of which can be attained unless those affected are happy with their
leadership. The purpose of coordinating is as follows: developing team spirit and promote
team work; ensuring cooperation between teachers and ensure that the school policy is
uniformly applied.
Even, curriculum tasks may be delegated as a means of task distribution, the complexities of
school leadership and management warrant the coordination of curriculum tasks, because it
increases job performance through synchronization, the development of staff cohesion
through warm relationships and the creation of team spirit to achieve curriculum effectiveness
in the school.
According to Van Deventer (2003:123), effective coordinating starts with sound viewpoints,
attitudes and planning. It also requires competent staff, mutual confidence and the
continuous, consistent integration of the activities of all members of staff, a positive team
spirit and high morale, none of which can be attained unless those affected are happy with
their leadership. The organisational structure influences coordinating, because it determines
the framework that governs all lines of command, channels of communication and patterns of
relationships that must be integrated into a harmonious composite result. Coordinating brings
into focus and simultaneously applies all principles and techniques outlined in planning,
problem- solving and decision-making and organizing.
The methods described below can be used to coordinate the work in a school (Van Deventer,
2003:123-124).
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Management meeting: Management meeting is held weekly or bi-weekly and in real large
schools, it might be held daily and it is usually chaired by the principal. The deputy/viceprincipal and heads of department attend it. It is essential that transparent two-way
communication upwards, downwards and horizontally should be ensured from this meeting
as it is the starting-point of all planning, organizing, coordinating, guidance and control of
school activities in the management areas, i.e. staff, student activities (curriculum and extramural), school finance, physical facilities, administrative affairs and school community
relationships. Test dates and examination dates, dates for meetings, dates for sport and
cultural activities and other school activities should be planned in advance and included in
term and year programme at this type of meeting. The management meeting could thus be
used to coordinate the planned activities of the school but also to provide feedback on
activities that have already been completed (staff appraisal and staff development).
Informal staff meeting: Informal meeting could be held in the staffroom every morning for
ten minutes before school starts. It could be used to coordinate the planned activities
contained in the year and term programme of the school, to give feedback on activities that
have already been completed. The principal can acknowledge staff for their contribution to
certain activities and student achievements. The principal could also inform or remind staff
about departmental circulars, courses, meetings, etc. (Prinsloo, 2003:163).
Departmental and or subject meetings:
According to Buchel (1993:137), every HOD is
responsible for holding regular departmental or subject meetings. These should be held at
least once a month to address issues such as the following correlation and coordination of
the pace of all the teachers teaching a subject, discussion of problems arising from the
syllabus, discussion of departmental circulars regarding instructional leadership, guidance of
new teachers in implementing subject content, planning, compilation and checking of
examination and test papers and memorandums (Prinsloo, 2003:165).
In conclusion, if the above methods described are used to coordinate teaching tasks in
school, they will lead to synchronization of work activities, develop team spirit and team work,
ensure that policy is interpreted and applied uniformly, engender feelings of responsibility for
carrying out delegated tasks and to accept accountability for the successful execution of
tasks, greater job satisfaction, improved productivity, better cooperation between teachers
and better involvement in activities. Under these mentioned circumstances, the staff will be
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happy and work together harmoniously. Controlling as a management function to ensure
effective task execution in a school will be discussed in the following paragraph.
2.8.2.3
Controlling (effective control of planned activities)
Effective control is the management process through which education managers ensure the
assessment and regulation of teaching and learning, work in progress and deviations from or
failures of planned activities are kept to a minimum so that the school‟s objectives may be
accomplished with as little disturbance as possible (Stoner and Wankel, 1986:574., Allen,
1997:5). Controlling is similar to planning in many ways. The major difference between
planning and controlling is that, controlling usually takes place during or after the activity or
action; whereas planning takes place before the activity or action (Rue and Byers, 2007:327).
By implication, they planning and control are two important ends of the school management
continuum.
During the planning stage of the school‟s activities the fundamental aims and objectives and
the methods for attaining them are established. The control process measures progress
towards those aims and objectives of the school and enable the principal and the staff
members to detect deviations from initial plan in time to take corrective action before it is too
late. During the planning process fundamental aims and objectives are established and
methods to achieve them are decided upon. (Van Deventer, 2003:128). An effective
education manager is therefore someone who follows up the planned activities and sees to it
that the things that need to be done are in fact, carried out and the planned objectives thus
attained. Each teacher and staff member of a school has an obligation to be involved in the
control process, thereby ensuring that each one is engaged in the process of realizing the
objectives of the school (Van Deventer, 2003:128).
Control is complementary to planning, because apart from revealing deviations, it also
indicates whether plans should be revised as a result of environmental or other factors
(Cronjé et. al., 1993:110). Control is the regulatory task of management in the sense that it
enables the actual implementation of the plans and it is an important measurement aid in the
execution of plans, hence it measures the performance of the whole school (Smit and Cronjé,
1999: 398). The people who do the planning are not always the same ones who control the
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plans, but they must communicate with each other for both planning and control to be
effective.
According to Smit and Cronjé (1999:399), the control system will indicate to management
whether activities are proceeding according to plan and if so, plans that have been made
must be simply continued with and therefore whether activities are proceeding according to
plan or not. This may force the leader to adjust his or her plans if the situation has changed
completely, leading to the formulation of a new plan. According to Van Deventer (2003:129),
there are four steps in the control process, namely:
The first step involves the establishment of standards and criteria as well as methods to
measure performance. For this step to be effective the standards must be specified in
meaningful terms and be accepted by all teachers and students involved.
The second step is to actually measure or evaluate the performance. This should be an ongoing, repetitive process. It is important not to allow too long a period of time to pass between
performance appraisals/evaluations, especially as far as students are concerned.
Step three is actually the easiest in the control process, namely comparing the evaluation
results with the standards previously set. If the performance matches the standards set, the
educational manager can assume that “everything is under control”.
The final step is to take corrective action if the performance falls short of the set criteria. The
emphasis must be on constructive ways to bring performance up to standard.
Nevertheless, there are several requirements for effective control of which the following are
the most important (Van Deventer, 2003:133). They are:
Control must be flexible: Control must not be rigid, but must make provision for changes
and exceptions as well as unknown variables.
Control must be adaptable: Control and control measures must be adaptable to the tasks of
individuals and to specific situations or areas of control. For example, the task of managerial
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control of the school principal will be different from the control task of the teacher in the
classroom.
Control must lead to corrective action: Control must provide for corrective actions,
because effective control should provide a clear indication of what went wrong and how it
should be corrected.
Control standards and methods must be clear: It is essential that the purpose, function,
standards and methods of managerial control must be clearly spelt out and understood by all
concerned, namely the person executing the control as well as the person being controlled.
Control must be vested in formal authority: The organising function must be reflected by
the managerial function of control in that it should be executed by means of formal authority
and the accompanying responsibility and accountability.
The following are some important guidelines to ensure that the managerial function of control
will be effective (Van Deventer, 2003:131):
Instructions: regarding control should be clear and specific, because these instructions set a
standard for what is expected and how the task will be evaluated.
Guidelines: should be drawn up and criteria that are realistic, flexible, understandable and
acceptable must be established. These criteria should be determined during the planning
process and, if at all possible, teachers should also be involved.
Feedbacks: It is imperative that teachers receive feedback on their performance in written or
oral form. The feedback exercise should be handled with care and the education manager
must be well prepared to provide this feedback.
Evaluation: This is an integral part of the control function and careful and well-planned
evaluation is essential for the individual teacher‟s development as well as the improvement of
the school‟s performance.
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Corrective action: This forms part of the control process and must be taken if deviation from
the set standards occurs. The purpose of these actions is to correct mistakes as quickly and
effectively as possible and to prevent repetition of the same mistakes in future.
The behavioural theory mechanism of control is used to work out the explanation and
improvement of instruction in the classroom. It is also utilized in explaining and improving the
impact of curricula on student achievement. The rationale for control in organisations such as
the school “depends on monitoring, evaluation and appraisal of the functioning of the (people
within) organisations. This is also closely related to the common findings in school
effectiveness research which consistently demonstrates that evaluation and assessment are
associated with high achievement” (Creemers and Reezgt, 2005:359-371).
On perceived benefits and concerns about teacher appraisal for the purpose of corrective
action and evaluation, Odhiambo (2005:402-416) explains that “educational administrators
generally felt that „proper feedback‟ is important for teachers‟ improvement of classroom
performance, good results of appraisal are important for promotion, appraisal encourages
effective teaching, which in turn produces quality education, appraisal acts as a reminder for
the teachers about what they are expected to do (accountability), appraisal identifies areas of
weaknesses and strengths. It further motivates teachers and increases awareness of
curriculum issues”.
It is important to note the two major reasons for exercising control are to bring about the
correct and most effective task execution in the school and to develop and utilize staff
effectively by expanding the merit system and the steps for corrective action (Van Deventer,
2003:135). Timely and accurate reports should be issued to teachers on a regular basis. This
will enable them to compare their performance with predetermined standards and to
overcome their shortcomings. The manager (principal) should not therefore wait for the end of
year examinations before controlling the academic work of teachers, but should do so after
each test and exam cycle. In the light of the above, it appears that effective control not only
focuses on task completion, but also on the person carrying out the task. Recognition and
appreciation can extend the merit system and shortcomings addressed by taking corrective
action, which stimulates staff development.
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The focus of paragraph 2.8 is on the conceptual skills needed by education leaders to ensure
effective task execution in a school. The realisation of the school‟s vision and the
achievement of predetermined aims and objectives by means of effective plans, making or
implementing policy, decision-making, problem-solving, organising, delegating, coordinating
and control. The first responsibility thus, focuses on effective and successful task execution.
In other words, it is concerned with the extent to which a manager fulfils his or her task of
achieving a particular set of aims and objectives. Therefore, an educational manager should
ensure that subordinates define tasks in accordance with predetermined standards and also
see to it that predetermined aims and objectives are achieved according to a set time
schedule (University of Pretoria, 2010:62).
The general purpose of the above stated exercises is to ensure quality education and student
academic achievement; because the successful completion of school activity is dependent on
people Education leaders must have the ability to direct the actions of staff, so that they
willingly achieve the set objectives. The leader also has the responsibility to motivate staff, to
communicate effectively and to establish sound interpersonal relationships in the school, built
on mutual respect and trust.
In the next paragraphs human skills needed by education leaders to create an internal school
environment inductive to effective teaching and learning will be discussed.
2.9
Human skills
The purpose of the human management skills is to direct the actions of people and to
establish sound interpersonal relationships through effective leadership, communication and
motivation (Brown, 2004:112). Teachers who believe in themselves want to be part of a
competent school staff and are less afraid of parental feedback school practices. That
suggests that there is a relationship between support for community partnerships and
collective teacher efficacy (Tam, 2007:350-366).
Human skills give the manager the ability to work with people, to understand and to motivate
them. This includes leadership abilities, individual and group skills. The following are
examples of human skills namely: leadership, motivation of people, effective communication
and the establishment of sound interpersonal relationships (Kroon, 1991:17). The following
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human management skills will briefly be discussed in the subsequent paragraphs namely
motivation, communication and the establishment of sound relations.
2.9.1 Motivation
Shadare and Hammed (2009:7-17) view employee (teacher) motivation as one of the
strategies of managers to enhance effective job performance among workers in the school
and it is a basic psychological process in the organisation. Motivation “also arouses,
energizes, directs and sustains behaviour and performance as a result of the stimulant it
provides to act and achieve a desired task. A process of stimulating people is to employ
effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs”. A
high degree of effort can also be exerted on the job, if there is an encouraging environment
(Rue and Byers, 2007:58); "which brings out the best in people as they achieve and receive
individual, group, and system-wide rewards” (Harms and Knobloch, 2005 (101-124).
Moreover, no two people are alike, because they differ and therefore, their behaviour differs.
Although people display the same type of behaviour, it is often not for the same reason;
however, encouraging behaviour is motivated. The state of mind that directs a person‟s
behaviour and energy to the following achievement can be seen as a process or a cycle.
Drive
Need
Goal
(Motivation)
Figure 2.3: The motivational cycle (Cronje, 1992:323)
Motivation cycle, in its simplest form, is represented in Figure 2.3 above. If for example, a
teacher has a need to improve his/her qualifications and decides to register for the B.Ed.
degree, the need that developed supplied the driving force or the motivation for achieving the
goal or objective (the degree). The motivation cycle consists of three interdependent
elements (Cronje, 1992:323):
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Need: A physiological imbalance caused by a lack of something or other. For example, a
physiological need develops when a person has no food or water. For a teacher, the
physiological need for food, clothes, shelter (housing), etc. is satisfied by a reasonable salary.
Driving force: (motivation): An individual‟s needs motivate (or drive) him to achieve the goal
(which he/she believes will satisfy his/her needs). A need to earn and to be self-supporting
supplies the drive to study, to qualify for a profession in order to earn money to supply a
person with his/her basic needs.
Goal: What satisfied the needs is the goal of the motivation process. The achievement of the
goal (e.g. to obtain a teaching qualification, to be appointed in a post, to earn a salary to fulfil
one‟s basic needs) will restore the physiological balance (Smit and Cronje, 1992:323).
2.9.1.1
Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow‟s theory is based on two important suppositions thus:
Firstly, people are always striving for more and their needs depend on what they already
have. A satisfied need is no longer a motivator; only unsatisfied needs can influence
behaviour.
Secondly, people‟s needs are arranged in order of importance. When one‟s need has been
partly satisfied, the next will come to the fore to be satisfied (Smit and Cronje, 1992:328).
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Self-actualisation
needs
Ego needs
Social needs
Safety Needs
Physiological needs
Figure 2.4: Abraham Maslow’s needs hierarchy (Gerber, et al., 1998:262)
Gerber, et al. (1998:262) state that Maslow arranged human needs into five categories and in
order of importance. Only when the lower order needs have been satisfied to higher order
needs become motivators of behaviour. The levels of needs in Maslow‟s hierarchy are as
follows:
Physiological needs: These needs are essential for the human being's biological functioning
and survival (e.g. the need for food, water and warmth). These are the most basic needs and
if they are unsatisfied, human behaviour will be directed primarily towards their satisfaction.
The teacher receives a salary to provide for these basic needs. Should the education
department neglect to pay the teacher‟s salary, however, it would not be possible to satisfy
them.
Safety needs: When the physiological needs have been satisfied, a worker‟s needs moves to
the second level of the hierarchy and the importance of the first level fades. These needs
include the need for security and protection against physical and psychological pain. Job
security, insurance, medical aid and pension schemes all satisfy the human's need for
security. If the school principal and teachers at a school are threatened by fellow colleagues
or students, they may become demotivated, because a basic need for security has not been
met.
Social needs: As people start to feel secure and get potential threats under control, social
needs come into play. A person's need for love, friendship, acceptance and understanding by
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other people and groups are all social needs. In a school, staff members interact in the
different interest groups. These groups include the different standards, subjects, sports and
cultural groups. By forming formal work groups in a school, the principal and his/her team can
ensure that all the staff‟s social needs are met and the organisation of social functions will
strengthen social links further. Therefore, it is important that new staff members are socially
assimilated into a school and the principal could even appoint a suitable person to help new
members of staff to settle in.
Esteem needs: This level represents the higher-order needs. These include a person‟s need
for self-respect and the esteem of others, the need for success, self-confidence, recognition
and appreciation of one‟s achievements. It is on this level particularly that principals and other
education leaders can play a large role by allowing staff to take part in the decision-making
process, delegating tasks, responsibilities and authority, and expressing enough appreciation
and acknowledgement for each staff member.
Self-actualisation needs: The highest level of Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs is the need for
self-actualisation. This represents the highest pint of a person‟s needs. Self-actualisation is
the full achievement of a person‟s potential – to be his/her true unique self. Maslow describes
the self-actualisation need as follows: „A musician must produce music, an artist must paint, a
poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. What a man can be, he must be. This need
we may call self-actualisation‟.
The principal and the other education leaders can help to meet these needs by creating a
climate within the school in which self-actualisation is possible. For example, the principal can
set challenging but attainable goals for the staff, delegate responsibilities, authority and make
staff development a high priority in the school.
Table 2.2:
Illustration of a practical application of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to
the school
Need level

Self-
actualisation:
Application: Department/management
Challenging work
Opportunities for development
Opportunities for creativity
Opportunities for enrichment
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
Esteem:
Acknowledgement and appreciation
Participative management
Tasks, responsibilities and authority

Social:
Social interaction among staff (social gatherings)
Interest groups (departments, subjects, standards, activities)
Work groups (fete committees, etc.)

Security:
Safe working conditions
Job security
Benefits (medical aid, pension)
Clear policy documents

Physiological:
Reasonable salaries
Comfortable working environment
Warmth, light, space
2.9.1.2
Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation
In Herzberg‟s two-factor theory, motivation appears to arise from a separate cluster of
conditions, different from and distinct from those related to the sources of dissatisfaction. For
example, achievement, recognition, the challenge of work itself, responsibility, advancement
and promotion, and personal or professional growth appear to motivate people and are,
therefore, associated with job satisfaction. The theory further suggests that it is not possible
to motivate people at work through hygiene or maintenance factors. In other words reducing
class size and improving the fringe benefits and salaries of teachers will do two things: (1)
reduce or eliminate the dissatisfaction of teachers and (2) create conditions wherein they may
be motivated.
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Motivation factors
Achievement
Task
Growth
Responsibility
▪ Self-actualisation
▪ Achievement
▪ Recognition
▪ Ego
Higher-order needs
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
relations with peers
and supervisors
Status
▪ Social
▪ Job security
▪ Working conditions
▪ Safety
▪ Salary
▪ Physiology
Lower-order needs
Hygiene factors
▪ Supervision
▪ Interpersonal
Figure 2.5: Comparison between the theories of Maslow and Herzberg
(Gerber et al., 1998:267)
In comparing the motivational factors of Maslow and Herzberg, the lower needs of Maslow‟s
hierarchy of needs closely approximate the hygiene of maintenance needs as outlined by
Herzberg. For example, salary, working conditions, policy, administration and supervision are
generally physiological and safety-oriented needs. In contrast, the intrinsic motivational
factors of recognition, advancement, responsibility, growth, achievement and the work itself
tend to be closely related to the desire for esteem and self-realisation. Herzberg calls the
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process whereby motivators are included in the job situation, post-enrichment and he sets
certain guidelines for a successful post enrichment programme. This is to provide a
challenging and attractive work programme for the individual so that the task in itself is worth
doing. Post enrichment is the key to motivation. The work itself rather than the payment is the
key to job satisfaction and motivation (Kroon, 1990:362).
2.9.1.3
Post enrichment
Post-enrichment refers to the vertical expansion of a post. Vertical work loading takes place
when the planning and control of work, which was previously done by people on a higher
management level, is now done by the person who carries out the task. Herzberg identifies
post-enrichment as an important motivation technique, because it offers greater potential for
achievement and recognition by expanding the post which may result in greater job
satisfaction (Smit and Cronje, 1992:343). Post enrichment in its simplest form (Figure 2.6)
implies the addition of measurable goals, responsibilities, level of decision-making, control
and feedback.
Measurable Goals
Control and feedback
Decisions and responsibility
Performance of the job
Figure 2.6: Post-enrichment (Smith and Cronje, 1992:343)
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As far as teaching is concerned, post enrichment can be used very effectively in the school
situation in order to give capable and experienced staff job satisfaction by involving them in
worthwhile activities Harms and Knobloch (2005:101-124). Through idealized influence, the
leader arouses followers‟ strong conviction and identification with the leader (Printy, Marks
and Bowers, 2009:504-532). The inspiration motivational leader listens to followers
effectively, use two-way communication, demonstrate high performance expectations,
decision-making structures and relate to followers in a friendly manner (Van de Grift, et. al.,
2006:255-273). Moreover Khan, Ahmad, Ali and ur-Rehman (2011:2668-2678) study
explored that school management trainings lead to enhanced teacher motivation and
satisfaction.
The success of motivation rests on arousing followers‟ emotions, encouragement of new
ideas or perspectives to issues, coach, support followers and invoking good inter-personal
relationship with people at work and that can be achieved through proper communication.
The following paragraphs therefore discuss communication in relation to the leadership and
management of the school for the purpose of student achievement.
2.9.2 Communication
Communication is the act of exchanging information between people. Communication can
also be used to inform and command, instruct, assess, influence and persuade workers.
However, communication skills are required to give direction to subordinates, motivate them
to become excited about their jobs and to be able to understand and accept other peoples‟
view-point when necessary (Rue and Byars, 2007:39). Listening is a veritable means of
understanding other people and it results in the understanding, appraising and reaction to the
message (Prinsloo, 2003:166).
Communication is one of the most important functions of management. Without effective
communication it will not be possible to plan, communicate the school‟s vision, set aims and
objectives to teachers, parents and students. Communication is the main tool in the decisionmaking process and in solving problems. The success of the policy-making process is
dependent on effective two-way communication. Written communication in the form of the
departmental policy documents, the school policy, subject policies serves as important
guidelines for teachers. Oral and written communications are used to convey messages, to
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keep teachers, parents and students informed etc. It can be said that effective communication
is a prerequisite for management functions in the school. The following example shows the
link between few management functions and communication (University of Pretoria, 2010):
Communication could be oral or written depending on the medium of communication used
(written or oral/verbal) and feedback in communication is a feature of effective
communication. It is also worth mentioning that communication is a two-way process between
the sender and the receiver of the information (Rue and Byars, 2007:44). Written and oral
face-to-face communication is usually used in the school and can be much more effective if,
the leadership and management of the school empathize with the recipient, use language
that is easily understood to communicate, repeat the message to ensure understanding,
knowing the actual purpose of the communication, develop listening habits, choose the
correct medium and channel of communication, disseminate honest communication and
strive to abide by the principle of good management through effective leadership style and a
healthy inter-personal relationship (Prinsloo, 2003:172).
The communication from the organisations‟ higher echelons to the lower is known as
downward communication and it comprises orders and directives. Igzar (2008:535-548)
reports that there is a significant relationship between leadership and two-way downward
communication behaviour, but it was also reported that head-teachers who demonstrate
higher scores on downward communication behaviour, transmit the orders to their
subordinates without commenting and making any change. This situation enables them to
deal with organisational problems effectively. Contrary, educational administrators who use
this power excessively or insufficiently undermine the aim of communication.
Upward communication is the transmission of information from subordinates to superiors;
therefore, school principals who demonstrate higher levels of upward communication
behaviour can create a link with their superiors. There is also a significant relationship
between leadership and upward communication behaviour and the reflective approach,
monitoring approach, problem-solving confidence approach and the planned approach (Igzar,
2008:535-548). The table below illustrates the channels of communication and their brief
characteristics.
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Downward
Upward channels
Horizontal
Diagonal
channels from
from lower to higher
channels occur
channels between
higher to lower
levels. Used to
between the
members of the
levels. Used to
convey personal
school‟s
staff and support
convey policy and
information and
management
services: for
guidelines for
information on
team; subject and
example subject
teaching and for
students. Used
grade groups;
committees and the
coordinating school
mainly for feedback.
activity groups.
education aid
activities.
centres.
Information passes
from advisors to
staff.
Table 2.3: Formal channels of communication (adapted from Van Niekerk, 1987:225)
2.9.3 The establishment of sound human relationships in a school
The term, “human relations” is broad and refers to the interactions between people in all
manners to achieve some purpose. It also refers to knowledge about human behaviour and
the ability to work well with people (Rue and Byars, 2007:6). “Teacher attitudes stemming
from job satisfaction and organisational commitment are relates to characteristics like, their
career task performance, relationships with supervisors, co-workers and students. More so,
school characteristics have been shown to predict high-school principal satisfaction and role
conflict” (Creemers and Kyriakide, 2006:347-366).
High interaction may be used to increase trust and openness among team members. The
activities that may be used for comprise goal setting, development of interpersonal
relationships among team members, role analysis to clarify each member‟s role and
responsibilities and team process analysis (Bipath, 2008:84). Teachers who have worked in
the same building for a long time have established certain emotional compromises with their
colleagues and students and will feel risky to re-negotiate them because relationships involve
emotions. Some teachers and principals possess a good deal of insight and can accept
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constructive criticism, although, some barely know themselves and shatter when asked
innocuous questions about what they are doing (Abu-Tineh, et. al., 2008:648-660.)
Moye, Henkin and Egley (2005:260-277) findings reveal that “teachers who have never had
administrative responsibilities or were less involved in committee work in their schools
reported having higher interpersonal trust in their principals; Whereas teachers who find their
work personally meaningful, who have significant autonomy in their work, and who feel they
have a great deal of influence on what happens in their department indicated higher levels
interpersonal trust”.
Other guidelines for the establishment of interpersonal relationships by a principal, according
to Prinsloo (2003:199), are that; the school principal must always remember that people are
important and take an interest in them and not just the service they deliver, opinion, insights
and feelings of the staff must be taken into account; the school principal must believe in
staff‟s ability and contributions to job achievement; the needs of staff, particularly the younger
members of staff the must be taken into account; the principal should create opportunities for
staff members to fulfil their own needs, that is, to realize their own potential, staff should be
involved in long and short-term goals formulation in the school; staff exchange of ideas
should be enhanced to bring about heightened creativity, there must be openness between
principals and staff to encourage growth in healthier relationships, which may then flourish
and grow.
In summary, the school is a unique organisation in which specific activities take place. These
activities require technical skills such as prescribed policy, procedures, methods and
techniques in each of the managerial areas highlighted in the Prinsloo (2009) model.
Moreover, excellence in a school relates to the quality of its core activities, which is teaching
and learning. Thus, effective teaching and learning are not possible unless there is a healthy
internal management environment in which optimal teaching and learning may take place.
The internal management areas that may boost the workability of the leadership and
management efforts of the school principal in ensuring school effectiveness are discussed
below.
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2.10 Internal management dimensions contributing to the creation of
a healthy school environment
The internal management environment usually has a direct and immediate influence on the
management of the school and it includes important variables such as organisational climate,
organisational culture, change, and conflict in a school. The spirit of the school, the social
environment in which effective education will take place dependent on the way in which the
principal and the senior management team of the school utilize and develop the available
resources of the school and the way in which they execute the management functions of the
school (Nieuwenhuis, 2007a). By implication, the leadership style of the principal may also
influence the school climate and culture of the school and the resistance and acceptance of
change and how conflict is effectively managed in the school. Strong leadership and
particularly human skills are also required to create a positive school climate conducive to
quality education.
2.10.1 School climate and culture
The early use of school climate in recent past denotes the “ethos or spirit, of an organisation.
More recently, school climate is thought to represent the attitude of a school and the collective mood, or morale, of a group of people. It seems that a happy teacher is considered a
better teacher and this attitude influences the quality of instruction, therefore, if happy
teachers truly perform better, then leaders must create school conditions in which happiness
thrives” (Gruenert, 2008:57). Hence, Price (2011:1-47) found that principals‟ relationships
with their teachers affect both principals and teachers‟ fulfilment, cohesion and commitment
levels which sequentially affects school climate.
According to Owen (2001:140), school climate is generally defined as ”the characteristics of
the total environment in a school building, or the total environment in an organisation, that is,
the organisational climate” which is comprises of four dimensions as follow.
Ecology: Ecology refers to the physical and material factors in a school organisation, for
example, the size, age, design, facilities and conditions of the buildings. It also refers to the
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technology used by people in the organisation, for instance, desks, chairs, chalkboards
elevators and every other thing used to carry out the school activities.
Milieu: Milieu involves the social dimensions in the organisation. This includes virtually
everything relating to the people in a school organisation. For example how many people are
there, who they are and what they look like. This would include race, and ethnicity, salary
level of teachers, socio-economic level of students, education levels attained by the teachers,
the morale and motivation of adults and students who attend the school, the level of job
satisfaction and a host of other characteristics of the people in the school organisation.
Organisation: Social system (organisation) refers to the organisational and administrative
structure of the organisation: It includes how the school is organized, the ways in which
decisions are made and who is involved in making them, the communication patterns among
people (who talks to whom about what), what work groups there are, etc.
Culture: Culture refers to the values and belief systems, norms and ways of thinking that are
characteristics of the people in the organisation. Culture is commonly referred to “the way we
do things around here”. This aspect of the organisation‟s total environment is described more
fully in later paragraphs (Owens, 2001:140-142). Figure 2.7below is an illustration of school
organisational climate. It also shows the relationship between school climate and culture.
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ORGANISATION
ECOLOGY
(Structure)
Communication patterns
Decision-making patters
Hierarchy
Formal structure
Bureaucratisation
Building and
facilities
Technology
Pedagogical
inventions
Climate
MILIEU
CULTURE
(Race, ethnicity, gender,
Motivation, Leadership
skills, Socio-economic
levels
Status
Assumptions
Values
Norms/beliefs
Ways of thinking
Behaviour patterns
Artefacts
Figure 2.7: Illustration of school organisational climate
Understanding the differences and similarities between culture and climate may give us a
more accurate means through which schools might be improved (Gruenert, 2008:56-59).
“These unwritten expectations build up over time as teachers, administrators, parents, and
students work together, solve problems, deal with challenges and at times cope with failures.
For example, good teaching techniques, staff willingness and adaptation to change,
importance attached to staff development, schools rituals and ceremonies, e.g. communal
events to celebrate success, provide closure during collective transitions and to recognize
people‟s contributions to the school. School cultures also include symbols and stories that
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communicate core values, reinforce the mission and build a shared sense of commitment”
(Peterson, 2002, www.learningforward.org/news/getDocument.cfm?articleID=430).
School culture and climate are related. That is, school culture is a body of solutions to the
external and internal problems that have worked consistently for a group and taught to new
members as the correct way to perceive, think about and feel in relations to those problems,
whereas school climate reflects those cultures. Learning in a school is significantly influenced
by the quality and characteristics of the school climate (Ownes, 2001:145).
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Values
and
beliefs
Behaviour
Traditions
and
rituals
CULTURE
OF THE
SCHOOL
Heroes
and
heroines
History
Stories
and
myths
Figure 2.8: Illustration of the school organisational culture
In terms of a positive school culture, Toremen, Ekinci and Karakus (2006:490-499) explain
that “an empathic manager makes teachers feel supported and cared about, influences and
renders their unbearable feelings more bearable, makes them feel valued, understood,
satisfies their needs and creates a moral climate in school. An empathic manager, who is
concerned about teachers‟ physical and emotional needs, tends to conduct more ethically to
build a moral climate in the school. For schools in which the human factor is the most
important indicator of effectiveness, it can be said that managers‟ empathic skills are closely
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related to success”. Furthermore, Toremen, et. al. (2006:490-499) found that “successful
schools‟ managers clearly had better empathic skills and unsuccessful school managers had
few empathic skills”. Also, Khan, Ahmad, Ali and ur-Rehman (2011:2668-2678) found that
school principals are not solely responsible for the outstanding educational outcomes
observed in the school, but their leadership has been found an unavoidable factor in
producing the environment (climate) where these outcomes occur.
Furthermore Rhodes, Camic, Milburn and Lowe (2009:25-35) suggest that teacher
participation and encouraged critical analysis can foster a sense of ownership among the
various constituents and long-term engagement and investment from key stakeholders which
is crucial to successful implementation. Such processes can also result in a more productive
teacher–principal relationship climate. Macneil, Prater and Busch (2009:73-84) warned that if
the climate and culture of a school is not hospitable to learning, then student achievement
may suffer. Kruger, et. al. (2007:1-20) indicate that teachers perceive the school climate and
culture more favourably as the quality of the school organisation is higher- stressing the
importance of a well-organized school. Moreover, teachers‟ perceptions of the quality of their
school climate and culture are affected by characteristics of the student and teacher
population. That is, if the student-teacher population is commensurate in terms of ratio, there
is likelihood that the teaching culture of the school is positive, but if not, the reverse will be the
case.
Macneil, et. al. (2009:73-84) provide evidence that school culture and climate were among
the top influences affecting improved student achievement, asserting that state and local
policies, school organisation and student demographics exert the least influence on student
learning. Accordingly, unhealthy schools lack an effective leader and the teachers are
generally unhappy with their job and colleagues. On the other hand, healthy schools that
promote high academic standards and appropriate leadership and collegiality provide a
climate more conducive to student success and achievement.
They elucidate an argument that compatibility through tests has become a threat. School
principals need to work on long-term cultural goals in order to strengthen the learning
environment. They further assert that is important to realize that culture is complex, because
it has very unique and idiosyncratic way of working. Therefore, Macneil, et. al. (2009:73-84)
confirm that school principals who choose to lead rather than just manage must first
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understand the school culture. They further state: “When an organisation has a clear
understanding of its purpose, why it exists and what it must do and how it should serve the
culture, it will ensure that things work well. When the complex patterns of beliefs, values,
attitudes, expectation, ideas and behaviour in organisation are in appropriate or incongruent,
the culture will ensure that things work badly. Successful school principals comprehend the
critical role that the organisational culture plays in developing a successful school”.
“Some schools have a generally „positive‟ culture that is focused on student achievement and
success but too weak to motivate students and teachers. For example, school leaders might
talk about values and beliefs, but no follow-up actions, traditions, ceremonies, or rituals
reinforce those messages. Similarly, a teacher might be told that improving professional
practice is a value, but find that the school budget provides few resources for professional
development, or be asked to embrace a more collegial culture only to find that no time is
designated for teachers to meet and plan together” (Jerald, 2006:2-7). The school climate
could aid the introduction and management of change or otherwise. Hence change is
discussed in the next paragraphs.
2.10.2 Management of change
Change is an inevitable part of life and it represents a struggle between what exists and what
is desired. Changes result in a reflection of behaviour of staff members towards educational
innovations, the level to which they adapt to extent to changes and have an open attitude
towards educational improvements (Tondeur, Devos, Houtte, Braak and Valcke 2009:223235 and Van der Merwe, 2003:37). In addition, Bridges (2003:3) defines change as a way of
doing things to make a difference. It is a shift in the externals of any situation, for example,
setting up a new curriculum program, restructuring of the departmental functioning, moving
the school to a new location or changing its name, and so on. Moreover, change is made up
visible and tangible events; they can happen quickly and concerns the outcome to be
achieved.
Van der Merwe (2003:38) categorises the forces of school change into environmental forces
and internal forces. The environmental forces comprise economic factors, e.g. a
decentralized educational system which may lead to schools making decisions to run and
manage themselves. Thus resulting in school fee increase, technology forces, e.g. the
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introduction of computers to enable teachers to function adequately by learning how to use
and manipulate the computer to aid teaching and learning. Social and political forces, e.g. the
introduction of a new policy in the education sector by the government and an alarming
increase in school violence may lead to the introduction of legislation and processes to curb
school indiscipline. On the other hand, the internal forces of change within the school
organisation may be due to breakdown in communication and decision-making and
behavioural levels leading to low level of morale and absenteeism among school staff and
students.
Nevertheless, Hughes and Norris (2003) maintain that leadership is “characterized by change
and constant improvement. A leader persistently analyses the standard to ensure that the
organisation is accomplishing its goals; otherwise the leader initiates change to improve the
standard”. Fullan (2001) claims that leadership‟s focus is on co-operation between the actors
in the organisation, the cultural context of their actions, the dialogue they develop, and how
they choose to negotiate and act when confronted with the various dilemmas of daily practice.
A pedagogical leader is thus a person who initiates and promotes processes of change in the
organisation, and works for the development of the individual, group and „whole‟ school level.
Leadership is therefore perceived as a process in which both the formal leaders and the
people being led are participating.
Swanepoel (2008:461-474) reports that the findings of the consortium for Cross-cultural
Research in Education indicates that, the more teachers participated in responsible and
initiating roles in school change, the more positive they felt about the change, and the more
willing they were to seriously engage in future change. Furthermore, the investigation
revealed that the most positive consequences of work life change for teachers and for their
school's improvement occurred if they were involved at the highest level of change activity
(initiating, planning, and shared decision-making). However, Brown and Anafara Jr. (2003:1634) confirm that substantial change requires time and continuity to be more self-aware
through reflection, processing and debriefing.
In addition, Van der Westhuizen (2003:41) outlined common reasons that give rise to
resistance to change. They are:
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Loss of familiarity: As soon as any deviation from a familiar situation or existing practices
occurs, resistance to change occurs as a result of feelings of insecurity of staff.
Loss of personal choice and values: This results when there is a change of environment by
teachers, leading to loss of self-confidence, trust, security and practices as a result of
unfamiliarity of staff with the new environment.
Possible loss of authority: Change can affect an individual‟s existing position of authority,
thus the unwillingness to surrender the status-quo (status or prestige) of a staff or teachers
results in fear, leading to résistance to change.
Not understanding the reason for the change: Insufficient information and lack of
persuasion as to why the change is necessary results in the resistance to change.
Lack of skills and motivation: Lack of necessary skills to discharge the introduced change
lead to the refusal of teachers to accept change.
In addition, according to Fullan (2009:9-20) the following drivers are keys to effective and
lasting change in the school: “Engaging people‟s moral purposes, building capacity,
understanding the change process, developing cultures for learning and developing cultures
of evaluation. The management of change can be effective if the education leader convinces
the teacher of the need for change, exposes the process and strategies of the intended
change and exhibiting the best leadership morals to enable the teachers accept intended
change which reflects its management capability”.
School conflict is discussed in the following paragraph.
2.10.3 Managing conflict
Conflict may arise from change and therefore is inevitable. This is because conflict is part and
parcel of school organisations and a total lack of conflict in schools would be unbelievable,
boring, and a strong indication that conflicts are being suppressed. Therefore, conflict may
occur in the form of interpersonal conflicts among staff authorities as well as the students.
Also, “characteristics of conflict include decreased productivity, frustration, decreased morale,
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alienation of individuals, unaddressed problems, confusion and a climate of mistrust” (Okotoni
and Okotoni, 2003:23-38).
Van der Merwe (2003:26) defines conflict as a situation that arises out of incompatibility of
aims and of opposing behaviour or disagreement among parties, but it is an inevitable feature
of organisational life (like the school). It can also be defined as a situation of confrontation
provoked by contrary interests in relation to the same issue or the belief that the aims of the
different parts (where the conflict is interpersonal) may not be achieved simultaneously
(García and Martínez, 2001:15). Thus, Sackney and Walker (2006:341-358) found that
school principals need skills in group process facilitation, communication, conflict
compromise, investigation and data management in order to deal with conflict.
The categories in which conflict may fall are:
Conflict between individuals: Such conflict involves colleagues, employees and their
managers. For example, a clash of personalities, strong differences of opinion over work, an
'overspill' from personal issues outside work or when for example, a principal‟s management
style is too authoritarian or too weak, or when he usually favours other work colleagues when
you assign tasks.
Conflict between groups: Such conflicts involve teams or large group of employees and
management. For example, rivalry between colleagues, disagreements over a team's goals
or shared values, resentment that one team is not pulling their weight in a collective work
(www.bollettinoadapt.unimoreit/.../07_17_41CONFLITTI_DI).
Just as conflict is part of everyday organisational life, other different sources of conflict that
may occur between employees in the school could arise from mutual dependence of
academic departments, unequal dependence of the academic department on each other, role
dissatisfaction in terms of recognition by the school, ambiguities of roles, dependence on
common resources and dependence and competition, e.g. promotion, job assignment, etc.
Some of the ways of resolving conflict between and among school staff is by compromise,
pretending conflict does not exist, forcing and imposition of a solution and confrontation for
prompt solution of grievances, etc. (Rue and Byars, 2004:262-264).
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Thus, the “absence of conflict usually signals the absence of meaningful communication.
Conflict by itself is neither good nor bad. However, the manner in which conflict is handled
indicates whether it is constructive or destructive" (Ramani and Zhimin, 2010:242-256).
Therefore ability to deal effectively with conflict is a key aspect of managerial success as no
teacher can permanently escape conflict in the school environment, hence the need to
understand.
Conflicts can thus be managed through the following ways, according to Van der Merwe
(2003:33-34):
Peaceful coexistence: This could be achieved by avoiding conflict outright or better still, by
playing down the differences among workers and emphasizing their common interest and
similarities, but the following must be considered when the peaceful co-existence is being
utilized. They are: do not criticize, threaten, admonish, humiliate, belittle and act over-hastily.
Rather, be friendly, polite and sympathetic, listen attentively with understanding and appeal to
the other party‟s noble motives.
Compromise: Compromise is a “give–and-take exchange”, resulting in either party winning
or losing. The characteristic of the approach is that there is no “right” or “best” answer.
Compromise is achieved by means of one group yielding a point and gaining something in
exchange from the other party. Since no force or manipulation takes place within this
process, both parties accept the solution they are committed to, and this leads to less hostility
and tolerance in both parties.
Problem-solving: Problem-solving is a process of resolving school conflict and it is mainly
concerned about face-to-face confrontation of the parties. The outcome of this approach is to
have the persons present their views and opinions to each other and work out their difference
in attitudes and perceptions.
It is clear from the above discussion that the education leader (principal) plays a major role in
creating an internal school environment conducive to quality teaching and learning. On the
one hand, there should be a strong focus on the establishment of a sound internal
management climate in schools, because it nurtures and advances human relationships and
teacher development. On the other hand, certain managerial functions must be maintained to
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ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of schools in order to increase their public
accountability. It is therefore important for the education leader to strike a balance between
school tasks and the interest of the staff in order to minimize conflict.
Therefore leadership style of the principal, decision making, communication and motivation
patterns in a school will play a role in creating a sound and open internal school environment.
In schools where teachers and other staff members have a voice in decisions that affect them
and where their views and opinions are taken into account, particularly regarding instruction
will indicate to the teachers that they are respected and valued. This approach will not only
encourage two-way communication and the motivation of the staff, but will contribute to a
favourable school climate.
The next paragraphs discuss the management areas in the school. They embrace the
essential elements leadership and processes of management. The management areas are
discussed below.
2.11 Managerial areas
The school is a unique organisation in which specific activities of teaching and learning take
place. Therefore, it also requires the carrying out of some managerial activities in the school.
These activities require the six management areas in the school (Prinsloo, 2003:138). In the
next sections, they will be discussed in relation to how they may contribute to school
effectiveness.
2.11.1 The management of administrative affairs
Opportunity to learn is also related to student engagement and time on task (Kyriakids and
Demetrious (2006). 535-560). Overemphasis on evaluation might reduce the actual time
spent on teaching and learning. However, it is important to find out just how efficiently and
effectively each school is using its time (time audit). Therefore, sufficient time for teachers
and students to do their work well is recommended by as a recipe for the support of a school
culture of hard work and high achievement of students (Brown, 2004:112). Effective
administrative management includes, among others:
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School time-table: The instructional programme of the school should be organized
according to a practical school time-table for both curricular and extracurricular activities. By
allocating the correct time and periods, introducing fixed test periods and avoiding
unnecessary infringement on lesson periods, the efficient use of teaching time can be
ensured.
Providing resources: Resources in the school should be used equitably and judiciously.
Apart from resources provided by the department, the school should also use its own budget
to supplement these resources. Here the principal plays a key role to ensure that there is an
effective provisioning system to adequately support the teaching programme.
Implementing an effective administrative system: Administration is a support function and
should promote effectiveness: There should be clear policy directives that spell out what is
expected from staff, students and parents. Good record-keeping and filing systems are
essential for an efficient administrative system (Nieuwenhuis, 2007a:139).
Opportunity to learn is also related to student engagement and time on task (Kyriakids and
Demetrious: (2006:535-560). Overemphasis on evaluation might reduce the actual time spent
on teaching and learning. However, the necessity of knowing how a school is spending its
tome must be upheld so that it can be known whether time is being efficiently and effectively
used in the school (Brown, 2004:112).
2.11.2 The management of physical facilities
The management of physical facilities in the school can play an important role in building an
effective school. The architecture of the building and the way in which the buildings, the
grounds and other school assets are maintained also reflect the values that the school
upholds and the climate of the school. “One unexamined link between school facilities and
student achievement may be the climate of a school. School climate may be a mediating
variable, explaining at least in part, the deleterious impact that poor school facilities have on
learning. Moreover, dilapidated, crowded, or uncomfortable school buildings may lead to low
morale and reduced effort on the part of teachers and students alike, leading to reduced
community engagement with a school and even to less positive forms of school leadership”
(Perry and McWilliam, 2007:32-43).
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Findings indicate that quality facilities were significantly positively related to all of the school
climate variables, but quality facilities was surprisingly found to be uncorrelated to students‟
Social Economic Status (SES). As in earlier research, the qualities of facilities were found to
be related to student achievement (Bezzina and Duignan, 2006:1-11). Also, students‟
achievement synthesizes with “building quality, newer buildings, improved lighting and
thermal comfort and indoor air quality, as well as specific building features such as science
laboratories, libraries, quality of a school‟s physical environment and student achievement”,
since the physical state of a school was a predictor of student achievement (Buckley,
Schneider and Shang, 2004).
Further studies have also found that that building design criteria and conditions related to
human comfort, indoor air quality, lighting, acoustical control and secondary science
laboratories have a demonstrable impact on student achievement (Earthman, 2004; Higgins,
Hall, Wall, Woolner, and McCaughey, 2005). Temperature, heating and air quality were the
most important individual elements affecting student achievement (Earthman, 2004).
Overcrowding has been found to have a deleterious effect on student learning; moreover,
chronic noise exposure hinders cognitive functioning and impairs pre-reading and reading
skills. Quality of school buildings has also been related to student behaviour resulting in
vandalism, absenteeism, suspensions, disciplinary incidents, violence and smoking.
2.11.3 The management of human resources
Schools‟ improvement through human resources development is a life-long process as
teachers enter into new phases of their teaching career through promotion and maturity. In a
certain sense they are the most valuable resource of the school and should be nurtured and
developed. Principals should facilitate the process of appointing staff with the potential to add
value to the quality of education offered at the school and develop the potential of every
teacher (Nieuwenhuis and Potvin, 2005). The principal can make use of an instructional
leadership team to assist him with teacher development. Deputy Principals, Heads of
Departments (HODs) and experienced teachers can contribute to the improvement of
teaching and the development of abilities of the staff (Nieuwenhuis, 2007a:138-139).
The findings of James and Hopkins (2003:50-64) indicate that the leadership authority of
educational middle managers is dynamic in that, it is continually under construction, subject
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to unpredictable influences and responses and therefore, in a sense, at risk and as such,
subject leaders and/HODs need to focus on the management of the departmental boundary
not simply because it is part of their role, but because of its potential to significantly enhance
their leadership authority. They also identified three factors relating to aspects of leadership
activities and behaviours of HODs, namely; „reflective visioning‟, „facilitative enabling‟ and
„formal structuring‟.
However, Kerry (2005:65-80) provides evidence that robust leadership by HODs seems to
have been sacrificed in a quest for a more democratic and open school ethos through
flattening the organisational structures. The way in which the principal and the other members
of the Senior Management Team of the school act as instructional leaders will have a major
influence on school effectiveness and student achievement. (see Instructional Leadership,
2.6.9).
2.11.4 The management of curriculum and student activities
Emphasizing the sharing of visions among principal, teachers and administrative staff have
been identified as an important aspect of learning schools, which may enhance collective
actions, for instance, the degree of centralization, role and power of principals, leadership
styles, staff/principal, teacher/students relationships and purposes of curriculum (Alavi and
McCormik, 2004:408-416) impacts on school instructional activities. The principal as an
instructional leader must also ensure that the management components of the curriculum are
well-balanced in the school and that each aspect receives due attention.
The principal must also ensure that the activities listed below are performed and that
appropriate resources needed in the teaching-learning situation are available to the entire
school so that they can be realized, that is, to achieve a successful school, a good leader
(Nieuwenhuis and Potvin, 2005) should provide appropriate help and support to teachers and
students to ensure effective classroom management, ensure effective classroom planning,
support teachers to deal effectively with diversity in the classroom, implement continuous
assessment of students‟ progress and sustained development of teachers; more so, that
educational institution‟s instructional programme consists of curricular and extracurricular
activities. The curriculum as part of the instructional programme could be divided into an
academic programme which involves the academic activities of the school and which
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comprise the various study directions such as, subject packages, learning areas and
guidance programme which include guardianship, vocational guidance and physical activities.
Southworth (2005:101) enumerates that the following should be the focus and attention of
leaders in providing equitable learning: Making learning central to their work, consistent
communicating the centrality of students learning, drawing public attention to the focus on
powerful, equitable learning, and paying public attention to efforts to support learning.
Therefore, in achieving the goal of the curriculum, financial management is an essential
component to enable schools to meet their educational aims and targets. Therefore, sufficient
school finance and the effective management thereof will play a major role in building an
effective school (Kruger, 2003:236-243). Bisschoff (1997) suggests that the financial planning
of the school should reflect the vision and mission of the school and a whole school
development approach should be followed to draft a budget, which means everyone who is
involved in implementing the budget should also be involved in drawing it up (Kruger, 2003:
236-243).
Van de Grift, et. al. (2006:255-273) reports that “management, in terms of supporting and
stimulating teachers and appropriate use of the school budget, was much better in outperforming schools than in average schools. However, principals performed these tasks less
well in under-achieving schools, than in average schools. The same was true for school
boards. Situational factors seemed to be more of a disadvantage for under-achieving schools,
but were of advantage for performing schools, because under-performing schools were less
geared up to improving educational quality”.
2.11.5 The management of school finance
Financial management is an essential component to enable schools to meet their educational
aims and targets. Therefore, sufficient school finance and the effective management thereof
will play a major role in building an effective school (Kruger, 2003:236-243). Bisschoff (1997)
also suggests that the financial planning of the school should reflect the vision and mission of
the school and a whole school development approach should be followed to draft a budget,
which means everyone who is involved in implementing the budget should also be involved in
drawing it up (Kruger, 2003: 236-243).
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Van de Grift, et. al. (2006:255-273) reports that management, in terms of supporting and
stimulating teachers and appropriate use of the school budget, was much better in outperforming schools than in average schools. However, principals performed these tasks less
well in under-achieving schools, than in average schools. The same was true for school
boards. Situational factors seemed to be more of a disadvantage for under-achieving schools,
but were of advantage for performing schools, because under-performing schools were less
geared up to improving educational quality.
2.11.6 The management of school-community relationships
The school community links are of a mutually beneficial relationship in which the principal
should play a leading role. The community can support the learning climate of the school in
many ways (e.g. providing direction for the mission of the school, recruiting volunteers to help
at school functions, assisting as class presenters or as mentors, and in creating a sense of
stability in the community). Their on-going support and involvement are important for teacher
development and school improvement. School principal and teachers have to win the trust
and respect of the parent-community. Parents must feel they are valued and accepted as
equal partners of the school, as schools are dependent on the support and goodwill of their
parent-community and the creation of positive relationships with parents (Nieuwenhuis and
Potvin, 2005).
Cranston (2001:1-24) research in two schools found that principals need to demonstrate
particular skills, capacities and attitudes with regard to community involvement. However,
findings further indicate that for the two schools regarding community involvement in
decision-making, the two schools moved into different operational contexts where teachers
and parents have significantly enhanced roles in decision-making compared with earlier times
because of the application of „School-Based Management‟ (SBM). In planning the curriculum
to be offered, the school principal and the management team should also take the community
needs into consideration (Nieuwenhuis, 2007a:137).
Conclusively, the discussed elements of school management above point to the fact that the
internal school environment technically bases its concern more on the management of human
resources development - particularly teachers, the curriculum, leadership and classroom
management, optimal and positive support from administrative staff, availability of funds to
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procure necessary teaching tools, equipment, materials, adequacy of school physical facilities
and their prompt maintenance and school/community relationship management. Thus it
implies that the school SLMT should be prepared to achieve the goal of well-balanced
students‟ activities, with a guarantee to monitor and guide student instructional programme,
which ultimately results in to school effectiveness.
By implication, it is clear that effective schools prioritize a rigorous instructional program that
provides all students with equitable opportunities to learn and enable them to master
challenging contents, skills, learning strategies, continuous engagement of the school
community and as a result, meeting student needs and addressing achievement gaps (New
Vision for Public Schools, 2006). The external management area leading to school
effectiveness, though not dealt with in this study, is briefly described below.
2.12 Management of the external school environment
The external management environment of a school contains all external factors that may
have a direct effect on school effectiveness and thus student achievements. They are
namely: the political legislative (support from the Ministry of Education), socio-economic
environment, technological change, values and culture of the parent-community of the school
and they must be taken into account by school management (Nieuwenhuis, 2007a:221).
School leadership and management are also greatly influenced by the earlier mentioned
factors, stemming from the external environment (see Figure 2.1), but these aspects of
school management leading to school effectiveness are not discussed in this study, because
this study deals specifically with the internal leadership and management practices of the
school, which may influence school effectiveness.
2.13 Conclusion
It is clear from the literature that leadership and management are some of the most important
dynamics contributing to school effectiveness. The different leadership models emphasize the
complexity of the task of principal and other education leaders in a school. All the
aforementioned leadership models in this chapter have a function in a school in contributing
to quality teaching and learning. Leaders must therefore have a set of values which provide a
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basis of self-awareness. The second category of the model is “moral confidence”, the
capacity to act in a way that is consistent with an ethical manner in a school system
over
time.
The role of the transformational leader focuses on building a school vision; establishing
realistic attainable school aims and objectives, offering individualized support to teachers,
modeling best teaching practices and important values, demonstrating high performance
expectations, developing structures to foster participation in the school decisions and creating
a positive school climate and culture. The instructional leader should be strongly concerned
with teaching and learning, including the professional development of the teaching staff as
well as the students‟ growth and development. The focus of educational leadership is thus on
effective teaching and quality education.
Moreover, sometimes it will be necessary for the education leader to put on his or her formal
management model and managerial hat and to be able to enforce the performance of the
formal activities of a school when the situation demands. Therefore, the importance of
management as a dynamic of school effectiveness is also emphasized. In other words, the
same person must have the adaptability to encourage participative management, establish
and maintain sound relationships with staff, parents and students and to motivate all
concerned to assist in realizing the vision, aims and objectives of the school. Education
leaders could according to the situation apply elements of the management and leadership
models in practice. The school must be transformed based on an effective learning
community.
The two basic responsibilities of any educational manager are emphasized in the chapter
namely: the achievement of predetermined aims and objectives by means of effective
planning, the setting of aims and objectives, the implementation of policy, decision making,
delegating, coordinating and control. The first responsibility therefore focuses on task
execution. An education leader should ensure that subordinates define tasks in accordance
with predetermined standards. He or she should also see to it that the predetermined
objectives are achieving according to a set time schedule. With this objective in view,
education leaders should use the conceptual management skills that have been discussed, to
execute specific activities and prescribed procedures in the six management areas. The
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effective execution of tasks in a school should always be focused on quality educational
management to ensure school effectiveness.
The second responsibility focuses on the creation and maintenance of harmonious
relationships with staff, students and parents by means of effective leadership through
motivation, communication skills necessary to form effective groups and to establish a sound
relationship with staff, students and parents by means of effective leadership, motivation,
communication skills necessary to form effective groups and to establish sound relationships
in a school. The successful completion of a task is dependent on the leader‟s ability to direct
the actions of the teachers and students so that they willingly achieve the set objectives of the
school. The leader has the responsibility of reinforcing sound interpersonal relations in the
school, built on mutual respect and trust. This is because leadership is characterized by
adaptability and flexibility. Hence, a good leader is therefore a person who can maintain good
human relations, but who is also able to enforce the performance of the formal activities of a
school when the situation demands.
As stated earlier, excellence in a school relates to its core activities which are, teaching and
learning. Effective teaching and learning are not possible unless there is a healthy internal
school environment in which optimal teaching and learning can take place. Knowledge of
conceptual, human and technical management skills is required to create a positive
organisational climate and culture in schools to manage conflict in school and to encourage
effective change. The values and culture of the parent-community should also be taken into
account in the management of the internal environment of the school.
The effective management of the managerial areas in a school is also emphasized, implying
that that all actions and activities centre on the resources of the school. These include
administrative staff and technology to ensure effective school administration, human
resources with the emphasis on the teaching staff, physical resources (buildings, furniture,
textbooks, exercise books, educational aids, etc.); school finance (money) and the
management of the curriculum and extra-curriculum activities. The available resources must
be utilized, maintained and developed to support effective and quality teaching and learning.
Lastly, the influence of the external school environment was briefly discussed. It includes the
political influence (legislation applicable to education), socio-economic environment,
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technological change; values and culture of the parent-community of the school. These
variables must also be taken into account of by school management.
This Chapter 2 literature review will bring about possible derivation of school effectiveness
criteria from the different dimensions (sub-themes) of leadership and management. These
sub-themes or indicators produced the criteria that were used to measure leadership and
management actions of education leaders in the school. This featured in Chapter 5 and 6.
Nevertheless, the conceptual framework of Scheerens (1990) and Prinsloo‟s (2009) model
have some differences and some features in common. Though they are used to shape the
research perspectives of this study and they both possess the basic system variables of a
school with input processes and context of the school in terms of leadership, management
climate and culture and parental input, school facilities, resources etc. (see Fig. 1.1 and 2.1).
The conceptual framework and model are also both multi-layered and multi-leveled with
respect to how series of variables in a level are independent and inter-dependent on other
variables at other levels, to produce an effective school system.
It is clear from the literature review that the major difference in the Prinsloo (2009) model and
the Scheerens (1990) conceptual framework is that Prinsloo‟s model elaborates on how
different leadership and management indicators can combine to produce an effective leader
and manager in attaining an effective school; whereas Scheerens‟s (1990) conceptual
framework is seen as indicating clearly, classroom management indicators that may
contribute to school effectiveness, which Prinsloo‟s model does not possess in elaborate
terms. These indicators are teacher experience, time spent on task (including homework);
structure of teaching, opportunity to learn, high expectation of pupils‟ progress, degree of
evaluation and a number of other classroom leadership and management-related factors,
which may determine a teacher‟s management ability, hence the essence of Chapter 3 of this
study.
School leadership and management processes and functions transform into classroom
management, resulting in the attainment of the core goal and mission of the school - effective
student learning. Hence Rowe (2004:13) cites key findings from the initial stages of the
Victorian Quality Schools Project (VQSP) which articulates that:
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“…on the basis of our findings to date, it could be argued that effective schools are
only effective to the extent that they have effective teachers” (p. 15).
The citation above is necessary because teachers serve as leaders and managers during
teaching and learning in the classroom. Furthermore, Rowe (2004:10) quotes Muijs and
Raynolds (2001: p. vii) in a British research as follows:
“All the evidence that has been generated in the school effectiveness research
community shows that classrooms are far more important than schools in determining
how children perform at school”.
The consistency of the above quotations implies that attainment of effective student learning
is possible if classroom leadership and management are given the necessary attention.
Therefore, Chapter 3 emphasizes the dynamics of classroom leadership and management
and how it contributes to school effectiveness.
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CHAPTER THREE
Literature review on the dynamics of classroom leadership and
management contributing to school effectiveness
3.1
Introduction
This literature review chapter enumerates how classroom leadership and management may
contribute to school effectiveness. The role of the leader is an essential complement to that of
a teacher. Ertesvag (2009:515-539) emphasizes that “classroom leadership is one of the
greatest challenges teachers face, because it includes supporting pupils and also overseeing
activities within and outside the classroom such as learning, social interaction and pupil
behaviour and it is defined as a sustained and orderly environment so pupils can engage in a
meaningful academic learning and enhanced social and moral growth. To serve these two
purposes, teachers have to carry out a number of specific tasks. They must develop a caring,
supporting relationship with pupils, organize and implement instructions in ways that optimize
pupils‟ access to learning”.
Classroom management on the other hand is a veritable means of achieving school
effectiveness based on successful leadership and management. Therefore, it is also
assumed to be the heart of school teaching and the possession of its crafts, assist the
professional development of school teachers at any level of education - be it primary,
secondary, or tertiary. Muijs and Harris (2007:111-134) conceptualize that classroom
management “mainly influences the quality of teaching and levels of student motivation and
achievement. It has also been demonstrated that the quality of leadership and management
matters in determining the motivation of teachers and the quality of teaching in the
classroom”.
Classroom management is “conceived as a crucial component of the successful teachinglearning process as well as a means to establish an effective learning environment for
students with respect to the attainment of curricular goals. It also includes a large variety of
events and tasks that take place simultaneously with other events, making it necessary for
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teachers to interact rapidly with large numbers of students, because effective classroom
management can look very different in different classrooms and schools” (Oplatka and Atias,
2007:41-59).
Classroom management skills are also integral part of a teacher‟s skills repertoire. The study
of effective teaching and instruction has focused on classroom management and structured
didactic approaches. “Research shows that any successful change that is to take place at the
school level is directly related to the skills and ability of the teachers and that the classroom
climate they establish for themselves and their students greatly affects the learning
process” (Norris, 2003:313-318). Buckridge and Guest (2007:133-146) also refer to teacher
effectiveness as the achievement of quality learning outcomes, on a particular scale for a
given time in teaching.
Heck (2007:399-432) found that “the focus on the quality of teaching staff stems from the
view that initial preparation, content knowledge and licensing standards are relevant
professional criteria that have received considerable attention as a policy lever to enhance
learning outcomes and mediate inequities in students‟ opportunities to learn”. Good
classroom management is also founded on both the perceptual tradition, along with the selfconcept theory and acknowledges the power of human perception and its impact on selfdevelopment (Schmidt, 2004:27; Steyn, 2007:265-281). Effective class management also
requires taking into account the students as individuals, their emotional experiences and the
different backgrounds they come from to allow everyone to develop to their full potential
(Nieuwenhuis, 2007:127).
The above can be summarized that, student achievement may be secured through the
establishment of an encouraging learning climate and teacher quality, which ultimately
transforms into academic expectations of students. The essence of classroom management
will be discussed in the next paragraph.
3.2
The essence of classroom management
Accordingly, “the teaching process should take into account individual differences on the one
hand, and learning should actively engage the student and be relevant to their personal
interests, experiences and needs. Moreover, the learning process must occur in an
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environment that contains interpersonal relationships in which students feel appreciated,
acknowledged, respected and validated. When students are involved, when they believe that
teachers have a personal interest in them, when learning is connected to the real world and
their personal interests, students may not only become effective students, but their skills may
be socially enhanced. They may also develop a deeper respect for their classmates and
teachers as they realize how much they can learn from one-another” (Shechtman and
Leichtentritt, 2004:323-333).
In furtherance of the essence of proper classroom management, Kruger and Van Schalkwyk
(1997:6) argue that effective and successful learning can only take place when the following
components of classroom management are present: A teaching and learning environment is
created in which students are treated with dignity and respect and in which their integrity is
respected and they are treated with justice and honesty, students are motivated and inspired
to achieve their best, students‟ achievements are acknowledged, competition is handled in
the correct way. That is, in every way, every student is a winner by competing with him or
herself, otherwise he or she stands a chance of being a loser by competing with others,
conflict is handled in a correct and accountable way, communication takes place in such a
way that students develop insight into their problems, the best possible resources are used in
order to enrich the learning process, good and favourable relationships are created and
maintained, discipline is applied in such a way that it will motivate a student rather than
humiliate him or her and, the teacher is able to manage his or her own personal life and is
also able to manage his or her students.
The above elements of respect, trust, optimism, and intentionality provide a consistent
stance‟ or framework from which to create healthy human environment (Steyn, 2007:
265-281). In addition however, they are also sets of philosophy and bases of creating a
classroom climate which allow students to achieve their potential. However, in the context of
some Nigerian secondary schools, classroom management can be assumed to be herculean,
because the class size is larger than the normally prescribed one, given the average teacherstudent ratio of about 1:60 (Akinsolu and Fadokun, 2008:1-24). This results in the limited
rights of the students, in terms of participation during the teaching process and the multiplier
effect is that, the academic achievement of the students may be at stake.
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“The only definitive figure in the literature for large classes in developing countries is sixty or
more, although, references to large classes in the literature indicate that some have more
than 100 children” (O‟ Sullivan, 2006: 24-37). In addition to that, Cakmak (2009:395-408)
found that there was a relationship between class size and classroom management and
managing large classes is always more difficult than managing small classes.
In large classes, the exposure to persistent noise hinders mental reasoning and impairs
students‟ pre-reading and reading skills. Students are also exposed to other problems
including vandalism of school property, absenteeism, suspensions, disciplinary occurrences,
violence and smoking (Earthman, 2004). However, “the passing of a value judgment on large
classes often springs from a disparaging attitude that needs to be fought, because it may
discourage teachers and make them feel guilty by shoring up the old idea that the quality of
teaching is directly related to the number of students in the class” (O‟ Sullivan, 2006:24-37).
The above an assertion is not borne out by scientific research which, on the contrary, denies
the existence of a very close correlation between the number of students in a class and the
academic results of those students. “A number of research studies found that larger classes
did not result in lower rates of progress in basic skills. Greater learning gains are the
consequence of some large class according to research and as international evidence shows
no consistent evidence that class size affects student performance” (Pedder, 2006:213-134).
In a nutshell, the above implies that the process of classroom leadership and management
should occur in an environment that guarantees interpersonal relationship of students and
teachers, based on student motivation, discipline, recognition and acknowledgement,
prescribed communication procedure and resources availability for teaching for the
attainment of student achievement. Nevertheless, considering the fact that most developing
countries classes are often larger than the officially prescribed 1:30 teacher-student ratio by
the United Nations it is however, important in this study to explore relevant literature on how
teacher‟s leadership and management dynamics can in spite of large classes contribute to
student achievement and school effectiveness.
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3.3
Teacher effectiveness and classroom management
For decades, schools and the teachers in particular were held responsible for students‟
progress in terms of measurable learning goals; both in the cognitive, affective, and
psychomotor domain. Sternberg and Zhang (2001) assert that the act of learning involves
interaction among these three factors: (a) the teacher‟s knowledge and methods of
instruction, (b) the curriculum (skills and knowledge to be acquired), and (c) the students‟
abilities (cognitive and non-intellectual), interests and learning styles, because effective
learning for a student occurs when there is a compatible match among those factors. The
emphasis on the importance of teacher‟s subject mastery by a number of authors have
indicated how poor teaching can sometimes stem from the teacher‟s lack of understanding of
classroom teaching qualities. It is also noteworthy that when government attempts to produce
a list of the competences needed by the newly qualified and experienced teachers, subject
mastery is often the first competency listed (Kyriacou, 1997:78).
Therefore, teachers are still required to make range of decisions that are important to
teaching and learning environment improvement and; that applies an entire group of varied
method and which are equally effective for all students (Buckridge and Guest, 2007:133-146).
Also, “of critical importance among the many roles that teachers‟ play is that of creating a
positive, supportive classroom environment based on a clear and well-organized
management plan. Well-organized classroom management plans establish the parameters
for the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual environments of the classroom.
Classrooms where students feel safe to take risks, acquire new knowledge, and know they
are valued members of a community are classrooms where learning is optimized” (Norris,
2003: 313-318).
Creemers and Kyriakids (2006:347-366) suggest that “teachers must necessarily orientate
the students before teaching takes place. Orientation refers to teacher behaviour in providing
the objectives for which a specific task or lesson or series of lessons take(s) place and/or,
challenging students to identify the reason(s) for which an activity takes place in the lesson.
An orientation task may also refer to a part of a lesson, the whole lesson, or even to a series
of lessons (e.g. a lesson unit). Secondly, is the extent to which teachers help their students to
understand the importance of finding the meanings of each task they are expected to be
engaged”.
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“Thirdly, the stage at which an activity takes place and by implication, it is expected that
orientation tasks will take place in different parts of a lesson or series of lessons (e.g.
introduction, core and ending of the lesson). The fourth is that the measurement of quality
refers to the properties of the orientation task and especially whether it is clear to the
students. It also refers to the impact that the task has on student engagement in the learning
process” Creemers and Kyriakids (2006:347-366).
Lavy (2010:1-19) measures empirically the relationship between classroom teaching and
students‟ achievement and finds very strong evidence that several elements of teaching
practices cause student achievement growth, in particular, teaching that emphasizes
instilment of knowledge in the classroom has a very strong and positive effect on test scores
and of students from low socio-economic background. Secondly, practising the techniques
that endow students with analytical and critical skills in the classroom has high benefit as
well, especially amongst students from educated families. In addition, transparency in the
evaluation of students, proper and timely feedback and fairness in assessing students lead to
cognitive achievement gains.
A comprehensive study by Pounder (2007:178-191) finds and reports that there is much
agreement that the teacher is the key figure in any changes that are needed. This is because
transformational leadership by teachers does exist in the classroom where effective teaching
is practiced (Lieberman and Mace, 2010:77-88). Anderson (2008:9-18) argued that “a
teacher‟s power is essential both within and beyond the walls of the classroom”. Classroom
management also involves the exhibition of appropriate leadership and management ability
by the class teacher.
Research has shown that teachers' actions in their classrooms have twice the impact on
student achievement is due to the presence of school policies regarding curriculum,
assessment, staff collegiality, and community involvement (Marzano, 2003:6:18). It is also
known that one of the most important jobs of the classroom teacher is managing the
classroom effectively. Classroom management must be of “important concerns to all
teachers, thus, equipping future teachers for the rigours and demands of the classroom
appear to be the most effective and expeditious way to contribute to their success” (AkinLittle, Little and Gresham, 2004:323-325). Therefore, “classroom management refers to all of
the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time and materials so that
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instruction in content and student learning can take place” (Norris, 2003: 313-318). In other
words, everything teachers do to get their students to achieve the knowledge and skills
necessary for success must be the result of a purposeful and well thought-out series of
actions and activities.
Yilmaz and Cavas (2007:45-54) reveal in their study that “there is no significant differences in
both self-efficacy and classroom leadership scores between males and females pre-service
teachers. These findings suggest that pre-service teachers‟ educational experiences during
their teaching practice affect their attitudes toward classroom leadership”. Hence, their preservice classroom management beliefs tended to change with their teaching practice.
Glass (2002) also confirms that successful teachers build relationships with students and
seek to make learning relevant. Teaching based on the curriculum requires “that students
“participate in classroom activities, become more involved in the learning process and take
responsibility for their own learning. It also requires that teachers give students the
opportunity to work at their own pace according to individual abilities and levels of
development”. However, both teachers and students are required to focus on pre-determined
results or outcomes that should be achieved during each learning process (Adridge, Fraser
and Mokgoko, 2004: 245-253).
Kyriacou (1999:78) aims at investigating teacher effectiveness by examining, among other
things, the following dimensions: teachers' involvement with students (explains points clearly
at student‟s level), teachers' enthusiasm (have interest in the students), teachers' subject
knowledge (conveys an enthusiasm for the subject to the students), teachers' engagement in
elaborate conversation with students (stimulates students to think for themselves), facilitation
of learning activities with material (has high expectation for the work students produce),
consideration of requests for students‟ attention and help (pay attention to revision and
examination techniques), provide assistance to students to reach their intellectual potential
(the teacher is constructive and helpful in the criticism of students), teachers' reflection on
own practice (the teacher is confident and at ease when teaching) and encouragement of
students to be active participants in the learning process.
Historically, teacher-directed instruction has been the method of choice for teachers.
According to Levin and Nolan (2000:48), “those of us who consider teaching a sophisticated
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endeavour, experience are not the only thing that should be used to develop and plan
instruction. More so, the „gut reaction‟ approach is greatly limited when the old „proven
methods‟ seem not to work and there is a need for modifying or developing new instructional
or management strategies”. They further state that others, when asked, limit teaching to only
the cognitive domain and thus fail to recognize the extra-ordinary level of competence
needed for making hundreds of daily content and pedagogical knowledge based-decisions in
complex and dynamic classroom environments.
According to the above stated authors, teacher mastery of subject-matter, the method of
instruction delivery, recognition of student diversity, student abilities as well as an organized
classroom, teacher and student orientation about teaching and learning and transformational
instilment of critical skills in student may guarantee teacher effectiveness. The next
paragraph explains how school the effectiveness framework of Scheerens aligns with
classroom management.
3.4
The relationship between the theoretical framework of
Scheerens and classroom leadership and management
School effectiveness is a “field characterized by many assumptions models, theories and
approaches. Such models attempt to explain the multi-level structure and linkages between
levels of the context-input-process-output chain” (Saleem, 2010:161-183). Thus, according to
Scheerens, (1999:1-50) “the elementary design of school effectiveness research is the
association of hypothetical effectiveness enhancing conditions of schooling and output
measures - mostly, student achievement”. School effectiveness framework is “a basic model
from systems theory, where the school is seen as a black box, within which processes or
„throughput‟ takes place to transform this basic system model of school functioning”,
therefore, the inclusion of an environmental or contextual dimension makes it relevant in
relation to this study (see Figure 1 below).
The major task of school effectiveness research is to reveal the impact of relevant input
characteristics (e.g. classroom leadership and management) on output and to “break open”
the black box, in order to show which process or throughput factors “work”, next to the impact
of contextual conditions. The term input-output refers to studies in which quantifiable school-
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related characteristics are mostly taken as school inputs and student achievement test scores
are mostly taken as a measure of school output (Teodorovic, 2011:215:236). Within the
school it is helpful to distinguish a school and a classroom level and accordingly, school
organisational and instructional processes (Scheerens, 1999:1-50).
Context
Input
Process or throughput
Output
School level
Classroom level
Figure 3.1: A basic systems model of school functioning (1999:6)
Scheerens (1999:6) raises a set of critical questions about the scope of the concept of school
effectiveness. The questions are:

Can a school be called effective on the basis of achievement results measured only
at the end of a period of schooling, or should such a school be expected to have high
performance at all grade levels?

Can school effectiveness be assessed by examining results in just one of two school
subjects? or

Should all subject matter areas of the curriculum be taken into account? Should one
not restrict the qualification of a school being effective to consistently high
performance over a longer period of time, rather than a “one shot” assessment at just
one point in time?
He adds that “fortunately, all of the above questions are amenable to empirical research.
These types of studies that have to do with the consistency of school effects over gradelevels, teachers, subject-matter areas and time have sometimes been referred to as
“foundational studies”, because they are aimed at resolving issues that bear upon the scope
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and 'integrity” of the concept of school effectiveness; thus the need to relate instructional
effectiveness to classroom management as a basis of achieving school effectiveness”.
Scheerens (1999:6) summarizes varied studies on instructional effectiveness based on
teaching and classroom processes as follows: “On the foundation of the characteristics of
effective teachers and studies that go under the label of „process-product studies‟ - classroom
situation - like the student‟s relationships with peers and the home environment, consistency
between the personal characteristics of the teacher - like warm heartedness or inflexibleness
on the one hand (teacher behaviour and personality during lessons) and student achievement
on the other hand”.
The teacher behaviour in relation to students is referred to as “process-product studies” which
include the following.
Clarity: Clear presentation adapted to suit the cognitive level of students.
Flexibility: Varying teaching behaviour and teaching aids and organizing different activities,
etc.
Enthusiasm: Expressed in verbal and non-verbal behaviour of the teacher.
Task-related and/or business-like behaviour: Directing the students to complete tasks,
duties, exercises etc. in a business-like manner.
Criticism: Much negative criticism has a negative effect on student achievement.
Indirect activity: Taking up ideas, accepting students‟ feelings and stimulating self-activity.
Providing students with an opportunity to learn (criterion material): That is, there must
be a clear correspondence between what is taught in class what is tested in examinations
and assessments.
Making use of stimulating comments: Directing the thinking of students to the question,
summarizing a discussion, indicating the beginning or end of a lesson, emphasizing certain
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features of the course material and varying the level of both cognitive questions and cognitive
interaction Scheerens (1999:6).
In addition, Scheerens (1999:6) points out that that “effective teaching time became a central
factor. Principle aspects of this teaching time model are actual net learning time, which is
seen as a result of perseverance and opportunity to learn and necessary net learning time,
stemming from student aptitude, quality of education and student ability to understand
instruction. The master learning principles according to the learning model are the following:
teaching goals should be clearly formulated, the course material to be followed is carefully
split into learning tasks and placed in sequence, the teacher explains clearly what the
students must learn, regularly asks questions to gauge what progress students are making
and whether they have understood what has been taught, students have ample time to
practise what has been taught, with much use being made of “prompts” and feedback, skills
are taught until mastery of them is automatic and; the teacher regularly tests the students and
calls on the them to be accountable for their work”.
He continues that, “to make highly structured teaching work equally as well for acquiring
complicated cognitive processes in secondary education, testing need not be so frequent as
possible and there should be space left for applying problem-solving strategies flexibly,
emphasis on the importance of varying the learning tasks and of creating intellectually
challenging learning situations, an evaluative climate in the classroom whereby students dare
to take risks - even, for complicated task. This is a good means of attaining effective
instruction via classroom management Scheerens (1999:6). In addition, individual teaching in
secondary education hardly led to higher achievement and had no influence whatsoever on
factors like the self-esteem and attitudes of students”.
In conclusion, the conditions of output measures in the classroom, rest on the characteristic
behaviour of the teacher that ultimately influences students‟ learning behaviour during
teaching. Also, the process and through-put at classroom level manifest themselves primarily
through instructional activities according to Scheerens‟s model (1990:1-50) and this
necessitates the essence of classroom leadership, which is the bedrock on which the
accomplishment of classroom teaching goal is based.
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Classroom leadership also has undisputable bearing on the delivery of instruction. Therefore,
the following paragraph discusses the elementary leadership as it relates to the classroom.
3.5
Classroom leadership dimensions and styles
The teacher places emphasis on either or both of these tasks in the classroom which
automatically dictates the leadership style to be applied during teaching. These tasks
according to Kruger and van Schalkwyk (1997:19) are as follows:
Task dimension: This is linked to the task of educating and teaching the students. Education
and teaching are a teacher‟s main task and in the execution of this, the teacher works with
students and with the help of other people such as the parents, students‟ leaders and the
school supervisors (HODs).
Human dimension: This is the teacher‟s ability to relate well and obtain the help and
collaboration of, for example, parents, students‟ leaders, HODs and other superiors in the
execution of the main task (teaching task). In other words this is the ability of the teacher to
establish sound interpersonal relationships with all the partners in education.
+, -:
-,+:
-,-:
+,+:
High task and low human emphasis may lead to an autocratic leadership
style.
High human and low task emphasis may lead to a permissive leadership
style.
Low task and low human orientation
– a totally inadequate leadership
style.
High task and high human orientation
– this represent a healthy balance
between task and human dimensions
in the classroom and is the ideal
leadership and teaching style.
Figure 3.2: Human and Task dimension in the classroom (Kruger and van Schalkwyk,
1997:20).
Correct balance between the human and task dimension in the classroom is necessary
because if one of the two dimensions is over-emphasized, it may only give rise to a problem
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of leadership and teaching style. For example, when a leader solely emphasizes the task
dimension, it may give rise to autocratic leadership and teaching style. On the other hand, if
the human dimension is over emphasized, it may give rise to a laissez-faire leadership and
teaching style (Kruger and Van Schalkwyk, 1997:20). Therefore, the utilization of both human
and the task dimension must always be equally applied and emphasized during teaching in
the classroom.
The role of the leader is an essential complement to that of the teacher. Three basic styles of
classroom leadership can be deduced from the teachers‟ attitude during the performance of
their teaching tasks, according to Kruger and Van Schalkwyk (1997:20-23). They are, the
democratic, autocratic and laissez fair or permissive leadership styles.
3.5.1 Classroom leadership styles
The role of the leader is an essential complement to that of a teacher. Effective leadership is
dependent on the knowledge or acceptance of the leader‟s authority by all group members
during teaching in the classroom. “Without this acceptance, individual members of the group
or factions within it are likely to question the leadership of the incumbent (teacher) in a variety
of ways. These would at least interrupt lessons and might escalate into major confrontation
between challenger (student) and teacher” (Bull and Solity, 1987:65).
Nakamura (2000:32) indicates that everything a teacher does and says impacts on the
classroom atmosphere and the students in it. It impacts on the leadership style of the teacher,
because the teacher as leader aims to motivate students, to improve their character and
citizenship by being student-centred and focused on the attitudes, values, ideals and goals of
the students for their future. According to Kruger and van Schalkwyk (1997:20-23), the
classroom leadership styles are; autocratic, laissez-faire or permissive, and the democratic
leadership styles and theses three styles of classroom leadership can be deduced from the
teachers‟ attitude towards their teaching task and human dimensions.
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3.5.1.1
Democratic leadership style
A democratic leadership style is related to the interactive teaching approach. This approach
requires the teacher to have a thorough knowledge of his or her subject and a good
knowledge of people, so that he or she can encourage students to take part in teaching and
learning activities in an active and meaningful way in the classroom. Such approach to
teaching necessitates a democratic leadership style, with which the teacher maintains a
balance between the task and the human aspect in the classroom.
One of the characteristics of the democratic leadership style is about students having a say in
various leadership activities. For example, the teacher will let the students take part in
classroom decision-making, classroom policy, rules and procedures, the organisation of class
activities and maintaining order in the classroom. A teacher who has a democratic leadership
style is friendly, firm, encouraging, helpful, warm caring and fair. In addition, this approach will
of course, be to the advantage of the teaching and learning procedures (Kruger and Van
Schalkwyk (1997:20-23) amongst which are that students will take part in classroom activities
with more confidence, students‟ initiative and creativity are encouraged, students receive
recognition and appreciation, relaxed but still productive classroom atmosphere operates,
there are both sound and effective discipline. As a result, students feel involved in the
teaching activities with more confidence.
What lies within the philosophy of emancipation education is the foundation of teaching
practice, since it seeks to empower students and mentors them to participate actively in the
learning process (Chikunda, 2008:141-146; Zhao, Zhu and Liu, 2008:58-69). This approach
may however be time-consuming and consequently, the teacher may not be able to complete
their syllabi within the time allowed (van Schalkwyk (1997:20-23).
3.5.1.2
Autocratic leadership style
According to Kruger and Van Schalkwyk (1997:20-23), the autocratic classroom leadership
style or the teacher-centred style means that the teacher‟s role or directions constitute the
greatest part in the teaching learning situation. In this case, the teacher is primarily interested
in the learning performance of the students. Their participation is limited to listening, working
and learning and performing. The task aspects in the classroom situation are therefore,
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overemphasized at the expense of the human aspects and students often experience the
situation as impersonal and cold.
The following leadership characteristics are displayed by the autocratic teacher. The teacher
keeps to a fixed, incredible schedule in the class, arranges and controls all the activities in the
classroom, draws up all the rules and procedures in the classroom, makes all the decisions
pertaining to the class, e.g. test dates, class project and who the class leaders should be,
permits only one-way communication, relies on his sole official position for authority and
maintains a military and rigid, military style of discipline. Moreover, depending on the nature
of the subject content to be covered, this leadership style has certain advantages. For
example, some students experience a feeling of security in such a rigid class. The teacher
fixed rules and procedures, provide students with certainty of what is expected of them. There
is certainty about learning content (e.g. basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic are
successfully acquired in such a class).
This classroom leadership approach however, has more disadvantages than advantages,
some of which are that, the students have very little or nothing to say in classroom activities.
When they are left alone, the classroom climate is characterized by competition and
unwillingness between students to work together, lack of discipline and order. Active thinking
of students is suppressed and students experience no personal growth - (They are afraid of
taking risks); students do not cooperate with one-another and acquire an unconstructive
attitude towards the subject taught by the teacher (Kruger and Van Schalkwyk, 1997:20-23).
Concurrently, the autocratic teaching style, referred to the directive teaching style by the
Oregon State University, (2002:1-20), outlines the following characteristics: One way
communication from teacher to participants and solutions given to students rather than
encouraging them to discover their own solutions. Therefore, the teacher is synonymous to a
“know all expert”, meaning that his/her method of doing things is the best according to the
students.
3.5.1.3 Laissez-faire or permissive leadership Style
This classroom leadership style is applicable when the teacher believes in a self-realizing or
student centred-teaching style. Such a teaching style over-emphasizes the human aspects of
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the teaching-learning situation. The personal happiness and development that the student
experiences in the classroom is more important than the subject content which the student
must master often. In such a classroom the teacher plays a supportive role and remains in
the background instead of giving much direction in the teaching-learning activities.
The following factors are some of the characteristics of this leadership style: students make
their own decision on classroom activities; students propose classroom rules and procedure;
the organisation of the classroom space creates the opportunity for free participation by
students and an informal type of discipline is applied in the classroom situation.
In certain teaching-learning situations, the democratic kind of teaching and classroom
leadership style may of course be advantageous, especially in classroom situations in which
students should be creative (art classes, craft classes, etc.). If, however, a teacher applies
this classroom leadership style to all situations, teaching may not be successful. Such a
disorganized situation gives some students a feeling of insecurity, tension and fear. There is
also very little or no sign of productive class or learning work (Kruger and van Schalkwyk,
1997:20). In addition, according to the findings of Ross and Gray (2006:179-199), there is a
statistically significant direct effect of leadership on students‟ achievement.
Contemporary explanations of the contemporary classroom leadership styles of a teacher
resulting from students‟ behaviour are explained as follows:
3.5.1.4
Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory of leadership (1988)
Hersey and Blanchard‟s situational theory of Leadership (1988) theory is adapted in order to
explain how the behaviour of students spurs the teacher‟s leadership behaviour, relating to
teaching in the classroom. The necessary terms have been translated to suit the concepts
used in the classroom, because Hersey and Blanchard‟s theory of Leadership (1988)
originally has situational perspective of leadership in general, but it is based on the functional
maturity (readiness) of the followers (students). The basic idea of this model is that the
functional maturity of followers determined. Above all, the „style‟ and focus that need to be
assumed by leaders (teacher) in order to obtain optimal goal achievement in the classroom
are indicated.
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Hersey and Blanchard (1988) further state that situational leadership comprises an interplay
between the degree of guidance and direction (task behaviour) a facilitator gives, the extent
of socio-emotional support (relationship behaviour) a teacher provides and the readiness
level the student exhibits in performing a specific task function or objective. Thus, the
anticipation of teachers is the adoption of their leadership to the specific needs of the
students by taking into consideration the degree of readiness of implementation of a task
(Creemers and Kyriakides, 2006:347-366).
“Maturity is assessed in relation to a specific task and has two parts. Psychological maturity
where self-confidence and ability and readiness of a student to accept responsibility and be
able to manage the given learning tasks and learning maturity in which relevant skills,
technical knowledge and ability of student to bear responsibility and the ability to set up high
goals and still manage them. As student maturity increases, leadership should be more
relationship-motivated than task-motivated. The Hersey and Blanchard Leadership theory
means that the developmental levels of a student play the greatest role in determining which
leadership styles is most appropriate behaviour for the teacher. According to this
conceptualization, leader behaviours fall under (1) directive behaviour and (2) supportive
behaviour” They are briefly explained below.
Directive behaviour: one-way communication and in that case, followers' roles are spelled
out and close supervision of performance.
Supportive behaviour: two-way communication, listening, providing support and
encouragement and involving followers in decision-making.
[http://psychology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.geociti.com
%2FAthens%2FForum%2F].
By combining attentive listening with such conversational guidelines as turn-taking, gauging
understanding and conveying empathy, the teacher can both build and help monitor
engagement. Creating opportunities to teach and listening practice is a frequently over-looked
element in establishing a mutually motivational environment for both teacher and student.
Listening is also an important aspect of relationship building - the most obvious one of all
motivational strategies (Bartholomew, 2007:593-598).
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Hersey and Blanchard (1988) discuss how the maturity level of the students dictates the
leadership behaviour of the teacher towards them. They also observed that two dimensions
of leadership behaviour (directive and supportive behaviour) are cross-partitioned into four
leadership styles: The Telling Style (Directing); The Selling Style (coaching); the Participating
Style (Collaboration or supporting), and Delegating Style (Delegation). Positive attitude of
students towards learning will be ensured and enhance their achievement.
The telling style/directing: This style comprises both high task and low relationship. It is
suitable when the students of a classroom are inexperienced about the topic being taught,
hence, they need a lot of help, direction and reinforcement to learn (high task, low
relationship focus). It is also appropriate when leading low to moderate (incapable, but
enthusiastic or self-assured) psychologically mature students who lack competence, but are
enthusiastic and committed. The teacher who adopts this style gives detailed instructions to
students and oversees their classroom work, because the students need adequate direction
to get started. Thus, decisions and communication style is largely one-way and the style is
used for people who lack competence.
Notwithstanding, students‟ doubts are cleared, as the directions given by the teacher assists
them to get answer their questions. The teacher makes every decision, but sometimes
consults the students before taking decisions. The style does not become a success if the
students do not trust that the teacher is honest in his/her interpersonal relationship them,
hence they perceive him/her to be initiating more structures/learning tasks than is needed.
Hersey and Blanchard refer to this style as persuading, explaining or clarifying.
The selling style/coaching: This style is suitable when students are a little more
answerable, comparatively inexperienced, but enthusiastic to undertake the task, still, they
may not have the required skills and commitment. The style is based on high task, high
relationships focus. The teacher who employs this style gives the subordinates specific
instructions and only supervises their work. In addition to that, he/she supports the students
by clarifying „what‟ and „why‟ the task should be performed as directed. Such a teacher clears
students‟ worries on what is being taught by responding to their queries in the teachinglearning process. The teacher must also praise the students to build their self-esteem.
Though the discretion of decision-making lies solely with the teacher, but students are
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sometimes consulted to restore their commitment to learning. Sometimes two-way
communication is also encouraged, but the teacher has the final say.
Participating style/supporting: The supportive style is used when students have the ability
to learn, but may be unwilling to start or complete the learning task (low learning task, high
relationship focus). It is used effectively when teaching students with both high learning ability
and psychological maturity (able, willing or confident). Teachers as leaders facilitate and take
part in classroom decision-making, but control (in form of high level of participation in
learning) resides with the students during teaching, implying that students in this category are
well competent and highly motivated.
More so, the teacher tells the students what to do (boosts their confidence and motivation)
and offers little or no direction. The students are also allowed to make their own decisions
based on the teacher‟s limitations - teacher facilitates and takes part in decisions during
teaching. The teacher encourages students‟ contributions and originalities through support,
and confidence. However, Hersey and Blanchard (1993:132) are of the opinion that this style
is not effective when students feel that the teacher is providing little structure and support
when necessary.
Delegating style: The delegating style is applied when students show willingness and are
able to take responsibility for style is useful when students are willing and able to take
responsibility for guiding their own behaviour (low relationship, low learning task focus). This
model suggests that the teacher applies effective style of leadership as students‟ maturity
increases. Thus, teachers‟ effectiveness is characterized by a drive for students learning and
concern for the students. When situations correspond with a teacher‟s leadership style it
gives way for teacher effectiveness (Hersey and Blanchard 1993:196). By implication, the
increase in the level of the students‟ learning skill and competence as regard the
achievement of specific learning tasks enable the teacher to to change his/her leadership
style to a more relationship oriented style, thus, increasing the learning effectiveness of
students.
The above implies that the increase in the level of maturity/readiness of students (students
who have learning skill, motivation, competence and commitment) with regard to
accomplishing a specific learning task, will afford the teacher the opportunity to change
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his/her leadership style to a more relationship-oriented style for increased learning
effectiveness. In this situation, the teacher seldom directs nor supports, but closely
supervises students‟ performance. Teachers are also still involved in decisions and problemsolving, but task/learning control is done with the students.
Figure 3.3:
Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership
(Van Deventer and Kruger, 2003:147-148)
Bolden, Gosling, Maturano and Dennison (2003) recommend that “to determine the
appropriate leadership/teaching style to use in a given situation, the teacher must first
determine the maturity level of the students in relation to the specific task that the teacher is
attempting to accomplish, through the effort of the students and as the level of students‟
maturity increases, the teacher should begin to reduce his or her teaching task behaviour,
and increase the relationship behaviour until the students reach a moderate level of maturity.
As the students begin to move into an above average level of maturity, the teacher should
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decrease not only task behaviour, but also relationship behaviour and once the maturity level
is identified, the appropriate leadership style can be determined”.
In conclusion, based on Hersey and Blanchard (1988) leadership model, the success of a
teacher is determined by his or her ability to identify the readiness level of the students. That
is, the teacher coaches, trains and explains task completion to the students, so that they can
understand what is specifically expected from them and therefore, the leadership style to be
applied by the teacher would be sell/coaching or tell/telling, (that‟s is, 1 and 2 in Fig. 3.3).
Moreover, where the students are capable, self-assured and devoted, the appropriate level of
leadership style would be participating/supporting or delegating (that is, 3 and 4 in Fig. 3.3).
Nevertheless, leadership styles of teachers could emanate from their personal characteristics
which they possess. They could also emanate from the diagnosis of the students‟ readiness
to learn. Therefore, the next chapter discusses how the teacher‟s process of management
helps in effecting the extent of the students‟ readiness to learn, in order for the student to
achieve academically.
3.6
Management in the classroom
3.6.1 Planning
Planning is integrated into every other management function. Therefore, it comes first in the
process of managing a class. A high premium must be placed on planning compared to other
management functions and a classroom teacher has to convert classroom plans into action in
order to ensure successful and effective classroom management. Deliberate consideration of
the objectives, policies, methods, means, standards and time schedules, with a view to
attaining the objectives of the classroom situation are known as classroom planning (Kruger
and Van Schalkwyk, 1997:27-31).
The lesson outcome envisaged by the teacher determines his or her planning goals and
objectives and the lesson plans should reflect the intended outcomes, even though many of
the outcomes are determined by the state or local curriculum guidelines (Evertson and
Emmer, 2009:98). In addition, a teacher should examine the content, concepts and goal of
the lesson that will be taught, start the teaching process by introducing a problem and
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exploring possible solutions to reframing a lesson through a thoughtful discussion of how it
relates to individual experiences and show enthusiasm for the lesson or topic presentation, so
that the students can share the teacher‟s feelings about what is being taught or presented
(Evertson and Emmer, 2009:105).
Killen (2000:99) indicates that teachers would need to do careful planning preparation to help
students to succeed and optimally benefit from co-operative planning. In co-operative
learning, the roles of teachers are summed up as thoughtful and thorough planning and
preparation of teaching activities, good grasp of how language mediates learning in the
classroom, good understanding of the barriers to learning, ability to cater for diverse group of
students with regard to culture, gender, ethnicity, language ability, etc., ability to support
students to develop internal discipline within the learning environment created and student‟s
support in the development of critical and creative thinking activities.
Planning function is necessary in classroom management efforts because it involves
information gathering: This could be by way of the teacher reviewing the topic to be taught,
study the exercises, questions and problems from the textbook, skills and content that must
be learnt by the students. The teacher decides on the appropriate lesson objectives to be
achieved in the lesson and thus set the goals. This could be done by designing activities to let
student construct new knowledge, acquire practice skills and consolidate knowledge and
formulate proper working plans - Classroom arrangement and methods of teaching, etc. and
proper use of time: This is necessary in order to facilitate teaching (Kruger and van
Schalkwyk, 1997:27-31). Wright and Choi (2006) found that greater part of teachers assumed
that scores from high-stakes tests are of little use in planning instruction for English Language
Learners (ELLs), although some teachers agreed that scores can be useful.
3.6.1.1
Essentials of planning
What is said about the planning process in the school is also applicable in the classroom. The
only difference is that in classroom management teachers have to set the learning outcomes,
because the learning process is based on end-product outcomes and is student-driven. The
set outcomes are achieved by mastering and employing contextualised knowledge, skills,
values and procedural steps. It is also important for teachers to think ahead and to decide on
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the most appropriate outcomes for each lesson, how to achieve the outcomes and determine
assessment criteria to measure if the students have achieved the outcomes.
Teacher‟s lesson planning is necessary as a primary and basic management function
because it is the starting point of classroom management, makes teachers think ahead, helps
teachers to obtain clarity on learning outcomes, teaching strategies and assessment criteria,
and time aspects, promotes effective teaching and learning, provides an opportunity for
considering alternative plans, lays the basis for the better utilisation of time, teaching and
assessment strategies/methods, directs actions for teachers and students and; leads to better
teamwork and co-operation in the classroom (University of Pretoria, 2008).
Step 1
Analyse learning needs of students
Step 2
Formulate learning outcomes
Step 3
Collect relevant information to achieve learning outcomes
Learner-centered activities, assessment tools
Step 4
Evaluate alternatives and decide on lesson plan
Step 5
Implement lesson plan, develop a framework for the execution of
the plan- This includes the three other tasks of organizing
leading and control
Step 6
Assesses how successfully the Students have achieved learning
outcomes and; re-plan as necessary.
Figure 3.4: Steps in classroom planning (Kruger and Van Schalkwyk, 1997, p.27)
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Some of the essentials of classroom policy (teaching methods/strategies and policy) are
discussed below.
3.6.1.2
Classroom teaching methods/strategies
A teaching method as an element of planning is a particular technique that teachers use to
help students gain the knowledge that they need to achieve in the teaching process.
Therefore, a variety of teaching methods can be used to present teaching. Teaching strategy
is a broad plan of action used when a teacher aims to achieve more than one learning
outcome. Two common teaching approaches, which are contemporary, are the inductive and
deductive strategies.
Specific examples are used to explain, e.g. a general rule, law, principle of definition when
the inductive approach is used. When the deductive approach is used, a general rule, law,
principle or definition is stated and examples are cited for clarification. Within a strategy, there
are methods, media student activities and learning content (Mahaye and Jacobs, 2004:175).
Teaching methods are means to an end in classroom teaching learning process, and not an
end in themselves, because they serve as a means towards the achievement of learning
outcomes. The implication of learning methodological norm enables teachers‟ practice of
teaching to be evaluated against learning objectives/outcomes that a teacher sought for
students (station05.qc.ca/css/cybersite/reach-out/strategies/teaching.htm).
If the right teaching method is not used in large classes, it is assumed that the rights of the
students in terms of participation during the teaching process are limited and the multiplier
effect is that the academic achievement of the students may be at stake. therefore, “highly
qualified and engaged teachers passionately believe that they make a difference, because of
their teaching practices and personal concern for their students” (Calabrese, Goodvin and
Niles, 2005: 437-449). The “strongest message emerging from the review of studies is that
class sizes do not matter. This has led some to argue that class size reductions are
unimportant and that the issue is more to do with changing teaching approaches ” (O‟
Sullivan, 2006:24-37).
Teaching methods/strategies are also an essential part of planning and teachers‟ leadership
styles are related to their teaching approaches (Oregon State University, 2002:1-20). Also,
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stressing the need for effective teaching, Clark and Starr (1991) note that if the strategies and
techniques that will lead to objectives of teaching are not used, the goals of teaching will
never be achieved. They added that as learning activities are selected, many strategies and
techniques to choose from abound. Amongst them are clarifying students‟ ideas, showing
students how to do things (demonstration), affecting or changing attitudes, ideals and
appreciation, living security, motivating and set inducting, evaluating and measuring, guiding
or directing students‟ work, arousing, directing, or assuaging emotions and creating room for
critical and creative thinking.
Grosser (2007:37-52) argues that the teacher becomes a strategist who constantly makes
decisions about the substance of instruction and particular procedures needed to acquire a
function. Teaching strategies for teaching large classes are necessary in order for the the
teacher to keep different groups of students along during classroom interactions, which
further promote student learning (Creemers and Kyriakids, 2006:347-366). Thus, a teacher
must not only teach content to students, but also the functions required by engaging with that
content in order to make learning effective, meaningful, integrated and transferable (O‟
Sullivan, 2006:24-37).
The findings of Pickens and Eick (2009:349-362) confirm that “students benefit from a
positive learning environment with high expectations for their achievement, because teachers
made strong attempts at linking their curriculum to the world and to the interests of their
students through connections to the media and through practical applications and uses of
concepts. The results also suggest that students responded to teacher overtures of care,
support, and praise that built up their self-confidence”.
O‟ Sullivan‟s (2006:24-37) experiment highlights areas with “implications for effective teaching
and learning in large classes and concluded that the following strategies could be employed
for effective teaching in large classes in developing country contexts. They are, effective
questioning, wise use of instructional time, positive student teacher relationships and
atmosphere in the class, provision of feedback by teachers, good planning of learning
experiences and the use of appropriate pace. For example, monitoring of students when they
were working in groups or individually, reliance on a rote learning whole-class teaching
approach to elicit prior knowledge and that enables the teacher to provide oral input as
students repeat and then copy the facts into their exercise books”. Moreover, the essence of
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these strategies are “to elicit prior knowledge, to explain and conduct feedback and ask
students questions. Effective teaching is framed within contextual and realistic factors, that is,
what will feasibly bring about learning within the realities with which the teachers‟ work. With
relativity to the lesson or subject taught, Sullivan (2006:24-37) however inferred and
suggested as panacea in the literature for effectively teaching large classes”. They are two
generic and basic teaching strategies such as the Cooperative/Collaborative/Group-Work and
Active/Whole Class Teaching strategies. These two methods of teaching large classes are
elaborately discussed below (O‟ Sullivan, 2006:24-37).

Co-operative learning/collaborative teaching strategy
Co-operative Learning is a “systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of
students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. The term „collaborative
learning‟ is often used as a synonym for cooperative learning when, in fact, it is a separate
strategy that encompasses a broader range of group interactions such as developing learning
communities, stimulating student/faculty discussions and encouraging electronic exchanges.
However, both approaches stress the importance of teachers and student involvement in the
learning process. When utilizing integrating cooperative or collaborative learning strategies,
careful planning and preparation are essential and this involves understanding how to form
groups, ensure positive interdependence, maintain individual accountability, resolution of
group conflict, developing appropriate assignments, grading criteria, and managing active
learning environments are critical to the achievement of a successful cooperative learning
experience” (www.gmu.edu/facstaff/part-time/strategy).
Furthermore, co-operative strategy of teaching encourages students to actively participate in
discussions and to be involved in their learning rather than passively wait for the teacher to
bestow knowledge on them. Language and cognitive development of the students are also
enhanced and their academic achievement improves (www.knjc.tw/admn/aa/publish/pic1/book/3/4). Cooperative teaching method will not only help students to develop language
communication skills through interactions and collaboration with his or her peers, but also
allow students the experience of cooperation during teaching and learning (Ning, 2007:66-69,
Kutnick and Berdondini, 2008:71-94).
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Studies indicate that students in small co-operative groups gain significantly higher
achievement on the total test in English Language compared to those in the teacher led
(whole class teaching) learning environment (www.knjc.tw/admn/aa/publish/pic-1/book/3/4).
Specifically the findings of Marzano, Pickering and Pollock (2001) reveal a considerable
effect size for cooperative learning in a synthesis of research on instructional strategies
across grade levels and subject areas using experimental design. The result is consistent
with the view that one of the basic requirements for effective language teaching is, reward
structures and carefully structured interactions (www.knjc.tw/admn/aa/publish/pic-1/book/3/4).
“Although some scholars view collaborative and cooperative learning as positioned on a
continuum from the most structured (cooperative) to the least structured (collaborative) and
some other authors use the terms, cooperative and collaborative inter-changeably to mean
students working interdependently on a common learning task. However, cooperative and
collaborative learning are complementary, but there are some important differences between
the two in terms of their goal. The goal of cooperative learning is to work together in harmony
and mutual support to find solutions to classroom exercises but the goal of collaborative
learning is to develop autonomous, articulate, thinking students; even if at times such a goal
encourages dissent and competition that seems to demean the ideals of cooperative learning
and; while cooperative education may be appropriate for children, collaborative learning is
more appropriate for college students” (www.knjc.tw/admn/aa/publish/pic-1/book/3/4).

Active/whole-class teaching
In interactive whole class teaching, “there is high quality and direct oral teaching and it is
usually interactive and lively. It is a two-way process in which students are expected to play
an active part by answering questions, contributing points to discussions, explaining and
demonstrating their methods to the class”. It also allows for a socio-constructivist approach to
teaching in which students construct new knowledge that they validate within the social
context of the classroom, bringing something of themselves to the teaching-learning process
and not merely acting as passive recipients of assumed facts of the teacher (Tanner, Jones,
Kennewell and Beauchamp, 2005:720-728).
Whole-class teaching based on interaction can provide dialogue (Jones and Tanner, 109115) between the teacher and the student, depending on the degree of teacher/student
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control and the nature of the interaction. In whole class teaching, the teacher believes in his
or her students and makes it possible for them to enhance effective learning by providing the
chance for more interactions in daily classes. On the other hand, whole class interactive
teaching does not rule out the effective use of group-work and other forms of teaching (Zhou,
2010).
Whole class teaching also allows for group/team work. Group/team work is recommended as
a way of teaching English Language, because “it is useful not only for the teacher to observe
students, but also for the students to cooperate and learn from one-another. When a good
student works with poor students, the student can be a source of language knowledge for the
group/team. Other hand, the teacher may form group/teams of weaker and stronger students
separated from one-another and give different tasks to these groups. Thus the better and
quicker students work with more complicated tasks; whereas the poor students deal with a
simpler task or work with the teacher as a group/team member” (Peng, 2006:74-78).
Studies show that learning “is enhanced when students become actively involved in the
learning process. Instructional strategies that engage students in the learning process
stimulate critical thinking and a greater awareness of other perspectives, therefore, teaching
strategies should obviously be matched with the teaching objectives of a particular lesson”
(www.gmu.edu/facstaff/part-time/strategy). Carpenter‟s (2006:13-22) findings indicate that
most students desire to be active in the classroom teaching learning process. Furthermore,
Calvin and Chumba (2011) found that teacher‟s influence on the mastery of language, skill on
lesson planning, presentation skill, was high, hence pupils‟ academic performance was high
and; that is concurrent with Atanda and Jaiyeola (2011:93-99) who established that the
quality of instruction has a significant contribution to students‟ achievement in English
Language. He continued that “active and collaborative teaching methods examined in this
study are not only desirable for many students, but they also appear to produce significant
improvement in terms of learning outcomes”.
3.6.2 Classroom policy
Policy-making goes with classroom planning and those policies that go with teaching in the
classroom are according to Evertson and Emmer (2009:23-29), referred to as policy rules.
For example, all students must be prepared at all times and this must be done by letting them
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acknowledge the importance of having the right materials, as well as the mental attitude to be
successful in school work. They must listen quietly while others are speaking and raise a
hand and wait to be called on if a question or comment is to be raised. They must listen
carefully when a teacher or another student is talking and the teacher must define how much
noise is acceptable when they are asking their neighbour or friend questions during lesson
presentation.
The classroom is an organisation and the people who are part of it must know what is
expected of them in various situations. Policy formulation is the management function that
sets guidelines for behaviour according to which objectives can be realised. By means of a
classroom policy, teachers use rules and procedures to regulate all aspects of the classroom
environment and all the actions and behaviour within the classroom. A classroom policy
ensures co-operation and order so that teaching and learning may take place effectively. The
most important requirement of a policy is that, it should give clear guidelines to everyone
concerned – that is, to the teacher as well as for the students (Kruger and Van Schalkwyk,
1997:49).
Because classroom policy is a means of accomplishing teaching and learning outcomes, it
should clearly reflect the aims (short-term) and outcomes (long-term) for which the class is
striving. It must be consistent and flexible. That is, it must be possible to adapt the policy
when situation change, it must be put in writing and pinned up on a notice board in the
classroom, it must be explained to the students – the students must be familiar with its
contents. More so, it must be acceptable to the majority to facilitate decision-making on
certain matters and make provision for class rules and procedures.
Because classroom policy serves as a general guideline for behaviour in the classroom, it
should include all aspects of classroom activities, such as teaching, student behaviour,
homework, student leadership, parent involvement and finances. More so, it should include
matters such as task allocation, class decoration, the neatness of the classroom and respect
for property can also be included (Kruger and Van Schalkwyk, 1997, 50).
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3.6.3 Classroom organizing
Once classroom plans have been completed, efforts should be made to take steps to put
those plans in operation, hence, the need for organizing. It is usually done by arrangement
and allocation of duties, responsibilities and authority to people (Students) and determining
the relationship between them. This could be by way of assigning student class leadership
and defining the relationship between them and other class members (Kruger and Van
Schalkwyk, 1997:27-31). Tagliacollo, Volpato and Junior (2010:198-201) found a significant
between students‟ position in classroom and school performance and absenteeism in class.
That is, students who sit far from the board had lower performance and higher percentage of
absence from the school. On the other hand, the best performing students were more
frequent in the school and usually sit at the front position of the classroom.
Based on Teacher Effectiveness Research (TER), Creemers and Kyriakids (2006:347-366)
state that “effective teachers are expected to help students to use strategies and/or develop
their own strategies which can help them solve different types of problems. As a result of this,
it is more likely that students will develop skills that help them to organize their own learning
(e.g., self-regulation, active learning)”.
Smit and Cronje (1999:209) stress that organizing is the function most visible and directly
concerned with the systematic co-ordination of many tasks of the school or classroom and
consequently, of formal relationships between the people who perform the tasks. Through
classroom organisation, it is decided who does what, determines the responsibility for various
actions, how the classroom floor plan is organized and developing relationships on the class,
which has to do with the teachers and students. Similarly, classroom organisation is about,
who gets the work done as the teacher wants it to be done? Who does what? (defining
responsibilities, building structures and developing relations) which resources to use for
practical and effectiveness of what should be done? And when should it be done? (Van der
Westhuizen, 1997:161).
Classroom organisation can also include the physical arrangements of furniture in the class.
Schmuck and Schmuck (1997:153-155) cited in Kitshoff (2006) states that the physical
arrangement of a classroom impacts on effective communication. The seating arrangement
and proximity of students to the teacher affects the communication in the class and students
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who sit more to the middle facing the front of the class will participate more freely in the
classroom activities. In addition, students who are seated to the side or the back may feel
they are not important and a marked reduction in their classroom communication can be
observed. Proper classroom organisation also allows for arrangement of teaching materials
or resources in a way that facilitates movement around the room for students as well as the
teacher and finally, organizing lesson parts into coherent sequence by outlining the main
components in order to be adequately prepared for lesson presentation.
Findings of the research of Laiqa, Shah and Khan(2011:706-711) elucidates that overall
building condition contributes to student academic achievement whereby, students feel more
comfortable in classrooms where they can easily maintain a social distance from their
teachers and that affect their learning ability.
3.7
Classroom management: Motivation and communication
3.7.1 Motivation
Pickens and Eick (2009:349-362) define student motivation as “a significant challenge
encountered by virtually every high school teacher. It is essential to engage students in
achievement-oriented goal behaviours that lead to success in the school”, even more than
the knowledge of the content being taught (Bartholomew, 2007:81-86). Pickens and Eick
(2009:349-362) reports a research finding indicating that an increase motivation leads to
improved cognitive, behavioural uprightness and ultimately conceptual understanding.
“Exceptional teachers guide students and colleagues to greatness by inspiring them to
discover where their talents and passions intersect. Specifically, teachers inspire students by
channelling students‟ energy and passion toward their strengths” (Bowman, 2007:81-86).
The question however is, what motivates students? To answer this very important question,
Kruger and Van Schalkwyk (1993:68-70) identify several motives. They are discussed below.
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Expectations
Reward
Spiritual
needs
Basic needs
Punishment/
fear
Motivate the
attempt of the
student
Abilities /
skills
Achievement
Influence of
other people
Interest
Nature of
the task
Degree of
difficulty of task
Aim and value
of the task
Figure 3.5: Motivational motives (Kruger and Van Schalkwyk, 1993:68-70)
Spiritual and noble needs: These needs are not naturally present in all people, but are
cultivated by means of education and aroused by faith and religion. This type of need takes
the form of obligations, responsibilities and „calling‟. The need for neighbourly love, to see
justice done, to protect the honour of others, to protect lives, possessions and relationships
and to be loyal and helpful are all examples of spiritual and noble needs which motivate
people to act.
Expectations and aspirations: Expectations are future-oriented and are essentially the
hopes people have to receive something for their actions (a reward) or to attain something
(an achievement). People are motivated if they think they will achieve what they want.
Therefore, there is a direct relationship between the action and the expectation of reward.
That is, greater the expectation of being rewarded, the better the attempt will be. Thus,
students normally achieve according to the expectations of their teachers and parents.
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Reward: People are motivated to act if they are rewarded for it; however, the reward must
have sufficient value. The higher the value of the reward, the greater the attempt will be.
Punishment and fear: The fear of punishment makes people fulfil their obligations or act
according to rules and regulations. Punishment and fear are negative forms of motivation.
The fact that people may be punished for offences motivates them, for example, motivation to
obey the laws of the country or traffic regulations so that one is not punished by the law. The
fear of punishment is not a real motivational tool, because it is not useful in teaching students
about values.
Abilities and skills: If people have the ability to do something, they are more willing to act
than if they do not have the skill. Intellect, experience, knowledge and skills motivate people
to act. The teacher should do everything possible to build and develop students‟ self-esteem
and abilities.
Interest: People do not easily carry out a task in which they are not interested. The greater
the interest in a matter, the better the motivation will be to carry it out.
The nature of a task: Interesting and challenging tasks motivate people to undertake them.
The aim and value of a task: A task which is worth being undertaken will motivate people to
act. Hence, people generally do not want to waste their time on useless and worthless tasks.
The degree of difficulty of a task: A task which is too difficult is not readily undertaken. In
turn, a task which is too easy may not provide enough challenge and may bore some people.
Other people’s influence: If teachers have realistic, but challenging expectations for
students, it may motivate them to achieve according to the expectation. If students are aware
of the expectations of teachers, friends and family, they may decide not to disappoint them,
thus try harder to achieve.
A person‟s attempt to carry out a task as well as the quality of its execution is influenced by
different motives. The more favourable the motives, the better the performance will be.
Broussard and Garrison (2004:106-120) findings on motivation of young children in the
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classroom indicate that there is a significant relationship between motivation and
achievement in young children based on intrinsic motivation. That is, as intrinsic motivation
increased academic achievement increased.
3.7.2 Classroom communication
Rue and Byars (2007:40) conceptualize communication as a process of interaction between
individuals that involves sending and receiving of messages (Verbal or non-verbal). The basic
purpose of communication is to transmit information (Rue and Byars, 2004:40). An event or
condition brings about the need to share information. Therefore, the sender creates a
message (encodes) and communicates it verbally, non-verbally or both and the receiver then
in turn interpret (decodes) the message and creates a reply message (feedback) as a
response to it. If the reply message generates a response by the initial sender, it implies that
the process may continue in the fashion of interaction.
Wall (2006:71-94) states that learning crucially depends on communication and found that if
nothing is gestured, said or written down, no activity is undertaken, that is, communication
cannot occur and learning cannot take place. Gestures and bodily action can inform,
supplement or replace speech in interpersonal communication. Research supports the use of
gesture is likely to be useful in improving classroom practice and teacher pedagogy.
Karadag and Caliskan (2009:1-6) conclude that “in order for a teacher to provide interaction
with his/her students, a teacher should be democratic, lovable, patient and reliable balanced,
have a sense of humour and the ability to use different channels of communication, because
an effective learning-teaching process cannot work without communicating. The more a
teacher forms a shared common life area, the more an effective learning-teaching process is
formed through the quest to know what background different students come from”.
Frymier (2005:197-212) findings indicate that students who are more effective communicators
through involvement, responsive and assertive and out-of-class communication generally
demonstrate superior effective learning indicators, assert motivation to study and exhibit
greater satisfaction of communication with their instructor during classroom teaching
activities. It also showed that students who engaged in more interaction involvement in the
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classroom received higher grades. The higher grades were and that was associated with
learning, motivation, and satisfaction with communication.
From the above, teacher motivation results in the engagement of students in the teaching
process and the result of this, there occurs conceptual of teaching resulting by the student
through teacher‟s care, support, praise, use of proper gesture and effective communication
by the teacher.
3.8
Classroom management: Classroom climate and culture
3.8.1 Classroom climate
Lipnevich and Smith (2008:34-40) describe classroom climate as the main feature of the
atmosphere, ethos or milieu of the learning environment in which students acquire or fail to
acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes. “These knowledge, skills and attitudes are deemed
relevant to their education and social development. Although there is no precise consensus
on what constitutes a positive classroom climate, its features include what may be termed “a
supportive classroom environment” in which students feel personally supported and
respected by teachers. The students and students consequently enjoy positive relationships
with their peers in the class”. A positive classroom climate is one that is stimulating, taskoriented and orderly. The quality of the classroom climate is seen as determined largely by
the contributions made by the teacher and also the profile of students attending the class.
Stornes, Bru and Idsoe (2008:315-329) demonstrate that “integral to the achievement-goal
approach is the construct of motivational climate. A motivational climate implies perceptions
of how success is defined in an achievement setting. This necessarily involves perceptions of
priorities and values. In this way the motivational climate could be viewed as a cultural aspect
of the learning environment. The term motivational climate refers to students‟ perceptions of
motivational goals and purposes present among teachers and fellow students. Students may
perceive that teachers and fellow students emphasize attainment of competence or ability,
through efforts trying to improve and develop skills.
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These efforts are according to the students‟ individual capabilities (a mastery of motivational
climate) and/or emphasize attainment of competence or ability, by social comparison in
competition among peers (a performance motivational climate)”. Furthermore, results from
the study of Stornes, Bru and Idsoe (2008:315-329) indicate that “the social classroom
structure may influence the motivational climate, implying that a teacher who involves
him/herself emphatically with each student may facilitate a mastery of motivation during
teaching and learning”.
3.8.2 Classroom culture
Culture is the “social and inter-generational glue that defines, connects, sustains and
enriches the members of successful communities - including schools and classrooms. A
classroom culture is a psychological atmosphere that nurtures and shapes students' attitudes
about their own identity, classes, school and learning in general. Classroom culture helps to
shape students' collective personality and spirit, sustains particular habits of thinking and
working. It channels the student group's behaviour in a specific direction and helps a teacher
to build a culture that transmits healthy values, habits and behaviour to students, which
eventually helps them to excel” (Major, 2009:24-28).
The initial findings by Crick, McComb, Hadden, Bradfoot and Tew (2007:267-307), which was
based on the exclusive use of a designed Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (ELLI)
assessment tool to assess an individual‟s learning power “indicates that the assessment tool
(ELLI), was not sufficient for the creation of a learning culture in a classroom. They however
found other variables that have an impact on the development of learning power, which
include the quality of relationships between students and their teachers, the nature of the
curriculum, the emotional climate of the classroom, the forms of pedagogy engaged in by
teachers and the quality and nature of educational leadership further help in the creation of a
learning culture in the classroom”.
Furthermore, Crick, McComb, Hadden, Bradfoot and Tew (2007:267-307) research indicates
that “student learning power profiles were highest with teachers who were high in terms of
their students‟ insight of their levels of student-centred practices. Moreover, the students
experience highest levels of motivation, learning power and feelings of emotional safety in the
school”.
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The relationship between school culture and climate differs for various groups of students,
depending on their age level. For instance, students in the Foundation Phase would not
differentiate between school and classroom culture as they spend most of their time in the
same classroom (Kruger and Steinmann, 2003:15). As students grow older and start to go to
different classrooms for different learning areas or subjects, they differentiate more between
school climate and classroom climate. Therefore, personality and teaching style of the
teacher also begins to play a role. Kruger and Steinmann (2003:15) also suggest that if
enough classrooms with positive climates exist in a school, they would contribute towards a
positive whole school climate.
Similar to school culture, classroom culture is related to aspects such as a set of values and
norms which reflect the communication and behaviour of everybody in the classroom.
Classroom culture emphasis are also are evident in the classroom management philosophy
of the teacher. In a classroom where individual needs and differences are accepted, where
student has a feeling of being wanted and appreciated, where the core social values of
justice, tolerance, concern for human dignity and mutual respect are acknowledged,
respected, promoted and fulfilled, a positive climate will be created in which effective teaching
and learning can take place. By using their knowledge, skills and specific behaviour, effective
teachers can ensure the creation of effective learning environments in their classrooms. In
such environments, well-managed students experience maximum opportunities to learn and
can rely on the teacher to create a sense of security and order in the classrooms. They can
also create opportunities to participate actively in the classroom, in order to make it an
interesting and exciting place (Steinmann, 2003:17-18).
3.9
Classroom control
Control as defined in terms of students‟ discipline is one of the key characteristics of school
effectiveness. Discipline focuses on the creation of and maintenance of a culture of teaching
and learning (Joubert and Prinsloo, 2009:36). Eshel and Kohavi (2003:249-260) confirm that
that forward that “classroom control is determined by two factors, namely that teacher control
over learning and opportunities for self-directed learning extended to students by the teacher.
Classroom control structure has often been defined in terms of a single dimension running
from teacher control to student autonomy”.
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In furtherance of the definition of classroom control, Kruger and Van Schalkwyk (1997:44)
quote Johnson and Brooks (1979) as follows:
Control has to do with determining whether or not the intentions embodied in plans,
policies and rules are being carried out properly and successfully. Thus it
encompasses evaluating and monitoring activities of teachers that are directed at
assuring that students are learning, doing their assigned tasks, reaching their group
goals and adhering to the norms of the school and classroom.
With reference to control in the classroom, Marzano and Marzano (2003:6-18) conceptualize
control as “providing clear consequences for unacceptable behaviour and teacher actions
that recognize and reward acceptable behaviour. Furthermore, important of classroom
management activities such as the arrangement and positioning of the classroom to give
room for an environment conducive to effective management, identification and;
implementation of operating rules and processes”. Also, in a recent report of meta-analysis of
more than 100 studies, Marzano and Marzano by (2003:6-18) indicates that the between
quality of relationship between teachers and students is a foundation on which other
classroom management function stand and succeed. Moreover, their analysis indicates that
on average, teachers who had high-quality relationships with their students had 31 per cent
fewer disciplinary problems, rule violations and related problems over a period of year than
those teachers who did not have high-quality relationships with their students.
Furthermore, Marzano and Marzano (2003:6-18) express that fair relationship between the
teacher and the student have no relationship with their personality, rather, the most influential
teacher-teacher behaviour are indicated by specific behaviour such as, the exhibition of
appropriate level of dominance, cooperation, well-being and exclusive needs of the students
as explained below:
Appropriate levels of dominance
Dominance is defined as the teacher's ability to provide clear purpose and strong guidance
regarding both academic and student behaviour. When asked about their preferences for
teacher behaviour, students typically express a desire for this type of behaviour during
teacher-student interaction. Teachers can exhibit appropriate dominance by establishing
clear behaviour expectations and learning goals and by exhibiting assertive behaviour.
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Establish clear expectations and consequences
Teachers can establish clear expectations for behaviour in two ways namely; by establishing
clear rules and procedures and by providing consequences for student behaviour. Along with
well-designed and clearly communicated rules and procedures, the teacher must
acknowledge students' behaviour, reinforce acceptable behaviour and provide negative
consequences for unacceptable behaviour.
Teachers must also strategically establish effective relationships with the students through
the practice of a wide variety of verbal and physical reactions to curb students' misbehaviour.
For example, moving closer to offending students and using a physical cue such as, putting a
finger to the lips, pointing out inappropriate behaviour, indicating expected behaviours to
students through pre-arranged signals such as; raising a hand to indicate that all students
should take their seats, providing tangible recognition of appropriate behaviour, for example,
with tokens or chits, employing group contingency policies that ensure that entire groups of
students are held responsible for behavioural expectations, employing rewards and sanction
techniques.
Exhibit assertive behaviour
Assertive behaviour is the ability to stand up for one's legitimate rights in ways that make it
less likely that others will ignore or circumvent them. Assertive behaviour differs significantly
from both passive behaviour and aggressive behaviour. Teachers can also communicate
appropriate levels of dominance by exhibiting assertive behaviour. They can do this by
maintaining an erect posture, facing the offending student, but keeping enough distance so
as not to appear threatening, matching the facial expression with the content of the message
being presented to students, using appropriate tone of voice e.g., speaking clearly and
deliberately in a manner that is slightly, but not greatly elevated from normal classroom
speech, avoiding any display of emotion in the voice, persistence until students respond with
the appropriate behaviour - that is, must not ignore any inappropriate behaviour and should
not be diverted by a
student denial, argument, or blame, but must listen to legitimate
explanations.
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Appropriate levels of cooperation
Cooperation focuses on the students and teacher functioning as a team. The interaction of
these two dynamics - dominance and cooperation - is a central force in effective teacherstudent relationship. Although not the antithesis of dominance, cooperation certainly occupies
a different realm and it is characterized by a concern for the needs and opinions of others,
whereas dominance focuses on the teacher as the driving force in the classroom.
Provide flexible learning goals
This is done by giving students the opportunity to set their own objectives at the beginning of
a teaching or asking students what they would like to learn by providing flexible learning
goals, which convey a sense of co-operation to them. This increases students‟ understanding
of the topic, conveys the message that the teacher cares about them and tries to
accommodate students' interests.
Take a personal interest in students
Although busy teachers, particularly those at the secondary level do not have the time for
extensive interaction with all students, some other teacher‟s actions can communicate
personal interest and concern without taking up much time. Good examples are the following:
talking informally with students before, during and after class about their interests; greet
students outside of the school for example, at extra-curricular events or at the store; single
out a few students each day in the lunch room and talk with them; be aware of and comment
on important events in students' lives, such as participation in sport, drama or other
extracurricular activities; compliment students on important achievements in and outside of
school; meet students at the door as they come into class and greet each one by name.
Use equitable and positive classroom behaviours
Teacher expectations and student achievement programmes emphasize the importance of
the subtle ways in which teachers can communicate their interest in students. This program
recommends many practical strategies that emphasize equitable and positive classroom
interactions with all students by, for example, making eye contact with each student by
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scanning the entire room as they speak and by freely moving about in all parts of the room;
deliberately moving toward and standing close to each student during the class period;
making sure that the seating arrangement allows the teacher and students clear and easy
ways to move around the room; attribute the ownership of ideas to the students who initiated
them during teaching; allow and encourage all students to participate in class discussions
and interactions; make sure to call on students who do not commonly participate, but not just
those who respond most frequently to provide appropriate waiting time for all students to
respond to questions, regardless of their past performance or your perception of their
abilities.
Awareness of high-needs students
Most effective classroom managers did not treat all students in the same way. They tend to
employ different strategies with different types of students. In contrast, ineffective classroom
managers did not appear sensitive to the diverse needs of students.
Do not leave relationships to chance
Teacher-student relationships provide an essential foundation for effective classroom
management and classroom management is a key to high student achievement. Teacherstudent relationships should not be left to chance or dictated by the personalities of those
involved. Instead, by using strategies supported by research, teachers can influence the
dynamics of their classrooms and build strong teacher-student relationships that will support
student learning.
Maphosa and Mammen (2011:213-222) found in their research that verbal reprimands,
demotion, sending students out of class, kneeling on the floor and denial of privileges were
most common disciplinary measures utilized by teachers to deal with students problems of
discipline in the classroom. Corporal punishment was also practised in some of the school
teachers despite the fact that it has been outlawed. Moreover, the findings of Agbeyenga
(2006:107-122) found that some of the reasons behind corporal punishment usage by
teachers in school were intended to advance academic levels, standard and; motivate the
students, and establish a close relationship and cooperation with parents of the students in
terms of discipline.
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3.9.1 Monitoring
Monitoring is the action by which the teacher‟s awareness of what is actually happening in the
day-to-day teaching practices. It allows the teacher to consider and improve his/her practice,
understanding of his or her practice and the situation or environment in which the practice
takes place (Moyles, 1992). Hence, the academic support rendered to students by teachers
in terms of monitoring and emotional support may be seen as the three relevant characteristic
of competence in measuring classroom leadership classroom (Ertesvag, 2009:515-535). The
findings of Kalis, Vannest and Parker (2007:20-27) maintains that the use of support and selfmonitoring in increasing teaching practice effectiveness (e.g. praise), is an effective
instrument that may help in monitoring or transforming the behaviour of teachers in the
classroom.
By monitoring the learning environment in the classroom, the teacher can establish what
works well and which areas need slight adjustments, in order to be effective. Creemers and
Kyriakids, (2006:347-366) contend that “once the students are released to work
independently, effective teachers circulate to monitor progress and provide help and
feedback and specifically provide constructive feedback, has positive implications for
teaching and learning”.
Eshel and Kohavi (2003:249-260) also found that maintaining the high level of teacher control
and close monitoring of learning in class are more likely to have addictive effect students‟
academic achievement, through improved learning. They also emphasize the significance of
personal efficacy to effect change through the use of capabilities, as other basis for higher
academic performance. The “instruction, motivation and behaviours of the teachers can be
greatly influenced by the mechanisms of assessment, feedback and reinforcement, but Sun,
Creemers and de Jong (2005: 93-122) contrarily disagree that regular assessment of student
achievement is also an important condition for achieving curricular goals”. However, based on
a meta-analysis of past teaching effectiveness research studies, Seidel and Shavelso
(2007:454-499) found that among motivational (affective) outcomes, regulation and
monitoring of teaching was one of the highest ranked factors, notwithstanding domain specific
activities, social experiences and time for learning.
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3.9.2 Assessment and assessment feedback
Assessment focuses on the „ends‟ of learning in terms of what the student has achieved at a
particular point (Van der Horst and McDonald, 1997:170). Therefore, it helps teachers to
know the next thing to do, for instance, change instructions, revisit an idea or give students
the opportunity to revise their work. Assessment is a strategy for measuring knowledge,
behaviour, values or attitudes, because the strength of assessment feedback is always aimed
to “drive” the students toward (often unknown) goals or to “do more” or “do better” (Hattie and
Timperley, 2007:81-112). Assessment is an achievement data-gathering strategy and
therefore used for making decisions about the success of students and instruction (Taylor
and Nolen, 2005).
When a teacher creates a test that is used to determine whether students have learnt what a
teacher wants them to learn, it is referred to as assessment. The tool of assessment is known
as test and the answers to the questions teachers ask concerning assessment are called,
assessment feedback (Taylor and Nolen, 2005). According Hattie and Timperley (2007:
81-112) “effective teaching does not exclusively involve imparting knowledge to the students;
it also involves assessing and appraising the understanding of the information learnt by
students so that the future teaching can be matched with the present knowledge of the
students”.
Moreover, teachers always limit students‟ chances to obtain evidence about their
performance, in relation to what they have learnt in the classroom, they however establish
that “positive feedback increases motivation relative to negative feedback for a task that
people „want to do‟ and decreases motivation relative to negative feedback for a task that
people have to do”.
Brookhart (2005:429-458) categorized assessment into informal and formative assessment
patterns and they discuss how each contributed to teachers‟ instruction. Informal
assessments can be used for sizing up student‟ skills and knowledge and also, to monitor
whether students understand what they are supposed to be doing in an assignment given; to
assess students‟ progress towards a learning objective or final performance. During teaching,
performance assessment can take the form of walking around and listening to students,
observing them to obtain a sense of whether they understand the task or underlying concept
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you are teaching. Thus, if problem arises the teacher can quickly step in to explain or provide
direction (Taylor and Nolen, 2005).
Furthermore, formative assessment is designed to find out whether students have
misconceptions that need to be challenged, so that students can move to the next level of
understanding. Teachers who are focused on students learning of skills use assessment to
find out what students can do and cannot do, so that they can determine what to teach next.
For example, teachers may look at students‟ use of the writing process to see where they can
improve in generating ideas, organisation of ideas and in the use of revision skills to
elaborate on ideas and so on. They can then intervene by giving each student the tool
needed to develop their skills further (Taylor and Nolen, 2005). Nevertheless, In addition
Cakmak (2009:395-408) found that large classes limit the use of distinct evaluation
techniques, because it is not only difficult to observe the children that lack understanding of
the subject being taught, but also those students who do understand.
Feedback is delivered from a teacher to a student and it is based on interpersonal
communication (Lipnevich and Smith, 2008:2). Teachers, parents, school management and
departmental officials should be involved in assessment Teachers assess students‟ progress
by monitoring how they fare in the classroom activities. Teachers can assess in a number of
ways, for example, giving marks or symbols for activities, tests, examinations, general
comments on activities. The SMLT conduct class visit to monitor record books and moderate
tests and examinations. They can also organize or facilitate assessment workshops for
teachers (Marnewick and Rouhani, 2004:197).
Brookhart (2005:429-458) clarifies that “assessment strategies included using other tools
such as teachers‟ records, using written tests, observing, questioning (of two types, oral
testing and delving), getting a child to demonstrate, checking, listening, eavesdropping,
marking, making a mental assessment note and gauging the level of assessing general level
of understanding and judging individual progress. However, traditionally teachers used oral
questioning, class or individual discussions, informal observations, commenting or marking
work, behaviour, interaction, paper-pencil exercises and tests”.
Jones and Jones (2001:193-194) state that students need to know how to assess their own
participation in class to prevent them from becoming disillusioned and dropping out from
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school if they perceive themselves as failures. They also state that teachers should discuss
with the students what successful learning looks like. Once students assess themselves at
the beginning of the year, teachers can always assess their own teaching and classroom
management performance against a pre-planned performance “checklist” to see whether they
are doing their best.
According to Marzano, Norwood, Paynter, Pickering and Gaddy (2001:187), assessment
results can help the teacher to plan the next step in teaching and learning. The teacher who
provides feedback ensures that assessment is effective by giving the students feedback
between three to four days, after assessment and explaining incorrect responses or answers
by the students.
By giving feedback this way, assessment will have a positive and constructive influence on
students and only then, will students know what they have done and which areas need
improvement, thus, teachers communicate students‟ results to them after evaluating their
class work.
Written feedback makes students‟ errors noticeable in a motivationally,
favourable, and effective way (Brookhart, 2005:429-458). More so, Burnette (2001:5-16)
found that students who perceived that their teachers frequently provided negative feedback
in the classroom, related negatively with their teachers. On the other hand, satisfied students
receive more general praise from their teachers in comparison to dissatisfied students.
Feedback allows for the reorientation of the teaching process and is closely related to the
strengthening of students‟ learning through, for example, rewards and sanctions (Sun,
Creemers and de Jong (2005: 93-122). It also helps to establish whether students understand
a presentation and this can be done by asking students to provide a written response to key
questions and then check some or all of their answers either orally or by examining the
written work (Evertson and Emmer, 2009:107). Moreover, an experimental study of Binglan
and Jia (2010:18-34) established that the group that received specific corrections and
marginal explanation in English Language composition gained significant improvement in
writing accuracy performance results, compared to the control group who only received
general comments.
The implication of feedback for assessment in the classroom is that it “provide information on
and interpretations of the discrepancies between current status and the learning goals at any
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of the three levels of tasks - processes or strategies to understand the tasks and regulation,
engagement and confidence - to become more committed to learning” (Hattie and Timperley,
2007:81-112).
3.9.3 Reflection
In reflective teaching, teachers critically examine their own actions and attitudes, which
enable them to contemplate how they can improve on their actions and attitudes. It is about
improving teachers‟ practices in the classroom. In essence, data is collected on teachers‟
lesson presentations; examine their individual attitude, principles, expectations and teaching
practices, so that they can be used for critical reflections on their teaching practices (Jacobs,
2004:77).
Reflection can also be defined as a mind-set, a process, a tool or method that allows the
teacher to develop and refine his or her classroom skills and develop a variety of teaching
models and personal aspects of own teaching. Assessment data and subjective perception is
used to reflect, to be able to make real improvement in class organisation. When reflecting
during teaching and learning, the teacher does not have to take a best guess or make use of
an informal hunch about what is best or not (Conzemius and O‟Neill, 2001:ix).
The approval of reflection rests on the presupposition that it is good for teacher and even
students and it however contributes towards school effectiveness and improvements, that is,
as teachers become motivated to develop new teaching method and styles, they learn to
connect teaching theory to practice. Thus, they become a critic of his or her own actions
(Calitz, Fuglestad and Lillejord, 2002:45-46). Basically, reflection is not Reflection is not
essentially helpful and may contribute more havoc than good if not well embraced (Tan,
2008: 225-23). This is because some teachers find it difficult to accept criticism of their
behaviour and beliefs (Jacobs, 2004:81). Chamberlin (2009:22-35) found that teachers‟
reflections were more aligned with their thoughts, experiences and understanding of teaching
mathematics.
From the above as regards the different means of control in the classroom to ensure effective
teaching and learning, it can be understood that student discipline is of prime importance.
Discipline is ensured by stipulating and regulating the behaviour expected of students. That is
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followed by the responsibility of the teacher to provide monitoring, assessment, and feedback
to students during teaching. The teachers „self-reflection of teaching is of prime importance.
Monitoring is essential in order for the teacher to know whether the students are in tune with
what is being taught. Monitoring can be done through regular assessment of students and
providing them feedback on their performances concerning what is done in the class and
expected of them. It is also clear that monitoring enhances teaching and learning in the
classroom and thus influence student achievement.
The reflection of the teacher is done through sincere and honest self-evaluation of the
teacher‟s teaching practices. An honest reflective practice enables the teacher to know his or
her areas of weakness or strength and; to know how to work on the weaknesses so that there
can be improvement in teaching and learning. The entire mentioned control processes
enhances teaching and learning in the classroom and thus influence student achievement.
3.10 Conclusion
Leadership in general and education management in particular are no longer the sole
prerogative of the principal and other SLMT members. It has increasingly become the
responsibility of every individual classroom or subject teacher. The education leader is
responsible for classroom planning, setting learning outcomes, planning learning and
assessment strategies; classroom organisation, classroom policy and monitoring of students,
to ensure that they achieve the learning outcomes. However, the teacher as a leader is also
responsible for setting the pace, giving direction, determining the academic standards and
expectation and; creating a safe classroom environment in which students will be motivated
to achieve their full potential.
There is a relationship between school climate and culture and classroom climate and
culture. A positive school climate is one in which the students are assisted along a number of
developmental pathways. In a teacher-student relationship that is characterized by caring, a
positive school climate manifests itself listening, critical questioning, openness and a feeling
of being cared for. In such a caring environment, students will be more willing to take risks. A
positive climate will have the following positive effects on the teaching and learning in the
classrooms: There will be a reduction of absenteeism and the drop-out rates, because
students want to be at school, there is also an increased willingness on the part of the
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teacher to take risks, step out of defined boundaries, make the classroom more exciting and
challenging for students. Therefore, student motivation and the will to learn can also be
promoted.
However, teachers can no longer pay attention merely to classroom processes via planning,
efficiency, thoroughness, order and punctuality. Effective classroom management also
requires taking into account the students as individuals, their emotional experiences and an
understanding of the different backgrounds they come from in order to allow them to develop
as individuals. Classroom management can therefore be seen as the sum of activities that
are necessary to enable the core or main task of the teaching-learning situation to take place
effectively. It is a means to the effective execution of teaching and learning task of the
teacher through the control of teaching and learning. This is achieved by ensuring students‟
discipline, monitoring of learning, assessment and feedbacks and teacher‟s self-reflection of
his or her teaching practices in order to attain objectives and goals of teaching.
In the next chapter, the research design and methodology of the study are discussed.
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CHAPTER FOUR
Research design and methodology
4.1
Introduction
In this chapter, the research design adopted for this study is discussed and justified. The
discussions revolve around the research paradigm and the data collection practices.
Therefore, the research methodology and the data analysis procedures are also explained. In
addition, the trustworthiness and other methods that were utilized, including ethical issues
regarding this research are explained as they apply to this study. The research design
chosen for this study is the qualitative/interpretive approach to construct meaning and find
answers to the research questions.
4.2
Research paradigm
According to Guba (1990:17), research paradigm implies a „basic set of beliefs that guides
action‟. Henning, Renburg and Smith (2004) define a paradigm as “a theory or hypothesis” or
“rather a framework within which theories are built which fundamentally influences how you
see the world; your perspective and how it shapes understanding of how things are
connected. Holding a particular worldview influences individual‟s personal behaviour,
professional practice and ultimately the position taken with regard to the subject of research”.
A paradigm may be viewed as a set of basic beliefs or assumptions… that deals with
the ultimate of first principles. It represents a worldview that defines for its holder, the
nature of the world, the individuals in it, and the range of possible relationships to that
world and its part …The beliefs are basic in the sense that they must simply be on
faith (however argued); there is no way to establish their ultimate truthfulness; if there
were, the philosophical debates…would have been resolved millennia ago” (Guba and
Lincoln, 1994:107-108).
“Research paradigms define for the researcher what they are about and what falls within and
outside the limits of legitimate research” (Guba and Lincoln, 1994:108). The basic principles
and fundamental assumptions that describe a particular paradigm are categorized into:
ontology, epistemology and methodology. These assumptions justify the paradigm adopted in
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this study. “Ontological assumptions give rise to epistemological assumptions. These in turn,
give rise to methodological considerations (which give rise to issues of instrumentation and
data collection” (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2007:5). They are discussed below.
4.2.1 Ontology
The central endeavour of the interpretive context is to “understand the subjective world of
human experience, that is, to retain the integrity of the phenomenon being investigated. Since
the examination of the situations is through the eyes of the participants rather than the
researcher”. There are „multiple interpretations of, and perspectives on single events;
situations and reality is multi-layered and complex‟ (Cohen, Manion and Morison, 2007:21).
The researcher accepts that reality is multiple and subjective and constructed by the
participant and that, it is best understood from the perspective of the participant who
experiences it (Cresswell, 2007:15-34).
Therefore, the researcher sought different views and the opinions of the participants as they
emerge from their own world, because as stated by Healy and Perry (2000:123-132) realities
are “multiple” depending on peoples‟ and what they have in their minds. Exploring this context
to construct reality will depends on the interactions between the interviewer and respondents,
that is, the researcher became a “passionate participant” during his or her field work. Hence,
the researcher in this study had a one on one interaction with the participants in order to
understand their world-view on how leadership and management dynamics contribute to
school effectiveness.
4.2.2 Epistemology
Seeking knowledge is about seeking the truth and seeking the truth is about understanding
the phenomena that one is dealing with and; understanding what works best in a particular
context (Cresswell, 2007:15-34). “Epistemology looks at how one knows reality, the method
of knowing the nature of reality or how one comes to know reality; assuming the relationship
between the knower and the known” (Nieuwenhuis, 2007:55). Epistemological reflection
depicts individual epistemology as socially created and context-bound and “the consequence
of the context in which the action occurs is shaped by the cultural, historical, political and
social norms that operate within the context and time” (Darlaston-Jones, 2007:19-27).
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“People actively construct or make meaning of their own experiences – they interpret what
happens to them, evaluate it using current perspective and draw conclusions about what
experiences mean to them” (Magolda, 2004:31-42 and Darlaston-Jones, (200719-27), but
these socially constructed knowledge may vary contingent on the circumstances (Golafshani,
2003:597-607).
To understand the phenomenon under study better, the researcher interacted closely with the
participants through interviews and observation of occurrences in the natural settings and
each participant constructed their perceptions of their leadership and management practices
and experiences. This enabled the researcher to understand how the participants‟ leadership
and management practices contribute to school effectiveness; because the aim of qualitative
research is to engage in research that makes inquiry for in-depth understanding rather than
probing the surface features of a phenomenon (Golafshani, 2003:597-607).
4.3
The qualitative research applicable to the investigation
Qualitative research is the umbrella term used for a wide range of approaches such as the
interpretive and constructivist approach to research (Nieuwenhuis, 2007:50). The basics to
the understanding of qualitative research lie in with the meaning being constructed. Meaning
can be socially constructed by individuals through interactions with their world, implying that
reality is not fixed or single. Instead, there are “multiple constructions and interpretations of
reality that are in flux and that change over time” (Merriam, 2002:3). In essence, qualitative
research is utilizes the naturalistic approach that seeks to understand a phenomenon in
context-specific settings, such as “real world” settings in which the researcher does not
attempt to manipulate the phenomenon of interest (Merriam, 2002:4; Golafshani, 2003:597607 and Cresswell, 2007:37).
This means that, “qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to
make sense of, or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings that people bring to them. It
begins by accepting that there is a range of different ways of making sense of the world and
is concerned with discovering the meanings seen by those who are being researched and
with understanding their view of the world rather than that of the researchers” (Denzin and
Lincoln, 2005:3). Moreover, Cohen (2007:8) cites Burrell and Morgan (1979) and Kirk and
Miller (1986:14) that, emphasis on qualitative research is on explanation and understanding
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of the unique and particular individual case rather than the general and the universal; the
interest is on a subjective, relativistic social world rather than an absolutist, external reality.
Interpretivist research set-out to understand the interpretation of individuals interpretation of
the world around them (Cohen, et. al., 2007:22). Therefore, the interpretive research believes
that reality is not objectively determined, but socially constructed (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005:1
and Kelliher, 2005:123-132). Therefore, “the underlying assumption is that by placing people
in their social context, there is greater opportunity to understand the perceptions they have of
their own activities. By its nature, interpretivism promotes the value of qualitative data in
pursuit of knowledge and the research paradigm is in essence concerned with the
uniqueness of a particular situation, contributing to the underlying pursuit of contextual depth”
(Kelliher, 2005:123-132 and Williams, 2000:209-224). In addition, there is no attempt to
manipulate behaviour of participants (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh and Sorensen, 2006; Cresswell,
2007:78).
Therefore, the researcher of this study seeks to understand in-depth social reality from the
viewpoint of how individual participants in the study understand their leadership and
management practices and experiences. Interpretive research allows maximum involvement
in data collection by the researcher. When conducting qualitative research there is active
participation by the researcher, because the researcher often immerses himself in the
research setting, thereby becoming part of the participants under study, in order to
understand meaning and significance; since data analysis and interpretation is an on-going
activity for the interpretivist researcher (Schultz and Hatch, 1996). "In contrast to the causal
mode of functionalist analysis, interpretive analysis is associative" because, for the
interpretivist, what is meaningful emerges from the data therefore, the process of presenting
the narrative of the participant that speaks is inductive.
4.4
Research method/design
Research methodology is an orchestrating dynamic for data collection strategies used for
research. The suitable method for this research is the case study, because this research
“revolves around the in-depth study of a single event or a series of a linked cases over a
defined period of time” (Hitchcock and Hughes, 1995:317). A research design, according to
Yin (1994:19), is “an action from getting from here to there, where „here‟ is the initial set of
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questions and „there‟ are the set of answers" Research design is ruled by the notion of the
fitness of purpose (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2007:78), hence, the purpose of the
research is to explore how leadership and management dynamics contribute to school
effectiveness.
Therefore, the case study research design was employed in this study. Cohen, et. al.,
(2007:254) hold that case studies could be used to “portray „what it is like‟ to be in a particular
situation, to catch the close up reality and the „thick description‟ of participants‟ lived
experiences of, thoughts about and feelings for a situation”. They involve looking at a case or
phenomenon in its real life context, usually employing many types of data. They are
descriptive and detailed, with a narrow focus, combining subjective and objective data. Case
study is particularly useful “especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and
context are not clearly evident” (Yin, 2003:13). In essence, a clear evidence is necessary to
indicate how teachers and SLMT exhibit leadership and management towards attaining
school effectiveness or otherwise.
Case study research is concerned with systematic inquiry into an event or a set of related
events which aims to describe and explain the phenomenon of interest (Nieuwenhuis,
2007:75), in a social setting to permit the researcher to understand how it operates or
functions (Berg, 2001:225). Qualitative research uses a case study research design to
“denote that the data analysis focuses on one phenomenon, which the researcher selects to
understand in-depth regardless of the number of sites or participants in the study” (McMillan
and Schumacher, 2001:398). Case studies offer a multi-perspective analysis in which the
researcher considers not just the voice of one or two participants in a situation, but also the
views of other relevant groups of actors and the interaction between them (Nieuwenhuis,
2007:75).
Nevertheless, the two case studies were adopted in this study. That is, the researcher
investigated each case of two schools - a performing and under-performing secondary school
- in terms of the internal school leadership and management practices of the role players
within the school. That is, how the principal, vice-principal, Head of Department (HOD) and
teacher contribute to school effectiveness. The two case studies provided wider scope of the
context and also gave detailed description and analysis by providing in-depth understanding
of the two cases (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2005; Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh and Sorensen,
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2006; Cresswell, 2007:78). Since two different schools with different academic performance
results (performing and under-performing were compared in this study, an in-depth
understanding of each of the schools was established based on their profiles, including those
of the participants sampled in this study. The profiles gathered about both schools are
summarised in the Table 4.1 below.
Table 4.1: Profiles of achieving and under-achieving schools: A and B
School
A
B
History of the
Established in 1983 with a
Established in 1979 with a total of
school
total of 385 students.
472 students.
Socio-economic
Far from main roads and
Far from main roads and shopping
environment of the
shopping malls and
malls, but Somewhat serene.
school
therefore serene.
Principal‟s
First worked as a clerk of a
First worked as a secondary school
experience and
secondary principal, as a
teacher before obtaining his
qualification
young boy after completing
Masters‟ degree and later served as
his secondary education.
a teacher and HOD for nineteen
Afterwards, he served as a
years. He has been serving as a
teacher and a HOD for
Principal for eight years.
sixteen years. He has been
serving as a principal for
five years as a Principal.
Vice-principals
Possesses a Masters‟
Possesses a Masters‟ degree in
experience and
degree in science
French Language. Served as
qualification
Education. Served as
French teacher and later moved to
Biology teacher and later
the position of HOD after fifteen
moved to the position of
years of service, then later become
HOD, before becoming a
a vice-principal after twenty-five
vice-principal after twenty
years of service in the teaching
years of service in the
profession. Has just spent fours as
teaching profession. Has
a vice-principal.
spent fours as a
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School
A
B
Vice-principal.
HODs experience
Previously served as an
Served as a History teacher for ten
and qualification
English teacher in a private
years with a private school and
high school for ten years
currently serving a HOD. He has
and currently serving as an
been a HOD for eight.
HOD for the past six years
in present school.
Students Leaders
The students‟ leaders or
The students‟ leaders or class
– [class captains]
class captain is in the final
captain is in the final year of his
year of her study - SSS III.
study - SSS III class. She serves as
She serves as
intermediaries between the
intermediaries between the
students‟ class and the teachers in
students‟ class and the
relation to instruction delivery by the
teachers in relation to
teacher.
instruction delivery by the
teacher.
English Teacher‟s
Possesses a Masters‟
Possess a Masters‟ degree in
experience and
degree in English
English Language and has been
qualification
Language and has been
teaching English Language for
teaching English Language
thirteen years.
for eleven years.
Number of
Twenty-two teachers with
Twenty-two teachers with 21% of
teachers in the
51% of them having
them having Masters degrees and
school and
Masters degrees and 49%,
79% Honours degree.
percentages of
Honours degree.
their academic
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School
A
B
qualifications.
Student enrolment
1,337 students‟ population.
1,389 students‟ population. 54%
(Present)
63% girls and 37% boys.
girls and 46% boys.
Average
1:60 (Teacher student
1:60 (Teacher student ratio).
teacher/student
ratio).
ratio
Parental support
Regular attendance of
Irregular attendance of PTA
Parents-Teachers‟
meetings (at most 38 % attendance)
Association (PTA) meetings
and no prompt payment of PTA
(at least 90% attendance)
annual fees
and regular and prompt
payment of PTA annual
fees.
Technical support
Two Career guidance
Two Career guidance counsellors
counsellors available (One
available.
of them employed by the
PTA).
4.5
Research sample and sampling technique applicable to the study
Sampling refers to the process used to select a portion of the population for study
(Nieuwenhuis, 2007:5) draws conclusions about the whole population (Zikmund, 2000:338).
As stated by Cresswell (2007:37), qualitative researchers tend to collect data in the site
where participants experience the issue or problem under study. The study sample was
drawn from one, out of the five of the Education Districts in Lagos State-Nigeria and
purposive sampling method was used to carefully sample the appropriate schools. The
reason for the researcher‟s focus on the sampled Education District is, because there are
quite a number of under-performing schools and few number of performing schools, which is
not common in other education districts. In purposive sampling, researchers choose the
cases to be included in the sample on the basis of judging their typicality, or possession of
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the particular characteristics being sought, that is, build on a sample that is satisfactory to
their specific need (Cohen, et. al., 2007:115). Purposive sampling was done to also increase
the utility of the information obtained from small samples (McMillan and Schumacher,
2001:401).
Because qualitative approach to research is characterised by a lower sample than
quantitative research, the participants are selected to increase variability and represent the
natural population. Usually, forms of non-probability sampling such as accidental or purposive
are used (Sarantakos, 1993:140). Therefore, two public secondary schools were purposefully
sampled from a comparable socio-economic environment area with less than five kilometres
apart - one performing and under-performing school respectively – from one of the six
existing Education Districts in Lagos State.
These schools were purposively sampled as they constitute sample that is satisfactory to the
specific needs of this investigation (Cohen, et. al., 2007:114-115). Moreover, two principals,
vice-principals, Head of Departments (HODs), English Language teachers and student
leaders (class captains) from each of the two sampled schools were interviewed. The reason
for purposively sampling principals, vice-principals and the HODs in each school is, because
they constitute the internal leadership and management team members in the schools.
However, the HOD participants sampled were chosen, because they possess more years of
work experience as HODs compared to the other HODs in the sampled schools, as evident
by the revelation of their profiles to the researcher through documentation.
Drawing from Merriam‟s (2001) description of purposeful sample, the researcher‟s
participants possess similar criteria in terms of profile (see Table 4.1) which guaranteed some
heterogeneity in my sample. The reason for selecting English Language teachers is, because
they teach a compulsory subject that must be offered by every student in Nigerian schools.
Hence, English Language is an over-arching subject that is taught in every school in Lagos
State. Therefore, English Language class is usually filled with students and such a class can
be used to measure a teacher‟s leadership and management practices during teaching and
learning.
In addition, the profile records of the sampled teachers indicate that they are the most
experienced and qualified English Language teachers who possess most years of teaching
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English Language at the final year (Senior Secondary School [SSS] III classes), compared to
other teachers who teach English Language at the SSS III classes within the sampled
schools.
On the other hand, student leaders (class captains) of the particular classroom that were
chosen for teaching practice observation of sampled teachers, were automatically chosen as
participants, because they are the only ones authorized to lead (captain) and provide
leadership in a class and their activities may also contribute to effective teaching and learning
in the classrooms. That is, their activities contribute to the successful delivery of instruction in
the classroom as they may also give accounts of the leadership and management teaching
practice of their teachers. Therefore, the students‟ leaders‟ responses were utilized to
corroborate or refute the interview responses of the teachers, as regards their leadership and
management practices during teaching and learning. Merriam (1998:61) states that
identifying participants specifically for that purpose enabled the researcher to discover,
understand and gain insight from those who can most be learned.
After all, five participants emerged from each of the sampled schools, adding up to a total of
ten participants from the two schools. More so, the principals, vice-principals, and HODs were
sampled in order for the researcher to discover points of convergence or divergence in the
participants‟ responses to interviews, as regards how their leadership and management
practices contribute to school effectiveness. In addition, the students‟ interviews were meant
to corroborate or contradict the interview responses of the sampled teachers on issues of
how they manage their classroom during teaching.
The table below shows the categories and numbers of samples:
Table 4.2:
Categories
Categories of samples for interview
Principals
of Schools
Achieving
Vice-
HODs
Teachers
Students
Total
01
01
01
05
principals
01
01
school
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Under-
01
01
01
01
01
05
02
02
02
02
02
10
Achieving
School
Total
4.6
Data-gathering methods
The evidence for a case study can come from six major sources, namely: interviews,
documents, archival records, direct observation, participant observation and physical
artefacts (Yin, 2003:13). A blend of data-gathering techniques was used for obtaining the
data for this study. They include:
4.6.1 The literature
Literature review is a process of reading some background information that has been
published and appears to be relevant to the research topic (Bless and Higson-Smith,
1995:22). Primary and secondary literature relevant to the study were critically examined,
evaluated and objectively recorded to achieve the purpose of this study. The literature was
also used to develop and identify sub-themes or indicators used to generate the interviews
questions, documents analysis and; school and classroom observations schedule.
4.6.2 Interviews (semi-structured)
Interview is an interchange of views between two or more people on a topic of mutual
interest. It allow participants - be they interviewers or interviewees - to discuss their
interpretation of the world in which they live and to express how they regard situations from
their own point of view. The order of the interview may be controlled while still allowing room
for spontaneity and the interviewer can press not only for complete answers, but also for
responses to complex and deep issues (Cohen, et. al., 2007:349). “Semi-structured interview
contains a mix of more and less structured questions in which specific information is desired
from the participants, and the largest part of the interview is guided by questions or issues to
be explored” (Merriam, 2002:12). The guided interview was the main instrument to obtain
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first-hand and in-depth information. Hence, the interview exercise was done based on a semistructured format.
The principals, vice-principals and HODs were interviewed at agreed time of appointment for
a period of at least 45 minutes at each rime of appointment. They were interviewed on issues
varying from teachers‟ development and training, how curriculum issues are solved,
organisation of curriculum, creation of organisational climate and culture, management of
changes in relation to the curriculum, resolution of conflicts, their expectations in relation to
students‟ academic achievement, etc. [see interview schedule, Appendix 8]. On the other
hand, the teachers and students were interviewed on issues pertaining to classroom
management and teaching for a period of at least, 45 minutes at each time of appointment.
Issues like, planning of teaching, teachers‟ method of teaching, how decisions are made
during teaching, classroom climate, motivation of students during teaching and academic
expectations of students were dealt with during the interviews [see interview schedule,
Appendix 8].
The questions asked were semi-structured and they allowed the researcher to be flexible and
probe deep in order to clarify misunderstanding of participants‟ response to questions asked.
Interviews were conducted on dates of appointments given by the participants. The
researcher interviewed the participants until data were saturated, that is, until no new
information was forth-coming from the participants. The directions for the interviews were
established by the researcher through probing of the last remarks made by the participants,
making encouraging noise to show amazement, probing ideas preceding the last remarks by
the informant, probing an ideas expressed earlier in interviews and introducing a new topics
(Cohen, et. al., 2007:362-363). The in-depth interviews were audio-taped, generating a large
amount of data.
Therefore, there was evidence of face-to-face interviews, because the researcher was able to
probe and explain more and fully on the views of the participants concerning the
phenomenon under study. Non-verbal behaviour to encourage the respondents to participate
in the environment in which the interview was conducted with respect to the phenomenon
was also possible. The face-to-face interview also enabled greater opportunities to control
noise and external distractions. The potential for trust and cooperation between the
interviewer and the respondents is high in face-to-face interviews (Cohen, et al., 2007:
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219-221).
4.6.3 Observations
“Observation is the best technique when an activity, event or situation can be observed firsthand, when a fresh perspective is desired or when participants are not able or willing to
discuss the phenomenon under study” (Merriam and Associates, 2002:13). Complete
observation was adopted in this study, because it provided the researcher with more valid
data that could have been routine to the objects or participants in the field, viewing the natural
situation from a distance. The complete observer is typically hidden from the group or may be
simply in a public setting observing public behaviour and observe and records events as they
naturally occur (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh and Sorensen, 2006; Cresswell, 2007:78). By
observing behaviour first-hand, any discrepancy between perception and reality can be
identified. However, observation of the school was carried out after obtaining the consent and
approval of the school principals of the two sampled schools.
Observations were made by obtaining the consent of the school principal and the classroom
teacher. The complete observation was used in the school and the classroom, because it was
assumed that the awareness of the researcher‟s presence in the school and classroom
respectively, might influence the behaviour of the object or participants being observed students and teachers. Consequently, the data gathered through this method relate directly to
the sampled schools and lessons in the classroom.
Observing the participants allowed consideration of both formal and informal interactions,
because it was conducted in the school and classroom‟s natural settings on a long-term
basis, in order to promote the reality of the participants. Observation in the school concerned
issues such as, observed interactions where the morning announcements on the assembly
ground, late arrivals in school of students and teachers in the school, interactions between
staff members, and students, etc., was carried out through the research field-work.
Observations helped the researcher to understand their practices and experiences of
leadership and management, which the research participants described in their interviews
better.
The behaviour check-list designed prior to the observation assisted in the complete
observation of the schools and teaching in the classroom. The school observation schedule is
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categorised under the following headings: school environment [climate and culture],
sanitation and general physical outlook of the school environment, display of bulletin boards
and adequacy of hallways space, well stocked and well used learning laboratories and library,
well-structured classrooms and office buildings, play-grounds and teaching equipment, e.g.
chalkboards, overhead-projectors, etc. and clearly defined policies on notice-boards on
issues such as bullying and student welfare); school organisation (administrative and support
staff to meet the needs of the students, class size and designs with good indoor air quality,
comfortable environment, lightning, air temperature and design of classroom furniture (seats
and desks).
On the other hand, the classroom observation schedule is categorized under the physical
environment (physical environment and sitting arrangements, etc.), lesson presentation
(organisation and assessment, students‟ participation, teaching aids utilization, teaching
planning, teaching style, communication and motivation of students) and student/teacher
relationship/interaction. Qualitative observations often use check-lists and behaviour
observation tools developed by the researcher, prior to the observation in order to record
document and observed behaviour (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh and Sorensen, 2006).
4.6.4 Document analysis/review
Documentary information is seen as a major source of evidence used in case studies (Ary,
Jacobs, Razavieh and Sorensen, 2006).The strength of documents as a data source lies with
the fact that they already exist in the situation and are imbedded in the context, do not intrude
upon or alter the settings in ways that the presence of the investigator could; nor are they
dependent upon the whims of human beings whose cooperation is essential for collecting
data, for example, via interviews and observation (Merriam, 2002:13). More so, documents
are materials that can be used to supplement the interviews and stimulate the researcher‟s
thinking about concepts emerging from the data (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). Documentary
data are particularly good sources for qualitative case studies, because they ground an
investigation in the context of the problem being investigated (Merriam, 2001:126).
Therefore, documents were collected from the schools visited and analysed. They are school
policies, code of conduct for students, teacher‟s lesson plans and evaluation records of
students. However, these documents served as secondary source of data and were used
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mainly to support the interview and observation data. The school policy regarding the code of
conduct of teachers and students on teacher on teaching and learning was reviewed by the
researcher. This was done to discover how teaching and learning are guarded and ensured in
the two case study schools. Moreover, the teachers‟ lesson plans which detail the lesson
design, time allocation, procedure of teaching and lesson objectives, were sighted and
reviewed by the researcher.
Data gathering was largely qualitative, but the final academic records of students‟
performance in each school for the past three years (2007-2009) were also retrieved,
observed and reviewed. The results were culled from the national examination body - the
West African Examinations Council (WAEC), which is the body in charge of the conducts of
Senior Secondary School Certificate (SSSC) final examination- Hence, it was also confirmed
by the sampled Education District office, where the schools are situated. The results were
used to ascertain the high academic achievement and under-achievement status of the
sampled schools. The performing schools and under-performing academic achievement
records of the SSS students for a period of three years (2007-2009), were first identified with
the assistance of the Education District officials and afterwards, they were traced to WAEC
for final verification and inspection.
4.6.5 Field notes
Field notes can be used by researchers to justify, according to available information, the
modifications and reformulations of the research problem and strategies (McMillan and
Schumacher, 2001:398). The researcher‟s field notes also present data that were later
analysed to provide an understanding of the research setting and the behaviour of the people
within that setting. Field notes was used to record what the researcher hears, sees
(observes), experiences and thinks in the course of collecting and reflecting on the process of
data collection. Each tour in the school was based on the two schools‟ principal‟s permission
enabling field notes to be taken. The field note data contributed to further steps in subsequent
field-work and issues relevant during the analysis stage (Merriam, 1998:106; Ritchie and
Lewis, 2003: 133).
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4.6.6 Reflective diary
Reflections allow a researcher to question his or her experience, in order to have insight and
understanding with a view to planning further action. It is a critical link between experience of
the judgment and taking new action as a key to learning, because it enables one to develop
ability to uncover and make explicit of what has been planned, discovered and achieved in
practice (Coghlan and Brannick, 2010:24-25). The researcher encouraged each of the
teachers observed to keep a reflective diary or notes, which contained details of their
informed self-judgments on each of their classroom lessons with a view to improve their
teaching.
4.7
Trustworthiness
In the process of data collection and analysis, triangulation is used to ensure that findings and
analysis of the research are accurate (Cresswell, 2008:259) hence; findings are validated in
the process. Validating findings means that the researcher determines the accuracy or
credibility of the findings through strategies such as memoing or triangulation. In its use of
multiple methods, triangulation may utilize either normative or interpretive techniques. It is
also an influential way of establishing concurrent validity, particularly in qualitative research
(Cohen, et.al., 2007:142).
Triangulation is used as an inquiry tool to corroborate evidence from different participants in
the study and among different data sources. For instance the views of the SLMT in the each
of the case study sampled schools were weighed against each of the participant‟s views in
order get evidence of corroboration or contradiction in their responses to the interviews.
Moreover, the participant teacher‟s expression in the interview was corroborated or refuted
with the comments of the student leader (class captain) in the classroom, to the extent that
the results from each method covered indicate the similar result, bringing about greater
credibility of the findings (Mcmillan and Schumacher, 2010:26). As per the use of different
data collection sources, see section 4.6).
Research is concerned with “producing valid and reliable knowledge in an ethical manner”
(Merriam, 1998:198). Therefore, it is necessary that the research results are trustworthy.
167
Trustworthiness refers to the degree to which the data obtained and the interpretations made
captured the reality as seen from the perspective of the participants (Cresswell and Miller,
2000:124-130). Trustworthiness has “further been divided into credibility, which corresponds
roughly with the positivist concept of internal validity, dependability, which relates more to
reliability and transferability; which is also a form of external validity, confirmability which is
largely an issue of presentation” (Rolfe, 2006:304-310).
Triangulation strengthens a study by combining methods (Patton, 2002:247). Therefore, it is a
validity procedure whereby the researcher searches for convergence among multiple and
different sources of information to form themes or categories in the study (Cresswell and
Miller, 2000:124-130). In order to establish the multiple truths and realities in my research, a
collection of data collection strategies were used (see 4.6 above) and the researcher‟s
professional knowledge assisted in constantly reviewing data in terms of the participants‟
perspectives.
Throughout the process of data collection and analysis, a researcher should make sure that
his findings and interpretations are accurate (Cresswell, 20008:259), to the extent that data
was obtained from many respondents using multiple methods to ensure consistency up to the
point of saturation. In qualitative research, saturation is described as the point when the
issues contained in data are repetitive of previously collected data (Merriam, 1998:180-182).
In addition, the researcher coded and recoded the collected field data over an extended
period. The researcher used more than one method of data collection and consulted peers in
the field of education leadership and management to check the consistency of the coded
data.
Another strategy used to determine the credibility of the findings was member checking.
Member checking is a process in which the researcher asks one or more participants to
check the accuracy of the account. This check involves taking the findings to the participants
and asking them (in writing or in interviews) about the accuracy of the report (Cresswell,
2008:259). Therefore, participants were asked to provide confirmation of the interpretations of
the individual interview data collected after the transcriptions. Ensuring that the final account
of the raw data is accurate is a crucial step to maintain credibility (Anafara Jr., Brown and
Mangione, 2002:28-38). It was through member checking - a process of refinement - that the
participants accepted the transcribed interview.
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4.8
Data analysis
The process of making sense and meaning of the findings of a research study is called data
analysis (Merriam, 1998:178). Most qualitative analysis is a relatively systematic process of
coding, categorizing data to provide explanations of a single phenomenon of interest
(Mcmillan and Schumacher, 2010:367). The data from the field interviews were coded
according to leadership and management sub-themes or indicators which were derived from
the literature of this study. More so, because there is no one and multi-purpose set of
procedures prescribed for data analysis (Mcmillan and Schumacher, 2010:367), the data
analysis of this study contain interpretations of the literature and past studies, to indicate how
the codes generated from the field work in this study support or contradict prior studies
(Cresswell, 2008:258).
Data begin with the first data collection strategy, which involves the organisation of data and
making sense of it. “Emerging insights, hunches and tentative hypotheses direct the next
phase of data collection, which in turn, leads to the refinement or formulation of questions”
Merriam, 1998:158). The process of data analysis was iterative and not a linear process.
Before the data collected were analysed, they were documented. Interview data were
transcribed; document analysis and observations were documented. The rich data were
documented in context (achieving and under-achieving schools), before they were
transformed into text in readiness for analysis. The documentation process involves three
steps namely the recording of data, transcribing or editing of the data and the construction of
the new reality produced by the text.
The above processes complement the levels of analysis process stated by Merriam (1998).
The first step of data analysis used is the descriptive account. This enables the researcher to
compress and link data in a way that provides meaning. The category construction step
follows and it focuses on construction of recurring indicators from the literature. The
categories are most commonly constructed through a constant method of data analysis
(Anafara Jr., Brown and Mangione, 2002:28-38) where units of data are sorted into groupings
that have something in common.
Pertinent codes and categories identified in the literature were used to analyse research
questions three, four and five based on a priori research analyses approach. “Using a
169
deductive approach where the categories of information required from the data are
formulated in advance (called a priori categories distilled from the literature on the topic), may
often obscure or render key themes invisible (Nieuwenhuis, 2007:99)”. Thus, the codes and
categories from data gathered through interviews, observation and document analysis or
review, were weighed against the identified leadership, management and classroom and
management sub-themes or indicators in Chapters 2 and 3 respectively.
Since this study was a case study conducted over two school sites, data collected were
analysed both individually and then compared, in order to discover what school A does in
terms of school leadership and management to achieve effectiveness as compared to school
B, which is not effective.
4.9
Ethical considerations
In adhering to the ethical principle of the University of Pretoria, clearance for collected data
from the field was sought and granted by the Faculty of Education Ethics Committee, after
permission to conduct research in two public secondary schools in Lagos-State had been
sought and granted by the Lagos State Government. Afterwards, the following established
rules or protocols guided the ethical procedures of this research:
Voluntary participation: Participants were not manipulated, forced or intimidated to
participate in the research. Informed consent was received from every participant in the
interviews after they were told about the goal of the study and what the researcher hoped to
achieve. By implying that the participants participated in the study stemmed from their own
will and conviction and they were assured that they might withdraw from the research at any
time if condition(s) warranted them to do so (Ary, et. al., 2002:348; Denzin and Lincoln,
2002:138-139; Ritchie and Lewis: 2003:66-67).
Confidentiality and anonymity: This implies that participant‟s privacy was upheld and not
invaded. They were informed about the research process and purpose and they voluntarily
consented to participate in the research. They were also assured of peace of mind (trust) and
that their participation would not be made known to anyone (confidentiality); neither would
their identity, via their names, age, names or addresses of their schools would be included in
170
the research (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000:139; McMillan and Schmacher, 2000:366-367;
Ritchie and Lewis, 67-68).
Securing data and the right to privacy:
Participants were assured that information
gathered through them would not accidentally become public or fall in a wrong hand.
Moreover, that information obtained during observations and interviews would not be
carelessly discussed, thereby violating the respondents‟ privacy. That is, the researcher
would not link the participants‟ identity or schools to the findings of the study (Denzin and
Lincoln, 2000:139; McMillan and Schumacker, 2001:366-367; Ritchie and Lewis, 2003:
67-68).
Chapter 5 deals with the analysis of the research on how leadership and management
dynamics contribute to effective schools. This was done by developing school leadership and
management sub-themes or indicators from the literature in Chapter 2 in order to analyse the
collected field data.
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CHAPTER FIVE
Data analysis, reporting and discussion of results on leadership and
management contributing to school effectiveness
5.1
Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to analyse field data collected on how school leadership and
management dynamics contribute to school effectiveness. The empirical study was carried
out in two secondary schools in Lagos State which comprise of an effective and ineffective
school. These two categories of schools were chosen, because they are situated less than
five kilometres from each other; within the same education districts and students enrolled in
the schools reside in the same socio-economic environment. The schools are also in the
category of non-fee-paying public schools, funded and operated by the Lagos State
government. The academic puzzle that triggers the interest of the researcher was to
determine why one of the two sampled schools achieves and seems to be effective or wellfunctioning; whereas the other school does not achieve, is ineffective or poorly-functioning.
Using data obtained through the literature review in Chapters 2 on the dynamics of leadership
and management on a priori base. The analysis and discussion of this chapter was done
against interview data gathered through the principals, vice-principals and Heads of
Department (HODs), observations done at the selected schools and a brief document
analysis/review. By implication, the analysis that follow are weighed against the criteria
exposed and embedded in Chapter 2 literature review. The data collection sources are further
described below.
5.2
Descriptive overview of data collected sources
The following are the sources of data collected utilized for data analysis, reporting and
discussion of results.
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5.2.1
Literature review
The researcher conducted an extensive literature review (see Chapters 2) in which an
attempt was made to determine what the literature informs about school leadership and
management dynamics contributing to school effectiveness. The chapter 2 literature review
also provided answer to the first research question of the thesis. The deduction that was
made from the literature review is that, there is an indication that strong leadership and the
way in which the leader manages a school, constitute some of the most important dynamics
contributing to school effectiveness. Hence, the main themes of the study (leadership and
management) provided a foundation of analysing the findings of the research on priori basis.
Sub-themes of leadership and management were generated from Chapter 2 and 3 of the
literature review. Hence, the codes generated from the field-work as a result of interviews,
observations and document analysis/review in the effective and ineffective schools were
measured against the sub-themes of leadership and management identified in the literature
review (see also indicators of school effectiveness in section 2.5).
5.2.2 Individual interviews
Field data were collected through individual interviews with a principal, vice-principal, HOD
(SLMT members), a teacher and a student in each of the achieving and under-achieving
schools, amounting to a total of ten participants. The researcher used the data from the
individual interviews to compare the two schools in terms of how the SLMT members
influence school effectiveness, by unfolding their experiences and perceptions of how their
leadership and management practices contribute to school effectiveness.
5.2.3 School observations
Observation in the two schools occurred under the following headings: Physical environment
of the school and structure of the school buildings, school organisation, policy documents and
student academic support. The observations and document analysis/review data served as a
tool of triangulation and were used to validate, buttress, corroborate or contradict the data
generated from the interviews.
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As a result of field-work, the data collected to find answers to the research questions (see
research questions in Chapter One, section 1.5) utilized as basis for investigation in this
thesis are reported under the following broad headings:

What the literature informs about school leadership and management dynamics
contributing to school effectiveness.

What the literature informs about classroom leadership and management dynamics
contributing to school effectiveness.

Relationship between the dynamics of school leadership and school effectiveness.

Relationship between the dynamics of school management and school effectiveness.

Relationship between the dynamics of classroom leadership and management
contributing to school effectiveness.
As a prelude to the analysis of the research questions on the relationship between school
leadership and management contributing to school effectiveness, observations in achieving
school A and under-achieving school B are presented in the following paragraphs.
5.3
Analysis of field-work: Observation of School A
5.3.1 Introduction
The reason for school observation was to ensure triangulation of information articulated from
the interviews, observations and document analysis/review. “Methodological triangulation is
the use of multiple methods to study a single problem" (Patton, 2002:247). Observation
enables a researcher to draw inferences about the perspectives that could not be obtained
through exclusive interview in the field of research (Maxwell, 2005:94). Since observation was
one of the main data collection methods in this research, it is necessary that clear pictures of
observations in the two schools (A and B) are stated to illuminate the research findings.
The observations made in school A and B were done at uninterrupted and agreed
appointment dates with the school principal, during school periods. The school observations
were carried out based on the observation schedule of this study (see Appendix 8). The focus
of the researcher‟s observation in school A and B fall under the following categories: School
174
physical environment and the structure of buildings, school organisation, policy document
analysis and students‟ academic support.
Table 5.1:
Organogram showing data collection methods and SLMT participants in
the study
School observation
School A and B
See Appendix 8
Interview
School A and B
A principal, vice-principal and
HOD each
Document analysis/review
School A and B
Teaching and learning Policy
document
5.3.2 Observation: School A (achieving school)
Observation of school A is explained based on different headings below.
5.3.2.1
The physical environment of the school and structure of the
school buildings
School A is situated in an average socio-economic environment consisting of averagely
educated families and far from shopping malls or major/main roads. The school environment
and buildings are beautified with flowers. The school buildings are designed with adequate
hallways, lightening and open spaces, which makes it possible to produce good and
adequate air in the school buildings. There was adequacy of openings (windows and doors)
in the classroom that allow for cross-ventilation and air quality in the classroom. The
classroom furniture (benches and desks) were of very good quality and two students
occupied a pair of desk and bench. Each of the school classes contained an average of sixty
students.
The administrative buildings and school playgrounds are adequate. The administrative
buildings accommodate the school teaching staff, administrative staff and the school SLMT
members. Moreover, the school has in stock few teaching aids and resources kept in the
principal‟s office. There is also a well-stocked library and students were spotted reading in the
library. Lastly, the school science laboratory is well equipped and maintained, but there were
175
no modern technological facilities in the school for teaching, except for chalkboards that were
cited as the only teaching facilities in the classrooms.
A notice board was also displayed between the corridors of the school principal and viceprincipal‟s office. It contains clearly defined policies regarding students‟ conduct and
disciplinary actions against students on account of behavioural problems. In addition, a
bulletin board was sighted near to the school principal‟s office and the researcher observed
students going to the bulletin board to check the information relevant to them. Information
such as student and teachers‟ articles and write-ups, news about a few students‟ impressive
conduct and achievements were displayed on the board.
On stepping into school A at every period of visit, the first experience the researcher gets is
that of a quiet and neat environment. No student was ever noticed loitering around during
school hours, except during lunch-breaks. The students were neatly dressed (boys and girls).
There was no noise in classes where teachers were not occupied for teaching purpose,
rather, each student was sighted reading either a book or writing in their notebooks, despite
the absence of a teacher in their classroom. This implies that the students are self-disciplined
and well behaved. Thus, an impression of a well disciplined and orderly school environment
was created by the school.
5.3.2.2
School organisation
The school possesses a school time-table which specifies the time prescribed for every
teaching and non-teaching activity during a normal academic school day and week. However,
the teaching time-table indicates that the principal teaches „Accounting‟ as a subject in the
SSS 3 final year class. Teachers, including the vice-principal and the HODs were usually
observed teaching according to the school tuition time-table in different classes. Even though
the teachers were accommodated in a different administrative building separate from the
SLMT, it was observed that there is proper flow of information and messages between the
SLMT, teachers and other non-teaching staff, in order to enhance academic activities in the
school. This was because official/personal cell phones of the school staff and the school
messenger - office assistant - were utilized to disseminate information and messages in the
school.
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5.3.2.3 Policy documents
The vision statement of school A presented to the researcher by the principal, clearly and
summarily states “Leading while other schools follow in terms of academic achievement”. The
school policy document (rules and procedures) observed and reviewed summarily stipulates
the following:

The student leader of each class must present a teachers‟ attendance log to a teacher
for signature before he/she starts teaching them and as soon as the teacher finishes
teaching the students.

Every teacher is accountable to the school principal for his or her teaching and
handling of lessons. Therefore, each teacher needs to give a report of what he/she
must have experienced in the discharge of his/her teaching at a statutory Curriculum
Teaching Meeting (CTM), held once every two weeks.

The school policy also stipulates that every student leader (class captain) can take
complaints to the school principal with respect to a teachers‟ performance or nonperformance of his or her teaching duties.

Every student has a right to engage his/her teacher at a tuition-free period during
school hours to discuss their misconception about topics taught in the classroom.

A teacher has no right to impose corporal punishment on a student. An undisciplined
student could be requested by his or her teacher to bring his/her parents to the school
with respect to issues ascribed to such student, in order to improve the student‟s
academic achievement. However, such request should be made through the principal
or vice-principal.

Teachers must give notice of five days prior to their absenteeism or unavailability
except for emergency and unforeseen absenteeism.

Students or their parents must give prior notice of their absenteeism from school, due
to unforeseen circumstances.

The school shall focus its management and leadership on acknowledging parents,
who are working in partnership with the school towards students‟ academic
achievement.
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The researcher further found that all observed lesson preparation notes of teachers were well
documented and up-to-date. The lesson preparation of teachers must also be submitted
weekly to the principal for endorsement. However, the lesson notes of the teachers were
observed by the researcher to have been well documented and up-to-date. This is because
they had been presented for approval and endorsement by the principal and the presentation
for approval is usually done at the end of every week.
With regards to punctuality of teachers in the school, late coming records of teachers
observed showed that thirteen teachers had been absent from the school within the current
academic year - that is, during the period of data collection in this study. The teachers were
absent based on prior apology and arrangement with the school principal. Records also
indicate that absentee rate of students, although based on prior apologies to the school
authorities, was less than forty out of 385 students in an academic term.
The school did not allow the researcher to view its financial set of books or statements based
on a claim of privacy. Despite persuasions by the researcher to view any of the financial
books/accounts kept by the school, the school principal declines and says: “The financial
books are private, however, the manifestation of our financial standing and prudence in the
use of our PTA dues (money) is indicated by what you can see on the school grounds as you
go around the school.”
The principal further said that, “every parent has been living up to their responsibility by
paying their children/wards PTA annual due regularly and promptly”. True to his words,
records of PTA attendance and some minutes of the meetings held in the recent months
indicated that PTA meetings were adjudged to be well attended and up-to-date after the
researcher‟s review. The researcher was not however perturbed for not having access to the
school‟s PTA accounts records, because of his prior knowledge that the school was basically
funded by the Lagos State government.
5.3.2.4
Student academic support
There were no particular student academic support staff, but the school subject teachers
were always observed to be available at compulsory extra-mural preparatory reading periods,
supervising and providing academic supports to the students, between 2 and 4 p.m., that is,
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after normal academic school hours. Although the researcher did not witness the school
principal teach the students during his period of data collection in the school, but observed
that principal‟s name on teaching roster. In addition, the researcher usually sees few students
at the guidance counsellor‟s office for career discussions and study advice. In the guidance
counsellor‟s office, different career information is visible (pictorial and written). Motivational
books were also cited in the guidance counsellors‟ book-shelves. There was also a display of
the official pass record of final year students (SSS) on the guidance counsellor‟s bulletin
board in the office. The bulletin board displayed features academic achievement results
between 2007, 2008 and 2009, which stood at 97%, 95% and 98% respectively.
5.3.3 Observation: School B (under-achieving school)
Observation of under-achieving school B is explained based on different headings below.
5.3.3.1
The physical environment of the school and structure of the
school buildings
School B is situated in an average socio-economic environment with averagely educated
families and far from shopping malls or main roads. Buildings harbouring classrooms and
teachers‟ offices are in good condition and well maintained. Thus, the school environment
was always clean during the researcher‟s visit to the school. Trees and flowers are planted on
the school premises. Also, students were usually sighted under the trees which provided
shade for them during lunch-breaks and they played on the school grounds.
The school classes are designed with adequate lighting. Each class was occupied by an
average of sixty students. There are adequate windows and doors in the classroom which
enabled cross-ventilation and the air quality in the classroom. Classroom furniture was
adequate with two students occupying a desk and bench. The seats and desks are solidly
built, with lockers within the desk.
Although the school did not have modern teaching equipment such as overhead projectors,
etc., except for chalkboards, there is a well-equipped and well maintained science laboratory
in the school. Based on the researcher‟s observation, the school library is well stocked with
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textbooks and few students were usually spotted reading in the library. A few teaching aids
were also observed in the principal‟s office. A bulletin board was displayed outside the
principal and vice-principal‟s office with information relating to transfers of teachers. Rules
and regulations also appeared on the notice board on issues concerning students‟ bullying
and welfare.
Students were observed coming late to school in the morning, while some of them were
hanging around the school premises. Students who were late and approaching the school
entrance gate (about 30 minutes after the school had settled down for normal classes at 8
a.m.), ran helter shelter in the street and spread out in different directions, on sighting the
official car of the school principal. Nevertheless, they went into the school after the principal
had driven his car to his office - which is about 100 metres from the classrooms. However, the
school security personnel at the gate could not apprehend the students, because they do not
have the authority to do so. During the school day the principal normally stays in his office
and it seems the he is not even aware of the undisciplined behaviour of students and some of
the teachers in the school.
The principal of School B is also not visible in the school. Therefore, it sometimes seems to
the researcher that the principal is not really interested in what is going on in the school. In
addition, there was usually noise in some classes that teachers were occupied teaching,
during the researcher‟s observations. The extent of the students‟ noise neccessitate teachers
who are busy teaching in neighbouring classes appear in those disruptive classes to tell the
students to stop making a noise.
5.3.3.2
School Organisation
School possesses a time-table which specifies the time prescribed for every teaching and
non-teaching activity within a normal academic school day and week. During one of the
researcher‟s observation visits to the school, a female teacher knocked at the HOD's office to
report another male teacher from preventing her to start her teaching period. The reason
according to her was that, her colleague normally starts teaching late and therefore uses part
of her teaching time to make up his time. This is ostensibly because the teacher gets late to
the class for teaching, as it appears to the researcher. It was also observed that there was a
proper flow of information and messages between the SLMT and the teachers, despite that
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the teachers were accommodated in a different administrative building separate from the
SLMT. Communication between the school staff members is usually through official phones
and the school messenger (office assistant) was also utilized to disseminate information in
the school.
5.3.3.3
School policy documents
School B does not possess a policy document relating to teaching and learning. Also, no
school vision statement was cited in any document or elsewhere. The school principal
expressed to the researcher that the school does not have a vision of its own, but believes
and works in-line with the educational objectives of the Lagos State government, that is,
„getting people educated to become useful citizens for themselves and the country‟. In
addition, official academic performance records of the final year students for a period of three
years 2007, 2008 and 2009, which indicate a pass rate of 25%, 39% and 30% respectively,
were presented to the researcher for observation in the principal‟s office.
The researcher was also not permitted to observe the school‟s financial set of books or
statements, based on a claim of privacy. Despite persuasions by the researcher to view any
of the financial set of books on request, the school principal declines and says, “We are sorry,
we don‟t allow anyone from the public to view our financial statements. It is private and
personal to us, but we can always make it known to the parents, because they are partners in
progress in relation to the school”. However, observed records showed low turnout rates of
parents at the school‟s successive Parents Teachers‟ Association (PTA) past meetings.
With regard to punctuality of teachers in the school, late coming records of teachers showed
that 12 teachers were absent during the first term of the academic year. Some of them were
absent more than once without any reason. In totality, 71 days of teachers‟ absenteeism from
school have been recorded within the academic term, during the researchers‟ field-work.
According to school principal, the teachers were usually absent based on untenable excuses.
Moreover, school records indicate that the absentee rate for all students was 240 days in
total, during the same academic term without apologies from the students or parents.
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5.3.3.4
Academic support
A guidance counsellor was available to provide career guidance and respond to students
questions regarding their choice of career. Throughout the researcher‟s period of observation
in the school, only two students were sighted in the career guidance counsellor‟s office for
career guidance discussions. Moreover, few teachers were sighted supervising students‟
reading during compulsory extra-mural preparatory reading periods between 2 and 4 p.m. that is, after normal academic school hours. Hence, many of the students were left alone to
make a noise in the classroom rather than reading their books. This is because some of
students and teachers had left for their homes, hence, did not bother to observe the
compulsory extra-mural preparatory reading periods.
5.3.3.5
Summary of Observations in School A and B
This summary covers the two observed schools - School A and B. As discussed earlier the
two sampled schools are exclusively financed by the Lagos State government and they enjoy
similar treatment in terms of their physical structure and facilities, including libraries,
laboratories, and so on. However, some slight differences and similarities gathered in the field
of observation after comparing the two schools are derived from the leadership and
management lapses of either of the two schools.
During observation in the two schools, it was concluded that School B‟s rate of late-coming
and loitering during school teaching hours were alarming. The students loitered around their
classrooms and buildings, which indicates that they are not well behaved. School A students
conduct was impressive. They are punctual in the school and read in their quite time, implying
that they show self-control and discipline towards their studies, compared with School B
students. On the other hand, School B students‟ noise level was usually loud to the extent
that teachers in the neighbouring classes usually complain. The teachers constantly go to the
disruptive classes to tell the students to keep quiet and stop making noise.
The principal of School A teaches Accounting in the senior students‟ class as it appears on
the teaching roster, unlike School B principal who does not teach any of the school subjects.
In School A, it was obvious that academic issues that are be beneficial to the students are
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pasted on the notice boards, unlike School B, where issues about teachers transfer and
students‟ bullying were mainly pasted on the notice boards. In School A, educational and
academic works such as teacher‟s articles, charts and so on, which are beneficial to the
students are pasted on the notice boards.
In addition, School A has an internal policy concerning teaching and learning, including a
school vision and a well formulated school policy document, whereas school B does not.
School A and B classes did not possess modern teaching facilities, for instance, overhead
projectors. In both schools, chalkboards are utilized by the teachers to teach the students. In
terms of academic support, School A teaching staff supervises and monitors the students
adequately in the compulsory preparatory reading period, compared with School B, where
only few teachers and students stay behind to supervise and observe respectively, the
compulsory reading period between 2 and 4 p.m. Records indicate that students regularly
visit the school guidance counsellors in School A in comparison with School B students.
The financial records of Schools A and B were not disclosed to the researcher. School A
principal made it known to the researcher that parents financially support the school and
attend PTA meetings regularly, which is not the case in School B. The statement of School A
principal regarding the regular payments of PTA fees by parents could be attested to,
considering the setting of the school as observed by the researcher.
The next paragraph presents analysis and discussion on how leadership and management
sub-themes or indicators contribute to school effectiveness in School A and B.
5.4
Analysis of the relationship between the dynamics of school
leadership and school effectiveness (School A and B)
5.4.1 Introduction
The following paragraphs present the analysis and discussion of how leadership dynamics
may contribute to school effectiveness. Although the researcher acknowledged that all
leadership elements discussed in Chapter 2 may contribute to school effectiveness, but the
leadership sub-themes or indicators utilized in this analysis sections seem to have strong
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impact on school effectiveness. They are: transformational, moral, visionary and instructional
leadership. This analysis is based on the data collected through interviews with SLMT of
School A and B (principal, vice-principal and HOD). The researcher however experienced
that most of the responses to interview questions offered by SLMT members were similar and
almost provided same meaning, hence, the comments of the principals are given paramount
consideration in this analysis.
The reason for given paramount attention to the responses of the principals is because, the
responsibility of making the school effective rests on the school principals, being the overall
leader, manager and chief accounting officer. Thus, the opinions of the vice-principal or HOD
of each school are only reported to corroborate or contradict the opinion expressed by the
school principal. The observations carried out in the schools were also used to corroborate or
contradict the comments of the SLMT responses gathered through the interviews. The SLMT
participants were labelled as: Principal - P1; Vice-principal - Vp1 and; Head of Department HOD1.
5.4.2 School leadership sub-themes
Although the researcher acknowledges that all the leadership models in the literature
constitute important elements of leadership. These models, indicators or elements of
leadership can be used to measure the leadership behaviour and actions of leaders in the
two selected schools, because they contain important elements for successful educational
leadership. Notwithstanding that all leadership models and elements discussed in Chapter 2
may contribute to school effectiveness, transformational, moral, visionary and instructional
leadership have been selected in this study, because it is assumed that they have
appreciable impact on school effectiveness. Even though the managerial leadership model is
not included as one of the leadership models contributing to school effectiveness, the
importance of the educational leader as a manager cannot be neglected, hence, the school
management functions and how they contribute to school effectiveness is discussed in
paragraph 5.7.
In furtherance of the reasons for the adoption of the above stated models of leadership in this
study, it is important to note that transformational leadership in school focuses on capacity
building of the teaching staff, therefore, it results in the motivation of teachers towards
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effective academic transformation of the school. The focus of instructional leadership is
towards managing teaching and learning, as they constitute the core activities of schools.
Moral leadership assumes that the focus of leadership ought to be on the values, beliefs and
ethics of the school leaders. Therefore, professional ethics and conduct of teachers also play
a major role in school effectiveness; more so, that leadership is also linked to school culture.
Also, visionary leadership has more impact on the leader‟s task of influencing the school than
any other aspects of the teaching job (Love, 1994:122; West-Burnham, 1994:64). Therefore,
it is important to point out that the contribution of the above leadership models on school
effectiveness depends on the dominant leadership style adopted by the education leader. In
the following paragraphs, the four identified and adopted leadership models are utilized in the
analysis and discussion of how leadership contribute to school effectiveness.
5.4.3 Analysis and discussion of the interviews to determine the
relationship between the dynamics of leadership contributing
to school effectiveness in School A
It is important to realize that if the conduct and actions of an educational leader is analysed,
the leader will demonstrate to a greater or lesser extent criteria or characteristics of the
following leadership models of leadership. That is, transactional, moral, visionary and
instructional leadership as indicated by the analysis that follows.
In School A, there is similarity in the expression of the principal, vice-principal and the HOD
as regards the transformation of the teachers. Utilizing the expression of the principal and the
vice-principal, he stated that the school strives to upgrade its teachers so that they keep
abreast with what is happening in their teaching subject areas. He also said, that is done by
organising in-house staff development workshops for teachers. The principal also maintained
that the workshops enable teachers to keep-up with the latest developments in their teaching
subjects, in order to enable them to participate meaningfully in curriculum decision-making
within the school and in the ensuing global village.
Hence, the first and notable means of enhancing the development of teachers in School A is
through the school principal‟s invitation of academic and skilled professionals. These
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professionals specialize in different academic fields and offer in-house workshops or
seminars in the various schools‟ teaching subject areas. They are invited by School B
principal when teachers‟ development needs are identified. The in-house workshops
organized by the school are different from the conventional development workshops offered
to schools by the Lagos State Ministry of Education, because they are exclusively organized
by School A for its teachers, through the use of internally generated PTA school funds. The
principal made the following statement regarding staff development:
“...we believe in... in-house training which we have been giving to our teachers at
subject, departmental and administrative levels. We look at how a teacher has been
performing in the classroom generally and train him or her about the new development
in his or her area of specialization. That is done by inviting professionals from outside
through our personal financial efforts as a school. That enables teachers to keep up
with developments in the areas of their teaching subjects in the ensuing global village
and thus, make them participate meaningfully in curriculum decision making in the
school. We normally invite subject and curriculum specialists from outside the school
to train our teaching staff so that they can keep up with the latest developments in
education and we pay those experts from funds generated through our PTA” P1.
The above captured data indicates strong elements of transformational leadership practice by
School A principal. Therefore, a deduction may be made that the principal has a concern for
staff development which aims at building the teaching capacity of the teachers. Prompt
workshops and seminars to transform teachers in their subject areas appears to be
intentionally organized by School A principal, so that student academic achievement may be
ensured, hence, school effectiveness. The action of the principal as regards transformation of
teachers also confirms Eshbach and Henderson‟s (2010:16-48) finding that, principals realize
the important role that “transformational leadership plays in effectively managing, building and
maintaining the role of an instructional leader”. Transformation of teachers is usually done, for
example, when the principal sets challenging, but attainable goals for the staff, delegate
responsibilities and authority; thus, making staff development a high priority in the school
(Gerber, et al., 1998:262).
The principal of School A also realizes the principle of the enhancement of the intellectual
stimulation of teachers to ensure greater success and efficiency in the school (Harms and
Knobloch, 2005:101-124), hence, his effort to further develop teachers. In order to confirm
another importance assigned to transformational leadership by School A principal, roles are
created in the school for parents and members of the school community, because they are
acknowledged as partners and co-producers of student learning. Therefore, School A parents
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are active partners in student learning, because PTA fund funds in which they make regular
contributions towards and as at when due, is used to invite subject and curriculum specialists
from outside the school and; the education department to train and develop the teachers at
the school.
In addition, transformational leaders create conditions that support and sustain the
performance of teachers in their schools, as well as students. This set of practices
acknowledges the importance of learning communities as key contributors to teacher‟s work
and student‟s learning. Such practices assume that the purpose of organisational culture and
structures is to facilitate the work or organisational members and that, the flexibility of
structures should match the changing nature of the school‟s improvement agenda (Day et.
al., 2000 and Leithwood et al., 1999). Thus, a deduction that may be made from the
statement of the principal of School A is that he also demonstrates to a greater extent,
elements of transactional leadership.
Furthermore, the comment of the vice-principal and the HOD supports the efforts of the
principal as a transformational leader, in making sure teachers are developed at regular
intervals. The vice-principal said, there were times when she or the principal organizes inhouse training for the teachers as a result of the related personal experiences she or the
principal have gained; through some of the teaching subjects‟ conference/workshop they
have attended in the past and which may enhance the teachers‟ ability in delivering
instruction. In the words of the vice-principal:
“We identify teacher training needs through the last training records of teachers in the
school, organize in-house training. If the principal or myself as the vice-principals have
attended a seminar that may be connected to improvement of teaching, we organize
what we call, in-house training for teachers” Vp1.
In expression of the HOD concerning the issue of teacher development is thus:
“...teachers that are given development training are given internal development
training, to be able to do their work” HOD1.
From the above expression of School A vice-principal and HOD, it is evident that the SLMT of
the school identifies with the vision and goals of the school. It also indicates that they support
the principal in his efforts to achieve his goal of building teaching capacity in the school
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through team efforts. The vice-principal‟s comments coincide with Niemann and Kotze
(2006:609-642) findings that, strong relationship between a principal's behaviour as regards
an inspiration of a shared vision and his/her attempts to enable the staff to act in nurture
sociable element in the school culture. As a way of collectively working towards the school
vision, the teachers were always observed supervising and supporting the students
academically, at the compulsory extra-mural preparatory reading periods between 2 and
4p.m., after normal academic school hours [see 5.3.2.4].
On the issue of morals, the principal, vice-principal and the HOD‟s explanations were similar.
Utilizing the HOD‟s comment, he said that the principal usually announce to the teachers to
always present good ethical and moral behaviour before the students. Teachers are
encouraged to be civilized in their relationship with the students and view them as their
biological sons and daughters, hence, displaying warmth and consideration in the discharge
of their duties. The HOD said that:
“...teachers are being told by the principal that when they teach the students. They
(students) should be treated morally correct like their own biological children and in a
way that makes teaching and learning excellent. If the teachers have any problem with
a particular student, they must treat that student in a morally correct and civilized way”
HOD1.
The HOD‟s emphasis on the value placed on school morals by the school principal highlights
the findings of Easley ll (2008:25-38) that principals recognize teachers as professionals and
provide them with support through dialogue and focus on the right things. Moreover, the
SLMT of School A seems to believe that students should be handled through the exhibition of
moral behaviour and professional ethics by teachers, particularly in relation to their teaching
duty. That seems to show clearly that the best interest of students is of paramount
importance in School A cased on the comment of the thus:
“I motivate them (teachers) morally so that they can always do the right thing by going
to the class regularly to teach the students as a sign of leadership by example” P1.
Moreover, the following comments of the vice-principal points to how teachers‟ discharge of
morality is ensured towards their teaching task. She said:
“I mean how to handle students discipline within the armpit of morality and even on the
conducts expected of them as professional teachers…” Vp 1.
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The SLMT‟s collective stance on the exhibition of ethical and moral leadership by teachers
represents low cost means toward moral leadership and; through the promotion of an
environment of fulfilment which supports teacher retention, hence, justifying the fact that
moral leadership in excellent schools is based on values, beliefs and ethics and altruistic love
(Fry, 2003:693-727; Bush, 2007: 391-406). It is thus clear that the leadership focus of School
A principal and SLMT members is based on what is good and what is wrong, because the
school principal, vice-principal and HOD‟s stance on the maintenance of professional
teaching ethics and the upright interpersonal relationship between the teachers and students
is a means of achieving an open school climate and culture in the school.
The HOD‟s comment on the issue of moral leadership in School A is further confirmed by a
document observed in the school. The document states that every student has a right to
engage his/her teacher at a tuition-free period during school hours, in order to discuss issues
of teacher‟s conduct and misconception of the topic being taught in the classroom. The
document also specifies that a teacher has no right to impose corporal punishment on a
student. Also, undisciplined students are normally requested to bring their parents to the
school so that their behaviour can be discussed with them (see 5.3.2.3).
School A principal, vice-principal and HOD‟s responses to the question of school vision
correlate. Hence, the comment of the principal with respect to maintaining standard through
the vision of the school is quoted thus:
“Teachers must be kept abreast with what is going on in their teaching subject areas.
That is why the school personally updates them, so that they can be able to impact
standardized and current knowledge to the students. Our yearly vision helps us to
achieve our goals of teaching and learning” P1.
On School A‟s effort in maintaining a vision, the vice-principal said:
“To keep to the vision of the school, there are so many development trainings, like
workshops organized for the teachers by the school so that whatever they don‟t know,
that training will put them… aaa… it will put them on… so that they will be able to
know so many things they did not know” Vp 1.
In addition, the following concerns how School B vision if worked towards when the HOD
said:
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“We encourage teachers to attend development training, because we know that
eventually, it will still boils down to help in working towards our vision us as a school”
HOD1.
School A displays a vision for teaching and learning by foremost making sure that teachers
are well developed on routine basis in the different subject they teach, because the
development, communication and accomplishment of the school‟s vision are among the
education leader‟s most important tasks, thus, leadership has to do much with what is going
to happen in the future of the school (Love, 1994:123). Creating a vision for a school is like
allowing the principal‟s creative imagination to develop an image of what the school would be
like, when its potential is fully realized. In addition, vision building is like imagining the end
result and vision implementation is doing everything that is necessary to get there, therefore,
it is the task of the education leader to accomplish this (Sterling and Davidoff, 2000:89; Love,
1994:124).
School A‟s SLMT‟s belief that a challenging school vision is a recipe for achieving academic
excellence is in harmony with the research findings of Brown and Anafara Jr. (2003:16-34)
who indicate that visionary leadership in action involves an initial exploration of possible
change areas, discussions and education regarding the issues involved and support,
commitment, and ownership. Moreover, the fact that School A principal pursue the school
vision through proper development of teachers in new areas of knowledge, particularly in their
various teaching subjects demonstrate vision for preparing teachers ahead in their teaching
subjects.
The principal, vice-principal and the HOD express similar comments on how they ensure
instructional leadership in the school. Making use of the comment of the principal, he
emphasized his believes in leadership by example, that is, by setting good example through
teaching Accounting in the school. He said:
“I go round to observe teaching in the classrooms and also try to reinforce good
teaching attitude of the teachers and look at their interpersonal relationship with
students. I also teach one of the subjects. So, when they see me doing that, they
won‟t have a choice than to be morally upright in discharging their teaching duties
appropriately” P1.
The vice-principal also said that she also supervises instructions in the school thus:
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“I make sure that they go to class regularly and at the exact period, exact time. I make
sure that I go round to see that teaching is going on during teaching periods” VP1.
The HOD‟s comment on instructional leadership in the school is indicated as follow:
“I ask teachers to teach with strictness to the scheme of work and occasionally too, I
ask for the books of the students to see what is the content coverage of a subject”
HOD1.
It is clear from the above statement that School B principal and other members of the SLMT
show concern for instructional effectiveness, by habitually supervising teaching tasks and that
indicates that he is visible in the school. Brown and Anafara Jr. (2003:16-34) research
findings support the principal and other members of the SLMT leadership behaviour as
regards School A‟s vision. Thus, the findings portrays that School A principal‟s leadership
practice embraces active visionary leadership based on the initial exploration of possible
change areas, discussions and education regarding the issues involved, support,
commitment and ownership. By implication, the enthusiasm of the principal in building on
School A‟s vision through commitment to the implementation of established school objectives
and goals, demonstrates high-performance expectations and; the establishment of a
productive school culture.
Above all, School A principal sets example through modeling the best practice, as his name is
included in the teaching roster of the school. Although the researcher did not witness the
school principal teach the students during his period of data collection in the school, but
document indicate his name in the school teaching roaster and that indicates the important
value placed on instructional leadership by the principal. In addition, the researcher sighted
the HOD and the vice-principal of the school teaching the final year students [see 5.3.2.2].
Since there is substantial evidence to indicate School A principal‟s visionary ability, Bennis
and Nanus (1985) submitted what motivates people are goals that they find compelling and
challenging, but still, achievable. Possessing compelling goals allows workers to derive
meaning in their tasks and permits them to have a sense of identity within their work
environment. This also allows for the identification and articulation of vision, nurturing the
acceptance of group goals and the creation of high performance expectations which are often
directed towards direction setting.
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From the foregoing, School A SLMT has demonstrated elements of instructional leadership
and to buttress this, Khan, Ahmad, Ali and ur-Rehman (2011:2668-2678) report in their
findings that “school principals are aware of the importance and value of providing
professional support and treating staff professionally, thus they expect a high standard of
professionalism in return”. Moreover, Bush and Glover (2002:10) stress that the direction of
influence process is based on the explanation that instructional leadership focuses on
teaching and learning and; on the behaviour of teachers in working with students. Therefore,
School A principal‟s influence is targeted at students‟ learning via teachers. This is because,
his emphasis is on the direction and the impact of influence, rather than the influence process
itself.
In addition, Southworth (2004:102) states that “leaders are reliant on other people; hence,
their ideas are mediated by teachers and other members of staff. In fact, effective leaders
indirectly know this and work very carefully on their indirect effects, more so that school
leaders have an influence through three related strategies of modeling, monitoring and
dialogue (NCSL, 2004). Therefore, teachers observe to make sure that their leaders „walk the
talks‟, because teachers do not follow leaders who do not do what they say.
Furthermore, the regular supervision of teachers exemplifies School A principal as a good
model of an instructional leader, because he illustrates what he wants his school to achieve in
terms of academic excellence. These findings are also in-line with Ofsted (2003:20) that,
there is a strong link between very good monitoring and or better teaching. That is, where
monitoring is effective, the quality of teaching is noticeably higher than in schools where
monitoring is poor and infrequent.
From the analysis of the interviews with the SLMT of School A, it is clear that that the
principal make use of class visits to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the school,
which is an illustration of effective instructional and visionary leadership. The instructional and
visionary practice of the principal may also have been enhanced based on the
transformational and moral leadership practices exhibited by School A SLMT.
In the below paragraphs, interviews with SLMT members of School B is analysed, interpreted
and discussed, based on leadership dynamics contributing to school effectiveness.
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5.5
An analysis and discussion of the interviews to determine the
relationship between the dynamics of leadership contributing to
school effectiveness in School B
With reference to professional transformation of teachers in School B, the principal of simply
reiterates that it is the sole responsibility of the State government to develop teachers through
internal workshops and training, but adds that development workshop or seminars that
teachers receive through the Lagos State government is not regular. That is, invitation to staff
development workshop or training is dependent on the amount of financial resources the
Lagos State government budgets to expend annually on teacher development. In relation to
teachers‟ development in the school, the principal and the vice-principal of school B similarly
said:
“Development of teachers is the sole responsibility of the government, through the
Ministry of Education and that is the only means of teacher development my school
relies on” P2.
On the transformation of teachers through developments, the vice-principal said that:
“Concerning training and teacher developments, the state government undertakes
that. They organize that. They organize training from time to time to update the
knowledge of the teachers, to refresh their memories of what they have learnt in their
former universities and colleges of education, but it is not regular” Vp 2.
In the same hint the HOD stated that:
“The development of teachers however depends on the amount and availability of
funds allocated by the government. Because of that, teacher development may be
once in a year and in some of the past years, teachers have not been called or invited
for in-service training” HOD2.
The comment of School B principal and the SLMT above indicate that they do not
demonstrates requisite elements of transformational leadership practice, because they do not
make internal efforts to ensure that the school teachers are developed, even if there is no
invitation for development workshops from the Lagos State government. Hence, the
principal‟s comment on transformational leadership is contrary to the submissions of Davidoff
and Lazarus (1997:153-154) that, the ability of schools to transform themselves is to a great
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extent dependent on the quality of leadership in the school. Also, “the commitment to take
responsibility frees one from making excuses as to why a negative situation cannot change
and allows one to make a real difference to practically any situation Davidoff and Lazarus”
(1997:153-154). It is thus evident that School B principal does not personally commit himself
to the development of the teachers, as he expects the Lagos State government to exclusively
update and develop his teachers in their subjects of teaching.
Moreover, the above reaction of School B principal on teacher development points to the
behaviour of a typical leader who is not committed to the transformation of the school. He
relies solely on the education department to improve the teaching skills of his staff, hence, his
excuse that training and development of teachers ought to be the sole duty of the government
towards training teachers in the schools. It also is clear that School B principal is not willing to
take responsibility for building the capacity of the school‟s staff; or to enhance teachers‟
intellectual stimulation so that they can experience a greater sense of efficiency and be
successful in their teaching tasks. The principal‟s comments on training of teacher in School
B may also lead to unmotivated teachers, because there are no opportunities for intellectual
stimulation in order that teachers experience a greater sense of efficiency and be successful,
as far as the school is concerned.
Moreover, the inability to internally develop teachers by School B‟s SLMT may not seem to
guarantee up-to-date instructional leadership, because constant training of teachers has a
direct relationship on changing instructional practice in order to improve student performance
and manage instructional programme (Quinn, 2002:447-467). More so, in the light of the fact
that School B does not make internal arrangements to develop its teachers, the school might
be faced with no significant challenge for change and greater accountability in terms of
teaching and learning or instructional delivery by teachers.
The absence of transformational leadership in School B will thus, lead to the inability of the
teachers to benefit from individualized support structures, inability of the teachers to establish
and pursue higher school goals and building of school visions (Nahavandi, 2003; Juli and
Atmanja, 2005:99-112; Abu-Tineh, et. al., 2008:648-660). Consequently teachers may lack
enhanced intellectual stimulation to be successful in experiencing a greater sense of
efficiency (Anderson, 2008:8-17), because they lack internal transformation in their specific
areas of teaching subjects. The absence of a school vision document [see 5.3.3.3] in School
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B, may also buttress the negative behaviour of the principal towards the development of the
teachers.
Data collected also makes it obvious that the issue of teachers‟ moral attitude towards their
task is a challenge in School B. Teachers do not seem to take the instructional and
administrative aspect of their teaching job serious, as they sometimes refuse to fulfil their
teaching obligation as at when due. They also do not promptly turn-in students‟ score sheets
to the school administration. In reaction to the moral attitude of School B teachers towards
their teaching tasks, the principal, vice-principal and HOD made identical comments. Quoting
the principal, he said:
“Some of the teachers are missing classes without reasonable excuses and some
teachers do not always submit the students‟ examination scores when due. Some of
the teachers submit their scores two weeks after the due date of submission,
tendering some unconvincing excuses.” If you don‟t mark, how do you get the
scores?” P2.
With a bit of variation in her comment, the vice-principal added that some of those teachers
are reported to the Local Education District and sometimes. In addition, the reported
teacher‟s case may move up to the higher level of the Lagos State Ministry of Education, if
such teacher‟s attitude of absenteeism and dereliction of teaching duties continues unabated.
She mentions that:
“If a teacher is fond of absenteeism or going late to the class to teach the students, he
or she is warned by the principal or the HOD. If he or she is still adamant afterwards,
he will be reported to the Government (Ministry of Education), because the behaviour
of such a teacher is inimical to the progress of the students, school and the name of
the principal” Vp2.
The HOD comments on the moral leadership displayed by teachers in his school as follow:
“... I mean some of teachers for one reason or the other do not complete the teaching
of the topic outlined in the syllabus because of one reason or the other” HOD2.
Concerning morals in School B, it is clear from the above interview caption that discipline in
the school is weak. The principal does not utilize any disciplinary action against the teachers
despite that he is aware that they miss classes without any substantial reason; hence, the
teachers do not execute their tasks according to predetermined standards and a set time
schedule. Therefore, it is apparent that the principal is not committed to use his authority to
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change the situation in the school. Observed school record which shows that 12 teachers are
used to absenteeism in School B [see also, 5.2.3.3] buttresses the extent of teachers‟
immorality in the school. It is thus clear that the leadership of School B does not comply with
moral leadership characteristics. Apparently, the moral behaviours of teachers in School B
runs contrary to the findings of Brown and Anafara Jr. (2003:16-34) that, based on morals, a
school culture is characterized by trust and the belief that teachers are respected and have
the power to make their own decisions. Teachers in School B have not utilized the trust and
respect bequeathed on them by the school to make morally upright decisions towards the
discharge of their teaching duties.
The findings in School B above indicate that there is lack of professional ethics and moral
behaviour among teachers towards their teaching tasks and that, teachers are unmotivated
and lack dedication probably, because they don‟t experience transformational leadership
through the principal. It also seems that the teachers have a negative attitude towards their
work, uncaring and disinterested in what is happening in the school. It is thus clear that there
is no power of example present in the school. The consequence of poor discipline, poor
coherence, cooperation among teachers and students may also be attributed to little or no
attention given to school rules, procedures and policy.
The principal, vice-principal and HOD of school B express that the school does not have a
vision of its own, but believes and works in-line with the educational objectives of the Lagos
State government. The vision of the Lagos State government is, „getting people educated to
become useful citizens for themselves and the country‟ [see 5.3.3.3], according School B
principal. Hence, the researcher was not presented a policy document relating to teaching
and learning in the school. Also, no school vision statement of the school was cited in any
document or elsewhere. Utilizing the comments of the principal on school vision, he said:
“Eeee…anyway… We are here to present government policy and if government policy
says, this is the direction; you have no choice other than to obey. Therefore, we
operate in the school based on government policy objectives and vision of getting the
citizens educated in the state” P2.
The vice-principal also comments on the issue of school vision thus:
“The school does not have a policy on teaching, for instance, concerning training and
teacher developments, the state government undertakes that” Vp 2.
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In addition, when ask about the internal school vision of School B, the HOD said:
“The government only sometimes seek our inputs in form of suggestions when drafting
some curriculum documents, therefore, there is no need for us to have a vision of our
own, but our suggestions in the government‟s school vision is sometimes incorporated
in the State‟s school curriculum vision statement” HOD2.
Vision has more impact on the leader‟s task of influencing the organisation than any other
aspect of this job (Love, 1994:122; Bush and West-Burnham, 1994:64). The development,
communication and accomplishment of the school‟s vision are among the education leader‟s
most important tasks. What emerges in School B shows that the absence of visionary
indicator of school effectiveness may have been one of the reasons why there is no
challenging direction in School B, because teachers and students are not motivated to work
for and strive towards the realisation of a common vision or set goals and objectives. In
addition, vision provides direction, a challenge, something worthwhile to work for and to strive
after, because leadership has much to do with what is going to happen in the future (Love,
1994:123).
The principal, vice-principal and HOD‟s comments indicate that their school principal is too
busy in his office, hence, could not supervise instructions in the school. Following the
comment of the principal, he said that he sometimes instructs the vice-principal to go to the
classrooms to see whether the teachers are teaching as at when due. This demonstrates his
lack of involvement in the management of the instructional programme in the school. The
principal said:
However, I make sure that I sometimes send the vice-principal to go round and see
that teachers are teaching in the classrooms” P2.
The vice-principal reiterates that she supervises the teachers sometimes thus:
“...like I said, the principal sometimes tell me to go round the school to see that the
teachers, they attend to their subjects when they have them on the time-table” Vp2.
On his part, the HOD said:
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I don‟t really care to bother myself and supervise the teachers, because there is no
guarantee that the teachers will complete all the topics to be taught effectively under
my supervision as the HOD. That is, one hundred per cent completion of all the topics
HOD2.
The comment of School A principal and other SLMT members presupposes that instructional
leadership aspect of the school is not of primary importance. This is evident by the
observation of a few numbers of teachers supervising students, during the compulsory extramural preparatory reading periods in School B [see 5.3.3.4]. To this extent, the behaviour of
School B teachers and principal is contrary to Southworth (2002:79), who states that
instructional leadership is strongly concerned with teaching and learning. Concurrently, Bush
and Glover (2002:10)‟s definition stresses that “instructional leadership focuses on teaching
and learning”; however, the performance of teachers in relation to teaching and learning is
disappointing. Therefore, School B principal‟s influence is not targeted at student learning via
the teachers.
School B teachers may feel that the principal is not really interested in what they do and how
they do it, because he seems to be uninvolved. It appears that, because the school principal
is not teaching any of the school subjects and does not care to supervise teachers during
teaching, it may have contributed to teacher‟s dereliction of their duties. According to NCSL
(2004), research indicates that teachers observe their leaders carefully over time in order to
test whether their actions are consistent with what they say. If an educational leader does not
display leadership by modeling best practices, he might not be respected by teachers,
students and parents; hence, he or she may not be able to have a positive influence over
their behaviour. Therefore, the fact that School B principal is not involved in the teaching of
any of the school subjects may have disabled the teachers in taking instructional aspects of
their jobs serious. That may also be based on the evidence that the teachers do not promptly
turn in students‟ examination score sheet as captured in the interview with by School B
principal.
A conclusion that could be drawn from the above analysis based on the interviews and
observation is that, there is little indication that School B principal complies with the criteria for
instructional leadership. This is because little or no effort is made to change instructional
practice by means of well-planned teacher development strategies in the school through
workshops and seminars. School B is characterized by poor discipline, high percentage of
teacher and student absenteeism, poor school climate of teaching and learning, which leads
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to poor students‟ achievement. It also seems that the principal does not have the ability to act
firmly against teachers and students who take chances by breaking break school rules.
Moreover, School B has no challenging vision or focus related to instructional performance of
the teachers. This is because the principal instructs the vice-principal to do class visits in
order to ensure teacher performance, rather than being actively involved in instructional
supervision.
The following paragraph is a summary of the analysis of findings in School A and B,
concerning how leadership contributes to school effectiveness. The summary stems from the
interpretation and discussion of comments of individual SLMT participants in each school.
5.6
Summary
It clear from the captured data from the interviews with the members of the of SLMT of
School A, as well as the data from the researcher‟s school observations that an orderly and
disciplined school environment which is conducive to the quality of education, is created
through School A principal‟s leadership.
Therefore, the researcher arrives at a conclusion that School A principal and his school
leadership and management team members demonstrate strong elements of transformational
leadership, because School A is concerned about staff development and the building of
teachers‟ capacity as means of ensuring school effectiveness. To confirm this important
element of transformational leadership, the principal creates roles in schools for parents and
acknowledges members of the school community as partners and co-producers of student
learning. The parents of School A are active partners in student learning. Part of PTA
financial dues that are promptly paid by the parents are used to invite subject and curriculum
specialists from outside the school to develop teachers. Education ministry officials are also
invited to train and develop teachers through workshops and seminars organized within the
school.
The school principal and the HODs stance on the maintenance of professional teaching
ethics and morally upright interpersonal relationship between the teachers and students,
seems to have been emphasised by School A. The emphasis of professional teaching ethics
is a means of achieving an open school climate and culture. The principal of School A is a
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good model of what he wants to achieve in the school, and he does that by setting positive
example, hence, he teaches Accounting at the final year SSS 3 class.
The vision of School A is to be “the leader among schools”. Therefore, in order to achieve the
school vision, School A invests in the professional development of their teaching staff. Also
School A principal is visible in the school and enthusiastic in building the school‟s vision so as
to establish the school goals, demonstrate high-performance expectations and create a
productive school culture. Above all, he sets an example through modeling of best practice.
Hence, School A SLMT complies with the following criteria for instructional leadership
namely: directing relationship on changing instructional practice to improve student
performance and management of instructional programme, promotion of a positive school
climate and holding an image or a vision of what should be accomplished and; focusing on
matters related to instruction and the classroom performance of teachers. On the other hand,
the reaction of School B principal and other SLMT members towards instructional leadership
typically indicates lack of commitment to the transformation of the school. The school
principal relies solely on the Ministry of education to improve the teaching skills of his staff. By
implication, he is not willing to take the responsibility of building the capacity of teachers in
order to enhance their intellectual stimulation, so that they may be successful and experience
a greater sense of efficiency. The lack of intellectual stimulation may also lead to unmotivated
teachers in School B, because there may not be opportunities to be successful and
experience a greater sense of efficiency by the teachers.
School B principal‟s leadership role seems to be a matter of passive status, because
discipline in the school is weak. Even though the principal is aware of the fact that teachers
are missing classes without reason and that, they do not execute their work according to
predetermined standards and a set time schedule; he does not seem to take action against
them. Therefore, it seems that he is not committed to use his authority to change situations in
the school.
There is a lack of professional ethics and moral behaviour among teachers towards their
teaching tasks presumably, because teachers are unmotivated and thus, lack dedication. It
also seems that the teachers have a negative attitude towards their work and that, most of
them are uncaring and disinterested in what is happening in the school. There is no positive
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moral climate in the school. In the overall, the above- problems may be related to the
leadership style of School B principal, because teachers watch their leaders to see whether
they do as they say. In essence, it is clear that power of example is not present in School B.
The teachers in School B may feel that the principal is not really interested in what they do
and how they do it, because he seems to be uninvolved. Therefore, little or no attempt is
made to establish school rules, procedures and policy; despite the outcome of poor discipline,
poor coherence and cooperation among teachers and students.
The principal of School B expressed that school doesn‟t have a vision of its own, but believes
and work in-line with the educational objectives of the Lagos State government, which is,
„getting people educated to become useful citizens for themselves and the country‟.
Therefore, the researcher did not sight a policy document relating to teaching and learning in
the school and a school vision statement was not sighted in any document.
It is however evident in the analysis and discussion above that School B principal does not
comply with the criteria of instructional leadership, because little or no effort is made to
change instructional practice by means of a well-planned teacher development strategy in the
school and he instructs the vice-principal to do class visits to ensure teachers‟ performance
rather than being involved in instructional supervision.
In the next sections, school management sub-themes or indicators contributing to school
effectiveness in School A and B are analysed and discussed.
5.7
Analysis of the relationship between the dynamics of school
management and school effectiveness (School A and B)
5.7.1 Introduction
The following paragraphs present the analysis, interpretation and discussion of data in School
A and B. This is based on the field data from interviews, observations and document retrieved
from School A and B. The interviews with the principals, vice-principals and the HODs will be
analysed and triangulated with observations and or document analysis/review generated from
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the field of data collection. More so, the analysis and discussion of data will be based on the
management sub-themes or indicators generated from literature review in Chapter 2.
The management sub-themes or indicators utilized in the following analysis sections are:
planning and visualizing, policy making, decision making and problem solving, organizing,
delegating, coordinating, control, motivation, communication, establishment of interpersonal
relationship, school climate, school culture, school change, school conflict and schoolcommunity relationship. However, the researcher experienced that most of the comments on
generated from the interviews were similar and almost provided same meaning. Hence,
comments of the principals are given paramount consideration in this analysis, because the
responsibility of making the school effective rests on the principals. The school principal is
also the overall leader, manager and chief accounting officer in the school. However, the
opinion of the vice-principal or HOD of each school is reported to corroborate or contradict
those expressed by the school principal.
5.7.2 Relationship between the dynamics of school management and
school effectiveness (School A)
In relation to planning of the internal school curriculum and subject responsibilities the
principal, vice-principal and the HOD said that the SLMT usually meets with all teaching staff
of the school, where subjects to be taught by each teacher in the different classes are
designated. The subjects are distributed to teachers at the beginning of the school year
based on their areas of specialization. That is, teachers who are specialists in specific
teaching subjects are assigned classes and the subjects to teach. The principal of School A
expressed as follows regarding the curriculum and subject responsibilities of teachers, just as
the vice-principal and the HOD‟s comments were similar. The principal said:
“At the beginning of the academic session… eee… we always have a subject
distribution meeting with the teachers . The teachers will be given a copy of the
curriculum to be taught after subjects have been allocated and distributed to each of
them and that will serve as a plan of …I mean what they are going to teach throughout
the term and the strategies to teach them will be drawn-up by the teachers. They will
make sure that they teach all the topics written out from the curriculum throughout the
term” P1.
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Likewise the school principal, the vice-principal comments on planning of teaching in the
school thus:
“We make planning a compulsion so that teachers know the subjects they will teach,
normally at the beginning of every academic session” Vp1.
Moreover, the HOD in his statement said:
“We plan at the beginning of the year and distribute to teachers the curriculum
subjects and topics they must teach” HOD1.
The following elements of planning could be identified from the above captured data:
Planning is done to meet the curriculum needs of the school during an academic year and the
curriculum needs that revolve around teaching of the different subjects from SSS 1 to 3 are
directed by departmental policy (interpretation of the prescribed curriculum). Hence, in School
A one of the most important principles of organisation is that of specialization and division of
work. Specialization is the way in which a task is divided into smaller units.
In addition, School A divides large teaching tasks into smaller units or subjects and those
subjects are allocated or delegated to individual teachers according to their teaching
experiences and skills. In the school, work allocation is communicated during a subject
distribution meeting, where teaching staffs‟ responsibilities are clarified and spelt out clearly
(Van Deventer, 2003:78). The findings of Kung (2008:31-46) also confirms that “when the
extra-time and energy demanded by planning and decision-making are balanced by real
authority, teachers often report satisfaction and enthusiasm”. Another important aspect
concerning how School A deals with planning of academic activities in the school is that, the
SLMT ensures that teachers adhere to departmental policy, which stipulates that all the
prescribed topics in the syllabus must be taught within a school year. However, the SLMT
reiterates that teachers have the authority and the freedom to decide on the most suitable
teaching strategies and methods that they prefer to apply in teaching various topics in their
subjects.
Therefore, School A principal appears to give planning of academic activities a priority by
making sure that subjects are distributed at the beginning of the academic year. This also
shows that the focus of School A principal is on effective curriculum delivery and that, the
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focus is in-line with the school‟s vision. The strategies to teach the subjects also indicate that
the plans are geared towards the vision of the school which is a wrap-up of the aims and
objectives of the school (Love, 1994:123; DeChurch and Hass, 2008:542-568).
Although it seems that teachers are compelled to teach according to the prescribed syllabus,
they are allowed to choose the most suitable strategies and methods of teaching in their
subjects, the conclusion that may be drawn is that, the responsibility to execute teaching task
successfully and the authority to take independent decisions in teaching a subject is allowed
in School A. It is also important to note that through the strategic instructional planning
employed by School A principal, he sets an example by teaching the final year SSS 3
students the subject of Accounting.
School A principal said that he operates an open door policy on issues regarding teaching
and learning. Thus, students and teachers are always welcome to visit him in his office to
discuss about any academic issue or problem. He also said that teachers and the students
have been made to ascertain and absorb the school policy on teaching. That is, the teachers
must always make sure that they teach every topic in a particular syllabus or in every subject.
He also said that the teachers must sometimes contact him or the HOD for possible solutions
in case any problem arises in relation to teaching those topics they find difficult to understand.
The vice-principal and the HOD‟s comments are similar to the principal‟s response on the
question of school policy. The principal is quoted below:
“On academic issues, the teachers are aware of the policy on their teaching duties.
They must make sure that they teach all the topics in the syllabus before the end of
the academic year. That is it a mandatory policy of the school. The policy also
indicates that if a teacher has problems as per handling particular topics in his or her
subject areas, they should go to the principal, vice-principal or their HODs with such
problem. If such cases are brought to me, I probably talk to their HOD maybe he can
recommend a better teacher to handle that particular topic” P1.
The vice-principal explains the school policy question in relation to the compulsion of the
SLMT to handle the teaching of at least a subject. She said:
“There is a policy in the principal in the school relating to teaching; the principal makes
sure that everybody including himself teaches a subject. We go to classes! We go to
classes, whether principal or HOD! Even, I make sure that I teach eight periods in a
week” Vp1.
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The HOD also said that the availability of teaching and learning policy ensures proper
teaching and learning in the school. His comment is:
“What you don‟t swallow, you cannot vomit, so the school has a policy that everyone
including members of the SLMT must teach a subject that they are good in” HOD1.
Provisions of School A policy are clear with respect to how teaching and learning objectives
are achieved. The striking provision of the school policy may seem to serve as a stimulus for
teachers to comprehensively teach every topic in their subject outline (syllabus) in each
academic session. Moreover, every teacher is accountable to the school principal as regards
their teaching and handling of lessons. Therefore, each teacher needs to give a report of
what he/she must have experienced in the discharge of his/her teaching in a statutory
Curriculum Teaching Meeting (CTM), once every two weeks as contained in the school
teaching and learning policy [see details, 5.3.2.3].
The statement of the principal as regards school policy reflects the school value
system in teaching and learning. The presence of school policy on teaching and
learning also signifies guideline to direct the actions and behaviour of teaching and nonteaching staff, students and parents (Prinsloo, 1993:42; Kruger and Van Schalkwyk,
1997:34). By implication, in School A policy is utilized for studying, monitoring and developing
the quality of self-evaluation through effective communication, supportive relationships and
shared leadership (Vanhoof, et. al., 2009:667-686). Moreover, because principals are usually
held accountable for failing to formulate and effect school policy that promotes student
achievement (Spillane, White and Stephan, 2009:128-151), School A principal usually
requests teachers to approach and seek the his assistance or that of the HOD in solving
difficult topics in their subjects.
Every SLMT members in School A said that they believe in collaborative decision making.
The principal said that he encourages teachers to get together and take decisions in solving
difficult problems in the subject areas, that some teachers are not capable of teaching in the
classroom. He further said that he encourages teachers to get closer to one-another, so as to
be able to seek clarifications from more experienced teachers who are better in some
subjects. In the words of the principal:
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“emmm… Just like I have said earlier on, we look at the total package, the
departmental level, any area that is difficult, we tell the teachers… the subject
teachers that are teaching a particular topic to meet all the specialist teachers in that
department, so that they can put heads together to see how they can solve difficult
topical problems in any of their subject‟s areas” P1.
As regards decision-making, the vice-principal also said as follow:
“Decision-making situation in our school is very formal and based on mutual respect
and it usually lead to collaboration and cooperation between teachers and SLMT
members” Vp1.
Also the HOD‟s comment corroborates the principal and the vice-principal when she said that:
“When there is a teaching and learning problem, teachers are usually requested to
come together, sometimes with the SLMT and take decisions on issues that bothers
teaching and learning. In this place, we call it cooperative teaching, where teachers
help one another to solve teaching problems” HOD1.
The above comment of School A principal and members of the SLMT implies that the
principle of participation in the decision-making process through cooperation and consultation
is applied in School A. Therefore, in School A, consultation and participation in the decisionmaking process by every teacher boosts the quality of decision, variety of decision options,
increase in decision acceptance and better understanding of the decision reached (Van
Deventer, 2003:98-99). In School A, participation and consultations utilization in decision
making may further results in staff motivation, integration and interaction between teachers to
promote teamwork (Au, Wright and Botton, 2003:481-498 and Wong, 2009:157-179).
In School A, participative decision-making further promotes teacher leadership, mentoring
and collegiality, whereby the more experienced teachers may mentor the less experienced
teachers to improve their teaching capacity. It may also bring about collegiality that provides
for the participation of teachers in decisions which affect their work lives and other benefits.
Hence, the participative practice of School A SLMT results in higher quality of decisionmaking, greater decision acceptance by participants, greater satisfaction with the decisionmaking process and a higher level of expansion of decision-making skills (Yukl, 2002:83).
As regards organisation of teaching and learning, the principal explained that the school has
a formal time-table used for organizing teaching and learning. He also said that teachers
strictly adhere to the time-table, because of a procedure, whereby students‟ leaders (class
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captain) are allowed to alert the teachers whenever they have their subject period (see
5.3.2.3]. Moreover, at the beginning of the academic year, every teacher is assigned to teach
each of the classes of students, depending on the teaching subject they specialize in. The
view of the principal is similar to that of the vice-principal and HOD. The principal said further:
“At the beginning of the session… eee… we always have a subject distribution
meeting, where we decide who and who will teach a particular aspect. That is when
we discuss the issue of curriculum handling by teachers” P1.
In his comment to the question to how teaching and learning is organised in the school, the
HOD said:
“A teacher must specialize in a particular subject he or she is handling in order to
ensure better organization of teaching and learning...That is why I said, area of
specialization” HOD1.
Furthermore, on the issue of arrangement of teaching, School A vice-principal also said that
the SLMT always ensure that a subject is taught by an alternative qualified teacher in the
school. That is, if the actual teacher of the subject is not available due to sickness or because
of unforeseen circumstances, a suitable substitute teacher is always available to take the
classes. Thus, the teacher who is to teach that subject when such situation arises, would
have known about it from the commencement of the academic term. This is to make sure that
there is no excuse for not teaching the students that subject on any particular day. Her view is
shared by the HOD and similar to the view of the school principal. In the words of the viceprincipal:
“There are other teachers who readily know are that they have to take charge of any
unavailable teacher‟s teaching subject in case of unforeseen circumstance, maybe
sickness, leading to the unavailability of that teacher. That is an arranged put in place
at the on-set of the academic term” Vp1.
To buttress teaching and learning, School A seems to be well organized as policy is put in
place to ensure the presence of a teacher during every teaching period. The policy on
teaching stipulates that the student leader (class captain) of each class must present a
teachers‟ attendance log to a teacher for signature before and after he or she starts teaching
them [see 5.3.2.3]. In this case, School A policy also serves as a guideline for the actions and
behaviour of the teaching staff. In summary, it may be concluded that the school policy
serves as a guide for the management of curriculum and extra-curriculum activities,
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administrative decisions and it thus, reflects the school‟s value system. This means that policy
documents and control measures are well planned and available. More so, in School A
everyone knows exactly what is expected of him or her, which demonstrates that teachers
are obliged to accept responsibility for their teaching duties and prepared to give account to
the principal of the school.
School A principal, vice-principal and HOD‟s expressions regarding the organisation of
teaching show the importance placed on teaching in the school. It further indicates that the
best interests of the students are paramount in the school. Hence, according to Van
Deventer, (2003:150), Van der Merwe (2003:111), Smit and Cronjé (1999:209), in formal
organisational structure, responsibility and accountability, clear channels of communication,
meaningful distribution of resources, division of labour and the establishment of specialized
departments are predetermined, so that experts in various fields can deal with certain tasks,
evaluated and the teaching staff are clearly communicated to.
Responses School A vice-principal and the HOD are in-tune with that of the principal as
regards delegation of teaching tasks. The principal said that in his absence, all academic
duties are delegated to the vice-principal who works with the HODs to ensure that every
individual teacher takes responsibility for emergency issues, in case the actual subject
teachers teaching those subjects are absent. He further explained that the teachers and the
HODs collaborate well with the vice-principal in running the affairs of teaching and learning
smoothly. According to the principal:
“Like I said, some teachers stand in place of other teachers who are not available.
Also, the vice-principal stands in place of my office to run academic and administrative
activities when I am not in the school. Therefore, the vice-principal constantly checks
whether the subjects delegated to the teachers are well taught by supervising those
teachers, while I am not in the school. Also, the HODs and the teachers work well with
her (the vice-principal) on the issue of administering teaching and learning, because
the teachers know that vice-principal is capable” P1.
As regards delegation of teaching tasks, the vice-principal concurrently said:
“When some teachers are not …aaa… some are not…I mean, are not deeply
knowledgeable in a particular topic, we now delegate those that know it very well. That
specializes…that know that area very well and he will handle that are on behalf of that
teacher that has a problem in that particular topic” Vp1.
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A conclusion that may be made out of School A principal‟s statement is that, he is in a
relationship of trust with the vice-principal of the school. Thus, he is prepared to delegate
challenging tasks to the vice-principal. This appears to be an important motivational
technique, because it offers greater potential for achievement and recognition. It may also
make the vice-principal feel useful and important; hence, she will be motivated to do more in
the school. It further seems that there is good cooperation and coherence between School A
SLMT and the rest of the teaching staff. The reason for the cooperation and staff coherence
may be due to the fact that everyone is well informed about the vision of the school. Also, the
teaching aims, objectives and the policy on teaching in School A are clear and well
communicated.
School A SLMT members‟ views are compatible on the issue of coordination of the
curriculum. The principal of School A explained that, because all the final year students write
two types of terminal examinations, the syllabus of the two examination body - WAEC and
NECO - are synchronized and taught by teachers for proper coordination, so that students
may achieve exceptionally well in both examination subjects. The principal‟s comment on
how curriculum is coordinated in the school is presented thus:
“There shouldn‟t be any topic not taught. We allow teachers to look at the curriculum
which concerns what they are teaching, so that they can do proper harmonization of
the topics. They must look at the State curriculum and compare it with the Federal
curriculum too, and try to synchronize the two” P1.
Also, the vice-principal‟s comment on coordination of teaching activities is in-line with the
principal‟s view thus:
“Both similar and dissimilar topics in WAEC and NECO syllabuses must be taught by a
teacher. Then will be able to pass both and go further to tertiary institutions” Vp1.
With reference to coordination of teaching and learning activities in the school, the HOD
similarly said:
“...at times when we discover anything wrong, that is if the teacher is not coordinating
his teaching well, we call the teacher‟s attention, although it‟s very rare in this school,
but occasionally when it occurs, we encourage such teachers (ourselves), especially
on area of coverage” HOD1.
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Prinsloo (2003:163) states that effective coordination allows for the development of team
spirit and promotes team work, ensure cooperation between teachers, ensure that the school
policy is uniformly applied; tasks are synchronized performance well and discharged
cohesively through warm relationships and the formulation of team spirit to achieve
curriculum effectiveness in the school. The comment of the principal concerning coordination
of teaching and learning suggests that he is careful, so that the teachers do not leave any of
the examination bodies (WAEC and NECO) syllabus topics untaught. Therefore, his aim of
synchronizing the teaching objectives of both syllabuses is a demonstration of his serious
concern for good student achievement.
The principal, vice-principal and the HOD perform similar duties as gathered from the
interviews concerning control of teaching and learning activities in School A. Accordingly, the
principal controls teaching in the school by checking the notes of the students against the
topics taught by teachers, in order to verify that there is a relationship between what was
taught by the teachers and the notes they give to the students in their subjects. In addition,
School A principal compares individual students‟ notes with those of their class-mates within
a classroom, in order to confirm the exact topic(s) the teacher has taught the students and
also, in comparison with the teacher‟s lesson notes. Another reason School A principal
inspects the notes of the students, is to know whether students are actually copying their
subject notes regularly. In the words of the principal, he said:
“I check the notes given to the students by their teachers on topics taught in a subject,
in comparison to the lesson notes teachers present as evidence of having taught the
students. I have done that today in Class 2A. I also check those of the students‟
copied notes, that are not…you know, up to the level of others (up-date)... I try to find
out why from them. I also look at the quality and quantity of the notes given by the
teachers. Also, I check to know whether the teachers regularly turn in their students‟
results after computation - whether test results or examination results” P1.
The vice-principal also said that she participates in the control of teaching and learning as
follows:
“Mmmm… I always always check to make sure that any teacher that handles a
particular subject in the classroom; I make sure that that teacher knows and teaches
that particular subject very well, because if there is any area that the teacher did not
teach well, the students may not understand” Vp1.
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School B SLMT may have been utilizing control in the teaching and learning process to
ensure for the assessment and regulation of teaching and learning as it progresses, in order
to avoid digression from planned school activities (Stoner and Wankel, 1986:574; Allen,
1997:5; Rue and Byers, 2007:327). In addition, control may have been used by School B to
measure teachers‟ progress towards realizing the objectives of the school and in order to
allow the school principal to detect deviations from planned activities in time, so as to take
corrective action (Van Deventer, 2003:128, Smit and Cronjé, 1999:399; University of Pretoria,
2010:62).
From the above interview caption, it is clear that effective control does not only focus on task
completion, but also on the person carrying out the task. Recognition and appreciation can
extend the merit system and shortcomings addressed by taking corrective action, which
stimulates
staff
development
and;
successful
task
execution
accompanied
by
acknowledgement and appreciation results in a happy school community, where sound
relationships can flourish (University of Pretoria, 2010:62). Therefore, the principal of School
A believes that controlling the teachers‟ job performance routinely and inspecting students‟
volume of work in the class, may help to achieve the set objectives of teaching and learning.
Provision is also made in the school policy regarding teaching and learning. The provision
entitles a student to engage his/her teachers during a tuition free period and discuss any
misconceptions about any part of the topic that has been taught [see 5.3.2.3].
As a means of controlling teaching and learning, punctuality of teachers in the class (on time
teaching) was also mentioned in the HOD‟s comments on controlling of teaching and
learning. According to him:
“Teachers will always be in the classroom at the exact time they are supposed to. We
also request students to remember to always tell them to sign the attendance notes
whenever the teacher comes to an end of his lesson in the class” HOD1.
In one of the researcher‟s routine observations in the school, he coincidentally observed
teachers in the principals‟ office and he gathered that, teachers were in the principal‟s office
ostensibly to ensure that their lesson notes are approved by the principal. Teachers were also
observed in different classes, teaching according to the school tuition time-table [see 5.3.2.2].
Thus, it can thus be concluded that the criteria of control in terms of teachers‟ progress
towards realizing the objectives of the school (Van Deventer, 2003:128; Smit and Cronjé,
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1999:399; University of Pretoria, 2010:62), is applied and met by School A principal and other
members of the SLMT. Regular control in School A also allows the principal to detect
deviations from planned activities in time in order to take corrective action (Van Deventer,
2003:128).
On motivation, School A members of SLMT views are similar on how they motivate teachers.
According to the principal, the vice-principal or the HOD regularly acknowledges some of the
teachers who are outstanding in the performance of their teaching tasks. The principal adds
that he also verbally thanks teachers as a way of motivating them and that, he gives
deserving teacher awards for excellent teaching annually. This is to make the teachers
continue to put more effort in discharging their teaching duties, he adds. In his words:
“I motivate the teachers verbally, through praises to job well done. In the school, I
thank and give annual awards for teachers who have done exceptionally well in the
performance of their duties. Therefore, I acknowledge their efforts with awards… we
all celebrate the end of the year party and teachers eat and drink” P1.
Similarly the vice-principal said that she motivates teachers towards doing their job better.
She continues:
“The internal seminars the teachers attend allow them to perform well and better in
their classroom teaching and when they do that, I can give them some refreshment, so
that they will be able to continue doing well in their teaching” Vp1.
Moreover the HOD adds that his way of motivation of teachers is by vouching for their
development when the time arises. He said:
“Moreover, if a teacher shows interest in development and workshop training, I am
always ready to vouch for them, hence that motivates more do put in their best at
work” HOD1.
The principal of School A uses verbal praises to motivate teachers for a “job well done”, the
vice-principal host teachers with refreshment when they attend seminars, while the HOD
guarantees and vouch for their participation in development workshops. These may serve as
a psychological means of enhancing effective job performance through arousing, energizing,
directing, sustaining behaviour and performance of teachers (Shadare and Hammed, 2009:
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7-17; Rue and Byers, 2007:58; Harms and Knobloch, 2005:101-124; Fry, 2003:693-727). The
annual award for deserving teachers is another means of indicating to teachers that they
have achieved, according to the high performance expectations of the School A principal
(Van de Grift, et. al., 2006:255-273; Bush, 2007: 391-406). Therefore, in an attempt to
motivate teachers towards attaining high academic expectations set by the school, teachers
are given the best possible support to ensure quality teaching and learning in the school.
On interpersonal relationship in School A, the comments made by the school principal and
other members of the SLMT indicate that they relate positively and well with the teachers. For
instance, the principal reiterates that his belief in an open democratic relationship and
communication with teachers and students enables the creation of favourable environment
for learning. In his words:
“… I believe in good and democratic rapport with my staff. Therefore, there is free flow
of communication. Thus, it makes the environment very conducive for learning. There
is no autocratic way of doing things here! I believe in democratic ways of doing things.
I believe in participatory method; everybody is always put on board through
appropriate means of communication feedbacks” P1.
The vice-principal also said this on her inter-personal relationships with the teachers:
“…we let the students know, always that the teachers are theirs and they will always
be theirs, as far as they are cooperating and relating well with them and the school
SLMT” Vp1.
The HOD‟s also expression on his relationship with teachers is thus:
“…also, when the teachers have problem in their teaching of a subject, I sympathize
with them, mutually work with them and they will know that you are leader who fear
God in their relationship with them, they will respect you, because of the interest and
respect you have for them” HOD1.
Democratic means of relationship seems to have been embraced in School A, as a means of
enabling a free flow of information and communication between the SLMT, teachers and
students. In support of the principal‟s comment; the researcher observed that there was good
and proper communication network between the SLMT and; teachers and from one teacher
to another teacher. They make also use of official/personal cell phones and the school
messenger (office assistant) to disseminate messages in the school [see 5.3.2.2]. The
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democratic rapport of the principal encourages participation of teachers and students on
issues that affect them (teaching and learning). These findings correspond with Igzar
(2008:535-548) that, there is also a significant relationship between leadership and upward
communication behaviour and the reflective approach, monitoring approach, problem-solving
confidence approach and the planned approach.
Moreover, the positive interpersonal relationship practice of the School B principal with his
members of staff coincides with Moye, Henkin and Egley (2005:260-277), who claim that
interpersonal relationship has been found to make teachers personally meaningful, thus
teachers who have significant autonomy in their work and who feel they have a great deal of
influence on what happens in their department indicated higher levels of interpersonal trust.
The conclusion therefore is that, in School A‟s sound interpersonal relationships are
established between the principal, members of the SLMT, teachers and students, which
concurrently indicates that effective interpersonal relationships between the school principal
and teachers positively increase team building trust and openness (Bipath, 2008:84, AbuTineh, et. al., 2008:648-660).
Moreover, the SLMT members of School A gave compatible comments on the utilization of
communication in resolving academic issues in the school, through establishment of good
rapport with the teachers and Students. The principal in particular said that he discusses
matters affecting teaching and learning and; any other issue relating to teaching and learning
with the teachers and students democratically, when the occasion arises. Using the
principal‟s comments:
“…there is what we call Students‟ Representative Council (SRC) which is composed
of the prefects and senior prefects and also the teachers‟ forum. So, we rub minds
together and we democratically discuss issues giving them problems in their
academics and where they need attention. I allow students and teachers to come to
me in my office for discussions on issues affecting their teaching and learning. Then, I
will know the challenges facing them” P1.
The vice-principal also describes her communication with teachers as being mutual. She said
that:
“…I communicate with the teachers in a mutual way, such that they understand better
the importance of using teaching aids to make their teaching excellent, because there
are some teaching aids in the school” Vp1.
The HOD also describes his format of communication with teacher as a mutual one. He said:
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“At times when there is problem relating to teaching of the curriculum, ask teachers of
their opinion. Explain this problem to them; fine, you may know a method of solving
the problem, but still ask for their opinion” HOD1.
It clear from the above comment that School A principal and other members of the SLMT use
communication to inform, command, instruct, assess, influence, persuade, give direction and
motivate subordinates, through understanding, appraisal and reactions to a message
(Prinsloo, 2003:166; Rue and Byars, 2007:39). Moreover, the emphasis of School A principal
the use of two-way communication may have been propelling him to strive to abide by the
principle of good management and healthy inter-personal relationship (Igzar, 2008:535-548
and Prinsloo, 2003:172).
In the following paragraphs the role of school climate and culture, the management of change
and conflict is discussed, according to the interview captured data in School A.
School A SLMT gave common responses to interview questions relating to their school
climate. The principal of school A explained that the students were always learning when they
are supposed to, because teachers would always be in their various classes to teach
students at the exact tuition time schedule. Moreover, he said that is because students don‟t
have any opportunity to be idle, thereby prompting to make a noise in their classrooms.
According to the School A principal, students‟ orderly behaviour automatically makes the
school environment to be quiet and serene. The principal is quoted thus:
“The environment is very quiet, because teachers will always be in the classroom at
the exact time they are supposed to. Therefore, there is no room for the students to
make noise, because they are occupied all the time and when they are not, they are
busy reading their books. Also, the teachers respect themselves and that is why I
respect them too, because they are very serious in the discharge of their teaching
duties” P1.
The vice-principal also said that School B environment is conducive for learning. She
made a remark as follows:
“…because the classrooms are conducive as you can see for yourself, immediately
after the assembly in the morning, the SLMT makes sure that students settle in their
classes” Vp1.
215
The HOD said that the established facilities and material availability in the school enable
teaching and learning to go on smoothly. He further said:
“This is however possible, because the climate of the school in terms of its enabling
environment has been making it possible for a teacher like me and likewise other
teacher to be able to discharge our teaching tasks as everything in terms of facilities
are established” HOD1.
In confirmation of the principal‟s and other members of the SLMT‟s comment above, the
quietness and serenity of the school environment were observed by the researcher on every
occasion of his visit to the school for data collection. Also, no student was noticed loitering
during school hours. In addition, there was no noise in classes which teachers had not
occupied for teaching [see 5.3.2.1].
According to Gruenert (2008:57); Owens (2001:145), school climate, ethos or spirit; represent
the attitude of the school and the collective mood or morale of teachers. A happy teacher is
considered a better teacher in terms of his or her attitude, thus School A‟s milieu appears
to
have created a positive school climate which influences the quality of instruction, because of
whole school positive environment. School A SLMT empathy may have also made teachers
feel supported and cared for; influence and render their unbearable feelings more bearable,
makes them feel understood, valued, their needs satisfied and creates a moral climate in the
school (Toremen, Ekinci, and Karakus, 2006:490-499). The empathy displayed by School A
SLMT may have significantly assisted in establishing a relationship between the school
principal, teachers and students (Tharp, 2006:1-20; Rhodes, Camic, Milburn and Lowe,
2009:25-35).
In furtherance of discussion on School A climate, it is clear from the above captured data that
the principal of School A, makes great efforts to establish sound interpersonal relationship
with staff and students. According to the school observations by the researcher, the school
terrain and buildings are well maintained [see 5.3.2.1]. Although the latest educational
technology such as overhead projectors, data projectors etc., are not available in the school,
yet, teachers make success of what they have. Provision is also made in the school policy for
tutorial interventions in the form of student academic support [see 5.3.2.4]. Data observation
caption on School A climate above, corresponds with Khan, Ahmad, Ali and ur-Rehman‟s
(2011:2668-2678) submissions that, school principals are not solely responsible for the
outstanding educational outcomes, but their leadership have been found an inevitable factor
in producing the environment where these outcomes occur.
216
More so, according to the captured data, it is clear that the organisational structure of School
A is used by the principal to delegate tasks, responsibilities and the authority to take
independent decisions within the broad guidelines of departmental and school policy. It is
also clear that two-way communication is encouraged and; there is a simultaneous
downwards and upwards flows of information and ideas in the school. More so, participation
in decision-making process is encouraged between the principal, teachers and the Student
Representative Council (SRC) as a result of the positive climate in School A.
Even though School A is situated in a poor socio-economic environment, students are
motivated to learn and teachers are motivated to teach. The school milieu is characterized by
harmonious interpersonal relationships based on respect for one-another. In addition, the
principal is a democratic leader who encourages participation in the decision-making process
and two-way communication towards discussion of teaching and learning. It is therefore clear
and School A SLMT does not compromise on the quality of teaching in the classrooms. The
characteristic of the entire school physical features [see 5.3.2.1], the school principal and
other members of the SLMT practices mean well for School A climate.
School A principal, vice-principal and HOD‟s comments reveal elements of leadership by
example. Hence, in portraying teaching culture of School A, the principal said that he teaches
a subject (Accounting) in the final year class. He further said that the reason he does that is
to prove to the teachers and the HODs that he is someone who displays leadership by
example and not just say it. School A HOD also said that the principal encourages the viceprincipal, HODs and teachers to do their best at work through hard work. He particularly
made reference to the newly posted teachers in the school. The comment of the principal as
regards his effort to create a culture of teaching and learning in School A is stated as follow:
“As a leader, I also teach one of the subjects. The subject I teach is Accounting. So
when other members of the SLMT and the teachers see me going to the class, it is an
encouragement to them. That, after all, the principal is going to the class to teach. So,
it is that eee… my exhibition of leadership by example that makes them to imbibe
more, the culture of hard work” P1.
The vice-principal said the following as regards the culture of teaching in the school:
“…I go round and see that the students are settled down in the classes, and however,
they don‟t sitting down idle because you will always find a teacher in their class” Vp1.
On the issue of school culture of teaching and learning, the HOD also said that:
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“…historically, this school is known for hard work. All the teachers that are coming to
join us in this school also imbibe that same culture, because the principal is going to
continue to emphasise it to the newcomer teachers that our school is known for
academic excellence and therefore, no lazy attitude towards job performance is
tolerated. That is why from the top (principal) to the level of the HODs, we don‟t see
ourselves as superior, we lead by example as always said by the school principal. The
principal also teaches the students” HOD1.
Although the researcher did not witness the school principal teach the students during his
period of data collection in the school, but the HOD and the vice-principal of the school were
sighted teaching the final year students specific and different school subjects – English
Language and Biology respectively [See 5.3.2.4]. However, the conclusions that could be
drawn from the data analysed above are: the culture of School A is based on values such as
accountability and respect for one-another, high academic expectations are set, but teachers
and students are well supported to achieve the set academic aims and objectives. It is also
obvious from the researcher‟s observations and from the captured data that teachers adhere
to a strict professional code of conduct; hence, students are happy to adhere to the school
code of conduct in ensuring a disciplined school environment, which is conducive to quality
teaching and learning.
The mutual respect between the students and the teachers could have resulted from a feeling
of being supported and cared for by the principal, which might have also influenced and
rendered teachers and students‟ unbearable feelings more bearable and makes them feel
understood, valued, satisfied their needs and created a moral climate in the school (Toremen,
Ekinci and Karakus, 2006:490-499), hence, Price (2011:1-47) found that principals‟
relationships with their teachers affect both the principal‟s and teachers‟ fulfilment, cohesion,
and commitment levels, which sequentially affects school climate.
There also seem to be zero tolerance on the exhibition of laziness towards teaching and
learning in School A and that attests to the culture of teaching maintained in the school. The
teaching of one of the school subjects by the principal creates a culture of teaching, in which
teachers are prepared to go „„the extra mile‟‟ to achieve effectiveness in their practices
(Barker, 2003:21-43). This also implies School A principal works on long-term cultural goals in
order to strengthen the learning environment, thus, student achievement in order to promote
a healthy and sound school culture which relates strongly to increased student achievement
(Tondeur, Devos, Houtte, van Braak and Valcke, 2009:223-235; Macneil, et. al., (2009:7384).
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The management of change is analysed with respect to management of “curriculum change”
in the school. School A vice-principal and HOD‟s comments were similar to the principal‟s
explanations, and it shows that the entire staffs of the school mandatorily work with the
directives of the government towards teaching and learning. The principal said:
“„We are here to present government policy and if government policy says, this is the
direction; you have to no choice other than to obey. I always persuade the teachers to
do as the government as directed even though they have no choice. Therefore, we
operate in the school based on government policy objectives of getting the citizens
educated in the state” P1.
The vice-principals‟ comment on the management of change as regards the school
curriculum is thus:
“As the vice-principal, the teachers do not have power to uphold what they always
want against any curriculum change made by the government, because they don‟t
have any power or influence to make any curriculum change but, to make sure that
the teachers follow government‟s curriculum change to the letter” Vp1.
Nevertheless, the HOD‟s response was also similar to that of the principal and the viceprincipal, but in a yielding voice. He stresses that he persuades his teaching colleagues to
accept curriculum changes that emanate from the government and assures them that they
will gradually get used to such changes. The HOD said:
“Well! You know, it is difficult for people to quickly adapt to change and of course,
teachers are sometimes slow to accept such changes based on the excuses. What I
do is to encourage my colleagues who are teachers to gradually adapt to such
changes. They don‟t like changes, especially if it does not benefit them in any way or
not simple for them to learn or implement”‟ HOD1.
School A principal and the HOD seemingly reiterated that, because the teachers teach on
behalf of the government to educate the students, hence, they have no choice than to
automatically adhere and comply with any change that the government introduces in the
school. Therefore, the HOD also tries to persuade other teachers to accept changes, which
are meant to enhance teaching and learning. Moreover, the persuasions of the principal that
teachers to adhere to introduced change in the school teaching task, may be based on the
premise that school principals serve as change agents to transform and develop the
teaching/learning culture (Fullan, 2009:9-20), therefore, there must be cooperation between
the principal and teachers. The more teachers are made to participate in initiating roles in
219
school change, the more positive they felt about the change and the more willing they were to
seriously engage in future change (Swanepoel, 2008:461-474).
Although School A principal‟s response to the question on the management of change in the
school seems to be negative, but if the leadership and management actions and conduct of
the principal and other SLMT members of the School A, concerning cushioning the effect of
change are to be judged, the following conclusion may be drawn: An outstanding
characteristic of the principal of School A is his efforts to ensure continuous staff development
and to build the teaching capacity in the school. He is a transformational and instructional
leader with a challenging vision for the school; he places emphasis on new knowledge,
teaching skills and competencies. Also, the vice-principal, HOD, and other teaching staff
members are willing to share their experiences, knowledge with one-another and are
motivated to work together as a team, towards improving teaching and learning in School A.
Although the staff members of School A seems to be negative towards change introduced by
the government, nevertheless, the previous discussion paragraphs on school climate and
culture, which concern the creation of a productive, open school climate and culture may
further explain the reasons for the high-quality cooperation between the teaching staff and the
SLMT in achieving high academic standards.
Another important characteristic of School A towards indicating a positive teaching and
learning culture is that, it possesses a clear policy on teaching and learning. The principal
ensures control of the work of teachers and students, according to predetermined set
standards. By implication, the work of teachers and students are evaluated against set
standards. Therefore, a conclusion maybe made that a culture of evaluation is created in
School A. Furthermore, School A principal is willing to delegate challenging tasks to the viceprincipal and the HODs. That is one of the ways in which he develops leaders in the school
and to spread leadership throughout the school organisation.
School A SLMT resolution of teacher-students‟ conflict in relation to teaching and learning is
by seeking the teacher or students‟ narrative at different time and space. The principal said
that he investigates the cause of conflict between the students and a teacher; or a teacher
and another teacher. He continued by saying that the conflicting parties are afterwards called
220
together for an amicable solution to the problem, that is, after hearing their side of the stories
that led to the conflict. The principal explained thus:
“When there is a problem relating to the students‟ dissatisfaction with the teacher‟s
lesson delivery in the class, I will invite the teacher and the students at separate
occasions and sit the conflicting party down in my office. I ask what the problem is and
how the conflict about his teaching can be resolved with the students. I resolve conflict
same the way between teachers, in relation to teacher disagreement on issues of
curriculum handling” P1.
The vice-principal‟s comment on teaching and learning conflict resolution between teachers
and students is thus:
“You know…the students, they can challenge a teacher in the class if he or she does
not know what he or she wants teach them very well and when they do so, we resolve
such conflict by asking the teachers what the problem was. Afterwards, the teachers
that fits some areas of the topics very well are allowed to teach such topics so that
there won‟t be any conflict in that class” Vp1.
In addition the HOD comments that he resolves student teacher conflict by
“Students at times, they want to show the teacher they have arrived, because they
want to show that they know. So you see teachers-students clashes most of the time
and it is being resolved internally, especially when it has to do with the curriculum.
Hence, the principal and the HOD find a solution either to put another person in that
class or to re-orientate the teachers and also talk to the student” HOD1.
It appears that School A principal and other SLMT members believe in resolving instructional
conflict between students and teachers through democratic resolution and fairness. The
teaching and learning policy document also stipulates that every student leader (class
captain) can take complaints to the school principal with respect to the teachers‟ performance
and/or non-performance of his or her teaching duties [see 5.3.2.3]. Therefore, it is clear that
School A principal‟s approach to the resolution of conflict is through compromise and
confrontation for prompt solution of grievances, in order to resolve issues of conflict arising
from of teaching and learning (Rue and Byars, 2007:262-264).
The reactions of School A SLMT to the question of parental involvement in the school are of
identical patterns. Utilizing the comment of the principal, he said that parents regularly attend
PTA meetings, where issues concerning the students‟ academic progress are regularly
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discussed. He further stated that parents are always willing to come to the school to receive
information about their children‟s general performance in school, anytime they are requested
to. He responds to the issue of parental participation in the school thus:
“We are happy that our parents are always available when we invite them so that they
can be briefed about their children‟s academic performance. We always make sure
that they are briefed about their children‟s‟ academic performance in the school; so
that they can know how to monitor them at the home. This is because making policies
and taking decisions in relation to students‟ academics have to be done cooperatively
with the parents” P1.
The vice-principal also made a similar comment on her school‟s relationship with the parentcommunity. She said:
“…apart from the Parents Teachers‟ Association (PTA) meeting where we brief
parents about their children‟s‟ academic performance. They are good parents in
partnership” Vp1.
In a similar vein, the HOD made the following comment on the school‟s effort in partnering
with the school-community to enhance teaching and learning. He said:
“We enjoy the cooperation of the parents of our students in this school, because they
always attend the Parents Teachers‟ Association (PTA) meeting when we invite them.
We update them about the performance of their children and advise them on how they
can assist us to join hands in teaching these children, because we see them as our
children too” HOD1.
Parental involvement in students‟ learning seems to have been given a high priority in School
A, based on the establishment of cooperation between the school SLMT and the parents.
This is not surprising to the researcher as the school teaching and learning policy states that
it will focus its management and leadership on acknowledging parents, who are working in
partnership with the school towards the students‟ academic achievement [see 5.3.2.3]. It is
also clear that the parents of School A are active partners in student learning. This is because
PTA money regularly paid by them is used to invite subject and curriculum specialists from
educational organisations outside the school to train and develop the teachers within the
school.
The principal refused to allow the researcher access to the school financial records, because
he said that the financial statements of the school are private, hence, it was not revealed to
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the researcher. He continued by saying that, the manifestation of the school‟s financial
standing and prudence in the use of PTA dues (money), is indicated by what the researcher
could see on the school grounds when going all-over the school. The principal further said
that “every parent has been living up to their responsibility by paying their children/wards PTA
annual due regularly and promptly”. True to his words of the principal, records of PTA
attendance and some minutes of the meetings held in the past indicated that PTA meetings
were adjudged to be well attended and up-to-date [see 5.3.2.3].
The prompt involvement of parents by School A principal is a means of engaging the parentcommunity to support the learning climate, winning the trust and respect of the parentcommunity, valuing the contribution of parents, trusting them and accepting them as equal
partners of the school in order to sustain the dependence of the school on the goodwill of
their parent-community (Nieuwenhuis and Potvin, 2005).
In the next paragraphs the captured data of the interviews with the principal, vice-principal
and HODs in School B are measured against the identified management sub-themes
contributing to school effectiveness. They are further analysed and discussed.
5.8
Relationship between the dynamics of school management and
school effectiveness (School B)
On planning of teaching, the principal of School B and other SLMT members are unanimous
as they emphasized that curriculum forms the essence of teaching and learning in the school.
The principal adds that the school SLMT distributes subjects amongst teachers at the
beginning of the academic year. In that meeting, the SLMT members normally discuss with
the teachers on how to teach the topics prescribed by the official curriculum, for the benefit of
all students. Every School B SLMT members provided similar responses to the question of
planning of the curriculum. Taking the principal‟s view on curriculum planning, he said:
“At the beginning of every year, there is always a meeting to discuss the distribution of
classes and subjects to be taught by each teacher. We also discuss about how best to
deliver the curriculum to the students. You see... that one does not need much
explanation, because when you talk of secondary schools generally, one basic thing
that you have to perform as a function is to make sure that you plan to teach and
teach and when you teach, you don‟t teach in isolation of the curriculum or syllabus”
P2.
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The vice-principals‟ explains the mandatory nature of planning of teaching and learning
thus:
“…We make planning a compulsion so that teachers know the subjects they will teach,
normally at the beginning of every academic session” Vp 2.
In addition, the HOD also explains the practice of planning of teaching in the school as
follow:
“The school plans…each teacher will have the opportunity to know which class and
subjects to teach so that individual teachers do not have conflict of job responsibilities
during the academic session” HOD2.
From the comments of the principal and members of the SLMT, it appears that planning of
academic issues is given priority, thereby making sure that teaching subjects are distributed
at the beginning of the academic session. Teachers are also encouraged to strategically plan
on how to teach the topics in the syllabus, so that the content of the topics are taught within
the context of the subject syllabus.
The realisation of the school‟s vision and the achievement of predetermined aims and
objectives is through the means of effective planning, policy making or implementation,
decision-making, problem-solving, organising, delegating, coordinating and control. Planning
which is a foremost responsibility of an organisation should thus, focuses on effective and
successful task execution. In other words, planning is concerned with the extent to which a
leader fulfils his or her task of achieving a particular set aim and objectives. Hence, School B
principal as an education manager ensures that subordinates (teachers) “define tasks in
accordance with predetermined standards and also ensures that the predetermined aims and
objectives are achieved according to a set time schedule” (University of Pretoria, 2010:42).
The principal, vice-principal and HOD of School B express that their school policy on teaching
and learning is unwritten. Also, comment of the vice-principal points to the fact that although
students‟ assessment is unwritten, but assessment of students‟ learning is carried out on biweekly basis. She also said that teachers and the students are always verbally told about
how issues are to be dealt with as regards effective learning. The students and the teachers
are also tasked to know off-hand, the school policy on teaching and; teachers must know that
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every topic in a particular subject syllabus has to be taught. She however stated that some of
the teachers do not turn-in their score promptly. She further explained that:
“The teachers and the students should imbibe the school policies which are always
pronounced verbally by some SLMT members and they must know them by naturally.
For example, an unwritten policy for teachers is that, must be continuous assessments
for students on each subject every fortnight. However, some teachers do not turn in
their scores regularly, because of the excuse of the strain of marking and recording
students‟ scripts” Vp2.
The principal also reiterates that the school has no written policy of its own. He said:
“The school does not have any teaching and learning policy. For instance, concerning
training and teacher developments, the state government undertakes that…” P2.
The HOD‟s view on internal school policy is:
“All policy emanates from the government, for instance, the eradication of corporal
punishment policy. That is, the total eradication of corporal punishment of student in
order to ensure discipline. Apart from that, an unwritten policy is that there must be
continuous assessments for students on each subject every forth-night” HOD2.
The researcher presupposes that, because School B assessment policy is not officially
documented, teachers may not attach much regard to it. When the researcher requested for
the school policy on teaching and learning for the purpose of review, the principal said: “here,
there is no written policy on teaching and learning” [see 5.3.3.3].
On school policy question, the vice-principal appears to suggest that the teachers‟ complaint
on the stress of marking and submitting the bi-weekly assessment scores is one of the
reasons some of the teachers are not complying with the assessment policy. This is because
officially documented and well-thought-out and soundly formulated school rules, procedures
and policy serve as a detailed plan for school management. School rules and procedures
ensure that everybody knows what to do, when to do it and how to do it, especially where it
concerns programmed or routine decisions (Prinsloo, 1993:42; Kruger and Van Schalkwyk,
1997:34).
Policy consists of guidelines which should be used to guide education leaders in the decisionmaking process. In the absence of a written policy in School B, teachers may not have the
authority to make decisions within the broad guidelines of school and departmental policy
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(University of Pretoria, 2010: 49). It is thus clear that there is no vision to provide direction to
teachers, students and parents, since there is no written policy regarding teaching and
learning which portrays School B school vision towards teaching and learning. More so, it
implies that School B does not have something worthwhile to work for and strive after
(Sterling and Davidoff, 2000:89). Therefore, in School B teachers and parents may not be
able to take ownership and common responsibility for the successful realization of the set
aims and objectives of the school, because school rules and procedures enables everybody
to know what to do, when to do it and how to do it, especially where it concerns programmes
or routine decisions (University of Pretoria, 2010:49).
School B SLMT seems to follow an autocratic approach of leadership and management. It
further seems that the principal of School B makes all the decisions and the staff members
have to follow his instructions. The findings regarding lack of policy in School B corresponds
with the findings of Legotlo, Maaga, Sebego, van der Westhuizen, Mosoge, Nieuwoudt and
Steyn (2003:113-118) who indicate that “some schools did not have clear policies relating to
the instructional programme; such as classroom visits, homework policy, comprehensive
subject policies that included policy on assessment and computation of final examination
marks”.
If the management actions and conduct of the principal of School B are measured against the
criteria of school policy, it is evidently clear that the school does not meet the requirements of
policy-making. This means that other management functions, like planning, decision-making
or problem-solving, which are undertaken in School B may not have a sound foundation,
because Planning should always take place within the limits of the school‟s policy (Buchel,
1993:3). In a school without written policy, teachers and students are likely to easily develop
feelings of insecurity and frustration. It might also lead to a situation where the principal may
change the school rules, as it pleases him or her without consultation with the school
stakeholders. Without school policy, it may also be impossible for members of the SLMT or
teachers to take any independent decision. This is because there are no written guidelines in
the school, according to which they may base their decisions upon.
The principal, vice-principal and HOD‟s comments on how decisions are made in their school
corroborate. They said that in an attempt to solve problem(s) in the school, decisions are
made between the school SLMT and the teachers on issues that bothered on teaching by
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teachers. There and then at the meetings, the principal said that he advises teachers on how
to carry-on with the students, despite the problems they face with them in the classroom
during teaching and learning. Thus, the comment of School B principal as regards decisionmaking is similar to the comments of the other members of the SLMT. The principal
comments thus:
“We meet possibly twice or with the teachers every term, including the vice-principal
and the teachers and; much of subjects‟ issues are discussed. There, teachers who
discuss activities or issues relating to their teachings like some of the problems they
have with the students. There and then, directives are given by me in relation to how
to achieve progress in their individual subjects, because while I was a teacher like
them, was an all-rounder” P2.
In a similar opinion concerning decision-making in the school, the vice-principal said:
“The practice of taking decision as regards teaching and learning in the school is that,
the principal of the HOD or all the teachers that are… that are in that subject area can
meet together, discuss and take decision on their behalf on what can be done to
teach topics that teachers find difficult to teach” Vp2.
The HOD‟s expression as regards decision-making when he said:
“The teachers‟ obligation in the school is to teach the students and make them
understand whatever subject is being taught, and where there is several corrections
that has been made and the teacher refuses to adhere I recommend to the school
authorities to replace such teacher, otherwise he becomes a burden to students”
HOD2.
Instead of School B principal to collectively decide with teachers on what may possibly be
done about the problems concerning teaching and learning, he seems to be a “know all” that
dictates solutions to teachers, regarding how to go about their teaching problems in the
classrooms. The principal does not believe that consultation with and participation of teachers
and other members of staff, students and parents in decision-making process, boosts the
quality of decisions, variety of decision options, increases in decision acceptance and better
understanding of the decision reached (Van Deventer, 2003:98-99).
As regards organizing of teaching and learning, School A principal and HOD made similar
responses concerning the organizing of teachers according to their specializations, whereas
the vice-principal comment revolves around the issue of organising extra-mural classes. The
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principal explained that the school has a formal time-table for teaching and learning and
teachers strictly adhere to it. He said further that at the beginning of the academic year, every
teacher is assigned to teach each of the classes of students, depending on the subject he or
she specializes in. That is, the principal makes sure that every specialized teacher is
designated to teach a subject that he or she obtained a degree in. According to the principal:
“Somebody who read English Language in the University, when he gets to secondary
level, one would expect that he would have acquired enough knowledge that will guide
him to know how to handle that subject. So, such a teacher is designated to teach
English Language in the school or other related subjects like Literature in English. You
understand me!” P2.
The vice-principal‟s comment bothers on the organisation of after-school classes. The viceprincipal said that School B ensures that students stay behind to study during the preparatory
studying periods, that is, the period between 2:30 and 3:30 p.m. where every student is
supposed to be reading. She further said that the preparatory studying period spans from
Mondays to Fridays, after the normal school teaching hours. In the words of the viceprincipal:
“From 2:30 to 3:00, they are expected to stay in their class again to observe the
afternoon reading preparation where they will have to read what the teachers taught
them before they are finally released to go home and close for the day” Vp2.
The HOD‟S comment to organization of teaching and learning is:
“The school organizes curriculum issues purposely to orientate both long serving
teachers and new teachers in the teaching field about teaching responsibilities” HOD2.
Organising is obviously openly and directly concerned with the coordination of the school
tasks and it indicates structure of work coordination (Smit and Cronjé, 1999:209). That is,
what and how work should be done and divided? Which tasks must be grouped together and
synchronized and how should the work be done? School B principal‟s comment indicates the
organizing of teachers based on the subjects they specialize in, while the vice-principal‟s
comment indicates the importance of organizing students study after the normal school
hours.
The above caption indicates that School B places value on teaching and learning in the
school. That is, School B stipulates that teachers‟ task must be grouped together and
synchronized and how they should be done. Hence, the building of a structure of
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responsibility, accountability, clear channels of communication, meaningful distribution of
resources, division of labour and the establishment of specialized departments, so that
experts in various fields can deal with certain tasks and be evaluated (Van Deventer,
2003:150, Van der Merwe, 2003:111; Smit and Cronjé, 1999:209).
Though, it seems that due the autocratic leadership approach of the principal of School B, the
responsibility to execute task successfully is delegated to the teaching staff without the
authority to make their own decisions, within the broad guidelines of the education policy of
the Lagos State government. Another perturbing factor is that, School B principal believes
that if a teacher is a graduate in a particular subject of study, he or she automatically ought to
have had sufficient knowledge to teach the subject in which he or she had specialized. This
finding corroborates Van Deventer, 2003:118; Viljoen and Möller, 1992:151; Smit and Cronjé,
1999:249), that teacher delegatees are also entitled to be accountable for all implementation
activities because they are capable of the delegated teaching duties.
In response to the issue of delegation in the school, School B SLMT members‟ comments are
similar. Because the vice-principal is sometimes delegated by the principal to delegate
subjects on occasions, hence, the vice-principal said that she delegates a subject to a
teacher (available qualified teacher), when the real teacher in charge of the subject is not
available. She however said that the substitute teacher sometimes may not teach the subject
to the level of students‟ adequate understanding, because of a change in the teacher‟s
method of teaching, compared with the original teacher of the subject. In her words:
“Yes! I assign the subject to the available qualified teacher when the actual teacher
teaching the subject is not available, but sometimes the newly assigned teacher does
not do the teaching appropriately probably, because of change in the methods or for
whatever reason and the students never report this. I, the vice-principal or the HOD
will never know this until after the students have failed in that subject” Vp2.
The HOD‟s comment on how he delegates teaching among teachers is put this way:
“All curriculum topics that must be taught are attended to as regards all subjects in the
school. That is, all subject‟s topic must be taught. So, the teacher delegatee or acting
teacher takes over the subject of the actual teacher and continues teaching the rest of
the topic where the actual teacher stops and I am sure that he or she will teach the
subject well without monitoring” HOD2.
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The vice-principal of School B gave the impression that teachers do not sometimes handle
delegated subjects well. She further said that it is usually discovered that delegated subject
was not well taught to the students, only after they have already failed in that subject. In
essence, the vice-principal does not follow-up the accomplishments of a teacher delegatee.
Therefore, if the management actions of School B principal and the other SLMT members are
measured against the criteria of effective delegating, it may be deduced that only the
responsibility to execute tasks successfully are delegated to teachers, without adequate
monitoring of the teacher‟s satisfactory execution of the task. It further seems that the
principles of willingness, ability and competence are not always taken into consideration
when a task is delegated in School B.
On the coordination of teaching task, members of School B SLMT made similar comments
relating to the fact that, teachers are always made to coordinate the two syllabuses of WAEC
and NECO. That is, to make sure that every topic that appears in the WAEC and NECO
syllabi are synchronized and taught by the teachers handling every subject, so that the
students may achieve excellently well in both examination subjects. In the words of the
principal:
“I make sure that the HOD coordinates the subject teacher‟s activities so that they do
not leave any of the topics in the WAEC or NECO syllabus untaught during the
academic year. Therefore, the students will not complain of not being taught about
some of the topics that appear in the examination” P2.
The vice-principal also made a similar comment on how teaching subjects are coordinated in
the school. She expresses that:
“You know…through coordination, we make sure that we complete the topics in the
curriculum because they take care of questions that may come out in both of the
national examinations – WAEC and NECO” Vp2.
The HOD also said the following, concerning how coordination of teaching and learning is
handled by him:
“I advise teachers to rotate their teaching according to their areas of specialization,
because every topic in the NECO and WAEC must be taught in preparation for the
final year WAEC and NECO examinations” HOD2.
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The principal and other members of the SLMT assume that, because he mandates teachers
to coordinate both syllabi - WAEC and NECO - the teachers will be better prepared the
students for the final year terminal examination, since both syllabi are important to prepare
the students for the final year examinations, hence, Van Deventer and Kruger (2003:123)
describes the concept of coordinating of teaching and learning functions as the division of
tasks into specialized roles and departments for productivity, efficiency, team spirit and high
morale, sound viewpoints, attitudes and planning.
The SLMT members of School B seem to believe that they are in position of authority
concerning how they control teaching and learning activities. Their responses were similar as
regards control of teaching and learning. The principal of School B said that he controls
teachers tasks through the use of authority bestowed on him; hence, teachers are mandated
to discharge their task. Commenting on how he controls the teachers in the discharge of their
teaching tasks, the principal said:
“You cannot force an adult to do something, if he or she does not want to. Adults are
the… they are the …they are the most difficult to control. So, your assertion of
authority on them though, will put them to the class, but won‟t get the job done.
Therefore, you need to use force to deal with the teachers so that they can teach” P2.
The vice-principal‟s response to how she controls teaching and learning also bothers on the
enforcement of strict supervision of teachers so that teaching and learning may go on as
programmed. She said:
“…I get angry and complain, and apply strictly powers of my office to make sure that
teachers supervise students‟ teaching and learning” Vp2.
The HOD responds differently on the issue of control. He said that he believes that diplomacy
is the best means of dealing with teachers‟ control, but sometimes has to resort to the use of
force. He believes that the failure of teachers to discharge their teaching duties will be blamed
on him by higher authorities if he does not use force on them. The HOD said:
“My diplomacy has been working for me as an HOD. Yes! Like I said, I am diplomatic,
but will have to be autocratic if they refuse to yield my order or instructions as the
HOD, because, any wrong relating to instructional delivery will be blamed on me by
the education authorities” HOD2.
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From the above captured data, it seems that the principal, vice-principal and HOD are only
interested in bringing about the most effective task execution in the school, through use of
force against the teachers. Thus, their autocratic natures have made them to believe that the
use of force is the only means to make the teacher discharge their teaching tasks. However,
School B principal is clearly not interested in the development and better utilization of his
teaching staff, through the extension of the merit system and the steps for corrective action,
as a means of staff development. It further seems that the principal does not believe in the
use of recognition and appreciation to motivate his teaching staff, rather, he believes in the
use of coercive power to force the teachers in discharging their duties.
It is clear from the above that, the use of coercive power is the basic tool that the principal
utilizes to put the teachers to work as at when necessary. The HOD also believes that if his
utilization of diplomacy fails, he will resort to the use of force to put the teachers to work. The
resolve of the principal and the HOD to use coercive power on the teachers may imply two
things. Firstly, it could be interpreted to mean that teachers in the school do not take the
attendance of classes to teach the students serious and secondly, it could mean that the
principal do not adopt the best means of motivating the teachers to work, as the vice principal
too believes in the use of the powers conferred on her office to strictly enforce teachers to
teach the students. Hence, a function of control as a means measuring progress aims and
objectives to enable the educational manager to detect deviations from the plan in time, in
order to take corrective action (Van Deventer, 2003:128), may be a difficult to achieve in
School B.
In conclusion, it seems that School B principal is not really in control of the school because;
there is lack of rules, procedures and policy in the school. Therefore, School A discipline is
weak, work is delegated to the teaching staff with little or no supervision and monitoring, little or
no support is given to teachers towards improving their teaching skills, the principal is not really
interested in the best interests of the staff, because there is little team-work and coherence
amongst staff members. All authority for planning, organizing and control is vested in School B
principal. In addition, if the teacher do not discharge their teaching tasks, the school leaders and
managers (SLMT) use their coercive power on the teachers; otherwise the teachers are
reported to higher authority to face disciplinary panels for actions against them.
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The human relations skills of management analysed and discussed in the following
paragraphs are: motivation, communication and the establishment of human relationship.
On motivation of teachers, School B SLMT similarly commented that they motivate the
teachers verbally. Utilizing the principal‟s comments, he said that he acknowledges deserving
teachers and commends them verbally by saying, “thank you” particularly at the staff meeting
and by issuing letters of commendation to deserving teachers for job well done. In his words:
“I encourage them… Those that are doing well, I commend them. I give a letter of
commendation or commend them verbally- Just the word, “Thank you”, “well done” is
a great motivation for the teacher. Even at the general staff meeting, I commend their
work that they are really doing the work that they are supposed to be doing.” P2.
The vice-principal too mentions that she recommends teacher to the school principal for
commendations. In her words:
“I always praise teachers who attend to their lesson at the appropriate time and they
are always praised about that.…I also recommend deserving teachers to the school
principal, for the award of a letter of recommendation for a job well done in every
academic session” Vp2.
In addition, the HOD expresses that he also praise teacher whenever they teach according to
procedure of teaching and learning. He comments thus:
“…on the other hand, when a teacher is teaching according to procedure, you can
also praise such teacher, so that he or she can make lesson more interesting at any
other time the students are taught by him of her” HOD2.
The School B SLMT assumes that verbal appreciation and issuance of written
commendations to teachers for a job well done is adequate and everything that is required to
motivate teachers at work. Although motivation is usually articulated through verbal
commendations and sometimes issuance of letters of commendations to teachers in School
B, the assumption of the principal that these motivation efforts ultimately encourage teachers
to do their best at work appears weak, because motivation is more of a psychological process
that enhance effective job performance through arousing, energizing, directing, sustaining
behaviour and performance of teachers (Shadare and Hammed, 2009:7-17; Rue and Byers,
2007:58; Harms and Knobloch, 2005:101-124; Fry, 2003: 693-727). Therefore, School B
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principal may still need to explore other psychological means of motivation, like the creation
of an environment in terms of his relationship with teachers, because motivation allows a
worker to exert a high degree of effort on the job if there is an encouraging environment (Rue
and Byars, 2007:58).
In addition, although School B principal indicates that he motivates teachers by
acknowledging their achievement whenever it is deserved, it seems that the principal fulfils
insignificant criteria of motivation, because he does not set challenging tasks for the teachers
to deal with, hence, the teaching capacity and ability of staff may not be stimulated.
Furthermore, he is not prepared to delegate tasks along with the authority to get the task
discharged. Although, he delegates teaching tasks to teachers, he also does not allow them
to take part in every school decision-making process and; does not promote team spirit and
group-work which may contribute to the empowerment of individual staff in the school. In
sum, it seems that his attempts to motivate teachers do not results in sound interpersonal
relationships, because he does not utilize two-way communication and participative decisionmaking in the school.
School B vice-principal and HOD‟s comments corroborate the principal‟s response to the
utilization of communication. The principal said that he sends out agenda to the teachers and
other members of the SLMT. Furthermore, he said that SLMT members and teachers are
always reminded not to delve into issues not related to the agenda in a meeting. The
principal‟s comment is presented thus:
“As the principal, I must have made sure that I have dished out enough guiding
information as to what to say or do and not what to… do or say in a meeting. This is
because some of the academic members are always either talking from the agenda or
looking for a way to counter my decisions. For instance, when we are talking about the
curriculum, then, we should be talking about the subjects‟ schemes of work;
particularly the ones that have to do with curriculum issues” P2.
In her comment, the vice-principal said that she tries as much as possible not to respond to
the order of the principal whenever it is made. She further said that what the staff members
usually do is to obey the order. In her expression:
“There are some topics that will be difficult and some of these issues are discussed at
the called by the principal. As a matter of fact, the principal usually recommend
solutions to the problems of teaching these subjects and when he gives order as to
what must be done, nobody, no teacher, not even myself as the vice-principal can
respond to his order” Vp2.
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Confirmation that in School B, the communication style of the SLMT is patterned along oneway communication is made clear through the expression of the HOD thus:
“My role is just to give information to teachers as to what must be done towards
discharging their teaching task as at when necessary by such a teacher that he or she
must just do whatever I say without questioning or complaining” HOD2.
Communication can greatly affect the efficient running of a school; hence, every stake-holder
in the school should strive towards effective communication. For instance, effective
communication, supportive relationships and shared leadership have been found to be
prerequisites for the other factors promoting policy-making capacity (Vanhoof, et. al.,
2009:667-686). From the above captured data it is clear that the School B principal A and
other members of the SLMT do not possess the habit of listening to the teacher‟s views or
insights. Although it is a good management practice to keep to the agenda of a meeting
intact, but the principal should sometimes allow teachers to add item(s) to the meeting
agenda if they have something important to discuss.
Furthermore, it is clear that the principal of School B may not also tolerate any attempt from
members of his SLMT to question his decisions. He seems to encourage one-way
communication and wants to dominate all discussions, thereby not encouraging any form of
two-way communication. It seems that the principal takes all the decisions alone and after all,
informs the SLMT by way of instructions. School B principal‟s belief in sole authority to override decisions and dominate discussions relating to academic issues, portrays him as an
autocratic and non-participative leader, who does not strive to abide by the principle of good
management and healthy inter-personal relationship (Igzar, 2008:535-548 and Prinsloo,
2003:172).
To ensure effective interpersonal relationship towards enhancing effective teaching and
learning, the principal, vice-principal and HOD similarly comment that they encourage
collaboration among teachers. Utilizing the principal‟s comment, he explains that he advises
the teachers to collaborate and collectively help themselves in difficult areas of their subjects.
For instance the well experienced teachers can mentor the not very experienced ones. The
principal asserts that:
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“Sometimes l advise the teachers in similar subject areas to come together and
consider what it requires to solve grey areas in certain areas of their subjects ,see
what they can do to solve the problem emanating from the teaching of that particular
subject area and the teachers end-up getting along with that topic of teaching” P2.
The response to the question of how the vice-principal relates with the teachers concerning
the execution if their teaching task is:
“I always tell the teachers to take areas of the syllabus they find difficult to teach, to
other teachers in their subject association level and ask about how they can solve the
difficult topics in the curriculum. So, by the time they bring their ideas together, such
curriculum problems are solved” Vp 2.
The HOD likewise made the following expression in relation to the interpersonal relationship
between teachers and students during teaching and learning. He comments that:
“What I mean by „all-encompassing‟ teaching is, at least, a teacher must involve the
students in taking part in the explanation procedures and that makes it a teacherstudents teaching and learning oriented” HOD2.
If the submission of School B principal and vice-principal is measured according to the above
captured data that bothers on interpersonal relationship, an impression may be created that
he appreciates the subject knowledge and experience of his senior teachers. More so, the
principal wants to use well experiences teachers to improve the teaching skills of less
experienced teachers and may not permit the teachers to apply the advice of the HOD as
regards the utilization of “all encompassing” teaching and learning in the classroom. Thus,
judging School B principal and vice-principal‟s actions against the criteria of interpersonal
relationship as specified in the literature, School B principal and vice-principal do not seem to
satisfactorily meet the criteria for establishment of sound interpersonal relationship.
The researcher believes that the interpersonal relationships between the school principal and
teachers would not permit the submission of Bipath (2008:84); Herman, Dasborough and
Ashkanasy (2008:115-11) and Prinsloo (2003:199), who state that interpersonal relationship
positively increase team building, trust and openness and it is related to job satisfaction, job
performance, job participation, team cohesion and organisational commitment. Contrary to
the submission of the scholars above, School B principal‟s interpersonal relationship practice
does not take teachers‟ opinions, insights and feelings into account and; does not create
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opportunities for teachers to fulfil their own needs, that is, for the teachers to realize their own
potential - for instance, opportunities to be creative, to develop, challenging aims and
objectives.
Moreover, when the principal is present at the staff meeting, he does not encourage the
exchange of ideas; hence, there is only one-way communication flow in the school. In
addition, he does not make efforts to realistically improve the morale and solidarity of his
staff. It also seems that he only gives opportunity to more experienced teachers to guide the
less experienced ones, in case he does not possess the subject knowledge for the
dominance of discussions.
In the following paragraphs, the management of school climate and culture, the management
of change and conflict employed in creating an internal school environment conducive to the
quality of education will be analysed and discussed.
The comments of School B principal and vice-principal on the how they ensure school climate
conducive to learning is similar, but the HODs comment at variance. School B principal
explains that the students are always learning when they are supposed to, because teachers
will always be in their various classes to teach when required. In addition, he said because
the students do not have any room to be idle and make noise in their classrooms, it makes
the school environment quiet and serene. The principal is quoted thus:
“Eeee… Much effort has always been made by the state government in providing
physical structures like buildings, furniture for the children for conducive environment
as you can see;but as a school authority, I continue to make sure that we deal with the
problem of students‟ discipline of late coming and non-attendance of classes, to
ensure that excellent teaching and learning take place” P2.
The HOD‟s comment on School B climate bothers on the control of the students in his
expression as follow:
“Yes, the climate of the school is okay because everything that is required for teaching
and learning is provided by the government, but for the problem of students‟
indiscipline and that affects control of the students” HOD2.
The researcher observed that the buildings and facilities of School B are well maintained and
adequate for teachers to teach and students to learn. Although there is no modern technology
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like overhead projectors, a data projector etc., in the school, but the classroom blackboard is
used for teaching by the teachers. School climate, ethos, or spirit, represent the attitude of
the school and the collective mood or morale of teachers, because a happy teacher is
considered a better teacher in terms of his or her attitude, thus, creating a positive school
climate and this influences the quality of instruction, because of positive school environment
(Owens, 2001:145, Gruenert, 2008:57), however, School B does not fit into the
aforementioned submissions.
Also, student negative behaviour such as late-coming and hanging around the classrooms
and outside the school premises in the morning and; their undisciplined behaviour in classes
may be a symptom of a negative school climate. During the researcher‟s observation
exercises in School B, students in neighbouring classes were making so much noise
probably, because they did not have a teacher teaching them. Hence, that caused a
disturbance of teaching and learning in nearby classes (see 5.3.3.1).
An x-ray of School B‟s principal management behaviour may bring about the following
conclusions on the creation of a favourable school climate: Although the principal delegates
tasks and responsibilities to teachers, such delegated tasks and responsibilities are not
supported with authority, whereby teachers can take independent decision within the broad
guidelines of policy. The lack of written policy in the school may also have a negative effect
on the decision-making process in the school. Moreover, it is clear that the principal does not
tolerate any teacher, even members of the SLMT to question any of his decisions. By
implication, he utilizes one-way communication in interacting with the school teaching and
non-teaching staff members in his management practice.
Even though School B principal indicated that he acknowledges staff achievements, he is not
prepared to delegate tasks and authority to competent teaching staff to take independent
management decisions, because of his seemingly lack of confidence in their capability.
Hence, he does not make teachers feel useful and important by delegating tasks
meaningfully and by allowing them to take part in the decision-making process. The findings
in School B with reference to school climate is contrary to Price (2011:1-47) who found that
principals‟ relationships with their teachers affect both principals and teachers‟ fulfilment,
cohesion and commitment levels which sequentially affects school climate.
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It is clear from the captured data in School B that the principal exhibits autocratic approach to
leadership. All authority for planning, organizing and control is vested in the principal, hence,
he exhibits strong disciplinary character and that may have been the reason School B
principal‟s management style is rigid, yet, there is lack of discipline in School B. The
researcher is of the impression that the principal of School B is not always fully in control of
the school, hence, he becomes very autocratic when it suits him. According to the
researcher‟s observation, School B principal is not visible in the school and it sometimes
seems that he is not really interested in what is going on in the school, because it was
obvious in the researcher‟s observation that students were coming late to school in the
morning and some of them were hanging outside the school premises (see 5.3.3.1).
More so, on sighting the official car of the school principal, students who were late and
approaching the school entrance gate (about 30 minutes after the school settled down for
normal classes at 8 a.m.), ran helter-shelter and spread out in different directions in the
street. They however went into the school after the principal had driven his car to his office,
which is about 100 metres from the classrooms. It was also observed that during the school
day, the principal normally stays in his office and it seems he isn‟t even aware of the
undisciplined behaviour of students, including those of some of the teachers in the school
(see 5.3.3.1).
School B principal, HOD and vice-principal hinge their manners of creating positive culture of
teaching by telling the students to love their teachers, so that they can automatically love the
subjects they teach. In the words of the principal, the enlightenment that students should love
their teachers and the subjects they teach is what the SLMT always preaches in order to
facilitate a culture of teaching and learning in the school. The principal said, that is what the
SLMT members always tell the students so that their teachers in return will teach them well
and treat them like their biological children. The principal is quoted thus:
“First and foremost, I make it clear to those students that anybody that fails to love his
teacher, loves to fail. They are advised to, you know, aaa… move close to, and seek
knowledge from their teacher every time and not only within the school period alone,
but even, outside the school period. By doing that, they are kind of inculcating that
culture of working hard in teaching the students and that makes the students to love
their teachers and; the subjects they teach too. The teacher too, knowing fully that
these children love him, will be willing to teach them at any point in time, even, when
the school is over” P2.
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The vice-principal‟s comment is similar concerning the culture of teaching and learning. She
expresses that:
“…our school has got a culture of teaching and learning. For instance, I also check
what is being taught. We have the diary where we have the scheme of work and the
teachers, they prepare their notes of lesson and always advise the students to love
their teachers, hence, it will make them to like the subject that the teacher is teaching
them” Vp2.
A substantial comment concerning the fact that students must love their teachers and other
members of the SLMT, as a means of encouraging the promotion of teaching and learning
culture is expressed by the HOD,. The HOD said:
“…the culture of teaching and learning here in my school is that‟ prompt high standard
of teachers attendance to classes is always maintained, because we always tell the
students to love their teachers as much as they want to pass their understand and
pass their subjects” HOD2.
From the quoted response above regarding the promotion of teaching and learning culture, it
is clear that School B principal and other members of the SMLT link their comments of
„student love‟ for their teachers and subjects, as a recipe for students‟ academic
achievement. They add that when that mind-set of mutual love is present, teachers can
always teach the students better and easily, because of the love the teacher has for the
students. Therefore, the researcher is of the opinion that the entire SLMT‟s comments may
not facilitate and encourage the students to love their teachers, except that the culture of
relationship between the teachers and the students is based on the value of mutual respect,
acceptance of responsibility to teach and to learn and; to willingly give an account of their
actions.
“Learning process must occur in an environment that contains interpersonal relationships in
which students feel appreciated, acknowledged, respected and validated by their teachers.
When students are involved, when they believe that teachers have a personal interest in
them, when learning is connected to the real world and their personal interests, they may not
only become effective students, but their skills may be socially enhanced” (Shechtman and
Leichtentritt, 2004:323-333). It also seems that the teaching and learning culture in School
B is not based on the values of mutual respect and accountability. That is, if the teachers are
not discharging their teaching tasks as expected, the students would not show love towards
them and their subjects.
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Moreover, School B principal‟s persuasions of the students to love their teachers and the
subjects they teach may not be adequate to create a conducive teaching and learning culture
in the school, as the findings of Khan, Ahmad, Ali and ur-Rehman (2011:2668-2678) indicates
that school principals are not solely responsible for the outstanding educational outcomes in
the school, because their leadership has been found as an inevitable factor in producing the
environment (climate) where these outcomes occur.
Based on the above, the researcher presupposes that one of the most important reasons for
the unpleasant climate School B may be due to the leadership approach of the principal, that
is, the undesirable example he sets for the rest of the school. The attitude of the principal,
teachers and students may also influence the behaviour patterns of other stakeholders
attached to the school, for example, parents‟ refusal to attend meetings and low patronage
towards the payment of PTA dues, may have further aggravated the negative organisational
culture of the school.
The management of change is analysed with respect to management of curriculum change in
the school. School B SLMT discloses similar comments to the researcher on how change is
managed in the school. The principal expresses that the entire staff members work with the
directives of the government and because of that, the teachers have no choice, but to work
welcome any change in government policies or programmes that are announced towards the
discharge of teachers‟ tasks. He however said that he encourages teachers until they get
used to changes introduced into schools by the government. Furthermore, he also tells the
teachers that change is inevitable and that they must familiarised themselves with such
changes in gradual manner. The principal said:
“Change is inevitable. Government introduces change in curriculum practices of
teachers any time they deem fit, even, if teachers are going to have some problems as
per this change at the beginning, they will get used to it gradually. When they start
adapting to the introduced innovations as teachers, it becomes part of them over time.
We cannot expect that… Rome was not built in a day. We cannot expect that a new
thing introduced to enhance the teaching job becomes part of us in a day, but as time
goes on it becomes a culture, because teachers are to work in-line with government
directives and policy developments” P2.
The vice-principal‟s comment also corroborates the principal‟s expression. She said:
“…we have been made to understand since the inception of our teaching career that
we must implement every change that comes from the government. Therefore, I
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always tell teachers that we have to follow such changes as they are given to us and
they come from the government” Vp2.
The HOD‟s comment is about the adaption to change by the teachers. Similarly, he said:
“…I usually tell my teachers that for them to be abreast of all the needed information
and the changes, they just need constant review of most of these curriculums changes
passed on to them by the government and adapt to such changes” HOD2.
According to School B principal and other members of the SLMT, change is inevitable and
teachers have to accept and adapt their teaching according to government‟s departmental
directives. Although School B is positive about change, but the principal‟s autocratic
leadership behaviour and actions may not encouraged teachers to be creative and innovative
in their teaching. If the management practice of School B principal is measured against the
school observation and all the captured data from the interviews in School B, it appears that
little opportunities are created for staff to fulfil their needs to be innovative, as they are not
allowed to exchange ideas with the principal and little or no „two-way communication‟ is
encouraged in the school.
Swanepoel (2008:461-474) asserts that the more teachers are made to participate in initiating
roles in school change, the more positive they felt about the change and the more willing they
become, so that they can seriously engage with future change. The assertion of Swanepoel
(2008:461-474) does not appear to be in operation in School B, because the teachers‟
leadership approach, skills and abilities of the teaching staff are not developed, thus, effective
leadership is not spread through the school, which might have had a negative effect on
effective change in the school.
It is also apparent from the captured interview data that due to School B principal‟s leadership
approach, very little is displayed in terms of management practices towards knowledge
dimension of learning or effective dimension of learning. The teaching staff members in
School B are forced to assess their students twice a week without a formally written policy
decision. This is culminated by the fact that teachers are not allowed to question the ideas of
the principal and to come up with a better assessment strategy for the school.
Therefore, a conclusion that could be made is that school climate conducive to change has
not been developed over the years in School B, because the starting point should be the
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capacity building of the teaching staff, which involves developing new knowledge, skills and
competencies. Another very important element in the creation of a school climate conducive
to effective change is the development of a culture of learning. The development of a culture
of learning involves a set of strategies designed to allow people to learn from one-another
and the researcher presumes that School B does not possess that. According to Bridges
(2003:3), change is a way of doing things to make a difference. School change results as a
reflection of the staff‟s attitude towards educational innovations and the extent to which they
adapt themselves to changes and demonstrate an open attitude towards educational
innovations (Devos, Houtte, Braak and Valcke 2009:223-235).
The vice-principal and the principal made similar explanations concerning how they resolve
teacher-student conflict. The principal explained that when students complain that a teacher
did not teach them some topics, yet, some questions of the untaught topics appeared in the
examination; he explained that he normally tell the students to read far beyond what the
teacher had taught them in the class, so that the students can always be far ahead of the
topics taught in that subject by such teacher. Utilising the principal‟s comments on the
resolution of change, he said:
“When students complain that the teacher did not teach them some topics, but they
appeared in their examination paper. After investigating such a conflict, it is usually
found that the teacher actually taught them such topic(s) in the scheme of work, but
the questions came in a slightly different language which the students are not familiar
with. Therefore, what I personally advise students to do is that, they must read far
beyond what the teacher has actually taught them in the classroom” P2.
The vice-principal‟s expression on the resolution of inter-personal conflicts bothers on the
conflict between teachers. She said:
“…It‟s about discipline about keeping to time. When such teacher report comes to me,
I will educate the teacher who is trying to use part of the other teacher‟s period about
keeping to time when teaching” Vp2
Moreover, the HOD in a different opinion explains how conflicts are resolved between
teachers, concerning conflict of job responsibilities and time management in the teaching of
their subjects thus:
“When a teacher feels he is lagging behind in one or two of the topics he/she is
supposed to have taught long before and according to the teaching regulation- I mean
teaching the time-table. Therefore, he or she over-spends his or her period and an
aggrieved teacher who was supposed to have taught in the next period reports such a
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teacher to me. I will give advice on the importance of time management and possibly
warnings to the offending teacher as appropriate” HOD2.
School B vice-principal and principal assume that they resolve instructional conflict between
students and teachers through democratic resolution and fairness, that is, through persuasion
of the students narratives without listening to the teachers involved in the conflict. The HOD
also resolves conflict between teachers by capitalizing on the story of only one of the
teachers involved. While the researcher was in the HODs office, a female teacher knocked at
the HOD‟s office to report another male teacher, for preventing her from teaching at the start
of her subject period. By implication, she said that the teaching time of that teacher was overspent. The HOD left then left the researcher in his office for the classroom, ostensibly to solve
the problem.
Conflict as an inevitable part of change, may occur in the form of interpersonal conflicts
among staff, authorities as well as the students and should be handled in a constructive and
not destructive manner (Okotoni and Okotoni, 2003:23-38; Van der Merwe, 2003:26; Ramani
and Zhimin, 2010:242-256; Somech, 2008:359-390), but it seems if that School B SLMT does
not listen to the other party‟s narrative, while attempting to resolve conflict. The researcher is
of the assumption that conflict between students and teachers and; between teachers, may
have been the reason for a negative school climate and culture, contributing to lack of
discipline in the school. Although teachers are told what and how to teach, they are not
allowed to be creative or to voice their ideas or feelings on issues concerning teaching.
Therefore, it is possible that most of them are frustrated, feel unappreciated and it seems that
the teaching staff members are unmotivated to walk extra-mile with their students. It is also
clear that the values of respect and accountability do not exist in School B. Under these
circumstances of dysfunctional conflict, stagnation of teaching staff may develop.
The vice-principal and principal of School B comments indicate similar concern parents‟
inability to collaboration and cooperation with the school SLMT concerning the enhancement
teaching and learning. Likewise the vice-principal, the principal said that parents do not
attend PTA meetings, where issues concerning the students‟ academic progress are regularly
discussed. He expressed that he does not know what next to do, in order to persuade the
parents to come and be familiar with their children‟s academic progress, because he cannot
force them. He responds to the issue of parental participation in the school thus:
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“They do very little, because they don‟t show a sign of utmost interest in their
children‟s academic success and I cannot force them to do that. What they constantly
do is, write to the school through their children, giving excuses for their inability to
attend the Parents Association meeting. Also, you will find out that some parents have
transferred their responsibilities to the government. They even don‟t appreciate
teachers‟ efforts of teaching their children in school” P2.
The vice-principal also points her blame towards students‟ parents for not attending to the
education of their children, through the prompt and regular attendance of Parents-teachers‟
Association meeting. She expresses that:
“…because their (referring to students) parents do not come to the PTA meeting
where we can brief them and discuss one on one with their parents on how we can
both work together and work on the academic performance of the students” Vp2.
Parental involvement in students‟ learning seems to have been given a low priority in School
B. Therefore, it presupposes that the school principal and other members of the SLMT do not
devise means of making parents attend meetings, in order to discuss students‟ learning with
their parents. In addition the HOD expresses his disappointment over the inability of parents
to attend PTA meetings. The HOD said that parents do not care to come to school meetings
and have interactions with school teachers, in order to know how their children are performing
in the school. She said in addition that parents‟ collaboration with the school will bring about a
possible way of correcting the students‟ poor academic performance. The HOD said:
“We try as much as possible to write to some of the parents inviting them for
interactions about their children‟s academic performance to discuss and correct issues
concerning their children‟s academic performance. Even if they don‟t come to Parents
Teachers‟ Association meeting... but they always have send messages of excuses
through their children giving reasons why they could not attend school meetings”
HOD2.
School B PTA attendance record indicates poor input of parents in the education of their
children. This is because parents always have excuses towards having a meeting with the
school authorities, that is, they exhibit nonchalant attitude to the attendance of PTA meetings.
Observed records in School B, showed low turn-up rates of parents at the Parents Teachers‟
Association (PTA) successive meetings [see 5.3.3.3].
The finding on parents‟ behaviour is contrary to the submission of Nieuwenhuis and Potvin
(2005) who stress that the school principal should play a leading role in engaging the
community to support the learning climate of the school, win the trust and respect of the
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parent-community, value the contribution of parents, trust them and accept them as equal
partners of the school in order to sustain the dependence of the school on the goodwill of
their parent-community. In addition, findings in this study is contrary to the conclusion of
Cranston (2001:1-24) that, community involvement in decision-making has moved into
different operational contexts, where teachers and parents have significantly enhanced roles
in decision-making compared with earlier times, because of the application of „School-Based
Management‟ (SBM).
It is clear from the above captured data that the parents of School B are not involved in the
school and that they show no or little interest in the academic achievement of their children,
nor the progress of the school. They do not accept mutual responsibility for the education of
their children and they don‟t appreciate the efforts of teachers towards the teaching of their
children. It also seems that there is no strategy in the school to encourage good
communication with the parent-community and to encourage participative management of
parents in the decisions that affect them.
Therefore, the researcher is of the conclusion that the negative attitude of the parentcommunity may not be a surprise and expected in School B for the following reasons:
Teachers and parents may have had the feelings of being excluded from the decision-making
process; there is lack of a challenging vision for the school, a possible lack of communication
between the school and the parent-community, the principal utilizes one-way communication
in the form of autocratic instructions from the principal, there is poor interpersonal
relationships between the principal, teachers and students are not motivated, hence, poor
examination results of students in their final school year. Moreover, the negative climate of
the school may have been due to the leadership approach and behaviour of the principal. It
also seems that School B has developed a poor school culture over the years, therefore, the
history of the school is not laden with proud traditions and rituals; the school may not have
been producing heroes and heroines that students and teachers would want to identify with
and proud of.
The following paragraphs summarize the analysis and discussions emanating from the
captured data on management practices and behaviour of School A and B SLMT.
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5.9
Summary
Planning is done in School A to meet its curriculum needs at beginning of every academic
year. Subjects are allocated or delegated to individual teachers according to their teaching
experience, skills and according to departmental policy in order to emphasize the principle of
specialization and division of work. It is also important to mention that School A principal sets
example by handling the teaching of Accounting at the SSS 3 classes.
Teachers are also mandated to adhere to departmental policy on curriculum in order to teach
all the prescribed topics in the syllabus, however, they have the authority and the freedom to
decide on the most suitable teaching strategies and methods. Policy documents and control
measures are well planned and available in School A and everyone knows exactly what is
expected of him or her. The presence of policy in School A also demonstrates that teachers
are obliged to accept responsibilities towards their teaching duties and by implication;
teachers would be willing to give their teaching account to the principal of the school. In
essence, the principle of delegation, accountability and participation in the decision-making
process through cooperation and consultation is applied and encouraged.
The principal of School A stands in a relationship of trust with the vice-principal of the school,
hence, he is prepared to delegate challenging tasks to the vice-principal. This is an important
motivational technique, because it offers greater potential for achievement and recognition.
The principal also seems to be extra careful, so that the teachers do not leave any of the
examination bodies (WAEC and NECO) syllabus topics untaught. Therefore, his aim of
synchronizing the teaching objectives of both syllabuses is a demonstration of his serious
concern for good student achievement. The principal of School A also believes that
controlling the teachers‟ job performance routinely and also inspects students‟ volume of work
in the class, in order to help in achieving the set objectives of teaching and learning.
Also, in an attempt to motivate teachers, high academic expectations are set, but the
teaching staff members are given the best possible support to ensure quality teaching and
learning in the school. On the issue of communication, School A principal believes in
corresponding with teachers through democratic means. That results in two-way
communication and mutual dialogue on issues of teaching and learning. As regards the
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creation of interpersonal relationship in School A, the teachers are advised by the SLMT to
relate and engage with other more experienced colleagues in the school, in order to
collectively solve or teach difficult areas or topics in their subject areas. By implication, sound
interpersonal relationships are established between the principal and other members of the
SLMT, teachers and the students.
The organisational structure of the school is used by the principal to delegate tasks,
responsibilities and the authority and; to take independent decisions within the broad
guidelines of departmental and school policy. Furthermore, it is clear that two-way
communication is encouraged in the school and that, there is a simultaneous downwards and
upwards flows of information and ideas in the school. It is also clear from the captured data
that participation in decision-making is encouraged between the principal, teachers and the
Students‟ Representative Council (SRC).
The culture of School A is based on values such as, accountability and respect for oneanother. High academic expectations are set, but teachers and students are well supported to
achieve the set academic aims and objectives. Although the response of School A principal to
the question on the management of change in the school is negative, but the outstanding
characteristic of the principal is indicated by his effort to ensure continuous staff development.
By implication, his effort to build the teaching capacity of the teachers in the school is enough
to allay the fears of the teachers over the introduction of change in the school. It is clear that
the approach of School A principal towards conflict resolution is through compromise and
confrontation towards prompt solution of grievances between teachers and students. It is also
clear that the parents of School A are active partners in student learning. This is because,
promptly paid PTA fee (money) is used to invite subject and curriculum specialists from
outside the school and the Ministry of Education to train and; develop the teachers in the
school.
School B on the other hand, also engages teachers in the planning of teaching in the school.
He also emphasized that subject curriculum forms the essence of teaching and learning in
the school. Therefore, the school principal and other members of the SLMT distribute
subjects amongst teachers in a meeting, at the beginning of the academic year. The
researcher couldn‟t find any evidence of a written school policy or a challenging vision in
School B. However, it presupposes that without school policy it may be impossible for
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members of the SLMT or teachers to take any important and independent decision, because
there are no written guidelines in the school, according to which the school may make
decisions; or even, solve school or teaching problems in the classrooms. Hence, because of
the absence of school policy, the principal autocratically makes all decisions and the staffs
have to follow his instructions.
Due the autocratic leadership approach of School B principal, tasks are delegated to the
teaching staff, without accompanied authority to make decisions as to how to the delegated
tasks are to be executed. Moreover, the principal does not follow-up task accomplishment of
the teachers. In addition, School B principal assumes that, because he mandates teachers to
coordinate both syllabi - WAEC and NECO - they would be able to prepare the students
better for the final year terminal examination (both syllabi are
important to prepare the
students for the final year examinations).
Also, it seems that the principal of School B is not really in control of the school, because
there is lack of rules, procedures and policy in the school, hence, discipline in the school is
weak. Work is delegated to the teaching staff with little or no support to help them to improve
their teaching skills. The principal does not have the best interests of the staff, in terms of
collaboration, because there is little teamwork and coherence amongst staff. Therefore, every
authority for planning, organizing and control are vested in the leader without staff
involvement.
Although the principal of School B indicates that he motivates and acknowledges staff
achievement when they deserve it, he only satisfies a marginal of the criteria of motivation in
this study. That is, no challenging tasks are set, teaching capacity and ability of staff are not
built, he is not prepared to delegate tasks and give authority to staff members to take
independent decisions, does not make teachers feel useful and important by delegating tasks
meaningfully and allowing them to take part in the decision-making process and; does not
promote team spirit and group-work leading to empowerment of individual staff. However, his
bid to motivate teachers does not result in sound interpersonal relationship, because of his
one-way communication approach and decision-making pattern.
The principal of School B does not possess a habit of listening to staff members‟ views or
insights. He doesn‟t tolerate any attempt by members of his SLMT to question his decisions,
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because he encourages one-way communication through dominance in the decision making
process, which concerns every teaching and learning discussions. The principal does not
also encourage any form of two-way communication, hence, it seems that he exclusively
takes every decision and informs the SLMT in the form of instructions. He however
appreciates the subject knowledge and experience of his senior teachers and; wants to use
them to improve the teaching skills of less experienced teachers in creating interpersonal
relations among teachers.
School B principal It does not seem to fulfil the fundamental criteria for establishing sound
interpersonal relationship in the school, because he doesn‟t like to take the teachers opinions,
insights and feelings into account; does not create opportunities for staff members to fulfil
their own needs, i.e. to realize their own potential (opportunities to be creative, to develop,
challenging aims and objectives), does not encourage the exchange of ideas, hence, his oneway communication pattern in the school tends to hinder his attempts to improve the morale
and solidarity of his staff members in his school. It seems that he only gives opportunity to
more experienced teachers to guide the less experienced ones, in case he does not possess
the subject knowledge and that „speaks volume‟ about his autocratic leadership behaviour.
The school culture in School B is not based on the values of mutual respect and
accountability. This is because of the autocratic leadership approach of the principal and the
examples he sets to the rest of the school hinder a culture of positive and warm interpersonal relationship between him, the teachers and students alike. There is lack of discipline
among teachers towards their job and; among students, towards their studies. More so, the
attitude of the principal, teachers and students may have had influence on the behaviour
patterns of all the stakeholders in the school; which might have also negatively influenced the
organisational culture of the school. In addition, little opportunities are created for staff to fulfil
their needs be innovative, because they are not allowed to exchange ideas with the principal.
Due to School B principal‟s lack of transformational leadership, teaching staff members are
not developed. Therefore, effective leadership is not spread through the school, which may
have also been having a negative effect on effective change in the school.
The principal and the HOD in School B do not listen to the other side of a story in an attempt
to resolve conflict between parties. Conflict between students and teachers and; between
teachers may have been unarguably caused by a negative school climate and culture in the
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school. Also School B climate may have been contributing negatively to the stagnation of
teaching staff development, hence, the values of respect and accountability do not exist in the
school. Therefore, based on the dysfunctional character of the school, parents may have
developed indifferent attitude of involving themselves in School B, hence, indicating little or
no interest in the school activities. Also, parents do not accept mutual responsibility for the
education of their children and they do not appreciate the teachers‟ teaching efforts on their
children. Also, the negative school-community relationship practice of the principal may have
resulted from lack of strategy or strategies by School B principal towards encouraging good
communication, collaboration and participation of parents in the management of issues that
affect their children in the school.
The analysis and discussion of classroom leadership and management dynamics contributing
to school effectiveness is presented in Chapter 6. It reveals how classroom leadership and
management dynamics contribute to effective schools. This was done by developing
classroom leadership and management indicators (sub-themes) from the Chapter 3 of the
literature review, in order to analyse data collected in the field on a priori base.
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CHAPTER SIX
Data analysis, reporting and discussion of results on classroom
leadership and management contributing to school effectiveness
6.1
Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to analyse field data collected to establish how classroom
leadership and management dynamics contribute to school effectiveness. The success or
failure of a teacher‟s classroom leadership and management may influence school
effectiveness, because according to Rowe (2004:13), “...effective schools are only effective to the
extent that they have effective teachers”. Hence, this chapter deals with the analysis and
discussion of findings based on data collected through different sources– interview,
observation and a brief document analysis/review.
The main themes of Chapter 3 (classroom leadership and management) provided a
foundation of analyzing the findings of the research on an a priori basis. Sub-themes of
classroom leadership and management were generated from Chapter 3 of the literature
review. In addition, the codes generated from the field-work as a result of interviews,
observations and document reviews or analysis in the effective and the ineffective schools
were measured against the criteria exposed and embedded in each of the sub-themes or
indicators of classroom leadership and management identified in the literature review. This is
with a view of indicating how teachers‟ classroom management practices of teachers
influence school effectiveness.
The researcher experienced that most of the comments on individual interview question
posed to the teachers and the student leaders (class captain), for the purpose of triangulation
provided similar meaning. Therefore, the comments of the teachers were given paramount
consideration, because the success of providing leadership and managing teaching and
learning in the classroom rests mainly on the subject teacher. However, comments of the
student leaders (class captains) were utilized to corroborate or refute teachers‟ comments on
similar questions asked by the researcher.
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6.2 Analysis of the classroom observation at School A and B
6.2.1 Introduction
Observation of teaching activities in School A and B in classrooms were carried out in order
to gain necessary and in-depth understanding of teachers‟ classroom leadership and
management practices during teaching and learning. The researcher patiently carried out
direct observation of one English Language subject teacher in each of the sampled SchoolsA and B - in order to explore how their classroom leadership and management behaviour
influence students‟ attitudes and learning outcomes.
The English Language teacher was sampled, because English Language is officially a
compulsory subject offered to every student, hence, it enabled the researcher to observe indepth, teacher‟s leadership and management practices in a full capacity classroom. The
teachers were observed whenever there was an English Language teaching period in any of
the final year classes. This was necessary in order to discover their level of effectiveness or
ineffectiveness during teaching, because teacher‟s classroom leadership and management
are also assumed to have a direct relationship with student achievement.
In addition, analysis of the classroom context was done during the observations. Therefore,
the observations were done and organized in the following meaningful categories:

Physical environment: Sitting arrangements and organisation, classroom neatness
and displays and so on.

Lesson presentation: Effective instructional practices e.g. assessment, students‟
participation,
teaching
aids/utilization,
teaching
planning,
teaching
style,
communication to and motivation of students and so on.

Student-teacher relationship and interaction: Teacher and student interaction and
behaviour in the classroom during teaching and so on.
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Table 5.2: Organogram showing data collection methods in the classroom and
participants in the study
Classroom observation
School A and B
A teacher and a
student each
Interview
School A and B
A teacher and a
student each
Document analysis
School A and B
Lesson plan and
notes
In the following paragraphs analysis regarding classroom observations in School A and B is
presented.
6.2.2 Classroom observation: School A (achieving school)
6.2.2.1
Physical environment of the classroom
Each of the classrooms in the school measures 49 square metres and consists of a pair of 32
desk and bench (two students occupied a pair of desk and bench). The classroom is well
ventilated with six 1.8x1.8 metres louvre windows. The teacher arranges the students in a
way that the male and female students were paired in a row. The tall students were
occupying the back seat rows, while the short students were in the front seat rows. The
teacher also gives the students time to settle down for his subject lesson. The physical
spaces between the seats are not wide enough, but the teacher could move in-between and
reach individual students if he wanted to, while teaching. The students always maintained
silence as soon as the teacher entered the class to commence teaching.
Also, educative charts relating to Mathematics, tenses and parts of speech in English
Language are displayed on the classrooms walls. Although there were no visible ground rules
or policy relating to teaching and learning on the classroom walls, but students were verbally
reminded of the teacher‟s rules regarding student expected behaviour, during and beyond
teaching in the classroom. Before commencement of lessons, the teacher usually walks
around to check whether all the students were present in the classroom.
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6.2.2.2
Presentation of lessons
This report constitute of some of the teacher‟s observation in the classroom during the period
of data collection. The teacher‟s lesson observation revealed consistent behaviour on the part
of the teacher and the students during teaching and learning observation. Several
observations of teaching in the classroom were done, but this observation forms meticulous
observation of the teacher‟s presentation of lesson in the classroom. A textbook as a
teaching-learning resource was use by the teacher and each of the students. The teacher
started his teaching by summarizing what was taught during the last lesson -that is, essay
writing. Students were also asked questions on the topic as a way of recapping the last
lesson and the students responded excellently to his questions.
In addition, before the lesson observation by the researcher, the students have been given an
assignment, that is, to write an essay on any topic that interests them and the students made
brilliant attempts. That was evident by their scores in the assignment as announced by the
teacher in the classroom thus: “I am not amazed that you can still remember vividly features
of a good essay, because 95% of you performed very well in the assignment. Therefore, the
topic of the day is comprehension”. The comment of the teacher served as a stimulant to
reinforce and motivate the students, because the students applauded themselves. It also
highlights that the teacher was impressed by the performances of the students.
The teacher thereafter successfully made references and connections to what was taught in
previous lessons by focusing on the reflections of the topic. The objectives of the lesson
observed were made clear and unambiguous and the teacher notified the students that the
topic of that lesson will be taught in three class visits.
The teaching strategies of the teacher were based on whole class teaching and the use of
questions and answers and so on, depending on the topic being taught during the
researcher‟s observation. Successful students‟ response to questions asked by the teacher in
an attempt to review the last lessons, allows the teacher to move from one planned objective
of the lesson to another. Adequate metaphors and analogies like the use of similar events or
occurrences in society to explain what was being taught in the topic were used. For example,
in one of the observed lessons, the teacher mentioned journalists‟ experiences as reporters
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and how they report their stories in concise manners despite witnessing and observing a
scene in the news field for several hours.
In addition, analogies and metaphors utilized in the teacher‟s lessons served as illustrations
for students to get a better understanding of what the teacher was teaching. It also gave the
students the opportunity to think critically and as a result, the teacher encouraged diverse
opinions and questions. The teacher was so enthusiastic that he called the names of some
students and encouraged them to give answers or opinions to the questions he asked. He
was also polite in rejecting incorrect answers, by encouraging other students to make clearer
responses to the questions he had asked during teaching.
More so, there was congruence between human and task dimension. For example, the
teacher appears to stabilise the response given by the students, by citing examples and
enumerating correct and incorrect responses to questions asked. The teacher was always
positive in his drive to encourage the students to think critically and respond to the questions
he asked them.
In a particular lesson observed by the researcher, the teacher walks between sitting rows to
check what students were writing in their books, which indicates his monitoring/supervision
ability during teaching. He checks some of the students‟ books and asks some of them
questions relating to how and why they have different views to the topic questions being
discussed in the class. He went to a student, picked up her note-book to see how she had
responded to a question and exclaimed: “Yes, this answer to the question is a positive one,
but you have responded to the question asked in a different dimension and perspective.
Please class, give her an ovation” The students clapped for the student. Assessment
questions in the classroom were evenly distributed to students in the classroom.
6.2.2.3
Student-teacher relationship
The student/teacher relationship was based on democratic interaction. The teacher actively
listens to what the students say, and also responds to the questions they ask during teaching
and paid attention to verbal and non-verbal responses. During every teaching observed by
the researcher, the teacher basically paid attention to hear or listen to students‟
communications in order to understand the students. The teacher also uses eye contact,
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body language, appropriate facial expressions and use of positive gesture, open and relaxed
gestures and verbal clues such as “um-hmmm” “okay” and “yes”, in response to proper
answers to the questions he asked the students during teaching. While teaching, the teacher
repeatedly asks students questions on what he has taught them, as a means of assessing
them.
The classroom management practice of the teacher towards teaching in the classroom
resulted in the promotion of a feeling of understanding, acceptance, respect, affection and
help. Students became less troubled, thereby expressing their thoughts openly without fear of
whether their attempts to questions asked were right or wrong. Paraphrasing of students‟
response by the teacher to check what he heard the students clearly for the sake of accuracy
was common during the teaching-learning processes. The use of the words like, “you feel
that”, “you believe that”, “you are saying that…” made students get more motivated and
continued to air their views to the teacher‟s questions, because it indicates that the teacher
was understood by the students. It also indicates that and that the teacher cared about the
students‟ thoughts and answers, whether wrong or right. The management practices
exhibited by the teacher (planning, organizing, control, etc.) inspired the students to live up to
the expectations of the teacher.
The teacher finally gave the students a comprehensive passage assignment that would lead
to the topic to be taught in the next class at the end of each lesson. Thereafter, the teacher
and the students collectively deliberated and agreed on the day of submission of the
assignment to the teacher.
6.2.3 Classroom observation: School B (under-achieving school)
6.2.3.1
Physical environment of the classroom
The classroom is of 49 square metres consisting of a pair of 32 desk and bench, with two
students occupying a pair of desk and bench and the classroom is well ventilated by six
1.8x1.8 metres louvre windows. The physical spaces between the seats are not wide enough,
but teachers could move in-between the rows and reach individual students while teaching, if
he wanted to. The teacher arranges the students in a way that the male and female students
are paired in a row and the tall students were occupying the back seat rows, while the short
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students were in the front seat rows. One of the reasons for that according to the teacher is to
prevent the tall students from blocking the view of the short students during teaching and
learning. That however did not prevent undisciplined students‟ to talk covertly from the back
seats, using some short students as shields when the teacher is not facing their direction. In
addition, no written classroom policy was displayed in the classroom, rather, they the teacher
verbally pronounces the dos and don‟ts in his classroom, while teaching and learning is in
progress.
6.2.3.2
Presentation of lessons
The teacher usually start-off with the lesson task (topic), with few ground-rules regulating the
do‟s and the do not‟s of students during teaching - verbally announced to the students before
he starts teaching. In a particular observation of the teacher‟s presentation of lesson, the
teacher started by saying: “On Monday, we discussed about reporting a speech, today we are
going to talk about summarizing such reported speech. Therefore, the topic to be taught
today is, „summary‟. What is „summary‟?”
The teacher went on to define what „summary‟ is, without first stimulating students to be
prepared and ready to learn, thereby asking few questions on what he taught in the last
lesson. The teacher announced that there is a link between the understanding of
comprehension and its context before one can actually summarize the event gathered in an
event. Though the objectives of the lesson was made clear as observed in the teacher‟s
lesson note, but there was no evidence of the utilization of reflective teaching that can be
used to connect the last lesson with the present one being taught. This is because the
teacher did not ask the students any question concerning the previous lesson he taught.
The teacher‟s teaching style in the process of lesson transmission is based on one-way
communication. By that means, the teacher asks questions relating to what he was teaching
and usually responds to that same question asked, without giving any opportunity to the
students for attempted answers to the questions asked. Also, the teacher does not
occasionally ask students questions on what he is teaching, in order to be sure that the
students understand his lesson from the beginning to the end. This indicates to the
researcher that assessment was not given priority while the teacher is teaching. However, the
teacher would give assignments to the students at the end of each lesson presentation,
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despite that he was always the only one asking questions and answering the questions
during lessons. The researcher thinks that his style of teaching is basically autocratic,
because he showed same behaviour in some of his other classes observed.
The teaching strategy of the teacher was seemingly the lecture method, because he always
exclusively speaks throughout his lessons, without allowing student inputs during his
teaching. No actual visible teaching aid was used for the illustration of topics he taught.
Based on the teachers‟ teaching strategy, he was autocratic during the series of observations
of his lessons; because there was no congruence between human and task dimension. In
one of the researcher‟s observation of the teacher‟s lessons presentations, the teacher
discovered that a female student was slumbering while he was teaching. On sighting her he
said, “Why are you sleeping in my class? Are you sick or pregnant? If you are sick, you had
better go home now!” This indicates that the teacher is not tactful and careful in
communicating with students and how to make decisions in solving the problems of the
students, so that he may motivate and arouse their interest in what was being taught. Hence,
he never establishes a positive and caring relationship with students.
The teacher did not go round the class to ask whether the students had a problem regarding
what he was teaching; neither did he check to see what they were copying in their notebooks,
in order to execute monitoring of teaching. Also, the teacher barely gives response to some of
the questions asked by the students. He and told them on several occasions: “You are not
serious”! Whenever the students ask him questions on what he was teaching, he tells the
students that: “Ordinarily, you should have known the answers to those questions without
asking me”. According to the teacher, some questions the students were asking him were not
related to what he was teaching in the lesson. By implication, the behaviour exhibited by the
teacher did not allow room for reinforcement and motivation of students‟ learning.
6.2.3.3
Student-teacher relationship
The student-teacher relationship and communication was that of a teacher-centered one,
because students only listen to the teacher, without participating his teaching. The students
were not sure if the teacher would respond to their questions, because of his autocratic and
unfriendly attitude, hence, they were passive during the teaching and learning process. The
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teacher also could not discover the misconception of the students about what was being
taught, because of the one-way communication mode he adopts during teaching.
In addition, the researcher observes that the students were not enthusiastic to learn, because
some of them caused disruptions with ring-tones of their cell phones. Sometimes, they also
walk out of the classroom by making excuses to the teacher that they are going to the restroom. In response to the summary assignment the teacher gave the students, he was
dismayed at the students‟ performance scores and uttered the following expressions: “I am
really disappointed and sad that despite the efforts I put in teaching you in this class, few of
you submitted your assignments; even those that submitted performed woefully and poorly.
Imagine! 70% of those of you that submitted scored below five out of ten marks!”
More so, during the occasions of the teacher‟s lessons, behavioural problems like, audible
ring-tones of some of a student‟s cell-phones were sometimes used to distract teaching and
learning in the classroom, hence, a female student reported to the teacher that she was being
disturbed by the ring tone. This led to the teachers‟ anger and he eventually used a cane on
few of the identified student offender for being rude and disturbing his class during his lesson.
The teacher said to the students that despite that the use of corporal punishment on students
to correct behaviour has been outlawed by the Lagos State government; he would use the
cane on some of them to punish them. Another method used to punish the students by the
teacher is by chasing those students‟ offenders out of his class and then, telling them to be
on bended kneels in the Sun, as a means of controlling the students‟ unruly behaviour.
Moreover, because of disruptive behaviour exhibited by some male students in the class
during teaching, the teacher threatened the students by saying: “That is why you will fail in
the terminal examination, because „summary‟ is one of the important aspects of the questions
that are set in the English Language examination. You will all fail!” (The teacher was
apparently teaching summary as a topic in English Language). In response, some of the
students laughed quietly as a result of the teacher‟s loud voice of expressing his warning in
the classroom. However, before the end of the forty minutes teaching period, four students
were asked to remain standing, but close to their seats while four were sent out by the
teacher, because of their disorderly behaviour.
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Below is a summary of similarities and differences in the observations carried out in each
class, during each of the teacher‟s lesson presentations in School A and B.
6.3
Summary
The physical environment of the classrooms observed in school A is similar to the physical
structure, environment furniture (benches and desks), class size and organisation of student
and sitting arrangements in school B. Both School A and B classrooms are neat and also
feature similar sitting arrangement, whereby a male student is paired with a female student
on a bench and desk. Teachers observed in both School A and B do not havea policy on
teaching and learning in their classrooms. In addition, their classes do not also have modern
teaching facilities except for chalkboards.
On lesson presentation, School A teacher stimulates the students with questions relation to
the previous topic taught in the classroom, which leads the students to the present topic to be
taught; while School B teacher does not stimulate the students before advancing his
teaching. School B teacher moves on to teach current the topic to be taught, rather than
stimulating the students with questions from previously taught topic. Although School A and B
teachers do not utilize any teaching aid for the delivery of their lessons, the style of
transmission of teaching in School A was through two-way communication between the
teacher and the students, while communication went with the flow of one-way transmission of
teaching in School B. Moreover, there was frequent questioning as teaching goes on in
School A classroom in order to indicate assessment, monitoring and feedback during
teaching and learning, while School B teacher seldom monitored teaching in his classroom.
School B teacher do allow students to respond to some of the questions asked by him, nor
does he responds to some of the questions asked by the students during his lesson
presentation.
Concerning student-teacher relationship, decision-making as per lesson presentation and
interaction in School A classroom was democratic, whereas it was autocratic in School B. By
implication, the autocratic behaviour exhibited by School B teacher did not give room for
reinforcement and motivation of students‟ learning. School A teacher was full of praises for
his students and encouraged them to attempt answers to the questions he asked them during
teaching, while School B teacher uttered words of discouragement to dampen students‟
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learning. By inference, that indicates that the behaviour of School A teacher is studentcentred while; School B teacher is not, because he exhibited teacher-centred teaching
practice behaviour. The behaviour of School A students were of a disciplined nature, while
those of School B students were largely disruptive and undisciplined.
Below is the analysis and discussion of how classroom leadership and management
contributes to school effectiveness or otherwise in school A and B respectively.
6.4
Analysis and discussion of the of classroom leadership and
management dynamics contributing to school effectiveness
(School A and B)
6.4.1 Introduction
With respect to the fifth research question, this analysis and discussion deals with the
relationship between classroom leadership and management and school effectiveness in
School A and B. The analysis also illustrates how teacher‟s classroom leadership and
management practices may influence school effectiveness. The classroom leadership and
management sub-themes or indicators extracted from the Chapter 3 of the literature are
utilized in the sections of this chapter. This analysis is based on the data captured from the
interviews with a teacher from School A and School B, the classroom observations done in
School A and School B and the interviews with a student leader (class captain) in School A
and B. Observations and document analysis/review was used to triangulate analysis of the
data. The participants in School A were labelled, teacher - T1 and student leader (class
captain) - SL1, while the teacher of school B was labelled - T2 and student leader (class
captain) - SL2.
The classroom and leadership indicators or sub-themes, on which this analyses and
discussions are based on, are as follow: Classroom leadership and management styles,
classroom planning/teaching methods, classroom policy, classroom organizing, classroom
control and discipline; classroom motivation, communication and classroom climate.
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6.4.2 The relationship between the dynamics of classroom leadership,
management and school effectiveness (School A)
School A teacher said that he utilizes different teaching styles depending on the nature of the
teaching task he wants to teach and that also have influence on his leadership style
determination in teaching. Thus, students can be engaged in the teaching and learning
situation. The teacher said:
“Well, the styles of my teaching differ, depending on the topic I am teaching. For
example, the style I use to teach… The style I use to teach Grammar is different from
the one I use in teaching essay or Comprehension. Let‟s say for example in Grammar,
the style I use is more of do as I say. If I am teaching for example, may be…emmm,
Comprehension! This allows for discussion. Then, maybe I will use group discussion
for the … for the Comprehension passages. Thus, I always make sure that I carry my
students along through my style of teaching in my teaching” T1.
Observation of School A teacher‟s lesson presentations indicate that successful response to
questions by students allowed the teacher to move from one step of the lesson to the other.
Adequate metaphors and analogies like, the use of similar events or occurrences in the
society to explain what was being taught in the topic - summary - were used to carry the
students along during teaching. This gave the students the opportunity to think critically as
diverse opinions to questions asked by the teacher were encouraged. Moreover, opportunity
to learn was created through the teacher‟s assessment and high expectations from students.
The researcher observed that the teacher was also polite in rejecting incorrect answers by
encouraging other students to give a clearer response to the questions asked [see 6.6.2.2].
Hersey and Blanchard (1993:132); Kruger and van Schalkwyk, 1997:20-23) submit that
participating/supportive teaching style enables a two way, listening, provide support and
encouragement and involvement of students in decision making during teaching. Therefore,
the conclusion that may be made is that, the teacher in School A dominantly makes use of a
more democratic teaching style depending on what he is teaching. Furthermore, it is clear
that School A teacher has the ability to adapt his teaching style to the circumstances created
by what he wants to teach. For example, when he teaches comprehension, he makes use of
an interactive approach of teaching and encourages his students to answer questions and to
get involve in classroom discussions. Also, when he teaches a topic on the principles of
English Grammar, his approach becomes more teacher-centered and he would use a more
presentation teaching strategy.
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It is also obvious that the teacher utilized the democratic principles in his lesson presentation,
hence, the findings concur with Ross and Gray (2006:179-199) that a statistically significant
direct effect of classroom leadership was found on students‟ achievement.
Moreover, the teacher explained that he systematically plans his teaching such that the
students will be tasked to build on what they had already known. He also said that he
achieves his lesson objectives through step-by-step approach of teaching and according to
his teaching plans. He teacher said:
“When you plan, the ideas to be taught have to be broken down and it must be in
edible bits. I mean assimilate-able bits. I go from the known to the unknown. I start
with what the students know and gradually take them to the unknown... Things they
have known before, I try to build on. So, that it will be easier for them to understand
whatever I am teaching them” T1.
The researcher is of the opinion that the teacher in School A knows and understands about
planning of teaching, because the teacher was heard by the researcher asking the students
questions about what was known (probably about the last topic taught in the class) and
linking their response to what he was teaching them. The teacher‟s lesson notes observed
also indicate steps to be taken in each of the lessons topics that he was teaching. The
teachers‟ systematic planning of teaching is confirmed by literature that teaching method is
an element used by teachers to achieve desired goal(s) in teaching and it‟s an essential part
of planning (Oregon State University, 2002:1-20).
The student leader (class captain) buttresses the influence of the teacher‟s presentation of
lesson in the class. He said:
“We understand our teacher‟s style of teaching; because he makes sure that he
explains to us and tells us to listen. So, when we try to listen and we listen, we
understand what the teacher is teaching us and the style he or she is using to teach
us” SL1.
School A teacher‟s strategy of teaching was done by stimulating the students and that
illustrates the teacher‟s high level of reflection, on the lesson he had presented to the
students in the last class. The step-by-step procedure of the teaching as shown in School A
teacher‟s lesson plan is based on deliberate consideration about the lesson objectives,
methods, means, standards and time schedules, with a view to attaining the outcome of
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teaching (Kruger and van Schalkwyk, 1997: 27-31). Therefore, the teacher‟s variety of
teaching strategies was based on a broad plan of action.
According Mahaye and Jacobs(2004:175), Clark and Starr (1991), within a method there are
strategies and techniques (e.g. Building concepts, clarifying students‟ idea and creating room
for critical and creative thinking, etc.) of teaching. Hence, School A teacher‟s methods of
teaching agree with Calvin and Chumba‟s (2011) findings that teacher‟s influence on the
mastery of language, skill on lesson planning, presentation skill was high, hence, pupils‟
academic performance was high. More so, Atanda and Jaiyeola (2011:93-99) established
that the quality of instruction has a significant contribution to students‟ achievement in English
Language.
With respect to classroom policy, the teacher said that although his classroom teaching
policies are not available in writing, but his students know about his classroom rules. He
further explained that, because he constantly repeats his policy whenever he is teaching the
students, they would not attempt to violate them. More so, he said that the students are
aware that there is a school policy on teaching and learning, which over-rides individual
teacher‟s classroom policy. The teacher said in his comment thus:
“...though, not written down, you don‟t have to remind them of classroom rules always
and that is why they don‟t do anything funny to violate the policies when I am teaching
them in the class. None of them make a mistake of disobeying my classroom policy,
even, they are not written. However, there is a school policy on teaching and learning
which overrides whatever policy a teacher may have in his classroom teaching” T1.
When the researcher asked the students‟ leader about the kind of verbal policies the teacher
announces to them in guiding his teaching, the students‟ leader said:
“They are like, what not to do and do in the classroom. Like don‟t chew gum, don‟t…
don‟t write while he is explaining and other rules... Like when you want to answer
questions, raise up your hand for the teacher to let you speak and you must not speak
or say anything when someone is answering a teacher‟s question or even, asking the
teacher a question” SL1.
Although, the researcher did not observe any written policy on teaching and learning in the
classroom during the teacher‟s lesson observation, the students‟ behaviour in the class were
very good [see 6.2.2.2]. Kruger and Van Schalkwyk (1997:40) state that classroom policy
should be explained to the students, be acceptable to the majority of them and should
facilitate decision-making about classroom matters when a teacher is teaching. School A
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teacher believes that the whole-school teaching and learning policy is enough to provide a
guide to regulate students‟ behaviour in the classroom, despite that there was no presence of
written classroom policy, procedures or rules in the classroom. The reason given by School A
teacher is based on the assumption that his unwritten policies utilized during his lesson were
explained to the students, hence, he assumes that it would be accepted by the majority of the
students and; that it may facilitate the decision-making process on classroom teaching and
learning issues.
Although it seems that School A teacher maintains good quality discipline in his classes, but
the ideal situation should be that classroom policy procedures and rules be put in writing and
pinned-upon a notice board so that it may be visible to all students. Classroom policy
procedure and rules will have more impact if it is written out, that is, if it is documented. This
is because it can always be referred to, when any student violates any of its provision.
Moreover, classroom policy must be based on values such as respect, truthfulness, fairness,
accountability, and so on, particularly if the students are part of the classroom policy-making
process.
In terms of classroom organisation during teaching, the teacher explains that h arranges the
students such that the male and female students are paired in a row. That is, the tall students
occupy the back seat rows and the short students occupy the front seat rows. The teacher
explained that:
“I make sure that the sitting arrangement is a male and a female sitting together. The
reason is that if two boys are sitting together, they may be disturbing the class or do
some funning things that may disturb the teaching. In the class the taller ones sit at
the back, while the shorter ones sit in the front. Another thing that I normally happens
is, when I get to the class, particularly when there is another subject before mine, I
have to give them about two to three minutes to round-off whatever they are doing”
T1.
The teacher explained that he also gives students time to settle down for his subject,
particularly when a teacher had just completed a class with them [see 6.2.2.2]. The response
of the teacher of School A corroborates the researcher‟s observation in the sense that, the
classroom was well arranged, students were seated in pairs (male and female) and the taller
students were seated at the back seats, while the shorter ones were seated in the front seats
[see 6.2.2.1].
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School A teacher assumes that arranging the seat in a mixture of boys and girls could reduce
collaboration between boys, which might stimulate trouble in the class. That arrangement
worked well in his observed lessons; hence, a well arranged class impacts on effective
communication between teachers and students, because teacher could move round the class
while teaching (Schmuck and Schmuck, 1997:153-155). It is clear from the analysis above
that School A teacher organizes his classroom teaching to bring about positive social
interaction during teaching, as Laiqa, Shah and Khan‟s (2011:706-711) findings illustrate that
students feel more comfortable in classrooms where they can easily maintain a social
distance from their teachers and that affect their learning ability.
In addition, the teacher of School A expressed that he motivates and stimulates students by
doing an activity first, so that students can be motivated to attempt an exercise or task being
taught in the class. He also said that he always creates the belief in students that they can
achieve academically well. The teacher put his words this way:
“When you tell students to write, you too must write, it is then they know that you are
not just saying it. I attempt answers to some questions asked by the students, so that
they can be stimulated to think about their own answers during teaching. I tell the
students that they can always be the best... because they are the best” T1.
The student leader also mentioned that the teacher motivates them during the morning
devotion before they move to their various classes, that is, when the teacher is requested by
the vice-principal to counsel them. The student quoted his teacher as telling them that:
“You are unique students, model students and always tell us that our results of the
current years must be better than the results of the past years of our seniors” SL1.
According Kruger and Van Schalkwyk (1993: 68), expectations are future-oriented and are
essentially the hope people have to receive something for their actions (a reward) or to attain
something (an achievement). People are motivated if they think they will attain what they
want. In other words, there is a direct relationship between the action and the expectation of
reward. The greater the expectation of being rewarded, the better the attempt will be, for
students to normally achieve according to the expectations of their teachers and parents.
It is clear from the above captured data that School A teacher believes in the ability of his
students to achieve well, hence, he sets high expectations for his students and they are
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motivated to obtain good marks in the final examinations. The evidence gathered in School A
teachers‟ motivational effort of the students is consistent with Broussard and Garrison
(2004:106-120), who found a significant relationship between motivation and achievement in
young children. That is, as intrinsic motivation increased, academic achievement increased.
Furthermore, it is evident that School A teacher treats his students with fairness, respect and
gentleness. It seems that the interpersonal relationship between the teacher and his students
are built on respect, because observation of the teachers‟ lesson presentation shows that the
teacher was polite and full of gentleness, such that he called the students by their names and
encouraged them to give answers or opinions to any question he asked. He was also polite in
rejecting incorrect answers by encouraging other students to make clearer responses to the
questions he asked them during teaching. In addition, in one of the researcher‟s observation
of the teacher‟s lessons, a student made a brilliant attempt to one of the questions asked by
the teacher and the teacher exclaimed: “Yes, that answer to the question is a positive one,
but in a different dimension and perspective. Please class, give her an ovation.” Then, the
students applauded their classmate. More so, assessment questions in the classroom were
evenly spread to all students [see 6.2.2.2].
School A teacher appears to believe in inculcating self-confidence in the students by
performing an activity first. He also creates trust in them, so that they may do as he does, by
first citing examples to illustrate what he is teaching and that illustrates his leadership by
example posture. Teachers using the healthy or democratic teaching style empower their
students by giving them the opportunity to be themselves, express their own individuality and
give students as much power and responsibility they can handle at a given time.
In order to foster communication between the teacher and the students, he involves students
in the classroom teaching activities and decision-making, as regards to what is being taught.
Thus, the teacher said that he creates an atmosphere of two-way communication between
the students and him, whereby there is always feedback to questions asked by the students
and him as a teacher, as regards any topic that he is teaching. Concerning communication
atmosphere in the classroom, he said:
“...If then, at the end of my teaching, I ask a question which is not answered or
answered well by any one of the students; I ask them whether it should be an
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assignment, and they all agree. That is how we make such a decision; everyone
agrees. It is a two-way communication agreement” T1.
During the researcher‟s observations, the teacher called every student by their names,
indicating that he knows them very well. He inspires them to give answers or voice an opinion
to the questions asked [5.7.2.2]. The above findings corroborate Frymier (2005:197-212) who
discovers that students who engaged in more interaction involvement in the classroom
received higher grades and that was associated with learning, motivation, and satisfaction
with communication, but not reported grade. Karadag and Caliskan (2009:1-6) also confirm
that in order to provide interaction with students, a teacher should be democratic, lovable,
patient, reliable and have a sense of humour, balanced, reliable and have the ability to use
different channels of communication, because an effective learning-teaching process cannot
work without communicating.
In creating a positive classroom climate during teaching and learning, the teacher makes sure
that the students take part in all the activities of teaching and learning. He also makes sure
that his teaching style is interactive, because he insists on getting response from the students
on any question he asks. In order to maintain a comfortable classroom climate based on
open communication and mutual respect between the students and him. He said:
“Any time I am teaching in a class, it must be interactive. I make sure that my teaching
is interesting. I give opportunities for the students to get involved in my teaching
through participation and mutual respect. They must be involved because, if I am the
only one talking, that is a monologue. My teaching is designed to insist on dialogue
between myself and the students. When I teach, I must get the feedback in order to
maintain a comfortable classroom climate between myself as the teacher and the
students” T1.
The classroom observation of School A teacher indicates that the teacher‟s democratic
interaction with the students resulted in the promotion of a feeling of understanding,
acceptance, respect and affection and help (6.2.2.3). The teacher achieves that by ensuring a
safe atmosphere in class, hence, a supportive classroom environment is created, by listening
to the students, by being open and honest with them and by taking what they say and do
seriously. This finding supports (Steinmann, 2003:17-18) submission that, by using their
knowledge, skills and specific behaviour, effective teachers can ensure the creation of
effective learning environments in their classrooms. In such environments, well-managed
students experience maximum opportunities to learn and; rely on the teacher to create a
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sense of security and order in the classrooms. Teachers may also create opportunities to
participate actively in class in order to ensure that the class becomes an interesting and
exciting place to learn.
Control of students with respect to discipline is dealt with through the teacher‟s verbal rules,
which indicates the teacher‟s likes and dislikes to the students. In order to ensure discipline
while teaching and learning is going on in the classroom, the teacher said:
“I will give rules and regulations right from the on-set of my lesson, so that there is
sanity in the class and the students must always abide by my rules and regulations....
From my consideration, the rules are meant to ensure that there is discipline in the
classroom while I am teaching and students always obey my rules” T1.
The teacher assumes that his unwritten rules and regulations are a way of ensuring discipline
during his lessons and vehemently stands by that. That is, the teacher disagrees with the fact
that written rules and regulations are the only means for students‟ discipline, because his
students always abide by his teaching and learning classroom rules, despite that they are not
written.
On the aspect of monitoring of students‟ learning, the teacher asks the students‟ questions
spontaneously as his teaching progressed, so that he can be sure that the students are
learning along as he is teaching. If their response to his question is wrong, he humbly and
constructively corrects the students by providing the correct answer to the question asked. He
said:
“When teaching is going on, I constantly ask the students questions on what I am
teaching. So, when I ask them question and the feedback they give is positive, I will
then know that they understand…understand… what I am teaching them” T1.
As regards School B teacher‟s monitoring of teaching and learning, the student leader said
the following:
“Our teacher...he ensures that we listen to him when he is teaching and asks us
questions regularly if we understand. Emm… what he is teaching us. He also makes
us to practice what he is teaching us in the class as classroom practice” SL1.
The researcher‟s observation of teaching in School A shows that the teacher gives room to
the students to respond to his questions through practice. Also the teacher believes that the
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use of intermittent and random questioning of the students enables him to know whether the
students understand what he is teaching in the class. The finding is in consonant with a metaanalysis of a effectiveness research studies by Seidel and Shavelso (2007:454-499) who
found that among motivational factors in terms of affective
outcomes, regulation and
monitoring of teaching was one of the highest ranked factors, aside domain specific activities,
social experiences and time for learning. Therefore, in relation to monitoring of students
learning in School B classroom, high level of teacher self-control and close monitoring are
conditions for improved student‟s learning (Kalis, Vannest and Parker, 2007:20-27; Sun,
Creemers and de Jong, 2005: 93-122; Marzano et. a.l., 2000:187).
Another means of control used by the teacher is to utilize assessment and assessment
feedback to ensure that the students understand what he is teaching them. He said:
“Before I give answer to a particular concept, I ask for the students own opinion first.
For example, if I want to teach grammar, I will ask them, what is Grammar? And let
them give that their primary school definition. When there is anything wrong, in their
definition, I don‟t condemn. I tell them that their definition is okay, and sometimes
make corrections on how better their answers can be put to answer the question
perfectly if there is any need” T1.
In addition to School B teacher‟s comment above, the researcher also observes that the
teacher seems to emphasize students‟ responses to questions by students, by citing
examples and enumerating correct and incorrect response to questions asked. The teacher
was always positive in his drive to encourage the students, in order to promote critical
thinking ability of the students, before they can respond to the questions he asked them. The
warm and friendly style of teaching indicates that the teacher cared for students‟ positive
learning outcomes based on his formative assessment method [6.2.2.2]. Furthermore, School
A teacher believes in the use of informal assessment and particularly feedback, to improve on
their response to his questions for better understanding. Therefore, he makes effort to help
students to be motivated and committed towards improvement on past errors, in terms of their
achievement (Brookhart, 2005:429-458, Evertson and Emmer, 2009:107; Hattie and
Timperley, 2007:81-112).
The mechanism of control utilized by the teacher to ensure students‟ learning and positive
disciplinary behaviour of the students during teaching, corresponds with the experimental
findings of Binglan and Jia (2010:18-34) which established that the group that received
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specific corrections and marginal explanation in English Language composition, gained
significant improvement in writing accuracy results, compared to the control group who only
received general comments.
In the next paragraphs the captured data of the interviews with School B teacher were
measured against the identified classroom leadership and management indicators, which
may contributing to school effectiveness. They are further analysed and discussed below.
6.4.3 Relationship between the dynamics of classroom leadership,
management and school effectiveness (School B)
The leadership behaviour of School B teacher indicates that he adopts a dominant autocratic
teaching style. The teacher wants physically and emotionally gets involved in every action of
planning, organizing, co-ordinating, a directing and to controlling everything that is done in the
class. Furthermore, he believes classroom activities can only be done right if he does it
personally, controlling every step of the way. This kind of teacher wants to be the boss and all
students must do as the teacher says. School B teacher is an autocratic teacher who
chooses to motivate students by fear and he justifies such behaviour by saying that students
need strict discipline and structure, in order to help them make a success of their future. He
also handles the students in a very strict manner, because of his assumption that the
students do not deserve undue pampering during teaching.
School B teacher said that he utilizes different methods of teaching depending on the nature
of the teaching task he wants to teach, so that the students can be engaged in the teaching
and learning situation. The teacher also said that he varies his teaching methods, depending
on the topic he is teaching. He stated that:
“I am very strict during teaching. I believe that students do not deserve to be
pampered because of their attitude during teaching and learning. However, I vary my
method. So, if I use this method today, tomorrow, I may use the discussion method
and at another time or I may use dramatization, depending on the topic I am teaching.
May be, it is through dramatization that some students will be able to understand what
you are teaching, or probably discussion method. That method depends on the
students‟ preparedness and the type of lesson or topic thought... because if I stick to
one method of teaching, it will be boring to the students. So, I change my method and
that is how you will be able to carry the students along” T2.
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The observation of the teacher‟s lessons illustrates that, School B teacher usually starts his
teaching by jumping into the current topic he wants to teach without recapitulating the last
topic taught. For example, in one of his lessons observed, at the start of his lesson, he said:
“On Monday, we discussed reporting speech. Today, we are going to talk about summarizing
such speech. Therefore, the topic of today is, „summary‟. What is „summary‟? The teacher
went on to define what „summary‟ is without first stimulating students by asking few questions
on what was thought previously in the classroom. The teacher announced that there is a link
between understanding of comprehension and its context before one can actually summarize
the event gathered in an occasion [6.2.3.2].
Although, the objectives of the lesson were made clear as observed in the teacher‟s lesson
plan and despite that the teacher varied his teaching methods, the researcher is of the
conclusion that his teaching style of being strict and not seeking students‟ opinion during his
lesson presentations, which portrays him as an autocratic teacher. It was further observed
that the teacher does not believe that the students‟ input in the teaching-learning process
may be valuable and that anything can only be done right if he does it personally, controlling
every step of the way [see 6.2.3.2]. Hence, it seems that the teacher adopts the “tell style” of
teaching, because he gives the students specific instructions and closely supervises their
classroom work. It further seems that his decision-making and communication style is largely
one-way during teaching (Hersey and Blanchard, 1993:132; Kruger and Van Schalkwyk,
1997:20-23).
Although School B teacher adopts the teaching style according to the topic that he teaches; it
seems that he believes that his knowledge and experience, as well as the power of the
position as a teacher could force students to follow his instructions. It may however be
deduced that even if the teacher utilized good teaching methods as claimed, his autocratic
teaching style may not allow him to fully achieve all the criteria of classroom leadership and
teaching outlined in the literature. Blanchard (1993:132) submits that the teacher who
employs the „tell style‟ this style gives the students specific instructions and supervises their
classroom work, because the students need direction to get started. Thus, the teacher‟s
decisions and communication style is largely one-way and the style is used for people who
lack competence.
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In addition, it presupposes that School B teacher demonstrates only one-way communication
and that; he relies on his sole official position for authority and maintains a „rigid‟ and „military
style‟ of discipline. His autocratic approach may hinder appropriate learning by the students,
because they may not be comfortable to learn in a close environment brought about by the
teacher‟s teaching style. His teaching style may further bring about negative behaviour of the
students during teaching and learning.
The teacher also explains that he gives precedence to planning and teaching
method/strategy in his lessons, hence, that is why he always goes to the class with his lesson
plan and notes to guide his teaching task so that he does not teach out of context. He said:
“I give planning of my teaching a high priority; a very high priority, because without
planning the teacher can do nothing in the class; he needs to have his lesson notes or
lesson plan. He has to get everything ready before he goes to the class so that he can
be guided when teaching through the lesson note. The lesson note is to guide the
teacher during teaching. There will be no distractions and nothing. I go straight to the
point and everything will be as planned” T2.
During the review School B teacher‟s lesson plans document, it was obvious to the
researcher that the objectives of the lesson were made clear and well planned. The step-bystep procedure outlined in his lesson plan, is based on deliberate consideration about the
objectives, goals policies, methods, means, standards and time schedules, with a view to
attaining the outcome of teaching (Kruger and van Schalkwyk, 1997:27-31; Evertson and
Emmer, 2009:105). The researcher is of the view that, despite that the teacher plans his
teaching with commitment; his autocratic teaching style may be a distraction to students‟
learning. That could make it difficult for some students to learn effectively.
The advantages of policy guidelines are that, policy, rules and procedures have to regulate all
aspects of the classroom actions and behaviour of students. The following are examples of
how simple classroom rules may ensure an orderly classroom environment are: students
must be prepared at all times by having the right materials, listen quietly while others are
speaking, raise a hand and wait to be called on if a question or comment is to be raised,
listen carefully when a teacher or another student is talking and the teacher must define how
much noise is acceptable when they are asking their neighbours or co-students questions
during lesson presentation to ensures co-operation and order (Kruger and Van Schalkwyk,
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1997:49).The School B teacher claims that he achieves some of the above advantages of
policy guidelines, despite that his classroom policies are not written. He explained that:
“My classroom policies are like, what not to do and do in the classroom. Like, don‟t
chew gum, don‟t… don‟t write while he is explaining and other rules... Like when you
want to answer questions, raise up your hand for the teacher to let you speak and you
must not speak or say anything when someone is answering a teacher‟s question or
even, asking the teacher a question” T2.
The researcher observed there was no written policy or ground rules posted in the classroom,
but the teacher teaches the students by spelling out the rules to the students [see 6.2.3.2].
The teacher presumes that verbal policies (to regulate the dos and don‟ts of students during
teaching) might be sufficient to prepare the students for learning. By means of a classroom
policy, teachers use rules and procedures to regulate all aspects of the classroom
environment and all the actions and behaviour within the classroom (Kruger and Van
Schalkwyk, 1997:49).
Therefore, because there was neither a school nor classroom policy to point to, in regulating
the behaviour of the students, the researcher on many occasions observed that some of the
students caused disruptions with their cell-phones. In addition, it was also observed that the
students sometimes walk out of the classroom by giving excuses to the teacher that they are
going to the rest-room [see 6.2.3.3]. If the classroom management actions of School B
teacher are measured against the above stated criteria for classroom policy, it is clear that he
meets hardly any of the criteria.
It is clear from the classroom observation and the data captured from the interviews that the
students are well informed of what is expected of them. Also, School B teacher chooses to
motivate students by fear and justifies such behaviour, based on his belief that students need
strict discipline and structure, in order to help them make a success of their future.
Furthermore, it is clear that School B teacher‟s classroom policy is not flexible, the students
have no say in the policy-making process and that, the verbal policy made to regulate the
students‟ behaviour during teaching and learning is not acceptable to the majority of students
in the class, hence, their unruly behaviour.
The School B teacher puts in-place the students‟ sitting arrangement such that, the male and
female students are paired in a row. The taller students sit in the front seat rows; while the
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shorter students sit at the back sit rows, to enable all of them to see whatever the teacher is
writing on the chalk-board [see 6.2.3.1]. The teacher further explained that:
“A teacher must organize his class before teaching and this is to make sure that the
students are well seated, like I said earlier, the taller ones sit at the back while the
shorter ones sit at front chairs. The seats also, I ensure that they are well arranged so
that each of the students will be able to see whatever I write on the black-board” T2.
The response of the students‟ leader brought about different reasons why the teacher
arranges his class the way he does. He said the teacher‟s classroom arrangement is based
on the fact that, the obstinate students who are likely to disturb their class mates in the class,
because of their distractive behaviour, do not have a chance to do so. The student‟s leader
said:
“Where the stubborn students are clustered together and it‟s going to cause noise and
you know, the noise is going to affect the lesson. Therefore, the teacher spreads the
stubborn students from the well behaved ones so that there will be conducive
environment and they can respond effectively to the topic taught in the lesson” SL2.
Even though, the sitting arrangement strategy, whereby the taller students sit at the back and
the shorter students sit at the front was satisfactory, it did not yield much positive influence on
the behaviour of the students. This is because researcher observed that some taller students
were talking silently, using some other shorter students as a shield, while the teacher was
teaching. The researcher assumes that his sitting arrangement whereby the short students sit
at the front, while the taller ones sit in at the front, is the best way of organizing a class in
order that teaching and learning in the class is smooth. However, the teacher‟s sitting
arrangement strategy never deters undisciplined behaviour of the students.
Although, School B teacher organizes his classroom perfectly well, the teaching style of the
teacher, coupled with his lack of classroom policy and lack of mutual respect could made the
students to behave in undisciplined manner. Thus, the finding of Tagliacollo, Volpato and
Junior (2010:198-201) that there is a significant relationship between students‟ position in
classroom and school performance, is not manifested in School B classroom sitting
arrangement strategy.
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On students‟ motivation, School B teacher expresses that he constantly asks students
question during teaching, so that there can be a two-way interaction between him and the
students during his lessons. His comment is put thus:
“Emmm! I motivate students...this is by… by making a constant… by constant and
intermittent evaluation of teaching while the teaching is going on, to enable the
students participate in the teaching-learning process and that motivates them to create
a level of interaction between the students and the teacher” T2.
In an occasion of School B teacher‟s lesson presentation, the researcher observed that a
female student was slumbering while the teacher was teaching and on sighting her, he said:
“Why are you sleeping in my class? Are you sick or pregnant? If you are sick, you better go
home now!” The teacher was not tactical and careful in making decisions on how to solve
problems students‟ problems, by communicating in a positive manner that will motivate the
students to be interested in what he was teaching [6.2.3.3].
Probably because of the disruptive behaviour by some male students in the class, the teacher
threatened the other students by saying: “That is why you will fail in the terminal examination”
whenever he is angry during teaching. The teacher seems to believe that, creating fear in the
students may make them consider their studies seriously, but that would neither motivate
two-way communication, nor encourage the students in their studies.
According to the captured interview data and the classroom observation, it may be concluded
that School B teacher does not meet any criteria for the motivation of students as stated in
the literature. The teacher‟s motivational behaviour is contrary to the findings of Broussard
and Garrison (2004:106-120) that, there a significant relationship between motivation and
achievement in young children, that is, as intrinsic motivation increased, academic
achievement increased.
It seems that the interpersonal relationship between the teacher concerned and the students
in School B is not built on mutual respect, because he does not treat his students with
empathy, fairness and sensitivity. It also seems that the teacher does not demonstrate any
effort to show that he cares, supports and praises students to build their self-confidence. This
is because the teacher does not give space to the students to actively participate in the
teaching and learning processes. Thus, he doesn‟t create an atmosphere of two-way
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communication between the students and himself. He unilaterally decides on actions to take
during the teaching and learning process. As regards his communication practices in the
classroom, the teacher said:
“If I ask the students‟ questions and no student is responding, I will convert it to an
assignment for them to take home and work on. Sometimes they refuse to attempt to
my questions in the classroom. As a result, the assignment will enable them to be
prepared for the next class” T2.
The researcher‟s observation of the teachers‟ lesson presentation shows that, studentteacher relationship and communication was based on a one-way communication and a
teacher-centred one. During teaching, the teacher also refuses to respond to some of the
questions asked by the students and said to them on several occasions: “You are not
serious”. Whenever the students ask him questions on what he was teaching, he tells them
that, “Ordinarily, you should have known the answers to those questions without asking me”
[see 6.2.3.2]. The teacher‟s communication practice contradicts Frymier (2005:197-212) who
found that students who are more effective communicators through involvement, responsive,
assertive and Out-of-Class communication generally demonstrate superior effective learning
indicators, assert motivation to study and exhibit greater satisfaction of communication with
their instructor during classroom teaching activities.
Based on the data presented above, the teacher doesn‟t allow students to express their views
or feelings and they are not allowed to ask questions related to his lesson. The researcher is
of the opinion that the autocratic teaching style adopted by the teacher, might be the reason
for his one-way communication style and that, the undisciplined behaviour of students may be
as a result of the feelings of frustration and neglect by the teacher.
The teacher of School B believes that a classroom climate like the one that his school
possesses is sufficient to enhance learning, that is, students have good school facilities
required for teaching and learning. According to School B teacher, the students feel
personally supported and enjoy positive relationships with their peers in the class. The
teacher also expressed his effort to create a classroom climate conducive to effective
teaching and learning this way:
“As you can see the class is well ventilated... it is not chocked up. Whenever it is
chocked up, the students will not be comfortable. They will be fidgeting. If they are well
seated, there will be effective teaching and learning especially when the seats are well
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arranged. So, the classroom set-up allows me as a teacher to move round the class”
T2.
The researcher‟s observation indicate that he physical spaces between the seats in School
B‟s teacher‟s classroom are not wide enough, but that the teacher could move in-between
and reach individuals students while teaching [see 6.2.3.1]. The teacher assumes that he
understand and emphasize that a classroom climate conducive to effective teaching and
learning is only created by the physical environment of the school and classrooms.
On the other hand, School B student leader‟s (class captain) response towards how the
teacher creates classroom climate, is focused on how the teacher reacts to some students‟
attitude in the classroom during teaching. He said:
“Sometimes the teacher send disturbing students out of the class for ten or twenty
minutes, but some of them walk away immediately as they are sent out and when the
teacher wants them to come into the classroom and continue with the lesson, they
would have walked away from the vicinity” SL2.
Marzano and Marzano (2003:6-18) report on a meta-analysis of more than 100 studies and
found that quality of relationship between teachers and students is a foundation on which
other classroom management function stand and succeed. Moreover, their analysis indicates
that on average, teachers who had high-quality relationships with their students had 31 per
cent fewer disciplinary problems, rule violations and related problems over a period of year
than those teachers who did not have high-quality relationships with their students. However,
it appears that School B student leader (class captain) believes that the approach used by
their teacher to create an orderly classroom climate, through sending students with disruptive
behavioural problems out of the classroom is appropriate. He believes that it is the only
means whereby the teacher could create a peaceful atmosphere, in which teaching and
learning can take place. The researcher believes that the student leader (class captain) might
not know about the negative implications of sending students out of the class during teaching
and learning.
School B teacher may seem to be dedicated and committed to effective teaching, because he
is always very well prepared for his lessons, however, it is clear from the captured data and
the class observations that he does not tolerate open and two-way communication. It further
seems that the teacher doesn‟t really care about his students and is not fair in applying his
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own rules in the class. Therefore, the conclusion that may be drawn is that a closed and
unhealthy climate may have been created overtime in the classroom of School B teacher.
School B teacher states that he controls students in terms of established rules to indicate his
likes and dislikes about student behaviour. He said:
“May be, when I am teaching and despite my policies in the classroom, a student is
solving problems in his Mathematics notes (apparently, the teacher teaches English
Language), or playing a game with a handset (cell-phone) in the class. I ask those
students to put the phones off until after my lesson. So, they have to obey the rules
and regulations that I have laid down in the class” T2.
The expression of the teacher as regards how he controls behavioural problems in the
classroom is buttressed by the student leader. He said that teachers punish the students if
they refused to behave themselves in during teaching and learning in the classroom. He
expressed that:
“..when some teachers come to the class, they will tell the students that they should
stop making noise and those of them that do not stop making noise; the teacher
punishes them or sent them out of the class” SL2.
During one of the School B teacher‟s lesson presentation, a behavioural problem such as
loud ringtone of a cell phone of a student was heard, while teaching was going on in the
class. In another case, while teaching was going on in the class, a female student reported to
the teacher that she was being disturbed by the ring tone. This led to the teachers‟ anger and
he eventually used a cane on few of the identified students‟ offenders for being rude and
disturbing the class. The teacher however said to the students that, despite the abolition of
corporal punishment by the by the Lagos State government, he would use the cane if
necessary. Another form of punishment used by the teacher was to send the student out and
then instructs him or her to kneel down in the Sun [see 6.2.3.3].
The behaviour of the teacher to students disciplinary behaviour concurs with Maphosa and
Mammen‟s (2011:213-222) assertion in their findings that verbal reprimands, demotion,
sending students out of class, kneeling on the floor and denial of privileges were most
common disciplinary measures utilized by teachers to deal with students problems of
discipline in the classroom. They added that corporal punishment is practised in some of the
school by teachers despite that it has been outlawed.
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The teacher wants to control everything in class; he wants to physically and emotionally get
involved in every action of classroom planning, organizing, coordinating and directing. He
further believes things can be done right only through his personal control every step of the
way. The teacher wants to be the boss and ensures that all students must do as the teacher
says. Due to the fact that the interpersonal relationship between the teacher and his students
are not built on values like respect, truthfulness, fairness and honesty, he is usually impolite,
rude and even makes use of corporal punishment and other extreme methods of punishment
to maintain order and discipline in his class. Hence, this finding is not in consonance with
Marzano and Marzano‟s (2003:6-18) report that “the most effective teacher-student
relationships are characterized by specific teacher behaviours such as, exhibition of
appropriate levels of dominance, exhibiting appropriate levels of cooperation and being aware
of high-needs of students”.
On the aspect of monitoring of students‟ learning, the teacher said that he gives students
activities in the classroom, in order to be sure that they understand what he is teaching them.
He said:
“I ask students questions to ensure... be sure that they are listening to me when I am
teaching and I ask questions whether they understand. Emm… I also give them
activities to practice in the class on what I am teaching them and, that enables me to
check their practical abilities” T2.
Another means of control that School B teacher utilizes is assessment and assessment
feedback to ensure that the students understand what he is teaching. According to the
teacher, he asks students at short intervals whether they understand what he is teaching. He
said further:
“When teaching is going on, I ask the students‟ questions on what I am teaching, and
that is how I know whether they are paying attention to what I am teaching them in the
class. So, when I ask them questions and if the feedbacks are positive, I will know that
they understand…understand… what I am teaching them. If not, I give them the
correct answer before moving on with the teaching” T2.
The observation of the researcher indicates that the teacher did not give room for students‟
response to his questions. Rather, the teacher continues teaching the students and never
listens to their views to the questions he asks. The teacher also refused to respond to some
of the questions asked by the students [6.2.3.2].
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The attitude of the teacher towards monitoring of learning is contrary to a study of a metaanalysis of teaching effectiveness research studies of Seidel and Shavelso (2007:454-499),
who found that among motivational - affective - outcomes, regulation and monitoring of
teaching was one of the highest ranked factors aside domain specific activities, social
experiences and time for learning. Even though the teacher said that he believes in the use of
irregular and haphazard questioning of the students, so that he can be sure that the students
comprehend what he is teaching them in the class, he does not allow room for feedback.
More so, Brookhart (2005:429-458), Evertson and Emmer, (2009:107), Hattie and Timperley
(2007:81-112) suggest that assessment and assessment feedback help students to be
motivated and committed to improving on past errors in terms of their achievement.
Contrarily, School B assumes that the use of corporal punishment could help in getting
students‟ learning to be better controlled; he does not give prompt attention to student‟s
questions during the teaching-learning process, so that his feedback to the students‟
attempted answers to his questions in the class, may create better control of the teachinglearning situation.
It may be concluded that, although School B teacher seems to put-in a lot of effort to be well
prepared for his lessons, he adopted an autocratic teaching style. This means that he doesn‟t
encourage interactive teaching and doesn‟t allow questions - whether relevant or irrelevant from his students. He favours the lecturing strategy of teaching and does not encourage any
form of group discussions or group-work. More so, due to his teaching style his interpersonal
relationship with his students is poor. Despite that that the teacher likes to be in control, his
classroom discipline is poor, hence, he makes use of abolished forms of punishment which
infringes on the right to dignity of students.
The following paragraphs present the summary of data analysis and discussion on classroom
leadership and management dynamics contributing to school effectiveness in School A and
B.
6.5
Summary
A conclusion that may be made is that, School A teacher dominantly makes use of a more
democratic teaching style, depending on what he is teaching. Furthermore, it is clear that he
has the ability to adapt his teaching style to the circumstances created and surrounded by
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what he wants to teach. The School A teacher does proper planning and applied suitable
methods/strategies in each topic he teaches, so that the students may understand him.
Classroom policy procedures and rules is not put in writing and pinned up on a notice board
by School A teacher, but despite that, he maintains good discipline by verbal pronouncement
of his classroom rules and regulations, as a way of ensuring discipline during his lessons. In
addition, the teacher‟s manner of organizing the students in the classroom, that is, the
arrangement of the seats in a mixture of boys and girls, reduced unnecessary collaboration
between male students. That prevented stimulation of trouble in the class and it worked well
in his observed lessons. He also allows the students some time to settle down before the he
starts teaching the students.
The teacher of School A sets high expectations for his students and they are motivated to
obtain good marks in the final examinations. The teacher involves students in the classroom
teaching activities and decision-making relating to what is he teaches, thereby creating an
atmosphere of two-way communication between himself and the students, hence, there is
always feedback to questions asked by the students and him on any topic that he teaches.
The teacher of School A creates a positive classroom climate by ensuring a safe atmosphere
of relationship between the students and him in class.
School A teacher creates a supportive classroom environment by listening to the students,
exhibits openness and honesty with them and takes what they say and do seriously. One
could then deduce that the reason for the congruence between the responses of School A
student leader and those of School A teacher, may be a result of the climate of relationship
the teacher maintains with the students.
Although the teacher‟s classroom policy rules are unwritten, the teacher believes that his use
of intermittent and random questioning of the students is to make sure that students
understand what he is teaching them in the class. Moreover, School A teacher believes in the
use of informal assessment and in particular, feedback to improve on students‟ responses to
his questions to create better understanding.
On the other hand, the leadership behaviour School B teacher indicates that he adopts a
dominant autocratic teaching style. The teacher wants to control everything in class 283
physically and emotionally. He is involved in every action as planning, organizing,
coordinating and directing and his autocratic practice may hinder appropriate learning by the
students. The researcher is of the view that despite that the teacher plans his teaching with
commitment; his autocratic teaching style may be discouraging some of the students, thus
making it difficult for some students to learn effectively.
On what is expected of the students in terms of classroom policy, School B teacher chooses
to motivate students by fear and justifies such behaviour based on a reason that students
need strict discipline. In addition, he said that strict discipline would help the students make a
success of their future. Furthermore, it is clear that the teacher of School B‟s classroom policy
is not flexible, that the students have no say in the policy-making process and that his
classroom policy is not acceptable to the majority of the students, considering their
undiscipline behaviour. In addition, it may be said that the School B teacher organises his
classroom well; his teaching style, coupled with his lack of classroom policy and lack of
mutual respect may have made students to behave in an undisciplined manner.
The teacher also believes that creating fear in the students may make them to be serious with
their studies, but does not encourage two-way communication and that discouraged students‟
learning. Hence, he does not treat his students with empathy, fairness and sensitivity. It
seems that there is no effort by the teacher to demonstrate that he cares, support and praise
students to build their self-confidence. Nevertheless, it is clear that the teacher does not meet
the requirements of effective communication, because he does not allow students to express
their views during teaching and learning, neither does he allow the students to ask questions
that are not related to his lesson.
Moreover, the teacher seems to understand and emphasize that a classroom climate
conducive to effective teaching and learning can only be created by the physical environment
of the school and classrooms. However, it is clear from the captured interview data and class
observations that School B teacher doesn‟t tolerate open communication; therefore, he
doesn‟t really care about the students leading to the conclusion that, he may have created a
closed and an unhealthy climate over time, thereby discouraging the students from learning
effectively.
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Interpersonal relationships between the teacher and his students are not built on values like
respect, truthfulness, fairness and honesty. Hence, in relation to classroom control, School B
teacher utilizes impolite, rude and even makes use of corporal punishment and other extreme
methods of punishment to maintain order and discipline during teaching. School B teacher
seems to put in a lot of effort to be well prepared before his lessons, but the adoption of
autocratic teaching style in the classroom lesson presentation does not encourage interactive
teaching by means of interaction with the students. Therefore, he favours the lecturing
strategy of teaching that would not encourage any form of group discussions or group-work.
In addition, due to School B teacher‟s style of teaching, his interpersonal relationships with
the students are poor and; despite the fact that he likes to be in control his classroom,
discipline is poor, hence, he utilizes abolished punishments methods to stem down students‟
discipline, which resort to the infringement on the human dignity of students. The inference
that may be made based on the above is that, he could not effectively control the students
during teaching and learning in the classroom.
The following paragraphs presents school A and B teachers‟ reflection on their classroom
management practices.
6.6
Teacher’s reflections (School A and B)
6.6.1 Introduction
As indicated in Chapter 4 of this thesis, the researcher alluded to reflection notes as a means
of data collection. Teacher‟s reflections were used to verify the observations and the interview
comments of the teachers concerning their classroom teaching practices. Teachers submitted
their reflections after the whole sessions of the fieldwork (interviews, observations and brief
document analysis/review). The reflections that were sought by the researcher concern
overall reflections on lessons presented by teachers. That is, their views over having met the
objectives of lessons presented in the classroom and possible modifications that might be
made as they move on teaching the students.
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6.6.2 Teacher’s reflection (School A)
In the overall and brief reactions towards his leadership and management practices during
teaching, School A teacher said he feels that the students are disciplined based on the
culture of behaviour the school has made them to imbibe. He also said that students cannot
behave differently towards their learning, because the students inherited that culture, based
on the history of the school in terms of academic achievement. He also said that the students
are doing great in terms of academic achievement and thus, encourage teachers‟ task of
teaching teachings. This is because they attempt answers to all assignments he gives to
them. That is a great source of their academic success and the cooperation he enjoys by
teaching them.
On evidence of students‟ progress and achievement of the objectives of his lessons, the
teacher said that the students‟ cooperation in terms of attempts to assignments make them to
prepare ahead of his teaching and that enables him to enjoy the step-by-step interactions that
goes on between him and them during the teaching learning process. He however said that
the modification he might make in his teaching is to practically engage them in discourse and
debates, so as to further improve their levels of contribution in the teaching-learning process.
6.6.3 Teacher’s reflection (School B)
The reflection of School B teacher on his leadership and management practices in the
classroom during the teaching and learning process is presented as follow. According his to
his reflections on the overall reactions of the students, he said excuses of the students in
terms of not understanding what he teaches in the classroom, is an indication that many of
them do not do the homework or assignments that he gives to them. Furthermore, he said
that students‟ attention to homework or assignment may have been helping the students and
the teacher during teaching and learning in the classroom. In relation to evidence of students‟
progress and achievement of lesson objectives, the teacher noted that few students
understood and followed his lessons quite well, but because some of them are not well
disciplined, hence, they may not be gaining from what he teaches in his subject. In addition,
School A teacher said, that is one of the reasons he gets angry and treat the students the
way that he does during teaching.
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School A teacher also said the students do not deserve to be pampered, because if he does,
the objectives of his teaching might not be achieved. On the modifications on his teaching,
the teacher reflected that he does not need any modification, because if the students are
disciplined, they would always enjoy his teaching and get along with him.
It is clear that the reflections of School A teacher on his students‟ behaviour towards teaching
and learning are positive, because they have inherited the history of a performing school
through the culture of teaching and learning in the school. School A students disciplined
behaviour may have been the result of a positive inter-personal relationship shared with the
students stemming from this teachers democratic teaching style. On the other hand, School B
teacher reflected that his students cannot be pampered during teaching and learning. His
reflection points to the fact that the students are undisciplined and that is assumed to have
resulted from the teaching style (leadership style) of the teacher, whereby he does not
motivate them to learn and be able to attempt homework assigned them.
The teacher of School A further made his democratic teaching style evident by having a belief
that he can modify and improve his teaching, if he continues to have engagements with the
students during teaching and learning. School B teacher however indicated that there is no
need for him to modify his teaching since the students are not disciplined.
The reflections of School A and B teachers on their teaching practices above strengthen
evidences gathered from the interview, observation and document analysed surrounding
teachers‟ leadership and management of teaching in the classroom.
Below is the conclusion that was made from the analysis, interpretation and discussions in
this chapter.
6.7
Conclusion
Triangulation of information articulated from interviews, observations and documents have
been analysed and reported to speak to one-another in Chapters Five and six of this study. I
suppose that my personal believe and feelings as a researcher did not in any way influence
the analysed, interpreted and reported data. Rather it strengthened and validated the various
data used in this study, because I have worked within the interpretive paradigm perspective.
287
Hence, I have shown interest in exploring how participants sampled in this study understand
and shape their reality. Also, direct quotes of the participants were extracted from the raw
data in order to ensure that the respondents‟ voices are heard.
This section presents conclusion on how the dynamics of leadership and management
contribute to school effectiveness. School A principal has a concern for staff development
through the building the teaching capacity of the teachers, creation of roles in schools for
parents and members of the school community as partners and co-producers of student
learning in order to keep to the vision of the school. Thus, the criteria of changing instructional
practice to improve student performance and manage the instructional programmes were
achieved, because they lead to an open school climate and culture.
On the other hand, School B does not organize transformative development and training
programmes for its teacher, because it is believed that training and development is the sole
responsibility of the government. That could have resulted from the lack of internal vision in
the school. Therefore, no effort was made to change instructional practice. That brings rise to
absence of positive moral climate in the school, because teachers were missing classes
without excuses. They also did not execute their work according to predetermined standards
and a set time schedule, therefore, little or no effort was made to change instructional
practice.
As regard school management dynamics contributing to school effectiveness. In School A
planning was done according to departmental policy, subjects were allocated or delegated to
individual teachers according to their teaching experience and skills. The availability of policy
documents and control measures in School A allowed the principle of participation in the
decision-making process through cooperation; therefore consultation was applied and
encouraged.
The principal of School A was always prepared to delegate challenging tasks to the viceprincipal, synchronizes topics in the subject syllabus so that the teachers do not leave any
topic untaught. He however believed in controlling the teachers‟ job performance routinely
and also inspecting students‟ volume of work; sets high academic expectations, but offered
support to teachers in form of training and development; utilized two-way communication and
mutual dialogue on issues of teaching and learning on which sound interpersonal
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relationships were established, delegated tasks, responsibilities and the authority and took
decisions within the broad guidelines of departmental and school policy, promoted school
culture based on values such as respect for each other and accountability.
The principal delegated tasks, responsibilities and attached authority with such tasks. It is
also clear that two-way (upward and downward) communication was encouraged.
Participation in decision-making process was also encouraged between the principal and
other stakeholders in the school. Although, teachers were not always willing prepared to
accept change, the teaching capacity leverage they receive through their principal douses
their fear of the introduction of change; approach to the resolution of conflict was through
compromise and confrontation for prompt solution. Parents were also made partners, as
evident by their prompt contribution into the PTA fund which was always used to invite
specialists to develop the teachers in the school.
On the other hand, School B distributes subjects amongst teachers in a meeting at the
beginning of the academic year to indicate their planning and readiness for teaching and
learning. There was no evidence of a written school policy, hence rules to follow in making
decisions and delegation of duties were absent in the school. The school also synchronized
subject topics to allow for coordination, but without supervision from any member of the
SLMT. Control of teaching and learning activities in the school was weak, because students
and teacher are undisciplined probably, because of the school climate created by the
leadership and management behaviour of the SLMT. Challenging tasks were not set, hence,
teaching capacity of teachers were also built in order to motivate the teachers. More so, the
principal took sole and independent decisions on teaching and learning issues as a result of
one-way communication pattern developed in the school, therefore, sound interpersonal
relationship was unhealthy.
The culture developed in School B negates the values of mutual respect and accountability,
because of the autocratic leadership approach of the principal and leadership skills, abilities
of the teaching staff were not developed, hence, effective change has not been possible. The
principal does not listen to the other side of a story in a conflict in resolving conflict and under
those circumstances of dysfunctional conflict stagnate of teaching staff might have
developed. There is poor parental involvement in School B, because it is evident that they
289
showed little or no interest in how the affairs of teaching and learning affect their children in
the school.
On how classroom leadership and management dynamics contribute to school effectiveness,
School A teacher predominantly applied democratic leadership in teaching style. The teacher
does proper planning and he applied suitable methods/strategies in each topic he teaches, in
order to enable the students understand him effectively. Although School A teacher does not
paste classroom policy on the classroom wall during his lesson presentation, he maintained
good discipline by pronouncing the classroom teaching policies to the students. The teacher‟s
manner of organizing the students in the classroom was by arranging them in a blend of boys
and girls; he also allows them some time to settle down.
High expectations were set and students were motivated to obtain good marks in the final
examinations. Students were involved in the classroom teaching activities and decisionmaking and the teacher created an atmosphere of two-way communication between the
students and him. Therefore, feedback to questions asked by the students was constantly
responded to, by the teacher.
The teacher of School A maintained a positive classroom climate through the creation of a
safe atmosphere, a supportive classroom environment, listening to the students, being open
and honest with them and by taking what they say and did seriously. Also, the teacher
believed in the use of intermittent and random questioning of the students, in making sure
that the students understand what he was teaching the in the class. He also believed in the
use of informal assessment and particularly feedback to improve their response to his
questions, for better understanding.
Contrary, the leadership behaviour of the teacher in School B indicated that he adopted a
dominant autocratic teaching style. The teacher plans his process of teaching well, but his
autocratic style of leadership could have hindering effective learning by the students. The
teacher did not have a classroom policy pasted in the wall of the classroom, but believed in
pronounced and strict classroom policy. He also chose to motivate students by fear and
justified such behaviour by saying that students are to be handled strictly.
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The teacher also believed that creating fear in the students can make them to be serious with
their studies, but that did not encourage two-way communication, neither encouraged the
students in their studies. Hence, he did not treat his students with empathy, fairness and
sensitivity. The teacher seemed to understand and emphasized that a classroom climate
conducive to effective teaching and learning is only created by the physical environment of
the school and classrooms, but the fact that the teacher did not tolerate open communication
and by implication, that resulted to the creation of a closed and unhealthy climate in the
classroom.
In relation to classroom control, interpersonal relationships between the teacher and his
students were not built on values like respect, truthfulness, fairness and honesty. More so,
the use of corporal punishment and other extreme methods of punishment that were used to
maintain order and discipline contributed to students‟ indiscipline, because the human dignity
of students were infringed upon and as a result, the teacher could not to effectively control
the students during teaching.
Therefore, on comparing School A and B the general picture that emerged from the analysis,
reports and discussion of the data suggests that in terms of school leadership, School A is
exceptional in the exhibition of leadership capacity in the aspects of transformational, moral,
visionary and instructional leadership in enabling school effectiveness in comparison to
School B.
Although School A and B shared the same qualities in the aspects of planning, organising,
coordinating of school teaching and learning, motivation, management of change and conflict
resolution among teachers and students, to a similar extent. School A strength in terms of
management of the school, lies in its availability of school policy on teaching, decisionmaking, delegating, control, communicating, management of interpersonal relationships,
school climate, culture and sound school-community relationships. More so, the classroom
management differences like, classroom leadership, motivation, communication, climate and
control exhibited by the teacher of School A during teaching and learning are far better in
comparison to School B, although they both exhibited similar elements in teaching methods
ability, planning of their teaching and they both lack written classroom policy. In the next
chapter the overall conclusions of the study is presented.
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CHAPTER SEVEN
Conclusion
7.1
Introduction
This chapter presents overall conclusions on this thesis. Two schools were selected for the
study, the one effective and the other one ineffective. The schools are located less than five
kilometres from each other in the same socio-economic environment. The problem that
puzzles the researcher was thus; to understand why students from two secondary schools in
Lagos State Nigeria, situated not far from each other and located within the same socioeconomic environment yet, do not obtain comparable academic achievements. To this extent,
the purpose of the study was to explore how leadership and management dynamics
contribute to school effectiveness in Lagos State - Nigeria.
7.2
Summary of the findings
This section has been included in order to draw attention on the findings that bother on the
relationship between school leadership, management and; classroom leadership and
management dynamics contributing to school effectiveness. Below are the summary and
comparison of empirical findings from School A and B, stemming from Chapters Five and Six
respectively.
7.2.1 Overview of findings regarding school leadership contributing to
school effectiveness in School A
The overview findings in School A regarding the leadership behaviour and practices towards
school effectiveness in School A are highlighted below.

The principal of School A has a concern for staff development; thus, building the
teaching capacity of the teaching staff as a means of ensuring a vision of school
effectiveness and student achievement.
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
School A has a challenging vision to be “the leader among schools”. The principal and
his senior leadership and management team realized that to achieve this higher goal
“to be the best school”, they need to invest in the professional development of their
teaching staff.

The principal of School A confirms an important element of transformational
leadership through the creation of roles in schools for parents and members of the
school community as partners and co-producers of student learning.

The principal of School A is visible in the school; he is enthusiastic in building the
school‟s vision, establishing the school goals, demonstrating high-performance
expectations and in creating a productive school culture.

School A has a well formulated school policy which is utilized to pave way for how
decisions
towards
management
of
curriculum,
extra-curriculum
activities,
administrative decisions, etc., are made.

School A principal sets an example through modeling of best practices and important
values. The principal of School A in cooperation with his staff and parent-community
creates conditions which support and sustain the performance of teachers and
students. Therefore, he acknowledges the importance of learning communities as key
contributors to teacher work and student learning.

School principal and HOD‟s stance on the maintenance of professional teaching
ethics and the upright interpersonal relationship between the teachers and students
through democratic means. However, he places emphasis on monitoring teaching and
effective learning. He also places prompt attention to the regular teaching records of
teachers‟ attendance in the classroom.

In School A, dialogues with teachers is usually through encouragement, feedback and
questioning about teaching, therefore it part of the climate and culture of School A for
many years that laziness, unprofessional conduct of teachers and undisciplined
behaviour of students are not tolerated.

With the cooperation of the teachers, students and parents, the principal of School A
succeeds in building an open and productive climate conducive to the quality of
teaching and learning.
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7.2.2 Overview of findings regarding school leadership contributing to
school effectiveness in School B
The overview of the findings in School B regarding the leadership behaviour and practices
towards school effectiveness are highlighted below.

The principal of School B is typical of a leader who is not committed to the
transformation of the school. He relies solely on the department of education to
improve the teaching skills of his staff. It is also clear that he is not willing to take the
responsibility for building the capacity of the school‟s staff, or to enhance the
intellectual stimulation of teachers in order for them to be successful and to
experience a greater sense of efficiency.

The fact that the School B principal does not make internal arrangements to develop
its teachers through its internally generated funds, may result insignificant challenges
for change and greater accountability in terms of teaching and learning or instructional
delivery by teachers.

According to the principal of School B, the school has no challenging vision of its own
and its sole reliance on the vision of the Ministry of Education might have made it
difficult for teachers, students and parents to identify with any internal vision of the
school. Thus, the lack of internal school vision may be one of the reasons why there is
no direction and enthusiasm for transformation and change visible at the school.

Discipline in School B is poor. Although the principal is aware of the fact that teachers
are missing classes without reason, do not execute their work according to
predetermined standards and a set time schedule. Thus, it seems that he is not
committed to use his authority to change the situation at the school.

There is lack of professional ethics and moral behaviour among teachers towards their
teaching tasks. Teachers are unmotivated and lack dedication. It seems that the
teachers have a negative attitude towards their work and that, most of them are
uncaring and disinterested in what is happening at the school.

The researcher couldn‟t find a policy document relating to teaching and learning in the
school. Also, little or no attention was given to school rules, procedures and policy
with the result of poor discipline, poor coherence and cooperation among teachers
and students.
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
Little evidence from the school observation or the interviews could be found that the
principal of School B towards his effort to change instructional practice by means of
well-planned teacher development strategies in the school.

The power of example was also not present in School B. The principal of School B did
not model a good example and that was evident from the classroom observations in
School B. By implication, the teacher follows the example of his principal considering
his leadership style and his attitude towards his students.
7.2.3 Overview of findings regarding school management contributing
to school effectiveness in School A
The main findings of this thesis regarding leadership and management behaviour practices
towards school effectiveness in School A are highlighted below.

Planning was done in School A to meet the curriculum needs of the school at the
beginning of an academic year. Subjects were allocated or delegated to individual
teachers according to their teaching experience expertise, skills and according to
departmental policy in order to emphasize the principle of specialization and division
of work.

Teachers were also mandated to adhere to departmental policy on curriculum which
prescribes that teachers must teach every topic in the syllabus. However, teachers
had the authority and the freedom to decide on the most suitable teaching strategies
and methods.

The principal of School A stood in a relationship of trust with the vice-principal and the
other senior leadership and management team members of the school. He is
prepared to delegate challenging tasks to them. Thus, in the absence of the principal
the vice-principal is capable to act as principal. Therefore principle of distributive
leadership is applied by the principal and that is an important motivational technique
because it offers greater potential for achievement and recognition.

Participation in the decision-making process between the principal, teachers and the
Students‟ Representative Council is encouraged
295

The organisational structure of the school is used by the principal to delegate tasks,
responsibilities and authority and to take independent decisions within the broad
guidelines of departmental and school policy.

Two-way communication is encouraged at the school and there is a simultaneous
downwards and upwards flow of information and ideas in the school.

The climate and culture of School A is based on values such as respect for each other
and accountability. In addition, high academic expectations are set. Therefore,
teachers and students are well supported to achieve the set academic aims and
objectives.

One of the outstanding characteristics of the principal of School A is his effort to
ensure continuous staff development. Hence, his effort to build the teaching capacity
of the teachers in the school is enough to douse the fear of teachers over the
introduction of change in their school.

School A established a sound relationship with their parent-community. They accept
mutual responsibility for the education of their children and they also appreciate the
teachers‟ efforts to teach their children.

School A seems to have developed an open and productive school climate and
culture over years. The school has built a proud tradition of excellent Grade 12 results
over the years.

In School A, teachers must adhere to a strict professional code of conduct and
students are happy to adhere to a code of conduct to ensure a disciplined school
environment conductive to quality teaching and learning.
7.2.4 Overview of findings regarding school management contributing
to school effectiveness in School B
The main findings of this thesis regarding leadership and management practices towards
school effectiveness in School B are highlighted below.

Planning was done in School B to meet the curriculum needs of the school at the
beginning of an academic year.

School B had no written policy regarding teaching and learning. Therefore, without a
school policy, it might be difficult for members of the senior management team or
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teachers to take any independent decision; because there were no written guidelines
in the school according to which they can make their decisions or even solve
problems in the school or in their classrooms.

The principal of School B adopts a dominant autocratic approach to leadership. Tasks
and responsibility to execute the task successfully was delegated to the teaching staff,
without accompanied authority to make their own decisions within the broad
guidelines of school and departmental policy.

Tasks were delegated to the teaching staff with little or no support to help them to
improve their teaching skills. The principal was not really interested in the best
interests of the staff, because there was little teamwork and coherence amongst staff.
All authority for planning, organizing and control was also vested in him as the leader.

The principal of School B did not possess the habit to listen to other people‟s views or
insight; hence, he did not tolerate any attempt from members of his senior
management team to question his decisions.

The principal encourages one-way communication. He always wanted to dominate all
discussions and did not encourage any form of two-way communication; hence, it that
he took all decisions relating to curriculum affairs alone and later informs the senior
management team in the form of instructions.

Little opportunities were created for staff to fulfil their needs be innovative, because
they were not allowed to exchange ideas with the principal and little or no two-way
communication was encourage in the school.

The principal of School B does not visit the classes to improve the quality of teaching
and learning in the school. Rather, he delegates class visit tasks to his vice-principal.
He doesn‟t take the responsibility of monitoring teachers‟ task serious; thus, would not
be able to give account to the education authorities.

Due to the adopted autocratic management style of the principal, effective leadership
was not spread through the school which might also have had a negative effect on
effective change and the transformation of the school.

The principal and the head of department of School B do not listen to the other side of
a story in resolving conflict situations.

The parents of students were seldom involved in School B, therefore little or no
interest was shown in the school teaching and learning affairs. They do not also
accept mutual responsibility for the education of their children and by implication; they
don‟t appreciate the teachers‟ efforts to teach their children.
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
In School B there was no visible strategy developed by the school to encourage good
communication with the parent-community through participative management with
parents in the decisions that affects them.

School B developed a poor school culture over years. In essence, the behaviour of the
staff and the students did not generate good examples to follow. Also, it is evident that
the history of the school was not loaded with proud traditions and rituals and the
school didn‟t produced heroes and heroines the students and teachers would want to
identify and to be proud of their school.
7.2.5 Overview of findings regarding classroom leadership and
management contributing to school effectiveness in School A
The main findings in this thesis regarding the classroom leadership and management
practices towards school effectiveness in School A are highlighted below.

The teacher in School A dominantly makes use of a more democratic teaching style.
He also has the ability to adapt his teaching style to the circumstances created by
events in the classroom and what he wants to teach.

The teacher of School A does proper lesson planning and he applies suitable teaching
methods and strategies.

He maintains good discipline in his classes, although no written classroom policy,
procedures or rules were visible in the class. He upholds a view that a written
classroom policy is not necessary, because all the students know how to behave
themselves in the school.

The teacher of School A creates a positive classroom climate by ensuring a safe
atmosphere in class. He also creates a supportive classroom environment, by
listening to the students, by being open and honest with them and by taking what they
say and do seriously through the encouragement of interactive teaching.
298
7.2.6 Overview of findings regarding classroom leadership and
management contributing to school effectiveness in School B
The main findings of this thesis regarding the classroom leadership and management
practices towards school effectiveness in School B are highlighted below.

The leadership behaviour of the teacher in School B indicates that he adopts a
dominant autocratic teaching style. The teacher wants to control everything in class,
physically and emotionally involved in every action as planning, organizing,
coordinating, directing and control. Thus, the teacher chooses to motivate students by
fear and justifies such behaviour by saying that students need strict discipline and
structure and that it would help them make a success of their future.

Although, School B teacher put in a lot of effort to be well prepared for his lessons, but
his adoption of autocratic teaching style does not encourage interactive teaching.
Therefore, two-way communication is not encouraged by the teacher and he doesn‟t
allow students to express their views or feelings.

The teacher believes that a classroom climate conducive to effective teaching and
learning is only created by the physical environment of the school and classrooms.
However, he does not treat his students with empathy, fairness and sensitivity. It
seems that there is no effort from his side to demonstrate that he cares, supports and
praises students to build their self-confidence

Interpersonal relationships between the teacher and his students were not built on
values like respect, truthfulness, fairness and honesty, hence, classroom control tend
to be difficult to achieve by the teacher signifying poor interpersonal relationships of
the teacher with his students. Therefore, he was always impolite, rude and even
makes use of corporal punishment and other extreme methods of punishment, to
maintain order and discipline in his classes.
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7.3
Overview and Comparison of the findings in terms of the
relationship between school leadership and management and;
classroom leadership and management contributing to school
effectiveness in School A and B.
7.3.1 Introduction
The three themes/indicators of school effectiveness in this study are, school leadership,
school management and; classroom leadership and management. Prior to this section, they
were investigated as separate entities (see Chapters 2 and 3 literature reviews). Thus, the
researcher will critically synthesize, compare the findings on these three themes/indicators
and establish how their synergies contribute to school effectiveness. This is more so,
because research has ascertained that school leadership and management are related to
effective school attainment (Moorosi and Bush, 2011:59-75; Kruger, et. al., 2007:1-20;
Barber, 2004:3-7). However, school A and B principal and other members of SLMT do not
share any similar finding in terms of their leadership practices, but share dissimilar and similar
findings in relation to school management practice. Hence, a comparative overview of the
findings in School A and B regarding school leadership and management and their
corresponding influence on classroom leadership and management contributing to school
effectiveness are highlighted below.
7.3.2 Comparison of findings between School leadership and school
effectiveness in School A and B
School A principal has concern for staff development, therefore it impacted positively on
School A teacher‟s ability to adopt his teaching content and style, based on the
circumstances created by what he wants to teach. That is, the ability of the teacher to apply
suitable teaching methods and strategies might have resulted from the internal development
training and workshops organised at intervals in School A, which does not occur in School B.
This finding points to the fact that there is a relationship between staff development and
effective teaching and learning in School A. In furtherance of the display of transformational
leadership, modeling was exhibited by School A principal through teaching one of the school
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subjects and that may have served as power of example to other members of the SLMT,
teachers and the students likewise. School B principal otherwise, does not teach any of the
school subjects, which might have resulted in the demotivation of School B teachers towards
taking their teaching task serious, hence negatively impacting on the academic achievement
of the students.
More so, the presence of internal school vision document may have been a motivation to
School A principal‟s continuous and regular visibility in the school. Thus his enthusiasm in
building the school‟s vision, establishment of the school goals, supervision of academic
activities, demonstration of high-performance expectations and creation of a productive
school culture. On the other hand, School B does not possess a challenging vision of its own
and its sole reliance on the vision of the Lagos State Ministry of Education might have made it
difficult for teachers, students and parents to identify with any internal vision of the school.
Moreover, the lack of internal school vision may be one of the reasons there is no direction
and enthusiasm for teachers to work towards the attainment of high students‟ academic
achievement in the classroom.
School A SLMT‟s established a stance on the maintenance of professional teaching ethics
and the upright interpersonal relationship between the teachers and students through
democratic means. However, the school places emphasis on monitoring teaching and
effective learning. School A principal also places prompt attention to the regular teaching
records of teachers‟ attendance in the classroom. On the other hand, in School B, there is
lack of professional ethics and moral behaviour among teachers towards their teaching tasks
- teachers are unmotivated and lack dedication. Therefore, it seems that the teachers have a
negative attitude towards their work and most of them are uncaring and disinterested in what
is happening in the school, which may have affected their teaching output in the classroom.
7.3.3 Comparison of findings between school management and school
effectiveness in School A and B
In School A there are monitoring efforts, supports and demonstrations of care by the school
leaders - SLMT - in making sure that a delegated job is well supervised to the advantage of
the students, whereas in School B, the opposite is the case. Work is delegated to the
teaching staff with little or no follow-up supervision or monitoring to ensure that teachers
301
discharge the delegated task. This might have had direct influence, not only on the thorough
discharge of the task and accountability, but also on School B teacher‟s attitude towards
students‟ teaching and learning in the class.
The principal of School A is visible in the school; he is enthusiastic in building the school‟s
vision, establishing the school goals, demonstrating high performance expectations and in
creating a productive school culture. This may have a positive influence on the general
discipline in the school and also on classroom discipline. On the other hand, School B
principal is not visible in the school and he is aware that teachers are missing classes without
any reason; that teacher do not execute their work according to predetermined standards
and; a set time schedule and he does not seem to take serious actions against them. Thus, it
seems that School B principal is not committed to use his authority to change the situation
within the school.
As regards communication with staff, School A principal believes in dialogue, collective and
democratic means of resolving teaching and learning problems and conflicts; thus, enhancing
interpersonal relationship and collective decision-making between the teachers, students,
other members of staff and the community within which the school is located. The
communication practice of the principal enhances the success of conflict resolution efforts in
School A and may thus have effect in the motivation of the students, resulting in positive
teaching-learning relationship between teachers and the students. On the other hand, School
B principal does not have the habit of listening to other people‟s views or insights; neither
does he tolerate any attempt from members of his senior management team to question his
decisions, thus, his conflict resolution practices are negative. He dominates all discussions
and does not encourage any form of two-way communication, hence, it seems that he takes
all the decisions alone and informs the senior management team in the form of instructions,
which is probably the reason School B teacher exhibit autocratic relationship towards the
students during teaching and learning.
The culture of School B is built on values such as love, respect, fairness and democratic
principles which reflect on the overall leadership and management behaviour of the teachers,
particularly towards the discharge of their teaching tasks, and may have in-turn also had
influence on School A practical control of teachers. Contrary, the school climate and culture
of School B, as created by the principal‟s leadership and management behaviour in
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controlling teachers‟ activities (forcing teachers to discharge teaching tasks) might have
influenced the classroom leadership and management behaviour of the teacher in School B.
Therefore, the teacher in School B may have chosen to motivate students by fear based on
the belief that, creating fear in the students can make them to be serious with their studies, as
being practiced towards them (the teachers) by the principal. In essence, School B teacher
may not have been treating his students with empathy, fairness and sensitivity, because of
the coercive behaviour of leadership they must have acquired through the principal.
In addition, it is part of the culture of School A for many years that laziness, unprofessional
conduct of teachers and undisciplined behaviour of students is not tolerated, based on the
positive evidence of the students‟ past academic achievement results. At the same time,
School A develops an open and productive climate conducive to the quality of teaching and
learning. Thus, it is apparent that School A utilizes the benefit of a strong relationship
between an open and productive school climate and culture to create and enabling classroom
climate. This is because, behaviour patterns of School A students are evidences of the school
culture (tradition) and the students always adhere to the school‟s code of conduct.
Moreover, the influence of the school climate and culture is visible in the classes of the
teachers observed in of School A. Contrarily; School B climate is intermittently tense. School
B principal is not really interested in the best interests of the staff, because there is little
teamwork and coherence amongst staff. All authority for planning, organizing and control are
vested in the leader which may have reflected in the teacher‟s classroom leadership and
management practices. Also, the presence of whole school policy regulating teaching and
learning in School A indirectly impacts on students‟ character during teaching, compared to
School B that does not possess a whole school policy regulating teaching and learning.
The School A principal played a leading role in engaging the parent-community to supporting
the learning climate of the school, win the trust and respect of the parent-community, value
the contribution of parents, trust them and accepted them as equal partners of the school, in
order to sustain the dependence of the school on the goodwill of their parent-community.
Therefore, the principal‟s maintenance of close association with the students‟ parents could
have formed a source of motivation for the students to concentrate better on their study.
Parent-community partnership is one of the school effectiveness characteristics which School
A possesses, but could not be found in School B.
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School A and B are both situated in a low-income socio-economic environment. School A
parents are however willing to support the school financially with what they have. What is
even more important is the support structure of cooperation and coherence between School
A and the parent-community. School A and the parent-community accept mutual
responsibility for quality teaching and learning. Thus, parents, teachers and students are
proud to be associated with the school. On the other hand, the inability of school B to ensure
that the parents have interest in the schooling of their children has not allowed the school
community to play a vital role in the education of their children. Nevertheless, a poor culture
of school community relations may have resulted in teachers‟ classroom practices, therefore
negative student achievements, because there is little or no support structure of cooperation
and coherence between school and the parent-community in School B.
Similarly, the findings in school A and B SLMT reveal that they both plan and distribute teaching
subjects to teachers at the beginning of the academic year (concerning who is to be responsible
to teach each of the school subjects and how subject should be taught), and that depicts
organizing efforts of the two schools. Thus, the practice of planning in school A and B might
have influenced the strict organisation and coordination of the two syllabi (WAEC and NECO) of
teaching and learning in both schools. Another similarity in School A and B is that the teachers
are usually reluctant to welcome change in their teaching practices. Nevertheless, School A
teachers sometimes welcome change with eagerness in relation to how they must do their job,
because they are exposed to few trainings and workshops organized by their school, which
makes them to be subtle in their resistance to change compared to school B teachers.
7.4
Contributions of the study to the body of knowledge
This study emphasizes that school leadership and management processes must be seen as
symbiotic, because there cannot be effective school leadership without an efficient school
management. Hence, the workings of both leadership and management variables must
always be given priority by school leaders and; practised in collective and holistic manner in a
bid to attain school effectiveness.
Findings from this study strongly confirm the importance of the relationship between whole
school and; classroom leadership and management, based on the indication that while school
principals and other members of the SLMT must always set the pace for school effectiveness
304
through the exhibition of proper leadership and management practices, the teachers may
emulate them in the discharge of effective classroom teaching tasks. That signifies and
highlights the enormous influence that internal whole school leadership and management
may have in shaping teacher leadership and management practices in the classroom towards
achieving school effectiveness. This, Moorosi and Bush (2011:59-75) confirm by emphasizing
that “leadership and management need to be given equal prominence if schools are to
operate effectively and achieve their objectives, that is, leading and managing are distinct, but
are both important”.
The researcher also hopes that this study has helped to provide relevant information on the
importance of school context in achieving effective school. An area of concern emphasized
by Scheerens (1990:1-50), when he upholds the disclosure that developing countries show a
“strong predominance of the input-process-output production function type” in terms of school
effectiveness - that is, a change in input (e.g. leadership and management input) could affect
output. In addition, this study might also be among the few which explores school
effectiveness in Nigeria from the perspective of internal school leadership and management.
This is because the closest study found by the researcher is that of Adewuyi (2008) who
investigated the understanding of school effectiveness and English Language certification in
the third world, utilising an ethnographic case study of some Nigerian secondary schools.
Moreover, another similar study to the one explored in this thesis is the reviews of school
effectiveness research carried out in Tanzania by Guoxing (2007). The review is in relation to
values of democratic school management in developing countries (Africa, in particular),
towards the improvement of school effectiveness. It reveals a demonstration of the same
pattern of benefits of involving student participation in creating smooth management and
therefore, better schooling environment. Therefore, findings from this study point to the fact
that student leaders (class captains) could have some amount of positive influence in the
effective discharge of teacher‟s teaching tasks, which may point towards effective teaching
learning in the classroom.
From a methodological perspective, much of the researches done on the topic of school
effectiveness focused on the quantitative research approach. For example, survey, quasiexperimental, quantitative case study, experimental observation which are majorly of
quantitative nature (Scheerens, 1999:1-50), but this study utilized the qualitative case-study
305
research approach in order to holistically understand in-depth, how leadership and
management dynamics contribute to school effectiveness.
The two theories used in this study have been utilized in different ways by past researchers.
For instance, Scheerens‟s (1990) conceptual framework has been applied by Mohiemang
(2008) in a research which sought to understand achievement in effective school, utilizing the
education management perspective. On the other hand, Prinsloo (2009) leadership and
management model has been used to understand the utilization of cooperative learning in the
management of a Grade 3 classroom. Nevertheless, this present study provides and explains
how both theories explain school effectiveness, by providing more insights into whole school,
classroom leadership and management practices of SLMT and the teacher respectively, with
details on how they contribute to school effectiveness.
This study buttresses the held conviction of scholars in the field of school effectiveness
research that „context‟ really matters (Scheerens, 1990:1-50; Kruger, et.al., 2007:1-27; Sun
and de jong, 2005:92-122; Raynolds, 2006:536-560; Raynolds, et. al., 2011:1-43; Guoxing,
2007). Therefore, despite that the two schools sampled in this study - performing and underperforming - are located within the same socio-economic environment, possess similar
number of quality physical, human and material resources and; are being operated and
controlled by the Lagos state government based on equal treatment in terms of financial and
administrative regulations, the internal leadership and management contexts of each of the
schools, nevertheless made them to differ in terms of effectiveness.
7.5
Limitations of the study
Even though the researcher‟s main reason for choosing the qualitative research approach
was to gather in-depth understanding of the phenomenon, it was discovered that some
aspects of this study were not properly covered as the researcher would have wanted. Also,
the distance between Pretoria in South Africa and Lagos - Nigeria makes it difficult for the
researcher to do much follow-up visits to the two selected schools in order to clear-up
uncertainties or indistinctness which might have emerged during the data analysis phase of
the study, thus, obtain more information.
306
The researcher believes that this study might not have provided adequate answers despite
the use of probe questions to gain more insights on the responses of the sampled
participants in this study. The reason may be due to the fact that the researcher visited the
schools with a letter of permission from the educational authorities in Lagos State. Hence, an
impression may have been created by the sampled participants in the study that the Ministry
of Education in Lagos State might have mandated the researcher to conduct the research.
Despite that the researcher‟s main reason of utilizing the constructivist/interpretive paradigm
was to gather in-depth understanding of the phenomenon under study, it was discovered that
some aspects were not properly covered as he would have wanted. For instance, the
researcher would have loved to dig deeper into school leadership, management and
classroom management sub-themes and gather more varying opinions of the participants in
the school, in order to get a wide ranging reasons for the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of a
school.
In addition it might be difficult to generalize the findings of this study, because the qualitative
research approach was utilized and that necessitated the study to be contextualized, hence,
a small sample was utilized which resulted in the world-view of the participants sampled in
the study. Moreover, the researcher strongly suppose that this study has not provided all the
answers to questions raised to probe the participants in this research effort, hence, the
recommendations for further study in order to advance the frontiers of knowledge on how
leadership and management contribute to school effectiveness.
7.6
Recommendations of the study
As found in this study, the attainment of effective schools through leadership and
management is through the combined input and efforts of school stakeholders, hence, the
following recommendations of the study and those for further studies are made:
7.6.1 Recommendations for practice

The findings of this study in relation to the leadership and management practices of
the SLMT and the teacher in the ineffective school, points to the fact that the Lagos
307
State Ministry of Education should focus on the appointment of the most suitable
leaders and managers to occupy vacant posts of SLMT members and teachers.
Nevertheless, the government should as a matter of policy, regularly train internal
school leaders and managers at the onset of ascending school leadership and
management roles.

A was found in this study that continuous staff development and capacity building of
the teaching staff are crucial factors for school effectiveness, it is therefore
recommended that, as a matter of policy, principals should have concern for staff
development which may help in updating teachers in their teaching subject areas and
subsequently, aid students‟ academic achievement. More so, as a matter of policy, the
Lagos Ministry of Education should intensify the development of teachers and
encourage individual schools to put at the top of their priority lists.

Findings in this research shows the importance of viable school vision and its
importance in the pursuit of school objectives and goals, hence, school principals
should be enthusiastic in crafting school vision, be visible to monitor the workings of
the vision that is geared towards high-performance expectations in creating an
effective school.

Because modeling was found to be of motivation to the teaching tasks of teachers,
school principals should set examples through modeling of best practices and
important values as ways of motivating the teachers towards discharging their tasks.

The findings on poor school climate informs that school principals must take the issue
of attaining positive school climate very serious through positive example of
leadership, building concurrent school culture of mentoring, hard work, democratic
and a situational leadership behavior, through building of harmonious relationship with
staff, students and so on, which may assist in the creation of conducive and effective
teaching and learning environment.

Because this research indicates clearly that school climate is a means of attaining an
effective school, culture of schools should be built on values such as discipline, care,
respect, truthfulness, fairness, honesty and accountability, etc. in order to further
enhance school climate.

Since the study has shown that a well formulated school policy stimulates and guide
decisions towards management of curriculum, extra-curriculum and administrative
activities, school leaders must put in place school policies that are operational and
implemented appropriately.
308

It was shown in this study that the attainment of school effectiveness was through
collective decision making, hence, the school principal should endeavour to involve
teachers in leadership and management activities and programmes in the school,
which may translate to teachers‟ leadership and management practices in the
classroom.

Findings in this study emphasize the importance of school-community roles in the
attainment of effective school, hence, principals should emphasized the creation of
roles in schools for parents as partners and; emphasize and acknowledge their
involvement in the enhancement of students learning through appropriate leadership
and management skills.

The importance of interpersonal relationship was found as panacea for positive
classroom climate in this study, hence, teachers must cultivate the habit of motivating
students and develop good interpersonal relationship with them in order to enhance
effective teaching and learning.

In the light of the findings of this study which show the extent of leadership and
management of the ineffective school SLMT and teacher, the researcher thus,
recommends that leadership and management appreciation workshops be organized
by the Lagos State government to enhance the leadership and management profile of
novice teachers and newly appointed members of school SLMT, in order to promote
their leadership and management practices, hence, school effectiveness.
7.6.2 Recommendations for further studies
The following recommendations for further research will enhance the frontier of this study.

While this study is carried out in one out of five education district in Lagos State,
Nigeria, it is recommended that same study is carried out in other education districts,
because internal school leadership and management context differ.

Influence of leadership, management and school effectiveness could be investigated
using the quantitative approach of research in contrast to the qualitative approach
used in this study.

Other similar research could be done relating to leadership and management as they
contribute to school effectiveness, but focus should be on the perception of the other
internal school stakeholders – vice-principal, HOD, students and other school
309
administrative staff - on their perception of the school principal‟s leadership and
management
practices
and
behavior
towards
the
achievement
of
school
effectiveness.

Evidently, leadership and management indices are many and complex and thus
cannot all be studied in a single thesis of this type. To this end, other processes of
leadership and managements which may lead to school effectiveness and not
acknowledged or studied in this thesis may be included in other studies of this nature.

Although this study utilizes the classroom level of Scheerens school effectiveness
framework, however, a study of the same nature of this thesis may be replicated using
other levels of Scheerens school effectiveness framework, but must be based on the
consideration of their various school contexts in public schools in Lagos State.

This study is on how leadership and management contribute to school effectiveness
and was carried out in Lagos State owned and controlled schools, however, a study of
the same nature could be conducted to compare Federal Government owned schools
and State Government owned schools within similar contexts.
7.7
Reflections on this study
The researcher is not disappointed in his choice of the qualitative research approach. The
school observations, classroom observations and the individual interviews provide sufficient
raw data to form the basis to do the analysis of the captured data. It was a good decision to
use the data obtained from the literature review in Chapters 2 and 3 about the dynamics of
leadership and management on an a priori base to identify themes and sub-themes. The
main themes of the study namely; leadership and management and the sub-themes of
leadership and management, therefore provided a foundation to analyse, interpret and
discuss the data captured from the individual interviews obtained from the two sampled
schools.
The criteria that were developed from the literature for each of the leadership and
management sub-themes could effectively be used to measure the leadership and
management behaviour and; actions of the selected respondents from the two schools
concerned. That made it possible for the researcher to compare the two schools in terms of
how the senior leadership and management team and; teachers‟ leadership and
310
management behaviour and actions influence school effectiveness, through the analysis,
interpretation and discussion of data obtained from the two sampled schools.
7.8
Concluding remarks
Strong leadership has to do with the concern for staff development to build the teaching
capacity of staff; with the emphasis on the quality of instructional programme in the school,
based on values such as respect, accountability, truthfulness, fairness and honesty is
important to ensure the quality of education. A School leader and manager must however
have the ability to ensure the achievement of predetermined aims and objectives by means of
effective planning, the setting of aims and objectives, the implementation of policy, decisionmaking, delegating, coordinating and control. The first responsibility therefore should be focus
on task execution (effective teaching and learning). An education leader and manager must
also ensure that subordinates define tasks in accordance with predetermined standards. He
or she should also see to it that the predetermined objectives are achieved according to a set
time schedule. With this objective in view, education leaders should use the conceptual
management skills that have been discussed to execute specific activities and prescribed
procedures in the six management areas.
Furthermore, the school principal as a leader has the responsibility of reinforcing sound
interpersonal relations in the school, built on mutual respect and trust. This should be done
through the creation and maintenance of harmonious relationships with staff, students and
parents, by means of effective leadership and motivation, communication skills and the skills
necessary to form effective groups in establishing sound relationships in a school. In addition,
the successful completion of a task is dependent on the leader‟s ability to direct the actions of
people (staff), so that they willingly achieve the set objectives of the school. Effective
leadership is however characterized by adaptability and flexibility. “A good leader is therefore
not a person who can only maintain good human relationships, but who is also able to
enforce the performance of formal activities of a school when the situation demands”
(Prinsloo, 2003:138).
In the overall conclusion, although School B SLMT (ineffective school) seems to have
exhibited similar, but negligible leadership and management practices compared with school
A (effective school), it is however believed that the exhibition of substantial and crucial
311
leadership and management practices in several areas of the school contributed to the
effectiveness of School A in comparison with School B; which may have also resulted in its
creation of encouraging a positive teaching and learning climate.
312
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at
Appendix 1
Letter of Consent from the Lagos State Ministry of Education, Nigeria
343
Appendix 2
Ethical clearance
344
Appendix 3
Letter to Participant
STUDENT RESEARCHER’S SELF-INTRODUCTION LETTER TO PARTICIPANTS
Department of Education Management and
Policy Studies, Faculty of Education,
University of Pretoria,
South Africa.
Selection and participation in a research on the how leadership and management
dynamics contribute to school effectiveness in secondary schools in Lagos StateNigeria
My name is SHONUBI, Ololade Kazeem. I am currently a registered PhD student of the
above named university. I seek permission to participate in the above titled research. Your
Personal details as participants are not required, although you will be interviewed for at least
one hour of at every appointed time of my contacts with you. The following will be the
importance of the research:

Create awareness of concerning how network of interactions between School
Leadership and Management Team (SLMT) members - principal, vice-principal and
HOD; teachers and students may influence school effectiveness.

Understand what and why of the exhibition of particular leadership and management
behaviour by the school SLMT, teachers and students‟ leader influence school
effectiveness.

Interviews with the participants will be audio-taped.

You are free to withdraw from this research at any time based on personal reason(s)
best known to you.

Your confidentiality will be guaranteed as neither your name, nor the name and
address of your school will be mentioned in neither the analysis nor the discussion of
the result of data gathered.
345

Participants will have the opportunity to go through the outcome of the thesis (member
checking).
In the event of any complaint regarding your treatment in the interview, you can write to:
The Head,
Department of Education Management
and Policy Studies,
University of Pretoria,
South Africa.
OR
Visit the university website: www.up.ac.za to get details through which you can contact
University academics or officials.
Sign the two consent forms handed to you after reading through them, and keep one for your
records while you hand over the second one to the student researcher.
Thank You!
Shonubi, OK
346
Appendix 4
Letter of Consent from Participant
Dept. of Education Management
and Policy Studies,
Faculty of Education,
University of Pretoria,
South Africa.
Dear Participant,
Selection and participation in a research on the how leadership and management
dynamics contribute to school effectiveness in secondary schools in Lagos StateNigeria
Student Researcher’s Name:SHONUBI, Ololade Kazeem (OK)
I have read, understood and considered the letter explaining your intent, mission and
requesting my participation in your research. I understand that I will be interviewed for a
period of at most one hour on each of your appointment date and time of visit to my school. I
therefore indicate my willingness to participate in this research project by signing in the space
provided below, knowing that I can withdraw at any time. I also agree that the data collected
for the research may be published in a manner that does not disclose my identity in any
guise.
NAME OF PARTICIPANT: ………………………………………………………….
SIGNATURE & DATE ………………………………………………………………
SIGNATURE & DATE OF STUDENT RESEARCHER............................................
347
Appendix 5
School Leadership and Management Team (SLMT) Interview Schedule
Interview questions
1.
How do you involve teachers in planning of subjects taught in the school?
2.
How does the school policy promote quality teaching in the school?
3.
How do you involve teachers in discussing the day- to-day teaching and learning
activities in the school?
4.
How do you ensure organizing of teaching and learning in the school?
5.
What are your practices towards delegation of subject teaching in the school?
6.
How do you model coordination of teaching at in the school?
7.
How does your control practice associate with teacher and student control in the
school?
8.
How do you motivate teachers to be the best they can towards teaching?
9.
How does your communication pattern influence teaching activities in the school?
10.
How does your inter-personal relationship with teacher‟s impact on their teaching
activities?
11.
How do the principal nurture teaching and learning climate of learning?
12.
What role do you play in creating a culture of teaching and learning in your school?
13.
How do you manage change with respect to curriculum in the school?
14.
How do you do to resolve conflict relating to teaching and learning in the school?
15.
What are your strategies of creating a successful school community relationship in
relation to achieving successful student‟s learning?
348
Appendix 6
Interview Schedule: English teacher
Teacher’s interview questions
1.
How does your leadership influence your style of teaching do you use in the
classroom?
2.
How important do you prioritize planning of teaching in the classroom?
3.
How important do you consider policy as a mean to effective teaching?
4.
How do you prepare/organize your classroom for teaching?
5.
How do you motivate students towards understanding what is being taught in the
classroom?
6.
How do you ensure that your students understand what is being taught in the
classroom through communication?
7.
How do you understand the importance of creating an encouraging classroom
climate due your leadership and management ability?
8.
What do you do in ensuring effective control to ensure effective teaching and
learning?
9.
How does your teaching experience as a teacher encourage/motivate your student
academic achievement?
10.
Make any other comments to round-off all that you have said.
349
Appendix 7
Interview Schedule: Student leader
1.
How does your teacher‟s leadership influence his style of teaching in the classroom?
2.
How important does your teacher prioritize planning of teaching in the classroom?
3.
How important does your teacher consider policy as a mean to effective teaching?
4.
How does your teacher prepare/organize your classroom for teaching?
5.
How does your teacher motivate students towards their understanding of what is
being taught in the classroom?
6.
How does your teacher ensure that students understand what is being taught in the
classroom through communication?
7.
How does your teacher understand the importance of creating an encouraging
classroom climate due his leadership and management ability?
8.
What does your teacher do in ensuring effective control to ensure effective teaching
and learning?
9.
How does your teacher encourage/motivate your student academic achievement?
10.
Make any other comments to round-off all that you have said.
350
Appendix 8
School observation schedule
Name of school: (Pseudonym to be used)
………………………………………….......................................................................
ENVIRONMENT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sanitations and general physical outlook of the
school environment
Display of bulletin boards and adequacy of
hallways space
Well stocked and well used library
Building, grounds and teaching equipment, e.g.
chalkboards, overhead- projectors, etc.
Clearly defined policies on notice board on
issues such as bullying, and student welfare
ACADEMIC SUPPORT
Support staff
School guidance counsellors
Career advisers
ORGANISATION
Administrative and support staff to meet the
needs of the students
Class size and designs with good indoor air
quality that produces a more comfortable
environment
Classroom lightning, air temperature
Design of classroom furniture(Seats and Desks)
KEYS: Excellent = 1; Very Good= 2; Good= 3; Poor= 4; Adequate= 5; Not Adequate= 6;
Not At All= 7
351
Appendix 9
Classroom Observation Schedule
CLASSROOM LESSON OBSERVATION SCHEDULE
Research Topic: How Management and Leadership Dynamics Contribute to Effective
School in Lagos State - Nigeria
Relevant Classroom Information (Pseudonyms to be used)
Date:
……………………………………………………………………
Name of school:
............................................................................................
Number of Student: …………………………………………………………………..
Class observed:
……………………………………………………………………
Topic Taught:
……………………………………………………………………
EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
Effective use of teaching resources
Effective use of time for lesson planning, reflection and collaborative
decision making
Flexibility to organize students learning in a variety of ways
Teacher‟s engagement in meaningful discussions that focus on what is
being taught in connection with students‟ past experiences.
Interpretations of, and reflexive thinking about what is being taught in
the class
PRESENTATIONS OF LESSONS
Making connections to what is to being taught from previous lesson
Teacher and students engagement in meaningful discussions that focus
on the interpretation of, and reflexive thinking of what was being taught
352
in the previous lesson
Relevant examples, metaphors and analogies were used to establish
connections with student‟s previous experiences and learning
Objectives of lesson (topic) presentation was made clear to students
Presentation was well planned and organized
Presentation skills and styles, appropriate and effective with a focus on
the topic being taught
Instructional techniques required a majority of the students to be actively
involved in learning
Critical thinking and analysis was modelled and encouraged
Respect for diverse opinion was communicated
affectionate, accepting classroom atmosphere was evident
Teacher motivates the student to ensure that students pay attention
towards the achievement of learning the objective.
Teacher‟s interest in student learning was communicated
Teacher‟s mastery of subject matter was clear and thorough
Integration of relevant information to support lesson taught
Appropriate and effective use of audio-visuals, computer or other
instructional media/technologies to support presentation of lessons
STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIP
Teacher-student relationship
Additional assistance used to provide assistance to students based on
their specific needs
353
Students are proud of accomplishments, discipline, respective of
teachers and others
Teacher and students demonstrate enthusiasm for teaching and
learning
Teacher‟s discovery of students misunderstanding and misconceptions
and attendance to them
Teacher moved around the classroom as he/she interacts with them
Reinforcement and motivation of student learning (The student-centred
teacher)
SCORE KEYS: Excellent- 5; Very Good- 4 Good- 3; Fair- 2; Poor- 1
354
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