THE VEGETATION ECOLOGY OF URBAN OPEN SPACES IN GAUTENG

THE VEGETATION ECOLOGY OF URBAN OPEN SPACES IN GAUTENG
THE VEGETATION ECOLOGY OF URBAN OPEN
SPACES IN GAUTENG
Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements
for the degree
In the Faculty of
Biological and Agricultural Sciences
(Department of Botany)
University of Pretoria
Pretoria
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. G.J. Bredenkamp
Co-supervisor:
Dr. L. R. Brown
© University of Pretoria
A land ethic, then, reflects the existence of an ecological conscience, and this in turn
reflects a conviction of individual responsibility for the health of the land. Health is the
capacity of the land for self-renewal. Conservation is our effort to understand and
preserve this capacity.
A Sand County Almanac
Aldo Leopold
1949
Dedicated to my Family and Friends
and All who assisted me along the way
THE VEGETATION ECOLOGY OF URBAN OPEN
SPACES IN GAUTENG
Supervisor: Prof. G.J. Bredenkamp
Co-supervisor:
Dr. L. R. Brown
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree
A vegetation survey of natural woodland and grassland was undertaken in the urban areas
of the Gauteng Province, where 7,3 million of the 38,S million people of South Africa live.
Releves were compiled in 132 stratified random sample plots in selected open spaces in the
study area.
six woodland
represented
communities
A TWINSPAN classification,
communities
represented
refined by Braun-Blanquet
procedures, indicated
by 72 releves, and eight grassland communities
by 59 releves. The identification,
classification
and description of these plant
are important for the continued conservation
of open spaces in the urban
environment in order to integrate landscape ecological mapping and urban spatial planning
processes.
The study further recorded a high number of species. It indicated that the natural areas in
the urban environment
have a high conservation
richness. This information
status
and maintain a high species
could in future be used for further biodiversity
studies in the
Province. Species with low occurrence were specifically listed and can be used to inform
"red data" status research initiatives.
4.
5.
Natural Grassland vegetation and plant species
richness of the open spaces in the urban areas
of Gauteng, South Africa
Natural Woodland vegetation and plant species
richness of the open spaces in the urban areas
of Gauteng, South Africa
40
,
77
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
In certain European countries landscape ecological mapping and evaluation has
become an essential part of the planning process (Spellerberg, 1992). Through this
process, disturbance to areas with vulnerable habitats or species could be restricted
and undue fragmentation of wildlife habitat, avoided (Helliwell, 1973). The
classification of vegetation types and subtypes in a biome is important since it would
result in ecological interpretable units which can be used for environmental planning,
management and conservation (Matthews, 1991).
Two theories that deliberated and researched fragmentation and isolation of natural
areas are landscape ecology and island biogeography. The science of landscape
ecology, (Forman & Godron 1981), describes how human activities change the scale
and pattern of a mosaic of patches in the landscape to influence and change natural
equilibrating systems to non-equilibrating systems (Urban, O'Neill & Shugart 1987).
Similarly, the theory of island biogeography (McArthur & Wilson 1967) elaborates on
the impact of fragmentation and isolation on eco-systems and how this negatively
affects eco-system functioning. In light of the above, it should be stated that the
knowledge of the state of vegetation in the urban environment will allow for the
monitoring and detection of eco-system degradation, which will lead to assessing the
effectiveness of policy and legislation regarding land-uses and consequent ecosystem fragmentation (Goldsmith 1995). Changes to policies and legislation to
prevent degradation could then be initiated.
People's need for open spaces have increased over the years with emphasis on
contact with nature, the study thereof and the aesthetic satisfaction of scenic
landscapes. Natural areas in or near cities are needed not only for study purposes
and for urban beauty but also due to the public's growing understanding and concern
about environmental change and the disadvantages of changed non-functioning ecosystems (Goudie, 1994).
The natural urban areas in Gauteng presently support a high plant species richness
as is evident from the studies done in this area, listed below. Of the 67 red data plant
species recorded for the Gauteng Province, approximately 55 occur in the urban
environment (Gauteng, 2000a). Soule (1989) maintains that the conservation of small
remaining wild habitats could slow down the extinction
This confirms the importance
habitats
of surveying
of the urban environment
environmental,
conservation
rate of animals and plants.
and conserving
and confirms
the small vegetation
the need
and planning authorities
for involvement
of
in planning and conserving
natural urban areas.
A number of studies have been done on smaller urban areas of Gauteng. These
include published papers and unpublished
the
Melville
Groenkloof
Koppies
Nature
and The Willows
Reserve
reports.
(Ellery
(Bredenkamp
Some of these studies include
1992,
1994),
Lonehill,
Sandton,
1991, 1992, 1997a & b) as well as
projects on a larger area by Bredenkamp and Brown (1998a & b) on the vegetation of
the Johannesburg
vegetation
Westem
and Northem
Metropolitan
Local Council
assessment was further done by Behr and Bredenkamp
Witwatersrand
areas. A
(1988) on the
National Botanical Botanic Garden in Roodepoort. The study area of a
vegetation assessment of the Ib and Ba landtypes by Coetzee
with this study area but does not specifically
et a/. (1994) overlaps
refer to urban natural areas. The
vegetation of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve (Bredenkamp
& Theron 1978, 1980)
also shows resemblance with the vegetation of this study area.
Further afield, Cilliers & Bredenkamp
areas
in the
Potchefstroom
(1999a) described
municipal
area.
They
the vegetation of natural
analysed
the spontaneous
vegetation of intensely managed urban open spaces (Celliers & Bredenkamp 1999b),
the ruderal and degraded natural vegetation on vacant lots (Cilliers & Bredenkamp
1999c), the vegetation of the railway reserves (Celliers & Bredenkamp
1998), the
vegetation on road verges on an urbanisation gradient (Cilliers & Bredenkamp 2000)
and the wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal area (Cilliers
et a/.
1998). Other urban vegetation studies in South Africa include the vegetation of the
ridges of Klerksdorp
by Van Wyk et a/. (1997), the vegetation
municipal area by Roberts (1993) and in Bloemfontein,
of the Durban
Free State (Dingaan, 1999).
These studies all indicate that a wide variety of ecosystems
function in small and
often isolated natural areas. These studies further indicate in general terms that the
content of the study should inform land-use planning and conservation
planning in
the urban environment.
The study area is situated in the Gauteng Province, the smallest of 9 provinces of
South Africa, covering an area of only 16 191km2. Approximately
7,3 million of the
38,5 million people in SA live in Gauteng. According to the information contained in
the Gauteng Municipal Structure Status Quo report, which is based on the 1996
census, the estimated population for Gauteng is 7 348 426, of which 96% are urban
and 4% are non-urban (Gauteng 2000b). It is therefore understandable that the
biggest threat to the natural areas in the Gauteng urban environment is urbanisation.
In the urban environment, and on the urban edge, complete habitats are constantly
lost and impacts associated with human activities such as trampling, exotic plant
invasion and often ill-advised management practices are common characteristics of
these areas.
The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the vegetation ecology in the
urban environment of Gauteng in order to identify the various vegetation types and
sub-types occurring here. In addition, the localities of these plant communities were
used to determine the environmental characteristics,
which
shaped these
communities in order to improve the natural vegetation database in the Gauteng
urban environment. Such a comprehensive study has not previously been
undertaken in the study area. This information should contribute to conservation of
different types of natural habitat in urban areas and beyond, ensuring that nature
conservation is incorporated into land-use planning initiatives.
The results of this study are in the form of manuscripts, which have been submitted
for publications in a scientific journal. Details of the study area, methods, results,
discussion and references are presented as individual chapters. An overview of the
principal findings as well as recommendations regarding urban open spaces is
included in chapter 6.
BEHR, C.M. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1988. A phytosociological classification of the
vegetation of the Witwatersrand National Botanical Botanic Garden. South African
Journal of Botany. 54: 525-533.
BREDENKAMP. G.J.
Sandton Municipality.
1991. Die plantegroei van die Rietfontein Natuureservaat.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1992. The vegetation of the Lonehill Nature Reserve, Sandton.
Sandton Municipality.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1997a. A vegetation assessment of the Fort Klapperkop area.
Van Riet & Louw Landscape Architects, Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1997b. A vegetation assessment of a proposed residential
development on the Willows 340 JR Portion 234. Van Riet & Louw Landscape
Architects, Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP, G.J.& BROWN, L.R. 1998a. A vegetation assessment of open
spaces of the Western Metropolitan Local Council area. Western Metropolitan Local
Council.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & BROWN, L.R. 1998b. A vegetation assessment of the
northern areas of the Northern Metropolitan Local Council area. Northern
Metropolitan Local Council.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & THERON, G.K. 1978.
A synecological account of the
Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve. I: The phytosociology of the Witwatersrant geological
system. Bothalia 12: 513-529.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & THERON, G.K. 1980. A synecological account of the
Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve 11: The phytosociology of the Ventersdorp
Geological System. Bothalia 13: 199-216.
CILLIERS, S.S. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1998. Vegetation of railway reserves in the
Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa·. South African
Journal of Botany. 64(5): 271-280.
CILLIERS, S.S. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1999a. Urban nature conservation:
vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West
Province, South Africa. Koedoe. 42(1): 1-30.
CILLIERS, S.S. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1999b. Analysis of the spontaneous
vegetation of intensely managed urban open spaces in the Potchefstroom Municipal
Area, North West Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany. 65(1): 5968.
CILLIERS, S.S. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1999c. Ruderal and degraded natural
vegetation on vacant lots in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North West Province,
South Africa. South African Journal of Botany. 65(2) 163-173.
CILLIERS, S.S. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 2000. Vegetation on road verges on an
urbanisation gradient in Potchefstroom, South Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning
46: 217-239.
CILLIERS, S.S, SCHOEMAN, L.L. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1998. Wetland plant
communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North West, South Africa.
Bothalia. 28(2): 213-229.
COETZEE J.P., BREDENKAMP, G.J., VAN ROOYEN, N. & THERON, G.K. 1994.
An overview of the physical environment and plant communities of the Ba and Ib land
types in the Pretoria-Witbank-Heidelberg area. South African Journal of Botany. 60:
46--61.
DINGAAN, 1999. The phytosociology of the natural open spaces in Bloemfontein,
Free State. M.Sc. thesis. University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein.
ELLERY, W.N. 1992. The vegetation ecology and conservation value of the Western
Extension of Melville Koppie Nature Reserve, and proposals for its Management.
Botanical Society of South Africa, Johannesburg Branch.
ELLERY, W.N. 1994. The vegetation ecology of Melville Koppies Nature reserve and
Louw Geldenhuys View Site: Proposals for their Management. Botanical Society of
South Africa, Johannesburg Branch.
FORMAN, R.T.T. & GODRON, M. 1981. Patches and structural components for a
landscape ecology. BioScience. 31: 733-740.
GAUTENG DRAFT RED DATA POLICY, 2000a. Developed for Gauteng Department
of Agriculture, Conservation, Environment and Land Affairs.
GAUTENG SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK, 2000b. Prepared for:
Gauteng Provincial Government: Development Planning and Local Government.
APS Planafrica in association with Labat - Anderson Africa.
GOLDSMITH, F.B. 1995. Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology. Conservation
Biology Series. Chapman & Hall. London.
GOUDIE, A. 1994. The human impact on the natural environment. Fourth Edition.
Blackwell. Oxford.
HELLIWELL, D.R 1973. Priorities and values in nature conservation. Journal of
Environmental
Management. 1: 85-127.
MATTHEWS, W.S. 1991. Phytosociology of the north-eastern mountain sourveld. M.
Sc. Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
MCARTHUR, RH. & WILSON, E.O. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
ROBERTS, D.C. 1993. The vegetation of the municipal Durban, Natal. Floristic
classification. Bothalia. 23(2): 271-326.
SOULE, M.E. 1989. Viable Populations for conservation. Cambridge University
Press. New York.
SPELLER BERG, I. 1992. Evaluation and Assessment for conservation. Chapman &
Hall. London.
URBAN, L., O'NEILL, RV. & SHUGART, H.H. 1987. Landscape Ecology. A
hierarchical perspective can help scientists understand spatial patters. BioScience
37: 119-127.
VAN WYK, E. CILLIERS, S.S. & BREDENKAMP,
of Klerksdorp,
G.J. 1997. Vegetation of the ridges
North West Province, South Africa (In Afrikaans).
Natuurwetenskap
en Tegnologie. 16(2): 74-85.
SA Tydskrif vir
The study area is located between 27° 40'E to 28°25'E and 25°40'S to 26°20'S
approximately in the centre of the Gauteng province (Figure 1). The 1: 250 000
topographical maps affected are the 2528 Pretoria, 2626 West Rand, 2628 East
Rand and 2526 Rustenburg maps. The study area principally includes the PretoriaMidrand-Johannesburg
urban areas though it expands westwards towards
Krugersdorp.
The area is predominantly situated in the Grassland biome (Rutherford & Westfall
1986) but partly includes the Magaliesberg in the north, which is located in the
Savanna biome (Rutherford & Westfall 1986). Acocks (1988) recognises three veld
types in the study area namely Sourish Mixed Bushveld (Veld Type 19), Sour
Bushveld (Veld Type 20) and Bankenveld (Veld Type 61). Bredenkamp and Van
Rooyen (1996b, d & e) recognise 3 vegetation types in this area, namely Mixed
Bushveld, Moist Cool Highveld Grassland and Rocky Highveld Grassland (Figure 2).
Other vegetation types in the Gauteng province include Clay Thorn Bushveld and
Moist Clay Highveld Grassland (Figure 2) (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996a & c).
Altitudes in Gauteng vary from 1 081m to 1 899 above sea level, with a mean altitude
of 1 512m (Gauteng 2000). The altitude of the study area is however between 1 400
t01 800 m above sea level.
The two major catchments that drain the study area, are the Crocodile River and
Vaal River primary catchment areas with the main rivers and tributaries the
Crocodile, Jukskei, Blesbokspruit, Suikerbosrand, Klip and Vaal rivers.
The
Crocodile river eventually drains to the east coast and the Vaal river to the west coast
which places the study area on a major water shed of South Africa.
.""" Study Area
•
Sample Plots
':,,~
"',~,~"'"
.0-
N
The study area is located with in the Gauteng Province and 132
sample plots were placed in the various urban open spaces i n
order to describe the vegetation found growing there (Scale
1:670000).
Legend
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Clay Thorn Bushveld
Mixed Bushveld
Moist Clay Highveld Grassland
Moist Cool Highveld Grassland
Rocky Highveld Grassland
The five dominant vegetation types occurring in the Gauteng
Province. Seventeen percent of the Province is covered by
bushveld, whereas grassland comprises 83% of the area
(Adapted from the National Botanical Institute, 1996).
In the Pretoria area the main geological formations are the Daspoort, Timeball Hill
and Magaliesberg formations from the Pretoria Group.
In the Centurion area,
dolomite and chert from the Chuniespoort Group are found. Halfway House Granites
are found from Johannesburg towards Midrand. South of Johannesburg, a number of
geological formations occur in predominantly east-west striking bands. These include
the Klipriviersberg and Platberg Groups from the Ventersdorp Supergroup, the
Orange Grove formation, Hospital Hill Subgroup, Govemment Subgroup and
Jeppestown Subgroup from the West Rand Group (Witwatersrant Supergroup) and
the Turffontein and Johannesburg Subgroups from the Central Rand Group
(Witwatersrant Supergroup) (Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs 1984).
The land type classes observed in this study area relate to the Map units Aa-Ai
which have Red-yellow apedal, freely drained soils, Map units Ba-Bd which have a
Plinthic catena, while upland duplex and margalitic soils are rare and Map units la-Ic
which are Miscellaneous land classes. The most important land type classes
represented in this study area were Ab1, Bb1, Bb2, Ba7, Ba9, Ib3, Ib7, Ib41 and
Ib43.
(Landtype survey staff 1985,1987a&b,). Table 1 indicates the underlying
geology of the main land types observed.
The country around Pretoria is characterised by ridge and valley topography.
Prominent
ridges
include the
Daspoort rant,
Piemeefrant,
Bronberg
and
Magaliesberg. The central business district (CBD) of Pretoria lies between the
Langeberge and Daspoortrant. Both are prominent quartzite ridges that stretch for
considerable distances further to the south~eastand south-west of the city. South of
the CBD, from the Fountains Valley in the direction of Midrand, the topography rises
gently with the Groenkloof and Voortrekkerhoogte Nature reserves forming prominent
open spaces. From here, southwards, the landscape is typically open and flat, with
the only hills of note, the Zwartkop in the far west, as well as Alwyn Kop, Bays Hill
and Smuts Koppie and other less prominent ridges.
Johannesburg
has a gently rolling topography
mainly granite. In the Leeukop-Khayalami
and the geology in the study area is
vicinity a number distinct koppies are
visible in an otherwise gentle rolling landscape.
Occasional high ridges and hills are
found to the west, east and south of Johannesburg.
They include the Linksfield ridge, Bill Steward Nature Reserve, Yeoville ridge and
Langermanskop
to the east and the Melville Koppies Nature reserve, Northcliff ridge
and Bush hill ridge to the west.
A high ridge, know as the Roodepoort (or Protea)
ridge to the west of Johannesburg,
stretches
Edenvale in the east. The Klipriviersberg
from Krugersdorp
in the west to
is an impressive east west striking small
mountain range in the far south of Johannesburg
and Alberton. The Orlando hill is
situated to the west of this mountain range. Further to the south the topography
is
relatively subdued. The landscape also plays host to the flat-topped slimes dams of
the gold mines that existed in the area.
The main soil families found in the study area are Mispah, Southwold, Trevanian,
Glenrosa, Williamson,
Msinga, Klipfontein,
Sandvlei, Robmore, Glendale and Platt
with a clay content ranging between 10-30%
(Landtype survey staff 1985,1987a &
b).
Climatic data from the Pretoria Forum WB, Johannesburg
Joubert Park, Krugersdorp
Kroningspark
stations
temperature
and
Leeukop
Johannesburg
weather
were
used.
No
data were available from the Leeukop weather station in the Midrand
area (Weather Bureau, 2000).
The mean annual temperature varies across the province from 14.aoC in the south to
1a.7°C in the north. Situated in the high altitude interior plateau, Gauteng is subject
to larger variation in temperature than coastal areas.
The average minimum temperature for the province is 9.aoC although an absolute
minimum "of,,.;.8~C has been recorded at Johannesburg
International
Airport. The
average maximum temperature is 24.50C but a maximum of 36°C has been recorded
in Pretoria (Gauteng 1997).
The mean monthly temperature
in the study area for the weather stations listed
below is 16.aoC with a mean maximum of 22.6oC and a mean minimum of 10.aoC
(Table 2).
The mean annual rainfall in Gauteng is 670 mm per year (Gauteng 1997). Table 3
indicates the maximum,
Johannesburg
minimum and mean rainfall for the Pretoria Forum
we,
Joubert Park and Krugersdorp Kroningspark weather stations (1961-
1990) and the mean rainfall for the Leeukop Johannesburg weather stations (19511999).
Table 1: The underlying geology of the main land types observed in the study area
(Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs 1984)
Landtype
Underlying geology
Ab1b
Dolomite,
chert,
shale
and
quartzite
of
the
Chuniespoort
Group,
Transvaal Sequence.
Ba7
Shale, quartzite, siltstone, chert and hornfels of the Silverton, Daspoort
and Timeball Hill Formations (Transvaal Sequence) and diabase.
Ba9a
Shale, quartzite,
hornfels
and chert of the Pretoria Group, diabase,
andesite of the Hekpoort Formation (Transvaal Sequence).
Bb1b
Granite and migmatite of the Halfway
shale and siltstone of the Pretoria
House Intrusion and quartzite,
Group, andesite
of the Hekpoort
Formation, diabase and some occurrence of dolomite and chert.
Bb2c
Granite, gneiss and migmatite of the Halfway House Granite.
Ib3a
Quartzite of the Magaliesberg Formation, shale, slate and hornfels of the
Silverton Formation, diabase sills, quartzite of the Daspoort formation.
Sporadic occurrence of shale and siltstone of the Strubenkop Formation.
Ib7a
Quartzite,
shale and siltstone of the Pretoria Group, andesite of the
Hekpoort Formation, diabase and some occurrence of dolomite and chert
Ib41
Witwatersrand
quartzite,
slate, grit and conglomerate
predominantly;
sporadic occurrence of Black Reef quartzite, shale, grit and conglomerate
in the west. Basement Complex granite, amphibolite,
serpentinite,
talc
schist and Ventersdorp lava also occur sporadically, Occasional diabase
sills in Witwatersrand Supergroup.
Ib43
Ventersdorp lava, breccia and tuff
Table 2: Average daily temperature between 1961 and 1990 as provided by the
Weather Bureau (2000).
Month
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
Jun.
Jul.
Aug,
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Yearly
Pretoria
1330m
Max.
28.6
28.9
27.0
24.1
21.9
19.1
19.6
22.2
25.5
26.6
27.1
28.0
24.0
Forum WB
Min.
17.5
17.2
16.0
12.2
7.8
4.5
4.5
7.6
11.7
14.2
15.7
16.8
12.1
Mean
23.0
22.6
21.5
18.2
14.9
11.8
12.0
14.9
18.6
20.4
21.4
22.4
18.5
Weather stations
Johannesburg Joubert
Park 1753m
Max.
Min.
Mean
15.4
25.3
20.4
24.9
15.0
19.9
23.8
14.0
18.9
11.4
20.9
16.1
18.6
8.5
13.5
15.7
5.6
10.6
16.4
11.1
5.8
13.4
18.9
7.8
22.3
10.7
16.5
23.2
12.2
17.7
23.8
13.5
18.6
25.0
14.6
19.8
16.4
21.6
11.2
Krugersdorp
Kroninj;lspark 1699m
Min.
Mean
Max.
20.4
14.6
28.1
14.2
19.8
25.5
12.9
18.6
24.3
9.4
15.4
21.3
12.4
19.1
5.6
9.4
16.3
2.4
9.6
16.9
2.4
19.4
12.0
4.7
15.8
22.9
8.7
17.4
10.9
24.0
18.6
12.5
24.5
13.7
19.7
25.7
15.7
22.2
9.3
Weather stations
Pretoria Forum WB1330m
Johannesburg Joubert Park 1753m
Month
Max.
Min.
Mean
Max.
Min.
Mean
Jan.
490
39
136
328
52
149
Feb.
218
25
75
292
18
100
Mar.
173
17
82
207
14
95
Apr.
115
0
51
161
5
63
May.
60
0
13
78
0
16
Jun.
56
0
7
66
0
10
Jul.
20
0
3
23
0
4
Aug,
30
0
6
103
0
9
Sep.
75
0
22
185
0
30
Oct.
159
10
71
225
1
78
Nov.
188
19
98
216
37
122
Dec.
199
34
110
263
26
126
Yearly
913
372
674
1174
498
802
Weather stations
Leeukop Johannesburg
Krugersdorp Kroningspark
1496m
1699m
Month
Mean
-
Max.
Min.
Mean
-
-
Jan.
118.8
440
30
138
Feb.
96.6
-
-
204
24
96
Mar.
85.1
-
-
227
13
96
Apr.
52.9
-
145
5
64
May.
14.8
-
124
0
17
Jun.
6.8
-
43
0
8
Jul.
3.6
-
31
0
4
Aug,
7.7
-
57
0
8
Sep.
19.5
122
0
24
Oet.
69.0
-
-
Nov.
106.5
Dec.
Yearly
163
15
69
-
-
210
27
102
107.4
-
-
210
29
110
699.6
-
-
1056
427
736
The following short descriptions are provided for each of the areas where surveys
were done, in alphabetical order. Local authority boundaries and local authority
names change rapidly and are therefore loosely used. The sizes used per site
included the all-natural sections of the site and/or only those sections of the site
located in the urban environments. Reference is made to some exotic infestation,
although the sites were predominantly undisturbed. Suburbs are indicated according
to the Pretoria, Centurion and Midrand (1997/1998) and Witwatersrand (1996/1997)
Map Studio books.
Albert's Farm is located in Northcliff, Johannesburg. It is a 77 ha open space
consisting of a mosaic of natural vegetation and recreational areas. Fifty-three
species were recorded on 2 sample plots. Presently this park is used by people for a
variety of recreational activities and is characterised by a variety of features and
habitats.
These include a dam with fishing and picnic infrastructure. The
Montgomery river and associated wetland runs through the southern part of the
property. The farm Waterfal 79 on which Alberts Farm open space is situated,
previously belonged to the Alberts familty who sold this part of the farm to the
Johannesburg City Council in 1952 for £60000 for 110.64 acres (Allan Butr, pers
comm). The exotic vegetation includes large patches of Populus x canescens (grey
poplar), Arundo donax (giant reed) and to a lesser extent Acacia meamsii (black
wattle).
The Beaulieu hill refers to an area located on the farm Witpoort 406 JR in Midrand. It
is 2 ha in size. 92 species were recorded on 3 sample plots. This site was selected
due to it being identified as a "sensitive" area in a metropolitan open space study
done by the local authority. The site was zoned as "agriculture" at the time of the
survey and consisted of three adjoining smallholdings. Subsequently, one section of
this koppie was used for the construction of an upmarket residential developed and
the vegetation severely disturbed. Giant eagle owls were observed during the survey
in the closed woodland at the lower end of the site. A variety of exotic species was
encountered in the closed woodland with specific reference to the cactus Cereus
peruvianus (queen of the night) from South America.
The Bill Steward Nature Reserve is located in Bedfordview, Johannesburg. The Site
is 75 ha in size. Seventy-seven species were recorded on 3 sample plots. The site
itself is a north-east running ridge with a plateau and a north western slope. The site
is completely surrounded by urban development. This site forms a visual landmark in
the Gillooly's Farm area as it is visible from the N3, N2, R21 and N12 highways. A
power line runs all along this nature reserve. The site is utilized by the public for
passive recreation.
The Blougat Nature Area is 119 ha in size and the Blougat spruit runs through it. This
Nature Area is situated directly adjacent to the extending residential suburbs of
Munsieville. It is further situated directly east of the Krugersdorp Game Reserve, the
Delporton industrial area and Krugersdorp Airfield. Ninety-five species were recorded
here on 4 sample plots.
The site is unfenced, and the informal settlements on the immediate border of this
site, presents a grave concern for the future existence of the site. Pollution on the
higher lying slopes also presents constant pollution sources to the Blougat Spruit.
The riverine vegetation is severely encroached by Acacia meamsii (black wattle) and
Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuju grass).
The Bronberg is a natural ridge to the east of Pretoria running through the suburbs
Faerie Glen, Wapadrand and Lynnwood. It is 362 ha in size and hundred and ninety
two species were recorded here on 6 sample plots. This ridge is under extreme
pressure for development and attempts are made to conserve it. The ridge includes
the Faerie Glen Nature Reserve to the west, which is accessible to the public for
passive recreation. The section of the Bronberg surveyed for this study extends up to
the suburbs just east of the major Hans Strydom road eastern bypass.
The Bush Hill Koppie Nature Reserve is a 25 ha north-south streching ridge just west
of the N1 highway in Boskruin, Randburg. Forty-one Species were recorded on 2
sample plots. The western slope is more or less completely built up and shows signs
of infestation by exotic vegetation such as Acacia meamsii
Eucalyptus
(black wattle) and
sp. The crest area is very small due to the steep western and eastern
slopes joining at the top of the ridge. The site is further completely surrounded by
urban development. The site is not accessible for utilization by the public.
The Clayville site is located in the suburb of Clayville, Olifantsfontein.
Fifty-five
species were recorded here on 2 sample plots. This site is prone to be developed in
the near future.
The CVNA is approximately 51 ha in size (excluding the flatter and wetter areas to
the south of the ridge). The area is a west-east streching ridge in the Colbyn suburb
of Pretoria in close proximity to the N4 and N1 crossing and is an extension of the
Daspoortrant. Eighty-six species were recorded on 2 sample plots. Also located on
this ridge to the west, is the Union Building and to the east, the National Botanical
Gardens. The northern slope of the site is developed as a residential area. The close
vicinity of residehti8Fdeveiopment, has made the CVNA susceptible to impacts by
such as exotic vegetation with reference to escaped garden plants as well as human
related activities like footpaths, trampling and litter. Rare plant species occur on this
site.
In the urban areas of Pretoria, the Daspoort rant covers 180 ha undeveloped land
and is located to the north of Danville and south of the Pretoria Gardens suburbs of
Pretoria. Hundred and seven species were recorded on 4 sample plots. This ridge
was initially protected by the Greater Pretoria Guideplan - a guideplan that formally
protected ridges and rivers in the Pretoria area until November 1995. This ridge has
therefore to a large extent been conserved. Presently Local Authority Land
Development Objective planning guidelines keeps this ridge free from development.
The vegetation shows no major signs of degradation. It further forms an important
feature in the landscape of Pretoria.
The DBSA site refers to the grasslands visible to the west of the N1 highway, south
of the Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA) at the Olifantsfontein offramp in
Midrand. 35 species were recorded on 1 sample plot. The site shows signs of
agricultural activities with reference to old ploughed lands. This site is prone to be
developed in the near future.
The Erasmuskloof site is a natural 103 ha piece of land visible to the east of the N1
highway and north of Rigel road, in Pretoria.
Forty-four species were observed on 2
sample plots. The land is zoned as "agriculture" and may be developed in future. The
southwestern
part of the site is heavily infested with Acacia meamsii (black wattle).
The Fourways Gardens Nature Reserve is 12 ha in size and is situated inside the
Fourways
Gardens
residential
development
in Fourways, Johannesburg.
nine species were recorded on 1 sample plot.
Twenty-
Zebra and ostrich are kept on this
area.
The Glen Austin Pan and immediate surrounding area, is approximately 10 ha in size
and is located on the Glen Austin Agricultural Holdings in Midrand. The Glen Austin
pan has been protected for the high species diversity of birds observed on this pan
every year.
Unfortunately
the surrounding
areas have to a large extent been
impacted upon by agricultural activity and a low number of plant species occur here
(14 on 1 sample plot). This area may be extended as conservation area in future.
The Golden Harvest Park is 50 ha (including/excluding
hill) in size and predominantly
a recreational park for the public. A fairly small natural hill occurring in the Park was
surveyed and 25 species were recorded here on 1 sample plot. This site is located
on the Golden Harvest Agricultural Holdings in Randburg, Johannesburg.
The Groenkloof Nature Reserve is located directly south of Pretoria and is 400 ha in
size. Hundred and seventy species were recorded here on 7 sample plots. The
Nature Reserve is extensively used for active and passive recreational activities.
Klapperkop refers to a strip of natural land located south and above the Groenkloof
suburb of Pretoria. This site is bordered by the Johann Rissik drive, Klapperkop Fort
Military Museum and Monument Golf Course to the south and Nelson Mandela drive
to the west. It measures 155 ha in size, and 123 species were recorded on 5 sample
plots.
The section of Klipriviersberg located in Meyersdal, Alberton, to the south of
Johannesburg, is 1100 ha in size. Ninety-eight species were recorded on 4 sample
plots. This site is situated between the N12 (to Kimberley), R59 (to Vereeniging)
Brackenhurst and Glenvista townships. A Management Framework has recently
been completed for the area, dividing it up in zones in order to allow for mixed landuses. The site is under immense pressure for development. The measured 1100 ha
of present natural land will therefore be reduced in future to accommodate
development. Disturbances on this area relate informal and ill-planned roads,
reservoirs and a rock-crushing site.
The Klipriviersberg Nature Reserve is located to the south of Johannesburg and in
the vicinity of suburbs like Mondeor, Glenvista and Kibler Park. It is 525 ha in size,
and 120 species were recorded on 4 sample plots. This nature reserve is home to
some red data species. The local council is in the process of extending this nature
reserve to include adjoining sections of the Klipriviersberg not included in the present
protected area. The area is under major pressure for development.
\ \ ~O~ q (.~S-
\0 ( S:t~'jU~3
The Kloofendal Nature Reserve is a 105 ha nature reserve located in Roodepoort,
Johannesburg. Hundred and fifty five species were recorded on 6 sample plots. This
nature reserve is used extensively for passive recreation.
The Kwaggasrant is a ridge to the west of the City Centre of Pretoria and directly
south of the suburb of Atteridgeville and north of Laudium. It is bordered by the
Pretoria Industrial area and Langeberge to the east. It is 285 ha in size, and 92
species were recorded on 3 sample plots. An old fort (Kwaggakop fort) is located on
a highpoint of this ridge. This ridge links onto the Skurweberge in the west.
The Langermanskop is a 32 ha hill located in the Kensington suburb of
Johannesburg. Hundred and three species were recorded on 4 sample plots. This
site is completely surrounded by development and forms a visual relief in the
otherwise built up area of Kensington. Invasion by garden plants and other infestation
e.g. Arundo donax (giant reed) on the edges of this area are real impacts. Other
impacts relate to unmanaged footpaths, trampling and litter.
The Linksfield ridge is a 95 ha west east running ridge visible from the Gillooly's
Farm interchange in the Edenvale - Bedfordview area to the east of Johannesburg.
Hundred and thirty species were recorded on 4 sample plots. An interesting historical
fact of this area, is that two neighbouring farms here belonged to the Gillooly and
Bezuidenhout families respectively. Both the original Gillooly and Bezuidenhout
farmsteads are conserved and the initial communication trail between these two
farms can still be observed on the ridge (Allan Buff pers comm). Presently the
"Mervin King" and "Dassie" trails cross the Linksfield ridge. No dassies are seen on
this ridge anymore. To the south of the ridge is an unusual meander of the Jukskei
River only a few kilometres away from the origin of this river (Noel Hutton" pers
comm). To the east of the ridge, the grave Mr Ferro, one of the first prospectors in
Johannesburg, can be found. The initial objective of the Harvey Nature Reserve,
which forms the western part of this site, was to conserve indigenous flora of the
area.
The Lonehilll Nature Reserve is a 6 ha natural area in the Lonehill suburb to the north
of Johannesburg. Fifty-three species were recorded on 2 sample plots. The major
feature of the Reserve is the granite hills. These granites formed 3 1000 million years
ago, and are the most ancient rock on the earth crust, namely archaeic granite
(Bredenkamp 1992). A large population of dassies occur on this nature area and due
to the absence of predators, have increased to such an extent that they cause
damage to the vegetation. The site is managed and is accessible for public utilization
for recreation.
The MPNE is a west east running ridge and mountain running from Bronkhorstspruit
in the south east, through Pretoria to Rustenburg in the west. A large section of the
Magaliesberg is protected by the Environmental Conservation Act (1989) as a
"Protected Natural Environment". The ridge running through urban areas in the
Pretoria area was measured to be 1063 ha. Hundred and fifty species were recorded
on 8 sample plots. The MPNE was proclaimed for the first time in 1977 as a "Nature
Area". This quartzite ridge has high landscape value to the city of Pretoria. Due to
the longitudinal shape of the ridge in the study area and the close proximity of a
densely populated city, the ridge and specifically the edges of the MPNE have
suffered from impacts such as trampling, litter, exotic vegetation, unmanaged
footpaths and off-road vehicle tracks. Carruthers (1990) describes the natural and
cultural history of the Magaliesberg in his book The Magaliesberg.
• Allan Buff. Manager: Cemeteries and Crematoriums. Johannesburg Metroplitan Local Council .
.• Noel Hutton. Parks and Recreation. Johanneburg Metropolitan Local council.
The McDonalds site refers to a 2 ha piece of land located behind the McDonalds fast
food shop in Halfway House, Midrand. This is the only remaining site in Midrand
where large boulders, previously characteristic of sites in Midrand, can be observed.
Twenty-eight species were observed on 1 sample plot. The site will probably be
developed in future unless it is specifically bought by the local council for
conservation purposes.
Meintjieskop refers to a specific section and high point of the Daspoortrant ridge
located just east of the city center of Pretoria in the Riviera and Rietondal suburbs.
The Union Building is situated on the southern slope of Meinljieskop. This section is
96 ha in size. Thirty eight species were recorded on 1 sample plot. This ridge has
been encroached upon by residential development especially on the southern slopes
and crest. The northern slopes are the least impacted upon.
The Melville Koppies Nature Reserve is 150 ha ridge in the Melville suburb of
Johannesburg. Hundred and thirty two species were recorded on 3 sample plots. In
comparison to other urban nature areas, this Nature Reserve is extensively managed
and utilised for educational purposes by the public. An additional section of the ridge
east of D.F.Malan Drive, is called the Louw Geldenhuys View site. This site is also
partially managed as nature area and as extension of the Melville Koppies Nature
Reserve. This ridges is also known for its iron and stone age sites.
Miar's land is a large tract of land (380 ha) visible to the west of the N1 highway at
the Allandale offramp in Midrand. Seventy-four species were recorded on 2 sample
plots. This land was included in the study as it was indicated that development is not
likely to here in the near future and it is a natural grassland. The site also includes
section of the Jukskei river to the south and lower part of the site which has large
specimens of Comb return erythrophyllum
on its banks. The land is zoned as
"agriculture".
The Moreleta Kloof Nature Area is 90 ha in size and situated in the Moreleta Park
suburb of Pretoria. Ninety species were recorded on 3 sample plots. The Moreleta
spruit runs through the middle of the nature area. There is limited infestation of exotic
plants in the drainage line in comparison to other rivers in the urban areas of
Gauteng. A large wetland is visible downstream. Clear signs of management was
observed and the site is extensively utilised by the public for recreational activities.
An education centre is located on the site.
The Murrayfield site is a 9 ha piece of natural land located in the Murrayfield suburb
in the eastern suburbs of Pretoria. Seventy-five species were recorded on 2 sample
plots. The site is surrounded by urban development.
The NBI is located on and along the eastern most section of the Daspoort ridge. It is
92 ha in size and located in the Silverton and Scientia suburbs of Pretoria. Hundred
and thirty one species were recorded on 4 sample plots.
The Northcliff ridge (previously known as Aasvoelkop) is 10 ha in size. It is located in
the Northcliff suburb of Johannesburg and is the highest natural point in
Johannesburg.
The ridge is completely surrounded by development. Ninety-one
species were recorded on 3 sample plots. The Northcliff ridge is extensively used for
various forms of recreation including it being used as a major viewpoint of
Johannesburg. The infrastructure developed for recreation are not sufficient to
sustain the large numbers of people visiting the area and therefor litter and trampling
are some of the major impacts to this area. 17th Century Tswana iron-age
settlements have been found on the ridge.
The Orlando hill is a 55 ha hill located directly south of the Orlando power station and
dam, as well as south of the Vista University and Soweto College of Education in
Soweto, Johannesburg. Eighty-eight species were recorded on 3 sample plots. This
hill was initially one of three hills that were undeveloped in the area. According to
Allan Butr (pers comm), the Nunsfield Church was situated between two of these
hills in Pimville.
Here Enoch Sontonga, choirmaster, teacher, photographer,
preacher and composer of the National Anthem Nkosi Sikelele iAfrika used to take
the children up one of the hills for Bible lessons. The koppie was later known as
Thaba Bosio which means "Mountain of the night time" and probably referred to
religious reflections at night. Enoch died on 18 April 1905 and his grave is in the
Braamfontein cemetery (Sharper & Walker, 1996). Thaba Bosio has unfortunately
been developed, and only the surveyed hill at Orlando as well as the hill in Devland is
still undeveloped. Many people visit this hill to harvest plants.
The Piemeefrant is a west east running ridge in the Villieria suburb of Pretoria. It is
situated between the Magaliesberg and Daspoortrant ridges. It is 37 ha in size.
Hundred and twenty seven species were recorded on 5 sample plots.
The Quagga spruit open space and recreational
area is located between Quagga
street and Van Dalsen street in the Wespark. suburb of Pretoria. The area is 50 ha in
size and 57 species were recorded on 1 sample plot. A small portion of the area
presently acts as a urban park with picnic facilities. Another section of land along the
Quagga spruit and to the north of the spruit, has predominantly
natural vegetation.
The riverine vegetation shows disturbance due to exotic infestation.
The Rietfontein Hospital site includes 80 ha of natural grassland along the N3 in
Edenvale. Hundred and one species were recorded on 4 sample plots. In 1894 this
land was bought by the Transvaal Republic to establish a hospital for smallpox cases
as well as plague and venereal diseases jn later years. The first leper hospital in
Transvaal was built here in 1897. In the following years infectious epidemic diseases,
tuberculosis and many other infectious diseases were treated here (Unknown, 1994).
Approximately
6 000 bodies are buried here and has potential health risks should
they be exhumed
proposed
(Allan Buff* pers comm).
mixed-use development
This matter has put a halt to the
planned for the site (Urban Planning Services
1995). The riverine vegetation is invaded by exotic vegetation. Old fallow lands have
rehabilitated successfully.
The Rietfontein Nature Reserve is a 40 ha natural north-south streching ridge visible
from the N1 highway and located in the Paulshof suburb of Sandton, Johannesburg.
Sixty-seven species were recorded on 2 sample plots. A potential road might cross
this Nature Reserve in future and may jeopardize the future conservation of this area.
The site is accessible to the public for passive recreational activities.
The Roodepoort ridge is a north-west
to south-east
running ridge in Roodepoort,
Johannesburg
area. The portion of the ridge referred to in this study (from the
Wi~atersrand
Botanical Gardens in the west to just east of Christaan de Wet road
near Kloofendal) is 673 ha in size. Seventy species were recorded on 2 samptErPfOts;
The Roodepoort ridge is a highly visual natural featu·re in Johannesburg. The ridge
has suffered
major encroachment
by urban development.
Attempts are presently
made by various government departments to limit further construction on the ridge.
The Kloofendal Nature Reserve to the south, is in close proximity to the Roodepoort
ridge. The Roodepoort ridge is home to the unique Protea roupelliaea which shows a
Drakensberg element in this vegetation. The largest P. roupelliaea population of 5
populations, recorded in Gauteng, is situated on the Roodepoort Ridge on the border
of Roodepoort
and Krugersdorp
and has a high conservation
status (Hankey &
Turner 1998).
The Ruimsig Butterly Nature Reserve is 1~ ha in size and located in the Ruimsig
suburb of Roodepoort. Thirty species were recorded on 1 sample plot. This reserve
is the first in Africa proclaimed to protect a unique grassland habitat for insects not
commonly found on the Witwatersrand
(Henning 1994). The site is conserved and
managed for the rare butterfly AJoeides dentatis (Swierstra) (Lycaenidae) and has
limited access to the public for passive recreational
activities. Vegetation surveys
were done here by Deutschlander & Bredenkamp (1999).
The Strubenkop hill is a 10 ha undeveloped hill in the Lynnwood suburb of Pretoria.
Fifty-two species were recorded on 2 sample plots. Due to this site being used by the
public as viewpoint,
and no infrastructure
exists
on this hill to accommodate
recreational activities, trampling and litter have impacted and changed the vegetation
of this area substantially. Some tree planting was observed, although with trees not
natural to the area.
This Nature reserve is approximately
273 ha in extent. Eighty-five species were
recorded on 4 sample plots. This Nature Reserve with the Voortrekker Monument, is
a landmark in Pretoria.
The Van Riebeeck Nature Reserve (or Rietvlei dam) is a 3160 ha nature reserve
located south-east of Pretoria and east of the R21 Johannesburg
Intemational Airport
Highway at the Irene off-ramp. Hundred and nine species were recorded on 3 sample
plots. The reserve is used extensively by the public for passive recreation.
The Yeoville Ridge is 46 ha in size and is a west east running ridge in the Yeoville
and Observatory suburbs of Johannesburg.
sample
plots.
It is the second highest
Sixty-seven species were recorded on 2
natural point in Johannesburg
after the
..
Northcliff ridge. An Indian memorial was constructed on this ridge in memory of all
the Indians that died in the Anglo-Boer war. Inscriptions are written in three different
languages on the memorial (Noel Hutton· pers comm). This ridge was never formally
conserved, but was kept free from development due to its steep gradients. The site is
used for recreational activities - although no signs of management were observed. A
major infestation of Acacia meamsii (black wattle) was observed at the lower and
southem end of the site
The Zwartkop Training Facility and surrounding
nature area, belongs to the South
African Air force and is 560 ha in size. Hundred and fifteen species were recorded on
3 sample
plots.
Voortrekkerhoogte
It is located
west
of the suburb
Valhalla
and south of the
military base in Pretoria. It is located on the farm Zwartkop 356JR.
The Hennops River runs past the site at the southern and lower part of the site. The
riverine vegetation is disturbed.
ACOCKS, J.P.H. 1988. Veld types of South Africa, 3rd ed. Memoirs of the Botanical
Survey of South Africa. 57: 1-146.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1992. The vegetation of the Lonehill Nature Reserve, Sandton.
Sandton Municipality.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996a. Clay Thorn Bushveld. In: Low,
AB. & Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Dept.
of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996b. Mixed bushveld. In: Low, AB. &
Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Dept. of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996c. Moist Clay Highveld Grassland.
In: Low, AB. & Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996d. Moist Cool Highveld Grassland.
In: Low, AB. & Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996e. Rocky Highveld Grassland. In:
Low, AB. & Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland.
Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
DEUTSCHLANDER, M.S. & BREDENKAMP, G.J. 1999. Importance of vegetation
analysis in the conservation management of the endangered butterfly AJoeides
dentatis dentatis (Swierstra) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Koedoe 42(2): 1-11.
DEPARTMENT OF MINERAL AND ENERGY AFFAIRS. 1984. Geological Map of
the Republics of South Afrtica, Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei and the
Kingsdoms of Lesotho and Swaziland. (Comp. D.J.L. Visser). Govemment Printer,
Pretoria.
GAUTENG:
STATE OF ENVIRONMENT
IN GAUTENG,
1997. Preliminary report.
Compiled for: Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment.
GAUTENG SPACIAL DEVELOPMENT
FRAMEWORK,
PHASE 111. 2000. Compiled
for: Department of Local Government and Development Planning.
HENNING, S.F. 1994. Butterflies of the Ruimsig Entomological
Reserve Roodepoort
Transvaal. Metamorphosis. 5(4): 169-172
HANKEY, A. & TURNER, S. 1998. Report on the conservation
Extension 4. Unpublished report: Witwatersrand
status of Rangeview
National Botanical Garden.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF. 1987. Land Types of the maps 2626 Wes-Rand, 2726
Kroonstad. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 4: 1-342.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF. 1985. Land Types of the maps 2628 East Rand. 2630
Mbabane. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 4: 1-261.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF. 1987. Land Types of the maps 2526 Rustenburg,
2528 Pretoria. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 8: 1391.
MAPSTUDIO,
1997/1998.
Street guide:
Pretoria,
CenturionlMidrand.
5th edition.
CapeTown.
RUTHERFORD,
M.C. & WESTFALL, R.H. 1986.
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Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa. 51: 1-
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Rietfonteinview
Environmental
The Braun-Blanquet method of vegetation survey and classification, developed in the
middle of the twentieth century (Whittaker 1978) was used in this study to identify plant
communities, sub-communities and variants.
The method was applied for collecting
data on species composition and environmental characteristics in the analytical phase,
and synthesising the data collected in the second phase by numerical analysis and
tabulation and presenting the results in phytosociological tables.
The sample plots were randomly stratified using 1: 50 000 aerial photography. Due to
the general small size and accessibility of the sites, a visual evaluation of the sites
added to the stratification process. The stratification units were based on homogenous
floristic composition. The sites were therefore chosen to exclude obvious heterogeneity
in the physical environment and floristic composition. This survey technique is strongly
recommended by Werger (1974) and Bredenkamp (1982), due to the fact that it enables
efficient sample in heterogeneous vegetation (Braun - Blanquet 1964). The sample plots
were placed in homogenous vegetation because information of one vegetation entity
only, and not of mixtures, is required (Werger, 1974). Plot sizes of 200 m2 were used in
the grassland and bushveld biome according to Bredenkamp and Theron (1978) who
propose plot sizes which may vary from 200 m2 in woody areas to 16m2 in grassland
vegetation. The vegetation was sampled from December 1998 to April 1999. Releves
were compiled in 132 plots of which 73 were located in woodland areas and 59 in
grassland areas. The areas were further generally undisturbed areas in the urban
environment zoned to be conserved or agricultural areas. The latitude and longitude of
each sample plot were determined using the Global Positioning System.
Total floristic composition was recorded for every sample plot. All species identifiable at
the time of the survey were noted.
The cover abundance was determined according to the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale (Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg 1974), which has 8 classes and
symbols:
+
Present but not abundant and with a small cover value (less than 1% of the
quadrat area)
1
Numerous but covering less than 1% of the quadrat area, or not so abundant and
covering 1-5% of the quadrat area.
2a
Covering between 5 and 12% of the quadrat area independent of
abundance
2b
Covering between 13 and 25% of the quadrat area independent of
abundance
A total percentage cover of the tree, shrub and herbaceous layer was estimated. The
percentage open land was included in this estimation. The coverage of the layers was
based on an aerial cover where the canopies are vertically projected onto the ground
(Werger, 1974). With regard to the vegetation structure, the average height of the tree,
shrub and herbaceous components was estimated and recorded independently.
The slope, aspect and topography were recorded on site. Exotic plants and disturbance
factors were also recorded. The 1: 250000 geological survey maps 2626 West Rand,
2628 East Rand, 2526 Rustenburg and 2528 Pretoria (Department of Mineral and
Energy Affairs 1984) were used as guideline for the identification of geological
formations.
Land types and associated geology and soil information were obtained from Land types
of the Maps 2628 East Rand 2630 Mbabane (Land type Survey Staff, 1987), Land types
of the Maps 2626 Wes-Rand 2726 Kroonstad (Land type Survey Staff, 1985) and Land
types of the Maps 2526 Rustenburg 2528 Pretoria (Land type Survey Staff. 1987).
The soil series and associated clay contents of the A horizon were also obtained from 1:
250000 Land type Survey Staff (1985 &1987a&b).
In order to obtain a first approximation of the plant communities, the computer
programme TURBOVEG (Hennekens 1996a) and the TWINSPAN classification
algorithm (Hill 1979) were used for capture, processing and presentation of
phytosociological data. Further refinement was achieved by using Braun-Blanquet
procedures. The final classification was obtained by using and applying MEGATAB
(Hennekens 1996b), a visual editor for phytosociological tables.
Two distinct major
vegetation types were identified after the first approximation, namely grassland and
woodland communities. These data sets were then separated and classified separately,
using TWINSPAN, and refining these results with Braun-Blanquet procedures (Behr &
Bredenkamp 1988).
Species that were only encountered 7 and less times during the study, or which are not
diagnostic for a specific community or group of communities are excluded from the
phytosociological tables but are listed in appsndices. Names and authors of taxa are in
accordance with Arnold & De Wet (1993).
Plants were identified by using the field guides Palgrave (1983), Van Gogh & Anderson
(1988), Van Wyk & Malan (1988), Fabian (1997), Van Wyk & Van Wyk (1997), Bromilow
(1995) and Van Oudshoorn (1992). Main vegetation types were described according to
Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen (1996a, b & c) and Acocks (1988) and biomes according to
Rutherford & Westfall (1986).
ACOCKS, J.P.H. 1988. Veld types of South Africa, 3rd ed. Memoirs of the Botanical
Survey of South Africa. 57: 1-146.
ARNOLD, T.H. & DE WET, B.C. 1993. Plants of Southern Africa. Names and
distribution. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa 62: 1-825
BEHR, C.M. & BREDENKAMP,
G.J. 1988. A phytosociological
vegetation
National Botanical Garden. South African Journal of
of the Witwatersrand
classification
of the
Botany. 54: 525-533.
BREDENKAMP,
G.J. 1982. 'n Plantekologiese
studie van die Manyeleti wildtuin. D.Sc.-
thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP,
Rebelo, AG.
G.J. & VAN ROOYEN,
(eds). Vegetation
N. 1996a. Mixed bushveld. In: Low, AB.
of South Africa,
Lesotho
and Swaziland.
&
Dept. of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria ..•
BREDENKAMP,
Low, AB.
G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996b. Moist Cool Highveld Grassland. In:
& Rebelo, AG.
(eds). Vegetation
of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland.
Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP,
G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996c. Rocky Highveld Grassland. In: Low,
AB. & Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Dept. of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP,
Suikerbosrand
G.J. & THERON,
G.K.
1978.
A synecological
Nature Reserve. I: The phytosociology
account
of the
of the Witwatersrand geological
system. Bothalia 12: 513-529.
DEPARTMENT
Republics
Kingsdoms
Pretoria.
OF MINERAL AND ENERGY AFFAIRS. 1984. Geological Map of the
of South Afrtica,
Transkei,
of Lesotho and Swaziland.
Bophuthatswana,
(Comp.
Venda and Ciskei and the
D.J.L. Visser). Govemment
Printer,
HENNEKENS,
S.M. 1996a. TURBOVEG:
presentation of phytosociological
Software package for input, processing and
data. University of Lancaster: IBN-DLo.
HENNEKENS, S.M. 1996b. MEGATAB: a visual editor for phytosociological
tables. Ulft:
Giesen.
HILL, M.O. 1979. TWINSPAN - a FORTRAN program for arranging multivariate data in
an ordered two-way table by classification
of the individuals
and attributes.
Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF,1987.
Land Types of the maps 2626 Wes-Rand, 2726
Kroonstad. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 4: 1-342.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF, 1985. Land Types of the maps 2628 East Rand. 2630
Mbabane. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 4: 1-261.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF,1987.
Land Types of the maps 2526 Rustenburg, 2528
Pretoria. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 8: 1-391.
MUELLER-DOMBOIS,
D. & ELLENBERG,
H. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation
Ecology. Wiley, New York.
PALGRAVE,
K.C. 1983.
Trees of Southern
Africa. 2nd Ed. Struik Publishers, Cape
Town.
RUTHERFORD,
M.C. & WESTFALL, R.H. 1986.
The biomes of Southern Africa - an
objective categorization. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa. 51: 1-98.
VAN GOGH, J. & ANDERSON,
J. 1988.
Borne en struike van die Witwatersrand,
Magaliesberg & Pilanesberg. Struik Uitgewers. Kaapstad.
VAN WYK, B & MALAN, S. 1988. Field guide to the Wild flowers of the Witwatersrand
&
Pretoria Region. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.
VAN WYK, B. & VAN WYK, P. 1997.
Field guide to the trees of South Africa. Struik
Publishers, Cape Town.
WERGER, M.J.A. 1974. On concepts and techniques applied in the Zurich-Montpellier
method of vegetation survey. Batha/ia 11: 309-323.
Natural Grassland vegetation and plant
urban areas of Gauteng, South Africa.
species
richness
of open spaces
in
C H Grobler1, G J Bredenkamp* and L R Brown**
a
Present address: Eco Assessments, P
Box 441037 Unden, Johannesburg
Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 RSA
Applied Natural Sciences, Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710 RSA
...
A vegetation
survey of natural grasslands
was undertaken
in the urban areas of
Gauteng, where 7,3 million of the 38,5 million people in SA live. Releves were
compiled in 132 sample plots placed in randomly selected open spaces in the study
area. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet
procedures, indicated
eight grassland communities, represented by 59 releves. A hierarchical classification,
description and ecological interpretation
The identification,
important
classification
for development
of these plant communities
and description
are presented.
of these plant communities
planning and for the continued
conservation
are
of open
spaces in the urban environment.
Key words: Braun Blanquet analysis, classification,
plant communities,
urban open
spaces, TWINSPAN
Gauteng is the smallest of the 9 provinces of South Africa, covering an area of only
16 191km2. Approximately 7,3 million of the 38,5 million people in SA live in Gauteng
(Gauteng 2000). It is therefore understandable
that urbanisation
impacts are the biggest threats to the natural environment
and its associated
that still persist in the
Gauteng urban areas. Kowarik (1990) confirms this by stating that human impact has
been recognised as one of the most important
influences
on the composition
of
vegetation in urban environments. These impacts often include the loss of complete
habitats due to the construction
of residential,
industrial
or other developments.
Natural areas adjacent to urban areas suffer equally of human related activities such
as trampling due to footpaths, exotic plant invasion including escapees from gardens
and also management practices such as mowing natural grasslands and changing
natural veld fire frequency.
In European countries landscape ecological mapping and evaluation has become an
essential part of the planning process (Spellerberg 1992). This assists in restricting
disturbance from areas with vulnerable habitats or species and prevent undue
fragmentation of wildlife habitat (Helliwell 1973). However, until recently, vegetation
surveys in urban areas in South Africa were unknown. After a pioneer survey in the
Durban Municipal Area (Roberts 1993), surveys were undertaken in urban areas of
Potchefstroom (Cilliers & Bredenkamp 1998, 1999a, b, c, 2000, Cilliers et. al. 1998)
and Klerksdorp (Van Wyk, et al. 1997) in the North-West Province and in
Bloemfontein (Dingaan 1999) in the Free St~te.
Limited vegetation studies, mostly unpublished, have been done on small areas in
urban Gauteng (Behr & Bredenkamp 1988, Ellery 1992 & 1994, Bredenkamp 1991,
1992, 1997a & b, Bredenkamp & Brown 1998a & b). Surveys of natural grassland
vegetation in the Gauteng Province, though not included in urban areas include those
of Bredenkamp & Theron (1978 & 1980) and Coetzee et.al. (1993a & b, 1994 &
1995). A comparison of the results of these studies indicates that patches of natural
vegetation do occur in urban Gauteng.
The present study reports on a wider assessment of the vegetation of the urban
areas of Gauteng and also attempts to assess the high species richness in urban
areas within the grassland biome. The purpose of this study was to assess the
variation in vegetation and thereby identify the plant communities of different types of
habitat present in the urban areas of Gauteng. This information should help to
motivate conservation actions, ensuring that nature conservation is incorporated into
land-use planning initiatives within the urban environment.
The study area is located between 27° 40'E to 28°25'E and 25°40'S to 26°20'S
approximately in the centre of the Gauteng province (Figure 1). The area includes
open spaces covered with grassland vegetation within the cities of Pretoria, Midrand,
"
•
Study Area
Sample Plots
\
\.
~~~~
,.,'(.~.V.'~
The study area is located with in the Gauteng Province and 132
sample plots were placed in the various urban open spaces i n
order to describe the vegetation found growing there (Scale
1:670000)
Johannesburg
and also parts of the West Rand. Altitudes
in Gauteng vary from
1081m to 1899 above sea level, with a mean altitude of 1 512m (Gauteng 2000). The
altitude of the study area is however between 1 400 t01 800 m above sea level.
Acocks (1988) described the vegetation of the study area as "False" Grassland of the
Central variation of Bankenveld (Veld Type 61b). Patches of woodland vegetation
are found at sheltered sites on hillslopes and rocky outcrops
in this Veld Type.
Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen (1996c) described this vegetation as the Rocky Highveld
Grassland vegetation type, which covers the largest part of the study area. A small
intrusion of Moist Cool Highveld Grassland
occurs
in the
predominantly
southeastern
comer
(Bredenkamp
of the
study
area.
represents the Grassland Biome (Rutherford
& Van Rooyen 1996b)
The
area,
therefore,
& Westfall 1986). The
open and closed woodland patches in the grassland biome resemble the vegetation
of the Waterberg Moist Mountain Bushveld (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996d) also
described by Acocks (1988) as Sour Bushveld (20). The woodland component of the
area is further represented by the Mixed Bushveld vegetation type (Bredenkamp
Van Rooyen
1996a) representing
the savanna
biome (also described
Bushveld (20) by Acocks in 1988) in the northern Magaliesberg
&
as Sour
region of the study
area.
Currently only 0.29% of Moist Cool Highveld Grassland is conserved and 1.38% of
Rocky Highveld Grassland (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996b & c).
The mean monthly temperature
in the study area for the weather stations listed
below is 16.8°C with a mean maximum of 22.6°C and a mean minimum of 10.8°C.
The mean winter temperature
temperature,
in the study area is 13.8°C and mean summer
25.6°C (Weather Bureau 2000). Mean annual rainfall in Gauteng
is
measured at 670 mm per year (Gauteng, 1997). The geology of the area includes the
rock types dolomite, chert, quartzite, granite, diabase, shale and andesitic lava. The
most important land type classes in this study area are Ab1, Bb1, Bb2, Ba7, Ba9, Ib3,
Ib7, Ib41 and Ib43 with Ib land types often associated with ridge areas and Ab, Ba
and Bb land types with flat undulating landscapes. The main soil forms found in the
study area are Mispah, Southwold,
Trevanian,
Glenrosa,
Williamson,
Trevanian,
Glendale, Msinga, Klipfontein, Sandvlei, Robmore, Glendale and Platt, which have
an A horizon clay content ranging from 10-30% (Land Type Survey Staff 1985
&1987a & b).
The open spaces within the study area were identified. These areas were
subsequently delineated on 1 : 50 000 aerial photographs. These open space areas
were then stratified into relatively homogeneous areas, and sample plots were
randomly allocated to these open spaces within each relatively homogeneous area.
59 of a total of 132 sample plots were located in grassland. Due to the general small
size and accessibility of the sites, a heterqgeneous site with more than one plant
community was further stratified by visual evaluation. The sites were relatively
undisturbed and many could be important to conserve. Some sites are presently
utilized for agricultural purposes. Plot sizes of 200 m2 were used in accordance with
Bredenkamp and Theron (1978). Wetlands and riverine vegetation were excluded for
this study.
Total floristic composition was noted for every sample plot. Additionally, the average
height and percentage cover of the tree, shrub and herbaceous components were
estimated and recorde,d.The percentage cover of bare soil was also estimated and
recorded. The coverage of the tree layer was based on an aerial cover where the
canopies are vertically projected onto the ground (Werger, 1974) The same
technique was used for the shrub and herbaceous component. The dominant tree,
shrub, and herbaceous species were noted and the cover/abundance for each
species was estimated according to the Braun Blanquet cover-abundance scale
(Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg 1974).
Environmental data included slope inclination measured in degrees, topography
including hills, slopes and crests, aspect (north, south, west, east and aspects in
between) and disturbance factors such as exotic vegetation, trampling and erosion.
Information on geology, land type, soil series, and clay contents were obtained from
Land type Survey Staff (1985 &1987).
The computer programme TURBOVEG (Hennekens 1996a) and the TWINSPAN
classification algorithm (Hill 1979) were used for capture, processing and
presentation of phytosociological data. Further refinement was achieved with Braun
Blanquet procedures by using MEGATAB (Hennekens 1996b), a visual editor for
phytosociological tables.
Names and authors of taxa are in accordance with Arnold & De Wet (1993). For the
purposes of this study, Aloe greatheadii var. davyana and Aloe transvaalensis were
clumped as one species and referred to Aloe greatheadii var.davyana.
Species occurring 7 times and less in the sample plots surveyed, are considered as
infrequent in the survey area, and are recorded in Annexure A.
The grasslands of the entire study area are characterized by a mixture of grass
species. General species present in these grasslands are listed under Species
Group N (Table 1). The bunch grasses Themeda triandra, Brachiaria
Diheteropogon
muticus,
amplectens,
Tristachya
Hyparrhenia
Trachypogon
leucothrix,
serrata,
spicatus, Eragrostis racemosa, Elionurus
Eragrostis
chloromelas,
Heteropogon
contorlis,
hirla, Setaria sphacelata and Eragrostis cUNula are often present in a
mixture and one or more of these species may be locally dominant, depending on
local habitat conditions and degree of disturbance.
A great variety of herbaceous forbs or semi-woody dwarf shrubs is often present in
these grasslands. These include the xerophytic sedge Bulbostylis burchellii, the
succulents Cyan otis speciosa and Aloe greatheadii
var. davyana, the geophyte
Ledebouria revoluta, the asteraceous forbs Senecio venosus, Nidorella hotenttotica,
Helichrysum
rugulosum,
Gerbera
viridifolia,
Helichrysum
coriaceum,
Vemonia
oligicephala and the exotic annual weed Tagetes minuta, the encroacher dwarf shrub
Stoebe vulgaris and a variety of other forbs e.g. Wahlenbergia caledonica, Scabiosa
columba ria, Chaetacanthus
costatus, Pentanisia angustifolia, Pearsonia sessilifolia,
Thesium utile and Pollichia campestris.
Scarcer species occurring throughout the
area, are indicated under Species Group N in the Appendix.
Two major plant communities were identified, namely the Loudetia simplex - Melinis
nerviglumis Major Grassland and the Cymbopogon excavatus - Themeda triandra
Major Grassland.
The Loudetia simplex - Melinis nerviglumis Major Grassland is represented by plant
communities that are mainly associated with shallow lithosols on rocky quartzite,
dolomite or chert ridges and hills. This grassland represents typical Rocky Highveld
Grassland (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996c) and in the Acocks (1988)
classification,
typical
Bankenveld
grassland.
Scattered tree or
bush-clump
communities may occur in this grassland.
The plant communities of the Cymbopogoa excavatus - Themeda triandra Major
Grassland are on the contrary, generally associated with lower lying and flatter
undulating plains of the Bb land type where the soils are deeper and often not-rocky.
This vegetation is mainly found on average slopes of 0-5° on Glenrosa, K1ipfontein
and Sandvlei soil series and is mainly found on the plains south of Pretoria. This
grassland represents typical Moist Cool Highveld Grassland (Bredenkamp & Van
Rooyen 1996b) and typical Cymbopogon-Themeda Veld (Acocks 1988). No tree
communities occur in this grassland.
Eight plant communities were identified within the two Major Grassland types (Table
1). The hierarchical classification of these communities is as follows:
1.1
Melinis repens - Diheteropogon amplectens Grassland Community
1.1.1 Pogonarthria squarrosa - Melinis repens Grassland Sub-community
1.1.2 Ochna pulchra - Ancylobotrys capensis Grassland Sub-community
1.2
Andropogon schirensis - Monocymbium ceresiiforme Grassland Community
1.2.1 Aristida transvaalensis - Cymbopogon validus Grassland Sub-community
1.2.2 Andropogon schirensis - Pentanisia angustifolia Grassland Sub-community
2.1
Hermannia depressa - Themeda triandra Grassland Community
2.1.1
Senecio isatideus - Themeda triandra Grassland Sub-community
2.1.2
Hypoxis rigidu/a - Themeda triandra Grassland Sub-community
The Loudetia simplex - Melinis nerviglumis Major Grassland is found on shallow
soils of rocky crests and slopes (average slope of 14°), of higher lying, quartzite,
dolomite or chert ridges and hills, on a variety of aspects. These areas mostly
represent the Ib7a and Ib41 Land Types, where the predominant soil series are
Mispah Ms10. Southwold Cv26, Platt Gs14, Glenrosa Gs15 and Robmore Gs18 and
Trevanian Gs17 with a.clay content of 10-30%. The Ib land type generally indicates a
very high surface rock cover and a lack of soil (Land Type Survey Staff 1985, 1987a
& b).
The vegetation is typically dominated by a mixture of grass species, of which the
bunch grasses Trachypogon spicatus, Diheteropogon amp/edens,
/eucothrix,
Melinis
nervig/umis,
Panicum
nata/ense, Loudetia
Tristachya
simp/ex and
Schizachyrium sanguineum are locally prominent. Dominance varies considerably
from one locality to the next, and one or more of these grass species may attain
dominance in local patches. These patches occur scattered throughout the
distribution range of this major plant community.
This major community is characterized by Species group A (Table 1). The diagnostic
species
are mostly the bunch grasses
Melinis nervig/umis,
Loudetia simp/ex, Ure/ytrum agropyroides
Panicum
and Schizachyrium
nata/ense,
sanguineum.
These
grasses are classified as Increaser 1 species (Trollope et a/. 1990), indicating the
sour and under-utilized
(grazing) nature of this vegetation (Van Oudtshoom
The shrub Lopho/aena coriifolia, the geophytic suffrutescent
1999).
Parinari capensis and
the forbs Tephrosia /ongipes, Commelina africana and Senecio oxyriifolius are also
diagnostic species. This major plant community is exceptionally rich in plant species an average of 43 plant species was recorded per 200 m2.
A
number
of the
species
recorded
monodacty/a
Grassland
Communities
resemblance
to this community
in the
Eragrostis
of Bredenkamp
as well .•as the
racemosa
& Theron
Themeda
-
Digitaria
(1978)
triandra
-
shows
Panicum
nata/ense Sub-community of Deutschlander & Bredenkamp (1999).
The Loudetia
resemblance
simp/ex -
Melinis nervig/umis
Major Grassland
Community
to the Bewsia biflora - Digitaria brazzae Grassland
shows
(Coetzee 1995).
The species composition indicates that this vegetation is typical Bankenveld (Acocks
1988) or Rocky Highveld Grassland (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996c).
The north-facing
grassland vegetation
community
of the Fort Klapperkop
area in
Pretoria (Bredenkamp. 1997b) shows a weak resemblance to plant community 1 and
1.1 below, although the grassland of south-facing slopes (Bredenkamp
not show any resemblance
Bredenkamp
Johannesburg
to the grassland
communities
1997b) does
identified in this study.
& Brown (1998a & b) described vegetation to the west and north of
indicating
resemblance
to this vegetation
unit. A comparison
is
provided below in Table 2 and 3.
1.1 The Melinis repens - Diheteropogon
slightly lower altitudes (1300-1500
affinity to savanna vegetation and
amp/ectens Grassland on hills and slopes
m) to the north of the study area, showing
1.2 The Andropogon schirensis - Monocymbium ceresiiforme Grassland of hills and
ridges of cooler higher altitudes (1500-1800 m) to the south of the study area
showing affinity to Drakensberg Afro-montane vegetation.
This community is located at 1300-1500 m above sea level, on the crests or
moderately steep slopes of rocky ridges, mostly on the warmer aspects, in the
Pretoria area. It was mostly recorded in land type Ib7a and to a lesser extent in land
type Ba7b, indicating shallow soil of the ~spah Ms10, Trevanian Os17, Glendale
Sd21 and Msinga Hu26 soil series, with a relatively low clay content of 12-25%.
This vegetation, although being predominantly grassland on exposed, cooler, higher
lying crests or upper slopes, tends to merge into the woodland/savanna communities
found on the more sheltered, lower lying, warmer valley-slopes, and could be
considered as a transitional type between the grassland and savanna biomes.
The species that dominate this grassland are the bunch grasses Loudetia simp/ex,
Melinis repens, Diheteropogon amp/ectens, Themeda triandra, Trachypogon spicatus
and Tristachya /eucothrix. A great variety of forb species are present, though these
are seldom dominant. Very conspicuous, however, is the fibrous monocotyledonous
shrubby Xerophyta retinervis, which is found scattered throughout the distribution
range of this community. Small, stunted trees and shrubs may also be present. This
community is very rich in species, with an average of 45 species recorded per
200m2.
This grassland community is characterized by Species group B (Table 1). The
species that are diagnostic include the shrubby Xerophyta
Protasparagus
retinervis
and
suaveo/ens, the annual pioneer grass Melinis repens and the forbs,
Rhynchosia
monophylla,
Chaetacanthus
setiger,
Vernonia galpinii and Indigofera
zeyheri and the succulent Ka/anchoe thyrsiflora.
Within the general habitat described for plant communities 1 and 1.1, this subcommunity was found in the northern (warmer) part of the study area, on shallow to
moderately steep, north and west-facing warmer slopes on rocky ridges within land
type Ib7a.
The species that dominate this sub-community are the grasses Schizachyrium
sanguineum,
Diheteropogon
Nidorella
Melinis
repens,
Pogonarthria
squarrosa,
Brachiaria
serrata
and
amplectens. Xerophyta retinervis and the forbs Senecio venosus and
hottentotica
are conspicuously present in most stands of this sub-
community. Very conspicuous are the scattered small, stunted trees Acacia caffra
and Burkea africana ~nd the shrubby Asparagus suaveolens that occur throughout
this grassland sub-community, indicating affinity to the savanna vegetation to the
north.
The average number of species recorded in this plant community per 200 m2 is very
high, namely 51.
This sub-community is characterized by Species group C (Table 1). The species that
are diagnostic are the trees, Acacia caffra, Rhus zeyheri and Burkea africana, the
shrubby Cryptolepis
Sphenostylis
oblongifolia,
angustifolia,
the grass Pogonarthria
Indigofera
villicaulis, Phyllanthus parvulus,
the geophyte Boophane distich a.
hedyantha,
Helichrysum
Vernonia staehelinoides
squarrosa,
the forbs
setosum, Acalypha
and Lantana rugosa, and
Within the general habitat described for plant communities 1 and 1.1, this subcommunity was mainly found in the Sa7b but also in Ib3, Sa9a and Ib7a land types,
on shallow soils on crests or warmer slopes of ridges and hills.
The species that dominate this plant community are the grasses Diheteropogon
amp/ectens, Tristachya /eucothrix, Themeda triandra and Melinis repens.
As in the case of the Pogonarthria
squarrosa - Me/inis repens Grassland Sub-
community, are small scattered trees and shrubs conspicuously present. Contrary to
the previous sub-community, the species are the trees Ochna pu/chra and Mundu/ea
sericea
and the shrub Ancy/obotrys
capensis. Xerophyta
retinervis is also very
conspicuous in this sub-community. The average number of species recorded in this
plant community per 200 m2 is 43.
This sub-community is characterized by species group 0 (Table 1). The species that
are diagnostic are th~ trees Ochna pu/chra and Mundu/ea sericea, the shrubby
Ancy/obotrys capensis, the grass Aristida bipartita, the succulents Euphorbia schinzii,
Anacampseros
subnuda
erecta,
pa/ustris,
Sutera
and Ka/anchoe panicu/ata,
Phymaspermum
and the forbs Commmelina
athanasioides,
C/eome macu/ata
and
Pe/argonium d%miticum.
This community is found on cooler high altitude (1500-1800 m) rocky outcrops on
gradual to steep slopes, mostly on cooler aspects. The presence of Pro tea caffra and
Pro tea roupelliae
indicates an affinity with the Drakensberg Highveld Sourveld
(Sourveld) vegetation (Acocks 1988).
This plant community was predominantly recorded in land types Ib41 or Ib7. These
land types indicate a lack of soil and is characterized by soil series Mispah Ms10,
Platt Gs14, Trevanian Gs17, Glenrosa Gs15 and Robmore Gs18, all of which have a
clay content of 10-20%.
As in the case of the Me/inis
repens-Diheteropogon
amp/ectens
Grassland
Community, this grassland is also dominated by a variety of grass species of which
one or more may attain local dominance. The general grass species that may
dominate locally in patches are Loudetia
nata/ensis,
Schizachyrium
sanguineum,
simp/ex, Melinis nervig/ume,
~ndropogon
schirensis,
Panicum
Monocymbium
ceresiiforme, Alloteropsis semia/ata subsp. eck/oniana, Themeda triandra, Brachiaria
serrata, Diheteropogon amp/ectens and Trachypogon spicatus.
This vegetation is characterized by Species group E (Table 1), with the grasses
Andropogon
eck/oniana,
schirensis,
Monocymbium
Digitaria monodacty/a
ceresiiforme,
Alloteropsis
semia/ata subsp.
and Aristida canescens subsp. cane~cens, and
the forbs Hemizygia pretoriae subsp. pretoriae, Vernonia sutherlandii and Aca/ypha
angustata var. g/abra as the most prominent diagnostic species.
This sub-community is found at high altitudes on very rocky gradual to steep slopes
(e.g. up to 35° on hills in the Bill Steward Nature Reserve) of ridges and hills in the
Johannesburg and Krugersdorp areas. As this vegetation may be present on all
aspects (less so on cooler slopes), the warmer north-facing aspects may have
scattered individuals of shrubs or small trees. This plant community was
predominantly recorded in the land type 1b41,indicating the rocky nature and the lack
of soil.
Within the mixture of prominent grass species in the Andropogon
Monocymbium
Grassland
ceresiiforme
pectinatus, Cymbopogon
Community,
the
validus and Aristida transvaalensis
schirensis
-
grasses Sporobolus
are dominant and also
diagnostic, indicating the very rocky nature of the habitat.
This vegetation is characterized by Species group F (Table 1). The many species
that are restricted to this habitat indicate the uniqueness of this sub-community. In
addition to the diagnostic dominant grass.•species mentioned above, some other
prominent diagnostic species are the succulent Crassula setulosa var. setulosa, the
geophyte Gladiolus pretoriensis, the forbs, Sutera caerulea and Indigofera oxytropis
and the xerophytic ferns Pel/aea calomelanos
and Cheilanthes hirta, the shrubs
Rhus rigida, Englerophytum
Tapiphyllum paNifolium,
magalismontanum,
Vangueria
infausta and Nuxia congesta. All of these species indicate the very rocky habitat of
this sub-community.
The Landolfia
capensis
-
Aristida
transvaalensis
rock sheet community that
Bredenkamp (1991), described from the Rietfontein Nature Reserve compares well
with this community.
The Protea caffra - Loudetia
simplex
- Aristida
transvaalensis
community and
associated subcommunities described by Behr and Bredenkamp (1988) also shows
resemblence to this community. A number of the species recorded in the Canthium
gilfil/anii - Aristida transvaalensis
- Cymbopogon
marginatus savanna communities
identified by Bredenkamp & Theron (1978) further coincides with this community.
This sub-community
is found on gradual to steep slopes of ridges and rocky hills on
southern to western and north-eastern slopes in Johannesburg
and south of Pretoria.
This vegetation is restricted to gradual to steep slopes (37'1
ridges and hills. This plant community was predominantly
on rocky slopes of
recorded in land types Ib41
and Ib7a, indicating the rocky nature and the lack of soil. The typical soil series of
these land types are Mispah Ms10, Platt Gs14, Trevanian Gs17, Glenrosa Gs15 and
Robmore Gs18, all having a clay content of 10-20%.
The species that dominate the plant comm~nity are the grasses Panicum natalensis,
Loudetia simplex, Melinis nerviglume, Schizachyrium sanguineum, Urelytrum
agropyroides, typical of the Loudetia simplex-Melinis nerviglume Major Grassland
Community,
and
Monocymbium
also
Andropogon
cereciiforme
of
schirensis,
the
Alloteropsis
Andropogon
semia/ata
and
schirensis-Monocymbium
cereciiforme Grassland Community,
while the more widely distributed
Brachiaria
serrata,
Themeda
racemosa,
Trachypogon
spicatus,
triandra,
Eragrostis
Diheteropogon amplectens and Tristachya leucothrix are also abundantly present.
This vegetation is characterized
by Species group G (Table 1). The species that are
diagnostic of this plant community are the grass Triraphis andropogonoides and the
forbs
Crassula capitella subsp. nodulosa, Felicia muricata, Indigofera setiflora,
Graderia subintegra, Nolletia rarifolia and Indigofera filipes. None of the diagnostic
species are prominent.
The habitat of this Variant is similar to that of the Andropogon schirensis - Pentanisia
angustifolia Grassland Sub-Community
and is restricted to south-facing slopes in the
(warmer) Pretoria area on southern and north-eastern slopes in the (cooler)
Johannesburg and Krugersdorp areas.
The vegetation of this Variant is very similar to that of the sub-community, though the
prominent presence of Protea caffra and/or Protea roupelliae (species group H,
Table 1) is diagnostic. The occurrence of these two Protea species indicates an
affinity with Drakenberg vegetation, and therefore some affinity to the Afro-montane
phytochorium.
Bredenkamp (1991) identified the Protea caffra - Melinis nerviglume savanna in the
Rietfontein Nature Reserve, which shows some similarity to this sub-community.
Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a &1998b) demonstrated the presence of Protea
dominated plant communities in the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area, and
Behr & Bredenkamp (1988) described Protea caffra dominated plant communities in
the Witwatersrand National Botanic Garden, which show high resemblance to this
plant community. Coetzee et al. (1993) found that in the Gauteng area, Protea caffra
occurs on north facing slopes only at altitudes above 1 450 m where it is cooler,
though at lower latit~des or lower altitudes this species is, however, restricted to the
generally cooler south facing slopes.
The plant communities of the Cymbopogon excavatus - Themeda triandra Major
Grassland are generally associated with relatively lower lying but still high altitude
and flatter undulating plains of the Bb land type and the soils are deeper and, notrocky. This vegetation is mainly found on average slopes of
(}-5°
on Glenrosa,
Klipfontein and Sandvlei soil series and is mainly found in Midrand and in the
southem parts of the study area and to a lesser extent in the northern parts of the
Pretoria area.
This grassland represents typical Moist Cool Highveld Grassland (Bredenkamp &
Van Rooyen 1996b) and typical Cymbopogon-Themeda
Veld (Acocks 1988). No tree
communities occur in this grassland.
The species that dominate locally are the grasses Themeda triandra, E/ionurus
muticus,
Eragrostis
racemosa,
Heteropogon
contortus,
Brachiaria
serrata,
Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis ch/orome/as.
This Major Community is characterized by Species group I (Table 1). The species
that are diagnostic of this plant communit~ are the grass Cymbopogon excavatus
and the forbs Helichrysum nudifolium, Striga e/egans and Crabbea angustifo/ia.
The Cymbopogon excavatus- Themeda triandra Major Grassland Community found
on the Ba land type further shows much resemblance with the He/ichrysum
rugu/osum - Conyza podocepha/a Grassland (Coetzee 1995), also found on the BA
land type especially with the Themeda triandra - Ledebouria
revo/uta grassland
community and its sub-communities. Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a & b) described
vegetation to the west and north of Johannesburg with resemblance to this
vegetation unit. A comparison is provided in Tables 2 and 3.
2.1 The Hermannia depressa - Themeda triandra Grassland is found on less
disturbed sites, indicating vegetation in the climax stage and
2.2 The Eragrostis
gummiflua
-
Hyparrhenia
hirta
Grassland found on more
disturbed sites indicating early disclimax stages of this vegetation.
This community is found on gradual slopes of all aspects, in leached areas, at the
foot of ridges and hills and on high altitude plateaus. This plant community occurred
in a variety of land types but was specifically recorded from deeper clay soils of the
Bb1b Land Type.
The dominants are similar to those of the Cymbopogon
triandra
Major Community, with Themeda
triandra
excavatus
-
Themeda
overwhelmingly prominent,
matching the good condition and climax state of this vegetation.
This community is, however, characterizep by Species group J (Table 1). The
species that are diagnostic are the inconspicuous forbs Hermannia
depressa,
Ipomoea crassipes, Tephrosia capensis var. capensis and Vernonia natalensis.
Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a & b) described vegetation to the west and north of
Johannesburg with some resemblance to this community. A comparison is provided
in Table 2 and 3 below.
This plant community has a limited distribution in the Pretoria and Johannesburg
areas, often on high altitude, on rocky plateaus of rocky outcrops. It is found on flat
terrain or gradual south to west-facing slopes. It was recorded in predominantly the
Ib43a but also in the Ib7a and Ab1b land types. The soil type is mostly Mispah Ms10
with a clay content of 15-25%.
The species that dominate the plant community are the grasses Themeda triandra,
Brachiaria serrata, Hyparrhenia hirla, and Trachypogon spicatus.
This vegetation is characterized by Species group K (Table 1), which includes many
species. The most conspicuous diagnostic species are the forbs Senecio isatideus,
Schistotephium
Acalypha
crataegifolium, Ajuga ophrydis, Senecio inornatus, Crabbea acaulis,
sp., Gnidia capitata and Sida dregei and Solanum panduriforme,
the
succulent Crassula alba and the dwarf shrub Rhus discolor. Many of these species
are typically found at higher altitudes and indicate a Afro-montane affinity.
This plant community was found on lower lying gradual slopes throughout the study
area on a variety of aspects. A low clay content of soil is associated with this plant
community.
This plant community
was recorded
in a variety of land types and
specifically in Bb1 b.
Species that dominate this plant community
are the grasses
Brachiaria
Cymbopogon
serrata,
Eragrostis
chloromelas,
Themeda triandra,
excavatus,
Elionurus
muticus and Eragrostis racemosa as well as the forb Hermannia depressa.
This vegetation
is characterized
by Species group L (Table 1). Diagnostic species
include the forbs Hypoxis rigidula, Ipomoea ommaneyi,
podocepha/a,
Anthericum
Becium
fasciculatum,
obovatum,
Kohoutia
Acalypha
punctata,
amatymbica,
Aster
Dicoma zeyheri, Conyza
Cepha/aria
zeyheriana,
harveyanus,
Ledebouria
marginata, Ledebouria ovatifolia, Eriosema cordatum, G/adiolis sp., Senecio affinis
and Justicia anagalloides,
Verbena bonariensis and Indigofera burkeana. This plant
community was also rarely found in association with the tree Acacia karroo.
The Eragrostis
triandra
-
racemosa - Digitaria
Ledebouria
ovatifolia
tricholaenoides
Grassland and Themeda
Grassland desceibed by Coetzee (1995) show
resemblance to this community. Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a & b) described
vegetation to the west and north of Johannesburg indicating resemblance to this
community. A comparison is provided in Table 2 and 3.
This plant community has a limited distribution throughout the study area and is
restricted to moist drainage lines, bottomland areas or areas marginal to wetlands. It
is further also found on disturbed, overgrazed or previously ploughed areas. It was
recorded in the Bb2c land type, especially in the Centurion, Midrand and Edenvale
areas. A high clay content is characteristic of the soils associated with this plant
community.
The species that dominates this plant community are the grasses Hypharrhenia hirta,
Eragrostis racemosa, Elionurus muticus, Eragrostis choloromelas, the forb Nidorel/a
hottentotica and the shrub Stoebe vulgaris.
This vegetation is characterized by Species group M (Table 1). The diagnostic
species are the grasses Eragrostis
fimbriatus,
angustifolia,
gummiflua,
Cynodon dactylon and Trichoneura
Aristida
grandiglumis,
congesta,
Sporobolus
the forbs Monsonia
Commelina africana, Euphorbia striata, Hermannia lancifolia, the exotic
Richardia brasiliensis, and the shrubby Pollicia campestris.
The Eragrostis curvula - Cynodon dactylon Grassland (Bredenkamp 1992) from the
Lonehill Nature Reserve in Sandton compares well with this community.
Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a & b) described vegetation to the west and north of
Johannesburg indicating resemblance to this community. A comparison is provided
in Table 2 and 3.
Ellery (1992) and (1994) described the vegetation on the Melville Koppies Nature
Reserve and adjoining areas. No clear comparison could be drawn between the
grassland communities identified by Ellery (1992, 1994) on the Melville Koppies
Nature Reserve and the grassland comJTlunities identified in this study. The
woodland communities from this Reserve, however, compare well with the open and
closed woodland communities identified by Grobler, et al. (2001).
Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a) described the vegetation to the west of Johannesburg
and identified 22 communities. Table 2 presents a comparison of some communities
to communities identified in this study. Due to the fact that Bredenkamp & Brown
(1998a & 1998b) did not make use of Braun Blanquet tables, the extent of
comparison provided below, is a subjective comparative evaluation based on species
composition.
Bredenkamp
&
Brown
This study (community)
(1998a)
Extent
(weak/strong)
Grassland
Themeda
triandra
1 and 2
strong
2.1.2
strong
None
-
grassland
Other
of
grassland
communities
type
comparison
Bredenkamp & Brown (1998b) describe the vegetation to the north of Johannesburg
and identify 13 communities. Table 3 presents a comparison of some communities
and communities identified in this study.
Bredenkamp
Extent
Brown This study
&
of
comparison
(weak/strong)
(1998b)
Hyparrhenia
hirta
2.
weak
hirta
2.1.2
strong
grassland
Hyparrhenia
grassland
Trachypogon
spicatus
..
2.1
weak
grassland
Other
grassland
type
None
-
communities
The common species of the Eragrostis racemosa - Digitaria monodactyla Grassland
community of Bredenkamp & Theron (1978) coincides well with the common species
recorded for the grassland species of this study as presented in Table 1 under
Species Group N. Similarly, the Euclea crispa - Rhoicissus
tridentata Savanna
communities and Trachypogon spicatus - Themeda traindra Grassland Communities
of Bredenkamp & Theron (1980) coincide with the species of this study. No clear
comparison could however be drawn between specific communities of Bredenkamp
& Theron (1980) and the communities identified for this study.
The species the
Ruimsig Entomological Reserve as described by Deutschlander & Bredenkamp
(1999) shows resemblance to the common species of this study. The Themeda
triandra - Panicum
natalense
simplex - Melinis nerviglumis
Hyparrhenia
Sub-community has similarities with the Loudetia
Major Grassland Community of this study and the
hirta - grassland has similarities with the Cymbopogon excavatus -
Themeda triandra Major Grassland community of this study.
The list of species that was recorded only 7 times and less in the sample plots,
associated with each vegetation unit, is presented in Annexure A. These-records can
be used as reference to identify species in need of research regarding their
ecological status (endangered, rare etc.). Known scarce species can also be linked
to the vegetation unit in which they were observed. These vegetation types can then
be approached with greater care with regards to urban development and they can
even be conserved in the urban environment.
The classification procedures followed, resulted in clearly defined vegetation units
that can be related to the environmental factors observed. This classification
contributes to the limited knowledge that presently exists for the vegetation of urban
open spaces in Gauteng. The results of this study can be used as a baseline study
and future studies can be measured against it. The species richness determined per
200m2 per vegetation type could also ~
used to determine environmental and
ecological degradation and actions could be taken to manage these changes.
The results of this study could further be used to determine how the size and shape
of surrounding land-uses have influenced and are influencing the vegetation of
urban open spaces. The results of such a study could assist in guiding development
in future open spaces in a constantly expanding urban environment.
The research was funded by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation
Environment and Land Affairs.
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Community
Number
111
1 I
I
1 111
1 I 11 11
358110 130151576666779678144922213179922219135811
112449
580219521644190257945511210118394213245561690187113489827328514012
Loudetia simplex
Melinis nerviglumis
Panicum natalensis
Schizagyrium sanguineum
Urelytrum agroperoides
Parinari capensis
Tephrosia longipes
Commelina africana
Senecio oxyriifolius
Lopholaena coriifolia
Melinis repens
Xerophyta retinervis
Rhynchosia monophylla
Asparagus suaveolens
Chaetacanthus setiger
Vernonia galpinii
Kalanchoe thyrsiflora
Indigofera zeyheri
Pogonarthria
Sphenostylis
squarrosa
angustifolia
+.++1+++.+.+1
••+ab.a+++++11+ba.+++I++.+1+1
1 ..+I+ ..+.++I++++a++++++.
1+ ••+.+++1+++.++1
++ .. I..+ ... +1 .+++++.++.++I++.+b++.1+1++a+I
++1+1 •... +++1++ ..+++1++++1 ..•••• 1+I+a+b+.
· ..• 1+ ... +++1 .+.+++.++ ••+1+++ ••+.+1++++++1
·+++ I+ ..++.11 + ...•• ++ ••• + I••••• a. + I . +. ++.
·+. + I+ .•.. ++ 1+ ..+++ •.+ ••• 1.+ •+++ •• 1••+ •••
· .++ 1 .+ ..+ .. 1++ ••+ •+++ ••+ 1+ •••••• + I••••••
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1+1
+ ..•... +1.+ ..++1.1 .1+++. 1.+.++. 1..• +++11 ...•
+++ 11
I
++
1•.. + .•+. 1.+. ++. 1+. +. +. 1+. + •.++. +a ..
+
I
1
+ ......•• 11 .•• ++++ 1•.++++ 1•+ .•.• 1++ .++++a+
.
++++1
1+ ....•...... 1•...• +.+1++.+ •• 1.+++.+1
++.++ ..+.
· .a+I+
+.1 ..++
+ + ..• +.+. I•••••. 1••++.+I+a ..+ ..+ ..b3
· .+. 1+
a +.+.+ .•+ •....• + .•••• I.+ ..+. ++.+++I.l1.a •.++.b.
· .+. I.+++
a.++++ ... + •... b •••• I•••••...••••
I+ .•+l ..++b.3
+.++1 .. 1++
+.+ ......•• + ••• +++. I••. ++. ++ ••• +1 ... + .•••.. +.
· ... I
+ . ......•.....
++.: +. +. I••+. .. .+ •+++ 1++ .+ 1 ..• b. + .
.... 1
+.+ .... + ......• + ... ++ ..• 1.••• + •.. + ••. 1 ..+.+.+ •.. ++
+ .++ 1
, .+ .+ .+
+ ..• + .•+. I••. + .+ .,. + .. 1•..... ++ .+ .•
+
I
++ .+ ..++
+ . .++ ••... 1. . • • •• .,+ .•. 1.+ .+ ••++ ..•.
·
I
+ . .., +. . .• . . .. .++ .+++. I•+. • •• • •••.. 1++ .... ++++ ..
·
I. . . . . .. .•.. + •.... ++ + ....••. I..+. .. •+ •..• I++++ •.. + ...•
·
I
, ..+ •+
+ .+ ...••• +. I• • • • •• • ••• +. I+++ ..+
+ ..
·
I
,
+. .. • ...•••• 1+. ++. + .,+ .+ . 1++. + .+ .•+ .
·
I. . . . . .. ...+++. . . . .. . ... + .+. 1+ ..+.. . .•••• I+ .•. + ... + .+ .
+++ .
+1+3
... +
.++1
.++.
... +
+ ...
+ •..
+ •..
.. ba
+ ...
Infrequent species occurring
sample plots.
7 times and less in the surveyed
grassland
Hemizygia canescens
Dichapetalum cymosum
Limeum viscosum
Scadoxus puniceus
Aristida diffusa
Pollichia campestris
Brachylaena rotundata
Cornmelina livingstonii
Bidens pilosa
Stylosanthes fruticosa
Cleome monophylla
Leonotis ocYrnifolia
Indigofera melanadenia
Tragopogon dubius
Helichrysum cerastioides
Cornbretum molle
Rhus magalismontana
Digitaria brazzae
Solanum mauritianum
Jarnesbrittenia burke ana
Urochloa mosarnbicensis
Stachys natalensis
Dipcadi ciliare
Crassula swaziensis
Lantana camara
Lotononis longiflora
Helichrysum cerastioides
Cornmelina sp.
Zanthoxylum capense
Ranunculus multifidus
Vernonia poskeana
Cussonia pani~ulata
Vahlia capensis
Sporobolus sp.
Halleria lucida
Ipomoea obscura
Lannea edulis
Portulaca kerrnesina
Huernia hystrix
Lepidium bonariense
Bothriochloa insculpta
Indigastrum costatum
Asparagus sp.
Barleria pretoriensis
Sida cordifolia
Clerodendrum sp.
Tephrosia elongata
Indigofera comosa
Merrernia tridentata
Indigofera comosa
Raphionacrne sp.
Eriosperrnum sp.
Becium angustifolium
Indigofera hedyantha
Panicum maximum
Crassula lanceolata
Eulophia ovalis
Opuntia ficus-indica
Zaluzianskya maritima
Physalis sp.
Vernonia staehelinoides
Ceratotheca triloba
Lantana camara
Eragrostis nindensis
Asclepias stellifera
Anthosperrnum hispidulum
Tapiphyllum parvifolium
Aloe verecunda
Gnidia sericocephala
Clematopsis scabiosifolia
Harpochloa falx
Urginea sp.
Conyza bonariensis
Cyperus rotundus
Enteropogon monostachyus
Psarnrnotrophamyriantha
Thesium sp.
Diheteropogon filifolius
Ceropegia rendallii
Heliophila rigidiuscula
Eragrostis sclerantha
Bonatea speciosa
Raphionacme galpinii
Crotalaria lotoides
Cyphia stenopetala
Zaluzianskya katharinae
Cineraria sp.
Wahlenbergia denticulata
Sisyrnbrium sp.
Vernonia sp.
Geigeria burkei
Plectranthus madagascariensis
Urginea depressa
Indigofera spicata
Berkheya seminivea
Araujia sericifera
Osyris lanceolata
Helichrysum sp.
Raphionacme hirsuta
Myrsine africana
Anthericum sp.
Chloris sp.
Lotononis eriantha
Indigofera zeyheri
Schrnidtia pappophoroides
Brachystelma sp.
Helichrysum melanacme
Thesium utile
Crassula sp.
Acanthospermum australe
Eriosema burkei
Hyparrhenia tarnba
Scilla nervosa
Indigofera melanadenia
Pearsonia aristata
Cymbopogon plurinodis
Indigofera oxytropis
Pearsonia sessilifolia
Euclea crispa
Senecio sp.
Solanum retroflexum
Schizachyrium
jeffreysii
Hypochaeris
radicata
Helichrysum
cephaloideum
Senecio consanguineus
Eragrostis micrantha
Andropogon
appendiculatus
Monsonia sp.
Walafrida tenuifolia
Cynoglossum
sp.
Rhus rimosa
Gnidia microcephala
Polygala hottentotta
Cyperus sp.
Barleria macrostegia
Senecio variabilis
Acalypha glabrata
Cyperus obtusiflorus
Delosperma sp
Ziziphus zeyheriana
Hermannia coccocarpa
Lippia javanica
Ziziphus zeyheriana
Turbina oblongata
Nidorella anomala
Polygala amatYffibica
Pearsonia cajanifolia
Waltheria
indica
Vigna vexillata
Rhus zeyheri
Gladiolus crassifolius
Aerva leucura
Hibiscus trionum
Aster harvey anus
Satyrium sp.
Argyrolobium
species
Berkheya radula
Floscopa glomerata
Cucumis hirsutus
Pearsonia cajanifolia
Sebaea grandis
Barleria sp.
Hypericum lalandii
Hibiscus aethiopicus
Pennisetum sphacelatum
Senecio scitus
Felicia sp.
Verbena brasiliensis
Berkheya insignis
Scilla sp.
Peucedanum magalismontanum
Sida alba
Chaetacanthus
burcheilii
Helichrysum
miconiifolium
Oenothera rosea
Typha capensis
Euphorbia clavarioides
Lotononis foliosa
Aristida adscensionis
Turbina oblongata
Lactuca inermi s
Eucomis autumnalis
Eragrostis biflora
Trichocladus
grandiflorus
Centella asiatica
Senecio inaequidens
Pachycarpus
schinzianus
Cynoglossum
hispidum
Salvia runcinata
Andropogon
schirensis
Hypoxis acuminata
pygmaeothamnus
zeyheri
Paspalum dilatatum
Sonchus sp.
Polygala sp.
Bothriochloa
bladhii
Setaria sp.
Chascanum hederaceum
Lipocarpha
rehmannii
Hibiscus aethiopicus
Hypoxis sp.
Hibiscus microcarpus
Chironia purpurascens
Tolpis capensis
Evolvulus alsinoides
Indigofera hedyantha
Senecio coronatus
Chenopodium
album
Cynanchum africanum
Rhynchosia vendae
Cyperus obtusiflorus
Chortolirion
angolense
Crepis hypochoeridea
Rhynchosia adenodes
Eragrostis superba
Solanum elaeagnifolium
Clerodendrum
triphyllum
Indigofera sp
Celtis africana
Cycnium tubulosum
Cynoglossum
sp.
Oxalis sp.
Indigofera comosa
Pennisetum clandestinum
Eriosema salignum
Neorautanenia
ficifolius
Lotononis laxa
Barleria sp.
Mariscus congestus
Solanum rigescens
Kohautia virgata
Acalypha angustata
Litogyne gariepina
Haplocarpha
scaposa
Tephrosia acaciifolia
Tephrosia capensis
Oxalis corniculata
Gomphrena celosioides
Lepidium sp
Dicoma macrocephala
Crabbea ovalifolia
Perotis patens
Ledebouria revoluta
Coleochloa setifera
Microchloa caffra
Tritonia nelsonii
Bewsia biflora
Digitaria diagonalis
Diospyros lycioides
Dicoma anomala
Sonchus dregeanus
Eragrostis capensis
Dianthus mooiensis
Gerbera piloselloides
Pentarrhinum insipidum
Lotononis sp.
Rhynchosia totta
Gazania krebsiana
Canthium gilfillanii
Sphenostylis angustifolia Helichrysum setosum
Helichrysum kraussii
Indigofera hilaris
Conyza albida
Ipomoea bathycolpos
Digitaria eriantha
Teucrium trifidum
Nemesia fruticans
Oldenlandiaherbacea
Kohautia sp.
Brachiaria nigropedata
Striga asiatica
Helichrysum dasymallum
Sonchus wilmsii
Lotononis calycina
Cucumis zeyheri
Rhynchosia nitens
Oxalis obliquifolia
Rhus pyroides
Indigofera sp.
Delosperma herbeum
Lotononis foliosa
May tenus heterophylla
Clematis brachiata
Chascanum hederaceum
Walafrida densiflora
Physalis viscosa
Eragrostis plana
Senecio erubescens
Cyperus esculentus
Zinnia peruviana
Chlorophytum cooperi
Melia azedarach
Kalanchoe sp.
Hypericum aethiopicum
Digitaria tricholaenoides Geigeria burkei
Tephrosia rhodesica
Asclepias adscendens
Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri
Felicia muricata
Tephrosia capensis
Rhus lancea
Bothriochloa radicans
Euryops laxus~
Osteospermum muricatum
Striga bilabiata
Aristida meridionalis
Setaria lindenbergiana
Elephantorrhiza burkei
Schkuhria pinnata
Sida rhombifolia
Solanum elaeagnifolium
Kohautia caespitosa
Gnidia sp.
Dombeya rotundifolia
Elephantorrhiza elephantina Gazania krebsiana
Pseudognaphalium luteo-album
Infrequent species occurring more than 7 times in the grassland sample
plots.
Oxalis depressa
Senecio lydenburgensis
Tephrosia elongata
Conyza sp.
Natural woodland vegetation and plant species richness of open spaces in the
urban areas Gauteng, South Africa
Present address: Eco Assessments, POBox 441037 Unden, Johannesburg
Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002,South Africa
Applied Natural Sciences, Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710,
South Africa
..
A vegetation survey of the natural woodlands was undertaken in the urban areas of
Gauteng. Releves were compiled in 132 stratified random sample plots in selected
open spaces within the study area. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by BraunBlanquet procedures, indicated six woodland communities, represented by 72
releves. The identification, classification and description of these plant communities
are important for the continued conservation of open spaces in the urban
environment.
Key words: Braun Blanquet analysis, classification, plant communities, urban open
space, TWINSPAN.
Although the smallest of the 9 provinces of South Africa, covering an area of only 16
191km2, Gauteng has a population of approximately 7,3 million people making it the
most densely populated province in South Africa (Gauteng 2000a). It is therefore
understandable that urbanisation and its associated impacts are the biggest threats
to the natural areas that still persist in the Gauteng urban areas. Kowarik (1990)
confirms this by stating that human impact has been recognised as one of the most
important influences on the composition of vegetation in urban environments. These
impacts often include the loss of complete habitats due to the construction of
residential, industrial or other developments. Natural areas adjacent to urban areas
are equally stressed due to human related activities such as trampling due to
footpaths and exotic plant invasions including escapees from gardens. Management
"
•
Study Area
Sample Plots
,
,
f
i
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, l
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I~
The study area is located with in the Gauteng Province and 132
sample plots were placed in the various urban open spaces i n
order to describe the vegetation found growing there (Scale
1:670 000).
practices such as mowing natural grasslands and changing natural veld fire
frequency also has a big influence on these natural ecosystems.
In the past, little attention has been paid to the natural environment when making
decision on the planning and management thereof. This lack of inclusion of the
natural environment in urban development planning has led to the wasteful
exploitation of our natural resources (Bredenkamp & Brown, 1998a &b). In European
countries landscape ecological mapping and evaluation has however become an
essential part of the planning process (Spellerberg, 1992). Such planning assists in
restricting disturbance from areas with vulnerable habitats or species and prevent
undue fragmentation of wildlife habitat (Helliwell, 1973). However, until recently,
vegetation surveys in urban areas in South Africa were unknown. After a pioneer
survey in the Durban Municipal Area (Rob.~rts 1993), surveys were undertaken in
urban areas of Potchefstroom (Cilliers & Bredenkamp 1998, 1999a, b, c, 2000,
Cilliers et. a/. 1998) and Klerksdorp (Van Wyk, Cilliers & Bredenkamp, 1997) in the
North-West Province and in Bloemfontein (Dingaan, 1999) in the Free State.
The natural areas of the Gauteng Province, is continually under threat of
development and presently support a high number of different species. Limited
vegetation studies, mostly unpublished, have been done on small areas in the urban
Gauteng (Behr & Bredenkamp 1988, Ellery 1992 & 1994, Bredenkamp 1991, 1992,
1997a & b,
Bredenkamp & Brown 1998a & b).
Surveys of natural woodland
vegetation in the Gauteng Province though not including urban areas include those of
Bredenkamp & Theron (1978 & 1980) and Coetzee et.a/. (1993a & b, 1994 & 1995).
A comparison of the results of these studies indicate that patches of natural
vegetation do occur in urban Gauteng.
The present study reports on a wider assessment of the vegetation of the urban
areas of Gauteng attempting to assess the high species richness in urban areas and
to consolidate the studies preViously done in the study area. The purpose of this
study was therefore to assess the variation in vegetation and thereby identify the
plant communities of different types of habitat present in the urban areas of Gauteng.
This information will help to motivate conservation actions, ensuring that nature
conservation strategies is incorporated into land-use planning initiatives within the
urban environment.
The study area is located between 27° 40'E to 28°25'E and 25°40'S to 26°20'S
approximately in the center of the Gauteng province (Figure 1) and includes Pretoria,
Midrand, Johannesburg and parts of the West Rand. Altitudes in Gauteng vary from
1081m to 1899 above sea level, with a mean altitude of 1512m (Gauteng 2000). The
altitude of the study area is however between 1 400 t01 800 m above sea level.
Acocks (1988) described the vegetation of the study area as "False" Grassland of the
Central variation of Bankenveld (Veld Type 61b). Patches of woodland vegetation
are found at sheltered sites on hillslopes Wld rocky outcrops within this Veld Type.
Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen (1996a) described this vegetation as the Rocky Highveld
Grassland vegetation type, which covers the largest part of the study area. A small
intrusion of Moist Cool Highveld Grassland (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996b)
occurs in the southeastern corner of the study area. The area, therefore,
predominantly represents the Grassland Biome (Rutherford & Westfall 1986). The
open and closed woodland patches in the grassland biome resemble the vegetation
of the Waterberg Moist Mountain Bushveld (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996b) also
described by Acocks (1988) as Sour Bushveld (20). The woodland component of the
area is further represented by the Mixed Bushveld vegetation type (Bredenkarnp &
Van Rooyen 1996a) representing the savanna biome (also described as Sour
Bushveld (20) by Acocks (1988) in the northern part of the study area.
Currently, only 3.05 % of Mixed Bushveld and 8.55% of the Waterberg Moist
Mountain Bushveld is conserved (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996a & d).
The mean monthly temperature in the study area for the weather stations listed
below is 16.8°C with a mean maximum of 22.6°C and a mean minimum of 10.8oC.
The mean winter temperature in the study area is 13.8°C and mean summer
temperature, 25.6°C (Weather Bureau 2000). Mean annual rainfall in Gauteng is
measured at 670mm per year (Gauteng 1997). The geology of the area includes the
rock types dolomite, chert, quartzite, granite, diabase, shale and andesitic lava. The
most important Land Type classes in this study area are Ab1, Bb1, Bb2, Ba7, Ba9,
Ib3, Ib7, Ib41 and Ib43 with Ib Land Types often associated with ridge areas and Ab,
Ba and Bb Land Types with flat undulating landscapes. The main soil forms found in
the study area are Mispah, Southwold, Trevanian, Glenrosa, Williamson, Trevanian,
Glendale, Msinga, Klipfontein, Sandvlei, Robmore, Glendale and Platt, which have
an A horizon clay content ranging from 10-30% (Land Type Survey Staff 1985
&1987a & b).
The open spaces within the study area were identified and delineated using 1:50 000
aerial photographs. These areas were then stratified into relatively homogeneous
areas, and sample plots were randomly allocated within each homogeneous area. A
total of 73 of the 132 sample plots were loqtted within woodland vegetation. Due to
the small size and accessibility of some of the sites, these sites with more than one
plant community were further stratified by visual evaluation. Plot sizes of 200 m2
were used in accordance with Bredenkamp and Theron (1978). Wetlands and
riverine vegetation were excluded for this study.
Total floristic composition was noted for every sample plot. Additionally, the average
height and percentage cover of the tree, shrub and herbaceous components were
estimated and recorded. The percentage cover of bare soil was also estimated and
recorded. The coverage of the tree layer was based on an crown cover where the
canopies are vertically projected onto the ground (Werger, 1974) The same
technique was used for the shrub and herbaceous component. The dominant tree,
shrub, and herbaceous species were noted and the cover/abundance for each
species was estimated according to the Braun Blanquet cover-abundance scale
(Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg 1974).
Environmental data included slope inclination measured in degrees, topography
including hills, slopes and crests, aspect (north, south, west, east and aspects in
between) and disturbance factors such as exotic vegetation, trampling and erosion.
Information on geology, Land Type, soil series, and clay contents were obtained from
Land Type Survey Staff (1985 &1987).
The computer
classification
presentation
programme
algorithm
(Hill
1979)
of phytosociological
Blanquet procedures
phytosociological
Infrequent
TURBOVEG
(Hennekens
were
used
1996a) aild the TWINSPAN
for
capture,
processing
and
data. Further refinement was achieved with Braun
by using MEGATAB
(Hennekens
1996b), a visual editor for
tables. These results are captured in Table 1.
species occurring
7 times and less in the sample plots surveyed, are
recorded in Annexure A.
Names and authors of taxa are in accordance with Arnold & De Wet (1993). For the
purposes of this study, Aloe greatheadii var. davyana and Aloe transvaalensis were
clumped as one species and referred to as Aloe greatheadii var.davyana due to
similar distribution
pattern and appearan~
of these species making differentiation
difficult.
A mixture of tree, shrub and herbaceous species characterize the woodland areas of
the entire study area. General species present in the woodland components
are
listed under Species Group K (Table 1).
The vegetation of the woodland communities
is characterized by the presence of the
small trees Diospyros Iycioides, Canthium gilfillanii, Zanthoxylum capensis,
leptodictya,
Maytenus
heterophylla
and Rothmannia
capensis,
Rhus
together with the
exotics Lantana camara and Solanum mauritianum .
The
small
Helichrysum
shrub
Protasparagus
rugulosum
suaveolens,
the
the succulent Aloe greatheadii
twining herb Pentarrhinum
forbs
Commelina
africana,
var. davyana, the slender
insipidum, the exotics Tagetes minuta, Bidens pilosa, the
noxious weed Cuscuta campestris and the fern Pellaea ca/omelanos are also often
encountered,
while common grasses
Themeda triandra,
Setaria sphacelata,
include Melinis repens, Melinis nerviglumis,
Cymbopogon
validus, Panicum maximum,
Hyparrhenia hirta, Eragrostis curvula, Brachiaria serrata, Heteropogon contortis, and
Digitaria eriantha. These species are listed in Species Group K (Table 1) and will
therefore not necessarily be repeated in the description of the various plant
communities.
The hills and ridges in the study area are often covered by a mosaic of open
woodland on the warmer and drier north-facing slopes, closed woodland in more
sheltered sites below rocky cliffs and grassland patches on more exposed areas.
Closed woodland communities are also found along rivers and streams. Cooler
south-facing slopes may have Protea caffra woodland communities, of Afromontane
Drakensberg affinity.
Two major plant communities were identified namely the Acacia caffra-Rhus pyroides
open to closed Major Woodland community and the Combretum molle-Setaria
Open to Closed Major Wood.land community.
lindenbergiana
The classification obtained from the lWlNSPAN
resulted in the following six plant
communities that can be grouped into two major communities being identified in the
woodland areas surveyed.
1.1 Hypoestes forskaolii - Acacia caffra Closed Woodland Community
1.2 Acacia caffra - Setaria Iindenbergiana
Closed Woodland Community
1.3 Acacia caffra - Themeda triandra Open to Closed Woodland Community
1.3.1
Acacia
caffra -
Themeda
triandra - Asparagus
laricinus Open to
Closed Woodland Sub-community
1.3.2
Acacia caffra - Themeda triandra - Hyparrhenia hirta Open to Closed
Woodland Sub-community
2.
Combretum
Community
molle - Setaria lindenbergiana
Open to Closed Major Woodland
2.2 Combretum
molle -
Englerophytum
magalismontanum
Open Woodland
Community
The
Acacia
caffra-Rhus
pyroides
Open
to
Closed
relationships with the Sub-humid Cool Temperate
al. (1995), and also exhibits
Drakensberg.
Woodland,
The
an affinity
Combretum
however,
relates
Iindenbergiana
Sub-humid
shows
strong
Mountain Bushveld of Coetzee
to the Afro-montane
molle-Setaria
to the
Woodland
Warm
et
vegetation
of the
Open
Closed
Temperate
to
Bushveld
as
described by Coetzee et al. (1993), and shows an affinity to the Bushveld vegetation
of the Savanna Biome (Rutherford & Westfall 1986). (Discuss) Bredenkamp & Brown
(1998a & b) described vegetation to the west and north of Johannesburg
resemblance to this vegetation unit. A comparison
indicating
is provided below in Table 3 and
4.
The common
species
gilfillanii-Aristida
associated
with the Rhus pyroides
transvaalensis-Cymbopogon
marginatus
Forest and Canthium
Savanna
communities
identified by Bredenkamp & Theron (1978), compares well with the common species
of the woodland
species identified for this study. Equally, the common species of
Bredenkamp
and Theron's Euclea crispa-Rhoicissus
communities
as well as the Trachypogon
communities
(1980) compares
tridentata Bush and Savanna
spicatus- Themeda
well with the common
triandra Grassland
species
identified
in the
woodland communities for this study. No clear comparison could however be drawn
between the vegetation communities identified.
This plant community
is scattered
throughout
the study
area, among
granite
boulders, rocky outcrops and hills. The slopes varied from gradual to very steep.
Although 54% of the sample plots were distributed in the Bb1b, Ib7a and Ib43a Land
Types. This plant community occurs in a variety of Land Types (13 in total). All these
Land Types indicate a lack of soil. The soil series associated with the Land Type Bb1
are Glenrosa Gs15, Klipfontein Ms11 and Sandvlei Wa31 with a clay content of 1015%. Land Type Ib7a is characterized by the soil series Mispah Ms10, Southwold
Cv26 and Trevanian Gs17 with a clay content of 12-30%. Mispah Ms10 and
Williamson Gs16 are the soil series associated with Land Type 1b43aand has a clay
content of 25-30% (Land Type Survey Staff 1985, 1987a & b).
Species group A (Table 1) characterizes this community.
The diagnostic species
are trees such as Acacia caffra, Celtis africana, Rhus pyroides, Ehretia rigida,
Dombeya rotundifolia, Zizphus mucronata, Cussonia paniculata, Heteromorpha
trifoliata and Euclea crispa, forbs such as the bulbous herb Ledebouria revoluta, the
exotic climbing perennial herb Achyranthes .•aspera, the bulbous Scadoxus puniceus
and the weed Conyza sp.
The species that dominate this plant community are the trees Rhus leptodictya, Celtis
africana, Acacia caffra, Cathium gilfillanii and Zanthoxylum capense, the shrub
Diospyros Iycioides and small shrub Protasparagus suaveolens, the succulent Aloe
greatheadii var. davyana, the common weed Tagetes minuta, the asteraceous form
Helichrysum rugulosum, and the grasses Themeda triandra, Hyparrhenia hirta and
Setaria sphacelata.
The high occurrence of the noxious weed Tagetes minuta as well as other exotic
weedy species Verbena bonariensis, Opuntia ficus-indica, Conyza albida, Lantana
camara, Zinnia peruviana and Melia azedarach in the shrub and tree layer indicates
that this plant community is susceptible to disturbance and generally not in a good
condition in the study area.
In general, the species composition of this community compares well with that of the
Acacia caffra - Euclea crispa woodland within the Sub-humid Cool Temperate
Mountain Bushveld described by Coetzee et al. (1994, 1995), found on north facing
slopes, crests and upper south facing steep slopes of the rocky outcrops mainly
within the Ib Land Type in the Pretoria area.
This community also shows resemblance with the Acacia caffra - Setaria spacelata
Closed woodland described by Coetzee et al (1995), the Acacia caffra - Setaria
sphacelata Closed woodland in the Roodeplaatdam Nature Reserve (Van Rooyen
1984), the vegetation on the Bronberg in Pretoria (Bredenkamp 1997), the Olea
europaea - Cymbopogon excavatus savanna and Olea europeae - Schistotephium
heptalobium bush clumps vegetation of the Rietfontein Nature Reserve (Bredenkamp
1991), the Acacia robusta woodland (Ellery 1994) and the Acacia caffra vegetation
of the Fort Klapperkop Area in Pretoria (Bredenkamp
communities: Rhus pyroides
Forests, Rhus
africana Forest and Dombeya rotundifolia-Ziziphus
1997b). The Kloof
pyroides-Buddleja
salviifolia-Celtis
mucronata savanna identified by
Bredenkamp & Theron (1978) shows resemblance to this community. Bredenkamp &
Brown (1998a & b) described vegetation .to the west and north of Johannesburg
indicating resemblance to this vegetation unit. A comparison is provided below in
Table 3 and 4.
This woodland community is found on gradual to moderately steep slopes and a
variety of aspects of hills, ridges and between granite boulders as well as along
rivers in lower lying areas in the Pretoria, Midrand, Sandton and Randburg areas. A
low clay content was observed in the soils associated with this plant community with
special reference to the ridge and hill areas. This plant community was
predominantly found in Land Type Bb1b.
This community is characterized by the presence of the trees Combretum
erythrophyllum
and Rhamnus prinoides (along rivers), Acalypha glabrata, Pavetta
gardeniifolia var. gardeniifolia and Buddleja saligna, the shrub Asparagus sp. and the
shrublet Aerva leucura, the herb Hypoestes forskaolii, the erect Cyperus esculentus
the shrubby perennial herb Hibiscus calyphyllus, the exotic climber Araujia sericifera
and the grass Setaria megaphylla (Species group B Table 1)
Prominent
species in this plant community
africana,
Acacia
Zanthoxylum
caffra,
capense,
Protasparagus
Euclea
crispa,
are the trees Rhus pyroides,
Canthium
the shrub Diospyros
suaveolens,
gilfillanii,
Iycioides
and the exotic climbing
Rhus
leptodictya,
and erect woody
perennial
Celtis
shrublet
herb Achyranthes
aspera and noxious weed Tagetes minuta.
The average number of species recorded in this plant community per 200m2 were 32.
Showing resemblance to this community is the Combretum erythrophyllum
africana
Major Community
Witwatersrand
mucronata
described
by .• Behr & Bredenkamp
Botanic Garden in Roodepoort
community
(Bredenkamp
- Celtis
(1988) from the
and the Celtis africana - Ziziphus
1997b) from the Fort Klapperkop
area
in
Pretoria. This vegetation community as well as community 1.2 below, was observed
on the Lonehill Nature Reserve and does not show a strong reseblance to the four
woodland communities described by Bredenkamp
(1992) for this Reserve. This may
be due to the fact that Bredenkamp (1992) conducted a more detailed assessment
on this small nature reserve. Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a & b) described vegetation
to the west and north of Johannesburg indicating resemblance to this vegetation unit.
A comparison is provided below in Table 3 and 4.
This closed woodland community has a limited distribution in the study area. It was
observed on steep to very steep north and south-facing
throughout
slopes of hills and ridges
the study area except in the Midrand - Fourways area. It is generally
associated with the Land Type Ib43a.
The species group C (Table 1) is diagnostic for this plant community. The diagnostic
species are the grass Setaria Iindenbergiana
and the climber shrub Rhoicissus
tridentata.
The most prominent species in this plant community include the trees Acacia caffra,
Celtis africana and Euclea crispa, the shrub Diospyros Iycioides and the bulbous
herb Ledebouria revoluta, the noxious weed Tagetes minuta and the succulent Aloe
greatheadii var. davyana. Disturbance to this plant community was recorded at most
of the sites, with specific reference to the low herbaceous cover under the trees.
This community is related to the Setaria Iindenbergiana - Ehretia rigid a Bush clumps
(Coetzee 1995), the Setaria Iindenbergiana - Acacia caffra Woodland described by
Coetzee (1975) from the Rustenburg
Nature Reserve and the Olea europaea
Cymbopogon excavatus savanna and Olea europaea - Schistotephium
-
heptalobium
bush clumps vegetation of the Rietfontein Nature Reserve (Bredenkamp 1991).
This open to closed woodland sub-community
was found distributed throughout the
study area on a variety of aspects, on gradual to moderately steep slopes of hills and
ridges. It was recorded predominantly on Land Types Ib7a, Ib43 and 1b41. These
Land Types indicate a lack of soil and is characterized
by soil series Mispah Ms10,
Platt Os14, Trevanian Os17, Glenrosa Qs15 and Robmore Qs18 with a clay content
of 10-20%.
The diagnostic species for the community are the tree Rhus zeyheri, the grasses
Eragrostis
chloromelas,
Aristida
congesta
subsp.
barbicol/is,
the perennial
herb
Hypoxis rigidula, the sparsely branched Nidorella hotteritotica,
the forbs Graderia
subintegra, Pearsonia sessilifolia subsp. sessilifolia, Justicia anagalloides,
angustifolia
Crabbea
and Scabiosa columba ria, the small shrub Lantana rugosa and exotic
shrub Solanum elaeagnifolium (Species group b - Table 1).
The woody layer is dominated by trees Rhus pyroides, Canthium gilfillanii,
Rhus
leptodictya, and the shrub Diospyros Iycioides, together with the shrublet Asparagus
The succulent Aloe greatheadii
suaveolens.
Helichrysum
rugulosum,
var. davyana,
the noxious weed Tagetes minuta
the asteraceous
and the grasses
Themeda triandra, Hyparrhenia hirta, Brachiaria serrata and Setaria sphacelata are
also dominant.
In certain parts of the plant community stands of Protea caffra (Species Group F) and
the scarcer Protea roupelliae (Species Group F) are prominent, indicating an affinity
with the Drakensberg Highveld Sourveld (Sourveld) vegetation as described by
Acocks (1988).
The Olea europaea
Schistotephium
-
Cymbopogon
hepta/obium
excavatus
savanna and Olea europeae
-
bush clumps vegetation of the Rietfontein Nature
Reserve (Bredenkamp,1991) also show resemblance to this community.
1.3.1
Acacia caffra - Themeda triandra - Asparagus laricinus Closed Woodland
SUb-community
This sub-community is found on gradual north and south-facing slopes predominantly
in the Pretoria area, but also in Clayville, Fourways and Alberton. This plant
community is associated with closed woodland in association with rocky outcrops.
This plant community was recorded in a variety of Land Types but more so in Ib7a
and Ib43a.
Species that dominate the plant community are the trees Acaf=ia caffra, Celtis
africana and Ehretia rigida, the shrublet Asparagus suaveolens, the grasses
Themeda triandra, Setaria sphacelata, the succulent Aloe greatheadii var. davyana
and the asteraceous Helichrysum rugulosum. Rhus pyroides is locally dominant and
Panicum maximum is sometimes prominent.
Species group E (Table 1) is diagnostic for this community. The diagnostic tree
species are Acacia karroo, the shrub Asparagus laricinus that forms impenetrable
thickets, the slender shrub Sida dregei, the erect shrublets Hibiscus lunarifolius and
Teucrium trifidum, the herbaceous shrublet Pavonia burchellii, the twining forb
Clematis brachiata, the forb Conyza podocepha/a and the exotic weeds Oxalis
comiculata and Conyza albida.
The Acacia karroo - Uppia javanica closed woodland (Coetzee 1995) shows
resemblance to this community.
1.3.2
Acacia caffra -
Themeda triandra - Hyparrhenia hirta Open to closed
woodland Sub-community
This sub-community is found throughout the study area on a variety of aspects and
on gradual to steep slopes of ridges and hills and rocky outcrops. This plant
community was recorded on a variety of Land Types and specifically in Ib7a and
Ib41.
Species group F (Table 1) is diagnostic for this vegetation. The diagnostic species
are the trees Kigge/aria africana, Protea caffra, Protea roupelliae and Rhus pyroides
the shrublets Athrixia elata, Pentanisia
angustifolia,
Rhus
discolor,
and Uppia
javanica shrub, the forbs Chaetacanthus costatus, Vemonia galpinii and Rhynchosia
totta, and the grasses Tristachya leucothrix, Eragrostis racemosa, Cynodon dactylon,
Elionurus muticus and Alloteropsis semia/ata subsp. eckloniana.
The plant community is dominated by the tree species Rhus leptodictya
and
Canthium gilfillanii the shrub Diospyros Iycioides, the succulent Aloe greatheadii var.
davyana,
the asteraceous Helichrysum
rugulosum
sphacelata, Melinis repens, Melinis nerviglumis,
and the grasses Setaria
Themeda triandra, Hyparrhenia hirta
and Brachiaria serrata.
This community shows resemblance with the Protea caffra - Athrixia elata open
woodland (Coetzee 1995) from the Pretoria area. The common species of the
Tracypogon spicatus- Themeda triandra Grassland of Bredenkamp & Thereon (1980)
compares well with this community. Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a & b) described
vegetation to the west and north of Johannesburg indicating resemblance to this
vegetation unit. A comparison is provided below in Table 3 and 4.
2.
Combretum
molle - Setaria lindenbergiana
Open to Closed Major Woodland
Community
This plant community is found on a mostly north facing aspect on gradual to very
steep slopes in kloofs, between granite boulders and on rocky outcrops, drainage
lines, at the foot of quartzite ridges and hills and on rocky outcrops in the Pretoria
and Johannesburg area. This plant community is distributed through nine different
Land Types but mainly in Ib7a and Ba7b. Land Type Ib7a is described in detail in
community 1. The Land Type Ba7b indicate a lack of soil with associated soil series
including Mispah Ms10, Trevanian Os17, Glendale Sd21 and Msinga Hu26 with a
clay content of 12-25%.
The diagnostic
species of this plant community
are the trees Combretum molle,
Vangueria infausta, Ochna pu/chra, Combretum zeyheri, Nuxia congesta, Lannea
disc%r
and Eng/erophytum magalismontanum. Other species include the shrub
Ochna pretoriensis, the upright shrublet /ndigofera me/anadenia, and the succulents
Ka/anchoe panicu/ata, Crassu/a swaziensis and Euphorbia schinzii, forbs such as the
tufted Co/eoch/oa setifera, Commelina erecta, O/den/andia herbacea var. herbacea
and grasses such as Setaria Iindenbergiana and Loudetia simp/ex (Species group G
- Table 1).
The species that dominate this plant community are the succulent A/oe greatheadii
var. davyana, the noxious weed Tagetes minuta, the herb Commelina africana and
the scrubby Xerophyta retinervis, the fem Pellaea ca/ome/anos, and the grasses
Cymbopogon va/idus,
Melinis repens, Melinis nervig/umis and Diheteropogon
amp/ectens.
Invasion of exotic vegetation was often recorded for this plant community. Invasive
exotic
species
include
Lantana camara,
Cereus peruviana and
Jacaranda
mimosifolia.
In general, this community
Mountain
compares well with the Sub-humid Warm Temperate
Bushveld found on. north facing· slopes, crests and upper south facing
steep slopes of the rocky outcrops mainly within the Ib Land Type (Coetzee et al.
1995).
Resembling
this
community
magalismontanum open woodland
Chaetacanthus
setiger community
is the
(Coetzee
(Coetzee
Comberlum molle savanna community
Garden
(Behr & Bredenkamp
Burkea africana-Bequarliodendron
1994), the Sporobo/us pectinatus1993)
the
Canthium gilfillanii-
from the Witwatersrand
1988) the vegetation
National Botanic
on the Bronberg in Pretoria
(Bredenkamp
1997a)
africana-Combretum
communities
molle
Crypto/epis
and
oblongifolia-Englerophytum,
Brachylaena
tJUrkea'
rotundata-Burkea
africana
(Bredenkamp 1997b) from the Fort Klapperkop Area.
This sub-community
north-eastern
and the
is predominantly found on shallow to moderate steep northern to
slopes of ridges and hills in the Pretoria area.
It was mainly recorded
in Land Type Ib7a as described in community 1.
Species group H (Table 1) is diagnostic for this sub-community.
include the trees Burkea africana and Strychnos pungens
Rhynchosia
nitens
and
Helichrysum
kraussii
and
Diagnostic species
and the dwarf shrubs
geoxylic
suffrutescent
and
poisonous Dichapetalum cymosum.
The most prominent species in this plant community are the trees Combretum molle
and
Vangueria
greatheadii
infuasta,
the shrubs
Xerophyta
var. davyana, the fern Pellaea
retinervis,
calomelanos
the succulent
and the grass
Aloe
Melinis
nerviglumis.
2.2 Combretum
molle
-
Englerophytum
magalismontanum
Open
Woodland
Community
This sub-community
0
was found on northern gradual to very steep (550 and 50 at
Bush Hill hill in Randburg and on Northcliff hill in Northcliff) slopes on top of ridges
and hills and in drainage lines on ridges in the Pretoria and Johannesburg areas. The
plant community was recorded specifically in Land Types Ba7b, Ib3a and 1b41. The
soil series is mainly Mispah Ms10 with a clay content of 10-20% also indicating the
lack of soil and shallow soils on rock.
This sub-community
is characterized
by Species
group I (Table 1). Diagnostic
species associated with this plant community are the trees Pittosporum viridif/orum,
Croton gratissimus, Osyris lanceo/ata and
Pouzolzia mixta and the shrubs
Ancylobotrys capensis and Rhus magalismontana and the sbrublet Waltheria indica.
Other
species
sutherlandii,
include
forbs
Cyperus sp.
like the
and
succulent
Sutera
Crassula setulosa, Vemonia
caerulea
and
the
grasses
Aristida
transvaalensis and Enneapogon scoparius.
Species
that dominate
the plant
community
Vangueria infausta, Canthium gilfillanii and
are the trees
Combretum molle,
Diospyros Iycioides the
grasses
Cymbopogon validus, Melinis repens and the forb Commelina africana.
The Bequartiodendron magalismontanum shrub land of Ellery (1994) compares well
with this community.
A comparison
between the vegetation
area Bredenkamp
Metropolitan
& Brown (1998a) and the communities
given in Table 3. A similar comparison
study and those described
Metropolitan
of the Western
Local Council area
identified in this study is
between the communities
by Bredenkamp
is provided
Local Council
identified in this
& Brown (1998b) for the Northern
in Table 4. Due to the fact that
Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a & 1998b) did not make use of Braun Blanquet tables,
the extent of comparison
provided below, is a subjective
comparative
evaluation
based on species composition.
Table 3 A comparison
between the vegetation of the Western Metropolitan
Council area Bredenkamp & Brown (1998a) and the communities
Local
identified in this
study
Bredenkamp
&
Brown
This
study
community
Extent
of
comparison
i
(1998)
number
(clear lunclear)
Protea caffra treeveld
1.3.2
Weak
!
Protea roupelleae treeveld
1.3 and 1.3.2
Weak
i
Bush clumps
1
Strong
1
Weak
I
l
Mixed
Acacia
caffra
'j
:
savanna
Other
:
woodland
Type
,
I
None
None
i
,
,
communities
Table 4 A comparison
between the vegetation of the Northern Metropolitan
Council area Bredenkamp & Brown (1998b) and the communities
Local
identified in this
study
Bredenkamp
&
Brown
This
study
community
Extent
of
comparison
I
I
(1998)
number
(clear lunclear)
Natural bush clumps
1
Strong
I
i
:
:
Common species (Species
Dense woody
agricultural
holdings
Group K)
Strong
1
Strong (only tree species)
1.3.2
Weak
Common species (Species
Protea caffra treeveld
Group K)
Weak
1
Weak
1.3.2
Weak
Common species (Species
Protea caffra hill
Group K)
Weak
1
Weak
,
1.3.2
Strong
(especially
herbaceous layer)
Common species (Species
Ridge savanna
Group K)
Strong
1
Weak
Common species (Species
Riparian vegetation
Group K)
Strong
1
Strong
1.1
Strong
Common species (Species
Other
woodland
Type
Group K)
Strong
none
None
communities
The species of the Ruimsig Entomological Reserve in Roodepoort, showed
resemblance to the woodland species identified in this study (Deutschlander &
Bredenkamp 1999). Besides this, no clear comparison could be drawn between the
vegetation communities identified in both studies. This could be due to the more
detailed study done by Deutschlander and Bredenkamp (1999) for this nature
reserve.
The sites chosen were relatively undisturbed and many could be important to
conserve. Some sites are presently utilized for agricultural purposes.
Species group J indicates a floristic relationship between the Acacia caffra- Themeda
triandra-Hyparrhenia
hirta Open to Closed Woodland (Species Group F) and the
Combretum molle-Setaria
lindenbergiana Open to Closed Woodland (Species Group
G).
The classification procedures followed. resulted in clearly defined vegetation units
that can be related to the environmental factors observed. This classification
contributes to the limited knowledge that presently exists for the vegetation of urban
open spaces in Gauteng. The results of this study can be used as a baseline study
and future studies can be measured against it. The species richness determined per
200m2 per vegetation type could also be used to determine environmental and
ecological degradation and actions could be taken to manage these changes.
The results of this study could further be used to determine how the size and shape
of surrounding land-uses have influenced and are influencing the vegetation of
urban open spaces. The results of such a study could assist in guiding development
in future open spaces in a constantly expanding urban environment.
The list of species that was not recorded only 7 times and less in the sample plots,
associated with each vegetation unit, is presented in Annexure A. These records can
be used as reference to identify species in need of research regarding their
ecological status (endangered, rare etc.). Known infrequent species can also be
linked to the vegetation unit in which they were observed. These vegetation types
can then be approached with greater care with regards to urban development and
they can even be conserved in the urban environment.
The research was funded by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation
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Community
Number
1
1 I 1
11111
I 11
11
11
11111
1 1
11
3802129021480
5991111234458112814612
14892272521577578
34301231 72332168015663
475472037154870791168023439010118354666686791291578625909373111863672303407689
Celtis africana
r,cacia caffra
Rhus pyroides
Euclea crispa
Ledebouria
revoluta
F:hretia rigida
Achyranthus
aspera
Scadoxus puniceus
Dombeya rotundifolia
Conyza sp.
Ziziphus mucronata
CIl"';' 'n1.apanicuJ ,:lta
Heteromorpha
trifoliata
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Pavetta gardeniifolia
Araujia sericifera
Setaria megaphylla
Bllddleja salviifolia
Rtlanlnl.ls prinoides
Acalypha glabrata
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Lannea discolor
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paniculata
8uphorbia
schinzii
Ochna pretoriensis
C'~!TIbret
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Commelina
erecta
Oldenlandia
herbacea
Nuxia congesta
Coleochloa
setifera
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swaziensis
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Aristida
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++ ••• ++ ••. I •• +. +. ++.1 +. ++ 1 .••.•.
+1. +++ .••
I ..• +. + •• +. ++ ••. 1+ •• +++ ••. + ..•.
I .. + .• + ..•••
++++
I . + •••. + ••. + ..• + I • + ••. + ••. + . + •. I . + ••.. ++ .•• + . + .
I •.. + •.. b++a •.•• 1+. + •. + ••.• ++ •• I ...•••..•.•
1 ..•
I .. a + ... b. a •.•••
I ..• b3 ••• + .••..
I + .••...
1 • b .. b ..
I •.• +++ .••• + .•. + 1 . + ••.••.
+ .•••.
I .•••.•..•.•.•.
+
I ••.••
++ •• + •• +. + I .•••.•••..•••.
I .•••.•
+ .•••...
+
I a ..••.•
++ .••..•
I . 3+ •.•.••.••••
1 .•••.•..••...
+•
1 •...•
+ ••• +. + ..• 1+++ •••..
++. + •• I •..•••..•.•
+. ++
1+1 •....•••...•.
I a .• + .•••..•••.
I ••.•.
+ .•••.•..•
··.1 .. ···.···.····
I + •.•••..••••••
I ••..•.•.••.•••
+ I .. ··
I
+++
+ •...•
I ••..••••..•••
I ••. +3 •••..••••.
·· .. ··. I .1.a
++.
3+
.
Diheteropogon
amplectens
Xerophyta
retinervis
Senecio venosus
8u1bostylis
burchel1ii
Po1lichia
campestris
Cyanotis
speciosa
Schizagyrium
sanguineum
Brachylaeana
rotundata
Senecio
oxyriifolius
Acalypha
angustata
Hyparrhenia
tamba
Parinari
capensis
Rhus zeyheri
· .•..•.•.
1 ...•....
· . + •...••
1 . + ••••..
+ •••...••
1 •..•....
· •••...•.
I •.•.•...
· ..••..•.
1 ...• + •..
· ..•.•...
1 ••..••••
· ...••...
I ••..•.•.
• ...• b. 3. I •....••.
· •..•....
I + •..•.•.
• ....•...
I ••..•.•.
+ •...•...
I ••.....•
· •.....••
I .••••.•.
• ...••...
1 ••..••..
Tagetes
minuta
A.greatheadii
var.
davyana
Diospyros
lycioides
t1e1inis
repens
Protasparagus
suaveolens
Canthium
gi1fillanii
Pellaea
calome1anos
t1elinis
nerviglumis
Commelina
africana
ThplTiPda triandra
++ •. +++ •. 1+.++++.+1+++++·
.+.++.1+
••. ++++++ .• ++.1++·++++++
•. ++.1+.+
.• +++ ... +++.
· .•. ++. ++ I ++. +. +. + 1++1 ++++. ++ •• 1++. ++1. +++. +. +. 1++++++++++++.
+ I .. + •. + ..••..
++.
.++.+.+++I+.+.++1al.++
•••..
++.+1 ••• ++++.a+a.bbal+
••.•.•.
+ •• ++.1+++1+.+
•. ++.++.
• ... ++ .. + 1++ •...•
+ 1+ ••. + ••.. + •• 1+ . ++. 1 . 11 ++++ •• 1+++++b ••. +.1 +. 1 . +++. ++++. + . +. +
++ .. b+ .. 11 ++ .. + ••• I •• ++++. +. + 1 + I •••• +++ . ++. +++. 1++ •••• ++++ . +. + I .•••.
++ ••.....
+
.++bab.+·I1.
.+.++.1+1.+
•. + ..•..
1++.+.+.ab3+
•...
1 ••.••
1.a+ .•.. +Ia+ .....
1+1+++aa
•.. +++ ••. 1++. ++ .•. 1 .•• +++ ••• + .. 1 •... +++++ ••• + .. 1+++. ++++. ++. +. 1++ ..•. +. + •• +++.
.. + ....••
1+ ...• +.+1+ •••• + •.• + •• I .++.+++++1+
•.•• 1+.++.+++++.+++1
••.•.
++.+.++
•• +
+.+ .•. +.+1+ ••. + ••• 1.++.+ ••...••
1 •••. + ... +.++.1.
1+++.+.+·+
.. ++· 1++++++++.++
...•
•... + ••..
I .•. +.+ •. 1 .++++++.bb+.
I+++++a.aa.++++.
1+ .•• + •.. + .. ++. 1 .•.••
b ... + ....
1
... +.+ ... 1+ .• +.+ .• I .++.++ .. ++++1 .+ .. 3.+++ •. ++++1++++1+1
.•.. + .. 1 ••.........
+.+.
• .•. a3bb. 1 ..• + •• a. I a. b ••. 1+. + •. 1ab+. ba. bb .. + •.. I a .. ++. +. + •.• +a 1++. ++ ....
+ .....
.. a1.+.+.1
•. + .• +.+1+ •...•....•.
1 .a ••....
++ •..• +I+.+++a
•.. + .. +11 .b .•. 1.++1++++a
.. +.+ ...•
1 .+ .. + •• +I+++ •. ·b.++++1
.+++++.+
•• ++.+. 1 ..• +++ •. + .• + •. I .••..
++ ••....
+.
· ... 1+++. 1+. 3b ..• 113 •.•.•.•
b ..• 1....
+ .. + .•••.•
+ 1+ .• ++.1. a. +. +. 1....•
a+. +++ .. +.
· ...•....
1 . + .. + •.. 1+. +. + •.. +. +. I +33a ..•. b1 ++la. 1++. +++ •. ++. + .. 1 ..••....•.•...•
· ++. + 1. +. I .1. ++. ++ I • a+ •. + ••. + .. 1 ....•
+++++ .••.•
1 ••.••
+. + •... +. 1 •....•••
+. + •• +.
· .. +++. a. 1 ..• + ...•
1+. ++ 1. .• +. +. 1 •... 3+ 1. +. + ••. + 1+ .•.•...•.•...
1 •..•.
+++ .. 1+ . +.
· •.....•.
1+ .•..•••
I •. ++ •.•• +++. 1+. ++++. ++++. + .. 1+ ... +++. + ....•
1 •..••...•.•••.
+
·
++
1++
I ••.. ++ •• + .. + 1 . +. +. +. +. + •....
1 .• +++++. + ...•.
1 ...•.•
+
++
·
1 .......•
1+. + .. ++. +
1 .1
+. ++ .• +. +.1. +b. ++ .. +
+. I . +
+ ....•....
:~1-:1
;tl-j:\
!<111J:"':
space1ata
J eptr)dictya
Cymbopogon
validus
HAlichrysum
rugulosum
Panicl.1m maximum
Hyparrhenia
hirta
Zanthoxylum
capensis
Eragrostis
curvula
8rachiaria
serrata
Ppntharrinum
insipidum
HEt-:et':'r"~gc>n
contortis
May tenus heterophylla
Diqitaria eriantha
Bidens pilosa
Lantana camara
Rothmannia
capensis
Solanum mauritianum
Cuscuta campestris
· + .. +
· ...••••.
·
b+.
·
+++ ..
.......
· .....
+ .••..
I . +. ++ .. + I .. +++ .. + .. ++ I ..•.........
ba. I
+++
I .b
1+ .• +
I .••.. +. a ••• a I .. + ••••• + ..••••
I .la
+
+. +. I . a+ .. +
1+ ......•
I • + .. ++. + .... I .•.•.•
+ .•••• + •. 1+ •..•.••..••••
I ••...••
+ ••..
I •.••...•
I ••• + .•••.•
+. I ...•• +. + ..•••.•
I • ++
+. b I .. + .. +
1.1 •.. +
31 •.. +
+ .. 1
· .•. 1
Ia
1
1+
+
+++ 1. +a ••.••
I .•• + •.•. + ••. I ..••••
+ •...•••
+ I + ..••...•.•••.
I •.•..••...•..••
+++ 1+ .•...••
I . + •. + ..• + ••. I .•.••.••.•..•..
I •••••...
+ •••.•
I ..••.••.•••••..
.
.
+++
.
.
Helichrysum
nudifolium
Eriosema cordatum
Asparagus
setaceus
Kalanchoe
rotundifolia
Lipocarpha
rehmannii
Ozoroa paniculosa
Helichrysum
sp.
Delosperma
sp.
Senecio affinis
Delosperma
herbeum
Sutera palustris
Oxalis depressa
Cyathula uncinulata
Oenothera
rosea
Felicia muricata
Verbena bonariensis
Aloe marlothii
Cussonia spicata
Tephrosia capensis
Scolopia zeyheri
Plantago lanceolata
Grewia occidental is
Opuntia ficus-indica
Sida rhombi folia
Physalis viscosa
Amaranthus
hybridus
Crassula sp
Solanum pseudocapsicum
Verbena tenuisecta
Olea europaea
Bonatea speciosa
Vernonia oligocephala
Oxalis sp.
Solanum rigescens
Ipomoea ommaneyi
Conyza bonariensis
Ulmus parvifolia
Euclea undulata
May tenus tenuispina
Calpurnia
aurea
Maerua cafra
Ipomoea purpurea
Acokanthera
oppositifolia
Rhynchosia
sp.
Agrimonia
procera
Kedrostis africana
Melilotus
alba
Hibiscus calyphyllus
Sesamum triphyllum
Pennisetum
clandestinum
Cannabis sativa
Mirabilis
jalapa
Helichrysum
cerastioides
Anagallis
arvensis
Lablab sp.
Cassine transvaalensis
Kyllinga alba
Passiflora sUbpeltata
Macfadyeni
unguis-cati
Chlorophytum
polyphyllum
Setaria verticillata
Viscum rotundifolium
Acokanthera
oblongifolia
Tarchonanthus
camphoratus
Brachiaria
nigropedata
Isoglossa grantii
Melia azedarach
Commelina modesta
Gnidia capitata
Hibiscus trionum
Alectra orobanchoides
Sphedamnocarpus
pruriens
Myrsine africana
Crassula alba
Tarchonanthus
camphoratus
Sida cordifolia
Monechma serotinum
Helichrysum
aureonitens
Dicoma zeyheri
Turbina oblongata
Hermannia depressa
Helichrysum
melanacme
Lepidium bonariense
Gomphocarpus
fruticosus
Tephrosia
rhodesica
Oenothera tetraptera
Chenopodium
album
Bewsia bi flora
Pseudognaphalium
luteD -album
May tenus sp.
Pupalia lappacea
Senecio harveianus
Hypoxis acuminata
Indigofera
zeyheri
Sida alba
Cynoglossum
lanceolatum
Jasminum sp.
Crabbea hirsuta
Euclea natalensis
Bryophyllum
delagoense
Scilla nervosa
Artemisia
afra
Solanum rigescens
Xysmalobium
undulatum
Tephrosia
longipes
Striga elegans
Persicaria
lapathifolia
Bidens formosa
Galinsoga parviflora
Tapinanthus
natalitius
Priva cordi folia
Tragus berteronianus
Ziziphus zeyheriana
Verbena brasiliensis
Cyathula uncinulata
Hibiscus lunarifolius
Hypoxis hemerocallidea
Gnidia kraussiana
Urochloa mosambicensis
Capsella bursa
Lithospermum
sp.
Bulbine angustifolia
Raphionacme
hirsuta
Oxalis obliquifolia
Vernonia poskeana
Wahlenbergia
undulata
Gomp110carpus tomentosu5
Digitaria brazzae
Indigastrum
burkeanum
Helichrysum
callicomum
Hemizygia pretoriae
Walafrida
densiflora
Sphenostylis
angustifolia
Lotononis longiflora
Floscopa glomerata
Stoebe vulgaris
Microchloa
caffra
Schoenoplectus
corymbosus
Crassula swaziensis
Indigofera oxytropis
Hebenstretia
angolensis
May tenus undata
dentata
Cep~alaria
zeyheriana
Gerbera piloselloides
Rhus rimosa
Serle,:io coronatus
Senecio erubescens
Hermannia
floribunda
Sonchus wilmsii
Harpochloa
falx
Cyanotis sp.
Indigofera
spicata
Cotoneaster
pannosus
Thesium sp.
Crotalaria
brachycarpa
R~113
Trochomeria
macro,=ar~,a
Lotononis calycina
Hermannia
grandistipula
Ledebouria
ovalifolia
Sporobolu3
pectiGatus
Digitaria diagonalis
Paspalum scrobiculatum
Peucedanum
sp.
Psammotropha
myriantha
Dipcadi ciliare
Indigofera
hilaris
Heliophila
rigidiuscula
Lotononis sp.
Ficus ingens
Ir~jir~j~~=um c:,s~a~urr
~3=veyan~s
Le~eb,:_~ia
rev·::~ta
LOtGG0~i3
foliosa
Sene':i: lydenbuI>~ensis
Heliop~ila variabilis
Senecio consanguineus
Conyza canadensis
Zaluzianskya
katharinae
Jasminum angulare
Indigofera melanadenia
Lannea edulis
Sporobolus
festivus
Pyracar,tha sp.
Aster
Ceropegia
rendallii
Indigofera
melanadenia
Salacia rehmannii
Cleome maculata
Acalypha
sp.
Physalis sp.
Ximenia caffra
Acacia robusta
Salacia rehmannii
Cucumis hirsutus
Crabbea acaulis
Andropogon
appendiculatus
Jamesbrittenia
burkeana
Helichrysum
kraussii
Euryops laxus
Panicum coloratum
Rumex sp.
Adromischus
umbraticola
Gomphrena
celosioides
Tephrosia
sp.
Crassula capitella
Mariscus
sp.
Diospyros whyteana
Pseudognaphalium
luteo-album
Aloe pretoriensis
Elephantorrhiza
burkei
Hyparrhenia
filipendula
Strychnos cocculoides
Talinum caffrum
Becium angustifolium
Jacaranda mimosifolia
Sonchus dregeanus
Pavetta zeyheri
Halleria lucida
Nolletia
rarifolia
Plectranthus
madagascariensis
Chlorophytum
cooperi
Leonotis sp.
Tapiphyllum
parvifolium
Cowmelina
diffusa
Flaveria bidentis
Senecio oxyriifolius
Cassine transvaalensis
Cyperus rotundus
Oxygonum
sinuatum
Cyphostemma
lanigerum
Clerodendrum
glabrum
Pittosporum
viridiflorum
Leonotis ocymifolia
Kalanchoe
sp.
Striga bilabiata
Conyza albida
Tragia rupestris
Andropogon
sp.
Aristida canescens
Hibiscus engleri
Cotyledon orbiculata
Pygmaeothamnus
zeyheri
Commelina
livingstonii
Asparagus
capensis
May tenus polyacantha
Sphedamnocarpus
pruriens
Disperis micrantha
Ceratotheca
triloba
Rhus magalismontana
Secamone gerrardii
Dichrostachys
cinerea
Chenopodium
murale
Schoenoplectus
corymbosus
Murdannia
simplex
Barleria pretoriensis
Argyrolobium
pauciflorum
Nemesia fruticans
Stylosanthes
fruticosa
Aristida meridionalis
Limeum viscosum
Stapelia gigantea
Zornia linearis
Mimusops zeyheri
Commelina diffusa
Indigofera
adenoides
Ficus sp.
Elephantorrhiza
burkei
Ficus abutilifolia
Aristida diffusa
Asclepias
sp.
Euphorbia ingens
Indigofera
comosa
Stachys natalensis
Talinum sp.
Kohautia sp.
Stapelia leendertziae
Conyza bonariensis
Aeollanthus
buchnerianus
Becium obovatum
Andropogon
schirensis
Portulaca
kermesina
Mariscus
congestus
Urelytrum
agropyroides
Clematopsis
scabiosifolia
Indigofera
comosa
Lippia
rehmannii
Tephrosia
multijuga
Chaetacanthus
setiger
Elephantorrhiza
elephantina
Tephrosia
elongata
Digitaria diagonalis
Ursinia
nana
Boophane disticha
Vernonia natalensis
Erythrina lysistemon
Merremia
tridentata
Helichrysum
setosum
Eragrostis
rigidior
Solanum incanum
Lopholaena
coriifolia
Indigofera
spicata
Thesium magalis",ontanum
Dais cotinifolia
Rhynchcsia
monophylla
Aristida sp.
Phymaspermum
athanasioides
Commelina
sp.
Sarcostemma
viminale
Sporobolus
fimbriatus
Acalypha villicaulis
Solanum sp.
Ipomoea crassipes
Indigofera
sp
Dovyalis zeyheri
Rhynchosia
monophylla
Indigofera
cryptantha
Acacia ataxacantha
Vigna vexillata
Cereus peruvianus
Helichrysum
dasymallum
Species
table.
not
recorded
Tephrosia
longipes
Kalanchoe
thyrsiflora
May tenus polyacantha
Cymbopogon
excavatus
less than
Zinnia peruviana
Pogonarthria
squarrosa
Phyllanthus
parvulus
Euphorbia
striata
Psydrax livida
Momordica balsamina
Helinus integrifolius
Helichrysum
coriaceum
Cucumis zeyheri
Sporobolus
stapfianus
Pappea capensis
Dodonaea angustifolia
Canthium mundianum
Ipomoea sp.
Cleome monophylla
Aristida congesta
Cheilanthes
hirta
Euphorbia heterophylla
Vernonia sutherlandii
Senecio barbertonicus
Thesium utile
Mundulea sericea
Gladiolus
sp.
Gerbera viridifolia
Solanum seaforthianuffi
Ipomoea obscura
Viscum rotundifolium
Anthericum
sp.
Commelina benghalensis
7 times
and also
not
included
Cryptolepis
oblongifolia
Solanum retroflexum
Tritonia nelsonii
Rhus rigida
in main
phytosociological
Schkuhria pinnata
Eragrostis
sp.
Solanum panduriforme
CHAPTER 6
GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
According to Diamond (1975) the number of species that a natural area can hold at
equilibrium is a function of its area and degree of isolation. He further indicates how
the shape, and consequently
the edge effect, and connectivity
areas might affect ecosystem
and populations.
with other natural
Soule (1987) further claims that
populations are vulnerable to extinction should they be isolated. The functionality of
corridors has been widely debated by various authors (Simberloff & Cox 1987; Soule
& Gilpin 1991; Sutcliffe & Thomas 1996; Diamond 1975). The applicability of these
statements on the fragmented and isolated natural areas in urban Gauteng has not
been investigated to date, and raises a concern as to the potential slow degradation
of ecosystems
that might be occurring owing to development
pressure on the open
spaces investigated in the study area.
This phytosociological
study of the vegetation of the natural urban open spaces of
urban Gauteng has indicated that a significant source of plant diversity as well as
vegetation types still exists in the confines of the urban environment. This information
can further be used to assist in studies regarding isolation and fragmentation
of
natural remnants in the Gauteng urban environment.
The Braun Blanquet method was applied in this study and resulted in 14 plant
communities
variation
and 1 variation
could be related
ecologically distinguishable.
being identified. All the plant communities
to specific
environmental
factors
and the
and are therefore
The classification is supported by the results obtained by
the computer programme TURBOVEG
and the TWINSPAN
classification
algorithm
(Hill 1979). With these plant communities identified, this study contributes greatly to
the limited knowledge of the synecology of the urban open spaces of Gauteng.
Two main vegetation units were identified in the study area namely woodland and
grassland dominated communities.
The hills and ridges in the study area were often covered by a mosaic of open
woodland
on the warmer and drier north-facing
slopes, closed woodland
in more
sheltered sites below rocky cliffs and grassland patches on more exposed areas.
Closed woodland communities were also found along rivers and streams. Cooler
south-facing slopes may have Protea caffra woodland communities, of Afromontane
Drakensberg affinity. These woodlands represented Mixed Bushveld and Waterberg
Moist Mountain Bushveld elements (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996d & a) and
according to the Acocks (1988) classification, species occurring here are typical of
Sour Bushveld.
A mixture of tree, shrub and herbaceous species characterized the woodland areas
of the entire study area. The common species of the woodland communities included
the presence of the small trees Diospyros Iycioides, Canthium gilfillanii, Zanthoxylum
capensis,
Rhus leptodictya,
Maytenus heterophylla
and Rothmannia capensis, in
association with the exotic species Lantana camara and Solanum mauritianum. The
small shrub Protasparagus suaveolens, the forbs Commelina africana, Helichrysum
rugulosum,
the succulent Aloe greatheadii
Pentarrhinum
insipidum,
var. davyana, the slender twining herb
the exotic species Tagetes minuta, Bidens pilosa, the
noxious weed Cuscuta campestris and the fern Pellaea calomelanos, were also often
encountered. The common grasses including Melinis repens, Melinis nerviglumis,
Themeda triandra, Setaria sphacelata,
Cymbopogon
validus, Panicum maximum,
Hyparrhenia hirta, Eragrostis curvula, Brachiaria serrata, Heteropogon contortis, and
Digitaria eriantha,were recorded in the study area.
Two major woodland communities were identified in the study area. These included
the Acacia caffra-Rhus pyroides open to closed Major Woodland community and the
Combretum
molle-Setaria
Iindenbergiana
Open
to Closed Major Woodland
community.
The Acacia caffra-Rhus pyroides open to closed Major Woodland community was
scattered throughout the study area, among granite boulders, rocky outcrops and
hills. The slopes varied from gradual to very steep. This plant community was mainly
distributed in the Bb1b, Ib7a and 1b43a Land Types which indicated a lack of soil.
The main soil series were Glenrosa, Klipfontein, Sandvlei Mispah Southwold
Trevanian with a clay content ranging between 10-30% (Land Type Survey Staff
1985, 1987a & b).
The Combretum molle-Setaria /indenbergiana Open to Closed Major Woodland
community was generally found on a north facing aspect on gradual to very steep
slopes in kloofs. This occurred between granite boulders and on rocky outcrops,
drainage lines, at the foot of quartzite ridges and hills and on rocky outcrops in the
Pretoria and Johannesburg area. This plant community was mainly distributed on the
Ib7a and Ba7b Land types indicating a lack of soil. The main soil series were Mispah,
Trevanian, Glendale and Msinga with a clay content of 12-25%.
The grassland vegetation type of the entire study area was characterized by a
mixture of grass species. The common species associated with this grasslands,
included the bunch grasses Themeda triandra, Brachiaria serrata, Diheteropogon
amp/edens,
Trachypogon spicatus, Eragrostis racemosa, Elionurus muticus,
Tristachya /eucothrix, Eragrostis chloromelas, Heteropogon contortis, Hyparrhenia
hirta, Setaria sphacelata and Eragrostis curvula which was often present in a
mixture. One or more of these species could be locally dominant, depending on local
habitat conditions and degree of disturbance.
A great variety of herbaceous forbs or semi-woody dwarf shrubs were often present
in these grasslands. These included the xerophytic sedge Bulbostylis burchellii, the
succulents Cyanotis speciosa and Aloe greatheadii var. davyana, the geophyte
Ledebouria revoluta, the asteraceous forbs Senecio venosus, Nidorella hotenttotica,
Helichrysum rugu/osum, Gerbera viridifolia, Helichrysum coriaceum, Vemonia
oligicepha/a and the exotic annual weed Tagetes minuta, the encroacher dwarf shrub
Stoebe vulgaris and a variety of other forbs e.g. Wahlenbergia ca/edonica, Scabiosa
columba ria, Chaetacanthus costatus, Pentanisia angustifolia, Pearsonia sessilifo/ia,
Thesium utile and Pollichia campestris.
Two major plant communities were identified, namely the Loudetia simplex - Melinis
nerviglumis Major Grassland and the Cymbopogon excavatus - Themeda triandra
Major Grassland.
The Loudetia simp/ex - Melinis nerviglumis Major Grassland was represented by
plant communities that are mainly associated with shallow lithosols on rocky
quartzite, dolomite or chert ridges and hills. This grassland represented typical Rocky
Highveld Grassland (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996c) the Acocks (1988)
classification of typical Bankenveld grassland. Scattered tree or bush-clump
communities often occurred in this grassland.
The plant communities of the Cymbopogon excavatus - Themeda triandra
Major
Grassland were on the contrary generally associated with lower lying and flatter
I
undulating plains of the Bb land type where the soils were deeper and often notrocky. This vegetation was mainly found on average slopes of 0-5° on Glenrosa,
Klipfontein and Sandvlei soil series and was mainly found on the plains south of
Pretoria. This grassland represents typical
Moist Cool Highveld Grassland
(Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996b) and typical Cymbopogon-Themeda
Veld
(Acocks 1988). No tree communities occurred in this grassland.
A summary of the vegetation communities observed in the various areas surveyed,
are attached as Annexure A (Table 1 and 2).
Infrequently occurring species were listed per identified community. These lists
indicated plant communities with which
infrequently
associated. For example Scadoxus puniceus
occurring species are
was associated with the Loudetia
simp/ex - melinis nervig/umis
grassland, Eu/ophia ova/is was associated with the
Ochna puchra - Ancy/obotrys
capensis grassland and Chorto/irion ango/ense was
associated with the Hypoxis rigidu/a - Themeda triandra grassland.
The value of these records is that they could be included in the red data records for
the Gauteng Province. In addition, the vegetation communities that were associated
with the presence of red data species can in future be identified for conservation
purposes.
The high number of infrequently occurring weedy species, further indicates that the
natural areas were generally in a good condition.
1.1
Melinis repens - Diheteropogon amplectens Grassland Community
1.1.1 Pogonarthria squarrosa - Melinis repens Grassland
Sub-
community
1.1.2
Ochna pulchra -
Ancylobotrys capensis Grassland
Sub-
community
1.2
Andropogon schirensis -
Monocymbium ceresiiforme Grassland
Community
1.2.1 Aristida transvaalensis - Cymbopogon validus Grassland Subcommunity
1.2.2 Andropogon schirensis - Pentanisia angustifolia Grassland
Sub-community
1.2.2(a) Protea caffra variant
2.
Cymbopogon excavatus - Themeda triandra Major Grassland Community
2.1
Hermannia depressa - Themeda triandra Grassland Community
2.1.1
Senecio isatideus -
Themeda triandra Grassland
Sub-
community
2.1.2
Hypoxis
rigidula -
Themeda triandra
Grassland
Sub-
community
1.
Acacia caffra - Rhus pyroides Open to Closed Major Woodland Community
1.1
Hypoestes forskaolii - Acacia caffra Closed Woodland Community
1.2
Acacia caffra - Setaria Iindenbergiana Closed Woodland Community
1.3
Acacia caffra -
Themeda triandra Open
to
Closed
Woodland
Community
1.3.1 Acacia caffra - Themeda triandra - Asparagus laricinus Open
to Closed Woodland
Sub-community
1.3.2 Acacia caffra - Themeda triandra - Hyparrhenia hirta Open to
Closed Woodland SUb-community
2.
Combretum molle - Setaria Iindenbergiana Open to Closed Major Woodland
Community
2.1
Combretum molle - Burkea africana Open to Closed Woodland Community
2.2
Combretum
molle -
Englerophytum
magalismontanum
Open Woodland
Community
An urgent need to conserve· Rocky Highveld Grassland and Moist Cool Highveld
Grassland (Bredenkamp & Van Rooyen 1996c & b) in the study area is identified.
Presently more wooded areas like ridges and rivers form part of formally conserved
open spaces than grassland areas. The public perception that woodland is of more
conservation value than grassland further exasperates this problem.
A variety of factors are presently affecting the urban open spaces in Gauteng. These
include isolation from other natural areas, fragmentation of ecosystems, mismanagement of these areas, size and shape of the areas, as well as human related
impacts like trampling, litter and dumping. All these factors can lead to an increase of
exotic species and the decline of indigenous woodland and grassland species.
The affects of isolation on wild plant populations can be devastating as illustrated by
Drayton & Primack (1996). For a 400ha woodland park in Metropolitan Boston, at
least 5 km from other protected areas and strongly affected by human activity, the
area has lost 36% of its indigenous species and 64 new, mostly exotic species were
recorded, over a period of 100 years.
The natural areas in Gauteng appear to be being fragmented by increasing
development. The consequences of fragmentation vary with time since isolation,
distance from other remnants of natural vegetation and the degree of connectivity
with other remnants (Saunders, Hobbs & Margules 1990). One of the major aspects
of fragmentation important for conservation, is the edge effect and the increased
vulnerability of the fragmented ecosystem to extrinsic disturbances (Lord & Norton
1990) of which larger areas are being less adversely affected by the fragmentation
process (Saunders et al. 1990). The impacts of fragmentation on species richness
has not been researched in any of the major South Africa cities.
III-advised management of open spaces like uncontrolled veld fires, constant mowing
of natural grassland and the mis-management of exotic infestations adds to the
disturbance of natural patches in the urban environment. Due to the traditionally low
budget allocated to the management of natural open spaces, the managers of these
areas may continue to manage natural areas on an ad hoc basis. This could lead to
the continued degradation of natural area and the loss of species richness in the
urban open spaces.
The close proximity of high human population to natural open spaces has rarely been
to the benefit of these areas. Only on rare occasions has the surrounding community
taken charge of the urban open spaces and assisted with the conservation and
management of these areas against vagrants, trampling, exotic infestations and
dumping. Structures to accommodate such co-operative management initiatives
could however facilitate the continued involvement of neighbouring landowners in
open spaces and the continued existence of the species richness recorded for many
of the open spaces.
Riverine ecosystems in the urban Gauteng are presently highly impacted upon and
are in urgent need for rehabilitation and conservation. The riverine areas surveyed
for this study, indicated that a high percentage of exotic species. These habitats are
generally exposed to a range of negative impacts associated with the urban
environment including increased and polluted run-off due to hardened surfaces,
subsequent excessive erosion of riverbanks and water pollution due to informal
housing and industries on the riverbanks.
With the promulgation of new environmental legislation that requires Environmental
Impact Assessments for certain development-related activities, the need for proper
decision-support tools for government institutions was realised. The Gauteng
Department
of
Agriculture,
Conservation,
Environment
and
Land
Affairs
subsequently developed a Gauteng Open Space Project (Gauteng 2000) to assist in
managing the natural resources and land-use planning in the province. This project
was based on a set of ecological parameters that provides an ecological value on
each piece of open land in the Gauteng province, which is presently used to assist in
guiding development in the province. The inventory of natural areas as well as the
species recorded for each site, can be used as baseline data that will indicate
environmental degradation.
Enlarging the inventory and subsequent understanding
of natural vegetation in the
urban environment will allow for faster detection of ecosystem degradation as well as
determining the conservation value of different sites. This is confirmed by Matthews
(1991) who states that the classification of vegetation types and subtypes in a biome
is important since it would result in ecological interpretable
for
environmental
planning,
management
and
units which can be used
conservation.
The
information
regarding vegetation units in the urban environment should however be presented in
a format that is easily accessible to decision-makers.
The surveying of the vegetation habitats in urban environments
should receive high
support from governing bodies. Soule (1987) supports this statement by stating that
the conservation of small remaining wild habitats, could slow down the extinction rate
of animals and plants. It is further stated that management
of remnants will become
increasingly difficult if the surrounding area has adversely been changed or impacted
upon.
Placing the natural open spaces firmly within the context of the surrounding
landscape and attempting to develop complementary
to be the only way to ensure the long-term
management strategies seems
viability
of remnant 'natural areas
(Saunders et al. 1990).
ACOCKS, J.P.H. 1988. Veld types of South Africa, 3rd ed. Memoirs of the Botanical
Survey of South Africa. 57: 1-146.
BREDENKAMP,
G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996a. Mixed bushveld. In: Low, AB. &
Rebelo, A.G. (eds). Vegetation
of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland.
Dept. of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP,
In: Low, AB.
G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996b. Moist Cool Highveld Grassland.
& Rebelo, AG.
(eds). Vegetation
of South Africa,
Lesotho
and
Swaziland. Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP,
G.J. & VAN ROOYEN,
N. 1996c. Rocky Highveld Grassland.
In:
Low, A.B. & Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland.
Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
BREDENKAMP, G.J. & VAN ROOYEN, N. 1996d. Waterberg Moist Mountain
Bushveld. In: Low, AB. & Rebelo, AG. (eds). Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho
and Swaziland. Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. Pretoria.
HILL, M.O. 1979. TWINSPAN - a FORTRAN program for arranging multivariate
data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes.
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
DIAMOND, J.M. 1975. The Island Dilemma: Lessons of modem Biogeographic
studies for the design of natural reserves. Biological Conservation 7: 129-146.
DRAYTON, B. & PRIMACK, R.B. 1996. Plant Species lost in an Isolated
Conservation Area in Metropolitan Boston from 1894 to 1993. Conservation Biology
10(1): 30-39.
GAUTENG OPEN SPACE PROJECT PHASE 2. 2000. Compiled for: Department of
Agriculture, Conservation and Environment.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF.1987. Land Types of the maps 2626 Wes-Rand, 2726
Kroonstad. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 4: 1-342.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF.1985. Land Types of the maps 2628 East Rand. 2630
Mbabane. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 4: 1-261.
LAND TYPE SURVEY STAFF.1987. Land Types of the maps 2526 Rustenburg,
2528 Pretoria. Memoirs on the Agricultural Natural Resources of South Africa. 8: 1391.
LORD, J.M. & NORTON, D.A
1990. Scale and the Spatial Concept of
Fragmentation. Conservation Biology 4(2): 197-202.
MATTHEWS, W.S. 1991. Phytosociology of the north-eastern mountain sourveld. M.
Sc. Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
SAUNDERS,
D.A.,
HOBBS,
RJ.
&
MARGULES,
C.R
1990.
Biological
Consequences of Ecosystem Fragmentation: A review. Conservation Biology 5(1):
18--32.
SIMBERLOFF, D. & COX, J. 1987. Consequences and Costs of Conservation
Corridors. Conservation Biology 1(1): 63-71.
SOULE, M.E. (ed). 1987. Viable populations for conservation. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, England.
SOULE, M.E. & GILPIN, W.E. 1991. The theory of wildlife corridors capability. In
D.A. Saunders and RJ. Hobbs (eds). The role of corridors in nature conservation.
. Surrey Beatty & Sons. Sydney.
SUTCLIFFE, O.L. & THOMAS, C.D. 1996. Open corridors appear to facilitate
dispersal by Ringlet Butterflies (Aphantopus
hyperantus)
Clearings. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1359-1365.
between Woodland
Plant community
nr->
Area name
1.
Magaliesberg
NBl/Silverton ridae
Colbyn hill
Pierneefrant
Witwatersbera
Kwaaaaspruit
Kwaggasrant
Meintjieskop
Strubenkop
Murrayfield
Moreleta Kloof
Faerie Glen NR
Bronberg
Erasmuskloof
Oaspoort ridge
Groenkloof NR
Groenkloof erf
Klapperkop
Voortrekker
Monument
Zwartkop NR
Van Riebeeck NR
McOonalds
Glen Austin pan
Miar's land
OBSA
Clavville
Beaulieu hillNVitooort
Fourwavs Gardens
Rietfontein NR
Lone Hill NR
Rietfontein Hospital
Linksfield ridae
Yeoville ridae
Lanaermanskop
Bill Steward
Klipriviersberg
Alberton
Klipriviersberg NR
Melville hills
Northcliff ridge
Alberts Farm
Orlando hill
Golden Harvest Park
Bush Hill hill
RUimsig Butterfly NR
Roodepoort ridae
Kloofendal NR
Blougat Nature Area
1.1
1.2
1.3
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
1.3.1
*
*
*
*
2.
2.1
2.2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
1.3.2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Plant community
nr->
Area name
1.
MaQaliesberQ
NBl/Silverton ridae
Colbvn hill
Pierneefrant
Witwatersbera
Kwaaaasoruit
Kwaggasrant
Meintiieskop
Strubenkoo
Murravfield
Moreleta KJoof
Faerie Glen NR
Bronberg
Erasmuskloof
Oaspoort ridae
Groenkloof NR
Groenkloof erf
Klapoerkoo
Voortrekker
Monument
Zwartkoo NR
Van Riebeeck NR
McOonalds
Glen Austin pan
Miar's land
OBSA
Clawille
Beaulieu hilllWitooort
Fourways Gardens
Rietfontein NR
Lone Hill NR
Rietfontein Hospital
Linksfield ridQe
Yeoville ridae
Lanaermanskop
Bill Steward
Klipriviersberg
Alberton
KlipriviersberQ NR
Melville hills
Northcliff ridae
Alberts Farm
Orlando hill
Golden Harvest Park
Bush Hill hill
Ruimsig Butterflv NR
Roodepoort ridae
Kloofendal NR
Blouaat Nature Area
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
1.1
1.1
.1
1.1
.2
1.2
1.2
.1
1.2
.2
1.2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
2.
2.1
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
.3
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
2.2
*
*
*
*
2.1
.2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
2.1
.1
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
A species list of all the species recorded or collected during the survey is presented
below. 600 species were recorded of which 55 were exotic species. Exotic taxa are
marked with asterisks.
Cheilanthes hirta
Lipocarpha rehmannii
Pellaea calomelanos
(Ridl.)Goetgh.
Commelina africana L. var. africana
Commelina africana L. var. barberae (C.B.Clarke) C.B.Clarke
Commelina africana L. var. krebsiana (Kunth) C.B.Clarke
Commelina benghalensis L
Commelina diffusa Burm.f. ssp. diffusa
Commelina erecta L
Commelina livingstonii C.B.Clarke
Commelina modesta Oberm
Cyanotis speciosa (L.f.) Hassk
Floscopa glomerata (Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Hassk
Murdannia simplex (Vahl) Brenan
Bulbostylis burchellii
(Ficalho & Hiern) C.B.Clarke
Coleochloa setifera (Ridl.) Gilly
Cyperus esculentus
Cyperus obtusiflorus Vahl var. obtusiflorus
Cyperus rotundus
Cyperus rupestris Kunth var. rupestris
Kyllinga alba Nees
Mariscus congestus (Vahl)C.B.Clarke
Schoenoplectus
corymbosus
(Roth ex Roem. & Schult.)J.Raynal
Aloe greatheadii Schonland var. davyana
D.S.Hardy
Aloe marlothii A.Berger ssp. marlothii
Aloe pretoriensis Pole-Evans
Aloe transvaalensis Kuntze
Aloe verecunda Pole-Evans
(Schonland)
Glen &
Anthericum species
Asparagus capensis L. var. capensis
Asparagus laricinus Burch.
Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop
Asparagus suaveolens Burch.
Bulbine angustifolia Poelln.
Chlorophytum bowkeri Baker
Chlorophytum cooperi (Baker) Nordal
Chlorophytum fasciculatum
(Baker) Kativu
Chlorophytum polyphyllum
(Baker) Kativu
Chortolirion angolense
(Baker) A.Berger
Dipcadi ciliare (Zeyh. ex Harv.) Baker
Eucomis autumnalis
Ledebouria marginata
(Baker) Jessop
Ledebouria ovalifolia
(Schrad.) Jessop
Ledebouria ovatifolia
(Baker) Jessop
Ledebouria revoluta (L.f.) Jessop
Scilla nervosa (Burch.) Jessop
Urginea depressa Baker
Boophane
Scadoxus
Hypoxis
Hypoxis
Hypoxis
Hypoxis
disticha
puniceus
(L.f.) Herb.
(L.) Friis & Nordal
acuminata Baker
hemerocallidea
Fisch.
iridifolia Baker
rigidula
& C.A.Mey.
Gladiolus crassifolius Baker
Gladiolus permeabilis D.Delaroche
Gawl.) Oberm.
Gladiolus pretoriensis
Kuntze
Tritonia nelsonii Baker
ssp. edulis
Bonatea speciosa (L.f.) Willd. var. antennifera
Disperis micrantha Lindl.
Eulophia ovalis Lindl. ssp. ovalis
Satyrium species
(Burch. ex Ker
(Rolfe) Somerv.
Alloteropsis
semialata (R.Br.) Hitchc. ssp. eckloniana
(Nees)
Gibbs-Russ.
Andropogon appendiculatus Nees
Andropogon chinensis (Nees) Merr.
Andropogon schirensis A.Rich.
Aristida adscensionis L.
Aristida bipartita (Nees) Trin. & Rupr.
Aristida canescens
Aristida congesta Roem. & Schult. ssp. barbicollis
(Trin. & Rupr.)
De Winter
Aristida congesta Roem. & Schult. ssp. Congesta
Aristida diffusa
Aristida meridionalis Henrard
Aristida transvaalensis Henrard
Bewsia biflora (Hack.) Gooss.
Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T.Blake
Bothriochloa insculpta (A.Rich.) A.Camus
Bothriochloa radicans (Lehm.) A.Camus
Brachiaria nigropedata
(Ficalho & Hiern) Stapf
Brachiaria serrata (Thunb.) Stapf
Chloris species
Cymbopogon excavatus (Hochst.) Stapf ex Burtt Davy
Cymbopogon plurinodis
(Stapf) Stapf ex Burtt Davy
Cymbopogon validus (Stapf) Stapf ex Burtt Davy
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Digitaria brazzae (Franch.) Stapf
Digitaria diagonalis
(Nees) Stapf var. diagonalis
Digitaria eriantha Steud.
Digitaria monodactyla
(Nees) Stapf
Digitaria tricholaenoides
Stapf
Diheteropogon amplectens Nees) Clayton
Diheteropogon
filifolius (Nees) Clayton
Ehrharta erecta
Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) Kunth
Enneapogon scoparius Stapf
Enteropogon monostachyus
Eragrostis biflora Hack. ex Schinz
Eragrostis capensis (Thunb.) Trin.
Eragrostis chloromelas Steud.
Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees
Eragrostis gummiflua Nees
Eragrostis micrantha Hack.
Eragrostis nindensis Ficalho & Hiern
Eragrostis plana Nees
Eragrostis racemosa (Thunb.) Steud.
Eragrostis rigidior Pilg.
Eragrostis sclerantha
Eragrostis superba Peyr.
Eustachys paspaloides
(Vahl) Lanza & Mattei
Harpochloa falx (L.f.) Kuntze
Heteropogon contortus (L.) Roem. & Schult.
Hyparrhenia filipendula
Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf
Hyparrhenia tamba (Steud.) Stapf
Loudetia simplex (Nees) C.E.Hubb.
Melinis nerviglumis
(Franch.) Zizka,
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka ssp. grandiflora
(Hochst.)
Microchloa caffra Nees
Monocyrnbium ceresiiforme
(Nees) Stapf
Panicum coloratum
Panicum maximum Jacq.
Panicum natalense Hochst.
Paspalum dilatatum Poir.
Paspalum scrobiculatum L.
*Pennisetum clandestinum Chiov.
*Pennisetum sphacelatum
(Nees) T.Durand & Schinz
Perotis patens Gand.
Pogonarthria squarrosa (Roem. & Schult.) Pilg.
Schizachyrium
jeffreysii
(Hack.) Stapf
Schizachyrium
sanguineum
(Retz.) Alston
Schrnidtia pappophoroides
Steud.
Setaria lindenbergiana
(Nees) Stapf
Setaria megaphylla
(Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz
Setaria nigrirostris
(Nees) T.Durand & Schinz
Setaria sphacelata
(Schumach.) Moss var. sphacelata
Setaria verticillata
(L.) P.Beauv.
Sporobolus festivus A.Rich.
Sporobolus firnbriatus (Trin.) Nees
Sporobolus pectinatus Hack.
Sporobolus stapfianus Gand.
Themeda triandra Forssk.
Trachypogon spicatus (L.f.) Kuntze
Tragus berteronianus
Schult.
Trichoneura grandiglurnis
Triraphis andropogonoides
(Steud.) E.Phillips
Tristachya leucothrix Nees
Urelytrum agropyroides
(Hack.) Hack.
Urochloa mosarnbicensis (Hack.) Dandy
Celtis africana Burm.f.
Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.
*Cannabis sativa
Ficus abutilifolia
Ficus ingens
Protea
Protea
(Miq.) Miq.
caffra Meisn.
roupelliae
ssp. caffra
Zizka
Tapinanthus natalitius
(Meisn.) Danser
Viscum rotundifolium L.f.
ssp.
zeyheri
(Harv.) Wiens
Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud.
Thesium magalismontanum
Sond.
Thesium utile A.W.Hill
Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud.
*Persicaria lapathifolia
(L.) Gray
*Rumex species
Chenopodium
Chenopodium
ex Meisn.)
Dammer
album L.
murale L.
*Achyranthes aspera L. var. aspera
Aerva leucura Moq.
Amaranthus hybridus
*Cyathula uncinulata
(Schrad.) Schinz
*Gomphrena celosioides
*Pupalia lappacea
Limeum viscosum (J.Gay) Fenzl
& Zeyh.) Friedrich
ssp. viscosum
var. glomeratum
(Eckl.
Anacampseros
subnuda
Portulaca kermesina N.E.Br.
Talinum caffrum (Thunb.) Eckl.
& Zeyh.
Clematis brachiata Thunb.
Clematopsis scabiosifolia
(DC.) Hutch.
Brummitt
Ranunculus multifidus Forssk.
ssp. stanleyi
(Hook.)
*Capsella bursa-pastoris
(L.) Medik.
Heliophila rigidiuscula Sond.
Heliophila variabilis Burch. ex DC.
*Lepidium bonariense L.
Sisymbrium species
Cleome maculata
(Sond.) Szyszyl.
Cleome monophylla L.
Maerua cafra (DC.) Pax
Adromischus umbraticola*Bryophyllum delagoense
(Eckl. & Zeyh.) Schinz
Cotyledon orbiculata L. var. oblonga (Haw.) DC.
Crassula alba
Crassula capitella Thunb. ssp. nodulosa
(Sch"nland)
Crassula lanceolata
Crassula setulosa Harv. var. setulosa
Crassula swaziensis Sch"nland
Kalanchoe paniculata Harv.
Kalanchoe rotundifolia
(Haw.) Haw.
Kalanchoe thyrsiflora Harv.
Toelken
*Agrimonia odorata Wallr.
*Cotoneaster pannosus Franch.
*Pyracantha species
Acacia ataxacantha DC.
Acacia caffra (Thunb.) Willd
Acacia karroo Hayne
Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile ssp. kraussiana
Brenan
Acacia robusta Burch. ssp. robusta
Dichrostachys
cinerea
Elephantorrhiza
burkei Benth
Elephantorrhiza
elephantina
(Burch.) Skeels
(Benth.)
Argyrolobium
pauciflorum Eckl. & Zeyh. var. pauciflorum
Chamaecrista
comosa E.Mey. var. capricornia
(Steyaert) Lock
C"hamaecrista
comosa E.Mey. var. comosa
Crotalaria brachycarpa
(Benth.) Burtt Davy ex I.Verd.
Crotalaria lotoides Benth.
Eriosema burkei Benth.
Eriosema cordatum E.Mey.
Eriosema salignum E.Mey.
Erythrina lysistemon Hutch.
Indigofera adenoides Baker f.
Indigofera comosa N.E.Br
Indigofera cryptantha
Indigofera daleoides Benth. ex Harv. var. daleoides
Indigofera filipes Benth. ex Harv.
Indigofera hedyantha Eckl. & Zeyh.
Indigofera hilaris Eckl. & Zeyh.
Indigofera melanadenia Benth. ex Harv.
Indigofera oxytropis Benth. ex Harv.
Indigofera setiflora Baker
Indigofera spicata Forssk.
Indigofera zeyheri Spreng. ex Eckl. & Zeyh.
Indigastrum burkeanum
(Benth. ex Harv.) Schrire
Indigastrum costatum (Guill. & Perr.) Schrire ssp. theuschii
(O.Hoffm.) Schrire
*Lablab purpureus
(L.) Sweet ssp. uncinatus Verde.
Lotononis calycina (E.Mey.) Benth
Lotononis eriantha Benth.
Lotononis foliosa Bolus
Lotononis laxa Eckl. & Zeyh.
Lotononis longiflora Bolus
*Melilotus alba Desr.
Mundulea sericea (Willd.) A.Chev.
Pearsonia aristata (Schinz) Dummer
Pearsonia cajanifolia
(Harv.) Polhill ssp. cajanifolia
Pearsonia sessilifolia
(Harv.) Dummer ssp. sessilifolia
Rhynchosia adenodes Eckl. & Zeyh.
Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. var. prostrata
(Harv.) Meikle
Rhynchosia monophylla Schltr
Rhynchosia nitens Benth
Rhynchosia totta (Thunb.) DC. var. totta
Rhynchosia vendae C.H.Stirt.
Sphenostylis angustifolia Sond.
Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston
Tephrosia acaciifolia Baker
Tephrosia capensis (Jacq.) Pers. var. capensis
Tephrosia elongata E.Mey. var. elongata
Tephrosia longipes Meisn. ssp. longipes
Tephrosia multijuga R.G.N.Young
Tephrosia rhodesica
Vigna vexillata
Zornia linearis E.Mey.
Monsonia angustifolia E.Mey. ex A.Rich.
Pelargonium dolomiticum R.Knuth
*Oxalis corniculata L.
Oxalis depressa Eckl. & Zeyh.
Oxalis obliquifolia Steud. ex Rich.
Sphedamnocarpus
pruriens (Juss.) Szyszyl.
(Juss.) P.D.de Villiers & D.J.Botha
ssp. galphimiifolius
Polygala
Polygala
Polygala
amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.
hottentotta c.Presl
uncinata E.Mey. ex Meisn.
Acalypha angustata Sond.
Acalypha glabrata
Acalypha punctata
Acalypha villicaulis Hochst. ex A.Rich.
Croton gratissimus Burch. var. gratissimus
Euphorbia clavarioides Boiss. var. truncata
R.A.Dyer & B.Sloane
Euphorbia heterophylla L.
Euphorbia ingens E.Mey. ex Boiss.
Euphorbia schinzii Pax
Euphorbia striata
Phyllanthus parvulus Sond.
Tragia rupestris Sond.
(N.E.Br.) A.c.White
Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl
Lannea edulis
Ozoroa paniculosa
Rhus dentata Thunb.
Rhus discolor E.Mey. ex Sond.
Rhus lancea L.f.
Rhus leptodictya Diels
Rhus magalismontana
Sond. ssp. magalismontana
Rhus pyroides Burch. var. dinteri (Engl.) Moffett
Rhus rigida Mill. var. dentata (Engl.) Moffett
Rhus rimosa Eckl. & Zeyh.
Rhus zeyheri Sond.
cassine aethiopica Thunb.
Cas sine transvaalensis
(Burtt Davy) codd
May tenus heterophylla
(Eckl. & Zeyh.) N.Robson
May tenus polyacantha
(Sond.) Marais
May tenus tenuispina
(Sond.) Marais
May tenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock
Dodonaea angustifolia L.f.
Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh.
Helinus integrifolius
(Lam.) Kuntze
Rhamnus prinoides L'H,r.
Ziziphus mucronata Willd. ssp. mucronata
Ziziphus zeyheriana Sond.
Cyphostemma lanigerum
Rhoicissus tridentata
(Eckl. & Zeyh.) Urton
Corchorus asplenifolius
Grewia occidentalis L.
(Harv.) Desc. ex Wild & R.B.Drumm.
(L.f.) Wild & R.B.Drumm. ssp. cuneifolia
Burch.
Hibiscus aethiopicus L. var. ovatus
Hibiscus calyphyllus Cav.
Hibiscus engleri K.Schum.
Hibiscus lunarifolius Willd.
Hibiscus microcarpus Garcke
*Hibiscus trionum L.
Pavonia burchellii
(DC.) R.A.Dyer
Sida alba L.
Sida cordifolia L.
Sida dregei Burtt Davy
Sida rhombi folia L.
Harv.
Dombeya rotundifolia
(Hochst.) Planch. var. rotundifolia
Hermannia coccocarpa (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Kuntze
Hermannia depressa N.E.Br.
Hermannia floribunda Harv.
Hermannia grandistipula
(Buchinger ex Hochst.) K.Schum.
Hermannia lancifolia Szyszyl.
Waltheria indica L.
Ochna pretoriensis E.Phillips
Ochna pulchra Hook.
Hypericum
Hypericum
aethiopicum Thunb.
lalandii Choisy
ssp. sonderi
(Bredell) N.Robson
Dovyalis zeyheri (Sond.) Warb.
Kiggelaria africana L.
Scolopia zeyheri (Nees) Harv.
*Cereus peruvianus
(L.) Mill.
*Opuntia ficus-indica
(L.) Mill.
Dais cotinifolia L.
Gnidia capitata L.f.
Gnidia kraussiana
Gnidia microcephala
Meisn.
Gnidia sericocephala
(Meisn.) Gilg ex Engl
Combretum
Combretum
Combretum
*Oenothera
*Oenothera
Cussonia
Cussonia
erythrophyllum
(Burch.) Sond.
molle R.Br. ex G.Don
zeyheri Sond.
rosea L'H,r. ex Aiton
tetraptera Cay.
paniculata Eckl.
spicata Thunb.
& Zeyh. ssp. paniculata
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
Heteromorpha
trifoliata
(H.L.Wendl.)
Peucedanum magalismontanum
Sond.
Eckl.
& Zeyh.
Englerophytum magalismontanum
Mimusops zeyheri Sond.
(Sond.) T.D.Penn.
Diospyros lycioides Desf. ssp. guerkei (Kuntze)
Diospyros lycioides Desf. ssp. lycioides
Diospyros whyteana (Hiern) F.White
Euclea crispa (Thunb.) GOrke ssp. crispa
Euclea natalensis
Euclea undulata
Jasminum angulare
Olea europaea
De Winter
Vahl
Nuxia congesta R.Br. ex Fresen.
Strychnos cocculoides Baker
Strychnos pungens Soler.
Buddleja
Buddleja
saligna Willd.
salviifolia
(L.) Lam.
Chironia purpurascens
(E.Mey.) Benth.
(Gilg) I.Verd.
Sebaea grandis (E.Mey.) Steud.
& Hook.f.
ssp. humilis
Acokanthera oblongifolia
(Hochst.) Codd
Acokanthera oppositifolia
(Lam.) Codd
Ancylobotrys
capensis (Oliv.) Pichon,
Cryptolepis
Raphionacme
Raphionacme
oblongifolia
(Meisn.) Schltr.
galpinii Schltr.
hirsuta (E.Mey.) R.A.Dyer ex E.Phillips
*Araujia sericifera Brot.
Asclepias adscendens
(Schltr.)
Schltr.
Asclepias stellifera Schltr.
Brachystelma
species
Ceropegia rendallii N.E.Br.
Cynanchum africanum
(L.) Hoffmanns.
Gomphocarpus
fruticosus
(L.) Aiton f.
Gomphocarpus
tomentosus Burch.
Huernia hystrix
Pachycarpus schinzianus
(Schltr.) N.E.Br.
Pentarrhinum
insipidum E.Mey.
Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R.Br.
Secamone gerrardii Harv. ex Benth.
Stapelia gigantea N.E.Br.
Stapelia leendertziae N.E.Br.
Xysmalobium
undulatum
(L.) Aiton f.
Evolvulus alsinoides
(L.) L. var. linifolius
(L.) Baker
Ipomoea bathycolpos Hallier f. var. bathycolpos
Ipomoea crassipes Hook.
Ipomoea obscura
Ipomoea ommaneyi Rendle
*Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth
Ipomoea sinensis (Desr.) Choisy ssp. blepharosepala
(Hochst. ex
A.Rich.) Verde.
Merremia tridentata
(L.) Hallier f. ssp. angustifolia
(Jacq.)
Ooststr. var. angustifolia
Turbina oblongata
(E.Mey. ex Choisy) A.Meeuse
Cynoglossum hispidum Thunb.
Cynoglossum lanceolatum
Forssk.
Lithospermum
species
Clerodendrum
glabrum E.Mey. var. glabrum
Clerodendrum
triphyllum
(Harv.) H.Pearson var. triphyllum
Chascanum hederaceum
(Sond.) Moldenke var. hederaceum
Lantana rugosa Thunb
Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng
Lippia rehmannii H.Pearson
*Priva cordifolia
(L.f.) Druce var. abyssinica
(Jaub. & Spach)
Moldenke
*Verbena bonariensis
L.
*Verbena brasiliensis
Yell
*Verbena tenuisecta Briq
*Lantana camara L
Aeollanthus buchnerianus
Briq
Ajuga ophrydis Burch. ex Benth
Becium angustifolium
(Benth.) N.E.Br
Becium obovatum (E.Mey. ex Benth.) N.E.Br. ssp. obovatum var.
obovatum
Hemizygia canescens (Guerke) M.Ashby
Hemizygia pretoriae
(Guerke) M.Ashby ssp. Pretoriae
Leonotis ocymifolia
(Burm.f.) Iwarsson var. raineriana (Vis.)
Iwarsson
Plectranthus madagascariensis
(Pers.) Benth. var. ramosior Benth
Staehys natalensis Hoehst. var. natalensis
Salvia runeinata L.f
Teucrium trifidum Retz
Physalis
*Solanum
Solanum
*Solanum
Solanum
*Solanum
Solanum
Solanum
*Solanum
viseosa L
elaeagnifolium
Cay
incanum L
mauritianum Seop
panduriforme
E.Mey
pseudocapsicum
L
retroflexum Dunal
rigescens Jaeq
seaforthianum Andrews
Alectra orobanchoides
Benth
Cycnium tubulosum (L.f.) Engl
Graderia subintegra Mast
Halleria lucida L
Jamesbrittenia burke ana (Benth.) Hilliard
Nemesia fruticans (Thunb.) Benth
Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze
Striga bilabiata
(Thunb.) Kuntze
Striga elegans Benth
Sutera caerulea (L.f.) Hiern
Sutera pallescens Hiern
Sutera palustris Hiern
Zaluzianskya katharinae Hiern
Zaluzianskya maritima
(L.f.) Walp
*Macfadyeni unguis-cati
(L.) A.H.GentryWalafrida densiflora
(Rolfe) Rolfe
Walafrida tenuifolia Rolfe
Ceratotheca
triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f
Sesamum triphyllum Welw. ex Asch. var. triphyllum
Barleria macrostegia
Nees
Barleria pretoriensis
C.B.Clarke
Chaeta canthus burchellii Nees
Chaeta canthus costatus Nees
Chaeta canthus setiger (Pers.) Lindl
Crabbea acaulis N.E.Br
Crabbea angustifolia Nees
Crabbea hirsuta Harv
Crabbea ovalifolia Ficalho & Hiern
Hypoestes forskaolii
(Vahl) R.Br
Isoglossa grantii C.B.Clarke
Justicia anagalloides
(Nees) T.Anderson
Anthospermum
hispidulum E.Mey. ex Sond
Canthium gilfillanii
(N.E.Br.) O.B.Mill.
Canthium mundianum Cham. & Schltdl
Kohautia amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh
Kohautia caespitosa Schnizl. ssp. brachyloba
(Sond.) D.Mantell
Kohautia virgata (Willd.) Bremek
Oldenlandia herbacea
(L.) Roxb. var. herbacea
Pentanisia angustifolia
(Hochst.) Hochst.
Pavetta gardeniifolia
A.Rich. var. gardeniifolia
Pavetta zeyheri Sond
Psydrax livida (Hiern) Bridson
Pygmaeothamnus
zeyheri (Sond.) Robyns var. zeyheri
*Richardia brasiliensis
Gomes
Rothmannia capensis Thunb
Tapiphyllum parvifolium
(Sond.) Robyns
Vangueria infausta Burch. ssp. Infausta
Cephalaria zeyheriana Szab
Scabiosa columba ria L
Coccinia adoensis
(A.Rich.)
Cucumis hirsutus Sond
Cogn
I am sincerely grateful to persons and institutions that were involved with
this study in some way or the other. I am especially thankful to Lorraine
Mills and Karien Pieterse (Gauteng Directorate Conservation) who assisted
me with the fieldwork throughout the study. I also want to thank all the
officials from the Gauteng Directorate Conservation, friends and family for
their support with the field work.
I want to thank Brian Reilly for convincing me to do this project, Pieta
Compaan for support with the maps, my parents for their interest and moral
support throughout the study, David Hoare for assistance with TURBOVEG
and MEGATAB, Mark Read for assistance with identification of species and
Mark Custers for all the love and support during the final stages of this
project.
I want to further thank the Gauteng
Department of Agriculture,
Conservation and Environment for funding this project.
I am also thankful for the comments and guidance received from Prof. G.J.
Bredenkamp and Dr. L. Brown as well as the University of Pretoria for the
use of it's facilities.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
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