SAROJA CHETTY

SAROJA CHETTY

A STUDY OF THE PROVISION OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR SENIOR

IN KWAZULU-NATAL

SAROJA CHETTY

Submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the

Degree of

DEPARTMENT OF TEACHING AND TRAINING

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA.

SUPERVISOR: PROFESSOR D.R. BAGW ANDEEN

© U n i i v e r r s s i i t t y o f f P r r e t t o r r i i a

DE CLARA TION

I hereby declare that this dissertation is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references.

s.

CHETTY (Miss)

Chatsworth, KwaZulu-Natal.

DEDICATION

.:. My family for their faith in my ability

.:. All the Physical Education educators and members of management staff of primary schools who participated so willingly in this research

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to express my indebtedness to the following persons and instituti ons:

Professor D.R. Bagwandeen, my Supervisor, for his invaluable suggestions and the time spent reading the numerous drafts, his thoroughness and his faith in my ability.

The Department of Education and Culture KwaZulu-Natal, for permission to conduct the research.

The Principals, Heads of Departments and Physical Education educators at primary schools under the control of the KwaZulu-

Natal Department of Education and Culture for their co-operation in completing the questionnaires.

The Human Sciences Research Council for its financial contribution to complete the project.

My parents, who always encouraged me to further my education.

Miss V. Chetty for her constant support, sacrifice and encouragement; and, for typing this dissertation.

Mr L. Bachan for his willingness and competence in assisting with data processing and statistical analysis.

Mrs S. Rapetti, Mrs D. Ponnen and Miss T. Cherty for technical assistance and support.

CONTENTS

DECLARATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED

LIST OF KEY WORDS

ABSTRACT

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES

PAGE

I

11

111

IV

XV11

XXI

XX111

XXVI

XXV11

182

199

CHAPTER 1 ORIENTATION

1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.6.1

1.6.2

FACTORS LEADING TO THE RESEARCH

THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

ASSUMPTIONS

THE PURPOSE OF THE ENQUIRY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Published Material

Information Supplied by Senior Primary Physical

Education Educators through a Questionnaire

Information Supplied by School Management

Supervising Senior Primary Physical Education

Educators

LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE

RESEARCH

1

4

5

3

4

6

6

7

CONTENTS

1.7.1

Limitations

1.7.2

Delimitations

1.8

RESEARCH LOCATION

1.9

THE POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF

THE STUDY

1.10

THE STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY

1.11

CONCLUSION

2.1

2.1.1

2.1.2

2.2

2.2.1

2.2.2

2.2.3

2.2.4

2.2.5

2.2.6

2.2.7

2.2.8

2.2.9

2.2.10

2.2.11

CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL

FRAMEWORK FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION

FOR GIRLS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL

INTRODUCTION

Characteristics of Primary School Girls

Gender

DEFINITIONS OF RELATED TERMS AND

CONCEPTS

Physical Education

Curriculum

Instruction

Exercise

Play

Games

Leisure

Recreation

Athletics

Sports

Physical Fitness

PAGE

8

8

9

9

9

10

11

12

15

18

18

18

18

18

16

16

17

17

19

19

19

CONTENTS

2.3

THE PURPOSE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

2.3.1

To Enhance Physical Growth and Development

2.3.2

2.3.3

2.3.4

To Develop and Maintain Optimum Physical Fitness

To Develop Useful Physical Skills

2.3.5

2.3.6

To Develop in Socially Useful Ways

To Develop Wholesome Recreational Skills

To Develop Intellectual Competencies

To Develop Creative Talents 2.3.7

2.3.8

2.4

2.4.1

2.4.2

To Enhance a Child's Self-Image

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Student Consultations

2.4.2.1

The Theory of Physical Education

The Natural Science Aspect

2.4.2.2

2.4.2.3

2.4.2.3.1

2.4.2.3.2

2.4.2.3.3

2.4.2.3.4

The Social Science Aspect

The Central Field of the Theory of

Physical Education

The Study of Movement Phenomena

Methods of Physical Education

Fitness and Training

PAGE

19

20

21

21

22

23

23

24

24

26

28

29

29

30

31

31

31

32

2.4.2.3.5

2.4.3

2.4.3.1

2.4.3.2

2.4.3.3

2.4.3.4

Organisation of the Extra-Mural Programme

Research Methods

Theories and Principles of Learning

Principle of The Field Theory

Principle of Learning Motor Skills

Principle of Interest

Principle of Practice

32

32

33

34

34

35

35

CONTENTS

2.4.3.5

Principle of Distributed Practice

2.4.3.6

Principle of Skill Specificity

2.4.3.7

Principle of Whole-Part Learning

2.4.3.8

Principle of Transfer

2.4.3.9

2.4.4

Principle of Skill Improvement

Theory of Learning Motor Skills

2.4.4.1

Understanding What is to be Learnt

2.4.4.2

Opportunity to Respond

2.4.4.3

2.4.4.4

Feedback

Reinforcement

2.4.4.5

Learning Meaningful Wholes

2.4.4.6

Progression in Skill Learning

2.4.4.7

Prompting Appropriate Responses

2.4.4.8

Mental Practice

2.5

THE GOALS, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

2.5.1

2.5.2

Instructional Goals for Physical Education

The Basic Goals of Physical Education

2.5.2.1

2.5.2.2

2.5.2.3

2.5.2.4

2.5.2.5

2.5.3

2.5.4

Physical Skills

Physical Fitness

Knowledge and Understanding

Social Skills

Attitudes and Appreciations

The Aims of Physical Education

The Objectives of Physical Education

2.5.4.1

2.5.4.2

The Cognitive Domain

The Affective Domain

PAGE

36

37

38

39

41

41

42

42

40

41

41

42

42

43

43

44

44

45

45

45

45

45

45

46

49

49

CONTENTS

2.5.4.3

The Psychomotor Domain

2.5.4.4

Cognitive Objectives

2.5.4.4.1

Knowledge

2.5.4.4.2

Comprehension

2.5.4.4.3

Application

2.5.4.4.4

Analysis

2.5.4.4.5

Synthesis

2.5.4.4.6

Evaluation

2.5.4.5

Affective Objectives

2.5.4.6

Psychomotor Objectives

2.5.4.6.1

Motor Skill Development

2.5.4.6.2

Physical Fitness Development

2.6

2.6.1

PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES

Organic Development

2.6.2

2.6.3

2.6.4

2.7

2.7.1

2.7.2

2.7.3

2.7.4

2.7.5

2.8

Interpretive Development

Neuromuscular Development

Personal-Social Adjustment

THE IMPORTANCE OF MOVEMENT AND

PLA Y IN CHILDHOOD

The Physical Development Function

The Cognitive Development Function

The Socialising-Moralising Function

The Emotional Development Function

The Cultural Development Function

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF

LE~GPSYCHOLOGYTHAT

CONTRIBUTED TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION

LE~G

PAGE

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49

49

50

50

50

50

51

52

54

55

56

56

"59

61

61

61

62

64

64

64

64

64

65

2.8.2.1

2.8.2.2

2.8.2.3

2.8.3

2.8.4

2.8.5

2.9

2.9.1

2.9.2

2.9.2.1

2.9.2.2

2.9.2.3

2.9.2.4

2.9.2.5

2.9.2.6

2.9.2.7

2.9.2.8

2.9.3

2.9.4

CONTENTS

2.8.1

Jean Piaget

PAGE

65

2.8.1.1

Outline of Piaget's Stages of Intellectual Development 66

2.8.1.1.1

The Sensory Motor Period 66

2.8.1.1.2

The Pre-Operational Stage

2.8.1.1.3

The Formal Operational Period

2.8.1.1.4

The Concrete Operational Years

2.8.2

Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949)

66

67

67

67

The Law of Readiness

The Law of Effect

The Law of Exercise

Hull's Reinforcement Theory

Skinner's Operant Conditioning Theory

Gestalt Theory

MODELS OF SPORTS TRAINING

The Knowledge Structure (KS) Model

Mosston's Spectrum of Teaching Styles

The Command Style

The Practice Style

The Reciprocal Style

The Self-Check Style

The Inclusion Style

The Guided Discovery Style

The Divergent Style

Going Beyond

Direct Instruction

Task or Station Teaching

75

75

75

75

76

76

70

70

73

74

74

74

74

68

68

68

69

69

69

CONTENTS

2.10

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE DIDACTICAL-

PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION FOR GIRLS

2.10.1

The necessity for training regimes appropriate to physically immature participants

2.10.2

2.10.3

2.10.4

The structure of bones and the skeletal system

The nature of bone growth

The rate of growth

Endurance and muscle fibre type 2.10.5

2.10.6

2.10.7

2.10.8

2.10.9

The effect of hormonal changes during puberty

The concentration span of young learners

The effect of training on connective tissues

The role of participation in sport as part of a leamer's life-style

2.10.10

2.10.11

2.10.12

2.11

The "playway"

Individualised learning

Personalised learning

CONCLUSION

3.1

3.1.1

3.2

3.2.1

3.2.2

CHAPTER 3 HISTORICO - COMPARATIVE STUDY OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR GIRLS

INTRODUCTION

Gender Aspect - historically

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT IN

ANCIENT HISTORY

China

Egypt

PAGE

78

79

79

79

79

79

80

80

80

80

81

81

82

82

84

85

86

87

88

CONTENTS

3.2.3

India

3.2.4

Greece

3.2.5

3.2.6

3.2.7

Rome

Physical Education and Sport during the Dark Ages

3.2.8

3.3

Physical Education and Sport during the Age of

Feudalism

Physical Education and Sport during the Renaissance

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT IN

EUROPE

3.3.1

3.3.2

Germany

Sweden

PAGE

88

89

89

90

90

91

92

92

94

94

3.3.3

3.3.4

3.4

Denmark

Great Britain

94

3.4.1

3.4.1.1

3.4.1.2

3.4.1.3

3.4.1.4

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Introduction

The Civil War Period until 1900

Early Twentieth Century

World War 1: 1916 to 1919

In the Twenties: 1920 to 1929

95

95

96

98

99

3:4.1.5

3.4.1.6

3.4.2

In the Depression Years:

In Mid-Twentieth Century:

1930 to 1939

1940 to 1970

100

100

100

3.4.3

Physical Education Programme in the United States of America from 1960 to present

Significance for Physical Education for Girls

101

105

3.5

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT IN

ENGLAND

105

CONTENTS

3.5.1

Introduction

3.5.2

3.5.3

3.6

Physical Education Programme in England

Significance for Physical Education for Girls

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

IN INDIA

3.6.1

3.6.2

3.6.3

3.7

Introduction

Physical Education Programme in India

Significance for Physical Education for Girls.

CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 4 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION AND SPORTS TRAINING

FOR GIRLS IN PRlMARY SCHOOLS IN

KW AZULU-NATAL

4.1

4.2

4.2.1

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

4.2.5

4.3

INTRODUCTION

THE EARL Y SOUTH AFRlCAN SCHOOL

EDUCATION SYSTEM

Development and Planning of the

Education Systems

Development and Planning of the

African Education System

Development and Planning of the

Coloured Education System

Development and Planning of the

Indian Education System

Development and Planning of the

White Education System

THE HISTORlCAL DEVELOPMENT OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRlCA xu

PAGE

105

110

111

111

111

112

115

116

119

120

121

121

121

122

122

123

CONTENTS

4.4

THE PRESENT EDUCATION SYSTEM IN

KW AZULU-NATAL - PHYSICAL

EDUCATION IN PARTICULAR

5.2.3.1

5.2.3.2

5.2.3.3

5.2.3.4

5.2.3.5

5.1

5.1.1

5.1.2

5.1.2.1

5.1.3

5.1.4

5.2

5.2.1

5.2.2

5.2.3

CHAPTER 5 EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE

PROVISION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

FOR SENIOR PRIMARY GIRLS IN

KWAZULU-NATAL

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Choice of Research Designs

Questionnaires

Validity and Reliability of the Data

Sampling Selection

ANAL YSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF

DATA

Introduction

Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Results

Analysis and Interpretation of Data obtained from Level One Educators teaching Physical

Education to Senior Primary Girls

Name of Respondent's School (Q1.l)

Experience as Educators (Q1.3)

Experience as a Physical Education

Educator (Q 1.4)

Physical Education Specialist (Q 1.5)

Qualifications in Physical Education of Senior

Primary Physical Education Educators (Q 1.5.1)

138

138

139

140

140

142

133

133

133

133

135

136

138

138

138

CONTENTS

5.2.3.6

Gender otPhysical Education Educators (Q1.6)

5.2.3.7

Actual Teaching of Physical Education during the Physical Education Lesson (Q2.1)

5.2.3.8

5.2.3.9

Size of Physical Education Classes (Q2.2)

Physical Education Syllabus for Girls

(Q2.3 and Q2.3.1)

5.2.3.10

5.2.3.11

After School Daily Sporting Activities

(Q2.5 and Q2.5.1)

Physical Education as Compared to Core

Learning Areas (Q3.2)

5.2.3.12

5.2.3.13

5.2.3.14

5.2.3.15

5.2.3.16

5.2.3.17

5.2.3.18

5.2.3.19

5.2.3.20

Support given to Physical Education by

Principals (Q3.3)

Importance of Physical Education as regarded by other Educators (Q3.4)

Ranking of the Providers responsible for making Physical Education important as other learning areas (Q3.5)

Staff Involvement in After School Sporting

Activities for Learners (Q3.6)

Person Responsible for Supervising the After

School Sporting Activities at School (Q3. 7)

Existence of a Sports Committee at School (Q3.8)

The Functioning of the Sports Committee (Q3.8.1)

Frequency of Physical Education Subject

Advisor's Visit (Q4.1)

Need as expressed by Physical Education Educator of Subject Advisors Visit (Q4.2 and Q4.4)

5.2.3.21

5.2.3.22

Physical Education In-Service Courses would improve Professional Competency

(Q4.5, Q4.6, Q4.7 and Q4.8)

Facilities and Equipment at Schools

(Q5.1 and Q5.2)

PAGE

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

149

150

151

152

152

153

154

154

155

156

CONTENTS

5.2.4

Analysis and Interpretation of data obtained from

Primary School Management Staff Supervising

Senior Primary Physical Education Educator

5.2.4.1

Home Language and Gender of Management

Supervising Senior Primary Physical Education

Educators (Q 1 and Q2)

5.2.4.2

Age of Management Supervising Senior Primary

Physical Education Educators (Q3)

5.2.4.3

Educational Qualification of Management

Supervising Physical Education Educators (Q6)

5.2.4.4

Management Members' Interest in Sports (Q7)

5.2.4.5

Codes offered at School (Q9)

5.2.4.6

Participation in Inter-School Sports and

Funding (QI0 and Qll)

5.2.4.7

Physical Education Specialists at School (QI4)

5.2.4.8

Physical Education Courses attended by

Educators (QI6)

5.2.4.9

Hours of Physical Education on Time-table (QI7)

5.2.4.10

5.2.4.11

Time Spent on Actual Physical Activity (QI8)

Activities undertaken during Physical

Education Time (QI9)

5.2.4.12

The state of teaching Physical Education at School (Q22)

5.2.4.13

Problems encountered with the implementation of Physical Education and Suggestions made by

Senior Management for its improvement

(Q23 and Q24)

5.2.4.14

The Role of the Physical Education Educator as viewed by Management (Q25)

5.2.4.15

Promotion Prospects of the Physical Education

Educator as compared with those of

Academic Educators (Q26)

PAGE

157

157

158

162

162

162

163

164

165

166

166

158

159

159

160

161

CONTENTS

5.2.4.16

Outcomes Based Education, Rationalisation and Redeployment and Physical Education

(Q28 and Q29)

5.3

CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 6 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1

6.2

6.2.1

6.2.2

INTRODUCTION

SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS

Findings Pertaining to Location of Primary

Schools and Physical Education Educators

Findings Pertaining to Physical Education for Senior Primary Girls

6.2.3

6.2.4

6.2.5

Findings Pertaining to Providers responsible for making Physical Education important

Findings Pertaining to Supervision of Senior

Primary Physical Education Educators

Findings Pertaining to Outcomes Based

Education, Rationalisation and Redeployment and Physical Education

SUMMARY 6.3

6.4

6.4.1

6.4.2

6.4.3

RECOMMENDATIONS

Reinstate Physical Education as a Compulsory

Part of the Curriculum

Physical Education must be taught by a

Physical Education Specialist

The Need for a Physical Education Subject

Advisor

6.5

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER

RESEARCH IN THE TEACHING OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

CONCLUSION

174

XVI

167

167

170

171

171

171

172

173

174

168

168

168

169

170

170

4.2

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

TABLE

4.1

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

5.10

5.11

LIST OF TABLES

DESCRIPTION

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TEACHING

OF TRADITIONAL AND OUTCOMES

BASED EDUCATION

LEARNING AREAS

QUESTIONNAIRE RETURN STATISTICS

URBAN-RURAL DISTRIBUTION

EXPERIENCE AS EDUCATORS

EXPERIENCE AS A PHYSICAL

EDUCATION EDUCATOR

PHYSICAL EDUCATION SPECIALIST

QUALIFICATIONS IN PHYSICAL

EDUCATION OF SENIOR PRIMARY

PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

GENDER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

EDUCATORS

ACTUAL TEACHING OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION DURING THE PHYSICAL

EDUCATION LESSON

SIZE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

PHYSICAL EDUCATION SYLLABUS FOR

GIRLS

AFTER SCHOOL DAILY SPORTING

ACTIVITIES

PAGE

129

140

142

143

144

145

146

147

131

137

138

139

140

TABLE

5.12

5.13

5.14

5.15

5.16

5.17

5.18

5.19

5.20

5.21

5.22

5.23

DESCRIPTION

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AS COMPARED

TO CORE LEARNING AREAS

SUPPORT GIVEN TO PHYSICAL

EDUCATION BY PRINCIPALS

IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

AS REGARDED BY OTHER EDUCATORS

RANKING OF THE PROVIDERS

STAFF INVOLVEMENT IN AFTER

SCHOOL SPORTING ACTIVITIES FOR

LEARNERS

PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR

SUPERVISING THE AFTER SCHOOL

SPORTING ACTIVITIES AT SCHOOL

EXISTENCE OF A SPORTS -COMMITTEE

AT SCHOOL

THE FUNCTIONING OF THE SPORTS

COMMITTEE

NEED AS EXPRESSED BY PHYSICAL

EDUCATION EDUCATOR OF SUBJECT

ADVISORS VISIT

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN-SERVICE

COURSES WOULD IMPROVE

PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AT

SCHOOL

GENDER OF MANAGEMENT

SUPERVISING SENIOR PRIMARY

PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

PAGE

148

149

149

150

151

152

152

153

154

155

156

157

TABLE

5.24

DESCRIPTION

AGE OF MANAGEMENT SUPERVISING

SENIOR PRIMARY PHYSICAL

EDUCATION EDUCATORS

5.25

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF

MANAGEMENT SUPERVISING PHYSICAL

EDUCATION EDUCATORS

5.26

MANAGEMENT MEMBERS' INTEREST IN

SPORT

5.27

CODES OFFERED AT SCHOOL

5.28

PARTICIPATION IN INTER-SCHOOL

SPORTS AND FUNDING

5.29

PHYSICAL EDUCATION SPECIALIST AT

SCHOOL

5.30

PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES

ATTENDED BY EDUCATORS

5.31

HOURS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON

TIME-TABLE

5.32

TIME SPENT ON ACTUAL PHYSICAL

ACTIVITY

5.33

ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN DURING

PHYSICAL EDUCATION TIME

5.34

THE STATE OF TEACHING PHYSICAL

EDUCATION AT SCHOOL

5.35

THE ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL

EDUCATION EDUCATOR AS VIEWED BY

MANAGEMENT

PAGE

158

158

159

159

160

161

162

162

162

164

164

166

5.36

PROMOTION PROSPECTS OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION EDUCATORS AS COMPARED

WITH THOSE OF ACADEMIC

166

2.6

2.7

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

FIGURE

2.1

2.2

LIST OF FIGURES

DESCRIPTION

Breakdown of Objectives

A Comparison of Goals and Objectives of

Physical Education

2.3

2.4

2.5

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

Frequency of Physical Education Objectives as

Listed by Leaders in the Field

The General Physical Education Programme

Outline of Piaget' s Stages of Intellectual

Development

The KS Model

Mosston's Spectrum of Teaching Styles

Urban-Rural Distribution

Experience as Educators

Experience as a Physical Education Educator

Physical Education Specialist

Qualifications in Physical Education of Senior

Primary Physical Education Educators

Gender of Physical Education Educators

Actual Teaching of Physical Education during the Physical Education Lesson

Size of Physical Education Classes

Physical Education Syllabus for Girls

PAGE

48

57

60

63

66

143

144

140

141

142

72

77

139

139

145

146

FIGURE

5.10

DESCRIPTION

After School Daily Sporting Activities

5.11

Physical Education as Compared to Core

Learning Areas

5.12

5.13

5.14

5.15

5.16

. 5.17

5.18

5.19

Support given to Physical Education by

Principals

Importance of Physical Education as regarded by other Educators

Staff Involvement in After School Sporting

Activities for Learners

Person Responsible for Supervising the After

School Sporting Activities

Existence of a Sports Committee at School

The Functioning of the Sports Committee

Need as Expressed by Physical Education

Educators of Subject Advisors Visit

Gender of Management Supervising Senior

Primary Physical Education Educators

Home Language 5.20

5.21

5.22

5.23

5.24

Educational Qualification of Management

Supervising Physical Education Educators

Funding of Sporting Activities

Physical Education Specialists at School

Time Spent on Actual Activity

PAGE

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

153

154

157

157

159

160

161

163

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND

ABBREVIATIONS USED

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR HEALTH,

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION

AMERICAN ALLIANCE FOR HEALTH, PHYSICAL

EDUCATION, RECREATION AND DANCE

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

ASSOCIATION

KWAZULU-NATAL DEPARTMENT OF

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

MATIIEMATICAL LITERACY, MATHEMATICS

AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

NATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION AND SPORT

NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRNvrnWORK

OUTCOMES BASED EDUCATION

TIIE PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION OF

THE UNITED KINGDOM

S&R

SMT

TECH

UNISA

USA

VIZ.

WWII

YMCA

YWCA

SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION FOR PHYSICAL

EDUCATION AND RECREATION

STIMULUS AND RESPONSE

SENIOR MANAGEMENT TEAM

TECHNOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA namely

WORLD WAR TWO

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

Physical Education: girls

Physical Education specialists activities and sports programmes for Physical Education exerCIse programmes fitness programmes senior primary Physical Education provision of Physical Education: girls teaching models for Physical Education

Physical Education curriculum goals, aims and objectives of Physical Education

Physical Education educators

Physical Education facilitators

The main aim of this dissertation was to examine the status of Physical

Education for senior primary girls in KwaZulu-Natal.

Two sets of questionnaires were used to acquire information from Physical Education teachers and management staff involved in supervision of Physical

Education at primary schools. The data obtained were then analysed .

•:. To determine the degree of constructive guidance given in the teaching of senior primary Physical Education by school management

.:. To determine whether physical educators are suitably qualified

.:. To determine whether Physical Education forms part of the core curriculum at schpol

.:. To make a historical comparative study of the development of

Physical Education in primary schools and in KwaZulu-Natal in particula~

.:. To determine whether schools have the necessary resources needed in order to teach Physical Education

.:. To make recommendations for the improvement of teaching

Physical Education in the senior primary phase in the primary schools of KwaZulu-Natal

.:. Presently there are only 28% of Physical Education specialists teaching Physical Education

.:. The majority (60%) of the educators teaching Physical Education to senior primary learners is males

.:. That about 36% of the educators do not actually teach Physical

Education during the Physical Education lesson

.:. Boys and girls were taught together

.:. An overwhelming majority (100%) of Physical Education educators indicated that they were not supervised in the last 36 months.

Some go far back as seven to ten years

.:. A little more than half (58%) of the schools had specialists in school - but they were classroom-based educators.

Several recommendations are made out of these findings ranging from making Physical Education part of the core curriculum, ensuring Physical

Education is taught by a specialist educator, providing facilities and equipment, supervising of Physical Education and the role of the Physical

Education subject advisors. It is expected that such recommendations, if implemented, would contribute towards the elimination of problems that face Physical Education specialists and in improving the status quo of

'Physical Education.

Sports offers infinite possibilities and in a country like South

Africa with its varying climate, different races and numerous immigrant groups, there is a particularly wide variety of sporting activities.

Sports have much to offer in the development of body and mind. Girls, in particular, can gain enjoyment and satisfaction from whichever level they desire.

In athletics, the desired efficiency is extremely high and top performances can be achieved only by carefully planned training, especially at the primary school level of development.

All round physical ability and a variety of skills is usually started at the primary stage, which is also suited to developing speed and agility.

Sports and exercise playa major part in modern life styles. It is said that the desire to learn, play and enjoy a sport is one of the most fundamental human needs. They can offer many years of enjoyment, well being, social relationships and selfdevelopment.

Participants range from dedicated sportsmen and sportswomen to those who enjoy the less physically demanding but equally important social, recreative and fun elements.

For some, there are great financial benefits, while for others the reward is simply an increase in fitness and general health.

The value placed on success in sport is evident in the "eastern bloc" where vast sums of money have been lavished on facilities and sportsmen and sportswomen to achieve the very highest standard.

The researcher is presently an educator in a primary school.

She has specialised in and taught Physical Education for twelve years. During this time, she has trained pupils in many aspects

of sports up to provincial level.

The envisaged research proposes to analyse and evaluate the shortcomings in the provision of Physical Education and sports training for girls at the primary schools in South Africa especially KwaZulu-Natal.

In previous studies, the problems identified in the teaching of

Physical Education have occurred in three areas, namely:

• the status of the subject

• the failure of physical educators to realise educational objectives and the lack of resources of time, and

The status of the subject was perceived to be lower than other subjects for a number of reasons.

In education systems where certificates and examinations were considered to be the purpose of education, Physical Education received little recognition for its educational worth. This related to it being a non-examinable subject until recently in many countries and consequently it had to justify its place in the curriculum as stated by Paterson

(1984), Coutts (1981) and Sparks and Webb (1993).

A misconception that existed was that Physical Education dealt only with the "physical".

There appeared to be no acknowledgement that Physical Education contributed to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child when taught correctly (Williams, 1989: 14). Physical Education has an important contribution to make to the education process.

Another misconception existed in the relationship of Physical

Education with sport and the inability to distinguish between them. This inevitably led to the role of physical educators being perceived as sports coaches rather than the subject teachers of

Physical Education.

The writer, having qualified and taught Physical Education to girls for over twelve years, made numerous observations concerning the teaching of Physical Education for girls at the senior primary level. Inter alia, the following factors promoted this investigation:

• not all the educators were suitably qualified; it was difficult to teach Physical Education as it was a specialist subject

• Physical Education time was seen as play time to play games

• the formal lesson was slowly dying because not all physical educators were qualified to teach the skills and techniques required

• gymnastics and the teaching of skills were fast becoming something of the past; larger class numbers and the inability of the educator to teach specialised skills were some of the reasons

• training and coaching for school matches were conducted during Physical Education time

• pupils who were not interested in Physical Education just hung around

• there definitely seems to be a decline in the teaching of

Physical Education

• as a non-examinable subject in South African schools,

Physical Education seems to be accorded a marginal position in relation to examination subjects.

The study is concerned with the provision of Physical

Education for girls at senior primary schools in KwaZulu -

Natal. Amongst other things the study will consider the change that has occurred in Physical Education, especially for girls, over the years both in content and the teaching of it.

To highlight the neglected aspects and improve the standard taught in the primary school, this research proposes to identify the reasons why senior primary Physical Education for girls is given such a low status.

It is evident from a study of the literature in the field of Physical Education that few studies appear to have been undertaken in the field of Physical

Education in the primary schools in South Africa.

Recommendations to revive Physical Education in the school curriculum will be offered.

• that Physical Education for girls at primary school level requires specialised teachers

• that future sportswomen are made in the primary school

• that the basics of Physical Education for girls taught at the primary school level must be done competently and they must promote an all-round development of the female learners

• that there is a need for supervision of Physical Education by the Senior Management Team (SMT)

It is assumed that the Physical Education educators and supervisors responded without bias or prejudice to the questions included in their questionnaires.

In this regard, a letter was attached to the questionnaires explaining why the information was being collected.

In selecting the schools, it is assumed that the sample of teachers who completed the questionnaire is a

1.5

good approximation of the total population of senior primary

Physical Education educators in schools under the control of

KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education and Culture

(KZNDEC).

THE PURPOSE OF THE ENQUIRY

The basic aim of the present investigation is to examine the

status quo of Physical Education for primary school girls.

Specifically, the following aims may be listed:

• to determine the degree of constructive guidance given in the teaching of senior primary Physical Education by school management

• to determine whether physical educators are suitably qualified

• to analyse the current situation apropos Physical

Education for primary school girls

• to determine whether Physical Education forms part of the core curriculum at school

• to make a historico-comparative study of the development of Physical Education in primary schools in selected countries and in KwaZulu-Natal in particular

• to determine whether schools have the necessary resources needed in order to teach Physical Education

• to undertake an empirical investigation with respect to the provision of Physical Education at school; to make recommendations for Physical Education in the senior primary phase in the primary schools in KwaZulu-Natal

A descriptive and qualitative analysis mode of study was employed.

In addition, an empirical investigation of the provision of Physical Education for girls at senior primary schools in KwaZulu-Natal through the use of questionnaires was carried out.

Material for this research was derived from vanous sources.

Qualitative research methods are designed to bring the researcher closer to social reality and social interaction.

They expect the researcher to become a part of the research environment and experience interaction as the respondent's experience it.

In qualitative research, reality is seen as emerging from the interaction and communication of the members of the society in its natural setting.

Qualitative research is set to explain clearly and accurately how respondents will be approached.

The steps of the process, as well as the rules of its operations, are expected to be made known as far as possible.

This research method is not rigidly set but rather flexible and can change during its execution.

It aims to understand people, not to measure them.

It aims to study reality from the inside not from the outside (Sarantakos,

1998: 46).

A detailed literature survey was conducted with the following aims:

• to collect information about the research structure, process and relationships, increasing the researcher's familiarity with the research topic

• to be able to make a historico- comparative analysis of the issue in question so that the current study can be placed in a historical context

• it reviews a theory or the methods and techniques most suitable for the study, by looking at the ways other researchers have approached the topic.

Various methods were employed when undertaking literature reviews.

Literature survey comprising books, sabinet, ERlC database, HSRC database, university catalogues, internet and relevant articles in periodicals and journals were used to obtain information on the following:

1.6.2

1.6.3

• The Evaluation of Physical Education In South African

Schools and Selected Countries.

Information

Supplied by Senior Primary Physical Education

Educators through a Questionnaire

The questionnaire to senior primary Physical Education educators was designed to determine responses and opinions related to Physical Education teaching in the senior primary phase.

Questions were also included in the questionnaire to collect updated material concerning the educators' qualifications, gender and teaching experience.

Information Supplied by School Management

Supervising Senior Primary Physical Education Educators

The questionnaire to management staff supervising senior primary Physical Education was designed to determine the degree of supervision and guidance given to Physical Education educators.

1.7

LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE

RESEARCH

Like many research studies of this nature, the study has the following limitations:

The results of this study were based on the responses of senior primary educators.

Although the findings may be true for the educators of Physical Education in the other phases, they cannot be extended to include these phases with any degree of confidence.

Another limitation concerns the return rate of questionnaires.

Approximately 28% of the population did not respond.

4% of the sample returned it unanswered because they did not teach

Physical Education in their schools.

Time, safety and cost made it impossible for the researcher to send questionnaires to all the schools in the study area. This is regrettable because it would have been of value to the final outcomes of this research project.

This research in terms of its topic has the following demarcation and delimitation:

Firstly, the study concentrates on the Physical Education for girls in the senior primary phase of the primary school.

Secondly, the main focus of this investigation is on the factors affecting the status quo of Physical Education for girls in the primary school.

1.9

This research was undertaken in the province of KwaZulu-

Natal.

It involved a sample of primary schools with semor primary phases as there are too many schools.

THE POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

• highlight current practice and problems in the teaching of

Physical Education for primary school girls

• furnish information for those involved in the supervision of

Physical Education educators at the senior primary school and

• contribute to further research into the teaching and improving the status quo of Physical Education for primary school girls.

An orientation of the research is presented in chapter one.

Introduction to the study, factors leading to the research, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research methodology used in the study, assumptions, limitations and delimitation, research location and potential significance of the study are presented.

Chapter two provides an explanation of the theoretical and conceptual framework of the research topic. Models associated with the teaching of Physical Education are discussed.

This discussion includes a brief outline of the characteristics of each model and its suggested area of application in the teaching of senior primary Physical Education for girls.

In chapter three, the introduction of Physical Education as a discipline in the school curriculum is traced from early history to the present period.

Physical Education teaching in the

United States of America, England and India are included in the discussion.

Chapter four focuses on the history of Physical Education in

South Africa, from the early Dutch settlement to present day in

KwaZulu-Natal.

In chapter five, the analysis and evaluation of the information derived from the questionnaire is undertaken, details relevant to the empirical investigation are presented.

Data is presented in a qualitative descriptive manner underscored by reference to graphs, tables and figures.

Chapter six constitutes a summary of the main research findings.

This chapter also carries recommendations based on the conclusions gathered from the general literature survey and the empirical investigation as discussed in Chapter Five.

In this chapter, an introduction to the study was provided.

Factors leading to the research, statement of the problems, the hypotheses and the aims of the investigation were outlined.

In addition, a brief description of the method of study, assumptions, limitations and delimitations, research location and the potential significance of the study were detailed, followed by an outline of the structure of the study.

This took the form of a synopsis of the content of each chapter of the study.

The following chapter outlines the theoretical and conceptual framework of the research topic.

THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR GIRLS IN THE

PRIMARY SCHOOL

The researcher is concerned, in this chapter, with various theoretical concepts related to Physical Education for girls.

A study of Physical Education theory will deepen our insights into the nature of our work and enable us to understand better the concept Physical Education for girls. Though the current usage in South Africa for children in school is learners and for teachers is educators, these terms will be used interchangeably with pupils, learners, students, teachers and facilitators.

This is indeed a vast area.

The researcher, however, has the study of the theoretical and conceptual framework limited to what may be deemed the pertinent aspects, which will be- dealt with in this chapter.

Due consideration will be given to the gender aspect and characteristics of the primary school girl; the purpose of Physical Education, the theory of Physical

Education, the theory and principles of learning; the aims and objectives of Physical Education together with models of teaching and developments in the field of learning psychology.

The study of learning is shared by many disciplines and primarily psychologists carry on the scientific study of learning.

True education embraces the development of the whole person

- the mind, the spirit and the physical being (Serfontein, 1989:

11). In this dissertation, the researcher is concentrating on the physical being.

To cater for the well being of the physical aspect of the human body, the learning area of Physical

Education is highlighted.

Physical Education, it is argued, must therefore be given its rightful place in the development of the child.

2.1.1

In the physical development of the child, amongst other things, movement is a core factor.

This is a common factor running through all education, namely, movement.

Children have spontaneous movement and undoubtedly all children love physical activity.

Educators need to ensure that Physical

Education caters for their needs and are presented intelligently.

This physical activity and movement need to be maintained and developed.

It has long been recognised that the urge for physical movement in children is strong and that such activity probably constitutes one of the great needs of life during the growing years.

The educator has to be knowledgeable about children's growth.

This is emphasised in the Plowden Report (Peters, 1969: 1) as follows:

"Knowledge of the manner in which children develop is of prime importance in avoiding educationally harmful practices and in introducing effective ones."

Children have their growth spurts at enormously different times.

Professor Tanner (Evans and Methuen, 1971: 6) describes how the adolescent growth spurt begins about two years earlier in girls than in boys and lasts on average from the age of eleven to thirteen and a half.

The educator needs to be knowledgeable of the characteristics of pupils at this level in order to offer them the best opportunities.

There can be no doubt that the future female

Olympic contestants should be spotted in the middle years, that is, eight to thirteen years. In this regard we need to consider the following aspects:

Characteristics of Primary School Girls

The Physical Education curriculum must take into account the characteristics of primary school girls at this stage.

They are overcharged with energy and are eager to improve their skilfullness.

"Children grow at different rates at different ages and different children also develop at different rates, so there are early and late developers.

There are also changes in body proportions that can put limitations on their ability to perform."

The body is able to bend, twist, stretch and contract and to take weight on different parts.

The child learns to co-operate with others in order to compete against others, to accept the demands of leadership and the discipline of being led and to see the need for rules and sanctions.

These are the years for beginners to establish standards of performance and making children aware of what they are capable of achieving.

Only by concentrated and knowledgeable teachings, is it possible to attain the required results.

There ought to be a specialist teacher as she could contribute her specialism to the school. Children need to achieve a measure of skillfulness before reaching the age of self-consciousness.

Evans and Methuen (1971: 21) describe the characteristics of the primary school child as:

~ One to be lithe, strong, enthusiastic, responsive, competitive, bossy, inquiring, sensitive and creative

~ They find the changes, both physical and mental, very disturbing, exciting, depressing and inspiring

~ They also begin to discover their talents and aptitudes and to form skills and interests

~ They begin to realise that they are members of a community and wonder and worry about their places in a group

The best age at which to try particular activities will depend not only on the stage of maturation or the physiological age of children but also on chronological age and on the activities in

which they engage since birth.

If children try before they are ready, they may get frustrated to the point of impeding their progress later on and they will certainly be wasting their time.

Reaction time, speed, precision and steadiness also improve as children mature.

If performance depends primarily on any of these factors, early practice has limited and often doubtful values.

Sports can bring a lot of joy and guidance to the young as stated by Martens:

"I want today's children to be enriched by sports, to learn the lessons I found helpful, to know the joy of sports that

I have known.

I want them to discover the natural

"highs" found in sports rather than those they can purchase on the street.

Through sport, I want them to acquire respect for authenticity and individuality, to discover courage and perseverance, and to experience the harmony of body and emotions.

Sports can help children enjoy their childhood and facilitate their transition into adulthood."

Unquestionably, well-conducted Physical Education programmes are most beneficial for ehildren.

Children's games and play are seen to represent miniature and playful models of a wide variety of cultural and social activities and concerns.

In this regard it should be noted that:

"A well-planned and well-designed Physical Education curriculum is of little value unless the teacher is capable of translating the material into enjoyable programme activities that are suited to the needs and abilities of the children in each developmental level."

Games of different types represent microcosmic social structures in which various different styles of competing; winning or losing is subtly encoded.

By participating in a

variety of games where various elements of skill, chance and strategy are variously re-combined in gradually increasing complexity, children find an opportunity to experiment with different success styles and gain experience in a variety of cognitive and emotional processes which cannot yet be learned in full scale cultural participation.

Physical Education developed on the premise that girls required

"separate" and "different" opportunities in physical activity.

In the past, boys have been socialised into sports through the family, school, community and the media.

Girls were socialised to become "caddies" of sports cheerleaders.

Today it is more acceptable for sideline girls to participate in sports, to compete and to achieve.

Studies conducted in Australia repeatedly referred to gender differences in attitude towards Physical Education.

Thomson

(1996: 23) quoted Heaven and Rowe (1990) thus:

"School Physical Education programmes are seen to be of key importance in countering male domination of sport.

. .. substantial agreement exists concerning the need not only to raise sporting participation levels amongst girls but also to modify the masculine inflection of much current sport."

The subject of issues related to gender in the teaching of

Physical Education was discussed in detail in an article entitled,

"Boys and Girls come out to play (but mainly boys)" by Anne

Williams (1989: 25) where she highlighted the extent to which

Physical Education reinforced stereotype images of masculinity and femininity in England.

Thomson (1996: 25) found that Walter (1990), in her study conducted in Ciskeian Junior and Senior Secondary Schools, found that more sporting opportunities were opened to boys rather than girls at schools.

The girls had a very limited range of sports to choose from, namely, netball, tenniquoit and athletics.

2.2.1

Terminology and semantics have played significant roles in the confusion noted in our field.

Uncertainty in meaning still characterises many of the terms we use, for example, what is soccer in Great Britain is football in the United States. A clear understanding of keywords is basic to accurate communication, a number of selected terms is thus defined as they are used in this dissertation.

Physical Education

Physical Education is seen to be that field of endeavour in which the individual's potential for movement is utilised as a means whereby he/she can be purposefully exposed to carefully planned learning experiences.

In this dissertation, we shall consider two broad definitions.

The first is:

"Physical Education is defined as a process through which an individual obtains optimal physical, mental and social skills and fitness through physical activity."

These activities are selected in order to contribute optimally to his/her psychomotor, cognitive and affective growth in an integrated way.

They also optimise quality of life through a long-term commitment to enjoyable physical activity that will meet varied needs in a changing world.

"Physical Education is defined as an educational process that uses physical activity as a means to help individuals acquire skills, fitness, knowledge and attitudes that contribute to their optimal development and well being. In this definition, the term education is broadly defined as the ongoing process of learning that occurs throughout our lifespan."

(Wuest and Bucher, 1999: 8-9)

Physical Education is consequently closely associated with all other educational endeavours, by means of its focus on the progress of the child to adulthood.

It is seen as an integral part of education.

Syllabus and Curriculum are often used interchangeably.

Curriculum is normally the what and why of teaching.

A curriculum is a structured series of intended learning outcomes, with the learner as the focal point in both formal and informal situations (Seidel and Resick 1972: 30). The stress is on pupils' understanding of what they are doing.

"The syllabus is a purposeful arrangement different parts of the learning material comprehensive whole." of the into a

These authors see the syllabus as a narrower concept than the curriculum. Curriculum is seen as the subject matter that will enable the educator to make educative experiences available to the pupils. It refers to subject matter, what is to be taught, why it is being taught and what the learning outcomes will be

(Vickers, 1990: 7).

The syllabus is that part of the subject curriculum that comprises the content of all that is to be taught and learnt.

Instruction is the how or teaching methods.

The goal of instruction is to maximise the efficiency with which all the students achieve the desired objectives of the programme.

It refers to the techniques, methods or processes that are used in planning and delivering lessons and units, in managing the classroom environment and in implementing techniques of evaluation (Hellison and Templin, 1991: 43).

2.2.5

Exercise is physical activity that is planned, structured and repetitive and has, as its purpose, the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness.

It means to practise, to strengthen or to condition through physical activity as stated by

Wuest and Bucher (1999: 24).

Play

This refers to amusement engaged in freely for fun and devoid of constraints.

It is spontaneous and the act of playing is rewarding in itself (Hellinson and Templin, 1991: 43).

Games usually imply winners and losers. They can range from simple diversions to competitions with significant outcomes governed by rules.

They are contexts in which the outcome is determined by strategy, skill or chance (Wuest and Bucher,

1999: 8-9).

Leisure is freedom from work or responsibilities and mayor may not include physical activity.

Spectating is a popular leisure past-time, attracting millions (Hellison and Templin

1991: 43)

Recreation is concerned with those activities performed by an individual during hours not at work.

This refreshes or renews one's spirit and strength after toil.

The school can promote productive relations between school and community recreation programmes.

It should be enjoyable and satisfying.

Athletics are organised, highly structured, competitive activities in which skilled individuals participate (Wuest and Bucher,

1999: 8-9).

Robust and skilled individuals engage in these activities.

Athletics· include intramural, extra-mural and interscholastic programmes.

Sports

This can be played for exercise or as a game. It can be defined as competitive physical activities governed by individuals and teams seeking to out-perform their opponents.

Sports are organised, competitive physical activities governed by rules.

As sports have grown, so have opportunities for individuals

(Wuest and Bucher, 1999: 8-9).

Physical Fitness

Wuest and Bucher (1999: 24) see physical fitness as the capacity of people to perform physical activities and it has been described as the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and without undue fatigue and with sufficient energy to engage in leisure-time pursuit.

It also enables one to perform at one's fullest capacity.

Most authorities agree that Physical Education is an integral part of education.

The late President Kennedy, in a message addressed to the nation's schools in 1961, pointed out:

"The strength of our democracy is no greater than the collective well-being of our people.

The vigour of our country is no stronger than the vitality and will of our countrymen.

. .. The need for increased attention to the physical fitness of our youth is clearly established.

. .. We must increase our facilities and the time devoted to physical activity.

We must invigorate our curricula and

give high priority to a crusade for excellence in health and fitness."

2.3.1

Schools have the primary responsibility of promoting intellectual growth.

Due consideration must be given to the inter-dependent parts which together make up the sum total.

The intellect develops within the structure of the human body, which has to be in a good healthy condition.

If the school curricula does not cater for Physical Education, attaining a good healthy condition will be neglected by the learner and will not be catered for at home.

Every pupil taught should benefit regardless of his or her lack of enthusiasm for the subject.

The importance of exercise and the benefits it can bring are emphasised by Evans (1988: 99).

The emphasis is on pupils' understanding of what they are doing (Evans, 1988: 99).

The primary purpose of Physical Education, according to

Kirchner (1981: 9), is to help each child develop his/her full potential.

This potential includes the development of a child's cognitive skills of thinking, learning and communicating thoughts and ideas. It also includes development of a variety of closely related effective skills that children need to formulate attitudes and feelings about themselves and others. And finally, it includes the full development of the psychomotor skills of children, which includes moving, for utility and grace with creative expression, when desired.

Physical Education, as an integral part of an elementary school curriculum, can contribute to the general educational goals as outlined by Kirchner (1981:

10-13) below:

To Enhance Physical Growth and Development

Children are born with certain inherited characteristics that determine their approximate height, mass and general physique.

Environmental factors such as proper nutrition; amount of

2.3.2

2.3.3

sleep, exposure to disease and general parental care will also affect the child's growth and development.

But, in addition to these factors, there is substantial evidence that normal growth and development of bone, connective, and muscle tissue occur only when children receive adequate and continuous exercise throughout their growing period.

Regular exercise, for example, increases bone width and mineralization.

Similarly, lack of exercise can severely limit the potential growth of other bodily systems and organs.

To Develop and Maintain Optimum Physical Fitness

There has been a substantial effort by the Medical and Physical

Education professions to convince the public of the importance of exercise and physical fitness to children, youth and adults.

There is now a large body of scientific evidence that suggests that Physical Education programmes will help each child develop and maintain an optimum level of physical fitness.

We know that children who possess the optimum level of physical fitness will normally reach their maximum levels of growth and development.

Physically fit children do not show undue fatigue in daily activities and have sufficient reserve to meet energies.

Children who are physically active are less prone to emotional disturbances and are normally well adjusted and generally outgoing.

Normal children who are continually involved in vigorous physical activity also adequately maintain proper weight. And finally, physical fitness is a prerequisite for satisfactory performance in sports, gymnastics and other vigorous activities.

To Develop Useful Physical Skills

All movements that are used in everyday activIties, such as dodging and climbing, as well as those highly complex skills involved in sports, gymnastics and dance activities, may be classified as "useful physical skills".

Other terms, such as

neuromuscular or motor skills, are also used to designate this type of physical performance.

i

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p

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444-

104-

2.3.4

The one thing that all these useful skills have in common is that they have to be learned.

Therefore our task as teachers is to assist each child in developing and perfecting the wide variety of motor skills that will be used in everyday activities and in future leisure pursuits.

The values of efficient and skilful movements, particularly in sports and dance, are many.

Children who demonstrate ease and grace of movement are usually physically fit and well adjusted among their peers.

Furthermore, children who are skilful in an activity such as basketball, or swimming will not only experience a great deal of enjoyment through participation, but also will usually keep up with the activity for many years.

This lesson should be well understood by adults, for we generally participate in activities in which we show a reasonable degree of skill; rarely do we actively pursue or enjoy a sport that we cannot master at least in part.

To Develop in Socially Useful Ways

According to the platform statement of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

(AAPHERD) socially mature persons are those who work for the common good, respect their peers' personalities and act in a sportspersonlike manner.

Implicit in this is the fundamental principle that democratic citizens must possess a deep sense of group consciousness and co-operative living.

Physical

Education, through team games and other group activities, can foster desirable social behaviours.

But game situations that require loyalty, honesty and fair play can promote desirable behaviour patterns only if they are intelligently organised and directed.

Physically fit and well co-ordinated learners are valuable assets; however, the individual who does not possess desirable social traits cannot realise or contribute to the broader ideals of a democratic community.

2.3.5

2.3.6

To Develop Wholesome Recreational Skills

We have witnessed unbelievable changes in the social and economic structure of this country.

Rapid transportation, urbanisation and automation in the home and in industry have given us leisure time never before experienced in a modem society.

But these changes have also created a challenge to use leisure time for the betterment and well being of self and community.

Enjoying wholesome physical recreation is an expressed need of contemporary society.

Thus, there is a need to educate children so they gain knowledge and develop appreciation of skills that can be used in their daily activities, as well as make a contribution to the sense of creativity and relaxation and providing a means of filling the ensuing years with wholesome activity.

The task may appear to be overwhelming to elementary school teachers.

However, it is their job to lay the foundation for the development of many recreational skills that may be perfected in later years.

To Develop Intellectual Competencies

Intellectual competency involves the cognitive skills of acquiring a vocabulary and joining words, phrases and sentences to express meaning and to communicate thoughts and ideas.

On the highest order, it involves the ability to understand, develop and communicate concepts and ideas.

In elementary school education, the development of intellectual competency has generally been delegated to classroom activities, with Physical Education seen as a way to develop fitness, motor skills and a variety of social and emotional traits.

Physical Education should be predominantly physical in nature; it is not, however, an experience that is void of vocabulary, of concepts, of a need to exercise and nurture the child's thinking processes.

Every physical activity has a rich vocabulary.

Games, dances and gymnastics movements require the child to

2.3.7

2.3.8

think, remember and conceptualise.

Developing a movement sentence in gymnastics, for example, requires the child to plan each movement in a sequential pattern, to remember and to improve by exploring and evaluating new ideas through movement.

Likewise, individual and team games provide a medium within which the young performer develops concepts relating to space, gravity, force, direction and time.

The teachers should not view Physical Education as an academic discipline.

They should see it as a medium of movement within which vocabulary, concept and the thinking processes of each child should be developed through effective teaching strategies and the appropriate selection of physical activities.

To Develop Creative Talents

Contemporary public education stresses the development of creativity at all levels.

Creativity, however, is a difficult concept to define. A work of art such as a painting, sculpture or musical score is creative in that it is uniquely different in composition, colour or form. In Physical Education, we define creativity in terms of the way in which a movement or series of movements are performed or by the degree of inventiveness of a movement.

Gladys Andrews says that creativity is what individuals think, feel, see and express in terms of themselves and in their own way (Kirchner, 1981: 12). Since every child has an inherent ability to be creative, the Physical Education programme should provide numerous opportunities for learners to explore and express their creativity through movement.

To Enhance a Child's Self-Image

Self-image is essentially the feelings children have about themselves.

Children develop feelings about their intellectual abilities, their popularity among their peers and their ability to perform physical activities.

If there is reasonable success in each of these dimensions, children normally will have positive

feelings about their personal worth.

A child who has this positive feeling is generally eager to attempt new challenges.

However, children who constantly experience failure in any of these areas will normally have a very low opinion of themselves.

This too often leads to withdrawal or other forms of undesirable behaviour.

Classroom teachers clearly understand the implications of such problems of children in learning tasks and in getting along with their classmates.

Physical Education can be, inter alia, one of the most beneficial activities for a child to develop a positive self-image.

If the activities are presented in such a way that children, regardless of their physical ability, achieve a measure of success, they express their eagerness to try again. On the other hand, when children are repeatedly required to attempt movement skills that are beyond their capabilities there generally develops a negative attitude.

Since self-image is one of the most important factors in learning motor skills, Physical Education activities must "be presented in such a way that every child achieves some success.

New methods and techniques described in later chapters can assist teachers in providing this type of programme for all children.

These broad purposes as indicated by Kirchner (1981: 9-13) are the goals of what a modern Physical Education programme should be.

Perhaps the unique contributions of Physical

Education are physical fitness and motor skill development.

The need for a physically fit nation, from childhood through adulthood, has been emphasised by Presidents, members of the

Medical Profession and countless leaders in business and education.

The inherent values of motor skill development, from the standpoints of the both worthy use of leisure time and the positive contributions of physical activity to long-term mental health, must be considered of equal importance,

But the development of intellectual competencies through

Physical Education should also be emphasised, as with art,

2.4

music, or any other aspect of the curriculum.

All subject areas can and should develop each child's intellectual abilities.

Similarly, development of creativity among children or the enhancement of their self-image is not the sole responsibility of one teacher or one subj ect area.

Physical Education simply is a unique medium within which the personal and creative expressions of children can be developed through movement.

Physical Education as a subject in the elementary school curriculum thus must not be considered merely as a means of "training the body".

It must be thought of as an integral part of the total curriculum with similar goals and unique contributions.

Physical

Education is an important part of the educational process.

It is not a "frill" or an "ornament" tacked on to the school programme as a means of occupying children.

It is, instead, a vital part of education (Bucher, 1975: 17).

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

Theories formulated by educational theorists have made recommendations, which are so widely apart on the continuum from that of radicalism to conservatism. They have also shared a great deal of common ground at the level of fundamental values and ultimate goals.

The purpose of education is to develop the potentialities of the individual.

The intellect develops within the structure of the human body and it depends upon a proper climate, which is good health.

The individual and ultimately society will benefit depending on the fitness of individuals to fulfil their objectives.

It is very important that Physical Education be included in any general programme designed to improve our human resources.

"Despite the fact that lip service has been paid increasingly to the dictum 'a sound mind in a sound

body' ever since Western Europe began to revive the educational concepts of the Graeco-Roman world, there is still a lack of balance among those who write of education.

. .. Physical exercise is necessary to the growth, the health, and the happiness of men, mental as well as physical.

For man is a unity.

His mind may be isolated for the purpose of study and discussion, but in actual life ... when all labour is done by machines, it may someday be, man will still need healthy muscles and vital organs as a condition of healthy life.

Such sturdy systems, if not developed by the normal labour of the day must be gained through substituted forms of exercise."

It is not uncommon for texts on teaching to have a chapter on learning and several sections on "learning theories".

These sections are usually reviews of what one might have found in a standard educational psychology textbook of 30 years ago. One would typically find sections on Stimulus and Response (S &

R) theory, Gestalt View and several other theories.

The era of overarching theories of learning has been over for some time. While theoretical work in learning is not dormant,

- most psychologists have found the search for one complete theory to be fruitless.

It has proven far more useful to research factors that affect learning.

" ... we cannot be sure which theorists are to be listened to, or what things are really sensible, or what to count as knowledgeable rather than as just guesswork or muddle."

These theories are numerous, especially in complex real-world settings such as the gymnasium, as opposed to more rigorously controlled settings such as the laboratory.

A brief analysis and

reference to some theories deemed relevant to this study follows:

There is a paucity of theoretical conceptualistion, empirical research and discourse of practice concerning how students experience the curriculum or engage in learning.

Doyle recommended that to understand this construct better, researchers should study not only teachers and teaching but also students within their ecosystem.

The child is very seldom consulted in Physical Education research.

This neglect of students' experiences is changing (Dyson, 1995: 394).

In

Dyson (1995: 394) Wittrock (1986) further comments that research on students' thought processes examines how teaching influences what students think, believe, feel and say and how this affects their achievement in Physical Education classes. To explain effective teaching in Physical Education, it is very important to learn more about students' thoughts as they acquire motor skills.

To know and understand the learners' opinions on how they experience the curriculum can provide insight into how the curriculum is received.

In

this regard,

Evans (1988: 140) asserts that:

"Teachers not only control pupils, they too are controlled by pupils."

Students play an important part in the teaching and learning dynamics.

Researchers need to investigate classroom behaviours and actions and how learners and educators interact within the educational ecosystem.

Researchers must listen to the learners.

By interviewing learners, a broader perspective of what happens in the gymnasium is provided.

Listening to the learners is essential to the understanding of

Physical Education.

Recently, a number of researchers have suggested that what students believe and how they think and feel can affect achievement in many ways.

2.4.2

Lee, Carter and Xiang of the Louisiana State University conducted a study in 1995 to examine learners' conception of ability and what meaning they attach to high and low competence for themselves and others.

Most of the children believed that their ability could be modified through effort. The findings from this study and the issue of ability as a stable capacity have powerful implications for teachers.

Children who have negative views of their ability and believe that this ability cannot be improved through their efforts will be less optimistic and will eventually avoid participation and develop negative attitudes towards Physical Education (Lee et a!., 1995: 293-

384).

The Theory of Physical Education

Physical Education is a part of education as a whole.

It is inseparable and is an indispensable part of the development of a young person.

During the past few decades, a theory of Physical Education has evolved and has followed the same pattern as the theories of other practical subjects.

Physical Education has become a fully developed pedagogic discipline.

~ The Natural Science Aspect

~ The Social Science Aspect

~ The Central Field of Physical Education Theory

The Natural Science Aspect

The physical educationist must have anatomical knowledge such as a knowledge of the main muscle group in order to choose the correct exercises for the development of certain parts of the anatomy, for example, the shoulder.

This knowledge is known as anatomy of movement or kinesiology.

Knowledge of the general anatomy of the body is essential prior to the study of Physical Education.

Some exercises strengthen the muscles; others develop internal organs, while activities like tennis or dance results in a development of certain skills and a closer co-ordination of muscles and the nervous system.

The physiological effects of exercise are known as the physiology of exercise or movement physiology.

Exercise has been proven to help the growth of the skeleton.

The physical educationist helps to promote growth.

It is therefore necessary for the educator to have knowledge of the relation of exercise to growth and to study the anthropometric aspect of Physical Education.

Whether or not Physical Education improves health is of great importance.

Nutrition, smoking and taking of alcohol are all connected with physical exercise and sport.

The influence of sport on the female body is also considered.

Hygiene and posture and corrective exercises are also acknowledged.

The Social Science Aspect

Great educators have always maintained that the development of the whole child includes a many-sided education of intellect, body and emotions.

Through the study of the general theory of education we see that Physical Education is placed next to the intellectual, religious, aesthetic, ethical, social and professional education.

The mental development of a learner must be understood and therefore a study of child-psychology is essential.

As play is a child's main form of activity, a study must be made of the theories of play.

The study of psychology also gives us an insight into the connection between mental health on the one hand and on the other an outlet for the emotions and the creative urge, for which opportunity is given in play and in educational dance.

The school going child is exposed to hours of physical inactivity as our education, particularly in KwaZulu-Natal, is apparently aimed more at intellectual development.

Physical

Education and creation can compensate for this lack of physical activity.

A study of the sociology of recreation is thus very important.

When we begin to look deeper into the process of movement, we question the connection between biological human beings and their mental counterparts.

We come up against the problem of the existence of human beings and we are in the field of philosophy.

The Central Field q[the Theory of Physical Education

The history of and the present-day trends in Physical Education are critical for our understanding of Physical Education for girls.

Physical exercises have been used for more than two thousand years and it supplies us with knowledge of the aim, means and methods of Physical Education.

By studying the way our subject is taught and problems solved ih other countries, we can use some of this information to contribute to the building up of Physical Education in our country.

In this connection, the following concepts assume relevance:

The Study of Movement Phenomena

Movement is the means by which we wish to teach. The theory of human movement belongs to the central field of Physical

Educational theory.

Methods of Physical Education

The general method includes the aims, means and application of these means to Physical Education as a whole.

These methods are crucial particularly when considering the many ramifications of developing programmes in Physical Education for girls.

Fitness and Training

Physical fitness is a part of the physiology of exercise.

However, it now has its own discussion due to the increase in knowledge of the subject.

All Physical Educationists are involved in sports and therefore problems regarding athletic training, amongst other things, must receive close attention.

Organisation of the Extra-Mural Programme

The Physical Educationists must also have knowledge of the organisation of different competitions.

This would ensure that they develop a successful extra-mural sports programme.

In Physical Education, methods for measuring strength, skill and flexibility have been developed.

Every branch of science develops its own methods of research.

Physical Educationists reaiise that participation in Physical exercise not only promotes the development of muscles and internal organs, but also affords good opportunities for acquiring valuable experience.

Qualities of leadership and agreeable personalities may be developed and good patterns of behaviour learnt in order to facilitate social intercourse and acquire emotional balance.

The youth becomes adapted to a complicated civilisation by learning to mix play, exercise, recreation and relaxation into daily life (Postma, 1984: 47).

The theory of Physical Education has been influenced by a number of natural and social sciences.

Crous (1987: 6) and

Postma (1984: 5) provide the following outline for Physical

Education in terms of the theory referred to above.

In the

Natural Sciences, the principal subsections would be

Kinesiology, Physiology of Exercise, Anthropometry and

Hygiene.

2.4.3

History and Trends of Physical Education, Movement

Phenomena, Methods of Physical Education, Fitness and

Training, Organisation of Extra-mural Programmes and

Physical Education Research.

Finally, in the Social Science arena, the critical sections would comprise Educational Theory and Physical Education,

Psychological Aspect of Physical Education, Sociological

Aspect of Physical Education and Philosophical Aspect of

Physical Education.

However, over the last few years, research into, and consequently, knowledge of the theory of Physical Education, has increased dramatically.

The following have emerged as the most important field subsumed under the rubric Physical

Education:

»

Fundamental Science

»

Exercise Science

»

Sport Science

»

Movement Education

»

Recreation

»

Dance

Universities now use the term Human Movement Science to include all these aspects.

Physical Education is regarded as the womb of the whole sports movement.

Unfortunately, in many public schools, especially in KwaZulu-Natal, Physical

Education has been neglected.

Some time is devoted to sport, which is regarded as being more prestigious.

Theories and Principles of Learning

There must be a sound rationale for the need of Physical

Education programmes.

There must be a scientific foundation

and intellectual base for Physical Education.

The theories and principles of learning discussed below provide the scientific foundation and show how Physical Education relates directly to the goals of education.

A theory of learning is a theoretical assumption of how an organism learns.

In Physical Education, the theory must provide a reasonable basis for understanding motor learning and a list of principles of learning that can be applied to the teaching and learning of physical activities.

Theories of learning provide a framework for understanding motor learning skills and the important principles that should be considered in teaching Physical Education

Principle o/The Field Theory

This theory was developed by Wertheimer

et aI.,

as seen· in

Kirchner (1981: 84).

It assumes that the learner has a personality and reacts as a whole from the very beginning.

It maintains that the human organism possesses a certain order from the beginning.

All attributes are considered as integral and indivisible parts of the whole personality; they may be differentiated but cannot be separated from the organisation of the whole to the identification of the small parts.

Therefore learning is not considered to be an additive process, as it is with the Stimulus-Response theory, but it consists of a continuous re-organisation of new learning with previous ones, resulting in new insights.

This theory stresses that the fundamental importance that any learning experience has on learners depends upon their unique perception of the experience in relation to their previous experience, abilities and the personal desires.

From this point of view, learning is an individualised process, with the teacher serving as a guide of the learning experience.

Principle of Learning Motor Skills

Continuous experimentation has produced principles of learning that provide a reasonable guideline for teachers as they

organise learning experiences and select teaching methods and techniques.

Some of the following principles are derived from the Stimulus-Response theory, while others are the direct application of the Field theory.

Thus, the principles represent an eclectic point of view.

Since knowledge of the learning process is still incomplete, these principles can be used only as guidelines.

Teachers should apply their own common sense to every learning situation (Kirchner, 1981: 85).

Principle o[Interest

Any skill, whether it be climbing a rope or throwing softball, will be acquired more efficiently if children have a motive for learning it.

Their attitudes toward learning the skill will determine for the most part the amount and kind of learning

(Kirchner, 1981: 85).

It is inherent in this principle that the teacher fosters in the child a desire to learn motor skills.

Learning will generally take place if the children experience immediate satisfaction and if they see the necessity for building a strong, healthy body, or if they value the skill as something they can use during their leisure time.

It is also possible that learning can occur out of fear or because of some extrinsic reward, such as a star or check put beside their names.

This principle has numerous implications for Physical Education.

These include:

~ Select activities that are appropriate to the child's interests, needs and capacities.

~ Present activities in such a way that each child achieves some degree of success.

Principle of Practice

Research in motor learning strongly suggests that practice is necessary for the acquisition of a motor skill.

The child must practise correctly, however, and until the skill becomes over-

learned or automatic.

For example, once a child has learned to swim, several months may elapse without practice.

Nonetheless, the child will still be able to swim. In general, the more the skill is over-learned, the longer the time it will be remembered before it is lost.

But if practice is done badly, it will not lead to improvement and might even lead to regression

(Kirchner, 1981: 85).

Again the implications of this principle for Physical Education include the need to:

~ Select skills that are appropriate to a group's interests and maturation level.

~ Stress proper form while the skill is being learnt.

After the skill has been learnt, stress other factors, such as speed and distance.

~ Repeat drills activities after several months to ensure retention.

Principle of Distributed Practice

A motor skill is learnt more effectively with distributed practice periods than with massed practice periods.

The length of the practice periods, as well as the time between practices, depends upon the difficulty of the skill, the ability of children and their background.

However, as a general rule, a short period of intense effect and attention is better than a half-hearted longer period as stated by Knapp (1967) in Kirchner (1981: 85).

This principle generally applies to all age levels and virtually all skills.

But there are certainly times, depending on the interest of the children and the amount of effort required when the practice period might be longer or shorter.

Self-testing activities for any age group should have a variation so that one part of the body is not overworked.

For instance, a teacher working with fifth and sixth grade children in an activity such as volleyball lead-up games may

find that the learners remain interested and enthusiastic for ten or fifteen minutes or even longer.

So long as interest is high and skill development is fostered, it is not only permissible, but also desirable, to extend the practice period. On the other hand, when the children are indifferent and are not attaining the skill, a change in the lead-up activity or a shortened practice period is suggested.

The implications for Physical Education with respect to this principle include the need to:

~ Adjust the length of the practice period and the spacing of rest periods for the class to the material being taught.

~ Change an activity whenever the children show fatigue, boredom and poor skill development.

Principle of Skill Specificity

The ability of children to acquire a particular skill depends upon their unique characteristics.

They may excel in one skill but be awkward in others that require about the same maturity and physical effort.

For example, a nine year old girl may be able to throw, catch and hit a softball with ease and accuracy, but still she shows a sub-par performance in volleyball activities, which require about the same effort and physical attributes.

(Kirchner, 1981: 86)

The principle also applies to children who have reached the same psychological and physiological maturity level.

After a single demonstration of a skill, one child may be able to perform it in its entirety, while another child may need more demonstration and practice to perform even a part of the skill.

This is seen in such sports as swimming, basketball and track and field events.

The implications of this principle for Physical Education include essentially consideration of the need to:

~ Provide varied activities at all grade levels.

~ Allow for individual differences in standards of performance of a skill.

~ Allow for variations in the speed at which children acquire the same skill.

~ Develop standards based upon the individual's level and rate of development rather than the class average.

Principle of Whole-Part Learning

According to Knapp in Kirchner (1981: 86) material is learnt in the whole method by going through it completely again and again.

In the whole method, the material is divided into portions, which are practised, and eventually the parts are joined as a whole.

In Physical Education, and within any skill area, it is difficult to define what is whole and what is a part of the skill or game.

Recognising the difficulty, the available evidence indicates that the whole method is superior to the part method in teaching motor skills.

A teacher applying this principle must decide whether to teach a movement in its entirety or break it down into parts.

The choice depends firstly, upon the complexity of the skill and secondly, upon the learner's amount and speed of skill development.

For example, when a teacher demonstrates to her third grade class a one-foot hop-skipping skill using a single rope and the children then attempt to do the skill in its entirety, this is practice through the whole method.

But if only a few children learn the skill after repeated attempts, it would be better to break down the skill into simpler movements.

The children could do a one-foot hop over a long rope turned by two people, then attempt the one-foot hop with a single rope, the hopping movement could be integrated into the rhythmic turning of the rope (Kirchner, 1981: 86).

Once again there are numerous implications of this principle for

Physical Education.

These are, inter alia:

~ Use the whole method whenever the skill represents a single functional movement

~ It may be desirable to break down more complex skills into smaller parts.

Complexity depends upon the skill as well as the leamer's ability.

~ Generally, the rate and amount of learning a skill indicate the effectiveness of the method used.

Principle a/Transfer

Transfer in Physical Education can be defined as the effect that practice of motor task has upon the learning or performance of a second, closely related task.

Underlying this principle is the assumption that the learner will take advantage of what a new situation has in common with his previous experience, such as applying the knowledge of an underhand throwing motion in learning to serve volleyball.

Although it has been contended that transfer particularly will occur between identical skills or movements, there is no conclusive evidence to support this.

This evidence instead seems to support the principle of specificity discussed earlier.

~ Postponements of the movement education approach, including its originator, Rudolph Laban, has said that it has a strong carry-over to other skills learning, but there is no evidence to indicate a common motor skill factor.

Current research indicates that transfer depends upon the degree of resemblance between the skills.

~ There are, however, many other reasons for incorporating the movement education approach.

One important reason is that carry-over does occur with

movement education in the form of a positive attitude towards other activities.

Principle of Skill Improvement

Children do not always learn every physical skill in the same way.

There are too many factors affecting the learning curve, including the complexity of the skill, children's motivation and physical ability and the adequacy of instruction.

Generally speaking, however, the initial phase of learning is usually quite rapid.

This may be due to the children's enthusiasm for a new activity and the fact that they learn the easy parts first, utilising previously acquired skills.

But progress slows down gradually, even as practice continues, to a period of almost no overt improvement.

There are numerous explanations for these learning "plateaus", such as lack of motivation, failure to learn a pre-requisite skill, and improper instruction.

With proper analysis and correction, an increase in skill attainment should result (Kirchner, 1981: 87).

The implications for Physical Education of this principle include the following:

~ Teachers should recognise children's individual differences in the learning curve for the same activity.

~ After a new skill is introduced, allow sufficient practice time for mastery.

~ Be aware of physiological limitations that hinder or prevent additional improvement.

The concept of teaching methods was based upon the premise that the teacher was the sole authority of what was correct and desirable for children.

However, all principles of learning are applicable to Physical Education.

When these principles are considered in relation to the goals of the Physical Education programme and the characteristics of the leamer, the scope and

2.4.4

direction of the programme and the way it should be taught should become abundantly clear (Kirchner, 1981: 84-89).

Theory of Learning Motor Skills

The educator teaches because we want children to learn but not all children learn. This could be because teachers do not understand how children learn. In teaching motor skills to children there are some major factors to be looked at as part of

Physical Education as discussed by Siedentop et al. (1984: 10

et seq.).

Understanding What is to be Learnt

Goals have to be clearly defined to them.

Teachers sometimes give so few instructions and do not clarify the tasks precisely that children are lost in their attempts at a skill. They learn after they get corrective feedback.

Teachers can also sometimes overload the children so thoroughly with information that they cannot respond appropriately.

It is found that children learn best when they are given a good -description or demonstration.

Children should see the entire skill before they attempt to master it.

Opportunity to Respond

Learners must make a motivated attempt to reach a learning goal and get some feedback about their efforts.

Children must get more practice; they must be active all the time.

It is a known fact that feedback is necessary for learning.

The feedback information must be precise.

In Physical Education, most skills taught have a goal and are rich in feedback.

Physical Educators rely highly on corrective feedback in that they watch for errors in performance and give feedback to correct these errors.

Reinforcement

This is close to feedback but also has a motivational aspect.

It comes in various forms, from a kind word, winning a game or even peer acknowledgement.

Teaching becomes easier when teachers work with highly motivated children.

While opportunity to respond, feedback and reinforcement are the maj or factors affecting learning, there are several other variables worthy of mention as attention to these factors can also enhance learning such as learning meaningful wholes, progression in skill learning, prompting appropriate responses and mental practice.

Learning MeaningfUl Wholes

It seems that children learn best when they are presented with tasks that are meaningful wholes in themselves.

A meaningful whole has motivating factors attached to it; it carries a source of intrinsic reinforcement.

The task will be meaningful to the learner.

If skills are broken down into component parts, they must be made into meaningful wholes on their own.

This is easily done in Physical Education.

Progression in Skill Learning

Children learn best if presented with a careful progression of skills in which achievement of one level of skill leads naturally into a higher, more complex level of skill, for example, to "set" a volleyball or to learn the cartwheel or headstand in gymnastics.

Prompting Appropriate Responses

This concerns guiding the learner through learning progressions by prompting.

A teacher trying to help pupils learn the waltz might say:

" ... right, left, together left, right, together."

2.5

over and over again so that the children will move rhythmically.

Gradually, the teacher's verbal guidance is removed and the pupils' behaviours are prompted by cues in the music.

This is verbal prompting.

Using floats for swimmers, who are beginners, is an example of prompting through physical restriction.

Prompting is help / guidance / intervention by the teacher to help children move along more quickly, to help them get the idea of a skill more easily, or to prevent unnecessary errors from impeding progress.

It has been noticed that thinking about a skill helps people learn it more quickly, for example, gymnasts, dancers and athletes rehearse their performances mentally.

This can be done during waiting times.

THE GOALS, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

At this juncture, we need to consider briefly the goals, aims and objectives of Physical Education particularly for girls.

At the outset, we need to clarify these concepts.

According to

Harrison (1983: 28) goals lead towards the aim.

In so far as objectives are concerned Vickers (1990: 11) defines it accurately.

We shall now outline each aspect as follows in the light of the foregoing:

From the theoretical perspective, it is important to bear in mind the values, goals, objectives, aims and implications of Physical

Education.

Seidel and Resick (1972: 30), with respect to aims, define an aim as a statement of purpose so lofty as to be practically unattainable; whether it is reachable or not, however, there should be a ceaseless striving towards it.

Lumpkin (1994: 10) sees the purpose of Physical Education and sports programmes as to optimize quality of life through a long-term commitment to enjoyable physical activity.

This also

2.5.1

2.5.2

includes sport experiences that will meet varied needs In a changing world.

Thus, we may regard an aim as an ideal which acts as a compass by giving direction to the total programme.

Aim is seen as a distant or ideal goal, which can be broken down into

smaller goals which, when achieved, will direct us towards the aim (Harrison, 1983: 28).

Instructional Goalsfor Physical Education

These are the instructional goals as seen by Harrison (1983:

28)

~ To develop physical skills which will enable participation in a wide variety of activities.

~ To develop physical fitness and soundly functioning body systems for an active life In the environment in which children live.

~ To develop knowledge and understanding of physical and social skills, physical fitness, scientific principles of movement and the relationship of exercise to personal well being.

~ To develop body skills which promote acceptable standards of behaviour and positive relationships with others.

~ To develop attitudes and apprecIatIOn that will encourage participation in and enjoyment of physical activity, fitness, quality performance and positive self

- concept and respect for others.

The Basic Goals of Physical Education

Physical Skills

The development of neuromuscular skills essential for efficient every day movement as well as for efficient movement in a variety of activities, leads to more enjoyment in activity.

Physical Fitness

The development of physical fitness and health contributes to effective living and enjoyment of life.

Knowledge and Understanding

An understanding of the importance of physical activity and how it relates to one's health and well being is very important.

Knowledge about game rules, techniques and strategies of participation enhance participation in a variety of physical activities.

2.5.3

Desirable social values such as leadership, co-operation, fellowship, sportsmanship and courtesy can be taught through participation in Physical Education activities.

Attitudes and Appreciations

The attitude students have towards physical activity influence their future participation.

It can also increase their feelings of self-esteem and develop initiative, self-direction and creativity.

The Aims of Physical Education

Bilborough and Jones (1973: 23) maintained that Physical

Education is designed:

~ to contribute to the general education of the child through physical activity

~ to educate individuals physically and develop their physical ability, adaptability and versatility in as wide and an all-embracing way as possible

~ to promote physical activities so that:

• children are faced with a situation which they have to solve by using their personal skills

2.5.4

• pupils are faced with situations which will help develop their initiative and creativity

• understanding and awareness of many factors can be developed.

Generally, the aim of Physical Education is to provide the necessary teaching to afford the individual or group the opportunity of participating in physical activities.

which contribute towards the development of the "whole person".

Peters in Wilson (1975: 116) rounds it up precisely as:

" ... education no longer has agreed aims; procedures are constantly under discussion and vary according to different people's conceptions of the subjects which they

"

The Objectives of Physical Education

"Objectives are statements that capture the teacher's or goal's and intentions.

Objectives describe what you feel can be taught and your students can accomplish, given the subject matter and constraints present in the learning environment. "

Without objectives, learning actIvIties would be like a map without a destination.

Objectives also increase teacher

accountability by focusing on specific behaviours that can be evaluated.

Objectives convey to the teacher, student and administration what is to be accomplished.

Teachers are more secure because they know that what they are teaching has been carefully planned and that evaluation is specified and appropriate.

Students will know exactly what is expected of them.

"An objective is a relatively specific outcome of instruction which can be achieved within a short period of time".

With clearly defined objectives, it is possible for the teacher to pre-assess the pupil behaviour in relation to the objective, to evaluate progress toward the objective and to determine the extent to which the learners have achieved the objectives.

Objectives refer to the desirable results for which the field of

Physical Education strives. Such objectives serve as guidelines in class planning and conducting (Dintiman et al., 1979: 2).

Lumpkin (1994: 10) states that the objectives of Physical

Education are a desire to develop the child as a whole.

Since the 1930s Physical Education has verified its value as a school subject by showing its alignment with Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives.

In the

Outcomes Based Education (OBE), the objectives are similar but learning areas are now introduced.

Figure 2.1

shows the breakdown of the objectives and summarises the cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives of Physical Education and Sport. These objectives inter-relate rather than exist in isolation.

Objectives for learning can be classified into three domains or areas of behaviour:

The Cognitive Domain

The cognitive (thinking) domain is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge and its application with different terminology and approaches as will be discussed in chapter four.

The Affective Domain

The affective (feeling) domain includes the promotion of values, the fostering of social skills and enhancement of emotional development.

The Psychomotor Domain

The psychomotor (doing) domain involves the development of motor skills and physical fitness.

Physical Education and Sport supports cognitive and affective development but places the greatest emphasis on the psychomotor section.

For example: In addition to the foregoing, Harrison (1983: 83-173) and Wuest and Bucher

(1999: 36-59) provide an added perspective of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains as objectives for Physical

Education.

Cognitive Objectives

Cognitive Objectives deal with the learning and application of knowledge.

They include knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

These objectives are elaborated as follows with special reference to

Physical Education:

Knowledge

Knowledge of game rules and strategies, of terminology, of history and current events and of body systems.

This includes memory, ability to recall and bringing to mind appropriate

information.

It also represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in cognitive domain.

Comprehension

Comprehension of game rules and strategies, of the effects of exercise on the body, of the benefits of exercise, of factors affecting exercise and of social and psychological factors affecting sports participation.

Moreover, the objective encompasses the grasping of the meaning of material; understanding without perceiving implications; interpretation; translation; estimation and prediction.

It represents one step beyond memory and the lowest level of understanding.

Application

Application of game rules and strategies, of techniques to learn new skills, of techniques for relaxation, of principles of safety and of game etiquette.

Children acquire the ability to use learned information in new situations, can apply rules, methods and concepts.

If represents a higher level of understanding.

Analysis

Analysis of game strategies for effectiveness, of commercial physical fitness and recreation programmes.

It prepares children to break down material into its component parts; organisations and relationships between parts are made clear, also identifying, selecting and inferring.

It represents a higher intellectual level.

Synthesis

Synthesis of exercise programmes to attain physical fitness and new games or game strategies.

The objective includes putting parts together to form a new whole, producing new patterns, routines, or structures.

Creative behaviours are stressed.

Evaluation of exercise programmes and of rules and strategies and their effects on game play are developed.

Children learn to judge values of ideas and concepts, based on definite criteria or standards.

It is the highest learning outcome because it contains elements of all other categories and judgements based on specific criteria.

Thus, from the foregoing, it becomes patently clear that the

Cognitive Domain

is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge and the development of intellectual skills.

Harrison

(1983: 87-123) and Wuest and Bucher (1999: 36-59) further argue that development of knowledge and understanding is an important objective for Physical Education and sport programmes in all settings.

Physical Education and sport are concerned with educating individuals about the many dimensions of human movement, including the knowledge within this discipline.

The learning of physical activities involves various cognitive processes.

Learners must understand the techniques of the skill being taught and then be able to translate this information into an appropriate, co-ordinated movement.

Professionals in all settings need to place more emphasis on the scientific principles and concepts underlying the performance of various activities.

Physical activities are not performed in a vacuum.

Teachers can also use fitness activities to stimulate cognitive development.

Students can self-analyse their fitness levels, identify areas of improvement, apply their knowledge to design an individualised exercise programme and evaluate their progress, adjusting their programme as needed.

In addition, technology is now playing a vital role in the achievement of cognitive objectives.

With respect to Physical

Education, technology is increasingly being used to enhance the teaching concepts of physical activity.

Instructors of Physical Education and sport should structure the learning experience so that, participants acquire knowledge of technique, rules and strategies. Also, proper etiquette should be addressed during instruction.

Safety principles must be emphasised so that the well being of individuals is not compromised during their participation.

Physical Education and sport can help people become wise consumers of goods and services that influence their health and fitness.

Physical Education can contribute to cognitive development in many significant ways.

Like other curricular areas, it can promote the development of critical thinking skills and it can provide exciting opportunities for multidisciplinary study.

Uniquely, Physical Education is the one area of the curriculum where students can obtain knowledge about human movement, fitness and sport to serve as a foundation for a lifetime of participation.

Affective Objectives

These are concerned with interests, attitudes, appreciations and values.

It deals with the emotional aspect of learning.

It deals with how pupils feel about the subject and themselves.

In the opinion of Wuest and Bucher (1999: 54) the objective of the affective domain as pupils progress through the levels within this domain, are that they move from a concern about themselves to that of others.

These encapsulate the following considerations: receiving, responding, valuing, organising and characterising by a value or complex.

Affective development also encompasses the social and emotional development.

With regard to Physical Education, these outcomes should not be left to chance, but actively sought.

Again, we need to take cognisance of the arguments presented by Wuest and Bucher with respect to Physical Education.

All people have certain basic social needs.

These objectives with regard to Physical Education include a feeling of belonging,

recognition, self-respect and love.

Physical Education and sports programmes can help participants meet many of these social needs.

One way that Physical Education and sports activities can contribute to these feelings is to provide opportunities for individuals to develop competence in physical skills and to challenge themselves to attain new levels of achievement and realistic goals.

Helping young people develop a healthy selfesteem is important.

Drug and alcohol abuse and a myriad of other social problems have been linked to low self-esteem.

The development of positive attitudes and appreciation for the contributions that engaging in regular physical activity makes to lifelong healthy and well-being are outcomes that professionals in the field are increasingly emphasising.

Children must be motivated to lead a healthy, active lifestyle.

We must move beyond the lower-order objective of creating an interest in physical activity.

Intemalising of values should be the key focus of a Physical Education educator.

Decisionmaking skills and self-management skills are particularly important for achieving wellness.

Many lifestyle choices that individuals make have the potential to influence their health.

Physical Education can promote social responsibility, an important component of good citizenship.

Professionals must also give careful thought to the influence of their own behaviours, values and actions on their pupils.

Physical Education and sports also provide a venue to develop ethics and morals.

In Physical Education classes and sport experiences, students and athletes have the opportunity to respond to codes of conduct, to decide what is right or wrong.

Physical Education and sports have long been extolled as a means through which character development can occur.

However, character development can be either positive or negative in nature.

Physical Education contributes to an appreciation of beauty.

An educated person should develop admiration and respect for beauty.

The human body is a thing of beauty if it has been properly developed.

Physical Education and sports foster development in the affective domain.

The enhancement of self-esteem, promotion of social responsibility, clarification of values, development of attitudes and appreciation of beauty are just some contributions that Physical Education and sports can make to the development of the whole person.

Psychomotor Objectives

Another aspect relevant to our understanding of the objective of

Physical Education concerns Psychomotor

Objectives,

which deal with the learning of physical or neuromuscular skills.

We can understand how humans learn motor skills by watching a baby learn to walk.

When learning psychomotor skills, people progress through' three stages of development:

~ Genetic Movement is the initial process of receiving information and transforming it into a pattern -

~ Ordinative Movement is where the organising and refining of generic movement patterns into skilful movement takes place.

It becomes smooth, accurate and efficient

~ Creative Movement is where the individuality comes in. The movement patterns are changed to serve the unique needs of the individual performer.

Wuest and Bucher (1999: 57) propose that the objectives of the psychomotor domain underpin the following considerations:

Reflex Movements, Basic Fundamental Movements, Perceptual

Abilities, Physical Abilities, Skilled Movements and

Nondiscursive Communication.

The psychomotor domain is the main focus of our field. This is because in the main psychomotor development of the individuals is our primary contribution to the educational curriculum through the study of Physical Education.

Although

Physical Education can contribute in many meaningful ways to development in the other domains, psychomotor development in the schools is the unique responsibility of the Physical

Educator.

Psychomotor development is concerned with two of the primary objectives of Physical Education.

These are:

Motor Skill Development

The development of motor skills is sometimes referred to as the development of neuromuscular or psychomotor skills because effective movement depends on the harmonious working together of the muscular and nervous systems.

The development of motor skills focuses' on helping individuals learn how to move effectively and to accomplish specific goals efficiently, that is, with as little expenditure of energy as possible.

These skills progress through various stages, leading to the mature form of the skill.-

Physical Education is the only area within the school that helps learners in developing their motor skills.

School Physical

Education programmes should offer a balanced variety of activities that allow young people to develop competency in lifetime activities that are personally meaningful and enjoyable.

Physical Education also contributes to the goal of promoting worthy use of leisure time.

For example, sports aquatics and dance give individuals enjoyable activities for use during their free time.

They offer a pleasurable means to relax after work and are popular recreational pursuits on the weekends.

Physical Fitness Development

Development and maintenance of physical fitness have long been heralded as one of the most important outcomes of school

Physical Education programmes.

Fitness promotion is the focus of many non-school Physical Education and sport programmes as well. Educational institutions are charged with preparing individuals to be productive members of society.

A progressive, systematic approach to the development of physical fitness should be used.

First and foremost, the programme should consider the needs of the individual.

Based on these needs, the programme should be designed to accomplish the desired outcomes.

If we are to accomplish our objectives related to physical fitness, a multi-faceted approach is needed.

Obviously, we must teach exercises and activities that promote fitness.

Contemporary Physical Education and sports support the development of physical fitness and physically active lifestyles for people of all ages.

Quality Physical Education and sports programmes can contribute significantly to the education of the individual and to the goals of education.

Having considered in this section the goals, aims and objectives of Physical Education we now need to examine as part of our theoretical and conceptual framework the aspect of Physical

Education programmes.

This is both relevant and important for this study because it stresses the needed to learn the basics of

Physical Education during the child's developmental years.

In

Figure 2.2 we are able to compare goals and objectives of

Physical Education from the 1800s to 1990s.

Lumpkin (1994: 268) states that since the twentieth century,

Physical Education programmes have concentrated on teaching fundamental skills that led to the playing of sports and games.

The curricula involved a balanced and varied range of activities.

Figure: 2.2

A Comparison of Goals and Objectives of Physical Education

Goals and Objectives of Physical Education: The Last One Hundred Years

Late 1800s

Sargent

Hygienic

Educative

Recreative

Remedial

1910

Hetherington

Organic education

Psychomotor education

Intellectual education

Character education

1934

APEA*

1950

AAHPER**

1964

Bucher

Physical Develop and fitness maintain

Mental health maximum and efficiency physical

Physical development

Motor and

Social-moral efficiency movement development character

Emotional

Develop useful Mental skills expression and

Conduct development

Social control oneself in development socially useful ways

Enjoy wholesome recreation

1965

AAHPER**

1971

AAHPER**

1990

AAHPERD**

*

Skillful and effective

Health lOsurance movement Contributes to

Development of academic movement

Development of interpersonal relationships

Skills to perform a variety of physical organic systems achievement of the body Skills and

Understanding and movement

Understanding of

Scientific principles related to experiences to last a lifetime appreciation of

Positive selfimage

Ability to activities

Physical fitness

Regular participation in physical activity

Knows benefits compete and and cooperate with implications of others involvement in physical activity

Values physical activity and its contribution to a physically active lifestyle

*

American Physical Education Association

** American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation

***

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

Source: Wuest and Bucher (1999:47)

In the 1960s, Physical Education was based on the concepts of spatial and bodies awareness, namely, gaining insights into the capabilities of children and changing them into becoming more skilled movers.

Movement Education as an essential constituent of Physical

Education has stressed that:

~ lessons are both activity and study centred where pupils experiment through moving

~ pupils are encouraged to analyse and to explore

~ where learners are exposed to problem-solving and guided discovery by imagination and creativity

~ emphasise to children the need for thinking and moving at their own rates of development

~ underpin the informality of the class which encourages learners to create freely and learn at- their own level of achievement

Primary school programmes for Physical Education may hold the key to the future. Many pupils fail to learn basic movement patterns and motor skills during their developmental years.

This lack of education can be seen as suicidal to a nation.

Lifetime habits and skills are learned early in life. People, who are not taught early, may lack the skills they need for healthy lives. If children learn in their younger years to enjoy exercise and physical fitness, there is a much greater likelihood that they will continue to enjoy them in later years.

According to Crous (1987: 6) Physical Educationprogrammes presented in South African schools have been largely influenced by four systems:

~ from England came sports as an informal activity for exercise as well as recreation

2.6.1

~ from Sweden and Denmark came formative gymnastics and free-standing exercises

~ from Germany came the apparatus work and agility movements and

~ from Austria came the "natural" Physical Education which aimed at teaching children how to move naturally, all movement activities and skills are selected to contribute towards the physical, social, affective and cognitive development of the pupils

Physical Education programmes will only contribute to the total education of the child if time is provided for their implementation. Just as schools are providing opportunities for pupils to develop and to learn basic skills through studying mathematics, languages, or any other subjects, so they are under an obligation to provide the opportunity for pupils to develop and learn basic skills through Physical Education.

The terminology may vary, but there is general agreement among leaders in Physical Education concerning the general objectives of formal programmes. The figure 2.3 on the next page summarises the frequency of Physical Education objectives as listed by outstanding leaders in the field. We need to consider the impact of the objectives referred to in Figure

2.3.

Organic Development

The development of physical capacity or organic power as well as educating each learner with respect to the effects of, need for and importance and place of vigorous activity in daily routines remain among the unique contributions of Physical Education.

Strength, endurance, flexibility, explosive power, agility and speed are developed through carefully selected programmes of conditioning and through activities that can be engaged in continuously and progressively through the life of the individual.

FIGURE 2.3

Frequency of Physical Education Objectives as Listed by

Leaders in the Field

AUTHORITY

INTERPRETIVE

DEVELOPMENT

AAPHER

Bookwalters

Brace

Brownell-

Hagman

Bucher

Clarke

Cowell

Daniels

Davis-Lawther

Duncan-

Johnson

Evans-Gans

Hughes-French

Irwin

Knapp-Hagman

Kozman et al

LaPorte

Larson

LaSalle

Mathews

McCloy

Miller-

Whitcomb

Nash-

Hetherington

Neilson-Van

Hagen

Nixon-Cozens

Obertcuffer

O'Keefe-

Aldrich

Salt et a

Seaton et al

Sharman

Staley

Vannier-Fait

Voltmer-

Esslinger

Williams

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

ORGANIC

DEVELOPMEN

T

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

NEUROMUSCULAR

DEVELOPMENT

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

PERSONAL-

SOCIAL

ADJUSTMENT

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

2.6.2

2.6.3

Interpretive Development

The actual activity or participation by the learner encourages creative and analytical thinking with little help from the physical educator.

They have opportunities to make judgements and decisions on their own together with intelligent and logical thinking.

Neuromuscular Development

Through continuous practice and instruction from the primary school, learners improve game skills, body movement and rhythm.

The Physical Education profession has tremendous control over the development of skills, with the primary school being the formative period, offering the greatest opportunity.

The values of the development of skills are obvious and may be summarised as follows:

>less expenditure of energy

>increased enjoyment and satisfaction

2.6.4

>general improvement of co-ordination

Personal-Social Adjustment

Experimental research has shown that Physical Education programmes improve self-confidence, initiative, leadership, character and feelings of belonging.

The beneficial effects of exercise are indisputable.

The importance and role of Physical

Education is perfectly clear.

Physical Education cannot survive as a learning area unless it can demonstrate tangible outcomes.

The physical educator must consider four important issues when attempting to develop goals for Physical Education programmes:

2.7

>an emphasis on outcomes

>commitments to both equity and quality

>doing a few things well, and

>socialising students into the role of participant

(Siedentop et aI., 1986: 132)

The course requirements for school are usually determined at state level.

However, with Outcomes Based Education being implemented now, the educator has a greater hand when planning the actual programme. A compendium of the general

Physical Education programme can be presented as illustrated in Figure 2.4.

THE IMPORTANCE OF MOVEMENT AND PLAY

IN CHILDHOOD

As part of the Outcome Based Education curriculum, Physical

Education of children is entrusted to the already over-burdened classroom teachers, who may not be well prepared to do anything about it.

Even if well prepared, classroom teachers

- seldom have the energy necessary to do this task as well as the many other tasks required.

Weare presently in a period when society has to consider the many reasons why Physical Education is important for children.

Thus, the role of play and movement in children must be fully explained.

Play is the life-blood of childhood.

Physical Education can be seen as educational programmes where children learn playful movement forms.

According to Siedentop et al. (1984: 6), there are many good reasons why Physical Education belongs in the school curricula.

They have numerous functions.

Some of these are:

Figure 2.4: The General Physical Education Programme

ATHLETICS: ~ __

~>

Track Events

Field Events

~-:>

Fencing

Judo

Table Tennis

GYMNASTICS

GAMES:

Football

:>

Badminton

Basketball

Cricket

Golf

Hockey

Netball

Softball

Tennis

Volleyball

Minor Games

Archery

SWIMMING: Basic Strokes

>

Diving

Life Saving

Survival

OUTDOOR PURSUITS:

1=

Camping

=======>

Canoeing

Mountaineering

Rock Climbing

Sailing

2.7.1

2.7.2

2.7.3

2.7.4

2.7.5

The Physical Development Function

Physical Education is needed in modem society to secure sound physical development.

Carrying, climbing, pushing and pulling are no longer activities that all children do as part of growing up in their natural environment.

The Cognitive Development Function

This development is not directly observable; it must be inferred from observation of overt behaviour.

Play can be seen as a problem-solving mechanism in which the child continually introduces variability into a setting and manipulates events within the setting in a variety of ways. The basic understanding of Physical Education for children must rest on the concept of play and its function in human behaviour.

The Socialising-Moralising Function

The primary function of play has always been understood to be to socialise the child into appropriate role behaviours.

Children imitate adults and peers.

As children grow older, this early socialisation through play becomes much more highly specialised in terms of role behaviours appropriate to institutionalised forms of play such as those found in sports.

The Emotional Development Function

Children tend to recreate in play settings, situations and relationships that occur in the real world.

They are great imitators.

The Cultural Development Function

Physically active play has become more liberated.

We are in the secondary stages of the era of sports in our cultural history.

Sports dominate television for example: In addition, interschool sports have grown tremendously and professional sports are very successful.

Individual pursuits are booming.

Physically active play is becoming very important in our

2.8

2.8.1

culture.

Physical Education functions as an agent of cultural transmission.

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF LEARNING

PSYCHOLOGY THAT CONTRIBUTED TO PHYSICAL

EDUCATION LEARNING

Physical Education is influenced by many educational and psychological theories.

Consideration will be given to psychologists who seem to have had an impact on the trends of

Physical Education.

The word psychology comes from the Greek word psyche, meaning mind or soul and logos, meaning science.

Thus, psychology is the science of the mind and the soul.

In particular, the contributions of Piaget and Thorndike to developmental theories of learning had a profound impact on the teaching and learning of Physical Education.

For example,

Piaget maintains that human beings pass through a series of identifiable stages in their reasoning as they mature.

We shall first consider the theoretical constructs as propounded by

Piaget, which underpin Physical Education:

Jean Piaget

Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, was the first to make a systematic study of the acquisition of understanding in children.

Research about the cognitive development of children constitutes a central area of educational theory.

Watt (1989: 166) states that Piaget has a dominance that is striking and needs very little supporting evidence.

Piaget emphasised that children are not simply immature adults, but have their own way of thinking and perceiving.

Piaget's image of children is that of children who are innately motivated to explore and manipulate the world themselves.

He maintained that the mind of the child evolves through a series of set stages to adulthood as indicated in Figure 2.5.

Outline o/Piaget's Stages a/Intellectual Development

STAGES

1. Sensory - Motor

2. Pre-Operational

2.1 Pre-conceptual thought

2.2 Intuitive thought

3. Operational

3.1 Concrete operational thought

3.2 Formal operational thought

AGE

RANGE

0-2 years

2 - 4 years

4 -7 years

7 - 11 years

11 - 16 years

SCHOOL PHASE

Foundation Phase

Foundation and

Intermediate Phase

Intermediate and Senior

Phase

The primary school pupil is largely at the concrete operational level.

At this stage the learner is ready to participate in

Physical Education activities.

Sensory-Motor Period

The first two years of life constitute the sensory-motoryeriod.

The major developmental tasks at this stage are manipulation of and movement among the physical objects of the environment.

The Pre-Operational Stage

This stage involves increasing mastery in the use of symbols.

This allows the development of conceptual thought.

These capacities are exploited in the period of concrete operations.

Classification of things into categories is handled at this stage with increasing competence, mutual exclusion of classes, different levels of classification.

2.8.2

The Formal Operational Period

From eleven years on, is the formal operational period, which adds on the capacity to deal with the hypothetical as distinct from the real. His image is that of children, who are innately motivated to explore and manipulate the world for themselves, which is also, one of the aims of Physical Education.

Piaget's contention is that a child will increasingly come to recognise objects and relationships outside the personal experience.

For Physical Education educators, these guides them on the limits, which they might set on the skills, required.

The Concrete Operational Years

In the concrete operational years, we need to put children in a position to work on real-life concrete cases in building up their understanding of the world. The Physical Education teaching at this stage provides sound and varied concrete experiences from which later abstractions can develop.

There are clear implications for curriculum planning, which should ensure that the curriculum, in terms of key concepts and skills, takes note of the critical periods for mental growth and physical coordination.

From the foregoing it becomes patently clear that Piaget's observation is important especially for educators concerned with Physical Education.

Co-operative interaction among students in Physical Education is fundamental to moral development.

Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949)

According to Watt (1989: 166), for nearly half a century,

Thorndike's learning theory dominated all others in America, despite numerous attacks and the rise of many rivals.

He believed in a Stimulus-Response theory (Kirchner, 1981: 84-

90; see also, Bucher, 1975: 290).

The Stimulus-Response theory developed by Thorndike in 1906 was an attempt to describe how human beings learn and adjust to their world.

His hypothesis was that learning is the strengthening of the connection called a "bond" between a stimulus and response.

Accordingly, his conception of learning was that a person is acted upon and then initiates an act in response.

In brief, his

"laws" of learning which are still highly influential in teaching today, are:

The Law of Readiness

Learning depends upon readiness to act, which in turn facilitates the response.

The physical educator should determine whether the child is ready.

The Law of Flfect

Learning is facilitated or retarded according to the degree of satisfaction or annoyance that accompanies the act.

An individual is likely to repeat experiences that are satisfying.

Every attempt should be made to provide situations which are satisfying and enjoyable experiences.

Physical educators should ensure that learners' experiences are within their capabilities.

The success of an activity serves as a motivating factor.

The Law of Exercise

The more often a connection between bonds is repeated, the more firmly the connection (pairing of bonds) becomes fixed

(learned).

Practice makes for better co-ordination and better performance.

For example, girls try the cartwheel or handstand numerous times and in different stages before they can perfect it.

Thorndike modified his law in later years on the basis of additional findings.

He found that greater effects result from satisfaction than displeasure.

The obvious implications of this for providing rewards rather than punishment have greatly affected the nature of teaching.

Principles of teaching Physical

Education based on the Stimulus-Response theory appear to be helpful.

They are helpful in recognising the importance of

2.8.3

2.8.4

2.8.5

repeating motor skills and the need to make the learning task satisfying to the learner.

This theory has at least partial application to learning such skills as throwing, kicking, swimming and gymnastic movements.

Some other theories of learning that could be briefly mentioned and which are relevant to Physical Education are:

Hull's Reinforcement Theory

According to Bucher (1975: 292), Clark L. Hull sees learning as a direct influence of reinforcement.

According to Hull's theory, a stimulus causes a response, which reduces the need.

In Physical Education, the teacher plays an important part in satisfying the needs of the student.

One of the major implications of Hull's theory to Physical Education is his finding that practice periods that are very long or lacking in reinforcement inhibit learning.

Inhibitions decrease after rest periods.

Practice periods play an important role in determining the performance of an individual.

Skinner's Operant Conditioning Theory

In operant conditioning, the individual rather than the stimuli elicit behaviour.

In this theory of learning, the individual makes the desired response and then is rewarded.

Skinner emphasises that the individual repeats at a future time, the behaviour that has been previously reinforced.

In teaching any physical skill, reinforcement is extremely valuable.

For example, when long jump is taught, learners are encouraged to learn the proper method. When pupils jump at their peak and in the correct manner, the teacher indicates approval.

The pupils continue because they know that the skill is being properly performed according to the teacher's standard.

Gestalt Theory

Gestalt theory is concerned more with perception than learning.

One of the most important Gestalt principles, which have implications for Physical Education, is the whole method

theory.

The whole individual attempts to achieve a goal.

The degree of skill in an activity is seen to be greater if the individual has an insight or understanding concerning the goal they wish to attain. Individuals perform the whole act and do it until they get the "feel" or the "hang" of it.

Thus, from the analysis of the foregoing theories of learning, we may safely conclude that psychologists have attempted to explain the phenomenon of learning.

They attempt to answer such questions as how best learning takes place and what are the laws under which it operates.

This knowledge is vital to a

Physical Education educator.

2.9.1

We now need to consider some models of sports training as an inherent constituent of the theoretical and conceptual framework related to Physical Education.

One of the elements of teaching that makes it more an "art" than a "science" is the large number of different teaching strategies that share the characteristics of successfully imparting desired knowledge, skills and values to learners.

The best Physical Education educators develop a large repertoire of strategies from which to select the appropriate activity for the occasion.

Effective

-teachers are the backbone of education.

Their effectiveness lies in their careful application of teaching strategies to everchanging and complex situations.

A number of teaching models have been developed in recent years and applied successfully to Physical Education.

These models have much in common even though they may look quite different to the inexperienced observer (Siedentop

et aI.,

1986: 373).

The Knowledge Structure (KS) Model

We commence with the reference to the Knowledge Structures

(KS) Model as illustrated in Figure 2.6 on page 72. This is particularly important for Physical Education.

Vickers (1990: 5-13) developed the KS Model. The KS Model identifies the subject matter of an activity from the outset and

Figure 2.6: The KS Model

ANALYSIS

1. Analyse Sport or Activity into

Expert Knowledge

Structures

2. Analyse

Learning

Environment

3. Analyse

Learners

DECISION

MAKING

4.

Determine Scope and Sequence:

Top-Down or Bottom-Up?

Write

5.

Ojectives

.-

6.

Decide Evaluation

7.

Create Teaching and Training

Progressions

I

APPLICATIONS

School

Cirricula and sport

Developmen

Progress

I

SOURCE: VICKERS (1990: 6)

structures it as a hierarchy that constantly informs the process of teaching.

It has been specially developed for teaching

Physical Education.

The curriculum is built around the teaching of specific activities.

The KS Model presents a number of instructional design principles that are the same for all sports and activities. This model can be applied to any area.

The KS Model is seen as a vehicle for linking the subject matter of a code of sports or activity with teaching methodology.

This model is made up of eight modules as shown below:

Module 1: The educators must become knowledgeable about the code of sports or activity they are teaching.

Module

2: They must become knowledgeable about the environment in which they will be teaching.

Module 3: The educators must become knowledgeable about the pupils they will be working with.

Module 4: They must know how to 'organise the knowledge they have gained into a scope and sequence of skills, strategies and concepts.

Module 5: They need to design or select objectives appropriate for the pupils and the situation they are in.

Module 6: The educator must make a decision about the type of evaluation to use.

Module 7: They then design the learning activities that will best achieve the objectives and evaluation strategy they have set out.

Module 8: The main vehicle for teaching is the lesson plan, unit and season plan and the year plan.

These modules indicate clearly that the KS Model is a continual process.

It is a knowledge-based model in which physical

2.9.2

activity is of primary importance.

It is unique

III that it combines knowledge within physical activity.

The principal characteristics of the KS Model can be outlined as follows:

It can be applied to all sports and physical activity.

The KS

Model as we have noted above comprises 8 modules.

Module 1 requires the development of a knowledge structure in recognition of the importance of activity subject matter.

Modules 2 to 8 identify critical teaching methodologies.

The model identifies the skills and strategies.

The individual teacher as the guide to planning uses a knowledge structure.

The development of a knowledge structure is facilitated by courses such as exercise physiology.

During its development, a knowledge structure is constantly validated against the appropriate sports literature.

The process of instructional design, as seen in Modules 2 to 8, takes into account different settings, age, ability group and motivational levels.

The KS

Model encourages a quality versus quantity approach to teaching.

All children should be given the opportunity to learn and practise selected activities in depth.

Mosston's Spectrum of Teaching Styles

Another useful model for Physical Education is described by

Harrison (1983: 253-254) as the Mosston's Spectrum of

Teaching Style.

This constitutes another useful model for

Physical Education.

This concept proposes a number of alternative styles of teaching that provide educators with knowledge of the roles of teacher and learner and the objectives that can be achieved with each style. This allows the teacher to move back and forth along the spectrum as required to meet the changing needs of students and environment.

Mosston proposed seven styles. These present a description of many of the teaching strategies that have been proven as effective as teaching and learning activities in Physical

Education classes.

The teacher can move along the spectrum of styles, selecting one or more applicable styles for use during a particular lesson.

It also prevents boredom from over-use of a single style.

As an instructor, the Physical Education educator has opportunities to be creative and design new methods of teaching.

The Mosston's Spectrum of teaching styles comprise the following aspects, which are integral to Physical Education:

The Command Style

Here the teacher makes all the decisions on what, where, when and how to teach.

Students are expected to respond to commands from their teacher. This style is normally applicable when safety, use of class time and teacher control are essential, for example:

The Practice Style

The educator gives the learners a number of tasks to practise and the learners decide on which task to start with and when to begin and end. The educator moves around the class, offering help to each pupil.

Social interaction among pupils increases with this style.

The Reciprocal Style

Pupils work with each other; where they observe and help and exchange roles.

The educator decides the task.

The educator assists the pupils to improve their ability as observers and their ability to help their peers.

Socialisation between pupils is part of the reciprocal style.

The Se(fCheck Style

Here, the pupils evaluate their own performance.

The educator helps pupils to become better self-evaluators.

This allows opportunities for pupils who are comfortable working independently.

Its main limitation is that some students are not ready to work on their own without constant teacher direction.

The Inclusion Style

Here, the learners choose their level of performance for each task and alter it according to each self-assessment of the performance.

This permits all learners to be successful in the task performed, which increases their enjoyment of Physical

Education and also their self-esteem.

This style reduces learner anxiety and it also accommodates individual differences.

The Guided Discovery Style

This style increases learning in the cognitive area.

The educator guides the learner towards the desired response.

Learners need time to think through their questions or responses and are helped to experience success in the discovery process.

Educators must be able to bring the learners back, when they deviate from the desired sequence.

This style stimulates thought, develops understanding and leads the learners to a step by step evaluation of experience.

It also increases individual pupil participation.

The Divergent Style

Here the learner can come up with numerous solutions to a given problem.

The educator selects and designs the problem.

Problems can be given individually or in groups.

The major advantage of the divergent style is its ability to help the learner develop creativity and the higher levels of cognitive development.

This style encourages creative approaches to problem-solving.

It also develops the ability to solve problems and verify solutions to problems.

Going Beyond

The learner chooses the problem and designs the activities.

This style is only suitable to individual students who are keen to take the initiative.

The educator facilitates the process.

The learners set and pursue their own goals at their own pace.

Mosston's Spectrum of teaching styles can be synthesised in the form ofa compendium as depicted in Figure 2.7.

2.9.4

Siedentop et al. (1986: 383) provides another model for

Physical Education, which may be described as direct instruction.

This method is the most widely used form of teaching.

Here, teachers are the leaders and they make goals clear to student, plan practise time, supervise, practise, give supportive feedback and hold pupils accountable for their performance.

Educators are clearly in charge. They control the pace and direction of the lesson.

They also choose the activities according to the ability of their pupils. They also try to create a warm, supportive and educational climate.

This method is not a cold or authoritarian approach.

The lesson is highly structured with the educator controlling the elements of the lesson, but there is an atmosphere of high expectations.

It is not a command method of teaching.

In direct instruction, educators work hard and take responsibility for their pupils' learning.

The pupils are aware that learning is on the agenda and that they must pay attention.

Task or Station Teaching

In this model, again referred to by Siedentop

et al.

(1986:

385), the educator creates different tasks for pupils topractise.

These tasks are on cards and are arranged at different working stations.

The class is divided into groups and they work by moving from station to station. This method is used very often in the teaching of gymnastics.

Figure 2.7: Mosston's Spectrum of Teaching Styles

Style and Characteristics

A. Command

Teacher makes all decisions.

Subj ect -centered.

TeachinglLearning Strategies

Lecture and verbal presentation modes.

Demonstration.

Drills.

Homogeneous grouping.

Instructional games.

B. Practice

Learner makes implementation decisions-pace, order, place

Skill checklists.

Study guides, workbooks, journals.

Progress charts.

C. Reciprocal

Partners teach other designated skills or ideas.

Small groups help each other achieve common goals.

D. Self-Check

Teacher-designed program with opportunity for self-assessment, self-pacing, self-motivated learning.

E.

Inclusion

Students select the level of performance for each task assigned by teacher.

Testing activities as learning activities.

Programmed learning.

Individualised learning packets.

Contract learning.

Inclusion skills checklist.

Reaction and opinion papers.

Goal setting.

F.

Guided Discovery

Student's responses are directed by teacher's clues toward solution of a common problem.

Questioning strategies.

Experiments, projects and simulation activities.

Inquiry learning.

Discussion.

Role playing.

Brainstorming and buzz sessions.

Problem-solving strategies.

G. Divergent

All decisions are made by the student except the design of the problem.

H. Going Beyond

Student choice of problem solution

Each task card clearly defines an actIvIty.

It includes a description of the activity, the conditions under which it is to be done and allows students to know when they have successfully completed the activity.

Students can progress through a station in several ways.

One way is to allow a certain time period at each station.

Another strategy is that of self-pacing where they move according to how well they perform the task.

Tasks can be sequential and progressive, or they can be different skills that later contribute to some combined set of skills, for example, a task system in volleyball might have the following stations:

These skills will come together, for example, when learners playa game of volleyball.

The teacher has to instruct the pupils well and the pupils have to behave responsibly.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF

PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS

EDUCATION FOR GIRLS

THE

OF

DIDACTICAL-

PHYSICAL

As an important aspect of this discussion relevant to the conceptual framework concerning Physical Education for girls in the primary school, it is deemed crucial to consider briefly some principles of the didactical-pedagogical elements of

Physical Education.

As Gummerson (1992: 79) pointedly remarks, children are not adults. Consequently, educators must take serious cognisance of the fact that their role is to help children achieve their full intellectual, physical and creative potential.

This goal can be reached only in an informal learning

atmosphere where the responsibility for learning is shared by the teacher and the child.

In pursuance of this contention, the following precepts for the didactical-pedagogical exposition of

Physical Education assumes significance:

The necessity [or training regimes appropriate to physically immature participants

It is important to bear in mind that learners at the primary school phase are both physically and mentally immature.

Their body systems are geared towards growth.

Consequently, learning and training programmes that are designed for adults are inappropriate for young learners.

These participants do not have the strength, speed, power, endurance or movements of an adult and are therefore not suited to techniques that place demands on these physiological systems.

The structure of bones and the skeletal system

Children are continually growing.

Their bones are different from adults.

It is imperative therefore to ensure that teaching techniques for Physical Education take into account this perspective.

The nature of bone growth

Growth in the long bones occurs mostly at each end.

These areas of bone growth gradually begin to fuse, which leads to the slowing down and finally complete halt of development.

In girls, the shaft and epiphyses begin to fuse between the ages of fourteen and sixteen and in boys between the ages of sixteen and eighteen

The rate ofgrowth

Throughout the early years, there are "growth spurts".

The rate of growth in children is not constant.

Growth occurs earlier in girls than in boys and therefore girls are often taller and heavier than boys of the same age.

Girls are more self-conscious of their body changes at this growing stage.

Endurance and muscle fibre type

The young athlete is better suited to an aerobic or endurancetype activity than to short bursts of aerobic or intensive work.

Children have reasonable sub-maximal endurance but they cannot sustain maximum training loads; neither can they produce explosive action.

Educators need to use this knowledge when preparing learners' activities.

The effect of hormonal changes during puberty

"Puberty" is the period of sexual maturity caused by hormonal activity in young people.

In girls, this occurs between 12 and

14 years of age and in boys, between 14 and 16 years of age.

With the onset of puberty, the adult body shape begins to emerge as the last growth spurt takes place. Excessive physical activity during this period can delay the onset of puberty and the associated period.

Girls seem to be more affected at this stage than boys.

The concentration span of young learners

Young athletes do not have the ability to concentrate on any one activity for long periods.

An attention span of around three to four minutes seems to be the norm. Because of their lack of experience, young participants are dependent upon others for standards and ambitions.

The educator has to programme accordingly when teaching girls who are at this stage.

Their emotional and intellectual immaturity does not equip them to deal with failure and stresses of training and competition.

The effect of training on connective tissues

During growth, the connective tissues are very fragile.

It can easily to lead to permanent disability in their later lives.

The

Physical Educator needs to be knowledgeable about the learners' stage of growth.

The role style

of participation

in sports as part of a learner's life-

Since InJunes could be exacerbated by participating, it is therefore extremely important to ensure at the start of any lesson that all participants are asked if they have any injuries, no matter what the cause. This is good practice with any group.

The "playway"

Children learn through play.

Where possible, all training should be turned into a game: "fun" activities seem to be the most effective learning and teaching situation.

Learners have to play and in this way are able to learn.

The broad goals of Physical Education, the characteristics of children and the knowledge of how and why children learn through the medium of physical activities have significantly changed our approach to teaching.

Teaching is no longer considered a simplistic form of instruction with the teacher teaching the same material to all children in the same way.

Differences in each child's maturation, potential ability and interest have shifted our teaching strategies towards more

individualised and personalised forms of learning.

Each of these indubitably has a profound effect with respect to Physical

Education for girls.

Individualised learning

Individualised learning with special reference to Physical

Education is based on the premise that teaching should be adapted to the unique abilities and special needs of the learner.

This places the leamer, not the subject, at the centre of the curriculum and teaching.

It must be understood that a teacher who provides individual assistance to one or more children in a class of thirty or more is applying a technique and is in no way teaching an individualised instructional programme.

Individualised learning occurs only when there is a sequential plan for every child, including a diagnosis of the child's

potential.

True individualisation is possible when there is a ratio of one teacher to one child. However, for groups of two or more children with varying degrees of ability, it is rare that a true individualised instructional programme is ever achieved.

When we use the term individualised instruction in Physical

Education we are really talking about a process that adjusts the learning to the student.

Such a programme usually takes two approaches:

~ The first is to vary the time it takes the children to achieve a specific movement task.

For example, we can ask three children with varying levels of ability to walk across a narrow balance beam, allowing each child to complete the task in his/her own time.

However, when the task is a structured one, and if the child does not possess the ability to accomplish it, regardless of the time given to him/her, we have a nice example of an exercise in futility.

~ The second approach used to individualise a Physical

Education programme is to vary the task and, if necessary, the time. Allowing each child to cross the length of the balance beam in any way possible would be varying the task.

If a teacher can vary the task, he/she has a very real possibility of providing an individualised programme.

Personalised learning

Personalised learning is a version of individualised learning in which there is a use of, or emphasis upon, the learners' involvement with others in the learning environment.

This may involve the learner in a guider-learner experience characterised by mutual trust and respect. Personalising the learning process enhances the dignity and self-image of each child. This type of learning atmosphere also increases the efficiency of learning of each child.

In Physical Education, as in other learning areas, the theoretical and conceptual framework must be outlined.

In this chapter, the researcher has focussed, inter alia, on the characteristics of primary school girls, definitions of related terms and concepts and the purpose of Physical Education.

Moreover, the discussion outlined the gender aspect of the primary school girl.

The theories and principles of learning together with the goals, aims and objectives of Physical Education are also discussed.

Some of the developments in the field of learning psychology that contribute to Physical Education learning and models of sports teaching are presented.

A conspectus of various programmes for girls at the primary school and the importance of movement and play in children have been provided.

In Chapter Three, a historico-comparative analysis of the status of Physical Education and sports training for girls in primary schools are discussed.

A brief reference is made to the historical development of Physical Education.

In addition, reference is made to the provision of Physical Education for girls in primary schools in certain countries.

This will provide us with opportunities for educational borrowing to enhance the provision of Physical Education for girls at primary schools in

KwaZulu-Natal.

HISTORICO COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION FOR GIRLS

The focus of this chapter is on the foundation of the status of

Physical Education in primary schools for girls from an international perspective.

For this purpose reference will be made to selected developed and developing countries.

In addition, this chapter will attempt to reflect briefly some aspects of the evolution of Physical Education from an early period to the present.

The history of any subject may be taken as a means of measuring its progress. The data provided makes comparison a of the past and present with respect to the importance and influence of the subject. The status of a subject in different societies is demonstrated, as Rice et a!. (1969: iii) point out, only through the study of the history of such a subject. This provides a broad and an appreciative view of the subject.

There is no doubt that the various activities of today have their forerunners in history.

Many more facts that will help the

Physical Educator to better understand the present situation relevant to the Physical Education which can be gained by studying the past with respect to Physical Education.

This chapter therefore reviews the changing concepts of Physical

Education throughout history.

Physical Education is a field where all the races and creeds of the world can come together and meet in the worship of those qualities of love, truth, justice, discipline, respect for rules and a host of other qualities essential for sportsmen and good citizens.

All continents and all countries are modernising Physical

Education and moulding it along progressive lines (Dalen

et a!.,

1953: 589). From the beginning of time, Physical Education has been used by society to further its own ends. It has been

utilised for worthwhile and noble aims, as well as for brutal and degrading purposes.

Physical Education reflects the society that fosters it.

The word "sports" according to Postma (1984: 201) is a Latin derivative which means relax, amuse, divert.

Later on, recreation was attached to it.

There is a difference between sports and Physical Education as seen by Thompson (1996: 51) and Postma (1984: 199).

Physical Education is many-sided, educational and directed towards a harmonious development of the body.

Sports is directed towards a more one-sided development with the accent on achievement.

In sports, participators choose their own activities while the Physical

Educationist does the choosing for learners.

Throughout history, physical fitness has been used for survival.

Strength, stamina, skill and speed are vital aspects of a physical fitness programme.

In early societies, physical exercise was used as a means of arousing communal feeling, for example, to enliven festivities by primitive sports.

Next, the spectator emphasis developed and has reached its greatest magnitude in the Olympic Games.

Thus, in 1896, Baron de Coubertin declared:

"May joy and good fellowship reign and may- the

Olympic Torch pursue its way through the ages, increasing friendly understanding among nations for the good of humanity".

3.1.1

Gender Aspect - historically

Until the beginning of the last century, the Physical Education of girls was mainly in the hands of men.

The more difficult exercises were left out.

A change in this state of affairs was brought about by the work of Bess Mensendieck (Germany),

Agnete Betram (Denmark), Elli Bjorksten (Finland) and others

(Postma, 1984: 171).

3.2

Rhythmic gymnastics also contributed towards a modification of the programme of exercises for girls and women.

Margarete

Streicher (Austria), who clearly showed the new trend in the aims of education, completed the break-through.

The programme should continue towards shaping girls into women as their tasks, responsibilities and psyche differ from that of boys.

Postma (1984: 171) inferred that girls must choose games and swimming and the teacher must remember that the girls' future task was that of wife and mother.

They must be taught responsibility towards the body and the hygiene aspect.

This had to be done by female educators.

This view predominated until the 1930s.

The role of girls is not well documented as that of boys. This is no doubt due to the social and political system of the time. In order to contextualize the study of Physical Education for girls in developed and developing countries, the researcher felt that a brief overview of the history of Physical Education would be appropriate.

.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT IN ANCIENT

HISTORY

History is the source of Physical Education and sports identity.

The basis is in the past.

The events and experiences of the events on days and years gone by help in today's maturity of this subject.

The knowledge of the accomplishments of the leaders of the past helps the professionals of today to build on those accomplishments.

As Wuest and Bucher (1999: 147) comment:

"Much can be learnt about physical education and sports from a critical analysis of its history."

• Factors underlying the origins of Sports

Davis et al. (1994: 468) outlines four factors underlying the origin of sport. These are:

Numerous races invaded countries in the distant past and each one brought its own cultural activities with it.

Some sports can be traced back to the Celts and Romans.

Most sporting activities had religious and ceremonial associations, both pagan and Christian.

These were joyful occasions held on special days.

Many ancient sports have their origin in fitness to survive in dangerous surroundings; the ability to obtain food; and,

,military efficiency with a weapon.

Children always copy adults in their play.

Civilizations reach a point where the level of maturity is measured in the recreative pursuits of their leading citizens and the violent activities of the lower orders.

By understanding the history of Physical Education and sports, a person is better able to understand and interpret the field today.

The history of Physical Education as described mostly by Postma (1984: 6-19) and Wuest and Bucher

(1999: 146-190) follows:

The ancient Chinese lived in isolation.

They did not fear being attacked, as they had the Himalayas as natural protection, then the Great Wall was built and thereafter laws kept foreigners out of the country.

Time was given to the development of various aspects of life related to moral, intellectual, aesthetic, social and

Physical Education development.

The ancient Chinese were

3.2.2

destined to live a rigid and stereotype existence.

Ancestor worship was also an important part of their religious life.

Music and dancing played a part in the worship of their ancestors.

1?~t

Egyptians believed in living life to the full, including all types of physical activity.

The military encouraged Physical

Education and sports in order to build stronger and more powerful armies.

Strength, endurance, stamina, agility and other physical characteristics were developed so that their military would be stronger.

Egyptian youths were reared in a manner involving much physical activity.

They were required to take part in activities and exercises designed to make the body supple, strong and capable of great endurance and stamina.

They became skilled in the handling of boats, as they lived along the River Nile. Physical Education and fitness were historically not considered for girls.

The Indians lived a very religious life.

Two major religions were Hinduism and Buddhism.

Hindus believed in reincarnation before being united with Brahma, The Supreme goal.

To attain their goal they had to refrain from enjoying worldly things and catering to the body.

They concentrated solely on the spiritual needs.

We can see that physical activity had little place in the culture of these religious people.

Buddhism emphasised self-denial to help the soul to reach

Nirvana, a divine state.

Buddha prohibited amusements and games in ancient India.

This, however, did not prevent total participation in such activities.

There is evidence that many activities such as boxing, wrestling, horse riding and dancing took place.

Yoga was also very popular which involved very strict discipline.

Girls would have had to lead a very sheltered life and Physical

Education for them would be unheard of.

The Greeks gave Physical Education an intellectual respectability that it has since never achieved.

It experienced a

"golden age" in ancient Greece.

They strove for physical perfection, which affected all phases of their life. They linked sports with philosophy, music, literature, painting and sculpture.

They gave to all future civilisations the aesthetic ideal; the ideal of harmonised balance of mind and body.

To this educational gymnastics, track and field sports and dance were added.

Gymnastics was practised by boys and men in the nude as beauty of physique was stressed.

Women were required to be in good physical condition as it was believed that healthy and strong mothers would bear healthy and strong sons.

Sparta rigidly controlled and regulated the individual's life. In Athens the people enjoyed the freedom that is characteristic of a truly democratic government.

They engaged in physical activity to develop their bodies, for aesthetic value and to live a fuller and more vigorous life.

Gymnasiums became the physical, social and intellectual centres of Greece. The Greek national festivals laid the foundations for the modem Olympic Games.

Athletic events were the main attraction and drawing force at each festival.

The stadium at Olympia provided standing space for approximately 40.000 spectators.

The Olympic Games was first held in

77q

Be

and abolished by the Romans in AD 394.

Physical Education and sports in ancient Greece will always be viewed with pride by members of this field. Physical Education for girls did not feature very prominently in early Greece.

To the Romans, credit is awarded for preserving the Greek culture and extending it over the world.

They used sports for war and for amusement.

They developed swimming.

Sports as perceived by the Romans constituted a strong human force which could uplift or be a factor in a country's downfall.

3.2.6

Sports was viewed as a means of education that needs firm control at all times.

Romans believed that exercise was for health and military purpose.

Girls were not educated.

The Romans did not take to gymnastics and athletics as the Greeks did.

They wanted something exciting, bloody and sensational.

Physical Education and Sports during the Dark Ages

The fall of the Roman Empire heralded the beginning of this new period referred to as the Dark Ages.

The outstanding factor, among others, for the fall of the Romans was their moral and physical decay.

They became morally and physically weak.

The physically strong nomadic tutors were mainly farmers and hunters.

They excelled in vigorous outdoor activities and built strong and physically fit bodies.

Asceticism and Scholasticism grew, which was to the detriment of physical activity. They now catered to the spirit of the body.

The Olympic Games was abolished.

They were taught that the body was evil and should not be improved.

This led to poor health.

They did not allow Physical Education to be taught.

Scholasticism did not emphasise the physical.

This development spread into the Middle Ages. There was not much productivity.

Physical Education survived in the form of dance, play and folk games among the common people.

Physical Education and Sports during the Age of Feudalism

Feudalism as a system of land tenure was based on allegiance and service to the noblemen.

The subordinates owed their allegiance and certain obligations to the nobility because of their land. The sons of the noblemen could choose between the church or becoming a Knight for a career.

The training to become a Knight was long and thorough.

They had to participate in vigorous physical activities and sports to

3.2.8

strengthen them for the years ahead. They had to display their bravery, skills, prowess, strength and courage in exhibitions.

Physical Education and Sports during the Renaissance

The Renaissance saw the awakening of Europe.

The age of the

Renaissance was a time of great progress for human beings.

This was between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries.

There was a rebirth of learning, a belief in the dignity of human beings and a period of exploration.

This period had an impact on Physical Education and sports.

The Renaissance restored the ancient culture and balanced-living again flourished.

This period gave Physical Education a respected place in pedagogical affairs.

Mechikoff and Estes (1998: 150-155) and Howell and Howell

(1986: 95) believed that learning could be promoted through good physical health. Wuest and Bucher (1999: 156-157) summarised some of the leaders in the field of Physical

Education during the Renaissance.

Vittorino da Feltra (1378 to 1446) was believed to be one of the first teachers to combine physical and mental training in school.

His main objectives emphasised the need for

Physical Education as he stressed that good physical condition helped children to learn better.

Martin Luther (1483 to 1546) saw Physical Education as a substitute for vice and drinking.

He promoted Physical

Education as a medium for obtaining elasticity of the body and health.

• John Milton

(1608 to 1674) in his poetry and writings discussed how Physical Education helped the body in developing and preparing for warfare.

John Locke (1632 to 1740) supported Physical Education in his works. He wrote about having a vigorous body at one's command.

• Michel de Montaigne (1533 to 1592), a French Essayist, emphasised that Physical Education was essential for both body and soul.

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 to 1778) in his book Emile, writes that in an ideal education, Physical Education is indispensable.

He stated that an individual's mind and body are an indivisible entity and that both are bound together.

In this era, ladies played shuttlecock.

The Reformation and

Puritanism could not stop the natural impulses and urges of the people.

The love of life and living can only be momentarily suppressed.

For sports and Physical Education, the

Renaissance was a stimulus.

3.3.1

In early modern times, as countries started to develop the feeling of nationalism, the emphasis on the military aspects of exercise grew accordingly.

The masses responded with a zest for exercises that would better enable them to serve the motherland.

Exercises began to be scientifically adapted to age and sex.

The German, Swedish and Danish systems of gymnastics flourished in their countries for nationalistic purposes and in time over the whole world.

The following aspects of the German, Swedish and Danish systems are deemed worthy of consideration:

Germany

The antecedents of Physical Education in Germany are generally associated with Basedow, Guts Muths, John and

Spiess.

Johann Bernhard Basedow (1723 to 1790)

He gained his experience as a teacher in Denmark and on his return to Germany decided to reform educational methods.

He established a school in Dessau, where

Physical Education played an important part in the daily

programme.

The Dessau pentathlon was formed, consisting of running, jumping, climbing, balancing exercises and the carrying of loads.

This was the first school to offer Physical Education as part of the curriculum.

His innovation greatly influenced the growth of Physical Education for girls in Germany and in the rest of the world.

Johann Christoph Frederich Guts Muths (1759 to 1839)

An educational institute was opened under the direction of

Salzmann and two years later Guts Muths became responsible for Physical Education where he remained on the staff for 50 years.

He let his pupils exercise out of doors and wanted exercise to be done during as well as after school.

His work was restricted to a number of private schools.

He arranged his exercises systematically.

His beliefs and practices in Physical Education were recorded in various books. He is often referred to as one of the founders of modem Physical Education for girls in

Germany.

Friedrich Ludwig John (1778 to 1852)

- He was a teacher at a boy's school and worked regularly with the boys in various outdoor activities.

He propagated unity and freedom in the Napoleonic era and he considered gymnastics a patriotic duty and believed that freedom could be regained only by a nation of strong, hardy people.

He formed his own terminology for his gymnastics exercises.

He called it Turnen (Latin - tornare means turning).

His endeavour to further the Physical Education of his people through the Turnvereine (clubs) outside school was successful.

John's system of gymnastics was recognised throughout Germany.

• Adolph Spiess (1810 to 1858)

He helped to introduce Physical Education as part of the school curriculum. He was well informed as to the theories

of Guts Muths and John.

His own theory was that the school should be interested in the total growth of the child

-mental, emotional, physical and social.

He wanted to classify gymnastics in a way similar to that of intellectual education.

Spiess was one of the first Physical

Educationists who gave his attention to gymnastics for girls followed by A. Maul.

P.H. Ling (1776 to 1839) is responsible for the rise of Physical

Education in Sweden.

He also stressed the importance of a scientific basis for Physical Education.

Ling approached the field with the mind of a scientist, as he believed that he would then be able to better understand the human body and its needs and to select and apply physical activity intelligently.

He also stressed that the mind and body must function harmoniously together.

Ling's son Hjalmar (1820 1886) was largely responsible for Physical Education becoming an essential subject for both boys and girls in all schools and at all institutional levels. Sports and games were also developed.

F. Nachtegall (1777 to 1847) played a significant role in introducing Physical Education into the public schools of

Denmark and also in getting teachers prepared for this subject.

He became the director in 1804 of a training school for teachers of gymnastics in the army, but the need in public schools was so great, that these graduates readily found employment.

N.

Bukh introduced "primitive gymnastics" to build the perfect physique with a series of exercises performed without cessation.

In early modem times, England was using a programme of organised games and sports.

Athletic sports, such as riding, hunting, rowing and wrestling, are a feature of English life.

3.4

Games such as hockey, quoits, tennis, golf, soccer and cricket, are some of the oldest English national sports.

A. Maclaren (1820 1884) was eager to make Physical

Education a science.

He stated that the objectives of Physical

Education should consider that health is more important than strength and that physical action is the antidote for tension and nervousness.

He also highlighted important facts such as physical exercise is essential to optimum growth and development and that physical and mental training are inseparable.

He recommended that exercises be progressive in nature; that exercises should be adapted to an individual's fitness and that Physical Education should be an essential part of any school curriculum.

Girls also received a many-sided

Physical Education.

Germany, Sweden, Denmark and Great Britain led Europe in the promotion of Physical Education and Sport.

For purposes of this dissertation, we shall now look briefly at thestatus quo of Physical Education for girls in the United States of America

(USA) and England as models for developed countries.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN THE

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

During the Colonial Period (1607 to 1783), little attention was given to any form of physical activity in the schools.

During the National Period (1784 to 1861), that is, period from the

American Revolution to the Civil War, Physical Education began to play an important place in society.

Gymnastics was first introduced to schools by German refugees who had been followers of John.

Catherine E. Beecher incorporated in 1828 a planned programme of Physical Education for women and girls in the Hartford Female Seminary in Connecticut.

The apparatus stunts of the German

Turnen

were arousing tremendous interest in schools.

Notable advances in Physical

Education and sports were made before the Civil War.

The Civil War period until 1900

After the Civil War, Turnverein Societies were established for both boys and girls.

The members encouraged their Physical

Education and sports programme in the public schools.

Their main objectives were to promote physical welfare and social and moral training.

They also supported the playground movement.

In 1852, Catherine Beecher founded the American Women's

Educational Association.

In 1861, Dr D. Lewis established a school in Boston for training Physical Education teachers as he believed that teachers should be well prepared.

He became an authority in gymnastics as he aimed at developing agility, grace of movement, flexibility and posture.

In the 1880s, Amy Morris Homans and Mrs.

Hemenway founded a school for teachers in Massachusetts where they stimulated the growth of Swedish gymnastics.

In the 1890s,

Francois Delsarte introduced the Delsarte System of Physical

Culture which was based on praise, grace and beauty which he believed were conducive to better dramatics and better singing.

American sports began to gain popularity and tennis was introduced in 1874.

In the late 1880s, golf was played.

In

1891, basketball was invented by James Naismith.

Other sports that also became popular were boxing, volleyball, skating, handball, archery, wrestling, track, soccer, squash, football and swimming.

In 1879, the National Association of Amateur

Athletics of America was developed, from which the AAU

(American Athletic Union) was later formed. The AAU played a very important role in the participation of the USA in the

Olympic Games.

In 1896, Baron Pierre de Coubertin revived the Olympic Games in Athens.

A small American team participated.

Participation was limited to males and events in four sports, which were track and field, gymnastics, target shooting and fencing.

From here onwards, the Olympic Games grew to become what it is

today.

The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) and

Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) in Boston had a broad Physical Education and sports programme for its members.

Colleges and Universities made major advances in Physical

Education and sports. Gymnasiums were constructed and intercollege athletics grew. In 1852, there was a crew race between

Harvard and Yale and in 1859, the first inter-college baseball game was played.

In 1869, Rutgers and Princeton played their first football game.

In 1896, the first inter-college women's basketball game was held between the University of California and Stanford University.

Athletics was first viewed as extra-curricular activities by school administrators.

In the 1850s, Physical Education programmes became part of the curriculum in elementary and secondary schools.

In the 1880s, the drive to recognise the need for planned programmes in the educational systems was successful.

In 1885, in Brooklyn, the American Association for the

Advancement of Physical Education was organised with

Edward Hitchcock as the first President.

This Association later became the American Physical Education Association and was also known as the American Association for Health, Physical

Education and Recreation (AAHPER). It is now known as the

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

The Swedish system became popular in the East and the

German system was more popular in the Middle West of the

United States of America.

Educational dance and European folk dances became popular.

Recreational activities, especially baseball, football, volleyball and basketball form the nucleus of

American Physical Education.

Early Twentieth Century

Around 1907, more than 323 gymnasiums existed.

Wuest and

Bucher (1999: 167-170) refer to the following major contributions to Physical Education and sport during the early twentieth century:

He was the first director of the Physical Education

Department at the Stanford University and later became associated with Columbia University.

He concentrated on games and games skills.

• Clark Hetherington

He was T.D. Wood's assistant at Stanford.

He was later head of the Physical Education Department at New York

University.

He was partly responsible for it becoming a leading teacher training school in the nation.

He was at McGill University and the University of

Pennsylvania.

He was known for helping physically underdeveloped individuals overcome their deficiencies.

• Jessie H Bancroft

She was a female pioneer in the Physical Education field.

She taught at public schools and stressed that Physical

Education should be taught by the class teacher.

She contributed to the field of posture and body mechanics.

• Delphine Hanna

A female leader of Physical Education, she developed a department of Physical Education at Oberlen College.

Many graduates qualified here and were sent all over the country.

• James H McCurdy

He was associated with Springfield College in America where he provided leadership in the field of Physical

Education.

He published books on exercise and was Editor of the American Physical Education Review.

He was director of Physical Education at Springfield

College in America, director of Physical Education for

Greater New York City public schools and President of the

American Physical Education Association.

He founded and became the first President of the Playground Association of

America.

Higher standards of Physical Education were established and better leaders were produced.

Four years of training became essential which required students to receive a broad, general education, a knowledge of child growth and development and the psychology of learning and specialised training in

Physical Education.

A new trend in Physical Education started to evolve. A programme was planned on a scientific basis to meet the physical needs of individuals.

A varied programme of activities was stressed.

The activities and exercises had to be meaningful to the participant.

Research had to be done to see what best serves the needs of children and adults.

The United States of America entered the war in 1918 and had an impact on the nation and education.

The men were called to service and health statistics aroused considerable interest in the nation's health.

The emancipation of women was furthered.

Many Physical Educators provided leadership for physical conditioning programmes for the armed forces.

The female

Physical Educators were active in programmes in communities and industries at home. After the war it was seen that most men were physically unfit and this result led to legislation in the

various States to upgrade Physical Education programmes

III the schools.

The formal Physical Education programmes of Europe were moved away to form a less formal one where most games, sports and free play were emphasised.

Another achievement during this time was the emphasis on measurement in Physical

Education as a means of grouping students, measuring achievement and motivating performance.

The programmes in schools began to expand.

In the Depression Years: 1930 to 1939

The Great Depression affected education.

Physical Education had a difficult time surviving and thus many gains that were achieved in the schools were lost. The trend was to move away from formal Physical Education to informal games - sports approach.

Intramural athletics continued to grow in Colleges and Universities.

Women's athletic associations also increased in number.

In Mid-Twentieth Century: 1940 to 1970

Impact of World War II (WWIl): After the depression came

WWII.

Physical Education programmes were again needed to help develop fitness in the youth of the nation.

In 1942, a

Division of Physical Fitness was established in the Office of

Defence, Health and Welfare Services.

The purpose of physically conditioning the children and youth, girls and women as well as boys and men were exposed to these programmes.

The Physical Fitness Movement:

It was a great cause for concern when investigations showed that the American children were in a very poor condition physically.

In 1955, President

Eisenhower showed great interest in fitness and it became a national topic for consideration.

Organisations and businesses became involved.

Operation Fitness USA was inaugurated by

3.4.2

the AAHPER to promote fitness and leadership.

President J.F.

Kennedy continued with this fitness campaign and also introduced suggestions for school-centred programmes.

After the war there was a critical shortage of teachers and in selecting new teachers, standards were not a priority.

During the mid-twentieth century, interest was shown in girls' and women's sports. In 1962, the first joint conference was held to listen to the views of both men and women.

Many steps were taken to promote girls' and women's sports.

Liaison with the

Olympic Games Officials was developed.

Greater opportunity was provided for females to engage in competitive sports.

Sports programmes for boys and girls in elementary school were recommended.

It was also recommended that games and sports should be based on the development level of children and that competition should be inherent in the growth and development of the child.

World seminars and conferences in

Physical Education were held. Research became specialised.

Physical Education Programme in the United States of

America from 1960 to present

Spears and Swanson (1978: 1-8) maintain that "Sports, dance and physical activity had become essential elements of the

American Society".

In 1976, arguments raged over the implementation of federal guidelines for equal opportunities for girls and boys in Physical Education classes and athletic programmes.

Prime time on national television was devoted to a variety of sport programmes.

Sports, dance and physical activity were accepted as a part of everyday life.

In the United States today, sports is organised in a variety of ways, one being in the public school system.

However, sports instruction in the schools is sometimes equated with Physical

Education, while athletics is usually considered as organised inter- insti tuti onal sports.

Sports participation at all levels and within all segments of the society has expanded and exploded.

Laws have been passed

which have increased opportunities for girls and women in sports and for the disabled.

The knowledge concerning

Physical Education and sports grew rapidly and is continuing to do so. Programmes have expanded from the traditional school settings to community centres and corporate fitness centres.

In

1985 AAHPERD - the American Alliance for Health Physical

Education, Recreation and Dance celebrated its one-hundredth annIversary.

In schools, many different curricula have emerged since the

1970s.

Some emphasised fitness, others adventure or sports education.

Adventure models emphasised outdoor pursuits.

The sports model involves achievement of educational values by students within the playful competition of sports.

In 1992, the National Association of Physical Education and

Sports

(NAPES)

developed national content standards for

Physical Education.

In 1995, NAPES published Moving into

the Future: National Standards for Physical Education: A

Guide to Content and Assessment.

For the first time, there was a national framework to guide Physical Education.

Celeste Ulrich, describing the different kinds of sports as one of the most significant indices of the character and personality of

America, declared that "they portray the genius of its people and set the stage for cultural formation (Miller and Russell

1971: 73). The modem era of the 21 st century is characterised by the acceleration and rapid growth and extension of movements begun in the last century.

The dominating aims of

Physical Education of the present era are democratic ones and the dominating trends in programmes are those concerned with play, sports and recreation (Dalen and Bennett, 1980: 595).

In the United States of America, the democratic influences have been at work in a number of ways impacting positively on

Physical Education generally and Physical Education for Girls specifically:

• in the increased emphasis on the informal types of activities

• in the addition of many new play forms of activity to the curriculum

• in the promotion of playgrounds and recreation centres for all classes and all ages of people

• in the growth of intramural sports

The modem education principles, namely that education must develop the whole child, that education is functional and a

"doing" process, that education is life itself as well as a preparation for life, that health and school progress are correlated, bring new and enlarged responsibilities to the modem Physical Education programme.

According to Postma

(1984: 46-48) America is not a country, but a continent, and the 50 states of which it consists have a great deal of autonomy with respect to education.

Physical Education opinions and organisations show great differences from state to state.

The

American society is democratic and the democracy is based on the principles of equal freedom and equal rights for all its members.

Moreover, education in the United States of America aims at health and physical fitness, effective citizenship, moral character and the promotion of the proper use of leisure.

Thus,

Physical Educationalists realise that these democratic principles afford good opportunities for acquiring valuable experience.

Qualities of leadership and agreeable personalities may be developed and good patterns of behaviour learnt in order to facilitate social intercourse and acquire emotional balance.

Young people thus become adapted to a complicated

3.4.3

civilisation by learning to fit play, exerCIses, recreation and relaxation into daily life.

Although theoretically both the biological as well as the socioeducational aspects of the subject are given attention, in practice, the emphasis falls on the latter, so much so that the physiological-anatomical aims are pushed into the background.

Exercise is not sufficiently intensive and the fitness of youth is generally not a high standard.

This was evident during World

War 1 when many young men had to be rejected for military service.

In 1957 a countrywide fitness campaign was launched after it was found that the American children were far behind the European children when muscular strength and suppleness were compared.

There is a great diversity in the choice of activities in the school programmes owing to the differences in climate, type of country and density of population as well as the fact that every state has its own educational policy.

In order to gain a certain amount of uniformity, a national curriculum has been drawn up.

Great importance is attached to educational dance for girls.

This curriculum recommends 5 periods per week to each activity and doing a part of the coaching in every lesson.

School teams are often trained by highly paid coaches.

Interschool as well as inter-class matches are organised so that the great mass of pupils can profit by this type of competition.

"Games Days" involving the whole school are also sometimes organised.

Promotion of teachers depends to a large extent on their qualification.

Many Physical Educationists study for advanced degrees. Research is strongly encouraged in the universities.

Significance for Physical Education for Girls

There is no discrimination amongst the sexes as stated by law.

No person can be excluded from participation in Physical

Education activities on the basis of sex. Girls have equal rights

and opportunities in all areas of education, including sports and

Physical Education.

Physical Education specialists were appointed in the primary schools.

Girls participated in numerous sporting activities and had freedom of choice, where activities were concerned.

They did not lack facilities and coaches.

The parents supported the

Physical Education and sports whole-heartedly.

The early English educational system had at least eight educational systems in the country.

Each had a different aim and a different ethos and each unhappily had a different social status (Dent, 1946: 17).

There are the elementary school system, the secondary school system and the adult education system.

Within these systems

·further sub-divisions can be made, almost all based on considerations of social and economic status.

Each system is administered under a different code of regulations prescribing different standards of buildings, staff and amenities.

The

English system of education is based on the hypothesis that the vast majority of English children need no more educational preparation for life than can be given to them in an elementary school between the ages of 5 and 14.

There was no legal obligation upon parents to continue the children's education after 14.

As a result of the economic circumstances of the majority of the parents, almost all the children who left school at that age were sent straight into full-time wage-earning employment, in spite of the fact that they were physically immature and mentally undeveloped.

After 1939, as a result of the war, the Government instituted the Service of Youth to provide social, educational and recreative facilities for young people between 14 and 18 years old. For the ambitious child, there was night school.

The poor attended the elementary schools, which was looked upon as the humblest of educational institutions which were housed in dingy, over-crowded

buildings sparsely provided with even the barest necessities in the way of amenities.

This was one of the reasons that the educational set-up had to be replaced by a unified system, allowing for the variety of human nature and ability and inspired by a common social purpose.

The Education Act 1944 re-organised the statutory system of public education in England.

The main change was made in the statutory system of public education it was reorganised in the three progressive stages, namely, Primary

(2 11 years), Secondary (12 19 years) and Further

Education.

It was compulsory to receive a full-time education up to 16 years of age. This Act was further amended in 1946, 1948,

1953, 1959 and 1962.

In 1962 in England, there were 8 specialist three-year colleges for Physical Education.

They were all single sex colleges.

Exercise's had to promote normal functioning rather than the development of each part of the body in isolation as in the old Swedish exercises of the past.

The movements and skills needed in games and other activities were brought within the walls of the gymnasium.

The emphasis on movement led to mime, modem dance and dramatic expression becoming part of the normal programme of Physical Education (Baron, 1965:

121).

Under the influence of modem educational ideas, Physical

Education, particularly that of girls, has undergone modification.

The traditional games and sports have been kept up, but physical training has been greatly modified.

Modem dance has been added to the programme.

Physical

Education in England is currently referred to as Movement

Education.

The aim of Movement Education was formulated as the promotion of awareness of the body and of space and neuromuscular control. Attention was no longer focussed on

definite exercises and performances but on developing movement in children and understanding of what they are doing and how the movements follow upon each other. The educator's task was no longer to give orders, but to make suggestions.

More was left to the initiative of the pupils.

The traditional exercises had been replaced whereby the child was allowed to experiment.

Pupils had to learn to move freely, use their initiative, be creative and think out their own way of moving and becoming conscious of the space around them.

The teacher aimed at impressing on the pupils an appreciation of the qualities of movement, for example, slow, fast, strong or light.

They aim at making pupils conscious of their own bodies, at flowing movements of appreciation of a well executed movement and at being able to apply the skill and expression developed in movement education to games, dancing, athletics and other activities.

The children did not follow prescribed exercises, but followed their own line of interest with regard to movement.

The children thus learnt to be self-creative, using all levels of space around them and learn to use all parts of their bodies.

Children who were good in a particular direction could be made to demonstrate, thus arousing interest.

Uninterrupted movement and repetition were encouraged.

The factors basic to all movements are space, tension or effort, time and flow.

A lesson was worked out logically, a variety of movements was presented and pupils were given an opportunity to practise and perfect them. The lesson was centred around a movement theme and consists of a group of tasks in connection with it.

If the whole class performed the same tasks on similar apparatus, one speaks of class activities.

When different

3.5.2

pIeces of apparatus are used the activity IS called group work.

Children are allowed to find solutions suited to the extent of their training and ability.

In this way, frustrations are avoided which may arise because of them not being able to do the exercise exactly as the teacher wishes.

Emphasis was placed on flow of movement.

Much was left to the initiative of the pupil within the framework of the task.

The teacher had to make a special mental adjustment in relation to movement education.

During these lessons, there seemed to be a lack of time to satisfy the physiological requirements.

The male Physical Education educators gave preference to the old-fashioned Physical Education.

Although the ultimate aim was the optimum development of a balanced personality, the immediate objectives are usually the development of strength, suppleness, endurance and skill.

Circuit training as a form of exercise gained ground.

This was individual training in which the pupil exercises to suit his ability, within a certain time.

By increasing or decreasing the number of times the exercises were done, the individual could compete with himself and simultaneously improved his strength and endurance.

Physical Education Programme in England

In England there are no official syllabuses for Physical

Education published.

The head of the school decides the

Physical Education curriculum content.

This responsibility is usually passed on to the Physical Education educators.

In some areas, teachers are advised on the curricula of the subject by inspectors, but not the planning of the content of the schools'

Physical Education programmes.

This situation often resulted in the standard of Physical Education at a particular school being dependent upon the interests and nature of the training of the teachers who teach the Physical Education lessons.

In middle schools (pupils between 5 years and 12 years), there was a move towards having specialist educators who will advise class teachers on their subject.

The subject was moving towards a less formal approach, as the educators no longer have to adhere rigidly to published syllabuses, they have the freedom to select their own programme content.

Physical Education is one of ten core subjects on the national curriculum.

It recommends a minimum of 100/0 of the timetable for Physical education.

The British Government has asked Physical Educationalists and sports governing bodies to examine the structure and content of

Physical Education in schools.

Out of their investigations and discussions, emerged an all-embracing programme of sporting development from the cradle to the grave.

In this regard Gummerson (1992: 17-19) identifies stages the following aspects relevant to the foregoing, and of special significance to Physical Education for girls, as

• Five Stages of Sporting Development:

./ The foundation period - up' to seven years of age

Physical Educationalists agree that children should be offered a broad range of non-specific physical activity.

Children should not specialise in anyone sport.

Basic co-ordination skills and movement patterns should be developed to establish a broad-based foundation .

./ The participation period - 7 to 11years of age

Most sports were devised by men for men at the peak of their physical activity, so they are simply not suitable for children!

It is not acceptable for children to play on the same size pitch as the adults, use the same equipment or adhere to the same rules as adults.

They have neither the physical nor the intellectual

maturity to behave as adults, During this period of physical development, children should experience modified versions of adult games, activities designed to develop specific skills.

Youngsters should be offered as wide a range of physical and sporting experience as possible .

./ The performance period - eleven to fourteen years of age

During this period, youngsters should be exposed to activities that have not been modified.

By experiencing the full game situation in a wide range of activities, they will be able to appreciate the varied demands and benefits.

The children will be able to identify which activities they are best suited to in physical, mental and personal enjoyment terms .

./ The development of excellence - fourteen to sixteen years of age

At this stage, youngsters should be able to specialise in a particular sport if they wish.

If offered a wide range of sporting experience, most children will be able to find at least one activity they are good at and which, with effort, they could develop .

./ Specialistion - sixteen years of age and older

From the age of sixteen, sportswomen are becoming physically and mentally more mature and are capable of withstanding the pressures of specialisation.

They are able to identify for themselves the activity that they want to develop.

For girls at the primary school, this is an innovative educational conceptualisation of Physical Education.

Curriculum change and development is an ongoing process at every level of the education system.

In

England, there have been attempts by educators to

initiate change within their classrooms but there was some resistance to change at school level. In England, as in many countries throughout the world, there often appears to be a disparity between what ought to be taught in schools' Physical Education lessons and what the teachers in the schools actually teach.

The Physical Education Association of the United Kingdom

(PEAUK) exists to provide, develop and sustain high quality.

Physical Education in the United Kingdom.

• PEAUK Policy on the Physical Education Curriculum

PEAUK believes that Physical Education is a central and essential part of the school curriculum.

Physical Education contributes to the school curriculum by enabling pupils to increase their physical competence and confidence in a range of physical activities.

The process involves developing knowledge, skills and understanding which will enable pupils to think as well as perform.

Physical

Education promotes physical skills and physical development through a continuous process of planning, performing and evaluating with the greatest emphasis placed on learning through physical activity .

./ Physical Education is important to the overall development of young people and beyond

./ Physical Education provides opportunities for young people to develop their knowledge, skills and understanding of the body and its movement

./ Physical Education develops physical awareness, skills and competence and contributes to healthy growth and physical development

./ Physical Education develops artIstIc and aesthetic understanding in and through movement

,/ Physical Education influences the development of healthy lifestyles and lifelong habits·

,/ Physical Education provides opportunities to promote spiritual, moral, social and cultural development and develops personal qualities such as self-esteem, independence, citizenship, tolerance and empathy

,/ Physical Education provides opportunities to promote key skills such as communication (verbal and nonverbal), working with others, improving own learning and performance and problem-solving

,/ Physical Education makes a strong contribution to the development of pupils' language through the extensive use of speaking and listening skills

,/ appropriate provision should be made for pupils who need activities to be adapted to enable them to be included and participate in Physical Education lessons

,/ pupils should experience a broad and balanced curriculum which fulfils the requirements of the National

Curriculum and experience a range of activities relevant to their age, abilities and own aptitudes

,/ in the early years, children should be involved in physical activities every day and that there should be a minimum of two hours of curriculum Physical Education every week across all key stages

,/ modules of lessons of this length should be for a minimum of eight lessons to secure an adequate depth of learning and twelve hours as a maximum to enable full coverage of National Curriculum requirements

,/ high quality Physical Education is best promoted, developed and sustained through high quality teaching, from fully qualified teachers, which should ensure that pupils learn effectively to reach their potential.

• To realise this policy PEAUK will

./ liaise and work closely with other United Kingdom and international agencies and organisations to develop, promote and support high quality resources

./ lobby to secure and enhance the status of the subject

./ lobby to secure adequate curriculum time for Physical

Education

./ lobby to ensure that initial teacher training and continuing professional development play significant roles in developing and sustaining high quality Physical

Education

./ lobby to ensure Physical Education

IS taught by well qualified specialists at all key stages.

• PEAUK Policy on the Contribution of Physical Education to the Whole Curriculum

PEAUK believes that Physical Education can make a valuable contribution to numeracy, literacy and Key Skills through a well-structured and appropriately delivered programme of work.

There is a wealth of opportunity for work in Physical Education to develop autonomous, caring and well-balanced individuals able to make a significant contribution to society .

./ with the adoption of a positive, encouraging teaching approach, the subject can enhance pupil self confidence and communication skills

./ with use of appropriate teaching methods, the subject can encourage and develop both pupil decision-making and communication skills

./ with effective organisation and management of pupil groupings, the subject can encourage and develop pupil interpersonal skills

./ with appropriate use of opportunities in competitive situations, the subject can introduce and reinforce acceptable moral behaviour

./ with appropriate use of opportunities across all activities, the subject can introduce and reinforce aspects of the concept of number, size and space

./ with appropriate use of opportunities Outdoor

Adventurous Activities, the subject can develop respect for the environment

./ with appropriate use of opportunities, the subject can heighten aesthetic awareness and encourage acceptable expression of emotions

./ the subject has a unique role to play in initiating pupils into many aspects of health education

./ provide opportunities for a ligelong active and healthy lifestyle.

• To realise this policy PEAUK will

./ lobby schools to recognise the contribution Physical

Education can make across the curriculum

./ lobby to ensure Physical Education representation on national, regional and school working parties looking at delivery of cross-curricular issues

./ produce resources to exemplify how the subject can contribute to pupil education in the widest sense

./ facilitate the dissemination of good practice via courses, conferences and publications.

3.5.3

Significance for Physical Education for Girls

There was a reconsideration of the content of the Physical

Education programmes for girls.

The needs in the school and the society must also be catered for. Compulsion must be lessened and for primary school girls guided discovery was the most popular style.

General teaching objectives were directed towards creating social awareness and responsibility, enjoyment, self-awareness and a general interest in school.

We shall now look briefly at the status quo of Physical Education for girls in India as a model for a developing country.

Compulsory primary education was introduced in the 1960s in the third five-year plan.

Separate schools for boys and girls were established.

Pilot projects for intensive development of primary education were set up. The selected area was attached to a teacher-training institute for primary school teachers.

The proper teaching of science was emphasised.

In order to improve the health and physical fitness, the ministry launched a

National Physical Efficiency Drive based on precise and carefully graded physical fitness tests. It aroused enthusiasm of the people in seeking high standards of physical efficiency and achievement.

The education system was gradually being geared to meet the demands of the society.

The Delhi Primary

Education Act was passed in the 1960s which legislated compulsory primary education.

It was not possible to have a uniform curriculum all over the country, only certain basic principles that every state should follow. The constitution gives full authority over education to the states and therefore there is no uniform pattern of education for the country as a whole

(Shrimali, 1965: 265).

3.6.2

In 1958, the deteriorating sports standards in India alarmed the

Government.

They appointed a committee to scrutinise the matter and make suggestions.

They recommended that for the proper development of sports and games in India, planned coaching at all stages was necessary.

A Central Training

Institute to provide first class coaches in different sports and games was established.

In India today, there is an increasing awareness of the need for development of Physical Education and sports as a policy of national importance.

Programmes are underway to bring standards of Physical Education on par with other disciplines in higher education.

It was the Young Men's Christian

Association (YMCA) in India, which played a major role in spreading the new Physical Education concept.

The United

States of America and the United Kingdom sent educationalists to India.

Many leaders trained at the International College of

Physical Education of YMCA at Springfield, America, have done pioneering work in the field of Physical Education in

India.

It was felt that indigenous leaders or educators of Physical

Education would serve India better.

They would be able to understand their people better than foreigners.

Physical Education Programme in India

• Physical Education is being more and more encouraged in

India because of its strong enforcement at schools and the role of the media. The Physical Education programme starts right from kindergarden and is a compulsory course for both males and females up to the senior level which is Grade 11.

The course outline varies from school to school depending on what type of school it is - private, or all boys or all girls.

• In private school they take Physical Education very seriously.

In many private schools, it is the first class of the day.

In the morning the entire school assembles and splits into house groups. Each house group has over one hundred boys and girls.

They do stretching and exercises and they

play games such as soccer and cricket.

There is so much competition in the schools themselves that they do not really need to compete with another school. Inan all-boys' school or an all-girls' school, the children have a period out of the day, not necessarily in the morning, where they are allowed to go outside and play.

Teachers organise games such as soccer and volleyball.

These schools also have team sports that run after school and they complete against other schools.

Private schools and government-run schools offer university scholarships for outstanding male and female athletes.

• Female power is growing in India.

Young girls are being educated at early stages about the choices they can make when they grow up.

In India, Physical Education is a growing field.

It is with a view to developing the overall personality of youth that

Physical Education has been made a part of general education.

With respect to the Indian context, Ram (1995: 3-25) is of the opinion that Physical Education and sports alter the very essence of life.

They shape social and human needs, bring greater goodwill and closer contact in the comity of nations.

Physical Education is an unparalleled domain in India because it helps students to reap maximum benefits.

The learning of the child is dependent upon nature, environment, facilities of the educational institution, etc.

In the context of Physical

Education in India, there are noticeable differences between a child from a school with all the facilities and the one from a school, which is not properly equipped.

Physical movements are a biological necessity.

Physical

Education had to pass through a number of ordeals and tribulations to achieve its present prestigious state.

Physical Education programmes are no longer considered to be the extra-curricular activities but now enjoy an enviable position in the curricula. The Physical Educators of today have been entrusted with greater responsibilities where it now aims

at improving the overall personality of man, both in the developed countries such as the United States of America and

England, and in a developing country such as India as stated by

Dalen and Bennett (1980: 618-622).

Despite the progress that has been made in increasing agricultural production and improving education, India is still plagued with poverty, malnutrition, disease and illiteracy.

Providing schools, teachers and textbooks for Indian children is a formidable task.

Nonetheless, Physical Education is now accepted as an integral part of education in India.

The promotion of sports and games is hampered by marginal diets, the absence of a sports tradition, lack of trained coaches, inadequate facilities and equipment, and insufficient financial support.

The Indian leaders made an effort to revive or retain indigenous activities.

Under British rule, many retired military men taught Physical Education classes and they restricted their activities to mass drills and exercises.

There is a great need for more or better-trained Physical Education educators in India.

Over 50 institutions offer one-year training courses in Physical

Education.

The National Lakshmibai College of Physical Education, inaugurated a three-year degree course and later added a twoyear post graduate course.

The Indian Olympic Association was founded in 1927. The first Asian Games were celebrated in

New Delhi in 1951.

The Government is concerned about the quality and promotion of sports.

The chief aim of Physical

Education is to create ideal opportunities for young pupils at various levels to acquire the true and all-round perfection and development in every aspect.

The main objectives of the programmes of Physical Education is to produce responsible and rational citizens who can act wisely throughout their lives.

India has a long way to go in order to realise the goals of Physical Education.

There is a tendency to cling to outmoded methods and systems of Physical Education.

There has been a tendency to follow the

line of least resistance and to fit individuals and groups to preconceived schemes of work instead of fitting the programme to the interests and needs of those being educated.

The history of

Physical Education reveals that valuable time has been wasted analysing various systems.

The educational principles chiefly aim at producing well balanced children who will adjust with and adapt to the real problems in their future lifestyle.

There is no uniform pattern in the schools regarding the effective thrust on Physical

Education with the result that it is not given the due place and importance and thus becomes a matter of convenience.

Siedentop, Maud and Taggart (1986: 311) state that a good programme accomplishes something.

India must have a programme that students value and appreciate the outcomes and the process by which these outcomes are achieved.

Other indications that suggest a good programme are that:

• the teaching/learning environment

IS physically and psychologically safe

To develop and maintain good Physical Education programmes in India, members of staff need to attend to several important managerial functions such as plan carefully and ahead of time, communicate effectively and represent their programmes

3.6.3

vigorously.

Successful Physical Education programmes utilize both the formal and informal organisations of the school.

They are also the product of high staff morale.

Physical educators need to stay alive in their jobs.

They need teaching conditions that motivate them to continue to want to teach well.

Signifi~ance for Physical Education ,for Girls

As for other countries in India also the chief aim is the allround development and fuller growth of children.

It is important that carefully chosen and meticulously planned physical activities should be included in the curriculum to enhance the active participation of the children.

Physical Education programmes for girls at the primary schools have played an important role in discriminating knowledge, liberating .the mind and improving skills, promoting free thinking and encouraging creative talents.

Ram (1995: 36) suggests the following in order to improve

Physical Education in India:

• the aims and objectives of Physical Education should be defined in clear terms

• experts and stalwarts should get together and design a better

Physical Education programme.

Lectures, seminars and workshops should be held

• short refresher courses may be held for physical educators to raise the standard of Physical Education as well as maximise their contribution to the field

• the government should give priority to the physical educators in the matters of employment.

Physical Education must be part of the mainstream education.

It must enjoy a reputation like the other· subjects.

Physical

Education in India has lost its significance as it is not an examinable subject.

There is a great need to put Physical

Education on par with other subjects.

It is a pity that the girls

are not exposed fully to Physical Education, but only

III a limited manner as an optional subject.

In this chapter the brief reference to the history of Physical

Education reveals that it has always been present but regarded with varying degrees of importance.

A worldview of Physical

Education has been presented, one that looks back to the forces of the past that have helped to shape Physical Education today.

This perspective involves many countries and continents.

In the classical Greek Age, the idea of harmony of body and mind was emphasised when educating their people.

Physical

Education was considered an integral part of the education process with the purpose being a harmonious development of the mental, physical and spiritual aspects of the human personality.

In China little room was provided for organised

Physical Education.

Plato expressed this idea in his writings and in his participating in physical exercise.

The Greeks emphasised beauty and grace of movement together with strength and physical prowess.

The sports festival celebrated by the Greeks is the legacy that is the basis of the modern Olympic Games.

During this era, where physical activity was valued, there was intellectual and cultural development.

The Romans preserved the Greek culture.

Throughout the Middle Ag~s, the spiritual aspect was stressed to the detriment of the physical and social aspect of human development.

From the Age of Enlightenment to the Twentieth

Century period, intellectual development was emphasised in education.

Locke and Rousseau emphasised natural play or organised activities.

Their idea was to exercise the body in order to enhance optimum intellectual development.

During the Twentieth Century, a move has been seen in the philosophy of education towards the return to the Greek ideal of balance and harmony between mind and body. New theories of learning, such as those by Thorndike and Gestalt produced

significant changes in the way children were taught.

Philosophers, economists and educators influenced and provided the rationale for the transition towards a general education for all citizens.

Physical Education underwent profound changes in the nature of activities and methods of teaching.

At the turn of the century, games were accepted as a part of elementary and secondary school Physical Education programmes.

Between

1930 and 1940, play through game was considered to be a strong contributor to social adjustment.

Skill and physical development were not of major importance.

During the early 1940s and later 1960s, increased attention was given to the professional preparation of specialists in Physical

Education in most countries.

Laws and educational requirements of qualifications upgraded the calibre of Physical

Education teaching and its importance in the educational milieu.

From the 1970s to 1990s, further changes in the content and teaching of Physical Education were noted in the United States of America and England.

These changes included new knowledge, regarding children's growth and development.

- Teaching techniques now emphasised self-exploratory and problem-solving methods.

Changing trends have presented physical educators with new challenges.

Throughout the history of Physical Education, we saw a fluctuating emphasis on the concept of the importance of

Physical Education.

This also prevails today, especially in

South Africa, where the recent changes in the education programmes seem to have down-played the importance of

Physical Education.

This is apparent when one looks at the new Outcomes Based Education System where minimum time is set aside for Physical Education with no need for a specialist educator.

In the next chapter, Physical Education for girls at the primary school level in KwaZulu-Natal will be studied in detail.

CHAPTER FOUR

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND

SPORTS TRAINING FOR GIRLS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

IN KWAZULU-NATAL

4.1

INTRODUCTION

The Atlantic Ocean on one side and the Indian Ocean on the other border South Africa.

South African society has been divided, prior to 1994, by class, geography and gender as well as by race. Different groups in different places and at different times gave different meanings to particular sporting activities.

Ethnic and racial divisions were part of the dividing programme of apartheid.

South Africa is seen as one of the most complex of nations, made up of many competing cultures, identities and ideologies.

Breyten Breytenbach in

Return to Paradise

(1993: xviii) shows how South Africa was really seen in the apartheid era:

"To my mind only a fool would pretend to understand comprehensively what South Africa is really about, or be objective and far sighted enough to glimpse its future course."

KwaZulu-Natal is one of South Africa's nine provinces. Other than arts and crafts, sports is one of the most popular forms of recreation in the province.

With its excellent all'-year round weather, KwaZulu-Natal is ideal for outdoor activities.

The province boasts several important national and international sporting events. These are surfmg, golfmg, the annual Duzi

Canoe Marathon, the Durban July Handicap and the Comrades

Marathon. Furthermore, the Amalgamated Banks of South

Africa (ABSA) Stadium (formerly Kingspark) and the

Kingsmead Stadium in Durban regularly host national and international matches in South Africa's most popular sports, namely, soccer, rugby and cricket.

4.2

South Africa is sometimes seen as a sports mad nation and few will not have heard about the boycott movements and the system of segregated sports during the apartheid era.

Nelson

Mandela, during his presidential reign and the African National

Congress (ANC) led government, viewed sports as one of the key areas of reconciliation in the "new South Africa".

It was looked upon as the best cultural activity through which to generate a new national identity.

Sports has served to both unify and divide groups, it has been closely interwoven with the broader fabric of South African society and has been at the forefront of social and political change as stated by Nauright

(1997: 2).

Sports moved ahead of political negotiations in the late 1980s and early 1990s, between political parties, creating unity and eliminating the traces of apartheid.

This is clearly seen in

President Nelson Mandela's speech during the Rugby World

Cup in 1995 as stated by Nauright (1997: 4):

"The Springboks are our boys. I ask everyone of you to stand behind them because they are our pride, they are my pride, they are your pride."

THE EARLY SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOL EDUCATION

SYSTEM

Before one can look at KZN in particular, it is imperative that a brief South African overview is presented.

This overview serves to put KZN in perspective.

Education in South Africa was organised on a differentiated racial basis. There were thus four main and separately administered education systems.

These were Africans, Indians, Coloureds and Whites.

The contacts between these systems were minimal as a matter of government policy. They will therefore be described separately whilst bearing in mind that there was also a small but significant private education sector which had begun to cut across racial lines (Cameron et al., 1983: 373).

4.2.1

4.2.2

Development and Planning of the Education

Systems

It was not until the 1890s that provision was made for separate schools for Whites and Non-Whites in the public school system.

From early days in the Cape Colony, a variety of

Christian denominations had carried the burden of providing education for children of all population groups entirely from their own resources.

In early mission schools, Whites and other children sat together.

Development and Planning of the African Education

System

The Bantu Education Act of 1953 marked a major turning point in the history of education in South Africa.

It was a direct result of the Eiselen Commission, which was appointed by the new National Party government.

They were instructed to formulate the principles and aims of education for the Blacks as an independent race, in which their past and present, their inherent racial qualities, their distinctive characteristics and aptitude and their needs under ever-changing social conditions were taken into consideration.

The Bantu Education Act of

1953 was aimed at providing Africans with educational skills which would enable them to be engaged in semi-skilled labour positions one day.

The administration and control of African education was transferred to the central government so that a uniform educational policy could be developed and mission schools were replaced by community schools.

Training of teachers was conducted in state training institutions only.

Thus began the era of separate state controlled "Bantu

Education".

The immediate result was a rapid increase in the number of children in school.

Educational problems such as unequal access to school, unequal educational opportunities, inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, shortage of educational material and inadequately qualified teaching staff existed.

These problems contributed to the crisis in South Africa and

4.2.3

1976 marked the turning point in South Africa's history with the Soweto uprising.

The Black South African children rejected inferior education and being taught through the medium of Afrikaans.

In 1981, free and compulsory education was introduced.

In

1983, the Tricameral Parliament was born. At this point, South

Africa's education was controlled by 15 education departments, including the homelands.

The Blacks received the most inferior education.

1994 heralded a new democratic order in South Africa to the formerly disenfranchised, voiceless majority.

The election of

April 1994 brought renewed hope of a new era, with new hopes for a better life for all with equal opportunities.

Development and Planning of the Coloured

Education System

As with African education, education of children from the

Coloured community was -for long entrusted almost entirely to the Church.

It was not until the 1920s, that the Provincial

Council in the Cape began to exercise more control and took over responsibility for the payment of teachers' salaries.

Progress was very- slow; less than half of the Coloured children of school age attended school in 1925 and most stayed for no more than three to four years.

In 1930, education was made free. Only after 1945, there were some state schools established for Coloured pupils in the Cape.

In 1964, responsibility for

Coloured education was transferred to the Department of

Coloured Affairs.

In 1975, the number of pupils in school had increased by 60%.

In 1983, the Coloured education was transferred to the House of

Representatives under the Tricameral Parliament.

This re mained until 1994 when the new democratic government was formed.

4.2.4

4.2.5

Development and Planning of the Indian

Education System

Schools for Indian children began in Natal on a very small scale but it was not until 1894, that they came under the control of the Natal Education Department.

In 1909, only 3.200 Indian children were at school and a small percentage was girls.

Growth continued to be slow until the 1940s when the stateaided schools, often built by the Indian community, were given additional assistance including improved salaries for teachers.

Thereafter, secondary education developed steadily so that by

1965, 11% of the school population were in secondary classes.

From 1966, the control of all Indian schools, including those in the Transvaal, was transferred to the department of Indian

Affairs.

The financing of Indian education then became the responsibility of the State with all school education, including books and stationery, being provided free to pupils.

In 1983, the House of Delegates, under the Tricameral Parliament, took total control of Indian education.

Development and Planning of the White

Education System

In 1910, the four provinces of the newly constituted Union of

South Africa retained control of all school level education, as well as teacher training - a control which was vested in their provincial councils and education departments.

The Union

Department of Education was created to take care on a national basis of all higher education.

By this time, a system of separate primary and secondary education had been firmly established in each province.

Attendance at school was compulsory between the ages of seven and fourteen. Education was also free. In the

Johannesburg area the English-speaking community had set up a system of private English-medium schools in opposition to the Boer Republic's Dutch-medium schools.

In the aftermath of the Anglo-Boer war, the position was reversed and Alfred

Milner imposed a system designed to anglicise and denationalise the Boers, a move that led to an upsurge of national consciousness amongst the Boers with language as its symbol.

4.3

The divided control of education led to each province going its own way, with little or no co-ordination.

This was particularly so in the vexed question of the language medium with pressure from Afrikaans-speaking people for separate Afrikaans-medium and English-medium schools. This became official government policy in 1948. There were also a variety of regulations in the provinces relating to free and compulsory education, but in general both primary and secondary essential items (books and stationery) were free in all provinces by the 1940s.

The coming to power of the National Party in 1948 stimulated a revival of the ideals of "Christian National" education and strengthened the movement in favour of a national education policy as opposed to the existing provincial variations.

At the same time, and at a professional rather than a political level, there grew the conviction that all was not well with secondary education.

In particular, it was felt that it catered mainly for the academically able minority and very little for the needs of the majority that were not likely to proceed to higher education.

Both these trends of opinion, as well as others, found expression in the National Education Policy Act of 1967.

In

1983, the House of Assembly took control of White education up to 1994.

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

The Dutch were the first white settlers at Cape Town, but the

British took over in 1806. In 1910, the Union of South Africa was established.

This was a federation of the provinces, namely, Natal, Orange Free State, Cape of Good Hope and

Transvaal.

Education was compulsory, depending upon the province.

The various races and languages resulted in a complicated social structure.

The European group was provided with fine teachers and superior school facilities. The Coloured and Asiatic groups received lesser benefits, and the Blacks had been seriously neglected from an educational standpoint.

The vast majority of

inhabitants were left without adequate educational opportunities.

The Union Department of Education was the central government authority and it guided the Physical

Education programmes on all educational levels.

At the end of the 19 th century, Physical Education was taught at the Cape under Dr Thomas Muir.

He was the third

Superintendent-General of Education and he took a personal interest in gymnastics.

During the holidays, the teachers were offered courses on Swedish exercises, in the different towns, up until 1908.

In boys' schools, the class teachers taught Physical Education but in many girls' schools, there were trained gymnastic mistresses.

The subject only progressed when training centres for teachers of Physical Education were founded.

In the Transvaal, Physical Education was taught

III many schools.

Physical Education qualifications were a strong recommendation for the post, especially in girls' schools.

In

1912, an educator, Collard was -appointed as a teacher then as organiser of gymnastics at the Pretoria Girls' High School.

They had two hours of Physical Education per week and sports and games every afternoon.

Collard also gave teachers lessons and he promoted swimming.

In the Orange Free State, gymnastics also featured in the syllabus from 1900 onwards.

Trained teachers were appointed in the girls' schools.

In Natal, teachers were trained in Swedish gymnastics.

After

1911, girls' schools appointed overseas-qualified teachers.

This is proof that the ladies realised the value of this subject.

The training of female Physical Education teachers at the Cape started at the Cape Town Training College. In 1921, Miss M.C.

Black began to train ladies according to the Swedish ideas. The first year courses in educational and remedial gymnastics, games, swimming and dancing followed.

The training of male specialist teachers started inPaarl in 1936.

This training spread to other training colleges in the Transvaal.

The aim was to supply the primary schools with specialist teachers.

Non-Whites (as this was South Africa in its apartheid era), were also trained.

In 1938 Coloured teachers were offered a oneyear course at Salt River (and in 1943) Bantu teachers could train at The Healdtown Native Training Institutions.

Secondary school teachers were trained at universities.

In

1936, the University of Stellenbosch started by appointing Dr

E. Jokl as Head of the Physical Education course.

This was a one-year training for graduates who had a Baccalaureate Degree and the Secondary Teachers' Diploma.

In 1940, a graduate course was inaugurated.

After 1945, the Universities of Grahamstown, Potchefstroom and Pretoria started departments of Physical Education and conducted graduate courses.

To co-ordinate Physical

Education, the

National Advisory Council for Physical

Education

(NACPE) was founded in 1938.

They had to compile a syllabus for the country and all education departments were represented on the Council.

The Cape

Education Department instituted the first inspection of Physical

Education in 1938.

Inspectors or Supervisors were also appointed in other Provinces.

Most departments allocated two, forty-minute periods a week for the subject.

In 1945, the first South African Congress for Physical

Education was held in Stellenbosch and Cape Town.

This conference was thereafter held every two years.

The South

African Association of Physical Educationists later became known as the South African Association for Physical Education and Recreation (SAAPER.).

They contributed greatly towards uniformity of aims and methods and promoted understanding among the teachers of the subject.

The ladies section of

SAAPER. toured the Republic in 1955 to all the important educational centres, which helped in the development of a

South African method of Physical Education.

They also went deeper into extending movement education.

The South African system had traces of all the important trends in the subject that was to be found in the world.

This is also due to the fact that many overseas-trained educators were appointed in South Africa as well as many South Africans studied overseas. Dr Ernst Jokl produced a film in 1938, which showed the type of physical activities that could be used in

Physical Education.

He also developed a Syllabus of Physical

Exercises for South African schools as referred to by Riceet al.

(1969: 122).

The emphasis was on teaching sports for boys and movement education for girls. Three, thirty-minute periods per week, were held in the primary school.

The goals of Physical Education included organic fitness, desirable health habits, neuromuscular skills, continued recreational interests, and desirable social habits and attitudes.

Gymnastics was stressed and other activities such as rugby, soccer, cricket, hockey, golf, tennis and rhythms were used.

The government had adopted a policy of separate development for the four racial groups (apartheid) --a policy which ideally aimed at self-determination for each group.

Hence, in education, separate bodies were responsible for each racial group.

Whites held the higher positions.

The apartheid policy had been subjected to heated controversy.

White children enjoyed better educational facilities and instruction, had a greater range of vocational opportunities and remained in school longer than Non-White children Dalen and Bennett,

(1980: 613-618).

Education during the apartheid era created a great deal of anger and turmoil for the oppressed.

There was a struggle for equity and equality.

There was an insistence for the history of the

Black people to be portrayed in a more objective light.

The encounters between the Blacks and the White Settlers had to be presented in an unbiased fashion. There was a need to eradicate

4.4

indoctrination that was present in the eXlstmg curriculum.

Early education served the purposes of the Whites as it was meant to ensure that the Whites could communicate easily with the Blacks and therefore function as slaves. It was a curriculum designed to subordinate the Black people of this land.

In 1948, the National Party came into power and introduced the policy of apartheid that was designed to treat races separately and unequally. The ruling party needed to ensure that the Black people remained oppressed.

Dr H.F. Verwoerd, the Minister of

Native Affairs in 1953, said:

"When I have control over native education, I will reform it so that natives will be taught from childhood that equality with Europeans is not for them."

(Christie 1985: 12)

Education was not compulsory for Black children.

By the

1970s, opponents of apartheid from all race groups began to speak out against apartheid education and its inequalities.

The

Black children were disadvantaged as they were struggling to cope with English as a second language and Afrikaans as a third language.

This led to the 1976 Soweto uprising and subsequent killings.

The school curriculum became the key point of the struggle for freedom and equality. They saw that education was being used to propagate apartheid, racism and capitalism.

Up until 1994, the syllabus was treated as a bible.

It had to be completed.

THE PRESENT EDUCATION SYSTEM IN KWAZULU-

NATAL-PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN PARTICULAR

To understand the reasons behind the implementation of a new education system in South Africa, one needs only to reflect on the imbalances that existed in the past.

The apartheid era consisted of a fractured education system, with seventeen different departments of education, most of them seriously under-funded, under-managed and demoralised as stated by

Collins (1998: 27).

The racially imbalanced political system was responsible for major educational disadvantages whereby pupils were limited by financial constraints and lacked basic education tools. The old system reflected a clear academic bias, stressing on the retention of knowledge and theory and not on the application and practical use of knowledge and skills.

The old curriculum is said to have been examination-driven, textbook bound and teacher-centred.

The disintegration of apartheid and the introduction of a new political system provided the government with the opportunity to bring the education system in line with the country's drive for democracy and equality.

The education systems of the past only provided for those equipped with the resources necessary for tertiary education.

Since the elections of 1994, the South

African government has embarked on an urgent programme of restructuring its education system on principles of equity, human rights, democracy and sustainable development.

When the African National Congress (ANC) came into power in 1994, many significant changes in education took place.

Policy in the White Paper of 1995 provided a framework sothat teachers could now use the syllabi as guides only.

The stress was now on the quality of teaching.

Changes had to be designed to create a generation of youth that is highly skilled, well informed and critical.

South Africa no longer has the Christian National Education

System of the past.

The major innovation that was introduced in South Africa in 1998 was Outcomes Based Education

(OBE).

It is regarded as a uniting vision for transforming apartheid education.

Curriculum 2005 reflects a paradigmatic shift in the South African education system.

It moves from an emphasis on content to an emphasis on outcomes as can be seen in Table 4.1. The main objective is to promote a culture of lifelong learning.

Its intention is to unlock the potential of all

South African citizens to be active, creative, critical thinkers and live productive lives. This system places the learner at the centre of learning and teachers as the facilitators.

Table 4.1 - DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TEACHING OF

TRADITIONAL AND OUTCOMES BASED EDUCATION

TRADITIONAL

OUTCOMES BASED

Passive learners

• rote-learning

Active learners

• critical thinking, reasomng, reflection

• syllabus is content-based,

• an integration of knowledge; and broken down into learning relevant and connected subjects to real-life situations

• textbook/worksheet-bound

• leamer-centred, teacher

IS facilitator, teacher uses groupwork and a variety of resources

• teacher responsible for

• learners take responsibility for learning, motivation their learning, learners motivated depends on the personality by constant feedback and of the teacher affirmation

In OBE, the place of the syllabi has been replaced by the Senior

Phase Policy Document.

Instead of subjects, OBE has learning areas.

This new educational system is based on seven critical outcomes and five additional critical outcomes and a total of sixty-six specific outcomes for all learning areas. The National

Qualifications Framework (NQF) was born out of recognition that there was a need to change the education system in order to meet the economic and social needs of South Africa and its people.

OBE is a paradigm shift in the approach to teaching and learning. It tries to emphasize the need to connect theory to practice. The policy document is phase specific and not grade specific and although it replaces the syllabi, it is not contentbased, that is, content is no longer prescribed for educators.

It

outlines skills, knowledge, values and attitudes (outcomes) which the learner must develop.

A learning programme has to be planned, designed and developed.

Within this relatively short period of time, there have been various criticisms levelled against Curriculum 2005.

These criticisms appear to have prompted the new Minister of Education, Professor Kader

Asmal, to appoint a Review committee to look into the new system.

The Interim Report of the Committee contains numerous recommendations, many of which, it appears, would be acted upon.

In the new curriculum there are eight learning areas, each is composed of several related aspects as shown in Table 4.2.

Physical Education falls under the area labelled life orientation.

This area is composed of aspects such as environmental awareness, spiritual development, personal development, health and human movement, soCial development and transformation and the world of work.

Most schools have changed to classroom-based teaching, thus leaving the subject Physical

Education to the class teacher.

Their interest and knowledge will determine how they ap'ply themselves.

Despite being an integral part of the curriculum, Physical

Education tends to be ignored as a specialist area. It is seen as a marginal subject and very difficult for the Physical Education specialists to promote their learning area and win over curriculum time for their subject.

Physical Education is not seen to be aligned to the main function of the school, it is not considered a priority.

This once again comes down to non-specialisation in the primary school.

Boys and girls are now taught together by either a male or female facilitator.

LEARNING AREA CONTENT

Languages, Literacy and CommunLiteracy, South African Official Lanication (LLC): guages, Classical Languages, Modern Languages

Mathematical Literacy, Mathematics Numeracy, Mathematics and Statand

Mathematical Sciences istics

(MLMMS):

Natural Sciences (NS): Integrated Studies, Biological

Sciences, Physical

Sciences,

Agricultural Sciences, Engineering

Technology (TECH): Technology Education, Information

Technology, Technical Education,

Applied Arts and Sciences

Arts and Culture (A&C):

Visual, Expressive and Performing

Arts, Music Education, Movement,

Oracy Studies

Human an~ Social Sciences (HSS): Geography, History,

Democracy

Education Development

Studies,

World Ethics and Belief Systems,

Life Orientation (LO):

Utility and Social Services

Health Education, Career Guidance,

Lifelong Learning Skills, Inter -and

Intra-personal Development, Re-

Economic and Management Sciences ligious Studies, Physical Education

Economic Education,

Financial

(EMS): Management, Business Education including Entrepreneurship, Public

Management

The change agents ignored the realities of the educational context.

Teachers may not be adequately trained and informed, basic resources are lacking and the numbers per class are too

large to execute this successfully.

Physical Education will surely now be done for the sake of having it done, with no expertise.

The educators are not to be blamed, they have to perform to the best of their abilities.

With such large numbers and having a mixed class, this surely is a challenge to any educator.

We are surely witnessing the slow death of Physical

Education.

CHAPTER FIVE

EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PROVISION OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR SENIOR PRIMARY GIRLS

IN KWAZULU-NATAL

5.1

5.1.1

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

In this investigation, the researcher used the strategy of qualitative research methodology related to empirical investigation to gather information regarding the status quo of

Physical Education for girls in the senior primary phase.

As there appeared to be no available instrument, it was considered necessary to develop one, which could be applied to a sample of respondents representative of senior primary Physical

Education educators in KwaZulu-Natal.

The descriptive survey method was used as it uses the process of "observation" by means of a questionnaire followed by the systematic organisation and description of data.

Choice iJ(Research Designs

In social surveys the data is most often obtained through questionnaires and the researcher must have developed a way to ensure that the data is standardised.

As questionnaires are completed they are checked for completeness, possible biases or other inadequacies.

The wording of questions is a crucial factor in survey research.

Questions must be carefully worded so that a given answer does not imply two different things and so that respondents with varying amounts of formal education can answer them equally.

Factual information on the status of Physical Education for primary school girls is the data required.

Therefore the

researcher deemed it best to use the questionnaire in the investigation. Many researchers see the questionnaire as a most appropriate and useful data-gathering device in a research project. It can also be used to fmd out what experiences have taken place and what is occurring at the present. They are also most convenient and economical and cater for people who are many kilometres away. They can be completed anonYmously so that the person who is completing the questionnaire can be honest with their facts.

A letter was also addressed to the respondent explaining the reasons for the current investigation and the purpose of the questionnaire.

Anonymity of the respondent was stressed.

There were also instructions for the return of the questionnaire to the researcher.

A self-addressed, stamped envelope was included for the returns. The questionnaire ended by thanking the respondents for their participation.

The questionnaire satisfied part of the basic objectives in that:

.:. it reflected information on the topic being studied; and,

.:. given the constraints of time and resources, it was somewhat adequate

Stages involved in the development of the questionnaires involved the following stages:

.:. The researcher identified factors affecting the status of

Physical Education for girls in the primary schools

.:. Careful consideration was given to construction of the questionnaire

5.1.3

.:. The questionnaire was then revised from different levels

To help obtain data from different levels in the school concerning primary school girls' Physical Education, the researcher developed two sets of questionnaire, namely:

.:. Questionnaire to level one educator teaching Physical

Education

.:. Questionnaire to Management Staff of senior primary schools supervising Physical Education

Validity and Reliability

of the

Data

Validity refers to the extent to which an empirical measure adequately reflects the real meaning of the concept under consideration (Babbie, 1975: 130). Reliability does not ensure accuracy any more than precision does.

To create reliable measures you have to ask people for information.

The researcher also uses measures that have proven their reliability in previous research.

Clarity, specificity, training and practice will avoid a great deal of unreliability and grief (Babbie, 1975:

129).

Measures were taken to reduce bias in this research.

The questions were very clear and the content of the questions were varied to increase interest.

Level one educators and management were requested to complete the· questionnaires independently of each other. The sample studied was relatively large and was thus selected randomly.

The variation of the questions also enabled the researcher to use one question as a check to the other.

Answers could also be cross-checked because a few similar questions were set in the questionnaires for the level one physical educator and the management staff supervising Physical Education at the senior primary school.

5.1.4

The primary schools selected were under the Kwazulu-Natal

Department of Education and Culture (KZNDEC) and urban and rural primary schools were used.

The choice of locale has large and small schools and also new and old schools.

The sampling of schools enabled the researcher to reduce cost and time in the distribution and collection of questionnaires.

Sampling Selection

Researchers seldom observe a total population, but usually gather data on a part or sample.

They then try to specify something about the population from knowledge of the sample.

A sample is representative to the degree to which it reflects the characteristics of a population (Labovitz and Hagedorn, 1976:

44).

The large number of schools under the KZNDEC made a survey of all the primary schools impracticable.

Therefore use was made of sampling to bring the survey within the time and fmancial constraints of the researcher.

The researcher decided on a stratified random sampling procedure because it ensures that a theoretically important variable will be sufficiently represented in the sample. It also increases the homogeneity of the sampled strata, because individuals in each category are alike on the variable selected for stratifying.

It is a method for obtaining a greater degree of representativeness - decreasing the probable sampling error. This made the selection of every possible combination of the desired number of schools equally likely.

It also gave each element in the population an equal chance of being included in the sample.

This sample is an unbiased and truly representative cross-section of the primary schools in Kwazulu-Natal.

The researcher decided to use a sample of three hundred primary schools, which are about 12% of the total number of primary schools under the control of

KZNDEC.

The study region was divided into two areas:

The name of the respondent's school led to the identification of the urban-rural location.

The names for each area were randomly selected.

The researcher encountered innumerable delays and difficulties to obtain permission to circulate the questionnaires. When this permission was received after numerous reminders and telephone calls, the researcher had to make use of every available method to dispatch and collect returns.

The researcher eventually had to start analysing with a return of two hundred and ten out of three hundred. 70% of returns had to be accepted as time was crucial. The researcher also had to heed the fact that participation in the research was on a voluntary basis and also many educators and management staff did not consider Physical Education to be a vital part of their curriculum.

Questio~naires Dispatched

I

Annendix A:

Physical

Education

I

Educators

I

300

Annendix B:

Management 300

Returned

210

206

%

70

Question with

Missing nata

2

68.6

3

Question with

Complete

Data

208

203

%

69.3

I

67.6

Data was hereafter summarised and analysed. The full analysis and results follow.

5.2

5.2.1

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Introduction

The necessary information from the two sets of questionnaires was extracted. Thereafter the researcher requested a computer programmer to prepare a special programme to analyse the data.

In the analysis process the data was subjected to frequency distributions and cross-tabulations.

In the interpretation of results, a combined qualitativequantitative approach was used, the one supplementing and supporting the other. This ensured a more complete description of particular situations.

5.2.2

Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Results

Research designs are clearly critical to the research process because they direct the collection and analysis of data.

Analysis of data involves both descriptive and inference statistics. Descriptively, the data are 'summarised and reduced to meaningful statistics (Blalock and Blalock, 1982: 89).

At the outset, it was decided to present the analysis in a distinct form, that is, a general analysis of all the data obtained from the questionnaires.

This was done with the intention and sole purpose of giving one an overview of the situation of Physical

Education for senior primary girls in the primary schools in

Kwazulu-Natal.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data obtained (rom Level One

Educators teaching Physical Education to Senior Primary

Girls

Name of Respondent 's School (Ql.l)

TABLE 5.2: URBAN - RURAL DISTRIBUTION

Urban School Rural School Total

Respondents 139

Percentage 66.82

69

33.18

208

100

rJ) w 80

~ 60 z

40

~ 20 ffi

Q.

0

1

URBAN

[m

Series 1

I

2

RURAL

The graph above shows urban/rural distribution.

The majority

(66,82%) of the primary schools are situated in urban areas catering for a large urban population.

Experience as Educators (QI.3)

TABLE 5.3: EXPERIENCE AS EDUCATORS

EDUCATORS

0/0

< 10 years 41

> 10 ye'ars 167

19.71

80,29

The senior primary educators fall mostly in the greater than ten years category as seen in figure 5,2.

Thus we assume that the more experienced educator takes the senior primary learners.

Older educators have trained as generalist educators, and therefore are not specialist Physical Education educators.

This implies that Physical Education is not regarded as a specialist subject and can be taught by any educator.

The reason given for the non-specialist Physical Education educator is the onset of the new curriculum called Outcomes

Based Education (OBE).

This new system becomes more feasible with classroom-based educators.

Thus, we see that

Physical Education specialists are not considered essential for their learning area. Reasons given for adopting this approach are:

.:. Time-tabling incorporates Physical Education in Life

Orientation or Arts and Culture -lessons. It forms a small percentage of this learning area

.:. Life Orientation (LO) takes up 10% of the notional time. It includes Health Education, Career Guidance,

Life-long Skills, and Inter-personal and Intra-personal

Development.

.:. Arts and Culture (A&C) are also allocated 10% of the notional time. It incorporates Visual, Expressive and

Performing Arts, Music Education - Movement, and

Oracy Studies.

The generalist approach to the teaching of senior primary

Physical Education may affect the subject in the following ways:

.:. Physical Education becomes a "filler subject" that can be taught by any educator in the school

.:. allows the Physical Education educator to adopt a relaxed attitude towards the teaching of the subject

.:. discourages educators from becoming experts in the teaching of senior primary Physical Education

.:. may lead to reluctance on the part of the teachers to attend workshops, seminars and courses in Physical

Education.

Qualifications in Physical Education of Senior Primary

Physical Education Educators (Q1.5.l)

Those who specialised in Physical Education constituted 28% of the respondents.

Their qualifications were:

TABLE 5.6: QUALIFICATIONS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF

SENIOR PRIMARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

FREQUENCY

0/0

M+l

M+2

M+3

M+4

Total

o

8

42

8

58

4

0

20

4

28

Figure 5.5: Qualifications in Physical Education of Senior Primary Physical

Education Educators

en

w

~ 30

•... 20 z w

10

~ 0 w

Q.

QUALIFICATIONS OF SENIOR

PRIMARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION

EDUCATORS

1 2 3

4

Statistics in table 5.6 indicate that 72% of the senior primary

Physical Education educators are not specialists in Physical

Education.

These educators are teaching as classroom-based educators or teaching Physical Education as "filler subjects" to make up the total teaching time as prescribed by the education department.

Many classroom educators have stated that they feel unable to teach Physical Education because of their own lack of competency in the learning area.

Physical Education specialists have a vested interest in the child's motor development.

The term "specialist" implies that the preparation of Physical Education educators provide them with the knowledge and ability to assist children in developing specific movement behaviours, knowledge and attitudes (Hoffman et

al.,1981:

7).

The table also reflects that 24% (50) have qualifications of M +3 and below.

w

C) 80

~ 60 ffi

40

(.) 20

It: w

0

D.

1

FEMALES

I

II Series 1

I

2

MALES

The graph above shows the distribution of senior primary

Physical Education teachers according to sex.

TABLE 5.7: GENDER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

FREQUENCY

0/0

Femaks

83

Males

125

40

60

An examination of the data in figure 5.6 reveals that the majority (60%) of the senior primary Physical Education educators are males.

One of the reasons is that the Physical

Education educator is also the form educator (classroom-based).

The Physical Education educator takes boys and girls for

Physical Education.

Actual Teaching of Physical Education during the

Physical Education Lesson (Q2.1)

TABLE 5.8: ACTUAL TEACHING OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION DURlNG THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

LESSON

Yes

No

FREQUENCY %

133 64

75 36

Figure 5.7: Actual Teaching of Physical Education during the

Physical Education Lesson

ACTUAL TEACHING OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

As the table above shows 36% of the educators do not actually teach Physical Education lessons.

This can be attributed to the fact that they are not specialists or they did not have a choice when it came to subject selection.

With many schools operating on classroom-based educators, this kind of situation will be on the increase.

Some of the reasons given for the above are:

.:. classes are too large

.:. have no idea of how to deal with continued classes

(boys and girls)

.:. insufficient equipment and facilities

.:. specialist educators redeployment because of a decrease in the Post Provisioning Norm (PPN).

Size of Physical Education Classes (Q2.2)

TABLE 5.9: SIZE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

FREQUENCY

0/0

<40

>40

TOTAL

33

175

208

16

84

SIZE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

CLASSES

As the above table and figure reflect, Physical Education classes are too large.

For a successful Physical Education lesson to be implemented, the numbers should not be greater than 30, which are still large but more manageable. Added to this large number, some classes have the added factor of having a mixed class, that is, boys and girls. Another problem is lack of equipment to cater for such large numbers in one lesson.

This most defmitely creates numerous problems and adds to the

low status of Physical Education.

Some schools had numbers such as 65, 100 and 120 pupils.

TABLE 5.10: PHYSICAL EDUCATION SYLLABUS FOR GIRLS

FREQUENCY

%

Yes

No

Total

33

175

208

16

84

100

Figure 5.9: Physical Education Syllabus for Girls

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

SYLLABUS FOR GIRLS

84% of the schools do not have a syllabus for Physical

Education for girls. Some of the reasons given were:

.:. they did not receive any from KwaZulu-Natal

Department of Education and Culture (KZNDEC)

.:. with boys and girls together, they did not teach

Physical Education anymore

.:. they do not have the expertise to use it

.:. Physical Education is carried out as a class activity

.:. it was unavailable and not supplied

After School Daily Sporting Activities (Q2.5 and Q2.5.1)

TABLE 5.11: AFTER SCHOOL DAILY SPORTING

ACTIVITIES

FREQUENCY

0/0

Yes

No

58

150

28

72

":::::":::;"::'::-:.::;'::-;'::::':::;:::;"::'::,"::-:::-:.::>::':;:::::,:,::::.:';;(;:::::::::;:;:::::.:-:.:---.

AFTER SCHQOLDAILY SPORTING

'

.'

.

.

~.~

.

.......•.....

. ACTIVITIES .'

.'.

".

.

1.· .•··· '.·2.

.

Only 28% of the schools have daily after school sporting activities.

Reasons given for the non-daily sporting activities are as follows:

.:. one day a week is set aside for sporting activities whereby there is time allocation

.:. codes of sports that are played for that term are practised but not on a daily basis

.:. educators are too tired after being class-based for the entire day to organise after school activities

.:. inadequate facilities and equipment

.:. pupils in the rural areas and some urban schools use public transport after school and cannot participate in after school activities

.:. some schools have to use community grounds

.:. the environment is not safe for keeping pupils in after school

Physical Education as compared to Core Learning Areas

(Q3.2)

TABLE 5.12: PHYSICAL EDUCATION AS COMPARED TO

CORE LEARNING AREAS

FREQUENCY

More Important

Equally Important

Less Important

25

175

8

12

84

4

Figure 5.11: Physical Education as Compared to Core Learning Areas

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AS

COMPARED TO CORE LEARNING

AREAS

The table reflects that Physical Education educators consider

Physical Education equally important as that of the other core learning areas.

Many educators stressed the need for compulsory Physical Education lessons by specialist educators.

Some stated that Physical Education must be a fixed feature on the time-table.

It saddens one to know that some schools have put Physical Education aside for the other aspects of Life

Orientation and Arts and Culture.

Support given to Physical Education by Principals (Q3.3)

TABLE 5.13: SUPPORT GIVEN TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION BY

OPTIONS

PRINCIPALS

FREQUENCY

Excellent

Very Good

Good

Fair

Poor

50

33

42

58

25

208

24

16

20

28

12

100

Figure 5.12: Support given to Physical Education by Principals

SUPPORT GIVEN TO PHYSICAL

EDUCATION BY PRINCIPALS

A fairly large number of principals support Physical Education at school.

With the onset of OBE, the redeployment of young educators, including specialist educators and the nonspecialisation of learning areas in a primary school, the principals have to make the best of human resources available.

5.2.3.13

Importance of Physical Education as regarded by other Educators (Q3.4)

TABLE 5.14: IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AS

REGARDED BY OTHER EDUCATORS

OPTIONS FREQUENCY

0/0

Very Important

Important

Of Little Importance

Unimportant

Not Relevant

42

58

67

33

8

208

20

28

32

16

4

100

67% of educators at school consider Physical Education as having little importance.

This may be so because as classroombased educators, they are now compelled to teach Physical

Education and because of their inability in this area, they regard it as of having little importance.

Figure 5.13: Importance of Physical Education as regarded by other

Educators

IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AS

REGARDED BY OTHER EDUCATORS

Ranking of the Providers responsible for making Physical

Education important as other learning areas (Q3.5)

(1 being the lowest and

5 being the highest)

RANKING

1

2

3

4

PROVIDERS

KZNDEC

Frequency

Percentage

SUBJECT ADVISORS

Frequency

Percentage

1116

56

92

44

0

0

8

4

8

4

17

8

17

8

8

4

PRINCIPAL & STAFF

Frequency

Percentage

PHYSICAL

EDUCATION

EDUCATOR

Frequency

Percentage

I

I

0

0

8

4

I

58

28

41

20

I

I

50

24

17

8

33

16

50

24

5

67

32

83

40

67

32

92

44

The above table shows that 56% of the respondents feel that the

KZNDEC played a very small role for making Physical

Education an important learning area at schools.

The subject

advisor was also seen in a similar light (44%). On the other hand 40% feel that they ought to be the providers who should be responsible for making Physical Education an important learning area at schools.

The principal and staff are seen as being an important provider in upgrading the status of the subject with 32% rating.

440/0 of the respondents ranked the

Physical Education educator as the provider being most responsible for making Physical Education as important as any other learning area at school.

All four providers play a vital role in some way or other in improving the status of the subject as can be seen by the greater than 30% scored in the most responsible category.

Staff Involvement in After School Sporting Activities fOr Learners (Q3.6)

TABLE 5.16: STAFF INVOLVEMENT IN AFTER SCHOOL SPORTING

ACTIVITIES FOR LEARNERS

FREQUENCY

Very Good

Good

Satisfactory

Fair

Poor

58

33

42

33

42

28

16

20

16

20

Figure 5.14: Staff Involvement in After School Sporting Activities for

Learners

1m

fliJ ril,

STAFF INVOLVEMENT IN AFTER

SCHOOL SPORTING ACTIVITIES FOR lEARNERS

••••

0

9

Staff involvement in after school sporting activities falls in the

"Very Good" category by 28% of the respondents.

This shows a

sharing of duty and the need by staff to support each other in executing duties fairly. This may also be the case because of the absence of a specialist and the need to pool human resources.

The

20% who fall in the poor involvement sector could be indicative of the after effects of being classroom-based educators.

Person Responsible for Supervising the After School Sporting

Activities at School (Q3. 7)

TABLE 5.17: PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPERVISING THE

AFTER SCHOOL SPORTING ACTIVITIES AT SCHOOL

Principal

Deputy Principal

Head of Department

Physical Education Educator

Other( code organiser) o

FREQUENCY

8

8

83

109

0/0

0

4

4

40

52

Figure 5.15: Person Responsible for Supervising the After School Sporting

Activities

PERSONRESPONSIBLEFOR SlFmvlSING THE

AFT~-5CHOOL SPORTINGACTIVITIES

The people most responsible for supervising the after school sporting activities seem to be the code organisers (52%) and the

Physical Education educator (400/0).

The code organisers do train and select teams for their codes and this takes place per team.

Netball may be fITst term and cricket fourth term.

In schools with a small staff, one educator has to take two to three codes and this could result in the person training and managing many teams, as each code has different teams according to the age groups. One can see that the task is not an easy one.

Existence ora Sports Committee at School (Q3.8)

TABLE 5.18: EXISTENCE OF A SPORTS COMMITTEE AT SCHOOL

I

FREQUENCY

0/0

Yes 183 88

No 25 12

Figure 5.16: Existence of a Sports Committee at School

EXISTENCE OF A SPORTS

COMMITTEE AT SCHOOL

There seems to be a defmite need for a Sports Committee at school as indicated by its being present in 880/0 of the respondents school.

This helps in the organisation and administration of the sporting activities at school level and inter-school leave and sometimes going further.

TABLE 5.19: THE FUNCTIONING OF THE SPORTS COMMITTEE

FREQUENCY

0/0

Excellent

Good

Satisfactory

Fair

Poor

67

58

42

33

8

32

28

20

16

4

Figure 5.17: The Functioning of the Sports Committee

THE FUNCTIONING OF THE

SPORTS COMMITTEE

The excellent and good rating given by 320/0 and 28% respectively is indicative that the Sports Committees are performing very well and seems to be a much needed

Committee at school.

This would defmitely lead to more organised sporting activities.

Frequency of Physical Education Subject Advisor's Visit (Q4.1)

100% of the respondents filled in category Other/Explain and left out once in 12/24/36 months.

Respondents indicated that they have not been advised in the last 7/10 years, etcetera.

To my knowledge, there are no subject advisors at present.

Why this is so, is beyond me. There are superintendents of education who visit but no Physical Education subject advisors.

With the decrease in Physical Education specialists, there most certainly is a very great need to advise class-based educators on how best to teach this learning area.

Need as expressed by Physical Education Educator of

Subject Advisors Visit (Q4.2 and Q4.4)

TABLE 5.20: NEED AS EXPRESSED BY PHYSICAL EDUCATION

EDUCATOR OF SUBJECT ADVISORS VISIT

ONCE IN...

FREQUENCY

0/0

6 Months

12 Months

18 Months

Other (Explain)

100

83

8

17

4

8

48

40

NEED BY PHYSICAL

EDUCATORS

EDUCATION

OFSUBJECT

ADVISORS VISIT

Figure 5.18: Need as Expressed by Physical Education

Educators of Subject Advisors Visit

48% of the respondents expressed the need to have guidance offered by the subject advisors at least once in six months. 40% felt that a visit of at least once in 12 months will be appreciated.

This cry for guidance and help comes from educators who need to be advised on how to teach large combined classes, as they are non-classroom-based.

They need help in specific areas.

The Physical Education specialist is no more a Physical

Education specialist in a primary school.

They are generalised educators.

Now seems to be the most important time for the subject advisors to visit and give guidance on how best to teach

Physical Education within the new GBE system.

Respondents stated many ways in which the subject advisor can be helpful to them, namely:

.:. to guide the non-specialists

.:. to organise workshops, in-service courses, etcetera

.:. to ensure that classes are reduced and boys and girls are taught separately

.:. to organise workshops in popular codes

.:. to create opportunities to acquire relevant knowledge and skills

.:. to keep up to date with techniques

Physical Education In-Service Courses would improve

Protessional Competency (Q4.5,

4.6,4.7

and 4.8)

TABLE 5.21: PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN-SERVICE COURSES

WOULD IMPROVE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY

I

FREQUENCY %

Yes 208 100

No 0 0

All respondents felt that their competencies as Physical

Education educators would most defmitely improve if they could attend in-service courses in Physical Education.

The respondents also revealed that 100% would enroll for such a course if offered and would be willing to participate in conference, workshops and clinics in their districts. 8% stated that they would not join a Physical Education teachers'

Association in Kwazulu-Natal. Some reasons given were:

.:. subject advisors guidance would be sufficient.

Facilities and Equipment at Schools (Q5.-] and Q5.2)

TABLE 5.22: FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AT SCHOOLS

FACILITIES FREQUENCY

0/0

Soccer Field

Netball Court

Volleyball Court

Tennis Court

Basketball Court

Hall

33

67

Change-Rooms for Pupils 83

Storeroom for Equipment 58

150

166

141

50

72

80

68

24

16

32

40

28

EQUIPMENT

Soccer Balls

Netballs

Tennis Balls

Volley Balls

High Jump Equipment

Shot Putt

Discus

Javelin

Hoops

Bean Bags

FREQUENCY

175

200

150

133

150

158

42

50

158

175

0/0

84

96

72

64

72

76

20

24

76

84

Facilities and Equipment does seem to be a problem in certain aspects such as basketball courts and halls. Discus seems to be in short supply together with javelins.

Storerooms are also lacking especially in rural areas.Soccer and netball equipment is amply provided for as seen by the

84% and

96% respectively.

Analysis and Interpretation of data obtained (rom Primary

School Management Staff Supervising Senior Primary

Physical Education Educator

Home Language and Gender of Management Supervising

Senior Primary Physical Education Educators(Ql and Q2)

TABLE

5.23:

GENDER OF MANAGEMENT SUPERVISING SENIOR

PRIMARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

SEX OF RESPONDENTS FREQUENCY

0/0

Female

Male

81

122

38

62

Figure

5.19:

Gender of Management Supervising Senior Primary Physical

Education Educators

GENDER OF MANAGEMENT

SUPERVISING SENIOR PRIMARY

PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

Figure 5.20: Home Language

HOM E LANGUAGE

2

1

92%

92% responded as home language being English.

An examination of data in Figure 5.19 reveals that the majority

(60%) of the Senior Primary Management Supervising Physical

Education Educators in KZNDEC are males.

No particular reason or reasons can be attributed to this large percentage of male senior primary Physical Education educators. This implies fewer female Physical Education educators to teach girls.

Age of Management Supervising Senior Primary

Physical Education Educators (Q3)

TABLE 5.24: AGE OF MANAGEMENT SUPERVISING SENIOR

PRIMARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

AGE CATEGORY FREQUENCY

%

< 30

31- 40

41-50

51-60

61

+

0

61

102

40

0

0

30

50

20

0

The bulk (500/0) of the Senior Primary Management

Supervising Physical Education Educators are in the age category of 41-50 years. These management members are not supervising Physical Education but they are guiding the educators in whatever learning areas they are teaching. They mayor may not be qualified in certain learning areas but have to supervise. This most probably takes a genera1ised format.

They would also place more emphasis on core curriculum learning areas.

Educational Qualification of Management Supervising

Physical Education Educators (Q6)

TABLE 5.25: EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT

SUPERVISING PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

QUALIFICATION FREQUENCY

0/0

M+3

M+4

48

105

24

52

Graduate

MAIM.Ed

48

1

23.92

0.04

Ph.DID.Ed

1 0.04

The statistics in Figure 5.21

indicate that 52% of the

Management Supervising Senior Primary Physical Education

Educators have a general qualification of M

+

4 and above, while 23,920/0are graduates.

Management members seem to be well qualified to carry out their general duties.

Figure 5.21: Educational Qualification of Management Supervising Physical

Education Educators

Management Members' Interest in Sport (Q7)

TABLE 5.26: MANAGEMENT MEMBERS' INTEREST IN SPORT

FREQUENCY

0/0

Very Interested

Interested

Not Inrerested

112

51

40

55

25

20

The majority (55%) of the Senior Primary Management Staff indicated that they are very interested in sports.

This interest

would hopefully encourage sporting activities at school.

The

20% who are not interested would most probably not be perturbed if there are no Physical Education or sporting activities at all.

Netball

Soccer

Athletics

Volleyball

Tenniquoit

Rugby

90%

94%

94%

80%

10%

10%

Hockey

Tennis

15%

25%

Cricket

Chess

85%

23%

Netball, Soccer, Athletics, Cricket and Volleyball are offered at most schools (80% and over).

These are the most popular codes presently at schools and almost any educator will be able to oversee the training and selection for the school teams. The rules of the games are mostly common knowledge and learners are able to learn these codes with as little assistance as possible.

There is also large media coverage on these codes and learners are exposed to these. The right educator - a specialist or a code organiser-who has attended clinics or workshops, or who plays it personally, can still teach these codes thoroughly and with specific techniques.

Participation in Inter-School Sports and Funding

(QIO and QII)

TABLE 5.28: PARTICIPATION IN INTER-SCHOOL SPORTS AND

FUNDING

PARTICIPATION FREQUENCY

Yes

No

167

57

0/0

82

18

Figure 5.22: Funding of Sporting Activities.

FUNDING OF SPORTING

ACTIVITIES

The statistics indicate that 82% of the schools participate at inter-school levels and also go on to zonal levels.

Those who do not, have given various reasons for this:

.:. lack of facilities and equipment

.:. no human resources as educators are class-based and have a large workload

.:. pupils travel by public transport and need to leave immediately school closes

The funding comes mostly (88%) as statistics show from school fees collected. Others rely on fundraising and sponsorship.

TABLE 5.29: PHYSICAL EDUCATION SPECIALISTS AT SCHOOL

FREQUENCY

%

Yes

No

118

85

52

48

Figure 5.23: Physical Education Specialists at School

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

SPECIALISTS AT SCHOOL

The majority

(580/0) have specialists at school but they are now generalised educators.

They have become classroom-based educators and the form educators now take the class for all learning areas. This comes with the OBE curriculum. Even though a class educator may be a specialist, it is extremely difficult to be a specialist physical educator with a very large combined class. More time is needed in disciplining movement to grounds and changing. This overloaded educator will need a tremendous amount of fortitude to execute a successful

Physical Education lesson in these circumstances.

Physical Education Courses attended by

Educators (Q16)

TABLE 5.30: PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSES ATTENDED BY

I

EDUCATORS

FREQUENCY

0/0

97 48

Yes

106 52

No

These statistics show that an alarming percentage (52%) have not attended any courses in Physical Education.

Nonattendance of these courses most certainly would lead to the further deterioration in the status of Physical Education. Nonattendance of these courses most certainly would lead to the further deterioration in the status of Physical Education.

Incentives will have to be devised to encourage and motivate educators to empower them to provide the best strategies for

Physical Education teaching.

Hours of Physical Education on Time-table (Q17)

With the OBE curriculum schools have adapted the five or eight day cycle. One-hour lessons are incorporated.

Most grade seven learners (72%) had exposure to Physical Education for one hour per week.

This was the choice made from the Life

Orientation or Arts and Culture allocation.

Most form educators take their classes for these lessons or other educators to make up their load.

TABLE 5.31: HOURS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON TIME-TABLE

FIVE DAY CYCLE FREQUENCY

%

1 hour

30 minutes

Not at all

146

45

12

72

22

6

Time Spent on Actual Physical Activity (Q18)

TABLE 5.32: TIME SPENT ON ACTUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

TUME FREQUENCY

%

70%

60%

50%

37

61

85

18

30

42

400/0 20 10

FigUre 5.24: Time Spent on Actual Activity

TIME SPENT ON ACTUAL

ACTIVITY

As the graph and table indicates very little time is spent on actual Physical Education activity.The following motivated answers:

.:. learners play games

.:. walking to grounds and changing takes up too much time

Activities undertaken during Physical Education Time (Q19)

Statistics show that learners most often play Netball (70%) and

Soccer

(640/0).

Tidying up the school grounds also appeared to feature prominently

(720/0) during the Physical Education period. 62% of the statistics show that learners sometimes use this time to catch up on academic work. This implies that

Physical Education is not considered to be very important for the 62% who catch up on classwork. Physical Education and it's importance must be reinforced at all levels of schooling.

TABLE 5.33: ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN DURING PHYSICAL

EDUCATION TIME

ALWAYS OFTEN SOMETIMES

%

%

64

%

6

Soccer teacher with

30

Soccer without

Teacher

Netball with

27

Teacher

Netball without

Teacher

Gymnastics

Singing Games

Traditional

Dance

Tidying up the

School

Grounds

Pupils catch up on

23

70

20

38

3

58

2

28

34

72

62

Academic Work

Teacher Catches upon

Admin Work

Athletics

Extra

20 32

10

35

48

10

Assemblies

Other(specify)

5.2.4.12

NEVER

%

39

42

98

52

66

28

38

65

80

The state of teaching Physical Education at School (Q22)

TABLE 5.34: THE STATE OF TEACHING PHYSICAL EDUCATION AT

SCHOOL

FREQUENCY

0/0

Excellent

Very Good

Satisfactory

Poor

16

12

138

37

8

6

68

18

170

The statistics show that the majority (68%) view the teaching of

Physical Education at their school as being satisfactory.

This is not a good sign as Physical Education is a crucial part of the school curriculum and ought to be viewed as excellent or good ..

Problems encountered with the implementation of Physical

Education and Suggestions made by Senior Management for its improvement (Q23 and 024)

.:. not much emphasis placed on Physical Education

.:. lack of equipment

.:. OBE given priority

.:. difficult for class-based educators to teach Physical

Education skills

.:. more credibility needs to be gIven to Physical

Education

.:. the Post-Provisioning Norm (PPN) must include a

Physical Education specialist

.:. must have a specific time on time-table

.:. to have specific outcomes for Physical Education

.:. department to provide equipment

.:. to allocate administration time for organisation of activities

The Role of the Physical Education Educator as viewed by Management (Q25)

TABLE 5.35: THE ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

EDUCATOR AS VIEWED BY MANAGEMENT

FREQUENCY

0/0

Sports Coach

Subject Teacher

Both

Neither

18

57 o

128

9

28

63

0

Table 5.35 above reflects 630/0 viewed Physical Education educator as both subject teacher and sports coach. This is not acceptable because the Physical Education educator teaches skills and does not coach pupils for sports.

A sports coach is needed for different codes of sports.

Promotion Prospects of the Physical Education Educators as compared with those of Academic Educators (Q26)

TABLE 5.36: PROMOTION PROSPECTS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

EDUCATORS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE OF ACADEMIC

EDUCATORS

FREQUENCY

Better

The Same

Worse

16

173

14

5.3

85% of the Management Supervising Senior Primary Physical

Education Educators feel that the promotion prospects of the

Physical Education educator is the same as those of the academic educators.

The organisation and administration abilities of the Physical Education educator are always in use.

Outcomes Based Education. Rationalisation and

Redeployment and Physical Education (Q28 and Q29)

With the OBE curriculum, Physical Education is part of Life

Orientation. It is taught proportionately in relation to the other aspects of the subject. It can also be incorporated with Arts and

Culture.

With Rationalisation and Redeployment(R

&

R), all senior primary educators are general educators. They are classroombased educators.

It becomes impossible to teach skills as classes are large and combined (boys and girls together). The

Governing Body employs educators but sees academic as a priority. With R

&

R many schools have lost their Physical

Education specialists: .

CONCLUSION

The analysis has shown that-the status of Physical Education is not enjoying good status in the senior primary school especially for girls.

The OBE curriculum and Rationalisation and

Redeployment have caused significant negative effects on

Physical Education. Physical Education is not being given its due recognition as a vital learning area. The key role players in the KZNDEC curriculum sector ought to look into the importance of this learning area and the necessity of it being a compulsory one. The next chapter provides a summary of the main fmdings of the investigation, conclusions and recommendations for this study.

FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1

INTRODUCTION

The fmdings, conclusions and recommendations of this study have particular relevance for the Senior Primary Physical

Education educators, Primary School Management Personnel

Supervising Physical Education and educational authorities in charge of school Physical Education. The fmdings have shown that beyond any doubt Physical Education is not being regarded as part of the core curriculum. Physical Education for senior primary school girls is a luxury these days, as boys and girls are being taught in a combined class. There is an urgent need for

Physical Education to be lifted from its present low status to a fully-fledged discipline in the primary school curriculum. This can be made possible by effecting some of the recommendations made in this study.

6.2

6.2.1

SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS

The analysed data from the two questionnaires yielded the following in respect of:

Findings Pertaining to Location o(Primary Schools and

Physical Education Educators

.:. The survey revealed that almost 67% of the primary schools are situated in urban areas.

•:. 80,29% of educators teaching senior primary Physical

Education have more than ten years of teaching expenence .

•:. 44% of graduates had one to five years experience of teaching Physical Education.

6.2.2

.:. Presently, there are only 280/0 of Physical Education specialists teaching Physical Education.

Precisely

72% of educators teaching Physical Education are non -specialists .

•:. The specialists qualifications were ill the majority

(42%) M

+

3.

•:. 60% of the educators teaching Physical Education to senior primary learners are males.

Findings Pertaining to Physical Education (or Senior

Primary Girls

.:. 36% of the educators do not actually teach Physical

Education during the Physical Education lesson

.:. the study revealed that 84% of the classes consisted of more than 40 learners

.:. all classes were combined, that is, boys and girls were taught together

.:. only 16% of the schools had the Physical Education syllabus for girls

.:. the majority of the educators (84%) stated that

Physical Education was equally important as compared to core learning areas

.:. educators given support by the principals ranged in the fair category (280/0)

.:. 32% of the other educators at school regarded

Physical Education as being of little importance and

280/0 regarded it as being important

.:. 580/0 of the senior primary schools had specialists in school, but they were classroom-based educators.

6.2.3

6.2.4

6.2.5

Findings Pertaining to Providers responsible for making

Physical Education important

.:. The study revealed that 56% viewed the KZNDEC as the lowest in the rank

.:. 40% felt that the subject advisor would be the most responsible in uplifting and keeping Physical

Education an important part of the curriculum .

•:. The Physical Educator (44%) and the principal and staff (32%), also ranked highly as providers responsible for making Physical Education important.

Findings Pertaining to Supervision of Senior Primary

Physical Education Educators

.:. An overwhelming maj ority (100%) of Physical

Education educators indicated that they were not supervised in the last 36 months.

Some go far back as seven to ten years

.:. 680/0 of Management revealed that Physical Education in primary schools were in a satisfactory state

.:. the study shows that 63

% view the Physical Education educator as both sports coach and subject teacher.

Findines Pertaining to Outcomes Based Education!

Rationalisation and Redeployment and Physical Education

The status of Physical education, as given by management in relation to OBE and R & R are as follows:

.:. Physical Education falls under the learning area

Learning Orientation and Arts and Culture

.:. With R & R, the number of educators at school have decreased, as well as making all senior primary educators general educators

.:. There is no specialisation at the senior primary level

6.3

6.4

6.4.1

.:. Physical Education classes have girls and boys combined

.:. Classes have increased greatly in number.

SUMMARY

The overall fmdings of this study have significant relevance for the senior primary Physical Education educators, primary school management staff, superintendents of education and educational authorities in charge of Physical Education. These fmdings also have implications for further research as well as strategies to be implemented to overcome the problems of

Physical Education teaching in the senior primary phase.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Emanating from the literature survey, study of other countries and the empirical investigation the researcher suggests the following as recommendations for the provision of Physical

Education for senior primary school girls in KwaZulu-Natal:

Reinstate Physical Education as a Compulsory Part or the

Curriculum

With the change of the national curriculum and the introduction of the Outcomes Based Education System, Physical Education becomes part of one of the learning areas. Schools vary even in this regard as some use part of Life Orientation and others part of Arts and Culture for Physical Education.

There are eight essential learning areas and there is a degree of flexibility in certain learning areas. In this instance, schools may choose other aspects of Life Orientation and leave Physical Education out.

On the other hand, they include Physical Education in favour of the other aspects.

6.4.2

Outcomes Based Education style of facilitating lends itself to classroom based educators. Concurrently with this new system, rationalisation and redeployment has taken place. This leaves schools with the minimum number of educators which leads to bigger classes. From this we get the over-burdened educator, with their large numbers and a relatively new system of education taking their class for Physical Education.

This lesson then becomes a game or fun period for some learners, for others it is just a break out of the class.

The educator fmds it very difficult to cope with this large number, in addition to which it is a combined class.

It is strongly recommended that

Physical Education ought not to be a part of a learning area. It must be a learning area in its own right.

It must be a compulsory feature on the time-table.

Physical Education must be taught by a Physical Education

Specialist

Rationalisation and Redeployment took place recently and in the circulars sent to schools, it was clearly stated how excess educators must be declared. It also stated that there will be no specialisation in the primary school, making every educator in a senior primary school a general educator.

This process then proceeded and left management to cope with their staff in the best way possible.

This led mainly to classroom based educators and also led to large combined groups (girls and boys) for Physical Education. The educator in most cases had no choice or little choice in the matter.

"A rather special type of person is required to fill the unique roll of the Physical Education specialist in the average South African school."

The KZNDEC needs to urgently address this serious situation.

The Physical Education specialist ought to be included in the

6.4.3

schools' Post-Provisioning Norm.

This would ensure many positive aspects such as having learners taught basic skills and techniques at the most crucial time.

With South Africa now open to all sporting opportunities, it is a shame that our children are now being denied proper, structured Physical Education lessons by a specialist. Boys and girls develop at different rates and if possible, ought to have separate lessons.

The future of any sports depends upon the careful nurturing of youngsters' talent and interest. If they can retain enthusiasm and the ability to achieve excellence, they will remain active participants at whatever level they choose into their adult life.

On the other hand, if their earlier experiences are associated with extreme physical and mental stress, they will very soon be lost to sports and will develop negative attitudes to the benefits of physical exercise in general. Greater effort must be made to ensure that when children, the lifeblood of any sports, are introduced to an activity, they are allowed to develop with the appropriate support and awareness of their needs.

The Need (or a Physical Education Subject Advisor

The primary role of the Physical Education educator must be to supervise the instructional programme with the aim of developing the educators, the curriculum and ultimately the learner.

In supporting the professional development of the senior primary Physical Education educator, the subject advisor must:

.:. appraise the work of individual Physical Education educators in order to offer guidance

.:. provide guides, reading lists and such other teaching resources that are required to enhance the quality of

Physical Education instruction

.:. provide guidelines to Physical Education educators in the implementation of the instructional programme; this must be done through regular workshops with small groups and through printed guidelines

6.5

6.6

.:. design and conduct orientation courses on a regional level; such courses are to be designed on the perceived needs of the Physical Education educators and when changes in the curriculum content make it necessary

.:. encourage Physical Education educators to pursue self-development programmes

.:. ensure that programmes in the teaching of Physical

Education are made available at universities

.:. most importantly, to ensure that Physical Education remains a non-negotiable part of the core curriculum

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH IN

THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Th~ results of this study suggest a number of areas for further research in the teaching of Physical Education.

The following areas are suggested:

.:. Analysis of the importance of Physical Education at primary school level as this is the most vital time for children to learn skills and techniques .

•:. The essential need of specialist educators to be part of every school and the support of a subject advisor .

•:. Determine the nature and scope of in-service training and workshops provision for the teaching of Physical

Education at senior primary schools.

CONCLUSION

Chapter One presented an orientation of the research, whereby the study was introduced.

Factors leading to and associated with the research were presented.

In Chapter Two the

theoretical and conceptual framework of Physical Education was provided.

Models of teaching Physical Education were discussed and a brief outline of its characteristics given.

Physical Education teaching in the United States of America, England and India are discussed in Chapter Three.

Chapter Four concentrates on

KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. A synopsis of the history of the education systems in the apartheid government is given including present day Physical Education in KwaZulu-Natal.

The analysis and evaluation of the information derived from questionnaires are presented in Chapter Five.

A qualitative descriptive manner is used. Chapter Six constitutes a summary of the main fmdings of the research together with recommendations based on the conclusions gathered from the general literature survey and the empirical investigation.

In this chapter, conclusions and recommendations on the teaching of senior primary Physical Education in the province of KwaZulu-Natal were outlined.

It is hoped that serious consideration will be given to the possibility of incorporating .

the suggestions made in this research so as to help eliminate the problems of teaching Physical Education for girls in senior primary schools in KwaZulu-Natal. This will most certainly contribute positively towards the improvement of the status of

Physical Education at our senior primary schools. Undoubtedly, this presents a worthwhile challenge to all involved in education, particularly in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal and

South Africa in general.

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1989

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11 Lima Place.

Havenside

Chatsworth, 4092

Durban

The Superintendent Education Management

Private Bag X13

CONGELLA

4013

15 May 2001

Dear Ms S. Mandraj

REQUEST TO CIRCULATE QUESTIONNAIRES TO PHYSICAL

EDUCATION TEACHERS AT PRIMARY SCHOOLS

I am currently studying for a M.Ed. Degree in the Department of

Didactics at the University of Pretoria. The title of my research topic is:

A Study

of

the provision

of

Physical Education for Girls at the Primary School Level for Girls in KwaZulu Natal

The outcome of my research will benefit not only Senior Primary

Physical Education teachers, but also those educators involved in the supervision of Physical Education.

I shall be much obliged if you will kindly grant me the necessary permission to circulate questionnaires to schools under your control.

The questionnaires and analysis thereof constitute an integral part of my research.

In addition, it will be appreciated if permission is also granted to use information from relevant documents and circulars issued by the Department.

Yours faithfully

j)j)i!.~

//J-tCv~

SAROJA CHETTY

REF. NO. 10964479

Crescentridge Primary School

P.O. Box 56519

Moorton

Chatsworth

4030

The Superintendent General

Department of Education and Culture

Ulundi

REQUEST TO CIRCULATE QUESTIONNAIRES TO PHYSICAL

EDUCATION TEACHERS AT PRIMARY SCHOOLS

I am currently studying fora M.Ed. Degree in the Department of

Didactics at the University of Pretoria.

The title of my research topic is:

A Study of the provision of Physical Education for Girls

at

the Primary School Level for Girls in KwaZulu Natal

The outcome of my research will benefit not only Senior Primary

Physical Education teachers, but also those educators involved in the supervision of Physical Education.

-

I shall be much obliged if you will kindly grant me the necessary permission to circulate questionnaires to schools under your control.

The questionnaires and analysis thereof constitute an integral part of my research.

In addition, it will be appreciated if permission is also granted to use information from relevant documents and circulars issued by the Department.

SAROJA CHETTY

REF. NO.1 0964479

CRESCENTRIDGE PRIMARY SCHOOL

P.O. Box 56519

CHATSWORTH

4030

The Chief Education Specialist

72 Stanger Street

DURBAN

4001

REQUEST TO CIRCULATE QUESTIONNAIRES TO PHYSICAL

EDUCATION TEACHERS AT PRIMARY SCHOOLS

I am currently studying for a M.Ed. Degree in the Department of

Didactics at the University of Pretoria.

The title of my research topic is:

A Study

of

the provisio"n

of

Physical Education for Girls

at

the Primary School Level for Girls in KwaZulu Natal

The outcome of my research will benefit not only Senior Primary

Physical Education teachers, but also those educators involved in the supervision of Physical Education.

I shall be much obliged if you will kindly grant me the necessary permission to circulate questionnaires to schools under your control.

The questionnaires and analysis thereof constitute an integral part of my research.

In addition, it will be appreciated if permission is also granted to use information from relevant documents and circulars issued by the Department.

Yo urs fa ithfu lIy

~~~

SAROJA CHETTY

REF. NO. 10964479

:.d-:lress : Malgate Building

Ikheli: 72 Stanger Street

Adres: Durban

4001

~

§i

PROVINCE OF KWAZULU-NATAL

IS.IFUNDAZWE

SAKWAZULU-NATAl

PROVINSIE KWAZULU-NATAL

• DEPARTMENT.

OF EDUCATION AND CUL TunE

,~!::)

WEMFUNDO NAMASIKO

"Iii

DEPARTEMENT VAN ONDERWYS EN KULTURE

le!If!U~,IBE

MU NEtHEKU

Private Bag P'ivate Bag X54330 ' lsikl1warna Seposi:

Privaatsak:

I

Dur6an

41)00

DURBANSUlDST

m:II

Telephone: (031) 3~~70911

Ucingo:

Teleloon'

Fax: (031) 327024(1

Enquiries:

Imibuzo :

Navrae:

D.M. Moodley

327021e

Rf!lerence

: lnl<omba:

VElrwysing •

O.qle :

Usuku :

Datum:

MIs S. Chetty

Crescentrtdge Primary Schclol

P.O. Box 56519

Chatsworth

4030

PERMISSION TO CONDUCTRESEARCt'l

..

I'

Your tetter dated 3 October 2001 in I,~espect t)f the above

• I· matter has reference.

Kindly be informed that permission i~j granted for you to conduct the research subject to the foHowing:

1.

2.

The schools

Which participate

I.in

the project would do so on a voluntary ba~;is.

Access to the sc~ools you wis~, to concerned by yourself'.

utilhe is negotiated wf~h the principal

3.

4.

The normal teaching Emd learr:ling programme is not to be disrupted.

The confidentiality of the partncipants is respeded.

A copy of thethesis/n~searchls lodged with the

Regional

Chief DireCtor thrbugh my office on completion of yopr studil~s.

I wish you all the success in the rese,:lrch you are undertaking.

D~ "

ACTING

DIRECTOR:

EDUCATION

SU~RT

SERVICES

RESEARCH IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL GIRLS

I am a registered M.ED student at the University of Pretoria.

My research involves the teaching of Physical Education to Primary School

Girls in KwaZulu-Natal.

As a person involved in Physical Education, your response to this questionnaire would be most valuable and would contribute towards the development of Physical Education for Girls in South Africa in general, and in KwaZulu-Natal in particular.

You are given the assurance by the researcher that your response to this questionnaire would be treated with the strictest of confidence and confined to the use of this study.

If you wish to provide the researcher with any other information which you may consider relevant to this study, please feel free to contact me.

I thank you for your co-operation and your early response.

I would appreciate your timeous response.

S. CHETTY (Miss)

RESEARCHER

A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE STATUS OF PHYSICAL

EDUCATION FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL GIRLS AND THE

CONTINUING EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE PHYSICAL

EDUCATION EDUCATOR IN SCHOOLS IN THE KZN PROVINCE.

THIS QUESTIONNAIRE IS TO BE COMPLETED BY THE

PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATOR.

1.

2.

INSTRUCTIONS

Please make a cross X in the appropriate block to indicate your answer.

Where you are required to write your response on the line

___________ please be as brief as possible.

Less than

1 Year

1 to 5

Years

6 to 10

Years

11 to 15

Years

More than

Years

Are you a Physical Education Educator with SPECIALIST

QUALIFICATION in Physical Education?

YES NO

5.1

If your answer is YES, what is your SPECIALIST

QUALIFICATION in Physical Education?

5.1.1 Matric plus 1 year Physical Education Diploma __

5.1.2 Matric plus 2 years Physical Education Diploma __

5.1.3 Matric plus 3 years Physical Education Diploma __

5.1.4 Any other __ ....,....,.....--

Gender,~04

_

Teaching Load of the Physical Education Educator

1.

You are the Physical Education Educator at your school, but do you actually teach Physical Education during the Physical

Education period on your time-table?

_

1.1

If NO, why do you not actually teach Physical Education?

2.

What is the average size of your Physical Education class?

_______ pupils.

3.

Do you have a Physical Education Syllabus specifically for girls?

3.1

If NO, why do you not have a Physical Education syllabus for girls?

_

4.

Do you have Physical Education schemes for the various grades that you teach?

_

5.

Does your school have daily after-school sporting activities for pupils?

_

1.1

If YES, how many ma~ and females _

2.

In your opinion, how important should Physical Education be, as compared to core learning areas at your school?

More Important

3.

How would you describe the type of support that your principal gives to Physical Education at your school?

4.

In your opinion, how important is Physical Education regarded by the other teachers at your school?

Very

Important

Important Of Little

Importance

Unimportant Not

Relevant

5.

In your opinion, how would you rank the role of the following providers who should be responsible for making Physical

Education as important as any other subject at the school

(1 is the lowest and 5 is the highest)

5.3

the principal and the staff members

6.

How would you describe your involvement of your staff members in after-school sporting activities for pupils at your school?

7.

PART THREE (continued)

Who is responsible for supervising the after-school sporting activities for pupils at your school?

8.

Is there a Sports Committee/Council at your school?

YES NO

8.1

If YES, how would you describe the way in which the school

Sports Committee/Council functions?

The Continuing Educational Needs of Physical Education Educators

1.

How frequently does your Physical Education subject advisor visit you at your school to advise you?

Once in

12 Months

Once in

24 Months

Once in

36 Months

Other

Explain

2.

How frequently would you like your Physical Education subject

Advisor to visit you at your school to advise you?

Once in

6 Months

Once in

12 Months

Once in

18 Months

Other

Explain

3.

Do you find your Physical Educator subject advisor helpful when visits are made?

3.1

If NO, explain why not: _

4.

In your opinion, what is the best way in which your Physical

Education subject advisor can be helpful to you?

5.

6.

7.

8.

Do you believe your professional competency as a Physical

Education Educator would improve if you could attend

IN-SERVICE COURSES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION?

YES NO

Would you enroll for an IN-SERVICE DIPLOMA COURSE

IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION?

YES NO

Would you be willing to participate in Physical Education conferences, workshops, symposia, sports coaching courses and clinics, if these could be provided for you in the district that you teach?

YES NO

Would you join a Physical Education Teachers' Association in

KwaZulu-Natal which would attend to your problems and

Professional needs as a Physical Education Educator?

_

PART FIVE

Physical Education Facilities and Equipment at your School

1.

What FACILITIES do you have at your school?

YES

1.1

Soccer Field

1.2

Netball Court

1.3

Volleyball Court

1.4

Tennis Court

1.5

Basketball Court

1.6

Hall

1.7

Change-Rooms for Pupils

1.8

Storeroom for Equipment

NO

YES

NO

2.1

Soccer Balls

2.2

Netballs

2.3

Tennis Balls

2.4

Volley Balls

2.5

High Jump Equipment

2.6

Shot Putt

2.7

Discus

2.8

Javelin

2.9

Hoops

2.10

Bean Bags

THANK YOU FOR YOUR CO-OPERATION.

QUESTIONAIRE TO MANAGEMENT SUPERVISING SENIOR

PRIMARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS

RESEARCHING PHYSICAL EDUATION IN KWAZUL U-NA TAL

FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL GIRLS

1.

Home Language:

I

31-40

I

41-50

,I

51-60

5.

Where did you attend high school?

6.

Highest Educational Qualification:

Std. 6 or less Std. 7-9

I

DEGREE

Std. 10

UHD PTC PTD STD

_

7.

Are you interested in sport?

I

INTERESTED

I

NOT INTERESTED

8.

Specify any particular sport you are interested in: _

9.

Which of the following sports does your school offer?

Netball

Basketball

Tennis

Gymnastics

Other (Specify

Soccer

Cricket

Rugby

Hockey

Athletics

Volleyball

Tenniquoit

10.

Does your school participate in inter-school sports?

If Yes, please give details

If No, please give details

11.

How do you fund extra-curricula sports?

12.

What is your average class size?

Gri

I

Gr2

\ Or 3

I

13.'

What is your total enrolment?

Gr4

Gr5

Gr6

14.

Do you have specialised Physical Education educators ?

Gr7

_

_

_

_

16.

What Physical Education/sports courses have your teachers attended?

Ifpossible, give dates and venues.

_

17.

How many hours of Physical Education do you timetable per grade?

GRADE HOURS PER WEEK

18.

Indicate approximately how much of that time is actually spent on physical activity?

100% 1900/0 1800/0 \70% \ 60%

I

50%

1

400/0

1

300/0

1

200/0 or less

Please motivate your answer _

19.

Indicate to what extent the following activities are undertaken during Physical Education time:

Always Often . Sometimes

Never

Soccer with teacher

Soccer without teacher

Netball with teacher

Netball without teacher

Gvmnastics

Sin2in2 Games

Traditional Dance

Tidying up the school

2rounds

Pupils catch up on academic work

Teacher catches up on admin. work

Athletics

Extra assemblies

Other (Snecifv) i

I

I

I

I

1

I

I i

I

20.

Do you have a syllabus for Physical Education?

21.

Do lessons conform to syllabus requirements?

\ DO NOT KNOW

SOMETIMES

F

22.

How would you describe the teaching of Physical Education at your school?

\EXCELLENT

I

VERY GOOD \ SATISFACTORY

I

POOR

I

23.

Describe any problems encountered with the implementation of

Physical Education.

_

24.

Many any suggestions for any improvements you feel necessary.

25.

Do you view the Physical Education teacher as fulfilling the role of sports coach or subject teacher?

Sports Coach \ Subject Teacher Both \Neither

26.

How would you compare the promotion prospects of the Physical

Education teacher with those of your academic teachers?

\BETTER

\ THE SAME

Please motivate your answer.

---------

FACILITY

Soccer Pitch

Netball Court

Tennis Court

Snorts Hall

Hall

Athletics Track

Store room

Chanf!inf! room( staID

Chanf!inf! room(nunils)

Basketball court

Vollevball court

Tenniouoit court

Other( snecifv)

I

QUANTITY

!QUALITY/STANDARD

,

I

1

\

, i

,

!

,

,

!

!

,

~

;

:

\

;

28.

With Outcome Based Education, how do you fill Physical

Education in your time-table?

_

29.

With Redeployment and Retrenchment, what is your situation concerning specialist physical education educators?

30.

Who supervises physical education at your school?

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