ROCK OUTCROP VEGETATION CHAPTER 6

ROCK OUTCROP VEGETATION CHAPTER 6

CHAPTER 6

ROCK OUTCROP VEGETATION

6.1 Background

Although several phytosociological studies have been conducted on vegetation types of the northeastern Drakensberg Escarpment and adjacent areas of the Northern Province and

Mpumalanga (Deall 1985; Bloem 1988; Matthews 1991; Burgoyne 1995), the rock habitat of the SCPE (Van Wyk & Van Wyk 1997; Van Wyk & Smith 2000) is a vegetation type that has never been studied in detail. The area where the rocky outcrops occur covers approximately 8 000 km

2 and is characterised by considerable diversity in geology (Kent

1980) and physiography (Land Type Survey Staff 1987). In South Africa rock outcrop communities received very little attention from botanists and environmentalists

(Bredenkamp & Deutschlander 1995), probably due to their low agricultural potential.

Ultramafic rock outcrops are floristically noteworthy and has high conservation significance

(Meirelles

et al.

1999), in that many endemics with distributions correlated with the geological substrate occur here (Madulid & Agoo 1995).

Various vegetation types have been recognised on the rock outcrops of the northeastern

Drakensberg Escarpment (Matthews

et al.

1991; Matthews

et al.

1992b), an area adjacent to the SCPE to which it shows a definite floristic affinity (Siebert 1998). The areas where the rocky outcrops of the SCPE occur were mapped as three major veld types by Acocks

(1953), namely Mixed Bushveld (18), Sourish Mixed Bushveld (19) and North-Eastern

Sandy Highveld (57). A more generalised classification of the same region's vegetation is given by Low & Rebelo (1996), who recognises one broad vegetation type for the area under focus, namely Mixed Bushveld (18).

The vegetation described here only includes those plant communities of rock habitats, identified as the Hippobromus pauciflorus-Rhoicissus tridentata Rock Outcrop Vegetation

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by Siebert et al. (2002a). Major bushveld and grassland communities of the SCPE are discussed elsewhere.

The vegetation of the SCPE can be broadly described as undulating mountain bushveld that is bordered by a moist grassland in the south and an arid bushveld in the north. In this region of undulating hills and mountains, a predominant characteristic feature is the scattered rocky outcrops, often with large boulders. The Hippobromus paucijlonJs-

Rhoicissus tridentata vegetation of rocky habitats forms a mosaic distribution with the other major vegetation types (Siebert et al. 2002a). Thirty-four of the Sekhukhuneland endemics/near-endemics occur in the rocky outcrop vegetation types (Siebert 1998).

Four types of rock habitats are recognized for the region, namely, rocky (\) outcrops,

(2) ridges, (3) flats and (4) refugia. Rocky outcrops are defined as hills of large boulders stacked upon one another. Rocky ridges are defined as exposed reefs and scattered groups of rocks and bouIders on the sides of mountainslhills. Rocky flats are defined as rock beds exposed at ground level. Rocky refugia are defined as extremely rocky areas scattered with boulders around caves, in kloofs and below cliffs.

Temperatures for the areas with rocky habitats range from -4.5°C to 38°C, with a daily average of 18.5°C (South African Weather Bureau 1998). The northern and western parts of the study area (Figure 9) are on average warmer than the southern and eastern parts

(Siebert 1998). The northern parts of the region exhibit average daily temperatures of

28.3°C maximum and 7.2°C minimum.

6.2 Classification

The analysis resulted in the identification of 17 plant communities (Table 8) that were subsequently hierarchically classified into 17 associations (Barkman et al. 1986). Four major plant communities are recognised on the grounds of the physical environment and are presented as hypothetical alliances, with all 17 of the associations classified under them. No macro-climatic or geological variation plays a role in local differentiation of the plant communities. Plant communities relate to soil type, rockiness and terrain type, with aspect

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and slope also of importance. Communities are distinctive and easily distinguishable in the field. This might be attributed to the uniformity of the environmental factors for each of the major communities, causing a distinct distribution pattern of habitats and associated vegetation.

The hierarchical classification of the vegetation reinforces the correlation between habitat and plant communities (f'igure 10). The distribution of Sekhukhuneland Centre endemic/near-endemic and Red Data List taxa among various plant communities is listed in

Table 9. A summary of selected community attributes is supplied in Table 10. Plant communities of the Hippobromus pallciflorns-Rhoicissus tridentata Rock Outcrop major vegetation type recognised in the SCPE are classified as follows:

I. Rhoicissus sekhukhuniensis-Ficus abutilifolia community of rocky outcrops

I. Vepro rej/exae-Mimusopetum zeyheri

2. Commiphoro marlothii-Crolonelum gratissimi

II. Cymbopogon excavatus-Pavetta sp. nov. community ofrocky ridges

3. Grewio monticolae-Elephantorrhizetum praetermissae

4. Melino nerviglumis-Cathetum eduJis

5. Heteropogono contorti-Apodytetum dimidia/ae

6. Gerbero jamesonii-Kirkietum wilmsti

7. Brachiario serratae-Viticetum wilmsii

8. Cymhopogono excavati-Brachylaenetum rotundatae

9. Aloo prelortensis-Xerophytetum retinervis

10. Tephrosio purpureae-Rhoicissetum trtdentatae

11. Cymbopogono validi-Rhamnetum prinoidis

12. Enteropogono macrostachys-Hippobrometum pauc!!loril

III. Aristida transvaalensis-L'rassula sarcocaulis community of rocky flats

13. Munduleo sertceae·Euphorbietum cooper!

14. Crassulo sarcocaulis-Aristidietum lransvaalensls

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IV.

Panicum deustumCeltis ajricuna

community of rocky refugia

15. Ciauseno anisatae-Diospyretum whyteanae

16, Fico sur-Combretetum erythrophyllii

17. Andrachno ovaiis-Allophylletum transvaaiensis

6.3 Description

The Hippobromus poucifloros-Rhoicissus Iridentata Rock Outcrops are predominantly restricted to the slopes and plateaus of undulating ultramafic hills. Surface rocks are predOminant and abundant in the habitats, with rock percentage varying from 25% on the rocky flats to more than 50% in the rocky refugia, The vegetation can structurally be classified into forest/woodland (rocky refugia), thicket (rocky outcrops and ridges) and herb land (rocky flats) (Edwards 1983). Rocky habitats constitute an important feature which is an unique island that differs significantly from surrounding areas (Madulid & Agoo

1995).

L Ficus abutilifolia-Rhoicissus sekhukhuniensis community of rocky outcrops

Environmental data, The vegetation of the alliance is a thicket on ultramafic outcrops, The alliance is found on all aspects of sloped (1-30) rock intrusions on midslopes, scarps and occasionally in valleys (Table 10), Soil forms are shallow and rocky. The soil surface is covered by 60-90% of rock with a large average diameter of2,5-8 m (Table 10),

Diagnostic and dominant/promtnent taxa, Diagnostic specIes are represented by species group D (Table 8) and include the trees

Ficils abutil(folia, Homallilm den tatum,

POlIZolzta mixta and Vepris rejlexa and the herbacenus shrubby climbers Asparaglls

bllchananti, A, tnfricalllS and Rhoicisslls sekhukhllniensis, Prominent trees of the association are Croton gratissimlls and May tenus undilta, the dominant grass is Panicllm

deustum and frequent occurring herbaceous taxa include the forb Commelina africana, the fern

Pellaea calomelanos and the succulent Sarcostemma viminuie,

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Notes on jloristic diversity.

Floristic links with the rest of the data set are visible in species groups AA and AH (Table 8). The weak links supports the recognition of the alliance. The average number of species encountered per sample plot for this alliance is 29, with the total number of plant species being a minimum of91 taxa (13 releves) (Table 10).

There are 14 plant taxa of conservation value, eight are SCPE endemics, six are SCPE nearendemics and one is a Red Data List taxon (Table 9). Of these taxa, five are restricted to the alliance in the SCPE.

I. Vepro rli!/lexae-Mimusopetum zeyheri

ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 190 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

The vegetation representing this association is a sparse tall thicket on the banks of seasonal streams and rivers. It is mostly found along watercourses that flow towards the Steelpoort River Valley from the mountains. The habitat is a rocky outcrop with gentle sloped sides (1-3°) (Table

1O)

The dominant soil type is the Bonheim form, a melanic A-horizon underlain with a pedocutanic B. Average rock size varies from 5.5 to

7 m in diameter and covers 70-80% of the soil surface.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

In the SCPE this association is characterised by species group A (Table 8). Heteropyxis natalensis, Mimusops zeyheri and Pittosporum

viridijlorum

is the diagnostic woody species. Other diagnostic species include the climbers

Abrus laevigatus, Rhoicissus tomentosa

and Secamone fib/ormis. There are no diagnostic grasses. Other dominant woody species include Ficus abutifolia and Vepris rejlexa.

Prominent grass species include Cymbopogon valldus and Panicum deustum. Prominent forbs are Orthosiphon labiatus and Ruellia potllla.

Notes on jloristic diversity.

This rock outcrop community is not typical for the SCPE and only a slight floristic affinity exist with other rock habitats of the Centre in species groups K, U and AA (Table 8) The average number of species per releve is 31, and the total number of species recorded for the association is 46 (three releves) (Table 10). Five plant taxa of conservation value occur in this association (Table 9), namely one SCPE endemic, Rhoicissus sekhukhuniensis, and four SCPE near-endemics.

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2. Commiphoro marlothii-Crotonetum gratissimi

ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 195 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

The vegetation is a sparse short thicket on rocky outcrops in the

Steelpoort River Valley. The plant community is associated with exposed norite or pyroxenite outcrops with gently sloped sides (0-1°) on mid slopes and scarps of the hills.

Surface rock cover percentage is 60-90%, with the stacked exposed boulders reaching diameters between 2.5 and 8 m (Table 10). The dominant soil type is the Mispah form, indicating very shallow soils over rock.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Diagnostic species are represented by species group B (Table 8). Diagnostic trees/shrubs of the association include Commiphora

marlothii, Euphorbia sekukuniensis, Nuxia congesta, Premna mooiensis

and Steganotaenia

araliacea.

Diagnostic woody forbs are Abutilon pycnodon, Ruttya ovata and Turraea

obtusifolia,

and the succulents Cyphostemma sulcatum and Tetradenia brevispicata.

Stylochiton

sp. nov. (Siebert 1332) is an undescribed taxon; it is a neo-endemic of the

SCPE. Andropogon schirensis, Cymbopogon excavatus, Eragrostis nindensis and Panicum

deustum

are the dominant grasses in this association. Other prominent plants are the woody species Barleria rotundifolia, Combretum molle, Croton gratissimus and Maylenus undata.

Notes on floristic diversity.

This plant community exhibits a slight floristic link with the rocky ridges of the Centre in species groups K, P, U and AA (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 27, with the total number for this association being 91 (10 releves) (Table 10). Twelve taxa with conservation status are present in the association (Table 9), eight are SCPE endemics, the highest number for any plant community in the Rocky Outcrop vegetation, four are SCPE near-endemics and one a

Red Data List taxon, Euphorbia sekukuniensis. Of all the rock habitats, this association has the highest number of plant taxa with a conservation status restricted to it (four).

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II.

Pavetta

sp. nov. -Cymhopogon

excavatlls

community of rocky ridges

Environmental data. In the SCPE this alliance is characterised by open to closed moist bushclumps on rocky ridges with predominantly shallow black and red clay soil forms. This vegetation occurs on midslopes and scarps of undulating ultramafic hills. It occurs on varying slopes of 1-15° on all aspects. Rocks can cover 45-80% of the soil surface and are an average diameter of 1-5 m (Table 10).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Species group U contain the diagnostic species for this alliance, which are characterised by the trees Acacia caffra, Olinia

emarginata and Scotopia zeyheri, the shrubs Elephantorrhiza praetermissa and Pavetta sp. nov., the foros Ruellia patula and

R

stenophylla, and the grass Cymbopogon excavatus

(Table 8). Other prominent species of the alliance include the trees Combretum mol/e,

Cussonia transvaalensis, Euclea crispa and Hippobromus pauciflorns, and the ground layer is dominated by the grasses Themeda triandra and Setaria sphacelata.

Notes on floristic diversity. This alliance is dominant and floristic relationships exist with the other alliances, hence indicating that it forms the basis for the plant communities of rocky habitats (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this alliance is approximately 35, with the total number of plant species being a minimum of 110 taxa (62 releves) (Table 10). Twenty-eight taxa of conservation value are part of the alliance, of which 14 are restricted to it (Table 9).

3. Grewio monticolae-Elephantorrhizetum praetermissae ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 130 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This association represents bush clumps on wann north and northeast aspects of hills with norite and pyroxenite rocky ridges.

It occurs on midslopes and scarps on red clay soils of the Glenrosa and Mispah furms. It covers gentle to moderate sloped areas (3-7°). Rock cover on the surface is 70-90%, with rocks reaching an average size of

2-4.5 m in diameter (Table 9).

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Diagnostic and dominantlprominent taxa. Diagnostic species are presented in species group E (Table 8). Diagnostic herbaceous taxa include forbs such as the herbs

Aspilia

mossambicensis and Orthosiphon fruticosus and the succulent Kleinia stapeliiformis.

Diagnostic grasses are Aristida rhiniochloa and Sporobolus stapfianus. The diagnostic woody species are Englerophytum magalismontanum and Grewia monticola. Other important dominant taxa are shrubs, namely

Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Hippobromus

pauc!florus, Pavetta sp. nov. and Xerophyta retinervis (form). Grasses such as Aristida

transvaalensis, Panicum deustum and Themeda triandra are the dominant grasses.

Notes on .floristic diversity. This associations

IS strongly linked with the other associations of the alliance. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is

30, with a total number of 89 plant taxa (nine releves) (Table 10). Four SCPE endemics, seven near-endemics and one Red Data List taxon are found in this association (Table 9).

None of the II taxa of conservation value are restricted to it.

4. Melino nerviglumis-Cathetum edulis ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 41 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This association represents dry bush clumps on northern aspects of norite (sometimes pyroxenite) hills.

It occurs on red and black clay soils of the Mayo and

Milkwood forms on mid slopes and scarps.

It lies on moderately sloped areas (5-15°). Rock cover on the surface is 45-50%, with rocks reaching an average size of 0.5-1 m in diameter

(Table 10).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are presented in species group F (Table 8). Diagnostic herbaceous taxa include the forbs

Commelina erecta,

Helichrysum intricatum, Hypoestes aristata and Sanseviera hyacinthoides. Aristida

canescens and Eragrostis heteromera are the diagnostic grasses.

It is predominantly characterised by trees, which include the diagnostic taxa

Acacia robusta, Catha edulis,

Euphorbia ingens, Ficus craterostoma, Schrebera alata and Sclerocarya birrea. Other important dominant taxa are trees such as

Acacia ataxacantha, Hippobromus pauc!florus

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and

Ziziphus mucronata,

and grasses such as

Panicum deustum, Setaria sphacelata

and

Themeda triamira.

Notes on .floristic diversity.

The association has a strong grassland-savanna affinity in species group H with association 5 (Table 8), which is to be expected because of the vegetation type's abundance on rocky outcrops in the grasslands of the Roossenekal

Subcentre. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 46, together with association 5 the highest number recorded per releve for any of the vegetation units of rocky habitats.

It has a total number of 105 plant taxa (eight releves) (Table 10). Four

SCPE endemics, of which two are Red Data List taxa namely

Elephantorrhiza prae/ermissa

and

Zantedeschia pentland ii,

and five near-endemics are found in this association (Table 9).

5. Heteropogono contorti-Apodytetum dimidiatae

ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 81 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This association represents moister bush clumps of rocky ridges restricted to southern aspects. It prefers midslopes and scarps of norite hills with a gentle to moderate slope (3-15°). It occurs on black clay soils of the Mayo and Mi1kwood forms.

Approximately 45--60% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with an average size ofO.5-

I m in diameter (Table 10).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Diagnostic species are represented by species group G (Table 8). The diagnostic species found in this association are predominantly woody ones, namely

Buddleja auriculala, B. salvi!folia, Diospyros lyeioides

subsp.

nilens, Jasminum quinatum, Rhus rigida

and

Triaspis glaucophylla.

The only diagnostic forb is

Pupolia lappacea.

Other conspicuous woody species are

Apodytes dimidiata, Combretum molle, Hippobromus P<1uc!f1orus

and

Rhoicissus tridentata.

Dominant grasses include

Heteropogon con/artus, Panicum deustum, Setaria sphacelata

and

Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Species group

H

(Table

8) shows a strong floristic resemblance to plant community 4 (Table 10) due to their similar geographical distribution.

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The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 46, together with association

4 the highest average number recorded per releve in the data set. The total number of plant species for this association is 11 0 (seven reI eves ), the richest diversity of species recorded for any rock habitat association (Table 10). Of the 10 taxa of conservation value in this association, three are SCPE endemics, six SCPE near -endemics and of these three are Red

Data List taxa (Table 9). Three of these taxa are restricted to the association, namely

Berkheya insignis (endemic form), Eucomis montana (Rare (R) in the Red Data List) and

Gnidia caffra (endemic form).

6. Gerbero jamesonii-Kirkietum wilmsii ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: reI eve 20 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

An association dominated by a dense herbaceous cover on ridges that are situated on midslopes and scarps of norite hills. It occurs on red clay soils of the Mispah form, with the soil surface covered by 70--80% rock, of a relatively large average size of 4-

7 m in diameter (Table

10).

Slope of the habitat is usually

1-30.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group I (Table 8). Diagnostic herbs, such as the fern Cheilanthes hirta, the succulents Aloe aculeata, Kalanchoe rotundifolia, Plectranthus xerophilus and Sanseviera

aethiopica, and the forbs, Gloriosa superba and Tripteris auriculata, dominate the community. Two undescribed Cyphostemma species are also diagnostic. Sporobolus

ioe/ados and Trachypogon spicatus are the diagnostic grasses. Dominant woody species are trees Barleria rotundifolia, Catha transvaalensis, Croton gratisiimus, Kirkia wilmsii and the small shrub Chrysanthemoides monilifera. Conspicuous grasses include Andropogon

schirensis and Eragrostis nindensis.

Notes on floristic diversity. Two noteworthy floristic relationships exist with other associations, namely with association 2 in species group C and a unique combination of associations in species group AG (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 39, with the total number for the association being 103 (seven releves) (Table

10).

Six SCPE endemics, six near-endemics and four Red Data List taxa (most for any

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association) are found in this association (Table 9). Of its 13 taxa of conservation value, one of three associations sharing this highest number, three near-endemics are restricted to the association, namely Aloe reitzii vaL reitzii (Indetenninate (I) in Red Data List),

Chlorophytum cyperaceum and Plectranthus xerophilus.

7. Brachiario serratae-Vilicelum wilms;; ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 71 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This association is a dry bush clump of any aspect, situated on exposed norite and magnetite ridges, on midslopes and scarps of hills, It occurs on red and black clay soils of the Mispah form (ortic A-horizon) and Milkwood form (melanic Ahorizon) underlain by hard rock. The soil surface is covered by 50-60% rock, of an average size of 2.5-3 m in diameter (Table 10). Slope of the habitat is usually 3-7°,

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group L (Table 8). The dominant diagnostic species are forbs such as

Rhynchosia

spectabilis, Ruellia cordata and Pearsonia aristata, the succulent Aloe verecunda, the sedge Bulbostylis burchellii, and the grasses Aristida junc(j'ormis, Brachiaria serrata and

Tristachya rehmannii. Prominent woody species are Apodytes dimidiata, Catha

transvaalensis, Olea capensis subsp. enermis and Vitex obovata subsp. wibnsii. Important conspicuous taxa include

Aloe castanea

and

Sphedamnocarplls pmriens,

Notes on floristiC diversity. The community has a marked floristic grassland affinity in species group Y with associations 13 and 14 (Table S), The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 40, with the total number for this association being relatively high at 109 species (seven releves) (Table 10), Five SCPE endemics, eight SCPE nearendemics, together with association S the highest number for the rocky habitats, and tlu'ee

Red Data List taxa were recorded (Table 9). It has 13 taxa of conservation value, which are the highest number recorded in three vegetation units, One SCPE near-endemic,

Lotononis

wilmsii, is restricted to the association,

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8, Cymbopogono excavati-Brachylaenetum rotundatae ass, nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 51 (holotypus)

EnVIronmental data, This association represents bush clumps on all aspects of hills with norite and ferrogabbro rocky ridges,

It usually occurs at higher altitudes than the other associations, and is found on midslopes and scarps on red clay soils of the Mayo and

Mispah forms. It lies on gently sloped areas (1,.5°). Rock cover on the surface is

60-80"10,

with rocks reaching an average size of3-5 m in diameter (Table 9).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa, Diagnostic species are presented in species group M (Table 8), Diagnostic herbaceous taxa include the forbs

Pachycarpus

transvaalensis, Pearsonia sessilifolia, Rhynchosia hirta, Senecio oxyriifolius and Soiarmm

supinum. Diagnostic woody species are the tree Brachylaena rotundata, the shrub Grewia

villosa and the bushy 'Felicia filifolia. The diagnostic grass is Diheteropogoll ampleclens.

Other important dominant taxa are trees such as

Catha Iransvaaiensis, Olea capensis

subsp,

ellermis and Ziziphus mucronata, and grasses such as Cymbopogoll valid us,

Heteropogon contortus and Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity. No prominent floristic links are evident. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 34, with a high total number of 109 plant taxa (seven releves) (Table 10). Five SCPE endemics, eight near-endemics, together with association 7 the highest number for any of the vegetation units, and three Red Data List taxa, are found in this association (Table 9). There are 13 taxa of conservation value, this is the highest number for in the data set and is equalled by associations 6 and 7, One taxon is restricted to it, namely the near-endemic

Pachycarpus transvaalensis.

9. Aloo pretoriensis-Xerophylelum retinervis ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 136 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This association is an open, sparse bush clump of norite and pyroxenite ridges, on midslopes and scarps of hills, It occurs on black and red clay soils of the Glenrosa and Mispah forms against cool south and southeast aspects. The soil surface is

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covered by 60-80% rock, which is of an average size of2.5-3.5 m in diameter (Table 10).

Slope of the habitat is usually I-5°.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group

0

(Table 8). The community is dominated by diagnostic forbs such as

Convolvu Ius sagittatus, Dalechampia galpinii, Gnidia variabilis, Jatropha latifolia var.

latifolia and Justicia protracta. The diagnostic shrub is Gymnosporia glaucophylla and the diagnostic succulent is Aloe pretoriensis. Dominant woody species include the shrubs

Hippobromus pauciflorus, Pavetta sp. nov. and Vifex obovata subsp. wilmsii. Important conspicuous grasses include Aristida transvaalensis, Cymbopogon excavatus and Themeda

triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity. The community has several floristic relationships with the rest of the data set. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 33, with

89 species the total number for this association (six releves) (Table 10). Of the 12 taxa of conservation value, no taxa are restricted to it. Six SCPE endemics and six SCPE nearendemics, of which two Red Data List taxa, were recorded (Table 9).

10. Tephrosio purpureae-Rhoicissetum tridentatae ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 320 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This is a vegetation type typical of rocky ridges in the southern region of the SCPE. It is a bush clump plant community of moist grassland on mid slopes and scarps of undulating norite or pyroxenite hiUs. The habitat is rather a level slope of 1-3

0, restricted to south and west aspects. Soils are typical red and black clays of the Mayo and

Milkwood forms. Average rock size is 1-3.5 m in diameter and cover 50-70% of the soil surface (Table 10).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Species group Q (Table 8) contains the characteristic species for this association, with the diagnostic grassland forb species

Dioscorea sylvatica, Helichrysum albilanatum, Rhynchosia minima, Tephrosia purpurea

and Zornia linearis. Other diagnostic taxa are the grasses Digitaria argyrograpta,

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Eragrostis curvula and Hyparrhenia filipendula, and the trees Camhium mundiallum, Rhus

sekhukhllniellsis and Rhus discolor (suffiutex). Other dominant taxa of the association include the treeS/shrubs Hippobromus pallciflorus, Olea capellsis subsp. enermis and

Rhoicisslls tridelltata, and the grass Cymbopogoll excavatlls.

Notes

011

floristic diversity. This association's floristic relationships are typical for the alliance (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 34, with the total number of plant species for this association being 75 (three releves) (Table J 0). A high number of taxa of conservation value are found in this association (12), and of these six are SCPE endemics, six SCPE near-endemics and three Red Data

List taxa (Table 9).

Two taxa with conservation status are restricted to the association, namely the nearendemic Helichrysum albilanatum and the Rare (R) endemic Rhus sekhukhuniellSis.

J I. Cymbopogono validi·Rhamnetum prinoidis ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 4 (holotypus)

Environmental data. The association is a moist riverbank thicket of rocky mountain streams in the valleys between undulating norite and pyroxenite hills. It lies on a gentle slope of 1-

3°. Soils are characteristically a moist humus-rich sandy loam on a rocky substrate.

Approximately 60--70% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with an average size of 3.5-

5.5 m in diameter (Table 10).

Diagnostic and dominant/promillent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group R (Table 8). Diagnostic tree species are prominent, namely Cassino psis

ilicifolia, Leucosidea sericea and Rhamnus prinoides. Diagnostic forbs are Freesia laxa,

Kalanchoe paniculata and Tlmnbergia atriplicifolia. Scleria dieterlenii is the diagnostic sedge and Sporobo/us fimbriatus the diagnostic grass. Other important trees are

Chionanthus foveolatus and Olinia emarginata. Aristida transvaaiensis, Cymbopogon

valMus, Eragrostis racemosa and Panicum deustum are the dominant grasses.

Notes on floristic diversity. The association follows the floristic affinities of the alliance, but is characterised by the absence of species in group Z (Table 8). The average number of

130

species encountered per sample plot in this association is 34, with the total number of plant species being 64 taxa (five releves) (Table 10). Four taxa occur in this association, namely two SCPE endemics and two SCPE near-endemics (Table 9). No plant taxa with conservation value are restricted to it.

12. f<-nteropogono macrostachys-Hippobrometum pallc!florii ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 334 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This vegetation type is a degraded bush clump of cool south and east slopes of norite hills. It covers moderately sloped midslopes and scarps (3-9°). The community is restricted to sandy loam soils. Approximately 20-40% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with an average diameter of>500 nun (Table 9).

Diagnostic and dominantlprominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group T (Table 8). Only one non-grassy species, the shrubby Psiadia punctulata, is diagnostic of the association. Cynodon dactylon, Enteropogon macrostachys, Eragrostis

lehmanniana and Panicum coloratum are the diagnostic grasses. Prominent trees of the association are Acacia caffra, Euclea crispa, Hippobromus pauc!florus and Rhoicissus

tridentata.

Notes on .floristic diversity. No clear-cut floristic links exist with other plant communities of rocky ridges, but it is characterised by the absence of species in group Z

(Table 8). Over utilization of veld is indicated by species groups U, AA and AH (Table 8).

The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 20 and the total number for this association being 35 (three releves) (Table 10). These numbers are the lowest recorded for this study of rocky habitats. None of the five plant taxa with conservation value are restricted to it and comprise three SCPE endemics, two near -endemics and one Red Data

List taxon (Table 9).

131

m.

Cra:ssula stl1'cOCQJl.lis-AristidD. trll1lsvaalensis

community of rocky flats

Environmental data.

Alliance of rocky flats on footslopes, midslopes and scarps of predominantly norite hills and to a lesser extent pyroxenite hills. The habitat occurs on all aspects and is gently to moderately sloped (I-9°). Approximately 60-90% of the soil surface is covered by rocks with a relatively large average diameter of >10 m (Table 10).

Soils are sandy and humus-rich.

Diagnostic and dominantlprominent taxa.

Diagnostic specIes are represented by species group X (Table 8). The vegetation unit is dominated by forbs, with the most predominant diagnostic taxa including Crassula swaziensis, Craterostigma wilmsii,

Oldenlandia herbacea

and Pearsonia cajanifo/ia. The diagnostic grasses are Aristtda

adscenstonis, Eragrostis capensis, E. pseudosclerantha

and Melints repens. Other pominent plant taxa of the association include the fern Pellaea calomelanos, the shrubby

Xerophyta retinervis,

the succulents Aloe castanea and Cras.lUla sarcocaulis, and the grasses Aristida transvaalensis and Eragrostis racemosa.

Notes on floristic diversity.

A strong floristic affinity exists with the alliance of rocky ridges, which is confirmed by species group Z (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 29, with the total number of plant species being a minimum of 75 taxa (14 releves) (Table 10). This alliance has 10 plant taxa with conservation value, of which two are SCPE endemics, seven SCPE near-endemics and four Red Data List taxa.

No taxa are restricted to the alliance.

13. Munduleo sericeaeEuphorbietum coo peri

ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 30 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

The habitat is shrubby and grassy rocky fiats of the Roossenekal

Subcentre. It occurs on north, south and west aspects of footslopes, midslopes and scarps of undulating norite hills. It lies on gentle slopes (I-3°) and is found predominantly on moist, humus-rich sandy soils. Approximately 20-80% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with an average size of>IO m in diameter (Table 10).

132

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Characteristic species are presented in species group V (Table 8). There are diagnostic herbaceous species for this association, namely the fern

Cheilanthes irTVoluta,

the geophyte

Stylochiton natalense,

and the forbs

Dioscorea dregeana

and

Orthosiphon amabilis.

Diagnostic trees/shrubs include a shortstemmed form of the succulent

Euphorbia coo peri

and

Vangueria in.fausta. Aristida scabrivalvis

and

Microchloa cafjra

are the diagnostic grasses. The succulent

Crassula swaziensis

and woody

Myrothamnus jlabell!folia

are dominant forbs of the association.

Prominent shrubs are

Euclea crispa, Mundulea sericea

and

Rhoicissus tridentata. Aristida transvaalensis, Eragrostis pseudosclerantha, E. racemosa

and

Heteropogon contortus

are frequent occurring grasses.

Notes on jloristic diversity.

A strong floristic relationship exists with association 14 in species group X, and with the other associations in species groups Z and AA (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this association is 30, with the total number of plant species being 66 taxa (six releves) (Table 10). None of the seven plant taxa of conservation value, namely two SCPE endemics, four near -endemics and three Red

Data List taxa are restricted to the association (Table 9).

14. Crassulo sarcocaulis--Aristidietum transvaalensis

ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve S8 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This is a grassy rocky flat of humus-rich sandy soils. It covers moderately sloped footslopes of 3-9

0 on all aspects of undulating norite and pyroxenite hills. The habitat occurs on footslopes, midslopes and scarps. Approximately 60--90% of the soil surface is covered by large rocks, with an average size of>10 m in diameter (Table 10).

Diagnostic and dominantlprominent taxa.

Diagnostic species are represented by species group W (Table 8). Herbs are diagnostic of this community, namely the fern

Cheilanthes eckloniana

and fern-ally

Selaginella dregei,

the forbs

Kedrostis foetidissima,

Thesium burkei

and

Xerophyta villosa,

and the succulents

Crassula alba, Euphorbia schinzii, Kalanchoe luciae

and

Kleinia longijlora. Rhus wilmsii

is a diagnostic woody suffrutex. Other taxa of importance are the grasses

Aristida transvaalensis

and

Melinis

133

nerviglumis.

The succulents

Aloe castanea

and

Crassula sarcocaulis

are conspicuous members of the association.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Floristically the association is strongly related to association

13 in species group X and shows a strong link with association 7 in species group Y (Table

8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 27, with the total number of plant species being 75 taxa (eight releves) (Table 10). There are 10 taxa of conservation value occurring in the association, namely two SCPE endemics, seven near-endemics and four Red Data List taxa (Table 9) that are the highest number of Red Data taxa recorded for an association.

IV.

Celtis africana-Panicum deustum

community of rocky refugia

Environmental data.

In the SCPE this alliance represents dense woodlands or thickets of rocky refugia. It is a rare vegetation type and can be found on southerly aspects of valleys, and mountain footslopes, mid slopes and crests. The habitat is characterised by large norite boulders of minimum 2 m high and the average rock diameter approximately 0.5-2.5 m, while covering approximately 10-70% of the soil surface. It is characterised by gentle to moderate slopes (1-7°). Soil types are characterised as a red or black clay base on unconsolidated material and include the Mayo (lithocutanic B-horizon) and the Oakleaf

(neocutanic B-horizon) forms.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Species group AF (Table 8) contains the diagnostic species for this alliance in the SCPE, which are the trees

Calodendrum capense

and

Celtis qfricana,

the shrubs

Diospyros whyleana

and

metfa whyteana,

and the succulent

Aloe arborescens.

Other prominent plant taxa include the woody species

Acacia ataxacantha, Allophyllus africanus, Halleria lucida, Hippobromus pauciflorus

and

Ziziphus mucronata. Panicum deustum

is the dominant grass ofthe alliance.

Notes

011

floristic diversity.

A strong floristic affinities exist with associations 4, 5 and 6 in species group AG (Table 8), which shows its relationship with the SCPE. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 36, with the total number of plant species

134

being a minimum of 68 taxa (II releves) (Table 10). There are four taxa of conservation value associated with the alliance, namely one SCPE endemic and three SCPE nearendemics (Table 9). Of these taxa two are restricted to the alliance.

15. Clauseno anisatae-Diospyretum whyteanae ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 67 (holotypus)

Environmental data. In the Roossenekal Subcentre this association represents wooded rocky refugia, sometimes associated with boulders around caves, boulders in kloofs and below cliffs, or stonewalls of old kraals.

It is a vegetation unit on red clay soils ofthe Mayo and Oakleaf forms. These units occur on footslopes and midslopes of undulating norite hills.

The gentle slopes vary from

3-7

0 and east-south-west aspects are predominant. Rock cover percentage vary from 10-40% and average rock diameter is

I-\.

5 m (Table 10).

Diagnostic

and

dominant/prominent taxa. Species group AB contains the diagnostic species for this association (Table 8). Trees are diagnostic of the association, namely the succulent Aloe marlothii, Clausena anisata, Clerodendrum glabrum, C.

myricoides, Ficus

thormingi and Obetia tenax. A few diagnostic [orbs are Abutilon austro-africanum,

Cyathula cylindrica, Hermannia floribunda and Scadoxus puniceus. Diagnostic grasses include Brachiaria brizantha, Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata and Urochloa

mossambicensis. Other important dominant taxa include the woody species Acacia

ataxacantha, Allophyllus transvaalensis, Celtis qfricana and Diospyros whyteana, the forb

Pavonia burchellii, and the grasses Panicum deustum and P. maximum.

Notes on floristic diversity. A floristic link exist with association 16 in species group

AD and association 17 in species group AF (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is a high 41 (Table 10). The total number of plant species for this association is 68 (six releves). One taxon of conservation value occurs in this association, namely an undescribed endemic Cyphostemma species (Siebert

1383).

135

16. Fico sur-Combretetum erythrophyllii ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 182 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This vegetation type is woodlands next to rivers in the valleys between mountains. The habitat lies between norite outcrops on black and red clay soils derived from alluvium. It lies on gentle slopes of 3-5°. Soils are predominantly the Mayo and Oakleaf forms. Approximately 20-70% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with an average diameter of 0.5-2.5 m (Table 10).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

The diagnostic species are represented by species group AC (Table 8), and include the woody species,

Acacia galpinii, Combretum

erythrophyllum, Ficus sur, Flueggea virosa, Melia azedarach (naturalised alien) and

Spirostachys qfricana. The diagnostic forbs are Achyranthes aspera, Barleria obtusa, and the climbers

Cardiospermum corindum and Secamone acutifolia. Celtis africana and

Schotia brachypetala are other prominent trees of the association. Important dominant grasses include Panicum deustum and P. maximum.

Notes on floristic diversity. The association shows a strong floristic link exist with association 15 in species group AD, and a specific afromontane link with association 17 in species group AF (Table 8). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is

33, with the total number for this association being 64 (three releves) (Table 10). It has one taxon of conservation value, namely one near-endemic (Table 9).

17. Andrachno ovalis-Allophylletum transvaalensis ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 406 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This is an association of relict Afromontane Forests on the crest of the

Leolo Mountains.

It is associated with norite substrates and boulders of 2--{im high. The habitat has a southerly aspect and a gentle slope of 1-3

0.

Approximately 20-40% of the soil surface is covered by rocks with an average diameter of 500-750 mID

(Table 10). Soil is black clay of the Oakleaf form.

136

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Diagnostic species are represented by species group AE (Table 8). The vegetation unit is dominated by diagnostic woody species, namely

Andrachne ovalis, Gymnosporia

sp. nov. A,

flex mitis, Kiggelaria africana, Primus africana

and

Senna occidentalis.

Diagnostic forbs include

Polygala virgata, Senecio lamoides, Solanum aculeastrum

and

Urtica [obu[ala.

Other conspicuous taxa are the tree

Halleria lucida,

the climber

Clematis brachiata

and the grass

Panicum deustum.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Strong floristic affinities exist with associations 15 and 16

(species group AF) in species groups AF and AG (Table 8). However, this is not a true rock outcrop vegetation type, but due to the undersampling of these forests (2 releves), it was group here. Only two species depauperated forests were incountered. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 35, with the total number of plant species numbering 65 taxa (two releves) (Table 10). This association has two taxa with a conservation status, namely the near-endemics

Gymnosporia

sp. nov. A

(Van Wyk

&

Siebert

13351) and

Nemesia zimbabwensis

(Table 9). Both these taxa are restricted to the association. Its relict status gives the community special conservation significance as a plant community (perhaps the rarest in the SCPE).

6.4 Vegetation key

A vegetation key is presented to aid with the identification of the various plant communities

(Table II). The definitions are broad indications of typical groups and should be seen as a guideline. A diagnostic characteristic of the vegetation or habitat is given, followed by the most diagnostic and visual species of a group. The first species is restricted to the specific group only, and the second is dominant in the group, but also occurs in other groups.

Where one species is given, no species was restricted to the group only.

6.5 Ordination

On a larger scale the rocky outcrop vegetation is characterised as naturally sparsely vegetated due to the relatively high surface cover of rock, with many taxa typical for this habitat in the northern provinces of South Africa. When compared with other habitats of the

137

SCPE, the environmental factors for this major vegetation group is relatively homogeneous.

A combination of factors such as terrain type (slope), soil texture (clay/sand content) and rockiness (rock size and rock cover), affects the species composition of these plant communities. The ordination indicated the gradients which are mainly caused by rockiness.

The scatter diagram displays the distribution of releves along the first and second ordination axes (Figure 10). The vegetation units are represented as groups, their distribution on the scatter diagram corresponding with certain physical environmental conditions. The rockiness, slope and soil texture determines a definite gradient that is depicted by both the first (eigen value

=

0.669) and second axis (eigen value

=

0.456).

Rockiness, slope and soil texture determines the moisture retention and drainage of the habitat. The gradient on the x-axis expresses rock cover as a percentage ofthe soil surface, with the left of the scatter diagram representing rocky flats with its continuous layers of rock at the soil surface and the right depicting the large boulders with large areas of open soil between them which are typical for rocky refugia. On the y-axis, the gradient indicates higher moisture availability over the long term at the top of the graph, because clayey soils on moderate slopes with large areas covered with rock remain moist over a longer period.

Steep slopes with sandy soils and low rock cover dry out quickly and are at the bottom of the diagram. The first axis also exhibits a gradient with deep soils at the right and shallow soils at the left.

All these gradients correlate closely with each other and have a strong influence on the vegetation structure and species composition. The three most dominant and conspicuous taxa of each growth form (trees/shrubs/suifrutices, forbs/sedges and grasses) are given for each ofthe eight major vegetation types depicted in the scatter diagram (Table 12).

138

,.

."

·

\

SOUTI-l AFRICA

N t

!

!

5>

STEE7MPSBERG

/

,

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\

/

/

I

(

/

r

Figure 9 Extend of occurrence of the Rock Outcrop Vegetation of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism in the Northern Province and Mpumalanga, South Africa.

139

.".

0

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35 0

300

~

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100

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Ordination axis 1

500 600

FigUl'e 10

Relative positions of all the rei eves along the first and second axis of the ordination of the Rocky Outcrop Vegetation of the

Sek hukhun e l and Centre of Plant Endemism . Numbers correspond with the plant communities in Table 8 .

700

Table

8 A phytosociolOQical table of

!he

Rock Outcrop Ve!letation of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism .

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Table 9 Sekhukhuneland Centre endemiclnear-endemic and Red Data List plant taxa of the Rock Outcrop Vegetation.

TaxOli

casfaTIea

A. pretoriensis

A reltzlI

var·

reitzil

Asparagus inlr'lca/w:

[form)

(W&S) 501)

Berkheya if/signls

lform] (8257)

Catha trr:uuvaalensis

Chlorophyrnm cyperxe1im

Cyphos/emma sp. nov. A (W13389)

C.

Rp. nQV

B

(Sj

383)

Elephcmtorrhlza praetermfs.w

Eucomls montana

Euphorbia swmkunieruis

Gnidiu cafJra

[form] (WI2975)

GYmnmporia

~p,

JWV.

A(W&S13351}

R clichryswn a!bilan<Jt1im

Jasminum q1JirtaiWn

Jatropha lat(alla

Vat, l~i/iJlIa

KleiM/Cl stapeliiformis

Lmononis wilmsl'!'

Nemesia zjmbabwensis

Orf1'Kmphon[nlIicosw

Pachycarpus fransvaalenSts

Pavcnasp.

nov.

(S2Z)

Plcarcmthus \lenl.m:'

#, #,

$. $+ Sr

#+ #l

~:

~-

~

$1 $1 $1 Sl-

S<

$+ SI-

Sr

$, $,

Sr $, St

5+ $r

I

R$ll

K$1 K$r KS+

K$r

KS+ KS,

K$+

K$~

~

~

#+

VITA

FABA

ULl

EUPH

TILl

CELA

ASTh

OLEA

EUPH

ASTh

FABA

SCHR

LAM!

ASCL

RUBI

ASPH

ASPH

LILl

ASTE

CELA

LILI

VITA

LAM!

KSr KSr KSr

#, #,

#+

#,

"'

#+ c::::J ifr s..

$, f$+l

- - -

$!

$,

$+

$, s.. iJ+

Sr

$1

#,

$, s..

St

$r

Sr

L

Table 9 continued.

Ta:s:Qn Sym.an

FlimOy

P_ xcroph!lus

LAM)

Premna moo/emis

(form1

(W&SJ 3004)

VERB

VITA

5)

2CJ

$1

RJ!oicissus sekhukhuniensis

A..'i\;AC

Rhus scktrukhuniemls

R. wi/msff

A .. r..;'AC

~

K#I KiH K#+

Rhyncoosia spectabllis

Scm"

nata/ensis

Stytrxn(1eton

~p,

(3} 332)

Triaspfs glau.cophylla

Virex obovata

Nuhs:p.

wflmsii

Xerophyta retinervis

[form}

(Wi

~12!JB)

Zante.deschia pentlandif

SCPE endemics

FABA

LILI

ARAC

MALP

VERB

VELl

ARAC

" ftt

~

't

.+

51

't

#+

Sf

R#-;-

'1

#+

.,

Sf

"

#t

#l

it

#l

#t

#l

II,

Sf

$+ $+

$1

RII,

R#l R#+ R#+ R#t

RII,

#+

't

Nt

"'

N+

't

't

#+

't

5+ $-

it

2

9 5 4 4 6

5

5 6

6 2 3

R#r

R#t

2 2

1 0 sePE near~cnderuiC8

Red DaLa List

3

0

3

I

6 5 5 6 8 8 6 6 2

2

4

7

0

I i

I 2 3

4

3 3 2 3

0 1 3 4 0 0

Rostricted to association

1011" thr 8.'lNoelation

0 4 0 0 3 3

I

1 0

2 0

0 0 0 0

Ewleminn. S

southern Africa; Abundaote in eommunltiu:

1 abundant,

+

;<;. frequent, r

= rare.,.

~ absent; Collectors: S

=

Siebt:rt, W "" Van

Wyk;

Bold blocb represent oommunltY.'9yntuon flpeoitic taxa.

0

5 12

I

11 9 10 l3 l3 13 12

12

4 I 7

[0

I [

"

. near-endcnuc,

Red ThUa lJst:

1 Indctermtnat<; K

InsuffiCIently

Known, R Rare,}.;

• tn tho northern ptO'YlDCe!l

(}fSouth Afnca, but tn other areas of

0

2

0

2

2

......

.j:>.

'D

Table 10 Environmental factors and selected attributes associated with the different plant communities of the Rock Outcrop

Vegetation.

Fadon/attributes S,.ntaxa

Numba'" of rei eves

3

2

10

3

9

4

8

5

7

6

7

7

7

II

8

7

9

6

10

3

11

5

12

3

13

6

1Il

14

8

15

6

68

IV

16

3

17

2

Tolal number

of species 46 91 89 105 110 103 109 109 89 75 64 35 66 75

64

65

Average number of species per releve

Number of endemios! neat-endemics

Number efRed Data List taxa

31

5

0

Geology·

Topographic p08ition"

Slope (0)

27

12

30

11

46

9

46

9

39

12

40

13

34

13

33

12

34

12

34

4

20

5

30

6

27

9

41

33 35

2

H

MIS

NIP

MIS

1-3 0-1

2

3

N

4

NIP

N

MIS MIS

N

MIS MIS

3-7

5-15 3-15

1-3

3 3 2 3

MIN

MiS

FiN

NIP NIP

MIS MIS MIS

0 3 4

NIP

0

H

N N N

MIF

MIS FMlS FMlS

F;M

0

A!N

V

3-7 1-5 1-5 1-3 1-3 3-9 1-3 3-9 3-7 3-5

0

N

C

1-3

Aspect

Predomin.ll.llt soil type··.

Bo

M.

NE N

S

Gs'/

M.

My';

Mw

Myl;

Mw

M.

NESW NESW SE

M.!

Mw

Mgl!

My

G.!

M.

SW SE NSW NESW ESW

Mw!

My

S""d S""d S""d S""d

Myl!

O.

Myl;

O.

S

O.

o

-

V>

Table 10 continued.

FillctonJattrihutes SyDmu

. ................

_ - -

Rock coverpercemage (04) m·RO

O()..9<)

70·90 45·50 45-60

70-80 50-60 60~8o

60·80

50-70 60.70

20·40 70·80 60·90 10·40 20-70

20·40

Aversge rock size (nun) 5500·

250()..

200()" 500500·

4OQ()..

25003000-

2:500-

7000

SOOO

4500 1000 1000

7000

*

A - alluvium; F tefTQgsbbru; H har:zburg1te: M .. magnetite; N - norite; P .- PYfQxenite

3000

5000

•• C

= crest; S

= scarp; M mldslope; F footldcpc; V "" valley

. . . Bv= Bonhcim; Os '" Olenrosa; Mll -"'Millpllh: My

~-

Mil)'Q; Mw

=

Millwood; 0111

=08k1~f(X1

Dominant soil type)

3100

1000·

3100

3:500-

5100

> lOO

>

10000

>

10000

1000·

1500 lOO·

1500

500·

750

Table 11 A key to the syntaxa of the Rock Outcrop Vegetation of the rocky hills of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism.

1a TaU, moist woodland

(Ce.ltis afrwna

&

Panicum deustum)

b Short woooland, hcrbJand and grassland

\::Aloe cas/atlea

&.

~'lta

2a Mountain orest

(Andrttchne ovah;

&,

Diospyros whyteana)

b Mountain slope and valley

(Pawmia bu.rohelitf& Zitiphus mucronata)

38

Avet'$8e rock

91ze>

9 m

(Oldel'lland,a herbacea &XerQphyta ret/nervi.!')

b Average rook size> 9 m

(HippobromWi paucijlonu)

4u VaUey

{CombnrlUm ery!hrophyUu!J1

&

Cassint: aethfopica)

b Mountain slope

(Clawena anisofo

& Allophylus ajhcol1JJs)

$0 S10pe 3-9"

(Xerophyla vilJosa

&

Melinis nervlgIWfl/s)

b Slope 1·3{)

(Euphorhfacooperl

&.

Mundulea sericea)

68 Open woodland or grassland

(Pavetta

sp. nov.

&.

CymbopogoTl

exc(N(1h~$) b Closed woodland (Ficw abulIfoiia

&,

Croton gratissfmus)

10 Developed

Hoit!

(Combrctum malle

&.

Senecio latifo!ius)

b Sand (Heteh;)pogon COniorlus)

8a Millpah soil

(Commiphof'a marlotnii

&

Barleria rottmaifolia)

b Bonheim !foil

(Mimusops zeyhef'i

&

Olinta emargit'lata)

9ft G'enrosa roil

(J(erophyta f'Ctit'lUVl/t)

bOther l'ihosols

(Apodytes aimiafaia

&:. Setaria sphaceIata) lOa Rook cover

20~zn

macrostachys

&.

Rhok:issus tridentata)

b

Rock cove;

60-70%

(RhamtrUJ prinofdes

&:

Cymbopogon validus}

11ft South-oancrly aspects

(Aloe prcton"ensis

&

CUssOf/ia transvaalenris)

b North-easterly upectt

(Orewta monUcola

&:

EJephantorhtza praefen1Ussa)

128 Variety ohock suhslnnes

(Calha traf'lSvaaielUis)

b Renricted 10 nook

(Dombe:ya rorundifolla

&

Diospyros lycioides)

Go tollllyntoxon

1

3

17. Andrachno o ...

alis~AltophylleJum

tran:waalensis

4

5

16. Fico $Uf'-Combf'elett4m erythrophyUii

15"

Clau.nmo

anisotae~DiospyrettJ.m

whyteanae

14, Crassu[o san.:ocauils-Af'istidietum transvaatef'lSis

13. Munduleo senceae-Eupoorbielum cOoper!

7

8

1.

2. Commipnoro maf'lothJi-Crotonetum grcdissimt

L

Vepro rejlexae-Mimusopetum

::eyhen

11

1l

12

Enteropogono mm:f'Os(acnys-H'ippobrometum pauc¢lom

1 L

Cymbopogono valfdi-RharnrtetUtll prit'lOidiS

9 . .4100 pretonenns-Xerophytetum rott'nervis

3. Grew/a mOTlticolae-Elepnanforrn{;;?fum pracfermissaa

13

14

Table 11 continued. asPCl)ts b Southerly

.spooh

(Canthitnrt mundianum

&-

Ruellia stenophylla)

141' Slope 3~lSQ

(Setaria lindenberg/ana

&.

Rhus ieptoafctya)

b Slope 1~3°

(Sanseviera C1ethiopica

It

Zanledeschia PMtlandif)

IS.

Allfo on tcrrogabbro

(Brachytaena rotund;Jta IlL Gerberaiamesonr"l)

b

Abo on magnetit\:; (Brachiaria serrata&

uaebourfa rr'.'Owta)

168 Southerly aspect

(Budt:ll.t.qa aunculata

&

Hallcria tucrda)

b Northerly aspect

(Calha cJujis

&

Melin,-s nervigiumts)

15

10. Tephrosio purpW'CtiC-Rhoicfsse.tum fridenfatae

16

6. Gerbero jamesonii-Kirkietum wiimsiJ

S. Cymbopogono eXctNatl-Bnr-hylcrem:tum rotunda/ail

7. Brachiario scrralae-Yiticetum wilmsfJ

5. Heteropogono conlorli -Apodytetum d;midfafOiJ

4. Melino nervfgfumis-G'atmrum ildulis

W

-

V>

Table 12 The three most dominant and conspicuous plant taxa of each of the major vegetation types of the Rocky Outcrop

Vegetation depicted in the DECORANA scatter diagram.

Major vcgetadnn tYJMl

1.

RnolciYSu$ sekhuklrunie.n.sis Flcu" abuiiUfoUa

Il

Cymbopogon

exccn;atu~Pave!la sp. flCV

Croion grallSsimus

FicfU ahlltilifolia

Vepn·s reflexa

"

~ ~

H

ip~1m;';'~s p~-~iil"a;~

-

Pa"dia

liP.

D011.

Vltexobovatasubsp. wIlms,i

Aloe. ca;lanea

Euclea crispa

Jierophyta refinerv;s

-------. -AitophjJi;$ if;';;"'a~~---

CeJJi.s africulfa

Diospyros why/eana

Ahuti/on pycnodon

Rifomssll$ sekltllldumienNis

Sarcosten1ma VllnJrlaW

-Cyph;;~ie.mf1ia

wo;;diJ

RhoiCISlu1 tridentatQ

Senecio lait/mOO

Crassu1a zwazlensiS

Myrolnamnus flabeilffolia

Lippia jawmica

Pavonfa burchellt

Andropagon schirensf$

Kragrostts ninaenslS

PaniCUm t4Justum

---Q;;;'iMPig01f t!XCavttlll$

Panicum deustW11

Themeda triandra uagroslis pS£l<dosclerantha

Melims nervlglwfl1$

Panit."Um maximum

Urochloa n1Qsomb/censis

CHAPTER 7

OPEN MOUNTAIN BUSHVELD

7.1 Background

Ahhough a number of phytosociological studies have been conducted on the bushveld (the local term equivalent to savanna) of ultramafic substrates in southern Africa (Werger

et at.

1978; Van der Meulen 1979; Breebaart & Deutschlander 1997), several vegetation types on this type of substrate stil1 remain poorly investigated. An example is the Mountain Bushveld identified by Siebert

et al.

(2002a) on the norite, pyroxenite and anorthosite hills and mountains of the SCPE (Van Wyk

&

Van Wyk 1997; Van Wyk

&

Smith 2001). Ultramafic mountains and hills are floristically noteworthy in that they harbour many endemics with distributions associated with this particular geological substrate (Iturralde 1995; Madulid &

Agoo 1995; Siebert

et al.

2001).

In

many instances the distinction between two different plant communities in the SCPE

IS so pronounced, that a mere visual observation is all that is needed to observe the geological boundaries. Even when the underlying rocks are relatively similar, differences in vegetation can be observed. It has been noted that the most toxic ultramafic soils are the ones with the most depauperated vegetation types (Wild 1974). One of the most comprehensive surveys of vegetation in a single ultramafic region was conducted by

Jaffre

(1980) on the serpentine flora of New Caledonia. This series of papers on the vegetation of the 4 000 km

2 of ultramafic rock of the eastern Rustenburg Layered Suite is probably the most extensive in recent time.

Various vegetation types have been recognised on the adjacent dry dolomitic hills and mountains of the northeastern Drakensberg Escarpment (Matthews 1991; Matthews

et al.

1992), an area adjacent to the SCPE with which it shows a definite floristic affinity (Siebert

1998). Acocks (1953) mapped the bushve1d in the SCPE as three major veld types, namely

154

Mixed Bushveld (18), Sourish Mixed Bushveld (19) and North-Eastern Sandy Highveld

(57). A more generalised classification of the same region's vegetation is given by Low &

Rebelo (1996), who recognises only one major vegetation type, namely Mixed Bushveld

(18). Only the plant communities of the Combretum hereroense·Grewia vernicosa Open

Mountain Bushveld (Siebert et at. 2002a) are descnbed in this chapter.

The area dealt with (Figure

II)

is characterised by considerable diversity in geology

(Kent 1980) and physiography (Land Type Survey Staff 1987; 1988; 1989), with the vegetation broadly described as undulating mountain bushveld, bordered by a Northeastern

Sandy Highveld Grassland-mountain bushveld ecotone in the south and a mountain bushveld-Mixed Bushveld ecotone in the north. Most of the undulating hills and mountains of the region are predominantly covered by bushveld. The Combretum hereroense-Grewia

vernicosa bushveld vegetation type is intermingled with the other major vegetation types of the SePE, due to the heterogeneity in the environmental factors of the region (Siebert et at.

(2002a). Fourty seven of the Sekhukhuneland endemics/near-endemics occur in this vegetation type (Siebert 1998).

Landform patterns exhibit complex behaviour fYV erner 1999) and play an important role in the development of the local flora (White 1981; Siebert 1998). Two major physiographic entities are characteristic of the area of focus, namely, (1) mountain slopes and (2) valleys.

Mountain slopes are defined as the scarps, midslopes and upper footslopes of undulating hills and mountains. Valleys are defined as the low-lying valleybottoms and lower footslopes between the hills and mountains, which are usually traversed by a stream, river or drainage channel.

The average annual rainfall is 578 mm (South African Weather Bureau 1998), but the rainfall pattern is strongly influenced by the local topography (Siebert 1998). Rainfall varies from as little as 400 mm in some of the valleys, to an estimated 550 mm on the lower slopes of the Leolo Mountains (Erasmus 1985). Temperatures for the study area range from

ODe

to

38

D e,

with a daily average of

20

D e

fYVeather Bureau 1998). The northern and western parts of the study area are on average warmer than the southern and eastern parts (Siebert

1998) and exhibit average daily temperatures of28.3

D e maximum and

7.2

D e

minimum.

155

7.2 Classification

The final TWINSP AN division of the main table (415 rei eves ) separated the

Kirkia wilmsii-

Terminalia prunioides Closed Mountain Bushveld from the Combretum hereroense-

Grewia vernicosa Open Mountain Bushveld (Siebert et al. 2002a). This was a marginal division, with both bushveld vegetation types sharing the majority of their species and occurring in the same terrain types on mountainlhill slopes and in valleys. An eigenvalue of

0.39 (n

=

194) was obtained at the division level, which indicates a suitable gradient between the two vegetation types for an accurate TWINSP AN. Ten significant preferential species were used for the division of the two vegetation types and are listed in Table 13, together with five non-preferential ones.

Analysis of the

Combretum hereroense-Grewia vernicosa Open Mountain Bushveld resulted in the identification of 20 plant communities, which are grouped as eight associations and 18 sub-associations (Table 14). These were subsequently hierarchically classified. Two major groups are recognised on the grounds of the physical environment, namely mountain slopes or valleys. Hence, macro-climatic and/or geological variation plays a role in the development of the Open Mountain Bushveld, but terrain type (topography) is responsible for local differentiation of the plant communities. The major plant communities relate to soil character and slope, which are determined by the terrain type. Associations are distinctive and easily distinguishable in the field. This might be attributed to the uniformity of the environmental factors for each of the six major vgetation groups that ceated a distinct distribution pattern of habitats and associated vegetation.

The hierarchical classification of the vegetation reinforces the correlation between habitat and plant communities (Figure 12). The distribution of Sekhukhuneland Centre endemic/near-endemic and Red Data List taxa among various plant communities is listed in

Table 15. A summary of selected community attributes is supplied in Table 16.

Plant communities of the Combretum hereroense-Grewia vernicosa Open Mountain

Bushveld recognised in the Centre are classified as follows:

156

I.

Enneapogon scoparius-Combretum molle community of mountain slopes

1.

Enteropogono macrostachyo-Sclerocaryetum birreae

1.1

Enteropogono

macrostachyo~clerocaryetum

birreae asparagetosum sekukuniensis

1.2 Enteropogono macrostachyo--Sclerocaryetum birreae grewietosum vernicosae

2. Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis

2.1 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis chloretosum virgatae

2.2 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis grewietosum flavescentis

2.3 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis brachylaenetosum ilicifoliae

2.4 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis commiphoretosum mollis

3. Phyllantho glaucophyllae-Brachylaenetum ilicifoli

3.1 Phyllantho glaucophyllae-Brachylaenetum Wcifoli setarietosum sphacelatae

3.2 Phyllantho glaucophyllae-Brachylaenetum Wcifoli brachiarietosum serratae

4. Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis

4.1 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis myrothamnetosum flabellifolius

4.2 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis melinetosum nerviglumis

4.3 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis argylobietosum wilmsii

4.4

Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis combretetosum zeyheri

II. Loudetia simplex-Combretum hereroense community of valleys

5. Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauciflori

5.1 Eragrostio lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauclf/ori rhoetosum batophyllae

5.2 Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauciflori sorgetosum bicoloris

5.3 Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauciflori elionuretosum mutici

6. Aristido rhiniochloo--Gnidietum polycephalae

7. Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis

7.1 Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis diheteropogonetosum amplectentis

7.2 Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis heteropogonetosum contorti

7.3 Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis andropogonetosum chinensis

8. Petalidio oblongifolii-Raphionacmetum procumbentls

157

7.3 Description

The Combretum hereroense-Grewia vemicosa Open Mountain Bushveld is predominantly restricted to the warm slopes and valleys of undulating ultramafic hills and mountains.

Surface rocks are predominant and abundant in the various habitats, with average rock size varying between 200 and 1 000 mm (20-70% surface cover) on the slopes of hills and between 100 and 400 mm (10-50% surface cover) in the valleys. The vegetation can be classified into broad-leaved woodlands (Edwards 1983). A noteworthy feature of this bushveld type is the fact that it constitutes a unique habitat or "island" which differs significantly from the surrounding habitats regarding microhabitat and vegetation.

I. Enneapogon scoparius-Combretum moUe community of mountain slopes

Environmental data. The vegetation is an open broad-leaved bushveld of mountain slopes.

The alliance is found on all aspects, but predominantly southern aspects. It occurs on steep slopes (3-18°) on mainly midslopes, but also to a lesser degree on scarps, crests and footslopes (Table 16). Soil is shallow and constitutes rocky Mispah and Glenrosa forms.

The soil surface is covered by 20-70% of rock with an average diameter of 0.3-1 m (Table

16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group S (Table 14) and include the trees

Combre/um apicula/um,

C.

molle,

Dombeya ro/und!folia, Kirkia wilmsii and Ozoroa spahaerocarpa and the shrubby climbers

Acacia ataxacantha and Asparagus laricinus. Diagnostic grasses include Enneapogon

scoparius, Eragrostis chloromelas and Panicum maximum. Diagnostic herbaceous taxa include the forbs Justicia pro/racta, Thesium burkei and Tephrosia purpurea. Pellaea

calomelanos is the diagnostic fern and Aloe castanea the diagnostic succulent.

Notes on floristic diversity. Floristic links with the other alliance is visible in species groups W, AC, AF, AG and AH (Table 14). The weak links supports the recognition of the alliance. The average number of species encountered per sample plot for this alliance is 38, with the total number of plant species being a minimum of 130 taxa (55 releves) (Table 16).

158

There are 35 plant taxa of conservation value, 21 are SCPE endemics, 12 are SCPE nearendemics and eight are Red Data List taxa (Table 15). Of these taxa, II are restricted to this alliance in the SCPE.

1. Enteropogono macrostachyo-Sclerocaryetum birreae ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 413 (holotypus)

Environmental data. The vegetation representing this association is sparse short woodland on the lower slopes and foothills of the north-south trending Leolo Mountains. It is mostly found on the east and west aspects of the mountain range. The habitat is rocky with moderate slopes (3-7°) (Table 16). The dominant soil type is the Glenrosa form, an ortic Ahorizon over a lithocutanic B. Average rock size varies from 200 to 750 mm in diameter and covers 10 to 70% of the soil surface.

Diagnostic

and

dominant/prominent taxa. Characteristic species are represented by species group A (Table 14). Sclerocarya birrea is the diagnostic tree of the association,

Hibiscus coddii and Stylochaeton natalensis the diagnostic forbs, and Enteropogon

macrostachys the diagnostis grass. Other dominant woody species include Croton

gratissimus, Dichrostachys cinerea and Grewia vernicosa. Heteropogon contortus and

Themeda triandra are the most dominant grasses and Hibiscus coddii the most conspicuous forb.

Notes on floristic diversity. This bushveld community is scarce in the SCPE and only a slight floristic affinity exist with other slope bushveld communities of the SCPE in species groups G and S (Table 14). Twelve taxa with conservation status are present in the association (Table 15), the lowest number recorded for an association in this paper. Nine are SCPE endemics and three are SCPE near-endemics, of which three are Red Data List taxa. Three of these plant taxa are restricted to the association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 31, with the total number for this association being a minimum of 64 plant taxa (six reieves) (Table 16).

159

I. I

Enteropogono macrostachyo-Sclerocarye tum birreae asparagetosum sekukuniensis

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 413 (holotypus)

Environmental data. The vegetation is sparse woodland on the western midslopes of the

Leolo Mountains and its foothills. This association characterises exposed ferrogabbro with moderately sloped sides of 7° (Table 16). The surface rock cover percentage is relatively high, namely 60-70%, with the exposed rocks reaching average diameters for the study area, which is 500-750 mm in diameter (Table 16). The dominant soil type is the Glenrosa form.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. In the SePE this association is characterised by species group B (Table 14). Combretum petrophilum, Croton menyhartii and Pavetta

eylesii are the diagnostic woody species of this syntaxon. Diagnostic forb species include

Asparagus intricatus, A. sekukuniensis, Boerhavia erecta and Hermannia floribunda. The diagnostic grasses are Botriochloa insculpta and Digitaria eriantha. Enteropogon

macrostachys, Eragrostis chloromelas and Heteropogon contortus are the most prominent grasses. Corchorus asplenifolius, E volvulus alsinoides and Tephrosia purpurea are the dominant forbs. Other prominent plants are the woody species

Grewia vernicosa,

Dichrostachys cinerea and Sclerocarya birrea, and the suffiutex Gymnosporia sp. B (Van

Wyk 13052).

Notes on floristic diversity. This plant community exhibits a strong floristic link with the slopes ofThaba Sekhukhune (sub-association 2.1) and the slopes of the Schurinksberg (subassociation 2.2) in species group G (Table 14). Eight plant taxa of conservation value occur in this sub-association (Table 15), namely five SePE endemics and three SePE nearendemics, of which three are Red Data List taxa. Three plant taxa of conservation value are restricted to this sub-association, namely an endemic form of

Asparagus intricatu8, the

SePE endemic Asparagus sekukuniensis (Insufficiently Known on the Red List) and the

SePE near-endemic Combretum petrophilum (Rare on the Red List). This is the highest number of taxa with conservation value restricted to a sub-association in this paper. The

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average number of species per releve is 40, and the total number of species recorded for the association is 45 (two releves) (Table 16).

1.2 Enteropogono macrostachyo--Sclerocaryetum birreae grewietosum vernicosae sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 337 (holotypus)

Environmental data. The vegetation is short open woodland on the northern and eastern midslopes and foothills of the Leolo Mountains. It is associated with predominantly exposed pyroxenite and norite (to the west of the study area it becomes ferro gabbro ). The subassociation is found on gentle to moderate slopes (3-7°) (Table 16). Soils are predominantly of the Glemosa form (in certain communities the Steendal form (melanic Ahorizon over a soft carbonat horizon) intersperse with the lithosols). The soil surface is covered by 10-40% ofrock with a diameter of200-500 mm (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Characteristic species of the association are represented by species group C (Table 14). Woody species diagnostic of the association include Diospyros lycioides subsp. sericea, Rhigozum obovatum, Rhus gneinzii, Vangueria

infausta, the semi-succulent shrub Senecio barbertonicus and the woody climber Rhoicissus

tomentosus. The diagnostic grasses are Aristida transvaalensis, Sporobolus ioclados and S.

nitens. Hemizygia albiflora is the diagnostic forb. Other prominent trees of the subassociation are

Combretum hereroense, Croton gratissimus, Euclea crispa, Grewia

vernicosa and Sclerocarya birrea. Dominant grasses are Eragrostis lehmanniana,

Heteropogon confortus and Themeda triandra. Psiadia punctulata is the most conspicuous forb ofthe sub-association.

Notes on floristic diversity. A notable floristic link exists with sub-associations 2.1 and

2.2, in species group G (Table 14). There are six plant taxa of conservation value in the association, the lowest number of all the sub-associations. Four taxa are SCPE endemics, two are SCPE near-endemics (both figures are of the lowest for the paper) and one is a Red

Data List taxon (Table 15). None are restricted to the sub-association. The average number

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of species encountered per sample plot in this association is 27, with the total number of plant species being 64 taxa (4 releves) (Table 16).

2. Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 249 (holotypus)

Environmental data. In the SCPE this association occurs as tall, dry woodland stands on mountain slopes running into the Steelpoort River Valley. The habitat of the association is heterogeneous with no two communities exhibiting the same enviromnental factors.

It occurs on relatively steep slopes on all aspects of

VaJ10US geological substrates. Rock cover and average rock size vary considerably, namely 20-75% of the soil surface and a relatively large diameter of 0.4-1.5 m, respectively (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Species group D contains the diagnostic species for this association, which are characterised by the tree Acacia senegal var.

leiorachis, the shrub Grewia flava, and the grass Aristida meridionalis (Table 14). Other prominent species of the sub-association include the trees/shrubs Brachylaena ilic!folia,

Kirkia wilmsii, Tinnea rhod.esiana and Triaspis glaucophylla, the forbs Asparagus

laricinus, Commelina africana and Thesium burkei, the succulent Aloe cryptopoda, and the grasses Panicum maximum and Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity. A strong floristic ailinity exists with associations 3 and 4 in species groups R and S (Table 14), and a slight link exists with the valley vegetation in species groups W and AC. Twenty-one taxa of conservation value are part of the association, of which one is restricted to it (Table 15). There are 13 SCPE endemics, seven near-endemics and two Red Data List species. The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this sub-association is 39, with the total number of plant species being a minimum of 122 taxa (20 releves) (Table 16).

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2.1 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis chloretosum virgatae

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 291 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This sub-association is tall, open woodland of the peripheral hills running along the western borders of the Centre. It occurs on the midslopes of the Thaba

Sekhukhune and its associated foothills on northern and eastern aspects. The substrate is granofire and ferro gabbro, which give rise to Glenrosa form soils. The soil surface is covered by 30-40% rock, of an average size of 500-600 mm in diameter (Table 16). Slope of the habitat is moderately steep, usually 7-9°.

Diagnostic and dominantlprominent taxa.

Diagnostic speCies are represented by species group E (Table 14). Diagnostic herbs include Indigo/era holubii, Justicia odora and

Vigna unguiculata. Acacia nigrescens, Bridelia mollis, Grewia monticola, May tenus senegalensis, Peltophorum africanum

and Strychnos madagascariensis are the diagnostis woody species. Aristida bipartifa, Chloris virgata, Eragrostis rigidior and Pogonarthria

squarrosa

are the diagnostic grasses. The sub-association is dominated by small trees/shrubs of which Acacia ataxacantha, Combretum apiculatum,

C.

molle, Dombeya rotundifolia,

Kirkia wilmsii, Tinnea rhodesiana

and Triaspis glaucophylla, are the most dominant.

Conspicuous succulents are Aloe castanea and A. marlothii. Dominant grasses include

Artstida canescens, Dtheteropogon amplectens, Enneapogon scoparius, Sporobolus stapfianus

and Themeda triandra.

Notes on .floristic diversity.

It is doubtful whether this sub-association belongs with either association 1 or 2. This sub-association was included into association 2 on grounds of

TWINSP AN. The community has a floristic identity with association 1 in species group G, and association 2 in species group D (Table 14). It is, however, excluded from association 2 in species groups Rand S. Six taxa are of conservation significance-together with subassociation 1.2 the lowest number recorded for the paper. Three SCPE endemics, three near-endemics (both of the lowest numbers for the paper) and one Red Data List taxon,

Rhus sekhukhuniensis,

are found in this sub-association (Table 15). No taxa with

163

conservation status are restricted to it. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 36, with the total number for this variant being 55 (four releves) (Table 16).

2.2 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis grewietosum flavescentis sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 271 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This sub-association represents tall, open woodland with a well developed grass layer, of northern, southern and western aspects. The habitat is mostly restricted to pyroxenite, anorthosite and magnetite hills, where the grasslands of the Leolo and Roossenekal Subcentres meet the bushveld of the Steelpoort Subcentre (Siebert

et al.

2002a). It occurs on midslopes and scarps, on ortic A-horizon and lithocutanic B-horizon soils of the Glenrosa and Mispah forms, as well as patches of pedocutanic soils types. It lies on gently sloped areas (3_5°). Rock cover on the surface is 20-30%, with rocks reaching a medium size of 0.4-1 m in diameter (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. No diagnostic species occur in this subassociation; it is characterised by the absence of the diagnostic species presented for subassociation 2.1 in species group F (Table 14). Dominant herbaceous taxa include the forbs

Barleria saxatilis, Leucas capensis, Monechma divaricatum, Orthosiphon fruticosus and

Petalidium oblongifolium. Dominant woody taxa include Acacia senegal var. leiorachis,

Brachylaena ilicifolia, Grewia flavescens, Jasminum multipartitum and Terminalia

prunoides. Dominant grasses are Aristida canescens, Enneapogon scoparius, Sporobolus

stapfianus and Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity. The association has a grassland affinity with the

Roossenekal Subcentre that is not obvious in Table 14. Species group G (Table 14) shows the relationship with association 1. Six SCPE endemics and six near -endemics were recorded in this sub-association (Table 15). Of its 12 taxa of conservation value, only one, a form of Bauhinia tomentosa, is restricted to it. This is the only sub-association in the study area with no Red Data List taxa present. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 34. It has a total number of78 plant taxa (four releves) (Table 16).

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2.3 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis hrachylaenetosum ilicifoliae sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 156 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This sub-association represents shorter open woodlands of hill slopes in the Steelpoort River Valley where it is restricted to southern aspects. It prefers midslopes and scarps of norite, pyroxenite and anorthosite hills with a moderate to steep slope (5-

]20).

It occurs on litho sols of the Mispah and Glenrosa forms. Approximately 35-60% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with a medium size of 0.4-1 m in diameter (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Characteristic species are represented by species group H (Table 14). The diagnostic species found in this variant are predominantly herbaceous, namely

Dolichos trilobus, Dyschoriste fischeri, Euryops transvaalensis,

Felicia clavipilosa, Indigofera lydenburgensis and the undescribed taxon, Stylochaeton sp.

(Siebert

J

332). The only diagnostic woody species is Berchemia zeyheri. Other conspicuous woody species are Acacia senegal var. leiorachis, Brachylaena ilicifolia,

Diospyros lycioides subsp. nitens, Dombeya rotundifolia, Grewia flava, Ormocarpum

kirkii, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Vitex obovata subsp. wilmsii. Dominant grasses include

Aristida congesta, Enneapogon scoparius, Eragrostis curvula, Panicum deustum,

P. maximum and Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity. Floristic affinities for the sub-association are the same as for the association. However, in addition, it shows a floristic affinity with associations 4 and 5 in species group W (Table 14). Eleven SCPE endemics, seven SCPE near-endemics and one

Red Data List species,

Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, are found in this sub-association

(Table IS). Of its 18 taxa of conservation value, not one is restricted to the sub-association.

The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 42, which is the highest average in this paper (Table 16). It also has the second highest total number of plant taxa of all the sub-associations, namely 122 (six releves) (Table 16).

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2.4 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis commiphoretosum mollis

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: re1evll 249 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This vegetation type is tall woodland, dominated by herbs, and associated with scarps on all aspects of exposed norite, pyroxenite and anorthosite hills in the Steelpoort River Valley. The sub-association occurs on soils of the Mispah form. It lies on relatively steep sloped areas (9-15°). Rock cover of the surface is high, between 45 and

75%, with a relatively large average rock diameter between 0.5-\.5 m (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Diagnostic species for this sub-association are listed in species group I (Table 14). Diagnostic trees/shrubs are

Commiphora mollis

and

Sterculia rogersii,

and diagnostic forbs are

Clerodendrum ternatum

and

Ipomoea magnusiana.

No diagnostic grasses occur. Prominent small trees/shrubs for this vegetation unit are

Acacia senegal

var.

leiorachis, Combretum apiculatum, Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Jasminum multipartitum, Kirkia wilmsii

and

Terminalia prunoides.

Enneapogon scoparius, Heteropogon contortus, Panicum deustum

and

Themeda triandra

dominate the grass layer. The herbaceous layer is prominent and includes species such as

Asparagus laricinus, Chaetacanthus costatus, Commelina africana, Jatropha latifolia,

Justicia protracta, Psiadia punctulata

and

Xerophyta retinervis.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Floristic affinities for the sub-association are the same as for the association. However, in addition, it shows a floristic affinity with associations 4 and 5 in species group W (Table 14). Fifteen plant taxa with conservation value are part of this sub-association, of which eight are SCPE endemics, seven are SCPE near-endemics and one is a Red Data List taxon (Table 15). No taxa with conservation value are restricted to the sub-association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 40, with the total number of plant species being 99 (six re1evlls) (Table 16).

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3. Phyllantho glaucophyllae-Brachylaenetum ilicifoli

ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 175 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This is typical intra-zonal short woodland on exposed rocks of norite, pyroxenite and anorthosite. This vegetation anomaly occurs on mid slopes and crests of undulating hills. The habitat has a rather variable slope of 7-12°, restricted to mostly southern aspects. Soils are typical of the Glenrosa form. Average rock diameter is 0.1-

1. 5 m and it covers 30-70% ofthe soil surface (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Species group J, K and Q (Table 14) contains the characteristic species for this association, with no species shared exclusively between the sub-associations. Therefore the diagnostic species will be listed under each of the sub-associations. Dominant taxa of the association include the trees/shrubs

Brachylaena ilic!folia, Diospyros lycioides

subsp.

nitens, Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Euclea

sp.

(Siebert

934),

Rhus keettii, Tinnea rhodesiana

and

Vitex obovata

subsp.

wilmsii.

Dominant forbs are also frequent and include

Asparagus suaveolens, Berkheya insignis

(form),

Gnidia caffra

(form),

Orthosiphon fruticosus

and

Phyllanthus glaucophylla. Pellaea calomelanos

is a common fern in the association. Abundant grasses are

Brachiaria serrata, Setaria sphacelata, Tristachya leucothrix,

and especially

Heteropogon contortus

and

Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity.

This association is floristically related to both associations 2 and 4 in species groups D and Q (Table 14). It is debateable whether these associations exist, and it is speculated that they represent ecotones between the

Enneapogono scoparii-

Acacietum leiorachis

and

Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis.

Of the 20 taxa of conservation value in this association, 13 are SCPE endemics and seven SCPE nearendemics, of which two are Red Data List taxa (Table 15). The Red Data List taxa,

Elephantorrhiza praetermissa

and

Jamesbrittenia macrantha,

are present in both subassociations. No taxa of conservation value are restricted to the association only. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 36. The total number of plant species for this association is a minimum of71 (12 releves) (Table 16).

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3.1 Phyllantho glaucophyllaeBrachylaenetum ilicifoli setarietosum sphacelatae sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 171 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This is woodland with a well-developed grass layer on midslopes of southern aspects. It occurs on hills of pyroxenite, norite and anorthosite. Soils are of the

Glenrosa form (ortic A-horizon) and are underlain by rock. The soil surface is amply covered by 40-70% rock, of a relatively large average size of 0.5-1.5 m in diameter (Table

16). Slope of the habitat is usually steep and average 7-12°.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group J (Table 14). The community is characterised by diagnostic species, such as the forb Barleria lancifolia, the succulent Aloe verecunda, and the grasses Hyparrhenia

hirta and Setaria lindenbergiana. Dominant woody species are Brachylaena ilicifolia,

Combretum apiculatum, Hippobromus pauciflorus, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Vitex

obovata subsp. wilmsii. Themeda triandra and Setaria sphacelata are the most dominant grasses, with other conspicuous grasses including

Brachiaria serrata, Heteropogon

contortus and Tristachya leucothrix. Prominent forbs are Barleria saxatilis, Justicia

protracta, Leucas capensis, Orthosiphon fruticosus and Phyllanthus glaucophylla.

Notes on floristic diversity. The community has a floristic affinity with associations 2 and 4 (Table 14). Ten SCPE endemics, six near-endemics and two Red Data List taxa are found in this sub-association (Table 15). Altogether it has 16 taxa of conservation value of which none are restricted to the sub-association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 40, with the total number for this variant being 71 (four releves) (Table 16).

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3.2 Phyllantho glaucophyllae-Brachylaenetum ilicifoli brachiarietosum serratae sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 124 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This sub-association represents short woodlands on the crests or midslopes of pyroxenite, norite and anorthosite hills. It usually occurs on soils of the

Glenrosa form. The habitat lies on relatively level sloped areas. Rock cover on the surface is

30--40%, with rocks reaching an average size of 100-300 mm in diameter (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominantlprominent taxa. Diagnostic species are presented in species group K (Table 14). Diagnostic herbaceous taxa include forbs such as

Helichrysum

harveyanum, Hermannia boraginiflora, Thesium magalismontanum, and the fern-ally,

Selaginella dregei. The tree, Acacia caffra, is the diagnostic woody species. No diagnostic grasses occur. Other important dominant taxa are small trees/shrubs such as

Brachylaena

ilicifolia, Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Grewia vernicosa, Tinnea rhodesiana and Vitex

obovata subsp. wilmsii, and the suffiutex Euclea sp. (Siebert 934). Grasses such as

Brachiaria serrata, Enneapogon scoparius, Heteropogon contortus, Themeda triandra and

Tristachya leucothrix are the most dominant in the sub-association. Berkheya insignis,

Justicia protracta, Kyphocarpa angnstifolia, Phyllanthus glaucophylla, Rhynchosia

spectabilis and Tephrosia purpurea are the prominent forbs.

Notes on floristic diversity. This sub-association has a floristic link with association 4

(Table 14). Eleven SCPE endemics, six near-endemics and two Red Data List taxa are found in this sub-association (Table IS). There are 17 taxa of conservation value in this subassociation, with none of these restricted to it. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 35, with a total number of 60 plant taxa (five releves) (Table 16).

4. Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 169 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This association represents open tall woodlands on cool, predominantly southernly aspects of ferrogabbro, norite, pyroxenite and anorthosite hills.

It

169

occurs on midslopes and scarps on clay lithosols of the Glenrosa and Mispah forms.

It lies on relatively steep sloped areas (5-18°). Rock cover on the surface is average, between 25-

60%, with rocks reaching a large average size of 0.5-1.5 m in diameter (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are presented in species group L (Table 14). Diagnostic herbaceous taxa include forbs such as Gerbera ambigua and Senecio scitus. Diagnostic woody species are the trees Cussonia transvaalensis and

Faurea saligna, and the suffiutex Gymnosporia sp. nov. B (Van Wyk 13052). Other important dominant taxa are small trees/shrubs, namely Acacia ataxacantha, Catha edulis,

Diospyros lycioides subsp. nitens, Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Rhoicissus tridentata and

Vitex obovata subsp. wilmsii. Grasses dominate the association, especially Heteropogon

contortus, Setaria sphacelata, Themeda triandra and Tristachya leucothrix. Prominent forbs are Berkheya insignis, Orthosiphon jruticosus, Rhynchosia spectabilis, Senecio

latifolius and the fern Pellaea calomelanos.

Notes on floristic diversity. The association has a strong link with association 3 in species group R and associations 2 and 5 in species group W (Table 14). Thirty taxa of conservation value are part of this association, the highest number recorded for any of the associations and sub-associations in the study area. Eighteen SePE endemics, 11 SePE near-endemics and six Red Data List taxa are found in this association (Table 15). Of its 30 taxa of conservation value, four taxa are restricted to it. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 41, with a minimum total number of 130 plant taxa (17 releves) (Table 16).

4.1

Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis myrothamnetosum flabellifolius

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 237 (holotypus)

Environmental data. In the SePE this sub-association represents a wooded herbland on

Glenrosa form soils. The habitat is found on midslopes and crests of undulating pyroxenite, norite and anorthosite hills (Table 16). Slope has an inclination to be level, but can be up to

170

5°. Southernly aspects are the norm. Rock cover percentage is average and varies from 25-

60% and rock size between 300-500 mm in diameter (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Species group M contains the characteristic species for this sub-association (Table 14), with diagnostic species including herbaceous taxa, namely the grass

Eragrostis pseudnsclerantha,

the forbs

l'vfyrothamnus flabellifolius,

Oldenlandia herbacea

and

Xerophyta villosa,

and the fern

Ceterach cordatum.

Other prominent taxa include the grasses

Elionurus muticus, Enneapogon scoparius

and

Heteropogon scoparius,

the forbs

Jamesbrittenia macrantha, Orthosiphon fruticosus

and

Senecio latifolius,

the succulents

Aloe cryptopoda

and

Euphorbia schinzii,

and the woody species

Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Ozoroa sphaerocarpa, Rhus keetii

and

Vitex obovata

subsp_

wilmsii.

Notes on floristic diversity.

This sub-association follows the floristic link of the association (Table 14). Ten SCPE endemics, five near-endemics and two Red Data List taxa are present in this sub-association (Table 15). There are 15 taxa of conservation value in this sub-association, with none of these restricted to it. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 32, with a total number of 63 plant taxa (three releves)

(Table 16).

4.2 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis melinetosum nerviglumis

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 208 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This sub-association is open, sparse woodland of ferrogabbro and pyroxenite hills, on midslopes and scarps of southern aspects. It occurs on red clay soils of the Glenrosa and Mispah forms. The soil surface is covered by 30-{)0% rock, which is of a large average size of 0.5-1 m in diameter (Table 16). Slope of the habitat is usually steep, between 7-15°.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Diagnostic species are represented by species group N (Table 14). The community is characterised by diagnostic forbs such as

171

Barleria wilmsiana, Drimiopsis atropurpurea, Plectranthus xerophilus

and

Schistostephium heptalobum. Melinis nerviglumis

is the diagnostic grass. No diagnostic woody species occur. Dominant woody species are the shrubs

Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Pavella

sp. nov. and

Rhoicissus tridentata,

and the small trees

Acacia ataxacantha, Faurea saligna

and

Vitex obovata

subsp.

wilmsii.

Important conspicuous grasses include

Andropogon schirensis, Diheteropogon amplectens, Heteropogon contortus, Tristachya leucothrix

and

Themeda triandra.

Abundant forbs in the subassociation are

Commelina africana, Senecio latijolills, Sphedamnocarplls prllriens

and the fern

Pellaea calomelanos.

Notes on floristic diversify.

The sub-association shows the same floristic relationships as the association (Table 14). This plant community has the highest conservation value of all the sub-associations in the study area. The highest number of SCPE endemics, namely 15, the highest number of SCPE near-endemics, namely 10, and the highest number of Red

Data List taxa, namely five, are found in this sub-association (Table 15). Of its 25 taxa of conservation value, the highest recorded for the sub-associations, one taxon, the nearendemic

Plectranthus xerophillls,

is restricted to it. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 42, together with sub-association 2.3 the highest average recorded in this study (Table 16). The total number of plant taxa recorded for this subassociation is 130 (six releves) (Table 16), also the highest recorded in the study area ..

4.3 Tristachyo lellcothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis argylobietosllm wilmsii

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 169 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

The sub-association is short woodland with a well developed grass layer on the scarps of undulating norite, pyroxenite and anorthosite hills.

It lies on southfacing steep slopes of 7-18°. Soils are characteristically a red clay soil of the Mispah form.

Approximately 40-60% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with a large average size of

0.5-1 m in diameter (Table 16).

172

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. No diagnostic species represent this subassociation. However, species group 0 contains the characteristic species of the community, with the sub-association being recognised due to the absence of the taxa in species group N

(Table 14). Important trees/shrubs of the association are

Cussonia transvaalensis,

Diospyros lycioides subsp. nitens, Elephantorrhiza praetermissa, Pavetta sp. nov.,

Rhoicissus tridentata, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Vitex obovata subsp. wilmsii.

Prominent forbs are Argyrolobium wilmsii, Berkheya insignis, Orthosiphon jruticosus and the fern

Pellaea calomelanos. Enneapogon scoparius, Heteropogon contortus, Setaria

sphacelata, Themeda triandra and Tristachya leucothrix are the most abundant grasses.

Notes on floristic diversity. The sub-association shows the same floristic relationships as the association. It has a strong floristic link with sub-association 4.1 in species group 0

(Table 14). Twenty-three taxa of conservation value occur in this sub-asociation, the second highest number in the study area (Table 15). These are 14 SCPE endemics, second highest for the study, eight SCPE near-endemics and four Red Data List taxa, also the second highest number for the study (Table 15). One plant taxon with conservation value is restricted to it, namely

Scilla natalensis, a species classified as Vulnerable in the Free State and KwaZulu-Natal. The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this sub-association is 41, with the total number of plant species being 96 taxa (seven releves)

(Table 16).

4.4 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis combretetosum zeyheri sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 235 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This vegetation type is tall open woodland of cool south and east slopes of pyroxenite hills. It lies on moderately sloped midslopes and scarps (5-9°). The community is restricted to soils of the Glenrosa form. Approximately 30-45% of the soil surface is covered by rocks, with a large average diameter of 0.5-1.5 m (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group P (Table 14). Only one grass species,

Setaria incrassata, is diagnostic of the

173

sub-association. Nidorella hottentotica and Solanum panduriforme are the diagnostic forbs, and Combretum zeyheri and Elaeodendron transvaalensis the diagnostic trees. Prominent trees of the sub-association are Combretum apiculatum, C. molle, Cussonia transvaalensis,

Dio~pyros

lycioides subsp. nitens, Dombeya rotund!folia and Vitex obovata subsp. wilmsii.

Dominant herbaceous taxa include the forbs

Asparagus suaveolens, Rhynchosia spectabilis

and Senecio latifolius, and the grasses Heteropogon contortus, Themeda triandra and

Tristachya leucothrix.

Notes on floristic diversity. The sub-association shows the same floristic relationships as the association. Sixteen plant taxa with conservation value occur in this sub-association and comprise ten SCPE endemics, six SCPE near-endemics and two Red Data List taxa

(Table 15). No plant taxon with conservation value is restricted to it. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 41 and the total number of plant species for this sub-association is 95 (four releves) (Table 16).

II. Loudetia simplex-Combretum hereroense community of valleys

Emironmental data. In the SCPE this alliance is characterised by open bushveld anomalies on undulating footslopes and valleys, which forms an extensive mosaic with the typical vegetation of such areas, namely microphyllous thomveld. It is restricted to deep sandy to loam soils. It occurs on varying slopes of 1-50 on all aspects. Rocks can cover 30-65% of the soil surface and are an average diameter of 100-400 mm (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Species group AE contains the diagnostic species for this alliance, which includes the tree Bolusanthus speciosus, the grasses

Andropogon chinensis, Aristida adscensionis, Elionurus muticus and Loudetia simplex and forbs such as Aloe burgersjortensis, Dicoma gerrardii and Rhynchosia komatiensis (Table

14). Other prominent species of the alliance include the shrubs

Combretum hereroense,

Rhus keetii and Tinnea rhod.esiana, with the ground layer dominated by the grasses

Diheteropogon amplectens and Heteropogon contortus.

174

Notes on floristic diversity. This alliance shows several floristic relationships with the other alliance, hence indicating that it forms part of the Open Mountain Bushveld (Table

14). The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this alliance is approximately 32, with the total number of plant species being a minimum of 98 taxa (36 releves) (Table 16). Thirty-seven taxa of conservation value are part of the alliance, comprising 21 SCPE endemics, 16 SCPE near-endemics and seven Red Data List taxa, of which 13 are restricted to it (Table IS).

5. Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauciflori ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 133 (holotypus)

Environmental data. Association on alluvium and scattered patches of exposed pyroxenite of valleys and footslopes. This vegetation type is characteristic of the large river valleys of the SCPE. It occurs predominantly as scattered thickets in dongas or eroded areas. Soils are sandy (Hutton form) or have a pedocutanic B-horizon (Bonheim and Valsrivier form). The habitat occurs on all aspects and is gently sloped (I_3°). Approximately 10-50(-80)% of the soil surface is covered by stones with a relatively large average diameter of 100-

350 mm (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Diagnostic species are represented in species group T (Table 14). The vegetation unit is dominated by trees and shrubs, with diagnostic woody species including Acacia karrao, Mimusops zeyheri and Schotia brachypetala.

Eragrostis lehmanniana is the only diagnostic grass. No forbs are diagnostic of the association. Prominent plant taxa of the association include the forbs

Polygala hottentotta

and Psiadia punctulata, the grasses Brachiaria serrata, Diheteropogon amplectens,

Loudetia simplex and Panicum deustum, and the woody species Cassine aethiopica,

Combretum hereroense, Hippobromus pauciflorus and Tinnea rhodesiana.

Notes on floristic diversity. A strong floristic affinity exists with the mountain bushve1d of the region in species group W (Table 14), due to the suitable microhabitats created by the dongas. This association has 24 plant taxa with conservation value, the third highest of all the associations. Of these 15 are SCPE endemics, nine SCPE near-endemics and two are

175

Red Data List taxa (Table IS). One taxon is restricted to the association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 26, with the total number of plant species being a minimum of 60 taxa (11 releves) (Table 16).

5.1 Eragrostio lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauciflori rhoetosum batophyllae

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 252 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

The vegetation type is a scattered thicket on the slopes of dongas in the large valleys to the east of the Leolo Mountains.

It occurs on no specific aspect and these are gently sloped (I-3°).

It is found predominantly on deep (> I 000 mm) soils of the

Bonheim and Valsrivier forms. A low rock cover of approximately 10-20% characterise the soil surface, with an average size of 100-150 mm in diameter (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Characteristic species are presented

In species group U (Table 14). There are no diagnostic herbaceous species for this subassociation.

Catha transvaalensis, Dodonaea angustifolia, Olea europaea

and

Rhus batophylla

are the diagnostic trees/shrubs.

Bolusanthus speciosus, Brachylaena ilicifolia,

Combretum hereroense

and

Hippobromus pauciflorus

are the dominant trees,

Psiadia punctulata

and

Rhynchosia komatiensis

the prominent forbs, and

Andropogon chinensis,

Aristida adscensionis, Diheteropogon amplectens, Eragrostis lehmanniana

and

Panicum deustum

the most abundant grasses.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Floristic relationships are the same as for the association.

There are ten plant taxa of conservation value in this sub-association (Table 15), namely eight SCPE endemics, two SCPE near-endemics (together with sub-association 1.2 the lowest number recorded in the study) and one Red Data List taxon,

Rhus batophylla.

None of these taxa are restricted to the sub-association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this sub-association is 25, with the total number of plant species being 37 taxa (five releves) (Table 16). Both these values are the second lowest numbers recorded during the study.

176

5.2 Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauciflori sorgetosum bicoloris

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 137 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This is scattered thicket of eroded sandy and clay soils. It lies in gently sloped valleys of 1-3 0 on all aspects. The substrate is alluvium and soils are predominantly of the Hutton and Bonheim forms. Approximately 10-50% of the soil surface is covered by large rocks, with a diameter of 100-250 mm (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Diagnostic species are represented by species group V (Table 14). Small trees/shrubs are diagnostic of this community, namely

Acacia tortilis, Carissa bispinosa, Euclea divinorum, Rhus engleri

and

Ximenia americana.

No diagnostic herbs occur, but

Panicum natalense

and

Sorghum bicolour

are the diagnostic grasses. Other taxa of importance are the grasses

Brachiaria serrata,

Diheteropogon amplectens, Heteropogon contortus, Loudetia simplex, Panicum deustum

and

Themeda triandra.

The conspicuous forbs are the succulent

Aloe burgersfortensis,

and the herbaceous

Dicoma gerrardii, Petalidium oblongifolium

and

Psiadia punctulata.

Most abundant small trees/shrubs are

Balanites maughamii, Bolusanthus speciosus, Combretum hereroense

and

Terminalia prunoides.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Floristic relationships are the same as for the association.

There are 19 taxa of conservation value in this sub-association, namely II SCPE endemics, eight SCPE near-endemics and one Red Data List taxon (Table 15). One taxon with conservation value, namely the near -endemic

Rhus engleri

(common on the adjacent

Springbok Flats) is restricted to it. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 16, with the total number of plant species being 20 taxa (three releves) (Table 16).

Both these values are the lowest recorded for this major vegetation type.

177

5.3 Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum pauciflori elionuretosum mutici sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 332 (holotypus)

Environmental data. In the SCPE this sub-association represents dense, tall thicket. It is common on southerly and westerly aspects of footslopes merging into valleys. The habitat is characterised by erosion on alluvium and exposed layers of pyroxenite rock. Average rock diameter is approximately 100-350 mm, covering a high percentage (40-80%) of soil surface (Table 16).

It is characterised by gentle slopes

(1-3°). Soil types are characterised as a red apedale B-horizon under an ortic A-horizon, and is classified as the Hutton form

(Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. There are no diagnostic species for this subassociation. The community is recognised on grounds of the absence of species from species groups U and V (Table 14), which are diagnostic for the other two sub-associations of the association. Prominent plant taxa include the woody species

Acacia karroo, Combretum

hereroense, Euclea crispa, Grewia vernicosa and Tinnea rhodesiana. Conspicuous forbs are Commelina africana, Dicoma gerrardii and Indigf?fera hi/aris. Aristida congesta,

Brachiaria serrata, Elionurus muticus, Heteropogon contortus, Loudetia simplex and

Panicum deustum are the most abundant grasses.

Notes on floristic diversity. Floristic relationships are the same as for the association.

There are 11 taxa with conservation value occurring in the association, namely seven SCPE endemics, four SCPE near-endemic and one Red Data List taxon (Table 15). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 39, with the total number of plant species being 60 taxa (three releves) (Table 16).

6. Aristido rhiniochloo-Gnidietum polycepha/ae ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 387 (holotypus)

Environmental data. This association represents disturbed valley thomveld. It is associated with the areas between rural settlements and the associated abandoned fields.

It is a

178

vegetation unit on predominantly red Hutton soils clay soils, which are interspersed with areas of the Bonheim form. This community occurs in large river valleys that are heavily disturbed by agriculture, mining and rural settlement. The slope is more or less level

(10).

Rock cover percentage varies from 30 to 40% and average rock diameter is from salSa mm (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Species group X contains the diagnostic species for this association (Table 14). Trees are diagnostic of the sub-association, namely the succulents Agave sisalana (an alien) and Euphorbia tirucalli, and the small tree/shrubs

Acacia nilotica, Nuxia gracilis and Rhus sekhukhuniensis. Diagnostic forbs include

Chascmmm hederaceum, Geigeria burkei, Gnidia polycephala and Pechuel-Loeschea

leubnitzia. Aristido rhiniochloa, Eragrostis capensis, Stipagrostis hirtigluma var. patula and

Urochloa panicoides are the diagnostic grasses. Other important dominant taxa include the woody species

Bolusanthus speciosus, Combre/um hereroense, Euclea crispa, Grewia

vernicosa, Rhus keetii and the suffrutex Euclea sp. (Siebert 934). Prominent forbs are the succulent Aloe cryptopodo, and the herbaceous Dicoma gerrardii, Jamesbrittenia sp. (Van

Wyk 13026), Ledebouria marginata and Polygala sp. (Siebert 449).

Notes on floristic diversity. A floristic link exists with association 7 in species group AB and other associations in species groups AF and AG (Table 14). There are 21 taxa with conservation value occurring in this association, namely 12 SCPE endemics, nine SCPE near-endemics and four Red Data List taxa (Table 15). Of these three are restricted to it, namely the Endangered endemic

Euphorbia barnard

and the disjunct near-endemics

Gnidia polycephala and Nuxia gracilis (Insufficiently Known Red Data List species). The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 35, and the total number of plant species for this association is 98 (four releves) (Table 16).

7. Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 218 (holotypus)

Environmental dota. This vegetation type is open shrub lands in the valleys between mountains. The habitat is predominantly underlain by alluvium, as well as by norite,

179

pyroxenite and magnetite. It lies on gentle slopes of 1-5°, on all aspects. Soils are predominantly the Valsrivier form, but are interspersed with patches of either the Bonheim or Mispah forms. Soil surface cover by rock is average for the study area, 10-65%, with a diameter averaging between 100-500 mm (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominantlprominent taxa.

The diagnostic species are represented by species group Y (Table 14), with the woody species,

Euclea linearis,

dominating the association. The following forbs are diagnostic,

Evolvulus alsinoides, Giegeria ornativa,

Helichrysum uninervium, Jamesbrittenia burkeana, Kohautia caespitosa, Pterothrix spinescens

and

Seddera capensis.

There are no diagnostic grasses.

Rhus keetii, Tinnea rhodesiana

and

Vitex obovata

subsp.

wilmsii

are other prominent shrubs of the association.

Important dominant grasses include

Andropogn chinensis, Aristida canescens,

Diheteropogon amplectens, Loudetia simplex

and

Themeda triandra.

Common forbs are

Dicoma gerrardii, Indigojera hilaris

and

Rhynchosia komatiensis.

Notes on floristic diversity.

The association shows a slight floristic link with association

6 in species group AB (Table 14). This association has the second highest number of taxa with conservation status, namely 26. Of these 15 are SCPE endemics, 11 SCPE nearendemics and four Red Data List taxa (Table 15). Three taxa of conservation value are restricted to the association, specifically the near-endemic

Helichrysum uninervium

and the biogeographically significant disjunct

Pterothrix spinescens.

The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 35, with the total number for this association being a minimum of85 plant taxa (17 releves) (Table 16).

7.1 Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis diheteropogonetosum amplectentis

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 146 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This sub-association is an open shrubland on all aspects of footslopes and valleys in the Steelpoort River Valley. It is associated with alluvium on norite and pyroxenite substrates. The habitat is relatively level, although undulating, with a gentle slope of 1-3

0.

Approximately 10-40% of the soil surface is covered by rocks with an

180

average diameter of 100-300 mm (Table 16). A sandy layer intersperse with the Bonheim and Valsrivier soil forms.

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa. Diagnostic species are represented by species group Z (Table 14). The vegetation unit is dominated by diagnostic herbaceous species, namely the succulents Euphorbia enormis and F ockea angustifolia, and the forbs

Anthospermum rigidum, Blepharis saxatilis, Cleome angustifolia, Crabbea angustifolia

and Laggera decurrens. Other conspicuous taxa are the small trees/shrubs Combretum

hereroense, Euclea linearis, Rhus keetii and Tinnea rhodesiana, the forbs Berkheya

insignis, Blepharis subvolubilis, Dicoma gerrardii, Evolvulus alsinoides and Petalidium

oblongifolium, and the grasses Andropogon chinensis, Aristida canescens, Diheteropogon

amplectens, Loudetia simp/ex and Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity. Floristic affinities are the same as for the association. This sub-association has, together with sub-association 4.3 the second highest number of taxa with a conservation status, namely 23. This comprises 13 SCPE endemics, 10 SCPE nearendemics and three Red Data List taxa (Table 15). None of these taxa are restricted to the sub-association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 37, with the total number of plant species being 85 (nine releves) (Table 16).

7.2 Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis heteropogonetosum contorti sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 218 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

In

the SCPE this sub-association is an open shrubland of undulating, eroded surfaces of footslopes and valleys. The habitat is characterised by alluvium and patches of exposed norite and magnetite rocks, hence the occurrence of the soil forms

Valsrivier (pedocutanic B-horizon) and Mispah (hard rock). It occurs on all aspects and gentle slopes of 1_5°. Rock cover and average size are an average 50-{)5% of the soil surface and 200--400 mm in diameter, respectively (Table 16).

181

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Species group AA contains the diagnostic species for this sub-association, which are characterised by the suffiutex Rhus wilmsii

(Table 14). Diagnostic herbaceous taxa include the sedge Bulbostylis burchellii, and the forbs Corchorus asplenifolius, Lotononis calycina, L. wilmsii and Striga elegans. Other prominent species of the sub-association include the shrubs Combretum hereroense, Grewia

vernicosa

and Tinnea rhodesiana, the forbs Dicoma gerrardii and Senecio latifolius, and the grasses Aristida canescens, Diheteropogon amplectens, Loudetia simplex and Themeda

triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Floristic affinities are the same as for the association.

Twenty-one taxa of conservation value are part of this sub-association, of which one, Rhus

wilmsii,

the SCPE near -endemic, Insufficiently Known Red Data List taxon, is restricted to it. Of these 13 are SCPE endemics, eight are SCPE near-endemics and three are Red Data

List taxa (Table 15). The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this sub-association is 30, with the total number of plant species being 73 taxa (four releves)

(Table 16).

7.3 Loudetio

simplicis~Eucleetum

linearis andropogonetosum chinensis

sub-ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 307 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

This sub-association represents open shrub lands, of undulating landscapes on footslopes and valleys, dominated by a well-developed grass layer. Mostly restricted to freely drained soils on mostly westerly and southerly aspects, it prefers alluvium substrates characterised by patches of norite and pyroxenite (with no soils) exposed by natural erosion. Slopes are gentle

(1~3°).

It occurs on soils of the Valsrivier form. Rocks cover approximately

30~50% of the soil surface, with a diameter averaging

300~500 mm (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

There are no diagnostic species for the subassociation. The diagnostic species for the association are the characteristic species for this sub-association in the SCPE. Conspicuous forbs of the sub-association are Dicoma

182

gerrardii, Geigeria ornativa

and

Seddera capensis.

Dominant woody speCies include

Euclea linearis, Tinnea rhodesiana

and

Vitex obovata

subsp.

wilmsii.

The sub-association is dominated by the following grasses,

Andropogon chinensis, Aristida adscensionis, A. canescens, Elionurus muticus, Fingerhuthia africana, Loudetia simplex

and

Themeda triandra.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Floristic affinities arc the same as for the association. Of the

19 taxa of conservation value in this sub-association, 11 are SCPE endemics, eight are

SCPE near-endemics and three are Red Data List taxa (Table 15). Of these none are restricted to the sub-association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot is 34 and the total number of plant species for this sub-association is 85 (four releves)

(Table 16).

8. Petalidio oblongifolii-Raphionacmetum procumbentis

ass. nova hoc loco

Nomenclatural type: releve 284 (holotypus)

Environmental data.

The habitat is a scattered open shrubland of magnetite and ferrogabbro outcrops on mid slopes, footslopes and valleys. The community is usually encountered as patches amidst any of the communities discussed in this paper. It prefers southerly aspects, which are moderately sloped (1-7°), and is found predominantly on deep shallow soils of the Mispah and Glenrosa forms. A rock cover is average and approximately 30--50% of the soil surface, with a medium to small average size of 250--500 mm in diameter (Table 16).

Diagnostic and dominant/prominent taxa.

Characteristic species are presented in species group AD (Table 14). The diagnostic herbaceous species for this association are

Chlorophytum polyphyllum, Clerodendrum louwalbertsii, Gerbera jamesonii, Indigofera enormis, Ipomoea obscura, Kleinia longiflora, Limeum pterocarpum, Phyllanthus parvulus, Raphionacme procumbens

and

Ruellia cordata. Eragrostis superba

is the only dignostic grass. There are no diagnostic woody species.

Euclea crispa, Combretum hereroense

and

Grewia vernicosa

are the dominant small trees/shrubs,

Berkheya insignis,

Petalidium oblongifolium, Phyllanthus glaucophylla

and

Rhynchosia komatiensis

the

183

prominent forbs, and Diheteropogon amplectens and Themeda triandra the most abundant grasses.

Notes on floristic diversity.

Floristic relationships exist between this association and all the others of the study area and this is evident in species groups AF to AL (Table 14).

There are 19 plant taxa of conservation value in the association (Table 15), namely 11

SCPE endemics and eight SCPE near-endemics, of which one is a Red Data List taxon.

None of these taxa are restricted to the sub-association. The average number of species encountered per sample plot in this association is 36, with the total number of plant species being 84 taxa (four releves) (Table 16).

7.4 Vegetation key

A vegetation key is presented to facilitate plant community identification (Table 17). The definitions are broad indications of typical groups and should be seen as a guideline. A diagnostic characteristic of the vegetation or habitat is given, followed by the most diagnostic and visual species of a group. The first species is restricted to the specific group only, and the second is dominant in the group, but also occurs in other groups. Where one species is given, no species was restricted to the group only.

7.5 Ordination

On a larger scale the Open Mountain Bushveld is characterised by a naturally treedepauperated flora, dominated by a low diversity of small trees/shrubs and many taxa not typical for the region. On a smailier scale an extremely heterogeneous environment determines the plant communities within the Open Mountain Bushveld. A combination of many factors such as terrain type (valley or slope), soil structure (eroded areas or soil forms), heavy metal soils (anomalies) or anthropogenically altered areas (fields or mine dumps), affects the species composition of these plant communities. The ordination indicated the gradients caused by the soil structure.

184

The scatter diagram displays the distribution of rei eves along the first and second ordination axes (Figure 12). The vegetation units are represented as groups, their distribution on the scatter diagram corresponding with certain physical environmental conditions. The terrain type, and consequently soil character, determines a definite gradient that is depicted by both the first (eigen value

=

0.518) and second axis (eigen value

=

0453). Soil character influences the moisture availability and drainage. The gradient on the x-axis expresses moisture availability over the short term, where water can filter deep into the soils on the right (Hutton, Bonheim and V alsrivier) after precipitation. On the y-axis, the gradient indicates higher moisture availibity over the long term at the bottom of the graph, because carbonate horizons (Steendal) absorb water and apedale horizons (Hutton and

Bonheim) dry out quickly. Unlike the other soils, Valsrivier soils can retain water and make it available over a longer period, hence explaining its position at the bottom right of the diagram. The scatter diagram also indicates the slope gradient (undulating to level) on the first axis, which links with the soil type and structure. Both the first and second axis also exhibits a gradient with deep soils at the top or right and shallow soils at the bottom or left.

All these gradients correlate closely with each other and have a strong influence on the vegetation structure and species composition. The three most dominant and conspicuous taxa of each growth form (trees/shrubs/suffiutices, forbs/sedges and grasses) are given for each of the eight major vegetation types depicted in the scatter diagram (Table 18).

185

PROVINCE

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Figure 11 Extend of occurrence of the Open Mountain Bushveld of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism in the Northern Province and Mpuma!langa, South Africa.

186

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Ordination

axis 1

F igur e 1 2 R e l ative pos i tions of all th e re l eves a l ong th e fir st an d second axis of t he ordina t ion of th e Ope n Mountai n Bu s h ve l d of th e

Sekhukh un e l and Centre of P l an t En d e m ism. N umb e r s c o rr espond wi th th e p l an t communities in

T a bl e 14 .

4 50

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00

00

Table 13 Preferential species for each of the Open and Closed Mountain Bushveld types (figures represent the number of releves

(n) in which a species was recorded),

Spedes

Preferentials for Open Mountain Bushveld

Vitex obovata subsp, wilmsii

Tinnea rhodesiana

Brachylaena ilicifolia

Euclea crispa (fonn)

Themeda triandra

Preferentials for Closed Mountain Bushveld

Panicum deusturn

Dichrostachys cinerea

Terminalia prunioides

Boscia albitrunca

Grewia flava

Non-preferentials for Mountain Bushveld

Heteropogon contoT1us

Indigofera hilaris

Jasminum multipartitum

Corbichonia decumbens

Petalidtum oblongifolium

Open Busbveld (0

=

91)

24

14

24

6

4

67

55

44

40

70

50

22

19

20

21

OOled Bushveld (n

=

103)

4

12

4

3

35

73

56

58

36

34

50

23

18

23

27

Difference

49

42

34

30

30 o

63

43

40

37

35

3

6

'-D

-

00

Table 14 A phytosociological table of the Open Mountain Bushveld of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism.

R'I.,,~ number

Albn.::e

Allocliltlon

'pecles group A

Emaropof1on

maefOs/achys

Sclerw.rya bin..

HlbllCUI todd;!

Slylochllelon rletllr.",#

'pecie. group 8

A'p'faQulllkukuniensls

Bofh~h/o'

Insculptll

Dig~rla

art,nth,

Croton

~"yh.rlil

P,vettlleylesii

Asp.,.guslnl1icllws

HefTMlmii fIorilHlnde

Combl8tum p.frophl/um

I

, ,

1 3 1 3 9 \I 0 0 5 5 6 1 5 5 7 8 0 1 2 6 6 3 4 5 3 7 6 6 2 7

\I 0 6

, ,

,

4 3 0 1 3 3 6 6 6 0 4 6 8 o

2 3 9

6 7 5 7 7

, ,

, , , ,

8 8 II 0 2 4 4 8 9 9 0 8 6 1 2 8 1 5 5 0 0 " 1 8 8

3 4 0 3 6 7 1 7 2 3 5 1 9 1 2 6 4 8 4 6 8 0 2 3 9 9 9 1 4 3 4 5 6 5 5 7 1 9 6 5 8 9 4 8 4 7 9 3 8 0 2 9 8 5 9 6 3 2 2 9 2 3 7 1 2 5 7 8 7 3 7 4 6 3 3 9 0 1 & 8 1 5 0 1 4 1 7 2 4 4 7

, ,

· .

R • R

,

• , R

A R ,

R

·

.

,

R

,

,

R

,

R •

,

,

• •

R

, ,

, ,

·

I

I .

I I

7

,

7

,

,

'i"": ·

,

·

R •

.

R •

~

R

.

R i .

I .

I

I

.peclel group C

Senecio b.rbet1onicus

Rh/(Jozum obov.tum

Sporobo/us llfens

Sparoboius

io<;l.dor

ArtrtkJ. tr.nrvuJ.nris

Cynodon

d.~lon

Diorpyror Iycioldllr

ssp.

,,,rlt:

Rhus

flIJllin~"

H'rrUrygla II/bif/Q,.

VllnglJ."" infaurlll

Rhok:/sslJs to",.nfDlI

Spetln group D

AClcla rllnllg.1

VoIr.

llliofichi,

GnlwIa 1I.v.

LIIIJcu capllnslr

Artrtlda m.rldlon.ns

JUminIJm mullJp.rtJlum

B'I1IIn. ")I.,fin,

K.drodir folllidiuim.

R

SP.cies group E

Chloris virg."

Efll1rrntir rlgldior

Grewla

mon1Jcoll

Vigna ungIJ/culslll

MaytenIJI,.n"lIallln,;'

Brld.lilmoll;'

AClcla

niQra,C/lns

.~

• R

·

• A

·

R

R

• R ,

1 .

.

,

• R , ·

R

R •

· .

R •

R

R

·

·

• R •

R

R

• • R

R

.

R

1 1 + + • R •

·1 •

RR •

.

,

• R

.

+R+++++

.

R R • ,

..

.

.

,

R •

R R

R

R

·

,

.

RR R

, ,

• R

..

.

·

R R R R R • R R

1 1 + 1 ,

.

+

+ + +

• R

· ·

.

.

R •

R R

.

.

.

. .

R R

1 1 + R

1 + + R

.

R

R

. .

R

.

R

,

.

R R

.

1 .

,

..

1 .

1

,

.

,

,

·

·

. .

• R

R R

I

I

R

.

.

R R

......

'D o

Table 14 continued

~~"

Iteled number

Allanc. lub4ssocbltion

Ipec •• group E coni

Poltophorum Ifriclnum

JU8tk:ia odo,.

Arimd. blpartlJl

Pogonlrthri.

sqUfrron

Indigofen holubli

Sf1ychnol

mad.guc,rie",!"{$

Sporobo/us rmpfllfJu$

W./ftloria Indk:.

COmmiphofft

,frlca".

Mmochma dlVlne.tum

Aloe

rrnJrlothii

Species group GI

Dichrostachy,

cinerea

Gl'llwta fI.Vffrcens

Cro/J1ngflltis3i1m1s

, ,

1 3 3 3

, 9 () 0

5 5 6 7 5 5 7 8 0 1 2 8 8 3 4 5 3 7 6 8 2 7 9 0

/I o , ,

1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

4 3 0 1 3 3 6 6 6 0 4 8 8 o

2 3 B 6 7 5 7 7

, ,

,

, , ,

8 B \I 0

2 4 4 6 9 9 0 6 6 1 2 8 1 5 5 0 0 -4 1 B 8

6 3 2 2 9 2 3 7 1 2 5 7 8 7 3 7 4 6 3 3 9 ( ) 1 6 8 1 5 0 1 4 1 7 2 4 4 7

R •

R

3 4 0 3 1 1 7 1 7 2 3 5 7 9 1 2 8 4 8 4 6 8 0 2 3 9 9 9 1 4 3 4 5 6 5 5 7 7 9 6 5 8 9 4 8 4 7 9 3 8 0 2 1 1 6 5 9

I

2

2

,

2

2

2

,

2

,

.

2

,

I

2

,

.

R

+

A

+

R

R

.

R

R

..

R I

R , I

..

RR R

R

.

,

R + R +

I .

R

·

R •

·

R

R •

·

I •

R

.

.

+ +

.

.

R R

I .

R R

R • •

.

R

I

1 1

I .

• R

,

I .

I .

R R

R R

R

R

.

.

R

R R

5

,

RR

5

2

R , •

R

• • R

5

,

R

7

I

R

I I

R

I

I

7

2

7

,

.

.

R

R R

I .

Species group"

Fe/lcla c/lvipilou aaro;hemla zeyherl

Euryops

tra",VSIItt,.,}I

Dolil;hos triIobus

Dyschorista flscheri

S/yloch..etofl

611.

(SS 1332)

IfId~o,.,.lydefiburgensis

R

R R

..

R •

R

.

R • R R

R •

R

R R

• R

R R R R

R •

R

R

R

R

R

R

I

·

I .

I

R

R

R R

I

Species group I

COmmlphora moDis

St.,,,;;I!;;; '-(;~;;;"f;

Cleroderrdrum

!em.tum

!POrno.1t

""9f1us~fla

SPleies group J

Hypltrrllerria hllttt a.rlarilllllrrcifo/itt

Aloe ve,.currd.

Slttarillllrrdefibergl,rrlt

SPlcleS group K

S81119",ell, dfelJei

AClcill

cafInJ

Thesium I'fIIl9.llsmofi/irrrum

Hfmnlrflnl, bOfflginlfloffl

Helichry,um hltNey,rrum

R

I .

R

R

R

·

R

,

, ,

.. R ....

.

,

R • R

I

.

.~

R • R

R • R

R

·

R

R

.

~

I

.

· .

• R

R .. R ..

R .

R

I .

R R R .. R ..

R R R

.

R

R

R

R

R

I .

R R

,

• R R

A

R •

R

I

.....

Table 14 continued.

R."v' number

.Allan,..

Auoelation

Sub ... uocllollon

Sip'c.Igroup L

Gem.1lI .mblgua

SenKio

IC/Iu,

Fau,.,

1I11g"a

Gymnolpori.

Cuuonl.

sp.

(AW 13052) fR",vut.ns;,

'palli . . group M

Xeropb)iU vi/1m.

Myrothamnu, n.beUitolius

Calalllch

cord.rum

EIlIgro,tiS pnudolc/efl"tha

OIdanlllndlll

herbllel'

SPICIeI grDup N

Melmill "arviQlumis

Plee11llflfhus xarophllu$

Ba~,;,

wilmslll".

Drlm/opsl$ .lfopurplJru

Schisto,tephhlm heplalobum

3 4 0 3 6 7 1 1 2 3 5 7 9 1 2 6 4 8 4 6 8 0 2 3 9 9 9 1 4 3 4 5 6 5 5 7 1 9 6 5 8 9 4 8 4 7 9 3 8 0 2 9 6 5 9

I .

,

I

I

, ,

.

1 3 :I 3 9 9 0 0

2

,

2

,

,

,

.

,

5 5 6 7

2

2

I

5 5 7 8 0 1 2 8 6 3 4 5 3 7 8 8 2 7 9 0 8

2

3

.

,

..

,

2

3

,

.

3

2

1 . o

• •

, ,

·

,

2

·

1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

3 3 4 3 0 1 3 3 6 6 6 0 4 6 8

.

.

,

,

·

,

,

,

..

..

.

.

,

·

,

,

.-c

3

,

.. o

· . · . ·

2 3 9

, , , ,

·

,

,

,

,

·

R ........ +++++++ .... + +

.~

,

.

~

.

,

.... R .. R

·

,

1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2

8 7 5 7 7 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 9 9 0 2 4 4 6 9 9 0 8 8 1 2 8 1 5 5 0 0

6 3 2 2 9 2 3 7 1 2 5 7 8 7 3 7 4 6 3 3 9 0 1 6 8 1 5 0 1 4 1 7 2 4 4 7

5

,

,

5

2

5

3

I .

I .

7

,

'

,

.,

7

2

1

I

I I

7

3

.. 1 B 8

',.cles group 0

,

.

Andropoflon schlr.n&is

Ru.lIi. s/eflophylll

Sphedlmnoclrpu$ pruritms

AflJyro/obium wilmsli

Thamflosma afritana

P.vella

zeyherl

PelnOfl;.

,rislala

'plelel group P

Nidor.U. hollerJto/k.

Combr.!um zeyherl

Sollnum plnduritorme

S.tllril inc/lint;,

Sp ... les group

Q

CalM edull'

Selaril

,phac.1l1a

Trlslachyl lIucothrix

Rhynr;hasll spltlllabl!Js

Jamesbriltenll

mnr.ntha

, ,

Species graup R

D/aspyro' Iycioid.,

sSjl. fI~n

I .

OIfhasiphon frutito,us

.

Asp.flIIUS sUiveo/anr

.

,

,

· 1

.

.

.

,

.

,

.

"

,

,

·

, ,

,

,

.

·

,

+ +-._ R

R + +

.

,

..

R

R .. + R

1 R + 1

·

.

R

+ .... R

,

,

,

.

,

.

,

.

,

. ... .

' I

,

·

,

1 + .. + + + 1 +

·

..

, ,

. .

B R R R

,

,

,

,

,

,

.

,

. · ·

R R R R R

.

,

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

,

..

,

.... 1 1

·

·

.

.

,

.

R 1 + +

·

.

,

.

,

1 1 1 1 1 + , A ,

·

,

.

.

+ + + 1 + +

, ,

,

·

.

,

, ,

·

·

.

,

,

.

,

I .

"

.

I

I . i

I .

.

.

,

"

I

. .

..

,

.

.

.

..

1

I

. .

·

·

..

.

......

'D tv

Table 14 continued lI.eley' number

,

,

1 3 3 3 9 9 0 0 5 5 6 7 5 5 1 8 0 \ 2 6 6 3 4 5 3 7 6 8 2 7 9 0 6 o , ,

1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2

4 3 0 \ 3 3 6 6 & 0 4 8 8 o

2 3 9 8 7 5 7 7

, ,

,

, , 3

8 B 9 0

2 4 4 6 9 9 0 6 6 1 2 B 1 5 5 0 0 4 1 8 8

Aliann

AUocllotlon

'plcle. group It cont

T'tr:hon."thu, cllmpho",!u&

Decone'

r/I/pinii

J.fn:>p"l ~tIfol;'

Zlzlphus

mucronatl

D.lKh.mp;'g.lpinll

Xllrophj'U ratlnttrvi,

Cymbopogon .XC.1I/l1u1

MtJndulee

lienee.

Specieegroup S

Tephrori. purpUI'N

E"gro$/il

,,"loro,..l.,

Combllttummolle

Ozoroa

rph,eroc.I'p'

EMe.pogOrt '/:OplrWS

Ato.cumne.

Pel/u.

ca/o",.~no&

Jurtk:l. prorr.cfII

P'nicum maximum

Dombey. roWndltoli.

Comb,.lum apicu/alum

Asp.r.gus laricinus

Theslum

blll1<e1

Kimi.

wllmsii

Species group T

S~hmt. b"~hypetall

Er:..rr::.'J:

!~.~m!.~m!rr!

A~.c/a

karroo

MimUsops uyherl

Species group U

Dodon •• a Ingust/fOlil

Rhus b.lophylia

C.tII. rr.nsvillenrlr

Ole.

europUI

Specl .. IlrouP V

Sorvhum

bicolor

P'nkum n.mlenre

Ximenll

american,

Euclea divinorum

Acaci.

"'rolis

Carlsra

bl.pinora

Rhus en'1lerl

3 4 0 3 6 7 1 7 2 3 5 1 8 1 2 8 4 8 4 6 8 0 2 3 9 9 9 1 4 3 4 5 8 5 5 7 7 9 6 5 8 9 4 8 4 7 9 3 8 0 2 9 6 5 9 6 3 2 2 9 2 3 7 1 2 5 7 8 7 3 7 4 6 3 3 9 0 1 6 8 1 5 0 1 4 1 7 2 4 4 7

1 .

I .

• R

1

R

,

• R

,

,

· . .

• R

,

2

,

R

R

R , •

·1· + +

,

,

R •

+ + + R

1 + + 1

R

R •

..

·

·

2

2

2

R •

· .

.

,

.

.

,

R

..

·

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

,

. .

+ + 1

+ + +1·

R R R RI.

+ + + +

..

,

.

,

2

3

R

A A

R R + R

R R R R

1

+

1 1 +

!

·

·

R

,

·

..

R

·

..

RR

, ,

R

,

R + R R R

R

R

R • R

R R .. +

1

,

· ·

.

·

,

R

RR

2

,

,

.

.. II. II.

.. 1 ... 1 ...

,

,

R

..

..

,

.

3

..

..

.. ..

R R R

·

,

R

R •

. .

.

3

2

.. II. ....

, ,

..

.. ..

...

..

·

R

• . R • R

·

R

+ + +

A • •

· ..

+ R R +

R R R R

, R ,

·

,

·

• R •

R

A l l

·

R • + R R R

R • • RR •

·

R ,

·

1 1

1 1 A R

·

.

,

.

,

R

·

,

R R ,

. ..

· .

+ +

,

, R

R

R •

+

AA

.

+ R +

R

,

, • R

• A

R

R

R

,

,

R II.

R

,

,

R

R

R

R ..

R

2

·

·

,

.

II. R R II.

1 .

II.

.

R

II. II. ..

R •

.

,

R + R + .1.

R + + + R

,

,

R R

, ,

.. +

1 ....

R

1 •

·

R

, R

·

R R R + R

R R R

,

,

1

·

4

R

,

R

, R

· .

II. II. R R R

+ + + + 1 + +

,

·

·

·

·

R

, ,

,

.

R

,

· ..

R

· ·

, R R , ,

. .

R R •

R R + R R

·

R , ,

R

R • R

R

·

,

,

..

.

.

..

R

R

,

• • R

, R

·

..... II. ..

R ,

.

,

• R

·

· ·

,

·

·

,

,

,

.

5 .

2

• R

5

3

,

R

,

.

R

1 .

1 .

R ,

1

+

·

.1 .

R

,

1

R

1 + + 1

+

R •

• R

·

R R R

R •

.

. .

• • R

.

, " +

R

,

,

+ + 1 + 1

·

+ R R R

,

·

..

R

R • •

R

R

R , •

. .

~

,

7

,

.

, R

'

R

R

,

..

R

7

2

.

RR

, R

1

R

. . .

.

7

3

.

R ,

,

1

, ,

,

R

RR

R R ,

,

,

.

w

-

'D

R

R

,

.

1R

++I+RR

R

R R

R

,

,

R

R

.".

-

\D

Table 14 continued.

Relev6 l1umb~r

AllIanc,

A.soclatiltfl

.ub ... ssoclation

SpICIe. group AA cort.

Rhur wi/rllrll

Strig'II>Ieg.nr

3 4 0 3 6 7 1 7 2 3 5 7 & 1 2 6 4 8 4 6 8 0 2 3 9 9 9 1 4 3 4 5 6 5 5 7 7 9 9 5 8 9 4 8 4 1 9 3 8 0 2 8 6 5 I I 9 3 2 2 9 2 3 7 1 2 5 7 6 7 3 7 4 6 3 3 9 0 1 8 6 1 5 0 1 4 1 1 2 4 4 7

I

, ,

,

1 3 3 3 & II 0 0 5 5 & 7

5 5 7 9 0 1 2 6 8 3 4 5 3 7 5

I

2

,

2

,

2

2

2

,

2

,

, a

2. 7 ~ 0 e

2

,

"

,

, ,

1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

4 3 0 1 3 3

2

,

6 6 8 0 4 6 8

• o

2 3

I .

, e

8 7 5 7 7

5

,

5

2

, , , , , ,

5

,

8 8 9 0 2 4 4 8 9 9 0 8 8 1 2 8 1 5 5 0 0 4 1 8 8

,

I

,

' I

2

, ,

'

.

,

.

,

I

SPICIe. group AI

Flng.t1tuth~

.fric:.IT.

Jarmtrbrilb>nl.

SIl.

(AW 13026

SpICIe. group AC

Anslid. cnucenr

KyphocI",' IIfrQusfifo/;.

Rhul

~todk!y.

Amlhlni. pro.Jh1ll

Sl'8chy/un. illt:/Ioli.

Aloe

cryplDpodl

SerrKioitltifoliur

, ,

.1: .

.

,

I •

·

.

.

, , ,

.

,

,

,

,

..

.

, ,

.

, ,

.

1

.

.. A 1

.

,

.

.

,

.

II. 1 1

,

A

.

,

,

,

.

........

, ,

,

.

.

.

,

.. .. .. .. ..

R ..

,

,

+ ..

R

+ ....

,

·

,

.

. .

,

,

,

.

.

,

.

..

,

,

.

.

,

RRRR++

.

,

·

..

,

,

"

"

,

·

,

..........

·

·

,

·

A

,

, ,

.

..

..

..

-:-

....

--:-

+

R R ..

,

,

1

, ,

.

,

I •

'

.

,

· .

...... +

·

·

·

,

. ·

. .

+

.. · .

.. II. R ..

,

·

"

·

,

.

,

,

.

·

·

, A I

, • I

,

, ,

. ·

.

,

.

,

·

.

, ,

.

SPICIe$ group AD

Indigo""

l"olmi8

Klflin'" Ionglf/ora

Rlp/tion'~m.

plf>Cum/>6ns

Eragrudi,

'uperin

{porno ••

oln~ura

Phy/lanlhu. p.rvuws

G.rb.ra Jam..onli

Lirrmum pllJroc6rpum

ClerodondflJm /ouWfllbortsii

Chloropltytum polyphy/Jum

Ru.Uia

~orrJ,ta sp.cies group Ai:

R/tync/to';. koma/iln.{s

LOUdatii s/mplol<

Po/Y'J.II

hO/lenloftl

Bolu,.nthus

,p.~io,us

AndroPOiJon cltln.nrlt

EllDnuflJ' rmsticu'

IndllJofe"

It/llr/s

Dlt:om. l1.mlrrJii

AID. burgo,m,rlan'/r

Led.bouria mft!pln./f

Klainla

,flpelhformlr

Thelium mu/ti"mulo,um

PoIY'l./a SIl. (SS 449)

Species group AF

Btacltilln"a '.mlta

Berllh.y' insign;,

,

I .

I

,

,

I

,

,

1 .

,

I .

1 .

.

.

,

,

·

·

,

,

1

1

.

I .

.,

1

1

· ·

·

.

...

.

.

.

.

,

·

1 .

·

.

.

,

, ,

.

.

.

,

,

I .

. ·

,

1 .

,

.

+++++R

.

,

1

,

·

A 1 1 A + R

,

,

.

..

I

·

,

.

.

,

,

,

,

'

.

...

I

,

,

.

·

·

·

'

·

,

· ..

·

.

·

,

·

.

.

·

,

,

, , ,

,

+ .. + .. 1

+AAABA++11

, • A

.

+R+R+R

+ + + + + 1 1

·

+ 1 + A + + + + + + 1 + +

.

R .. 1 + + R

. .

·

,

,

.

,

+ R + R 1

+ + + +

·

.

,

,

,

,

++R+RR

,

,

·

,

,

,

.

,

.

·

,

,

,

,

,

·

..

+ .. 1 1 1

~

1 1 1

, I

· .

R 4

,

. · t

A

.

~

• . '1

· . . 1

+ + A A +

• • I

R + + +

+

+ 1 +

,

..

· .

· .. .

,

~

·

"

,

,

,

·

·

,

,

.

+ ..

,

.

,

,

·

·

. ·

,

,

I • •

.

,

.

.

.

.

......

\0

V>

Table 14 continued

Relev' number 4 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

11

1 3 3 3 9 9 0 0 5 5 8 7 5 5 7 8 0 1 2 6 6 ) 4 5 3 7 6 8 2 7 II 0 8 a , ,

1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2

4 3 0 1 3 3 6 6 6 0 4 6 9 o

2 3 9 6 1 5 7 7

, , ,

, 3 , 8 a

9 0 2 4 4 6 9 9 0 6 6 1 2 8 1 5 5 0 0 " 1 8 9

Allance

Sub .. ssociation

'pacie. group AF cOllI.

Rbus kntll

G"idl. t.ff,.

Euphorbia schinlil

Dlheteropogon

amplecllms

!Porno •• blthycolpos

Spec •• group AG

Terminall. prof/joides

P.t.Ndium oblongifolium

Ar/&tid.

congftslll

Eflgron/s curvule

C'''''l!;:honi. dltCumba"s

R.phionacm.

'1a/pinii

Eucle • • p. (SS U4)

• pacle5group AM

G",~

vamica,.

Halervpogan cantooos

B/epharis subvolubilis

V&X abov.t.

55p.

wllmsii

Thamed. tritmd",

Phylltlnthur gllfucaphyH.

Eucla,

crirtn

Camb",tum

ha",,.,.nra

Tt/upll glllucophyillf

Tirmlit" madlitsiana

Cammel/na

.fric.",

3 4 0 3 6 7 1 7 2 3 5 7 9 1 2 6 4 8 4 6 8 0 2 3 9 9 9 1 4 3 4 5 6 5 5 7 1 g e S 8 9 4 9 4 7 9 3 1 3 0 2 9 S 5 9 6 3 2 2 9 2 3 7 1 2 5 7 8 7 3 1 4 6 3 3 9 0 1 8 8 1 5 0 1 4 1 7 2 4 4 7

1

1

11

"

1

2

1 1 + + + + + + 1

...

.

. .

I

2

1

I .

1 1

1 + + + 1

. .

.

1 A

I .

1 + 1 1 1

+ + 1 +

+ + 1 R

2

2

,

,

.

1

1

·

1 ... 1 1

·

A

,

,

.

.

.

2

,

,

,

·

1 •

,

+ + 1 R

2

· ·

·

· .

·

·

.

R

,

R + + R

R + R R

,

,

,

·

· .

.

· .. .

R ... R R

... R R ...

,

· K R R

1 ,

A A l l + 1

+ + 1 1 + 1 1 +

·

·

,

·

.

• • R

"

R 1 1 R R R

+R+R+RR

.

1

,

I

A

,

,

.

.

· .

,

·

·

,

,

..

,

,

.

· .

,

2

,

,

. ·

, , ,

1 •

.

,

,

, ,

+ + 1 + 1

+ R + + 1 1 1 + 1

RRR+RR

.

• 1 1

I

, l K + + + +

R + + + ++++++

·

,

·

..

.

1

,

·

, , ,

·

·

2

,

1 1 •

,

, ,

, , ,

.

,

, ,

.

.

• A 1

+ R + + + l + 1 + 1 1 R +

R

,

,

.

1 + 1 1 + ' + 1 + + +

1 A 1 A l l

,

.

,

,

..

1

"

R+RR++R

• I

,

• 1

,

.

,

,

, ,

R + 1 R R

,

.

A A l l

. .

R + R R

R + + R + RRRRR+R

"

,

, ,

, •

. .

, • 1

·

. .

,

1 •

1 •

1

I , ,

,

,

,

,

,

1 1 A 1

. . .

RR+++R

, ,

+ + + 1 +

.

,

, , ,

.

,

+

2

,

,

,

. .

, 1 1

, ,

1 1 A

• AA

,

..

+ R R

, ,

,

,

,

·

• 1

,

.

. · .

.

·

1

,

,

,

,

.

,

· .

1 •

11

1 A 8 +

·

..

• 1 • 1 •

·

.

.

..

.

,

.

,

,

A , , ,

,

.

. .

1

,

1 ......... 1 ...

R _

·

• I •

·

,

1 1 1 + A + + l +

·

I I

2

, ,

++R+RR+

,

.

·

1 ...

,

,

..

+ + + +

1 + + 1 + + +

1 •

·1·+++++ ++

R R R R

1 + + 1 + 1 1 + 1

1 + 1 1 + + + +

++RRRR

.

,

11

·

• 1 A

,

..

A •

A

.

,

.

.

.

,

3

1

,

..

1

.

, ,

,

.

1

·

,

+ R R R + 1 •

1 • •

· .

·

·

,

.

1 ... A 1

+ + + +

+ + + +

AI. 1 B 1

·

1 I

1 ,

.

• A

1

,

• • 1

A 1 1

+ + + +

. .

,

,

·

·

1

,

,

,

,

R R R R

,

,

.

Table 15 Sekhukhuneland Centre endemic/near-endemic and Red Data List plant taxa of the Open Mountain Bushveld.

Taxon

Family Synta:s:a

II

1.1 1.2 2.1

2.2 2.3

2.4

3.1 3.2

4.1

4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 7.2

7.3

Aloe burgersfartemis

Aloe castanea

Argyrolobium wilmsii

5.2

$,

5.3

$+

6

$,

#,

7.1

$+

LILI

LILt

FABA

#1

#, #, #, #, #+

#+ #1

#,

Asparagus intricatus

[form1

(W&S1501)

ASPA

Asparagus sekukuniensis

ASPA

Bauhinia tornentosa

[fonn]

(S444)

Berkheya insignis [form] (8257)

FABA

ASTE

~

$+ $1 $+ $+ $1 $+ $+

$,

$, $,

$1 $1 $+

\0

0\

Brachylaena ilicifolia

[form]

-

(W&S13244)

ASTE

$, $+ $1 $, $+ $+ $, $,

$,

$+ $+ $, $1

$+ $+

Catha transvaalensis

CELA

$, $, $, $+ $, $,

Combretum petrophilum

COMB

~

K$,

Elephantorrhiza praetermissa

FABA

K$-.-

K$l

KS-.-

1:$1 1:$1 1:$1 K$1

K$+ K$, K$+

K$+

K$1

K$,

$,

$, $+ $+ $+ $, $,

Euclea crispa [form] (W&S13205)

Euclea linearfs

Euclea sp. nov. (S934)

Euphorbia barnardi;

EBEN

EBEN

EBEN

EUPH

$1 $+

$+ $, $+

$1 $+

$, $,

$+

$1

#,

$,

$+

$, s" $+

$1

#,

$+

#1

#,

#1

>,

$+

$, $T

~

#+ #,

Euphorbia enormis

EUPH

EUPH

Euphorbia sp. nov. (WJ3J94)

$,

$+

$+

$,

$+

$+

$, $,

$, $, $, $, $, $, $, $,

Gnidiacaffra

(form]

(W12975)

Gnidia polycephala

TIlYM

TIlYM

$+ $+ $+

~

#1

#+

$,

$+

$,

Grewia vernicosa

TIll

CELA

#1

#1

#+ #+

#, #, #,

#+

#, #,

#,

#, #,

#+ #1

#,

#+

Gymnosporia sp. nov.

B

(W13052)

$+

$, $, $,

$1

8

$,

......

'D

--l

Table 15 continued.

Taxon

Helichrysum uninervium

Hibiscus barnardii

Indigofera lydenburgensis

Ipomoea bathycolpos

var.

sinuatodentata

Jamesbrittenia macrantha

Jamesbrittenia

lip. nov.

(WI3026)

Jatropha latifolia

Val",

latifolia

Kleinia slapeizi/armls

Leucas capensis [form]

(W&S13007)

Nux/a gracilis

Orthos iphon frnticosus

Ozoroa albicans

Pavetta sp. nov. (S22)

Petalidium oblongifolium

Plectranthus xerophilus

Polygala

sp. nov.

(S449)

Pterothrix spinescens

Rhus batophylla

Rhus engleri

Rhus keetii

Rhus sekhukhuniens is

Rhus wilmsii

Scilla natalensis

Stylochaeton sp. nov. (S1332)

Triaspis glaucophylla

Family

ASTE

MALV

FABA

CONV

SCHR

SCHR

EUPH

ASTE

LAM!

LOGA

LAM!

ANAC

Rem

ANAC

LAM!

POLY

ASTE

ANAC

ANAC

ANAC

ANAC

ANAC

LILl

ARAC

MALP

1.1

R$,

$,

1.2

$,

$,

2.1

R$,

#1

2.2

2.3

2.4

3.1

3.2

4.1

#,

$+

$1

#+

#+

#,

#,

$+

$+

$,

#,

$+

#+

#,

SyntaXB

4.2 4.3

4.4

5.1

R$,

#,

#,

$, $, $, $, $, $,

K$, KS, K$+ K$, K$+ K$,

$,

#+

#, #,

#,

#,

$,

#,

$, s,

#,

$,

#+

$+

$,

#,

#,

#,

$+

$,

#,

#+

#,

$,

5.2 5.3

$,

#,

$,

$,

6

7.1

#+

7.2 7.3

#,

$+

#,

$, $,

K$, K$+ K$+

$+ $, $+

$+

#,

#+

#,

Iff

$,

$,

#1

$,

6

$,

$+

$+

$1

K#, K#,

#,

$+ $+

#,

~

$+

$,

#+

#, #,

#1

#,

#,

R$,

#, #,

$,

#,

~

#, #+

Sr

$1

$,

#+

R$I

R$,

~

#,

R$, R$,

#+

#1

R$+

6

$,

#+

#+ #, #, #,

#,

$+

#,

RS,

#+

#,

8

$,

#I

$,

#,

#,

00

-

'D

Table 15 continued.

Taxon

Family

1.2 2.1 2.3 2.4 3.1 3.2 4.1

Syntaxa

4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.3 6

7.1

7.2

7.3

VERB

1.1

#,

#+

2.2

#,

#1

#+ #1 #1 #+ #1 #1 #+ #+

5.2

#,

#+ #+

#1

#,

#+

Vilex obovata subsp. wilmsii

Xerophyta retinervis [form]

(WJ3208)

$+ $+ $, $1

VELL

$+ $1 $+

SCPE endemics 5 4 3 6 11 8 10 11 10 15 14 10 8 11 7 12 13

13 11

SCPE near-endemics

Red Data List

Restricted to syntaxon

3

3

3

2

1

0

3

1

0

6

0

1

7

1

0

7

1

0

6

2

0

6

2

0

5

2

0

10

5

1

8

4

1

6

2

0

2

1

0

8

1

1

4

1

0

9

4

3

10

3

8

3

1

0

Restricted to association

Total for syntaxon 8

3

6

6

1

I

12

J.

18

I

15

16

0

J

17

15

I

25

4

J

23

I

16

10

I

1

19

I

11

3

21

23

I

Total for association

112

21 19 30 24 21

- - --- -

L..

- - - - - - - - - -

Endemism: $

= endemic, #

= near-endemic; Red Data Ust: I

=

Indeterminate, K

=

Insufficiently Known, R

=

Rare, N

=

Not threatened in the northern provinces of South Africa, but in other areas of

3

21

26

I

19 southern Africa; Abundance in communities: 1

= abundant,

+

== frequent, r

== rare,.

= absent; Collectors: S

=

Siebert. w

=

Van Wyk; Bold blocks represent community/syntaxon specific taxa.

0

8

3

8

#+

11

0

0

8

1

19

19

......

-0

-0

Table 16 Environmental factors and selected attributes associated with the different plant communities of the Open Mountain

Bushveld.

Filctors/attributes

Number of releves

SyntaXIl

1.\

2

1.2

4

2.1

4

2.2

4

2.3

6

2.4

6

3.1

4

3.2

4.1

3

4.2

6

4.3

7

4.4

4

5.1

5

5.2

3

5.3

3

6

4

II

7.1

9

7.2

4

7.3

4 4

,

Total number of speoies

45 64 55

7'

122 99 71 60 63 130 96 95 37 20 60

9' '5

73

'5 '4

Average number

of species

per releve

Number of endemics/ near-endemics

Number of Red Data List

u.xa

Geology*

Topographic position"

Slope (0)

Aspect

Predominant soil type***

40

3

,

27

6

36 34

6 12

0

42 40 40 35 42 41 41 25 16 39 35 37 34

32 30 36

I'

15 16 17

15

25 23 16 10 19 11 21

23 21 19 19

2

2 2

4 2 4

3 3

3

F PIN

G~

P>M! PIN! PIN! PIN! PIN! PIN!

A A

M

MIF

M

MIF MIS

A

S

A

A A

FiP

M Mie

MIS

Mis

PIN!

A

S

7 3-7 7-9 3-5 5-12

9-15 7-12

P

MIS

Q

V

Q

V

QiP

F

-15

7-15

7-1'

5-9 1-3 1-3 1-3

Q

V

QiP!

N

FN

1-3

QiPl QiPl

Q~I

M

N

M

FN FN MlFI

V

1-5

1-3

1-7

W

NiB

G,

Gs l

;

Sn

NiB

NISI

S

NiBl

W

srw

G,

Gslj

Gs';

M,

Hu

M.

S

G, G,

-IS

S

S

G.

Msl;

M,

G.

SiB

NiB! srw

NISI

NiBl

N/WI

W!S

W/S

Bo

srw

Hu

W

Bo

S/W

Bo

S

G.

Val; BOI;

Hu

Hull Vall

Vall

Va

Ms i

/

M. G,

Table 16 continued.

Factors/attributes

Rock cover percentage (%)

Average rock size (mm)

1.1

60·

70

500· 200· 500~

400400500-

750

1.2

10·

40

500

2.1

30·

40

1000

2.2

20·

30

1000

2.3

35·

60

1000

2.4

45·

75

1500

3.1

40·

70

500-

1500

3.2

30·

40

4.1

25·

60

Syntull

4.2 4.3

30·

60

4.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 7.1 7.2 7.3 8

40· 30· 10· 10· 40·

30· 10· 50·

40· 30·

60 45 20 50 80 40 40 65 50 50

100·

300500500-

500· 100·

100-

300 500

*

A -

anorthosite; F - ferrogabbro; G - granofire; M - magnetite; N - narite; P - pyroxenite; Q - Alluvium

*.

C

= crest; S

= scarp; M

= midslope; F

== footslope; V '" valley

1000

***

80 '" Bonheim; Gs

=

Glenrosa; Hu

=

Hutton; Ms = Mispah; Sn = Steendal; Va = Valsrivier

(Xl

Dominant soil type)

1000

1500

150 250

100-

350

50·

150

100-

300

200-

400

300· 250·

500 500

N o

-

Table 17 A key to the syntaxa of the Open Mountain Bushveld of the hills and valleys of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant

Endemism.

Leads/description

18 Slope bushveld (Ozoroo sphaerrxapa &

Themeda triandra)

b Valley

bushveld(Bolusantfms speciosus

&

Diheteropogon amplectens)

28 Southern aspects (Tnstachya leucothrix &

Elephantorrhiza praetermissa)

b All aspects (Acacia senegal

Vat.

leiarachis

&

Psiadia punctulata)

38 Predominantly clay soils

(Geigeria ornativa

&

Loudelia simplex)

b Predominantly loam soils (Acacia karroo)

48 MidsJope and scarp (Cussonia transvaalemis &

Rhoicissus trtdentata)

b Midslope and crest (Kirkia wilmsii)

Sa Maximum rock size

< lOOOmm

(Grewiaflava

&

Enneapogon scoparIus)

b Maximum rock size < 750mm (Enteropogon macrostachys &

Blepharis subvolubilis)

68 Lithosols predominant (Raphionacme procumbens &

Ozoroa sphaerocarpa)

b Lithosols rare (Euclea linearis &

Aristida canescens)

7a Disturbed. old fields (Euphorbia tmwaill &

Aristidu wng.;sta)

b

Disturbed, dongas (Eragrostis lehmanniana

&

Hippobromus pauciflorus)

8a Slope moderate (<9") (Jamesbrittemia macrantha) b Slope steep «18°) (Pavetta sp. nov. &Xerophyta retinervis)

9a Rock size < 500mm (Acacia caffra &

RhYTXJhosia spectabilis)

b Rock size> 500mm (Setaria lindenbergiana

&

Catha edulis)

lOa Pyroxenite and anorthosite (Terminalia prunioides) b Ferrogabbro and granofire (Chloris virgata

&

Aloe castanea)

l1a Norite (Diospyros lycioides subsp. sericea &

Grewia vernicosa)

b Ferrogabbro (Croton menyhartij

&

Gymnosporia glaucophyUa)

128 Rock cover> 40% (Aris/ida adscensionis) b Rock cover < 40% (Blepharis saxatilis &

Petalidium oblongifolium)

13a Rock cover percentage < 80% (H eteropogon contortus) b Rock cover percentage < 20% (Rhus batophylla &

Rhynchosia komatiensis)

Go to/syntnOD

2

5

6

3

4

7

8

9

10

11

8. Petalidio oblongifolii-Raphionacmetum procumbentis

12

6. Aristido rhiniochloo-Gnidietum polycephalae

13

14

15

3.2 Phyllantho glaucophyllae-Brachylaenetum ilicifolz brachiarietosum serratae

3.1 Phyilantho glaucophyllae-Brachylaenetum ilictfoli setarietosum sphacelatae

16

2.1 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis chloretosum virgatae

1.2 Enteropogono macrostachyo-Sclerocaryetum birreae grewietosum vemicosae

1.1 Enteropogono macrostachyo-Sclerocaryetum birreae asparagetosum sekukuniensis

17

7.1 Loudetio simp/icis-Eucleetum linearis diheteropogonetosum amplectentis

18

5.1 Eragrostio lehmanmanae-Hippobrometum pauciflori rhoetosum batophyllae

N

S

Table 17 continued.

Leads/desrnptlon

148 Rock size> 500mm (Combretwn zeyheri &

Combretum hereroense)

b Rock size

<

500mm (jvfyrothamnusflabellifolius

&

Mundulea sericea)

158 Ferrogabbro (Tarchonanthus camphoratus) b Norite (Melinis nerviglumis &

Chaetacanthus costatus)

168 Lithosols (Panicum deustum) b Deeper soils (Monechma divaricafum)

178 Norite (Elionurns muliet/s) b Magnetite (Rhus wi/msii &

Senecio latijalius)

188 Footslopes (Euclea crispa) b Valleys (Panicum natalense &

Brachylaena jlicifolia)

190 All aspects (Commiphora mallis &

Jucticia protracta)

b Southern aspects (Berchemra zeyheri & Diospyros IYClOides subsp. nitem)

Go toisyntaIon

4.4 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis combretetosum zeyheri

4.1 Tristachyo leucothn'cis-Cussonietum transvaalensis myrothamnetosum flabellifolius

4.3 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis argylobietosum wilmsii

4.2 Tristachyo leucothricis-Cussonietum transvaalensis melinetosum nervigiumis

19

2.2 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis grewietosum jlavescentis

7.3 Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis andropogonetosum chinensis

7.2 Loudetio simplicis-Eucleetum linearis heteropogonetosum contorti

5.3 Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum paucijlori elionuretosum mutici

5.2 Eragrosti lehmannianae-Hippobrometum paucijlori sorgetosum bicoloris

2.4 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis commiphoretosum moWs

2.3 Enneapogono scoparii-Acacietum leiorachis brachylaenetosum ilicifoliae

N o

Table 18 The three most dominant and conspicuous plant taxa of each of the major vegetation types of the Open Mountain

Bushveld depicted in the DECORANA scatter diagram.

Major vegetation type

1. Enteropogono macrostachyo-Slerocaryetwn birreae

(Enteropogon macrostachys-Sclerocarya birrea)

Trees/shrubs

Croton gratissimus

Grewia vermcosa

Forb8/sedges

Asparagus sekukuniensis

Hibiscus caddo

Grasses

Enteropogon mocro!4achys

Heteropogon contortus

Sclerocarya birrea Stylochaeton natalensis Themeda triandra

-

i~ E';';;;p;i;~; ~~~p~rli~A~~-i~t,;~ -s"e~~gd

------- -----------

A~~

------------

-A.ldi

~rypiop-~d~

----------------------

-A~i~tid~-~"e~idi~~d;s-

-----------------

(Enneapogon scopanus-Acacia senegal var. Ieiarachis) Brachylaena Ilicifolia Jasminum multfpartitum Enneapogon scopari:us

Kirkia wilmsii Justicia protracta Themeda tn"andra

.

3~ PhYIl;~th~· gid~,;;phYli~~B~;~h;ide~·efu;"itidif;lt . - -- - - - - - - - B~~d.Yi~~~ -iiidi';~

-----. ---. - ------.

-iJ~;kh;y; i~;,g~i; - -. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -iI~i;r"ap·og;;, ~;~t;rt;;;

--

(Phyllanthus glaucophyllus-Brachylaena ilicifolia)

Dtospyros lycioides 8ubsp. nitens

Gnidia caffra Themeda triandra

Vitex obovata subsp. wilmsii

P1ryllanthus glaucophyUa Tristachya leucothrix

-

4~

Trt;t-;;;hy;

-l~~~;th;i~is~c~~;;;'i~~ ir"dn~~;;l;;';i~ - - - - --. - - c';s~~-"i; -';;;'~;~;i;~i;

-----------------. i;"rlh;;iph;~j~tic~~~ - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - ·iI~i~r-op"ag;;, ~;~t;rt~~

--

(Tnstachya leucothrix-Cussonia transvaalensis) Elephantorrhiza praetennissa Rhynchosia kamatiensis Themeda triandra

Vitex obovata subsp. wilmsii

Rhynchosia spectabilis

TristacJrya lel4cothrix

-

5~ iir~g~;~i;l~h-;;~~i"a-';;e~;pp;;;;;~;fu~ -p;~~ifz"a-r~ - - - -- - - - - - C;;;,;;;~;;;,,; h~~;;~~;

---. - -

+. -- - - - - - --

-p~iYi;I;'h;it~~i;ti; - -- - - - - -. - - - - - - - - - -E;~g;~rtis- id;;"~-;;"a- -- - - - -- - - -- --

(Eragrostls lehmanmana-Hlppobromus pauciflorus) Hippobromus paucijLJrus Psiadia punctulata Loudcfia simp!e."

Tinnea rhodesiana Senecio latifolius Panicum deustum

-

6~

Art;ti;;;

-rhi~j;;h-l;~;'idi~fu~ p;l"i~ph;l;;

- - - - - - -- - - - - - -. -

C"o~b;;~ h"e~;~;;~;~

- - --. -- - - - -- - - ---

"Di~;~"a-g~;;a-rdij-

- -- - - -- - -- - - - - - -- - - -

A;i~iid"a·~;~g;;t"a-

- - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - -.-

(Aristida rhiniochloa-Gnidia polycephala)

-

_.

----

--

---

--

- ---- --- ---- ---

-- _.

--

7. Loudetto simplicis-Eucleetum linearis

Euphorbia tirucalb

Grewra vernicosa

---

E-"~;k~ -Ji~~;';'i~-

- --- -- -----

(Loudetta simplex-Euclea linearis)

Rhus keetii

Vitex obovata 8ubsp. wilmsii

-

8~

Pei;iidf;

-o-b-l;~gijolii=--R"'aphi~~"dc-';;;~-; P~;;~-'I;;;;;'ii;

-- ------

Co~~b;;iu;;' h"e~;~;;~;;

- - - -.

(Petalidium oblongifolium-Raphionacme procumbens) Grewia vernicosa

Vitex obovata subsp. wilmsii

Gnidio polycephala Aristida rhiniochloa

Pechuel-Loeschea leubnitzia Stipagrostrs hirtigluma

Val".

patula

-Dt~~;""a~ g;;';drdii - - - - - - -. - -. -- - - - - - - - - --

Kyphocarpa angustifolia

Rhynchosia kamatiensls

- - - - - - - ---B~;kh;y~ i~;ig~i; - -.--

PetalidiMm oblongifolium

Raphionacme procumhens

Lolldetia simplex

Themeda triandra

------- -- ----

--------------

--- - -- -----

---------

Diheteropogon amplectens

H eteropogon contortus

Themeda triandra

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