The management of aerial particulate pollution: the case of Platinum

The management of aerial particulate pollution: the case of Platinum
University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
The management of aerial particulate pollution: the case of Platinum
Industry Smelters in the Rustenburg region of North West Province,
South Africa.
by
Sunette Steyn
99295114
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree:
PhD: Geography
in the
Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology,
Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Pretoria
Supervisor: Dr. K.I. Meiklejohn
Pretoria
January 2004
University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
Abstract
South Africa predominates in global Platinum production; supplying 74% of the world’s
mined production in 1997. The most important use of Platinum is in the automotive industry where
autocatalysts reduce vehicle exhaust emissions.
Other uses of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs)
include jewellery and decoration for coins, medallions and bars for investment. The electrical,
chemical, petroleum refining, medical and dental industries as well as glass and fibre manufacturing
further make use of PGMs. In South Africa, Platinum is mined almost exclusively from the Bushveld
Igneous Complex. The area surrounding Rustenburg in the North West Province of South Africa,
forms part of the western lobe of the Bushveld Igneous Complex and has especially rich reserves.
These Platinum reserves are mined by three mining companies, namely Anglo Platnum, Impala
Platinum and Lonmin Platinum.
Sustainable development in the mining industry requires commitment to continuous
environmental and socio-economic improvement through effective environmental management.
Environmental sustainability may be compromised in the mining industry by air pollution, which is a
complex problem with benefits, risks, and costs being all-important parameters.
The Platinum mining industry has experienced considerable growth during the 1990’s and
2000’s (because of a rapidly increasing Platinum price reaching levels of ± $600/oz combined with a
favourable exchange rate). This growth has lead to all three Platinum mines expanding their activities
and increasing production. The amount of ore delivered to the Smelters of all three Platinum mines
increased, but little attention was given to improvement (upgrading) of the air pollution control
technology used in the Smelters to combat the amount of particulate pollution emitted. The situation
was worsened by the specific atmospheric conditions present in the Rustenburg area. Air quality
management plans were incomplete and did not support the preventative measures in place.
The goal of air quality management is to maintain a quality of air that protects human health
and welfare, animals, plants (crops, forests and natural vegetation), ecosystems, materials and
aesthetics. The foundation for achieving this goal is the development of policies and strategies;
without a suitable policy framework (which include policies in several areas) and adequate legislation
it is difficult to maintain an active or successful air quality management programme. When goals and
policies have been developed, the next stage is the development of a strategy or plan in which it is
necessary to consider both the role and control ability of the various air quality managing agencies.
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
Given the poor management of particulate air pollution that apparently extends into other
forms of emissions from the mining companies, a management plan for the control of air quality in
the Rustenburg region was developed.
The plan, called the Rustenburg Regional Air Quality
Management Plan (RAQMP) was developed to manage particulate emissions from the three Platinum
smelters. The RAQMP contains crucial elements of international management plans (theoretical
knowledge), but was further expanded to take into account the unique situation of the Rustenburg
region.
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
Acknowledgements
I hereby wish to extend my appreciation and gratitude to the following people and organisations:
1. Dr. K.I. Meiklejohn, my promoter, for his guidance and support over the past three years.
2. The Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology (University of Pretoria).
3. Anglo Platinum: Cas Badenhorst, Stephen Bullock, Jaco Coetzee and Jakobus Malan.
4. Golder Associates Africa: Solly Manyaka.
5. Impala Platinum: Anton Botha and Suan Mulder.
6. Lonmin Platinum: Trusha Fakir, Mike Goossen, Thys Knoetze and Nico Steenekamp.
7. Matrix Environmental Consultants: Yvonne Scorgie.
8. North West Ecoforum: Chris de Bruyn.
9. Rustenburg Air Quality Forum: Witold Bryszewski and Jan Marais.
10. My husband, Johan Steyn: Thank you for giving me the opportunity to be the best that I can be
and always being there for me. You are my guiding light.
11. My parents, (Hentie and Johanna Boshoff) and brother (Chris Boshoff): You have always been
my inspiration to follow my dreams. This is dedicated to you.
12. Parents-in-law (Piet and Annie Steyn) and other family and friends (Ilse Deppe and Petro
Strauss): Thank you for your interest, support and encouragement!
13. Tiaan: Hope that this will one day inspire you to follow your dreams and never give up.
Soli deo Gloria
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract
i
Acknowledgements
iii
Table of contents
iv
List of illustrations
xiii
List of tables
xvi
Chapter 1: Introduction and background
1
1.1
Sustainable development in the mining industry
1
1.2
Composition of air
2
1.3
Defining air pollution
3
1.3.1
Natural versus anthropogenic pollution
5
1.3.2
Primary versus secondary pollution
5
1.3.3
Criteria vs. non-criteria pollutants
6
1.3.4
Scale and transport of air pollution
6
1.3.5
Absorption and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere
7
1.3.5.1 Looping
8
1.3.5.2 Fanning
8
1.3.5.3 Fumigation
8
1.3.5.4 Trapping
8
1.3.5.5 Coning
8
1.3.5.6 Lofting
9
1.4.
History of air pollution research
10
1.4.1
The global situation before the industrial revolution
10
1.4.2
The industrial revolution
10
1.4.3
The twentieth century
10
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
1.5.
Air pollutants and their effects
11
1.5.1.
Effects on human health and welfare
12
1.5.1.1 Respiratory and lung diseases
12
1.5.1.2 Immune system
13
1.5.1.3 Skin
13
1.5.1.4 Central nervous system
14
1.5.1.5 Cardiovascular systems
14
1.5.1.6 Carcinogenic effects
14
1.5.2
Effects on vegetation and animals
15
1.5.3
Effects on materials and structures
16
1.5.4
Effects on the atmosphere
17
Chapter 2: The current international situation and management of airborne pollutants
18
2.1
Defining air quality management
18
2.2
Components of an Air Quality Management Plan
19
2.2.1
Discussion
24
2.3
International management of air quality
26
2.3.1
European community ambient air quality directive
26
2.3.2
United Kingdom: The effects based approach
26
2.3.3
United States: Environmental Protection Agency and State Implementation Plans
28
2.4
New or alternative directions
30
2.4.1
Responsible care
30
2.4.2
Emission trading
31
2.4.3
Voluntary measures
32
2.4.4
Effects based approach
33
2.5
Ambient air quality guidelines and standards
34
2.5.1
Air quality guidelines and standards for particulates
35
2.5.2
Dust deposition limits
36
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
2.6
Measuring air pollution
37
2.6.1
Techniques used to measure air pollution
37
2.6.2
Steps in measuring for air pollution
39
2.6.2.1
Sampling site selection
39
2.6.2.2
Data logging and transfer
39
2.6.2.3
Data analysis and display
39
2.6.2.4
Quality assurance and quality control of ambient air quality measurements
40
a.
Quality assurance
40
b.
Quality control
40
2.7
Monitoring of air pollutants
41
2.7.1
Ambient monitoring network design
41
2.7.2
Meteorological monitoring
42
2.8
Air pollution modelling and prediction
43
2.8.1
Model types
44
2.8.2
Meteorological data required for air quality modelling
46
2.9
Air pollution control
47
2.9.1
Types of control strategies
47
2.9.2
Control methods for particulates
48
2.9.3
Evaluation of control strategies
50
2.10
Closing
51
Chapter 3: Airborne pollutants in South Africa: Current legislation and management
52
3.1
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, 1965 (Act. 45 of 1965)
52
3.1.1
Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO)
52
3.1.2
Air pollution permit requirements
53
3.1.3
Problems with air pollution control structures and legislation in South Africa
54
3.2
New legislation
55
3.2.1
The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Bill
55
3.2.1.1
National, provincial and local framework
56
3.2.1.2
Atmospheric emission licences
57
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
3.3
Existing local air quality management structures
59
3.4
Closing
59
Chapter 4: Pollution quantification in the Rustenburg area
61
4.1
Introduction
61
4.2
Regional setting
61
4.2.1
Surface infrastructure
61
4.2.2
Land use
62
4.2.3
Hydrology
62
4.2.4
Geology
63
4.2.5
Climate
63
4.2.6
Topography
63
4.3
Regional emission inventory in the Rustenburg area
63
4.3.1
Pollution from scheduled processes in the Rustenburg area
64
4.3.1.1
Point sources
65
4.3.1.2
Area sources
66
4.3.1.3
Volume sources
67
4.3.2
Domestic fuel combustion
68
4.3.3
Vehicle emissions
68
4.3.4
Veld fire emissions
70
4.3.5
Other emission sources
70
4.3.5.1
Light industry
70
4.3.5.2
Fugitive dust: small mines
71
4.3.5.3
Fugitive dust: agriculture
71
4.4
The research problem
72
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Chapter 5: Airborne Pollutants in the Rustenburg area: Contributors and management
until the end of 2001
5.1
Anglo Platinum: Waterval Smelter
75
5.1.1
Site description
76
5.1.2
Process description
76
5.1.3
Permit requirements for Waterval Smelter
77
5.1.4
Air quality monitoring inside the Smelter
77
5.1.4.1
Flash drier emissions
78
5.1.4.2
Furnace off gas dust to main stack
79
5.1.4.3
Converter off gas dust to main stack
81
5.1.4.4
Overall main stack emissions
82
5.1.4.5
Visual monitoring
82
5.1.5
Air quality monitoring outside the Smelter (ambient monitoring)
83
5.1.5.1
Ambient SO2 monitoring
83
5.1.5.2
Ambient particulate monitoring
83
5.1.6
Gravimetric (personal) sampling
85
5.1.6.1
Analyses of samples
85
5.1.7
Environmental departmental structure
86
5.1.8
Environmental management plan
86
5.1.8.1
Overall environmental goals
87
5.1.8.2
Air quality management (particulate management)
98
5.2
Impala Platinum
89
5.2.1
Site description
90
5.2.2
Process description
90
5.2.3
Permit requirements
90
5.2.4
Air quality monitoring in the Smelter
91
5.2.4.1
Spray drier emissions
92
5.2.4.2
Furnace off-gas dust to main stack
92
5.2.4.3
Converter off-gas to main stack
92
5.2.4.4
Overall main stack emissions
93
5.2.4.5
Visual monitoring
93
5.2.5
Fugitive emissions
93
5.2.5.1
Ambient SO2 monitoring
93
5.2.5.2
Ambient particulate monitoring
94
5.2.6
Gravimetric sampling
94
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
5.2.6.1
Analyses of samples
95
5.2.7
Environmental departmental structure
96
5.2.8
Environmental management plan
97
5.2.8.1
Overall environmental goals
97
5.2.8.2
Air quality management (particulate management)
97
5.3
Lonmin Platinum
98
5.3.1
Site description
98
5.3.2
Process description
99
5.3.3
Permit requirements
99
5.3.4
Air quality monitoring in / around the Smelter
100
5.3.4.1
Flash drier emissions
100
5.3.4.2
Furnace off-gas dust to main stack
101
5.3.4.3
Converter off gas to main stack
101
5.3.4.4
Overall main stack emissions
102
5.3.4.5
Particulate measurements around the Smelter
103
5.3.5
Fugitive emissions
104
5.3.5.1
Ambient SO2 monitoring
104
5.3.5.2
Ambient particulate monitoring
104
5.3.6
Gravimetric sampling
105
5.3.6.1
Analyses of samples
106
5.3.7
Departmental structure
107
5.3.8
Environmental management system
108
5.3.8.1
Overall goals
108
5.3.8.2
Management of particulates
108
Chapter 6: Airborne pollutants in the Rustenburg area: The contributors and
management from 2002
6.1
Anglo Platinum
109
6.1.1
New projects
109
6.1.2
New permit requirements for Waterval Smelter
111
6.1.3
Regional environmental department
111
6.1.4
ISO 14001 certification
112
6.1.5
Air quality management plan
112
109
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
6.2
Impala Platinum
113
6.2.1
New projects
113
6.2.2
ISO 14001
114
6.3
Lonmin Platinum
114
6.3.1
New projects
114
6.3.2
New permit requirements for Lonmin Platinum Smelter
115
6.3.3
ISO 14001 certification and ISO 18001 certification
116
6.3.4
Air quality management plan
116
6.4
Other role players in the Rustenburg region
117
6.4.1
Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO)
117
6.4.1.1
Air quality strategy for the North West province
117
6.4.1.2
Permit registration
119
6.4.2
Rustenburg Air Quality Forum (RAQF)
119
6.4.2.1
Phase 1
120
6.4.2.2
Phase two
121
6.4.3
North West Ecoforum (NWEF)
122
Chapter 7: Review and synthesis of airborne particulate pollution management at
Platinum Smelters in the Rustenburg region, North West Province
Introduction
7.1
123
123
7.2
Safety, Health and Environmental Policy (SHE Policy)
123
7.3
Air quality management in the Environmental Management Programme
Report
124
7.4
Formal procedures for management of particulate emissions
125
7.5
Permit requirements
125
7.6
Structure of environmental departments / relationships with other
departments
126
7.7
Changes in technology used to control particulate emissions
126
7.8
Additional control measures / management practices
127
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
7.9
Contingency plans
127
7.10
Monitoring particulate emissions
128
7.11
Gravimetric sampling
129
7.12
Maintenance
130
7.13
Quality and availability (accessibility) of data
130
7.14
Reporting
131
7.15
Training
132
7.16
Closing
132
Chapter 8: Rustenburg Regional Air Quality Management Plan (RAQMP)
133
8.1
Introduction
133
8.2
Summary: Rustenburg Air Quality Management Plan (RAQMP)
133
8.3
Discussion of the Rustenburg Air Quality Management Plan (RAQMP)
134
8.3.1
Goal: defining vision and objectives
135
8.3.2
Emissions inventory (identify / measure emissions)
136
8.3.3
Planning: Data management
138
8.3.4
Monitoring
139
8.3.5
Simulation modeling
141
8.3.6
Performance indicators: standards, guidelines and legislation
142
8.3.7
Planning: Financial management
145
8.3.8
Environmental management
146
8.3.9
Public participation (Air Quality Information System - AQIS)
149
8.3.10
Health
151
8.3.11
Control: Implementation and enforcement
153
8.3.11.1 Air quality alert (poor air quality)
153
8.3.12
154
Reporting and evaluation
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
8.4
Closing
156
Chapter 9: Concluding remarks
157
References
160
Appendix A: Other pollutants
170
Appendix B: Photo’s and maps
172
Appendix C: Existing air quality management plans for atmospheric pollution control
in the Rustenburg region
188
Appendix D: Smelter process description
191
Appendix E: Calculations
198
Appendix F: Gravimetric sampling procedure
199
Appendix G: Policy statements
209
Appendix H: Control equipment
215
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1.1
Dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere
Figure 2.1
Stages involved in the development of an air quality management strategy
19
Figure 2.2
Air Quality Management Plan 1
20
Figure 2.3
Air Quality Management Plan 2
20
Figure 2.4
Air Quality Management Plan 3
21
Figure 2.5
Air Quality Management Plan 4
22
Figure 2.6
Air Quality Management Plan 5
23
Figure 2.7
Air Quality Management Plan 6
24
Figure 2.8
The NAQS as local authorities currently implement it
27
Figure 2.9
The ideal model for future AQM practice in local authorities and other
agencies
The structure of the U.S ambient air quality legislation as established by
the Clean Air Act 1970, and amendments
29
Figure 2.10
9
30
Figure 2.11
The basic elements of an emission-trading program
32
Figure 2.12
Systematic approach to ambient monitoring network establishment
42
Figure 4.1
Bushveld Igneous Complex
172
Figure 4.2
General locality plan of the Rustenburg region
173
Figure 4.3
Population distribution in the Rustenburg area
174
Figure 4.4
Landuse distribution
175
Figure 4.5
Magaliesberg mountain range partially surrounding Rustenburg area
176
Figure 4.6
Magaliesberg mountain range partially surrounding Rustenburg area
176
Figure 4.7
Location of industries
177
Figure 4.8
An example of point emissions
177
Figure 4.9
An example of an area source (tailings dam)
178
Figure 4.10
Location of tarred and untarred roads
179
Figure 4.11
An example of burning tyres
179
Figure 4.12
An example of burning tyres
180
Figure 4.13
Example of Smelter emissions
180
Figure 4.14
Example of Smelter emissions
181
Figure 4.15
Example of Smelter emissions
181
Figure 4.16
Example of Smelter emissions
182
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
Figure 4.17
An example of particulate emissions inside a Smelter (furnace and
converter building)
182
Figure 5.1
Waterval Smelter and its surrounding area
183
Figure 5.2
Schematic illustration of the Anglo Platinum smelter operations
184
Figure 5.3
Example of an Furnace
184
Figure 5.4
Example of Smelter emissions
79
Figure 5.5
Furnace off-gas emissions at the Anglo Platinum Smelter in the Rustenburg area
from December 1999 to December 2002
80
Figure 5.6
Converter off-gas emissions to the main stack and Acid plant
81
Figure 5.7
Overall emissions recorded for the Main stack of Waterval Smelter
82
Figure 5.8
Ambient particulate monitoring at three monitoring stations
84
Figure 5.9
Elements identified at Waterval Smelter during the Fingerprint Survey
85
Figure 5.10
Analysis of samples taken in Waterval Smelter (2001 – 2002)
87
Figure 5.11
General locality plan for the Impala Platinum mine lease area
185
Figure 5.12
Smelter Plant flow diagram for the Impala Platinum Smelter
185
Figure 5.13
Example of a Furnace
186
Figure 5.14
Example of a Converter
186
Figure 5.15
Structure in place for gravimetric sampling at Impala Platinum Smelter
94
Figure 5.16
95
Figure 5.17
Averaged exposure to particulate concentrations by personnel working within the
Impala Platinum Smelter – 1998 to 2000
Average total dust exposure at the Impala Platinum Smelter (2000 – 2002)
Figure 5.18
Departmental structure of the Impala Platinum Smelter
96
Figure 5.19
Schematic illustration of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter operations
187
Figure 5.20
Main stack emissions from Lonmin Platinum Smelter
102
Figure 5.21
Spot readings with Dusttrack Pro conducted at 18 selected points around
Lonmin Platinum Smelter
103
Figure 5.22
Fugitive particulate measurements: mobile station
105
Figure 5.23
106
Figure 5.24
Elements present in analysis of particulate emissions from Lonmin Platinum
Smelter
Percentage value of elements present in analysis of particulate emissions
Figure 5.25
Percentage value of elements present in analysis of particulate emissions
107
Figure 6.1
Structure of the regional environmental department for the Rustenburg section
111
Figure 6.2
Sulphur Fixation Plant at Lonmin Platinum
115
Figure 6.3
Components of the Lonmin Platinum air quality management strategy
116
Figure 6.4
Air Quality Development Strategy (US Air Quality Legislation as established by
the Clean Air Act of 1970, and amendments)
118
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96
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Figure 8.1
Summarised Rustenburg Regional Air Quality Management Plan
134
Figure 8.2
A principal structure of a modern environmental surveillance and information
system
150
Figure C.1
188
Figure C.2
Framework for Air Quality Management plan development for the
Rustenburg region
Regional air quality management plan
Figure D.1
The layout of a section of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter
197
Figure H.1
Traditional production process with emissions to the atmosphere
216
Figure H.2
Clean technology, recirculation of waste materials
217
190
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1
Atmospheric Composition
3
Table 1.2
Primary and secondary pollutants
6
Table 1.3
Factors affecting atmospheric dispersion
7
Table 1.4
Potential factors in particulates which influence human health
14
Table 1.5
Factors influencing the sensitivity of plants and animals
15
Table 1.6
Air pollution affecting atmospheric conditions
17
Table 2.1
Air quality guidelines and standards for inhalable particulates (PM10)
36
Table 2.2
National guidelines for the categorisation of dust deposition
37
Table 2.3
Techniques for measuring particulates
38
Table 2.4
Comparing pollution measurement techniques
38
Table 2.5
41
Table 2.6
Purpose, relationship of the scale of representativeness and monitoring
objectives
Factors involved in meteorological stations
43
Table 2.7
Model application and functions and the order of model application
44
Table 2.8
Different types of mathematical models
46
Table 2.9
Benefits of air pollution control
47
Table 2.10
49
Table 2.11
Characteristics of particulate pollutants that can have an influence on the
effectiveness of control devices
Dust suppression for different sections of a mine
Table 2.12
Techniques commonly used to control particulate emissions in a Smelter
50
Table 3.1
Legislation and regulatory requirements pertaining to air quality
52
Table 3.2
Defining local Air Quality Management structures
59
Table 4.1
Land cover classification for the Rustenburg study area
62
Table 4.2
Estimated emission source contributions in the Rustenburg area
64
Table 4.3
Pollutant allocation for large industrial sources
64
Table 4.4
65
Table 4.5
Scheduled processes identified by Chief Air Pollution Control Officer
(CAPCO) in the Rustenburg area
Point sources of atmospheric pollution in the Rustenburg area
Table 4.6
Area sources of atmospheric pollution in the Rustenburg area
67
Table 4.7
Volume sources of atmospheric pollution in the Rustenburg area
68
Table 4.8
Pollution emission factors for domestic coal usage
68
Table 4.9
South Africa pollution emission factors for various vehicle types
69
Table 4.10
Factors taken into account when estimating particulate pollution from roads
70
49
66
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Table 4.11
Pollution emission factors for veld fires
70
Table 4.12
Atmospheric pollution from light industry in the Rustenburg area
71
Table 5.1
Parameters (indicators) monitored at Anglo Platinum between 1998 and 2001
78
Table 5.2
Anglo Platinum monitoring sites
84
Table 5.3
Information included in the daily report
92
Table 5.4
History of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter
99
Table 5.5
Measurements undertaken inside Lonmin Platinum Smelter to monitor SO2 and
particulate emissions
101
Table 6.1
110
Table 6.2
Target dates set for the planning and commissioning of the Anglo Platinum
Converting Process (ACP) project
Projected changes in emissions from the Anglo Platinum Waterval Smelter
110
Table 6.3
Provisional registration certificate for Lonmin Platinum Smelter
115
Table 8.1
Important sectors in data management
139
Table 8.2
141
Table 8.3
Different aspects that should be considered for management of a monitoring
network for Rustenburg
Important financial aspects that should be considered in the RAQMP
Table 8.4
Example of targets set for Anglo Platinum for 2000
148
Table 8.5
The three aspects of control required in the RAQMP
154
Table 8.6
Important factors that should be included in an air quality alert
154
Table 8.7
Elements that must be included in an environmental system
155
Table A.1
Symptoms in humans related to various dosages of SO2
170
Table A.2
Symptoms related to various dosages of NO2
171
Table E.1
Calculations relating to atmospheric particulates
198
Table F.1
Occupational exposure levels for various elements
200
Table F.2
Classification band
201
Table F.3
The mandatory frequency of sampling
201
Table F.4
Example of a gravimetric sampling schedule: January 2001)
204
Table F.5
Example of how statistical populations are described (Waterval Smelter:
January to June 2001)
Information given to workers of Lonmin Platinum Smelter to explain the
gravimetric sampling procedure
205
Table F.6
146
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Chapter 1
Introduction and background
1.1. Sustainable development in the mining industry
“In its latest audited figures, Anglo Platinum discloses that it pumped 12% more chemical
emissions into the Rustenburg bowl last year, releasing 68 700 tons of Sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the
atmosphere. The world’s largest Platinum producer is also accused of causing pollution so severe
that it is making children sick. Locals have started to hit back, raising the spectre of class actions and
as a last resort, threatening to force the closure of a deficient plant, in the process bringing
production to a halt. At a public meeting in Rustenburg this week, local Anglo Platinum management
admitted the pollution figures were “not a pretty picture of what is being done to the environment”.
The group’s own documentation reports a staggering increase of 1 596 level one environmental
incidents in the 12 months to end December” (Moneyweb, 2003a).
These words written about the world’s largest Platinum producer lead to a media
event with several more articles published relating the air pollution problems associated with
one of South Africa’s leading mining companies (Beeld, 2003; Business Day, 2003; Classic
fm, 2003; e tv news, 2003; Moneyweb, 2003b; Rapport, 2003) and do not seem to indicate
sustainable mining practices. The debate surrounding sustainable development in the mining
industry is a drawn-out one, which has gained considerable attention from a wide range of
parties and has prompted a number of academics, industrialists, and government employees
to provide personal viewpoints on the applicability of sustainable development to mining
(Hilson & Murck, 2000).
The World Commission on Environment and Development (also known as The
Brundtland Commission) was convened by the United Nations in 1987 and laid the
foundation for defining "Sustainable Development" in the landmark report “Our Common
Future” presented to the UN General Assembly in 1987 (WHO, 2000). The report defined
sustainable development as “development which meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987: 43).
The report, however, failed to outline effective sustainable strategies for any specific industry
to follow (Hilson & Murck, 2000), suggesting that no single blueprint for sustainability exists
(NRC, 1995 cited in Hilson & Murck, 2000: 227).
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Every industry, in addition to generic environmental complications faces industry-specific
challenges that require careful planning, tactical investment, and strategic management to overcome
(Hilson & Murck, 2000).
In the case of mining, the environmental problems resulting from
operations are well known, particularly because the industry attracts considerable public attention
with its ongoing need to obtain planning permission to change the original land use and to extract
minerals (Richards, 1996 cited in Hilson & Murck, 2000: 228), as well with its nuisance effects, such
as noise, dust and traffic (Hilson & Murck, 2000). Sustainable development in a mining context
requires commitment to continuous environmental and socio-economic improvement through
effective environmental management (Hilson & Murck, 2000). Environmental sustainability may be
compromised in the mining industry by air pollution, which is a complex problem with benefits, risks,
and costs being all-important parameters (Gerrans, 1993).
In order to fully investigate the effect air pollution may have on environmental sustainability
(the focus area of this study), it is firstly necessary to be acquainted with and to understand the
characteristics and composition of both the pollutants and the atmosphere itself.
1.2. Composition of air
Air is a mixture of gases, vapour of water and organic liquids, and particulate matter held in
suspension that surrounds the earth in a relatively thin layer (Boubel et al., 1994; Strauss &
Mainwaring, 1984). The mass of the dry atmosphere is suggested to be 5.132 x 1018 kg, with a mean
atmospheric pressure of 982.4 mb (Trenberth & Guillemot, 1994 cited in Derwent, 1997: 61). The
mean mass of water vapour in the atmosphere is 1.35 x 1016 kg (Derwent, 1997), while it's quantity
varies greatly from almost complete dryness to super-saturation; i.e., between 0% and 4% by weight
(Boubel et al., 1994).
Most of the air (95%) is located in the first 20km of the earth's atmosphere (i.e. above sea
level), above which it decreases in density until it merges into space several hundred kilometres
higher (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984).
The lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere) is
approximately 8km thick at the earth’s poles, and about twice this at the equator (Strauss &
Mainwaring, 1984). For the most part, human activities take place within the first 2km of the
atmosphere (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984).
The principal constituents of air (Table 1.1) do not react with one another under normal
circumstances (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984). There is little or no interaction between molecules of
certain atmospheric trace components, while a number of other gases present in trace quantities are
not chemically inert but interact with the biosphere, the hydrosphere and each other, and so have a
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limited residence time in the atmosphere and characteristically variable concentrations (Table 1.1)
(Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984).
Table 1.1:
Atmospheric composition (Monn (2001); Scorgie (2001a); Derwent (1997); Strauss
& Mainwaring (1984))
Chemical
Volume
Concentration
Symbol
(%)
(%)
Natural atmospheric constituents
Concentration
(ppm)
Estimated
residence time
780.900
209.400
9.300
315.000
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
20 years
Pollen, fungi, spores,
bacterial aerosols,
endotoxins,
lypposaccharides, other
biological material in
aerosols
Principal gases
78.084 ± 0.004
20.946 ± 0.002
0.934 ± 0.001
0.033 ± 0.001
Trace gases:
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Argon
Carbon dioxide
N2
O2
A
CO2
73.000
20.900
0.930
0.032
A - Non reactive
Helium
Neon
Krypton
Xenon
Hydrogen
Nitrous oxide
He
Ne
Kr
Xe
H2
N2O
5.200
18.000
0.500 - 1.100
0.080 - 0.086
0.500
0.250
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
?
8 – 10 years
B - Reactive gases
Carbon monoxide
Methane
Non-methane hydrocarbons
Nitric Oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Ammonia
Sulphur dioxide
Ozone
CO
CH4
HC
NO
NO2
NH3
SO2
O3
0.100
1.200 - 1.400
0.020
0.200 – 2.000 x 10-3
0.020 - 4.000 x 10-3
6.000 – 20.000 x 10-3
0.030 – 1.200 x 10-3
0.000 – 0.050
0.2 – 0.3 years
< 2 years
?
2 – 8 days
2 – 8 days
1 – 4 days
1 – 6 days
?
1.3. Defining air pollution
Before enforceable laws and ordinances can be formulated to control the pollution of the air,
the term air pollution must be defined (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984; Wark & Warner, 1981). One
method of defining an air pollutant is first to specify the composition of “clean” or “normal” dry
atmospheric air and then to classify all other materials or increased amounts of those materials given
in the composition of atmospheric air as pollutants if their presence results in damage to human
beings, plants, animals or materials (Wark & Warner, 1981). According to Boubel et al. (1994)
unpolluted air is a concept; i.e., what the composition of the air would be if humans and their works
were not on earth. DME (Department of Minerals and Energy) (1999) describes airborne pollutants
as any toxic, harmful, corrosive, irritant or asphyxiant, or a mixture of such pollutants; i.e. dusts,
fibres, fumes, gases, vapours, mists, aerosols or any pollutant in any other form.
Ross (1972: 19) uses the New Jersey State definition of air pollution and describes air
pollution as "the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more air contaminants in such
quantities and duration as are, or tend to be, injurious to human health or welfare, animal or plant
life or would unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life and property". Ross (1972) further
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states that an air pollutant does not have to be inhaled to be classified as an air pollutant; it becomes a
pollutant merely by being in the air. Derwent & Hertel (1998) and Derwent (1997) defines a pollutant
as a trace gas that, between the point of its emission into the atmosphere and the point of its ultimate
removal, causes harm to a target (e.g. ecosystems, materials, humans, or climate). In this thesis, air
pollution is defined as "the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants or
combinations thereof in quantities, and for durations, that may be or may tend to be injurious to a
receptor (e.g. human, plant, or animal life, or property) or would unreasonably interfere with the
enjoyment of life or property or the conduct of businesses" (adapted from Boubel et al. (1994);
Strauss & Mainwaring (1984), and Wark & Warner (1981)).
Atmospheric pollution comprises a variety of forms, namely (Anon., 1999; Strauss &
Mainwaring, 1984; Wark & Warner, 1981)
a. Particulate matter,
b. Sulphur-containing compounds,
c. Organic compounds,
d. Nitrogen-containing compounds,
e. Carbon monoxide,
Halogen compounds, and
Radioactive compounds.
The focus of discussion in this thesis is particulate matter, for which there are few data and
little published material, particularly for southern Africa.
A particle can be described as consisting of a single continuous unit of solid or liquid,
containing many molecules held together by intermolecular forces and primarily larger than molecular
dimensions (> 0.001µm) (Burger & Scorgie (2000a). A particle may also be considered to consist of
two or more such unit structures held together by interparticle adhesive forces such that it behaves as
a single unit in suspension or upon deposit (Burger & Scorgie (2000a).
The three major
characteristics of particulate pollutants are (Boubel et al., 1994):
a. Total mass concentration: to determine mass concentration, all the particulates are
removed from a known volume of air and their total mass is measured. The principal
methods for extracting particulates from an air stream are filtration and impaction.
b. Size distribution: very important in understanding the transport and removal of
particulates in the atmosphere and their deposition behaviour in the human respiratory
system.
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c. Chemical composition: may determine the type of effects caused by particulate matter on
humans, vegetation, and materials.
1.3.1 Natural versus anthropogenic pollution
Natural sources of air pollution are defined as those not caused by human activities (e.g.
natural veld fires, active volcanoes, decaying vegetation and dust storms) (Scorgie, 2001a; Boubel et
al., 1994; Anon., 1999; Roos, 1993; Wark & Warner, 1981; Stewart, 1979). Anthropogenic sources
are pollutants emitted by human activities and can be divided into three different groups (Scorgie,
2001a; Anon., 1999):
a. Industrial sources: Stationary sources that emit relatively consistent qualities and quantities of
pollutants (e.g. manufacturing products from raw materials, convert products to other products).
b. Utilities: e.g. an electric power plant generating electricity to heat and light homes in addition to
providing power for household utilities.
c. Personal sources: e.g. automobiles, home furnaces, home fireplaces and stoves, open burning of
refuse and leaves.
The total global production of pollutants from natural sources is greater than that from
anthropogenic sources, but global distribution and dispersion of those pollutants result in low average
concentrations (Wark & Warner, 1981). However, the human body does not discriminate between
sources of pollution (Stewart, 1979).
1.3.2 Primary versus secondary pollution
Primary pollutants are emitted directly from sources (Table 1.2), while secondary pollutants
are formed in the atmosphere by chemical reactions among primary pollutants and chemical species
normally found in the atmosphere (Table 1.2) (Roos, 1993; Bridgman, 1990; Strauss & Mainwaring,
1984; Wark & Warner, 1981). The global emissions of natural particulates are mainly primary,
whereas, anthropogenic emissions are predominantly secondary (Querol et al., 2001).
The mix of pollutants in the air is never constant or straightforward and the damage observed
in a particular situation is often the result of more than one pollutant acting together (Strauss &
Mainwaring, 1984). A synergistic interaction can occur where the total effect is enhanced over and
above the sum of the effects of the individual pollutants present (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984).
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Table 1.2:
Primary and secondary pollutants (Wark & Warner (1981))
Class
Sulphur containing compounds
Organic compounds
Nitrogen containing compounds
Oxides of carbon
Halogen
Primary pollutants
SO2, H2S
C1 – C5 compounds
NO, NH3
CO, (CO2)
HCL, HF
Secondary pollutants
SO3, H2SO4, MSO4
Ketones, aldehydes, acids
NO2, MNO3
None
None
1.3.3 Criteria vs non-criteria pollutants
Criteria pollutants are described as “traditional” pollutants that are widespread, common
pollutants known to be harmful to human health and welfare (Scorgie, 2001a). The term "criteria"
was developed after legislation in various countries required authorities to evaluate the potential
health effects of pollutants and to issue a criteria document at various intervals (Scorgie, 2001a). In
South Africa, the term was applied by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT)
to five pollutants (SO2, CO, Pb, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter) (Scorgie, 2001a).
1.3.4 Scale and transport of air pollution
Problems of air pollution can be divided according to the spatial scale of the occurrence,
namely (Derwent, 1997; Boubel et al., 1994; Bridgman, 1990):
a. Local (up to 5km): local transport occurring from individual point or line sources out to a few
kilometres; mainly associated with plumes.
b. Urban: transport occurring from individual point or line sources to 50 km.
c. Regional scale (50 – 500 km): regional scale transport occurs to distances less than a thousand
kilometres. At this scale, individual plumes are merging, and the distance allows a relatively
uniform profile to develop after about one or two hours.
d. Continental scales (500 to several thousand kilometres): sub-continental and continental scale
transport occurs over several hundred to a few thousand kilometres. The pollution experiences
several diurnal cycles and interchange of pollution between the Troposphere and Stratosphere is
possible.
e. Global (worldwide): global transport extends from a few thousand kilometres to the entire
atmosphere; the emission source and target ecosystem being harmed are in different continents or
hemispheres.
Action to control air pollution was initially conducted only at national levels, ignoring the
import or export of air pollution across national frontiers (WHO, 2000).
Acid deposition,
photochemical oxidants, and accidental releases of ionising radiation and toxic chemicals first became
international issues during the 1970’s (WHO, 2000). The recognition that air pollution does not
respect national frontiers has led to considerable action, although still at an early stage, to develop
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international approaches to the management of air quality (principles, international agreements and
treaties) (WHO, 2000).
Factors influencing the transport of air pollutants from the source to the receptor are (Boubel
et al., 1994; Stewart, 1979):
a. Wind velocity (wind direction and wind speed),
b. Turbulence,
c. Temperature inversions,
d. Topography,
e. Humidity, and
f.
Rainfall.
1.3.5 Absorption and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere
The general effect of emissions on atmospheric pollution depends on the average life
of pollutants in the atmosphere (Stewart, 1979; Inman et al, 1971 cited in Wark & Warner,
1981: 2). The mechanisms whereby pollutants are removed from the atmosphere are called
scavenging mechanisms (Boubel et al., 1994). Except for fine particulate matter (0.2 µm or
less) that may remain airborne for long periods of time, and gases such as CO, which do not
react readily, most airborne pollutants are eventually removed from the atmosphere by
sedimentation (settling by gravity), reaction (transformation), dry or wet deposition and
dispersion (Table 1.3) (Egenes, 1999; Boubel et al., 1994).
Table 1.3:
Factors affecting atmospheric dispersion (Scorgie (2001a); Preston-Whyte
& Tyson (1988)).
Horizontal dispersion
Wind speed
Wind direction
Vertical dispersion
Mechanical turbulence
Thermal turbulence
Mixing depth
The rate and means by which air pollutants disperse in the atmosphere depends on the
state of the atmosphere, particularly within the earth’s boundary layer where thermal
(convective) and mechanical processes dominate (Turner et al., 1995). Six types of plume
behaviour can occur (Scorgie, 2001a; Egenes, 1999; Somers, 1971):
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1.3.5.1 Looping
Looping (strong lapse condition) occurs during unstable conditions of a light wind on
a hot summer afternoon, when the large-scale eddying carries portions of the plume pattern
(Fig. 1.1a). The result is that very large momentary pollution concentrations can be recorded
near the chimneystack with lower concentrations encountered at distances from the stack.
1.3.5.2 Fanning
Fanning is an inversion condition that occurs with the onset of a temperature
inversion in the presence of light winds. With the onset of winter and towards evening, the
warm ground will cool off more rapidly due to surface radiation than will the air above it.
The temperature gradient reverses and the temperature rises with an increase in altitude,
which results in the plume being transported intact for great distances without reaching the
ground. Ground concentrations are only detected a considerable distance downwind from the
stack (Fig. 1.1b).
1.3.5.3 Fumigation
On hot days with clear skies and light winds the condition known as fumigation
(lapse below, inversion aloft) can occur (Fig. 1.1c). Fumigation is the most severe pollution
condition where the chimney plume will reach the ground nearby causing high ground level
concentrations normally towards midday. As evening approaches the ground cools off again
and the whole cycle may repeat itself.
1.3.5.4 Trapping
When South Africa experiences a low-pressure condition at altitude during the winter
months a second inversion or boundary layer can develop (subsidence inversion) above
which pollutants will not be carried. When a pollutant is emitted into an unstable layer of air
trapped between an inversion layer and the ground, trapping (lapse below, inversion aloft)
occurs (Fig. 1.1d).
1.3.5.5 Coning
Coning (lapse condition) occurs with the same temperature profile conditions as
looping, but under cloudy or very windy conditions which gives rise to a more elevated and
concentrated pollution pattern due to the action of the wind (Fig. 1.1e).
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1.3.5.6 Lofting
Lofting (inversion below, lapse aloft) occurs when the stack (above 250 metres)
exhausts above an inversion and no pollution will reach the ground. This situation will occur
after sunset during winter. Alternatively low level emissions from domestic fires, motor
vehicles, smouldering coal discard dumps and small industry will be trapped under the ceiling
caused by the inversion and not penetrate it. Pollution levels will then build up to unpleasant
(Fig. 1.1f).
a. Weak lapse condition: Looping
b.
Inversion condition: Fanning
c. Lapse below, inversion aloft: Fumigation
Trapping
d.
Weak lapse below, inversion aloft:
e. Strong lapse condition: Coning
f.
Inversion below, lapse aloft: Lofting
Figure 1.1:
Dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere (Broken lines: Dry adiabatic
lapse rate; Full lines: Existing lapse rates) (Scorgie (2001a); Boubel et al.
(1994); Bierly & Hewson (1962)).
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1.4. History of air pollution research
Although air pollution (as defined above) has become a very serious and prominent issue
during the last part of the twentieth century, it has affected human beings long before then, as can be
seen from the following discussion.
1.4.1 The global situation before the industrial revolution
From the time that early humans learned to use fire, the air inside living quarters has been
filled with the products of incomplete combustion (Boubel et al., 1994). The principal industries
associated with air pollution in the period preceding the Industrial Revolution were metallurgy,
ceramics, and preservation of animal products (Boubel et al., 1994). One of the reasons that people of
early history were nomadic was to periodically move away from the waste they generated (Boubel et
al., 1994).
1.4.2 The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution formed the foundation of the current technological society and was
the consequence of steam used to provide power for pumping water and moving machinery (Boubel et
al., 1994; Wark & Warner, 1981). During most of the Nineteenth Century, coal was the principal
fuel, although oil was used for steam generation late in the period (Boubel et al., 1994). In England,
Richard II and later Henry V took steps to regulate and restrict the use of coal (Stern, 1968 cited in
Wark & Warner, 1981: 1). One of the earliest legal attempts to control air pollution in the United
States is thought to be an 1895 ordinance that criminalized visible exhaust vapour from steam
automobiles (Wark & Warner, 1981).
1.4.3 The Twentieth Century
From 1900-1925, changes occurred in the technology of both the production of air pollution
and its engineering control, but no significant changes took place with regard to legislation,
regulations, an understanding of the problem, or public attitudes (Boubel et al., 1994). Although the
severity of pollution increased as cities and factories grew larger, people only became aware that
human activities could affect the global atmosphere during the late 1940’s and early 1950’s when
many of the present-day air pollution problems and solutions to these problems emerged (Boubel et
al., 1994). Only from 1950 onwards were national air pollution control legislation and regulations
adopted and enacted anywhere in the world (Boubel et al., 1994). During the 1970’s and 1980’s the
total environmental approach emerged with large regional to global scale air quality projects
involving multidisciplinary research beginning (Derwent, 1997; Boubel et al., 1994; Bridgman,
1990). By 1980, mathematical models of the polluting of the atmosphere were being developed, air
quality monitoring systems became operational throughout the world and a wide variety of measuring
instruments became available (Boubel et al., 1994).
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The 1990’s saw the emergence of two distinct, but closely related, global environmental
crises, namely uncontrolled global climate changes and stratospheric ozone depletion (Boubel et al.,
1994). Zannetti et al. (1993) identified five different trends in the study of air pollution as evident
during the 1990’s:
a. Movement of interest from local problems to regional, continental, and global issues. Indoor air
quality problems have emerged as a major issue in relation to human health.
b. Several computer revolutions have affected the way the atmosphere and environment have been
studied in general (e.g. advanced 3D numerical models).
c. A few decades ago only industrialized countries were polluted, while today the worst air pollution
problems are often found in the Third World.
d. The type of pollution of concern has changed; secondary pollutants have become the major source
of concern.
e. Environmental laws and regulations have become a determining factor in the evolution of
atmospheric sciences.
Good air quality is essential for the health of people and the environment, and although
significant improvements have been made in many countries over the last 20 to 30 years, air quality
remains a priority issue on most national environmental agendas (Mitchell et al., 2000).
1.5. Air pollutants and their effects
According to Boubel et al. (1994), the harmful effects of air pollutants on human beings have
been the major reason for efforts to understand and control the sources of air pollution. This section
focuses on the impact of air pollution in general and specifically of particulate pollution on humans
and the environment. Information about the effect of SO2, Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and
hydrocarbons can be found in Appendix A.
In assessing the impact of airborne particulates (>0.01 µm; <50 µm in diameter) it is
necessary to distinguish between particle size fractions (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a):
a. Total suspended particulates (TSP): usually taken into account in the assessment of dust
deposition potentials.
b. Inhalable particulates (PM10): particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 µm.
Simulated in order to characterise health impacts.
c. Respirable particulates (PM2.5): particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm.
Simulated in order to characterise health impacts.
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Fine (<2.5 µm) and coarse (> 2.5 µm) particulates represent two different sets of
pollutants with different emission sources, chemical composition and spatial and temporal
behaviour (Monn, 2001).
1.5.1. Effects on human health and welfare
The health impacts of air pollutants can manifest in the respiratory system, immune system,
skin and mucusal tissues, sensory system, central and peripheral nervous system and the
cardiovascular system (Schwela, 1998). The impact of anthropogenic air pollution on health can be
explained through three complex reactions (Stewart, 1979):
a. The relationship between pollutant emission and ambient air pollution,
b. The relationship between ambient air pollution and exposure of the population, and
c. The relationship between exposure and impacts on health.
1.5.1.1 Respiratory and lung diseases
According to Ayres (1997), lung diseases are the major area for concern regarding air
pollution. Humans normally present only limited areas of skin to the atmosphere but each day inhale
about 7500 litres of air so that the lungs and respiratory system are in contact with, and have the
potential to retain, whatever harmful substances might be contained in that air (Strauss &
Mainwaring, 1984). The receptor population in an urban location includes a wide spectrum of
demographic traits with respect to age, gender, and health status (Boubel et al., 1994). Certain
sensitive subpopulations have been identified (Boubel et al., 1994):
a. Very young children (respiratory and circulatory systems are still undergoing maturation),
b. The elderly (respiratory and circulatory systems function poorly), and
c. Persons with pre-existing diseases (e.g. asthma, emphysema and heart diseases).
A considerable body of evidence suggests that day to day changes in air pollution can cause
minor changes in symptoms and lung function in both children and adults with asthma, but there is
very limited evidence to suggest that individuals exposed to air pollution in the long term are more
likely to become asthmatic than those that had not been so exposed (COMEOAP, 1995 cited in Ayres,
1997: 72). There are many factors that are responsible for respiratory ill health, notably cigarette
smoke, allergen exposure and viral infections (Ayres, 1997). Consequently it becomes increasingly
important when trying to assess the size of health effects from air pollution to ensure that all other
contributory factors have been adequately assessed (Ayres, 1997). Another factor that would seem to
be important is the time spent breathing indoor as opposed to outdoor air (Ayres, 1997). The vast
majority, probably 80-90%, of our time is spent indoors, but penetration of air pollution from
outdoors inwards is significant for many pollutants (Schwela, 1998; Ayres, 1997).
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The bulk of respiratory diseases emanate from the upper respiratory tract (nasal disease, sore
throats, tonsillitis) (Ayres, 1997). Health effects of air pollution on the lower respiratory tract include
acute and chronic changes in pulmonary function, increased incidence and prevalence of respiratory
symptoms, sensitisation of airways to allergens present in the indoor environment and exacerbation of
respiratory infections such as rhinitis, sinusivitis, pneumonia, alveolitis, legionnaires disease
(Schwela, 1998; Ayres, 1997; Stewart, 1979).
Nasal openings permit inhalable (larger) particulates, along with respirable (much
smaller) particulates, to enter the respiratory system (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Boubel et al.,
1994; Ross, 1972). Larger particulates are deposited in the nasal region by impaction on the
hairs of the nose or at the bends of the nasal passages, while over 50 percent of smaller
particulates pass through the nasal region and are deposited in the tracheobronchial and
pulmonary regions (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Boubel et al., 1994; Burchard, 1974 cited in
Wark & Warner, 1981: 18). The respiratory system has several efficient mechanisms for
removing deposited particulates from the upper airways (e.g. nose blowing, sneezing,
coughing, swallowing, mucociliary escalator) (Boubel et al., 1994; Egenes, 1999; American
Lung Association, 1978 cited in Boubel et al., 1994: 105). The smaller particulates are
removed through Brownian motion, but the very small particulates (<0.07 µm) cannot be
expelled from the lungs after being inhaled and are likely an important contributing factor to
respiratory diseases (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Egenes, 1999; Schwartz et al., 1996 cited in
Lee & Kang, 2001: 740; Pope et al., 1995a cited in Lee & Kang, 2001: 740; Reichardt, 1995
cited in Lee & Kang, 2001: 741; Boubel et al., 1994; Dockery and Pope, 1994 cited in Burger
& Scorgie, 2000b: 21; Ross, 1972).
1.5.1.2 Immune system
Health effects of air pollution on immune system allergies manifest themselves in
exacerbation of allergic asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivits, extrinsic allergic alveolitis or
hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and can produce permanent lung damage in sensitised individuals
including pulmonary insufficiency (Schwela, 1998).
1.5.1.3 Skin
Health effects of air pollution on the skin and on mucusal tissues (eyes, nose, throat) are
mostly irritating effects (Schwela, 1998). Primary sensory irritation includes dry, and/or sore throat,
tingling sensation of nose, and watering and painful eyes (Schwela, 1998). Secondary irritation is
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characterized by edema and inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes up to irreversible
changes in these organs (Schwela, 1998).
1.5.1.4 Central nervous system
Effects of air pollution on the central nervous system manifest themselves in damage of nerve
cells, either toxic or hypoxia/anoxia (Schwela, 1998). Changes caused by lead (Pb) can result in
developmental retardation and irreversible neurophysiological deficiencies in infants and young
children (Schwela, 1998).
1.5.1.5 Cardiovascular systems
Effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular systems develop through reduced oxygenation
and result in increased incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction,
and consequent increase in mortality (Schwela, 1998; Ayres, 1997; Stewart, 1979).
1.5.1.6 Carcinogenic effects
Carcinogenic effects of air pollution are associated with lung cancer, skin cancer, and
leukaemia (Schwela, 1998; Stewart, 1979).
Atmospheric particulates have proven to have a major impact on human health (Table 1.4)
(Houthuijs et al., 2001; Mitchell et al., 2000; Dockery & Pope, 1996 cited in Querol et al., 2001: 845;
Boubel et al., 1994). Various epidemiological studies have been conducted showing the adverse
effect of particulates on respiratory health in the short and long-term (e.g. Mintek in Mpumalanga;
CSIR, Medical Research Council and the Department of Health in the Vaal Triangle; studies in
Western Europe and the United States) (Egenes, 1999; Ostro et al., 1999 cited in Houthuijs et al.,
2001: 2758; Abbey et al., 1998 cited in Houthuijs et al., 2001: 2758; Pope et al., 1995b cited in
Houthuijs et al., 2001: 2758; Krige, 1994). The majority of international studies have been conducted
in North America and Western Europe with less in Central and Eastern Europe due to limited
resources and the absence of reliable air pollution data and health statistics (Houthuijs et al., 2001).
Table 1.4:
Potential factors in particulates which influence human health (Rylander (1998)
cited in Monn (2001); Peters et al. (1997) cited in Monn (2001); Pritchard et al.
(1996) cited in Monn (2001)).
Physical properties
Chemical composition
Biological species
Size mode, number,
volume
Ionic compounds
(Nitrates, sulphates, acids)
Hydrophobicity /
philicity
Transition metals
(e.g. Fe, V, Cr)
Allergens (pollen, fungal spores, glucans)
Electrostatic forces
Carbonaceous material
(PAH; elemental carbon)
Bacterial and bacterial structures
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The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) has undertaken an extensive review
of epidemiological studies conducted throughout the world with regard to the relationship between
particulate concentrations and human health (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000b).
The conclusion reached was that daily or short-term variations in particulate matter, as PM10 or PM2.5,
were significantly associated with increases in all-cause mortality in 18 studies carried out in 20 cities
across North and South America, England and Europe (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger & Scorgie,
2000b). Results suggested that health effects are more strongly associated with exposure to airborne
particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) than with the coarse fraction of 10.0 µm (PM10) (Wilson &
Suh, 1997 cited in Houthuijs et al., 2001: 2758). The CEPA could find no evidence of a threshold in
the relationship between particulate concentrations and adverse human health effects, with estimates
of mortality and morbidity increasing with increasing concentrations (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a;
Burger & Scorgie, 2000b; Wark & Warner, 1981). The length of time of exposure is important (Wark
& Warner, 1981).
1.5.2 Effects on vegetation and animals
In addition to the damage which air pollution causes in the human organism, it causes similar,
and in some cases, more severe damage to animals and plant life (Table 1.5) (Ross, 1972). Small
animals have a lower tolerance level for most of the deadly insecticides than humans, simply on the
basis of total body weight and blood content (Ross, 1972). An indirect effect of air pollutants that has
been observed for a considerable time is animals consuming air pollutants deposited on, or stored by
plants usually near Smelters treating non-ferrous ores, and near factories (Strauss & Mainwaring,
1984; Wark & Warner, 1981). Cattle and sheep that have ingested vegetation on which arseniccontaining particulates have settled have been victims of arsenic poisoning (NAPCA, 1970 cited in
Wark & Warner, 1981: 18).
Table 1.5:
Factors influencing the sensitivity of plants and animals (Mellanby (1988);
Strauss & Mainwaring (1984); Ross (1972)).
Type of pollutant
Concentration
Meteorological factors
Season
Number of pollutants
The length of time of exposure
Plant air pollutants can be categorised as primary pollutants (which are lethal to plants as they
originate from the source), and secondary pollutants (which are formed through reaction of pollutants
from the source) (Ross, 1972). Among the most frequently encountered gases toxic to vegetation are
SO2, ozone, PAN, hydrogen fluoride, ethylene, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, and
ammonia (Wark & Warner, 1981). Each pollutant, or combination of pollutants, will produce a
certain pattern of injury, which leaves graphic records of the level and type of pollutant (Ross, 1972).
In some instances the destruction of vegetation has been followed by soil erosion, which has
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prevented recovery (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984).
Air pollution affects plants in two ways:
incidence of high pollution causes visible damage, but also, chronic sub lethal levels of air pollutants
contribute to the eventual destruction of the plants’ physiological life process, affecting the growth,
productivity, and quality of vegetation (Ross, 1972).
Particulates are less toxic to plants, as they are deposited on the hard, waxy upper surface of
the leaves but may cause injury to vegetation both directly and indirectly (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a;
Burger & Scorgie, 2000b; Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984). Particulates can enter the food chain if
animals consume the carriers (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984). Plant responses, which have been
observed, include: reduction in yield and growth without visible injury, increased disease incidence,
injury to leaf cells and suppression of photosynthesis (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger & Scorgie,
2000b). Particulates can also act as nuclei onto which ammonia, sulphuric acid and hydrogen fluoride
may adhere, forming acidic dust, which can burn plant leaves (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger &
Scorgie, 2000b).
1.5.3 Effects on materials and structures
Depending upon their chemical composition and physical state, particulates cause
wide damage to materials (Wark & Warner, 1981). Particulates will soil painted surfaces,
clothing, and curtains merely by settling on them (Wark & Warner, 1981). More importantly,
particulate matter can cause direct chemical damage either by intrinsic corrosiveness or by
the action of corrosive chemicals absorbed or adsorbed, by inert particulates emitted into the
atmosphere (Burger & Scorgie, 2000; Wark & Warner, 1981). Metals ordinarily can resist
corrosion in dry air alone or even in clean moist air, but hydroscopic particulates commonly
found in the atmosphere can corrode metal surfaces with no other pollutants present (Wark &
Warner, 1981). Particulate matter may affect the appearance and durability of paint (Burger
& Scorgie, 2000a; Harrison, 1990 cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000b: 21). Effects on paints
include soiling, discoloration, and loss of gloss due to the accumulation of particulates
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Harrison, 1990 cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000b: 21).
Particulates may also cause chemical deterioration of freshly applied paints that have not
completely dried (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Harrison, 1990 cited in Burger & Scorgie,
2000b: 21). Ambient concentrations of particulates may impact negatively on sensitive
industries, e.g. bakeries or textile industries (Harrison, 1990 cited in Burger & Scorgie,
2000a: 3-16).
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1.5.4 Effects on the atmosphere
Air pollution has a definite effect on the atmosphere (Table 1.6).
Table 1.6:
Precipitation
Fog
Violent
Weather
Solar
Radiation
Ventilation
Visibility
Air pollution affecting atmospheric conditions (Burger & Scorgie (2000a); Burger
& Scorgie (2000b); Boubel et al. (1994); Bridgman (1990); Wark & Warner (1981);
Ross (1972)).
Depending on its concentration, pollution can have opposite effects on the precipitation process. While pollution
can and does cause more rainfall it can also have the opposite effect when clouds become so over seeded that
no rain falls (pollution creates so many dust particulates that they cannot attract enough water vapour to grow to
raindrop size).
The increased number of nuclei in polluted urban atmospheres can cause dense persistent fogs due to the
many small droplets formed.
Thunderstorms are found more frequently in heavily polluted areas than in non-polluted ones. Hailstorms are
also directly associated with pollution.
Heavy smog has decreased ultraviolet radiation by as much as 90%. Pollution can reradiate heat back to
metropolitan areas and causes cities and suburban areas to become warmer over the years. Pollution also
shuts out sunlight form cities and suburban areas.
If air movement past a continuous pollutant source is slow, pollutant concentrations in the plume moving
downwind will be much higher than they would be if the air were moving rapidly past the source. If polluted air
continues to have pollution added to it, the concentration will increase. Generally, a source emits into different
volumes of air over time. However, there can be a build-up of concentration over time even with significant air
motion if there are many sources.
A function of the number of aerosols, their chemical and physical characteristics, and humidity. Visibility is
defined as a measure of the contrast of an object against its background. Aerosols act as interference to good
visibility by scattering sunlight, creating diffusion that limits contrast. Reduction in visibility not only is unpleasing
to an individual, but also may have strong psychological effects. In addition, certain hazards arise; in areas
influenced by emissions sources, rapid changes in visibility can occur over short distances, associated with
variations in aerosol characteristics. Costs are associated with the loss of visibility, including: the need for
artificial illumination and heating; delays, disruption and accidents involving traffic; vegetation growth reduction
associated with reduced photosynthesis; and commercial losses associated with aesthetics.
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Chapter 2
The current international situation and management of airborne pollutants
As seen from Chapter 1, airborne pollutants and particularly those in the mining industry can
contribute towards a decline in environmental and human health, while at the same time jeopardising
the potential for sustainable development.
The management of airborne pollutants (air quality
management) requires further investigation to identify potential concerns and, therefore, improved
procedures and strategies for alleviating problems regarding environmental and human health. In
Chapter 2 the existing international situation is investigated with the latest legislation and
management practices regarding air pollution for South Africa being discussed in Chapter 3.
2.1. Defining air quality management
Although there is no universally agreed definition of air quality management (AQM), certain
ideas have been proposed that adequately embody part of such a definition (Longhurst et al., 1996).
Laxen (1993, cited in Longhurst, 1996: 3980) considers air quality management to be “the application
of a systematic approach to the control of air quality issues”. A fuller definition would need to
incorporate aspects of integration, cooperation and communication as a system “on which all the
factors determining air quality are considered in an integrated way” (Williams, 1986 cited in
Longhurst, 1996: 3980). Griffin (1994, cited in Longhurst, 1996: 3980) identifies a strong correlation
between general management and the approaches taken in air quality management, which comprise
five steps: definition, planning, control, implementation, and evaluation (Longhurst et al., 1996).
The goal of air quality management is to maintain a quality of air that protects human health
and welfare, animals, plants (crops, forests and natural vegetation), ecosystems, materials and
aesthetics (WHO, 2000). The foundation for achieving this goal is the development of policies and
strategies; without a suitable policy framework (which include policies in several areas) and adequate
legislation it is difficult to maintain an active or successful air quality management programme
(WHO, 2000). When goals and policies have been developed, the next stage is the development of a
strategy or plan, where it is necessary to consider both the role and control ability of the various air
quality managing agencies (WHO, 2000; Longhurst et al., 1996).
There are numerous ways to envisage an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) (Longhurst
et al., 1996). Figure 2.1 represents the empirical component of an air quality planning system after
which progression towards a fully functioning AQMP moves into the realms of the political process
(Longhurst et al., 1996). The operation of a successful AQMP requires a set of mutually agreed goals
and a shared vision amongst the various agencies involved (Longhurst et al., 1996).
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Figure 2.1: Stages involved in the development of an air quality management strategy (WHO,
2000).
Specify air quality
standards & goals
Compile an inventory
of source emissions
Monitor meteorological
conditions
Monitor air pollution
concentrations
Apply model to calculate air quality
Devise a set of emission control tactics to achieve air quality standards
Enforce emission control tactics
Air quality standards achieved
Air quality standards not achieved
An AQMP provides opportunities for setting air quality standards or guidelines, new
possibilities for public information and education and new mechanisms for the integration of a wide
range of local authority and national policies (Longhurst et al., 1996). The plan needs to be flexible to
allow modifications for new knowledge about emissions or concentrations yet provide a suitable
framework within which all groups can co-exist (Longhurst et al., 1996).
The involvement of
agencies at a number of levels is important, ideally, an AQMP at the local scale would be a tier of a
regional plan, which is in turn part of a national plan (Longhurst et al., 1996).
2.2 Components of an Air Quality Management Plan
The following section consists of six examples of AQMP’s (Fig. 2.2 – Fig. 2.7). The plans
have been developed during the period 1993 to 2001 and vary in detail and length. One of the plans is
very short and only outlines the basic principles with not much detail included (Fig. 2.7). Two of the
plans are complicated and include a number of different role players (Fig. 2.4 and Fig. 2.5). Most of
the plans are in a linear form (Fig. 2.2, Fig. 2.3, Fig. 2.6 and Fig. 2.7).
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Adopt air quality standards
Monitor
Identify/measure emissions
Determine needed reductions and means to accomplish
Identify/measure emissions
Implement enforcement
Figure 2.2:
Air Quality Management Plan 1 (Guzmàn & Streit, 1993).
Environmental reporting
Public participation
Air quality and exposure characterisation
Figure 2.3:
Identify emission reduction strategies
Identify areas, pollutants and sources of concern (requiring action)
Cost Benefit Analysis and prioritisation of strategies
Action plan development and implementation
Ongoing assessment of progress (against performance indicators)
Air Quality Management Plan 2 (Scorgie, 2001a).
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Source information for all source types
Emissions
Inventory
Emissions
Inventory
Data analysis
and reporting
Environmental
reporting
Emissions
Inventory
Dispersion
modelling
Ambient air
concentration / deposition
Emission reduction strategy
evaluation and prioritisation
Emissions
Inventory
Exposure
assessment
Environmental and
health risks
Damage
Assessment
Cost benefit Analysis
Data inputs
Data bases
Models and tools
Enabling outputs
Decision-making and review procedure
Figure 2.4:
Air Quality Management Plan 3 (Scorgie, 2001a).
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Governmental Bodies
Supra-National: European community
National: Department of Environment
Legislation
Guidance
Notification
Local Government
Initial review and goal setting
Monitoring &
forecasting
“What if” scenarios
Policy proposals and assessment
Policy implementation
External Actors and agencies
Modelling
Air quality alert
Optional local air quality standards
National Air Quality standards
Emissions
estimates
Assessment
of situation
Choice of
appropriate
responses
Evaluation
Formalised lines of
communication
Regular Information
Public domain
Figure 2.5:
Public warning
Air Quality Management Plan 4 (Longhurst et al., 1996).
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Quantifying sources
Assessment
Identifying sources
Emission
inventory
University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
•
Assessing the exposure (impact) situation
•
Identifying source – exposure relations
•
Estimating the relative importance of various air pollution
Modelling
Monitoring air pollution
Assessing environmental damage
•
Control
sources
Investigating short and long term control (abatement)
options including urban planning needs
•
Performing cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness analysis
•
Developing a control strategy and an investment plan
•
Developing institutions / regulations / enforcement
•
Awareness raising
Figure 2.6(7)
Air Quality
Management
6 (AQIS)
Establishing
an Air Quality
InformationPlan
System
Figure 2.6:
Surveillance
Source: Larssen (1998 cited in Fenger et al., 1998:300)
Air Quality Management Plan 5 (Scorgie, 2001a).
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Air pollutant concentrations and effects
Transportation & Transformation
Control strategies and evaluations
Legislation & enforcement
Sources & emissions
Figure 2.7:
Air Quality Management Plan 6 (Griffin, 1994 cited in Longhurst et al., 1996:
3980).
2.2.1 Discussion
The AQMP’s display a variety of different ideas and approaches. Some of the most
important are:
a. Identification and quantification of pollution emissions (inventory),
b. Devising of control tactics and strategies (needed reductions and means to accomplish it),
c. Enforcement of the control tactics,
d. Evaluation and assessment of the tactics (are standards achieved or not?),
e. Public participation, and
f. Cost-benefit analyses.
Not all of the above aspects are included in all of the plans, which may lead to varying
success in the implementation of the plans. The only aspect that is included in all of the plans
is the evaluation and assessment of the process (i.e. were the standards achieved or not?).
Figure 2.4, Figure 2.5 and Figure 2.6 represent the AQMP’s with the most detail
included; these plans involve a number of different role players (e.g. national government,
local government, public and industries). This will ensure that all the important aspects are
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covered but can give rise to expensive and complicated implementation of the plan. Two of
these plans are non-linear which imply that different role players can have an influence on a
specific section of the plan at the same time (Fig. 2.4 and Fig 2.5).
Except for the
management plans represented by Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.5, all of the plans are circular
which ensures that problems can be solved and the process improved and refined over a
period of time. The AQM plan represented by Figure 2.3 has two features (environmental
reporting and public participation), which impacts on every step of the process and have to be
taken into consideration constantly.
An important aspect that is included in three of the plans (Fig. 2.3, Fig. 2.4 and Fig.
2.6) is a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Financial issues are very important and should always
be included in a plan to ensure that all the steps of the plan can be implemented without
having to change because of financial limitations. It further assures that sufficient money is
spent on air quality management; an aspect often neglected. Another important aspect that is
only included in three of the plans is public participation (Fig. 2.3, Fig. 2.5 and Fig. 2.6). The
input of the public is crucial to the success of an AQMP since they will be greatly affected by
the decisions made through the plan. Raising public awareness about air quality management
can be combined with public participation as is done in the plan represented by Figure 2.6.
Reporting (internally as well as externally) is not often addressed in AQMP’s and is only a
component of two of the above models (Fig. 2.3 and Fig. 2.4).
Measuring and monitoring of emissions, as well as the modelling of possible future
scenarios are specifics that need to be included in every AQMP, although it is not always
done (e.g. Fig. 2.2, Fig. 2.3 and Fig. 2.7). The above three aspects are crucial to determining
the level of pollution in an area and testing possible methodologies that may be used to
reduce emissions. It is important to model results of possible scenarios (“what if” – Fig. 2.5)
particularly when developing contingency plans. An air quality alert (how to handle an
emergency situation) only appears once (Fig. 2.6); this is one of the most important
considerations in an AQMP, since there will always be situations where problems arise and a
definitive plan is required to solve such a situation.
It is important that the steps included in an AQMP come to a logical conclusion. The
order of actions in the AQMP’s included differs significantly, which places doubt over the
efficiency of the different plans. The setting of standards is the first step in some models (e.g.
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Fig. 2.1 and Fig. 2.2) but only appears later in others (e.g. Fig. 2.5). In all the plans included,
the development of an emission inventory is either the first or the second point of action.
2.3 International management of air quality
The specific air quality management of different countries will be discussed in the next
section. There a however some trends in the international management of air quality that is applicable
worldwide (Scorgie, 2001a):
a. Decentralization of air quality management (air quality management districts in the United States;
non-attainment areas in Europe and local air quality management areas in the United Kingdom),
b. Development and implementation of plans for non-attainment areas,
c. Management of all pollution sources,
d. A shift from source-based to a receiving environment approach,
e. The existence of multiple levels of ambient air quality standards (limit values, target values, alert
thresholds, prevention of significant decline, move towards “banding”),
f.
Mandatory air quality monitoring in non-attainment areas,
g. Standardization of monitoring and modelling, and
h. Easy public access to information.
2.3.1 European community ambient air quality directive
In June 1995 the European Union Environmental Council published a Directive on Ambient
Air Quality Assessment and Management (96/62/EC) (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997), which is
commonly known as the Ambient Air Quality Framework Directive (Beattie et al., 2001). The
document consists of 10 articles that start with the objectives of the Directive and definitions of key
words and further addresses ambient air quality assessment and management (Mitchell et al., 2000;
Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). Twelve pollutants were identified for which target and limit values were
set in subsequent daughter directives (Mitchell et al., 2000; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997); these
directives set the framework in which the air quality management within member states must operate,
but it is up to each country to decide how best to achieve the directive limit values (Mitchell et al.,
2000). The daughter directive on SO2, NO2, particulates and Pb, for example, sets legally binding
limits that must be achieved by 1 January 2005 and 2010 (Mitchell et al., 2000).
2.3.2 United Kingdom: The effects based approach
In the early 1990's episodes of poor air quality in the urban areas of the United Kingdom
indicated that the existing framework for the control of air quality was inadequate (Longhurst et al.,
1996). The legislative framework, based largely on particular source emission controls and "dilute
and disperse" approaches (Hughes, 1992 cited in Longhurst et al., 1996: 3975), did not have the
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policy tools to provide an effective response (Vogel, 1986 cited in Longhurst et al., 1996: 3975).
Different emission sources tended to be controlled by separate government departments and their
associated agencies, which resulted in a fragmented approach to air pollution control (Longhurst et
al., 1996). Along with more general air quality issues that were widely publicised in the media, the
public concern and demands for more information about the potential risks rose (Longhurst et al.,
1996). To address these problems a discussion document “Improving Air Quality” (IM94) was
published in which the following issues were discussed (Beattie et al., 2001; Annegarn & Scorgie,
1997):
a. The reasons for a shift from a source based control policy to an effects based approach,
b. Air quality standards and their limitations,
c. Frameworks for standards and considerations in setting standards,
d. All the details and principles in the EU Directive,
e. Links between local air quality and land use planning,
f.
Links between air quality and transportation planning,
g. The role of pollution monitoring and public information, and
h. Appropriate roles for local authorities in planning and implementing control measures within the
defined air quality management areas.
The above document resulted in the AQM framework legislated through the Environmental
Act 1995 and required the National Air Quality Strategy to be published (Fig. 2.8) (Beattie et al.,
2001).
Government
National Central
Air Quality
Strategy objectives
1997
Periodic review
Local authority
(Environmental health)
Consult transport
planners, land use
planners, health
authorities, etc.
Review and Assessment (3 stages)
Air Quality Objectives achieved?
Yes
No
AQMA
Action plan
Figure 2.8:
2005
The NAQS as local authorities currently implement it (Beattie et al., 2001).
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The NAQS required the implementation of Air Quality Regulations (1997), which meant that
all unitary local authorities had to review and assess the air quality within their boundaries and
implement sustainable pollution reduction strategies in areas where health-based national air quality
targets and objectives are predicted not to be met by the year 2005 (Crabbe et al., 1999; DoE, 1997
cited in Crabbe et al., 1999). The NAQS was reviewed in 1999 to reflect developments in European
legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an
increasingly better understanding of the socio-economic issues involved (Beattie et al., 2001). Since
the publication of the NAQS, AQM practice and capability within local authorities has flourished and
monitoring and air dispersion modelling has increased (Beattie et al., 2001). The AQM process, as
implemented by UK local authorities, provided an effective model for other European member states
regarding the implementation of the Air Quality Framework Directive (Fig. 2.9) (Beattie et al.,
2001).
2.3.3 United States: Environmental Protection Agency and State Implementation Plans
The United States, through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has one of the most
well developed procedures for air quality management (Fig. 2.10) (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997;
Longhurst et al., 1996). In the late 1960’s and 1970’s the US environmental control system was
forced to be overregulating, with disproportionate resources spent on legal disputes (Annegarn &
Scorgie, 1997). By the late 1980’s the EPA has moved towards a partnership approach with industry,
providing technical advice and development, while nevertheless maintaining its role as the legal
enforcement agency (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997).
Urban metropolitan air quality planning is enforced at a state level (Annegarn &
Scorgie, 1997). Areas not meeting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for
specified pollutants are designated as not in compliance (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). State
governments are required to submit State Implementation Plans (SIP’s), which can be
described as ongoing documents that provide a regulatory framework for a state to
demonstrate to the federal government the attaining and maintaining of national ambient air
quality standards over a time span not to exceed 5 years (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997; Griffin,
1994 cited in Longhurst, 1996: 3980). The EPA provides extensive guidance documents on
the development of SIP's (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). Requirements for SIP's include most
of the features already mentioned in the discussions on the European and British policies
above, namely standards, modelling, monitoring, definition of air quality management areas
and public participation (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997).
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Central
National Air Quality Strategy
1997
Periodic review
Local authority
(Joint working between departments
involved)
Review and Assessment (3 stages)
Air Quality Objectives achieved?
Yes
No
AQMA
Air Quality Action Plan
Integration of plans and policies:
•
Local transport plan
•
Unitary development plan / local
plan
Figure 2.9:
•
Economic development plan
•
Health action plan
•
Local Agenda 21 strategy
2010 and beyond
The ideal model for future AQM practice in local authorities and other
agencies (Beattie et al., 2001).
The United State’s approach focuses strongly on quantitative emission inventories and
modelling as a basis for all control strategies (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). Failure to submit
a plan, or negligently failing to meet the goals may be punished by withdrawal of industrial
development funding and mandatory freeze on new source permitting (if pollution is
industrial sourced) (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). The punitive measures, while severe, are
intended to encourage compliance by targeting appropriate sectors (Annegarn & Scorgie,
1997).
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Goal
Maintain quality of air to protect human health
Policy
Achieve and maintain outdoor concentrations of major pollutants at levels
considered safe for human health (primary standards) and welfare (secondary)
control emissions of other hazardous pollutants
Strategies
Regional air quality management plan
Tactics
Transportation plan
Use of best available control technology achievable
Land use and controls
Bubble tactic (trade-offs within company)
Pollution offsets
Non-compliance penalties
Figure 2.10:
Emission control standards
The structure of the U.S ambient air quality legislation as established by the
Clean Air Act 1970, and amendments (WHO, 2000).
2.4 New or alternative directions
The international management of air quality further includes a number of new or alternative
directions that is not limited to a specific country.
2.4.1 Responsible care
Responsible Care is a framework that originated from the Canadian Chemical
Producers Association (CCPA) in 1984 and has since been adopted formally in many
other
major industrialized countries (Gerrans, 1993). Although it was developed specifically for
the chemical industry, the principles can be applied to other industries.
The guiding
principles of Responsible Care are (Gerrans, 1993):
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a. To recognize and respond to community concerns about chemicals and operations;
b. To develop and produce chemicals that can be manufactured, transported, used and disposed of
safely;
c. To make health, safety and environmental considerations a priority in planning for all existing and
new products and processes;
d. To report promptly to officials, employees, customers and the public, information on chemicalrelated health or environmental hazards and to recommend protective measures;
e. To counsel customers on the safe use, transportation and disposal of chemical products;
f.
To operate plants and facilities in a manner that protects the environment and the health and
safety of employees and the public;
g. To extend knowledge by conducting or supporting research on the health, safety and
environmental effects of products, processes and waste materials;
h. To participate with government and others in creating responsible laws, regulations and standards
to safeguard the community, workplace and environment;
i.
To work with others to resolve problems created by past handling and disposal of hazardous
substances; and
j.
To promote the principles and practices of responsible care by sharing experiences and offering
assistance to others who produce, handle, use, transport or dispose of chemicals.
2.4.2 Emission trading
The process of calculating tradable pollution credits is graphically depicted in Figure 2.11.
The ecological target of environmental policy is the attainment of given standards (fixed by a political
decision) of environmental quality (Zerlauth & Schubert, 1999). Given the standard, a compatible
volume of predetermined total allowable emissions per year has to be computed which defines the
maximum number of pollution credits that can be used in a given year (“emission cap”) (Zerlauth &
Schubert, 1999).
The polluters are allocated a share of the credits for a year according to a
predetermined key, which entitles them to emit residuals equal at most to the allocated volume of
pollution rights (Zerlauth & Schubert, 1999). If the maximum number of emissions is not attained,
the licensee is entitled to sell the surplus in a market for pollution rights (Zerlauth & Schubert, 1999).
In the opposite case, additional credits must be purchased (Zerlauth & Schubert, 1999). Each polluter
can thus choose the most cost-effective abatement strategy in a system that provides an incentive to
lower emissions in order to be able to sell superfluous credits in the market (Zerlauth & Schubert,
1999).
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Participants
Goal setting
Emission monitoring
Emission credit
Market transactions
Figure 2.11:
Allocation of credits
The basic elements of an emission-trading program (Zerlauth & Schubert, 1999).
The system of emission trading combines elements of public decision-making (standards and
institutional framework), and private decentralized decisions coordinated via a market of pollution
rights (Zerlauth & Schubert, 1999). Use is made of the capability of markets to co-ordinate decisions,
to achieve efficient solutions in the long run (cost effectiveness), and to set in motion innovation
processes to lower costs of achieving better environmental quality (Zerlauth & Schubert, 1999).
Compared to the classical “Command-and-Control” system prevalent in much of international
environmental policy, there is little need for very detailed regulation and its concomitant problems of
control: the pollution control authority only needs to set emission standards for the entire area in
which the system is applied and monitor the emissions as compared to the credits (Zerlauth &
Schubert, 1999). Monitoring is crucial in an emissions trading program and a completely new
approach to track and enforce emissions and emission reductions is necessary (Zerlauth & Schubert,
1999). With South Africa’s outdated approach to air pollution management, the proper introduction
of emission trading would be limited.
2.4.3 Voluntary measures
The interest in so-called voluntary approaches to supplement or replace formal environmental
or occupational health and safety regulations, has taken on new importance in both Europe and the
United States (Ashford & Caldart, 2001; Cunningham, 2000). These approaches, which according to
Cunningham (2000) are not working, can be divided into two groups (Ashford & Caldart, 2001):
a) Industry-initiated codes of good practice focusing on environmental management systems or
performance goals, and
b) Negotiated agreements between government and individual firms or industry sector trade
associations focusing on regulation or compliance.
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2.4.4 Effects based approach
In recent years there has been a strong shift from air pollution control based
exclusively on source-based methods (e.g. emission limits) to air quality management based
on an effects-based approach (e.g. air quality objectives) because of shortcomings in the
former (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). Emission limits do not take the unique characteristics of
the receiving environment (dispersion potential, existence of other sources, existing ambient
pollutant concentrations and sensitivity of receiving environment) into account (Burger &
Scorgie, 2000a). Therefore, no insurance is provided that ambient air quality objectives will
be met and that there will be no adverse effects on human health and welfare (Burger &
Scorgie, 2000a). Source-based controls cannot ensure acceptable levels of air quality, but
they do represent an important means of achieving and attaining ambient standards and
guidelines (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
The methodology of the effects-based approach is similar to food labelling (Seika & Metz,
1999). Food labelling enables each individual to combine the nutrition information of a product with
unique circumstances such as age and life style (Seika & Metz, 1999).
With air quality, the
information would be an estimated personal intake, e.g. of benzene, for various locations or activities
(Seika & Metz, 1999). Although air quality standards should not be exceeded, the driving force is the
customer (citizen or consumer) of air and standards no longer hold the key position (Seika & Metz,
1999).
By expressing a demand for information the customer receives individualised personal
exposure data (indoor air quality, domestic activities or occupational exposure) (Seika & Metz, 1999).
Possible customers for the exposure-based AQM process are agencies, businesses, industry,
individuals, interest groups, local political groups, research institutions and public service providers
(Seika & Metz, 1999).
In areas where the responsible agency cannot take any direct action
themselves, adequate advice and information is given to the customer which include information on
who can be made responsible for the particular exposure and what else can be done to lower the
exposure level (Seika & Metz, 1999). Finally, it is the responsibility of the individual customer to
decide whether or not personal exposure levels are acceptable, if more action is needed (political
pressure, pressure on industries, property dealers, petrol stations, etc.) and in what area (Seika &
Metz, 1999). The result could be a more targeted and effective AQM system (Seika & Metz, 1999).
Air quality management focusing on pollution control consists of a number of different
aspects as has been discussed in section 2.2.1. There are however a few stages that is basic and
crucial for the proper functioning of such a pollution control plan and include:
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a. Ambient air quality guidelines and standards,
b. Measuring air pollution,
c. Monitoring of air pollutants,
d. Air pollution modelling and prediction, and
e. Air pollution control.
These five aspects will be discussed for pollution control (with specific reference to
particulate pollution) in the remaining part of the Chapter.
2.5 Ambient air quality guidelines and standards
Legislation (air quality guidelines and standards) is the main driving force for effective air
quality management, providing the link between the source of atmospheric emissions and the user
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000b; Cunningham, 2000). However, the type of
legislation and regulation is extremely important; air quality guidelines should be clearly
distinguished from air quality standards (Cunningham, 2000; Schwela, 1998). Air quality standards
are values limiting air pollutant concentration promulgated through legislation (take technological
feasibility, costs of compliance, prevailing exposure levels, social, economic and cultural conditions
into consideration) (Schwela, 1998). Air quality guidelines are derived from purely epidemiological
and toxicological (or environment–related) data and have several objectives, including (Schwela,
1998):
a. Protection of public health from adverse effects of pollutants,
b. Elimination or reduction to a minimum of air contaminant concentrations,
c. Provision of background information for making risk management decisions,
d. Provision of guidance to governments in setting standards, and
e. Assistance in implementing local, regional, national action plans.
The most notable international trends in ambient air quality guidelines and standards
identified are (Burger & Scorgie, 2000b; Chitwood et al., 2000):
a. Guidelines and standards are becoming increasingly more stringent - initially allowing many
exceedances but increasingly restrict the number of exceedances allowed (e.g. new EU standards
and US-EPA standards);
b. Dose-response relationships are being introduced in place of threshold type limits - strongly
supported by the WHO for particulates; and
c. Expansion of regulations from exclusive protection of human health to the protection of
vegetation and ecosystems (e.g.UK objectives for SO2 and NO2, and the new EC standards).
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Air quality guidelines and standards are normally given for specific averaging periods, which
refer to the time-span over which the air concentration of the pollutant was monitored at a location
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000b). Five averaging periods are applicable, namely
an instantaneous peak, 1-hour average, 24-hour average, 1-month average, and annual average
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000b).
2.5.1 Air quality guidelines and standards for particulates
Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) have previously been used as the measurement but since
an important mass fraction of TSP is made of non-inhalable particulates with lower impact on
respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, the relationship between health effects and TSP levels was
found, on comparison, to be much lower than the levels of atmospheric particulates finer than PM10,
PM2.5 and PM1 (Querol et al., 2001). Currently, PM10 and PM2.5 measurements are applied to the US
ambient air quality standards and European Union (EU) countries (Table 2.1) (Querol et al., 2001;
Boubel et al., 1994). Guidelines for particulates are normally given as a maximum daily or annual
average (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
In determining “acceptable” airborne particulate concentrations a decision maker will be
faced with the following controversial decisions (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000b;
Junker & Schwela, 1998 cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000a: 3-15):
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a. Selection of the curve to be used for the derivation of an acceptable ambient particulate
concentration (i.e. decide from which health effect the population is to be protected);
b. Determine the population or sensitive groups, which are to be protected from air pollution effects;
and
c. Set a fixed value for the acceptable risk in a population so that a single value for a given exposure
period may be defined.
Table 2.1:
Air quality guidelines and standards for inhalable particulates (PM10) (Scorgie
(2001a); Burger & Scorgie (2000b); Chow & Watson (1998 cited in Burger &
Scorgie, 2000a: 3-5); SRK (1997); Loveday (1995 cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000a:
3-5); Cochran & Pielke (1992 cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000a: 3-5)).
Country / Organisation
Inhalable particulates (PM10)
Maximum 1-hour
Concentrations
(µg.m-3)
South Africa
United States EPA (US – EPA)
World Health Organisation (WHO)
World Bank (WB)
Old European Union (EU)
standards
New EU standards
UK National Air Quality Objectives
UK Department of Environment
Maximum 24-hour concentrations (µg.m-3)
Annual average
concentrations (µg.m-3)
180 (1)
150 (2) (3) 65 µg.m-3 (PM2.5)
150 – 230 (5)
260
60 (4)
50 (4) 15 µg.m-3 (PM2.5)
60 – 90 (4) (5)
75 (7)
130 (7) 250 (8)
80
50 (9)
50
< 50 µg.m-3 = low 50 – 74 µg.m-3 = moderate
75 – 99 µg.m-3 = high 100 µg.m-3 = very high
30 (10) 20 (11)
40
Notes:
(1) Not to be exceeded more than three times per year.
(2) Requires that the three-year annual average concentration be less than this limit.
(3) Not to be exceeded more than once per year.
(4) Represents the arithmetic mean.
(5) Refers to pre-1998 guidelines. The WHO no longer publishes guidelines for particulates.
(6) Annual geometric mean.
(7) Median of daily means for the winter period (1 October to 31 March.)
(8) Calculated from 95th percentile of daily means for the year.
(9) Compliance by January 2005. Not to be exceeded more than 25 times per calendar year. (By 1 January 2010, no violations of more
than 7 times per year will be permitted.).
(10) Compliance by 1 January 2005.
(11) Compliance by 1 January 2010.
2.5.2 Dust deposition limits
Dust deposition is classified according to the criteria published by the South African
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) (Table 2.2) (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
The South African guidelines for dust deposition are similar to standards used in Germany (< 650
mg.m-2.day for residential areas and < 1300 mg.m-2.day for industrial areas) (Burger & Scorgie,
2000a). No criteria for the evaluation of dust deposition levels are available for the USA-EPA, EU,
WHO, or the World Bank (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
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Table 2.2:
National guidelines for the categorisation of dust deposition (Burger & Scorgie
(2000a, 2000b); SRK (1997)).
Dust deposition category
Slight
Moderate
Heavy
Very heavy
Dust deposition
<250 mg.m-2.day
250 to 500 mg.m-2.day
500 to 1 200 mg.m-2.day
>1 200 mg.m-2.day
Dust deposition monitoring can be conducted by means of (Scorgie, 2001a):
a. Single bucket dust fallout monitor, and
b. Twin bucket wind direction sampler
2.6 Measuring air pollution
2.6.1 Techniques used to measure air pollution
Measuring particulates involves a different set of parameters from those used for
gases because particulates are inherently larger than the molecules of N2 and O2 and behave
differently with increasing diameter (Boubel et al., 1994). Personal exposure measurements
can be performed directly or indirectly (Ott, 1982 cited in Monn, 2001: 3). In the direct
approach (Table 2.3 and Table 2.4) exposure levels are determined on an individual basis (by
using a personal sampler or a biological marker); the indirect approach can include ambient
measurements, the use of microenvironments (MEs), models and questionnaires (Monn,
2001; Ott, 1982 cited in Monn, 2001: 3). The credibility of air quality measurement is
dependent on the following factors (Scorgie, 2001a):
a. Metrology (the science of measurement),
b. The accreditation of the laboratory,
c. Competence of persons undertaking the monitoring,
d. The traceability chain of the standard used, and
e. The quality system of the calibrating laboratory.
The evaluation of a method has to consider method-inherent criteria such as
sensitivity, precision, accuracy, selectivity and detection limit (Monn, 2001). Besides these
criteria, cost and applicability are important factors in the choice of a particular method
(Monn, 2001).
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Table 2.3:
Techniques for measuring particulates (note: continuous refers to a
response signal within a few seconds to minutes) (Wijnand (1996) cited in
Monn (2001: 4)).
Pollutants
Particulates
TSP
PM10
PM2.5
Particulates (personal)
Table 2.4:
Measurement techniques
Gravimetry
Beta meter
Tapered element
Nephelometer
Photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS)
Size fraction: impaction, cyclone
gravimetry
Light scattering
Photo-emission sensor (PAS)
Time resolution
One day, hours
Integrated, day, hours
Continuous, minutes
Continuous, minutes
Continuous, minutes
Integrated: hours, 1 day
Continuous, minutes
Continuous, minutes
Comparing pollution measurement techniques (Scorgie (2001a); Dore &
McGinlay (1997); Boubel et al. (1994)).
Automatic real time point
monitors
Passive samplers
Active samplers
1. Give a good overall
picture of average
pollutant concentrations
2. No electricity or
calibration required
3. Samplers are easy to
prepare, assemble and
analyse
4. Low operational cost
5. Low costs permits
monitoring at a number of
points (“hotspots”,
baseline surveys, area
screening)
6. No field maintenance is
required
7. Constant sampling rate
1. Relatively low
capital cost
2. Reliable
operation and
performance
1. On-line, real-time results
2. Provide time-resolved data –
short averaging periods (hourly
or better)
1. Provide daily
averages
2. Require power
supply
3. Labour intensive
4. Require
laboratory
analysis
1. Expensive
2. Require high standards of
maintenance
3. Produce large quantities of
data – necessitate effective
data transfer and storage
facilities
Long path and spatially resolved monitoring
Mobile monitoring
1. Usually allow measurement of several
different pollutants conveniently in one
system
2. No direct contact with the sample gas
3. Useful in circumstances where large
areas need to be scanned from a single
point
1. The ability to obtain air
quality information in the
intermediate region between
source monitors and
stationary fixed monitors
2. Real-time measurement
using small, light-weight
instrument
Advantages
Disadvantages
1. Expensive
2. Used for short-term monitoring campaigns
due to expense
3. Measurement may be lost or degraded
during low visibility weather conditions
4. Methods not currently appropriate for
monitoring compliance with EC Directive
limit values
1. Less sensitive than point
monitors
2. Often subject to interference
from other pollutant species,
temperature and humidity
3. Stability of response may be
a problem, frequent
calibration required
4. Data recorded over limited
period, not temporally
representative of ambient
conditions
5. Short-term studies cannot
provide information on longterm trends
In selecting methods for measuring air quality or assessing air pollution effects the
inherent averaging times must be borne in mind (Boubel et al., 1994). The three most
important cycles are (Boubel et al., 1994):
a. Diurnal cycle,
b. Weekend-weekday, and
c. Seasonal cycle.
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2.6.2 Steps in measuring for air pollution
2.6.2.1 Sampling site selection
The fundamental reason for controlling air pollution sources is to limit the build-up of
contaminants in the atmosphere so that adverse effects are not observed (Boubel et al., 1994).
Therefore, sampling sites should be selected to measure pollutant levels close to or representative of
exposed populations of people, plants, trees, materials, structures, etc (Boubel et al., 1994).
Generally, sites in air quality networks are near ground level, typically 3m above ground, and are
located so as not to be unduly dominated by a nearby source such as a roadway (Boubel et al., 1994).
Sampling sites require electrical power and adequate protection (which may be as simple as a fence or
a shelter) (Boubel et al., 1994). Permanent sites require adequate heating and air conditioning to
provide a stable operating environment for the sampling and monitoring equipment (Boubel et al.,
1994). The tools available for site selection include climatological data, topography, population data,
emission inventory data, diffusion modelling, maps and wind roses (Boubel et al., 1994). The overall
approach for selection of sampling sites is to (Boubel et al., 1994; US EPA, 1977 cited in Boubel et
al., 1994: 217):
a. Define the purpose of the collected data,
b. Assemble site selection aids,
c. Define the general areas for samplers based on chemical and meteorological constraints, and
d. Determine the final sites based on sampling requirements and surrounding objects.
2.6.2.2 Data logging and transfer
Although most analysers have internal data storage facilities, logging is usually carried out by
means of a dedicated data logger (PC or specialized data logger) (Boubel et al., 1994). Data transfer
may be undertaken in various ways (Boubel et al., 1994):
a. Downloaded intermittently from the instrument,
b. Real-time, continuous transfer via telemetry,
c. Near real-time, intermittent transfer via radio link, and
d. Continuous download via satellite.
2.6.2.3 Data analysis and display
Air quality information often consists of a large body of data collected at a variety of
locations and over different seasons (Boubel et al., 1994).
Raw data must be analysed and
transformed into a format useful for specific purposes (e.g. summary tables, graphs, geographic
distributions, pollutant concentration maps) (Boubel et al., 1994). In general, air quality data are
classified as a function of time, location and magnitude (Boubel et al., 1994). Several statistical
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parameters may be used to characterize a group of air pollution concentrations, including the
arithmetic mean, the median, and the geometric mean (Boubel et al., 1994). These parameters may be
determined over averaging times of up to 1 year (Boubel et al., 1994). In addition to these three
parameters, a measure of the variability of a data set, such as the standards deviation or the geometric
standard deviation, indicates the range of data around the value selected to represent the data set
(Boubel et al., 1994).
2.6.2.4 Quality assurance and quality control of ambient air quality measurements
Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) are crucial components of air quality
management, although it will only account for a small fraction of the total cost (Scorgie,
2001a; Sweeney et al., 1997). The principle objectives of QA/QC are to identify, quantify
and reduce the potential for procedural and technical errors (Scorgie, 2001a).
a. Quality assurance
QA involves the management of the entire process (all the planned and systematic
activities needed to assure and demonstrate the predefined quality of the data) (Scorgie,
2001a; Sweeney et al., 1997). QA requirements are related to precision and accuracy and
include (Scorgie, 2001a; Boubel et al., 1994):
a. Monitoring objectives and data quality objectives,
b. Procedures for site selection and air quality monitoring network design,
c. Requirements for the laboratory responsible for implementation of the QA/QC plan, and
d. Selection of instrumentation based on justifiable criteria, including: measuring devices,
calibration instrumentation, measurement data management and processing equipment,
and infrastructure equipment such as sampling lines and station shelters.
QA programs are designed for the assessment of collected air quality data and the
improvement of the data collection process (Boubel et al., 1994). These two functions form a loop as air quality data are collected, procedures are implemented to determine whether the data are of
acceptable precision and accuracy (Boubel et al., 1994). If they are not, increased quality control
procedures are implemented to improve the data collection process (Boubel et al., 1994).
b. Quality control
Quality Control (QC) functions affect measurement-related activities such as site
operation, calibration, data management, field audits and training and include (Scorgie,
2001a):
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a. Site operation and equipment maintenance,
b. Calibration,
c. Data validation procedures, and
d. Data completeness.
In addition to fulfilling the in-house requirements for QC, air-monitoring networks are
required to contain an external performance audit on an annual basis (Boubel et al., 1994).
Under this programme, an independent organization supplies externally calibrated sources of
air pollution gases to be measured by the instrumentation audited (Boubel et al., 1994). The
performance of the instrument is summarized in a report after which further action must be
taken to eliminate any major discrepancies between the internal and external calibration
results (Boubel et al., 1994).
2.7 Monitoring of air pollutants
The identification and measurement of critical environmental variables is the backbone to
defining and understanding the state of the environment and its changes with time (Demerjian, 2000).
Monitoring objectives (Table 2.5) determine the quantity and quality of data required, the sampling
frequency, the number of sampling locations and the permissible delay in obtaining results (Scorgie,
2001a).
Table 2.5:
Purpose, relationship of the scale of representativeness and monitoring
objectives (Scorgie, 2001a; Boubel et al., 1994).
Purpose
Objectives
Compliance monitoring
Source-specific investigations
Temporal trend analysis
Pollutant concentration trend analysis
Spatial trend analysis
Impact assessment
Tracking of progress from pollution control measure
Information
implementation
assessment
Source contribution quantification
Policy and planning
generation
and
compliance
Siting scales for monitoring objectives
Highest concentration affecting people
Source impact
• Micro, middle, neighbourhood, (sometimes urban)
• Micro, middle, neighbourhood
High-density population exposure
General/background concentration
• Neighbourhood, urban
• Neighbourhood, region
2.7.1 Ambient monitoring network design
A monitoring system is selected to meet specific needs (e.g. measure the quality of
air to which the general population is exposed) and is tailored to the unique properties of the
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emissions from a particular process (Table 2.5) (Boubel et al., 1994). It is necessary to take
into account the specific process, the nature of the control devices, the peculiarities of the
source, and the use of the data obtained (Code of Federal Regulations, 1992 cited in Boubel
et al., 1994: 548). Environmental monitoring networks are designed either to determine the
physical and chemical state of the environment (e.g. air quality, meteorological, water
quality, etc.) or the ecological state of the environment (species diversity, soil erosion,
biomass productivity, etc.) (Fig. 2.12) (Demerjian, 2000). A monitoring network should be
established at least 12 months before construction to determine prior air quality (Boubel et
al., 1994).
International requirements
Local / national
Assess resource availability
Define monitoring objectives
Network design, site
numbers and location
Instrument selection
Site operation, support and calibration
Data review and usage
Periodic system review
Figure 2.12:
Systematic approach to ambient monitoring network establishment (WHO, 2000
cited in Scorgie, 2001a).
2.7.2 Meteorological monitoring
Site-specific meteorological data from a well-maintained monitoring site represents one of the
cornerstones of an effective air pollution management programme (Scorgie, 2001a). The meteorology
of a site is important in (Scorgie, 2001a):
a. Determining the rate of emissions from fugitive sources (key parameters are wind speed, rainfall,
evaporation), and
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b. Governing the dispersion, transformation and eventual removal of pollutants from the
atmosphere (key parameters include: wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability,
temperature, relatively humidity, solar radiation, rainfall).
Hourly average meteorological data are typically required as input to atmospheric dispersion
simulations, with wind speed, wind direction and ambient temperature representing the most
important parameters for this purpose (Table 2.6) (Scorgie, 2001a). On-line, real-time meteorological
data are useful for providing input to real-time emission calculation models and dispersion models
(Scorgie, 2001a).
Table 2.6:
Factors involved in meteorological stations (Scorgie, 2001a).
Data used for
Emission estimation
Simulation of the
atmospheric dispersion and
removal of pollutants
Interpretation of trends in
ambient air concentration
and deposition levels
measured
Examining causes of peaks
in pollution levels, and
assisting in the investigation
of complaints received
Factors to be taken into account in
establishing a meteorological station
Meteorological parameters to be
recorded by the station
Meteorological parameters
of interest
Wind speed, wind direction
Meteorological data analysis
Averaging period over which to record
parameters
Ambient temperature,
relative humidity
Rainfall roses
Data transfer
Evaporation and
precipitation
Atmospheric stability roses
Correct siting of the meteorological
station according to internationally
accepted practices
Solar radiation and sigmatheta
The relationship between wind
direction and atmospheric
stability can similarly be
illustrated graphically.
Wind roses
Frequency of exceedance of
wind speed thresholds
2.8 Air pollution modelling and prediction
Modelling is a powerful tool for the interpolation, prediction and optimisation of control
strategies through computing temporal and spatial patterns of ambient pollutant concentrations and
deposition levels occurring as a result of emissions from one or more sources (Scorgie, 2001a; WHO,
2000). Rather than construct and monitor to determine the impact, and whether it is necessary to
retrofit additional controls, it is desirable to assess the air pollution impact of a facility prior to its
construction (Boubel et al., 1994). However, models need to be validated by monitoring data (WHO,
2000). Air quality simulation models allow the consequences of various options for improving air
quality to be compared (Table 2.7) and are indispensable in at least three cases (WHO, 2000; Boubel
et al., 1994; Zannetti, 1993):
a. When measurements are not available or sufficient,
b. For assessing the degree of responsibility of different polluting sources, and
c. To make pollution forecasts and evaluate “what if” scenarios.
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In its simplest form, a model requires two types of data inputs: information on the source or
sources (including pollutant emission rate), and meteorological data (e.g. wind velocity and
turbulence) (Boubel et al., 1994). The model then mathematically simulates the pollutant’s transport
and dispersion, its chemical and physical transformations and removal processes (Boubel et al., 1994).
The model output is air pollutant concentration for a particular time period, usually at specific
receptor locations (Boubel et al., 1994). The accuracy of a model depends on many factors, including
the accuracy of the source emissions data, the quality of knowledge of meteorological conditions in
the area, and the assumptions about physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere involving the
transport and transformation of pollutants (WHO, 2000).
Table 2.7:
Model application and functions and the order of model application (Scorgie,
2001a).
The main function of a model is the
parameterisation of sourcereceptor relationship based on
Source configurations
Model applications
Order of model application
Determining compliance with
regulations (proposed and
existing sources)
Emission strengths (and temporal
variations in such strengths)
Basis for quantitative health and
environmental risk assessment
Meteorological characteristics
Site selection for monitoring
Tier 1: screening models (e.g. SCREEN3)
use worst-case meteorological conditions to
estimate maximum downwind
concentrations
Secondary / Tier 2: screening models (e.g.
ISCST) site specific meteorology and
topography used as input but unable to
account for spatial variations in airflow
Refined / Tier 3 models: characterises
spatial variations in airflow due to complex
terrain (e.g. CALPUFF, HAWK)
Terrain characteristics
Assessment of source
contributions
Buffer zone delineation
On-line applications
“What if” investigations:
assessing mitigation measures,
accident scenarios, etc.
Integral component of air quality
management and planning
Receptor locations and heights
2.8.1 Model types
A wide variety of models are available (Table 2.8) which are usually distinguished by type
and source, pollutant, transformations and removal, distance of transport, and averaging time (Boubel
et al., 1994). Generally, models can be grouped into physical (deterministic) and statistical (or
stochastic) models (Sexton & Ryan, 1988 cited in Monn, 2001: 6). Some models rely on both
physical-chemical knowledge and incorporate statistical approaches (hybrid models) (Monn, 2001).
Physical models are based on mathematical equations, describing known physical/chemical
mechanisms in the atmosphere (Monn, 2001). Statistical models are based on measured data and
explanatory variables (Monn, 2001). For outdoor pollutants, sophisticated dispersion models (e.g.
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Gauss models), which incorporate meteorological variables and chemical processes, have been
developed (Monn, 2001).
Mathematical models are the only practical tool that can answer “what if” questions - no
strategy for emission reduction and control can be cost-effective without applying proper
mathematical modelling techniques (Zannetti, 1993).
Only a well-tested and well-calibrated
simulation model could be a good representation of a three-dimensional real world, its dynamics, and
its responses to possible future perturbations (Zannetti, 1993). Zannetti (1993) states that although
mathematical modelling is an indispensable tool for air quality analyses, it cannot claim to be the
“solution” to air pollution problems. Deterministic models are important for practical application by
providing an unambiguous, objective, source-receptor relationship which is the goal of any study
aiming either at improving ambient air quality or preserving the existing concentration levels from
future urban and industrial development (Zannetti, 1993). Scorgie (2001a) describes the following
types of models:
a. Source based models,
b. Receptor based models,
c. Gaussian plume (Eulerian) (e.g. Industrial Source Complex Model),
d. Lagrangian Puff models (e.g. CALPUFF, HAWK),
e. Lagrangian models,
f.
Long-range transport (e.g. chemistry models),
g. Urban- (e.g. Urban Air shed Model) and street-scale modelling (e.g. STREET), and
h. Specialised dispersion models
ƒ
Dense gas dispersion modelling (e.g. HAWK)
ƒ
Modelling of visibility (e.g. PLUVUE)
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Table 2.8:
Different types of mathematical models (Zannetti, 1993).
Mathematical
Description
Mathematical
models
1
Description
models
Meteorological
Simulation of those meteorological parameters,
models
such as wind, intensity of turbulence, etc., that
9
Indoor air
Simulate the accumulation of pollutants
pollution models
inside buildings and poorly ventilated areas
Receptor models
Techniques that, solely through the chemical
affect the dispersion of pollutants in the
atmosphere
2
Plume-rise models
Simulation of the initial dispersion phase of
10
buoyant plumes, characterized by a rise of the
analysis of air pollution measurements, are
plume above its emission level
able to apportion the contribution of each
source (or each group of sources) to the
measured concentrations without the need
for reconstructing the dispersion pattern of
pollutants
3
Gaussian models
Techniques in which atmospheric diffusion is
11
approximated by assuming that the concentration
Stochastic
Statistical or semiempirical techniques to
models
understand trends, periodicities, and
field inside each plume maintains a Gaussian
interrelationships of air quality
distribution horizontally and vertically
measurements and to forecast the evolution
of pollution episodes
4
Eulerian models
Interpolation
Such as Kriging, pattern recognition, cluster
domain is divided into cells and continuity
methods and
analysis, and fractals
equations are solved in each cell
graphical
Numerical codes in which the computational
12
techniques
5
Lagrangian models
Numerical techniques in which plumes are broken
13
up into “elements” such as segments, puffs, or
Optimisation
Identify the optimal allocation of monitoring
methods
networks or to minimize either the adverse
particulates
6
Chemical models
Simulate the often non-linear chemical and
effects of pollution or the cost of controlling it
14
photochemical transformations of atmospheric
Statistical
Evaluate the performance of dispersion
techniques
models when their simulations are compared
pollutants
7
8
Deposition models
Simulate the dry and wet deposition phenomena
with actual pollution measurements
15
Modelling of
Visibility impairment, climate changes, and
in which a fraction of atmospheric pollution is
adverse effects of
stratospheric ozone depletion
deposited on the surface
pollution
Available computer packages
2.8.2 Meteorological data required for air quality modelling
Knowledge of meteorological conditions in an area is necessary when applying models to
calculate air quality. The following information is required (WHO, 2000):
a. Meteorological variables to parameterise atmospheric dispersion, transformation and removal:
wind speed and wind direction, ambient temperature, relative humidity, evaporation and
precipitation, solar radiation, sigma-theta, atmospheric stability and mixing depth;
b. Temporal resolution of meteorological data: hourly average meteorological data are typically
required as input to atmospheric dispersion simulations. Such hourly average data may also be
used in the estimation of hourly average emission rates for wind-dependent sources;
c. Spatial resolution: complex terrain or large landscape variations result in thermotopographical
circulations and require meteorological data to parameterise horizontal deviations in airflow field,
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mixing depth, stability; vertical profiles of meteorological parameters required when considering
elevated stacks;
d. Routinely measured meteorological variable: wind speed and direction, ambient temperature,
relative humidity, rainfall;
e. Specific dispersion model requirements: Industrial Source Complex Model assumes a
horizontally-uniform flow field; CALPUFF uses a 3D meteorological input regime; and
f.
Meteorological modelling can:
•
Generate additional parameters which are not routinely measured,
•
Account for spatial variations in the airflow field, stability regime, etc.,
•
Provide vertical profiles of parameters, and
•
Provide single site-specific meteorological data where no observations exist.
2.9 Air pollution control
One of the major problems associated with controlling pollution arises from the complexity of
natural systems and the changes brought about by human intervention (Table 2.9) (Gerrans, 1993).
The rational control of air pollution rests on four basic assumptions (American Association for the
Advancement of Science, 1965 cited in Wark & Warner, 1981: 4):
a. Air is in the public domain,
b. Air pollution is an inevitable concomitant of modern life,
c. Scientific knowledge can be applied to the shaping of public policy, and
d. Methods of reducing air pollution must not increase pollution in other sectors of the environment.
Table 2.9:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Benefits of air pollution control (Ross, 1972).
Public benefits
Improved health
Reduced safety hazards
Reduced health risks to man and animal
More comfortable enjoyment of life and
property
Reduced property damage
Increased property values
Less vegetation damage
1
2
3
4
Private benefits
Lower employee absenteeism
Reduced risk of civil damage suits
Better employee relations
Better public relations
5
6
7
8
9
Reduced maintenance costs
Increased property values
Product recovery
New markets for new products relating to air pollution control
Reduced product contamination or damage
2.9.1 Types of control strategies
There are several different strategies for controlling air pollution (Boubel et al., 1994). The
air quality management strategy of the United States primarily relies on the development and
promulgation of ambient air quality standards (WHO, 2000; Boubel et al., 1994). Great Britain’s
strategy makes use of the emissions standard strategy where emission standards are developed and
promulgated or an emission limit on sources are determined on a case-by-case basis, representing the
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best practicable means for controlling emissions from those sources (Boubel et al., 1994). A third
strategy to control pollution is by adopting financial incentives (e.g. Hungary and Japan), which is
usually but not necessarily in addition to the promulgation of air quality standards (WHO, 2000;
Boubel et al., 1994). A fourth strategy seeks to maximize cost-effectiveness (cost benefit strategy)
resulting in lower emissions from existing processes or promote process modifications (Boubel et al.,
1994). A fifth strategy is pollution removal (the polluted carrier gas must pass through a control
device or system, which collects or destroys the pollutant and releases the cleaned carrier gas to the
atmosphere) (Boubel et al., 1994). The control device or system selected must be specific for the
pollutant of concern (consider the pollutant itself, carrier gas, emitting process and the operational
variables of the process) (Boubel et al., 1994). Once the control system is in place, its operation and
maintenance becomes a major concern (Boubel et al., 1994). Source reduction is a sixth strategy,
which can be either (WHO, 2000):
a. Management and operational changes (management audits of emissions, sources and source
strength; subsequent operational changes to reduce emissions in a cost-effective way). The
implementation of good practices in housekeeping and maintenance is required to ensure systems
are in place to ensure equipment is maintained and staff are trained and properly supervised. The
aim is to minimize fugitive emissions, by changing the composition of material used, while
maintaining product quality; or
b. Process optimisation: Emission reductions are achieved by altering the production process (e.g.
temperature, ventilation or line speed) without loss of product quality or production volume.
Other strategies suggested by the WHO (2000) are:
a. Co-regulation involving the formulation and adoption of rules, regulations and guidelines in
consultation with stakeholders, negotiated within prescribed boundaries;
b. Self-regulation: self-imposition of regulations and guidelines and environmental audits by
industry groups; voluntary adoption of environmental management measures; and
c. Risk assessment requires an evaluation of health risks for the general or sensitive population, and
establishes acceptable levels of health risk for these populations.
2.9.2 Control methods for particulates
Generally, important factors that need to be taken into account whenever a control
method is selected (Table 2.10) (Boubel et al., 1994):
a. Specificity: does the method measure only the gas of interest, or does it have a response to other
gases;
b. Sensitivity: will the method measure the highest and lowest concentrations expected;
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c. Reliability: is the instrument to be used continuously or intermittently? If continuously, will it be
visited daily, weekly or less frequently? Will it be acceptable for the analyser to be out of action
for maintenance periods;
d. Stability: are the instruments calibrated;
e. Cost: range considerably from cheaper pre-concentration methods to continuous analysers; and
f.
Precision and accuracy: precision – there may be variations between co-located samplers but
similar sampling devises will produce equivalent results. Accuracy – measured concentration
closely comparable to actual concentration.
Table 2.10:
Characteristics of particulate pollutants that can have an influence on the
effectiveness of control devices (Boubel et al., 1994).
Size range and distribution
Particle shape
Agglomeration tendencies
Corrosiveness
Abrasiveness
Hygroscopic tendencies
Stickiness
Inflammability
Toxicity
Electrical resistivity
Reactivity
When dealing with particulate pollution in a mining environment different sections can have
different control measures (Table 2.11). Some of the measures will be very effective controlling
particulate pollution on paved roads, while other control measures will be more effective on unpaved
roads.
Table 2.11:
Dust suppression for different sections of a mine (Scorgie, 2001a).
Materials handling
Dust control options
Wind entrainment controls
Dust control for paved
roads
Dust control for
unpaved roads
Wet suppression: liquid
and foam spray systems
Wet suppression and
chemical stabilization of
stockpiles
Dust spillage avoidance and
removal
Reducing vehicle traffic on
roadway
Paving, traffic reduction
and speed reduction
Reducing road surface
loading
Wet suppression
systems
Wind sheltering through
the installation of transfer
chutes
Air atomising spray
systems
Wind sheltering
Chemical stabilization
of unpaved roads
When dealing with particulate pollution specifically in the Smelter, there are different control
measures (particulate collection system) that can be used with different success rates (Table 2.12).
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Table 2.12:
Particulate
Techniques commonly used to control particulate emissions in a Smelter (Scorgie
(2001a); WHO (2000); Johnson (1998)).
Action
collection system
Gravity settlers
Removal
Particle size removed
mechanism
The waste gas swirls in a
Gravitational settling
Control
Uses
Relative cost
Low CE >
Precleaner
Low cost, cheap
PM40
prior to more
to maintain
efficiency
>50 – 100 µm
vessel and particulates
are removed by inertial
efficient
impaction on the walls of
devices
a cylindrical vessel
Cyclone collectors
68 – 90%
Precleaner
Low cost, cheap
vessel and particulates
(depending on
prior to more
to maintain
are removed by inertial
type)
efficient
The waste gas swirls in a
Inertial impaction
>5 - 10µm
devices
impaction on the walls of
a cylindrical vessel
Filters
The waste gas is forced
Impaction
>0.1 µm; 99% of 0.5
through a fabric bag or
Interception
µm removed; even PM
filter beds on which
Diffusion
of 0.01 µm
>0.3 µm
99.5%+
Final control
particulates are
physically collected
Electrostatic
A negative charge is
Electrical forces
70 – 99.5%+
Remove
precipitation
imparted to particulates
(adhesion,
(99.5% for
respirable
in the waste gas, which
cohesion)
PM10)
fraction
Final control
Expensive
are attracted to positively
charged collection plates
Wet scrubbers
Liquids are brought into
Impaction
2.5 µm
90% (spray
contact with particulates
Interception
(>0.3 µm for Venturi)
tower)
relatively cheap
to form agglomerates,
Diffusion
99.5% (Venturi)
(spray tower) to
Range from
which are removed from
high cost
the waste stream by
(Venturi)
impaction on plates or on
the walls of vessels
2.9.3 Evaluation of control strategies
To determine air pollution control requirements one of two different approaches can be used
(WHO, 2000):
a. Effect-oriented: an assessment of the effects of the pollutants on health and the environment.
Increased emissions may be permitted when there will be no health or environmental impacts, or
ambient air quality standards will not be exceeded. Action may be taken to reduce ambient
concentrations where impacts or exceedances are shown to occur; or
b. Source-oriented: air quality management policies are based on the requirement for best available
technology (BAT), or best available techniques not entailing excessive cost (BATNEEC).
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2.10
Closing
In countries at the first stage of industrialization, emission controls usually do not
keep pace with economic development, energy consumption, urban population growth or
waste generation (Hien et al., 2001). As a consequence, air pollution may tend to rise until
comprehensive emission controls become practicable (Hien et al., 2001).
Although a
developing country, South Africa has one of the largest industrialized economies in the
Southern Hemisphere (Turner et al., 1995).
A large proportion of the industrial
infrastructure, much of which is coal based, is concentrated in Gauteng and on the extensive
coalfields in Mpumalanga (Turner et al., 1995).
The co-existence of heavy industry,
alongside underdeveloped communities creates a very real potential for serious air quality
degradation to take place (Turner et al., 1995). By 1995, there were approximately 5 million
licensed vehicles in South Africa, many of which were used for relatively short urban driving
cycles (Turner et al., 1995). In addition, a large proportion of the fuel for these vehicles is
manufactured from coal, adding to the pollution burden from the road transport sector
(Turner & Snyman, 1994 cited in Turner et al., 1995: 9). Studies have been carried out with
respect to pollution dispersion, climatology and air quality impacts such as health issues
among residents of low income, high-density residential areas in South Africa (e.g.
Terblanche et al., 1992; Tosen & Turner, 1990 cited in Turner et al., 1995: 9; Tosen and Jury,
1987a cited in Turner et al., 1995: 9; Tosen and Jury, 1987b; Tosen & Pearce, 1986 cited in
Turner et al., 1995: 9). Although there is an extensive knowledge of air quality degradation,
its impacts and the scientific understanding of pollution transport and dispersion mechanisms
in South Africa has been scientifically established (Turner et al., 1995), there are still huge
problems regarding air pollution control in South Africa. These problems will be discussed
in the following Chapter (Chapter 3).
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Chapter 3
Airborne pollutants in South Africa:
Current legislation and management
3.1 Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, 1965 (Act. 45 of 1965)
South African air pollution control is modelled on a British approach and is primarily
administered nationally under the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, 1965 (Act. 45 of 1965)
(APPA), as amended (the Act), by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT)
and specifically the office of Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO) (Table 3.1) (Burger &
Scorgie, 2000a; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). In addition, several other components of legislation also
impact on atmospheric pollution in South Africa (Table 3.1) (Scorgie, 2001a). Prior to April 1995,
the Department of National Health and Population Development (now the Department of Health), was
responsible for air pollution control (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997).
Table 3.1: Legislation and regulatory requirements pertaining to air quality (Scorgie, 2001a).
National Environmental Management Act, Act 107 of 1998
White Paper on Integration Pollution and Waste Management
Atmospheric Pollution and Prevention Act, Act 45 of 1965
Ambient air quality guidelines
Emission limits (guidelines for scheduled processes)
EIA regulations (no. R 1182 and 1183 of September 1997)
Aide Memoire Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR) requirements (DME)
Major hazard installation regulations (1998)
Proposed national policy on airports and airspace management
3.1.1 Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO)
The amended Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act has established the office of
Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO), which is responsible for administering
compliance with legislation and the issuing of permits for Scheduled Processes (as defined by
the Act) that may impact on air quality (Scorgie, 2001a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Annegarn
& Scorgie, 1997; Turner et al., 1995; Glazewski, 1989). CAPCO publishes emission limits
and ambient concentration guidelines for Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx),
Lead (Pb), particulates (TSP, PM10), Carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) with no
provision being made for ambient air quality standards or emission standards (Scorgie,
2001a; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997; Turner et al., 1995). Although these guidelines are aimed
at protecting human health and welfare, they can be used as standards or compliance values
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by which ambient air quality is assessed (Scorgie, 2001a; IUAPPA, 1991 cited in Turner et
al., 1995: 9).
One of the principles of environmental policy, both locally and internationally, is to adopt an
emission strategy that is used to ultimately establish limits on emissions for specific groups of sources
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). CAPCO makes use of the Best Practicable Means (BPM) (achievable
measures) concept, which is distinguishable from the Best Available Control Technology (BACT)
approach, where the emphasis is on reducing emissions based on state-of-the-art technology without a
major consideration of capital and operating costs (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
Under the
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, provincial tiers of government are not involved in air pollution
control (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). However, there has been a move toward devolving authority
from a national level; by 2001 air pollution management control was transferred to provincial level in
the North West Province and for the Durban-Pietermaritzburg area5*. The Air Pollution Control
Officer (APCO) for North West province was appointed by the Minister of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism in the province’s Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment (DACE)8.
APCO’s duties for the North West province are the same as the national Chief Air Pollution Control
Officer8.
3.1.2 Air pollution permit requirements
Any operator of a Scheduled Process is required to hold a permit or be liable to criminal
prosecution (Glazewski, 1989). Platinum mining has several Scheduled Processes that require a
permit2:
a. Roasting Process (No. 27 of the Second Schedule),
b. Vanadium Process (No. 60 of the Second Schedule),
c. Sulphuric Acid Process (No. 1 of the Second Schedule), and
d. Waste Incineration Process (No. 39 of the Second Schedule).
CAPCO issues an operating permit for an individual case after discussions with the
industry and affected local authority (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). A permit is issued on the
assumption that emissions of atmospheric pollution are below prescribed levels (Burger &
Scorgie, 2000a; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997; SRK, 1997; Turner et al., 1995; Glazewski,
1989).
When determining permitted pollution levels, CAPCO has discretion under the
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act to take into account available technology, costs of
abatement, age of a plant, the available control options and local and special circumstances
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000a; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997; Glazewski, 1989). The effective
*Notes explained at end of references
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operation of the Act is largely dependent on the opinion of CAPCO, rather than the
imposition of statutorily laid-down standards (Scorgie, 2001a; Glazewski, 1989). While the
current approach allows for flexibility and cooperation between government and industry,
there are doubts as to whether the approach is effective (Glazewski, 1989).
3.1.3 Problems with air pollution control structures and legislation in South Africa
Administration of air pollution control in South Africa has become highly fragmented
(Scorgie, 2001a; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). At a national level, the Department of Environmental
Affairs and Tourism, the Department of Health, the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry and the
Department of Minerals and Energy are responsible for implementing various sections of the
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). Comprehensive control of air
pollution at a local level is hindered due to the division of responsibilities for implementing
regulations between national and local authorities (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). The fragmented
organisational structure of air pollution legislation and control has several adverse consequences
(Scorgie, 2001a; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997):
1. Discrepancies, anomalies and ineffectiveness exist in South African air pollution control. Not all
pollution sources are covered in legislation; various sources of fugitive particulate emissions such
as roads, open pit mining, construction and demolition and agriculture are omitted. Emissions
from biomass burning, aviation, and toxic substance transport and spills are also overlooked.
Furthermore, little emphasis is placed on fugitive emissions and no standards exist for non-criteria
pollutants (e.g. carcinogens, odourants);
2. Air pollution control is based entirely on source-based controls rather than on the achievement
and maintenance of ambient air quality standards;
3. Not enough attention has been paid to exposure levels (e.g. human exposure to domestic coal
burning emissions in townships);
4. Regulations are applied inconsistently, and there is no regular review of the threshold levels
(particulate control is only applicable to declared dust control areas; the Government mining
engineers are responsible to control mine dumps, while vehicle emissions control is clumsy and
time-consuming);
5. Air pollution considerations are afforded a low priority in planning;
6. Answers required for air pollution management decisions can not be obtained quickly;
7. Air pollution control personnel do not form a coherent and recognisable body and consequently
lack both status and authority and have few prospects for promotion. Furthermore, inadequate
staffing at national level has severely limited the effective enforcement of the legislation; and
8. The national authority is not bound in all respects by its own legislation, which provides the
potential for inconsistencies and subjectivity in the decision making process.
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3.2 New legislation
As a result of the problems mentioned in section 3.1.2 the Integrated Pollution Control (IPC)
Project of DEAT was initiated in 1993 to facilitate a review of governmental functions and structures
concerned with pollution control, and to initiate a process of restructuring the regulatory system to
produce a more effective pollution control system (IN95b) (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). The IPC Air
Work Team was responsible for drafting a new approach to air pollution control amenable to
Integrated Pollution Control (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). The White Paper on Integrated Pollution
and Waste Management was published in March 2000 and indicated a shift from a source-based to a
receiving-environment approach (Table 3.1) (Scorgie, 2001a). Four tiers of authority were suggested
for the control of air pollution, namely (Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997):
1. A single national agency that has the mandate for the coordination of air quality management.
Functions of the national agency would include legislation, transboundary pollution management,
international agreements, dispute resolution and the demarcation of local air quality management
areas;
2. Provincial authorities, who are charged with executive powers for the implementation of control,
which may be delegated to lower tiers where the capacity exists;
3. Metropolitan authorities identified by the national agency, who are responsible for local air
quality management areas; and
4. Local authorities outside metropolitan areas that derive certain powers from provincial authorities
that are proportionate to their abilities.
A process to set national air quality standards was initiated, but suspended by the SABS
(South African Bureau of Standards) pending further guidance by the DEAT (Scorgie, 2001a).
3.2.1 The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Bill
a. After renewed efforts, the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Bill (which will
repeal the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act, 1965) was published for comment and inputs
from interested parties and the general public in April 2003 (DEAT, 2003). The main object of
the new Act is to protect, restore and enhance the air quality in South Africa, having regard to the
need to ensure sustainable development, by providing (DEAT, 2003):
b. The framework for governance of air quality management through the establishment of national
norms and standards;
c. A regulatory framework for an air quality management planning and reporting regime;
d. Numerous regulatory instruments for the control of air pollution; and
e. A comprehensive approach to compliance and enforcement.
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The new Air Quality Bill differs on a number of points from the Air Pollution Prevention
Act. The main differences are discussed below.
3.2.1.1 National, provincial and local framework
The Minister must establish a national framework setting national norms and standards for
achieving the objectives of the Act, which may include norms and standards (not only guidelines) for
(DEAT, 2003):
a. Ambient air quality,
b. Emissions from point or non-point sources,
c. Air quality monitoring,
d. Air quality management planning, and
e. Air quality information management.
National norms and standards set must be aimed at (DEAT, 2003):
a. Providing opportunities for public participation in the protection, restoration and enhancement of
air quality,
b. Ensuring public access to air quality information systems,
c. Preventing air pollution and the degradation of air quality,
d. Reducing to harmless levels discharges likely to impair air quality (including the reduction of air
pollution at sources),
e. Promoting efficient air quality management,
f.
Effective air quality monitoring,
g.
Regular reporting on air quality, and
h.
Complying with the Republic’s obligations in terms of international agreements.
On a provincial level the MEC (Member of the Executive Council), and on a local level, a
municipality in terms of a by-law responsible for air quality may (DEAT, 2003):
a. Identify substances or mixtures of substances in ambient air (through ambient concentrations,
bioaccumulation, deposition or in any other way) that present or is likely to present a threat to
health or the environment; and
b. In respect of each of those substances or mixtures of substances, establish standards for
1. Ambient air quality, including the permissible amount or concentration of each such
substance or mixture of substances in ambient air; or
2. Emissions from point or non-point sources in the province or in any geographical area within
the province or municipality.
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If national (or provincial) standards have been established for a particular substance or
mixture of substances, it may not be altered on a provincial (or local level) except when stricter
standards for the province or for any geographical area within the province are established (DEAT,
2003). The Minister, or any MEC responsible for air quality may further identify and proclaim an
area as a priority area if ambient air quality standards are being, or are likely to be exceeded; and such
exceedances are causing, or may cause, a significant negative impact (DEAT, 2003). Pending the
setting of such standards, the ambient air quality guidelines contained in the Atmospheric Pollution
Prevention Act continue to apply (DEAT, 2003).
A national Air Quality Advisory Committee with an officer in the DEAT designated as the
National Air Quality Officer must be established to advise the Minister on the implementation of the
Act, and be responsible for co-ordinating matters pertaining to air quality management in the national
government (DEAT, 2003). In the same manner MECs on a provincial level and municipalities on a
local level must designate an air quality officer responsible for co-ordinating matters pertaining to air
quality management (DEAT, 2003). Air Quality Management Plans (AQMP’s) must be included on
a national and provincial level in Environmental Implementation Plans (EIPs) or Environmental
Management Plans (EMPs) and on a local level in Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) (DEAT,
2003).
3.2.1.2 Atmospheric emission licences
Metropolitan and district municipalities are charged with implementing the atmospheric
emission licensing system and must perform the functions of licensing authority (DEAT, 2003). The
licensing authority will require the applicant, at the applicant’s expense, to obtain and provide the
licensee by a given date with, (DEAT, 2003):
a. An assessment in terms of the National Environmental Management Act of the likely effect of the
proposed license on air quality,
b. An independent review of such assessment, by a person acceptable to the licensing authority, and
c. Any other relevant information, in addition to the information contained in or submitted in
connection with the application.
The authority may conduct its own investigation on the likely effect of the proposed license on
air quality and invite written comments from any other state departments and further afford the
applicant an opportunity to make representations on any adverse statements or objections to the
application (DEAT, 2003). The responsibility is placed on the applicant to ensure that all relevant
state departments, interested persons and the general public (e.g. publication of a notice in newspapers
circulating in the area) are aware of the application (DEAT, 2003).
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When considering an application for an atmospheric emission license, the licensing
authority must take into account all relevant matters, including (DEAT, 2003):
a. The pollution being or likely to be caused by the carrying out of the listed activity applied for and
the effect or likely effect of that pollution on the environment, including health, social conditions,
economic conditions and the cultural heritage;
b. Any practical measures that could be taken:
1) To prevent, control, abate or mitigate that pollution, and
2) To protect the environment from harm as a result of that pollution;
c. Any relevant tradable emission scheme;
d. Whether the applicant is a fit and proper person;
e. The applicant’s submissions;
f.
Any submissions from organs of state, interested persons and the public; and
g. Any guidelines issued by the Minister or the MEC responsible for air quality in the relevant
province relating to the performance by licensing authorities of their functions.
If an application for an atmospheric emission license has been granted the licensing
authority must first issue a provisional atmospheric emission license to enable the installation and
commissioning of the listed activity (DEAT, 2003). The holder of a provisional atmospheric emission
license is entitled to an atmospheric emission license when the commissioned facility is in full
compliance with the conditions and requirements of the provisional atmospheric emission license
(DEAT, 2003). An atmospheric emission license must specify the (DEAT, 2003):
a. Activity in respect of which it is issued;
b. Property in respect of which it is issued;
c. Person to whom it is issued;
d. Duration of the license;
e. Periods at which the license may be reviewed;
f.
Maximum allowed concentration of pollutants that may be discharged in the atmosphere:
1. Under normal working conditions, and
2. Under normal start-up, maintenance and shut-down conditions;
g. Any other operating requirements relating to atmospheric discharges, including non-point source
or fugitive emissions;
h. Point source emission measurement and reporting requirements;
i.
On site ambient air quality measurement and reporting requirements;
j.
Penalties for non-compliance;
k. Greenhouse gas emission measurement and reporting requirements; and
l.
Any other conditions which are necessary to protect air quality.
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3.3 Existing local air quality management structures
In South Africa, several local air quality management structures (as is envisioned by the new
Air Quality Bill) exist and are already functioning, including (Scorgie, 2001a):
a. Air pollution liaison committee (APLCOM),
b. Durban SO2 Management System Steering Committee (Durban Steering Committee),
c. Richards Bay Clean Air Association (RBCAA),
d. Rustenburg Air Quality Forum (RAQF),
e. Coega Implementing Authority / Coega Development Corporation (Pty) Ltd (CDC), and
f.
Cape Metropolitan Council (CMC).
While the development of the above air quality management structures has tended to be
random and disjointed, there are notable similarities in the composition, objectives and functions of
the different committees, associations, forums and councils (Table 3.2) (Scorgie, 2001a).
The
Rustenburg Air Quality Forum operates in the region where, in particular, the Platinum Smelters form
the main focus.
Table 3.2: Defining local Air Quality Management structures (Scorgie, 2001a).
Composition
Multi-stakeholder bodies (representatives from
industry, local and provincial government,
communities, etc.)
Government only
Weaknesses
Multi-stakeholder structures do not move
beyond baseline air quality characterization and
dissemination of information, no “plan of action”
for emission reduction
Government structures: uncertainty as to how
and when stakeholders are to be consulted with
during air quality management planning
Financing
Multi-stakeholder air quality management
structures - activities funded through
membership fees
Fee allocation (extent and type of emissions,
uncertainties related to cost allocation
procedure)
Objectives
Quantify ambient pollutant levels
Functions
Emissions inventory establishment
Determine source contributions
Dissemination of information (public,
CAPCO)
Additional structure-specific
objectives
Air quality and meteorological
monitoring and modelling (on-line
dispersion modelling, source-receptor
modelling)
Develop local (more stringent) air
quality guidelines
Dealing with public complaints and
concerns
Assess efficiency of pollution abatement
equipment
Air pollution status reporting (web,
presentations, briefs to DEAT, etc.)
Emission quota stipulation
Development of air quality management
plans / emission reduction strategies
Identifying emission reduction options
Implementation of strategies set out
in air quality management plan
Government funds
3.4 Closing
As described in this Chapter, South African legislation regarding air quality management has
been lacking and has lost track with international legislation and standards (Chapter 2).
The
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act was published in 1965 and only revised in 2003; not much
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emphasis has been placed on air quality management and the health and environmental effects that air
pollution can have. South African companies that wanted to adhere to good environmental practice
and air quality standards had to apply international standards voluntarily and not because they
complied with South African legislation. The situation created lead to government departments
becoming toothless and too much power given to industries.
The new proposed National Environmental Management: Air Quality Bill will go a long way
to improve the situation. Much more detail is included in the legislation and international trends are
taken into account. Air quality management will be taken right to ground level and local problems
will be handled by the local authorities. A problem might be that suddenly too much responsibility is
placed on the provincial and local level of government where experience to handle difficult situations
might be lacking. A case in point is the situation as found in the Rustenburg region and described in
Chapter 4 (pollution quantification in the Rustenburg area). This region is significant for the large
Platinum mining industry found there and has very specific characteristics that contributes to the
pollution problems experienced which will need special attention and expert knowledge to solve. One
of the first tests to examine the efficiency of the new legislation will therefore be to see how problems
in this region are handled.
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Chapter 4
Pollution quantification in the Rustenburg area
4.1 Introduction
Platinum is a precious metal that occurs in ore bodies as one of a group of six closely related
greyish to silver-white metals known as the Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) (Aquarius Platinum,
1998 cited in Steyn, 2000: 49). Associated with the PGMs are gold and the base metals Nickel,
Copper and Cobalt (Aquarius Platinum, 1998 cited in Steyn, 2000: 49). The most important use of
Platinum is in the automotive industry where autocatalysts reduce vehicle exhaust emissions
(Aquarius Platinum, 1998 cited in Steyn, 2000: 49). Other uses of PGMs include jewellery and
decoration for coins, medallions and bars for investment (Aquarius Platinum, 1998 cited in Steyn,
2000: 49). The electrical, chemical, petroleum refining, medical and dental industries as well as glass
and fibre manufacturing further make use of PGMs (Aquarius Platinum, 1998 cited in Steyn, 2000:
49).
South Africa predominates in global Platinum production; supplying 74% of the world’s
mined production in 1997 (Aquarius Platinum, 1998 cited in Steyn, 2000: 49). In South Africa,
Platinum is mined almost exclusively from the Bushveld Igneous Complex (Appendix B: Fig. 4.1)
(Steyn, 2000; Hochreiter, 1985, cited in Steyn, 1996: 23). The area surrounding Rustenburg forms
part of the western lobe of the Bushveld Igneous Complex and has especially rich reserves (Aquarius
Platinum, 1998 cited in Steyn, 2000: 49).
The research problem for the study is discussed in this Chapter (section 4.4). In order to fully
understand the problem stated, it is important to firstly examine the regional setting of Rustenburg
(section 4.2), which is the focus area of the study, as well as the pollution emission inventory
(pollution quantification) (section 4.3) for the area.
4.2 Regional setting
Rustenburg is situated in the North West Province of South Africa (Pulles et al., 2001).
While Rustenburg is the only large urban area in the region, there are a number of smaller towns and
residential areas in its vicinity (e.g. Thlabane, Waterval, Mooinooi, Phokeng, Kana, Mafika, Luka and
Mogono) (Appendix B: Fig. 4.2 and Fig.4.3) (Pulles et al., 2000).
4.2.1 Surface infrastructure
While not originally being a primary destination, the Rustenburg area is relatively well
serviced in terms of its infrastructure with two main roads that link to the major urban areas of
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Pretoria and Johannesburg of the Gauteng province (Appendix B: Fig. 4.2 and Fig. 4.3). The N4
Platinum Highway (national Toll road) is the main east-west tending route that links Pretoria with the
study area (Appendix B: Fig. 4.2 and Fig. 4.3); this road is part of the Trans-Kalahari route that links
Maputo in the east with Walvis Bay in the West. The Johannesburg-Magaliesburg-Rustenburg-Sun
City road is the Rustenburg area’s primary link to Johannesburg in the south-east.
4.2.2 Land use
Agriculture originally dominated landuse in the Rustenburg area, but this has changed with
mining now dominating development and the financial component of the region (NW DACE, 2002).
Other dominant landuses that have been identified in the study area are (Burger et. al., 2002; Pulles et
al., 2000) (Table 4.1; Appendix B: Fig. 4.4):
a) Urban development and informal settlements, and
b) Mining-related industry.
Table 4.1: Land cover classification for the Rustenburg study area (Pulles et al., 2001).
Land use
Cultivated land
Cultivated: permanent – commercial irrigated
Cultivated: temporary – commercial dry land
Cultivated: temporary – commercial irrigated
Cultivated: temporary – semi-commercial/subsistence dry land
Forest plantations
Veld
Degraded: Thicket and Bushland
Forest and Woodland
Thicket and bushland (etc)
Unimproved grassland
Water bodies
Wetlands
Industry and Residential
Mines and Quarries
Urban / built-up land: commercial
Urban / built – up land: industrial / transport
Urban / built – up land: residential
Urban / built - up land: residential (small holdings: bushland)
Area (km2)
399.110
0.520
154.000
221.000
23.400
0.190
674.600
6.700
0.410
637.000
26.200
4.210
0.080
110.530
41.000
1.780
1.630
64.000
2.120
Proportion (%)
33.740
0.040
13.000
18.700
1.980
0.020
56.970
0.570
0.030
53.800
2.210
0.350
0.010
9.340
3.500
0.140
0.130
5.360
0.170
4.2.3 Hydrology
The Rustenburg area is located in the Crocodile River catchment of the Limpopo River basin
(Appendix B: Fig. 4.2) (Pulles et al., 2000). Rivers in the area drain into the Elands River, which
flows northward into the Vaalkop Dam, and ultimately into the Limpopo River (Pulles et al., 2000).
The Vaalkop dam is one of the major water sources for industries in the area and is particularly
important, considering the seasonal and long-term variability of the region’s rainfall (Pulles et al.,
2000).
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4.2.4 Geology
The underlying geology of the Rustenburg area comprises the Pyramid Gabbro-Norite
Formation of the Main Zone of the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Mathlagame NoriteAnorthosite formation of the Critical Zone of the Bushveld Igneous Complex (Pulles et al., 2000).
4.2.5 Climate
Rustenburg and its surrounding areas fall within the South African Highveld Climatic Zone
where temperatures are generally mild, with a mean annual maximum temperature of 26.4 °C, and a
mean monthly maximum of more than 30oC in summer (Pulles et al., 2000). Mean annual minimum
temperatures are 10.9 °C, while radiation loss under clear winter night skies results in mean monthly
minima as low as 2.8 oC (Pulles et al., 2000). The mean annual precipitation is 685 mm/annum, 85%
of which falls during summer thunderstorms between November and March (Pulles et al., 2000).
During winter the winds are generally light, southwesterly and northwesterly during summer (Pulles
et al., 2000).
4.2.6 Topography
The region around Rustenburg is bordered by the Magaliesberg Mountain Range to the south
and west with a relatively flat area to the north and east (Appendix B: Fig. 4.5 and Fig. 4.6) (Burger
et. al., 2002). Gently undulating plains at an altitude of 1 130m, close to the northern section of the
Magaliesberg Mountain Range with peaks in this section rising to altitudes of between 1 400m and 1
500m (Pulles et al., 2000).
The natural environment as described above has a definite influence on the atmospheric
pollution dispersion in the Rustenburg area. The Magaliesberg Mountain Range’s close proximity,
the relatively calm (in terms of wind) conditions that are prevalent in the area and the presence of
three or four inversion layers in winter means that pollution is staying much longer at ground level
than under normal circumstances (Moneyweb, 2003b; Rapport, 2003). Mixing only starts from about
10h00 in the morning which means that emission plumes stay at the respective levels at which they
were emitted until then (Moneyweb, 2003b; Rapport, 2003). Because of these circumstances, it is
important to examine the different sources and their relative contributions to the amount of
atmospheric pollution in the Rustenburg area.
4.3 Regional emission inventory in the Rustenburg area
A study conducted in 2001 (Pulles et al., 2001) on behalf of the Rustenburg Air Quality
Forum (RAQF) attempted to quantify emissions from all sources in the region (Table 4.2). Although
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emission levels from each of the sources were obtained directly from the persons responsible for the
sources, the data are incomplete and do not include all pollution sources (Pulles et al., 2001).
Table 4.2: Estimated emission source contributions in the Rustenburg area (Pulles et al., 2001)
Sulphur dioxide
Oxides of nitrogen
Suspended Particulates
Large industrial (99.25%)
Domestic (65.83%)
Unpaved roads (62.14%)
Domestic (1.54%)
Domestic (0.41%)
Large industrial (25.98%)
Large industrial (28.55%)
Veld fires (1.27%)
Small boilers (0.31%)
Exhaust (6.46%)
Paved roads (3.47%)
Tailings dams (0.45%)
Exhaust (0.03%)
Small boilers (0.99%)
Small boilers (2.26%)
Urban paved roads (0.20%)
Veld Fires (0.75%)
Exhaust (0.13%)
From this study, the following main contributors to the atmospheric pollution in the
Rustenburg area have been identified and are discussed in the section below.
4.3.1 Pollution from scheduled processes in the Rustenburg area
Large industry has been identified as one of the main contributors to air pollution (and
specifically SO2 and particulate pollution) in the Rustenburg area due to the nature and processing of
the Platinum Group Metal (PGM) bearing ore (Pulles et al., 2001; Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
Platinum mining activities comprise several different components, namely: extraction, concentrating,
smelting (and converting) and refining (of Base Metals and Precious Metals); all of these activities are
conducted in the Rustenburg area (Pulles et al., 2000). Three Platinum mines (i.e. Lonmin Platinum,
Impala Platinum and Anglo Platinum) are responsible for 96.2% of total emissions (Table 4.3; Table
4.4 and Appendix B: Fig. 4.7) (Pulles et al., 2001; Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
Table 4.3: Pollutant allocation for large industrial sources (Pulles et al., 2001).
Sulphur Dioxide
Nitrogen Oxides
Particulate emissions
(no tailings dams)
Anglo Platinum
51.77%
57.77%
86.35%
Impala Platinum
27.84%
18.10%
4.03%
Lonmin Platinum
17.60%
6.03%
5.15%
Xstrata
2.79
18.10%
4.48%
The Chrome industry is smaller than the Platinum industry in the Rustenburg area and is
dominated by Xstrata (formerly called Chromecorp) and Samancor (relatively small operations in the
Kroondal area) (Pulles et al., 2001). Emissions from industries other than mining comprise only 3.4%
of the total (Table 4.4) (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
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Table 4.4: Scheduled processes identified by Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO) in
the Rustenburg area (Pulles et al., 2001).
Source Name
Nature of source
Source Name
Nature of source
Anglo Platinum
Smelter – Acid plant
Lonmin Platinum
Smelter– Roasting process
Anglo Platinum
Smelter – Roasting process
Lonmin Platinum
Base Metals Refinery – Boiler
Anglo Platinum
Base Metals Refinery Boiler
Xstrata Wonderkop
Smelter – Furnace operations
Anglo Platinum
Precious Metals Refinery Incinerator
Xstrata Rustenburg
Smelter – Furnace operations
Impala Platinum
Smelter – Acid plant
Rainbow Chickens
4 Boilers
Impala Platinum
Smelter– Roasting process
Rustenburg Abattoir
Boiler
Impala Platinum
Smelter– Incinerator
Trek Engineering
Induction Furnaces
Ferncrest Hospital
Medical Incinerator
Burger et al. (2002) conducted a follow-up study in which the emissions from large industries
were further quantified and classified into point, area and volume sources (described below).
4.3.1.1. Point Sources
Point sources of atmospheric pollution are defined as that emitted from a small area
(e.g. a stack) and contribute significantly to pollution approximately 2 to 10 km downwind
but not at the source (Burger et al., 2002). The stack height assists in the dispersion of the
pollution while pollutant exit temperatures and exit velocities contribute to an “effective”
stack height so that when the pollution reaches ground level it has undergone significant
dilution (Table 4.5) (Burger et al., 2002). Due to the small area of the stack it is possible to
measure pollutant parameters accurately (Appendix B: Fig. 4.8) (Burger et al., 2002).
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Table 4.5: Point sources of atmospheric pollution in the Rustenburg area (Burger et al.,
2002).
Stack height
(m)
Stack diameter
(m)
Exit gas temperature
(K)
Exit gas velocity
(m/s)
66.7
1.6
350
11.2
Flash Drier 1
50
0.98
333
30
Flash Drier 2
50
0.98
333
30
Anglo Platinum
Flash Drier 3
50
0.98
333
30
Anglo Platinum
Flash Drier 4
50
0.98
333
30
Anglo Platinum
Main Stack
183
4.62
438
3.72
Base Metals Refinery
Boiler
28
1.5
493.15
12.5
Impala Platinum
Acid Plant
60
1
353.15
10
Impala Platinum
Dryer 1
40
2.5
606.15
30
Impala Platinum
Dryer 4
34
3.25
606.15
30
Impala Platinum
Dryer 5
40
2.5
606.15
30
Impala Platinum
Incinerator
40
2.5
606
30
Impala Platinum
Main Stack
91.4
1.82
473.15
10
Lonmin Platinum
Coal Boiler Stack
27.1
1.4
446
10.9
Lonmin Platinum
Dryer Baghouse Stack
53
1.34
413
15.13
Lonmin Platinum
Main Stack
127.8
3.4
442
20.5
Site
Source Name
Anglo Platinum
Acid Plant
Anglo Platinum
Anglo Platinum
In the Rustenburg area, point sources of atmospheric pollution are reasonably well
documented including those from small sources; not all sources have fully quantified all the pollutants
from the stacks (Burger et al., 2002). It is believed that the Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism is planning to implement monitoring of the chemical composition of stack emissions, which
will assist in quantifying pollution and evaluating its impact (Burger et al., 2002).
4.3.1.2. Area Sources
Area sources of atmospheric pollution are places where pollutants are released from a wide
area such as tailings dams (Appendix B: Fig. 4.9) (Burger et al., 2002). Emissions from area sources
are related to the wind speed, particle sizes and moisture content of the dumps (Table 4.6) (Burger et
al., 2002).
Mine tailings dams from the three Platinum mines represent a significant source of
particulate emissions, particularly during windy periods (Pulles et al., 2001). Compounding
the issue, it is believed that several tailings facilities may exist that have not yet been
identified (Pulles et al., 2001). The locations and sizes of most tailings dams in the study
area were available for the estimation of quantities of wind-generated dust, but little
information was available regarding dump geometries, particle size distributions and
moisture content (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001). Much more work is required to
quantify area sources and to be able to evaluate the impact of such pollution (Burger et al.,
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
2002). Conservative estimates were made (mean particle size of 30 µm; moisture content
~2%) that have resulted in inaccuracies in calculations of emission rates (Pulles et al., 2001).
Particulate emissions due to the erosion of open storage piles and exposed areas occur when
the threshold wind speed is exceeded (Burger et al., 2002; EPA, 1992 cited in Pulles et al.,
2001: 7-18). Significant amounts of particulates (directly proportional to the wind speed)
will be eroded from the dry sections of tailings dams and dumps under wind speeds of greater
than 5.4 m/s (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001).
Table 4.6: Area sources of atmospheric pollution in the Rustenburg area (Burger et al.;
2002).
Length
(m)
Width
(m)
Angle
(°)
Area
(m2)
Tailings Klipfontein
1612
1612
0
2600000
Anglo Platinum
Tailings Phases1-3
2040
2040
0
4160000
Anglo Platinum
Tailings Waterval East
735
735
0
540000
Anglo Platinum
Tailings Waterval West
1285
1285
0
1650000
Impala Platinum
Tailings Dam 1&2
2000
975
34
8800000
Impala Platinum
Tailings Dam 3&4
2300
860
34
13000000
Lonmin Platinum
Tailings Eastern Platinum
860
860
0
740000
Lonmin Platinum
Tailings Karee Mine
980
980
0
960000
Lonmin Platinum
Tailings Western Platinum (East)
656
656
0
430000
Lonmin Platinum
Tailings Western Platinum (North)
1131
1131
0
1280000
Lonmin Platinum
Tailings Western Platinum (South)
600
600
0
360000
Lonmin Platinum
Tailings Western Platinum (West)
616
616
0
380000
Site
Source Name
Anglo Platinum
4.3.1.3 Volume Sources
Volume sources of atmospheric pollution are normally classified as ill-defined uncontrolled
emissions (e.g. ore processing) that are by their nature transient and unpredictable (Table 4.7) (Burger
et al., 2002). Volume sources are difficult to measure and control and are normally estimated
according to fixed percentages passing through the process (Burger et al., 2002). Typically a fraction
(5 to 20%) of the gas from industrial processes is assumed to escape as fugitives (Burger et al., 2002).
Volume sources need to be better quantified before more attention can be given to fugitive emissions
(Burger et al., 2002).
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Table 4.7: Volume sources of atmospheric pollution in the Rustenburg area (Burger et
al., 2002).
Release Height
Initial Lateral Length
Initial Vertical length
Orientation wrt
(m)
(m)
(m)
North
Site
Source Name
Anglo Platinum
Converter fugitives
36.683
32.56
9.3
0
Anglo Platinum
Furnace fugitives
30
7
12
0
Impala Platinum
Fugitives
10
30
10
0
Lonmin Platinum
Converter fugitives
12
23.3
11.9
0
Lonmin Platinum
Infurnco fugitives
12
23.3
11.9
0
Lonmin Platinum
Pyromet fugitives
12
23.3
11.9
0
4.3.2 Domestic fuel combustion
The spatial extent of the use of coal in the domestic sector is not known; therefore, previous
estimates for domestic coal burning emissions were based on the total sales for the Rustenburg region
(Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001; Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). The respective populations in the
traditionally coal burning residential areas in the Rustenburg area were used to apportion the use of
coal with the emission rate estimates taken from the Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism’s National Emission Database (Table 4.8) (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001). Since
only coal was included as an energy carrier (i.e. not wood and other sources of fire), it is believed that
the emissions could be under-estimated (Table 4.2) (Pulles et al., 2001).
Table 4.8: Pollution emission factors for domestic coal usage (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al.,
2001)
Pollutant
Emission factor (g of pollutant per kg of coal used)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
4.167
Oxides of nitrogen
50.000
Particulates
2.976
Carbon monoxide (CO)
595.238
Volatile organic compounds
79.762
4.3.3 Vehicle emissions
A total of 1 450 kilometres of road are located within the study area of which approximately
800km are unpaved (Appendix B: Fig. 4.10) (Pulles et al., 2001). An evaluation of the traffic flow
pattern was based on a road count conducted in 1998, and information provided by the local town
council (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001). The study indicated the following traffic levels
(Pulles et al., 2001):
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a. Nelson Mandela Drive (one way South to North): 15 720 vehicles per 12 hours,
b. Oliver Tambo Drive (one way North to South): 14 381 vehicles per 12 hours, and
c. Eastern bypass: 8 517 vehicles per 12 hours
Traffic flow patterns on the outskirts of Rustenburg where a gradual decrease in traffic were
estimated from the flow along the national road, average volumes, in vehicles per 12 hours were 14
730 at Kroondal, 12 585 at Buffelspoort, and 11 469 at Mooinooi (Appendix B: Fig. 4.2) (Burger et
al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001). The traffic situation has changed noticeably since 1998 because of all
the new developments (described in section 4.4); therefore it can be assumed that the traffic count is
under-estimated.
Vehicle emissions include both tailpipe gases, particulates as well as entrained particulates
from road surfaces (one of the largest sources of fugitive particulate emissions at industrial sites)
(Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001). The essential parameters necessary to estimate these
emissions include (Table 4.2; Table 4.9) (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001):
a. The type of vehicle:
1. Petrol engines: small (< 1 500cc); medium (1 500 cc to 2 000 cc); large (> 2 000cc), and
2. Diesel engines: light (< 3.5 tons); medium (3.5 tons to 16 tons); heavy (>16 tons).
b. The road surface:
1. Paved: open roads; urban roads; industrial, and
2. Unpaved.
c. The number and type of vehicles on each of the road types listed.
Table 4.9: South Africa pollution emission factors for various vehicle types (Pulles et al.; 2001).
Hydrocarbons
CO
Nitrogen Oxides
SO2
Particulates
Petrol
1.76
15.20
2.1
0.055
0.00
Diesel
Light duty vehicles
0.14
0.11
1.73
0.54
1.02
Diesel
Medium duty vehicles
1.27
9.86
5.22
0.58
0.70
Diesel
Heavy duty vehicles
1.27
9.86
17.24
1.77
1.64
The contribution of unpaved roads to the total pollution budget is a function of their extent in
the study area, the utilisation of these roads, and the class of vehicles using these roads (Table 4.9)
(Pulles et al., 2001). In addition to traffic volumes, emissions also depend on a number of parameters,
such as average vehicle speed, mean vehicle weight, average number of wheels per vehicle, road
surface texture, and road surface moisture (Table 4.10) (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001; EPA,
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1996 cited in Pulles et al., 2001: 7-16). A constant silt content of 10% was assumed for the 800km of
unpaved roads in the study area (Burger et al., 2002; Pulles et al., 2001).
Table 4.10: Factors taken into account when estimating particulate pollution from roads (Pulles
et al. 2001)
Estimated mean number of wheels
Petrol vehicles – 4
Diesel vehicles
Light duty tracks – 4
Medium duty trucks – 6
Heavy duty trucks – 10
Estimated mean vehicle mass
Petrol vehicles – 1.5 ton
Diesel vehicles
Light duty trucks – 1.5 ton
Medium duty trucks – 5 ton
Heavy duty trucks – 20 ton
4.3.4 Veld fire emissions
Veld fires are random processes that can occur almost anywhere and in Rustenburg area they
significantly contribute to particulate pollution (Table 4.2) (Burger et al., 2002). An inventory of veld
fires attended by the Rustenburg Fire Department was furnished; however, the value of these data are
limited since the area burned was not consistently recorded, and because controlled veld burning,
which is a fairly extensive practice in the area, is not always attended to or logged by the Fire
Department (Table 4.11) (Pulles et al., 2001). Further, although the burning of tyres at dumping sites
and in bulk refuse containers, particularly on winter nights, is erratic in location and frequency and
cannot be quantified, it should not be neglected as a source of pollution (Appendix B: Fig. 4.11 and
Fig. 4.12) (Pulles et al., 2001).
Table 4.11:
Pollution emission factors for veld fires (Pulles et al., 2001)
Pollutant
Emission factor (Kg of pollutant per hectare)
Oxides of nitrogen oxide
40
Particulate matter
172
Carbon monoxide
1410
Volatile organic compounds
242
4.3.5 Other emission sources
The emission sources described thus far are more prevalent in the Rustenburg area, but are by
no means the only sources of pollution. Other smaller sources also occur and exacerbate the amount
of pollution in the region.
4.3.5.1 Light industry
Light industry in the Rustenburg area is almost entirely comprised of boilers and incinerators
that use coal as a heat source and their individual contribution to the atmospheric pollution was
estimated by Pulles et al. (2001) (Table 4.12 and Fig. 4.7.). However, their contribution to the overall
pollution budget is small (Table 4.2).
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
Table 4.12: Atmospheric pollution from light industry in the Rustenburg area (Pulles
et al. 2001)
Site
Rainbow Chickens
Steam Boilers
Rustenburg Abattoir
Overfeed stoker
Joerg Foundry (Trek Engineering)
Induction Furnaces
Ferncrest Hospital
Medical incinerator
Western Chrome Mines
Fluidised bed dryer
Pro-Kleen dry cleaners
Overfeed stoker
MKTV Tobacco Limited
Boiler
Mageu Number one
Boiler
British American Tobacco Products
Spreader stoker
Rustenburg provincial hospital
Overfeed stokers
Stack
Height
(m)
Exit gas
Exit gas
Temperature Velocity
(m/s)
(K)
Stack
Diameter
(m)
SO2
(g/s)
NOx
(g/s)
CO
(g/s)
TSP
(g/s)
PM10
(g/s)
23
563
8
0.7
2.87
1.10
1.27
25.15
10.40
15
648
8
0.45
0.15
0.02
0.02
0.62
0.23
5
648
8
0.28
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
16
1473
8
0.38
8.24
1.98
0.72
138.35
27.67
5
648
8
0.2
0.11
0.01
0.04
0.57
0.44
15
648
8
0.5
0.05
0.01
0.31
0.25
0.10
9
648
8
0.7
0.82
0.11
0.09
3.36
1.26
9
648
8
0.5
0.27
0.04
0.03
0.62
0.34
11.5
648
8
0.65
0.46
0.11
0.04
7.73
1.55
20
648
8
0.7
0.65
0.09
0.07
2.65
0.99
4.3.5.2 Fugitive dust: Small mines
Several small mines exist in the area around Rustenburg; although, no comprehensive
inventory of the locations has been set up by the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) (Pulles
et al., 2001).
An inventory of all mines in the North West Province was formulated by the
Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment (DACE) for the North West province
(Pulles et al., 2001), but is not yet available for public scrutiny.
4.3.5.3 Fugitive dust: Agriculture
Wind-blown dust and dust generated through ploughing of cultivated land is the primary
source of particulate pollution from agriculture in the Rustenburg area (Pulles et al., 2001). To
quantify the impact of agriculture on particulate pollution, data relating to the specific crops grown
and the distribution thereof are required (Pulles et al., 2001). Roughly one third of the study area is
cultivated land, including semi-commercial and subsistence farming (Table 4.1) (Appendix B: Fig.
4.4) (Pulles et al., 2001). In the Rustenburg area, the crops selected for planting are chosen on an
annual basis (based on strategic considerations) and local farmers are, in general, not willing to
disclose the crop types or the areas used to cultivate each crop (Pulles et al., 2001). However, the
following crops are known to be cultivated in the area (Pulles et al., 2001):
a) Wheat, which is harvested in November,
b) Chillies, sunflowers and tobacco planted in October / November, and
c) Citrus is planted closer to the mountains, predominantly in the Olifantshoek area.
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
4.4 The research problem
The North West province experienced a decline in economic growth of 0.6 % between 1991
and 1996, primarily due to a decline in the mining sector, apart from the Platinum industry (NW
DACE, 2002), which has experienced considerable growth during the 1990’s and 2000’s (rapidly
increasing Platinum price reaching levels of ± $600/oz combined with a favourable exchange rate).
The above growth has lead to all three Platinum mines expanding their activities and increasing their
production. As a result, the Rustenburg region experienced remarkable growth; by 2003 Rustenburg
was the third fastest growing city in Africa and the sixth fastest growing in the world (African EPA,
2003).
Large industry is responsible for 99.25% of SO2 emissions and 28.55% of particulate
emissions (Table 4.2 and Table 4.3) with the largest single source of emissions being the three
Platinum Smelters that are situated within 60km from each other (Appendix B: Fig. 4.13 and Fig.
4.14). Because of the increase in production, the amount of ore delivered to the Smelters of all three
Platinum mines increased, but little attention was given to improvement (upgrading) of the air
pollution control technology used in the Smelters to combat the amount of pollution emitted (Table
4.2; Fig. 4.15 and Fig.4.16). The situation was worsened by the specific atmospheric conditions
present in the Rustenburg area (described in 4.2.6).
Air quality management plans (especially
regarding particulate emissions) were incomplete and did not support the preventative measures that
were in place (Fig.4.17).
External pressure (from the public) as well as internal pressure (money squandered because
particulate emissions contains Platinum) has lead to a new approach and resulted in new plans being
made by all three of the mines to measure, monitor and control (reduce) particulate emissions1. It
further became evident that because of the mining developments in the region, as well as all the
expansions, a regional plan for the management of particulate emissions is required to co-ordinate
efforts and manage the emissions more effectively. The existing regional plans (Appendix C) were
too general and insufficient to fulfill the requirements for the Rustenburg area.
The primary aims of this study are to establish the level of particulate pollution originating
from the Platinum industry (specifically the Smelters), examine current and future management plans
and procedures regarding pollution prevention and the development of a regional and site-specific Air
Quality Management Plan (AQMP) for particulate emissions of the three Platinum Smelters (Anglo
Platinum, Impala Platinum and Lonmin Platinum). Essential components of the study, require a
review of international and national issues as well as specific considerations for the Rustenburg area,
namely:
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
a. International trends in air quality management (including guidelines and standards).
b. The impacts of air pollution on society and the natural environment.
c. The essential components of an air quality management plan.
d. Measuring, monitoring, modelling and control of particulates.
e. Management and legislation regarding air pollution management in South Africa.
f.
Regional setting and pollution quantification in the Rustenburg region.
g. The situation in the Rustenburg Platinum industry prior to expansion (until the end of 2001):
1. Smelter processes description,
2. Permit requirements,
3. Air quality monitoring inside Smelters and ambient monitoring,
4. Pollution management structures, and
5. Management plans (overall air quality management, particulates).
h. The situation in the Rustenburg Platinum industry during expansion (from 2002):
1. Smelter processes description,
2. Permit requirements,
3. Air quality monitoring inside Smelters and in the ambient monitoring,
4. Pollution management structures, and
5. Management plans (overall air quality management, particulates).
i.
Comparison and discussion of results (data, management plans, procedures and structures).
j.
The role of civil society in air pollution management.
k. The development of a new regional air quality management plan.
A component of the study is an evaluation of the levels of atmospheric particulate pollution;
to this end data are being collected and provided by the Platinum industry that measure emissions
from Smelters. The study is limited to measuring particulates less than 10µm in diameter, as this is
the component that is inhalable and, therefore, considered to be dangerous (Burger & Scorgie, 2000).
The above data are the first regarding particulates in the study area and are being utilised to test
compliance with national legislation and international norms.
One of the critical issues in the
Rustenburg region is the involvement of all role players, namely:
a. Mining industry,
1. Anglo Platinum: Waterval Smelter
2. Impala Platinum Smelter
3. Lonmin Platinum Smelter
b. Government departments,
1. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
2. Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment: North West
3. Department of Minerals and Energy
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c. Rustenburg Air Quality Forum, and
d. North West Ecoforum (acting on behalf of the public).
Information was collected through discussions, interviews, meetings and written
correspondence and was analysed to determine the best possible strategies for managing pollution in
the study area.
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Chapter 5
Airborne Pollutants in the Rustenburg area:
Contributors and Management Until the end of 2001
As discussed in Chapter 4 the mining sector is the lead contributor to the North West
province’s economy, both financially and by its labour absorption capacity (35,5% contribution to the
domestic economy in 1996) (NW DACE, 2002). Formal employment opportunities provided by the
mining sector in the Province absorb approximately 118 000 employees (22%) (NW DACE, 2002).
The average annual remuneration for this sector in the Province is R41 967 (Urban-Econ, 2002). In
the Rustenburg area the mining sector is also the main contributor towards the GGP of the local
economy with the remaining sectors’ contributions relatively small if compared to the mining sector
(Urban-Econ, 2002). The community services and trade sectors are the second and third most
important sectors and are followed by the finance and manufacturing sector in fourth and fifth places
respectively (Urban-Econ, 2002).
In Chapter 5 the contributions of the Platinum mining industry (which is relevant for this
study) to particulate pollution are described as well as the management plans in place (up to the end of
2001) to control the particulate emissions. Background information is provided about the Smelter
process and the regions from where the particulate emissions originate. The permit conditions as
issued by the Air Pollution Officer (APCO) (described in Chapter 3) are given.
Air quality
monitoring inside the Smelters is described in detail (different sections contributions to particulate
emissions) as well as outside the Smelter (ambient monitoring of fugitive emissions). Results from
gravimetric (personal) sampling are included to indicate the effect of the emissions on the Smelter
employees. In the last section the overall environmental management plans for the Smelters are
described as well as the specific plans in place to minimise particulate emissions. This information
(where available) is supplied for all three of the Smelters.
From 2002 onwards, major changes were implemented by all three Smelters to minimise the
particulate pollution in the region (described in Chapter 6). In Chapter 7 a review and synthesis is
given of the particulate pollution management as described in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6.
5.1 Anglo Platinum: Waterval Smelter
Anglo American Corporation is the largest primary Platinum producer in the world (~38% of
the worlds production) and is the majority shareowner (owns 67%) of Anglo Platinum since 1999
(Hamann, 2003). The registered office of Anglo Platinum is in Johannesburg where the primary
listing is, with secondary listing in London (Hamann, 2003). In 2003 production was 2.25 million oz
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
of Platinum with an expansion goal of 3.5 million oz in 2006 (Hamann, 2003). The total number of
employees were approximately 45 000, of which nearly 21 000 were contracting staff (up from ~10
000 in 2001) (Hamann, 2003). The total operating profit was ~R9 500 million (Hamann, 2003). In
the Rustenburg area, the company has five mining sections, one Smelter and two refineries (Hamann,
2003). There are two main operations in the study area which contributed ~R3 200 million in
operating profit (almost 1/3 of total operating profit for the Group) (Hamann, 2003):
1. RPM Rustenburg section mine: ~1 million oz, 15 000 employees; and
2. Bafokeng Rasimone mine: ~260 000 oz, ~3 300 employees.
5.1.1 Site description
Waterval Smelter is located approximately 8km to the east of Rustenburg (Anglo Platinum,
2001a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). The Waterval Concentrator is located along it’s western boundary,
a large laboratory and administration complex belonging to Rustenburg Platinum Mine (RPM) to the
east, the Waterval East Tailings dam complex to the north, and the Process Division’s Security and
Waterval Sewage complexes and the Rustenburg Base Metals Refiners (RBMR) to the south and
south east (Appendix B: Fig. 5.1) (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
The Waterval Smelter is surrounded by other mining activities (e.g. Anglo Platinum:
Rustenburg Section, Kroondal Chromium Mine, Bleskop Mine, and Rustenburg Chromium Mine),
several formal settlements (e.g. Thlabane, Waterval village, Boepa and Phokeng), farmsteads, and
informal settlements (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). There are various potentially sensitive receptors
located within 5km of the Waterval Smelter (Entabeni Hostel, C-Hostel, a hospital and the residential
areas of Waterval, and Arnoldistad) (Appendix B: Fig. 5.1) (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a).
5.1.2 Process description
Operations at Waterval Smelter commenced in 1969 and in 2002 almost 800 people were
employed (Anglo Platinum, 2001a)5. The main function of the Waterval Smelter is to extract a
concentrate that is rich in Platinum Group Metals (PGM’s) (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al.,
2001). The process employed consists of different sections, namely (Pulles et al., 2001):
a. Concentrate receiving,
b. Concentrate drying,
c. Furnaces,
d. Converters,
e. Slow cooling,
f.
Slag milling, and
g. Acid plant.
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
A schematic illustration of the Anglo Platinum Smelter operations is found in Appendix B
(Fig.5.2) with a detailed description of the process in Appendix D.
5.1.3 Permit requirements for Waterval Smelter
The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), through the Chief Air
Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO), is responsible to issue a registration certificate under which the
Smelter is to operate. This certificate must include stipulations regarding air quality management. A
provisional registration certificate for the Waterval Smelter was issued on 16 February 1999, and
included the following stipulations (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a):
a. The total particulates concentration of the final emission from the Flash driers will be less than 50
mg.m-3, measured at 0°C and 101.3 kPa;
b. Gasses released from the submerged arc furnaces will pass through two banks of candle
filters, each with a filtration area of 1146 m2. The final particulates concentration from
these filters will be less than 50 mg.m-3 measured at 0°C and 101.3 kPa;
c. All emissions from the furnaces and converters will either be vented to atmosphere by
means of a 182 m high stack or passed through an off-gas Sulphuric Acid plant where the
SO2 to SO3 conversion efficiency will be a minimum of 96%;
d. All air pollution abatement equipment will be operational for 96% of the time, each
month at the prescribed efficiency; and
e. A final certificate will only be issued once emissions from Waterval Smelter plant
comply with a total SO2 emission quantity of less than 20 t.day-1.
5.1.4 Air quality monitoring inside the Smelter
Waterval Smelter emits particulates from the Main and Flash drier stacks (Appendix B: Fig.
4.15), the furnace and converter building (Appendix B: Fig. 4.17) as well as general plant fugitive
emissions (e.g. stockpiling, reclamation and vehicle-entrained particulates from the paved road
network) (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). Monitoring of these emissions started in 1998 and has been
updated over the years until a total of 20 indicators were monitored in 2001 (Table 5.1) (Anglo
Platinum, 2002a).
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
Table 5.1: Parameters (indicators) monitored at Anglo Platinum between 1998 and 2001
(Anglo Platinum, 2002a5).
1998
1. Furnace off-gas
particulates to main
stack
2. Converter off-gas
particulates to main
stack
3. Overall main stack
emissions
4. Acid plant stack
5. Fugitive emissions
6. Flash drier emissions
7. Sulphur balance
8. Surface water
9. Ground water
1999
2000
2001
Ongoing monitoring of
parameters (1 – 9)
Ongoing monitoring of these
parameters (1 – 11)
20. PM10
monitoring
10. Water use and balance
12. SO2 plume prediction and
modelling
11. Ambient SO2
concentrations
13. Electricity used
14. Fossil fuel burned
15. Light fuel oil used
16. Diesel used
17. Liquid fossil fuel gases used
18. Total land altered by operations
19. Land rehabilitated
In the following section the different areas inside the Smelter from where particulates are
emitted are listed and data regarding the emissions are supplied and discussed.
5.1.4.1 Flash drier emissions
There are four Flash driers that emit particulates in use (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). The
alternative to Flash driers is Spray driers; however, there is no real difference between the two
methods in terms of particulate emission control7.
Particulate emissions are controlled through
baghouses (Flash Driers 2, 3 and 4) and a wet scrubber (Flash drier 1) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a)7.
Flash Driers 2 and 3 have 1440 bags while Flash drier 4 has 3200 bags (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). The
fourth Flash drier was commissioned in August 2000 while Flash drier 1 was phased out and is only
used for stand by (Anglo Platinum, 2002a).
Particulate emissions from the four Flash driers were routinely measured (isokinetically) for
the period December 1999 to December 2002 (Fig. 5.4). The emissions are reported on a monthly
basis to the APCO (limit of 50 mg.N-1.m-3) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a; Anglo Platinum, 2001b)7. From
Figure.5.4 it is clear that monthly measurements were not conducted at all four Flash driers which
means that it is impossible to test conformance with the requirements stipulated on the provisional
permit.
The values for Flash drier 1 vary between 7.4 t.month-1 and 10.8 t.month-1 with outliers of 349
t for November 2000 and December 2000; it is suggested that the reason for the anomalies is that the
baghouses were replaced during this period5. Measurements were discontinued from February 2002
onwards. Flash drier 2 has values ranging between 0.14 t.month-1 and 5.71 t.month-1 with outliers for
November and December 2000 of 6.1 t.month-1. From June 2001 to October 2002 no measurements
78
University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
were taken and the value stayed exactly the same at 0.62 t.month-1. Emissions from Flash drier 3 have
been relatively consistent varying between 0.64 and 0.8 t.month-1. The highest values were recorded
in March and May 2000. From April 2001 no measuring were conducted and therefore the values is
each time the same as the previous months. Measurements were conducted for Flash drier 4 from
January 2001 onwards. The values range between 0.2 and 0.74 t.month-1. The emissions started at
0.2 t.month-1 and increased to 0.6 t.month-1 from July 2001 to November 2002. The first value change
was in December 2002 to 0.74 t. Despite the use of additional bags and a wet scrubber, there was still
a steady increase in particulate emissions.
1000
Flash Dryer 1
Tonnes. Month
-1
Flash Dryer 2
100
Flash Dryer 3
Flash Dryer 4
10
1
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Dec-02
0.1
Figure 5.4: Flash drier emissions from the Anglo Platinum Smelter in the Rustenburg area
(Anglo Platinum, 2002b)
5.1.4.2 Furnace off-gas particulates to Main stack
The Furnace area is the biggest source of particulate emissions inside the Smelter and
respirators are worn in parts of this section (Appendix B: Fig.5.3)7. The main reason for the amount
of emissions is that after the drying process the concentrate is in the form of a dry, very fine powder
that is very difficult to control effectively and leads to a very dusty environment5. Blowbacks occur
irregularly (because of temperature and pressure control) but still contribute along with tapping to the
amount of particulate emissions5. All the off-gases pass through six ceramic element modules where
most of the particulates are captured (theoretical efficiency: 98.5%) and routed back into the process
(Anglo Platinum, 2002a)7. After cleaning, the air is vented to the atmosphere through the Main stack
(Anglo Platinum, 2002a)7. To minimise the volume of particulates lying on the surface area, the
furnace surface area has been cemented and a vacuum cleaning system is used on a daily basis7.
Occasionally an independent company is contracted to clean the entire Smelter7.
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
The particulate emissions are measured by a SICK monitor situated after the ceramic filters
(before the Main stack) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a)7. The monitor uses an infrared beam, which counts
the number of particulates passing through that specific point7. Measurements (in t.day-1) are taken on
a continuous basis and sent to the HAWK system where it can be converted to µg.m-3.7 Information
regarding the conversion calculations is found in Appendix E. It is extremely difficult to monitor the
actual particulate concentrations, due to the high particulate loading and the sensitivity of the
monitoring equipment (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). An OPSIS monitor that makes use of a laserbeam
measures SO2 emissions separately7.
Furnace off-gas emissions were measured over a three-year period from December 1999 to
December 2002 (Fig. 5.5). No data were recorded for the period September 2000 to December 2001.
The reason for this is the breakdown of the ceramic candles. During 1996 and 1997 ceramic candles
were installed to capture and recycle particulate emissions emanating from the off-gas stream of the
electric furnaces more effectively at a cost of R60 million (Anglo Platinum, 2002a; Anglo Platinum,
2001b)5. The installation of ceramic candles at the Smelter was the largest operation of its kind in the
world (Anglo Platinum, 2001b). After commissioning in 1998 the ceramic candle system performed
well and resulted in a significant reduction in particulate emissions from the Smelter (Anglo Platinum,
2002a). However, the effectiveness of the ceramic elements started deteriorating after the first year of
operation and dropped to about 75% (September 2000), and was then constant at this level for the rest
of the year (Fig. 5.5) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). The reduction in effectiveness of the ceramic candles
was apparently due to increased breakages and a reduction in the availability of the elements (Anglo
Platinum, 2002a).
The problem with ceramic elements and non-compliance of the Smelter to
prescribed limits was reported to CAPCO; detailed process investigations followed to determine the
cause and to present solutions (Anglo Platinum, 2002a).
Tonnes.Month
-1
1000
100
10
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Dec-02
1
Figure 5.5: Furnace off-gas emissions at the Anglo Platinum Smelter in the Rustenburg area
from December 1999 to December 2002 (Anglo Platinum, 2002b).
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
A solution to the problem required redesign of the Venturi scrubbers and modification of the
operating conditions (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). The test period of the new design started in the middle
of November 2000 and at the end of that year no element failures had been reported for the specific
module (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). The test period ended in January 2001 and all the modules were
equipped with the new design by April 2001 (efficiency back to 98,5%) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a)5.
Regular measurements were only conducted again from January 2002. Although the filtering of
particulate emissions was said to have been corrected, they were significantly higher (59.47 t.month-1)
than before the breakages occurred. From August 2002 measurements increased even further to 370
t.month-1.
5.1.4.3 Converter off-gas particulates to main stack
Particulate emissions (off-gases) from the converter pass through the Acid plant after which
the “clean air” is routed to the Main stack7. The emissions are measured on a continuous basis by a
monitor situated after the Acid plant and before the Main stack and are then sent to the HAWK
system7. No Isokinetic sampling is conducted for the Converter area (Anglo Platinum, 2001b).
Measurements were conducted between December 1999 and December 2002 for the converter off-gas
(Fig. 5.6). The off-gas emissions measured in the Main stack stayed relatively consistent (59 t.month1
to 62 t.month-1) although a very high value was recorded for January 2001 (452 t.month-1) because
of the annual shutdown that continued for 24 days5. No further measurements were available after
January 2001. Emissions measured for gasses routed to the Acid plant continued and varied between
46 tonnes and 81 tonnes per month until July 2001. There was a sharp decrease in emissions
monitored (August 2001). No further testing was conducted until December 2002 when emissions
increased to level higher than ever before (158 t).
Converter off-gas (Main stack)
Tonnes. Month-1
1000
Converter off-gas (Acid plant)
100
10
Figure 5.6:
Dec-02
Oct-02
Aug-02
Jun-02
Apr-02
Feb-02
Dec-01
Oct-01
Aug-01
Jun-01
Apr-01
Feb-01
Dec-00
Oct-00
Aug-00
Jun-00
Apr-00
Feb-00
Dec-99
1
Converter off-gas emissions to the main stack and Acid plant (Anglo Platinum,
2002b).
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
5.1.4.4 Overall main stack emissions
The particulates emitted from the Main stack are measured (isokinetically) according to a
schedule and not on a monthly basis (Anglo Platinum, 2002a; Anglo Platinum, 2001b).
Figure 5.7 depicts particulate emissions measured for the period December 1999 to December
2002. In 1998, monthly particulate emissions varied between 200 – 500 tonnes but the installation of
the ceramic filters saw a steep improvement to just over 100 tonnes in November 1998 (Anglo
Platinum, 2002a). Emissions were measured continuously until August 2000 and ranged between 58
tonnes and 68 tonnes per month. A sudden rise in emissions (September 2000 – April 2001) was due
to the failure of the ceramic filters. Numerous problems were experienced during 2001 with the
monitoring equipment, as it was damaged following the failure of the ceramic filters (Anglo Platinum,
2002a). A steadily decline in particulate emissions occurred during 2001, but did rise again in
November 2001.
For 2002 similar values for consecutive months were recorded, because
measurements were not conducted on a monthly basis.
Tonnes.Month-1
1000
100
10
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Dec-02
1
Figure 5.7: Overall emissions recorded for the Main stack of Waterval Smelter (Anglo Platinum,
2002b).
5.1.4.5 Visual monitoring
Visual monitoring is conducted by means of cameras focused on the Main stack; the images
are relayed to a television monitor in the environmental department of the Smelter7. No formal
procedure or specific plans exist for processing the information gathered6,7.
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5.1.5 Air quality monitoring outside the Smelter (ambient monitoring)
It is important to measure the particulate emissions inside the Smelter, but also those
emissions that are vented through the stacks (Main and Flash drier) to the atmosphere to determine the
amount of particulates found in the environment that affects human health. These emissions are
measured by means of an ambient monitoring station.
A typical ambient monitoring station
comprises an enclosed shelter that houses the monitoring equipment in a controlled environment
(Anglo Platinum, 2002a). A 10-metre weather mast is mounted next to the station to collect weather
data such as temperature, wind speed and direction (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). The monitoring is
carried out on-line on a real-time basis and it is, thus, possible to measure the ambient concentrations
at any given time at any one of these stations (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). Data are transferred via radio
telemetry to the HAWKView Software System (Anglo Platinum, 2002a)5. Although SO2 emissions
are not the focus of this study, ambient monitoring of these emissions are described along with the
monitoring of particulate emissions since the same monitoring stations are used to measure both.
5.1.5.1 Ambient SO2 monitoring
Ambient SO2 monitoring has been conducted since July 1995 with four stations being moved
to different sites to assess various scenarios and environmental impacts (Table 5.2; Appendix B:
Fig.5.1) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). Bergsig station (R4) is situated in
Rustenburg mid-town and monitors the background SO2 concentrations in the residential areas (Anglo
Platinum, 2001a). Waterval station (R6) is downwind of the Smelter operations to the southeast of
the plant and is used to determine maximum ground level concentrations and worst-case emissions
(Anglo Platinum, 2001a). Hexriver station (R8) is used for validation as it is in line with the Bergsig
station (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). Previous modelling indicated that the monitoring station at Frank
Shaft should be relocated for a better prediction of plume movement and concentrations (Anglo
Platinum, 2001a). During July 2000 this station was moved to Paardekraal Shaft (R9), which covers
the other dominant wind direction (northwest) (Table 5.2) (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
5.1.5.2 Ambient particulate monitoring
Particulate emissions were measured at two sites (Pathology Lab and Hoërskool Bergsig
sites) from August 1995 to February 1996 (Table 5.2) (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). Based on the fact
that the measured concentrations comprised between 20% and 53% of the DEAT guideline value, a
decision was made to terminate the monitoring of particulates (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). The
reconsideration of the data revealed that the measured concentrations did exceed the later, more
stringent European Union Environmental Council (EC) standard (24-hour average of 50 µg.m-3)
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). The monitoring of fine particulates (PM10) recommenced during 2001
with monitors placed at the Bergsig and Waterval village stations (Fig. 5.8) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a).
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Table 5.2: Anglo Platinum monitoring sites (Anglo Platinum (2002a); Pulles et al. (2001); Burger
& Scorgie, 2000)).
Position, Relative
to Smelter
In a built up area,
8.25km West
On a farm, 10.5km
NNE, near Rex
Village
Station
Pathology
Lab
Rex Farm
Brakspruit
Shaft
Hoërskool
Bergsig
Townlands
Shaft
Waterval
Village
Frank Shaft
Operating
Date
01/08/1995 31/10/1995
Sited 8.25km NW
2.2km South
1.75km NNE
4.9km NW
NW
Kroondal
R10
Wind
Speed
Wind
Direction
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
01/08/1995 30/09/1996
01/10/1995 Ongoing
01/12/1995 30/09/1996
01/09/1996 Ongoing
01/09/1996 2000
01/09/1996 Ongoing
2000 Ongoing
10km WSW
Paardekraal
Maximum
Temperature
01/08/1995 30/09/1996
9.25km ESE
Hex Complex
Minimum
Temperature
Particulates
Y
Y
Ongoing
Station R6 R 9
Dec-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Sep-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Jun-02
May-02
Apr-02
Mar-02
Jan-02
Feb-02
Dec-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Sep-01
Aug-01
Jul-01
Jun-01
May-01
Apr-01
Mar-01
Jan-01
Station R9 R 9
Feb-01
Average PM10 (µg.m -3)
Station R4 R 9
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Date
Figure 5.8 Ambient particulate monitoring at three monitoring stations (Anglo Platinum, 2002b).
Values were recorded at Bergsig (R4) and Hexriver (R8) stations since January 2001, with
values recoded at Paardekraal station (R9) since January 2002. The highest values were recorded at
Hexriver station (166.16 µg.m-3) and differed considerably from month to month, while the values
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recorded at Bergsig station stayed more consistent. The values recorded for Paardekraal station (R9)
also varies between 78.78 µg.m-3 and 14.75 µg.m-3.
5.1.6
Gravimetric (personal) sampling
The Divisional Occupational Hygienist (responsible for the Smelter, Base Metal Refinery and
Precious Metal Refinery) is responsible for taking samples from workers from various locations inside
the Smelter on a regular basis to (Anglo Platinum, 2001b):
a. Obtain a measure of the pollution of the air breathed by workers,
b. Detect areas and operations with unsatisfactory particulates and fume concentrations,
c. Determine the cause of such conditions,
d. Determine the effectiveness of control efforts, and
e. Provide records of dust conditions.
Information about the basic sampling techniques used as well as the sampling method and
reporting procedure is included in Appendix F.
5.1.6.1 Analyses of samples
The Divisional Occupational Hygienist responsible for Waterval Smelter conducted an
important Fingerprint study in which every activity area of the Smelter was sampled (17 samples) for
32 different elements (Fig. 5.9)7.
7
6
Proportion (%)
5
4
3
2
1
B
Mo
Sb
Li
Zr
V
Sn
Sr
Co
Cd
Bi
Ba
As
Mn
Na
Zn
K
Ca
Cr
Pb
Cu
Al
Ni
S
Mg
Fe
Be
Si
P
Pt (sol)
Ti
Ni (sol)
0
Element
Figure 5.9: Elements identified at Waterval Smelter during the Fingerprint Survey (Anglo
Platinum, 2001b).
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Results indicated that quantities were relatively low for most of the elements with the
exception of Cu, Al, Ni, S and Mg. The most common element identified was Iron (Fe - 6%). Only
four of the elements identified in the Fingerprint study are monitored on a regular basis (Fig. 5.10).
The available data are not sufficient to draw definite conclusions. Further, monitoring was stopped
during 2002 and only commenced at the end of that year again with new guidelines of DME in place5.
The representative values recorded for specific elements (Fig 5.10) are discussed below:
1. Copper: Values are relatively low (< 3.5%). The values for 2002 were all lower than those
recorded for 2001. Measurements were undertaken in the furnace and converter area, Flash driers
and flux reverts sections, as well as in the engineering sections. The highest values were recorded
in the flux reverts section.
2. Nickel: Values for 2001 were higher than those of 2002. An outlier was recorded in 2001
(22.44%). The second highest value was recorded in the flux reverts section.
3. Lead: Few data are available; the highest levels of Lead were found on the crane drivers in the
furnace and converter areas.
4. Iron: The values for 2001 were slightly higher than those of 2002. The highest levels of Iron were
recorded in the furnace area and in the fitter and boilermaker workshops.
The next two sections focus on the management structures and plans in place at Waterval
Smelter to deal with particulate emissions.
5.1.7 Environmental departmental structure
The Environmental department of the Smelter has a staff complement of two, namely a Chief
Environmental Officer and Assistant Environmental Officer (who reports to the Smelter Business
Manager) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a)7. The department cooperates with the Occupational Hygiene
department on an informal basis (all emissions inside the Smelter below 2m are managed by the
Occupational Hygienist; all fugitive emissions, above 2m, are managed by the Environmental
department)7. Occupational Hygienists of the Smelter, Base Metal Refinery (BMR) and Precious
Metal Refinery (PMR) all report to the Divisional Manager (Occupational Hygiene)7. The structure
of the Environmental department changed a great deal in 2002 and is described in Chapter 6.
5.1.8 Environmental management plan
In order to develop a regional and site-specific air quality management plan for particulate
emissions (Chapter 8), it is necessary to examine the environmental management plans (overall and
specifically for air quality) as it was until the end of 2001 (historically) and how it developed since
then to incorporate the changing situation (Chapter 6) in the Rustenburg area for each of the three
Smelters.
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nr
.3
.4
nr
.3
.3
nr
.3
.2
nr
.3
.1
nr
.2
.2
nr
.2
.1
nr
.1
.5
nr
.1
.4
nr
.1
.3
Copper (Cu)
nr
.1
.1
Proportion %
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Filter
7
6
Jul-01
5
Jan-02
Proportion
(%)
Nickel (Ni)
4
Nickel outlier
(22.44 2001)
3
2
1
0
1.1
nr.
1.3
nr.
1.4
nr.
1.5
nr.
2
nr.
.1
2.2
nr.
Filter
3.1
nr.
3.2
nr.
3.3
nr.
nr.
3.4
Proportion (%)
3
2.5
2
1.5
Lead (Pb)
1
0.5
nr
.3
.4
nr
.3
.3
nr
.3
.2
nr
.3
.1
nr
.2
.2
nr
.2
.1
nr
.1
.5
nr
.1
.4
nr
.1
.3
nr
.1
.1
0
Filter
Proportion (%)
7
Iron (Fe)
6
5
4
3
2
1
3.4
nr
.
3.3
nr
.
3.2
nr
.
3.1
nr
.
2.2
nr
.
2.1
nr
.
1.5
nr
.
1.4
nr
.
1.3
nr
.
nr
.
1.1
0
Figure 5.10: Analysis of samples taken in Waterval Smelter (2001 – 2002) (Anglo Platinum,
2002b).
5.1.8.1 Overall environmental goals
Waterval Smelter is an important part of the Anglo Platinum operations in the Rustenburg
region and therefore the overall environmental goals of Anglo Platinum as well as the company’s
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vision for Waterval Smelter are examined firstly to understand the specific management plans that the
Smelter has in place to reduce particulate pollution.
The Anglo Platinum: Safety, Health and
Environmental Policy can be found in Appendix G. The following management plans are in place to
increase production, reduce costs and actively reduce the impact on the environment (Anglo Platinum,
2001a):
a. Create a suitable environmental management system in line with the Environmental Management
Programme Report (EMPR) commitments; and
b. Implement and integrate an environmental management system at the Smelter and the ACP site
through:
1. The monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions, surface and ground water monitoring,
local weather conditions and ambient levels of SO2 in the vicinity of Waterval Smelter,
2. The upgrading and maintenance of pollution abatement equipment,
3. The adoption of alternative, economically feasible practices and technologies for production
and pollution control,
4. Consultation with local communities and other interested and affected parties, and
5. The development of an Environmental Management Programme, adherence to the Group
Environmental Policy, as well as the Anglo Platinum vision and values.
5.1.8.2 Air quality management (particulate management)
Waterval Smelter has initiated a number of specific procedures in order to maintain and
improve air quality, comply with permit conditions and reduce the impacts of fugitive particulate
emissions (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Anglo Platinum, 2001b):
a. Keep furnaces effectively sealed,
b. Optimise furnace off-gas systems to keep volumes to a minimum,
c. Ensure maximum containment of gases within the capabilities of existing equipment,
d. Maintain the existing Acid Plant in operable condition,
e. Minimize Acid Plant downtimes,
f.
Monitor stack emissions as well as:
1. Ground concentrations of particulates at appropriate locations along the perimeter of the site
(real-time fence-line monitoring system),
2. Ground level concentrations of particulates inside the plant, and
3. PM10 concentrations at existing off-site regional monitoring stations (real time) to identify any
deterioration in conditions.
g. Routinely inspect and maintain the real-time monitoring system and monitoring equipment,
h. Shutdown relevant sections of the Smelter if there is a risk of exceeding the permit requirements
(e.g. shut-down furnaces if availability of ceramic candles is not 100%),
i.
Undertake regular audits to assess that the predicted emission reductions are realised in practise,
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j.
Continually review opportunities for emission reductions,
k. Register non-complaint incidents and make records available to authorities,
l.
Create annual monitoring reports and submit to authorities, and
m. Develop a maintenance programme (e.g. identify problems and repair immediately).
To ensure that the above-mentioned targets are met, procedures for a number of important
areas are described in detail, updated and audited on a yearly basis5:
a. Ceramic candle maintenance,
b. Stack monitoring,
c. Ambient monitoring,
d. Monitoring site management,
e. Handling environmental incidents,
f.
Operating procedures, and
g. Normal conditions.
The next section deals with Impala Platinum and provides the same information (operations
and management plans) as that supplied for Anglo Platinum in order to compare the different
operations with one another (Chapter 7).
5.2
Impala Platinum
Impala Platinum is the second largest producer of PGMs in the world (Hamann,
2003). Gencor’s 46% stake in the company was unbundled in May 2003 with 80% of shares
held by trust funds and investment companies (Hamann, 2003). Impala Platinum has a close
association with the Royal Bafokeng Nation (owners of the mineral rights over the lease area)
but there are negotiations in progress regarding the conversion of Impala’s royalty agreement
with the Royal Bafokeng Nation into a shareholding stake (Hamann, 2003; Impala Platinum,
2001a).
The registered office is in Johannesburg, with a listing on the Johannesburg
Securities Index (Hamann, 2003). The total operating profit is approximately R 6 000 million
with a total of 28 600 employees and nearly 6 350 contractors (Hamann, 2003).
The largest contributor to the group is the Impala business segment in the vicinity of
Rustenburg (13 shafts plus refining and smelting plants) where nearly 1.9 million oz of PGMs and
more than 1 million oz of Platinum are produced per year (Hamann, 2003).
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5.2.1
Site description
Impala Platinum is situated approximately 16 km northwest of Rustenburg and
Thlabane (Appendix B: Fig. 5.11) (Impala Platinum, 2001a; Burger & Scorgie, 2000b; Pulles
et al., 2000). Portions of land not owned by the Royal Bafokeng Nation, are owned by
private individuals or are state land (Pulles et al., 2000). Minerals are exploited from two
reefs, namely the Merensky and UG2 Chromitite Reefs and are estimated to be sufficient to
sustain continued operation for thirty to thirty-five years (Pulles et al., 2000). Various
smaller formal villages are located close to the Smelter (Phokeng, Kana, Mafika, Luka and
Mogono) as well as an informal settlement (Freedom Park) (Appendix B: Fig. 5.11) (Burger
& Scorgie, 2000b; Pulles et al., 2000). Land in the immediate vicinity of the Smelter is used
primarily for mining activities and subsistence livestock farming (Pulles et al., 2000).
Drainage from the Smelter is predominantly into the Leragane Stream, which flows into the
Elands River and ultimately flows into the Vaalkop Dam (Appendix B: Fig. 5.11) (Pulles et
al., 2000).
5.2.2 Process description
Operations at Impala Platinum Smelter commenced in 1969 (Pulles et al., 2000). The main
function of the Smelter is to extract a concentrate that is rich in Platinum Group Metals (PGM’s)
(Pulles et al., 2001). The process employed consists of different sections, namely (Pulles et al.,
2001):
a. Concentrate receiving,
b. Concentrate drying,
c. Furnaces,
d. Converters, and
e. Acid plant.
A schematic illustration of the Impala Platinum Smelter operations is found in Appendix B
(Fig.5.12) with a detailed description of the process in Appendix D.
5.2.3 Permit requirements
In accordance with the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (1965), the Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, through the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO),
issued a provisional registration certificate for Impala Platinum Smelter (Impala Platinum, 2001b).
Stipulations set out in the certificate include (Impala Platinum, 2001c):
a. Off-gases from the arc furnace pass through three 2-field electrostatic precipitators;
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University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
b. Off-gases from the converters pass through one of two 2-field electrostatic precipitators at
any point in time;
c. Off-gases from the electrostatic precipitators contain less than 120 mg.m-3 as measured at
0oC and 101,3 kPa;
d. All other off-gases from the furnaces and converters are vented to atmosphere by means
of a stack height of 91 m above ground level;
e. The particulates concentration of the final emissions of the spray driers does not exceed
120 mg.m-3 as measured at 0oC and 101,3 kPa;
f. In the event of a major breakdown or when the plant is off-line all converter and furnace
flue gases are vented to atmosphere by means of a 91 m stack;
g. All emissions abatement equipment has an availability of 96% of the time per month at
the prescribed efficiency. The Acid Plant is available for 90% of the operational time per
month; and
h. The availability of all abatement equipment is included in a monthly report that states the
reasons for non-compliance where applicable as well as the necessary steps taken to
prevent the reoccurrence of any cases where permit stipulations are exceeded.
5.2.4 Air quality monitoring in the Smelter
Impala Platinum Smelter emits particulates from the Main and Spray drier stacks, the furnace
and converter building as well as general plant fugitive emissions (Pulles et al., 2000). The Drier
stack, Main stack and Acid Plant stack at Impala Platinum measures SO2 and particulate emissions on
a continuous basis after which the results are recorded in the plant control room (manned 24-hours-per
day) and included in an automatically created daily report (Table 5.3) (Pulles et al., 2000)2. The
report is sent to the environmental department as well as operations managers (Pulles et al., 2000)2.
Impala Platinum had problems with faulty instrumentation since inception; since May 2002 correct
measurements have been recorded2. Although Impala Platinum made a commitment at the beginning
of this study to make measurements available; no data were provided as it was regarded as not
representative2. The different sections in the Smelter are described but no data are included as in the
case of Anglo Platinum and Lonmin Platinum.
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Table 5.3: Information included in the daily report (Pulles et al., 2000).
Acid plant
Gas in from
scrubber
Gas outlet
to stack
Furnaces
Gas to main stack:
Flow (m3/sec)1
Particulates load
(mg/Nm3)
Particulates loss (kg/hr)
Total kg particulates
Furnace 3 SO2 sensors
Converters
Converters 1 & 2
SO2 sensors
Converters 3 & 4
SO2 sensors
Drier 1 gas outlet
Luka
Furnace 4 SO2 sensors
Converters 5 & 6
SO2 sensors
Drier 4 gas outlet
Boshoek
Drier 5 gas outlet
Minpro high level
water tower
Furnace 5 SO2 sensors
1.
Driers
(Nm3/sec)
Flow
Particulates load
(mg/Nm3)
Particulates loss (kg/hr)
Total kg particulates
Weather station
UG2
(mobile unit)
The flow rate is calculated for every measurement and is then averaged out over a 15-minute period and used to
2
calculate an average flow rate for every 24-hour period .
-3
Measurements (mg.Nm ) are converted to tonnes per month
2
particulates emitted .
5.2.4.1 Spray drier emissions
There are three Spray driers in the Smelter, each with an electrostatic precipitator prior to
movement through the Spray drier stack where an Opacity monitor continuously measures particulate
emissions2.
Prior to 2001, Impala was not requested by CAPCO to measure or report these
2
emissions . Because of faulty monitors, particulates were mainly controlled through visual
inspection2.
5.2.4.2 Furnace off-gas particulates to main stack
Since 2000, off-gases from the furnace section of the Impala Platinum Smelter have been
monitored, in mg.Nm-3 (together with pressure and temperature) just before the emissions enter the
Main stack2. A restriction of 120 mg.Nm-3 is set by CAPCO, but Impala Platinum have made their
own commitment not to exceed 80 mg.Nm-3; mainly achieved through upgrading the electrostatic
precipitators in 2001 to incorporate the newest available precipitator technology2. Impala Platinum
does not perceive particulate emissions to be a significant problem in the furnace area; no worker is
required to wear a respirator and workers work their full shift (8 hours)2. An example of a furnace can
be seen in Appendix B: Figure 5.13.
5.2.4.3 Converter off-gas to main stack
Converter off-gas is directed through a wet scrubber before moving through the Acid Plant
where particulates have been monitored since 20002. Converter off-gas is redirected through and
measured in the Main Stack when the Acid Plant is off-line (Pulles et al., 2000)2. An example of a
converter can be seen in Appendix B: Figure 5.14.
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5.2.4.4 Overall main stack emissions
Emissions from the Main stack are treated to remove particulate content by three
electrostatic precipitators in parallel (theoretical collection efficiency of 99.97%) (Scorgie,
2001a; Pulles et al., 2000)2. If one of the precipitators is off-line for maintenance, the
particulates still move through the other two precipitators2.
Particulate emissions are
continuously monitored using on-line instrumentation, and failure or inefficiency of the
electrostatic precipitators is immediately detected in the control room and remedial action is
taken (depending on the problem) (Pulles et al., 2000)2. Isokinetic sampling is conducted
once a year by independent consultants2. Static monitors that measure SO2 are installed at
various points in the Smelter, but no particulate emissions are measured by these monitors2.
5.2.4.5 Visual monitoring
Visual monitoring of the Main stack is conducted (for internal use only) to determine
if and when problems arise2. The visuals cannot be viewed by the general public2.
5.2.5 Fugitive emissions
As is the case with Anglo Platinum, ambient monitoring stations are in place for monitoring
SO2 as well as particulate emissions; the same stations is used to measure both of these emissions.
Particulate emissions have been measured since 2002, but like the air quality monitoring inside the
Smelter no data have been made available for the purpose of this study.
5.2.5.1 Ambient SO2 monitoring
Three air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the vicinity of the Impala
Platinum Smelter and have collected SO2, wind direction, wind speed, and temperature data since
December 1999 (Appendix B: Fig.5.11) (Burger & Scorgie, 2000b; Pulles et al., 2000)2:
1. Luka Station located within the demarcated residential area of Luka (±2.2 km to NNE),
2. Phokeng Station is approximately 5.5 km to the south of the Smelter, and
3. UG2 Station located approximately 3.5 km to the southeast of the Smelter.
Stations are relocated periodically if required, but remain in a location until at least
one year's data have been accumulated and sufficient information is available in terms of the
air quality in the area (Pulles et al., 2000)2. During 2001 the following changes were made2:
1. Phokeng to Boshoek (the area, which lies in the direction in which impacts are expected
to be highest), and
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2. UG2 to central offices.
5.2.5.2 Ambient particulate monitoring
Fugitive emissions include (Pulles et al., 2000):
1. Emissions that have escaped gas capture and treatment processes (gas produced in the converters
not captured by the extractor hoods), and
2. Emissions from material handling and transfer, and from the mobilisation of spilled
materials through activities on the plant.
Spilled materials on site are recovered on a regular basis using a mechanical sweeper
vehicle that collects particulates and, thereby, effectively reduces the amount of particulates
that may become airborne through traffic or other on-site activities (Pulles et al., 2000)2. All
roads leading to the Smelter are tarred and the entire area inside the Smelter is concreted and
hosed down on a regular basis (Pulles et al., 2000)2.
5.2.6 Gravimetric sampling
As required by the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) personal sampling
needs to be conducted in order to ensure the safety of all workers in the Smelter11. The
personal (gravimetric) sampling is handled by the Occupational Hygienist, which forms part
of the ventilation department2. Although the monitoring is done in conjunction with the
Environmental Department, the Occupational Hygienist operates alone under a Ventilation
Manager (Fig. 5.15)11.
Minpro & Services
Surface area
Sm elter
Concentrator
Personal Sam pling
Figure 5.15:
Vacant
Personal Sam pling
Structure in place for gravimetric sampling at Impala Platinum Smelter11.
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Information about the basic sampling techniques used as well as the sampling method and
reporting procedure is included in Appendix F.
5.2.6.1 Analyses of samples
Data relating to personal sampling were made available by the Occupational
Hygienist and is depicted in Figure 5.16 (1998 – 2000) and Figure 5.17 (2000 – 2002). The
data made available for this study are not sufficient to make any significant deductions. The
data for the period 1998 to 2000 were calculated by Burger & Scorgie (2000b) and students
employed by Impala Platinum collated the data for the period 2000 – 200211. The values for
ambient particulate concentrations between 1998 and 2000 appear to be higher than those
from 2000 onwards. Unfortunately, there is no clarity on the accuracy and reliability of the
data as well as the calculation methods used. The Occupational Hygienist at the time of this
study could not provide any information about the collection and calculation methods used or
the accuracy of the data, except to say that there are too many question marks over the data
and it is not possible to determine the real state of affairs11. For this reason, Impala Platinum
implemented a new system for compiling and calculating the data recorded from December
200211.
Particulate Concentrations (mg.m -3)
6
5
4
3
2
1
Jun-00
May-00
Apr-00
Mar-00
Jan-00
Feb-00
Dec-99
Nov-99
Oct-99
Sep-99
Aug-99
Jul-99
Jun-99
May-99
Apr-99
Mar-99
Feb-99
Jan-99
Dec-98
Nov-98
Oct-98
Sep-98
Aug-98
Jul-98
0
Figure 5.16: Averaged exposure to particulate concentrations by personnel working
within the Impala Platinum Smelter – 1998 to 2000 (Total Particulates:
TLV of 5.5 mg/m3; Respirable Particulates: TLV of 3.0 mg/m3) (Burger &
Scorgie, 2000b).
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T O T AL DUST
5 .5 m g /m 3
T LV:
5
4 .5
4
3 .5
3
m g/
m 3 2 .5
2
1 .5
1
0 .5
0
J u ly 2 0 0 0 – D ec
2000
J a n 2 0 0 1 – D ec 2 0 0 1
J a n 2 0 0 2 – D ec 2 0 0 2
Figure 5.17: Average total particulates exposure at the Impala Platinum Smelter (2000 –
2002)11.
The next two sections focus on the management structures and plans in place at Impala
Platinum Smelter to deal with particulate emissions.
5.2.7 Environmental departmental structure
The environmental manager is responsible for the air quality management of the Smelter and
is supported by an air quality management committee that convenes once a month and consists of
members of the Smelter as well as the Environmental Department (Fig. 5.18)2.
Senior Technical Manager: Environment
Environmental Manager
Senior Environmental Officer: Water & Waste
Senior Environmental Officer:
Environmental Management Services
Environmental Officer: Communication
Waste & Rehabilitation Coordinator
Figure 5.18: Departmental structure of the Impala Platinum Smelter.2
The Environmental Department is supported by Environmental Management Services Area
Coordinators, which are engineers responsible for environmental matters in a demarcated area (e.g.
concentrator, shaft) and meet once a month with the Environmental Department (Fig. 5.18)2. Task
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teams are responsible for different projects and meet monthly with the environmental department to
discuss2:
1. Long term projects,
2. Operational issues (for the concentrators, shafts), and
3. Monitoring and reporting.
Publications produced by the department include “Envirotalk” (published once a month) and
an Environmental, Health, Safety and Community Review that was published in 20012.
5.2.8 Environmental management plan
The environmental management plans (overall and specifically for air quality) as they were
until the end of 2001 (historically) for Impala Platinum are examined.
5.2.8.1 Overall environmental goals
Impala Platinum has recognised that its activities, whilst contributing to an improved quality
of life, does impact on the environment (Pulles et al., 2000). It is Impala Platinum’s vision to become
a world-class leader in the management of environmental impacts and to achieve this an
environmental policy has been formulated with specific objectives (Pulles et al., 2000):
a. Complying with all relevant laws, policies and guidelines and where practicable, exceeding these
standards;
b. Integrating environmental management into all aspects of business;
c. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and minimise environmental impacts and to
prepare emergency plans;
d. Continually improving environmental performance by encouraging innovation to promote the
reduction of emissions and effluents, develop opportunities for recycling and using energy, water
and other resources more efficiently;
e. Contributing to the development of sound policies, laws, regulations and practices that improve
safety, health and the environment;
f.
Training, education and encouraging employees and contractors to participate in environmental
management so enabling them to conduct their activities in a responsible manner; and
g. Measuring and communicating environmental performance to stakeholders including employees,
shareholders, the community and other interested parties.
5.2.8.2 Air quality management (particulate management)
In order to minimise potential impacts that may occur as a result of Smelter operations
the following plans are implemented (Pulles et al., 2000):
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1. Comply with all relevant laws, policies and guidelines and where practicable bettering these
standards;
2. Monitoring emissions both internally and externally to identify areas for improvement;
3. Continuously reviewing available technology;
4. Maintaining gas cleaning equipment and monitors;
5. Training and involving employees to pro-actively participate; and
6. Communicate and disclose relevant information to interested and affected parties.
The air quality management goal of the Impala Platinum Smelter is to ensure that particulate
and SO2 emissions do not pose a risk to public health and the environment or be a nuisance or
aesthetically displeasing to the surrounding communities (Pulles et al., 2000). In order to effectively
manage environmental impacts that may arise as a result of the Smelter’s activities, management
options that conform to “Best Practical Environmental Option” (BPEO) and “Best (Proven) Available
Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost” (BATNEEC) are pursued (Pulles et al., 2000).
The smallest of the three Platinum mines is Lonmin Platinum and in the next section the same
information is supplied for this mine as was the case for the other two Platinum mines (Anglo
Platinum and Impala Platinum). The first part focuses on the operation of the Smelter after which the
management plans regarding particulate pollution control are described.
5.3
Lonmin Platinum
Lonmin plc is the third largest primary Platinum producer in the world and the only focused
PGM producer with its primary listing on the London Stock Exchange (Hamann, 2003; Lonmin
Platinum, 2002). The group has full management stake (73%) in Lonmin Platinum, and a 28%
interest in Ashanti Goldfields (Lonmin Platinum, 2002). Lonmin Platinum is also listed on the
Johannesburg Securities Index (Hamann, 2003). Over 90% of shares are owned by banks, nominees,
and other corporate bodies (Hamann, 2003). In 2002 a total operating profit of R3 300 million was
declared (Hamann, 2003). Lonmin Platinum exists of the Karee Mine and Western and Eastern
Platinum Mines (about 20 000 employees and 5 000 contractors) to the east of Rustenburg with an
annual production of approximately 760 000 oz (46 tonnes) of Platinum (Hamann, 2003). The annual
turnover of PGMs is nearly R 6 300 million (Hamann, 2003; Lonmin Platinum, 2002).
5.3.1 Site description
The Lonmin Platinum Smelter operations form part of Western Platinum (Lonmin Platinum,
3
2001) . The Smelter consists of 2 870 ha and together with Base Metal Refineries (BMR) is known as
Metallurgical Services (Met. services) (Lonmin Platinum, 2001a)3. There are 350 people working in
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the Smelter (excluding contract workers responsible for expansions)3.
A nearby village is
3
Wonderkop .
5.3.2 Process description
Operations at Lonmin Platinum Smelter commenced in 1971 with various upgrades being
made to the process over the years (Table 5.4) (Posnik, 2002).
Table 5.4:
History of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter (Posnik, 2002)3.
1971: Smelter and Converters were commissioned
1 x CCH drier Plant (Merensky)
1982: The UG2 drier and two furnaces were commissioned (Infurnco)
2 x Spray Drying Towers (UG2)
1989: The Davy Merensky Furnace was commissioned
1 x 6-in-line Merensky Furnace
1991: The UG2 plant was expanded to include a drier and 3 furnaces (Pyromet)
2 x Infurnco UG2 Furnaces
1992: The Davy Merensky Furnace was decommissioned
3 x Pyromet UG2 Furnaces
1997: The first UG2 drier was decommissioned
2 x Pierce Smith Converters
In 1999, the Smelter consisted of:
1 x Electrostatic Precipitator
The main function of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter is to extract a concentrate that is rich in
Platinum Group Metals (PGM’s) (Pulles et al., 2001). The process employed consists of different
sections, namely (Pulles et al., 2001):
a. Concentrate receiving,
b. Concentrate drying,
c. Furnaces, and
d. Converters.
A schematic illustration of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter operations is found in Appendix B
(Fig.5.19) with a detailed description of the process in Appendix D.
5.3.3 Permit requirements
Similar to Anglo Platinum and Lonmin Platinum, the Department of Environmental Affairs
and Tourism through the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO) issued a provisional
registration certificate for Lonmin Platinum Smelter (Lonmin Platinum, 2001a). Stipulations set out
in the certificate that applied until 2001 included (Lonmin Platinum, 2001a):
a. Particulate concentration of the final emission from all the scrubbers must not exceed 120 mg.m-3
(0oC and 760 mm Hg);
b. Off-gases from the submerged arc furnaces and from the Pierce converters must be passed
through a settler followed by a precipitator before final emission through a 122 metre high stack;
c. Particulate concentration in final emission from stack must not exceed 120 mg.m-3 (0oC and 760
mm Hg);
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d. Total SO2 emitted per day must not exceed 48 t;
e. A monitoring programme must be carried out to assess the impact of emissions on the
environment;
f.
All air cleaning equipment must have an availability at the prescribed efficiency of at least 96% of
the time per month;
g. A report stating the availability of gas cleaning equipment, the causes and duration of noncompliance with any of the above requirements, must be submitted on a monthly basis; and
h. In the case of any expected long duration high emission episodes of particulates releases from any
of the process, Directorate: Air Pollution Control must be informed immediately.
5.3.4 Air quality monitoring in / around the Smelter
Lonmin Platinum Smelter emits particulates from the Main and Flash drier stacks, the furnaces and
converters as well as general plant fugitive emissions (Lonmin Platinum, 2001a). A number of
different measurements are undertaken by the Smelter to monitor the SO2 and particulate emissions
from the plant (Table 5.5). These measurements are taken inside the Smelter as well as just outside
the Smelter (on site) mostly on a continuous basis. Some of the measurements are only taken on a
monthly basis (e.g. twenty positions on site) (Table 5.5).
5.3.4.1 Flash drier emissions
Lonmin Platinum makes use of two separate Drier stacks to dry the UG2 and Merensky ore
(Lonmin Platinum, 2001a; Lonmin Platinum, 2001b) 3,4. The particulate emissions are measured instack by a monitor, but due to instrumentation problems by the end of 2001 none of the measured data
were captured or reported to CAPCO.3 Particulate emissions from the Flash driers are minimised
through baghouse filters3. After the drying process is completed, the ore is stored in Silo’s where
significant fall-out occurs that is controlled by dust catchers as well as baghouse filters (Lonmin
Platinum, 2001a; Lonmin Platinum, 2001b)3.
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Table 5.5: Measurements undertaken inside Lonmin Platinum Smelter to monitor SO2 and
particulate emissions (Lonmin Platinum, 2001a).
Position
Measurement
Smelter:
Main stack
Particulates concentration
SO2 concentration
Flow
Temperature
Pressure
SO2 discharge
t.day-1 measurement
SO2 discharge calculated
Smelter:
Flash drier
stack
Ground level:
two points
Ground level:
two points
Twenty
positions in
Smelter
Twenty
positions on
site
BMR Ni
crystalliser
Particulates concentration
SO2 concentration
Frequency of
measurement
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
Hourly average
Hourly average
Hourly average
Hourly average
Hourly average
Maximum
guideline
120 mg.nm-3
-
Continuous
Daily
48 t.day-1
48 t.day-1
Monthly
Monthly
48 t.day-1
48 t.day-1
Continuous
Hourly average
50 mg.nm-3
Hourly
300 ppb
Daily
100 ppb
Monthly
50 ppb
Annual
30 ppb
Hourly average
180 mg.Nm-3
Annual average
60 mg.Nm-3
Continuous
Particulates concentration
PM10
Data collection
Permit level
120 mg.nm-3
Continuous
SO2 concentration
Monthly
Monthly
measurements
300 ppb
Particulates concentration
Monthly
Monthly
Measurements
300 mg.Nm-3
Nickel concentration at
plant perimeter
Once a month
1 µg.m-3
5.3.4.2 Furnace off-gas particulates to Main stack
The furnace area consists of Pyromet furnaces (unit no. 2, 3, 4 and 5) and Infurnco furnaces
(unit 1). These furnaces are, similar to Anglo Platinum, regarded as the biggest source of particulate
emissions.
Emissions are controlled through baghouses and ID fans, and workers are required to
wear a mask with a filter and ABEK cartridges to absorb the particulates and gases while working in
the area (Lonmin Platinum, 2001a)3. Activities on the paste floor of the Merensky furnace are
restricted to two-hour shifts3.
No measurements are available for this area because of faulty
3,4
instrumentation .
5.3.4.3 Converter off gas to Main stack
Precautions that are taken in the Converter area include extraction hoods that are used to limit
the amount of particulate emissions by transferring it back into the Converters3,4. The biggest source
of ambient particulate concentrations in this area occurs during tapping (Converters are tilted to throw
the molten liquid into a stream of water for granulation; extraction hoods are then inactive)3,4. No
measurements of particulate emissions are available for the converter area3.
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5.3.4.4 Overall main stack emissions
The process used by Lonmin Platinum differs slightly from that of Anglo Platinum and
Impala Platinum since no Acid Plant is used. SO2 and particulate off-gases from the Furnaces and
Converters are routed through closed pipes to a common gas-mixing chamber from where it passes to
the 128m high Main stack via one electrostatic precipitator (Pulles et al., 2001)3,4. A SICK monitor is
installed in the Main stack to measure particulate emissions in mg.m-3 (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b)3,4.
The emissions are measured continuously, sent to the Smelter control room from where monthly
summaries are sent to the Smelter Technical Manager3.
Emissions from the Main stack were monitored for the period May 1999 to November 2002.
Values recorded ranged between 21 tonnes and 52 tonnes per month until January 2002 (Fig. 5.20).
In May 2002 the electrostatic precipitator in use exploded and the impact thereof can be clearly seen;
levels of 558 tonnes for the month of June was recorded (Fig. 5.19) (further described in Chapter 6).
Temporary measures were put in place and from August 2002 the emissions started to decrease.
During the time when the precipitator was not working weekly Isokinetic sampling was conducted
(Posnik, 2003). The values shown in Figure 5.20 are recorded as “calculated” because they are
originally measured in mg.m-3 and are then converted to mg.Nm-3 and tonnes.month-1.3 Monitoring
indicated that values from Isokinetic sampling differed significantly from the calculated values (Fig.
5.20).
1000
Tonnes / Month
Calculated
Iso-kinetic
100
10
May-99
Jun-99
Jul-99
Aug-99
Sep-99
Oct-99
Nov-99
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
1
Figure 5.20:
Main stack emissions from Lonmin Platinum Smelter (Lonmin Platinum, 2003)
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5.3.4.5 Particulate measurements around the Smelter
Lonmin Platinum Smelter is the only Smelter to conduct measurements of particulate
emissions in the direct vicinity of the Smelter. These measurements have been conducted since July
2001 (Lonmin Platinum, 2001a)3:
•
Spot readings with Dusttrack Pro are conducted at 18 selected points with provision for two extra
points (which have not been utilised). Monitoring is conducted manually (for periods of two
minutes) and the time-weighted average of the readings at every spot is calculated in mg.m-3.
Instrumentation problems and time constraints have resulted in very few readings actually being
recorded – only 33 measurements were done over the 18-month period (Fig. 5.21). During 2002
readings were conducted on a more regular basis, except for February and March when the
equipment was sent to America to be calibrated. The readings for 2002 are at 15 of the 18 points
higher than for 2001 with an extra measurement done for the new furnace (operational since
2002). The highest values were recorded in 2002 at the concentrate storage shed (1.73mg.m-3)
and the ID fan area (1.48 mg.m-3). For 2001 the highest value was 1.28 mg.m-3 recoded at the
Smelter office area. The same pattern (only higher values) is followed for 2002 as 2001, except
for the Pyromet slag and Smelter office where higher values were recorded for 2001.
10
2002
1
Point T
Point S
New furnace tap
Concentrate off loading
Smelter office area
Ni crystalliser dryer level
Behind Merensky
Copperwinning cells level
Converter aisle
Copperwinning floor level
ID fan
BMR chemical store
Behind converter area
Behind PGM area
Slag plant crusher
Concentrate stoarge shed
CCH stoker area
Pyromet slag granulation
0.01
Punchbar shop
0.1
Pyromet aisle
mg.m-3
2001
Figure 5.21: Spot readings with Dusttrack Pro conducted at 18 selected points around Lonmin
Platinum Smelter (Lonmin Platinum, 2003).
•
Particulate gravimetric sampling (static) was conducted for a 24 hour period once a month at four
different sampling points around the Smelter / BMR complex. These readings started in July
2001 and were permanently discontinued in August 2001 due to instrumentation problems.
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5.3.5 Fugitive emissions
Lonmin Platinum measures SO2 as well as particulate emissions in the areas surrounding the
Smelter (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). Only two (mobile) stations with a weather station included are
used to conduct the monitoring (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b).
5.3.5.1 Ambient SO2 monitoring
The mobile station used for SO2 monitoring is moved every three months to one of 14
different positions in the vicinity of the Smelter4. During 2001 the station was moved to near the
Smelter to measure the influence of the new furnace commissioned (described in Chapter 6)3. A
second mobile station measuring SO2 and PM10 particulates was bought in August 2001 and has been
moved around with a crane to different secure positions in the vicinity of the Smelter (e.g. farms,
informal settlements and Mooinooi)4. The data are downloaded monthly by an independent company
and processed by the Senior Environmental Officer (Central services) before it is sent to the Technical
Manager of the Smelter who is responsible for the monthly reporting to CAPCO3,4. An additional
weather station was installed at the end of 2001 near the Senior Environmental officer’s office3,4.
5.3.5.2 Ambient particulate monitoring
During 2001 and 2002 the second mobile station was located approximately 250 metres to the
southwest of the Smelter (Lonmin Platinum, 2002). Data recorded at the station regarding particulate
emissions (monthly mean) indicated that the highest value was recorded in August 2001 (181.2 mg.m) and the lowest value in November 2001 (74 mg.m-3) (Fig 5.22). No value was recorded for January
3
2002. Ten of the 16 values recorded are higher than 100 mg.m-3, with the daily limit of 180 mg.m-1
exceeded a total of 40 times during the 16-month period. The percentage data capture are also shown
in Figure 5.21. From July 2002 the capture was between 98.5% and 100%; before that, it varied
substantially, with the lowest values recorded for January 2002 (0%) and September 2001 (26%).
According to Lonmin Platinum (2002) the data also reflects the influence of sources not connected to
the Smelter.
104
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Monthly mean ug/m3
120
Data capture %
80
60
40
% Data Capture
100
20
Figure 5.22:
November-02
October-02
September-02
August-02
July-02
June-02
May-02
April-02
March-02
February-02
January-02
December-01
November-01
October-01
September-01
0
August-01
-
Particulate Concentration (mg.m 3)
University of Pretoria etd – Steyn, S (2005)
Fugitive particulate measurements: mobile station (Lonmin Platinum, 2003).
5.3.6 Gravimetric sampling
Similar to Anglo Platinum, a fingerprint study was conducted to assess the amount and
content of particulate emissions workers in the Smelter is exposed to (Fig. 5.23) 3,4. A total number of
26 elements were tested for over a five-day period3. Sampling for particulates took place on three of
the five days under different conditions in the Smelter and in different areas of the Smelter (e.g.
furnace, converter and Main stack area)3. The values for the different elements cover a wide range
(0.1 µg.m-3- 4010 µg.m-3). Exceptionally high values (> 1000 µg.m-3) were recorded for Lead (Pb)
and high values (> 100 µg.m-3) were further recorded for Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu)
(Fig. 5.23). The report written by the company responsible for the measurements made no mention of
any of these high values and offered no explanation for the high values. The same pattern is followed
for the furnace and converter area and the main stack in the case of all the elements tested for.
The percentage value of a number of elements tested for was included in the fingerprint study
(Fig. 5.24). The values are lower than that recorded for the same type of study conducted by Anglo
Platinum and ranges between 0% and 2.5%. The highest value was recorded for Nickel (Ni) with
high values also recoded for Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu). The value for Platinum particulates is very
low.
Information about the basic sampling techniques used as well as the sampling method and
reporting procedure is included in Appendix F.
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10000
Furnace µg/m3
Converter µg/m3
Main stack µg/m3
1000
100
10
Ni
Cu
Zn
As
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
Sb
Te
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Pb
Bi
Ru
Mg
Al
K
Ca
V
ClMn
Fe
1
0.1
Figure 5.23: Elements present in analysis of particulate emissions from Lonmin Platinum
Smelter (Lonmin Platinum, 2001).
3
2.5
Value (%)
2
1.5
1
0.5
Ru
Rh (Met)
Rh (Sol)
Pt (Met)
Fe2O3
Pt (Sol)
Elements
Pb
Se
Te
Ni (met)
Ni (sol)
Cu (met)
Cu (sol)
0
Figure 5.24: Percentage value of elements present in analysis of particulate emissions (Lonmin
Platinum, 2001).
5.3.6.1 Analyses of samples
The results of gravimetric sampling conducted for the different sections of Lonmin Platinum
Smelter is shown in Figure 5.25. Not much data were recorded until the end of 2002, with the most
recordings taking place between December 1999 and December 2000. A very high value was recoded
for January 2003 (9.377 µg.m-3) (Fig. 5.25). Particulate control mechanisms were found to be
inadequate during an occupational health and safety audit (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). Excessive
particulates levels resulted from practices such as using compressed air to clean walkways (Lonmin
Platinum, 2001b). A summary of the particulate data further suggests that the air quality in the
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Smelter / BMR Complex is frequently poor (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). From the data recoded it can
be seen that the nett mass of the samples is quite high and could potentially contribute to health
impacts on employees as well as residents in proximity to the Smelter / BMR (Lonmin Platinum,
2001b).
Nett Mass (mg.m-3)
10
1
Jun-98
Jul-98
Aug-98
Sep-98
Oct-98
Nov-98
Dec-98
Jan-99
Feb-99
Mar-99
Apr-99
May-99
Jun-99
Jul-99
Aug-99
Sep-99
Oct-99
Nov-99
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Dec-02
Jan-03
0.1
Figure 5.25
Results of analytical reports for the Smelter (Roving, Merensky furnace,
Pyromet furnace and CCH combined) (Lonmin Platinum, 2003)
The final two sections focus on the management structures and plans in place at Lonmin
Platinum Smelter to deal with particulate emissions.
5.3.7 Departmental structure
The Environmental department of the Smelter /BMR complex (Met. Services) has a staff
compliment of two, namely4:
a. The technical manager who is also the environmental manager; and
b. The assistant environmental officer.
Central services has a further two environmental officers (Divisional Environmental Manager
and Senior Environmental Officer) who work together with the environmental managers from each of
the shafts and concentrators and are responsible for4:
a. Formulating and managing new projects,
b. Managing the Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR) and Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures,
c. Executing the Minerals Act, and
d. Gravimetric sampling.
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5.3.8 Environmental management system
There is a comprehensive environmental management system in place for the Smelter - all of
which are easily accessible and formulated in procedures. The two main procedures, from which all
other emanates, are the Environmental Assessment and Management Procedure (EA & MP) and
Environmental Management Programme (EMP) (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). The Lonmin Platinum:
Safety, Health and Environmental Policy can be found in Appendix G. The environmental policy is
implemented and maintained through an Environmental Management System, which complies with
the requirements of the SABS ISO 14001 code of practice for Environmental Management Systems
and are (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b):
1. Documented and controlled where necessary to ensure conformance to the EMS requirements,
and
2. Made visible to suppliers and contractors where applicable to ensure that these are documented
and controlled by them.
5.3.8.1 Overall goals
The Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) Policy is displayed throughout the Smelter and
can also be electronically viewed on the ISO 14001 Intranet page (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). The
SHE policy expresses the overall intentions and principles in relation to overall environmental
performance and provides a framework for actions as well as for setting environmental objectives and
targets (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). Departmental managers are responsible to ensure that the policy is
understood and supported in their departments through (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b):
1. Participating in the setting of environmental objectives and targets during monthly SHE meetings,
2. Deriving departmental objectives and targets from the environmental policy where appropriate,
3. Involving personnel in programs to achieve the objectives and targets, and
4. Conducting regular training and awareness sessions.
5.3.8.2 Management of particulates
Air pollution control is described in the Environmental Assessment and Management
Procedure and includes prevention, management, mitigation and recommendations (Lonmin Platinum,
2001a; Lonmin Platinum, 2001b):
1. Procedure for environmental monitoring and measurement,
2. Procedure for air quality measurement,
3. Procedure for monitoring fugitive particulates (PM10),
4. Procedure for inspection / maintenance of particulates catchers and bag house procedure, and
5. Procedure for inspection / maintenance of particulates in the electrostatic precipitator.
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Chapter 6
Airborne pollutants in the Rustenburg area:
The contributors and management from 2002
In Chapter 5 the contributions of the three Platinum mines to particulate emissions as well as
the management practices to control the pollution are discussed for the period up to the end of 2001.
Due to the situation described in Chapter 4 (section 4.4), major changes have been implemented in the
Platinum mining industry to control and minimise the impacts of particulate pollution. The planning
of these new measures started years before, but commissioning only took place from 2002. In
Chapter 6 the most important new projects implemented by all three mines are discussed as well as
other smaller projects, new management practices and new legislation implemented by the Air
Pollution Control Officer (APCO) for North West province regarding registration certificates. The
new projects of the different mines are discussed in the same order as in Chapter 5. In the last section
of the Chapter, the other important roleplayers in the region (i.e. Rustenburg Air Quality Forum and
North West Ecoforum) are discussed to ensure that a holistic picture of the region is depicted.
6.1 Anglo Platinum
Anglo Platinum has implemented a major new project that will contribute to the control of
particulate pollution (ACP project). This project is discussed after which the new plans regarding
management practices (new permit requirements, the implementation of a regional environmental
department, preparations for ISO 14001 certification as well as the implementation of an Air Quality
Management Plan for the Rustenburg operations) are focused on.
6.1.1 New projects
The Anglo Platinum Converting Process (ACP) project is by far the biggest and most
expensive project implemented in the region at a cost of R1.6 billion (Anglo Platinum, 2002a; Anglo
Platinum, 2000). Planning of the project started in 1996, but by 2003 the plant was still not fully
operational (Table 6.1). The project consists of new imported converting technology, a high and low
strength Acid Plant and re-engineered particulate and gas cleaning and capturing system (Anglo
Platinum, 2002a; Anglo Platinum, 2001b)5.
The project has the primary objective of reducing SO2 emissions, while increasing Sulphur
fixation (Table 6.2) (Anglo Platinum, 2002a; Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Anglo Platinum, 2001b). The
project will further reduce particulate emissions from the Main stack by capturing and diverting
fugitives from the furnace building to the new Acid Plant (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
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Table 6.1:
Target dates set for the planning and commissioning of the Anglo Platinum
Converting Process (ACP) project (Anglo Platinum, 2000).
Select technology options
Start feasibility test work at research scale
Start Pilot plant operations
Commence with initial plant design
EMPR amendment
Project approval by Board
Plant commissioning
Plant fully operational
Table 6.2:
Target date
Early
Late
March 1996
June 1996
December 1996
June 1997
September 1997
December 1997
June 1998
December 1998
September 1999
June 2000
September 1999
June 2000
September 2001
September 2002
March 2002
June 2003
Projected changes in emissions from the Anglo Platinum Waterval Smelter
(Anglo Platinum; 2001a).
SO2
Noxious Emissions
Particulate Emissions
Sulphur fixation
2001
133 t.day-1
78 t.month-1 (2.6 t.day-1)
312 t.month-1 (10.2 t.day-1)
3740 tpa
55%
2005
20 t.day-1
127 t.month-1 (4.23 t.day-1)
Stage A: 97 t.month-1 (3.12 t.day-1) 922 tpa
Stage B: 2. t.day-1 844 tpa
98%
The new Acid Plant is designed in such a way that it operates in two sections: a strong gas
stream section accepting Converter off-gas and a weak gas stream section accepting Furnace off-gas
(Anglo Platinum, 2001a). If problems occur in either of the sections in the Acid Plant, only the
related production process needs to be appropriately managed (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). Appropriate
instrumentation for real-time monitoring of particulates and flow rates was installed in the Converter
and Acid Plant stacks (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
Anglo Platinum further implemented a number of smaller projects in order to reduce
particulate emissions. These projects include5,7:
a. The closing of the conveyor belts going into the Furnaces;
b. Extra ventilation throughout the Smelter;
c. Extra, improved capturing hoods for the Furnaces in the ACP section; and
d. The furnace is rebuilt every 10 years.
6.1.2 New permit requirements for Waterval Smelter
Along with the new ACP project, the North West Department of Agriculture, Conservation
and Environment (DACE), through the Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO), issued a new
provisional registration certificate (no 153/3) for the Waterval Smelter in December 2002 (replaced
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the provisional registration certificate issued in 1999)7.
The provisional certificate expires in
November 2003 and will be replaced with a permanent registration certificate only if particulate
emissions from the Main stack are limited to 120 mg.Nm-3 (Anglo Platinum, 2003). In 2003 Anglo
Platinum made a new commitment that all smelting and converting related fugitive emissions will be
controlled (within legal limits) by 30 September 2004 (Anglo Platinum, 2003).
6.1.3 Regional environmental department
In 2002, a regional environmental department was established for the Rustenburg
section of Anglo Platinum operations5. The new department includes specialists responsible
for the management of air quality for the region as a whole (including the Smelter) (Fig.
6.1)5.
Regional Environmental Manager
Systems (ISO 14001)
Air Quality
Water Management
Data Capture Clerk
Assistant
Consultants
Monitoring Stations (ESKOM)
•
Monitoring Network (SRK)
•
Database (Integrated)
•
Smelter
Environmental Officer
Assistant
Precious Metal Refinery
Environmental Officer
Base Metal Refinery
Environmental officer
Figure 6.1:
Rustenburg Platinum Mine
Environmental Officer
Assistant
Assistant
Structure of the regional environmental department for the Rustenburg section5.
The regional air quality manager is supported by environmental officers for each
Business Unit (e.g. Smelter, Base Metal Refinery) as well as a number of consultants
responsible for the maintenance of the air quality monitoring stations, the downloading of the
captured data and the functioning of the integrated database created as a result of the fugitive
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emission monitoring (Fig. 6.1).5
A new addition has also been a Safety, Health and
Environmental (SHE) manager appointed specifically to the Smelter to improve and better
coordinate management efforts (Anglo Platinum, 2003).
6.1.4 ISO 14001 certification
Another new management tool implemented by Anglo Platinum that will help to
control particulate emissions and improve air quality management is the implementation of
ISO 14001. Anglo Platinum planned to apply for ISO 14001 certification by the end of
20035. In order to achieve this, a Coordinator (Systems) was appointed to the regional
environmental department, with a representative for every Business Unit (e.g. Smelter) to be
responsible for implementation in that specific Unit (Fig. 6.1)5.
6.1.5. Air quality management plan
Extensive planning has lead to the design of an Air Quality Management Plan
(AQMP) for the Rustenburg section of the Anglo Platinum operations. The plan is based on
three pillars, namely (Anglo Platinum, 2003):
a. A detailed source inventory;
b. Business Unit specific plans: assist Units in source identification, specific reduction plans
and contingency measures, implementation of reduction plans, source specific
monitoring; and
c. Consolidation of the plans from the different Business Units and monitoring: compile a
consolidated AQMP, specify the regional performance indicators, and perform
monitoring, liaison and reporting.
The plan comprises of 11 sections and include (Anglo Platinum, 2003):
a. Introduction: ambient air quality, aim of regional AQMP;
b. Framework: compilation of framework, design of AQMP;
c. Significant sources: Business Unit sources, combined sources;
d. Emission control: particulate emissions, SO2 emissions;
e. Performance indicators: local guidelines, international guidelines;
f. Ambient monitoring: monitoring locations, monitoring methods;
g. Contingency measures: particulate emissions, SO2 emissions;
h. Reporting and liaison: internal / external reporting, community liaison;
i. Inspections and audit (internal and external): internal auditing, external auditing;
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j. Financial provision: physical implementation, monitoring and auditing; and
k. Appendices: Business Unit air quality management plans and the detailed source
inventory.
The AQMP was completed in 2003 with implementation already starting on the tailings dams
and process plants in 2002 (Anglo Platinum, 2003). Emission reduction targets are included for 2005,
2008 and 2010 (Anglo Platinum, 2003). The plan is dynamic and the idea is to update it on a regular
basis as the changing situation requires (Anglo Platinum, 2003).
6.2 Impala Platinum
Impala Platinum also introduced several new projects to improve their air quality
management and achieved ISO 14001 certification during the period.
6.2.1 New projects
A large project that has been implemented in the Rustenburg region was the
installation of a Sulfacid plant by Impala Platinum at a cost of R55 million (Pulles et al.,
2000)2. The purpose of the plant is to clean the furnace off-gas with the result that no
particulates are emitted through the Main stack anymore (except when the Sulfacid plant is
off-line) (Pulles et al., 2000)2. The Sulfacid plant further ensures that in the event of any
individual electrostatic precipitator failure, the gas stream will still be free of particulates
thereby increasing the plant’s efficiency and decreasing the amount of maintenance required
on the plant (Pulles et al., 2000). The Sulfacid plant is situated after the three electrostatic
precipitators and before the Main stack and has been operational since September 20022.
In November 2002 an additional Drier stack was installed. Since Impala Platinum made no
data available for this study (Chapter 5), it is not possible to determine the impact of these new
projects on particulate emissions. Theoretically, an extra Drier stack will lead to an increase in the
particulate emissions.
Another new project initiated by Impala Platinum is the commissioning of three
particulate monitors (TEOM instruments) that were installed in the ambient monitoring
stations in May 20022. The data from these stations are automatically transferred via radio
links to a central computer in the control room from where it is distributed to the Intranet
where it can be viewed by all workers as well as the Environmental department2.
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6.2.2 ISO 14001
The Rustenburg Operation (which includes the Smelter) of Impala Platinum achieved ISO
14001 certification in 20032. The pre-assessment took place in 2002 and accreditation in 20032. The
Precious Metal Refinery (PMR) and Base Metal Refinery (BMR) in Springs were the first to
implement the standard, and received ISO 14001 certification during May 2000 (Impala Platinum,
2001b).
6.3 Lonmin Platinum
The situation regarding particulate emission management at Lonmin Platinum has
changed since 2001. A major new project was implemented in four different phases, ISO
14001 certification was achieved and work started on ISO 18001 certification. A new
provisional registration certificate under which the Smelter has to operate was implemented
(included new limits regarding particulate emissions) and an Air Quality Management Plan
(AQMP) was designed.
6.3.1 New projects
Lonmin Platinum started in 1999 with the rebuilding of their Smelter in four different phases
(Lonmin Platinum, 2003; Posnik, 2002):
a. Phase 1: Flash dryer;
b. Phase 2: Single, circular, large furnace;
c. Phase III – Third Converter; and
d. Phase IV – Sulphur Fixation Plant consisting of four main process units (Fig.6.2)
1. Dust scrubbing,
2. Sulphur dioxide scrubbing,
3. Sodium regeneration, and
4. Particulate and Sulphur dioxide handling.
The process differs from that described in Chapter 5 and Appendix D in that the existing
tanker off loading facility at Lonmin Platinum deliver concentrate to an upgraded blending system
where all the concentrates are mixed (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). Two pressure filters remove excess
moisture and the resultant cake is fed into a Flash drier (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). The concentrate is
stored and delivered pneumatically to the new Furnace (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). Once the new
Smelter is fully operational all the existing Furnaces and Drier plants will be decommissioned and
retained as standby units on a care and maintenance basis (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b).
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Submerged Arc Furnace
Flash Drier
Electrostatic Precipitator
Venturi Wet Dust Scrubber
Pierce Smith Converter
Tailings Dam
UG2 Furnaces
Hydrated Lime
Figure 6.2
Discharge to the Atmosphere
Sulphur Fixation / Sodium Solution
Calcium Sulphite Effluent
Sodium Regen Lime
Sulphur Fixation Plant at Lonmin Platinum (Posnik, 2002)
The new Smelter process will assist the company to comply with the new permit requirements
set by the APCO (see section 6.3.2) (Posnik, 2002). The commissioning of the new Smelter was
planned to be completed by October 2001, but was delayed because of problems with the Furnaces in
2001 and 20023. In 2003 all four phases of the Smelter was still not yet fully operational.
6.3.2 New permit requirements for Lonmin Platinum Smelter
The North West Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment (DACE), through
the Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO), issued a new provisional registration certificate for Lonmin
Platinum Smelter in December 2001 which was enforced from December 2002 (Fig.6.3)3. The
provisional registration is valid for a year and requires the Smelter to comply with new, much lower
SO2 and particulate emission levels by the third quarter of 2003 (Lonmin Platinum, 2003).
Table 6.3:
Provisional registration certificate for Lonmin Platinum Smelter (Posnik, 2002).
Previous
(until Provisional (2002 –2003)
Future 2003 onwards
2002)
SO2 to Stack
48 tons per day
56 tons per day
Dust to Stack
120mg.Nm-3
120mg/Nm3
S02 Ambient Monitoring
DEAT guidelines
PM10 Dust: Ambient
Monitoring
DEAT guidelines
6.5 tons per day
820 grams per second
50mg/Nm3
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6.3.3 ISO 14001 certification and ISO 18001 certification
Lonmin Platinum’s Smelter achieved ISO 14001 certification in October 2001 and was busy
preparing for ISO 18001 certification in 20033. The emphasis in ISO 18001 certification is on the
integration of procedures - safety, health and environmental concerns of the Smelter will all be
combined into one procedure that can be easily followed by everyone3. The process to integrate the
Safety, Health and Environment departments in to one department started in 20023. ISO certification
ensures that all information is easy accessible and include3:
1. Aspect and impact identification,
2. Aspect register,
3. Planning of environmental projects (combined with the writing down of the procedures), and
4. Implementation.
Together with ISO certification, Lonmin Platinum is in the process of implementing the
Occupational Health and Safety Administration System (OHSAS) – a SABS code similar to ISO
14001 that focuses on health and safety issues3.
6.3.4 Air quality management plan
Review design and process to reduce emissions
Emission inventory
Stack
Particulates / SO2
Ambient air conditions
Mine dump dust
Data collection and dispersion modelling for
compliance and performance assessment
Meteorological and air
quality monitoring
Figure 6.3: Components of the Lonmin Platinum air quality management strategy (Lonmin
Platinum, 2002).
Lonmin Platinum has, similar to Anglo Platinum, initiated a process to design an Air Quality
Management Plan (AQMP) for their Smelter operations (Fig. 6.3) (Lonmin Platinum, 2003). In 2002
components of the strategy were published and further developed during 2003 (Lonmin Platinum,
2002). The AQM plan contains the same basic elements as those of Anglo Platinum’s AQM plan but
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not as much detail. Another difference is that the plan is just for the Smelter and not for all Lonmin
Platinum’s operations as is the case for Anglo Platinum.
6.4 Other role players in the Rustenburg region
The information included in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 has focused on the contributions to
particulate emissions and the management practices to control these emissions of the three Platinum
Smelters in the Rustenburg region. Along with these mining companies, there are also three other
important roleplayers in the region that affects the management of pollution in the region, namely the
Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO), the Rustenburg Air Quality Forum (RAQF) and the North
West Ecoforum (NWEF). These three important roleplayers will be discussed in the following
section.
6.4.1 Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO)
The role and responsibilities of the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO) have
already been described in Chapter 3. In the North West Province, where Rustenburg is situated, the
role of CAPCO is slightly different. The Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment
(DACE) appointed an Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) specifically responsible for the North
West Province in 20018. The APCO has the delegated authority of the Minister (of the National
Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism) to enforce the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention
Act in the Province, and very little power is still left with the national Department regarding the North
West Province (RAQF, 2002a)1,8. As described in Chapter 3, the intention of the new National
Environmental Management: Air Quality Bill is to delegate the responsibility regarding air quality
management to the local level where it will fit in with the Integrated Development Planning (IDP)
process5. For the purpose of this study it will mean that the Rustenburg Local Municipality will have
an environmental department that will be responsible for managing the air pollution in the region
(including mining activities, scheduled processes, vehicle emissions, boiler stacks and sporting
activities)5.
6.4.1.1 Air quality strategy for the North West province
Since APCO’s appointment an ambient air quality objective for the North West provincial
government was determined which states that the Province should have an ambient air quality
complying with ambient air quality criteria for SO2 and TSP/PM10 by 2005 (Posnik, 2002):
a. Industrial emissions, controls and management systems and/or budget provisions must be in place
by 2003, and
b. The cumulative contribution from all industrial sources to the atmospheric pollution levels must
be:
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•
Less than 70% of the guideline for 24h average
•
Less than 30% of the guideline for annual average
The Provincial air quality strategy is based on the United States Air Quality
Legislation as established by the Clean Air Act of 1970, and amendments (Fig. 6.4) and
involves (Posnik, 2002):
1. Specifying air quality criteria and goals;
2. Devising and enforcing a set of emission control tactics to achieve the air quality criteria;
3. Quantification of emissions, emission rates and the way in which pollutants are being
emitted;
4. Compilation of an inventory of source emissions;
5. Monitoring of air pollution concentrations and meteorological conditions; and
6. Devising emission control tactics through air quality modelling.
Specify air quality
criteria and goals
Compile an inventory of source
emissions
Monitor air pollution
concentrations
Monitor
meteorological
conditions
Apply model to calculate air quality
Devise a set of emission control
tactics to achieve air quality criteria
and goals
Enforce emission control tactics
Air quality criteria
and goals achieved
Figure 6.4:
Air quality criteria and goals not
achieved
Air Quality Development Strategy (US Air Quality Legislation as
established by the Clean Air Act of 1970, and amendments) (Posnik,
2002).
According to the APCO the above-mentioned objectives are achievable, although there are
still areas of concern (e.g. dust from mine dumps) (Posnik, 2002). The provincial strategy has
implications for industry and therefore industry needs its own co-objectives in order for the Province
to reach its primary objective (Posnik, 2002).
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6.4.1.2 Permit registration
The APCO is responsible for issuing registration permits to Scheduled processes (e.g.
Platinum Smelters) as described in Chapter 3. The new provisional registration permits issued to
Lonmin Platinum and Anglo Platinum is regarded as the first step in the system for the future (Posnik,
2002). The process for the provisional registration includes (Posnik, 2002):
1. Measuring,
2. Stringent guidelines,
3. Anticipated air quality standards, and
4. Specific requirements in the certificate.
6.4.2 Rustenburg Air Quality Forum (RAQF)
At the end of the 1990’s and beginning of 2000’s industries in the Rustenburg area
came increasingly under pressure from the public to assess and manage air pollution in a
transparent and co-ordinated manner (Pulles et al., 2001).
Together with industry’s
acknowledgement of the cumulative impact arising from the wide variety of pollution
sources, changing legislation that is increasingly holding polluters accountable for their
actions, and the absence of clear-cut factual information with which to make regional
assessments of air quality led to the formation of the Section 21 company, the Rustenburg Air
Quality Forum (RAQF) in October 1999 (Pulles et al., 2001). The RAQF was requested and
initiated by the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer of the Department of Environmental
Affairs And Tourism and was founded by the Platinum (Anglo Platinum, Impala Platinum,
Lonmin Platinum) and Chrome industries (Xstrata) and the Senior Air Pollution Control
Officer responsible for the Rustenburg region at that stage (Pulles et al., 2001). The RAQF
cannot replace the government function; it was formed to assist government with the
monitoring and reporting function (RAQF, 2002b).
At the launch of the RAQF the objective was to involve all the major industries and, in a
common forum (Anglo Platinum, 2001b; Pulles et al., 2001):
a. Assess the emission inventory from all industrial and non-industrial sources (phase 1),
b. Monitor the air quality of the receiving environment (phase 2),
c. Determine the carrying capacity of the receiving environment,
d. Develop the air management strategies for the Rustenburg area,
e. Liase with the public in the Rustenburg area on the aforementioned issues, and
f.
Issue the monitoring results of the different companies in a single report, on a regular basis for the
benefit of the community of Rustenburg. The public would then have information regarding the
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air quality, as measured at these various stations to compare it with ambient air quality guidelines
that were applicable in South Africa. The results would be available for interpretation or use for
whoever was interested in such data. The first two phases of the objectives have been executed
and are discussed below.
6.4.2.1 Phase 1
Through an analysis of other such bodies in the country it is apparent that the absence of a
solid foundation of information can lead to inefficient use of funding, inappropriate monitoring and
criteria establishment, and ineffectual air quality management (Pulles et al., 2001). Therefore, an
initial baseline assessment study by an independent consulting firm was commissioned (published in
April 2001) with the objective to (Pulles et al., 2001):
a. Compile a comprehensive data inventory of all identifiable point, diffuse and mobile
sources of air pollution. These sources are to include industrial emissions, emissions
from other human activities such as the burning of domestic fuels, and vehicle fuel
combustion;
b. Identify the manner in which pollutants are discharged into the atmosphere (for example,
the height, locality, and concentration of emissions);
c. Identify the conditions/reasons leading to the generation of air pollution by various
sources, and the frequency of occurrence of these. This was mainly aimed at specific
industrial processes, which have varying operational scenarios that lead to varying rates
of air pollutant emissions;
d. Identify specific pollutants of concern;
e. Identify data sources of meteorological and air quality data;
f. Identify sensitive areas such as population groups and agriculture, their location and other
data relating to these, which may be of future use; and
g. Develop a cost-allocation procedure for the corporate founder members of the RAQF
such that the costs of funding the activities of the RAQF can be divided according to their
relative air quality impacts.
The findings of the baseline study were designed as the platform from which the second phase
of the study was initiated in 2002 (Pulles et al., 2001), but the objectives of phase one were not
properly executed and the study lacked any real substance. More questions than answers followed the
publication of the study.
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6.4.2.2 Phase two
The report published following phase 2, defined the objectives of the phase as
determining the state of emissions in the RAQF study area (Burger et. al., 2002). All sources
that significantly contribute to the air quality in the region were included in a database; the
source parameters were determined as accurately as possible, however various degrees of
success were obtained in this goal (Burger et. al., 2002).
The following aspects were
examined (Burger et. al., 2002):
a. The study area and land use;
b. Source inventory:
1. Overview of sources, and
2. Point, area and volume sources; small, other sources.
c. Pollutant identification;
d. Emission, meteorology and ambient air quality data inventory;
e. Results, namely:
1. Impact assessment,
2. Cost allocation procedure,
3. Detailed source inventory,
4. Analysis of the network,
5. Monitoring requirements,
6. Monitoring deficiencies,
7. Data capture and communication, and
8. Budget cost.
f. Conclusions and recommendations.
By 2002 the RAQF had been in existence for three years and no real progress was made
regarding the original objectives as stated above. A strategic workshop was organised during which
the structure and function of the RAQF was discussed (RAQF, 2002b). It was decided that the district
municipality (Bojanala Platinum District Municipality) as well as affected communities surrounding
Rustenburg and the National Union of Mine Workers (NUM) must be represented on the RAQF
(RAQF, 2002b). The RAQF further approached the National Department of Environmental Affairs
and Tourism (DEAT) for guidance regarding the future role of the RAQF (RAQF, 2002a). The
APCO for North West province and the North West Ecoforum (see 6.4.3) was requested to reconsider
their inactive participation in the structure and activities of the Forum1. The non-participation of these
two entities was of great concern for the RAQF since it would affect their credibility as an
organization reporting on the monitoring results of the various stations operated by them (RAQF,
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2002a). The involvement of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) in decision-making was seen
as an integral component for the success of the RAQF (Pulles et al., 2001). The possibility of
instituting an awareness campaign to inform the public about the work of the RAQF was investigated
(RAQF, 2002b). By September 2003 no further progress was made and still not many of the original
objectives had been achieved.
The last important role player in the region is the North West Ecoforum, which represents the
public in the region.
6.4.3 North West Ecoforum (NWEF)
The North West Ecoforum (NWEF) is a Non-Profit Organisation founded in March
2000 by a group of concerned citizens in response to all the new mining developments in the
Rustenburg region1. Branches are found in different parts of the province, but most of the
activities are still in the Rustenburg region because of the environmental stress caused by the
Platinum industry1. The objective of the NWEF is to aid in the creation of a healthier
environment for all inhabitants of the North West Province, thus enabling a better quality of
life and is achieved through1:
a. Attending Meetings: meetings regarding Environmental Impact Assessments and
Environmental Management Programme Reports and Amendments are attended to ensure
that the general public’s interest are taken into account;
b. Scrutinising documentation relating to the above;
c. Giving inputs into the above processes;
d. Acting on complaints from the public, ensuring that government officials perform their
duties correctly;
e. Continuously monitoring environmental compliance of industries in the area; and
f. Educating the public as to their environmental rights.
The North West Ecoforum has been involved in most of the environmental assessment
processes related to expansions of current mining operations in the Rustenburg region1. The NWEF
has been described as the most important key stakeholder in the region by the mines as well as a
public participation consultant working in the region; their presence have led to a deeper discussion of
the environmental problems currently experienced in the area, as well as a better understanding of the
holistic environmental picture10. They have further managed to force the developer to improve the
whole process regarding project implementation10. The influence of the NWEF has created extra
costs on behalf of the developer but has also lead to more environmentally suitable projects3.
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Chapter 7
Review and synthesis of airborne particulate pollution management
at Platinum Smelters in the Rustenburg region, North West Province
7.1.
Introduction
In the previous two Chapters (Chapter 5 and Chapter 6) the contributors to particulate
pollution in the Platinum industry (Anglo Platinum, Impala Platinum and Lonmin Platinum) have
been described in detail. Other important roleplayers in the region (Chapter 6: section 6.4) as well as
the management practices in use by the different roleplayers to control and minimise particulate
pollution are described. Chapter 7 focuses on reviewing the information under a number of different
focus areas, which include policies, formal procedures, technology used (old and new) and
management practices. All this information will then be used to devise a regional management plan
regarding particulate pollution in Chapter 8.
7.2.
Safety, Health and Environmental Policy (SHE Policy)
Good management often starts with comprehensive policies. The policy that is relevant for
this study is the Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) Policy. All three mines have a SHE
policy that recognises and acknowledges the impact that mining activities have on the
environment (Chapter 5 and Appendix G). All three mines accept their responsibility and
commit themselves to conduct business in a manner that is not detrimental to the
environment. Similarities between the SHE policies of the three mines include:
a. A commitment to comply with guidelines and regulations;
b. Pollution must be prevented through planning, design of instrumentation and use of best practices;
c. The impacts of activities on the workers and environment should be minimised;
d. Education and training about environmental matters must be offered to workers;
e. All stipulated regulations apply to contractors;
f.
Good relations and communication should exist with the public and surrounding communities;
and
g. Environmental impacts are to be monitored.
The length and the detail of the policies vary. The policy of Anglo Platinum is the longest
and most detailed. Only the policy of Lonmin Platinum makes reference to the use of
environmental management systems and the handling of specific environmental problems
(e.g. rehabilitation of slag dump). The issues included in the different policies will be
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discussed in this Chapter and the differences between company policy and practice will be
reviewed. It is important that the mining companies not only make commitments in public to
comply with legislation and policies, but employ the management plans (at ground level) to
back up these commitments made (by head office).
7.3.
Air quality management in the Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR)
One of the most important public documents where the SHE policy can be tested is in the
Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR) written for the Smelter operations.
Chapter 6 of an EMPR is legally binding and should include management plans regarding air
pollution control for the entire lifespan of the mine (commissioning phase to
decommissioning phase). A problem that is evident in all three the Smelter EMPRs is that
few management plans are included that focus specifically on particulate emission control
and the mitigation plans that are included are very general in nature (Pulles et al., 2000: 9):
“The cumulative impact of all emission sources in the Rustenburg area on air quality
has not been determined. Studies are underway, in co-operation with other industries in the
area, to enable a comprehensive assessment of air quality in relation to pollution sources. Until
such time as this study has been completed, it will not be possible to determine whether the
Smelter emissions will be adequately curtailed through the expansion project. However, the
management of impacts on air quality through continuous monitoring of emissions, weather
conditions, and air quality in the area surrounding the Smelter will aid to ensure that air
quality impacts are controlled to acceptable levels”.
Information included in the above-mentioned paragraph are very vague and requires
specification, for instance:
a. What are acceptable levels: according to South African legislation, international legislation?
b. For who are the levels acceptable: e.g. surrounding communities, workers in the Smelter,
the environment?
c. “continuous monitoring”: no indication is given of the monitoring frequency, locations,
methodology, the ambient weather conditions, or the manner in which the information is
to be processed.
More detailed information (e.g. Air Quality Management Plan) must be included in a Smelter
EMPR to ensure that proper management plans are in place to control particulate emissions
throughout the lifespan of the Smelter.
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7.4.
Formal procedures for management of particulate emissions
Management plans and procedures regarding particulate pollution identified in the EMPR
then need to be further explained in detail in a number of procedures. These procedures need
to cover all aspects of particulate emission control (e.g. the technology used, maintenance,
operation under normal conditions, operation under upset conditions) and be in print. It is
also important that the procedures must be made available to all Smelter employees (easy
accessible) and updated on a regular basis. The best example is found at Lonmin Platinum
where all the procedures are published internally in the company and updated on a regular
basis. The ISO 14001 standard that has been implemented at Lonmin Platinum has promoted
easy access to information within the company. While Anglo Platinum has formal
procedures, they are not made available to the employees. Procedures used by Impala
Platinum are not all written down or made available to Smelter employees. Investigations
conducted for this study indicated that basic information about management practices was
missing, difficult to access and not always easy understandable.
7.5.
Permit requirements
South African legislation is an important aspect that will determine the management practices
in place to control particulate emissions. For the Smelters the stipulations included in the registration
certificates must be an important guideline as to how the pollution should be managed.
The original Permit requirements for the three Smelters is very difficult to compare since it do
not contain similar information:
a. Anglo Platinum: limits are given for emissions from the Drier stack (50 mg.m-3 measured at 0°C
and 101.3 kPa) and Furnaces (50 mg.m-3 measured at 0°C and 101.3 kPa);
b. Impala Platinum: a limit is given for emissions from the Drier stack (120 mg.m-3 measured at 0°C
and 101.3 kPa); and
c. Lonmin Platinum: limits are given for emissions from the Drier stack (50 mg.m-3 measured at 0°C
and 101.3 kPa) and Main stack (120 mg.m-3 measured at 0°C and 101.3 kPa).
New provisional registration certificates were issued for Main stack emissions for Anglo
Platinum (120 mg.m-3 measured at 0°C and 101.3 kPa) as well as Lonmin Platinum (50 mg.m3
measured at 0°C and 101.3 kPa) in 2002. These provisional certificates will only become
permanent if all the stipulations are met. It is, therefore, important that all the new projects
initiated by the Smelters (described in Chapter 6) are commissioned successfully and
operational as soon as possible in order to meet the new more stringent limits.
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7.6
Structure of environmental departments / relationships with other departments
The Environmental departments of the three Smelters have a significant part to play in the
successful management of particulate emissions. These departments need to ensure that Smelter
management are aware of all the environmental regulations and that these stipulations are enforced.
All three Environmental departments have staff specifically responsible for air quality management
and are supported by workers in the Smelter who have to report on environmental matters.
Unfortunately, these workers do not always have the necessary qualifications or time to adequately
fulfil these duties. For all three Smelters, it would be beneficial to appoint additional (properly
qualified) environmental department employees to focus on air pollution management because of the
seriousness of the problem. A shortage of staff was found to be a problem at all three industries.
The structure of the Anglo Platinum regional Environmental department has changed
significantly with more personnel being responsible for air quality management since 2002 than
before.
The regional Environmental department work closely together with the Occupational
Hygienists, but there is still room for improvement in the relationship (r.e. availability of information,
co-ordination of efforts).
The Environmental department of Impala Platinum is smaller with only one person
(environmental manager) responsible for the air quality management of all the operations (Smelter
included). There is no one in the department that is solely responsible for air quality management of
the Smelter.
Closer co-operation with the ventilation department (responsible for gravimetric
sampling) is needed, in order to ensure that problems are sorted out quickly and efficiently.
Lonmin Platinum has an Environmental department specifically responsible for the Smelter.
The department is small and it is suggested that this department be expanded and work closer together
with the Central Services Environmental department (responsible for gravimetric sampling).
7.7
Changes in technology used to control particulate emissions
The technology used to control particulate emissions (Anglo Platinum: ceramic candles, Impala
Platinum and Lonmin Platinum: electrostatic precipitators) has been ineffective and outdated for a
period of time, mainly because of the increasing volume of ore sent to the Smelters (described in
Chapter 4: section 4.4) as well as equipment breakages. All three Smelters were built during the late
1960’s and early 1970’s with little modification of the pollution control equipment.
Since 2002, new technologies have been implemented by all three Smelters to minimise the
particulates emitted (described in Chapter 6). Considerable amounts of time, money and research
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were invested in these projects, with environmental considerations taken into account from the
planning stages of the projects. The projects commissioned by all three Smelters will, if successful,
have a positive effect on reducing the amounts of particulates emitted in the region. All three projects
are long-term developments, implemented in stages, with the results only visible a few years after
their commissioning. Therefore, no definite conclusion about the success or failure of the technology
could be made by the end of this study; two reasons being the problems experienced with measuring
equipment (described in section 7.10) and the commissioning of the projects (longer than expected).
7.8.
Additional control measures / management practices
All three Smelters have management procedures in place that focus specifically on particulate
emission control. Lonmin Platinum’s management procedures as well as those implemented by
Anglo Platinum appear to be well developed while those available for Impala Platinum are not well
developed at all.
In addition, all three Platinum Smelters have developed measures to help control
particulate emissions from the Smelter area and minimise the impact on workers. Measures
that have been implemented by all three Smelters included pneumatic transfer of ore
throughout the Smelters, cemented areas and the use of a vacuum cleaning system to
minimise the amount of particulates lying around.
Anglo Platinum and Lonmin Platinum have defined zones in the Smelter where
respirators must be worn and the amount of time spent by workers in these areas is restricted.
Automated shutdowns of parts of the Smelter when emissions reach a certain level is an
option implemented with various success at the different Smelters. Anglo Platinum has only
implemented it in the ACP section for SO2 emissions while Impala Platinum has implemented
it in the Spray dryers.
Despite these control measures, particulate emissions still seem to be very high. There
is an apparent problem between the management practices designed and the implementation
thereof.
7.9.
Contingency plans
Contingency plans are as important as the changes in technology implemented, but were found
to be deficient for all three Smelters. An example of where contingency plans were necessary, was
when the electrostatic precipitator of Lonmin Platinum’s Smelter exploded in May 20023. The cause
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of the explosion was not immediately known and the electrostatic precipitator was beyond repair and
had to be bypassed3. To replace the electrostatic precipitator could have taken up to a year3, during
which time all particulate emissions would have to be vented through the Main stack because no
contingency plans were in place. A temporary baghouse was installed (June 2002) and the rebuilt
precipitator was online by August 2002, but for 13 weeks all particulates were vented into the
atmosphere (Lonmin Platinum, 2003). Another example of insufficient contingency measures can be
found in the failure of ceramic candles installed by Anglo Platinum. The effectiveness of the control
measures dropped to 75% for a period of 9 months (Anglo Platinum, 2002a). Despite all the research
done and money spent, particulates were still vented in large quantities through the Main stack5. No
contingency plans were in place that could help to reduce the particulate emissions and keep it within
reasonable limits.
7.10.
Monitoring particulate emissions
The monitoring of particulate emissions consists of two parts, namely monitoring inside
the Smelter and monitoring of fugitive emissions (ambient monitoring).
All three Smelters measure emissions inside the Smelters in the same areas (e.g. Drier stacks,
Main stack), because of reporting requirements set by the Air Pollution Control Officer for North
West province (APCO). Not all three mines are equally successful in their measuring programmes.
Anglo Platinum has the most comprehensive monitoring programme that covers all the different areas
inside the Smelter. Although measurements are not undertaken on a monthly basis in all the regions,
more data are available for Anglo Platinum than any of the other two Smelters. Some problems have
been experienced with measuring equipment failure. It is not possible to review the monitoring
programme of Impala Platinum since no data were made available for the purpose of this study.
Pulles et al. (2000: 5.10) states, “the Smelter Plant has significant emissions of sulphur dioxide.
However, particulate emissions are low and well within guideline emission specifications for the
processes giving rise to them.” This claim cannot be substantiated because of the lack of data.
Impala Platinum further claims that the people working in the Smelter will notice when emissions are
over the limit2. This requires that people have to observe emissions on top of their usual workload.
The argument is that it can be visually noticed when emissions are more than 50µg.m-3,2 but the
question that requires answering is whether it is possible to discern specific levels with the naked eye.
Lonmin Platinum Smelter is the only one measuring emissions inside the Smelter as well as around
the perimeter of the Smelter area. Problems with the measuring equipment have however lead to not
much data being available for long periods from the different sections of the Smelter.
For monitoring to be effective, measuring equipment needs to be working continuously
and calibrated correctly (Lonmin Platinum, 2003). In 2003 the APCO still did not regard the
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monitoring equipment as effective and the data as reliable (Lonmin Platinum, 2003). All
measuring instrumentation and control equipment are manufactured and tested oversees
under different circumstances5. In case of breakages, the instrumentation has to be sent back
for repairs, which can take a very long time5.
Another part of monitoring implemented by all three Smelters is visual monitoring where
cameras are focused on the Main stack. This type of monitoring can be very useful, but needs further
development and refinement in the case of all three Smelters.
Ambient monitoring in the Rustenburg region is still problematic. All three Platinum mines in
the region regard monitoring as important, and conduct ambient particulate monitoring. The same
pattern is followed as in the case of the monitoring inside the Smelters (most data available for Anglo
Platinum and Lonmin Platinum, no data available for Impala Platinum). A problem that still needs to
be resolved is whether it is possible to assign all emissions measured at a particular station to a
specific Smelter. The data only show the measurement at a specific point at a specific time, it cannot
be viewed as representative of the whole region or even a position a few metres away. A regional
approach to monitoring is therefore needed (described in Chapter 8: section 8.3.4).
7.11.
Gravimetric sampling
Particulate emissions in the Smelter area directly affect workers in the Smelter and are
measured through gravimetric sampling (measurement of particulate emissions workers are exposed
to during an 8-hour shift). The Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) has set out guidelines
prescribing how gravimetric sampling should be conducted. All three mines applied these guidelines
within the context of their specific situation with varying success. Not one of the Smelters had
extensive data available for the purpose of this study, and the quality of the data was not sufficient.
Anglo Platinum as well as Lonmin Platinum conducted fingerprint studies but it does not appear that
these studies will be repeated in future or that the results are taken seriously. A new system has been
implemented by all three Smelters (as designed by the DME) since 2002, which possibly will lead to
more consistency and an improvement in the quality of data available.
As described in section 7.6 there is little co-operation (interaction) between the departments
responsible for gravimetric sampling and environmental management, despite the two issues being
closely related. The process appears to be very fragmented with separate departments having to take
responsibility for issues closely related. The decision-making process becomes protracted.
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7.12.
Maintenance
It is important to conduct maintenance of the emission control equipment as well as the
monitoring equipment. Regular maintenance undertaken properly can help to minimise problems
before they become unmanageable. All three Smelters spent time and money on maintenance and
regard it as important. Associated with maintenance is Isokinetic sampling, which ensures that
correct measurements are taken.
Anglo Platinum contracts an independent company to conduct Isokinetic sampling on a regular
basis.
Maintenance is undertaken on the ceramic candles, computerised recording system and
monitoring instrumentation. Impala Platinum conducts Isokinetic sampling on a monthly basis, but
makes use of their own instrumentation. Once a year, an independent company is contracted to do the
sampling. Maintenance on the electrostatic precipitators is also done on a regular basis, and because
three precipitators are used simultaneously, there is little loss in efficiency. Lonmin Platinum has an
extensive maintenance programme with very specific regulations that must be followed by employees
as well as contractors. All particulate control instrumentation is included in the programme (i.e. dust
catchers, baghouses and the electrostatic precipitator).
A negative aspect is that no Isokinetic
sampling is conducted. Although maintenance is done on a regular basis and is given high priority,
major incidents, which lead to long downtimes, still occur at all three mines.
7.13.
Quality and availability (accessibility) of data
The quality of the data regarding particulate emissions from the Smelters is an important
consideration, because it is presumably used when making decisions worth millions of Rand about
what instrumentation and control measures should be used and what management practices should be
followed. In addition, the data are used for modelling purposes, which also helps with planning for
future expansions and positioning of monitoring stations. The data are further reported to the APCO
for North West province on a monthly basis and will influence under the new Air Quality Bill if the
provisional registration certificate (which is needed to operate) becomes a permanent registration
certificate. It is therefore essential that up-to-date information of a good quality is available.
With the quality and amount of data that were available at the end of this study, none of the
above-mentioned options is possible. Some of the general problems experienced by all three Smelters
include:
a. Problems with faulty measuring equipment, instrumentation (e.g. computers recording the data);
b. A time delay (weeks and sometimes months) before data are verified, analysed and available;
c. Co-ordination of information (e.g. lack of co-operation between environmental department and
occupational hygienist leads to problems with gravimetric sampling);
d. Different types of information is available from each of the mines; and
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e. Different measurements are done using different units over different periods of time (e.g.
particulate emissions are measure in tonnes.month-1, but are reported to the APCO in
mg.Nm-3).
A result of the above, is that it is very difficult to compare information from the three
Smelters. Most often calculations are needed before comparisons can be made and sometimes the
information differs just too much to draw any real conclusions.
7.14
Reporting
Reporting of information is a natural follow-up to measuring and monitoring of
particulate emissions emitted. The reporting conducted by the three Platinum Smelters can
be divided into three sections, namely:
a. Internal reporting to Smelter management,
b. External reporting to the APCO of North West, and
c. External reporting to the public and shareholders.
Anglo Platinum and Lonmin Platinum report internally on a monthly and yearly basis
while Impala Platinum’s internal reporting includes daily, monthly and yearly reports. All
three mines have structures in place for internal reporting as well as for meeting the reporting
requirements set by the APCO of North West province. The environmental departments of
all three mines compile month-end reports, which include necessary information for internal
reporting as well as satisfy the requirements of the APCO. Procedures exist to record
environmental incidents and complaints and are reported internally and to the APCO.
Reporting to the public has been a problem, because little emphasis has been placed on
ensuring that the interested public and more importantly, the public affected by the activities of the
Smelters are properly informed. The perception created by the mines was that they are afraid of
making too much information known to the public, as it would lead to more confrontation10. The
public has also expressed doubts about whether the data made public reflect the true situation at the
Smelters10. Through legislation, the mines were forced to interact more with the public (public
participation meetings) and relationships started to improve. From 2000 onwards the situation started
to change with more reporting to the public through local newspaper articles as well as community
liaison meetings (by Anglo Platinum). All three Smelters have installed “hotlines” where the public
can report environmental problems.
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7.15.
Training
To ensure that all employees working in a Smelter are aware of the importance of
environmental management in general as well as environmental matters important for their specific
job and what the consequences is thereof, training is required. Although the respective mines handle
training slightly differently, the outcome has been similar: basic training is provided regarding
environmental matters, but no real effort is made to ensure that Smelter employees understand the
importance of environmental regulations that are enforced in the Smelter. The result is that there is
not always the required urgency on the part of workers to report environmentally related problems
because they do not understand that it is important. Training conducted by the three Smelters can be
summed up as follows:
a. Anglo Platinum: an external company is responsible for training5. A training programme specific
for the Smelter exists5. Environmental matters are included in induction training5.
b. Impala Platinum: The training department is responsible for training2.
In induction
2
training, basic information about environmental issues is supplied . Competency training
is also done (job specific)2. Every time an upgrade is completed employees working in
that area are re-trained2.
c. Lonmin Platinum: The training department conducts training with basic environmental
matters being included in the Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) induction3. For
workers working in the Smelter itself, more specific training is given3. Re-training is also
done every time there is a change in any of the procedures or instrumentation3.
7.16.
Closing
The topics discussed in Chapter 7 are examined further in Chapter 8 in which a regional
management plan for the three Platinum Smelters is described. This regional plan forms the
main focus of the study. Problems highlighted in Chapter 7 are discussed further with
possible solutions given to the problem areas. Given the complexities of managing pollution
in the Rustenburg area a plan is required that can be implemented inside a particular Smelter,
while at the same time being beneficial to the region as a whole.
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Chapter 8
Rustenburg regional air quality management plan
8.1
Introduction
Given the poor management of particulate air pollution (described in Chapter 7) that apparently
extends into other forms of emissions (Chapter 1: section 1.1), a management plan for the control of
air quality in the Rustenburg region was developed. The plan, called the Rustenburg Regional Air
Quality Management Plan (RAQMP) was developed to manage particulate emissions from the three
Platinum smelters and is described below. The RAQMP contains crucial elements of the management
plans described in Chapter 2, but was further expanded to take into account the unique situation of the
Rustenburg region as described in Chapter 4, 5 and 6 as well as the problems and positive aspects
described in Chapter 7 to ensure that the plan will be suitable for use by the three Platinum mines.
Protecting the environment and human health requires action at all levels, from broad policy
development to local community initiatives (Green et al., 2000). As there is no single solution to
complex environmental and health problems, there is an increasing need to develop integrated
approaches that pool information, expertise and common resources to address environmental and
health priorities (Green et al., 2000), an approach that is greatly needed to improve the pollution
problems experienced in the Rustenburg region. The RAQMP contains theoretical knowledge as well
as practical solutions to problems experienced inside all three the Smelters and for the region as a
whole. The Plan focuses on the implementation phase of the Smelters, but can be expanded to include
the construction and decommissioning phases if needed. The RAQMP plan consists of 12 sections
and a summary is found in Figure 8.1, after which each section is described in detail.
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8.2.
Summary: Rustenburg Air Quality Management Plan
1. Define the Vision and Objectives
Review the Vision and Objectives
2. Identify/Measure Emissions
4. Monitoring
GOAL
POLICY
10. Health
5. Simulation Modelling
3. Planning:
Data Management
6. Performance Indicators
(Standards & Guidelines)
7. Planning:
Financial Management
8. Environmental Management
Regional
Local: Integrated Development
Planning)
Company Specific
STRATEGY
9. Public Participation
11. Control: Implementation & Enforcement
Monitoring
Objectives Met
TACTICS
12. Reporting & Evaluation
Objectives Not Met
Figure 8.1: Summarised Rustenburg Regional Air Quality Management Plan.
8.3.
Discussion of the Rustenburg Air Quality Management Plan (RAQMP)
Longhurst et al. (1996) states that a crucial component of any management plan is to identify
clear goals. The first section of the RAQMP therefore focuses on defining a vision for the region
regarding particulate pollution management as well as setting objectives that need to be met for the
plan to be successful.
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8.3.1.
Goal: defining vision and objectives
The goals set for air quality management will mainly develop from the requirement to attain
or maintain air quality standards and must be held throughout the various national, regional, and local
sectors to help avoid the problems of conflicting policy development (Longhurst et al., 1996).
Furthermore, an AQMP must be an agreed procedure by which air quality goals are progressively, in
the long term, achieved across a specified time period with specific responsibilities assigned (Scorgie,
2001b; Longhurst et al., 1996).
For Rustenburg an initial review of the air quality is needed. The review should include
economic, social and environmental impacts of air pollution as well as what information is available
(e.g. research studies already conducted, Smelter EMPRs, available data, air quality control measures
in place, management practices in place as well as the general state of the air). There is a feeling that
sources (e.g. tailings dams, blasting and stockpiling) other than Scheduled processes (e.g. Smelters)
are responsible for a significant part of particulate pollution in the region and this should be examined
to determine the significance of these sources. Through the initial review the vision and initial goal
for the region should become clearer. In the case of Rustenburg an initial goal would be to define and
then create a quality of air that protects human health and welfare, without constricting development.
The objectives through which the initial goal can be reached, include:
a. Identify every role player (Chapter 4: section 4.4) and assign legal responsibility. Comprehensive
consulting with all the role players must take place to ensure agreement on what the group of
concerns in the region is and how it should be handled. A common goal (“shared vision”) needs
to be found;
b. Detailed quantification of air pollutant levels must be undertaken;
c. The Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) in co-operation with the other roleplayers must
determine initial legally binding standards regarding ambient concentrations specific for the
region in accordance with international (and national) guidelines and standards. Determine the
emission levels that can be permitted within the region, taking into consideration the current (and
future) developments. The levels can be reviewed later (refer to 8.3.6) when the RAQMP is fully
working and emission limits are achieved;
d. Identify initial emission quantities specific to every mine (taking into consideration the specific
circumstances of the mine); and
e. Ensure effective operation of control measures in use (further described in Appendix H).
Defining the goal and objectives of the RAQMP is crucial to the success of the plan since it
will form the basis for the rest of the plan. Once the initial goal is achieved, the quality of air should
be maintained through the proper and effective implementation of the RAQMP.
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8.3.2.
Emissions inventory (identify / measure emissions)
Once the goal and objectives of the RAQMP are defined, it is necessary to establish an
emission inventory, which requires the identification and quantification of all established sources of
emissions (major industrial sources) (WHO, 2000).
Without proper data, effective air quality
management would be difficult and may lead to inappropriate or over-regulated emission control
which is not in the interests of the general public or the industries subjected to control (Pulles et al.,
2001; WHO, 2000). An inventory procedure must be designed so that the greatest advantage is drawn
from the data collected and that the data collected are of sufficient quality to meet the diverse needs of
the interested user communities (Demerjian, 2000). Estimates of emissions can be used to develop
emission inventories, but comprehensive, accurate and current measurements, on a continuous basis
are necessary, to confirm the reliability of the estimate (WHO, 2000). The absence of information
though, should not prevent the development of preliminary emissions estimates (WHO, 2000). The
uses of an emission inventory include (Scorgie, 2001a):
a. Enforcement,
b. Emission reduction strategy development,
c. Land use planning,
d. Air quality modelling,
e. Identification of pollutants of concern,
f.
Future emission projections, and
g. The provision of a basis for the planning of an ambient monitoring network.
It is unlikely that actual emission data will be available all the time, therefore, emissions from
point and mobile sources must be estimated using a range of primary and secondary data sources
(including general emission factors for point and diffuse sources) (WHO, 2000; Longhurst et al.,
1996). An AQMP will need to consider the range of sources at the local, regional, and national level
that contribute to air pollution in a local area (Longhurst et al., 1996). In addition to the more regular
general quantification of emissions, spatially disaggregated emission estimations should periodically
be made to identify particular problem areas for which specific policies can be developed (WHO,
2000; Longhurst et al., 1996). Methods of emission inventories include (Scorgie, 2001a):
a. Gross estimation: this may primarily be a desktop study for a large geographical area where
summary data could be used,
b. Rapid survey: field data should be collected from major point sources (sources contacted by
questionnaire or telephone), and
c. Comprehensive emissions inventory: all “significant” point, area and line sources must be taken
into account.
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Distributing data by submitting it to a central archive that then serves as the vehicle for its
dissemination has proved to be cumbersome and inefficient (Demerjian, 2000). The benefits of
immediate open access to data through real-time processing and distribution are enormous; the
process is technologically straightforward and has been demonstrated in meteorological networks
around the world (Demerjian, 2000). Such a facility allows the accelerated identification of potential
data quality problems, and the development of diagnostic tools and analysis approaches that will
impact approaches to the air quality management process itself (Demerjian, 2000).
For the RAQMP, the establishment of an inventory will require three main steps:
a) Identification and measuring of pollution levels
o
Identification of all particulate emission sources will require a comprehensive fingerprint study.
Most of the sources have already been identified (e.g. roads, tailings dams, Smelters), but their
contribution will have to be quantified. An emission audit can be used as a basis for the first stage
of a process to provide information about the location and characteristics of pollutant sources.
Used together with a map and local knowledge of the area the highest emission areas (air quality
hotspots) can be identified.
o
Proper, standardised measuring instrumentation (more than 99% availability of data) adaptable to
local circumstances is needed. The equipment must be able to handle the particulate load in the
Smelter and upgraded on a regular basis.
1. Proper placement of the instrumentation and measurement methodologies as follows:
•
Locations crucial to the monitoring of particulate emissions: inside the Smelter in the Drier
stack, before the Main stack (measure furnace off-gas and converter off-gas), in the Main
stack, and in the Acid Plant stack.
•
Monitoring around the perimeter of the Smelter to representatively measure particulate
emissions (can include mobile stations, personal and small monitors).
•
Ambient monitoring must be done on a regional basis (See 8.3.4 and Table 8.2).
•
Gravimetric sampling according to guidelines set by Department of Minerals and Energy
(DME, 2001).
•
Calibration standards should be set and instrumentation should be calibrated regularly with
Isokinetic sampling conducted on a more regular basis.
•
o
For a start measuring should be done meticulously in all sections.
All raw data must be kept for a period of one year and must be easy accessible.
b) Data transfer to a database
1. The recorded data from all three Smelters must be transferred to a single regional database
(control room) via a computerised system that will conduct all the necessary calculations (e.g.
tonnes.month-1 to mg.Nm-3). The data must be easy accessible and available for viewing at any
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time. A person(s) should be responsible for all aspects relating to the data. The person will liase
with each of the environmental departments which will be responsible to report all problems. The
responsible person(s) must act as a link between the public, the mines, and the company
responsible for the downloading of information (from the monitoring stations). The database
must be updated on a daily basis and always contain the newest information, with detailed
explanations included for problems. Reports that should be available:
•
Internal: a daily report for use by all workers and responsible persons, and
•
External: report to all interested and affected parties on a monthly basis.
2. The compilation on an emission inventory
i.
The emission inventory needs to be compiled with the help of a Geographic Information
System (GIS). The inventory must contain certain standardised basic information for each
identified pollution source that includes:
•
The quantity,
•
Percentage contribution (consider the range of sources that contribute emissions),
•
Height of emission,
•
Type of emission (point or mobile; point, area or volume),
•
Concentration of emissions over time,
•
Comparisons with previous time periods (e.g. day, month, year),
•
A set of standards that is built into the programme so that violations can be
automatically identified,
•
The effects of the pollution (e.g. exposure and damage assessment, environmental and
health risks),
•
The areas affected, and
•
A description of the types of measurements used.
c) Special circumstances for each individual mine must be taken into consideration and built into the
process.
8.3.3.
Planning: Data management
It is important that after the establishment of an emission inventory, the data are properly
managed. Data management are one of the important aspects that have not received proper attention
so far and have resulted in problems. Without proper data management it will not be possible to
develop an RAQMP that will be of value for the region, because the situation cannot be assessed and
therefore it would be difficult to make decisions. The data that are available must be incorporated in a
proper structure to ensure that it can be utilised to the fullest.
Recommendations about data
management for the Rustenburg region have been made in section 8.3.2 and Table 8.1.
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Table 8.1:
Important sectors in data management (After Scorgie, 2001a).
Data quality
objectives
Data checks
undertaken to flag
erroneous data
Data analysis and
reporting
8.3.4.
Measurement accuracy and precision
Traceability to metrology standards
Temporal completeness
Spatial representivity and coverage
Consistency between sites and over time
International comparability, harmonization
Calculation of % data availability (missing data occurs due to power failure, instrument error, etc.)
Time sequence trend analysis – identify outliers
Stuck signal checks
Specification of ranges for bearing measurements, ambient temperature
Calculation of period averages: facilities comparison with air quality guidelines and standards and
dose-response thresholds
Summary statistics of data set: including calculation of maximums, means, medians and standard
deviations
Frequency of occurrence of exceeding threshold values (guidelines, standards, dose-response
thresholds, alarm thresholds)
Frequency distributions (including cumulative frequency distribution plotting) and calculation of
percentiles
Time series analysis to identify temporal trends in concentrations: (e.g. diurnal, inter-annual)
Overlaying of temporal trends for multiple pollutants: identify variations in ratios between different
pollutants, useful for source identification purposes
Isopleths plot generation through contouring of concentrations recorded at multiple stations:
assess spatial variations
Pollution rose generation: useful in determining likely location of sources in relation to monitoring
sites
Plotting of pollutant concentrations against meteorological parameters of importance in terms of
atmospheric dispersion / stagnation and pollution removal potentials, e.g. atmospheric stability,
wind speed, precipitation
Monitoring
Parallel to the establishment of the emission inventory a monitoring program needs to be
devised. A monitoring program is often the most developed part of an AQMP with the longest history
(Demerjian, 2000; Larssen, 1998 cited in Fenger et al., 1998: 299).
Monitoring emissions is
necessary to assess the air quality and the impacts of policy implementation and mitigating strategies
(Scorgie, 2001; Longhurst et al., 1996; Boubel et al., 1994). As part of the AQMP plan, monitoring
aims and objectives should be defined prior to any sites being selected or equipment being procured
(Scorgie, 2001; Sweeney et al., 1997; Longhurst et al., 1996).
The next important step would be the development of a monitoring network. The principal
requirement of sampling is to obtain a sample representative of the atmosphere at a particular place
and time that can be evaluated as a mass or volume concentration to determine (Sweeney et al., 1997):
a. Compliance with guidelines,
b. Health impacts on people in built up areas, and
c. Where the highest concentration occur.
For the Rustenburg region it is important to remember that each of the mines participating in
the study already has a monitoring network (described in Chapter 5), but that no coordinated network
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for the region exists. Because of the relative close proximity of the Smelters and all the particulate
emissions in the region (e.g. Smelters, tailings dams, roads, background emissions, domestic coal
burning), it is not always possible to assign results from a monitoring station to a specific mine.
Therefore, it would be better to devise a combined monitoring strategy for the Rustenburg region. In
order to achieve this, a common goal has to be defined over and above the interests of the individual
mining companies. The RAQMP will need to determine the objective of the monitoring network, and
according to that monitoring stations should be located. The existing monitoring provision of an
AQMP needs to be evaluated in the light of the aims of the new plan and should not dictate the form
of the plan although resource constraints may prohibit an enhanced level of monitoring (Longhurst et
al., 1996).
The following recommendations on where particulate pollution monitoring should be
undertaken were made by a study conducted on behalf of the RAQF in 2002 (Burger et. al., 2002):
a. On site at about 10m above ground,
b. On site at about 50m (depending on stack height) above ground,
c. Fence line monitoring, and
d. Ambient stations further away.
Multiple stations are required for the ambient monitoring due to the differences in
meteorological conditions that occur even within a relatively short distance (Burger et. al., 2002).
The mountainous area bordering the study region will have significant local impacts on the wind
direction and speeds that are not fixed and constantly varying (Burger et. al., 2002). Even long termaveraged data may show changes, thus it would be impossible to predict a “best” site location for all
weather conditions (Burger et. al., 2002). With the above in mind, it must be determined if the
existing stations adequately serve the monitoring requirements or if they should be moved to a new
location (Burger et. al., 2002).
The monitoring objectives applicable to Rustenburg include:
a. Determining the ambient air quality for compliance with air quality standards;
b. Evaluating the impact of a new air pollution source during the preconstruction phase;
c. Monitoring human exposure;
d. Researching atmospheric, chemical and physical processes;
e. Determining the maximum concentrations, background concentrations, and changes in air quality
over time (start during preconstruction). Not everyone agrees that the natural PM10 concentration
should be monitored and where the stations should be placed. There is a feeling that the air is
already so saturated, it would not help to measure the natural conditions because it is not
representative of the area; and
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f.
Determine air quality during maintenance, downtimes due to breakages, and other emergency
situations.
Included in Table 8.2 are the different aspects that need to be examined when devising a new
monitoring network and the sectors that need to be taken into account, such as how to establish the
monitoring network, locations, cost, and other sectors.
Table 8.2: Different aspects that should be considered for management of a monitoring
network for Rustenburg (Scorgie (2001); Demerjian (2000); Sweeney et al. (1997);
Boubel et al. (1994)).
1. Monitoring
2. Available
3. Legal
4. Available
5. Operational
6. Operational
7. Location, height,
objectives (project resources (Funds, requirements
technology
criteria
responsibility
duration of
specific, mine
manpower,
(Local, regional, (equipment,
(economic,
(Security, power
release, amount
specific, regional)
existing
national,
techniques)
social, legal,
supply)
of pollutant
Establishment of a
determined by
Monitoring
international)
costreleased
monitoring network
needs of data
facilities)
effectiveness)
users
Consider
tradable
pollution credits
1. Optimum number 2. Standardise type of sampling
3. Standardise
4. Choice of
5. Network
After the objectives of the study are
of monitoring sites methodology (Pollutant(s) to be
measurement
representative
performance &
defined, the following issues should be
measured; sampling duration;
requirements
locations
assessment must
considered
averaging period)
(Including visual
be evaluated
monitoring)
1. Must be situated in a generally open area 2. Samplers must not be mounted 3. Each sampler must be uniquely identified and careful records
Locations of
directly onto a surface
maintained (effective screening of data to detect and correct
individual sites
equipment faults or other problems)
1. The level and costs of after-sales
2. Ease of
3. Reliability
4. Results of type approval
Total cost of operating the instrument
support
operation
1. Auto-calibration 2. Sample
3. Chart recorders 4. Provision of meteorological data
Other factors to consider regarding the selection of
devices
manifold
infrastructural equipment
systems
1. Equipment and
2. Lubrication and 3. Planning and 4. A storeroom 5. Listing of
6. Costs and budgets 7. Storage of special
and inventory maintenance
record system with
cleaning schedules scheduling of
for operation and
tools and
Operation and
preventive
system for
equipment
personnel
maintenance
equipment
maintenance
maintenance
spare parts
information,
program
and supplies
warranties,
instruction manuals,
etc.
Important
1. Collection efficiency 2. Sample stability
characteristics for
all ambient airsampling systems
8.3.5.
3. Recovery
4. Minimal interference and an
5. Data produced are only as good as the
understanding of the mechanism
QA/QC system employed
of collection
Simulation modelling
Central to any AQMP is the ability to assess current and potential future air quality in order to
enable informed policy decisions to be made (Longhurst et al., 1996).
Current emissions and
monitoring data can be used to forecast future changes based upon a range of “what if?” scenarios
(Longhurst et al., 1996). Modelling has relatively high capital costs, requires technical staff, and must
be updated on a regular basis (Longhurst et al., 1996). Standardization of models and other guidelines
issued is important to ensure accuracy and comparability of model outputs in relation to an AQMP
(Longhurst et al., 1996). In the plan developed for Rustenburg, the following are considered to be
important:
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a. A consultant with knowledge of the local situation and previous work experience in the region
should be employed by the Rustenburg Air Quality Forum (RAQF) and made responsible for
modelling on behalf of the region. It is necessary to conduct modelling for the region as a whole,
because of the number of mining developments in the region. The cumulative impact has to be
modelled to ensure that future developments are planned more responsibly.
b. If any extra modelling is required by the individual companies the modelling should be
standardised and done according to collectively determined guidelines set for the region by the
APCO):
1. The modelling must apply to air quality and meteorological data, and
2. Short term as well as long-term modelling should take place on a regular basis (decided upon
by RAQF and the APCO). This modelling should relate to the deadlines set by the APCO for
new standards to be met (e.g. 2003, 2005 and 2008).
c.
Dispersion modelling can be used to
1. Assess the current / future exposure situation in order to make informed decisions;
2. Determine performance indicators (standards and guidelines that will be implemented);
3. Identify source-exposure relations;
4. Estimate the relative importance of various air pollutants;
5. “What if?” scenarios: the modelling should provide advance warning of possible problems,
and then contingency measures should be implemented to stop the forecast materializing by
modifying emissions in consultation with other managers. Such modelling can also be used to
test and improve contingency measures;
6. Calculate air quality when data are missing (develop an agreed procedure that is understood by
all and updated on a regular basis);
7. Determine the main impact zone (can be used in future to determine the proper position of the
monitoring stations).
8.3.6.
Performance indicators: standards, guidelines and legislation
Air quality management in its traditional form is entirely driven by the question “Is there an air
pollution problem?” (Seika & Metz, 1999). The decision whether there is, or not, is based on a
comparison between measurements and air quality standards (Seika & Metz, 1999). Standards should
form the basis of any AQMP and should reflect concentrations of chemical compounds in air that
would not pose any hazard to the human population (Seika & Metz, 1999). Governmental bodies,
through legislation, specify national air quality standards and goals and thereby form the foundation
for all other levels of legislation (WHO, 2000). The decentralisation of air quality management to
regions, local areas is necessary, especially in areas with a unique situation (Longhurst et al., 1996).
In recognition of the relatively lengthy timescale over which the plan will be implemented, the local
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decision maker would be advised to set local standards or targets that are at the leading edge of wider
scale policy recommendations for air quality standards and to make provision for standards revision
as the plan progresses (Longhurst et al., 1996). To initiate any quality standard setting process, it is
necessary to take into consideration (WHO, 2000; Seika & Metz, 1999; Longhurst et al., 1996):
a. General environmental trends, international trends and air quality management at other levels;
b. Basic principles (e.g. Agenda 21 – precautionary principle, polluter pays);
c. Technical, social, economic and political factors of the country or region for which it is meant;
d. Interconnected policies (e.g. development, transport, energy, planning and environment) must be
compatible, coordinate responses to an issue;
e. A standard usually only fits a certain part of the population, for the others it is either too low or
too high; and
f.
Guidelines and standards must be dynamic (new classes can be introduced) and must be reexamined on a regular basis according to international guidelines.
When developing standards it should be decided if the standards are to reflect the need to
protect human health and the environment, even if it is unlikely to be achieved in the short- to
medium-term with the resources available, or if it are to be set at realistically attainable levels (given
the prevailing conditions), even though it may not be consistent with the levels needed to fully protect
human health and the environment (WHO, 2000). Over time, air quality standards may also change
as conditions within a nation change (scientific relationship between air quality, the health of the
population and the quality of the environment becomes better understood) (WHO, 2000). There are
considerable differences between the “classic” air pollutants such as SO2, particulates and the “nonclassic” air pollutants and different approaches may be needed to develop standards for the two types
of air pollutants (WHO, 2000).
The “individual response” to a given concentration of air pollution varies considerably and air
quality standards can therefore only serve a certain part of the population (Seika & Metz, 1999). For
the remainder, the standards are either too low or too high and mean that the ‘one standard fits all’
strategy, essential to the traditional AQM process, should be regarded as a pragmatic approach rather
than an ideal one (Seika & Metz, 1999). As ambient levels are decreasing to a stage where present
standards are only rarely exceeded, the question arises of whether the traditional AQM process is
capable of delivering continuous long-term improvement (Seika & Metz, 1999). When ambient levels
fall below standard, there are usually two scenarios that are possible (Seika & Metz, 1999). The first
one would be to tighten the standard and thereby create a new “virtual” air quality problem, while the
second option would be to reduce the overall activity of the AQM process (Seika & Metz, 1999). As
both scenarios are not ideal, there is a growing demand for a more advanced version of air quality
management that (Seika & Metz, 1999):
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a. Considers the various routes of personal exposure (i.e. domestic activities, indoor and outdoor
concentrations, occupational exposure, refuelling, passive smoking);
b. Accounts for numerous possible individual combinations;
c. Considers the different individual responses to chemicals (e.g. child with pre-existing lung
diseases vs. a healthy adult); and
d. Allow for continuous improvement (i.e. the process should be able to cope with varying real
world concentrations such as steadily improving long-term air quality).
In reality, a limit value is usually not a distinction between good and bad and any illusion
should be avoided that it is possible to condense a very complex situation in reality down to a simple
figure without assumptions (Seika & Metz, 1999). Air quality standards are often a best estimate for
what could be a good and achievable target to aim for, which, depending on national circumstances
can differ significantly (Seika & Metz, 1999).
To implement proper standards (and not just guidelines) for the Rustenburg region, a
substantial amount of information is needed. It will be necessary to complete all the steps of the
RAQMP to get an idea of what proper standards will be for the region and how they should be
implemented. While the new Air Quality Bill has not yet become official legislation, internationally
recognised standards will have to be the main indicator and must be accepted by all mines in the
region. It is important that preliminary (interim) performance indicators with a realistic starting point
must be designed by the APCO. These interim measures must be reasonable enough to be attained by
the mines (Smelters) and still be satisfactory to the public (Interested and Affected Parties). Public
participation is essential to the process. After a worthwhile database is available (at least 2 years’
data), performance indicators for the region (as a whole) as well as the individual mines can be
designed which must include short, medium and long-term environmental targets. Threshold levels
must be revised on a regular basis (rapid response to a changing situation is needed). Multiple levels
of standards are needed; for example, limit values, target values, and alert thresholds. Air quality
standards must be flexible so that changes can be made as conditions change.
The strategy developed for the region will have to indicate the direction the region will go in, in
future (what standards must be achieved by when and how). The air quality standard setting process
for the Rustenburg region must include all aspects as discussed above, with the overall goal to achieve
mutually agreed goals and a shared vision for the region that will be beneficial to all the mines as well
as the public. From the public perspective, the perception is that the area already has too many
developments that cause particulate pollution (and all other pollution) and that all future developments
should be stopped, until the pollution is within reasonable limits. The mining companies feel that new
developments must still proceed, since it will be beneficial for them and bring economic growth to the
region. The mines further feel that the particulate pollution is under control with the installation of
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new control measures. Between the above two extremes a compromise needs to be found. An
assessment is therefore needed of how much development the region can tolerate (with and without
future plans included). If developments are already more than the region can tolerate, the strategy
(and therefore the standards) will focus more on reduction after which properly controlled
development must still be possible. If the region can tolerate more developments it will have to be
strictly controlled through suitable standards. Enforcement must be through each mine’s permit as
well as the Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR Chapter 6) in which a full AQMP
must be included.
8.3.7.
Planning: Financial management
The total cost of air quality management is of economic importance and as air pollution
management moves forward, economics can have a major role in reducing pollution (Boubel et al.,
1994; Roos, 1993). When considering remedial measures, it is important that their benefits and costs
are evaluated so that the preferred (optimum) air quality management measures can be identified
where a balance is achieved between the protection of human and environmental health, and the
imposition of unacceptable social and economic costs associated with remedial strategies (Mitchell et
al., 2000; Roos, 1993). Two opposing economic forces determine how air pollution should be
managed (Roos, 1993):
a. The cost of control: the higher the costs, the cleaner the air will be; and
b. The cost of air pollution damage: the dirtier the air the higher the costs to clean up.
A range of financial considerations is required in any AQMP (Table 8.3). For the Rustenburg
region, more emphasis needs to be placed on financial issues; a section of the RAQMP should focus
on the financial side of the management plans implemented. A Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is a
good example of a strategy that can be followed and should be combined with a prioritisation of
strategies. For the regional plan it should be determined what the best strategy would be to follow to
reduce particulate pollution and what would be the costs associated with it? The technical feasibility
of each option should be explored to ensure that the socio-economic impacts be limited to the
minimum. The different options considered should be included and explained, along with the option
chosen and the reduction of emission concentrations as a result of the implementation of the strategy.
A system should be devised which would make it possible to determine the exact reduction of
concentrations and the costs associated with it - often the mines cannot tell what amount of a new
development was spent on environmental measures.
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Table 8.3: Important financial aspects that should be considered in the RAQMP
A Cost-benefit analysis and prioritisation of strategies.
1. Source characteristics (percentage contribution, height of emission, exposure index).
2. Reduction of ambient concentrations as a result of implementation of each strategy.
3. Technical feasibility.
4. Socio-economic impacts (balance between human and environmental health and annoyance of
unacceptable social, economic costs of remedial strategies).
5. Identify environmental targets.
6. Examine short and long-term control measures.
B Following final evaluation of strategies, recommend the most cost-effective strategies (beneficial)
8.3.8.
Environmental management
The management of air quality needs to be investigated (and implemented) at various levels,
namely regional, municipal level and company specific. The various levels will be considered
separately in the following discussion.
a) Regional
An air pollution liaison committee needs to be established that will be responsible for the air
quality management of the mining industry in co-operation with the APCO. In the Rustenburg region
the Rustenburg Air Quality Forum (RAQF) is functioning. The RAQF (as structured in 2003) can
form the basis, but changes will have to be made to ensure the proper functioning:
1. Composition: Include all role players: mines (all mines in the area must be included, not only
those with a Smelter); governmental bodies (the APCO, DACE, DEAT, DME, Bojanala Platinum
District Municipality); NGO’s and Community Based Organisations (e.g. North West Ecoforum,
Luka Environmental Committee, Chaneng Conservation Club); any interested and affected parties
from the general public. For the plan to succeed all roleplayers will have to contribute actively in
the writing and implementation of the plan. This Forum must work more closely together with
the APCO. Both party’s role and responsibility must be clearly defined and legal responsibility
must be assigned to ensure that the decisions taken can be implemented.
2. Objectives: It is very important that the RAQF should define their objectives in relation to the
duties of the APCO. To create and maintain a quality of air that protects human health and
welfare, without constricting development would be a starting point. To achieve this, the current
mandate of monitoring and reporting will have to be expanded.
3. Functions would include:
i.
Development of an AQMP for the region,
ii.
Enforcement of the AQMP in close co-operation with the APCO, and
iii.
Development and approval of new projects beneficial to the region, which fit in with the
long-term strategy for air pollution control in the region.
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b) Municipal level: Integrated Development Planning (IDP)
Each municipal council must, within a prescribed period after the start of its elected term,
adopt a single, inclusive and strategic plan for the development of the municipality which
(Government Gazette, 2000):
1. Links, integrates and co-ordinates plans and takes into account proposals for the development of
the municipality;
2. Aligns the resources and capacity of the municipality with the implementation of the plan;
3. Forms the policy framework and general basis on which annual budgets must be based;
4. Complies with the provisions of Chapter 5 (Municipal Systems Act, 2001); and
5. Is compatible with national and provincial development plans and planning requirements binding
on the municipality in terms of legislation.
Within 14 days of the adoption of its IDP, each municipality must give notice to the public of
the adoption of the plan and publicise a summary of the plan, which reflects (Government Gazette,
2000):
1. The municipal council’s vision for the long term development of the municipality with special
emphasis on the municipality’s most critical development and internal transformation needs;
2. An assessment of the existing level of development in the municipality that must include an
identification of communities which do not have access to basic municipal services;
3. The council’s development priorities and objectives for its elected term, including its local
economic development aims and its internal transformation needs;
4. The council’s development strategies which must be aligned with any national or provincial
sectoral plans and planning requirements binding on the municipality in terms of legislation;
5. A spatial development framework which must include the provision of basic guidelines for a land
use management system for the municipality;
6. The council’s operational strategies;
7. Applicable disaster management plans;
8. A financial plan, which must include a budget projection for at least the next three years; and
9. Key performance indicators and performance targets.
The RAQF will have to examine the plans implemented in the IDP written for Bojanala
Platinum District Municipality to ensure that a common vision for the region is ensured. Closer cooperation between these two bodies is necessary with regular meetings and necessary information
exchanged.
c) Company specific
1.
Air Quality Management Plan
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It is necessary for the environmental departments of each of the mines in the region to design
an AQMP that will link up with the RAQMP. The plan should focus on managing pollution problems
(particulate and others) in the specific mine and should further be to the benefit of the region as a
whole. The plan should be made available to all employees and included in training.
The various
Environmental departments should formulate specific goals (short- and long term) and it should be
made known if the goals were achieved or not and the reasons why (Table 8.4). An Environmental
report should be published on an annual basis that contains all the necessary information (e.g.
summary of AQMP, goals, current activities, emission data, new projects, problems experienced and
how they were resolved, explanation of technology used).
Table 8.4: Example of targets set for Anglo Platinum for 2000 (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
Goal
Training and awareness
Legal registers
Eco-efficiency indicators
Environmental
management system
Improve internal reporting
Improve incident
reporting
Improve waste
management
Proper storm water
management
Pro-active air quality
monitoring
Ongoing performance
assessment
Objective
Make all employees aware
of environmental issues
Ensure legal compliance
Formulate a list of
indicators
Formulate a management
system
Formulate communication
channels
Ensure that all incidents
are reported efficiently
Initiate the proper
management of waste
Improve storm water
control
Incorporate real-time
monitoring
Performance assessments
for continual improvement
Target
Incorporate environmental issues
into induction training
Formulate an environmental legal
register
Identify Eco-efficiency indicators
Target met / not met
Target met
Implement document control as a
basis for a good management
system
Clearly define all reporting structures
Target not met (50%)
Formulate definite procedures and
formats on incident reporting
Formulate acceptable waste
management strategy
Upgrade the existing storm water
structure
Install air quality modelling software
Formulate an assessment structure
for continuous improvement
Target met
Target met
Target met
Target met
Target not met (50%)
Target met
Target met
Target not met (50%)
An Industry’s Environmental department’s structure may not appear to be an important issue,
but it can have a definite effect on the effective implementation of the AQMP if the department
mainly responsible for implementing the plan is not operating efficiently. An evaluation of the
departments is needed to ensure that enough people are available and properly qualified to create and
implement the AQMP. Closer co-operation is further needed with the department responsible for
Occupational Hygiene to ensure that problems can be efficiently solved. In addition, communication
between individuals in the departments must be improved (e.g. employees in one department have
different explanations for procedures, calculations, why something is done, etc).
Employees
responsible for air quality management needs to be trained in environmental management and have a
basic understanding of engineering in order to ensure effective decision making.
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8.3.9.
Public participation (Air Quality Information System - AQIS)
The success of many industries, particularly those of the primary sector, depends largely upon
the contribution and input from stakeholder parties, and the cooperation of surrounding communities
(Hilson & Murck, 2000).
An industry usually goes through three stages before realising the
importance of the public’s participation (Gerrans, 1993). The first of these stages, which is usually an
unmitigated disaster, is the “Stonewall Stage” where industry refuses to talk to the public on the basis
that there is general ignorance and that the media and environmental activists are orchestrating the
campaign against industry (Gerrans, 1993). In the “Missionary Stage” an attempt is made to educate
the public and to emphasize the benefits that had been brought (Gerrans, 1993). Though well
intentioned, it still has little success (Gerrans, 1993). Simply telling people seldom works; a more
ambitious approach, which involves the public directly, is called for (Gerrans, 1993).
The “Dialogue Stage” involves listening to what people have to say about their fears, what
offends them, and what they think should be done to bring about improvements (Gerrans, 1993). In
this third stage, image projection, and consultation are replaced by negotiation and the needs of
Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) are accounted for through appropriate corporate policies
(Hilson & Murck, 2000; Gerrans, 1993). When mining, a number of cultural, aesthetic and natural
resources critical to the well being of a society can be negatively impacted, and then it is crucial that
the needs of these parties are addressed from the outset (Hilson & Murck, 2000).
If mine
management is socially active with all I&APs from the exploration to the closure stage, a mine
community and external stakeholder parties are more likely to accommodate operations (Hilson &
Murck, 2000).
The public should be informed in accessible ways of the development of the AQMP, its success
(or failure) in improving air quality and how to complain about air quality (Longhurst et al., 1996).
The public must receive effective information which allows them to make an informed judgment of
the air quality situation and thereby make personal decisions about undertaking certain activities and
actions and further help them to become involved in identifying problems and implementing solutions
(Figure 8.2) (Longhurst et al., 1996).
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Background Data
Air
Noise
Water
Soil
Vegetation
Data Transfer
Data Collecting
Emission Module
Presentation:
Database
Models
Graphics
GIS
Users
Decisions
Figure 8.2: A principal structure of a modern environmental surveillance and information
system (Larssen, 1998, cited in Fenger et al., 1998:315).
An information centre in Rustenburg (funded and coordinated by the RAQF) must be
established that consists of the following sections:
a) Supplying information (hard copies and electronic transfers)
1.
Measurements (inside the Smelter, around the Smelter, ambient monitoring) must be
automatically and continuously transferred from each mine to a website on the Internet which
can be accessed by all interested and affected parties (I&APs).
Access to data must be
immediate and open.
2.
Automatically created daily reports containing information from all three Smelters.
3.
Copies of monthly reports send to the APCO along with the comparative data of the previous
month and previous year.
4.
Information must be supplemented by graphs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS),
packaged analysis, visual display of routine information (summary) in public places (e.g.
Library, Waterfall Mall), presentations (public meetings, community liaison meetings). Other
information that should be included is maximum concentrations, population exposure, source
impacts, background concentrations, and changes in air quality over time. The information
must be in a format that is easy understandable for the general public as well as technical
specialists.
5.
Poor air quality alert: the public must be made aware of Smelter downtimes, when maintenance
is planned and unforeseen problems through the Internet, email, SMS, and public notices in
communities.
6.
Information must be displayed about new projects planned, progress, commissioning dates, etc.
b) Complaints, comments, suggestions and questions
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1. A call centre (hotline) should be established that could be phoned to report problems, make
comments and suggestions, according to a formalised procedure (all complaints must be recorded
using the same format). The numbers of the information centre (telephone, email, fax) must be
widely advertised and available 24 hours a day. It is further important that the public must be
informed exactly how to lodge a complaint or suggestion. Feedback need to be timely and
effective; if no answer is available, the person complaining must still be phoned back and a reason
must be supplied.
2. In formalising the external lines of communication, community liaison protocols must be
established which take into account:
i.
The driving force must be the customer (public);
ii.
Public can be involved in identifying problems, setting goals, deciding whether exposure
levels are acceptable or not and implementing solutions;
iii.
Involvement of the public can be at different levels; a combination of measures must be
appropriate for local circumstances; and
iv.
Special care must be taken to ensure that local communities are included in the process and
that all the important information reaches them efficiently and effectively (e.g. language
barriers, lack of understanding of technical issues, poor infrastructure and problems with
travel must be provided for).
c) Research and education
1. Research about issues that have a direct influence on the public and environment and apply to the
region as a whole must be initiated from this centre (use can be made of post-graduate students
from Universities as well as consultants that have worked in the region on a regular basis). The
public must be educated about the basic issues of particulate pollution (the causes, management
and control measures) through workshops, short courses, and newsletters. By educating the
public a more constructive discussion about the future of the region can be initiated.
8.3.10. Health
Another basic issue that must constantly be taken into consideration in the RAQMP is the
health impacts of the pollution on the public. Air quality management could be expected to improve
the public health in the area where it is applied (Seika & Metz, 1999). Although the correlation
between health problems and particulate pollution is difficult to prove, certain basic steps need to be
taken in the Rustenburg region, especially since complaints have been received by the public and no
studies are available for the region. Health studies can be divided into (Mitchell et al., 2000):
a. Exposure-response relationships (mostly epidemiological studies)
b. Disease-burden estimation method (relies on the assumption that the exposure data conform to a
predictable distribution) which consists of:
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1. Identification of pollutants with health effects, and their concentration in the ambient air;
2. Assessment of the likely exposure of relevant populations of these levels;
3. Definition of a pollutant exposure-population response relationship that describes the health
effects arising from changes in air quality; and
4. Application of the pollutant concentration values and exposure-response relationship to the
relevant population to quantify an overall health effect.
In order to estimate the disease burden associated with particulates, an exposure-response
relationship is required (Mitchell et al., 2000).
Numerous epidemiological studies have been
conducted in an attempt to identify such relationships (Mitchell et al., 2000). Other methods that can
be used include (Ayres, 1997):
a. Challenging patients or normal subjects with individual pollutants or combinations of pollutants
in defined exposures for specified times,
b. Animal work can help define mechanistic aspects of the health effects of air pollutants,
c. In-vitro work of isolated cell cultures or lavage fluid obtained from the nose or the lung, and
d. Computer modelling for personal exposures to specified pollutants, which can be extremely
difficult to measure directly.
The Rustenburg region requires a baseline assessment to determine if pollution associated with
mining activities (SO2 and particulates) really is responsible for health problems in the region. The
sensitive part of the population (e.g. people living in close proximity to a Smelter, the very old and
very young, people who already has health problems that are exacerbated by particulate pollution)
needs to be evaluated first. If evidence is found of pollution related diseases, the study needs to be
expanded and continued over a number of years. Information can be obtained from mines, hospitals
and medical practitioners as well as portable monitors and questionnaires. Health warnings should be
given to the public (linked to standards and guidelines). Further, it is important to remember that:
a. There are various routes of exposure with possible individual combinations (many variables),
b. People have different responses to emissions and these must be investigated,
c. There will have to be a trade-off between development and the health effects it causes, and
d. The role of air pollution in initiating disease and exacerbating disease needs to be clarified.
A problem regarding particulate pollution is that particulates smaller than 10 µg (PM10) might
not be the measurement most representative of the fraction of the ambient aerosol that is responsible
for its harmful effects on health9. Evidence has accumulated that this toxicity may lie in a finer
fraction, perhaps below PM2.59.
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8.3.11. Control: Implementation and enforcement
Air quality control measures are an important component of management practice and although
many and varied, legally binding emission limits and land-use planning remain dominant (Mitchell et
al., 2000; WHO, 2000; Anon, 1997).
The most powerful and cost-effective air quality management options occur during the
planning stages of a new facility, whereas options involving changes in existing production processes
or pollution control technology are more limited in scope (WHO, 2000). Planning options involve
careful site selection to maximize dispersion, and location of the proposed facility away from
sensitive receptors, such as residential areas or areas of natural or commercial sensitivity (WHO,
2000). While land-use planning can make relatively little contribution to immediate improvements in
air quality, over a longer term the development planning system is central to policies (Mitchell et al.,
2000; Annegarn & Scorgie, 1997). Landuse planning is needed for future developments planned for
the region. For Rustenburg a detailed map showing the location of all the current activities (as well as
new developments planned) must be linked to the emission inventory (section 8.3.2). Overlays are
needed of residential areas (including informal settlements), vegetation, farms as well as future town
planning.
Three steps are necessary for designing a control structure that will be suitable for Rustenburg (Table
8.5). The evaluation of control options must take into account technical, financial, social, health and
environmental factors, as well as the promptness with which they can be implemented and how
practical it is (WHO, 2000).
8.3.11.1 Air quality alert (poor air quality)
A distinct short-term component of an overall AQMP is the establishment of a set of
procedures and well developed lines of communications to deal with the occasional acute occurrence
of very poor air quality (Table 8.6) (Longhurst et al., 1996). An incremental response (alert system)
to a developing problem should be activated by a number of threshold concentrations through a
procedure that sets out the nature and priority of responses (Longhurst et al., 1996). The air quality
and meteorological monitoring of routine management will, it is assumed, provide advance warning
of the likelihood of an adverse pollution episode (Longhurst et al., 1996). The response of the air
quality manager must be an attempt to stop the forecast materializing by modifying emissions of air
pollutants both within the local area and over a wider scale by cooperation with other air quality
managers (Longhurst et al., 1996). Should this fail, attempts could be made to minimize the peak
concentration and the duration of poor air quality by progressively more stringent (previously agreed)
restrictions on emissions (Longhurst et al., 1996). Simultaneously, a series of health warnings must
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be issued to provide general advice to the public at large as well as advising sensitive individuals of
actions to take to minimize their personal risk (Longhurst et al., 1996).
Table 8.5: The three aspects of control required in the RAQMP.
1.
A.
Proposals &
Assessment
B.
Policy
Implementation
C.
Evaluation
(Auditing)
Decide if there is a problem: compare measurements and standards (best estimate for what could be a good and
achievable target to aim for)
2. Evaluate the technology used - position, type, efficiency (more than 99%), availability (100%). The new technology
discussed in Chapter 6 will impact positive on the region, but there is still old technology in use that is a really big
problem.
3. List and describe strategies considered (change from source-based to receiving environment approach). To
determine strategies integrated planning and management of all sources is needed. The role and control ability of air
quality managers must be described.
4. Investigate short and long term control strategies and evaluations. Indicate the effect of future emissions from growth
and development on ambient air quality and demonstrate how compliance will be maintained.
5. Additional structure (and source)-specific objectives must be designed (e.g. use of best available technology; tradeoffs within company; non-compliance penalties)
6. Plan the production processes (nature and priority of procedures to be carried out must be decided). Explain the
implementation of each measure.
7. Emission quota stipulation must be included. Targets may not be achievable because of the background
concentrations.
8. Control efficiency must be measured / proof. This is not always possible; it is easier to calculate it. Decide on the
efficiency and work backwards what is necessary to get to that efficiency.
9. Develop an air quality alert, which can assess the situation and choose the appropriate responses. Source-specific
contingency measures may have to be included, but they need only be implemented should the recommended
control strategies not be successful in achieving and maintaining compliance within a required time period. Must
decide at which threshold concentration the alert system must be triggered.
10. Standardization of procedures is important to ensure accuracy and comparability. All decisions must be practical and
able to implement. It must be able to reduce the emissions and better the situation, but still be reasonable enough so
that the mines can implement it.
1. Enforce emission and reduction control
2. Continued enforcement if achieved (continuous improvement needed)
3. Emission control tactics must be revised if air quality standards are not achieved. Different responses can be
followed:
Emission reduction by direct prevention
Altering spatial distribution
Provision of less polluting alternatives (e.g. area in Smelter must be cemented, hosed down, vacuum cleaned on a
regular basis, look at vegetation options, make sure all pipes are closed, enough fans are installed, precipitators,
ceramic filters)
1. Ongoing assessment of progresses (against performance indicators) and efficiency of pollution abatement.
2. Internal inspections and external auditing protocols
Table 8.6: Important factors that should be included in an air quality alert (Longhurst et al,
(1996)).
Possible response strategies
Emission reduction by direct prevention of emissions
Altering the spatial distribution of emissions away from the worst
affected areas through the modification of polluting activities
Reducing emissions through the provision of less polluting
alternatives
On-site emergency plan that can be viewed
by all (include an estimation of):
Total result in case of explosion
Effects of thermal radiation in case of fire
Concentration effects of toxic releases
Potential effect of major incident on public
Suitability of on site emergency plan
8.3.12 Reporting and evaluation
Reporting constitutes the final section of the RAQMP and is responsible for evaluating
the success or failure of the plan (targets met or not met) and communicating it:
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a. Internally
1.
The creation of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly reports with relevant information (e.g.
graphs, comparison to previous data, reasons for compliance failure, indicate downtimes
and reasons). Data must be available in mg.m-3, mg.Nm-3 as well as t.month-1 to make
comparisons easier. All conversion factors, calculations must be explained in a written
procedure (must be available, kept updated at all times).
2.
Data spreadsheets must be updated on a regular basis.
3.
Reports must be circulated not only to management, but also be easy accessible to all
personnel (e.g. through the Intranet, displayed within Smelter area).
b. Externally: Interested and Affected Parties
1. Reporting to the Interested and Affected parties (I&APs) and how it should be handled has
been discussed in detail under Section 8.3.9.
c. Externally: Regulatory authorities (APCO, RAQF)
1. All emissions monitored must be reported to the APCO on a monthly basis,
2. Reasons for each instance of non-compliance must be supplied,
3. The information (and the format thereof) reported by all three mines must be standardised,
and
4. Major incidents must be reported, and described in terms of:
i. Estimated probability,
ii. Potential effects on public, and
iii. Events that took place.
After the initial implementation of the RAQMP, an ongoing process is needed to ensure
the constant evaluation and updating of the plan (Table 8.7). If the objectives set for each
section are met, enforcement must continue, but if the objectives are not met re-evaluation is
needed (Figure 8.1).
Table 8.7: Elements that must be included in an environmental system (Lonmin Platinum,
(2001b)).
Before implementation
Implementation and
operational phases
Structure and
responsibility
Procedure applicable
Legal and other requirements
Training, awareness and
competence
Procedure for environmental training
Objectives and targets
Communication
Formal internal communication:
Procedure for SHE forums
Environmental aspects
Procedure for environmental roles,
responsibilities and authorities
Effective operation is
maintained through
Monitoring and
measurement
Non-conformance and
corrective and preventive
action
Environmental project programs
to achieve environmental targets
must be launched and managed
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8.4 Closing
From discussions in Chapter 5 and 6 it is evident that particulate emissions are a significant
problem in the Rustenburg region and has only recently (in the last three years) received the deserved
attention. A number of issues still require clarification before any real progress can be made to reduce
levels of particulate emissions9:
a. How do PM10 levels vary across the Rustenburg area?
b. What is the natural background pollution level?
c. How much of the particulate pollution can be controlled?
d. How long will it take to reduce levels of particulate pollution?
e. To what level do emissions need to be reduced to protect human health? and
f.
Should new developments be discouraged until all questions are answered and/or emissions have
been reduced to within acceptable levels?
These questions can only be answered through the implementation of the AQMP as described
in Chapter 8. The success of the plan and the future of the region would depend on the support and
co-operation received from all the roleplayers in the Rustenburg region.
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Chapter 9
Concluding remarks
The economy of the North West Province is relatively small (4.9% contribution to the
national Gross Domestic Product) with the main contributor being the mining (predominantly gold
and Platinum) and agricultural sectors (NW DACE, 2002). This study has shown the importance of
the Platinum industry for North West province as well as the Rustenburg region in helping to alleviate
poverty through providing work to a considerable number of people (NW DACE, 2002). Platinum
mining will, however, always be contentious as it impacts on human emotions and raise issues that
cannot be easily answered. Platinum mining especially in the Rustenburg region has a negative
impact through (NW DACE, 2002):
a. Degradation of soil, vegetation and water resources;
b. Air, water and soil pollution from mine drainage and industrial emissions;
c. Over-utilisation of natural resources such as water, soil and vegetation, and
d. Overcrowding, leading to the spread of communicable diseases and epidemics.
Air pollution, and specifically for this study particulate pollution, cannot be allowed to
continue uncontrolled because the impact on the environment and humans is significant. Particulates
and SO2, both of which are dominant pollutants in the Rustenburg area, are documented to act
synergistically in adversely affecting human health (Harrison, 1990 cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000:
3-7; Harrison, 1990 cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000b: 5; Egenes, 1999). Particulates act as a carrier
taking SO2 to the lower parts of the respiratory system, which it would not reach alone due to
adsorption on the walls of the upper respiratory tract (Burger & Scorgie, 2000b). In the Rustenburg
region it is especially important to find a balance between development on the one hand and pollution
prevention on the other hand, although it involves a number of difficult questions (Ross, 1972):
a. How does one measure the value of an improved quality of life?
b. What trade-offs are individuals in specific areas willing to make?
c. How safe is safe?
d. How to attain acceptable levels of air pollution at minimum public and private expense,
e. What are the acceptable levels of air pollution?
f.
How do the air pollution hazards compare with the risks to which we voluntarily expose ourselves
each day?
Since 2000 there have been attempts by the mining industry in Rustenburg to control particulate
pollution. Awareness of the problem increased and vast amounts of money were spent on upgrading
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control measures and developing management practices to limit the amount of particulates emitted
from the Smelters. Despite all these efforts, a number of problems still exist that hampers the efforts:
a. Technology: Problems were experienced with the slow commissioning of new technology
as well as the inefficiency of the technology already in place to minimise the amount of
particulates emitted. Problems further exist with the monitoring equipment which means
that the data available for the region are inadequate.
b. Legislation: Outdated South African legislation along with limited powers of the Air
Pollution Control Officer responsible for the region has lead to a situation where the
mining companies did not experience any pressure to improve on their performance.
Lack of proper data makes it further impossible to enforce registration permit conditions.
c. Management practices: Proper environmental management practices are not in place or
updated on a regular basis. A further problem is that Smelter management does not take
environmental management seriously enough and often the policies set by top
management (head office) are not enforced at ground level in a Smelter. To control
particulate pollution effectively, it may sometimes be necessary to cut back on production
- very difficult for an industry that is profit driven in very favourable economic
conditions.
d. Interaction with the public: From the side of the mines, the thinking is that the particulates have
no real effect (it is only visible pollution) and only because it can be seen do people assume that it
causes a problem. The view from the side of the public is that all sinus / asthma problems are a
result of the mining activities. Only proper communication between the two parties will lead to a
situation of increasing trust where a solution may be found that is acceptable for both parties.
e. Competitiveness: A very high Platinum price along with a favourable exchange rate has
created a highly competitive situation. Vast quantities of Platinum are mined by three
companies in a relatively small area; therefore the smallest advantage one company have
over another can have a significant impact in the profits made. Equipment and processes
used along with management practices are all kept confidential and joint projects
regarding environmental matters are not really regarded as an option.
For the region to move forward (continued profitable mining without loss of life) a solution
will have to be found where all the mining companies can work together to solve air pollution
problems in the region. An important step in this process would be the creation and implementation
of a regional Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP). There is some movement in the direction of a
regional plan, but not all mines agree on this.
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For the purpose of this study an AQMP has been devised for the Rustenburg region
(RAQMP). The plan consists of 12 sections which focus on all the important aspects that need to be
addressed to ensure that particulate pollution (and pollution in general) is properly controlled and
minimized. Theoretical knowledge is included which is characteristic of management plans designed
for similar circumstances worldwide as well as practical solutions to problems experienced inside all
three the Smelters and for the region as a whole. The Plan is flexible and will change over time as
implementation has started.
To be sustainable, mine management must not use environmental legislation as the
only guidance but be proactive in their environmental management; they are required to
perform beyond regulatory demands and integrate a number of environmental management
tools into operations (Hilson & Murck, 2000). Further, because regulatory frameworks vary
significantly throughout the world, performing in line with legislation does not necessarily
translate into sound environmental practice (Hilson & Murck, 2000).
Sustainable
development in the corporate mining context, therefore, calls for a company to use best
practices when addressing important environmental and socio-economic issues (Hilson &
Murck, 2000).
Another essential element of sustainable development is extended
socioeconomic responsibility, which requires industrial operations to address the needs of all
stakeholder groups throughout the various stages of operation (Hilson & Murck, 2000).
There is now a growing expectation for corporations to operate in accordance with
community groups that are potentially affected by industrial operations, and to address the
needs of stakeholder parties when devising corporate policies (Hilson & Murck, 2000).
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Notes
1.
Information obtained from Mr. C.W de Bruyn, Chairman: North West Ecoforum, Rustenburg
on 23 July 2001, 15 December 2002.
2.
Information obtained from Mrs. S.S Mulder, Senior Environmental Officer, Impala Platinum,
Rustenburg on 31 July 2001, 12 December 2001, 27 May 2002.
3.
Information obtained from Miss T. Fakir, Assistant Environmental Officer: Smelter, Lonmin
Platinum, Marikana on 3 August 2001, 3 December 2001, 13 May 2002.
4.
Information obtained from Mr. W.M. Knoetze, Senior Environmental Officer, Lonmin
Platinum, Marikana on 10 August 2001.
5.
Information obtained from Mr. J. Malan, Chief Environmental Officer, Anglo Platinum:
Waterval Smelter, Kroondal on 20 August 2001, 19 June 2002.
6.
Information obtained from Mr. J. Coetzee, Assistant Environmental Officer, Anglo Platinum:
Waterval Smelter, Kroondal on 20 August 2001.
7.
Information obtained from Mr. C.J. Badenhorst, Divisional Occupational Hygienist (Process),
Anglo Platinum, Kroondal on 20 August 2001.
8.
Information obtained from Mr. W. Bryszewski, Air Pollution Control Officer: North West
Province, email correspondence on 9 May 2002.
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9.
Information obtained from Mrs. Y. Scorgie, Matrix Environmental Consultants, Information
meeting for public of Rustenburg, Rustenburg Platinum Mine Sports and Recreational Club on
23 May 2002.
10.
Information obtained from Mr. S. Manyaka, Director: Golder Associates Africa, Pretoria on 27
November 2002.
11.
Information obtained from Mr. A. Botha, Senior Operations Ventilation Officer, Impala
Platinum, Rustenburg on 13 January 2003.
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Appendix A
Other pollutants
A.1 Sulphur dioxide
SO2 normally does not penetrate beyond the upp. er airways (Bridgman, 1990).
High
concentrations only cause death in cases of previous respiratory disease, such as emphysema, and
generally affect older people more seriously than younger people in good physical condition (Ross,
1972). At concentrations below 20 pp. m, only acute effects are experienced (Wark & Warner, 1981).
Bronchi constriction in healthy people is likely at concentrations from 1000 to 2000 pp. b, with a
lower threshold for sensitive persons and small children between 500 and 750 pp. b (Egenes, 1999).
The impact of SO2 on human health related to various dosages is summed up in Table A.1.
Table A.1:
Symptoms in humans related to various dosages of SO2 (WHO (2000) cited in
Burger & Scorgie (2000a; 3-12); Burger & Scorgie (2000b))
Symptoms
Lung edema; bronchial inflammation
Eye irritation; coughing in healthy adults
Decreased mucociliary activity
Bronchospasm
Throat irritation in healthy adults
Increased airway resistance in healthy adults at rest
The maximum allowable concentration in which it is considered possible for a
healthy human being to work for eight hours
The gas has a pungent, irritating odour
Increased airway resistance in asthmatics at rest and in healthy adults at
exercise
Increased airway resistance in asthmatics at exercise
Odour threshold
Aggravation of chronic respiratory disease in adults
Excess mortality may be expected among the elderly and people suffering
from respiratory illnesses
Aggravation of chronic respiratory disease in children
Lowest levels at which adverse health effects noted
(1)
Occurs in the presence of high concentrations of particulate matter
Concentrations
(pp. m)
400
20
14
10
8
5
5
3
1
Duration
of
exposure
1 hour
10 minutes
10 minutes
10 minutes
0.5
0.5
0.19
0.18
10 minutes
0.07
0.07
Annual (1)
24 hours
24 hours
24 hours
A.2 Carbon monoxide
A high concentration is considered anything more than 750 pp. m (Wark & Warner, 1981).
Sources are regarded as cigarette smoking, automobile exhaust, fossil fuel combustion, and other
types of domestic heating (Ross, 1972). It can have the following effects on a person’s health (Strauss
& Mainwaring, 1984):
a. Heart disease,
b. Heart function has been shown to be altered,
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c. Blocks the transport of oxygen in the bloodstream, and
d. Can cause physiological and pathological changes and ultimately death.
A.3 Oxides of Nitrogen
Nitric oxide (NO) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) causes the biggest health problems (Wark &
Warner, 1981). Sources include internal combustion engines, gas turbines, oil-fired-, coal fired
furnaces and incinerators (Bagg, 1971). NO2 is only potentially irritating and potentially related to
chronic pulmonary fibrosis (Bridgman, 1990). Adverse effects due to acute NO2 exposure, such as
pulmonary edema, usually do not show up until many hours after the exposure has ended (Burger &
Scorgie, 2000a). Symptoms related to various doses of NO2 are outlined in Table A.2 (Burger &
Scorgie, 2000a). At the lowest NO2 exposure levels (0.5 pp. m) at which adverse health effects have
been detected, pathological changes have been found to include the destruction of cilia, alveolar tissue
disruption and the obstruction of the respiratory bronchioles (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). NOx are
responsible, together with SO2, for acid rain and contribute indirectly to photosmog and the
greenhouse effect (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1965 cited in Wark &
Warner, 1981: 156).
Table A.2: Symptoms related to various dosages of NO2 (Lutz (2000); Egenes (1999); Harrison
(1990) Strauss & Mainwaring (1984); Wark & Warner (1981); Ross (1972); Bagg
(1971); Strauss, 1971 (cited in Burger & Scorgie, 2000: 3-17); American Association for
the Advancement of Science (1965 cited in Wark & Warner, 1981))
Symptoms
Rapid death
Death after 2-3 weeks by bronchiolitis fibrosa obliterans
Reversible, nonfatal bronchiolitis
Impairment of ability to detect odour of NO2
Impairment of normal transport of gases between blood and lungs in
healthy adults
Increased airway resistance in healthy adults
Increased airway resistance in bronchitis
Odour perception threshold of nitrogen dioxide
Concentrations (pp.
m)
300
150
50
10
5
Duration of
exposure
15 minutes
2.5
1.0
0.12
2 hours
15 minutes
-
A.4 Hydrocarbons
To date, the effects of ambient air concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons have not
demonstrated direct adverse effects upon human health (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984). Hydrocarbons
can have some adverse effects on health, but it is difficult to generalize their effect on the human body
(Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984). Some affect the operation of certain body organs when indigested in
very small quantities while others have a relatively high threshold level (Strauss & Mainwaring,
1984).
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Appendix B
Photo’s and Maps
Figure 4.1:
Bushveld Igneous Complex (Steyn, 2000).
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Figure 4.2:
General locality plan of the Rustenburg region (Pulles et al., 2001).
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Figure 4.3:
Population distribution in the Rustenburg area (Pulles et al., 2001).
Figure 4.3:
Population distribution in the Rustenburg area (Pulles et al., 2001).
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Figure 4.4:
Landuse distribution (Pulles et al., 2001).
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Figure 4.5:
Magaliesberg mountain range partially surrounding Rustenburg area (North
West Ecoforum, 2002).
Figure 4.6:
Magaliesberg mountain range partially surrounding Rustenburg area (North
West Ecoforum, 2002).
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Figure 4.7:
Location of industries (Pulles et al., 2001).
Figure 4.8:
An example of point emissions (North West Ecoforum, 2002).
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Figure 4.9: An example of an area source (tailings dam) (North West Ecoforum, 2002).
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Figure 4.10:
Location of tarred and untarred roads (Pulles et al., 2001).
Figure 4.11:
An example of burning tyres (North West Ecoforum, 2002).
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Figure 4.12:
An example of burning tyres (North West Ecoforum, 2002).
Figure 4.13:
Example of Smelter emissions (black part of cloud is particulate emissions)
(North West Ecoforum, 2002).
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Figure 4.14:
Example of Smelter emissions (North West Ecoforum, 2002).
Figure 4.15:
Example of Smelter emissions (North West Ecoforum, 2002).
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Figure 4.16:
Example of Smelter emissions (North West Ecoforum, 2002).
Figure 4:17
An example of particulate emissions inside a Smelter (furnace and converter
building) (Impala Platinum, 2001c)
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Figure 5.1:
Waterval Smelter and its surrounding area (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
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ANGLO PLATINUM
GAS, DUST&
WATER VAPOUR
DRYER
STACK
CYCLONES AND
BAGHOUSE
CONCENTRATE
TAILS TO
TAILINGS DAM
FLASH
DRYERS
RECOVERED
CONCENTRATE
“BONE DRY”
CONCENTRATE
SUBMERGED
ARC FURNACE
SLAG PLANT
M A T E R IA L F L O W
RECOVERED
FLUE DUST
bypass
W A S T E P R O D U C T / E M IS S IO N
FURNACE OFF-GAS
FURNACE
MATTE
CERAMIC
FILTERS
PIERCE SMITH
CONVERTERS
CONVERTER
OFF-GAS
CONVERTER
MATTE
ACID PLANT
SULPHURIC ACID
FURNACE
SLAG
P R O C E S S IN G E Q U IP M E N T
P O L L U T IO N A B A T E M E N T E Q U IP M E N T
F IN A L P R O D U C T S
CONVERTER
SLAG
MAIN
STACK
ACID PLANT
STACK
BASE METALS
REFINERY
Figure 5.2: Schematic illustration of the Anglo Platinum smelter operations (Pulles et al., 2001).
Figure 5.3
Example of a Furnace (Impala Platinum, 2001c).
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Figure 5.11: General locality plan for the Impala Platinum mine lease area (Pulles et al., 2000).
CONCENTRATE
TAILS TO
TAILINGS DAM
WOOD CHIPS
DRYER
STACK
GAS, DUST &
WATER VAPOUR
THICKENER
ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATORS
SPRAY
DRYER
RECOVERED
CONCENTRATE
“BONE DRY”
CONCENTRATE
SLAG PLANT
SUBMERGED
ARC FURNACE
MATERIAL FLOW
RECOVERED
FLUE DUST
WASTE PRODUCT / EMISSION
FURNACE OFF-GAS
FURNACE
MATTE
ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATORS
PIERCE SMITH
CONVERTERS
CONVERTER
OFF-GAS
CONVERTER
MATTE
FURNACE
SLAG
PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
POLLUTION ABATEMENT EQUIPMENT
MAIN
STACK
ACID PLANT
STACK
WEAK
ACID
PLANT
FINAL PRODUCTS
CONVERTER
SLAG
SCRUBBER
SPRINGS REFINERY
ACID PLANT
SULPHURIC ACID
Figure 5.12: Smelter Plant flow diagram for the Impala Platinum Smelter (Pulles et al., 2001).
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Figure 5.13
Example of a Furnace (Impala Platinum, 2001c).
Figure 5.14
Example of a Converter (Impala Platinum, 2001c).
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CONCENTRATE
LONMINPLATINUM
GAS, DUST &
WATER VAPOUR
DRYER
STACK
TAILS TO
TAILINGS DAM
CYCLONES AND
BAGHOUSE
FLASH
DRYER
RECOVERED
CONCENTRATE
“BONE DRY”
CONCENTRATE
1X SUBMERGED ARC FURNACE
5XCIRCULAR FURNACES
SLAGPLANT
M ATERIAL FLOW
RECOVERED
FLUE DUST
bypass
W ASTE PRO DUCT / EM ISSIO N
FURNACE OFF-GAS
FURNACE
MATTE
ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATORS
PIERCESMITH
CONVERTERS
CONVERTER
OFF-GAS
CONVERTER
MATTE
FURNACE
SLAG
PRO CESSING EQUIPM ENT
PO LLUTION ABATEM ENT EQUIPM ENT
FINAL PRODUCTS
CONVERTER
SLAG
MAIN
STACK
SULPHURIC ACID
BASE METALS
REFINERY
Figure 5.19: Schematic illustration of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter operations (Pulles et al.,
2000).
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Appendix C
Existing air quality management plans for atmospheric
Pollution control for the Rustenburg region
Identify significant sources of atmospheric emission: revise and update
Set performance indicators which
• Are achievable given the available technology and experience
• Facilitate the measurement of progress towards their achievement
Source-specific emission control measures to be implemented, include:
• Specific control measure to be implemented
• Minimum control efficiency attainable
• Timeframe for control measure implementation
• Person/post responsible for the control measures implementation
Source-specific and receptor-based (ambient) monitoring strategies, which indicate:
Parameters to be measured
•
Sampling frequency
•
Sampling protocols
•
Reference to quality assurance / quality control procedures (where applicable)
•
Conditions under which monitoring will be suspended
•
Source-specific contingency measures
Internal and external reporting and community liaison protocols
• Parameters to be reported
• Party to which report is to be made (for external reporting purposes)
• Reporting frequency
• Post responsibility for environmental reporting
A community liaison procedure will stipulate:
At what interval forums will be held
•
Procedure to be followed for providing notification of
•
such meetings
•
Frequency of forum meetings
Internal inspection and external auditing protocols
Financial provisions (capital and operational costs)
Figure C.1: Framework for Air Quality Management plan development for the Rustenburg
region (Scorgie, 2001b)
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Ms. Yvonne Scorgie, an independent consultant with experience working in the Rustenburg
region, proposed both of the plans featured in this App. endix in 2001. The purpose of the plans was to
try and devise a regional management plan that can be implemented by all the large industries in the
region. This was a first attempt since no such plans existed previously. As discussed under section 4.3
(Chapter 4) large industries are responsible for 96.2% of total emissions in the region (Table 4.2; Table
4.4 and App. endix B: Fig. 4.7) (Pulles et al., 2001; Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). Therefore, these
industries had to be targeted first.
Both of the plans contain detailed information with a number of sections and sub-sections
included. The plan featured in Figure C.1 contains more steps than the plan featured in Figure C.2. Both
of the plans are linear and no reiterations occur.
Significant differences occur between the two plans with different types of information included.
Where similar information is included, it is in a different order. The plan in Figure C.1 is a framework for
the development of an AQMP and concentrates more on public participation and reporting of results
(internal and external). Provision is made for internal inspection as well as external auditing. The plan in
Figure C.2 is an AQMP for the region and focuses more on identifying the pollutants to be controlled as
well as devising the most effective strategies to reduce the emissions. It further includes dispersion
modelling while the plan in Figure C.1 focuses more on monitoring and no modelling is included. Figure
C.2 fits more in with the Air Quality Management Plans (AQMPs) described in Chapter 2.
Elements that are included in both plans are contingency measures as well as financial provision.
More detail is included in Figure C.2 about financial matters and more specifically Cost-Benefit Analysis
(CBA). The second plan (Fig. C.2) further includes the technical feasibility of the different strategies
considered and the socio-economic impacts of each strategy.
Both of the plans would require the co-operation of all the major industries in the region and it
would take a considerable time to fully implement and ensure the efficient working. None of the plans
would however work without a comprehensive emission inventory that must include more information
than is currently available. Because of the particular situation present in the Rustenburg region (section
4.4: Chapter 4) more planning would be needed before any plan can be implemented (feature of Figure
C.2) and after that, tight controls are needed with input from all the interested and affected parties (feature
of Figure C.1) in the region to ensure the success of the regional plan.
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Identification of pollutants to be controlled
Identification of all sources of each pollutant and determine
% Contribution to total
Quantity of emissions
The height of emission
emissions of a pollutant
Likelihood of human
exposure to emissions
(exposure index)
Identification of air pollution reduction strategies
List and description of
Explanation of
Quantification of reduction
possible strategies for each
implementation of each
of ambient concentrations
1.
Source characteristics to select the sources to be controlled
source
measure
through use of dispersion
2.
Identify most effective strategies for ambient pollution
Cost-benefit analyses of controlling each source with each strategy:
model analysis
Recommend the most cost-effective strategies to minimize emissions
abatement
3.
Technical feasibility of each strategy
4.
Socio-economic impacts of each strategy
5.
Identify environmental targets
Demonstrate how and when standards may be attained through dispersion model analysis
Include contingency measures but only implemented if the
recommended control strategies is not successful in achieving and
Indicate the effect of future emissions from growth and development on ambient air quality and demonstrate
maintaining compliance within a required time period
how compliance will be maintained
Figure C.2: Regional air quality management plan (Scorgie, 2001).
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Appendix D
Smelter process description
D.1 Anglo Platinum
D.1.1 Concentrate receiving
Ore is mined from a number of shafts in the vicinity of the smelting operation and is
transported to the concentrator plants (Waterval, Frank, Klipfontein, Amandelbult, Lebowa
and Potgietersrus) where it is milled (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al., 2001). The milled
ore is introduced to flotation banks where particulates containing precious metals are
separated as a concentrate (Pulles et al., 2001). Non-valuable tails are deposited onto tailings
dams (Pulles et al., 2001). The concentrate is then pumped to the Smelter plant as slurry,
where it is off-loaded by means of overhead cranes at the concentrate receiving shed (storage
capacity is 7000 tons) (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
D.1.2 Concentrate drying
There are four Flash driers at Waterval Smelter with the purpose of drying the wet
concentrate (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al., 2001). A Flash drier consists essentially of
a vertical drying column into which wet concentrate is fed, along with hot gas generated by
the hot gas generator that uses coal as a heat source (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al.,
2001). The exhaust gases from the cyclones are passed through a multi-clone and baghouse
before it is vented to the atmosphere through the Drier stack (Pulles et al., 2001). The
concentrate collected in the baghouse, multi-clone and cyclones is pneumatically transferred
to the product bins at each Flash drier and then blended with a predetermined quantity of lime
to aid in the Furnace slag management (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
The final blend is
pneumatically conveyed to the 2500 tonne silo from where the concentrate is pneumatically
conveyed to either Furnace when requested by the Furnace control room (Anglo Platinum,
2001a).
D.1.3 Furnaces
Waterval Smelter has two Furnaces (Pulles et al., 2001). Concentrate is fed into the
Furnaces, which use electrical energy to melt the concentrate (Pulles et al., 2001). Lime is
blended with the concentrate, which lowers the melting point of the slag to create a fluid slag
at normal operating temperatures (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). The matte (denser than the slag)
settles at the bottom of the Furnace and consists of Nickel, Copp. er, Iron and Cobalt
Sulphides and Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al., 2001).
The matte is tapp. ed from the Furnaces periodically while the slag is tapp. ed virtually
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continuously through water-cooled copp. er blocks and is granulated using a high flow water
stream (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al., 2001). Converter slag is also returned to the
Furnaces to recover any matte entrained in the Converter slag (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
Furnace off-gas is fed to the ceramic filters to remove entrained particulates and then vented
to the atmosphere via the Main stack (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
There are 12 ceramic
modules (6 per Furnace) each containing 864 ceramic candles (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
Particulates are returned to the Furnaces via air slides and tails are pumped to the slimes dam
(Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al., 2001).
D.1.4 Converters
There are 6 Pierce-Smith Converters (Pulles et al., 2001). The Furnace matte is
charged to the Converters through the mouth of the Converter and air is blown through the
molten bath (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al., 2001). The oxygen reacts exothermically
with the Iron Sulphide thereby supp. lying the heat for the Converter (Anglo Platinum, 2001a;
Pulles et al., 2001). Silica slag is added to the Converter to produce a fayalite slag (Anglo
Platinum, 2001a). The slag produced is periodically skimmed off and fresh Furnace matte
charged until the matte level in the Converter is sufficient for casting in the slow cool section
(Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Pulles et al., 2001). The slag is then returned to the Furnaces and
the matte is sent to the Base Metal Refinery (BMR) for further processing (Pulles et al.,
2001). During the converting process large amounts of SO2 are produced (Pulles et al., 2001).
D.1.5 Slow cooling
The matte from the Converter section is transported to the slow cool section in
refractory lined ladles (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). It is then poured into the refractory lined
moulds aiding the slow removal of heat (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). By placing a lid over the
mould the cooling process is slowed down (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). The ingots are then
lifted and crushed to ± 3cm before transportation to the Rustenburg Base Metal Refinery
(RBMR) (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
The slow cooling process ensures that the sulphur
deficient matte forms magnetic plates enabling the PGM’s to be separated from the Base
Metals at the BMR (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
D.1.6 Slag milling
The granulated Furnace slag is separated from the bulk of the granulating water by
rake classifiers (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). Classifier product is conveyed to the Slag Mill
storage silo while the classifier water overflow is pumped to a dedicated thickener for further
treatment (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). Slag is fed from the Silo to a ball mill with a closed
circuit cyclone to achieve a product for flotation feed with a particle size of between 50 to
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65% passing 75 micron (Anglo Platinum, 2001a). The flotation circuit consists of two
rougher banks, and one scavenger bank of flotation cells (Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
Concentrate pulled from the rougher cells is sent to the concentrate shed via a dewatering
system, while concentrate from the scavenger cells is returned to the flue dust thickeners
(Anglo Platinum, 2001a). The tails from the scavenger bank are pumped to a tailings dam
(Anglo Platinum, 2001a).
D.1.7 Acid plant
During the process of converting, SO2 and particulates are generated as unwanted byproducts (Anglo Platinum, 2001a; Anglo Platinum, 2000). In order to prevent this release
into the atmosphere SO2 gas is used to make H2SO4 in a Single Absorption Sulphuric Acid
plant (Anglo Platinum, 2001b; Pulles et al., 2001). The Acid plant must be available 96% of
the time according to permit requirements (Anglo Platinum, 2001b). Availability is defined
as the percentage of time in a given month during which the Acid plant could produce acid,
given a gas supp. ly (Anglo Platinum, 2001b). Utilisation is defined as the percentage of time
(available or total) that the Acid plant was actually producing acid (Anglo Platinum, 2001b).
The coincidence of scheduled and unscheduled Acid plant downtimes with poor
dispersion potentials have been noted to coincide with significant increases in ambient SO2
concentrations when compared to long-term means (Burger & Scorgie, 2000a). The sources
of downtime can be defined as (Anglo Platinum, 2001b):
1. Major events: blower failures, catalyst degradation, flow constrictions; and
2. Chronic downtime: solids in weak acid circuit, acid leaks, instrumentation.
D.2 Impala Platinum
D.2.1 Concentrate receiving
Ore is mined from a number of shafts in the vicinity of the Smelter and is transported
to two concentrator plants (Merensky and UG2) where it is milled (Pulles et al., 2001).
Concentrate is pumped to the Smelter as slurry, where it is received in large thickeners (Pulles
et al., 2001). The thickeners partially dewater the slurry and the dewatered slurry is then
introduced to the driers (Pulles et al., 2001).
D.2.2 Concentrate drying
Concentrate drying is effected by means of Spray driers (Pulles et al., 2001; Pulles et
al., 2000). The principle of the operation is to nebulise (break up into small particulates) the
partially thickened concentrate in the presence of hot gas (generated in a hot gas generator)
(Pulles et al., 2001; Pulles et al., 2000). Water is rapidly vaporised from the wet concentrate
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and passes together with some of the dry dust into electrostatic precipitators (one for every
Spray drier), where the dust is recovered with less than one percent moisture content (Pulles
et al., 2001; Pulles et al., 2000)2. Drier off-gas contains small amounts of particulates and
gases typically evolved through the combustion of coal (Pulles et al., 2001; Pulles et al.,
2000).
D.2.3 Furnaces
Dry concentrate is pneumatically transferred to the Furnaces (App. endix B: Fig.5.3
and Fig. 5.13) (Pulles et al., 2001; Pulles et al., 2000). Furnaces use electrical current,
discharged through large electrodes placed in the Furnace bath, to melt the concentrate (Pulles
et al., 2000). The smelting of concentrate in the Furnaces is the first of two beneficiation
processes (Pulles et al., 2001; Pulles et al., 2000). The Furnaces in use are the No. 4 and No.
5 Furnaces, the old No. 3 Furnace was demolished and replaced with a new No. 3 Furnace in
December 2000 (Pulles et al., 2000).
The off gas passes through three electrostatic
precipitators to remove particulates before being discharged through the Main stack (Pulles et
al., 2001; Pulles et al., 2000)2.
D.2.4 Converters
Furnace matte is collected in ladles from Furnace tap holes and an overhead crane
transports the full ladles across the aisle into the open mouth of a Converter (App. endix B:
Fig.4.17) (Pulles et al., 2001). The Converters are cylindrical in shape and are known as
Pierce-Smith Converters (Pulles et al., 2000).
When sufficient Furnace matte has been
loaded, the entire Converter rotates so that an extraction hood covers the open port (Pulles et
al., 2000). During the conversion process, fugitive gases and particulates may escape from
the Converter hoods (Pulles et al., 2001; Pulles et al., 2000). Two new Converters were
commissioned in October 2000, which have double the capacity of the Converters used up to
then (Pulles et al., 2000). These Converters are designed to have improved gas capture
efficiencies and larger material handling capacities (Pulles et al., 2000). The older Converters
are used as spare capacity and provide more operational flexibility by decreasing the reliance
of the Converter operations on those of the Furnaces (Pulles et al., 2000).
D.2.5 Acid plant
Converter off-gas is the feed gas for the Acid plant and cannot be vented directly to
the atmosphere due to the high SO2 concentration (Pulles et al., 2000). The function of the
Acid plant is primarily to remove SO2 from the Converter off-gas stream (Pulles et al., 2000).
The feed gas is routed through a wet scrubber that largely removes SO3 and particulates from
the gas stream before entering the Acid plant (Pulles et al., 2000). SO2 is catalytically
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converted to SO3 in a single stage conversion, which is then dissolved in water to form H2SO4
(Pulles et al., 2000). Unconverted gas is discharged to the atmosphere through the Acid plant
stack (Pulles et al., 2000). An availability of 90% is required for the Acid plant2. The Acid
plant was upgraded in October 2000 and includes (Pulles et al., 2000):
i)
A 60-meter stack;
ii) A new wet scrubber (as part of the SulfAcid plant);
iii) A four-bed Converter to accommodate increased Converter capacity;
iv) An increase in conversion efficiency to 96%;
v) A new absorption tower;
vi) Rebuilding of the drying tower;
vii) A strong-acid storage tank, which will minimise emissions during start-ups; and
viii)
An upgrade of the pre-heaters, which aids in the reduction of emissions during start-
up.
Acid plant shutdowns occur once per annum for a period of app. roximately five
weeks, generally within the period of July to October (Pulles et al., 2000). Under normal
operating conditions, the intensity of impacts is considered as medium with medium
significance; under conditions where the Acid plant is not available and production levels
remain unchanged, the intensity of the impact is regarded as having the potential to be high,
with associated high significance (Pulles et al., 2000). The sources of downtime are the same
as those defined by Anglo Platinum (D.1.7).
D.3 Lonmin Platinum
D.3.1 Concentrate receiving
Ore is mined from shafts within the Western Platinum, Karee Mine, and Eastern
Platinum mines (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b; Pulles et al., 2001). Concentrate is received at the
Smelter by truck from the Merensky, Rowland, 1 Shaft, Karee, and E.P.L. concentrators
located in the mine lease area (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b; Pulles et al., 2001).
D.3.2 Concentrate drying
Merensky concentrate is dried in a rotary kiln, and UG2 concentrate is dried in a Flash
drier (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b; Pulles et al., 2001). The Flash drier replaced Spray driers in
2000 (Pulles et al., 2001).
D.3.3 Furnaces
The ore goes to the Furnaces where it is smelted to remove gangue materials
(predominantly silica) (Pulles et al., 2001). The Merensky and UG2 concentrates are smelted
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through their own Furnace, each designed to handle the particular ore type (Lonmin Platinum,
2001b).
The Smelter consists of six Furnaces; one of these Furnaces is a six-in-line
submerged arc electrode Furnace used for the smelting of Merensky concentrate (Fig.D.1)
(Pulles et al., 2001). The other five are circular Furnaces used for the smelting of UG2
concentrate and consist of three Pyromet Furnaces and two Infurnco Furnaces (Fig.D.1)
(Pulles et al., 2001).
The concentrate together with a suitable flux (limestone) is smelted in the Furnaces
where all but two (Sulphur and Iron) of the major undesirable gangue constituents are
removed as slag (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). Slag from the Furnace operations is milled and
floated to recover entrained PGMs in the form of a concentrate, which is recycled through the
process (Pulles et al., 2001). Slag tails are disposed on the mine tailings dams (Pulles et al.,
2001). The remaining PGM, Gold, Nickel, Copp. er, Cobalt, Sulphur and Iron are removed
from the Furnaces as molten Furnace matte (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). The Nickel, Copp. er
and Iron Sulphides are heavier than the gangue materials forming the slag and sink to the
bottom of the Furnace (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). This gravity separation forms means of
separating the unwanted gangue material (slag) from the metal sulphides (Furnace matte)
(Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). The Furnace slag is tapp. ed from the Furnace at a relatively high
elevation from one end to the other end at a low elevation (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b).
D.3.4 Converters
At the Furnace matte stage the products of the Furnaces are combined in one of the
two Pierce-Smith Converters, which is used to remove Sulphur and Iron and produce a matte,
which is the final product (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b; Pulles et al., 2001). This is achieved by
blowing air through the molten matte, which oxidizes the Fe to FeO2 (Lonmin Platinum,
2001b). By adding a suitable flux (silica sand) a slag is formed which is then removed
(Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). Likewise some of the Sulphur is oxidized to SO2 gas, which is
disposed of in the atmosphere via the Main stack (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). After slag
removal, the molten product from the Converter (Converter matte) is granulated by pouring a
steady stream of matte into a cold jet of water which is sprayed at a rate of app. roximately 14
000 liters per minute (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). The granulated matte is then weighed,
bagged and sent to the Base Metal Refinery (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b; Pulles et al., 2001).
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Electrostatic
Monitor
Mixing
Fan
Converter
Infurnco
UG2
Infurnco
UG2
Merensky
Furnace
Merensky
Furnace
Pyromet
Furnace
Pyromet
Furnace
Pyromet
Furnace
Converter
Main
Stack
Fan
Figure D.1: The layout of a section of the Lonmin Platinum Smelter3
D.3.5 Acid plant
Lonmin Platinum does not have an Acid plant, because most of the concentrate used
in the Smelter is UG2 ore, which has much less Sulphur in than ore from the Merensky reef.4
Therefore, the amount of SO2 vented through the Main stack is less, even though there is no
Acid plant4. A Dual Alkalize Scrubber Plant was installed in 2002 (Pulles et al., 2001)3.
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Appendix E
Calculations
Table E.1:
Calculations relating to atmospheric particulates (Boubel et al. (1994);
Bridgman, (1990); SRK (1997))
parts per million (pp. m)
Quantity of a gaseous pollutant present in the air
1 pp. m
1 volume of gaseous pollutant / 106 volumes (pollutant + air)
0.0001 percent by volume
µg.m-3
Mass of a pollutant is expressed as micrograms of pollutant per
cubic meter of air.
Basic relation between
µg.m-3
µg.m-3 = pp. m x molecular weight. 24.5 (10-3)
and pp. m at 1atm and 250C
To convert from units of pp. m
Example: SO2 = 1 µg.m-3 = 0.35pp. b
(vol) to µg.m-3, it is assumed
1 pp. m (vol) pollutant
that the ideal gas law is accurate = 1 liter pollutant. 10-6 liter air
under ambient conditions. A
= (1 liter / 22.4) x MW x 106 µg.gm-1 / (106 liters x 198oK / 273oK x
generalized formula for the
10-3m3 .liter-1)
conversion at 25oC and 760 mm
= 40.9 x MW µg.m-1 (MW equals molecular weight)
Hg
Example for October 2001 for Lonmin Platinum:
148 mg.m-3 x 56.7 m3.s-1 x 3600 x 720
------------------------------------------1000 000
µg.m-3 to t.months-1:
actual mg.m-3 x flowrate x seconds in a hour x hours in a month /
1000 x 1000 x 1000
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Appendix F
Gravimetric sampling procedure
F.1 Introduction
The Gravimetric sampling procedure was designed to determine the amount of
particulates and gases workers are exposed to during a normal 8-hour workday (DME, 1999).
Every manager of a mine must implement a Code of Practice for Occupational Hygiene
programmes where significant hazards have been identified (DME, 1999). The criteria for a
significant hazard is (DME, 1999):
a. Airborne pollutants: ≥ 10% of the occupational exposure level,
b. Thermal stress: heat ≥ 27,5oC wet bulb and ≥ 37oC dry bulb; cold ≤ 6oC dry bulb,
c. Noise: 82 dB (A), and
d. Radiation: ≥ 1 mSv.a-1.
F.2 Guideline for the compilation of a mandatory Code of Practice for an Occupational
Hygiene Programme
The guideline replaced the Guideline for the Gravimetric Sampling of Airborne
Particulates for Risk Assessment in terms of the Occupational Diseases in Mines and Works
Act No. 78 of 1973 (DME, 1999). The guideline does not stipulate requirements for specific
circumstances but sets out a basic system for managing the risk to health (DME, 1999).
When undertaking an occupational hygiene programme the following steps must be included
(Burger & Scorgie, 2000b; DME, 1999).
F.2.1 Risk assessment
a. List the significant airborne pollutants to which employees are being exposed,
b. List health effects associated with the significant airborne pollutants identified,
c. The Occupational Exposure Levels (OELs) for each hazardous airborne pollutant must be
identified (TableF.1).
Legally binding OELs are available for the assessment of
exposures,
d. List the key operations and activities that pose the greatest potential for exposure to
pollutants,
e. Availability and use of material safety data sheets for significant airborne pollutants
identified, and
f.
The risk assessment process used must be briefly described.
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Table F.1:
Occupational exposure levels for various elements (Lonmin (2001b); DME
(2001))
Elements
Al (salts)
Al (metal)
Inhalable particulate
Respirable particulate
Cr metal, Cr [II] and
Cr [III] compounds
Cr [VI] compounds
Rh (metal fume and dust)
Rh (soluble)
Ni (metal)
Rest
Threshold
Limit Value
2 mg.m-3
10 mg.m-3
5 mg.m-3
0.5 mg.m-3
0.05 mg.m-3
0.1 mg.m-3
0.001 mg.m-3
0.5 mg.m-3
10 mg.m-3
Elements
Ni (soluble compounds)
Ni (insoluble compounds)
Pb (fume)
Threshold Limit
Value
0.1 mg.m-3
0.5 mg.m-3
0.15 mg.m-3
Pb (dust)
0.15 mg.m-3
Pt (soluble)
Pt mine dust respirable particulate
<5% crystalline quartz / silica
>5% crystalline quartz / silica
Pt (metal)
Cu (fume)
Cu (dusts and mists)
Mg
Inhalable particulate
Fume and respirable particulate
0.002 mg.m-3
3.0 mg.m-3
0.1 mg.m-3
5.00 mg.m-3
0.2 mg.m-3
1 mg.m-3
10 mg.m-3
5 mg.m-3
Threshold Limit Values (TLV) are the limits set for almost all chemicals, minerals
and dusts to which healthy persons (aged 18 to 65) are permitted to be exposed for periods of
up to 8 hours per day (Table F.1) (Strauss & Mainwaring, 1984). Three categories of TLVs
are defined in order to account for acute and sub-acute exposures (Burger & Scorgie, 2000b):
a)
Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA)
Represents the time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday and a
40-hour workweek, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day,
without adverse effect.
b)
Threshold Limit Value - Short-term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL)
Represents the concentration to which workers can be exposed continuously for a short
period of time without suffering from
1. Irritation,
2. Chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or
3. Narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, impair self
rescue or materially reduce work efficiency, and provided that the daily TLV-TWA is not
exceeded.
c)
Threshold Limit Value - Ceiling (TLV-C)
The concentration should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.
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F.2.2 Determination of homogeneous exposure groups
The second step in the procedure would be to identify Homogeneous Exposure
Groups (HEG) (Table F.2) (DME, 1999). Four different categories were identified.
Table F.2:
Classification band (DME, 1999)
Category
A
B
C
D
Classification bands
Personal exposure level
Individual exposures ≥ the OEL or mixtures of exposures ≥ 1
Individual exposures ≥ 75% of the OEL and the OEL or mixtures of
exposures between ≥ 75 and 1
Individual exposures ≥ 50% of the OEL and < 75% of the OEL or
mixtures of exposures between ≥ 0.5 and < 0.75
Individual exposures ≥ 10% of the OEL and < 50% of the OEL or
mixtures of exposures between ≥ 0.1 and < 0.5
F.2.3 Gravimetric sampling monitoring
After the determination of the HEGs Gravimetric sampling monitoring is to be
conducted on an annual cycle period (1 January – 31 December) (DME, 1999).
It is
imperative that correct, meaningful and representative results are obtained (DME, 1999). For
a given HEG, samples must be randomly assigned covering all shifts (different employees on
different days over the monitoring time period) (Table F.3) (DME, 1999). The exposures
measured for any individual employee for individual pollutants are allocated to the medical
record/s of that specific employee and to all the other employees within that HEG (DME,
1999).
Medical surveillance must be initiated once 10% of the OEL of a pollutant is
exceeded (DME, 1999). The mine must draw up a sampling strategy including a monitoring
programme (consisting of methodology, design and implementation) for each HEG, for the
cycle period, and keep a record thereof (DME, 1999).
Table F.3:
Category
A
B
C
D
The mandatory frequency of sampling (DME, 1999)
Frequency
Sample 5% of employees within a HEG on a monthly basis with a
minimum of 5 samples per HEG, whichever is the greater
Sample 5% of employees within a HEG on a 3 monthly basis with a
minimum of 5 samples per HEG, whichever is the greater
Sample 5% of employees within a HEG on a 6 monthly basis with a
minimum of 5 samples per HEG, whichever is the greater
Sample 5% of employees within a HEG on an annual basis with a
minimum of 5 samples per HEG, whichever is the greater
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F.2.4 Sampling and analysis methodology
The sampling methodology to be used is dependant on the pollutant to be monitored
and in accordance with internationally compatible best practice methodologies (DME, 1999).
The relevant methodology chosen for each significant pollutant identified must be stated in
the Code of Practice with a Quality Assurance (QA) programme implemented (DME, 1999).
When sampling for particulates, the respirable fraction of airborne particulates based on the
“Johannesburg Curve” for size distribution (i.e. particle aerodynamic diameter <7.0 micron) is
to be used in the sampling methodology (DME, 1999).
The South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) is recognised by the Department of Minerals
and Energy (DME) to app. rove analysis methods (DME, 1999). Companies who supp. ly
analysis services must have their laboratory app. roved by the SABS and supp. ly their clients
with a copy thereof (DME, 1999). The laboratory’s own operating procedures and quality
control practices must be documented in the Code of Practice (DME, 1999). Analysis of
samples must be as per recognised internationally compatible best practice techniques and
must be stated in the Code of Practice (DME, 1999).
F.2.5 Reporting and recording
The following mandatory reports are required (DME, 1999):
a)
Quarterly personal exposure report signed by the manager and kept for record purposes
at the mine. The report must reach the office of the DME: Occupational Hygiene
Directorate for their action / records no later than 30 days subsequent to the end of the
sampling quarter: March, June, September, and December.
b)
Occupational exposure assessment reports and records (to be kept at the mine).
F.2.6 Control measures
If there is found to be significant risk, a hierarchy of control measures is implemented
(DME, 1999)7:
a. Elimination, substitution and isolation;
b. Engineering controls: e.g. extra ventilation, encapturers;
c. Administrative controls: e.g. people work in shorter shifts in a problem area – only a few
hours in furnace, then moved to another section;
d. Personal protective equipment (e.g. respirators); and
e. Ensure the use of:
1. Information, instruction, training;
2. Rules and procedures; and
3. Supervision
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In the following sections the Gravimetric sampling procedures used by the three
Smelters participating in the study are discussed.
F.3 Anglo Platinum
F.3.1 Basic sampling techniques
A portable battery operated sampling pump calibrated before use is attached to a
worker (Anglo Platinum, 2001b). A membrane filter, pre-weighed on a microbalance, is
placed in a filter cassette holder, which in turn is paced into a small cyclone that will separate
the respirable fraction from the coarser dust (Anglo Platinum, 2001b). The respirable fraction
is collected on the membrane filter, whilst the non-respirable fraction is collected in a small
container at the bottom of the cyclone (Anglo Platinum, 2001b). The filter cassette-cyclone
combination is clipp. ed onto the workers lapel, with the device within 300 mm from the nose
(a piece of connecting tube is fitted between the pump and the filter cassette) (Anglo
Platinum, 2001b). When the pump is switched “on” the time is noted and again when the
pump is switched “off”; therefore the total sampling duration is noted and by multiplying the
latter with the calibrated flow-rate, one can calculate the total volume of air sampled (Anglo
Platinum, 2001b). The pre-weighed filter is weighed again and the mass of particulates
sampled is determined by subtracting the pre-weight from the post-weight (Anglo Platinum,
2001b). The concentration of the particulates is expressed as µg respirable particulates per
volume of air sampled (m3) (Anglo Platinum, 2001b).
F.3.2 Sampling method, reporting and analyses
Waterval Smelter is subdivided into 13 sampling areas (e.g. Furnace, Flash dryer and
Engineering) with each sampling area subdivided into activity areas (e.g. Furnace upp. er
level and furnace lower level) (DME, 1999)7. Each activity area consists of HEGs (e.g.
Furnace tapp. er, operator)7. Anglo Platinum makes use of the sampling frequency described
in Category B (Table F.3, Table F.4 and Table F.5) (DME, 1999)7. Samples are analysed
twice a year by an independent consultant (DME, 1999)7.
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Table F.4: Example of a gravimetric sampling schedule: January 2001) (Anglo
Platinum, 2001b)
Week
Date
1
01
to
05
Monday
S
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
P
S
A
S
P
2
S
D
D
S
3
3
3:1
3:2
A
S
P
3
S
M
M
A
A
N
N
S
1
1
4
4
1
2
1:2
1:3
4:1
4:2
1:4
2:1
A
S
P
4
S
M
D
M
D
M
S
2
3
1
3
1
2:2
3:3
1:1
3:4
1:5
A
S
P
5
S
S
A
S
P
Legend to be used:
S = shift to be sampled
S.P = statistical population number
S.A = sampling area number
Date = weekly period (e.g. 01 – 07)
M = morning shift
D = day shift
A = afternoon shift
P = public holiday
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Table F.5: Example of how statistical populations are described (Waterval Smelter:
January to June 2001) (Anglo Platinum, 2001b)
Number
1:1
Area
Furnace and converter
area
Furnace area – lower
levels
Converter area
Crane drivers
Slow cool area and WCM
crushing and conveying
Furnace area
Flash dryers and flux
reverts section
Flash dryers
Flux reverts
Engineering
Hot metals Boilermaker
workshop and fitter
workshop
Charge preparation
workshop
Vehicle maintenance,
electrical and
instrumentation workshops
Masons workshop
Wet chemical processes
and rowing occupations
Wet chemical processes
(acid plant and slag mill)
Rowing occupations
1:2
1:3
1:4
1:5
2:1
2:2
3:1
3:2
3:3
3:4
4:1
4:2
72
No of
samples
to be
taken
5
% of persons
sampled for
the 6 months
cycle
6.9
67
12
18
5
5
5
7.4
41.7
27.8
36
5
13.8
61
7
5
5
8.2
71.4
75
5
6.7
32
5
15.6
59
5
8.5
32
5
5
15.6
37
5
7.8
76
5
6.6
Number of
persons
A monthly report is sent to the Smelter Business Manager and the committee
responsible for Health and Safety matters at the Smelter with a comprehensive report
compiled once a year7. The Occupational Hygienist is responsible for conducting projects to
improve equipment and administrative controls if the emission levels are unacceptable high7.
Proposals must first be referred to the Environmental officer or the Business Manager of the
Smelter7.
F.4 Impala Platinum
F.4.1 Basic sampling techniques
The sampling techniques used are the same as those described above for Anglo
Platinum.
F.4.2 Sampling method, reporting and analyses
Impala Platinum Smelter is classified as an activity area and is subdivided into
sampling areas, which is further divided into Homogeneous Exposure Groups (HEG)2. The
Occupational Hygienist identified 14 HEGs for Impala Platinum Smelter:11
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1. Acid Plant,
2. Converter,
3. Converter Aisle,
4. Converter Blower,
5. Converter Skimmer,
6. Dryer,
7. Furnace,
8. Furnace Smelter Services,
9. Furnace Tapp. ing,
10. Smelter Roving,
11. Toll Business Lab/Sampling,
12. Toll Business ACR,
13. Toll Business Bunker, and
14. Toll Business Catalyst.
Samples are taken on a daily basis, and batched on a quarterly basis and send for
analyses at a SANAS app. roved Laboratorium11. The results are sent to the Occupational
Hygienist after which it is determined if any action is needed11. The results are further sent to
employees in writing with comments from the Ventilation Officer included11. Management
receives reports on a monthly, quarterly and yearly basis11. Impala Platinum implemented a
new report structure in December 2002 because the previous structure was found to be
inadequate11. The objective is to use the database as a live action plan to assist management
to comply with the Health Regulations11.
F.5 Lonmin Platinum
F.5.1 Basic sampling techniques
Lonmin Platinum ascribe to the same Department of Minerals and Energy (DME)
procedure as used by the other two Platinum mines3 (described above). The procedure are
explained to workers to ensure they understand the importance thereof (Table F.6).
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Table F.6:
Information given to workers of Lonmin Platinum Smelter to explain the
gravimetric sampling procedure (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b)
Most people have an idea of what dust is: soil blown about causing a dust storm, and household dust.
In the work environment, dusts are an ever-present nuisance and often a health hazard. It is caused by such
activities such as polishing, drilling, sifting or handling of materials, especially in powder form. The term airborne
particulates are often used when referring specifically to dust particles floating around in the air in a working
environment. The human being’s lungs are able to deal with the dusts breathed in by coughing it out of the body,
but breathing in a lot of hazardous dust which may happ. en at the workplace, overburdens the lungs and leads to
a state of disease. The extensive accumulation of dust in the lungs, together with the lungs’ reaction to its
constant presence is called Pneumoconiosis. This word is derived from the Greek words ‘pneumono” and “konios”
meaning “lung” and “dust”. In order to detect if the worker is being excessively exposed to airborne particulates,
the worker needs to wear a personal sampling pump for measuring the exposure level of the worker, taking into
consideration the time the worker may be exposed. This is done in the identified ‘dusty” areas of the plant.
Lonmin use gravimetric pumps to measure this. The little pumps suck in the air, which is passed
through a special filter (cassette). The dust, which may be breathed in by the worker, accumulates on the filter.
This filter with the dust is analysed at the lab to detect for hazardous dust. It is important that the worker does not
interfere with the pump or filter, as the lab technician may not be able to detect if the worker is being exposed and
a wrong exposure level can result. Once at the lab they detect that the worker is being exposed to hazardous
dust, and then the problem at the workplace can be sorted out.
To check if the worker is over exposed or not, the lab technician / analyser does a scientific calculation,
taking into consideration: the airflow rate through the sampling instrument; the sampling period; the mass of the
dust collected on the filter; the amount of people working in the area and the legal limit of the concentration of
dusts. If this figure is = or > 1, then there is a problem and the limit has been exceeded. If it works out to less
than 1, then there is no problem and the limit has not been exceeded. It is important that the blue or red ‘plug” on
the filter cassette is removed before the pump is started – if this is not done, the pump will flash a red error light.
The foreman, who records the exact time the pump began and stopp. ed, fills in the field sheet. This field sheet
and the pump that has been switched off at the end of the wearer’s shift, as well as the filter cassette, are returned
to the Gravimetric Department for weighing. The results of the sampling exercise will be put on the notice board.
F.5.2 Sampling method, reporting and analyses
Sampling is conducted on a monthly basis using a personal air sampler (Gillian Pump
with cellulose filters) (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b). The Lonmin Platinum Smelter is classified
as an activity area and is subdivided into sampling areas (Assay Laboratory and Smelter /
BMR complex), which is further divided into HEGs (e.g. furnace and converter).4
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The Assistant Environmental Officer of the Smelter is responsible for the sampling
and also takes the final responsibility for the data4. The samples are sent to the the Senior
Environmental Officer (Central Services) which sents it for analysis on a yearly basis.
Results are obtained 3 months later.4 Every six months the Assistant Environmental Officer
has the opp. ortunity to change the HEG’s, in order to include important communities that
may be left out4. The Senior Environmental Officer reports the results back to the Assistant
Environmental Officer of the Smelter4.
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Appendix G
Policy Statements
G.1 Anglo Platinum: Safety, Health and Environmental Policy (Anglo Platinum, 2001b)
Anglo American Platinum Corporation Limited, as the world’s leading primary
producer of platinum group metals, commits itself to the creation of a safe and healthy
environment for all our employees and the citizens of the communities with which we
interact.
1.
Aims
In order to give practical expression to our commitment and to measure our progress
we have the following aims:
1. Safety and health
i.
Prevent or minimise workrelated injuries and health impairment of employees and
contractors, and
ii.
Contribute to addressing priority community health issues.
2. Environment
i.
Conserve environmental resources;
ii.
Prevent or minimise adverse impacts arising from our operations;
iii.
Demonstrate active stewardship of land and biodiversity;
iv.
Promote good relationships with, and enhance capabilities of, the local communities
of which we are a part; and
v.
2.
Respect people’s culture and heritage.
Management principles
All our Business Units are required to adhere to the following principles in a
systematic and comprehensive fashion, and actively encourage implementation by business
partners. Further all contractors are obliged to comply with the provisions of this policy.
a. Commitment
Hold senior line managers within each Business Unit accountable for safety,
occupational health and environmental issues.
Allocate adequate financial and human
resources to ensure that these issues are dealt with in a matter that reflects their high corporate
priority.
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b. Competence
Ensure workforce competence and responsibility at all levels through selection,
retention, education, training and awareness in all aspects of safety, health and the
environment.
c. Risk assessment
Identify, assess and prioritise the hazards and risks associated with all our activities.
d. Prevention and control
Prevent, minimise or control priority risks through planning, design, investment,
management and workplace procedures. Prepare and periodically test emergency response
plans. Where accidents or incidents do occur, take prompt corrective action, investigate root
causes and take remedial action.
Actively seek to prevent recurrences and disseminate
experiences learned.
e. Performance
Set app. ropriate goals, objectives, targets and performance indicators for all our
operations. Meet all app. licable laws and regulations as a minimum and, where app. ropriate,
app. ly international best practice.
f.
Evaluation
Monitor, review and confirm the effectiveness of management and workplace
performance against company standards, objectives, targets and app. licable legal
requirements. Key to this process is a system of app. ropriate audits and progress reports to
senior management coupled with regular reporting to the Board of Directors of Anglo
American plc.
g. Stakeholder engagement
Promote and maintain open and constructive dialogue and good working relationships
with employees, local communities, regulatory agencies, business organisations and other
affected and interested parties, to increase knowledge and enhance mutual understanding in
matters of common concern. Report on progress towards the achievement of our aims.
h. Continual improvement
Foster creativity and innovation in the management and performance of our
businesses, and our app. roach to solving the challenges facing our enterprises. Supp. ort
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research and development into safety, health and environmental issues, and promote the
implementation of international best practices and technologies where app. ropriate.
G.2. Impala Platinum: Environmental Policy Statement (Impala Platinum, 2001b)
We recognise that our activities, whilst contributing to an improved quality of life, do
impact on the environment. These impacts affect each and every stakeholder, including our
employees, shareholders and local communities. It is therefore our vision to become world
class in the management of environmental impacts. To realise this vision Impala Platinum is
committed to:
a. Complying with all relevant laws, policies and guidelines and where practicable,
exceeding these standards;
b. Integrating environmental management into all aspects of business;
c. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and minimise environmental impacts and
to prepare emergency plans;
d. Continually improving our environmental performance by encouraging innovation to
promote the reduction of emissions and effluents, develop opp. ortunities for recycling
and using energy, water and other resources more efficiently;
e. Contributing to the development of sound policies, laws, regulations and practices that
improve safety, health and the environment;
f.
Training, education and encouraging employees and contractors to participate in
environmental management so enabling them to conduct their activities in a responsible
manner; and
g. Measuring and communicating our environmental performance to stakeholders including
employees, shareholders, the community and other interested parties.
This policy will be regularly reviewed to ensure that it adequately reflects our
commitment to continual improvement through better systems and greater environmental
efficiency. The Board of Directors will ensure that resources are made available to meet these
commitments.
G.3 Lonmin Platinum Safety, Health and Environmental Policy (Lonmin Platinum, 2001b)
We realise our operations have the potential to expose employees and surrounding
local communities to safety, health and environmental hazards.
Therefore, it is our
responsibility towards our employees and the environment to conduct our core business of
Smelting and Base Metal Recovery in a manner non-detrimental to all. With this as our
objectives, we commit ourselves to:
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a. Compliance with relevant safety, health and environmental legislation and other
requirements guiding responsible practice;
b. Use best available technology, where economically viable, to minimise the health and
safety risks and prevent pollution at source; and
c. Continual improvement of our safety, health and environmental management systems and
performance, illustrating our commitment towards responsible practice.
To ensure that we meet our objectives, we shall focus on:
a. Implementing management systems to identify, manage and monitor the safety, health
and environmental aspects of Metallurgical services’ activities, products and services;
b. Continuously strive to reduce the air emission and water effluents of our operations;
c. Reduce, re-use and re-cycle waste and ensure the legal and safe disposal thereof;
d. Manage all chemical, including oil, through the responsible purchasing, storage and
clean-up of spillage;
e. Inform, train and develop our people on the importance of safety, health and
environmental management as well as on their roles and responsibilities;
f.
Open and transparent communication to interested and affected parties on safety, health
and environmental matters;
g. Rehabilitate the slag dump to minimise the safety, health and environmental impacts
thereof; and
h. Optimise the consumption of resources to ensure the sustainability of our operations and
long-term benefits to stakeholders.
The 2000 Safety, Health and Environmental Policy was reviewed and has been
refined to reflect the company’s new thinking (Lonmin Platinum, 2002).
Vision
Lonmin’s vision is to be the safest, most cost-effective producer of PGMs whilst
providing above-average returns for our shareholders. Sustainable development is a challenge
which we have accepted and will work towards in all our operations.
Commitment
In order to meet this vision, Lonmin is committed to:
a. Implementing and maintaining effective safety, health and environmental management
systems that drive continual improvement through regular, objective review;
b. Ensuring employee knowledge of the safety, health and environmental risks by effective
assessment and training;
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c. The reduction, re-use and recycling of waste to minimise final disposal and promote the
efficient use of natural resources;
d. Preventing and reducing all forms of pollution by employing effective technologies to
control emissions to air and pollution of land and water;
e. Maintaining transparent, consultative
relationships with all stakeholders through
effective communication channels;
f.
Contributing to the long-term social, economic and institutional development for our
employees and the communities within which our operations are located; and
g. Complying with app. licable legislation and other relevant industry norms.
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App. endix H
Control equipment
H.1. Inertial collectors
Inertial collectors (cyclones, baffles, louvers, or rotating impellers) operate on the
principle that the aerosol material in the carrying gas stream has a greater inertia than the gas
(Boubel et al., 1994). Since the drag forces on the particulate are a function of the diameter
squared and the inertial forces are a function of the diameter cubed, it follows that as the
particulates diameter increases, the inertial (removal) force becomes relatively greater
(Boubel et al., 1994).
H.2. Filters
Filtration is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of separating particulates
from a gas (Johnson, 1998). A filter removes particulate matter from the carrying gas stream
as the particulate impinges on and then adheres to the filter material (Boubel et al., 1994).
With time passing, the deposit of particulate matter becomes greater and the deposit itself
then acts as a filtering medium (Boubel et al., 1994). When the deposit becomes so heavy
that the pressure necessary to force the gas through the filter becomes excessive, or the flow
reduction severely impairs the process, the filter must either be replaced or cleaned (Boubel et
al., 1994). Industrial filtration systems are varied, but the most common type is the baghouse
(Boubel et al., 1994).
H.3. Electrostatic precipitators
The Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) works by charging dust with ions and then
collecting the ionized particulates on a surface consisting of either tubular or flat plates
4
(Johnson, 1998; Boubel et al., 1994) . For cleaning and disposal, the particulates are then
removed from the collection surface, usually by rapp. ing the surface (Boubel et al., 1994)4.
A DC field of at least 30kV (high enough that a visible corona can be seen at the surface of
the wire) is established between the central wire electrode and the grounded collecting surface
resulting in a cascade of negative ions in the gap between the central wire and the grounded
outer surface (Boubel et al., 1994). Any aerosol entering this gap is both bombarded and
charged by these ions that then migrate to the collecting surface because of the combined
effect of this bombardment and the charge attraction (Boubel et al., 1994)4. When the
particulates reaches the collecting surface, it loses its charge and adheres because of the
attractive forces existing and stays there until the power is shut off and it is physically
dislodged by rapping, washing, or sonic means (Boubel et al., 1994)4.
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H.4. Scrubbers
Scrubbers, or wet collectors, have been used as gas-cleaning devices for many years
(Boubel et al., 1994). The process has two distinct mechanisms resulting in the removal of
the aerosol from the gas stream (Boubel et al., 1994). The first mechanism involves wetting
the particulates with the scrubbing liquid (Boubel et al., 1994). The particulates are trapp. ed
when it travels from the supp. orting gaseous medium across the interface to the liquid
scrubbing medium (Boubel et al., 1994).
Some relative motion is necessary for the
particulates and liquid-gas interface to come in contact (Boubel et al., 1994). In the spray
chamber, the droplets are sprayed through the gas so that they impinge on and make contact
with the particulates - the smaller the droplet, the greater the collection efficiency (Boubel et
al., 1994).
The second mechanism is removal of the wetted particulates on a collecting surface (a
bed or simply a wetted surface), followed by the eventual removal from the device (Boubel et
al., 1994). One common combination follows the wetting section with an inertial collector,
which then separates the wetted particulates from the carrying gas stream (Boubel et al.,
1994). The ultimate scrubber in this respect is the venturi scrubber (operates at extremely
high gas and liquid velocities with a very high pressure drop across the venturi throat)
(Boubel et al., 1994).
Classical dedusting and wet scrubbing techniques are rapidly being displaced by
advanced filtration and dry scrubbing technologies (Otto, 1995). Dry scrubbing uses a dry
absorbent to collect organics, SO2, HF and HCl producing a stable by-product, which is
realized in a “contact device” (venturi reactor) followed by a “separation device” (bag filter)
where an all dry stable by-product is produced (Otto, 1995).
H.5. Other measures
Contaminants can also be removed from industrial waste air by (Chitwood et
al., 2000):
a)
Thermal treatment
Thermal treatment includes direct flaring or catalytic oxidation and is effective
when the concentration of the organic pollutant is high enough to provide the majority
of the energy required (Chitwood et al., 2000). However, it becomes too costly when
concentrations are low because a secondary fuel has to provide the majority of the
energy required to oxidize the contaminant (Chitwood et al., 2000).
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b)
Biological treatment systems
Biological treatment systems provide ecologically sensitive as well as cost
effective options because they mimic natural processes, require less resource intensive
operation and maintenance, and reduce or eliminate the need for additional treatment
of end products (Chitwood et al., 2000). These systems also meet the need for an
economical method for treating and controlling (Chitwood et al., 2000):
1. Low contaminants concentrations in waste air,
2. Odour removal,
3. Hazardous air pollutants,
4. Volatile organic compounds, and
5. Smog precursor emissions
c)
Activated carbon adsorption
Compounds are adsorbed onto the surface of carbon producing a very clean
effluent (Chitwood et al., 2000). However, the amount adsorbed per unit mass of
carbon is related to the concentration of the contaminant in the air (Chitwood et al.,
2000). Low concentrations cause a low adsorption rate; therefore, the amount of
carbon required per unit mass of contaminant becomes too large as concentrations
decrease (Chitwood et al., 2000).
d)
Clean technology
The ideal way to avoid the emission of pollutants is a complete recycling of all
materials in the complex ecosystem encompassing the whole world, but so far technology
does not allow for this (Figure H.1) (Johnsson, 1998).
Raw
materials
Production
Use
Disposal
Figure H.1: Traditional production process with emissions to the atmosphere (Johnsson,
1998).
Further, the energy consumption for a 100% recycling of material may be very high,
giving rise to high emissions from energy conversion processes and consequently an increase
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in total emissions (Johnsson, 1998). However, it is possible to reduce pollution emissions
from production, use and disposal of products by proper planning of the production processes
(Johnsson, 1998). The ultimate way to reduce emissions would be to recirculate all waste and
close the process completely or to use all waste and byproducts in other production processes
(Figure H.2) (Johnsson, 1998).
Raw materials
Production
Use
Disposal
Figure H.2: Clean technology, recirculation of waste materials (Johnsson, 1998).
217
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