THE LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENT IN THE

THE LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENT IN THE

THE LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENT IN THE

IMPLEMENTATION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN PRIMARY

SCHOOLS

MODIRWADI MAVIS MAHLOBOGOANE

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THE LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENT IN THE

IMPLEMENTATION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN PRIMARY

SCHOOLS

by

MODIRWADI MAVIS MAHLOBOGOANE

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

MAGISTER EDUCATIONIS in the

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MANAGEMENT AND POLICY STUDIES

Faculty of Education at the

UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA

Supervisor: Dr VP Mahlangu

Co-supervisor: Prof JL Beckmann

2013

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to the following:

 The Almighty God, for His love, the wisdom and strength He gave me to complete this research work.

 My husband Dr Plaatjie Mahlobogoane (Ph.D.), for his love, support and encouragement. Thank you for reading my work and providing me with assistance in structuring this dissertation.

 My supervisor, Dr VP Mahlangu, for his patience, guidance and support shown during my studies.

 Janine Smit, my language editor for the support given in editing this dissertation.

 My mother, brothers and sisters for taking care of my household while I was studying.

 Pastor Makubung and his wife Betty for their support and prayers.

 All the respondents that participated in the study.

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ABSTRACT

Reforms that have taken place in the South African education system since 1994 have led to changes in terms of how learning areas are taught in schools. There have been changes regarding the teaching of physical development activities in schools in recent years. Physical education as a subject was infused within life orientation (LO) as a learning area with physical development activities as one of the outcomes. The time to teach physical development activities has been reduced as other learning outcomes within LO have to be taught. This has led to situations where the teaching of physical development activities is undermined in many schools.

Pressure to perform well in learning areas such as mathematics and literacy makes educators to devote less time on the teaching of physical development activities. To a larger extent, financial resources on the other hand, are being directed to other learning areas due to pressure to conform to international education standards.

There is a need for school leaders to respond to new conditions of teaching. This research project deals with the leadership practices of heads of department (HODs) in the implementation of physical development activities. The study aims to investigate how HODs lead and manage the educators who teach physical development activities. Among other things, the study will focus on th e HODs‟ leadership styles relevant to the teaching of physical development activities. The study will also look at challenges they experience in their departments, training needs and how they keep balance between teaching and monitoring educators who teach physical development activities.

The researcher used qualitative research approach to collect information for the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two HODs and four educators in two primary schools. The findings indicate that lack of experience and specialisation in the teaching of physical development activities has an influence on the HODs leadership style. More support is needed in the teaching of physical development activities in order to boost the confidence of those who are teaching this part of the learning area. iv

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Deployment of staff members to the relevant positions is one of the priority areas. An implication for schools, particularly HODs and school management teams is that the teaching of physical development activities is as important as the teaching of other learning areas.

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KEY CONCEPTS

Fitness

Leadership roles

Leadership styles

Motor movement

Pedagogical content knowledge

Physical development activities

Physical education

Team work

Transformational leader

Transactional leader

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 1.1: Collegial Leadership Model

Figure 3.1: Collegial Leadership Model

Figure 3.2: Constituting Elements of Leadership Practice

Table 5.1: Identification of Participants

14

52

53

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................ III

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. IV

KEY CONCEPTS..................................................................................................... VI

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES ......................................................................... VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................ VIII

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 1

1.1

INTRODUCTION

.............................................................................................. 1

1.2

PROBLEM STATEMENT

.................................................................................. 1

1.2.1 R

ATIONALE

...................................................................................................................... 3

1.3

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

................................................................................. 4

1.3.1 M

AIN RESEARCH QUESTION

.............................................................................................. 4

1.3.2 R

ESEARCH SUB QUESTIONS

............................................................................................. 5

1.4

AIMS OF THE STUDY

...................................................................................... 5

1.5

LITERATURE REVIEW

..................................................................................... 6

1.5.1 M

ANAGEMENT OF TIME FOR PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

..................................... 8

1.5.2 T

EACHERS

QUALIFICATIONS

............................................................................................ 9

1.5.3 S

UPPORT SERVICES AND WORKSHOPS

........................................................................... 11

1.5.4 R

ESOURCES FOR PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

................................................... 12

1.5.5 T

HE ROLE OF AN

HOD

REGARDING CURRICULUM DELIVERY AND TEACHER SUPPORT

...... 12

1.6

WORKING ASSUMPTIONS

............................................................................ 13

1.7

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

....................................................................... 13

1.8

RESEARCH APPROACH

............................................................................... 15

1.9

RESEARCH DESIGN

..................................................................................... 16

1.10

SAMPLING

.................................................................................................... 17

1.11

DATA GENERATION METHODS

.................................................................... 17

1.11.1

SEMI STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

................................................................. 18

1.11.2

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS

................................................................................. 19

1.12

DATA ANALYSIS

........................................................................................... 19

1.13

DELIMITATION

.............................................................................................. 19

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1.14

LIMITATIONS

................................................................................................ 20

1.15

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

......................................................................... 20

1.16

TRUSTWORTHINESS

.................................................................................... 22

1.17

OVERVIEW OF THE DISSERTATION

.............................................................. 23

1.18

CONCLUSION

............................................................................................... 24

CHAPTER 2 THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ....... 25

2.1

INTRODUCTION

............................................................................................ 25

2.2

DEFINITION OF RELATED CONCEPTS

.......................................................... 26

2.2.1

P

HYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

.............................................................................. 26

2.2.2 P

HYSICAL EDUCATION

.................................................................................................... 26

2.2.3

P

HYSICAL FITNESS

......................................................................................................... 26

2.2.4 M

OTOR SKILLS

............................................................................................................... 26

2.3

THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

... 27

2.3.1 P

HYSICAL FITNESS

......................................................................................................... 28

2.3.2 M

OTOR MOVEMENT AND SKILLS

...................................................................................... 29

2.3.3 D

EVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY

....................................................................................... 31

2.3.4 S

OCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

......................................................................... 32

2.4

THE STATUS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE

INTERNATIONAL WORLD

............................................................................. 33

2.4.1 T

HE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE

USA ............................... 33

2.4.2 T

HE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN

E

UROPE

................................ 35

2.4.3 T

HE STATUS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN

S

OUTH

A

FRICA

......... 38

2.5

PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS AND COMPONENTS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL

DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

.......................................................................... 39

2.6

CONCLUSION

............................................................................................... 40

CHAPTER 3 LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF HODS TEACHING PHYSICAL

DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ................................................................................ 42

3.1

INTRODUCTION

............................................................................................ 42

3.2

DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

....................................................................... 42

3.3

THE IMPORTANCE AND ROLES OF LEADERSHIP

......................................... 44

3.3.1 D

EVELOPING SCHOOL VISIONS

....................................................................................... 46

3.3.2 C

OMMUNICATING VISIONS

.............................................................................................. 46

3.3.3 D

EVELOPING EDUCATORS

.............................................................................................. 47

3.4

THE IMPORTANCE OF TEAMWORK AND COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK

... 49

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3.5

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

....................................................................... 51

3.6

LEADERSHIP STYLES RELEVANT FOR THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL

DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

.......................................................................... 55

3.6.1 T

RANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

.................................................................................. 56

3.6.2 T

RANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP

........................................................................................ 57

3.7

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOLS

............................ 59

3.8

CONCLUSION

............................................................................................... 59

CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .................................. 60

4.1

INTRODUCTION

............................................................................................ 60

4.2

DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN (QUALITATIVE RESEARCH)

...... 60

4.3

CASE STUDY APPROACH

............................................................................. 61

4.4

SAMPLING OF PARTICIPANTS

...................................................................... 63

4.5

RESEARCH PROCESS

.................................................................................. 64

4.5.1 P

REPARING FOR THE INTERVIEW

.................................................................................... 64

4.5.2 S

EMI

-

STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

..................................................................................... 65

4.5.3 F

ORMAT AND CONTENT OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

......................................................... 66

4.5.4 P

ROCEDURES FOLLOWED

.............................................................................................. 69

4.5.5 D

OCUMENT ANALYSIS

.................................................................................................... 70

4.5.6 F

IELD NOTES

.................................................................................................................. 71

4.6

DATA ANALYSIS

........................................................................................... 72

4.7

TRIANGULATION

.......................................................................................... 73

4.8

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

......................................................................... 73

4.8.1 T

HE

U

NIVERSITY OF

P

RETORIA

P

ROCESS

...................................................................... 74

4.8.2 S

ECURING ACCESS

........................................................................................................ 74

4.8.3 I

NFORMED CONSENT

...................................................................................................... 75

4.8.4 C

ONFIDENTIALITY

........................................................................................................... 75

4.9

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

........................................................................ 75

4.10

CONCLUSION

............................................................................................... 76

CHAPTER 5 PRESENTATION OF DATA COLLECTED ....................................... 77

5.1

INTRODUCTION

............................................................................................ 77

5.2

DATA COLLECTED FROM EDUCATORS

....................................................... 79

5.2.1 F

ACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR PRESENTING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT LESSONS

.......... 79

5.2.2 C

ONTENT KNOWLEDGE

.................................................................................................. 82

5.2.3 C

OLLABORATIVE ACTIVITIES

........................................................................................... 84

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5.2.4 C

HALLENGES EXPERIENCED BY EDUCATORS

.................................................................. 85

5.3

DATA COLLECTED FROM HODS

................................................................... 87

5.3.1 S

UPERVISION AND MONITORING

..................................................................................... 88

5.3.2 L

EADERSHIP STYLES AND CHARACTERISTICS

.................................................................. 90

5.3.3 C

HALLENGES EXPERIENCED BY

HOD

S

........................................................................... 91

5.3.4 T

RAINING NEEDS

............................................................................................................ 92

5.3.5 K

EEPING THE BALANCE

.................................................................................................. 93

5.4

EMERGENCE OF NEW KNOWLEDGE

............................................................ 94

5.5

CONCLUSION

............................................................................................... 95

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................... 96

6.1

INTRODUCTION

............................................................................................ 96

6.2

SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT

.................................................... 96

6.3

RESEARCH FINDINGS

.................................................................................. 97

6.3.1 C

ONTENT KNOWLEDGE IN THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

.......... 97

6.3.2 T

IME ALLOCATED TO DEVELOP OTHER EDUCATORS

........................................................ 98

6.3.3 S

UPPORT STRATEGIES BY

HOD

S

................................................................................... 99

6.3.4 P

ERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

...... 100

6.3.5 M

ANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS USED BY

HOD

S

.............................................................. 101

6.3.5.1 M

ANAGEMENT PLANS

................................................................................................... 101

6.3.5.2 Moderation forms for tasks ........................................................................................ 102

6.3.5.3

Documents relating to educators’ appraisal .............................................................. 102

6.3.5.4 Lesson plan copies .................................................................................................... 102

6.3.5.5 Records for learner and teacher support materials ................................................... 103

6.4

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

...................................................................... 103

6.5

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

..................................................................... 103

6.6

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY

......................................................... 104

6.6.1 C

ONTENT KNOWLEDGE

................................................................................................ 104

6.6.2 T

IME TO DEVELOP OTHER EDUCATORS

......................................................................... 105

6.6.3 S

UPPORT STRATEGIES

................................................................................................. 105

6.6.4 D

EPLOYMENT OF STAFF MEMBERS TO THE RIGHT POSITIONS

........................................ 105

6.7

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER FUTURE STUDIES

...................................... 105

6.8

CONCLUSION

............................................................................................. 106

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................. 108

APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... 124

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The central point in this study is to look at the leadership practices of heads of department (HODs) in leading the teaching of physical development activities in primary schools. Physical development education has been incorporated in life orientation (LO) and it is one of the milestones. LO is a compulsory learning area offered in primary schools, grade seven and in high schools from grade eight to twelve, where learners gain skills through different learning outcomes to act positively on social dimensions and to grow in a mature way (Department of

Education, 2002). The teaching of this learning area in schools is based on the fact that it forms the basis of the holistic development of learners guided by learning outcomes which, among others, focus on physical development.

Physical education is a way of motivating learners to experiment with different physical development activities so that they can experience the joy of physical recreation throughout different stages of their lives (European Commission,

2013:24). Physical education is one of the learning outcomes for life skills in grade R to grade 6 as well one of the learning outcomes in grade 7 to 12. Physical education forms the foundation of all other learning areas, but it has not been given a fair status of recognition compared to other learning areas. HODs face many problems in managing and creating positive environments that support high provision of physical education. Despite government

‟s initiatives to improve the conditions of teaching physical education, many schools are still faced with problems in terms of providing quality physical education lessons (Rainer, Cropley, Jarvis and Griffiths, 2012:430).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

This study examines the leadership practices of heads of department (HODs) in the implementation of physical development activities in primary schools. The HODs are middle managers in schools and are responsible for the operational work of other

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educators (Cardno, 2006:455). HODs are subject leaders and must ensure that high quality physical education is provided (Pickup and Price, 2007:183). There are a number of sources outside the school system that support the teaching of physical development activities. Medical doctors and sports coaches suggest and prescribe exercising as a way to reduce stress and anxiety and treat weight problems. Children today are less active and gain more weight than ever before because of television, computers and video games (Arnold, 2000: 1). There is a connection between low levels of activity and obesity problems in children and youth and health professionals came up with strategies to improve young people‟s health and fitness (Luke, 2000;

Penney, 2001; Manley, 1996). Research shows that physical education programmes, even those with the least possible amount of physical activity, increase chances of surviving (Hardman, 2006; Hardman and Marshall, 2000; Prinsloo, 2007;

Stork and Sanders, 2000).

Gross motor and fine motor skills which include various skills such as running, jumping and climbing can be developed through the teaching of physical development activities. These skills help learners to take part in team sport. Similar to gross motor skills, fine motor skills can also be developed through the teaching of physical development activities. The ability to coordinate small muscle groups in the arms, hands and fingers is required for fine motor skills. The teaching of such activities helps learners to have drawing skills, keyboard skills and others (Ryan,

2008:3).

Piek, Baynam and Barrett (2006:2) reported that fine motor control is accepted to be of great significance for the academic and social domains. Children and adolescents with poor motor ability are in danger of facing social, emotional and behavioural difficulties that are linked to their inadequate motor ability. Early loco motor encounters are an important agent for developmental change and much attention should be paid to them (Piek, Baynam and Barrett, 2008:680).

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1.2.1 Rationale

With Curriculum 2005 new learning areas that were previously not taught were introduced. LO in grade 7 to 12 was one of these new learning areas. LO is a learning area that aims to provide learners with skills to cope with stress and to stay healthy to survive in basic future life. Examples of these survival skills include selfempowerment and playing skills, as well as participation in sport, games and recreation. Physical development became part of life orientation curriculum in order to help learners to realise themselves. Achieving this aim requires appropriate skills by educators leading and managing this learning area.

Being an HOD in the LO and life skills department for the past two years, I have observed that some educators ignore the teaching of physical development activities. In some instances educators teach only the theoretical part and ignore the practical part. I have concerns that in primary schools, out of the hundred per cent that need to be assessed, 50 per cent should cover physical development activities as required by the national curriculum statement (Department of Education, 2008:9).

I am concerned that this is undermined and wants to explore the possibility that

HODs may be experiencing challenges in managing educators who teach physical development activities as part of the LO and life skills curriculum. Educators may be lacking skills on how to practically teach this learning outcome, but at the same time, one may ask what is it that HODs are doing or can do to remedy the situation as managers in their respective departments.

Previous studies by Prinsloo (2007) and Van Deventer (2009) have investigated the implementation of life orientation in South African schools, but little has been said about the leadership practices of HODs in the management of teaching physical development activities in primary schools. On the other hand, studies by Bal‟ Sevich

(2005); Shoval, Elrich and Fejgin (2009) and Umalusi (2008) show that physical education is in crisis due to a lack of resources. The literature is lacking on the challenges that HODs face in the management of teaching physical development activities.

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I ask how, if educators are undermining the teaching of physical development activities, focusing too much on the other learning outcomes, HODs will effectively manage them and eventually how will the quality of teaching physical development activities be enhanced? As an HOD of LO and life skills, I am often confronted by teachers who need assistance in terms of how to manage learners when teaching physical development activities. I often find it difficult to assist them and problems are normally referred to LO specialists who are sent by the district officials. I find it difficult to assist because of my lack of confidence in the subject matter as I did not specialise in this subject at a tertiary institution. The one-day training received is not sufficient. Educators need someone who is constantly in touch and closer to reach during school hours. They need coaching from someone who is teaching from the same school as they may relate better and openly with their colleagues. This is not to say external help is unnecessary, but they need to relate to someone who is familiar with their school environment.

I became aware of the frustrations that LO and life skills educators are having when teaching physical development activities. It became very clear to me that the educators need guidance and a manager who will provide direction in managing them well. The educators need someone who is knowledgeable and skilful enough in order to help them cope with the challenges and demands of teaching the subject.

These challenges motivated me to have an interest in investigating what the experiences of HODs are in managing educators who teach physical development activities. According to MacMillan and Schumacher (1984:49), a research problem can emerge from personal experience. Out of personal experiences one can come up with research questions that may emerge through observations.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.3.1 Main research question

What are the leadership practices of HODs in managing the teaching of physical development activities in primary schools?

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1.3.2 Research sub questions

1.3.2.1 What is the knowledge of HODs like in managing educators who teach physical development activities?

1.3.2.2 What are HODs practices regarding support given to educators teaching physical development activities?

1.3.2.3 What are the strategies that are used by HODs in helping educators in the teaching of physical development activities?

1.3

.2.4 What are the HODs‟ perceptions regarding the teaching of physical development activities?

1.3.2.5 Which instruments do HODs use in managing educators who teach physical development activities?

1.4

AIMS OF THE STUDY

This study investigates the leadership practices of HODs in managing the teaching of physical development activities in primary schools. Currently, physical development activities are taught in all South African schools under different school settings in different communities. There are teachers who are teaching physical development activities in primary schools even though they did not specialise in teaching it. Physical development is one of the outcomes for life orientation and it is compulsory to teach it. HODs in schools are required to manage teachers in teaching this learning outcome.

The aims of this study are:

1.4.1 To understand how HODs are leading teachers in their departments so that there will be improvement in the culture of teaching and learning of physical development activities.

1.4.2 To provide information that can assist HODs on how to manage the teaching of physical development activities in primary schools.

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1.4.3 To clarify leadership and management issues regarding the teaching of physical development activities.

1.4.4 To identify ways in which effective leadership can be used to encourage life orientation educators to teach physical development activities.

1.4.5 To analyse the instruments that are used by HODs in leading and monitoring the teaching of physical development activities.

1.5

LITERATURE REVIEW

According to Magano (2011:120), one of the problems that South Africa faces since the implementation of life orientation as a compulsory subject is the application of what is taught in real life situations as to make sure that pedagogy has occurred.

Four learning outcomes in LO must be taught, including physical development activities as the focus of this study. The challenge that emerges is the kind of an educator who will teach all four learning outcomes in life orientation classes competitively in order to communicate knowledge and values to learners.

The governments of most European countries have pledged to make the teaching of physical education in schools possible, but they had problems in implementing this plan to schools. Shortcomings in the teaching of physical development activities provision is limited time allocated for the learning area, learning area and educator status, resource equity and skilled educator personnel (Hardman, 2006:163). In

South Africa physical education has been changed to the new physical development and movement (Department of Education, 2002:7). The ratio of one educator to fourty learners at primary school levels coupled with the work load involved in teaching physical education results in educators focusing on classroom-based academic based syllabi. In the South African system physical education has been reduced to a single learning outcome (Department of Education, 2002:6).

Teaching physical education appears to have a low rank. Hardman (2006:168) give reports from different countries regarding the status of teaching this learning area. In

Bulgaria lead educators are said to be busy with other commitments and are unable

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to take notice of the teaching of physical education. In Russia there is a shortage of appropriate equipment and financial support. In France physical education is just a responsibility to carry in order to pass examinations. In Luxembourg, physical education always comes after academic lessons. It is not regarded to be as important as other learning areas. In Norway educators just view it as a low status learning area, which leads to less time devoted to it. Physical education is regarded as play time in Italian primary schools. Legally it has the same status as any other learning area, but it is not treated with the same regard. Parents in Cyprus regard physical education as a waste of time and educators who teach physical education feel that the quality of their work is not fully recognised. The other sign of physical education given a low rank is the frequent cancellation of physical education lessons during exam preparation for other learning areas or in preparation of ceremonial occasions such as prize day practices, Christmas concerts and others (Hardman,

2006:169).

According to Magano (2011:126), learners in the research reported that they missed the physical education in their life orientation classes. The educator was less skilled to handle that learning outcome. This makes them educators that have general knowledge, but who lack expert skills (Van Deventer, 2008; Hardman, 2006).

Magano (2011:125) reports that there is a serious challenge for life orientation educators to meet all expected outcomes, especially physical development activities.

Similarly, research conducted in Finland suggest that regulations regarding weekly physical education lessons were not followed due to freedom of curriculum planning at schools (Hardman and Marshall, 2000:207). The Finnish government has introduced a new programme that aims to strengthen the teaching of physical education. A proposal has been made by the ministry of education to increase the amount of time devoted to providing physical education annually. This proposal will cover the teaching thereof throughout the compulsory education years, from the ages of one to nine as from the 2016/2017 school year. The proposed time increase will range from an average of 57 to 63 hours per week (European Commission,

2013:48).

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1.5.1

Management of time for physical development activities

According to Sedibe (2008:53) the life orientation time table is a problem at the school as it is not taken seriously as a compulsory learning area. Challenges arise because educators will be unable to finish their life orientation syllabi. There are educators who claim that life orientation is denied unlike other learning areas. In other instances educators are overloaded and have to teach many learning areas and preparation time for teaching life orientation is limited.

According to the National Curriculum Statement (2011), out of 4 hours allocated for the teaching of life skills in grade 4 to 6, one hour is allocated for the teaching of physical development activities while creative art and personal and social well being are allocated one and half hour each. In the senior phase that is in grade 7, out of the 2 hours allocated for the teaching of LO, one hour is prescribed for physical education (Department of Education, 2011). LO educators are not skilful enough regarding the subject matter of physical development activities (Van Deventer,

2009:14).

According to Umalusi (2008:6) LO is regarded as a filler subject for educators with fewer periods. They only need to look after the learners during such periods. This results in poor execution of physical development activity programmes due to insufficient training and time allocated for teaching.

Wenzel (2001:3) says that time devoted to LO is not enough for effective teaching and may lead to a prioritisation left to the discretion of the individual educator or school. The teaching of physical development activities may be neglected. Physical development activities are recommended for two periods of 30 minutes out of four periods in grade 7 and one and half periods out of four periods in life skills in a cycle of five days (Department of Education, 2011). With this limited time, it will not be possible to engage learners effectively.

This is a tendency seen in many parts of the world. More time is allocated when the learners are aged 9 to14, but as they grow older, less time is allocated or it becomes an optional learning area or no option at all (Stothard, 1997:23). Less time is

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allocated to physical education because educators lack experience, are concerned about safety and find it hard to deal with the social problems of learners. The issue of moving between classrooms and the gym area presents problems as educators do not have enough time to teach physical education (Fraser-Thomas and Beaudoin,

2002:254).

1.5.2

Teachers’ qualifications

Fiske and Ladd (2004) say that the progress of policy implementation in South Africa is hindered by a lack of management capacity and shortages of resources. It seems that life orientation is taught by educators that are not specialists in this field, which is an important cause for concern, since epistemology and skills of educators who teach learning areas determine the status and practice of that learning area.

Educators will feel bitter about teaching life orientation if they are not knowledgeable about the content (Van Deventer, 2009:128).

Most schools do not have qualified LO educators who can teach physical development activities. This impacts negatively on the way life orientation lessons are conducted in schools. Assessment of physical development activities becomes a problem to unskilled educators. Allowing any educator to teach physical development activities for the sake of filling the timetable may cause damage to the status of this learning area since some educators may be lacking skills to teach it.

Such educators may feel stressed and find themselves in stressful situations.

Allowing general educators to teach life orientation is equivalent to attaching little value to it as a subject (Van Deventer, 2009:140).

Teaching life orientation requires professionals who have to be trained on the level of today‟s standards. Knowledge of the intellectual interaction between educator, coach and student is important. Educators of physical development activities need to have thorough knowledge of the develo pments of the individual‟s physical potential, the skill necessary to bring out the learner‟s potential and to create appropriate programmes of physical and sport activity (Bal Sevich, 2005:89).

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Umalusi (2008: 6) mentions that LO lacks dedicated and qualified HODs. The quality of assessment tasks that are developed by educators at school level is very poor.

The majority of questions call for factual recall rather than the application of skills.

Unskilled educators award learners marks that cannot be accounted for in terms of physical development activities, even though learners were not afforded the opportunity to explore a wide variety of physical development activities relating to fitness, sport and recreation. The quality of internal moderation conducted at school is found to be wanting. Moderation at this level focuses on checking for compliance, e.g. the number of tasks and presentations of portfolios. The development and use of marking tools are found to be problematic in the majority of work submitted. In most cases marks allocated would not commensurate with the amount of work the task entailed (Umalusi, 2008:6).

Allowing unskilled educators to teach physical development activities create stressful situations for them, and make learners to lose confidence in those who conduct the learning area. This may convey to learners that the educator is not competent and is unqualified. They may question the importance of learning physical development activities when this part of the learning area is presented by unqualified educators.

Problems start showing up when the learning area is allocated to a new educator every year. Learners cannot see the value of life orientation, because schools undermine it by appointing unskilled educators to teach it. LO is viewed as a lower ranked learning area and educators do not see it as a problem yet. Planning for it differs and they lack time to do physical development activities due to more paper work to be done. Educators lack expertise in developing physical development activity rubrics (Van Deventer, 2008:135).

HODs have a crucial professional development responsibility to play in this regard.

They are responsible for providing direction and sharing visions as this is important for the development process. Leading by example to effect improvement is also important. Staff members will have to be encouraged by HODs to work together for the common goals of providing quality physical education in schools (Oho and

Ferreira, 2010:63).

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Reforms that took place in the education system of South Africa have resulted in some problems in the teaching of physical education. Restructuring of educator staff in public schools led to situations where most schools lost more educators in physical education than in other academic learning areas (Kloppers, 2000:3).

There is a range of higher education institutions that offer physical education degrees and diploma qualifications in the European region. There is a common practice of hiring specialist physical education educators in high schools and generalist educators at primary schools in Europe. There are cases where the generalist educators lack skills to conduct physical education lessons at primary schools in some countries. Providing training leads to problems such as reduced time allocated to teach physical development activities (Hardman, 2006:172).

In the research conducted by Prinsloo (2007:164) educators mentioned that they lacked specialised skills due to insufficient training on how to teach life orientation programmes. The training received on content knowledge was not enough as it was offered as a two to three day short course. Facilitators sent by the department were criticised for not having enough knowledge about didactic methods in the learning area.

1.5.3 Support services and workshops

Even though the educator may possess a teaching degree or diploma, one needs to consult with others in order to share the subject knowledge. Working together strengthens collaborative team-work among educators (Sedibe, 2008:54). Teamwork is essential in building a professional culture in schools. As educators learn to work together, they become more efficient and the quality of their work improves. Working together is the effective way of taking away the fear of having doubts on how to conduct lessons. The strength of any team lies in the fact that the members can complement one another. Working together as a team improves the morale, values, turnover, improve job satisfaction and leads to increased productivity (Steyn and

Niekerk, 2008:104).

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Professional experts play several important roles, such as supporting principals in monitoring the quality of physical development activity programmes, encouraging a link between the school and communities, supplying physical education resources and assisting often marginalised physical education educators (Fraser-Thomas and

Beaudoin, 2002:252). This refers to the officials sent by the Department of Education in schools for monitoring progress and for supporting schools in areas where development is needed.

1.5.4 Resources for physical development activities

Many schools do not have indoor physical education facilities. School budgets are mostly allocated to buy computers and other equipment. Schools lack financial resources to maintain physical development activity buildings and to construct new sporting facilities. Facilities and equipment problems are largely experienced in rural schools as compared to urban schools. Many schools do not have sport halls while playing fields are not properly maintained with unstructured drainage problems. In cases where school halls are used physical education is cancelled during examination times. (Hardman, 2006:171).

Fraser-Thomas and Beaudoin (2002:258) reported that educators had to travel to nearby areas where there are physical development activity facilities in order to experience active learning, movement activities and outcomes. For example, practising swimming activities will require learners to travel away from their schools.

Large classes present another problem for educators. The workloads of educators make them unwilling to take risks in trying new things.

1.5.5 The role of an HOD regarding curriculum delivery and teacher support

According to Rainer, Cropley, Jarvis and Griffiths (2012:436), it is the responsibility of HODs to ensure that enough time is available within the curriculum for the teaching of physical development activities. Educators need to be motivated and this requires commitment from HODs to ensure that physical education is not valued less

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than other academic learning areas. The HODs‟ role is to support educators by assisting them to improve their pedagogical skills.

It is also essential to create time for educators teaching physical development activities to come together and work collaboratively through the sharing of ideas. In providing support, HODs need to organise time for meetings with physical development activity educators. This will give the team members a chance to get guidelines on how assessment procedures should be carried out. HODs need to constantly supervise the work of educators and also evaluate progress made. Where necessary HODs should provide support through demonstrations of how lessons can be conducted (Rainer, et al, 2012:14).

1.6

WORKING ASSUMPTIONS

During the research it will be assumed that HODs are experiencing challenges in managing educators who are teaching physical development activities due to the observation that educators teach only what they are comfortable with. The researcher is interested in finding out and exploring the possibility that HODs are struggling to ensure that educators help learners in discovering themselves - not only through teaching the theoretical part, but also doing practical activities as outlined by the assessment policy document of the Department of Education.

1.7

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This study is going to borrow concepts from the collegial theory. The concepts that this study is going to use are teamwork, planning together and viewing others opinions.

“Educators sometimes explain their decisions as just common sense.

However, such pragmatic decisions are often based on implicit theories. Theory serves to provide the rationale for decision making

”. It may not be sufficient to rely on facts without having a framework of basing such facts. All evidence requires interpretation (Bush, 1994:34).

According to Bolman and Deal as cited in Bush and West-Burnham (1994: 34) managers can intensify their effectiveness through the use of various view points.

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Therefore the main theory that will be used in this study will be collegial theory, supplemented by the concept of accountability to increase the effectiveness in leadership practices of HODs.

Figure 1.1: Collegial Leadership Model

Devolution of power

Empowerment

Stake- holders

Shared leadership

Shared decision- making

Collegial leadership model (Adapted from Singh,2005:12)

Collegial theory will be relevant to this study, as it focuses on the process that involves sharing power with educators and other members of the school community to make them important part of the leadership process of the school (Sergiovanni,

1991:26). Through collegiality the best can be extracted from people (Lofthouse,

1994:6). Collegial models characterise decision making as a participative process with all members of the institution having an equal opportunity to take decisions that are binding to each of them (Becher and Kogan, 1980:67).

In the context of HODs managing the teaching of physical development activities the relevance of this theory will be seen where the four pillars of collegiality are used collectively to shape the school climate. These pillars are devolution of power, empowerment, shared decision making and shared leadership. In collegial theory,

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leaders share power with team members in order to have common knowledge of the school‟s objectives. Lowering the hierarchy of power leaders can empower others.

With empowerment comes accountability and in a collegial model, the concept of shared decision making. Collegial relationships require team members to share leadership roles (Singh, 2005:12).

Bureaucracy relies on standardised work procedures for control purposes. Tasks are grouped into functional departments under a centralised system of authority (Robins,

1988:489). HODs in their departments need to be accountable to all the stakeholders of the school.

1.8

RESEARCH APPROACH

I will use a qualitative research approach. The methodology of the interpretive researchers is described as qualitative. The data collected will be in the form of fieldwork notes, transcripts and reports of conversations. Qualitative data is usually richer in language sense than positivist data (Merriam, 1988:39).

“To the interpretive researcher, the descriptions of human actions are based on social meanings; people living together interpret meanings of each other and these meanings change through social interactions

”. Instead of the positivist view of there is reality out there, it is observers who are out there, and by observing may change what they are trying to observe (Merriam, 1988:39).

Bogdan and Biklen (2003:3) contend that in education, qualitative research is frequently called naturalistic because researchers often visit areas where the events they are researching about occur naturally. The data is generated by people engaging in natural behaviour. There are features that help to define qualitative research. Firstly, in a qualitative research, the researcher is the key instrument who enters and spends more time in schools learning about educational phenomena. In qualitative studies, the researchers study particular phenomena because they are interested in it. Secondly, qualitative researchers try to analyse the data with all of their richness. The written word is very important in qualitative approach (Bogdan and Biklen, 2003:3).

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1.9

RESEARCH DESIGN

Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2005: 181) states that a case study gives examples of real people in real life situations. The emphasis in this study will be on HODs in the school environment as lead educators in physical development activity departments.

A case study design will be used in this study. This means that the data analysis will focus on one phenomenon in order to understand it in detail no matter how many sites or participants (MacMillan and Schumacher, 1993:375). It will be an intrinsic type of a case study in which the researcher has a personal interest in knowing what the leadership practices of HODs in school are in the implementation of physical development activities. It will be an educational case study where documents such as official memos, policy documents, minutes and HODs files will be studied. In an intrinsic case study the researcher examines the case for its own sake (Zainal,

2007:4). In this study, two HODs who are managing the educators who teach physical development activities in primary schools will be studied. The study will focus on one phenomenon - that is the process of managing the educators who are teaching physical development activities in primary schools.

Basic features of a case study that make it an appropriate method for this research are as follows:

A case study is concerned with rich and intensely deep written presentations of things that happened in a case.

It gives record of events as happened in a case arranged orderly.

It focuses on individual actors or a group of actors, and seeks to understand their view of events.

It emphasises identified events that are connected to the case.

An effort is made to describe the case in detail and writing up the report (Cohen,

Manion and Morrison, 2000:182).

Because the primary instrument in qualitative case study research is humans, all interviews and analysis are filtered through one‟s values and perspectives. “The

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underlying principles of a case study are that reality is not an objective entity, rather, there are multiple explanations of reality

” out there (Merriam, 1988:39).

1.10 SAMPLING

Since the research will be a case study, only two schools from the same school district will be studied. The schools will be chosen based on having the same characteristics or similarities. It will be both urban schools who accommodate learners from similar socio-economic background (working class families), although not equal in size.

The sampling method that will be used is purposeful sampling. According to

MacMillan and Schumacher (1993:378) in purposeful sampling, the researcher studies events in details. The participants are chosen because they possess an insight and understanding about a particular event of management or others. The purpose is to interview HODs and educators teaching physical development activities because they have information to share based on their experiences.

Four life orientation educators and two HODs who teach physical development activities in primary schools will be participating and is the focus of this study. In the first school the participants will comprise of one female HOD with two educators. In the second school the participants will comprise of one male HOD and two educators. Their ages may range between 25 and 45 years. The reason for choosing one male and one female is to ensure that opinions from both genders are represented. The HODs will also be chosen on the basis of having approximately more or less the same amount of experience as life orientation HODs in their schools. Educator participants will be those working in the same department with their HODs.

1.11 DATA GENERATION METHODS

Bogdan and Gall (1993: 203) say that a case study involves more than one data sources. I will use interviews and document analysis. These methods will help to triangulate data.

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1.11.1 Semi structured interviews

Interviews imply direct discussions between the researcher and research participant in order to search for an understanding into problems encountered (Rule and

Vaughn

, 2011:64). Research interviews assume that the individual‟s perspective is an important part of the way in which society lives together and of our integrated knowledge and of our joint knowledge of social processes and of the human condition (Henning, Van Rensburg and Smit, 2004:50). The purpose of interviewing is to allow us to enter into the participant‟s perspective. Participants are interviewed so that we can find out what is on their minds; to gather their stories about things that cannot be observed effectively by other means (Patton, 2002:341).

The interviews will be characterised by 30- to 45-minute conversations with each participant. A recorder will be used after an agreement has been made with participants so that the researcher can transcribe the tapes to analyse common themes from descriptions of HODs‟ and educators‟ experiences. The interview will be conducted in three stages.

In the first stage the researcher will introduce herself and explain the purpose of the interview. Permission to use a tape recorder will be requested during this stage. The actual interview will be conducted during the second stage. In the last stage the researcher will negotiate with the participant if there will be a follow-up interview to clarify issues that might have arisen from the interview. The participant will also be assured on the importance of sharing information with the academia.

Interviewing participants will assist in gathering detailed information in the participants‟ own words. This will help the researcher to have an understanding on how participants explain the meaning of things and to understand how participants think. The researcher will try to understand the case within the context of the participants‟ experience.

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1.11.2 Document Analysis

Documents are used for content value, as well as historical value. Collection of documents is a valuable source of information in qualitative research. All that the researcher needs to see is the connection between such documents and the research question (Henning et al., 2004:98). Documents are a rich source of information about organisations. The documents selected provide the researcher with information about things that cannot be observed and that might have happened before the research began. Documents can disclose goals or decisions that might be unknown to the researcher (Patton, 2002:293). Documents such as personnel files and minutes for departmental meetings will be used as an important source in concept analysis (MacMillan and Schumacher, 2001:42). Life orientation policy documents will also be analysed as they provide us with guidelines for everyday teaching of activities.

Documents produced by the two selected schools will be used in combination with interview transcripts to triangulate data. The information obtained from official documents such as minutes from meetings and memos will be studied and organised into emerging themes in order to help answer the main research question.

1.12 DATA ANALYSIS

Content analysis will be used. Participants will be interviewed and a tape recorder will be used to record the interviews. The researcher will listen to the recorded material, and then transcribe the data. This will later be organised for easy retrieval making sure that participants cannot be identified via any information. This will be followed by the process of organising data into themes. Lastly, data will be coded to identify common themes (Lacey and Luff, 2001:13). A list of key codes will be used to formulate categories and place them in appropriate sections (Raikane, 1986:46).

1.13 DELIMITATION

Simon (2011) says delimitations are restrains that researchers put prior to the beginning of the study to narrow its scope. The study is delimited to Tshwane South

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District in Eastern Pretoria and limited to primary school HODs and educators who manage the teaching of physical development activities.

1.14 LIMITATIONS

Labaree (2013) says limitations are circumstances that restrict the scope of the study or may affect the outcome and cannot be controlled by the researcher. The limitation in this research is that the district of Tshwane South only allows researchers to collect data during the first, second and third quarter of the year due to the busy schedules of schools during the fourth term. During the fourth quarter of the year, learners are writing final examinations while educators work on a busy schedule to assess learners. As a result of assessment activities and reports that have to be submitted to the district offices the Department of Education does not allow any studies to be conducted during this term of the year.

Interviews can only be conducted in the afternoons when normal class teaching will not be interrupted. This can happen at a time when the HODs and educators are exhausted from their hard day‟s work. Limitations with regard to the document analysis are that data may be restricted to what already exists in officially produced documents by the two schools. Documents such as departmental meetings may present one view point of what was happening in the organisation. In order to overcome these limitations the researcher will request participants to choose a suitable time for them to be interviewed. Data from interviews will be compared and contrasted to data from documents used in order to overcome these limitations.

1.15 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

The researcher will apply for permission to conduct the research to the Gauteng

Department of Education and for ethical clearance from the University of Pretoria.

Tshwane South District will also be approached to obtain permission to conduct the studies in their schools. The next step will be to approach principals of sampled schools. When principals of concerned schools have agreed, life orientation HODs as well as educators in their departments will also be approached.

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All subjects will be fully informed of the purposes of the research and given a completely free choice in participation. All subjects have an inherent right to privacy.

It is the responsibility of the researcher to remove all personal identifying information from written reports. The researcher is obliged to report exactly what the findings of the research are. It must not mislead in anyway (Aray, Jacobs and Razavieh,

1990:479).

Bassey (1999:74) says researchers are expected to be truthful in data collection, analysing and reporting of findings. Participants will not be intentionally deceived.

The researchers will recognise participants‟ ownership of data when taking it from participants and will treat them with respect as they are fellow human beings who are entitled to dignity and privacy. Disguising people or places may not be easy because people working within the institution are likely to recognise their colleagues in a disguised report, particularly those with senior responsibilities. Ethics require that a subject has the freedom to choose whether to participate, thus the researcher will honour a subject‟s refusal to participate or request to drop out of study at any time.

It will be unethical for the researcher to later change any of the ground rules that were established at the beginning of the study and may have influenced the subject‟s decision to participate. It can only be changed by mutual, free consent. The participants will be provided with information about the nature and purposes of the study and resolve any misunderstandings. The participants will be protected from harm, which may include increased feelings of insecurity or loss of respect. Subjects should not suffer in any way as a result of their participation. The researcher is responsible for protecting the subject‟s privacy. Data will be confidential. Where data is to be shared, participants‟ names or initials will not be used on data reports. The procedure used to protect data will be explained to subjects as part of obtaining informed consent (Cates, 1985:140).

In ho nouring the participants‟ privacy, the researcher will find a way to recruit them in such a manner that they will have an opportunity to choose to participate, especially if participants may not want the researcher to know some details about them. A letter of consent must provide the details of the interview e.g. how long it will take, when, where and how if possible. The issue of anonymity will not only extend to writing, but

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also to verbal reporting of information. The researcher will not link specific information about individuals to others and will be very careful of sharing information in political or personal ways. Subjects will be treated with respect, they will not be lied to and no mechanical devices will be hidden to record conversations. The researcher will abide by the terms of the permission contract. If some materials are not for publication, the researcher will respect that. The most important issue will be to tell the truth about when writing a report. (Aray et al. 1990:479).

1.16 TRUSTWORTHINESS

Bassey (1999: 76) lists factors that must be taken into consideration to ensure trustworthiness. I will consider some of these factors in this study. Since a case study is a kind of inquiry where participants are studied in their natural setting, this will require the ethic of respect for truth. The following factors will be considered to ensure trustworthiness concept:

More time will be spent on a case in order to immerse in its issues, build the trust of those who provide data and try to avoid misleading ideas.

Much focus will be put on searching for tentative salient features of the case and then focusing attention on them to gain some understanding.

After an interview the interview report will be taken back to the interviewee to check that it is an accurate record and that the interviewee is willing for it to be used in the research. This provides an opportunity to put records straight.

Triangulating data from different sources or from the same source, but through different methods of inquiry. This will help to strengthen confidence in statements.

The case record should provide an adequate audit trail. This will be recorded systematically and kept by the researcher, which will allow an auditor to check stage by stage on the research in order to confirm that the information is accurate (Bassey, 1999:76).

The report will be given to members of the same sample in order to check the accuracy of the work. This will be done during the interview by rephrasing

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information or probing it to determine accuracy (MacMillan and Schumacher,

2001:410).

1.17 OVERVIEW OF THE DISSERTATION

This dissertation is divided into the following chapters:

Chapter 1: Introduction. It explains the problem statement, rationale, research questions, research design and methodology. The chapter also explains ethical considerations as well as trustworthiness.

Chapter 2: The teaching of physical development activities. This chapter provides a discussion on the importance of teaching physical development activities in the international world as well as pedagogical aspects of teaching physical development activities.

Chapter 3: Leadership practices of HODs teaching physical development activities.

The chapter investigates the importance and roles of leadership, teamwork and collaborative framework. Leadership styles and guidelines for effective leadership are discussed.

Chapter 4: Research design and methodology. This chapter covers the research methods that were used in this study.

Chapter 5: Presentation of data collected. This chapter presents the research findings and the emergence of new knowledge.

Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations. Chapter 6 provides conclusions from findings as well as recommendations for further studies.

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1.18 CONCLUSION

In this chapter, the rationale as well as the aims and objectives of the study were outlined. The researcher explained how the methodology part will be unfolding. The researcher‟s interest in the study is to investigate the leadership practices of HODs in the teaching of physical development activities. This chapter gave a general summary of how the research process will unfold. Chapter 2 will present the background and scope of the study.

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CHAPTER 2

THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

2.1

INTRODUCTION

The teaching of physical development activities is perceived differently by different people. Those educators who teach the subject often describe it as an important subject dedicated to learning psychomotor skills and developing lifetime activity patterns. Some people think of physical development activities simply as athletics, while others see it as recess or free playtime. To some it is meaningful, while others regard it as a less than satisfactory experience (Pangrazi and Beighle, 2010:2).

Schools have been identified as important places for the direct and indirect promotion of physical development activities during different times of the day.

Physical education is the formal, organised school context for physical development a ctivity promotion through learners‟ engagement in appropriate activity levels during lessons (Mersh and Fairclough, 2010:30).

The teaching of physical education has always been connected with the improvement of health. The way in which health has been constituted has been changed over time and for different social groups. For many the link between inactivity and ill health provided the means to argue for an approach to physical education that focused on addressing the controversial issue of living an inactive lifestyle. Participation in physical activity by learners is deteriorating and this demands careful considerations of their health. Physical education is assumed to be accountable to address the low level of activity by providing opportunities for various activities during lessons (Gard and Wright, 2001:535).

With increasing numbers of people suffering from diseases, the high percentage of obesity among young people and a rise in lifestyles with no physical activity, understanding the factors leading to low levels of activity in young people is of great importance (Dagkas and Stathi, 2007:370).

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2.2

DEFINITION OF RELATED CONCEPTS

2.2.1 Physical development activities

Physical development activities are activities through movement. They are activities that address all learning domains such as psychomotor, cognitive and effective

(Pangrazi et al., 2010:2).

2.2.2 Physical education

Burgeson (2011) says “physical education is the curricular area that teaches about physical activity

”. According to Harrison, Blakemore and Buck (2001:15) physical activity can be defined as “the study, appreciation and practice of the art and science of human movement”.

2.2.3 Physical fitness

Physical fitness is considered to be the

“ability to perform daily tasks without undue fatigue and to process ample reserves of energy for the recreational pursuits and emergency needs

” of a person (Gallahue, 1993:9).

2.2.4 Motor skills

Motor skills include gross motor abilities and fine motor skills. Gross motor abilities are skills such as running, jumping and climbing. These skills help learners to take part in team sport. Fine motor skills require the ability to coordinate small muscle groups in the arms, hands and fingers. The teaching of such activities helps learners to have drawing skills, keyboard skills and others (Ryan, 2008:3).

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2.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

The primary purpose of education in general is to help each learner to develop to his or her potential. This potential includes the development of a chi ld‟s cognitive skills of thinking, learning and communicating through ideas (Kirchner, 1978:4).

The fact that physical development activities are designed to help learners learn how to maintain an effective lifestyle makes the teaching of this a necessary part of the school curriculum. Learners need to be taught academic as well as physical subjects. The physical side of life is essential and educational leaders must emphasise it. This will offer learners opportunities to learn to achieve physical development skills regardless of their abilities or skill levels (Pangrazi et al., 2010:2).

The school is the right place to begin plans to promote physical activity and sport participation, since school is an important part of the life of learners. The teaching of physical development activities promotes intentional activity, as well as desire to engage in sports activities (Liersch et al., 2011:329).

Researchers and professionals in the field of education, public health and medicine have acknowledged the importance of the classroom as the setting in which learners can acquire skills in activity. Research studies propose that including physical development a ctivities in classrooms improve learners‟ on-task behaviour and academic skills. Dedicating time to physical activities during the school day does not take away the value of academic performance (Erwin, et al., 2011:456).

Physical activity has assumed an increasingly noticeable role in preventing childhood disease owing to the increase in the wide spread cases of childhood obesity. With learners spending a considerable number of hours per week at school, more opportunities for physical activities are required (Huberty et al., 2011:251). The formal aims of physical education differ between countries and organisations, but generally reference is made to developing physical (motor skills), psychological (selfefficacy), cognitive (knowledge) and social (communication) skills to enable learners to fully engage in physical activities (Mersh and Fairclough, 2010:30).

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The objectives for teaching physical development activities will be discussed under the following headings: physical fitness; motor movement and skills; development of creativity and social and emotional development.

2.3.1 Physical fitness

A child‟s health and physical fitness are influenced by the quality of his or her movement skills. Physical activity influences a child‟s growth patterns and resistance to disease in a positive way. The child‟s emotional health is influenced by his or her natural joy in movement. Better physical health in turn has implications for the child‟s ability to concentrate on a task (Moore, 1979:13). Avoiding fitness is equivalent to avoiding important lifestyles for adulthood. Certainly children are taught basic principles such as brushing their teeth to avoid decay, and it is worth it to allow them to take a few minutes each day to assure their overall health will not decay.

Physical fitness is an easy commodity to sell to our children. One could ask whether children are healthy or not because of the level of inactivity as a result of media that is keeping them busy. They are not receiving enough fitness enhancing activity during play, or experiences to develop an adequate level of fitness (Pangrazi and

Hastad, 1986:2).

There have been substantial efforts by the physical education professions to convince the public of the importance of exercise and physical fitness in children.

Physically fit children do not show undue fatigue in daily activities and have sufficient reserves for emergencies (Kirchner, 1978:5).

Usual participation in physical development activities is associated with better quality of life and reduced risks of a variety of diseases. Research has shown that disability, death and reduced quality of life are caused by low levels of inactivity across the developed world. If learners participate in physical development activities it helps in reducing health factors such as diabetes, blood pressure, bone health, obesity and heart disease, as well as premature death. Regular participation in physical

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development activities helps reduce stress, anxiety and depression (Bailey,

2006:398).

Even though many parents still fear that physical development activities in schools may interfere with the business of schooling, there are benefits in terms of expanding learners

‟ levels of career awareness. In the fields of arts and sports one can become a photographer, a worker designing clothes for athletes or a worker filming practices and games. In the field of math and sports one can collect, analyse and interpret sports data, handle ticket sales and more. In the field of science and sport one can become a sport and fitness nutritionist or an athletic trainer. In the English and sport fields one can report sport news, scores and event information (Beale and Jacobs,

2004: 117).

2.3.2 Motor movement and skills

According to Miller and Whitcomb (1969:5) the development of motor skills forms an important objective within the teaching of physical development activities. There is a need for learners to learn to understand and control their body movements.

Locomotive movements such as running, jumping, hopping, etc., as well as nonlocomotive movements such as stretching, twisting, pulling, etc. all help the child to be creative and experience fun. Participating in a well-planned progressive programme of physical activities is one of the most satisfying experiences a learner can have (Arnheim and Pestolesi, 1978:4). In order to perform movement activities it is important to structure practice exercises for learners (Zipp and Gentile, 2010:35).

Acquiring proficiency in motor skills is an important objective of physical education, because it is basic to the success of the programme.

Children need to develop the skills of different physical development activities to ensure physical fitness. According to Gallahue (1993:5) denying learners a chance to enjoy the benefits of regular healthy physical activity is equivalent to denying them a chance to encounter the joy of maximum movement, the health benefits of physical development activities and a lifetime as confident and capable movers. All movements that are used in everyday activities such as walking, climbing, etc. are essential for motor development. Assisting children in acquiring such motor skills will

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make them skilful in many physical activities and therefore they will not only experience a great deal of enjoyment through participation, but also will usually keep up with the activities for many years (Kirchner, 1978:5).

Human bodies are made for a variety of motor responses and all learning is expressed in some form of motor response. Learners these days have little opportunity to climb a big tree or skip stones across a river, so such opportunities can be accomplished through a programme of physical development activities designed for realising acceptable individual outcomes. Physical education is an important phase of education (Arnheim, 1978:4).

According to Moore (1978:9) movement education has many meanings. Movement means life. Children attribute life to all moving things and not only in their own movements. Piaget found that the young child attributes life to activity in general, then to movement and to plants and animals. Movement means self-discovery.

Through locomotion independence is discovered. Movement means freedom. This refers to the freedom to expand oneself through creative body expressions.

Movement also means communication where children use body language to express ideas, feelings and desires. Lastly movement means acceptance. Controlled movement means a mastery of rhythm, coordination, acceptance and success. If movement means so much to the developing child, this justifies the study of movement education in the day to day education of our children.

Current studies suggest a link between intellectual functioning and regular physical activity for adults and children. Physical development activities can improve academic performance by increasing the flow of blood to the brain, enhancing mood, increasing mental alertness and improving self-esteem (Bailey, 2006:399). There is evidence that regular exercise can change the psychological wellbeing of children and adults in a good way. Regular exercise is positively associated with good mental health. The benefits include low levels of stress, anxiety and depression (Baile,

2005:82).

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2.3.3 Development of creativity

Physical education can contribute to the development of creativity in learners.

Through creativity a learner can increase his or her ability to enjoy life and to solve everyday problems more readily. Opportunities for the development of creative skills are often easier to create in physical education classes than in other classes if education recognises the possibilities offered by the programme (Fait, 1971:4).

Contemporary education stresses the development of creativity at all levels of public education. In physical education, creativity can be defined in relation to the way in which a series of movements is performed, or by the degree of inventiveness of movement (Kirchner, 1978:7).

Physical development activities provide children with the opportunity to develop creativity. Children‟s effort to create movement is regarded as motor creativity. The link between movement and thinking is very important in young children, because through this educators of physical development activities can model creative thinking behaviour and encourage experimentation as one of the teaching methods. In this way the quality of their creative thinking skills may be improved. Movement is a powerful tool to promote creativity. Physical development activities involve some level of thinking and there is a connection between moving, thinking and creativity

(Zachopoulou, 2006:287).

While performing movement activities children learn to make decisions about such movement activities and this fosters in them the ability to take responsibility for their own behaviour. Creative thoughts are aspects of abilities such as making decision, finding answers, solving problem and others, which will be used later in other areas of life. The origin of this is through engagement in physical development activities. If teachers foster creative thinking from an early age in school, the children will also learn the basic skills such as identifying problems, understanding how to solve problems, planning, decision making as well as evaluation for success. These are all relevant to help them survive in the future. So it is important to teach them to be creative through movement from an early age (Lodewyk, 2009:13).

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2.3.4 Social and emotional development

Physical education offers opportunities for social learning and the development of emotional maturity. The skills learned through physical activities include emotional control, self-respect, appreciation abilities, good peer relationship, respect for self and others, etc. Simple play will not result in emotional development, but practice opportunities created by the educator will give children a chance to develop emotionally (Fait, 1971:5).

During play children increase their social competence and emotional growth.

Socialisation is a continuous process that takes place throughout one‟s lifetime. This makes it important to create opportunities for learners to develop social skills during their early primary years. Schools play an important role to influence the process of social development in learners. Learners develop socially through interactions they make during play with others. They learn movement skills and cooperation while playing. Engaging learners in physical activities give them a chance to learn positive behaviour such as team work, self-control and fair play (Johnston, 2010:27).

Emotionally fit children are valuable assets in communities as they possess a deep sense of group consciousness and co-operative living. Physical education through team games and other group activities can foster desirable social behaviour.

Characteristics such as co-operation and competition may be developed through sports; leadership may be developed, as well as the ability to follow. Other social qualities such as fair play, honesty, respect and understanding can be realised through physical play (Kirchner, 1978:6).

According to the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2007), learners learn key concepts such as defeating opponents, correct replicating, exploring and communicating ideas, performing at high levels, solving problems as well as exercising safely and effectively.

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2.4 THE STATUS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN

THE INTERNATIONAL WORLD

Physical education lessons offer learners different experiences from those provided in other learning areas. Physical Education lessons are mostly taught outside the classroom in a different (recreational) context and physical experiences and mastering of physical skills may contribute to a learner‟s sense of achievement

(Kjonniksen, Fjortoft and World, 2009:140).

However, Hardman and Marshall (2000:207) noted that the teaching of physical development activities is not done according to the guidelines concerning the weekly lessons of physical education. The importance of teaching physical development activities as a major learning area has been taken for granted for some time. It is not taken serious and many schools do not adhere to the requirements of offering it. A lot depends on the attitude of head teachers. The school management team do not monitor its teaching on a regular basis like other learning areas.

Physical education plays an important role in children‟s lives. As early as the preschool years, through physical play children learn basic skills such as problem solving and communication. These are some of the skills that will be used later in life as they grow older. Getting used to the habit of doing physical development activities from an early age helps learners to live active lives.

2.4.1 The teaching of physical development activities in the USA

According to the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2004) learners must be able to show the ability to perform motor movements and patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities; to be able to show an understanding of movement activities, principles and strategies as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities; take part in regular physical activity; achieve and maintain a health enhancing level of physical fitness; show responsible personal and social behaviour that respect self and others in physical activity and

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regard physical activity or health, enjoyment and social interaction as important

(Pangrazi et al., 2010:225).

In the USA, physical education in schools was included as part of the curriculum in the 1800s. The Cincinnati School in Ohio was the first city school to offer a physical education programme to children. In 1866 California became the first state to pass a law requiring exercise periods in public schools twice daily. In the 1990s there have been reports about inactive lifestyles and obesity that sought physical education as the major vehicle for improving the health and fitness of the nation‟s children

(Mitchell, 2003:1892).

In the USA, school accountability gave rise to the need for national assessment

(testing) and standards. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act mandates the standardisation of test scores in order to focus on raising standards. The NCLB Act is a federal rule that has shifted power away from educators, parents and local community members and towards corporate and political leaders at the state and federal levels. The NCLB is market driven and schools face severe penalties for failing to increase test scores (Hursh, 2005:608). Critics of NCLB argue that the increased emphasis on achievement test performance has had some negative consequences, such as the negligence of physical education in order to prepare learners for the all-important achievement tests in maths and reading. The pressure on schools to perform well on academic achievement tests is likely to lead them to decrease time spent in physical education, along with other extra-curricular subjects to devote more time to maths and reading (Sibley and Lemasurier, 2002:66).

California has ordered 200 minutes of physical education every ten school days in grade one to six and 400 minutes in grade seven to twelve, but very few students experience these amounts. Those who argue in favour of physical education express strong disapproval of school districts to direct allocated physical education health funds to other uses and pay little attention to physical education. There have been concerns about Illinois district officials not enforcing daily physical education. The states of Wisconsin and Michigan have laws that allow interscholastic athletics to substitute for the physical education requirement. Reading arithmetic is treated as more important than physical education. There is often a waiver to the mandated

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number of hours to be spent on physical education activities and classes are frequently cancelled. Physical education educator s don‟t need to be highly qualified.

At times physical education lessons are taught in classrooms because the facilities like a gym may be reserved for other use. The physical education programmes are often poorly run and educators fail to provide meaningful physical development experiences (Hardman, 2008:18).

Physical education is often dropped to make way for other subjects, or at best there is minimal provision. Government education policy is concerned with numeracy and improved literacy issues. . Many hours of physical education are sacrificed to give maths and literacy more time. Time to teach physical education is affected. There are differences in the way in which physical education programmes are provided daily in schools. Mandatory physical education is almost not realistic. Many school districts want to surrender the privilege of conducting physical education. There is an assumption that much of the work carried out in physical education is either recreation or could be carried out by sports instructors (Hardman and Marshall,

2000:210).

2.4.2 The teaching of physical development activities in Europe

According to Kirk (2005:239) physical education has been the target of a government sponsored initiative to a larger extent. Over one billion pounds of public money was provided to developments in physical education, school and youth sport during the second term of office of the Blair government. Policy documents fail to address problems relating to how physical education is conducted to learners. For learners to continue with physical activity through adult life depends on early learning experiences. Other communities are unable to access quality physical education experiences in schools. Young children from lower socio economic groups in larger numbers are unable to experience quality learning experiences as compared to children from higher socio economic groups. There is no doubt that the school should be the right place to promote physical activity and appropriate long-term health behaviours, as they have access to young people for a large portion of their day (Waring and Warburton, 2007:26).

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Reduced hours in the teaching of physical education are worsened by the amount of work that primary educators do. More time is sent on numeracy and literacy in the primary school curriculum. This results in many educators being unable to provide quality early physical education learning experiences that will lead to positive attitudes and subsequent physical activity (Waring and Warburton, 2007:27).

In Europe physical education has developed from influences and initiatives which have shaped national systems. Research evidence shows a perceived decline of physical education in schools. Although physical education is considered a compulsory subject, many times it is not taught.

Physical education is given less time in the curriculum as compared to other subjects such as language, mathematics and science. Physical education classes are often dropped and it is treated as a less important subject. Compulsory academic subjects are squeezing physical education out of the education system. Localised control of curricular time tables and practices of offering options complicate the issue of time allocation for physical education. There are many inconsistencies in terms of monitoring the teaching of physical development activities in schools. In other countries monitoring is legal, but modifications are every six months to beyond every five years within a main cluster of annual monitoring. This embraces the extent of curriculum implementation, the quality of teaching and advisory guidance (Hardman,

2008b:7).

Europe is characterised by geographical differences in the quality and quantity of facilities and equipment. In the northern as well as the eastern countries equipment is regarded as satisfactory in quality and quantity, while in central and eastern countries the quality and quantity of facilities and equipment is unsatisfactory. The quality of educator preparation for physical education differs. In some countries there are educators who lack commitment to teaching physical education. The methods and teaching practices are not appropriate for teaching physical education.

Differences in terms of generalist teachers for physical education are predominant.

In some countries the generalist educator in primary schools is often not properly trained to teach physical education. This is more noticeable in primary schools where

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some educators do not have specific education in physical education subject matter

(Hardman, 2008b:12).

In the north-western region of England, some learners do not experience the required two hours per week. In Finland the report says that the implementation of physical educations is not done according to the regulations. The situation in Ireland is that weekly lessons are not given the required time in primary schools. Physical education lessons are being forced out of the education system due to pressure to perform well in other academic learning areas. The quality of time provided for physical education lessons ranges. In France and Germany parents do not complain when physical education lessons are cancelled. Physical education is associated with play while greater value is attached to other learning areas. Physical education is part of the curriculum, but practically it is not taken serious. It is regarded as just playtime or time off from serious school subjects. Physical education always comes after the teaching of other learning areas. Educators sacrifice physical education lessons when they have problems to finish the programmes in other subjects. In

Greece and Norway head educators regard physical education as okay, but not really necessary. In Norway and Malta physical education is taken as free play and parents regard it as a waste of time (Hardman, 2008a:9).

There are a lot of local differences in terms of the teaching of physical education in schools as a result of curricular changes of assigning schools the responsibilities for curricular matters in Finland. The changes have affected the amount of time required to teach physical education. In Poland the national and local authorities do not understand the aims and goals of school physical education. This situation has threatened the teaching of physical education in Poland (Hardman and Marshall,

2000:209).

Smith et al., (2007:166) said despite the universal nature of the national curriculum physical education that was introduced and established, it was clear that physical education would not and could not be conducted in a uniform manner across all schools.

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2.4.3 The status of teaching physical development activities in South Africa

Research reports show the serious situation in South Africa and emphasise gaps between policy of time allocation and syllabus content and implementation, with physical education mandated, but the extent of its delivery relating to head teachers attitudes, a severe shortage of trained physical education specialists, and poor or non-existent attitudes (Hardman and Marshall, 2000:208).

The All-African Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sports and

Dance is one of the organisations, such as the World Health Organisation (WHO), that expressed positive statements in support of physical education in schools in

Johannesburg in 1999 (Hardman et al., 2000:204).

According to the Department of Education (2002), the life orientation learning area aims to equip learners to use their natural aptitudes to achieve their full intellectual, personal, emotional and social potential. Many people believe that it holds great potential, but others see it as very negative. Effectiveness in this learning area has not been tested and there are problems in attaining this deal. There are many practical problems in the implementation of this learning area (Jacobs, 2011:212).

Since life orientation integrates other subjects including physical development activities, life orientation educators require specific knowledge, skills and values if they are to make positive contribution in their schools. Life orientation educators are the key stone educators in schools, especially as they are expected to contribute to the holistic development of learners (Pillay, 2012:167).

Van Deventer (2008:132) says that to comply with international standards, it is important that the education system produces more learners with high levels of knowledge and skills in maths, science and technology, but education transformation in the South African context cannot be achieved through these learning areas alone.

The country rushed to implement Curriculum 2005, based on the principles of outcomes based education (OBE) to make the quality of education in South Africa better. However, the concept of OBE turned to work best in privileged schools. OBE

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posed difficult challenges for schools that served learners from low income communities (Fiske and Ladd, 2004b:12).

South Africa is characterised by many disparities between schools (Niewenhuis,

2007:54).

Despite government‟s attempts to transform schools there are still problems in terms of availability of resources (Crouch and Mabogoane, 2001:4).

There are still some differences between the former model C schools and former disadvantaged schools. Most former disadvantaged schools have little or no facilities and as a result learners are limited to a few physical development activities

(Mudekunye and Sithole, 2012:157).

Facilities in many schools are inadequate. This problem is exacerbated by low levels of maintenance for physical development activity equipment. There are great differences in terms of facility provision for physical education. Some schools are built with inappropriate facilities for the learning area. In other cases, schools possess equipment that is generally overused, damaged or out dated (Hardman and

Marshall, 2000:217).

2.5 PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS AND COMPONENTS OF TEACHING

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

The content knowledge domain for physical education is not easily identified

(Siedentop, 2002:368). Pedagogical content knowledge is one of the critical components in teaching expertise. It helps in understanding how educators teach content in a way that enhances student understanding of that content. Most educators try to expand their knowledge in subject content matter to make teaching effective and it goes beyond just delivering subject knowledge of learners (You,

2011:99).

There is a general belief that sport performance work is not worthy of academic status (Kretchmar in Siedentop, 2002:371). Physical education is frequently associated with the word enjoyment and it may be forgiven if many assume it is a fundamental objective of the course. Through enjoyment of physical development

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activities it is believed that learners will be motivated to learn skills that will enable them to live healthy lifestyles as adults (Reilly, Tompkins and Gallant, 2001:211).

Physical education is learning associated with exercise and sport and is mostly the experiential learning one attains through direct participation. The problem is that learning to practice sport skill and strategy through experiential learning is not regarded to be of adequate academic quality. For example, learning basketball or gymnastics are not worthy of formal academic credits as a central foci of preprofessional programmes. Teaching or preparing learners for physical education goes beyond the introductory unit of kinesiology discipline (Siedentop, 2002:372).

You (2011:103) define physical education-pedagogical content knowledge as action based knowledge of how to meaningfully teach intended educational contents in physical education so that learners could holistically understand, perform and appreciate physical activity. Physical education should be understood as an extended bodily kind of enjoyment with one‟s own competent physical movement, and not just as less important recreation. Pedagogical content knowledge in physical education is essentially situated knowledge specific to the skills taught (Whitehead,

1988:15).

It is necessary to see physical education pedagogically in order to protect it from being undermined. Being a practical subject does not mean that it is less important or a waste of time. There are specific types of skills that are acquired through participation in physical development activities. These skills are acquired from the early stages of life and can be used throughout adult life. Through movement and physical development activities learners develop the ability to make decisions, be creative, be able to reason, solve problems and engage in debates (Lodewyk,

2009:12).

2.6

CONCLUSION

Schools are the ideal places for the promotion of physical development activities.

The importance of teaching physical development activities include the promotion of physical fitness, motor movement and skills, development of creativity, as well as the

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development of social and emotional skills. The teaching of physical development activities has been undermined both locally and internationally. The reason for this is that the content knowledge of physical development activities is not easily identified as it involves direct experimental learning through sport.

The next chapter will investigate the importance of leadership and roles of leaders.

The importance of teamwork and collaborative frame work will also be discussed.

The chapter will also focus on the leadership styles that are relevant for the teaching of physical development activities in schools.

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CHAPTER 3

LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF HODs TEACHING PHYSICAL

DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

3.1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is about the leadership practices of heads of department (HODs) in primary schools. The initial paragraph will give a clear definition about the concept of leadership from different authors. The second part of the discussion in this chapter focuses on the importance and roles of leaders in schools. HODs in schools are regarded as learning area leaders. As middle managers they are responsible for providing guidance and direction to educators in their respective departments

(Leithwood, Harris and Hopkins, 2008:30). The first role will be to develop visions regarding the learning area that they are leading. Secondly, they have to communicate such visions to other staff members in their departments. In this way they are required to help their team members to understand such visions (Beare,

Caldwell and Miller, 1993:155). The third role of HODs as leaders is to develop educators in their departments in relationship to their ability to teach physical education. In order to strengthen the learning area content knowledge, educators have to be developed. This helps in sharpening their teaching skills. Aspects such as coaching and mentoring form part of the developmental process.

The area of discussion in this chapter will be the need for teamwork and a collaborative framework. In this section two models will be used to explain the concept of collegial leadership and constituting elements of leadership practice. The last part of the discussion in this chapter will be an outline of leadership styles that could be relevant for the teaching of physical development activities.

3.2

DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

The central idea for most definitions of leadership is providing direction and exercising influence. Leaders work with others for the achievement of shared goals

(Owen, 1991; Grace, 1995 and Bass, 1990). Leaders do not just make followers to

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comply with regulations, but work with them. As an example the HOD can go to classrooms to teach and work with educators to prepare for lessons. Leaders work through and with other people.

School leaders can functionally work with educators within different committees because they cannot work alone. There is a set of functions that require performance by different persons in different roles within the school. HOD s‟ roles in this regard are to provide direction and exercise influence. In doing this, staff members will be inspired to reach the organisational goals. Effective leaders make it possible for the school to work as a professional learning community to support and strengthen the performance of all the workers (Leithwood and Reihl, 2003:3).

It is important for leaders to stay ahead of the latest professional practices and assist in promoting conditions for professional growth (Leithwood and Riehl, 2003:3).

Leaders act in situations that are defined by others‟ actions and it is in interactions that leadership practice is constructed. Leaders interact with others.

“They also have interaction with aspects of situations including a variety of tools, routines and situations. Tools include assessment data protocols, while structures include routines such as grade level meetings and scheduling of teachers‟ preparation periods

” in schools (Spillane, 2005:145).

Leadership is used to describe the critical variable operating to make a programme successful. It refers to active, purposeful, skilled influencing of people to facilitate change. Supervisors giving leadership to instructional change process need to be perceived as friendly, kindly, sympathetic, taking initiative, and making things happen. Much supervisory talent is wasted when the individual supervisors or their supporting administrations insist on a low key, “laid back” approach to instructional improvement (Harris, 1985:34).

Initially a leader may be described as an individual incumbent in an official position.

Although a leader obtains power from the group, he has influence on the group itself

(Owen, 1991:132). Being an effective leader requires a combination of certain leadership characteristics to be able to achieve the desired objectives. Effective leaders must possess the following characteristics in order to develop their staff

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members: Problems and mistakes must be discussed openly with staff members.

Staff members can make mistakes, but they should learn from such mistakes. In making decisions staff opinions must be considered relative to the opinions of executives only. The organisational goals should be clear to all the staff members.

The vision and mission of the organisation must be shared by all staff members. A school manager must create an environment in which people can help one another in crisis. Encourage the giving of feedback in terms of workshops and what is happening in the school environment. As a leader make sure that poor performance is confronted on a timely basis. Provide strategies for the improvement of poor performance (Carrol, 1994:17).

Riley and Louis (2000:97) define the HOD as a leader who has a clear view of what makes for a good school. He or she leads by example and works in the classroom alongside the teachers, encouraging them to take responsibility for improving things.

Good HODs protect educators from too many outside pressures. HODs must have a vision and must ensure the staff members are ready for what is coming and are able to deal with change confidentially. Good HODs know how to use the system, how to negotiate and when to compromise. The role of HODs may be similar to the roles of head teachers in schools.

It is important to note that HODs in their departments share the teaching of learning areas with other educators in their departments. Educators may rely on their leaders to provide them with direction in terms of how things are done within their departments. This may strengthen team work especially in times where changes need to be effected.

3.3

THE IMPORTANCE AND ROLES OF LEADERSHIP

The head of department (HOD) in a school is a middle manager. He or she is responsible for the operational work of others, namely classroom educators. HODs are also classroom educators in their own or other learning areas. Staff members work in learning areas and are accountable for the aspect of their work to academic

HOD. HODs are increasingly being acknowledged to be key figures (Busher and

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Harris, 1999:306). A professional leader is required to show a complete understanding of current approaches to effective teaching and learning across the curriculum (Cardno, 2006:455).

Quality leadership is essential for school effectiveness. The role of the primary physical education subject leader is important in ensuring that every learner receives high quality physical education (Pickup and Price, 2007:183).

“A leader‟s role is to ensure that all members of the institution have access to powerful information, spaces and opportunities to debate policy and practice, and are freed as much as possible from the communication impediments of hierarchy, formality and status consciousness

”. It is the role of the leader to establish the conditions for dialogue, participation and respect for persons and their ideas (Grace, 1995:55). Learning area departments are the desired organisational structure of the school and define who educators are, what they do, where and with whom they work and how they and their work are perceived by others (Siskin, 1995:89). There are important roles that leaders need to play in order to make their schools successful.

According to personnel administrative measure (PAM, 1998), there are specific roles that HODs need to play in their departments. Firstly, they are expected to perform teaching activities. These include assessing and recording learner‟s attainment.

Secondly, HODs are required to perform extra-curricular and co-curricular activities in schools. These include being in charge of a learning area, co-ordinating assessment, providing guidance to other educators as well as co-ordinating activities within their departments. Thirdly, HODs are required to perform personnel duties such as participating in educator appraisal processes. Fourthly, they are expected to perform general admin work such as doing the planning and managing their department and assist in other non teaching duties. Lastly, HODs are expected to communicate with educators, the department as well as the broader school community. The other roles will be explained in the following paragraphs as explained by different authors.

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3.3.1 Developing school visions

Leaders should hold visions of their schools in their minds. This is an image of the way in which they would like the school to be at some time in the future. The vision provides a picture of how the school will operate. It shapes the ordinary day to day activities in the school. The leader must be energised by a personal vision of what is possible (Caldwell and Spinks, 1992:50). Effective educational leaders help their schools develop visions that embody the best thinking about teaching and learning.

School leaders motivate others to achieve ambitious goals (Leithwood and Riehl,

2003:3).

“Building vision and setting direction is a category of practices that carries a bulk of effort to motivate colleagues. It is about the establishment of shared purpose as a basic stimulant for one‟s own work”. The leader‟s role is to build a shared vision, to foster the acceptance of team goals and to demonstrate high performance expectations (Leithwood, Harris and Hopkins, 2008:30).

3.3.2 Communicating visions

School leaders must help to create shared meanings and understanding to support the school‟s vision. Compliance with school rules is improved when the school community share understanding about learning and schooling (Leithwood et al.,

2003:3). Vision may be communicated in a number of ways. The important thing for leaders to do is to bring the vision to the attention of others to the extent that the vision is a picture of particular ways in which the mission of the school will be brought to realisation over an amount of time. This verifies the value of printing the school‟s mission statement in key documents such as programme plans (Caldwell and Spinks, 1992:53).

Exceptionally good leaders have a vision for their schools. Visions must be communicated in a way which secures commitment among members of the organisation. Communication of visions depends on communication of meaning

(Beare, Caldwell and Miller, 1993:155). Schools require visionary leaders who will

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have the vision of their school in mind and are able to communicate it to others

(Bush and West-Burnham, 1994:74).

3.3.3 Developing educators

Besides motivating others, the disposition of information and skills that educators need is important. The leader‟s role is to provide individualised support and consideration, foster intellectual stimulation as well as model appropriate values and behaviours (Leithwood et al., 2008:30).

As stipulated in the National Policy Framework for Teacher Education and

Development in South Africa (2007:16), many of educators need to improve their subject knowledge base, pedagogical content knowledge and teaching skills.

Leaders‟ role is to encourage educators to attend training since the Department of

Education will be paying for such compulsory training activities. Training should not only be limited to compulsory workshops provided by the department, but educators themselves can pay for their selected activities through provincial bursaries that are available in priority fields of activities. The National Policy Framework for Teacher

Education further stipulates that risks should be avoided as far as continued professional development is concerned. Firstly, educators should not neglect their teaching responsibilities in order to attend training or to earn professional development points. Secondly, the educators should not be overloaded by administrative burdens. Thirdly, poor quality providers of training must not be allowed. To avoid the above shortcomings training must relate directly to classroom responsibilities of educators, should be provided by organisations that have applied to South African Council of Educators‟ regulations and by requiring providers to undertake administrative tasks.

Leaders must mentor and coach their subordinates. Mentoring and coaching are two closely linked terms. According to Russo (2004) in Wei et al. (2009:14) coaching in schools involves specialists in a particular subject area or set of teaching strategies working with small groups of educators to enhance classroom practice and learner achievement.

“Mentoring is a professional relationship between a mentor who has experience in the role being learned by the mentee

”. In a mentoring relationship, the

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mentor provides support and teaching. The mentor plays a role of a trusted counsellor who provides professional development, growth and support to the mentee. Mentoring and coaching are tools for pedagogical skills development in all educators. Coaching is a way of transferring knowledge and skills from an experienced person to a less experienced person. The coach and the person being coached should spend protected and uninterrupted time together (Sparg, Winberg and Pointer, 1999:77).

There are important characteristics that a mentor or a coach must have. Firstly the mentor/coach must be a person who possesses skills in a particular learning area.

Secondly it must be a person who is willing to coach/mentor others and thirdly he/she must be motivated to help others and must perform his/her roles actively.

Professional development can make an impact on educator‟s practice if on-going and specific follow up is done to assist educators to take in new knowledge and skills into classroom practice both in the short- and long-term (Wei et al., 2009:14). HODs in schools are expected to possess knowledge in the learning area that they lead in their department and should therefore have the above mentor/coach characteristics.

If coaching and mentoring are to be applied effectively they require a great deal of time and commitment. In order to coordinate, implement and evaluate coaching programmes, time for planning is essential. In our education system with the ever changing curriculum needs time is becoming a scarce resource. Educators are struggling with doing more paper work in order to meet requirements of their job. The workload of educators is so heavy that they are even required to perform outside classroom activities. Although coaching and mentoring happens on an informal basis between two colleagues there should be monitoring and supervision. Those who are being coached should have feedback from their mentors to find out how they are coping. This requires mentors to be honest in giving them feedback, and it may pose threats of damaging the relationship if feedback is not properly given. All of these require time and needs leaders who can create an atmosphere of mutual trust among staff members (Wei, et al., 2009:14)

According to Bubb and Earley (2009:33), head educators are sometimes hesitant to let educators out of the classroom because of increased disruptions to learner

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learning and behaviour. Other schools place a restriction on professional development that requires suspension of lessons. The restrictions include rules such as no more than two educators being out of school for a day for staff development.

Wei et al., (2009:17) found that mentoring programmes increase educator retention and improve the related performance of retained educators.

The above paragraphs explained how HODs are regarded as key features in demonstrating appropriate approaches to teaching and leadership. This can be achieved through sharing information and setting direction through the communication of visions and developing educators. However, it is important to note that this should be done in a way that their teaching responsibilities are not neglected.

3.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF TEAMWORK AND COLLABORATIVE

FRAMEWORK

Leadership has been found not to be a matter of passive status, but a working relationship among members of a group where a leader participates actively and demonstrates the capacity for carrying tasks through completion. Leadership is not an individual act, but a shared enterprise of educators. It involves inter group relations, team building and inspiration without domination (Grace, 1995:54).

Collaborative planning involves a group of educators working together as they plan lessons; assess learners‟ work and each other‟s‟ work. Collaborative work can be found in shared planning activities and collaboration on curriculum, when educators work in grade level teams that share learners or content goals or when educators observe and critique each other‟s instruction based on a shared understanding of effective teaching and g oals for learners‟ learning. When educators depend on each other to complete a task, it forces them to expose their practice publicly; this interaction provides chances to create a shared technical language and to agree upon sound practice (Wei, et al., 2009:10).

The idea of collaborative planning is firmly established in the knowledge and experience that has been obtained over many years from encouraging educators to

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work together more collaboratively. Educators are able to exchange ideas from their experience if they work and plan together. The idea of professional learning communities (educators working together) is underpinned by the concept of distributed leadership, which recognises that leadership involves multiple individuals

(Harrison and Jones, 2010: 173). Therefore within professional learning communities distributed leadership is characterised by educators working together on a shared area of inquiry. Distributed leadership gives the structure that holds the community together, as it is collective work of educators (Harris and Jones, 2010:173).

The Massachusetts Institute (2011:01) provides a good example to show how collaborative learning can lead to school improvement. The institute used an example from one junior school, called Martin Luther King, Jr. In this school educators added half an hour per day for educator teams to meet while their learners had optional class activities. During this time educators came together in grade level teams and leading educators shared learners‟ work. They worked together during this time to find solutions to problems and discuss success and challenges they encountered in the classroom. All educators, including assistants, were included in the collaborative planning time. By consistently meeting every week they improved in exchanging ideas freely, producing new ideas and building on each other‟s thoughts.

The leading educators were fully aware of the agenda of each meeting. The best outcomes were achieved and every educator was supported to be on the same page. This helped to deepen the quality of their work.

Riley and Louis (2000:23) encourage leaders to have a sense of moral authority which derives from the explicit shared values of a community. These are values which hold a community together and which guide actions and accountability. Harris and Jones (2010:179) suggest the following features for collaborative planning:

Valuing each other and trust among educators at school and network level

Possession of an appropriate cognitive and skill base that enables effective teaching methods and leads to effective learning

Supportive leadership from those in vital roles and shared leadership practices

The standard of continuous critical inquiry and continuous improvement

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A widely shared vision or sense of purpose

A norm of involvement in decision making

Collegial relationships among educators

A focus upon impact and outcomes of learners

Although leaders are in authority, it is important to keep the balance in order to achieve important organisational goals. Seeing the other members of the team as important members of the school community can boost their self esteem. In achieving the vision of the department, an HOD must provide support to the educators in his or her department. In making decisions it is important to consider the educators‟ opinions in order to make them feel that they are important members of the school community. Collegiality can be encouraged through planning together.

The main theory that will be used in this study is collegial theory and it will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

3.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Collegial theory will be relevant to this study as it focuses on the process that involves transfer of power to educators and other stakeholders in order for them to be an important part of the leadership process of the school (Sergiovanni, 1991:26).

Through collegiality the best can be extracted from people (Lofthouse, 1994:6).

Collegial theories characterise decision making as a participative process with all members of the institution having an equal opportunity to take decisions that are binding to each of them (Becher and Kogan, 1980:67). Collegiality means the process where educators exchange ideas with other educators (Brundrett,

1998:305). Educators benefit more from working together than from working alone

(Little, 1990:166).

Collegial leadership refers to the leader‟s behaviour that is kind, providing encouragement, open and guided by standards of equality. The leader is easy to talk to, useful and genuinely concerned about both social needs and task achievement of the department (Moran and Hoy, 1997: 343). He/she makes an effort to motivate

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team members by using constructive criticism, and does not engage in constant monitoring of everything that educators do. The leader is not rigid or domineering and does not heavily load educators with time-consuming non-teaching work. The leader sets the mood for high performance and an example of hard work and lets educators know what is required of them (Moran and Hoy, 1997:343).

Figure 3.1: Collegial Leadership Model

Devolution of power

Shared leadership

Stake- holders

Empowerment

Shared decision- making

Collegial leadership model (Adapted from Singh,2005:12)

In the context of HODs managing the teaching of physical development activities the relevance of this theory will be seen where the four pillars of collegiality are used collectively to shape the school climate. These pillars are the devolution of power, empowerment, shared decision making and shared leadership. In collegial theory, leaders share power with team members in order to comprehend the school‟s objectives. By flattening the hierarchy of power leaders can empower others. With empowerment comes accountability and in a collegial model, the concept of shared decision making. Shared leadership needs to occur for collegiality to produce desired results (Singh, 2005:12).

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Robins (1988:489) say that bureaucracy relies on standardised work procedures for control purposes. Tasks are grouped into functional departments under a centralised system of authority (Robins, 1988:489). HODs in their departments have standardised work procedures that they should communicate clearly to team members so that educators in their departments know what is expected of them.

Spillane, Halverson and Diamond (2004:10) show that leadership is part of the interaction of leaders, followers and their situation in carrying out a particular task. As illustrated in figure 3.2 in this view leadership activity includes three essential constructing parts, these are leaders, followers and situation. It does not reside in any one of these parts, and each is a pre-requisite for leadership activity. The authors view leadership as part of the interaction of all three.

Figure 3.2: Constituting Elements of Leadership Practice

Situation

Leadership

Practice

Leaders

(Adapted from Spillane, et al., 2004:11)

Followers

As schools get involved with complex collaborative arrangements, distributed forms of leadership will be required to share ideas (Wenger, McDermott and Synder,

2002:123). The authority structure of the schools is changing as educators are becoming collegial partners (Foley and Lewis, 1999:235).

Teamwork is essential in building a professional culture in schools. As educators learn to work together, they become more efficient and professional educators and

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the quality of their work improves. Working together is the best way of removing the fear of uncertainties. The strength of any team lies in the fact that the members can complement one another. Working together as a team improves the morale, values, turnover, improve job satisfaction and leads to increased productivity (Steyn and

Niekerk, 2008:104). Educators need a measure of independence in the classroom, but also need to collaborate to ensure a logical approach to teaching and learning

(Brundrett, 1998:307).

Leaders clearly need to avoid the situations of decision saturation, especially in times of continuing change as is being widely experienced in schools. However, leaders must be sensitive about the roles they play because not all educators wish to be involved in all decisions, even when they have a stake in the outcome and have expertise which can be brought to the table. Issues of policy analysis require a group of people to work together (Caldwell and Spinks, 1992:55).

Most work in schools is achieved through the efforts of people. In collaborative framework leaders make information and resources available to assist people in seeing the differences between current and desired practices. The leaders must provide opportunities for educators to understand and gain mastery over the complexities of necessary changes. They provide structures to promote change and suitable means for monitoring progress towards improvement. Leaders set examples for staff and others to follow (Leithwood and Riehl, 2003:4).

Leadership occurs in some kind of a group and the leader functions in relationship to the members of the group. Leadership can be viewed as an interactive process between the leader and the group. Members of a group are interdependent; they share with each other certain values, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge. Members of a group share goals. To achieve the group goals the members must interact with each other (Owen, 1991:134). Collegial theories assume that organisations decide on policy and make decisions through a process of discussions leading to general agreement. Power is shared among some or all members of the organisation who are thought to have a shared understanding about the aims of an institution (Bush,

2003:64).

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Collaborative leadership is important because it builds on working relationships that advances achievement of goals. A collaborative leadership is an essential element of building bridges that team members can cross to achieve shared goals. This kind of leadership forms part of transformational paradigm (Dambe and Moorad, 2008:54).

Having discussed the importance of collegial leadership, the following paragraphs will explain the two leadership styles that are important for HODs in leading the teaching of physical development activities in primary schools.

3.6 LEADERSHIP STYLES RELEVANT FOR THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL

DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

Leaders in organisations use different leadership styles. There are certain leadership styles that the primary physical education subject leader will not be likely to use. This includes the compromiser who is most likely affected by pressures. The second one is a missionary who values harmony as an end in itself. Another one is an autocrat who has no confidence in others and is only interested in the immediate job. The last one is the deserter who is uninvolved and passive. The work of leadership requires different forms of leadership and different types of expertise in order to meet the changing educational challenges. New models of schooling are emerging, based on collaboration. This requires new leadership approaches (Harris and Spillane,

2008:31).

Education reforms require leaders who are able to respond to the external requests for accountability, be able to respond to new changes, take more responsibility for their own actions and enable their schools to adjust quickly to new conditions of teaching. There are some of the features of transactional and transformational leadership, both of which place school leaders at the heart of school development.

These are leadership styles that can be regarded as relevant in the teaching of physical development activities. The leader selects a style that best suits the demands of the task at hand and the people in the team. Choosing a leadership style is very important for the success of a school. Leaders need to be certain that the focus, structure and process of their work with staff members are always focused on teaching and learning (Gunningham and Corderio, 2006:76).

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Examples of leadership styles that will follow are not mutually exclusive and leaders can adopt one or more styles to tackle particular circumstances (Pickup et al.,

2007:185).

3.6.1 Transformational leadership

A transformational leader is a kind of a leader who is empowerment based. This kind of a leader makes followers see the vision of the organisation by giving them time to understand it. A transformational leader cares about his followers and makes them feel like important members of the organisation by promoting their interests. This kind of a leader puts his followers‟ needs first and encourages collegial relationships among followers (Dambe and Moorrad, 2008:576).

Managers engage in a transaction with their employees. This transaction characterises effective leadership. Transformational leadership happens when leaders expand the interest of their workers, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the group (Bass, 1990:21).

Transformational leadership exhibits charisma. This kind of a leader provides influence and incentives to others by creating high expectations, as well as models required behaviours. A transformational leader gives careful thought to the individual, paying personal attention to followers and giving them respect and personality

(Turner and Muller, 2005:51).

Bryant (2003:36) says charisma is the extent of self-respect, trust and confidence leaders encourage their workers to have in themselves, their leaders and their organisations. By being charismatic to their followers the charismatic leader inspires them. Great power and influence are important characteristics of charismatic leaders. Employees have a high level of trust and confidence in them because they want to be associated with them. Charismatic leaders guide and excite their employees so as to achieve greater things with extra effort. Charisma is viewed as the vital ingredient in communicating an organisational leader‟s values to followers

(Schein, 1992:229). Inspiration is the ability to motivate followers largely through the communication of high expectations. This kind of leader is willing and able to show

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followers new ways of looking at old problems to teach them to see difficulties as problems that have solutions and to emphasise rational solution (Bass, 1990:21).

Unlike transactional leaders, transformational leaders fill their followers with the urge to perform very well. Transformational leaders are active leaders who motivate their co-workers through communications of high expectations (Bryant, 2003:36). The transformational leader inspires followers to do more than originally expected

(Hartog, Van Muijen and Koopman, 1997:20).

Transformational decision making involves various entities, including individuals, teams, departments and organisations. Transformational leaders employ both rational and emotional strategies in decision making. Transformational leaders have initiative and they employ feelings and emotions to make decisions in different situations. Decision making of the transformational leaders is a collective enterprise based on information sharing. Such sharing is for the sake of f ollowers‟ participation in decision making, rather than learning. These transformational leaders do not make dependant decisions (Riaz and Haque, 2012:5227).

Transformational leaders can be distinguished through the four criteria: inspirational leadership, individualised consideration, intellectual stimulation and idealised influence. The promise of transformational leadership for its proponents is that it will assist organisational leaders to add value and secure peak performance from their subordinates (Gronn, 1999:119).

3.6.2 Transactional leadership

A transactional leader is the kind of a leader who uses power to influence others.

Transactional leadership paradigm can be used to explain situational leadership theories. According to these theories there is no best approach to leadership. The leader in this case uses power to choose a particular leadership style for a given situation. A transactional leader uses power to influence his followers. Transactional or power based leaders use their position to get followers to comply (Dambe and

Moorad, 2008:556).

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Bryant (2003:34) identified three primary characteristics of transactional leaders.

This kind of leader works with their team members to grow understandable, identifiable goals and makes certain that workers get the promised reward for achieving the goals. The second characteristic identified is that the workers are rewarded by the leader in recognition of their efforts. Thirdly, transactional leaders respond quickly to the immediate self-interests of workers if their needs can be met while getting the work done.

According to Dumdum, Lowe and Avilio as cited in Avilio and Yammarino (2008:38), transactional leaders exchange rewards or recognition for cooperation and compliance behaviours compatible with task requirements. Transactional leadership is based on the leader providing assistance and rewards the follower‟s needs contingent on the followers‟ performance. There are mixed feelings regarding transactional leadership and followers trust. Followers are rewarded when objectives are met (Gillespie, 2004:591).

Transactional leadership occurs when the leader rewards the follower, depending on the follower‟s ability to meet the required level of performance (Bass and Riggio,

2006:517). Transactional leadership is based on the exchange process between a leader and the followers. Transactional leaders make it clear for the followers that their need will be satisfied on meeting the standards of the organisation and fulfilling their duties. Rewards are adjacent to the job performance. Transactional leaders make rational decisions and solve problems. They employ logic in decision making.

They are extrinsically motivated to lead and depend upon the subordinates‟ cognitions to make decisions (Riaz and Haque, 2010:5227).

Transactional leadership occurs when the leader takes initiative in making contact with followers for the purpose of exchanging important things. Each person in the exchange understands that they bring related motives to the bargaining process and that these motives can be advanced by maintaining that process. Transactional practices foster on-going work by attending to the basic needs of organisational members (Leithwood, Jantzi and Steinbach, 1999:28).

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3.7

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOLS

Caldwel and Spinks (1992:61) suggest the following guidelines for effective leadership:

Avoid blaming others outside the school. Try to work collaboratively with colleagues to assume control of an agenda within the school.

Even though the vision might be large it is advisable to take small steps without excessive planning and start on a small scale.

Focus on priorities such as teaching and learning.

Empower others by making the curriculum the focus of the professional activity and in the decision making process.

Always set priorities and decide on what needs to be done.

Build networks of support inside and outside the school.

Riley and Louis (2000:22) say that head educators may derive their authority by allowing educators to work together and share knowledge. Educators realise their mutual responsibilities to one another and hold one another accountable.

3.8

CONCLUSION

In defining leadership the core of definitions studied is that leaders work with people.

Leadership is not a single entity, but it involves the interaction between a leader and followers. In this leader-follower kind of relationship come the concept of teamwork and working collaboratively. In improving the quality of teaching physical development activities, leaders (HODs) in this field need to build strong team work relations with educators in their departments so as to build professional cultures in schools. Choosing a leadership style is so essential in meeting the changing demands of our education system. No leadership style is absolute, but the leader should always be guided by the type of task and people who they lead. The two leadership styles that were discussed were seen as relevant for the teaching of physical development activities in schools. The main features of transformational leadership are the encouragement of team work, as well as caring for team members. Transactional leadership on the other hand uses power to influence others and make them to comply with the requirements of the job.

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CHAPTER 4

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

4.1

INTRODUCTION

The previous chapter discussed the conceptual framework of the leadership roles of

HODs in teaching physical development activities. A collaborative framework that informed this study was also discussed in relation to the leadership styles that are relevant to the teaching of physical development activities. In this chapter, the researcher focuses on explaining the methods that were employed in collecting data.

The researcher explains how participants were sampled. The format for the interview, as well as procedures followed to gain access is explained. The researcher also provides details on how data was analysed using the content data analysis technique. The researcher gives details on how trustworthiness was enhanced in the study. Lastly, the researcher provides an explanation on limitations of the study.

4.2

DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN (QUALITATIVE RESEARCH)

According to Denzin and Lincoln (2011:3), qualitative research consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices turn the world into a series of representations including interviews, recordings, field notes and others. This approach includes an interpretation that provides a naturalistic approach to the world. In qualitative research phenomena are studied in their real life environments in order to make meaning to the experiences that people bring. In qualitative research, people come up with concepts that they have built as they interact with their world. The world is subject to changes and variations, but there are multiple realities out there.

“Learning how individuals experience and interact with the social world, the meaning it has for them, is considered an interpretive qualitative approach

” in research studies (Merriam, 2002:3).

There are key characteristics of a qualitative research. The first one is that the researcher tries to understand the meaning people have created about their world

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and their encounters. The researcher met educators and HODs teaching physical development activities in order to understand what it meant for them to be in that setting and what their physical development activity teaching lives looked like in their schools (Merriam, 2002:4).

The second key characteristic is that the researcher acts as a key instrument of data collection (Bogdan and Biklen, 2003:3). As a key instrument, the researcher was able to spend time in the two selected schools learning about leadership practices of

HODs and this seemed to be an ideal means of collecting data. Being a human instrument allowed the researcher to expand her understanding through non-verbal as well as verbal communications, process information, clarify and summarise material and explore responses (Merriam, 2002:5).

Thirdly, the product of qualitative research study is richly descriptive. The researcher used words rather than numbers and pictures to indicate what was learned about the phenomenon. As a means to support the findings of the study the researcher used citations from documents, as well as data in the form of participants‟ own words

(Merriam, 1998:8).

4.3

CASE STUDY APPROACH

The researcher used a case study approach, which, according to Vaughn and Rule

(2011:5) is a systematic and in-depth investigation of a particular instance in its context in order to generate knowledge. A case study observes the characteristics of an individual unit, unlike the experimenter who manipulates variables to determine their casual significance (Cohen and Manion, 1989:124). Merriam (2009:43) identified three special characteristics of a case study. A case study can be characterised as being particularistic, where focus is on a particular situation or event. A case study can also be characterised as being descriptive in the sense that its end product is a rich description of a phenomenon studied. Lastly, it is characterised as being heuristic. This means it can illuminate the reader‟s understanding of a phenomenon by bringing about discovery for new meaning or confirm what is known.

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According to Denzin and Lincoln (2005:445) there are three types of case studies.

The first type is an intrinsic case study that is normally undertaken because of an intrinsic interest in a particular phenomenon. This type of a case study is selected to comprehend a particular case. The second type of a case study is called instrumental case study. This type of a case study is selected mainly to provide a deep understanding of an issue or to redraw a generalisation. Although the case selected is studied in depth, the main focus is on something else (Silverman,

2010:139). The third type of a case study is called the multiple case study, where the researcher may want to explore a number of cases. The researcher chose an intrinsic type of case study in order to get a better understanding of the leadership practices of HODs who lead and teach physical development activities. The researcher wanted to understand how educators teaching physical development activities conduct their lessons given the fact that the teaching of the subject has not been taken seriously. Teaching physical development activities is different from teaching other subjects, as it is a practical subject that entails doing more physical activities.

Data in a case study can be located with people, in actions or practices, in documents and artefacts. Methods used for capturing data held by people are interviews. Document analysis is the standard method for data located in various stored forms. For the purpose of triangulation the researcher has used more than one method of collecting data, that is interviewing and documents (Vaughn and Rule,

2011:63).

A case study involves multiple data sources (Borg, Gall and Gall, 1993:203). In agreement with this statement the researcher carried out semi-structured interviews with the six participants in two schools. The researcher was also able to analyse documents such as memorandums, minutes for meetings and HODs

‟ management plans. The researcher also kept field notes in order to add or triangulate data obtained from interviews.

The researcher chose to use an intrinsic case study. According to Stake (1995) in

Baxter and Jack (2008:3) an intrinsic case study is selected by a researcher who has a genuine interest in a phenomenon and wants to understand the case better. The

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researcher chose two schools in the same district, both in a township, but one catering for learners from an informal settlement and the other for learners from a formal settlement. The researcher wanted to understand what the leadership practices of HODs teaching physical development activities in primary schools are.

The school catering for learners from an informal settlement had a higher percentage of learners enrolled compared to the school in a formal settlement and this was of interest to the researcher.

4.4

SAMPLING OF PARTICIPANTS

The researcher chose people who could shed the most light on this case. The participants were deliberately chosen because of their suitability in advancing the purpose of the research (Vaughn and Rule, 2011:64). The researcher chose to use a purposive sampling method. According to Vanderstoep and Johnston, (2009:187) purposive samples are comprised of people based on a particular attribute and are often designed to arbitrarily include equal representation of groups that may not be equally represented in society. The researcher selected individuals and sites for the study because they can purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and central phenomenon in the study (Cresswell, 2007:1250).

In this study, two HODs who teach and lead physical development activities as well as four educators in their departments were selected from two primary schools.

Since leadership is part of the interaction of HODs and educators, in each school the participants consisted of one HOD and two educators. In total six participants from the two schools were selected for this study.

Being a newly appointed HOD in the field of physical development activities department, the researcher had an interest in pursuing a study in the field of leadership practices in primary schools. The researcher derived interest from observations that were made while interacting with educators teaching physical development activities. While attending workshops the researcher realised that there was greater concern among physical development activity HODs in terms of how this part of the learning area was conducted in schools. The researcher targeted schools

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from the same cluster as demographic information about the schools was already known from attending several cluster meetings.

4.5

RESEARCH PROCESS

The research process unfolded as follows:

4.5.1 Preparing for the interview

The main data collection technique in this research was interviewing. The researcher used semi-structured interviews. The data collection plan included interviews with the participants - educators from two schools with their HODs. Interviewing usually implies a one-on-one discussion between a researcher and research participants

(Vaughn and Rule, 2011:64).

Securing interviews with the participants was challenging because they were engaged in everyday teaching, which should not be compromised for any reason.

The challenge was securing the appointments in the afternoon when learners had left. At this time some of the participants were exhausted after a hard day‟s work and appointments had to be rescheduled to other times because they had to attend district workshops and cluster meetings. There was good communication between the researcher and the participants as the researcher was able to find out in time when a meeting was postponed to another time or day.

The interview in School A was held with two female educators and one female HOD.

In School B the participants were two female educators and one male HOD. The interviews were held on separate days for the HODs and educators. The researcher selected two primary schools from the Tshwane South District in Gauteng. The researcher selected the two schools purposefully. Purposive samples were selected after a field investigation on the two schools, to ensure that the two schools display some characteristics. The two schools were selected based on some characteristics portrayed by the schools. They were both schools in township with a roll of 1 200 learners in School A, and 800 learners in School B. School A is classified as a quintile 1, while School B is classified as a quintile 2 school. School A caters for

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learners from an informal settlement at most. In School A, the teacher: learner ratio was 1:60, while in School B it was 1:40. The participants were chosen because they are information rich. Some possess 30 years

‟ teaching experience while on average they all have been teaching physical development activities for more than five years.

During visits to the school sites the researcher explained the aims of the research, its duration and the contribution the research will make to the education system. The researcher met the participants well before the actual interviews to get to know them and to explain the details of the research topic. In pre-interview meetings, suitable dates for interviews were arranged. The participants were also assured of their rights to be protected from any harm, and confidentiality as well as anonymity issues were well explained.

The researcher used person-to-person encounter form of interview in which one person elicits information from another (Merriam, 1998:71). Questions were structured in a simple way in which participants were able to understand so as to give positive responses. No translations were necessary because the participants could understand and express their views in English. Questions were prepared and written by the researcher and submitted to the ethical clearance committee of the

University. However, the researcher later rephrased some of the questions in order to make them easy to understand. The questions were divided into three sections, section A and section B as well as section C for HODs only. The questions will be outlined below under paragraph 4.5.3.

4.5.2 Semi-structured interviews

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with educators and HODs teaching physical development activities. Each participant was interviewed separately on different days. The researcher predetermined research questions so as not to deviate from what was to be asked. This style of interviewing was adopted because the researcher planned to hold several interviews and wanted to create some level of standardisation across interviews. Another purpose was to create uniformity when collecting data. A set of questions to initiate discussions was followed by further

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questions which arose from the discussion. This allowed for more flexibility during data collection (Vaughn and Rule, 2011:64).

In the structured interview, the researcher asked all the respondents the same set of questions with a limited set of response categories. The interviewer controlled the pace of the interview as if it were theoretical script to be followed in a straightforward manner. All the respondents were treated in the same manner as they were asked questions in the same sequence (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005:702).

4.5.3 Format and content of interview questions

The researcher developed a set of questions that were used during the interview process. The interview questions were divided into three sections. These were structured as follows:

Section A

This section contained demographic information about the interviewees. The purpose of this was to check whether this information had an effect on HODs or educators performing their teaching roles. These questions were as follows:

A. Demographic information

1. Place where the school is situated

Village

Township

Rural

2. Number of learners in the school

200

–400

401

–600

601

–800

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801

–1 000

1 001 and above

3. Teaching experience as a physical development activity educator

0

–2 years

2

–5 years

5

–10 years

10 years and over

4. Level of education

Matric

Matric + 3 years tertiary education

Matric + 4 years of tertiary education

Section B

This section gave an overview of the perceptions, opinions and challenges faced by educators in the teaching of physical development activities. It is about how teachers and HODs feel about their roles as physical development activity educators and how they are influenced by collaborative work. These questions were as follows:

B. Teaching of physical development activities

1. Do you have sufficient and suitable facilities and equipment to present physical development activity lessons?

2. What facilities do you have for physical development activities?

3. What other uses are you competing with for the space required in teaching physical development activities?

4. Is there a range of equipment for the teaching of physical development activities?

5. Are there any additional facilities (in community) available for use in terms of teaching physical development activities?

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6. Do you enjoy the learning area? Do you feel negative or positive about it?

7. To what extent do you succeed in achieving aims and outcomes of teaching physical development activities?

8. Have you specialised in the teaching of physical development activities at tertiary institution?

9. Are policies regarding the teaching of physical development activities clear to you?

10. Are there any collaborative activities that you do with other educators in your department?

11. What kind of support are you receiving in teaching physical development activities?

12. In your opinion what changes need to be implemented to improve the teaching of physical development activities?

13

.

What are the challenges you have experienced in teaching physical development activities?

Section C

This section required HODs to provide information about their roles in terms of leading educators who teach physical development activities. These questions provide a clue on how they lead and strategies they use to lead other educators in attaining physical development activity goals. The questions were open ended in order to gather more views from them.

C. Leadership role functions

1. How many educators are you leading in your department?

2. Describe how you supervise or monitor their work?

3. Which monitoring instruments do you use to monitor them?

4. How motivated do you think educators teaching physical development activities are?

5. Which motivational strategies do you use to motivate educators in your department?

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6. Which leadership characteristics best describe you?

7. Among the leadership styles which one do you prefer?

8. How do you share information regarding the teaching of physical development activities with others in your department?

9. What kind of factors forms barriers in the task towards successful presentation of physical development activities?

10. Are there in-service training needs in your department?

11. Are there any developmental initiatives that you engage your department into as far as improving the teaching of physical development activities is concerned?

12. How do you keep balance in terms of doing administrative work (managing the work of life orientation educators) and teaching your allocated classes?

4.5.4 Procedures followed

The following procedures were followed:

Applying for GDE permission

The researcher wrote a formal letter to the Gauteng Department of Education

(GDE) requesting permission to conduct the study at two primary schools in the

Tshwane South District. The letter was referred to the Director of Knowledge

Management and Research. The office responded by sending an approval letter indicating that permission has been granted. A separate copy had to be presented by the researcher to the school principals, as well as school governing body (SGB) to confirm that permission was granted for the research study.

Requesting permission from the SGB and principals of concerned schools

After acquiring permission from the GDE, the researcher then wrote letters to the two selected schools. Each of the two selected schools received two letters, one addressed to the SGB and another addressed to the principal. The researcher attached copies of the GDE permission letter. The researcher clearly indicated that this was for study purposes in relation to the Master

‟s mini thesis

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and that participation was completely out of free will and that they are free to withdraw from the study at any time without any penalties.

Requesting permission from HODs

After acquiring permission from the two selected schools, the researcher wrote two letters to the HODs of selected schools inviting them to participate in the research study. The researcher highlighted that the purpose of the study is to understand how they provide leadership roles to improve the teaching of physical development activities. The methods that were to be used in collecting data were explained. Permission was also requested to observe documents such as minutes for meetings, management files and other documents used in their departments.

Requesting permission from educators

Lastly, the researcher wrote letters inviting post level one educators who teach life orientation in each of the two schools to participate in the study. The participants were assured that their identities will be protected from harm and participation was free and voluntary. They were also told about their freedom to withdraw from participating whenever they want to do so without any penalties.

4.5.5 Document analysis

Documents serve not only as a source of ideas and information, but also as an essential part of verifying other information (Seale, Gobo, Gubrium and Silverman,

2004:3830). Document analysis is a useful place to start data collection in a case study, especially if the research design includes other methods such as interviews.

Documents in this study included material such as minutes, memorandums, correspondence and reports. This helped the researcher to get a sense of the case.

Such a sense helped to prompt other important interview questions. Once documents were collected, they were read several times in order to get the overall understanding of the case, to identify major themes and for triangulation purposes

(Vaughn et al., 2011:67).

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Interviewing is a data collection strategy designed to gather data that specifically addresses the research questions. Documents on the other hand, are not subject to the same limitations. Documents are not determined by the capricious ideas of participants whose cooperation is necessary for collecting good data through interviews. Documents are ready made sources of data easily accessible to the investigator (Merriam, 1998:112). The researcher used documents as a starting point for data collection. Once access to documents was granted, copies were made in order to study them before interviews were conducted.

Document analysis is a form of qualitative research in which the documents are analysed by the researcher to find meaning. The researcher used documents from the two selected schools in order to triangulate data obtained from interviews This provided insight about the leadership style that the HODs selected were valuing

(Biklen and Bogdan 2003:128). The researcher analysed internal documents that were produced by the two schools. In this case minutes from departmental meetings held were analysed. The researcher had to first gain access to the copies of minutes from meetings that were held. This was followed by the process of organising data obtained. A coding process was employed to help identify common themes. This was followed by the process of analysing themes that emerged.

4.5.6 Field notes

According to Van Maanen (1988:203) field notes are a shorthand reconstruction of events that happened at the research site. They represent one of the levels of written versions set off by experience. Taking notes allows the researcher to obtain valuable insight into the background knowledge and this may be useful in providing a better understanding of why events take place (Wolfinger, 2002:92). The researcher took some notes by looking at the background of the schools participating. This was done by means of observing what the school grounds looked like, and what materials were available for physical development activities.

People are likely to respond differently when their comments are recorded, as opposed to noted down on paper. Taking field notes helps to know what the range of

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issues covered was, even if all of these are not subsequently included in the analysis

(Powney and Watts, 1987:174).

4.6

DATA ANALYSIS

Data analysis includes the arrangement of data orderly, giving reasons for particular actions, and understanding data in relation to the participants‟ definitions of the situation, paying attention to patterns, themes, categories and regularities (Cohen et al., 2000:147).

“Qualitative data analysis is content analysis in that it is the content of interviews, field notes and documents that are analysed. Content can be analysed for themes and recurring patterns of meaning

” in qualitative research (Merriam,

1998:160).

In this study, the researcher used content analysis as a qualitative data analysis technique. The researcher followed the following stages as outlined by Lacey and

Luff (2001:3): Familiarisation with data through reading and listening, transcription of recorded material, organising data for easy retrieval, anonymising of sensitive data, coding and identification of themes.

The researcher began by reading and re-reading documents such as memoranda, management plans and minutes for meetings. This was followed by a process of listening to the audio material that was recorded during the interviews. Secondly the researcher then made a transcript of the recorded material. The researcher had to go back and forth during the transcription process to make sure that the transcript included verbatim data from participants as they were interviewed.

Thirdly, the researcher then organised data in order to make it easily identifiable.

Data from the two schools were kept in two separate files. Fourthly, the researcher started the process of anonymising the participants and any identifiable characters to protect the participants‟ privacy. Fifthly, the researcher began the process of coding in order to get common themes. Data was reduced into meaningful segments. Lastly, the researcher then started the process of identifying themes. From the coded text, themes were abstracted. In this case selected themes were then refined to reduce data into more manageable set of significant themes (Stirling, 2001:390).

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4.7

TRIANGULATION

Triangulation is the cross validation among data sources (McMillan, 2001:478).

Using several methods, such as documents, interviews and recordings lead to more valid reliable construction of realities. Triangulation includes multiple data collection.

It means comparing and cross-checking data through interviews collected from different perspectives or from follow up interviews (Golafshani, 2003:604).

To enhance trustworthiness in this study the researcher studied documents such as minutes of learning area meetings, reports on moderated tasks for learners, management plans, appraisal reports as well as curriculum assessment policy documents provided by the sampled schools. In addition to studying documents the researcher conducted interviews with participants. Field notes were also recorded.

The researcher also used the help and advice from her supervisor, Dr Mahlangu.

The researcher met with the supervisor before data was collected and also after it was collected. The researcher kept on communicating the progress of the project with the supervisor. Member checking with some of the participants who were available was also done. The researcher also compared the perspectives of educators with those of HODs as well as checking interviews against documents received (Patton, 2002:559).

4.8

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Researchers need to be very careful when collecting data through face-to-face interactions. Criteria for a research design does not only involve one selection of information rich informants and efficient strategies, but also adherence to research ethics (McMillan and Schumacher, 2001:420). Researchers not only have a responsibility to their profession, but to the participants they depend on for their work. Effects of the research on participants must be taken into consideration

(Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2000:56).

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4.8.1 The University of Pretoria Process

The researcher had to obtain ethical clearance from the Ethics Committee of the

University of Pretoria before commencing with field work. The required documents were completed and submitted to check for compliance. Permission was granted. In the submitted documents the researcher assured them that the participants were not going to be harmed in any way during the research project. The Committee was assured that pseudonyms will be used to protect participants‟ identities and the participants were free to withdraw from the study at any time without any penalties.

Participants who agreed to take part were given consent letters and in agreement they signed to give permission to conduct the research study.

4.8.2 Securing access

The first stage in gaining access was to get official permission from the University of

Pretoria to undertake the research in selected schools. This also meant contacting in writing and in person the school governors, principals, HODs and educators of selected schools. The researcher wrote a formal letter to Gauteng Department of

Education (Knowledge Management and Research Unit) requesting permission to conduct the research study. A formal request was made where the aims of the study were explained. This was followed by requests made to the two selected schools where an indication was made that this is for study purposes and that the participants‟ identities will be protected. The letters highlighted that interviews were to be conducted in the afternoons with each participant. Copies of the approval letter from the GDE were attached, but participants were told that participation was free and voluntary and that they were free to withdraw from the study at any time without any consequences.

When approval was granted, the researcher had to start building relationships with participants in order to gain access to the relevant documents. With greater ethical consideration, the researcher was able to make copies that were relevant for data analysis.

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4.8.3 Informed consent

Most studies require the researcher to secure informed consent from participants prior participation in the study. Informed consent is achieved when an explanation of the research is provided to participants with a formal promise to give them an opportunity to terminate whenever they want to, without any penalty. In this study consent was obtained by asking participants to sign a form that indicated that they gave consent to participate (McMillan and Schumacher, 2001:197).

The researcher gave participants a choice to take part in the study. The research process was explained to the participants and they were informed that it was strictly for study purposes. Informed consent involves elements such as voluntarism and full information (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2000:51).

4.8.4 Confidentiality

Settings and participants should not be identifiable in print (MacMillan, et al.,

2001:421). The researcher used pseudonyms to protect the identity of participants.

Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000:63) say that although the researcher is able to identify participants from the information given, it is important to withhold the identifiable information from the public. The researcher deleted the real names of schools and participants.

4.9

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study focused on a small sample of two HODs and four educators in their departments. Although the study is on the leadership practices of HODs, educator participants had to be included in the study because HODs do not lead in isolation but lead while working with a team of educators. The HODs share the teaching of such physical development activities with educators in their departments. It is therefore important to corroborate data obtained from HODs with data from educators in order to make data obtained more trustworthy. The interviews could only be conducted in the afternoons so that the normal school programme was not

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interrupted. Due to the increased workload of participants, some were often tired in the afternoons and interviews had to be rescheduled. Sometimes departmental workshops stood in our way and we had to postpone for participants to adhere to departmental regulations of attending such workshops.

Memorandums from the department also meant that with new information coming in weekly we had to postpone so that they can deal with documents that needed to be submitted to their district office. Another limitation was that the research study could not be carried on the fourth quarter of the year as regulations by the Department of

Education did not allow that.

4.10 CONCLUSION

This chapter outlined the research methodology. The research design in gathering information was also explained. The research involved a case study into two schools on how HODs lead educators who teach physical development activities. Individual interviews were conducted to gather information from HODs and educators. The researcher explained the intrinsic type of a case study research method that was used. The researcher collected data through document analysis, interviews as well as field notes. Data was analysed using the content data analysis technique. The sensitivity on ethical issues was also briefly explained. Lastly the researcher explained the limitation of time with participants who worked according to busy schedules.

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CHAPTER 5

PRESENTATION OF DATA COLLECTED

5.1

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter the researcher presents a discussion on data collected. The purpose of this study was to understand how HODs are managing educators in their departments so that there will be improvement in the management and teaching of

LO and life skills as subjects. To collect data, the researcher studied documents such as minutes from the two schools to have an understanding of what the leadership practices and challenges experienced by HODs and educators teaching physical development activities were. As explained earlier, it was important to interview HODs as well as educators in their departments since leadership is viewed as part of the interaction of leaders and followers. It was important to corroborate data from HODs with data from educators teaching physical development activities in order to make data obtained more trustworthy. The researcher conducted semistructured interviews with the participants in the two selected schools from the

Tshwane South District in Gauteng. Field notes were also taken in order to collect as much data as possible.

The researcher interviewed a small group of educators that comprised of four educators and two HODs from the two selected schools. One HOD was female and the other male.

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Table 5.1: Identification of Participants

Participant School Coding for participants

Number of years as an educator

Number of years as a physical development activity educator

Post level

Nthabi* A AA 18 years 8 years 2

Neo*

Rose*

Thabo*

A

A

B

AB

AC

BA

10 years

32 years

25 years

5 years

13 years

5 years

1

1

2

Hope* B BB 35 years 13 years 1

Faith* B BC 13 years 10 years 1

* Pseudonyms

The above names are pseudonyms used to protect the identity of participants.

Participants in School A are coded AA, AB and AC while participants in School B are coded BA, BB and BC. The two schools are from the same district and are both urban schools. School A is a quintile one school while School B is a quintile two school. School A caters for learners from an informal settlement, while School B caters for learners from a formal settlement.

Participants were chosen because they all teach physical development activities as part of life skills and LO. In each school the first participant was the HOD. The HODs were chosen because they are responsible for leading educators within the life skills and LO departments and they teach these learning areas as well. The HODs are responsible for providing guidance and direction in terms of how physical development activities are taught as well as making sure that the teaching of LO and life skills is aligned with policy requirements.

The second and third participants (AB and AC in school A and BB and BC in school

B) were educator participants teaching physical development activities as part of life

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skills for grade 4 to 6 and LO for grade 7. These educators are part of teams in the

LO and life skills department. Choosing educator participants was helpful in corroborating data obtained from HODS.

5.2

DATA COLLECTED FROM EDUCATORS

The following data was collected through interviews. Two educators in each school together with their HOD were interviewed. In School A Nthabi, the HOD, was interviewed as well as Neo and Rose. In School B, Hope and Faith are working together with Thabo as their HOD. The interviews in each school were conducted at different times with each individual participant.

5.2.1 Facilities and equipment for presenting physical development lessons

During the second and third visit to the research sites, while the researcher was doing followups on participants‟ consent, the researcher was able to make field notes. In School A there was no school hall and the school sporting grounds did not have a lawn. It was just green grass that was mowed in some sections. The researcher could see the football poles, but there were no nets to cover them. The mini-cricket pitch was on the other far side with holes in its nets and a lot of unlevelled ground surface. During interviews participants in School A mentioned that their school lacked adequate facilities to present physical development activities and that with limited resources their effective teaching of physical development activities is threatened. The following comments illustrate the point:

We do not have sufficient equipment and facilities. We use a nearby open ground and it is not safe for our learners (AA).

The playground is not levelled; it is grassy with some sand pits (AC).

In times of rains and unsuitable weather conditions we cannot do other activities since there is no shelter for practicing on the space used (AB).

Educators in School B also shared the same sentiments with educators in School A, as commented:

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What we have is just a small dusty playground (BA).

As I went through documents such as life skills and LO minutes it was evident that educators were concerned about lack of equipments and facilities to conduct physical development activity lessons. On the agenda for minutes the item on sharing available limited resources appeared more often as educators were encouraged to make prior arrangements in order to access available resources such as skipping robes and balls to perform movement activities. Hardman (2006) shows that many schools lack physical development activity facilities and as a result physical development activity outcomes cannot be fully realised.

It was found that the schools studied do not have sufficient and adequate equipment or resources to teach physical development activities and this makes teaching difficult. This is in agreement with Jacobs (2001) that there are many problems in the implementation of this part of the learning area. Nthabi, who is an educator and an

HOD in School A expressed concerns about the issue:

We do not have a school hall where we can practice indoor games and movement activities. The school grounds are not conducive either. A lot of space is required to perform movement activities and it becomes very difficult to do such activities in a limited space like a classroom

.

In School A, it was found out that although there is a school ground, it is usually used as a soccer field that is not properly resourced. The playground contained grass and pits that pose a danger to learners. Educators in School A showed concerns that during unsuitable weather conditions, when it is too hot or too cold or during rainy days, movement activities pose a greater challenge. They are left with no option but to abandon such activities that require a lot of space as this cannot always be done in the classrooms. The grounds are not equipped for specific weather conditions. In this school the physical ground does not have a lawn, only the netball ground is paved but it is not clearly marked.

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In School B, it was found that educators prefer not to take learners outside to the school grounds for movement activities as the ground was too small and located in a dusty area. Hope, one of the educators in School B, was very clear in explaining their school

‟s situation:

Although we have a school hall, it is occupied most of the time during the day. It is divided for use as two classrooms and as a result we do not have a safe space that we require to perform movement activities with learners

.

The above statement by Hope is in agreement with Hardman (2000b) who says that there are a lot of inadequacies in the quality of facilities and equipment for the teaching of physical development activities. Educators in School B showed some equipment that they made on their own to supplement the lack of other resources.

Examples include making own skipping ropes for movement activities and using empty toilet rolls to substitute cones for running movements.

In School A there are 1 200 learners enrolled. The school roll has been increasing due to a large influx of people in an informal settlement nearby. As a result, mobile classes are used to cater for an increased number of learners. An increased roll of learners means that there will be a shortage of resources and facilities for teaching physical development activities. Nthabi from School A was very worried.

The school has one resource pack called a blue bag, and we normally have to share it with all other educators teaching physical development activities. There are thirteen classes that have to share the very same bag of equipment.

The blue bag contained a set of six balls, twelve cones and six rolling dices for in- door games. This was not enough for even one class and educators have to always share or improvise at times. The community where School A is located does not have a problem with the school using their facilities for sports-related activities, but the school is situated far away from such well-resourced soccer or rugby fields. It will consume a lot of time if learners were to be taken to such facilities. In School B there is a community soccer field just a few kilometres away from the school yard, but the sports ground is not fully equipped and safety issues were a major concern.

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It was found out that educators in the two schools were using the available resources to engage in life skills and LO activities. As Wenger, MacDermott and Synder

(2002:123) say “schools get involved in complex collaborative arrangements”, educators from the two schools were sharing the available resources within their schools. These were internal arrangements made in schools. In school A, they made a time table on how available equipments could be shared during life skills and LO periods. In school B, each phase was allocated its own limited resources and educators teaching life skills in grade 4 to 6 had to make arrangements on how the available resources could be shared between the three grades. As much as Steyn and Niekerk (2008:104) say team work is essential in building the culture of a school, educators in the two schools were working together in sharing what was available to them.

5.2.2 Content knowledge

It was discovered in this study that none of the participants have specialised in the teaching of physical development activities at a tertiary institution. Out of the six participants interviewed, only one showed a lack of interest in teaching the learning area due to old age and incapability of performing certain movements with learners during physical development activity classes. The others are enjoying it as Thabo, from School B explained:

Yes I am enjoying it. It keeps learners fit and makes them feel happy as they express who they are and what they like about particular kind of games.

Neo, an educator from School A shared the same sentiments as the other four participants by saying the following:

I feel positive about it and I enjoy teaching physical development activities. This motivates learners as they get time to strengthen their bodies through physical movements. They know that they did not come to school to read and write all the time, but there are times when they have to enjoy the physical part of doing things in a learning environment

.

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According to Hardman (2008b) there are variations in terms of generalist educators for physical education. This is evident in primary schools where some educators do not have specific education in physical education subject matter. This is in agreement to what Faith, from School B, expressed.

I have not specialised in the teaching of physical development activities at tertiary level. When I came to this school, as a new educator I was allocated the learning area and has been teaching it ever since. The experience I have now makes it possible for me to cope with teaching it.

The content knowledge for physical education is different from that of other learning areas. Physical education is learning that is associated with exercise, sport and experiential learning (Siedentop, 2003). To make the teaching of physical development activities effective, expertise on content knowledge is essential.

According to the educators interviewed, the knowledge they have regarding the teaching of physical development activities was gained through departmental in- service training. The participants were asked if they have specialised in the teaching of physical development activities at a tertiary institution in order to determine if they were qualified to teach the subject. Data collected indicated that they were not qualified to teach physical development activities.

You (2011: 99) shows that most educators try to expand their knowledge in subject content matter to make teaching effective. The educators claim that the training received through departmental workshops is not enough and the Department of

Education need to provide more in-service training for the teaching of life skills and

LO in schools. Sedibe (2008:54) shows an important fact that educators may possess a teaching degree or diploma but this is not enough. More in service training is required.

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5.2.3 Collaborative activities

Educators prefer to work in collaboration with others. Literature shows the following important points: through collegiality the best can be extracted from people

(Lofthouse, 1994), working together is the best way of removing fear of uncertainties

(Steyn and Niekerk, 2008), most work in schools is accomplished through the efforts of people (Leithwood and Riehl, 2003). In this study all the participants acknowledged that there are collaborative activities that they do with other educators in their departments. Hope from School B explained:

We do planning of lessons together. We support each other. During planning we agree on the dates and time when we will be taking learners together to the school grounds to coach one another. We encourage one another to work collaboratively.

We do the physical training together. Although we do not share the same grades, we plan things together.

Findings revealed that although the educators are enjoying the learning area and work together as a team, they prefer this part of the learning area to be taught by specialist educators. One participant, Rose, from School A commented:

We normally go to physical development activity workshops organised by our subject district specialists, where resource people are invited to come and demonstrate to us how we can teach physical development activities in our schools. If we had specialists like those in our schools, teaching physical development activities would not be a challenge to elderly educators like me. The presence of such specialists made us forget that some of us are old as we enjoyed performing under their supervision and support. At times it becomes difficult to teach learners some things if you are not well experienced or old age has become your disability.

Although curriculum and assessment policy statement is very clear on issues of time allocation, teaching plan and assessment, it is silent about issues of LO and life skills being taught by specialist educators. This is why schools have a tendency of allowing generalist educators to teach it.

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The comment made by Rose clearly indicates that experience and specialisation in the subject matter are important elements in teaching physical development activities

.

The above comments show the positive elements of collegiality where members of the same department spend time together not as individuals, but as the whole group making a team. The exchange of ideas in a group helps group members to hear from others, as well as assuring them that they are not alone.

5.2.4 Challenges experienced by educators

According to the participants interviewed, the following paragraphs explain the challenges that were experienced. Firstly, the time allocated for physical development activity lessons is not enough. Often learners have to change into sports gear when performing physical development activities and it takes time.

Although the physical development activity lessons are one hour in each cycle, the time allocated is consumed when learners have to change to sport gear or have to walk to the play- or open ground. Sometimes arranging for the resources to be used also takes some time. Another factor that educators think requires more time is that in cases where learners have to be assessed and be given scores it really takes a considerable amount of time.

Preparations for physical development activities require a considerable amount of time as Neo from school A said:

Preparations for outdoor activities such as swimming requires a considerable amount of time even if the school can use additional facilities available from the community.

Hope from school B said that there were no additional facilities from the community that are available for the teaching of outdoor activities. She explained the following:

The learners will have to walk for some kilometres to where such facilities are. This will consume a lot of time.

Secondly, obese learners lack interest. The challenge faced by educators is how to convince such learners that physical development activity lessons are not only for

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fun or play, but a way of teaching them a healthy lifestyle. The lifestyle of playing video games, watching television, playing computer games and a habit of eating fast food are all contributing factors as educators said during interviews.

Huberty, Siahpush, Beighle, Fuhrmeister, Saliva and Welk (2011: 251) contend that physical activity plays a role in preventing childhood obesity and more opportunities for physical activities are required in schools. If learners participate in physical development activities it helps in reducing health factors such as obesity and others

(Bailey, 2006: 398).

Thirdly, the researcher was allowed to make copies of documents from educators‟ files for analysis. Pre-moderation forms indicating the moderation of activities for learners were copied. During observations of such documents the researcher discovered that educators were struggling to make rubrics for movement activities.

The comments made by the HODs clearly indicated that the educators were really challenged. Some preferred to use a grid because it was easy to make as compared to a rubric. The challenge is that they were tempted to design assessment activities in such a way that a memorandum can be used in most cases. This challenge can be attributed to the fact that they did not specialise in the subject matter.

Fourthly, in both schools, educators teaching physical development activities expressed concern about the lack of, or limited resources. The researcher discovered while reading through departmental minutes, that educators teaching physical development activities are concerned about the safety of learners. Learners sometimes sustain injuries during physical development activity lessons and educators need to administer first aid to such learners. Due to tight school budgets, the available first aid ki t stock doesn‟t last the full school year and as a result learners are restricted from certain activities.

Crouch and Maboogoane (2001: 4) explain that despite government‟s attempts to transform schools there are still problems in terms of availability of resources. Most former disadvantaged schools have little or no facilities and as a result learners are limited to a few physical development activities (Mudekunye and Sithole, 2012: 157).

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Another challenge is that in School B the educator: learner ratio in classes was 1:60 due to overcrowding. Doing assessment for movement activities in such large classes poses a greater challenge. In School A there was no overcrowding in classes and there was not much difference as such, because the educators did not specialise in making tools for assessing movement activities. This suggests that effectiveness in the teaching and assessment of physical development activities does not depend on the ratio of educator: learner but on the skills that an educator possesses.

5.3

DATA COLLECTED FROM HODs

HODs have more responsibilities in addition to teaching. According to personnel administrative measures (PAM, 1998), HODs are also responsible for the following duties:

Controlling the work of both educators and learners in their departments

Moderating mark sheets

Moderating examination papers

Coordinating, evaluation and assessment of homework and written assignments (South Africa, 1998:13)

HODs are in charge of learning areas and are responsible for mentoring other educators in their departments. They are responsible for providing an example for good teaching.

In this study two HODs from township primary schools were interviewed. School A consisted of a large number of learners from an informal settlement near the school area. One female and one male HOD were interviewed. The two schools are from the same district area in Tshwane South. Nthabi from School A has been teaching for 18 years, with eight years

‟ experience as an HOD for physical development activities. Thabo, an HOD from School B has 25 year s‟ teaching experience, with five years

‟ experience as an HOD for physical development activities. Thabo and Nthabi are pseudonyms used to protect their identities.

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5.3.1 Supervision and monitoring

Nthabi, the HOD from School A indicated during the interview that she is responsible for leading eleven educators in her department. Thabo on the other hand indicated that he is responsible for leading and managing only four educators in his department.

In terms of the supervision of educators‟ work, the two HODS were using the same instruments that were aligned to the district‟s tools for school visit and monitoring.

The following documents are monitored:

Educators‟ files

Learners‟ class work and homework books

Tasks given to learners

Lesson plans

The two HODs were both doing class visits in order to support the educators through the teaching process. The researcher was allowed to read through quarterly reports made by HODs in their schools. From the reports, the researcher could see that the files were monitored to check if the educators‟ plans were aligned to the plans of the department and to verify if relevant documents are kept. Learners‟ workbooks were monitored to check the quantity and the quality of work given to learners. In some cases comments or recommendations were made to guide educators to align the activities given to learners with work schedules and assessment plans as prescribed by district advisors. Tasks given were moderated in order to verify if learners are tested at the right level. Going through some of these reports the researcher could see that comments were often made regarding the use of Bloom‟s taxonomy when designing question papers for learners. On the moderation report for tasks given to learners the HODs were moderating to check alignment to the assessment plan, where deviation was at most discouraged; mark allocation that needs to show a fair distribution; to monitor if questions were designed at the correct level using different levels on Bloom‟s taxonomy.

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Nthabi, the HOD in School A said the following:

The monitoring tools we use consist of different sections that assess classroom teaching, the quality and quantity of work given to learners, aspects to be covered in lesson plans and assessment tools used to assess learners.

Thabo, the HOD in school B said the following:

To be honest I do monitoring of all documents and things at least once per term.

Personnel administrative measures (PAM, 1998) is clear in explaining the roles of

HODs in terms of controlling the work of educators but it it does not specify how many times in a term. Controlling activities involve doing class observations, writing reports to the principal, controlling mark sheets, pre-moderating and post-moderating tests and exam papers. All these controlling activities, as observed from the HODs management plans, occur once every term. Each activity is given a specific date as per management. This implies that there are a lot of activities that HODs are doing in addition to classroom teaching. As a result of the workload that the HODs are having, it may require more time if such activities may be repeated like twice or three times in one term

.

Nthabi was very clear in saying she draws up a management plan for the year to guide her and the educators on how and when the educator‟s work will be monitored and assessed. The year plan is communicated to educators during departmental meetings and educators are observed during class teaching to provide them with support where necessary. Thabo said that since time is so limited, he prefers to use the same instruments as the district facilitators in order to familiarise educators with the standards laid by the Department of Education so that they may always be ready for external monitoring. This also gives him an indication as to how far they are in terms of effective teaching and learning.

Although the HODs interviewed have different teaching experiences in terms of the number of years as leaders in their departments, it is clear that they are guided by the monitoring instruments used by district officials when they monitor the work of

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educators in their departments. Such common knowledge is guided and influenced by experiences they get through attending HOD workshops conducted by district officials. This has provided them with the direction on how to manage and lead others in their departments.

5.3.2 Leadership styles and characteristics

Both HODs acknowledged that educators teaching physical development activities are motivated to teach this part of the learning area, because it involves outside classroom activities and practical things that learners enjoy, e.g. playing games and sports. However in School A, there was an indication that sometimes educators worry because they had to stand in the sun observing learners, and with retirement age coming closer for some it was tiring.

In terms of motivational strategies, the two HODs said that they were not using any monetary tools but they acknowledged the educators for the good work especially in meetings. Those who did well were applauded and recognised for the job well done.

In response to the leadership characteristics that best describe them, Nthabi responded in the following manner:

I am an assertive kind of a person. I usually go an extra mile. I am hard working and willing to sacrifice my time.

The above quotation clearly shows that as an HOD and a leader in her department, she is aware of the qualities that a leader should possess. This includes working harder than the expected levels, walking the extra mile in order to be ahead and sacrificing much time by staying behind to meet deadlines for the department. When others knock off work at the prescribed time, e.g. 15:00, she remains behind most of the time to push ahead.

In terms of the leadership style that the interviewed HODs prefer, both were very clear in saying that they prefer the democratic leadership style. Nthabi was very clear in saying that even if she prefers a democratic leadership style she does not take for

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granted the fact that taking everything into consideration she is accountable in terms of the decisions being made. Thabo mentioned that even if he prefers a democratic leadership style, at times he is forced to be autocratic. He explained that there are situations where he cannot be as democratic as others may want him to be. It all depends on the situation that his department find itself in. He clearly mentioned that if there are deadlines to be met in order to comply with the departmental requirements and needs, he does not compromise. This is where he has to be autocratic in order to avoid non-compliance, especially to policy issues and submissions of reports.

Leithwood et al. (2003) state that school effectiveness is enhanced when the school community share meanings and understanding about schools‟ visions as well as setting direction. This was evident from Thabo‟s response to the question on how he shares information regarding the teaching of physical development activities.

We meet daily in the morning before classes commence, we share information from circulars and memos from the Department of Education. We interpret the information so that we all have direction on how things are to be done

.

5.3.3 Challenges experienced by HODs

Reports on observations made by HODs during class visits showed that educators had difficulties in assessing physical development activities. Lack of resources and facilities further complicated the situation. The main issue that emerged when going through the copy of minutes for meetings held by HODs with their colleagues was that when designing rubrics for physical activities educators were advised to clarify the learning objectives. The HODs specified how important it is that the objectives are clear to the educator as well as the learners. This should give an indication to learners what will be expected from them.

Secondly, educators who teach physical development activities struggle to submit movement tasks well on time for moderation. HODs gave an indication that management plans are drawn and discussed with educators well on time before submission dates, but tasks are submitted late for moderation. Adherence to

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management plan dates becomes an issue when educators are struggling to design rubrics for movement activities. In School A, there were indications from premoderation reports that some tasks had to be referred back to educators in order to be redesigned. This in turn delays the progress for the department as well as the school. Goodrich (1996) said a rubric is a set of criteria and standards linked to the learning objective. It is an attempt to communicate expectations of quality around a task and can be a basis for self-evaluation, reflection and peer review.

Thirdly, HODs are often delayed in terms of completing assessment reports from moderated assessment sheets submitted by educators. Late submissions and tasks that have to be redesigned often cause delays. This is often an indication that there is a struggle in terms of assessment and as a result the progress of the department is delayed.

5.3.4 Training needs

The HODs interviewed indicated that they need training in their departments as workshops information was not enough. Workshops are conducted in the afternoons when teachers are exhausted from the hard day‟s work. Much information may be shared, but will not be quickly absorbed. The training needs in their departments include rules on how to teach and play different games. Nthabi was very explicit in saying that if you are a lady you may be tempted to teach the type of games dominated by girls because you feel comfortable. Boys may feel discriminated against as they may prefer to play soccer instead. So training in terms of the rules of the games will make a great difference because even if you will not be playing the game practically, you will have content knowledge in terms of coaching and refereeing in soccer, netball and other games.

Nthabi expressed herself in the following manner when asked if there are training needs in her department:

Yes we need training. We need people who can help us with athletics and soccer games. We are women and we are expected to teach boys as well. We cannot discriminate and play only girls

‟ kind of games

.

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From Nthabi

‟s words it is clear that teaching physical development activities to opposite sex learners require skills and the relevant knowledge in coaching and refereeing. Thabo from School B indicated that his department needs training in terms of how to design physical development activity lessons. This is more than just delivering subject knowledge to learners (You, 2011). Enjoyment is a word often associated with physical education (Reilly, Tompkins and Gallant, 2001), but designing lesson plans for such fun activities may not be easy.

5.3.5 Keeping the balance

HODs have a lot of work responsibilities and both Nthabi and Thabo acknowledged that the work they do poses some challenges as they have to do everything within a limited amount of time. Nthabi sees sacrificing her time as the only hope for her to succeed in meeting the work requirements.

I sacrifice time in the afternoon in order to catch up. It is a challenge because you have to moderate the work of others and write departmental reports as well.

HODs are not only required to do admin work, but are required to teach as well.

They are responsible to induct newly appointed educators, teach and show them how the learning area may be conducted and assist them where necessary in terms of how lesson plans are drawn up and how to carry assessment activities.

HODs are expected to feed other educators with information regarding new learning area developments. Information gathered from workshops should be shared by all within the department. It is their responsibility to see to it that all have information required to teach the learning area. The other responsibility is to ensure that educators and learners have resources like textbooks in their departments. In addition to all of the above they have to teach. When asked how they manage to keep the balance in doing admin and teaching work, Thabo responded in the following manner:

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It is very difficult because HODs have a lot of work. We coordinate certain committees like school development team, we do class visits and we are expected to be in our classrooms. It is a daily struggle on how to cover for all the activities in this limited time

.

5.4

EMERGENCE OF NEW KNOWLEDGE

This study was based on the leadership practices of HODs leading the teaching of physical development activities. Most studies conducted on the status of teaching physical development activities showed that the teaching of this part of the learning area was undermined. Findings revealed that the teaching of physical development activities in schools was not taken seriously (Hardman, 2008; Hardman and

Marshall, 2000; Sibley and Lemasurier, 2002; Jacobs, 2001).

There are a number of challenges with regards to the way that physical development activities are taught in schools (Waring and Warburton, 2007). The policy on the teaching of physical development activities may be clear in terms of the number of hours that needs to be spent on its teaching, the learning outcomes to be achieved and what percentage is to be calculated for assessment, but it is silent about safety issues. Educators interviewed were concerned about the safety of learners when performing physical development activities in given spaces. There was an indication that some educators were tempted not to give the physical development activities a fair amount of time due to lack of resources and concerns about safety issues in the playing fields. Educators are expected to teach physical activities even if they do not have properly resourced sports facilities. Some ball throwing activities require safety nets along the sports field and this is not always the case in other schools. Nthabi, the HOD in School A explained:

We are trying to teach through the support we get from workshops, but we are unable to grasp everything that is being said because we are still learning as we did not specialise in such activities. For instance, during the water safety programme, I can teach them the theoretical part, but the practical part will be a challenge because

I cannot swim and has never been taught how to swim.

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The safety issue emerges because educators are expected to teach the physical part of some activities even though they are unable to do them practically. There may be a difference in terms of knowing what should be done and applying it practically. Teaching the content knowledge of physical development activities may not be as easy as in other learning areas. Physical activities are taught so that learners may be able to apply the knowledge practically

.

Siedintop (2002) said physical education is associated with experimental learning one achieves through participation.

5.5

CONCLUSION

The data presented in this chapter was collected from HODs and educators teaching physical development activities through interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The researcher also discussed an area of silence which emerged.

The next chapter will present the conclusion and recommendations.

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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

Data collected was presented in chapter 5. It revealed that HODs leading the teaching of physical development activities are aware of the qualities of leadership that HODs should possess. There is a perception that more training should be provided for the teaching of LO and life skills in schools. The study also revealed that

HODs are guided by monitoring instruments provided by the district officials when they monitor the work of educators.

6.2 SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT

Chapter 1 gave an introduction to the study on the teaching of physical development activities. The chapter sought to outline the aims and objectives of the study.

Chapter 2 focused on concepts relating to leading the teaching of physical development activities. The chapter discussed the importance of teaching the physical development activities, as well as pedagogical aspects and components of teaching physical development activities.

Chapter 3 gave the leadership roles of HODs in teaching physical development activities. The chapter emphasised the importance of teamwork, as well as a collaborative framework. Leadership styles relevant for the teaching of physical development activities were outlined. Guidelines for effective leadership were also provided.

Chapter 4 gave an outline of the methodology that was used for the study. The main data collection technique used was the interview. Structured interviews were conducted with HODs leading the teaching of physical development activities as well as educators in their departments. Data collected was presented in Chapter 5. In

Chapter 6 the researcher presents recommendations and conclusion for the study.

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6.3

RESEARCH FINDINGS

The main research question as outlined in Chapter 1 reads as follows:

What are the experiences of HODs in managing the teaching of physical development activities in primary schools?

The researcher sought to answer the following sub questions:

What is the knowledge of HODs like in managing educators who teach physical development activities?

What are HODs practices regarding support given to educators teaching physical development activities?

What are the strategies that are used by HODs in helping educators in the teaching of physical development activities?

What are th e HODs‟ perceptions regarding the teaching of physical development activities?

Which instruments do HODs use in managing educators who teach physical development activities?

The following paragraphs discuss the main findings of this study. The findings are presented according to the five research questions underpinning the study.

6.3.1 Content knowledge in the teaching of physical development activities

All the participants interviewed, both educators and HODs within the same departments, acknowledged that they lack skills in terms of teaching physical development activities in their schools. They are expected to teach the subject even though they did not specialise in the learning area. Even though some of the participants expressed themselves as having the love for this part of the learning area, they strongly believe that it would benefit the learners even more if the learning area was taught by those who have specialised in the subject matter. Although they attend workshops during the course of the year regarding the teaching of physical

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development activities to empower themselves, it will be encouraging to attend longer term courses rather than the short two-hour workshops that are normally offered in the afternoons.

The teaching of physical development activities differs from the teaching of other subjects, since it involves experimental learning as learners practice physical activities. Learning takes place through the engagement on physical activities.

Educators need to have some form of pedagogical skills so that the learning process can be directed. The physical side of life is essential and educational leaders must emphasise it (Pangrazi et al., 2010:2).

HODs in schools need to protect this part of the learning area by making sure that daily quality physical development activity periods are not undermined. Learners should have quality experiences during physical development activity lessons.

Teaching physical development activities in primary schools is compulsory and therefore the educational leaders should foster environments in which the monitoring process is compulsory and educators teaching physical development activities receive feedback from time to time.

6.3.2 Time allocated to develop other educators

The HODs interviewed expressed time as a scarce resource in fulfilling their job requirements. In addition to performing their teaching work they do administrative work as well. Mentoring and coaching other educators require demonstrations that may involve attending physical development activity lessons with them to indicate what is required from them. HODs acknowledged that they do presentations during formal meetings with staff members on feedback received from workshops, but there is often not enough time to demonstrate the skills learned practically. In other words they are unable to accompany physical development activity educators to the playgrounds in order to demonstrate to them how to conduct such lessons. The reason for this is that they do have classes and lessons to attend to during such particular periods. As a result coaching happens during class visit time in order to comply with district office directives. If educators are to be mentored in their

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departments it can happen in the afternoons after normal day periods, but there are often disturbances due to workshops or forum meetings to attend to.

HODs claim that due to an increased workload and paper work for HODs, there is not sufficient time to provide feedback to physical development activity educators.

Providing feedback is an important process in the teaching process, as it provides guidelines on where to improve. Co-ordinating other committees such as the

Integrated Quality Management System takes up a considerable amount of time and as a result mentoring and coaching time for physical development activities becomes limited.

6.3.3 Support strategies by HODs

HODs interviewed in this study were very clear to say that they support educators within their departments through the process of sharing information from workshops, having meetings where an exchange of ideas is encouraged, in terms of strategies that can be used in teaching physical development activities as well as making sure that all educators understand what district memorandums and circulars require them to do.

Secondly, both HODs encouraged educators to plan physical development activity lessons together. They encouraged the team to work together even though some were not teaching the same grades. This allowed them to have an idea of what is happening in other physical development activity classes. Thirdly, HODs in this study said they had to remind educators about the importance of attending workshops and forum meetings time and time again. This was to give them the opportunity to meet other educators from other clusters in order to share problems and solutions.

Another support strategy used by the HODs interviewed was to encourage the educators to observe one another during the teaching of physical development activities. This gave them an opportunity to learn directly from their peers.

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6.3.4 Perceptions regarding the teaching of physical development activities

The teaching of physical development activities has been undermined as explained earlier in Chapter 2. In this study, restructuring within the two schools played a role in terms of how the teaching of physical development activities was perceived. Nthabi from School A became an HOD in 2005, while Thabo from School B became an

HOD in 2008. They did not teach physical development activities before.

The perception that they had was that physical development activities as part of life orientation was just a filler subject. In other words, a school timetable was drawn up and then life orientation would be the last learning area to fill the gaps left in order to balance the number of periods on the timetable. The teaching of physical development activities could not be accounted for. Educators were not adhering to the requirements of teaching it as they should and correcting this depended a lot on monitoring process done by HODs. Due to insufficient training and not having specialised in the subject matter, more time devoted for the teaching of physical development activities has been sacrificed in School A and School B.

Even though Thabo and Nthabi are now positive about the teaching of physical development activities, there is a feeling that it would be best if the learning area could be taught by specialist educators. Thabo and Nthabi were both willing to learn skills on how to teach physical development activities and how to manage and lead educators in their departments. They expressed this during the interview process. In response to how they felt about teaching physical development activities, they responded by saying that since they have been teaching it, their experiences over the past few years helped them to survive. Another thing they expressed was that they enjoyed the practical part of teaching it, even though they lacked confidence due to not having specialised in the subject matter.

What was regarded as a challenge to them was how to guide and support educators in their departments with the little experience and knowledge that they have. They both stated that the educators were given the learning area just to fill the timetable.

To them, this has affected the way in which the learning area has been taught.

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Nthabi expressed how difficult it would be at times to coach others in her department knowing that she did not specialise in the subject matter either. At first she had to work around the issue of helping them to see the positive side of how physical activities can be enjoyable, but the challenge has always been how to teach them to apply applicable assessment techniques.

Both HODs felt pressurised to comply with departmental management requirements that they had to do class visits, observations, control learners‟ work and moderate tasks in every quarter of the year. They still needed training themselves and educators required feedback. It was a challenge to write such management reports at times. All the other educators interviewed felt that the teaching of physical development activities should be taken serious, as it was regarded as the basis for other subjects in terms of learning to live healthy lives.

6.3.5 Management instruments used by HODs

It is important for school leaders to develop and have instruments that they use to manage the teaching and learning process in their departments. The HODs interviewed in this study indicated that they use the following management instruments in their departments to provide guidance on issues relating to overall teaching and learning:

6.3.5.1

Management plans

At the beginning of each year, management plans are drawn up and discussed with educators in order to provide guidance in terms of all activities that will take place in their departments. On copies of the management plans studied, the researcher was able to identify aspects such as important dates for departmental meetings, moderation of tasks, when learners‟ work and their portfolios will be controlled and class visits, as well as dates for formal assessment of learners. Management plans drawn up contained four columns. The first column indicated the activity to be carried on, the second shows the date for the activity, the third column indicated the names of educators responsible for executing the action and the last column indicated the date by which the activity is to be completed.

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6.3.5.2

Moderation forms for tasks

The HODs were very clear that they use the moderation form templates provided by the district subject specialist. This consisted of pre-moderation forms for tasks which will be written by learners. During observation of such pre-moderation forms, the researcher was able to go through them where the forms contained a report on whether the task addressed the relevant learning outcomes, it is addressed at the correct level using Bloom‟s taxonomy of questioning, marks are allocated fairly and whether the task was approved or not. Post-moderation forms contained information regarding the learners‟ scripts that were post-moderated. It contained information regarding the issue of marking learners‟ work and checking if scores allocated corresponds with scores written on an assessment recording sheet.

6.3.5.3

Documents relating to educators’ appraisal

HODs are part of the development support group for educators during the appraisal process. Being part of the support group, the HODs interviewed kept evidence for educators appraised. This included copies for developmental meetings and reports for classroom observations, as well as other co-curricular and extra-curricular activities. All the evidence kept was collected throughout the Integrated Quality

Management System cycles.

6.3.5.4

Lesson plan copies

Nthabi, an HOD in School A was very clear to say that she keeps copies of lesson plans designed by educators in her department in order to moderate them or give out any inputs where necessary. This gives her an idea of what aspects are being covered and to moderate if the learning area educators have aligned the lesson plan with learning outcomes and work schedules.

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6.3.5.5

Records for learner and teacher support materials

The two HODs kept records of all learner and teacher support materials that were issued to educators. This included records of textbooks loaned to learners, teachers‟ guides, stationary supplied and physical development activity resource packs given.

6.4

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study was limited to two urban schools in the Tshwane South district. The problems that were encountered during this study are as follows:

The interview processes had to be conducted in the afternoons. Dates for the interviews had to be rescheduled because educators had some administrative duties to perform in the afternoons. Generally, once a week the district office sends district memorandums and circulars where educators have to respond either by doing some admin work relating to their teaching or attend workshops called by subject district specialists and forum leaders.

Another problem wa s that access to some documents such as HODs‟ management files was not sufficient enough. The researcher had to rely on copies of documents that were made from the selected schools.

6.5

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

In Chapter 1 the objectives of the study was outlined as to identify the leadership styles effective for the teaching of physical development activities, as well as to analyse the instruments that can be used by HODs in monitoring the teaching of physical development activities.

The two aims were addressed by interview questions through responses given by

HODs participants. The two HODs interviewed use the monitoring instruments that are aligned to the instruments used by district officials when a school visit is done.

Their major concern is to ensure that what happens in their departments complies

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with the requirements by district officials and subject specialists. Another important factor is to make sure that educators get used to the prescribed standards as required by the departmental subject specialists.

Leaders in different organisations use different leadership styles to effect progress in their organisations. Transformational leaders make collective decisions for the sake of followers‟ participation (Riaz and Haque, 2012; 5227). The HODs interviewed are aware of their leadership styles and know that their leadership styles should be adapted to the current situation of their school as we are living in a world of constant educational developments. Situational models of leadership assert that no single way of leadership works in all situations. Effective leaders diagnose the situation, identify the leadership style that will be most effective and then determine if the chosen style can be implemented (Palestini, 2012:46).

6.6

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY

The researcher would like to recommend the following based on the findings for this study:

6.6.1 Content knowledge

Regarding the issue of content knowledge in the teaching of physical development activities, the Department of Education must provide professional development of educators teaching this part of the learning area. Educators who teach this learning area should be encouraged to register with higher learning institutions that will offer them long-term courses on how to teach physical development activities. This will ensure that they gain knowledge and confidence on how to conduct teaching of physical activities. The long-term courses that will be offered will provide educators teaching physical development activities with the required pedagogical knowledge and skills.

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6.6.2 Time to develop other educators

The researcher recommends that the Department of Education must provide assistant educators to relieve the workload of HODs in schools. This will allow them to have enough time to mentor or coach educators in their departments. Schools should also be allowed to form partnerships with sports coaches in their communities to coach educators who teach physical development activities. In this way HODs managing the teaching of physical development activities will have time to collaborate with community sport coaches and incorporate skills gained into everyday teaching of physical development activities.

6.6.3 Support strategies

Schools should allow educators who attend physical development activity workshops more time to cascade the information gained. Time should be allocated for practical demonstrations. This will strengthen confidence in terms of how to conduct lessons in the classrooms.

6.6.4 Deployment of staff members to the right positions

During the restructuring process within the schools, the school management team must take into consideration the experiences and skills that educators have in the teaching of physical development activities. This can be coupled with the love of the learning area and people who are sports inclined. This will assist in terms of taking this part of the learning area serious. Experience and interest in teaching the learning area are important factors to consider during restructuring process.

6.7

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER FUTURE STUDIES

The researcher would like to give the following suggestions for further studies. Since this study is of a limited scope, further research should be conducted to provide more information on finding out what the impact of leadership styles will be on school effectiveness. There is a need to find out how leadership styles of HODs in high

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schools impact on the teaching of life orientation. Further comparison may be done in other districts as this study was linked to Tshwane South district in Gauteng

Province.

There is also a need to further study how the assessment approaches to the teaching of physical development activities can be made reliable. As discussed in this study, teaching physical development activities is different from teaching other areas as it involves teaching practical movements. Designing rubrics and methods of assessing movement activities possess challenges.

6.8

CONCLUSION

The study revealed that HODs in the interviewed schools prefer to use democratic leadership styles. However, there may be situations that require them to change their leadership styles. These situations include a lack of experience and specialisation in the teaching of physical development activities and have an influence on their leadership styles.

The study also revealed that lack of time for mentoring and coaching of educators who teach physical development activities demotivates educators in that department.

The workshops provided by the Department are not sufficient and happens mainly in the afternoons after contact time with learners. This happened when educators are most tired from the hard day‟s work.

As mentioned earlier, HODs indicated that they will like to coach and mentor other educators in their departments but they become discouraged every time the restructuring process of staff members takes place. The teaching of physical development activities is given to newly appointed educators to just fill the timetable.

This finding indicates that it is important for school management teams to carefully consider the experiences as well as the levels of skills that educators possess when learning areas are being allocated.

Educators on the other hand feel that they do not have much power to change the situation. Instead they tend to avoid teaching and instruction areas in which they lack

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skills and confidence. This in turn is used as an excuse for not being able to account to how physical development activities scores were given. Some educators are afraid if they do not accept teaching physical development activities during the reallocation process, they may be affected by redeployment at a later stage. Such uncertainties about their future make them teach physical development activities even if they do not have adequate skills to do so.

The leadership practices of HODs were revealed in this research study. The research study has shown tha t the HODs‟ leadership practices are affected by factors such as a lack of physical development activities resources, especially for large class sizes, lack of specialisation in the learning area as well as a lack of time for coaching and mentoring programmes in their schools.

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APPENDICES

Appendix A: Interview schedule for HODs

Appendix B: Interview schedule for educators

Appendix C: Letter of consent to the Department of Education

Appendix D: Approval letter from the Department of Education

Appendix E: Letter of consent to the teacher participants

Appendix F: Letter of consent to HOD participants

Appendix G: Ethical clearance certificate

Appendix H: Language editing certificate

Appendix I: Declaration of originality

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