IMPLEMENTING MUSIC IN AN INTEGRATED ARTS CURRICULUM FOR SOUTH AFRICAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

IMPLEMENTING MUSIC IN AN INTEGRATED ARTS CURRICULUM FOR SOUTH AFRICAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS
IMPLEMENTING MUSIC IN AN INTEGRATED
ARTS CURRICULUM FOR SOUTH AFRICAN
PRIMARY SCHOOLS
by
Dorette Vermeulen
A thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor Musicae
in the
Department of Music
Faculty of Humanities
University of Pretoria
Pretoria
2009
Promoter: Prof. Caroline van Niekerk
Co-promoter: Prof. Heinrich van der Mescht
© University of Pretoria
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
ABSTRACT
Music Education as part of the learning area Arts and Culture is far from
satisfactory in South African schools. Reasons for this include a highly
sophisticated and complex curriculum (the revised National Curriculum
Statement, 2002); the integration of four discrete arts forms into one learning
area; and teacher training which is not always reflective of the teaching
profession’s demands.
The study was based on a mixed method design, investigating how teachers in
best scenario schools implement music as part of the integrated learning area
Arts and Culture. Interviews were held with various stakeholders in Music
Education, including teachers currently involved with the presentation of the
Arts and Culture learning area, lecturers at universities training students for
Music Education, and policy makers such as subject advisors in the Arts and
Culture learning area. Data was also collected by analysing commercially
available resources for this learning area.
Analysis of the data obtained revealed that few teachers in the Arts and Culture
learning area are qualified in more than one art form. A major concern is that
music is often omitted from regular classroom activities in the Foundation Phase
due to teachers feeling pressurised by multiple assessment standards in
learning areas such as Literacy and Numeracy. Another finding in all primary
school phases was that the time spent on Music Education was far less than
that spent on Visual Arts. Learners are often involved in projects collecting
knowledge about music, but seldom involved in active music making
experiences.
Aspects such as different ways to integrate the arts into one learning area,
generalist/specialist teacher training, as well as issues concerning product,
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
process and performance during the delivery of the arts, were also investigated.
The researcher drew from all the data to design a course for teacher training in
Music Education as part of the learning area Arts and Culture.
Recommendations
include
regular
in-service
teacher
training
courses;
nationwide co-ordination of teacher training programmes and the establishment
of a national council for Music Education. An urgent need for appropriate lesson
material in Arts and Culture was also identified, including CDs with songs and
backtracks.
Keywords
Praxial Music Education; Integrated learning; Interdisciplinary Arts; Arts and
Culture; Teacher training; specialist versus generalist Arts teachers; Foundation
Phase; Product/process/performance in Arts Education; Assessment in teacher
training for Music Education; Outcomes Based Education.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to the people
listed below, without whose support this study would not have been possible:
•
My promoter, Professor Caroline van Niekerk, for stimulating intellectual
thought, meticulous technical guidance, unwavering support and continuous
encouragement which motivated me to endeavour to complete the study,
and for her years of friendship;
•
My co-promoter, Professor Heinrich van der Mescht, for his insight, thorough
critical reading and inspiring comments;
•
My former lecturer in Music Education, Professor Elsbeth Hugo, who
believed in me and gave me the courage to complete the final stages of this
project;
•
My husband, Gerard, for his unfailing belief in my abilities, as well as my
children, Martin and Annemie, for their patience and understanding;
•
My friend and colleague Riekie van Aswegen, who always persuaded and
inspired me to do my best;
•
My students, who are a constant inspiration and motivation to continue my
work, because they make a difference in the lives of South African children;
•
The music teachers, lecturers and students who were willing to share their
experiences, passions and ideas on Music Education during multiple
interviews, and without whose insights this study could not have been
realised;
•
My dearest earthly father, Dick Hölscher, who was a role model and
inspiration to me throughout his life; and
•
My heavenly father, who instils me with dreams and hopes for the future.
Soli Deo Gloria
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................. ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................. iv
KEY CONCEPTS IN THE STUDY ............................................................... xi
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................... xiv
LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................... xv
LIST OF FIGURES....................................................................................... xvii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1
PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY.................................1-1
1.2
RESEARCH QUESTIONS..................................................................1-5
1.2.1 Main research question.......................................................................1-6
1.2.2 To what extent do the views of policy makers of the national
curriculum correspond with teachers’ experiences in their
interpretation of an integrated arts curriculum? .................................1-7
1.2.3 How are education students trained to implement the integrated
arts curriculum? .................................................................................1-7
1.2.4 What are the suitable resources which support a meaningful
implementation of music into the arts curriculum?............................. 1-7
1.3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.................................. 1-9
1.3.1 Sampling strategy.............................................................................. 1-10
1.3.2 Data analysis ..................................................................................... 1-11
1.4
DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.................................................... 1-11
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
1.5
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING THE STUDY..................... 1-11
1.6
OUTLINE AND ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS......................... 1-13
1.7
VALUE OF THE STUDY.................................................................... 1-14
1.8
NOTES TO THE READER................................................................. 1-15
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 2-1
2.2
THE ARTS.......................................................................................... 2-2
2.2.1 The value of the arts.......................................................................... 2-2
2.2.2 The arts in contemporary society....................................................... 2-3
2.2.3 The role of the arts in schools........................................................... 2-3
2.2.4 Intrinsic and utilitarian merits for the arts............................................ 2-7
2.2.5 The arts all have a product................................................................. 2-12
2.3
CULTURE.......................................................................................... 2-12
2.4
INTEGRATION OF THE ARTS......................................................... 2-15
2.5
MUSIC AS COMPONENT OF AN ARTS EDUCATION.................... 2-21
2.5.1 The role of music in 21st-century society ........................................... 2-21
2.5.2 Music as an intrinsic part of African cultures...................................... 2-23
2.5.3 The merit of Music Education in schools............................................ 2-24
2.5.4 Specialist or generalist teachers for Music Education....................... 2-28
2.5.5 Process, product, presentation and performance in Music
Education........................................................................................... 2-26
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
2.6
CONCLUDING REMARKS................................................................ 2-32
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
3.1
INTRODUCTION............................................................................... 3-1
3.1.1 Theoretical perspective...................................................................... 3-2
3.1.2 Broad approach or research design................................................... 3-2
3.1.3 Positivist and post-positivist beliefs................................................... 3-4
3.1.4 Specific research procedures............................................................ 3-5
3.2
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.................................. 3-6
3.3
RESEARCH PARADIGM FOR THIS STUDY.................................... 3-7
3.4
SAMPLING STRATEGY.................................................................... 3-9
3.4.1 Purposive sampling........................................................................... 3-9
3.4.2 Teachers interviewed........................................................................ 3-10
3.4.3 Lecturers involved in Music Education at South African universities 3-11
3.4.4 Policy makers in Arts Education......................................................... 3-11
3.5
DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES................................................. 3-12
3.6
INTERVIEWS..................................................................................... 3-14
3.6.1 General remarks regarding interviews.............................................. 3-14
3.6.2 Planning the interview structure......................................................... 3-16
3.6.3 Questioning technique during interviews............................................ 3-18
3.6.4 Computer technology used during interviews.................................... 3-18
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
3.6.5 Focus group interviews...................................................................... 3-19
3.7
QUESTIONNAIRES ........................................................................... 3-19
3.8
DATA ANALYSIS............................................................................... 3-20
3.9
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS........................................................... 3-21
3.10
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY............................................................ 3-22
CHAPTER 4: COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 4-1
4.2
METHOD OF ANALYSIS................................................................... 4-1
4.3
ANALYSIS OF INTERVIEWS........................................................... 4-4
4.3.1 Interviews at schools.......................................................................... 4-4
4.3.1.1
The A Section of the interview: school environment and resource 4-6
4.3.1.2
The B Section of the interview: profiles of teachers....................... 4-12
4.3.1.3
The C Section of the interview: time allocation in Arts and Culture4-17
4.3.1.4
The D Section of the interview: Implementing Music as part of
the Arts and Culture learning area ................................................ 4-30
4.3.1.4.1 D Section: Question 1 – The Value of Music .................... 4-30
4.3.1.4.2 D Section: Question 2 – Arts and Culture as an
integrated learning area in the new curriculum ................. 4-37
4.3.1.4.3 D Section: Question 3 – Outcomes Based Education
and group work ................................................................. 4-43
4.3.1.4.4 D Section: Question 4 – Music activities included during
lessons.............................................................................. 4-43
4.3.1.4.5 D Section: Open-ended discussion................................... 4-48
4.3.2 Interviews with lecturers from universities.......................................... 4-51
4.3.3 Interviews with policy makers............................................................ 4-54
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
4.4
REVIEW OF ARTS AND CULTURE RESOURCES.......................... 4-57
4.5
SUMMARY......................................................................................... 4-59
CHAPTER 5: OBE, THE RNCS AND A WHOLE-BRAIN APPROACH TO
STUDENT TRAINING IN MUSIC EDUCATION
5.1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 5-1
5.2
OUTCOMES BASED EDUCATION................................................... 5-1
5.3
THE REVISED NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT................ 5-3
5.4
ACTIVE MUSIC MAKING AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN
MUSIC EDUCATION ......................................................................... 5-9
5.5
MUSIC CONCEPTS IN THE RNCS.................................................. 5-10
5.6
WHOLE-BRAIN LEARNING.............................................................. 5-19
5.7
TRAINING STUDENTS IN MUSIC EDUCATION.............................. 5-22
5.7.1 General aspects of teacher training................................................... 5-22
5.7.2 Music Education at the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria.. 5-23
5.7.3 Training Music Education specialist students.................................... 5-27
5.7.4 Training students for the learning area Arts and Culture ................... 5-36
5.7.5 Training generalist students in the Foundation Phase for the
implementation of music .................................................................... 5-40
5.7.6 Co-operative learning and group work............................................... 5-43
5.7.7 Guided-Study..................................................................................... 5-44
5.7.8 Assessment strategy.......................................................................... 5-45
5.7.9 Micro presentations........................................................................... 5-48
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
5.8
SUMMARY......................................................................................... 5-60
CHAPTER 6: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 6-1
6.2
FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH....................................................... 6-2
6.3
ANSWERING THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS.................................. 6-5
6.3.1 Schools and the music teacher.......................................................... 6-5
6.3.2 Policy makers and the curriculum...................................................... 6-7
6.3.3 Universities and teacher training........................................................ 6-9
6.3.4 Resources.......................................................................................... 6-10
6.4
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH................................ 6-12
6.5
CONCLUSION.................................................................................. 6-13
APPENDICES .............................................................................................. A-1
SOURCES.................................................................................................... S-1
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
KEY CONCEPTS IN THE STUDY
There are various theories, concepts, issues and trends related to the research
topic. This section clarifies the key concepts of the research topic and the
interpretation thereof for application in this study.
Arts and Culture: In South Africa, all the Arts are combined into one learning
area entitled ‘Arts and Culture’. This includes Music, Visual Arts, Drama and
Dance.
Early Childhood Development (ECD): This is the education of young learners
from the ages of 0 to 5 before they enter the formal schooling system of primary
schools. This phase also includes grade R which is the reception stage of
formal schooling in South Africa.
Discrete arts: The learning area Arts and Culture consists of four separate or
discrete arts, including Music, Visual Arts, Drama and Dance. The focus in the
curriculum, however, is on an integrated and holistic approach.
FET Band: The Further Education and Training Band is focus-based and
includes grades 10 to 12 of the secondary school (Pretorius, 1998, p. 36).
Learning outcomes for the FET Band have been designed to link with Arts and
Culture in the GET (General Education and Training Band). This ensures
inclusivity, enabling all learners to choose Music (or any of the other discrete art
forms) as subjects in the FET Band (South Africa. Department of Education,
2003b, p. 11).
First Education Specialist (FES): This term is applied to administrators who
are responsible for the implementation of a learning area in a school district.
They are also called Subject Advisors. These specialists (previously known as
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
‘inspectors’) visit schools and provide or organise in-service training (INSET)
courses for teachers during cluster meetings.
Foundation Phase: This term refers to the first three years of formal
compulsory schooling in South African primary schools, including grades 1 to 3.
Generalist teachers: These are teachers of the Foundation and Intermediate
phases who are required to teach all learning areas and who do not necessarily
have any specialist training in any of the art forms.
GET Band: The General Education and Training Band includes learners from
grades R to 9. This band follows an integrated approach, ending with the Senior
Phase of compulsory schooling (grades 7 to 9). The Senior Phase links the
integrated approach of the Foundation and Intermediate phases with the
specialised and focused approach of the FET Band (Pretorius, 1998, p. 36).
INSET: An acronym used internationally referring to in-service training.
Intermediate Phase: This phase indicates grades 4 to 6.
Intersen Phase: This term is used to refer to the higher grades of the primary
school, extending over the Intermediate Phase into the Senior Phase. It
includes the Intermediate Phase (grades 4 to 6), and ends with the first year of
the Senior Phase (grade 7).
KDA: The KDA or Kids Development Academy is a private organisation
providing supplementary training in the learning area Life Skills.
Music Education: For the purposes of this thesis, Music Education is defined
as being music taught to groups of learners, in comparison to instrumental
music tuition where for example piano or orchestral instruments are taught to
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
individual learners. Furthermore, Music Education includes a variety of activities
such as singing, playing percussion instruments, listening to music, moving to
music, creating music, reading notation and playing music games.
OBE: Outcomes Based Education is the approach used in the new curriculum
of South Africa, implemented since 1997.
RNCS: The Revised National Curriculum Statement of South Africa was
published in 2002 and fully implemented in 2008.
Senior Phase: This phase extends over both the primary and secondary
schools, including grades 7 up to grade 9.
Ubuntu: A South African term which implies that one cannot exist as a human
being in isolation. It refers to the interconnectedness of all humans, to kindness,
humanity, compassion, and generosity. It is regarded as fundamental to the way
Africans approach life (Wikipedia, 2009).
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
The following acronyms and abbreviations are used in this thesis:
AS
Assessment Standard
ASME
Australian Society for Music Education
CD
Compact Disk
CIRCME
Callaway International Resource Centre for Music Education
DoE
Department of Education, South Africa
DVD
Digital Versatile Disc
ECD
Early Childhood Development
FET
Further Education and Training
FES
First Education Specialist
GDE
Gauteng Department of Education
HOD
Head of Department
HSRC
Human Sciences Research Council
INSET
In-Service Training
ISME
International Society for Music Education
KDA
Kids Development Academy
LO
Learning Outcome
LTSM
Learner Teacher Support Material
MENC
Music Educators National Conference (USA)
MI
Multiple Intelligences
MCM
Music Centred Model
MTV
Music Television
NAAE
National Advocates for Arts Education (Australia)
OBE
Outcomes Based Education
PASMAE
Pan African Society for Musical Arts Education
RNCS
Revised National Curriculum Statement
SAQA
South African Qualifications Authority
WCED
Western Cape Education Department
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1:
Research Paradigms ................................................................ 3-2
Table 3.2:
Post-positivism and positivism .................................................. 3-4
Table 3.3:
Interpretive and behaviourist procedure ................................... 3-5
Table 3.4:
Options, advantages and limitations of interviews .................... 3-14
Table 4.1:
Interviews at schools ................................................................ 4-4
Table 4.2:
Themes and related categories in interviews............................ 4-5
Table 4.3:
Total time per week allocated for all learning activities ............. 4-18
Table 4.4:
Official time allocation for Arts and Culture in the
Foundation Phase..................................................................... 4-20
Table 4.5:
Number of full time music lecturers of the Onderwyskollege
Pretoria [Teacher’s Training College, Pretoria] (1977-2001)
in comparison to the University of Pretoria (2002-2008)........... 4-52
Table 5.1:
Four learning outcomes of the RNCS ....................................... 5-4
Table 5.2:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade R (Reception)........... 5-11
Table 5.3:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 1............................... 5-11
Table 5.4:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 2............................... 5-12
Table 5.5:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 3............................... 5-12
Table 5.6:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 4............................... 5-13
Table 5.7:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 5............................... 5-14
Table 5.8:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 6............................... 5-15
Table 5.9:
LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 7............................... 5-16
Table 5.10: Aspects of music concepts included and omitted in the
RNCS ....................................................................................... 5-17
Table 5.11: Description of modules offered in Music ................................... 5-26
Table 5.12: Knowledge and skills required from Music Education
students .................................................................................... 5-29
Table 5.13: Compiling a Professional Portfolio ............................................ 5-31
Table 5.14: Lesson Plan Template .............................................................. 5-32
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.15: Essential differences between choral and instrumental
tuition ........................................................................................ 5-35
Table 5.16: Expectations and preferences of students based on wholebrain learning ............................................................................ 5-46
Table 5.17: Skills and assessment methods used for Music students......... 5-50
Table 5.18: Assessment criteria for an instrumental activity ........................ 5-53
Table 5.19: Assessment rubric for an instrumental activity.......................... 5-54
Table 5-20: Assessment criteria for a listening activity ................................ 5-55
Table 5.21: Assessment rubric for a listening activity .................................. 5-56
Table 5.22: Assessment criteria for a singing activity .................................. 5-57
Table 5.23: Assessment rubric for a singing activity.................................... 5-58
Table 5.24: Peer Assessment and self assessment form............................ 5-59
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Research focus of this thesis.................................................... 1-8
Figure 1.2: An “outside in” approach........................................................... 1-9
Figure 1.3: An “inside out” approach........................................................... 1-10
Figure 2.1: Data collection process No 1 .................................................... 2-1
Figure 4.1: Data collection process No 2 .................................................... 4-3
Figure 4.2: Socio-economic status of schools............................................. 4-6
Figure 4.3: Training of teachers .................................................................. 4-13
Figure 4.4: Specialist or generalist teachers ............................................... 4-14
Figure 4.5: Art forms presented by teachers............................................... 4-15
Figure 4.6: Time allocation for all learning programmes in the
Foundation Phase..................................................................... 4-19
Figure 4.7: Real time allocated to the Arts in the Foundation Phase .......... 4-21
Figure 4.8: Time allocated to each of the art forms in the Foundation
Phase ....................................................................................... 4-23
Figure 4.9: Time allocated for learning areas in the Intermediate and
Senior Phases .......................................................................... 4-25
Figure 4.10: Real time allocated to each of the four Arts in the
Intermediate and Senior Phases............................................... 4-27
Figure 4.11: Which activities do learners enjoy most?.................................. 4-47
Figure 4.12: Data collection process No 3 .................................................... 4-57
Figure 5.1: Music Centred Model (MCM) .................................................... 5-6
Figure 5.1: Whole-Brain Model, adapted from Herrmann ........................... 5-20
Figure 6.1: Research focus and findings .................................................... 6-5
Figure 6.2: Aspects leading to success in Music Education ....................... 6-15
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
The South African educational landscape has recently undergone several innate
changes. The former education system was fragmented and uneven. At one end of
the spectrum, some schools had first world education programmes which included
Music and Visual Art. At the other end of the spectrum, many schools barely
survived, struggling to teach the basic skills such as reading, writing and arithmetic.
This resulted in all available periods being allocated to the teaching of literacy and
numeracy to compensate for backlogs. The Arts were not examined as part of the
formal school curriculum, often having the effect that schools did not use the
allocated periods for Arts education.
When a new democratic government was established in 1994, a new curriculum was
created to encompass the needs of all the people. Policy makers realised that it is a
basic human right for all learners to be exposed to and educated in Music and the
Arts. Therefore, a novel, integrated curriculum was devised and hastily implemented
to compensate for the vast discrepancies of the past. However, the new curriculum
could not be an instant relief for the years of unequal education. The process of fully
implementing this curriculum, with all its pitfalls, is still ongoing.
The current outcomes based educational model (OBE) implies a move towards
learner-centred orientation and facilitation instead of the content-driven syllabi of the
past. Highly structured subject areas have been replaced with broad integrated
learning areas. Since the 1990s, the most serious educational problem in South
Africa has been to improve the “quality of educators rather than simply improving the
quantity” (South Africa. Department of Education, 1998, p. 115). As a result of the
changing curriculum, which is now outcomes-based and integrated, teachers in
Music Education and the Arts and Culture learning area have to critically assess
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
their practices and the scope of knowledge and skills offered to learners in schools.
OBE also affects how students for the learning area Arts and Culture are trained in
order for them to be effectively prepared for the practical demands of teaching the
subject.
The integration of the Arts in education is an internationally debated phenomenon
and is not unique to South Africa. It is a modern trend to organise the curriculum in
an integrated and interdisciplinary manner (Aaron, 1994; Barrett, 2001; Burton,
2001; Chrysostomou, 2004; Hauptfleisch, 1997; Klopper, 2004; Russell-Bowie, 2006
& 2008; Snyder, 2001). Integration has, however, always been a part of traditional
African music. Through the ages, the African culture and way of life have embraced
the arts in an integrated way – music, song and dance have always been performed
as a unity in such a way that Western methods of division and categorisation are
superfluous (Levine, 2005, p. 21; Nzewi, 2003, p. 13; Oehrle, 2002, p. 107). A
similar observation has been made by McAllester (1985, p. 1) in his description of
the Venda people of South Africa. Without basic literacy skills, all Venda people are
capable of making music, including the abilities to compose, dance and arrange
movements for songs. It is only since the colonisation of the African continent that
Western thought and methods have permeated the education of the young, leading
to the splitting up and classification of different facets in the arts.
In the Revised National Curriculum Statement for Arts and Culture of 2002, the
approach towards Arts Education is twofold: the arts as separate and complete
entities are acknowledged, but on the other hand, their integration in terms of
combined experiences is also promoted. “There is recognition of both the integrity of
discrete art forms and the value of integrated learning experiences” (South Africa,
2002b, p. 4). This equilibrium between integration and differentiation of the art forms
is underlined by the following assertion: “The Learning Area Statement strives
towards creating a balance between developing generic knowledge about Arts and
Culture, and developing specific knowledge and skills in each of the art forms”
(South Africa, 2002b, p. 4).
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The integration of arts relates to the specific context and culture in which those art
forms were created. “One of the most important characteristics of the Arts and
Culture Learning Area is the interrelatedness of the different art forms […]. It would
be counter-productive to the spirit of the Learning Area if each of the art forms […]
were treated in isolation from each other…” (South Africa, 2002b, p. 8), and also: “It
is important to note that though the Assessment Standards have been written per art
form, the focus is on Arts and Culture as a holistic Learning Area, not on the four
discrete art forms” (South Africa, 2002b, p. 6).
The Revised National Curriculum Statement for Arts and Culture includes a large
number of assessment standards which are too numerous to be dealt with
individually (South Africa, 2003c, p. 17). The question of overload is addressed via
grouping or clustering standards together according to parallel skills and knowledge.
This approach takes for granted that there are similar skills and concepts in the
different art forms. While this may be the case for African art forms, it is not always
applicable to Western art forms, as the Curriculum Statement quite rightly concludes
by stating that the learning area “seeks to respect the integrity of each art form and
to integrate them whenever possible, combining individual disciplines to create new
forms of expression” (South Africa, 2002b, p. 7). The main question is whether
integrating the arts will promote music making and music literacy in schools, or
whether these skills and knowledge will deteriorate as a result thereof (Ellis & Fouts,
2001, p. 22). According to Ellis and Fouts (2001, p. 25), there is not enough
confirmation through research outputs which verifies that an integrated approach is
more advantageous to Music Education than the former approach of separate
instruction in the arts.
Most of the state and state-aided schools in South Africa offer Arts and Culture as a
learning programme or at least include some aspect of Arts Education. There is,
however,
no
formal
co-ordination
or
framework
available
regarding
the
comprehensive implementation in schools. Apart from integrating various arts into
one learning area, teachers also have to include arts practices of all cultures in
South Africa. Before the new curriculum was designed or implemented, teachers felt
that “they don’t even have the requisite skills to cope with teaching one musical
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
practice”, let alone integrate musics from other African cultures (own bold) (Van
Niekerk, 1997, p. 267). In order to provide the necessary support for teachers in the
diverse and demanding learning area Arts and Culture, it is vital that a better cooperation and communication between policy-makers, universities where teachers
are trained, and schools, is implemented.
The MEUSSA research project of the University of Pretoria (Music Education Unit
Standards for Southern Africa) made an important contribution in setting clear
standards for the NQF (National Qualifications Framework) which can guide
teachers in planning the outcomes for each grade. However, practical implications
such as time allocation for each of the four Arts and lesson planning for music
activities within broad learning programmes need serious rethinking. Schools do not
necessarily appoint specialists for the different art forms, and furthermore, in most
cases generalist teachers in the Foundation Phase have to integrate music and the
other arts into three broad learning programmes which are Literacy, Numeracy and
Life Skills.
The Revised National Curriculum Statement (South Africa, 2002b) with its integrated
Arts and Culture learning area, was implemented for the first time in 2004. Teachers
have at this point had almost five years experience in its implementation. Therefore
it is an ideal time to learn from their experiences and perspectives in determining the
strong points and pitfalls of the new curriculum. The purpose of this thesis is to
expand knowledge of the daily experiences and perceptions of teachers
implementing Music in the integrated learning area Arts and Culture, in order to
adapt the training of student teachers to be in line with the demands of school
practice.
Since starting a career as a lecturer in Music Education approximately fifteen years
ago, I have been actively involved in the writing and compiling of various modules
and curricula for student training in Music Education as well as in the learning area
Arts and Culture. Discourse with peers, on both national and international levels, has
led to an interest in developing effective and functional student training courses in
Music Education that will impact positively on student success and effective
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
practices within the learning area Arts and Culture in the school curriculum. I have
become aware that the emphasis on Arts Education at most South African
universities is very fragmented with little if any integration of the Arts, and of the lack
of a macro-framework or national strategy regarding the training of students for the
learning area Arts and Culture.
A further rationale for this study is the need that is experienced for analysis of
effective methods and practical guidelines by which Music Education can be
implemented in schools. The outcomes of this research may lead to the identification
of crucial aspects and criteria supporting the implementation of Music Education in
primary schools. It may also lead to a better understanding of what teachers require
in terms of training in Music Education and its integration with the other art forms to
sustain and expand Music and the learning area Arts and Culture. This thesis could
also outline the requirements for appropriate support materials in Arts and Culture.
My experience as lecturer assessing students’ lessons during their practical
internships at schools, led me to the supposition that the learning area Arts and
Culture is not implemented in a consistent fashion. The skills required by teachers in
an integrated curriculum are varied, fragmented and not always coherent. I identified
a need to rethink and restructure the ways in which Music should be implemented
and integrated in this learning area.
1.2
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The training of education students for Music and the learning area Arts and Culture
has become an important factor in solving some of the practical issues experienced
by schools. These include aspects such as methods whereby meaningful integration
of the four discrete art forms can take place, as well as skills for achieving divergent
outcomes in one learning area. Furthermore, there is a perceived overemphasis on
assessment implemented in schools. This, coupled with my personal experience,
served to motivate me to attempt to answer the following main research question.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
1.2.1 Main research question
How do teachers implement Music
in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools?
The focus of this research question had the potential for several wide-ranging
problems to be investigated. The learning area Arts and Culture includes four art
forms, namely Music, Visual Art, Dance and Drama. Aspects such as the complexity
of an integrated learning area or curriculum as complex and diverse as the current
one, the discrete nature of the four different art forms, and the integration of Arts in a
cross-curricular fashion in the Foundation Phase also required investigation. For the
purpose of this study, however, the focus will be specifically on Music in the primary
school environment and how this impacts on the training of education students
worldwide. I thereby wanted to establish which aspects are crucial to the effective
implementation of Music in the learning area Arts and Culture in the primary school.
I conducted an in-depth study to explore and understand the nature of an integrated
or interdisciplinary curriculum in order to reflect on the meaningful integration of
Music into the learning area Arts and Culture. The purpose of this section of the
study was to create a description that goes beyond mere fact and surface
appearances (Denzin, 1989, p. 83).
The following sub-questions relate to the main research question:
•
In which of the discrete art forms did teachers receive training?
•
How do teachers integrate four discrete arts into one learning area?
•
Are generalist or specialist teachers responsible for Music Education in
the Foundation Phase?
•
What are the requirements regarding equipment and venues for the
effective implementation of Music Education and the other art forms?
•
What are the positive and negative aspects of the new integrated arts
curriculum and outcomes based approach?
•
How do teachers assess activities in Music Education?
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Which resources, books and sound material are available and used for the
effective delivery of Music Education?
With the purpose of this study in mind, there were four main areas of investigation.
These included teachers, lecturers at universities, policy makers, and resources.
The related research sub-questions which guided and focused the study are:
1.2.2 To what extent do the views of policy makers of the national curriculum
correspond with teachers’ experiences in their interpretation of an integrated
arts curriculum?
1.2.3 How are education students trained to implement the integrated arts
curriculum?
1.2.4 What are the suitable resources which support a meaningful implementation
of Music into the Arts curriculum?
•
What are the suitable published sources, teacher guides or learner
workbooks from which teachers can make valid choices to include Music
in their programmes?
•
What status do these sources give Music among the integrated arts?
•
Which sound materials and music concepts for relevant music activities
are included in these sources?
•
What progression for the advancement of music concepts and skills is
evident in these sources?
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The research focus of this thesis with all the factors impacting on it is visually
illustrated in figure 1.1 below.
Figure 1.1: Research focus of this thesis
The main issues in the research are placed within a triangle to simulate the idea of
triangulation in the research process. At the centre is the music teacher who has to
implement a new curriculum. This curriculum was designed and directed by policy
makers, shown at the top of the triangle. In the two lower corners of the triangle lie
the input areas to the teaching corps – on the one side student training at
universities, while the other side represents the resources available for Music and
Arts Education to support teachers in their daily tasks. All this had and still has an
impact on the learners in the classrooms as well as on the broader community and
culture of our nation.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
1.3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Choosing the appropriate design for the research was a process involving
experimenting and rethinking until I arrived at the best solution to enable me to
answer the research questions. According to Bak (2004, p. 19) an investigation can
be approached in one of two ways:
•
“from the outside in”, or
•
“from the inside out”.
An “outside in” or external approach starts from a theory, a model or a trend in the
research field, which is then applied to a specific problem or issue. The focus is on
the end product: the theory, model or “ism” that is being refined or reformulated to
be used as generalisation to other similar situations.
Theory
Model
applied to
“ism”
Specific problem or issue
Figure 1.2: An “outside in” approach
An “inside out” or internal approach is often the preference for investigations in the
arts and social sciences. Choosing this approach, I immersed myself in the practices
of the discipline without too much concern about how these practices correlate with
the theoretical basis upon which they are founded (Bak, 2004, p. 19). Using an
“inside out” approach, I started from the specific problem and drew on various
sources and viewpoints to investigate the issue. This method led to a more eclectic
research design and motivated me to draw on literature from different authors and
varying paradigms as the need arose. The focus was more on the process, giving
me a deeper understanding of the research problem. Figure 1.3 illustrates the
“inside out” approach, simulating a chest of drawers with each drawer representing a
different source of information.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Literature review of various authors
Specific
Problem:
Music in an
draws on
integrated
Experiences of teachers in schools
Views of lecturers at universities
arts
curriculum
Views of policy makers
Review of Arts and Culture resources
Figure 1.3: An “inside out” approach
The “inside out” approach materialised into an eclectic or mixed method design.
Therefore, some of the data was qualitative in nature, making use of the interpretive
paradigm. Further data with a quantitative nature was added to verify the findings.
The study interpreted the perspectives, views, priorities, interpretations and methods
of teachers and other persons involved as respondents. It also required the
sampling of various persons and schools to be representative of the broader South
African education environment. The study required multi-site investigation with a
range of teachers and representatives for it to have value in generating a better
understanding of the factors impacting on the effective implementation of Music in
an integrated Arts curriculum. Sites were determined by the sampling strategy.
1.3.1 Sampling strategy
The sampling strategy was mostly convenient and purposive, as selected sites or
participants had to be both accessible and fairly representative. After the initial
analysis of data, a degree of snowballing was required to extend the sample. Further
interviewees were identified as the data collection process progressed. A detailed
description of the sampling strategy and profile of the participants are given in
Chapter 3.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
1.3.2 Data analysis
In choosing a mixed method design of which a large part is qualitative in nature, the
method in which a researcher will analyse the collected data is already defined.
Qualitative research is not a linear, step-by-step process and as a result data
collection and analysis is a simultaneous activity. Analysis began with the first
actions of the research: the first interview, the first observation and the first
document read. Emerging insights and intuition directed the next phase of data
collection, which in turn led to the refinement or reformulation of questions and the
verifying of educated guesses. Implementing the mixed method aspects of this
study, techniques for quantitative data analysis were also implemented to a lesser
degree to validate findings. A more detailed description of the data analysis process
is given in Chapter 3.
1.4
DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to Music Education in South African primary schools. It does
involve the total learning area of Arts and Culture, but the focus remains Music
Education. Although some references are made to the implementation of four
discrete art forms as they appear in the RNCS, the main aim of the study is to gain a
better perspective of how teachers implement Music Education within an integrated
learning area.
1.5
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING THE STUDY
A challenge encountered during the initial stages of the research was the difficulty I
experienced in contacting teachers in disenfranchised communities. After various
visits to schools in previously disadvantaged communities, telephone interviews and
attempts to set up focus group interviews with teachers from these areas, I realised
that Music or Arts Education often did not take place in these schools. Since these
schools were in a state of survival, trying to meet the minimum standard of
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
educating learners with basic skills in numeracy and literacy, the learning area Arts
and Culture was given a very low priority. Music activities at these schools were
often limited to extra curricular choirs. Therefore I decided to change the approach
towards the study and centred it on a purposive and fairly limited choice of
respondents, instead of a large group of randomly chosen participants. Furthermore,
similar studies which investigated the problems experienced in the learning area
Arts and Culture in South African schools were recently conducted by Chris Klopper
(2004) and Sue Rijsdijk (2003). Consequently I had to change the focus and
approach of my research so as not to duplicate these studies. Both Klopper and
Rijsdijk applied quantitative research methods involving random samplings. The
schools in these studies included all social and economic facets of the South African
population. Since many problems were already defined, I decided to investigate
schools where best practices regarding Music and Arts Education were
implemented, to determine whether the situation was noticeably better or ideal. I
furthermore wanted to use this as a model for planning efficient student training and
in-service teacher training courses, as well as resources for Music Education to help
relieve a dire situation.
In my research, schools were purposefully chosen according to reports and
testimonies of which I became aware, and they do not represent a random sampling
of primary schools in South Africa. Governmental or state-aided schools as well as a
few private schools were part of the investigation, since the emphasis was on
educators who have a noticeable degree of success in their current practices
concerning the implementation of Music. The thesis therefore focuses on a relatively
small sample of teachers implementing Music in the Arts and Culture learning area.
This implies that no generalisations could be made (Mouton, 2001, pp. 149-150,
164). Since the research design was planned according to my intention to focus
entirely on exploring, understanding and explaining what Music educators
experience in their daily tasks within an integrated curriculum, the purpose was not
to generalise the findings to other situations.
Although a characteristic of a study using purposive sampling tends to be low
transferability, I attempted to give a rich description of findings for applicability to
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
other similar situations. Therefore I hope that some guidelines for the
implementation of Music within an integrated learning area may be derived from it,
especially to direct the planning of future student training courses in Music
Education. The employment of purposive sampling may also be detrimental to
issues of quality criteria (Mouton, 2001, p. 101), which I counteracted constructively
by using a mixed method approach to enhance authenticity, reliability and the
validity of findings.
In addition, I aimed to continuously and purposefully rethink, modify, and
authenticate my own practices and impressions during the research process. I also
verified my findings with the educators themselves. These strategies enhanced the
trustworthiness and authenticity of my study.
1.6
OUTLINE AND ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS
In Chapter 1 I have given an overview of Music Education as an integral part of the
learning area Arts and Culture to contextualise the study. Chapter 2 presents a
review of existing literature in the domain of Arts Education, specifically relating to
the approach followed in modern curricula by integrating various art forms into one
learning area. I explore the concepts and theories related to the topic of this study in
order to construct a conceptual framework, outlining the field of investigation. The
research method is clarified in Chapter 3, justifying the choice of a mixed method
design. I also outline the methodological strategies used to accomplish the study.
This includes a discussion of data collection methods and instruments as well as
strategies for enhancing the validity of the investigation.
Chapter 4 is a presentation of the data analysis by employing the constructivist
grounded theory analysis. In this chapter, an interpretive commentary is given
resulting from the understanding of the experiences of various groups of educators.
Wherever possible, statistical data derived from the evidence is also represented. I
also include a critical assessment of the available resources for the learning area
Arts and Culture. In Chapter 5, I discuss various guiding principles for the planning
of student training courses in Music Education in an integrated arts learning area.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
These guiding principles include a discussion of OBE, the RNCS, and a whole-brain
approach towards student training. The answers to the research questions are
offered in Chapter 6, and have been aligned with statements and arguments made
in the literature. A summary of findings and recommendations are posited, as well as
suggestions for further research.
1.7
VALUE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this research contribute to a better understanding of the critical
factors which influence the effective implementation of Music in the outcomes-based
system of integrated learning areas. The outcome of the study furthermore facilitates
a better understanding of the purpose, role, focus, and content of student training
courses in Music and Arts Education, as well as the specific role of the lecturer of
student educators in the field of Arts and Culture. It stimulates further debate and
research on aspects relating to the provision and implementation of sustainable inservice teacher training courses for the Arts and Culture learning area. A valuable
outcome of the research is also that it can lead to the creating of resources and
sound material for use in schools during the implementation of Music Education.
1.8
NOTES TO THE READER
In South African schools, all the arts are combined into one learning area entitled
‘Arts and Culture’. Consequently, all references to the learning area Arts and Culture
will be capitalised. The word Arts will also be capitalised when referring to this
subject area. Since the focus of this thesis is on Music Education, and to a lesser
extent Visual Art, Drama and Dance Education, these terms will also be capitalised,
as will Music, when referring to this specific subject.
The term data will be treated as singular, e.g. data is.
For purposes of clarity in this study, a learner is distinguished from a student in so
far as the term learner refers to a school pupil who has not yet completed grade
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
twelve, while reference to a student is a post grade twelve person, currently studying
at a tertiary institution such as a university. The term children is also used
collectively to refer to learners in schools.
The terms teacher, educator and facilitator are used alternatively, but all three terms
refer to a person who acts as instructor and mentor to learners in a classroom
situation.
When referring to the term whole-brain as a theory or an approach, a hyphen is
used, but when referring to the whole brain, as opposed to part(s) of the brain, no
hyphen will be used.
The terms outcomes based education (OBE), and music making, will not be
hyphenated.
When quoting the work of other authors, double inverted commas will be used.
When another author has used inverted commas, this will be replaced by single
inverted commas in a direct quote. If inverted commas have been used in the title of
a work, this will be replaced by single inverted commas in the list of sources. When
other text is placed within single inverted commas, these are the words of the author
of this thesis, highlighted for a specific reason.
Standard British English spelling is used, with preference for the letter ‘s’ instead of
‘z’ in words ending with ‘ise’.
The American Psychological Association (APA) system of referencing is used, as
advised by Mouton (2001, p. 228). All citations have a standardised format in the
text, concurring with the comprehensive list of sources included at the end of the
thesis.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
INTRODUCTION
In Chapter 1, an overview of the integration of music within the Arts and Culture
learning area was given to contextualise the inquiry. In this chapter a review of
literature is offered to provide a summary of studies related to aspects of arts
and culture. The shaded section in figure 2.1 indicates this chapter, as a source
of secondary data, in the overall process of data collection to inform the
research.
Specific
Problem:
Music
in an
integrated
arts
curriculum
draws on
Literature review of various authors
Experiences of teachers in schools
Views of lecturers at universities
Views of policy makers
Review of Arts and Culture resources
Figure 2.1: Data collection process No 1
The literature review focused on arguments concerning the role of the arts,
music, and the integration of arts disciplines in order to outline and demarcate
the area of study.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
2.2
THE ARTS
Before the Arts and Culture learning area can be closely examined, it is
necessary to define what the arts are. In all human beings there is an innate
urge to create something of beauty. This urge can manifest in a multitude of
ways, for example by creating visual objects, sounds, expressions through
movements or the spoken voice, forming extensions of our inner selves and
communicating our deepest feelings to others. These are all forms of the arts,
which can be divided into Visual Art, Music, Drama and Dance.
2.2.1 The value of the arts
The arts have been part of humankind and are intrinsically a component of
human existence since the beginning of time. Nomadic people painted images
on their cave walls and sang and danced to share stories with their children.
Through the arts, people have been able to “connect time and space,
experience and event, body and spirit, intellect and emotion” (Consortium of
National Arts Education Associations, 1994, p. 5). The arts are studied because
they enrich perceptions of creative expressions – art is a “window onto human
thought and emotion” (Adams, 2002, p. 1). The human spirit has a basic
aesthetic need to create and enjoy things of beauty. Kenneth Clark (1977, p. 1)
fittingly refers to Ruskin, the English poet and artist, in his book about the
civilisation of mankind:
Great nations write their biographies in three manuscripts: the
book of their deeds, the book of their words and the book of their
art. Not one of these books can be understood unless we read the
two others, but of the three the only trustworthy one is the last.
The arts enable the describing of the indescribable, and through the arts,
people are able to connect one generation with the next. The arts can be seen
as humankind’s gift to itself, for it inspires, gives hope and enriches lives as a
unique source of enjoyment.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
2.2.2 The arts in contemporary society
In contemporary society, the awareness of the presence of the arts is often not
conscious, yet they influence every part of daily existence. Teenagers walk with
earphones to surround themselves with music, women dress themselves in
elegant robes of colour, and business men buy cars which have been designed
with a dynamic interplay of concave and convex surfaces. The arts are
everywhere, involving various human senses in daily experiences. They have
also become a strong economic force ranging into multibillion dollar industries
(Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, 1994, p. 5). For civilisation
to be dynamic and innovative, the arts should be an innate part of the education
of all children. The children of contemporary society need to be inspired, and
certainly one of the best ways to inspire is through the beauty of art, giving their
daily lives significance and value (Eldredge & Eldredge, 2005, p. 76).
2.2.3 The role of the arts in schools
Of all the disciplines taught in schools, music and the arts have always suffered
the role of having to defend their existence in the school programme. This is not
only a South African trend; it is a worldwide phenomenon (Bamford, 2006;
Campbell & Scott-Kassner, 2006; Regelski, 2005a; Russell-Bowie, 2006;
Watson & Forrest, 2005). Therefore, serious advocacy is required to motivate
and justify why the arts are of importance to the children of the world. Music and
the arts form a basic part of all cultures, and need to be central in the
curriculum. If the education system seeks to develop knowledge and skills,
enriching the lives of children, music and the arts should not be downgraded to
the “curricular periphery”, but should have equal importance to subjects like
mathematics and languages (Campbell & Scott-Kassner, 2006, p. 7).
The famous Spanish artist Pablo Picasso remarked that he spent all his life
trying to paint like a child (Guerrero, 2007, p. 39). He thereby implied that he
wanted to see through the eyes of a child and have the same spontaneity and
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
joy of life which children express naturally. For nearly all children, the act of
drawing a picture, singing a song, or moving to music is as natural as breathing.
It comes without effort and is part of the playfulness and delight inherent in their
existence. Humming a tune or scribbling pictures happens before a child starts
talking. Therefore, it is vital that learners should be exposed to and involved in
arts activities from the earliest school years to prolong and extend their natural
abilities and urges toward creativity. In a school system where the arts do not
feature, spontaneity and joy will be unnecessarily absent.
According to Dugmore (2004, p. 2) and Grové (2001, pp. 1-12), the education
system in South Africa for many years, prior to 1994, marginalised the arts,
viewing them as non-essential, extra-curricular activities, and also branding
them as elitist subjects for a small minority. However, since 1994 there has
been a seemingly determined effort, largely on paper, to give the arts their
rightful place in the education system of South Africa:
We believe the Arts represent an invaluable tool in shaping,
sustaining and enshrining the culture and heritage of any country.
The arts are also indispensable as a means of bridging the
barriers that divide our society, of improving the social fabric, and
can make a very real contribution to education (Dugmore, 2004, p.
3).
Fortunately, the educational environment changed after 1994, in terms of a
national curriculum which includes Arts and Culture as a key learning area
(Klopper, 2004, p. 1:1). After many years of fragmented and inconsistent arts
programmes in different provinces of the country (Hauptfleisch, 1997, p. 5),
there now is a standardised curriculum which directs the education and training
of all arts programmes. Since there is now in South Africa an official document
and a learning area which is compulsory up to grade 9, educators in the arts
should put in all possible efforts to ensure that it remains a compulsory learning
area. It is also important to strive to make sure that the skills, knowledge and
values which learners acquire in arts programmes offered at schools, reveal
excellence towards the improvement of the quality of life in general.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
A research project conducted in the United States, The Third Space, asserted
that quality arts programmes lead to a variety of positive enhancements in the
general school curriculum. These include improvement in maths and literacy,
and reduced rates of failure (Stevenson & Deasy, 2005, pp. 62-63).
Furthermore, the arts offer an exceptional contribution towards the total
development of learners since it supplies them with alternative and enhancing
techniques of communication (Hodges & Haack, 1999, p. 488; Wright, 2001, p.
226). Through music and the other arts, emotions can be expressed (Campbell
& Scott-Kassner, 2006, p. 13; Hodges & Haack, 1999, pp. 486, 533), an aspect
which is not often addressed by other academic areas of the curriculum.
The arts teach us that all thoughts and feelings cannot be reduced
to words. Through music, art, theatre, dance, and literature we are
given special opportunities to look outward to understand others
and inward to understand ourselves. The arts give voice to ideas
and feelings in ways no other communication can, largely because
they are driven by emotion and passion. The intellect, heart and
body are holistically engaged as the arts offer a unique means of
knowing, thinking, and feeling based in imagination and cognition
(Cornett, 2003, pp. 7, 9).
Since the unique characteristics of the arts involve learners mentally, physically
and emotionally, all human abilities are combined to promote the development
of innate creative abilities. The arts provide alternative opportunities to explore
real-life issues, enhancing innovative and unconventional solutions instead of
being tied down to “one correct response” (Wright, 2001, p. 229). This, in turn,
leads to learners gaining self-confidence, allowing them to excel in other school
programmes (Campbell, Campbell & Dickinson, 2004, pp. 190-193; Edwards,
2002, pp. 25-26; Sikes, 1995, p. 30; Wright, 2001, p. 226).
Teaching and learning suffer negative consequences when the arts are
withdrawn from school environments. During the 1980s, many schools in the
United States of America chose to reduce the arts because of financial
constraints. This had an almost immediate impact, leading to poor academic
performance and lack of social unity in schools (Bamford, 2006, p. 149). The
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
same effect has been observed in South Africa, where many schools regarded
subjects like mathematics and languages as vital to the intellectual development
of their learners, while little attention was given to the emotional well-being of
learners through the arts. Many music periods were spent on other activities,
whether practising for the school athletics or catching up homework in other
subjects (Van der Merwe, 1986, p. 104). By neglecting the arts, schools can
become desolate and rigorous places without beauty or inspiration (Sikes,
1995, p. 31).
Since the arts are concerned with aesthetics, beauty and enjoyment in life,
many officials and policy makers of the current government may feel that, in a
country struggling to provide the basic needs regarding education for all its
children, the arts are ‘nice to have’s’, not ‘need to have’s’. Research has shown,
however, that music and the arts are not merely luxury activities, they are “an
essential part of our biological makeup” (Hodges & Haack, 1999, p. 472). Even
though the arts have an official status within the RNCS, it seems that the arts
are not intrinsically valued for their role in the overall education of children in
South African schools. It is ironic that the arts, and specifically music, “has
underpinned and driven the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa” (Durrant,
2005, p. 84), but seems to be relegated to the periphery of the education
system after the establishment of a new government.
After scrutinising the official documents and speeches given by the previous
Minister of Education, Naledi Pandor, it became clear that the arts are certainly
not a priority for the government, since in four years spanning 2005–2008, very
few speeches have been directed to the improvement of the arts in schools.
The first time the Minister mentioned one of the terms ‘music’, ‘arts’ or ‘culture’,
was when she referred to “cultural divisions of the past” in a speech which was
delivered in September 2005 (Pandor, The launch of the flag in every school
project). It was evident that the main focus for the education of South African
children was on basic Literacy and Numeracy skills. This should be understood
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
within the perspective of a crippled education system, where only 40% of
schools were provided with electricity in 1996 (Pandor, 2007b, p. 3). The
government had to spend vast amounts to increase the provision of electricity,
improving to 82% schools by 2007 (Pandor, 2007b, p. 3). In the same year, the
focus of the Minister expanded with specific bursaries allocated to teacher
trainees who enrolled in courses for science, mathematics, technology and
languages. However, music and the arts were still blatantly omitted, only
addressed by means of extra-mural activities (Pandor, 2007a, p. 2) or limited
programmes in “focused schools” (Pandor, 2007b, p. 5). It therefore is
imperative that educators in the arts make a determined effort to influence
policy makers and government officials regarding the value and need for the
arts in every school. Instead of the title of the Minister’s speech being “the
launch of the flag in every school project”, it could be argued that a nationwide
campaign is needed entitled ‘the launch of the arts in every school project’ to
make a difference in the lives of all South African children.
After the recent 2009 elections in South Africa, a new cabinet was formed with
two ministers appointed for education. It will depend largely on the viewpoints of
these ministers, Ms MA Motshekga for Basic Education, and Dr BE Nzimande
for Higher Education and Training, whether any effort would be made to
develop and extend the current arts programmes in schools and on tertiary level
through teacher training.
2.2.4 Intrinsic and utilitarian merits of the arts
According to Bamford (2006, p. 21), arts education can be approached in two
different ways. One approach is to teach the underpinning elements and skills
of the discrete art forms – “education in the arts”, while the other approach
involves using the arts as a medium through which other disciplines can be
taught – “education through the arts” (own bold). Although the approach of
using the arts as a means to teach other subjects is positive in promoting the
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
arts, it can by no means replace the value of the arts being taught in their own
right and for their own sake. The arts have distinctive qualities which require the
development of skills as well as knowledge. They also provide unique ways by
which learners can express themselves and experience emotion and fulfilment
in the school environment. However, these qualities cannot be attained if the
arts are merely used as tools to serve other purposes. Bamford believes that
both approaches are valid and serve the arts well:
It is important […] that for children to maximise their educational
potential, both approaches are needed […]. Education in the arts
and education through the arts, while distinct, are interdependent
and it should not be assumed that it is possible to adopt one or the
other to achieve the totality of positive impacts on the child’s
educational realization (Bamford, 2006, p. 71).
Although Bamford subscribes to the theory that utilitarian reasons for the arts
are acceptable, there is then a danger that the arts can become “add-ons”. On
the other hand, utilitarian motivation for arts programmes may enhance the
overall atmosphere at schools, promoting positive attitudes which are more
conducive to learning in general. Music is an art form, for example, which has
the unique ability to unify a group of people (Hodges & Haack, 1999, p. 506). By
enjoying the experience of participating in singing or listening to music together,
barriers of disparate backgrounds, race and gender are transcended.
During the economic crisis in Cuba after the collapse of the Soviet Union, there
was a lively music and dance tradition everywhere: on the streets, beaches, and
at night clubs in the evenings. Thornburgh even reports that, between treating
patients at hospitals, doctors, nurses and medical students would start an
“impromptu salsa session” (2008, p. 28). Singing, smiling and dancing seemed
to be the “cultural cure for whatever ailed the revolution. [...] music was the one
thing that held the island together, a common passion for both revolutionaries
and reactionaries” (Thornburgh, 2008, pp. 28-29). The arts is a powerful
counteractive to crime (Bunt, 1997, p. 261; Cohen, 2007, pp. 66-70; Crozier,
1997, p. 68; Gardstrom, 1996, p. 133; Hodges & Haack, 1999, p. 508; Olsson,
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
1997, p. 297; Sikes, 1995, pp. 28, 30), a reality and existent threat in current
South African schools. The question remains whether it is an educationally
sound practice to use utilitarian reasons for including the arts: is this a tool
which we should use, or is utilitarian motivation detrimental to the arts?
The utilitarian versus the aesthetic merit for the inclusion of arts in educational
curricula was fervently debated in the 1980s. Alan Simpson argued that there
were two assumptions regarding utilitarianism: the first assumption was that
society, and therefore education, demanded for the arts to be utilitarian, while
the second assumption was that the innate quality of the arts caused them to be
non-utilitarian. Simpson quoted Oscar Wilde who remarked that: “All art is quite
useless” (Simpson, 1985, p. 187). Although this comment was certainly made in
jest, it is unfortunate that the general public often mirrors this view.
For 21st-century society to assume that the arts have no real value or
contribution in the education of children endangers the learning area to the point
of it becoming extinct. The arts cannot be compared to the “usefulness” of
subject disciplines like mathematics or science. Views which question the
usefulness of the arts “are prejudiced from the start, for the whole idea of art, or
the arts, carries the corollative (sic) notion of non-utility; the arts are
autonomous, their value intrinsic and not tied to the concept of an end”
(Simpson, 1985, p. 196). Arts educators often try to validate the inclusion of
music and the arts in the education of all learners by trying “to prove that the
arts are really useful after all” (Simpson, 1985, p. 196). As Simpson concludes,
the only way to really understand, comprehend and respect the value of the arts
is to have been “on the inside”.
You cannot explain what appreciating art is like to those who do
not appreciate it [...]. But then no more can you explain what
enjoying cricket is like to those who do not play it (Simpson, 1985,
p. 203).
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The relatively new field of music and sound therapy is another avenue of
utilitarianism for the arts, providing treatment and cure for ailments ranging from
psychological disorders to physical illnesses such as cancer and Parkinson’s
disease (Hodges & Haack, 1999, p. 472). The entertainment value of the arts
has also increased to such an extent that it has become a main contributor to
the economic industry of the present age (Hodges & Haack, 1999, p. 509).
Instead of an ‘either or’ paradigm regarding the utilitarian versus the aesthetic
merit for the inclusion of arts, I concur with Austin and Reinhardt (1999, p. 20),
who suggest that an eclectic philosophy is possible, allowing both aesthetic and
utilitarian goals to be included. It is, however, vital that the arts form part of the
core curriculum, since omitting the arts could lead to learners completing their
school years but being “illiterate in the new skills areas essential for the 21st
century” (NAAE, 2008, p. 1).
Since the arts are not static and continually change to adapt to the society we
live in, there are a variety of manifestations of the arts to be found in the 21st
century. The following eight categories were identified by Bamford (2006, pp.
30-32), which I view as important aspects to be considered in the arts education
programmes of schools:
•
Technocratic art views the arts as a set of skills necessary for the
production of usable items;
•
Child art presents the view that the arts are part of an innate developmental
trend in all children, determined by their physical and psychological growth.
For children, it is a natural and spontaneous means of communicating their
needs and feelings;
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Arts as expression focus on the therapeutic benefit of the arts to
individuals, emphasising the development of creativity and imagination
during involvement in arts activities;
•
Arts as cognition occur when unique forms of thinking are applied during
the process of creating artworks;
•
Arts as aesthetic response treat the arts as a set of principles according to
sensory and perceptual underpinnings;
•
Arts as a cultural agent accentuate the role of the arts in social action,
social reconstruction and the role of culture in society; and
•
Arts as symbolic communication explore the arts as a universal means of
communication.
The last category has often been misinterpreted to imply that ‘music is a
universal language’. Oehrle explains this as “a romantic idea from the pen of
Longfellow which made its way into Western music textbooks and thereafter
into the minds of many music educators” (2002, p. 104). This claim should
rather be replaced by the view that music making is a universal trait amongst all
cultures.
Although postmodernism challenges the conventional views of the arts being
physical and dependent on a product or performance (Bamford, 2006, p. 32), an
arts curriculum should acknowledge and provide for each of the above
categories, since they are all valid and form part of a holistic approach towards
arts education.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
2.2.5 The arts all have a product
The arts all share a common feature: culmination in a product which has to be
exhibited or performed in order to be shared and valued by the community
(Stevenson & Deasy, 2005, p. 28). This unique attribute bestows significance
on arts experiences, since it focuses the concerted efforts and energies of all
learners to a purpose – the performance or exhibition. While most other
subjects of the curriculum require almost identical responses from learners for
an assignment, the arts demand unique and individual responses which cannot
simply be duplicated. Self-imposed levels of excellence are far better motivation
for learners than external pressure from teachers, as can be deduced from the
comment made by the director of an Arts Literacy project: “when students have
a real audience they are preparing their art for, they create a self-imposed set of
high standards. They demand a high level of quality from each other and
themselves” (Stevenson & Deasy, 2005, p. 47). The arts, therefore, contribute
to motivation, self-esteem and purpose for learners. As a drama teacher
commented: “I don’t think the arts teach self-esteem and confidence; I think the
arts demand self-esteem and confidence” (Stevenson & Deasy, 2005, p. 32).
2.3
CULTURE
The term “culture” is often confused with the arts in general (Smiers, 2005, p.
11). Although the culture of a group of people is manifested in their arts, there
are also other traditions, symbols, rituals and activities which are unique to that
culture. It indicates a way of life (Hauptfleisch, 1997, p. 115), is usually centred
around a specific language, and often has a particular religious outlook for a
group of people (Ely & Rashkin, 2005, p. 117). Masoga (2006, p. 55) gives an
apt description of culture: “A system of ideas and beliefs that can be seen in […]
peoples’ creations and activities which, over time, comes to characterise the
people who share in the system”. Cultures rely on indigenous knowledge which
is acquired in specific communities and which is passed on orally from one
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
generation to the next, consisting of folk stories, folk songs, folk dramas,
legends, proverbs, myths, etc. This form of knowledge can be effectively used
as a resource to bring a culture to life for learners in a classroom.
One very prominent aspect of cultures is that they are “not static – they have
histories and contexts, and they change, especially when in contact with other
cultures” (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002b, p. 4). Culture, and so
also traditional musics, continuously change and are shaped by social, political
and human issues: as the social fibre and context of society changes over time,
so the culture is adapted to reflect that change. While change and development
are positive aspects, there is a danger that different cultures may lose their
uniqueness. There is a worldwide tendency towards globalisation and this, in
turn, robs people of their cultural identity. In South Africa, large scale
urbanisation as well as the tendency to adopt a Western way of life, impacts
negatively on the cultural experiences of children (Woodward, 2007, p. 37).
While traditional cultures change very gradually over many decades and
centuries, Smiers points out that globalisation and modernisation can cause
traditional cultures to be “swept away overnight” (2005, p. 217). In the education
system of a multicultural society, this aspect should be kept in mind to ensure
that all learners are exposed to their own culture, and that mutual respect and
value for all cultural practices are promoted.
With a never-ending onslaught of commercialisation on culture and the arts
through the media, such as music, films, television and advertising, Smiers asks
the following questions:
… how can we rebuild communities and cultures that are related
to the life of the people, their daily pleasures, sorrows, material
needs, moral doubts, animosities, and concerns about the quality
of their surrounding environment? How can we make a decisive
change so that the arts people enjoy do not come almost
exclusively from oligopolistic sources far away from their own
artistic cultural impulses? How can we counter the commerciallydriven activity that currently dominates artistic creation, production,
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
distribution and reception? How can we ensure that the revival of
communities is not a nostalgic, romantic or narrow-minded affair?
(2005, p. 178).
Smiers (2005, p. 217) also refers to the Gulf War in 1991, where bomb attacks
on Iraq not only killed people and ruined the economy of the country, but also
destroyed much of the rich cultural heritage of one of the most ancient
civilisations of the world. By destroying the cultural heritage of a country, that
country and its peoples are devalued to mere statistics in global warfare.
To include culture in the arts learning area in South African schools makes
educational sense, since this is the ideal opportunity to contextualise arts
activities and relate them to specific cultures in the country, as well as to other
cultures of the world. The importance of keeping cultural activities alive is
stressed by the following statement made by Andrew Tracey: “It is a poor nation
that does not know its own culture” (Levine, 2005, p. 9). The value of cultural
traditions and artefacts, to inspire new generations and to shape individual and
collective identities, should not be underestimated. As previously mentioned,
societies have since ancient times passed on their culture from generation to
generation, culture in this instance containing all aspects of art. This communal
knowledge, accumulated over generations, is regarded as the foundation of all
learning (Madaus, Kellaghan & Schwab, 1989, p. 21). The RNCS includes
many aspects of this idea, through which a wealth of knowledge is available
from indigenous cultures. Teachers should be encouraged to incorporate and
utilise this knowledge from the community which is readily available. In this way,
knowledge handed down from the past is conserved.
In a country as culturally diverse as South Africa, there is the risk of opting for a
‘melting-pot’ identity where each culture loses its individuality and all ethnic
differences are wiped out for political purposes. Somewhere between separate
and culturally diverse peoples, and a melting-pot identity, there is a unique
opportunity in South Africa to create a new, humane, cultural pluralism. This
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
cultural pluralism supports the idea that “culturally different groups can each
maintain their cultural heritage while also functioning as part of a larger society”
(Ely & Rashkin, 2005, p. 117). Furthermore, it can be mirrored in a curriculum
which places merit on multiplicity, acceptance and open-mindedness; a nonjudgmental attitude which values diversity and equity. Such a culture will value
the self-worth and self-respect of each child, since it focuses on personal
identity (Smit, 2006, pp. 74, 76).
2.4
INTEGRATION OF THE ARTS
The learning area Arts and Culture covers a broad array of South African arts
and cultural practices and presents many challenges for teachers to implement
as an integrated learning area. Although the arts are legitimised and part of the
curriculum, the fact that it is an integrated learning area “does not secure a
place for any one of the art forms” (Klopper, 2004, p. 9). Therefore, a means
has to be found to ensure that all of the arts survive and thrive.
Integrating music and the arts is a “hot topic” among teachers worldwide
(Veblen & Elliott, 2000, p. 4). Intense debates have been waged right through
the 20th century, outlining the advantages and pitfalls of integrating the arts
(Loepp, 1999, p. 1; McCarthy & Goble, 2005, p. 25; Veblen & Elliott, 2000, p. 4).
Since the 1990s it has become a worldwide trend to use integration as a means
of organising the curriculum (Burton, 2001, p. 17; Ellis & Fouts, 2001, pp. 22-26;
Hauptfleisch, 1997, p. 103; Klopper, 2004, pp. 2-15; Russell-Bowie, 2006, p.
257). An integrated learning area generates the formation of new insights and
connections between various disciplines. “Interdisciplinary education enables
students to identify and apply authentic connections between two or more
disciplines and/or to understand essential concepts that transcend individual
disciplines” (Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, 2002, p. 3). A
further motivation for an integrated curriculum is that problems in the real world
are seldom limited to one discipline – they require a multidisciplinary approach
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
(Loepp, 1999, p. 2). Therefore, an integrated arts education could equip
learners with skills to cope with real-life situations.
The challenge, however, is to find feasible ways by which this can be
implemented, maintaining the integrity of each discipline in an integrated arts
curriculum. As a fairly common organising principle of modern curricula, Burton
(2001, p. 17) foresees two major problems with integrated programmes:
•
the “potpourri problem”, where haphazard samples of knowledge are
grouped together without a coherent structure or focus; and
•
the “polarity problem”, where specialists of different knowledge areas make
claims on the subject matter included in the curriculum of an integrated
learning area.
Hauptfleisch (1997, p. 13) is also concerned about the potpourri approach, but
mentions another problem regarding the topical or thematic approach to music
content which may replace a more systematic, logical sequence of content.
Regarding the resolution of these problems, I fully agree with Burton in
suggesting that both discipline-based and interdisciplinary experiences should
be used to give an integrated curriculum staying power (Burton, 2001, p. 141).
Designing an interdisciplinary curriculum programme is far more difficult than
designing a curriculum programme in one discipline, and curricular organisers
should involve specialists from all art forms during this process. Doll’s point of
view regarding the development of curricula is that the contributions of
individual students should also be taken into consideration, thereby including
multiple pathways or alternatives instead of having closure on all aspects of
curriculum content: “The broad goal would be to combine closure with
openness, performance with development, right answers with creative solutions
and processes” (1989, p. 251).
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The perception of integration implies that there is a unity or underlying
connection between various disciplines which are to be integrated: “discover the
connections between the various arts forms and […] recognise the common
elements and concepts which artists use” (Dachs et al., 2000, p. v). However,
Elliott strongly points out in his argument against a multiarts education that the
discrete arts “do no share a common nature or knowledge” (Veblen & Elliott,
2000, p. 7). While there are affinities and similarities among the arts when terms
such as mood, dynamics, texture, accents, contour, balance or form are used
(Veblen & Elliott, 2000, p. 5), it can lead to superficial knowledge if the
terminology is used without the deep understanding and cognition needed to
truly appreciate each art form for its own intrinsic value (Du Pré-Briggs, 2004, p.
177). Thomas Sowell (1995, p. 22) regards interdisciplinary teaching as a trend,
describing this method of teaching as “nondisciplinary” and having no respect
for the diverse natures of various disciplines.
The main focus for the implementation of an integrated arts curriculum should
be to find a responsible method whereby all four art forms could exist without
the integrity of any of the discrete art forms being undermined. This method,
however, should also recognise the influences which the various art forms have
had on one another through centuries of history. Loepp (1999, p. 1) describes
an integrated educational system as taking various shapes. He uses the
metaphor of a “layer cake” recipe for an interdisciplinary curriculum. Each
discrete subject is of equal importance and is represented by a different layer of
the cake which is stacked together to form a unity. The “marble cake” recipe, on
the other hand, allows for cross influences and integration, where disciplines
permeate one another. He points out that integration following the layer cake
recipe sustains the identity of each of the disciplines and is in effect an
interdisciplinary approach, while the permeation of different disciplines in the
marble cake recipe could be an effort towards the teaching of problem solving
skills (Loepp, 1999, p. 1). One of the main foci of the school curriculum is to
lead learners towards effective ways of solving problems, and an integrated
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
curriculum can result in higher skills of problem solving. From the viewpoint of
technology, Loepp advocates the “marble cake” recipe which, according to him,
motivates learners when they focus on “problems worth solving” (1999, p. 2).
The three models of integration within a curriculum which Loepp identifies can
each be linked to his metaphor of a cake recipe:
•
The interdisciplinary or “layer cake” model, in which different disciplines are
grouped together in blocks with a specific time allocated to each block.
•
The problem-based or “marble cake” model, which places technology at the
core with a relevant and highly motivational problem which learners have to
solve.
•
The theme-based model, which I will refer to as a ‘layer cake with icing’
model, where an overall theme is chosen for all the disciplines. All the
discrete disciplines still function independently with no preference for one
discipline above the other; the theme or ‘icing’ links all the disciplines to
each other.
Russell-Bowie (2006, pp. 258-260; 2008, p. 603) has also made an important
contribution towards finding feasible ways of integrating various disciplines and
arts. She argues that in order to survive a “crowded curriculum”, many teachers
have opted to integrate across the curriculum to provide learners with holistic
learning experiences. In her view, there are various models of integration.
These include:
•
Service connections
This method of integration is based on the premise that, in the presentation
of a key learning area, a teacher borrows an element or activity from another
discipline without including any concepts or knowledge of the discipline
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
which they borrowed from. An example would be where learners sing the
“Alphabet Song” in a language lesson to help them remember the alphabet
letters, but without learning anything about music. In this instance, music is
in the service of the language discipline.
•
Symmetric correlations
These correlations are more symmetric since the emphasis is equally
divided between the various disciplines involved. Referring to the “Alphabet
song” example, this would now include aspects of the form of the song being
explored in the music lesson, adding a listening example of Variations of the
same theme by Mozart; the alphabet being used as a spelling tool in a
language lesson; and the origin of the Western alphabet from its Arabic
roots being explored in a history lesson. This method uses common
resources or material, which in this instance is the alphabet. Through this
method, barriers between learning areas are broken down while appropriate
outcomes are achieved for each discipline.
•
Syntegration
Russell-Bowie has coined this term by combining the words “synergy” and
“integration”. Combining the meaning of these two terms is in essence what
this form of integration implies. The term synergy refers to the potential
ability of people to be more successful in working together than on their own.
Syntegration, then, means that “the outcomes achieved [...] are greater than
if each key leaning area was taught by itself” (2006, p. 260). This method
encourages holistic and real-life experiences. Although an overarching
theme is chosen for these types of lessons, knowledge and skills for the
discrete disciplines are not “blurred for the sake of the theme”. RussellBowie then describes a unit based on Impressionism, where a variety of
disciplines spanning the arts as well as languages and history are all
involved to give learners a vivid experience of this style period.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The last model of syntegration as proposed by Russell-Bowie seems to have
the most integrity, especially regarding the integrated arts learning area in the
South African curriculum. It does imply a team effort from various teachers to
co-ordinate and plan the implementation of such integration to take place, which
can sometimes be restrictive considering the full schedules and hectic timetables of teachers in primary schools. Whichever model of integration is chosen,
there are various implications when implementing an integrated curriculum. I
have used the six implications as suggested by Loepp (1999, pp. 5-6), but
added aspects of importance for the South African scenario. These are:
•
A paradigm shift whereby teachers move from a didactic outlook to a
constructivist view. Learners work collectively to take part in music making
activities and apply the knowledge they have gained to create new sounds,
rhythms and melodies.
•
An intervention of considerable scale for the professional development of
teachers. This should be a continuous process, involving teachers in INSET
courses on a regular basis.
•
The development of social and interacting abilities of lecturers and teachers
to facilitate group learning.
•
Ongoing support from administrators and school boards so that the
necessary resources can be provided to the teachers.
•
Systemic reform, which takes account of the way teachers are trained,
supported and assessed during their teaching careers.
•
The use of authentic assessment strategies which need to be well
understood and utilised by teachers. These assessment strategies should
be implemented using a variety of assessment tools, for example practical
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
performances and portfolios with the help of rubrics to define assessment
criteria. The purpose of the assessment process is to effectively document
student progress and to note where intervention is needed. It is imperative,
however, that assessment skills are effectively managed by teachers to take
up the least amount of time in order for maximum learner activities and
participation to take place.
Regarding all the aspects of an integrated curriculum, it is the aim of this study
to determine which of these methods can be deemed to be the most
appropriate for the South African situation, since each approach has its own
challenges and constraints as well as positive attributes.
2.5
MUSIC AS COMPONENT OF AN ARTS EDUCATION
As discussed in the first section of this chapter, the arts and music form an
innate part of all cultures and human practices. Music has an important role in
all societies. Before considering the value of music in schools, the role of music
in a contemporary society and particularly in African cultures will first be
investigated, also pointing out the significance of Music Education in these
societies.
2.5.1 The role of music in 21st-century society
A significant change in the way contemporary society functions in the 21st
century is that technology has infiltrated almost all aspects of life. With the
onslaught of mass music production, people have become passive listeners
instead of active participants. While strict legislation exists to prohibit smoking in
public places, these areas are bombarded by pervasive ‘canned’ music. One of
the most invasive characteristics of technology is that the environment is
constantly flooded by noise. This noise adds stress to humans, “putting their
bodies out of tune and out of their natural rhythms” (Michels, 2001, p. 5:52). A
disconcerting aspect is that most people are not aware of the impact of the
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
noise. They are not even aware of the noise itself. Di Scipio refers to this trend
as “deaf consumerism”, which can be compared to the deforestation of natural
environments all over the globe (2002, p. 7). In a recent article, it was reported
that ambulances and fire engines in America were being fitted with new
“Rumbler Intersection Clearing Systems”, generating low-level vibrations similar
to “boom-boxes” which motorists have in their cars to listen to music at
exceptionally high volumes. Since motorists have become oblivious to sirens
emitting from emergency vehicles, these “Rumblers” will produce noise loud
enough to “shake most solid materials” and to “attract the attention of even the
most brain-dead drivers” (Hartdegen, 2008, p. 37).
This noise pollution is found in all facets of contemporary civilisation, and has a
direct influence on the education of all learners. Many children spend a vast
amount of time in front of television sets or computers, thereby forming habits of
being passive viewers instead of active participants. Most families resort to
meals in front of television sets, depriving children of developing socialising and
interactive skills. Children do not learn to listen to others since they are mostly
surrounded by noise. The main form of communication for pre-adolescents and
teenagers in the 21st century is via “Facebook” and “MXit”, with millions of
children worldwide logging onto these websites and cellphone networks to
access “chat rooms” (Wikipedia, 2008a; 2008c). The virtual reality on computer
or cellphone screens become real life for them, making the development of
adequate skills in communication and socialising seem redundant.
Music plays an all-involving role in the lives of teenagers, shaping their identities
and self-value (Schoeman & Potgieter, 2006, p. 3:54; Vandeyar, 2008, p. 14).
Being constantly surrounded by sound and moving images, young learners
adapt by shutting out certain sounds. Just to make sense out of the multitude of
simultaneous inputs on their visual and aural senses, they are forced not to
listen attentively. However, listening is one of the most important skills to be
learnt in the school. Without being able to listen attentively, no other learning
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
area can be effectively taught. Listening is the first of six specific learning
outcomes of all the literacy programmes of the Foundation Phase (Gauteng
Department of Education, 2002). Music Education is therefore an ideal vehicle
to teach children how to use their ears attentively for listening. Music also
develops socialising and communication skills, while involving learners
physically, mentally and emotionally in shared, real-life creative activities.
2.5.2 Music as an intrinsic part of African cultures
In traditional African cultures, music has always been utilitarian – it used to be
performed with a purpose in mind, being it as accompaniment to singing at a
wedding, an initiation ceremony or a dance for war. In the African tradition,
children do not ask questions but learn through imitation, observing and
emulating their elders (Mandela, 1994, p. 13). In these societies, music was
passed on orally from one generation to the next generation, to the extent that it
was for long not considered necessary to be included in the curriculum of the
pervasive Western culture, largely introduced by missionaries of the past
(Primos, 2001, p. 1). The main musical input in current African schools of South
Africa remains the singing of religious songs during assemblies (Interview 67).
A decade or two ago, it was still “the task of the family, extended family and the
cultural leaders to teach children singing, dancing, handclapping, body
percussion and to play the drums. They ensured that each child knew a big
repertoire of songs” (Interview with S.J. Khosa: Hugo & Potgieter, 2006). Black
schools in the previous political dispensation, therefore, rarely included music or
other arts activities as part of the formal training during school hours. Singing
and dancing often took place after school hours in an informal setting.
Hauptfleish (1997, p. 9) pointed out that these schools did not make use of their
legal right to change the curriculum to suit their own needs and cultural
preferences. It could also be argued that the main focus in an unequal
education system was, for schools in marginalised communities, to ensure that
the basic educational needs of their children were being catered for.
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Although there is now a nationwide curriculum for all schools, there are still
huge discrepancies in the delivery of music education to schools of various
economic groups (Herbst, De Wet & Rijsdijk, 2005, p. 261; Klopper, 2008, p.
57). While private schools frequently employ specialists to implement music,
many governmental schools have teachers untrained in the arts disciplines they
are required to teach. Such an education system is therefore in a crisis, since
many schools in previously marginalised areas still struggle to provide learners
with skills in basic learning areas such as Literacy and Numeracy. This situation
certainly places music education at risk. Where the family, extended family and
the cultural leaders used to take the responsibility for educating the young in
cultural and arts practices, this is no longer the case. Societies in contemporary
South Africa have changed. In 21st-century urban societies, many children grow
up in homes where both parents work and young children are not neccessarily
cared for by their mothers (Pavlicevic, 2001, p. 115). Far less time is spent on
communal activities, where music making used to be a natural phenomenon.
This invalidates the assumption that young children learn the basic skills of
singing, dancing and other cultural activities in their homes. It is necessary,
therefore, that a paradigm shift is made regarding the value and place of the
arts in schools.
2.5.3 The merit of Music Education in schools
Music has the ability to inspire and motivate, it gives children hope and
enjoyment in what can otherwise be mundane school lives. But this can only
happen when learners are actively involved in making the music themselves.
The aesthetic quality of music has long been debated and validated as a
legitimate reason for including music in school programmes (Campbell & ScottKassner, 2006; Hoffer & Hoffer, 1987; Reimer, 2006; Röscher, 2001). However,
according to Regelski (2005b, pp. 12-13), this may lead to the idea that music
compositions and performances exist as “self-sufficient entities” that are valued
in an intellectual and analysing fashion, disconnecting them from practical
situations and uses. This creates the notion that music as aesthetic art form is
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
an independent, higher ideal reserved for “quasi-sacred locations such as
concert halls”, while applied or practical music is for real life situations.
Since aesthetic philosophies are not closely related to music making
experiences, they are not good advocates of music in school programmes. It is
also very difficult to measure if any degree of aesthetic development has taken
place. To speculate about the noble, aesthetic, profane or spiritual qualities of
music is not necessary to justify its inclusion in a curriculum. The fact that they
are an innate part of human experiences and are utilised in daily lives are
already indicators that they are “special” and worthy of being included in a
curriculum (Regelski, 2005b, p. 21).
Elliott caused a major paradigm shift regarding conventional philosophies of
Western Music Education when he introduced his praxial philosophy in the
1990s. He regards Music Education to be based on four interrelated premises:
•
education in music, which involves the teaching, learning, and listening to
music while performing;
•
education about music, which involves the teaching and learning of formal
knowledge about music listening, music making, music history, etc.;
•
education for music, which involves teaching and learning as preparation for
making music, or becoming a performer, composer, music teacher, etc.; and
•
education by means of music, which involves teaching and learning of
music directly related to goals such as improving one’s health, development
of the whole brain and spiritual well-being (1995, pp. 12-13).
Elliott emphasises the process of active music making or as he calls it,
musicing, where listening is an innate part of the music making. Music
Education, therefore, should focus on musicianship and listenership. He also
supports a multicultural education in music, which values the inclusion of music
from all cultures. However, to retain the integrity of all musics, the ideal is that
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
they should be performed within the appropriate framework of the original
context (1995, pp. 39-40; 2005a, pp. 11-13). Elliott’s praxial philosophy is
compatable with African “experience-oriented” music practices (Nzewi, 2002, p.
19). According to Nzewi, it may be argued that the legacy of African musical
arts is the original manifestation of praxialism (2002, p. 20).
Regelski agrees with Elliott’s philosophical stance, advocating for an approach
which builds on the music experience which learners already possess as they
come into schools. They thereby expand their existing skills and add value to
their music making abilities. Their musicianship should be “developed as a
practicum that serves praxial ends which will enrich students’ musical options
and thus enhance the likelihood that music will ‘make a difference’ in their lives
and in society” (2005b, p. 21). Music then serves an active function in the lives
of children, providing lifelong experiences and enjoyment.
It is noticeable that the reasons for including music vary according to changing
values in society. A study of Music Education textbooks, published over a
hundred year time span, revealed the following universal reasons for the
inclusion of Music in school programmes (Draper & Gayle, 1987, p. 202):
•
Music develops self-expression, emotional expression and creativity;
•
Music develops an aesthetic awareness and provides enjoyment;
•
Music facilitates co-ordination and improves motor skills;
•
Music embraces continuity and stability in cultural heritage;
•
Music promotes language and communication skills;
•
Music stimulates cognitive and abstract brain processes; and
•
Music enhances social and interactive skills, contributing to the integration of
society.
In recent publications, there is an observed tendency to place less emphasis on
aesthetic development, while increasing prominence is given to Music
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Education as a means of enhancing cognitive development in children. The
most important reason to include music, however, should be for its own sake.
Music has a unique and intrinsic value, and is a means of expression by which
feelings can be shared and by which the unempowered, like children, can be
given a voice (Miché, 2002, p. 160).
As an educator of student teachers, I support the philosophical foundations for
the purpose of Music Education as expressed by Blacking (1973), Elliott
(2005a) and Regelski (2005a). The three main aspects which I view as critical
regarding my own philosophy towards Music Education are:
•
Music for all learners
Musical skills should be developed in all learners rather than in some select
group only. If music education is omitted from the school programme, justified
by the premise that the talented learners should receive individual instruction,
music becomes elitist. This deprives all other learners from the opportunity to be
exposed to the benefits and joy gained though music activities. As John
Blacking commented by comparing the inclusive music practice of the Venda to
the Western music education system of exclusivity: “Must the majority be made
‘unmusical’ so that a few may become more ‘musical’?” (1973, p. 8).
•
Music develops emotional, physical, cognitive and spiritual qualities
The unique and unsurpassed qualities of Music embrace the physical,
emotional, cognitive and spiritual development of children. These qualities
justify music as imperative in any curriculum.
•
Music Education should focus on music making
Music Education needs to focus on music making or musicing activities, rather
than toward the gaining of knowledge about music in a theoretical and nonmusical way. However, merely entertaining learners in sound producing
activities without involving them in the contextual framework of the music they
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
are performing, while also demanding their full listening alertness while doing
so, will not accomplish the endeavours of quality Music Education.
These above three aspects are all part of the aims as stated in the RNCS for
Arts and Culture. By depriving learners of these experiences is again to
marginalise the arts, reserving them for the elite. Therefore, Music should form
a core part of the curriculum, not merely being viewed as a supplement to the
education of children. While music exists for its distinctive and inherent value as
an art form, it furthermore functions as a vehicle for transferring culture and is
part of the holistic development of all learners which embraces their physical,
emotional intellectual and spiritual beings.
2.5.4 Specialist or generalist teachers for Music Education
The fact that Music Education now forms part of an integrated arts curriculum in
the GET band of the South African education system, creates new challenges in
its implementation. Music is a highly specialised art form, but most teachers
currently employed to teach the learning area Arts and Culture do not have
specialised training in music. The specialised nature of music appears to have
been a problem in teacher training for a long time. For example, Forrest already
remarked more than a decade ago that there has been a “lack of adequate
specialist training in music for primary schools teachers” in Australia (1994, p.
87). In Klopper’s research at South African schools (2004, p. ii), the conclusion
was drawn that, although educators possess qualifications of some kind, few of
them have specialised training in music. Arts teachers furthermore indicated a
natural tendency towards the art form they were qualified in.
Russell-Bowie also reports on the ongoing arguments concerning specialist or
generalist teachers for Music and Arts Education (2006, p. 13). There seems to
be no coherent policy in Australia or in South Africa regarding who should
implement Music or the Arts. This has serious implications for the delivery of
Music within an integrated Arts learning area, since most teachers without
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
training in music will not have the self-confidence, skills or expertise to include it
in their daily teaching practices (Russell-Bowie, 2003, p. 111). A concerted
effort needs to be made to uplift the current level of music training for teachers
in the Arts and Culture learning area, as well as advanced INSET (in-service
training) courses focusing on music.
2.5.5 Process, product, presentation and performance in Music
Education
As mentioned in paragraph 2.2.5, the arts all have a product. A product is
normally something produced or manufactured by human activity (Butterfield et
al., 2002, p. 600). This can be an artefact, creation or artistic work. To find out
what the curriculum really underlines as significant aspects of music in terms of
the product, I scrutinised the official curriculum documents (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2002b-bb; 2003c), finding numerous references to
various terms all starting with the letter ‘p’. This is most succinctly and concisely
affirmed on page 26 of the Teacher’s guide, which indicates the importance of
“[p]rocess, product, presentation and performance” in the Arts and Culture
learning area (South Africa. Department of Education, 2003c). To define these
terms clearly, two categories can be identified:
•
The Process
In music, the process involves the development of skills by regularly
practising them, as the well-known expression confirms, ‘practice makes
perfect’. The process also refers to the acquiring of knowledge about music.
•
The Product
The product in music usually culminates in a performance or production of
some kind. This kind of product reflects the skills which learners have
developed. The product could also be the presentation of a creative
activity, such as improvising rhythmic patterns on percussion instruments.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Regarding the gaining of knowledge about music, the product can be a
physical artefact such as a homemade instrument, or a written assignment
such as a portfolio.
How the product is presented, differs in various art forms. Visual works of art
are usually produced individually by learners in a classroom, not necessitating
co-operative and socialising activities taking place during the process. The
product is completed without an audience being present, and all the learners
are involved in creating their own art works. If a mistake is made, it can be
rectified before the final product is handed in for assessment. To present the
final product at the end of the process would normally be an exhibition or
presentation, where the learners can be present or not, according to individual
preference or situation in a school context.
Music, on the other hand, is performance-based. There is a continual
interaction, co-operation and socialisation between learners during the process
of creating or practising for the performance. During the final presentation of the
product – the performance – all the learners are actively involved and are, in
effect, exhibiting themselves while the audience views and experiences their
production. If a mistake is made, it is immediately observed by the audience
and may cause embarrassment for the performers. Being performance-based,
therefore, requires additional skills regarding self-confidence, co-operation,
participation, and socialising. Music also requires the performance to be highly
disciplined, with all learners being exactly on cue, in time and on pitch
simultaneously.
The above attributes result in Music Education being one of the most difficult
and demanding disciplines to be effectively implemented by teachers. Apart
from being a skilled musician, a teacher has to be self-confident and assertive
to orchestrate musical activities in a class, which to the uninformed may seem
noisy, active and energetic, instead of the calm and quiet nature of lessons in
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
many other learning areas. This is an aspect which may lead to teachers not
opting for performance-based activities in music lessons, but rather focusing on
the reflecting and communicating outcomes of the curriculum.
“Reflecting” as an outcome of the Arts and Culture curriculum involves that
learners respond critically to “artistic and cultural processes, products and
styles” (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002b-a, p. 10). In the
description of the learning outcome, the term “reflect” implies that conscious
thought processes have to be used to discuss, understand and contemplate
musical processes, products and styles. It does not entail that learners are
actively involved in these processes or products by making music themselves.
Although it is important for learners to take note of what other musicians do and
to contemplate musical practices, it is far more significant and important what
they themselves do in the Music Education class through making music.
The fourth learning outcome for Arts and Culture refers to expressing and
communicating skills as a means to analyse cultural practices (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2002b-a, p. 10). This may also be interpreted as
mainly consisting of discussions and debates about music and the arts instead
of actually making music and taking part in cultural practices. Since two of the
four learning outcomes for Arts and Culture refer to verbal instead of musical or
artistic experiences, this may lead to a more passive role for learners instead of
making them active participants in producing musical performances and
products.
The product of a music performance seems to have gained a negative
association, being considered only to be of value if it is executed by a select
few, to be performed in a venue such as the school hall and displaying the
talent of the elite. Russell-Bowie refers to a “product-oriented approach” which
centres around performances to “showcase the school” (Russell-Bowie, 2006,
p. 12). She also comments that such performances can be very teacher-centred
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
and restrictive, inhibiting the creativity of learners. A further point is made that
some schools opt for an annual stage production, thereby claiming to have
“‘done’ the arts for that year”. This situation has also been observed at South
African schools, where the Arts and Culture learning area is replaced by such a
production.
In my view, both the process and the product are equally important. The product
of music skills culminates in performance, and performing activities should take
place in every music lesson, not only at the end of a term on the stage. These
regular class performances or products should be part of an ongoing process,
giving learners the opportunity to make music together and to experience the
benefits of social interaction. These products can be the group activities, e.g.
where jingles are created, practised, and performed to the rest of the class
during a music lesson. The most important aspect is that these music products
or performances allow learners to share the wonder of music enjoyment.
Performance, as aptly described by Szego, lies at the “unqualified centre of [...]
music education” (2005, p. 202).
2.6
CONCLUDING REMARKS
In this chapter, relevant issues and research regarding the arts, culture, and
music as component of an integrated arts education, were scrutinised. Various
theories and premises were described, indicating how these influence the
implementation of music in an integrated learning area. Aspects regarding the
process and product in Music Education were also examined. Studying the
literature made me more informed to direct the empirical data collection process
of the research. In the next chapter, the methodological process of the inquiry is
explained.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
3.1
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter the methodology for the research is outlined. A description of the
procedures used for the collection of data, as well as the research techniques
employed, are presented. The research design and research method were
chosen to enlighten the core research problem, namely aspects which influence
the implementation of music in an integrated arts curriculum, as well as
secondary research questions. A profile of the research respondents is also
included.
The research design and method both focus on finding accountable answers to
the research questions. The research design is the planning of the research and
indicates the type of study undertaken, while the research methods indicate the
steps taken, instruments used and techniques implemented to complete the
process (Mouton, 2001, pp. 49, 55-56). A justification for the choice of research
for this study is also offered.
When conducting a research project or thesis, Creswell (2003, p. 5) suggests
the following three aspects to be taken into consideration:
•
the epistemology or theoretical perspective of the researcher;
•
the broad approach or research design which the researcher will follow; and
•
the specific research procedures or research method which will be utilised.
In order to determine the appropriate design and method for this investigation,
an extensive study was made of the most prominent research designs and
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
methods available. I compiled a table which includes descriptions of various
research methods and strategies, referring to key authors in the field. After this
process, it became clear that a mixed method design would render the most
enlightening answers to the specific research problems posited in this study.
3.1.1
Theoretical perspective
Research comprises the search for knowledge and gaining of new insights into
some unknown areas within the researcher’s perception. Before commencing
any research project or study, the researcher should be aware of the theoretical
perspective or epistemological underpinning which directs the way in which the
knowledge will be acquired. This theoretical perspective or theory of knowledge
is broadly referred to as epistemology. In philosophy, epistemology is the
researcher’s view of knowledge. Ely and Rashkin describes epistemology as
the process behind the acquiring of knowledge and the perimeters of that
knowledge (2005, p. 151).
3.1.2 Broad approach or research design
The broad approach or design of a research project usually comprises the
overall plan, or as Mouton refers to it, the architectural design (2001, p. 56) of
the study to be embarked on. From this, a strategy or method is derived, which
normally falls into one of two categories or research paradigms: qualitative or
quantitative research strategies. The two research paradigms are displayed in
table 3.1 to indicate their main differences.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 3.1: Research Paradigms
Research Paradigms
Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research
The qualitative researcher looks at
The quantitative researcher aims to
knowledge from a subjective point of
be objective towards knowledge
view (Onwuegbuzie & Collins, 2006,
(Onwuegbuzie & Collins, 2006, p. 10).
p. 10). There is a belief in the interconnectedness between researcher
and the subject being studied, and
therefore these have an influence on
one another (Creswell, 1998, p. 253).
In qualitative research, there are
In quantitative research, there are
typically few cases but many variables
usually many cases with only a few
(Creswell 1998, pp. 15-18).
variables (Creswell 1998, pp. 15-18.)
Extensive time is spent in the field
Data collection is standardised and
while collecting data (Creswell 1998,
not as time-consuming as in
pp. 15-18).
qualitative research.
Qualitative research implies that the
In a quantitative study, theories and
researcher uses an inductive
hypotheses are tested using the
reasoning style, looking from the
deductive reasoning style (Johnson &
inside out. An example would be to do
Onwuegbuzie, 2004, p. 17). The
a detailed single case study and then
researcher starts with a generalisation
attempt to make generalisations on a
which is accepted as true, and then
broader scale from this. It may
either confirms or refutes it (Ely &
sometimes result in reasoning that is
Rashkin, 2005, p. 122).
not necessarily the truth (Ely &
Rashkin, 2005, p. 214).
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research
Data analysis in qualitative studies
In quantitative studies, data is
involves a complex and time-
collected and stored in statistical
consuming process, reducing large
format and can be fairly easily
amounts of data to a few themes or
analysed by means of computer
categories (Creswell 1998, pp. 15-18). programmes.
A great deal of insight is needed,
since the researcher has to interpret
the data and make inferences and
correlations.
The final writing up of research
The final writing up of quantitative
findings consists of extended
research findings consists mainly of
passages and a longer final research
statistics, tables and numerical data.
report. The researcher provides
multiple perspectives to substantiate
claims. Another feature which differs
from quantitative studies is that ample
quotations are provided, embodying
the perspectives of participants and
thereby lengthening the study
(Creswell, 1998, pp. 15-18).
3.1.3 Positivist and post-positivist beliefs
There are two underlying philosophical beliefs that direct research methods. On
the one hand, the positivist belief is that there is an ultimate reality which is
beyond the subjective human view. This philosophical view was highly valued
during the 17th and 18th centuries and supported a system of gathering
knowledge via the scientific method (Ely & Rashkin, 2005, p. 343). This
philosophical view had a revival during the early 1920s and 1930s
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
(Onwuegbuzie & Collins, 2006, p. 2), and is referred to as the modernist
movement. On the other hand, the post-positivist or post-modernist belief is a
later development in reaction to the positivist’s rational view of the world and
reality. This belief underlines the important role which the subjective
involvement of the researcher plays. Table 3.2 describes how these beliefs
impact on qualitative and quantitative research.
Table 3.2: Post-positivism and positivism
Post-Positivism / Post-Modernism
Positivism
Qualitative research falls into the
Quantitative research is positivist,
post-positivist or post-modernist
where the researcher is an observer
paradigm, whereby the researcher is
and remains emotionally uninvolved
personally involved with the research
with the participants. The aim is to
participants. Through this method, a
view data objectively to enable the
unique perspective of the knowledge
researcher to make generalisations,
is gained (Cohen et al., 2002, p. 6).
without being bound by context and
This unique perspective is not the
time constraints (Johnson &
only truth available, but describes one
Onwuegbuzie, 2004, p. 14).
view of reality, capturing the emotions
of the participants.
3.1.4 Specific research procedures
There are two methods by which data is collected during a research process.
These are the interpretive and the behaviourist procedures. The characteristics
of each are described in table 3.3.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 3.3: Interpretive and behaviourist procedures
Interpretive
Behaviourist
In qualitative research, the researcher
According to behaviourist procedures,
is required to interpret data while
“human behaviour is essentially rule-
searching for meaning behind the
governed and it should be investigated
actions and interactions of
by the methods of natural science”
participants. Data should be
(Cohen et al., 2002, p. 22). This
understood against the background of
implies that the researcher should
a specific context (Johnson &
remain uninvolved and objective
Onwuegbuzie, 2004, p. 14; Reimer,
towards research participants, merely
2006, p. 21).
taking note of findings as they emerge.
This is a preferred stance of
quantitative research.
In studying both types of epistemological paradigms, I have come to the
conclusion that I am a pragmatist, applying both the subjective and objective
perspectives in my approach towards the research problem (Onwuegbuzie &
Collins, 2006, p. 10). A pragmatic philosophy is based on the practical
application of ideas in everyday life (Ely & Rashkin, 2005, p. 344). I therefore
chose to include both the qualitative and the quantitative research methods,
gaining insight from one method, while being able to apply the gained insight
into the other method.
3.2
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
The integrated research process which I used for my investigation is referred to
as a mixed method research design. It provided multi-faceted aspects of
different research paradigms, thereby minimising the weaknesses of each
strategy. It also supplied a means of triangulation, providing both qualitative and
quantitative data. The emphasis, however, would be more on the qualitative
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
than the quantitative aspects. As can be deduced from tables 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3,
qualitative and quantitative research methods are traditionally classified as
opposing research strategies, conflicting with each other. However,
Hauptfleisch argues that these two methods “should rather be regarded as at
opposite ends of a continuum of research methods” (1997, p. 164). Data
collected through quantitative research is revealed numerically, using quantities
and statistics (Hauptfleisch, 1997, p. 165). On the other hand, qualitative
research is more explorative with most of the information gathered as verbal
data. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have constraints and
weaknesses. However, the two methods balance each other’s limitations and it
is therefore advantageous to combine the two techniques in order for a
researcher to gain a broader perspective and insight into the problem.
3.3
RESEARCH PARADIGM FOR THIS STUDY
In reaction to the modernist research paradigm which focuses on impartial and
objective reason, I approached the study with a post-modernist view, placing a
high premium on human perception and experience (Spies, 2006, p. 32). The
modernist research paradigm is similar to a positivist worldview which
presupposes a single objective reality that can be observed, recognised and
measured. In contrast, post-positivist thought or a post-modernist worldview
presupposes multiple, subjective realities that are a function of personal
interaction and perception (Merriam, 1988, p. 17).
The interpretive paradigm within a qualitative research design involving field
settings offers a means of investigating complex social units consisting of
multiple variables of potential importance in understanding the phenomenon.
Anchored in real-life situations, this type of study results in a richly descriptive
and holistic account of the phenomenon. It offers insights and illuminates
meanings that expand the reader’s experiences. These insights can be
construed as tentative hypotheses that help structure future research; hence
they play an important role in advancing a field’s knowledge base (Merriam,
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
1988, p. 32). Because of its strengths, the interpretive aspect of qualitative
research was particularly appealing to me, applying it in a field of study such as
arts education.
Qualitative research, however, also has certain limitations and weaknesses, as
identified by Merriam (1988). The first limitation lies in the fact that time and
financial constraints sometimes preclude the researcher from conducting an
exhaustive study. Secondly, this type of study may lead readers to the
erroneous conclusion that that which applies to certain cases also applies
automatically to the class from which they are drawn. Thirdly, qualitative
research employs the researcher as the primary data collection instrument, thus
implying limitations in terms of sensitivity and integrity. Therefore, all effort has
been made by me as researcher to be as objective and unbiased as possible,
gaining insights from a variety of role players in the field being studied.
The overall objective of this study was to deepen the understanding of the
dynamics between the curriculum (RNCS), how it is interpreted by individual
teachers, and how it is translated into action in real classrooms. It furthermore
aimed to explore how lecturers and teachers in the learning area Arts and
Culture understand, interpret and act on the curriculum policy.
Two main approaches were used for the collection of data: interviews, and
document and resource material analysis.
This research included a relatively small number of teachers (63). The purpose
was not to discover how many people share certain experiences, but rather to
gain access to the experiences and perceptions of some teachers implementing
music in the Arts and Culture learning area. Looking at a much larger sample of
teachers would not have added any more value to the research, and it would
have failed to notice the depth that was afforded by working with a smaller
group of teachers.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The procedure of one-on-one interviews at various schools was adopted in
order to provide in-depth data as well as multiple viewpoints. Sites were
determined by the sampling strategy.
3.4
SAMPLING STRATEGY
The sampling strategy was guided by the focus of the research, namely to gain
insight into best practices of Music Education at primary schools in South Africa.
3.4.1
Purposive sampling
The sampling strategy was mostly purposive, since knowledge and expertise
about the research problem were used to identify respondents who represent
the criteria needed for the investigation (Berg, 2004, p. 36; Cohen et al., 2002,
p. 143). A measure of snowball-sampling was also implemented by asking the
first interviewees to recommend other teachers and references in the field
(Cohen et al., 2002, p. 144). Lecturers at universities and First Education
Specialists (FESs) were also consulted regarding schools where a high
standard of Arts and Culture programmes were being presented.
For this study, purposive samples were selected after initial field investigations,
to ensure that certain types of individuals were included who display specific
types of attributes. There were three categories of respondents:
•
firstly, teachers currently involved in teaching Arts and Culture in schools;
•
secondly, lecturers involved in training programmes in Arts Education; and
•
thirdly, policy makers involved in the planning and execution of the learning
area Arts and Culture.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
3.4.2 Teachers interviewed
The main research question focuses on teachers; therefore it was this question
which motivated me to choose teachers as the largest group of participants for
this study.
How do teachers implement Music
In an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools?
Four different groups of teachers were interviewed, each representing a
different sector of those involved in the implementation of Arts and Culture in
primary schools:
•
Music teachers who succeeded and even excelled in primary schools
regarding their implementation of Music in the learning area Arts and
Culture;
•
Arts and Culture teachers with specialisation in one of the other art forms,
comprising Visual Arts, Drama or Dance;
•
Teachers involved in the learning area Arts and Culture with no
specialisation in any of the art forms; and
•
Teachers in the Foundation Phase who, according to the current policy in
most schools, have to integrate Arts and Culture into their normal classroom
teaching within the three learning programmes, Literacy, Numeracy and Life
Skills.
To answer the main research question, 63 respondents from 39 schools in
South Africa were included for personal, semi-structured interviews. Most
teachers were in the Pretoria region since those were the easiest and most
convenient to reach for me as a researcher. During a study tour in October
2006, some interviews were also conducted with teachers, lecturers and policy
makers in the Western Cape. Usually, focus group interviews were conducted
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
with two or more teachers from each school: one teacher in the Foundation
phase and one in the Intersen phase. In some schools, the principal or head of
a department was also interviewed. The schools were selected purposively in
order to represent examples of best practices covering success stories in terms
of the implementation of music. In order to select these schools, facilitators
(First Education Specialists) in the learning area Arts and Culture of the
particular regions were consulted.
3.4.3 Lecturers involved in Music Education at South African
universities
The question related to the main research question that motivated me to choose
lecturers and students as participants was:
How are music students trained to implement the new
integrated Arts curriculum?
For this question of the empirical data collection strategy, open-ended
interviews, telephone interviews and e-mail correspondence were undertaken
with nine lecturers from various universities in South Africa with strong Music
Education programmes. Furthermore, information was obtained from two
lecturers from overseas universities, one in the United Kingdom, the other in
Australia, where these lecturers are involved in training students in Music
Education.
3.4.4 Policy makers in Arts Education
The question related to the main research question that motivated me to choose
the above participants was:
To what extent do the views of policy makers of the national curriculum
correspond with teachers’ experiences in their interpretation of an
integrated Arts curriculum?
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
For this question, interviews with four policy makers were conducted.
As the interview process continued, further interviewees in all categories were
identified. In order to extend the sample, a degree of snowballing was required.
As previously mentioned, the snowballing technique was implemented as a
procedure whereby initial respondents were asked to identify other subjects
who “possess the same attributes as they do” (Berg, 2004, p. 36). These
respondents still resembled the same groups as the categories mentioned
above, but provided variety in terms of age, experience and environments. A
broader perspective was thus gained and findings verified.
One of the apparent shortcomings of a qualitative and interpretive study is the
fact
that
many
subjective
judgments
are
made
by
the
researcher.
Correspondingly, in selecting the participants of this study, a purposeful sample
was chosen since this was the only way to ensure some representation of the
population of Music teachers in South Africa. This meant that I scrutinised and
interpreted the experiences of all the music teachers of the selected schools
until saturation of data occurred. The benefit of this method of sampling was
that rich descriptions from the chosen participants could be acquired.
3.5
DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES
Bogdan and Biklen (1982, pp. 52-53), supported by Merriam (1988, pp. 124125), suggest nine process-based criteria for the simultaneous collection and
analysis of data. These suggestions informed my method of collecting data,
also guiding the concurrent data analysis process. The nine suggestions are:
•
Limit the investigation, thereby rather collecting more information on a
specific topic than inappropriate data on too wide a field.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Make choices regarding the nature of the research. For example, decide
whether a full description should be undertaken, or whether a theory
concerning a particular aspect should be generated.
•
Develop investigative questions, refining the general initial questions and
discarding irrelevant ones.
•
Guide data collection sessions by prior observations.
•
Take note of all observations which are not necessarily part of the planned
interview sessions to encourage analytical thinking.
•
Make notes of the learning process – these can help to relate aspects to the
hypothetical, practical and confirming issues of the research.
•
Try out thoughts and topics on respondents – some respondents become
key factors in improving the investigation and fleshing out the description in
the final analysis.
•
Scrutinise the literature while collecting data and conducting interviews, as
this will improve the analysis.
•
Try to recognise similarities and correlations in order to generate an
advanced level of understanding.
Data was collected through various strategies. One strategy was to collect data
via semi-structured personal interviews and focus group interviews with
teachers in the learning area Arts and Culture, lecturers in Music Education, as
well as with policy makers of the curriculum (Terre Blanche & Durrheim, 1999,
p. 388). For teachers and lecturers whom I could not visit personally, a second
strategy
was
implemented
involving
telephone
interviews
and
e-mail
correspondence. A third strategy for data collection was to analyse available
documents, sources, books and learner and teacher guides which were recently
published for the learning area Arts and Culture. These documents are:
•
Revised National Curriculum Statement for Arts and Culture (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2002b). The Revised National Curriculum
Statement was implemented for the first time by primary school teachers in
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
2004. In studying the curriculum document, I evaluated the outcomes of
Music Education in the curriculum document against the interpretations of
teachers and lecturers regarding the practical implementation thereof.
•
Teacher materials and learner workbooks designed for the Revised National
Curriculum Statement, focusing on the learning area Arts and Culture.
I collected data until there was a saturation of categories, which meant that no
new themes emerged from the interviews conducted with participants (Merriam,
1998, p. 164). The data from all the available sources that was utilised during
the research process was integrated and collated to conclude the data
collection stage.
Document analysis began with the study of government policy material,
particularly the RNCS documents. Document analysis enables the researcher to
obtain the language and terminology in the field of the research problem
(Creswell, 1998, p. 150). This guided my analysis and critical assessment of
other resource material for the Arts and Culture learning area.
3.6
INTERVIEWS
The main method of data collection in this research was one-on-one interviews.
Therefore, general remarks regarding the value of interviews, as well as positive
and negative aspects of interviews are discussed.
3.6.1 General remarks regarding interviews
The purpose of interviewing is to understand another person’s perspective
(Merriam, 1988, p. 72). It allowed me to gather data where personal
observations in actual classrooms were not possible due to time-constraints and
impracticality. It also would have meant that far fewer schools could be visited,
limiting the variety of the data gathered.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Although
this
method
of
data-collecting
was
time-consuming,
certain
advantages made it more useful. The purpose of interviews is to obtain
information which is relevant to the specific research objectives. The
advantages of interviews became evident in that they supplied a richer
description of information, enabling me to probe more deeply regarding specific
aspects which related to individual situations at various schools. In this way, a
multi-layered understanding of the problem was possible.
A disadvantage of an interview could be that the interviewee feels intimidated,
especially if the interviewee is not a subject specialist in the area of the
research problem. It was noted as researcher that some interviewees,
especially teachers from the Foundation Phase without specialised knowledge
of music, tried to give the ‘correct’ answers, and were perceived to be more
nervous, as if it were a ‘test’. In one instance, the principal of the school would
not agree for me to have a personal interview with the Arts and Culture teacher,
and a very formal meeting had to be held in his office where he was also
present. The data obtained from this interview was deemed to be unreliable,
since it was noticeable that the teacher was trying to give ‘perfect’ answers,
responding exactly in the way the school regards the learning area to be
implemented.
As researcher I tried to achieve a rapport with each of the interviewees, making
them feel comfortable with the topic, and explaining that the purpose of the
study was to find out what their views on the RNCS were. I made it clear that I
was interested in their experiences of implementing the curriculum in practice,
as well as the limitations of the RNCS according to their opinions. I also needed
their input regarding the training of students.
Another disadvantage of the interview as a research tool is that participation
requires a one-on-one setting which makes it more time-consuming. No
generalisations or wide-ranging inferences can be legitimately made from
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
interviews.
However,
the
intention
of
an
interview is
not
to
make
generalisations; it is rather to provide a rich description and interpretation of the
situation.
Face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule were
conducted with key figures involved in the implementation of the Arts and
Culture curriculum, university lecturers involved in student training, as well as
with teachers in the learning area Arts and Culture at various primary schools.
This enabled me to explore perceptions and implementation strategies and
problems experienced by practitioners.
3.6.2 Planning the interview structure
Table 3.4 has been devised by Creswell (2003, p. 186), and illustrates the
various options, advantages as well as limitations of interviews as datacollecting instruments.
Table 3.4: Options, advantages and limitations of interviews
(Creswell, 2003, p. 186)
Options
•
•
•
Face-to face, one-onone, in-person
interview
Telephone interview
Group: participants are
interviewed in a group
Advantages
•
•
•
Useful when
participants cannot be
observed directly
Participants can
provide historical
information
Allows researcher
“control” over the line
of questioning
Limitations
•
•
•
•
Provides “indirect”
information filtered
through the views of
interviewees
Provides information in
a designated place
rather than the natural
field setting
Researcher’s presence
may bias responses
People are not equally
articulate and
perceptive
Having conducted a few telephonic interviews initially, I decided on face-to-face,
personal interviews which produced data of a much higher and in-depth quality.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Although information generated during an interview is indirect, influenced by the
perspective of the interviewees, this was what I aimed at – to obtain the
perspectives of individual participants in the field and each one’s own view of
ways in which to approach the implementation of Music in an integrated
curriculum. After conducting several pilot interviews, the interview format was
refined and adapted according to findings of previous interviews to include
sections with more open-ended answers. The normal limitation of a designated
place instead of the natural field setting was pre-empted by choosing, whenever
possible, the individual school or university as site for the interview according to
each individual respondent.
It was found more worthwhile to conduct personal interviews to gain the
confidence and goodwill of respondents, focusing on their experience and skills
in teaching practice. In this way, they could realise that the aim of the research
was to find successful ways to implement the arts in schools, in which they are
key representatives. Their initial feelings were often that they were being
evaluated, weighed and criticised. Another trend which was observed during the
conducting of interviews is that interviewees tended to ‘window dress’ their
responses, supplying all the answers they regarded as being of importance to
fulfil the required criteria of the Education Department. Only after the completion
of the initial, formal questions, and when a rapport between interviewer and
interviewee could be established with an atmosphere of goodwill and mutual
interest, valuable insights and personal views emerged. What I noticed as
researcher is that the informal discussions at the end of the interviews often
revealed the richest and most descriptive data, portraying personal views and
insights not revealed during the more structured section of the interview.
Teachers who have a passion for their work tended to be excited about the
topic and were enthusiastic to share their ideas and to be included in further
research processes, for example involving student teachers under their
supervision for field work in schools during the internship phase of fourth year
education students.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
3.6.3 Questioning technique during interviews
One of the first obstacles I had to face was to develop questioning techniques
during interviews in such a way that meaningful data could be obtained. As
Merriam aptly states: “The key to getting good data from interviewing is to ask
good questions” (1988, p. 78). I prepared a list of questions and formulated it in
such a way to motivate interviewees to share their knowledge of the
phenomenon under study. An important factor that I had to consider was that,
although a semi-structured interview is steered by certain issues and questions
to be explored, “neither the exact wording nor the order of questions is
predetermined” (Merriam, 1988, p. 86). I had to vary the use of language and
change the order of questions depending on the way the interview progressed.
During the interview process, I was furthermore aware of the fact that a
respondent’s feedback could vary from stating facts to expressing personal
beliefs or attitudes (Merriam, 1988, p. 78). I therefore focussed on interpreting
and decoding the responses of interviewees in relation to my research
questions and purposes as honestly and neutrally as I could. It is vital to assess
the quality of data gathered during interview sessions. Every respondent gives a
personal perspective of the phenomenon. Although this is exactly what is
sought after in qualitative research, it is important to distinguish when
information has been distorted or exaggerated. The best way to do this is to
verify a respondent’s account by comparing it with accounts given by other
respondents (Merriam, 1988, p. 84). After the modifications I made to the basic
interview structure and developing good questioning techniques, the quality of
the data improved considerably, and rendered significant and valuable material
to answer my research questions.
3.6.4 Computer technology used during interviews
A strategy used during the interviews which was found very helpful for later
retrieval and analysis, was the use of computer technology. According to Berg
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
(2004, p. 94), computer-assisted personal interviewing is one of the fascinating
improvements in modern social research. It has the advantage that face-to-face
interviews can be conducted, retaining body language and other visual signs
which would otherwise be lost, for example during telephone interviewing or email correspondence (Berg, 2004, p. 95). A laptop computer was taken to the
field settings and interviewees’ responses were typed as each interview
progressed. Interviewees simultaneously checked their responses as they were
typed, to verify and refine their statements if they felt it was necessary. This
method saved time and made the respondents feel comfortable that what they
said was being accurately represented.
3.6.5 Focus group interviews
Focus group interviews were organised with teachers at schools where various
specialists were all involved in the implementation of the Arts and Culture
programmes. These group interviews not only brought responses to questions
put to participants, but resulted in the interplay of ideas from inter-group
dialogue when responding to questions. These interviews often revealed the
unexpected and opened up new channels of thought to direct my understanding
of the integrated curriculum.
3.7
QUESTIONNAIRES
Initially, as researcher I considered using questionnaires as one of the main
data-gathering tools. However, this proved to be problematic since answers
from pilot questionnaires were often ill-expressed. Cohen et al. (2002, p. 129)
argue that there is often a low response rate when using questionnaires.
Furthermore,
questions
may
be
misinterpreted
by
respondents,
and
questionnaires are often filled in hurriedly. Therefore, the questionnaires were
modified to use as a limited but extended form of data collection in order to
reach identified role-players in the curriculum process who were not able to
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
provide face-to-face interviews. The same questions put to various people in
different countries via e-mail, allowed for comparison of responses.
3.8
DATA ANALYSIS
Applying a mixed method approach to this research, both qualitative and
quantitative analysis strategies were utilised. Throughout the whole research
process, there was an interaction taking place between data collection, analysis
and reporting (Merriam, 1998, p. 151). The evolving nature of this design is
commonly found in educational research (Merriam, 1998, p. 156). Bearing the
main research question in mind, analysis within an interpretive approach was
relevant. According to Coffey and Atkinson (1996, p. 80) there are no
prescriptions or recipes for the ideal way to analyse the interpretations and
reflections collected. I approached the data in a reflective manner, which
opened the possibilities for a variety of analytic strategies.
Once all the data was collected by me, an intensive analysis was conducted
based on the approach of Bogdan and Biklen (1982, pp. 147-154). This analysis
involved the devising of broad categories and then narrowing down the study to
specific focus areas or themes. Sometimes, it was necessary to contact key
respondents again to help “fill in the holes of description” (p. 153). In addition,
properties were devised for each category and tentative assumptions suggested
in terms of the relations between specific categories and the related properties.
Several strategies of data analysis were employed:
•
Some of the data I collected lent itself to statistical analysis, and is
represented in this thesis be means of tables and charts.
•
The remainder of the data I collected is presented in a narrative and
descriptive way in order to offer a holistic interpretation of the views of the
teachers, lecturers and policy makers.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
After completing the initial stage of analysis, data was interpreted and
classified according to categories and themes.
•
During the last stage of analysis, I conducted content analysis by comparing
empirical observations with the theoretical concerns in the literature (Berg,
2004, p. 275). This resulted in the development of a theory regarding the
implementation of music in an integrated Arts curriculum.
3.9
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Merriam (1998, p. 198) explains that ensuring validity and reliability in
qualitative research involves conducting the investigation in an ethical way.
Ethical predicaments are likely to emerge with regard to the collection of data
and the presentation of findings.
Ethical issues with interviewing are related to the fact that participants may feel
that their privacy has been invaded and that questions may be embarrassing
(Merriam, 1998, p. 214). The types and spectrum of questions asked were not
of an intimate or sensitive nature, and therefore I did not regard the interviews
as being embarrassing. Using a laptop computer to type responses as each
interview progressed was ideal to make sure that respondents were satisfied
that their views were interpreted accurately. Interviewees could verify and check
their own responses during the course of each interview. Since the relevant
policy documents, learners’ workbooks and teachers’ guides are available for
anyone’s scrutiny, I foresaw no ethical problems regarding them (Merriam,
1998, p. 215).
I acquired written consent from the participants involved according to one of the
principles of the Ethics and Research Statement of the University of Pretoria,
namely the principle of voluntary participation. Since it was important for me to
obtain the honest and most accurate account of what was happening in Arts
3-21
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
and Culture classrooms of South African primary schools, I asked teachers to
be very open and frank in their answers. Every teacher consented, based on
the premise that their identities would not be revealed. This gave me worthwhile
insights into the daily pleasures and problems of a teaching career in Music and
the Arts, making me realise that there is indeed no simple answer to the
problem discussed in this thesis.
Feedback on the progress and findings of the proposed project will be given to
the participants involved. I shall also inform them of any future publication
regarding the project. In planning, conducting, analysing and reporting this
study I strived to be non-biased, accurate and as honest as is humanly possible
in all phases of the research (Merriam, 1998, p. 216).
3.10 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
In terms of validity and reliability of results, qualitative research is often weighed
down by uncertainties. It was therefore necessary to obtain multiple facets of
the same reality. Interviews were conducted with respondents who were all
connected to the Arts and Culture learning area, but from different perspectives.
This method of triangulation gave me “a different line of sight directed to the
same point” in order to confirm and validate the findings (Berg, 2004, p. 5).
Furthermore, each interviewee was provided an opportunity to check the data to
evaluate the credibility of results arrived at. Finally, my own worldview and
inherent biases as researcher were clarified at the outset of the investigation.
Although the obligation of reliability requires the replication of investigative
techniques and results, and therefore runs counter to the focus in qualitative
research on negotiated multiple realities, Guba and Lincoln (1981, p. 120) claim
that it is impossible to have internal validity without reliability. They argue that a
demonstration of internal validity “amounts to a simultaneous demonstration of
reliability”. Consequently, Lincoln and Guba (1985, p. 288) rather advocate
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
“consistency” instead of reliability. Such consistency requires that the data
“make sense” to outsiders, rather than “demanding that outsiders get the same
results”.
External validity in the form of being able to generalise has often been a
contentious issue with reference to qualitative research. In essence, the choice
of a qualitative research design implies the researcher’s wish to understand a
particular phenomenon in depth, rather than the researcher’s wish to establish
what is generally true (Merriam, 1988, p. 173). However, the question remains
as to whether generalisations can be made in qualitative studies. This is most
cogently answered by Patton, proposing that qualitative research should
“provide perspective rather than truth” and “context-bound information rather
than generalizations [sic]” (1980, p. 283).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
CHAPTER 4
COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1
INTRODUCTION
In Chapter 3 a description of the chosen research design was given. Choices
made for the sampling strategy, as well as methods selected for data collection,
were justified. Chapter 4 presents an interpretive as well as a statistical account
of the data. Using the interpretive paradigm, I aimed to provide meaning to the
primary data collected through fieldwork. In order to present results that would
support the answering of research questions posed at the outset of this study, I
engaged with the data in both inductive and deductive ways. Deductively, the
data was represented quantitatively, utilising tables and figures to present
statistical results. Inductively, the data was approached from particular to more
general perspectives, utilising the more qualitative aspects of the mixed method
research design.
4.2
METHOD OF ANALYSIS
The development of analytical interpretations of the data was used to direct
additional data collection in order to enrich the findings. The research activities
of interviewing, analysing and writing intermingled during the whole research
process, while data was presented partly based on participants’ perspectives
and partly based on my own interpretation (Cohen et al., 2000, p. 20). Data was
shown to present multiple perspectives, illustrating that there are numerous
interpretations of Arts and Culture as an integrated learning area. Concepts
emerged in themes and relevant categories, which were chosen for their
applicability and usefulness in an attempt to answer the research questions.
Thematic analysis was used to develop theory explaining the findings of the
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
research. The process of analysis is not always logical or sequential in a
predetermined fashion, since the researcher has to be in touch with intuitive
feelings (Merriam, 1988, p. 148). Since making sense of the data is a highly
personal and individual procedure, there are no definite rules or a specific
formula to follow. However, as pointed out by Berg (2004, p. 272), it proved to
be a satisfying and enriching process for me as researcher, developing my own
understanding and insight into the research problems as the process continued.
Miles and Huberman (1984, pp. 215-228) describe twelve practical tactics to
direct this process and these were deemed useful to guide the search for
answers during the data analysis stage of the investigation:
•
Counting: take note of some concepts appearing more often than others.
•
Noting patterns and themes: scan the data to build categories.
•
Identifying new concepts or conclusions: occasionally, counteractive findings
could lead to thought-provoking or challenging results.
•
Clustering: all things that appear comparable should be grouped together.
•
Making comparisons: conceptualise at a higher level.
•
Splitting categories: sporadically, it makes logical sense to split one category
or theme into two elements.
•
Including: occasionally, smaller elements should be grouped into larger
categories.
•
Factoring: sometimes, unequal or dissimilar facts may have something in
common. This aspect they have in common is the factor.
•
Noting relationships: considering how concepts are related to each other.
•
Finding prevailing themes: try to find reasons why two concepts or themes
that belong together, do not seem to fit.
•
Constructing a logical sequence: integrate categories and themes into a
logical whole.
•
Creating unity: try to find explanations for the research questions.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The research was undertaken without a precise conceptual framework. During
the data analysis process of Chapter 4, links and patterns could be identified
which led to a constantly changing conceptual framework. The goals of the
research were exploratory, with me as researcher having the “intersubjective
predisposition of an insider” (Garbers, 1996, p. 279). This correlated with the
internal or “inside out” approach to the investigation (Bak, 2004, p. 19) as
explained at the outset of this thesis in Chapter 1.3. The shaded sections in the
data collection box of figure 4.1 below refer to the primary sources of data
collection, comprising the empirical part of the research. This included
interviews with teachers, lecturers, and policy makers, and will be discussed in
the first part of this chapter. The un-shaded sections indicate the secondary
data sources, of which the literature review has been attended to in Chapter 2.
A review of Arts and Culture resources will be the final part of the current
chapter.
Specific
Problem:
Literature review of various authors
Music
in an
integrated
Arts
curriculum
Experiences of teachers in schools
Views of lecturers at universities
Views of policy makers
Review of Arts and Culture resources
Figure 4.1: Data collection process No 2
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
4.3
ANALYSIS OF INTERVIEWS
Interviews for the data collection process were planned to answer the main
research question:
How do teachers implement music
in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools?
Interviews conducted in this research consist of three subject samples. The first
and largest sample relates to interviews conducted at schools; the second
sample refers to interviews with lecturers in Music Education at universities,
while the last sample concerns interviews held with policy makers involved with
the Arts and Culture learning area.
4.3.1
Interviews at schools
A total of 63 interviews was conducted on site at 39 schools in various regions
of South Africa, mainly involving primary schools in the Pretoria area. Apart
from 59 interviews with teachers involved in the delivery of Arts and Culture,
another four interviews were conducted including two school principals, one
HOD (head of department) as well as a teacher appointed to teach KDA (Kids
Development Academy) to all learners in one of the primary schools. Table 4.1
illustrates the sample regarding the school profiles and interviewees involved.
Table 4.1: Interviews at schools
Schools
Number
High socio-economic status
24
Average socio-economic status
Low socio-economic status
11
4
Total number of schools
39
Interviewees
Teachers implementing
Music or Arts & Culture
KDA teacher
HOD
School principals
Total interviewees
Number
59
1
1
2
63
4-4
Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
An average of one hour was spent on each interview, with some taking as long
as three hours, depending on the expertise and willingness of the respondents
to share ideas.
The semi-structured interview (Appendix 1) was designed to include four broad
sections. Section A consisted of questions about the school, physical
environment and available resources, while section B focused on the personal
profile and training of teachers. Issues concerning the allocation of time for the
learning area Arts and Culture were explored in section C, and section D
investigated methods used by teachers to successfully implement Music as part
of an integrated Arts and Culture learning area. At the end of the interview, an
open ended discussion followed, giving the respondents an opportunity to add
any relevant comments or personal experiences of how they succeeded in
integrating Music into the integrated Arts learning area. Table 4.2 proposes a
summary of themes and related categories that emerged after applying the data
analysis.
Table 4.2: Themes and related categories in interviews
School
environment
Section
A
Categories
Themes
Socioeconomic
status
Facilities and
equipment
Administrative
support for
Arts in school
Profile of
teachers
B
Training of
teachers
Specialist
training in one
or more of the
Arts
Appointed as
specialist or
generalist
Time allocation
C
Curriculum
policy: time
allocation
Time allocated
for Arts in the
Foundation
Phase
Time allocated
for Arts in the
Intersen Phase
Implementation of
Music and the Arts
D
The value of Music
Integration of the
Arts in one learning
area
OBE and group
work
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
School
environment
Section
A
Categories
Themes
Profile of
teachers
B
Art forms
presented by
teachers
Time
allocation
Implementation of
Music and the Arts
C
Division of time
between 4 Arts
in the Intersen
Phase
D
Effective music
activities, group work:
practical versus
theoretical
Music in the
Foundation Phase
The KDA programme
Interviews with teachers were analysed to determine which factors play a role in
the effective implementation of Music Education within an integrated Arts
learning area.
4.3.1.1
The A Section of the interview: school environment and
resources
Respondents from the 39 schools were asked to describe their schools in terms
of the socio-economic status of the parents of the school learners, as well as
the degree to which the school was well-equipped regarding the implementation
of Music and the Arts. The following pie chart, figure 4.2, displays the profile of
the schools.
Low
4
Average
11
High
24
Figure 4.2: Socio-economic status of schools
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Although only two of the 39 schools visited are private schools, most of the
other schools are also in a high socio-economic position (24 schools). The 37
government schools are divided into two groups; eleven of these are in the
average range, with four schools in the lower socio-economic range.
Directly linked to the socio-economic status of every school is, of course, the
resources available to support the Arts. Funding is perceived by most teachers
as a significant factor in determining success for the Arts.
The Arts require special materials and equipment, and these cost
money! It’s easy to say: ‘use recycled material’, but to provide a
quality education to the learners, you need quality materials
(Interview 4).
On the other hand, some teachers felt that successful Arts activities do not
depend mainly on the availability of art materials, but rather on the way in which
the art form is taught:
In art I use the minimum materials – paper, crayons, pastels and
paint. It’s really not necessary to have so much equipment; it’s
more about giving the children skills to develop their artistic talent,
opening their eyes (Interview 27).
Regarding
the
availability
of
funding,
materials
and
equipment,
the
administrative support of the school seems to be crucial. Principals and heads
of departments, who are supportive and positive regarding the Arts, usually
ensure that adequate funding is provided for materials and equipment needed
for the Arts. Music and the Arts are often aspects which showcase the school
and provide opportunities to make the school prominent in a society (Interview
57). In schools where teachers achieve high results with innovative and creative
arts practices, principals usually value this and give ample support to enhance
an environment where the Arts can thrive.
We are very lucky. The school has recently built a new dance hall
with mirrors and special flooring, and also a large art room with
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
water basins and drying racks for all the paintings. We also have a
well-equipped music room (Interview 28).
In one school with an average socio-economic status, a teacher started a
performance group and one year later, in the year 2000, they won the Piksa
School Music Heritage Festival during the main performance in the Aula
auditorium, Pretoria. He reported that this had a very positive effect on the
learners – they felt they were being recognised and were given credit for their
hard work. This also changed the general attitude of the school towards Music
and the Arts. The teacher describes what followed:
Because of my involvement and enthusiasm regarding Arts and
Culture, I could create new opportunities. The principal often came
for class visits. He asked me on one occasion what my needs for
the Arts and Culture learning area were. This was my opportunity
to ask for a bigger classroom and a video player, and the following
year I got it! They gave me the largest classroom in the school,
which was also very far away from the office, so we could make
music without disturbing other classes (Interview 4).
Furthermore, such schools also support teachers to improve their own training,
providing time and financing for additional in-service training courses and
learning opportunities:
The principal sent me on a study tour to the UK, which was very
rewarding and enriching. It was inspiring to see all the wonderful
equipment and resources they have there, but even with our
limited resources, I still think we do a good job locally (Interview
37).
Although the four schools in the lower socio-economic range which were visited
do not receive adequate funding from the government or from parents for their
Arts programmes, principals at some of these schools regard the Arts as a
priority and the schools have organised funding opportunities and sponsors for
these purposes. For example, one school in a disenfranchised community near
Cape Town has a thriving marimba band which often performs for local
functions, or takes part in regional festivals. This band was formed as an extra-
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
curricular activity after an enthusiastic teacher organised music practices in the
afternoons. They used a few drums and readily available homemade
instruments. Soon afterwards, the principal organised funding from a major
bank, and the group is growing every year, adding more instruments and
participants to the ensemble.
Combined with the positive attitude of a school principal and other
organisational role-players, it is noteworthy to mention that the pro-active
approach, determination and extra effort put in by the specialist teacher often
result in adequate funding being provided for the Arts:
In my teaching career I have learnt that, when it comes to asking
for extra funds for equipment and so on, you always have a ‘no’,
but you could get a ‘yes’. [...] I must say, I made a nuisance of
myself and usually got a ‘yes’ for the things I asked for! (Interview
4).
The opposite is also true. If the principal and other staff at a school do not feel
strongly about the Arts, little support and funding is given to teachers in this
learning area. At a few schools, teachers complained of not being considered
when venues and equipment were allocated.
If I present lessons in my ordinary classroom, the science teacher
next door complains that we are making a noise – all the singing
and playing on instruments are disrupting his lessons (Interview
8).
Teachers at schools in the lower socio-economic range sometimes experience
a lack of financial support and resources for Music and the Arts, and they have
to resort to purchasing their own equipment:
I have to buy everything myself, and when my CD player was
stolen, I received no compensation. When a set of percussion
instruments was purchased for the school, I was so excited, but
then I found out these are kept exclusively for the percussion
band. I have resorted to using ‘noise makers’ - that which we have
readily available; for example pencils, rulers, ‘space cases’ and
4-9
Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
tables – for instrumental and rhythmic activities. I have to use my
own creativity to find solutions (Interview 7).
Some schools are well equipped and have a variety of Orff instruments
available, but these are stacked away in store rooms and need to be fetched
every time the Music teacher wants to use them. If there is more than one
teacher responsible for Music, it creates further logistic problems. The following
responses by two interviewees illustrate some of the problems:
The school is very well equipped and has a whole range of Orff
instruments – melodic as well as non-melodic – but it’s in the other
Music teacher’s classroom. It’s a real bother to go and fetch
instruments every time I need to use them for a lesson. I usually
use the set of homemade percussion instruments which I’ve made
as a student, but they are so over-used that they’re literally falling
to pieces! (Interview 1).
Instrumental activities are not possible – there are too few
instruments, there is no space in a crowded classroom, and it’s
practically impossible to fetch the instruments from the storeroom
next to the hall every time I want to use them (Interview 8).
Few of the teachers interviewed have a video or DVD player readily available in
their classroom. This appears to be an important need, especially regarding
movement and dances. However, an interesting phenomenon occurred during
my series of interviews at different schools. During that time, most of the
schools visited in the Pretoria region received a container with new instruments
from the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE), consisting of three
melodicas and five guitars. Nevertheless, all the music teachers interviewed
expressed a dire need for non-melodic percussion instruments and African
drums which all learners could play on and share. They felt that it was a pity
that such a well-meant gesture was not appropriately directed, or that they were
not consulted on their needs.
Many teachers indicated that they are not skilled in playing the guitar, but felt if
they received training, it could be used for small groups of learners as an extra4-10
Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
curricular activity after school hours. The melodicas seem to stem from a need
for keyboard instruments, especially in previously disadvantaged schools where
pianos are scarce. However, the use of melodicas is rather limited since many
teachers do not have keyboard knowledge. At most, one of these instruments
would have been sufficient for schools without a piano, while the guitars and the
rest of the melodicas could have been replaced with other more versatile
classroom instruments. Finding out more about this from the Tshwane
Department of Education revealed that a sponsor wanted to make a donation
towards the promotion of Music Education in primary schools, and was advised
by one of the facilitators in the Department to provide the named instruments.
Unfortunately, the facilitator consulted is not responsible for Arts and Culture,
and an uninformed choice was made. In an interview with a current FES
(Subject Advisor) for Arts and Culture, the following comment was made about
the issue:
The person responsible for advising which material should be
acquired for schools is the LTSM (Learner Teacher Support
Material) facilitator. I wasn’t informed of these instruments. If
instruments are allocated to schools, it should be planned and coordinated. There is not enough communication in the various
sections of the Education Department. These music instruments
are specialised items, while schools don’t have the basics
(Interview 64).
Although most schools with music specialist teachers for the Intersen Phase are
reasonably equipped for music activities, the provision and availability of
equipment and appropriate venues for the implementation of Music in the
Foundation Phase, at the same schools, is not as positive. At only eleven of the
39 schools, music specialist teachers are appointed to teach Music Education to
learners in the Foundation Phase. At the 28 remaining schools, general class
teachers are responsible for the implementation of Music and the Arts in the
Foundation Phase. These teachers are required to use their own classrooms for
this purpose, which are not always adequate in providing enough space for
movement and dancing. Even though most of these teachers do not regard an
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
overhead projector as vital equipment for the Foundation Phase, they do
express a need for a CD player and set of percussion instruments for their
classrooms. The following comment was made by a Grade 3 class teacher:
I do not have easy access to instruments – it must be organised in
advance and instruments have to be borrowed from the Senior
Phase. There is only one CD player available for all the Grade 3
classes, which makes it very difficult. The result is that you often
cut out these activities in order not to disrupt the lesson planning
(Interview 20).
It can thus be deduced that a lack of adequate resources and equipment as well
as insufficient administrative support has a significant negative impact on the
implementation of Music in all phases. The Foundation Phase is the worst
affected, especially at schools without music specialists appointed for this
phase. The main reason for this is that generalist teachers have to share
equipment and use crowded classrooms, whereas many music specialists have
music equipment readily available in separate venues.
4.3.1.2
The B Section of the interview: profiles of teachers
In the B section of the interview, information was gathered regarding the training
of teachers and their specialisation in one or more of the discrete art forms.
Teachers also indicated which Arts they were required to present at the school.
•
Training of teachers
Respondents were asked to state their level of training. The results are shown
in figure 4.3.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Training
College
diplomas
University
degrees
Postgraduate
degrees
39%
20%
23%
Figure 4.3: Training of teachers
It is notable to report that all the teachers interviewed in this research have
tertiary qualifications. Of the respondents, 39% have been trained at former
Colleges of Education, while the rest are all graduates from one of the South
African universities. More than half of the graduate teachers also indicated that
they have postgraduate degrees, some even having more than one. This adds
up to a total of 23% of all the teachers interviewed being qualified at
postgraduate level, which reinforces the issue that the sample chosen was that
of best scenarios regarding Arts practices in South African primary schools.
Interviewees were asked whether they were trained as generalist or specialist
teachers and also to describe their training and specialisation in the Arts. A wide
variety of training in various art forms was observed. The results are illustrated
in figure 4.4.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
37
Number of teachers
40
35
30
25
20
15
8
6
10
8
0
5
0
1
Music Specialist
Music specialist trained in 1 or 2 additional arts
Specialist in other art/s
Specialist in all 4 arts
Generalist
Figure 4.4: Specialist or generalist teachers
Of the total of 59 interviews conducted with Arts and Culture teachers, 37
respondents are music specialists, while six teachers are music specialists also
trained in one or two of the other art forms. Eight of the respondents are
specialists in non-musical art forms, and eight of the total sample include
generalist teachers with no training in any of the art forms. The most significant
aspect, however, is that none of the teachers interviewed has formal training in
all four of the discrete art forms. A teacher with a qualification and/or knowledge
in all four art forms is indeed a rarity, as noted by one teacher who attended an
in-service training course for Arts and Culture, presented in 2004:
At a course for Arts and Culture which I attended, there were 42
teachers all involved in presenting Arts and Culture at schools.
Only two of the 42 had knowledge of all four art forms; four had
knowledge of two of the Arts while the rest of the teachers, that
means 36 out of 42, had absolutely no knowledge whatsoever of
any of the four art forms! (Interview 62).
Apart from interviews with teachers involved in the Intersen phase, 21 teachers
were interviewed who implement Music and the Arts to learners in the
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Foundation Phase. Of these, five teachers are music specialists, appointed as
generalist class teachers.
•
Art forms presented by teachers
After scrutinising the training and specialisation of teachers, it was decided to
look at the discrete Arts or combination of Arts which individual teachers are
required to implement. The findings of this question resulted in a wide range of
scenarios. Every school seems to apply a different system, dependent on the
principal’s and other role-player’s views of the Arts as well as the appointment
of Arts specialist teachers. The following figure is a visual representation of the
data collected in this respect.
Number of teachers
25
20
15
10
5
0
Series1
Arts and
NonVisual Art
Music &
Culture
music arts Music only
only
Dance
integrated
only
21
15
7
9
11
Music &
Drama
Music,
Dance &
Drama
1
6
Figure 4.5: Art forms presented by teachers
Of the 59 teachers interviewed, the largest group represents 21 teachers who
are appointed to teach the total Arts and Culture learning area, integrating all
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
four art forms. However, not one of these teachers has formal training in all four
of the art forms. Of this group of teachers, 15 have formal training in one of the
Arts, eleven of whom are music specialists. The six remaining teachers in this
group required to teach the learning area Arts and Culture have no training in
any of the Arts.
The second largest group in figure 4.5 indicates that 15 teachers present Visual
Art only. Another seven teachers present other non-music art forms (Drama and
Dance), while nine teachers are appointed to implement Music only. From
Figure 4.5 it becomes apparent that music specialists are often required to
integrate various other art forms in their lessons, while specialists in the other
art forms are less frequently required to integrate more than one art form in their
programmes. At six of the schools, the music teachers are required to include
three of the art forms (Music, Dance and Drama), while the other specialist
teachers at those schools deliver Visual Art only. Apart from the extra outcomes
and assessment standards which have to be included in the integrated Music
programme, this method places further demands on the development of
knowledge and skills of additional art forms for the music teacher.
Based on the findings in this study, it appears that music specialists are usually
more willing and better equipped than visual art specialists regarding the
integration and combination of art forms during Arts and Culture lessons.
The music teacher is often the best equipped to integrate all four
art forms. [...] At a course for Arts and Culture which I attended,
[...] the only six teachers with knowledge of more than one of the
Arts were all music specialists (Interview 62).
At two of the schools a disconcerting situation was observed, where teachers
without formal training in any of the Arts were appointed to implement this
learning area. It appears that principals and non Arts-trained teachers at these
schools regard the Arts as fields of general knowledge, enabling any teacher to
present them successfully. Less emphasis is placed on the unique and
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
additional artistic skills which the Arts require. Skills are seen in relation to the
collection of information, reducing the Arts to theoretical subjects. A principal at
one school commented on the issue as follows:
Instead of accepting that the teacher is the only source of
knowledge, learners should now receive skills in how to attain
information themselves. Content is not so important nowadays.
Since content will continue to expand daily, especially with
computers and the enormous technological advancement of the
modern era, it is impossible to master all the knowledge. Learners
must rather know where to find this knowledge (Interview 55).
This view, however, fails to recognise the unique skills required in each of the
art forms. A teacher at another school, being a music specialist, reported on the
way that the principal and other teachers from that school view the Arts,
regarding the level of expertise and skill required:
It is mere ignorance of other role-payers, such as principals,
teachers, and parents, who think that Music and the Arts are nonskilled subjects which can be taught by anyone, and which don’t
require a lot of effort and knowledge. This makes one a frustrated
teacher. During the past week I was asked to invigilate for three
days in a row, because other teachers think we [music and art
teachers] do nothing. The result is that I am far behind schedule
for all the activities which I planned for my Music classes
(Interview 60).
At yet another school, a music specialist teacher is responsible for co-ordinating
the Arts and Culture learning area for the Intersen phase, yet all the teachers
delivering the classes are generalists with no training in any of the Arts. This
also raises concerns, since quality Arts programmes require a high level of
knowledge and skill from the teacher presenting the lesson.
4.3.1.3
The C Section of the interview: time allocation in Arts and
Culture
The next aspect of interest was to find out how individual schools allocate time
to the learning area Arts and Culture. There is a disconcerting trend in
4-17
Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
integrated arts curricula which allows for assessment standards to be attained
“across and within the learning outcomes” (South Africa. Department of
Education, 2002b, p. 7), resulting in some schools avoiding to include Music in
the time-table throughout the year (Watson & Forrest, 2005, p. 274). According
to the Overview of the National Curriculum Statement (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2002a, pp. 17-18), the notional time for all learning
areas has been allocated into specific hours for each phase. Table 4.3 below
translates the total time per week allocated to each phase into the exact number
of minutes.
Table 4.3: Total time per week allocated for all learning activities
Phase
Foundation
Phase
Intermediate
Phase
Senior
Phase
•
Grade
Total Time per week
Total minutes
22 hours, 30 minutes
1350 minutes
3
25 hours
1500 minutes
4, 5 and 6
26 hours, 30 minutes
1590 minutes
7
26 hours, 30 minutes
1590 minutes
8 and 9
27 hours, 30 minutes
1650 minutes
R, 1 and 2
Time allocation for learning programmes in the Foundation Phase
The Foundation Phase consists of three learning programmes, each with a
specific time allocated per week. These learning programmes are Literacy,
Numeracy and Life Skills. The following pie chart, figure 4.6, illustrates the
prescribed percentage of time allocated to each learning programme in the
Foundation Phase.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Time allocation for learning programmes in the FP
Life Skills
25%
Literacy
40%
Numeracy
35%
Figure 4.6: Time
allocation
for
all
learning
programmes
in
the
Foundation Phase
The learning programme Life Skills is divided into six learning areas which
include Arts and Culture. This implies that approximately 4% of the total time
available in the Foundation Phase is allocated to Music and the Arts. Although
literature emphasises the importance of exposure to Music and the Arts for
learners at a young age, concerning their holistic development as human
beings, a mere 4% of available time devoted to the Arts seems to be far below
the time necessary to nurture and develop artistic talents and benefits from the
Arts. As pointed out by clinical child psychologist Oliver James, there is plentiful
evidence that every person has an inborn skill of musicality and excellent
intonation abilities, depending on the amount of nurturing and musical stimulus
which is provided at a young age (2007, p. 52).
In table 4.4 the percentage and total number of minutes for Arts and Culture, as
required by the Overview of the National Curriculum Statement (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2002a, pp. 17-18), is indicated for the Foundation
Phase.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 4.4:
Official time allocation for Arts and Culture in the Foundation
Phase
Phase
Foundation
Phase
Grade
Time allocation for Arts & Culture per week
R, 1 and 2
4.16%
56.2 minutes
3
4.16%
62 minutes
Using the above table regarding time allocation for the learning area Arts and
Culture, feedback from the interviews was scrutinised to ascertain whether
adequate time was allocated to Music and the Arts in each school.
As previously mentioned, schools for this study were selected because of
reported best Arts practices in general, and mostly because a music specialist
was appointed at the school. Of the 39 schools visited, 21 teachers involved in
teaching learners of the Foundation Phase were interviewed. Responding to the
question of how much time the Foundation Phase of the school allocates to the
Arts per week, it became clear that schools in this study adopt one of two
systems for implementing Music and the Arts in the Foundation Phase. Twelve
of the schools have appointed specialist teachers solely responsible for the
Music Education of learners in the Foundation Phase, while the other nine
schools rely on the generalist class teachers to deliver Music and the other Arts.
There was a marked disparity between the time allocation given to Music and
the Arts in these two types of schools as can be seen in the circular chart in
figure 4.7.
Real time allocated to the Arts
at various schools
Schools with
generalist
teachers for
the Arts:
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Figure 4.7: Real time allocated to the Arts in the Foundation Phase
Where schools appoint specialists to teach Music Education separately, the
total time spent on the Arts far exceeds the official time of 56 minutes, with an
average of 80 minutes per week. In these schools, a specific period is
scheduled for each class to go to the music room or hall for their Music lesson,
while the other Arts are taught by another specialist, or by the general class
teacher.
At the nine schools where class teachers are responsible for presenting Music
and the Arts to learners in the Foundation Phase, an average of 42 minutes per
week is allocated to this learning area. Since five of the teachers in this group
were trained as specialists in Music Education and are currently appointed as
generalist teachers in the Foundation Phase, I wanted to find out whether that
made a significant difference to the amount of time they spent on Music.
However, the time allocation for Arts at these nine schools was fairly consistent,
all below the official time of 56 minutes as stipulated by the curriculum. To
aggravate the situation, the allocated time on the school timetable and the
actual time spent on Music Education at these schools do not always
correspond.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
A theme that permeated all the interviews with generalist teachers in the
Foundation Phase was that the curriculum placed an unrealistic number of
outcomes to be attained in each learning programme, with inadequate time
available to do so. Most teachers said that their teaching was in a state of
survival to try and attain all the necessary outcomes. Three of the teachers
pointed out that they were not able to fit in the required time for Arts every
week, since there are so many other curriculum demands to comply with. This
is clearly illustrated by the following three responses during interviews:
•
I find that it is very difficult as class teacher to integrate everything.
There are just too many other demands made by the curriculum. At
the end of the week, you realise that you have not attended to certain
aspects of the other learning programmes. The result is that the
Music period, which is scheduled for a Friday, is used to catch up on
other work. Even for me as a music specialist, it is very difficult to
integrate Music with the other learning programmes. If it is difficult for
me, I don’t know what other teachers without music training do. I think
that it just simply does not take place (Interview 20).
•
I admit that I’m not always doing the scheduled Music or Arts lesson,
since there is so much pressure to attend to other outcomes
(Interview 2).
•
As the curricular co-ordinator for the Foundation Phase at the school,
I plan the lessons for all the learning programmes in 4 week cycles.
Being a music specialist, I always include Music activities in the
planning. However, Music and the Arts are the “nice to haves” and
often just cannot take place because of a lack of time to do the
essential learning areas or “need to haves”. The generalist teachers
in the Foundation Phase lack knowledge and skills in the Arts. If I had
a choice, I would include Music every day, but there simply is not
enough time. Sometimes, a Music lesson will be included only once
every four weeks (Interview 7).
The results regarding time allocation for the Arts in the Foundation Phase imply
that many learners are grossly deprived concerning their Arts Education. A
further concern is that music specialists appointed as generalist teachers for the
Foundation Phase do not seem to spend enough time on Music or the Arts,
even though they have specialised training and have knowledge of how
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
important this learning area is for the holistic development of the learners. It
seems a pity that these teachers are not used to their maximum potential,
delivering Music lessons to all the learners of the specific grade they teach.
Additionally, time allocation within the Arts and Culture learning area in the
Foundation Phase was also compared to verify if an equal amount of time is
given to each of the four discrete art forms. The results are shown in figure 4.8
below.
Time allocated to each of the
art forms in the FP
Music
35%
Visual Art
47%
Dance
11%
Drama
8%
Figure 4.8: Time allocated to each of the art forms in the Foundation
Phase
From the above figure, it is clear that almost half of all the available time is
spent on Visual Art (47%), with a substantial percentage less, of only 35%, used
for Music. One generalist teacher made the following remark which sheds some
light on the inherent reasons for the above imbalance:
It is much more of a challenge to present a Music lesson than an
Art lesson. With an Art lesson, you discuss a few ideas and show
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
the learners an example and they get on with it, working
individually in a relatively calm environment, while it requires a lot
more planning and involvement from the teacher’s part to present
a Music lesson. You have to perform all the time, guiding the
learners what to do, and this all takes place in a far more restless
environment with a constant level of sound and noise
accompanying it (Interview 30).
From all the interviews, other reasons for the emphasis given to Visual Art and
less time for Music also emerged:
•
Generalist teachers find it more straightforward to implement Visual Art
lessons;
•
Visual Art lessons are more time consuming;
•
Schools do not utilise the expertise of music specialist teachers appointed
as general class teachers by involving them in the Music Education of other
classes in the Foundation Phase;
•
The lack of equipment such as a CD player and classroom instruments
discourage many class teachers from presenting Music lessons; and
•
Schools dedicate a specific period for Music every week in the Foundation
Phase only if there is a music specialist appointed solely for that purpose.
Although the data indicates that Visual Art receives far more attention and time
than the other Arts in the Foundation Phase, art specialists have their doubts
about the quality of Art activities presented by generalist teachers:
Art presented by non specialist teachers can be done, yet at a
price. It ends up being superficial without the integrity of each art
form and its unique requirements being attended to. Many
teachers without specialised training in Visual Art simply ask
learners to colour in or to redraw pictures shown to them, thereby
stifling any form of creativity or artistic talent (Interview 27).
As could be seen in figure 4.8, the two remaining art forms receive a very low
percentage of the total available time: 11% for Dance and 8% for Drama. The
reasons for this, deduced from the interviews, can be summarised as follows:
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
The former curriculum included only Visual Art and Music;
•
Generalist teachers have little or no training in Drama and/or Dance;
•
Many teachers feel that Drama should rather be incorporated with Literacy,
since there is significantly more time available for this learning programme
and Drama has the potential to enhance language lessons;
•
Only three of the 39 schools in the current study have Dance specialist
teachers appointed for this art form at their schools; and
•
The few teachers from this study regularly including Dance are mostly music
specialist teachers, who integrate Dance with Music activities.
The first part of the C section of the interview investigated time allocation for the
arts in the Foundation Phase. In the second part of this section, time allocation
for the higher grades in the primary school will be discussed.
•
Time allocation in the Intermediate and Senior Phases
In figure 4.9 below, a pie chart indicates the allocated notional time for all
learning areas in the Intersen Phase (Intermediate and Senior Phases), as
stipulated by the RNCS Overview document.
Time allocation for learning areas in the
Intermediate and Senior Phases
Languages
Mathematics
8%
8%
25%
8%
Natural Sciences
Social Sciences
Technology
8%
12%
18%
13%
Economic and Management Sciences
Life Orientation
Arts and Culture
Figure 4.9: Time allocation for learning areas in the Intermediate and
Senior Phases
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
As can be seen, Arts and Culture now comprise 8% of the total time available,
almost double that of the time allocated to the same learning area in the
Foundation Phase. Table 4.5 below translates the percentages allocated to Arts
and Culture for each grade into total minutes per week.
Table 4.5:
Official
time
allocation
for
Arts
and
Culture
in
the
Intermediate and Senior Phases
Phase
Intermediate
Grade
Time allocation for Arts & Culture per week
4, 5 and 6
8%
79.5 minutes
Senior
7
8%
79.5 minutes
Phase
8&9
8%
132 minutes
Phase
The data from interviews was examined to find out how much time each school
dedicated to the Arts and Culture learning area. The school where the most
time is allocated to the learning area Arts and Culture is of an average to low
socio-economic status. A total of 180 minutes per week per class is allocated to
the Arts. This is solely a consequence of the Arts and Culture teacher’s
dedication and excellent results through extra-mural activities. The positive
feedback from learners and parents drew the attention of the principal and led
to a change in the school’s time-table.
I also insisted that I get two double periods of 90 minutes for every
class, so in effect I got 180 minutes per class per week for Arts
and Culture. The school changed its system because there was
something happening in my classes. I was very excited when I
was able to teach only Arts and Culture. I then felt: ‘now I’m doing
what I’ve always wanted to do and what I’ve been trained for’
(Interview 4).
In two other schools visited, a highly inspiring and positive attitude regarding the
Arts was also observed. These schools each have three specialist teachers
appointed solely for the Arts. Each of these schools has a music specialist,
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
while the second teacher is either a music specialist or a drama specialist. The
third teacher implements a combination of two art forms, respectively
Music/Dance, or Drama/Dance. The average time spent on the Arts in these
two schools is 135 minutes per week, which far exceeds the approximately 80
minutes as stipulated by the curriculum policy. The other exceptional fact is that
these two schools are ordinary government schools, not private schools. As
most of the schools apart from four in this study are of an average to high socioeconomic status, this system would not be out of reach for most government
schools within this socio-economic group. Probing to find out what the reason is
why these schools allocate so much time to the Arts, teachers commented on
the crucial role of principals in this respect. Through their vision and mission for
their schools, the timetable can be altered to accommodate and implement a
highly effective Arts Education system to the benefit of all learners.
Additionally, time allocation within the Arts and Culture learning area was also
compared to verify if an equal amount of time is given to each of the four
discrete art forms. The results for the Intersen Phases are shown in figure 4.10.
Real time allocated to each of the four Arts
in the Intersen Phase
Music
27%
Visual Art
45%
Music
Drama
Dance
Visual Art
Dance
15%
Drama
14%
Figure 4.10: Real time allocated to each of the four Arts in the
Intermediate and Senior Phases
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
As is evident from the pie chart in figure 4.10, it is clear that Visual Art receives
almost half the total time allocated to the learning area Arts and Culture. This is
similar to the findings of the time allocation per art form in the Foundation
Phase. A further trend noticed here is that the 27% allocated to Music is even
less than that given in the Foundation Phase. Visual Art teachers stress the fact
that Visual Art activities take longer and that these activities focus more on
individual skill development. However, this does not justify the seemingly
common custom to allocate half the total time allocated for the learning area
Arts and Culture to Visual Art alone. This has negative consequences for Music
Education and the music specialist teacher:
One period of 30 minutes per week is totally insufficient for Music,
especially if Dance also has to be integrated. Visual Art in effect
gets double the number of periods and that just because they
[Visual Art teachers] say Arts activities take longer (Interview 1).
Since the new curriculum includes four art strands, an additional constraint is
placed on the available time. Instead of allocating more time to the four Arts, the
limited time which was available for two art forms in the past now has to be
divided between four art forms, resulting in only 2% of time available per art
form. Some schools where the Arts are viewed as important apply a unique
system. At one such a school where there are specialists in three of the Arts, an
equal amount of time is allocated to Music and Visual Art, adding an additional
time slot for Dance and Drama:
Historically there has always been Music and Art at all the
schools, but not Dance and Drama. To accommodate the four
strands of the Art forms at our school, we’ve included an extra
period where Dance and Drama is integrated (Interview 25).
On the other hand, some schools include additional programmes which take a
lot of emphasis and focus away from the Arts and Culture learning area. At a
number of primary schools in the Pretoria region, a kinaesthetic programme
called KDA (Kids Development Academy) is implemented. Where this is the
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
case, Arts and Culture teachers complain that this is the reason they don’t have
access to the hall for Music and Dance activities:
Previously we could use the hall for Music and Dancing activities,
but nowadays the hall is occupied the whole day by the KDA
programme (Interview 8).
Some schools regard the KDA programme as more important than Music or the
other Arts, directing funds and equipment to this programme to the detriment of
the Arts. A music specialist teacher for the Foundation Phase commented on
this as follows:
I am furious every time I return from the large and wonderfully
equipped room which used to be available for Music. This room is
now occupied by the KDA programme, and it has an excellent
sound system while I have to struggle with a small portable CD
player in the hall. Meanwhile, the KDA programme, which is not
even an official learning area or subject, receives preference,
money, equipment and a special teacher (Interview 17).
The teacher from interview 17 above is appointed as Music specialist at two
different schools where she is responsible for delivering Music Education in the
Foundation Phase. This is the only teacher working at more than one school
whom I’ve interviewed. She was concerned about the KDA programme at both
schools becoming more prominent and causing the Music programme to be
adversely affected:
At one of the other primary schools where I teach Music, they
wanted me to move to the sports pavilion since they needed the
hall for the KDA programme. I caused such a storm that they
simply had to give in and let me remain in the hall with my Music
lessons! If you don’t stand up for the rights of your discipline, the
majority will always expect you to survive on crumbs (Interview
17).
Other additional programmes often included by schools are chess and
computer classes for all the learners. Although these programmes have merit,
most Arts specialist teachers feel that this places more pressure on the limited
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
time available, leading to the neglecting of Music and the Arts. Additionally, the
influence of parents can be determinative when schools plan their programmes:
Parents are often impressed by these additional activities [KDA,
chess and computer classes], and feel that the choir is sufficient to
replace the formal Music Education of their children (Interview 7).
4.3.1.4
The D Section of the interview: Implementing Music as part of
the Arts and Culture learning area
The focus in Section D was to investigate how Music was implemented
successfully as part of the integrated Arts and Culture learning area. There was
also an open ended discussion at the end of each interview, allowing teachers
to express their opinions on various aspects of the Arts and Culture curriculum
and its implementation in schools.
4.3.1.4.1
D Section: Question 1 – The Value of Music
The first question in section D was: “Why do you think Music, as part of the
learning area Arts and Culture, is important in the school programme?” It was
noticeable that most Music specialist teachers had many valid reasons for why
they felt music is important. They spontaneously and eloquently described
numerous facets which have benefits for the learners. The following categories
emerged:
•
Development of an aesthetic sense, providing beauty
A music specialist teacher at a school in a disenfranchised community
described the role of music for the learners of the school:
There is an inner need for music within all people. At our school,
there is a high demand for music – I have a choir of 100 children!
Somewhere in their existence the learners need an uplifting
activity where they can feel good and belong to a group; to be part
of something beautiful. There is so much crime and violence. In
our school, the children really suffer – broken homes, financial
problems, etcetera. Children often come to school on empty
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
stomachs. [...] The music and choir give them something which
rises above all this, which has to do with beauty (Interview 46).
Other comments relating to the aesthetic value of music included the following:
I could not imagine that children should attend a school without
music. It makes learners aware of aesthetic values, of beautiful
things, and it brings them joy in the school. As the well-known
proverb says: ‘without music, life would be an error!’ (Interview
10).
Music is especially important for the aesthetic development of the
child. The other subjects ‘build the cupboards, but we put on the
varnish’. Children should learn the deeper dimension of living –
the beautiful things in life, the rounding off (Interview 37).
•
Self-expression, self-confidence
The following comments relate to the value of music in building self-confidence
and a means of self-expression in the learners:
Arts and Culture is never a competition – all take part and receive
acknowledgement for their efforts. During one theme in Arts and
Culture where learners had to draw self portraits and create songs
expressing themselves, I could see the development of their selfconfidence and of being aware that they are unique [...]. These
are moments when you realise that teaching is ‘great stuff!’
(Interview 4).
Music is important as a means for learners to express themselves.
[...] They also learn to express themselves emotionally. With Arts
education, the emphasis nowadays is on the process and not the
end product like in the past. The experience is what counts.
Therefore, you don’t have to be an ‘artist’ or ‘musician’ where
judgement is made subjectively on how artistic or musical the end
product is. It’s not about ‘can I be a brilliant artist’ but rather ‘can I
experience the arts’. They build confidence and all take part in
activities which would otherwise never have been part of their
experiences (Interview 31).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Music activities give the learners the opportunity to perform. I
often organise for my classes to perform group music activities on
stage during assemblies, and this gives them a tremendous
feeling of self-confidence. They feel that they get recognition for
their efforts (Interview 4).
•
Creativity, spontaneity
Music appears to be valuable in providing opportunities for learners to develop
their creativity. It also enhances spontaneous reactions and improvising
techniques, which are not usually included in other learning areas:
There is a great interest and need for creative activities. I find that
my classes are very active and noisy – this is so important for right
brain activity. Although most people would see this as disruptive, I
encourage learners to be spontaneous, to question everything, to
discuss why they make certain decisions (Interview 27).
Music influences the whole spectrum of a child’s total
development. It provides children with an opportunity to be
creative, and without developing creativity and improvisation
techniques in the music classroom, all the other subjects are
adversely affected (Interview 43).
•
Cultural awareness
A large number of teachers referred to music being an important vehicle in
developing an understanding and cultural awareness of all peoples, especially
important in the multicultural classrooms of contemporary South Africa.
Exposure to a wide palette of musics should happen early in the lives of
children, since this lays the foundation for them to become receptive to all kinds
of musical styles (Anderson & Campbell, 1989, pp. 3-4).
In the school visits of my research process, I often interviewed white teachers
educating black learners. These teachers all expressed their belief in the
inclusion of African as well as Western musics, as a means of developing an
appreciation and respect for all cultures. At one such a school the learners were
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
reported to react very positively towards Western Classical Music that was
played to them in class:
I have never come across learners in my class who react
negatively towards Western Classical music. I include all types of
music in class, but learners would often ask: ‘Sir, play us that
music, you know, it’s only music, they don’t sing!’ When I played
The Planets by Holst, for example, there was an almost holy
atmosphere and it was as if everybody just sighed in awe of
creation (Interview 4).
Although the curriculum places a high prominence on traditional African music,
there is a further need for the inclusion of Western Classical and folk music. The
following comments by teachers illustrate this:
Music is part of the general education process and enriches all
cultures. Since I always include folk songs, the children come into
contact with their history. When we sang the ‘Alibama’ song,
learners wanted to know what the word ‘Alibama’ means and
where it comes from. This gave rise to an interesting lesson on old
sailing ships (Interview 9).
Children are often not exposed to good quality music in their
homes. They mainly hear pop music and watch MTV, but do not
know basic classical works. They also do not even know the wellknown folk songs or folk dances of their own culture (Interview
16).
•
Recognition of musical talent
The recognition of talent is also regarded as an important aspect in Music
Education:
Many learners are very musical and this talent is not recognised or
developed. Parents can often not afford private tuition; therefore it
is essential that music forms a core part of the school programme
(Interview 11).
Music is a talent which children receive and which should be
developed, just as the talent in an athlete should be developed
(Interview 10).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Teamwork, co-operation and social skills
Numerous interviewees commented on the fact that music activities enhance
socialising skills. Since learners are engaged in interacting with each other and
are making music together, their collaboration skills are enhanced:
The traditional African culture is based on Ubuntu, and music is
ideal for co-operation and socialisation (Interview 8).
The arts is the one learning area where there is no right and
wrong, there, everybody’s opinion counts, tolerance, acceptance,
co-operation and caring is encouraged by being involved in arts
activities. It also promotes nation building in a natural, unforced
way (Interview 31).
•
Music as a part-time activity
Music provides learners with a worthwhile activity which they can participate in
after school hours, and for the rest of their lives:
Music is the only activity of your school days which you take with
you when leaving school. You cannot play rugby, hockey or
netball for the rest of your life, but you can always enjoy music
and take an active part in music-making (Interview 60).
•
Therapeutic benefits
Various comments made by teachers referred to the therapeutic benefits of
Music:
Music has therapeutic value and learners can express their
emotions. Right brain learners especially, suffering in the current
education system which focuses on left brain activities, can gain a
‘little place in the sun’ (Interview 15).
•
Music develops discipline and self-discipline
A significant number of interviewees observed the effect which Music Education
has on general discipline in a classroom and regarding the self-discipline of
individuals:
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The value of music lies in the fact that it teaches the children
discipline. I take the whole school for assembly singing practice in
the hall. Although I am alone, there is a lot of order and children
learn that everyone has to work together to create beauty.
Although music is a subject where there is a lot of freedom and
creativity, it also has a lot of discipline – these two things go hand
in hand (Interview 18).
Music [...] promotes an inner self-discipline; you have to be well
disciplined to be able to make music together as a group
(Interview 7).
•
Physical development and co-ordination
Teachers, especially those teaching Music to learners in the Foundation Phase,
remarked on the importance of Music Education relating to the physical
development of young learners:
Music is something which relates to all other disciplines. When
new concepts have to be understood, music activities provide a
physical link for learners to experience the concepts with their
bodies, moving from the concrete to the abstract. It involves the
whole body, developing large and small motor activities as well as
hand-eye co-ordination (Interview 47).
•
Music as a tool enhancing learning in other subjects
Various teachers commented on the importance of skills taught through Music
which could be transferred to other learning areas:
Music is integrated with language – sounds are taught through
music and learners’ perceptual discrimination is sharpened. To
discriminate between different syllables, learners have to be able
to feel the underlying rhythms. Music is part of the holistic
education for all learners (Interview 29).
Music develops various skills including listening, co-ordination,
perceptual development and problem solving techniques as
needed in Maths (Interview 7).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Music is vital for the development of listening skills in the
Foundation Phase. It helps them to learn to listen with
concentration (Interview 13).
•
Comments on the value of Music by non-specialist teachers
In contrast to all the above benefits of music described by music specialist
teachers, the comments of non-specialist music teachers were much shorter
but still significant. These comments typically consisted of only one sentence,
relating to music having a relaxing and calming effect on the learners. Nonspecialist teachers also claimed to regularly play music in the classroom while
the learners were doing work in other disciplines:
Music makes the learners relax (Interview 2).
Music brings fun into the school (Interview 12).
Music creates a calm atmosphere. I play music in the background
while learners are doing other activities for example Maths, and it
helps them to concentrate (Interview 53).
Yes, music is very important, but qualified teachers should be
appointed to teach it (Interview 6).
I play music of their own [learners’] choice softly in the background
when they are doing other activities. They usually bring popular
music and songs and I integrate that in the language lesson. The
children enjoy listening to the music while they are working
(Interview 56).
It is reassuring to note that the music specialists whom I interviewed all have
passionate beliefs about the value of Music in the education of children.
However, it is disconcerting that the underpinning philosophy and knowledge of
the value of Music Education is fairly limited when taught by non-specialist
teachers.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
4.3.1.4.2
D Section: Question 2 – Arts and Culture as an integrated
learning area in the new curriculum
The following questions in section D all related to Music as being part of an
integrated curriculum. Teachers were asked what they regarded as the
advantages and disadvantages of an integrated learning area for Arts and
Culture. The responses of teachers were very diverse, ranging from optimism
and enthusiasm to the other end of the spectrum of being despondent and
discouraged. The following categories could be identified.
•
An official term and learning area for the Arts
Many teachers commented on the positive aspects of having an official and
national curriculum for the Arts, as well as an internationally recognised term for
Music Education.
It is important that we now have an official learning area which
receives recognition. At last, Music Education is referred to as
‘Music’, in comparison to previous terms like ‘class singing’ or
‘school music’ which made other teachers look down on our
subject (Interview 1).
•
A holistic approach towards education
At two schools where various specialists are appointed for the Arts, team
teaching takes place. The teachers at these schools regard the Arts and Culture
learning area as vital in providing the learners with a holistic education, as can
be derived from the following comment:
An integrated learning area allows for different disciplines to
influence one another and provide the learners with a holistic
education. But, to work well, it does require extra time and effort
for teachers involved in the Arts. It’s the attitude of the teacher that
makes the difference. We do team teaching at our school; one
teacher does the Art, I do Music and Dancing, and there’s another
teacher for Drama. We swap classes and plan the themes
together. We get together for one hour per week where all the
teachers sit and plan the following week’s activities (Interview 33).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Integrating the arts is valuable in relating different disciplines into
a whole. Learners see that everything is part of a larger picture.
The arts link to all the other learning areas and enrich them
(Interview 14).
•
Challenges and constraints of the new curriculum
The integrated Arts curriculum places extra demands on the teachers, whether
it is presented by various specialists or by one educator. There are varying
opinions regarding the integrated curriculum for Arts. A principal at one of the
schools reported on the integrated Arts and Culture learning area and the
demands placed on teachers as follows:
Arts and Culture is the learning area which has taken the biggest
strain in paradigm shift in terms of the new curriculum. There is a
dire need for Arts and Culture teachers to go on in-service training
courses. In the other learning areas, for example Maths and
English, the basic teaching skills have stayed the same, but in
Arts and Culture there is a total shift in teaching skills (Interview
57).
Teachers expressed similar views when asked about how they experience the
integrated Arts learning area:
Even if I don’t agree with it, the new curriculum demands
integration. It was a tremendous shock to get used to – we were
simply informed that we had to change our whole method of
teaching overnight. Especially the Visual Arts teachers are not
equipped to integrate Music. At the moment, Music decays into
becoming background music while learners are doing Visual Art
(Interview 8).
Many non-specialist teachers feel inhibited about their own artistic and musical
abilities, and share the common view that Music and the Arts are reserved for
the talented few. Almost all the generalist teachers interviewed expressed
feelings of frustration and inadequacy if they have no training in one or more of
the art forms, especially their lack of Music skills and knowledge. This is
underlined by the opinion of a Music specialist teacher who also has training in
Visual Art and Drama:
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
It will depend on us as Music teachers if Arts and Culture will die
or survive. I don’t think that any of the other Arts would have
worked if Music was not the core. In the first instance, I think nonspecialist teachers are afraid of Arts and Culture, they feel
insecure in the learning area and the reasons for this are that they
lack experience, background, knowledge and skills in all four of
the Arts – it is either insufficient or it does not exist. Secondly, the
learning area places high demands: large groups of learners for
physical and practical participation is tough in terms of space,
discipline and noise. There is always a lot of noise in my
classroom, but yet it is disciplined, it is ‘organised noise’. Learners
have to feel and experience the sound through their whole beings
so that they give all their emotions and sing and dance for life or
death! (Interview 4).
The same teacher commented on the difficulty of including four discrete art
forms into one learning area:
It is an enormous challenge to integrate four art forms into one
learning area. If I was forced to cut one art form from an integrated
Arts programme, it would be Drama, but that would not be
voluntarily! Drama is a huge component, but it could be very
effectively combined with languages, since so much more time is
allocated to language and literacy (Interview 4).
•
Specialist versus generalist to teach the arts
There is not consensus amongst teachers of whether the Arts should be
integrated and taught by one teacher, or whether it should be taught as discrete
and separate art forms. From the interviews it was clear that most teachers in
favour of an integrated Arts curriculum are generalist teachers with little or no
specialisation in the Arts.
Since I am not a specialist in any of the Arts, I prefer to teach the
Arts in an integrated way. I can combine aspects of a variety of
fields to make it interesting for the learners (Interview 6).
Only four specialist teachers were in favour of an integrated learning area
presented by one teacher, but three of these are teachers who have training or
experience in three of the four Arts. Furthermore, these teachers have visible
self-confident personalities; exerting a lot of energy. It would seem, then, that
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
having training in at least three of the art forms is a crucial element, as well as
being self-assured and energetic, to enhance the success of an integrated
implementation of the Arts.
Most of the teachers with specialist training in one or two of the Arts commented
on the fact that their level of training in the other art forms is not on the same
level. They have an inner integrity towards the Arts and sense the vast scope of
nuances which the Arts involve and how they lack in their own knowledge and
skills to implement these Arts to their full potential.
On the other hand, generalist teachers felt safer to teach integrated arts
programmes, since there was a variety of superficial knowledge and activities to
include, without needing depth in any of the Arts. Unfortunately, few schools are
able to appoint specialists in more than one art form. Apart from the financial
burden of such a practice, the availability of such specialised teachers is also a
problem. As one teacher noted:
The more specialists you get the better, a specialist is obviously
better than a ‘Jack of all trades’, but you have to make with what
you’ve got, you can’t always find ‘masters of all the trades’
(Interview 36).
Because of a lack of knowledge and insight into the unique demands of this
learning area, generalist teachers prefer to teach the Arts in a pot-pourri
fashion, randomly assembling different aspects of various Arts to make up a
‘lesson’. They appear to be oblivious of all the aspects which are neglected,
especially the practical skills and knowledge base of underlying elements in
each art form. As explained by a music specialist teacher who now has to teach
an integrated Arts curriculum, other generalist teachers who are forced to teach
Arts and Culture resort to the following method:
For them [generalist teachers], this is just one more aspect of an
already overloaded curriculum. Since they have no specialist Arts
training, they expect the learners to do most of the work
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
themselves, focusing on research projects which require little
effort on the teacher’s part. The learners are kept busy, and all the
teacher has to do is make some assessment at the end of each
group project. Very little active music-making or artistic
development takes place (Interview 8).
Teachers are often appointed to teach an integrated arts programme without
having a choice:
Unfortunately, teachers rarely have a choice in this – they have to
teach the learning area which the principal or school board
decides on. Generalist teachers are often forced to integrate the
Arts, whether having knowledge of the Arts or not (Interview 8).
•
In favour of specialists
Most of the specialist teachers interviewed felt that to provide integrity to each
of the art forms, specialists are needed. For example, to teach children the
inherent qualities of music, their ears have to be sensitised to become
aesthetically aware of sound. Only a specialist music teacher could develop real
musicality in children:
Where a non-specialist teacher could possibly let children just
make an undisciplined noise, it is something else to make musical
sounds. There is a well-known saying which states: ‘to play the
notes is one thing, but it is the pauses in between which make the
difference’ (Interview 25).
This view is aptly summarised by a Visual Art specialist teacher:
According to the curriculum, the Arts should be taught as a whole
– but to acknowledge the uniqueness of all the art forms,
specialists are needed to really give credit to each of the art forms.
To get results in an integrated curriculum where one teacher has
to teach all the art forms is debatable – it is doubtful whether
learners will really find the process meaningful and the end results
would be superficial. The Arts would end up being time-fillers
(Interview 27).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Views of teachers regarding the type of specialist training best suited
for an integrated Arts learning area
From the interviews it became evident that Music teachers are more often
required to integrate two or three of the art forms, while visual art teachers are
generally required to teach only Visual Art. Furthermore it was observed that
generalist teachers felt quite positive regarding the implementation of Visual Art.
They regarded the examples in textbooks, with clear instructions on how to
teach Arts activities, as sufficient to enable them to share the ideas with their
classes. Although it was regarded as time-consuming, most teachers,
presenting the total Arts and Culture learning area, made sure that they
included at least one Visual Art activity every week.
While generalist teachers experienced the Visual Art activities in their
classrooms as positive, the specialist Visual Art teachers with whom I
conducted interviews were concerned about the quality of the Arts activities
implemented by generalist teachers. According to them, the normal technique
implemented by a non art specialist would be to provide a picture or crafts work,
and then expect the learners to imitate it as closely to the original example as
possible. Other Visual Art activities in such classes often include colouring in,
with a lot of emphasis placed on guiding the learners not to ‘go over the lines’.
Although both the activities described above may be important regarding the
development of basic co-ordination skills, they are in direct opposition to the
creative and aesthetic aspects which are so important in all the Arts.
Many music specialists, on the other hand, have concerns about the quality of
the implementation of music, should Visual Art specialists be required to
implement it:
Especially the Visual Arts teachers are not equipped to integrate
Music. At the moment, Music decays into becoming background
music while learners are doing visual art (Interview 8).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Views of teachers concerning the solution for Arts education in future
Commenting on the ideal solution for the future of Arts education in South
African schools, most specialist teachers indicated that they would prefer to
teach the discipline they were trained in. They reported being confident, inspired
and motivated in their own discipline, working effectively and briskly while
assessing, and having creative and innovative ideas to include when planning
lessons. This all contributed to them experiencing feelings of success,
enjoyment and fulfilment regarding their profession. Many specialist teachers
view the appointment of two specialists at every school as the only solution to
ensure the success of the Arts and Culture learning area. The following
teachers support this view; also pointing out the negative side of such a system:
The ideal is that one qualified music teacher is appointed to teach
Music to the whole school in order to ensure continuity and
progression in the knowledge and skills of the learners. The same
would apply for Visual Art. The negative side of this, however, is
that you would be the first teacher to lose your post when jobs are
rationalised, since the Arts are considered as less important
(Interview 1).
In my opinion, two teachers need to be appointed at every school:
one for Music and the other for Visual Art. The Arts are too
specialised to be presented by one person. A teacher can easily
teach another subject without needing specialised knowledge. By
studying it from textbooks, it can be implemented. However, in
Music you need special skills and knowledge which you can’t be
quickly taught during a hasty, mini course (Interview 37).
4.3.1.4.3
D Section: Question 3 – Outcomes Based Education and group
work
For this question, teachers were asked how they experienced using an OBE
method in Music Education, as well as how group activities could be
successfully implemented. One teacher in the Intersen Phase was exceptionally
eloquent in this respect. She reported obtaining excellent results with group
work and outcomes based education in her Music classes. Her comment was:
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
When learners have to do individual work, for example giving
feedback to the class, they feel embarrassed and exposed. They
are less spontaneous and feel inhibited. In group work, however,
there is less pressure. I believe in the socio-constructivist theory
that learners have to build up their own knowledge as a group.
This works extremely well in a classroom situation. Learners
experience and learn about things when they start talking about
things. They hear what the other learners in the group say, and
they also hear what they themselves are saying about the topic. In
this way, they are reflecting on their own views and the report
back from others. This process refines their ideas. If a teacher
plans and directs group work well, there is nothing to compare
with it as an effective teaching tool. One should never tell a child
that something is right or wrong. Rather ask the class what they
think about a certain view instead of giving a verdict. The teacher
should not be the authority of knowledge, but rather the facilitator
who evokes reactions. Learners should be guided in the right
direction by asking the right questions. Always give a counterargument. This leads to negotiated knowledge. The learners’
creativity is smothered in its embryonic phase if you give all the
answers beforehand (Interview 15).
Some teachers in the Foundation Phase, however, felt more wary of using OBE
principles and group work in their classes:
A drawback of OBE is that we have to do group work. The Grade
1 learners in my class still quarrel often – they are more focused
on their individual needs, demanding the teacher’s full attention
when feedback is required. Therefore, I do not include group work
regularly in Music Education – it leads to chaos! (Interview 13).
It seems, thus, that group work for music activities requires more attention and
skills in teaching techniques, to enable teachers to cope with large groups of
young learners taking part in simultaneous music-making activities.
4.3.1.4.4
D Section: Question 4 – Music activities included during
lessons
Teachers were asked to describe their classroom activities for Music Education.
There was a marked difference between the activities described by music
specialists in relation to those described by generalist teachers.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Music activities included by music specialist teachers
Replies from those specialised in Music Education included a variety of music
skills and knowledge. For example:
I try to include instrumental activities often. I use a rotating system
which the learners know very well. Each learner in a group has a
number and they take turns in order for each child to get a turn on
a melodic instrument. It works well since they learn by watching
the others and improve their skills in this way (Interview 25).
Music Education is there to extend the learners’ general
knowledge about music which is relevant to them for the rest of
their lives. I teach the children all the tone colours of orchestral
and African instruments, so that they are able to identify them
aurally and visually. If someday they attend a church service and
an instrument is playing, I want them to be able to know what it is.
I build up their skills and knowledge sequentially, to extend their
understanding and experience of a wide scope of music styles as
each year progresses (Interview 37).
•
Music activities included by non-music specialist teachers
Teachers without experience or training in Music are at a loss in choosing
suitable music activities. They often resort to letting the learners bring their own
popular music to school for music activities. A Visual Art specialist teacher,
inexperienced in Music Education, describes a situation that caused
embarrassment on a large scale for her because of this method:
I did an activity where the learners had to bring music from home
and they mimed the text for a stage performance in Arts and
Culture. The learners practised in groups during lesson time, and
then we held a concert for all the parents. When one group started
to perform on stage, I got the shock of my life! The children did a
‘full blast’ Lincoln Park rock concert. I learnt the hard way that it is
vital to have a complete dress rehearsal before a performance. In
class, the learners brought the music and I looked at the text and
listened to their music on a small CD player. During the concert
performance on stage, however, they supplied their own special
lights, an enormous sound system and very skimpy, ‘sexy’
costumes, and then it was this terrible overpowering rock music! It
was totally different to what I had seen in class. Some parents
were so shocked and walked out, but others were on their feet,
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
cheering. Needless to say, the following day I was called to the
principal’s office (Interview 16).
•
Practical music-making versus theoretical knowledge in Music
Education
The inclusion of practical music making opportunities seems to feature
prominently at schools where there is a successful Music Education programme
as part of the learning area Arts and Culture. This corresponds with Elliott’s
praxial philosophy of Music Education. At these schools, teachers motivated
their practical methods by referring to benefits for the learners, such as
stimulating creativity through active music-making, as opposed to the emphasis
on knowledge and assessment projects often required from the curriculum.
They also noted that the element of joy was present during all active music
making experiences, an element which is not always part of a formal lesson.
There is a lot of joy taking place when learners make music and
learn by entertainment. [...] It is a pity that the element of joy is
often replaced by written assignments and research projects
which now forms a large part of the curriculum (Interview 5).
As can be deduced from the above statement, the curriculum requires a
significant component of research and written work. The positive aspect is that
cultural diversity is embraced, developing a wide knowledge base with empathy
for all cultural groups in South Africa. As mentioned previously, though, to really
appreciate, understand, and learn about music, learners need to be actively
involved in making music. Furthermore, there is a fair amount of skill required
from learners opting to choose music as one of their subjects for the FET phase
from Grade 10 to 12:
The curriculum requires that learners are able to improvise and
compose right from the start when they enter the specialised
Music subject of Grade 10. This can only happen if each child has
first acquired a secure skill on an instrument, and when they have
built up a musical vocabulary in the preceding grades. Without
regular music making activities presented by music specialists,
this is not possible (Interview 59).
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
The last question I asked the teachers was to name the music activity which the
learners enjoyed most during music lessons. Their responses are displayed in
figure 4.11.
Which music activities do learners enjoy most?
10%
3%
Playing instruments: 83%
4%
Singing: 4%
Listening: 3%
Movement: 10%
83%
Figure 4.11: Which activities do learners enjoy most?
All of the teachers named practical activities, while no mention was made of the
written assignments and portfolios which took up a large amount of time in the
overall programme. Only 3% of the respondents mentioned listening to music,
but a very high 83% of responses indicated that the most enjoyable activity for
learners was to play on instruments. However, during the informal
conversational style discussion at the end of each interview, I inquired which
activities were regular components of Music lessons, and only 13% of the
teachers responded that playing on instruments was frequently included.
Although other activities such as movement, singing and listening were less
favoured by learners, these received more emphasis during the presentation of
lessons for various reasons. As was already explained in section 4.3.1.1 of this
chapter, a lack of sufficient instruments, as well as the availability of these
instruments in both the Intersen Phase and especially the Foundation Phase,
probably account for the main reason why instrumental activities do not take
place on a regular basis.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
A second explanation which teachers offered was that they experienced
instrumental activities to cause disruptive behaviour from learners. This is
reason for concern, since instrumental activities are the ideal medium to actively
involve learners in music making experiences and implementing a praxial
philosophy towards Music Education. The grounds for this view might be that
teachers without training in Music Education might not have the skills to
orchestrate and coordinate instrumental activities. These activities should be
lively and energetic, but certainly not disruptive.
A third reason for few instrumental activities taking place was that it is very timeconsuming to hand out instruments and organise classes into groups for this
type of activity. Coupled with this is the limited time available for Music as part
of an integrated and crowded learning area. Furthermore, it is disconcerting that
so few opportunities for this highly enjoyable activity are provided in the total
programme. Although many teachers commented on the frequency with which
learners were required to make their own instruments, few reported on
opportunities that were given to learners to actually play on these homemade
instruments. This also emphasises the lack of music making opportunities in
most classrooms, with far too much importance given to theoretical knowledge
and research projects which have little to do with acquiring musical performance
skills.
4.3.1.4.5
D Section: Open-ended discussion
Other problems which I did not foresee at the outset of this study, but which
emerged during the open-ended section of the interviews, were the lack of
quality Music Education in the Foundation Phase as well as KDA programmes
invading primary schools.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
The lack of quality Music Education in the Foundation Phase
An aspect which I initially did not want to make part of the study was to
interview teachers in the Foundation Phase. Having trained student teachers in
the Foundation Phase for the past decade, and visiting their lessons during
teaching practice sessions, I was convinced that they were coping well and
contributing to the musical well-being of all learners in their classes. Many of the
music specialist students at the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, are
in the Foundation Phase, and are well trained with a sound base of music skills,
music knowledge and practical teaching skills to cope with large classes of
learners making music. However, after contacting some former students and
interviewing them, I realised that there was an underlying problem regarding the
implementation of Music Education in the Foundation Phase. These skilled
music teachers did not receive the opportunity to serve as music specialists to
the other learners of the Phase. There seems to be a strict rule that team
teaching may not take place in the Foundation Phase – every teacher is
required to teach only their own class, and no other, with no exchange for
certain specialised disciplines such as Music. Furthermore, the curriculum is
stacked with such a myriad of assessment standards which have to be attained
that very little if any time is left for Music and the Arts.
Anderson and Campbell (1989, p. 4) are of the opinion that older learners
(upper elementary, middle and secondary school) “are at a pivotal point in the
development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes toward music”. However, other
research states that learners of a much younger age are more receptive to
develop these skills and attitudes; in fact, it starts as early as in the womb
(Woodward, 2005, p. 249). The current research indicated that the inadequate
and inefficient implementation of Music in the Foundation Phase is a major
problem in the current educational system of South Africa. This has a
snowballing effect on Music Education in all the other phases, since the
average learner arrives in Grade 4 unable to imitate a note on pitch or to
discriminate between high and low sounds. Clinical tests at a pre-primary
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
school indicated that the average five year old could sing a note accurately on
pitch when asked to imitate the sound, and was also able to identify higher and
lower sounds (Interview 83). When the same clinical test was repeated with 911 year olds in the Intersen Phase at a primary school nearby, the average
learners were not able to perform these basic music skills. The Foundation
Phase lies in the middle of the ECD and Intersen Phases. One can only
conclude that ‘Somewhere in the middle is a muddle!’
It is a great deficiency that Music and the Arts do not have a
specific learning programme in the Foundation Phase. If there is
no specialised teacher to implement Music, it usually does not
take place. Music is often implemented as background music
while learners are doing other activities, with the result that there
is no practical participation in music-making for the learners
(Interview 5).
•
KDA programmes invading primary schools
Since many teachers in the Arts and Culture learning area commented on the
KDA programmes becoming a new trend at primary schools, I deemed it
necessary to inquire about this programme. The KDA or “Kids Development
Academy” started in the late 1990s and is creating programmes to “assist
parents and teachers in providing effective support to ensure that learners attain
their maximum potential” (KDA, 2008). This programme claims to focus on the
simultaneous development of the intellectual, physical, social, and emotional
potential of learners. Schools appoint KDA trained personnel to implement KDA
as an addition to the learning area Life Skills. Many teachers have reported that
learners in the Foundation Phase of their schools no longer have Music, since
the KDA programme takes preference. However, few teachers agree with this
practice (see pages 4-28 to 4-30 of this chapter).
In an interview with a KDA teacher, who trained as a specialist in Sport, she
described the KDA as a private organisation which provides a package deal to
schools. The school purchases the package and pays a specific monthly
amount per learner. The school then appoints a Sport specialist to deliver the
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
programme, or alternatively, the class teachers can implement the programme
themselves. However, they need regular quarterly courses during which preplanned lessons are demonstrated which then have to be presented to the
learners during the next school term.
The whole school attends the KDA programme. Learners in the
Intersen Phase receive one lesson per week, while the learners in
the Foundation Phase attend two lessons. The Foundation Phase
teachers also attend the lessons and help with the assessment of
their learners (Interview 52).
A music specialist teacher commented as follows on the KDA programme:
Nowadays the KDA programme is promoted extensively, but all
the aspects which are claimed to be developed in the KDA
programme are inherently part of Music Education: through
playing on instruments and movement with music, children
develop big motor-skills, fine motor-skills and midline crossing.
Many pre-primary schools neglect big motor skills development,
starting to teach young children to read and write at far too young
an age. Schools boast about the reading skills of these learners,
but an important phase is skipped which later causes problems
and has to be rectified by additional programmes such as KDA. All
these problems could be avoided if Music Education programmes
with integrity form part of both pre-primary and primary schools
(Interview 37).
As already mentioned, the KDA programme has been specifically designed to
enhance Life Skills, one of the three broad learning Programmes in the
Foundation Phase. Life Skills is extended in the Life Orientation learning area in
the Intermediate, Senior and FET Phases. It seems that the educators involved
in the Life Skills and Life Orientation learning areas have promoted their
disciplines well. They have managed to influence policy makers as well as
principals and parents of schools to spend vast amounts of money to purchase
private packages and appoint teachers to implement these programmes on a
large scale. Furthermore, the learning area Life Orientation has been changed
to become one of eight compulsory subjects in the FET phase. On the other
end of the scale is Arts education, where funding is scarce and the appointing of
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
specialist teachers rare. If we want the discipline and the Arts as a unity to
survive, promotion on a large scale and in an organised fashion is needed.
4.3.2
Interviews with lecturers from universities
A total of nine interviews were conducted with lecturers from various universities
in South Africa. These were informal discussions, whereby I inquired about the
general training of students in Music Education, as well as if any integrated arts
programmes were offered. From these interviews, it became clear that there is
no co-ordinated system of student training for Music Education in South Africa.
All universities decide on their own programmes, some including aspects of an
integrated arts programme, while others have retained Music Education
programmes as it used to be for the last decade.
A significant influence on student training programmes was that all Colleges of
Education of the former dispensation were amalgamated with universities. This
caused several changes, for example the number of lecturers appointed at the
former Colleges of Education was drastically reduced. Table 4.5 (Van Aswegen
& Vermeulen, 2008, p. 11) illustrates how the number of full time lecturers at the
Onderwyskollege Pretoria has decreased since amalgamation with the
University of Pretoria.
Table 4.5:
Number of full time music lecturers of the Onderwyskollege
Pretoria [Teacher’s Training College, Pretoria] (1977-2001) in
comparison to the University of Pretoria (2002-2008).
Year
Number of lecturers
1977
21
1992
7
2002
3
2008
2
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
As can be seen, there were 21 full-time music lecturers appointed in 1977,
which decreased to seven lecturers in 1992. Since amalgamation with the
university in 2002, the number of lecturers has again been reduced to only three
lecturers, of whom only two remain at present.
The same trend could be found at all universities, where amalgamation of
colleges had taken place since 2002. Another factor impacting on the training of
teachers in Music Education is that changes at universities do not happen
rapidly. It is a long process for courses and modules to be accepted by SAQA.
Therefore, the changes in the curriculum were only gradually reflected in the
teacher training programmes, remaining an ongoing process. Furthermore, all
the lecturers whom I have interviewed commented on the fact that lecture time
for education students has been reduced. The effect of this strategy is that
courses have to be condensed, resulting in less time for the development of
practical skills.
Universities have implemented various methods to accommodate the new
integrated arts curriculum. Some universities focus on providing the education
students a broad overview of all the art forms, thereby including Music, Visual
Art, Dance and Drama, into one programme. The main focus in this type of
training is to find a means for the effective implementation of the total learning
area Arts and Culture by one teacher. In a telephone interview with a lecturer of
education students, she commented as follows:
I did exactly what the curriculum requires, planning lectures based
on the outcomes as stipulated in the RNCS. I realised afterwards
that the students delivered by this method, lacked in their level of
musicianship. I became conscious of the fact that the problem
does not lie in the method of training the students, the basic
problem lies in the curriculum itself (Interview 71).
Some universities remain focused on training Music Education students with a
high level of musicianship, which includes instrumental skills as well as
theoretical skills. In some courses, few if any aspects of the other art forms, as
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
required by the RNCS, are included. The most common trend is that Music
Education students are trained in Music as their main area of specialisation,
with some lectures devoted to an overview of the other arts, often culminating in
an integrated stage production which involves all four art forms.
Most of the universities in South Africa do not have Dance as an elective for
education students; therefore, specialists in this art form are usually trained in
private dance studios. Although Drama is offered at most of the universities in
South Africa, there is not a co-ordinated effort to include Drama lecturers in the
training of education students for the learning area Arts and Culture. Visual Art
departments have mostly retained the specialised nature of their courses,
focusing on Visual Arts in their courses with little or no integration of the other
arts.
The most important finding regarding the training of education students at
universities is that the majority of courses have remained focused on discrete
art forms. Most of the lecturers agree that to compensate on the quality of
training in a specialised art form such as Music, does not benefit the student to
cope with the demands of Music Education in schools. Although the University
of Pretoria introduced a BA Arts Education course directed towards training
students for the new integrated arts curriculum, this course was discontinued
due to the overloading of these students. (See Chapter 5, paragraph 5.7.4.)
Furthermore, it appears that Music Education lecturers are the most concerned
in providing their students with some training to involve Visual Art, Drama and
Dance. During the research, however, little evidence could be traced of Music
being integrated into non-music art programmes. A combined effort by all the
South African universities needs to be made to co-ordinate and restructure
education programmes in the Arts to deliver students able to cope with the
demands of the current teaching profession.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
4.3.3
Interviews with policy makers
In order to determine the view of policy makers regarding the implementation of
Music Education within an integrated learning area, I conducted interviews with
four policy makers, most of whom are subject advisors in Music, and First
Education Specialists (FESs) for the learning area Arts and Culture. Some of
these government officials are highly skilled and experts in Music Education.
However, this is not always the case. Some FESs have been appointed for the
Arts and Culture learning area without training in any one of the Arts.
During the informal discussions I held with individual policy makers, they all
agreed that the curriculum places high demands on the teachers. There is a
great advantage that the learning area is official and has to be assessed.
Furthermore, it is part of the eight key learning areas in the Intermediate and
Senior Phases. This gives the Arts staying power and an opportunity for
funding, since the ideal is that teachers are trained during in-service training
courses to gain the necessary skills in order to implement the learning area
effectively. Replying to my question of what was regarded as the advantages of
the RNCS, the following comment was given:
We have to make a mind shift, there was too much singing in the
old system in any case. The old system was definitely not highly
successful. The new curriculum, including music, has a lot more to
it. Singing activities should be linked to playing instruments or
using voices for other sounds, body percussion etc. The method
of ‘hear – do – see’ is still relevant and it should be kept in
perspective (Interview 73).
The main role of these specialists is to see that the curriculum is implemented in
all governmental schools in their district, and to ensure that quality programmes
are presented to learners in schools. Two methods are employed to achieve
this: one of these is to visit schools personally, and the other is to organise
regular cluster meetings in each district. During the cluster meetings,
information regarding the latest circulars concerning policies and documents of
the specific department of education is communicated to the teachers.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Teachers usually have to bring their portfolios and other lesson material to
these meetings. In the course of a meeting, teachers assess each other’s work,
thereby gaining insight into new ideas and alternative ways to implement the
curriculum. Cluster meetings are normally held once a term, varying the venue
to include different schools. An average of 15-20 teachers would attend, making
it more effective than visiting schools individually.
Although all the policy makers agree that the curriculum is not ideal and do
have problems regarding the integration of four different arts into one learning
area, they also commented on the attitude of teachers which should be
positively influenced. One interviewee mentioned a successful and humorous
tactic which he used during in-service training courses to evoke a reaction from
the teachers. The outrageousness of the first two statements make the teachers
realise that there are positive aspects to the demands of the new curriculum:
There are basically three options for any Arts and Culture teacher:
one is to resign and to become a beggar on the street corner; two
is to drink more tranquilisers or pills; and the third option is to
embrace it, to take what’s good with it, and to make it work. OBE
is dynamic. We have to look beyond the political motives of how
it’s been driven (Interview 73).
The general findings which could be deduced from these interviews are that the
most effective way to guarantee that the standard of teaching in Arts and
Culture is lifted in schools is through the planning, organising and providing of
in-service training courses for teachers. These in-service programmes are not
currently compulsory in all districts; however, to be effective, it should be
compulsory for all teachers of the learning area. It should also be planned and
implemented on a national scale for the most impact. Furthermore, there should
be more effective co-ordination between policy makers and universities, where
the training of future teachers take place. It is also disconcerting to note that not
all FESs are qualified in at least one of the arts – the ideal is that these
specialists are trained in more than one art form, and that they enrol for further
training at universities.
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
4.4
REVIEW OF ARTS AND CULTURE RESOURCES
As can be seen in figure 4.12, this is the final part of the data collection process,
focusing on resources available for the learning area Arts and Culture.
Literature review of various authors
Experiences of teachers in schools
Views of lecturers at universities
Specific
Problem:
Music
in an
integrated
Arts
curriculum
Views of policy makers
Review of Arts and Culture resources
Figure 4.12: Data collection process No 3
Since the new curriculum was implemented, resource material for Arts and
Culture flooded the commercial market. Loepp (1999, pp. 3-4) noted that
integrated curricula across disciplines are limited, often implying that teachers
have to design lesson material themselves, a very time-consuming process. An
urgent need for resource material was perceived when the new curriculum was
implemented. Many publishers entered the market with an array of learner
activity books as well as teacher guides. A few of these include: The Arts and
Culture today series (Amato, Carklin, Mtimkulu & Van der Mescht, 2005);
Shuters Arts and Culture (Clark, Hannaway, Steyn & Stielau, 2003); Kagiso Arts
& Culture (Dachs, Levine & Higgs, 2000); and Arts and Culture for the new
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
nation (Bezuidenhout, Cameron, Lolliot, Nhlumayo, Nxumbalo, Tiaden &
Wepener, 2004).
There are numerous positive aspects regarding these books:
•
The books are based on the RNCS, linking the assessment standards and
learning outcomes of the RNCS to the lesson material;
•
Books are compiled according to school grades, thereby providing teachers
with varying activities and outcomes for each grade;
•
The learning area is presented in one book, usually based on themes. Links
to all the arts are based on an overarching theme.
Unfortunately, there are problems regarding the quality of the lesson material
for each of the arts in most of the publications. General aspects which were
observed include:
•
All the arts are not treated equally. It seems to depend on the Art specialists
involved in compiling the books. Certain books emphasise Dance, while
others focus more on Visual Arts etc.
•
Many books lack quality regarding the intrinsic value of each art form,
thereby resulting in a mere ‘arts and crafts’ presentation. Arts and crafts
activities can be described as focusing on all learners copying the same
artefact, such as making a musical instrument or a mask. The aim is to
make an exact copy of the example given by the teacher. This does not
leave much scope for individual artistic interpretation and creativity. Although
these types of activities can be useful for generalist teachers who have no
knowledge or skill in any of the art forms, it is imperative that resource books
also provide activities unique and intrinsic to specific art forms to ensure the
integrity of discrete arts.
Regarding Music Education, the following aspects deserve attention:
•
None of the available series of Arts and Culture books include sound
recordings for listening or singing purposes. Some books refer to specific
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
compositions, but do not always mention the composer. Books also do not
refer to a relevant CD number or other source where the music soundtracks
might be found.
•
Songs are often not notated, only including the text. Without a sound
recording, this makes it very difficult for the teacher to be able to teach the
song to a class.
•
Some songs are notated, but no accompaniment is provided.
•
Some songs have been composed for inclusion in the book, but have a too
wide range or are often in a key which is too low for the age of the learners
and which would result in inaccurate singing.
Teachers have also commented on the value of these books for Music
Education, stating that:
It seems that the people who wrote the books have never stood in
front of a class and taught large groups of children themselves. It
is often unrealistic, with superficial links across the arts, making it
mere ‘arts and crafts’ activity books (Interview 47).
The study of available resource material for Arts and Culture, and specifically
for Music Education, revealed that, although a wide variety of books are
available commercially; these books rarely fulfil the need for quality arts
activities which presents the arts with integrity. The main concern is that no
sound recordings are available, a vital aspect of any quality Music Education
programme.
4.5
SUMMARY
In this chapter, the collection and analysing of the data was described, including
interviews with teachers; interviews with lecturers at universities involved with
the training of students in Music Education; and interviews with policy makers. I
also made a review of existing resource material to ascertain whether it is
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Implementing music in an integrated Arts curriculum for South African primary schools
sufficient to provide support for Arts and Culture teachers. In the subsequent
chapter I discuss the OBE (outcomes based education), the RNCS (Revised
National Curriculum Statement), and the whole-brain approach to teacher
training.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
CHAPTER 5
OBE, THE RNCS AND A WHOLE-BRAIN APPROACH TO
STUDENT TRAINING IN MUSIC EDUCATION
5.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter covers two main aspects. The first section focuses on outcomesbased education (OBE), the Revised National Curriculum Statement for Arts
and Culture (RNCS), and a whole-brain approach to learning. The second
section is an overview of the student training courses in Music Education at the
Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, which were designed with the
principles of the first section of this chapter in mind.
5.2
OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION
William Spady was the first scholar to introduce South Africa to a paradigm
change and the philosophy underlying outcomes-based education during the
1990s. Spady advocates OBE as an educational model rooted in a successful
system of many centuries old whereby people were trained as apprentices in
various trades (2008, p. 18). Apprentices remained in training until they
obtained the necessary skills to work independently, regardless of the time it
took to become successful in their trade.
The fundamental difference in the original manifestation of this approach as it
existed for centuries, and the current educational systems of the world, is that
time plays a vital role in modern society. It therefore cannot be assumed that
learners remain in schools until they achieve all the necessary outcomes.
Furthermore, the medieval system of apprenticeship focused on a single trade
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
for each apprentice, while modern society demands multi-skilled individuals,
also capable of high order abstract thinking skills.
While OBE has tremendous benefits for being learner-centred and for
stimulating creativity, it poses several difficulties and challenges in current
school systems, especially in a diverse society such as South Africa’s. There
have been numerous contentious debates and disputes concerning the
implementing of outcomes-based education (OBE) in South African schools
during the past few years. Joseph was already concerned about the effect of
OBE on Foundation Phase learners after the system was only applied for one
year (1999, pp. 203-205). Varying reports in research journals as well as in the
media that OBE is doomed for failure, have been published in the last year
(Olivier, 2008; Spady, 2008; J. van Niekerk, 2008; Western Cape Education
Department, 2008a).
Spady argues that the effectiveness of the OBE system in South Africa is
crippled by being “[bogged] down in micro content, assessments, marking, and
record-keeping – which advanced OBE implementers warn strongly against”.
He furthermore contends that it has deteriorated into various other practices
which misrepresent the innate qualities of an OBE approach to become Content
Based Outcomes (CBO), with a multitude of other distortions, for example
“Curriculum Based Outcomes, Content Bound Objectives, Calendar Based
Opportunities, Cellular Based Organization [sic], Contest Biased Orientations,
Convenience Based Operations, and Convention Bound Obsolescence” (2008,
p. 18). However, according to policy makers whom I have interviewed it seems
that OBE has come to stay and will not be replaced in the foreseeable future.
It is important to remember that OBE is not a curriculum; it is a method by which
the curriculum is implemented. What policy makers are proposing for relieving
the situation is that the quality of teacher education is raised and adapted for
the demands of OBE in school practice. A concerted effort also needs to be
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
made to train large numbers of teachers in the principles of OBE during INSET
courses.
According to Van der Horst and McDonald (2003, p. 5), outcomes-based
education is an approach that requires facilitators and learners to focus on:
•
the demonstration of learning, also known as the outcome;
•
the learning process; and
•
strategies by which the process and end result or outcome can be
assessed.
5.3
THE REVISED NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT
The Revised National Curriculum Statement or RNCS is constructed on the
above principles of OBE (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002b, p. 1).
In each learning area, there are underpinning learning outcomes as well as
assessment standards, directing knowledge and skills. To have a coordinated
and national curriculum for this country for the first time in history is indeed an
accomplishment to be celebrated. Another significant advantage is the fact that
Arts and Culture is a compulsory learning area in which all learners from Grade
R to Grade 9 are assessed.
Adeogun (2005, p. 2:49) points out that curriculum designs can be based on
three theories. These theories include essentialism, which focuses on essential
aspects for general education; encyclopaedism, which focuses on knowledge
permeating the curriculum; and pragmatism, where the curriculum is planned
around aspects which are important for living. The RNCS has a pragmatic
basis, striving to develop the full potential of each learner to become “confident
and independent, [...] multi-skilled, compassionate [...] and with the ability to
participate in society as a critical and active citizen” (South Africa. Department
of Education, 2002b, p. 3).
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Taking a closer view at the policy for the learning area Arts and Culture, it is
clear that the document is highly complex and sophisticated. Although the
learning area is nobly introduced as being an integral part of life, with inspiring
statements such as “embracing the spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional
aspects of human endeavour within society” (South Africa. Department of
Education, 2002b, p. 4), it fails to define the music skills and concepts clearly,
coherently and in a spiral development format, as suggested on page 8 of the
document. There are four encompassing learning outcomes for the Arts and
Culture learning area which are applied to all four art forms. However, these
learning outcomes are very vague and not specifically worded to imply that the
arts are involved. The four learning outcomes (LOs) for all four discrete art
forms of the RNCS (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002b, p. 6) are
displayed in table 5.1 below:
Table 5.1: Four learning outcomes of the RNCS
LO 1
Creating, Interpreting and Presenting
LO 2
Reflecting
LO 3
Participating and Collaborating
LO 4
Expressing and Communicating
The terms in these learning outcomes relate to all four art forms, without
referring to one of the arts in particular. Most of the outcomes can also be
attained by means of other learning areas. Creating, interpreting and presenting
can be very applicable and appropriate for language and literacy, since an
essay is a creative writing product, while interpreting could imply the
interpretation of text or a poem. Reflecting refers to cognitive activities such as
discussions, observations and comparisons, but can be applied in any other
discipline. Similarly, aspects such as participating, collaborating, expressing and
communicating are universal competencies applicable to all learning areas.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Considering the unique character of each discipline in the total curriculum,
however, made me realise that every discipline has a certain core characteristic
or essence. Mathematics, for example, is based on the core aspect of numbers,
and each of the assessment standards for that discipline focuses on the core
aspect, numbers (South Africa. Department of Education, 2003b, p. 9). As in the
original design of OBE for many centuries, the outcomes for the apprenticeship
of a trade focused on the skills required to become a master of that trade. This
mastery of the skill could not be achieved by general outcomes related to other
trades. For example, the outcomes for an apprentice carpenter were based on
the development of specific skills in order to become a master carpenter, or an
apprentice pilot today is trained with the outcome of obtaining specific skills
related to flying in order to become a master pilot. Should not the essential
outcomes for each art form be obtained by focusing on the specific skills and
unique qualities of that art form?
The core characteristic or essence of music is sound – without sound being an
inherent part of music lessons, and the emphasis being on learners actively
involved in making or listening to that sound, there is no real music taking place.
Dance, on the other hand, involves movement – without movement, there is no
dance. The same applies to all of the art forms.
Apart from the four overarching learning outcomes for all the Arts, the
curriculum includes assessment standards for each art form. These assessment
standards describe how learners should demonstrate their achievement of the
various learning outcomes. Regarding former syllabi and worldwide terminology
concerning Music Education, the terms used in the RNCS are new expressions
which have to be accommodated in the implementation of Music Education.
After close examination, however, it became clear to me that the descriptions of
the assessment standards in essence contain the basic building blocks of Music
Education as it has been interpreted for several decades, namely music
activities or skills, and music knowledge or concepts.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
I realised that a way had to be devised to include the unique aspects of music
and music making into the RNCS for Arts and Culture. In my view, a balanced
Music Education programme should contain music skills or activities to involve
learners in practical music making experiences. In addition, music concepts or
knowledge which learners should be exposed to and which they should
comprehend to contextualise their music making experiences, should also be
included. To try to reconcile these aspects with the RNCS, the Music Centred
Model (MCM) illustrated in figure 5.1 was designed.
Assessment
Standards:
Step 1: Music skills
Step 2: Music concepts
Learning
Outcomes
Step 3
Figure 5.1: Music Centred Model (MCM)
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
This model exemplifies the interrelationships between assessment standards
and learning outcomes. The assessment standards in the centre can be divided
into music concepts and music skills, visually represented by three concentric
circles placed around the centre. The four learning outcomes are represented in
the outer circle. The model is based on the idea that each circle is a movable
disk which can be rotated to connect with aspects from the following circle. In
this way, each of the music concepts can be focused on using each of the
different music skills, as well as being combined with each of the four learning
outcomes.
The RNCS as well as Spady (2008, p. 18) advocate that learning activities
should be planned from the “top down”, implying that one should start with the
learning outcomes in mind and then work downwards to the details of the
assessment standards. To apply this method of planning regarding the learning
outcomes of Arts and Culture presents a challenge, since the learning
outcomes for Arts and Culture are very broad and general and do not attend to
the unique qualities of each of the art forms. Furthermore, the first outcome for
the learning area Arts and Culture is creating. However, to create something is
on a high cognitive level, and for creative activities to be of any value, they need
to be preceded by building blocks to help the learner in this complex process.
Creating involves the synthesis of various elements to form something new.
Based on Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy formulated in 1956, Marzano (2001, p.
1) identified six levels of cognition, ordered from the simplest to the most
complex. I have combined and adapted these, resulting in the following six
levels of mental processing:
i. Retrieval of knowledge: remembering previously learned information;
ii. Comprehension: understanding the meaning of information;
iii. Application or utilisation of knowledge: using information appropriately in
different situations;
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
iv. Analysis: breaking down the information into the component parts and
seeing the relationships;
v. Synthesis or metacognition: putting the component parts together to form
new products and ideas; and
vi. Self-system thinking or evaluation: judging of an idea, a theory, or an
opinion, based on certain criteria.
As can be seen in the above list, synthesis, and therefore creating, is on the fifth
level of cognition. Before being able to create something of value, learners need
cognitive and practical skills in all the preceding levels of cognition, including
knowledge, comprehension, application and analysis. They should first be given
a musical ‘vocabulary’. This can be done, for example, by singing, playing,
listening and moving to a wide variety of rhythms, melodies, tone colours,
forms, etc. It therefore does not make educational sense to start with creating
as the first learning outcome.
It is suggested that the MCM model in figure 5.1 is used as a basis for planning
learning activities, where active involvement in music activities should be the
point of departure. Step 1 in planning lesson activities would be to start from the
music skills, the third disk from the centre of the MCM model. This implies that
the focus will be on music making skills – the main avenue through which music
can be experienced. Step 2 in the model would be to choose the music
concepts, thereby enriching the music making experiences. These are
displayed in the second disk from the centre, which in combination with the
music skills, form the assessment standards. Step 3 would be to choose the
broad learning outcome in the outer circle. Although the learning outcomes will
be attended to through various music making experiences, it should rather
follow a logical sequence in first focusing on the participating (LO 3) and
communicating (LO 4) outcomes before attempting the creating outcome (LO
1). Reflecting (LO 2) mostly refer to theoretical or verbal activities, and should
be integrated with music making activities in order for learners to comprehend
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
and understand the relationships of music elements, while being in the process
of making music. In this way, the theoretical knowledge contextualises the
practical aspects and stimulates higher order cognition. This method of planning
music lessons is then a method which is music centred and activity based.
The model in figure 5.1 could also be applied to the other art forms, since each
discrete art form has several innate skills and concepts unique to that art form.
It can be adapted to become a ‘Visual Art centred model’, a ‘Dance centred
model’, or a ‘Drama centred model’. Thereby, all the learning outcomes can be
attained, but in ways specifically focusing on the individual characteristics of
each art form.
5.4
ACTIVE MUSIC MAKING AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN
MUSIC EDUCATION
After the interview process of this research project, I again carefully scrutinised
the RNCS document to find motivation for the reason why so little active music
making and music skills development is observed in schools. Chris Klopper’s
study (2004) also reported that teachers often favoured emphasising positive
values and attitudes through the Arts and Culture learning area, spending very
little time on active music making and knowledge. Similarly, Clegg reports on
the same issues in a Namibian context (2007, p. 31). There is, however, a
discrepancy between what is implemented in school practice and what the
curriculum prescribes, since the RNCS unmistakably declares that it is activitybased (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002b, p. 1). It furthermore
refers to the term skills 23 times in the first ten pages of the document, with
multiple references to words and phrases such as performance, participation,
activities, activity-based, involvement in ensemble work, creating, and
developing artistic techniques, all of which are aspects of music making, active
participation and skill development.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
A regular occurrence regarding the interpretation of texts is that one document
can lead to a variety of interpretations. The reason for this is that “we do not see
things as they are, we see things as we are” (Bartex & Carre, 1985, p. 5). It can
therefore be assumed that there is an innate misunderstanding about the main
focus of the Arts and Culture learning area, which in essence promotes the
development of artistic skills in the first place. It follows then that the RNCS
needs urgent revision to clarify the aspects which cause so many
misunderstandings, especially concerning the music making opportunities which
are lacking in most of the programmes implemented.
5.5
MUSIC CONCEPTS IN THE RNCS
In order to effectively identify the specific music skills and concepts in the
RNCS, I compiled the following tables to give an overall impression of the total
spectrum and scope of what the curriculum expects of learners in each grade.
From each description of the assessment standard in the RNCS, I indicated the
appropriate music concepts for different grades ranging from Grade R to Grade
7. The first column indicates the appropriate grade, the learning outcome (LO),
as well as the page on which it can be found in the RNCS (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2002b). The middle column represents the
assessment standard (AS) as described in the RNCS document, usually
containing verbs which indicate the music activities, while the last column
indicates the music concepts which I deduced from the descriptions in the
assessment standards. At the end of all the tables (tables 5.1 – 5.8), I include a
table which points out certain music concepts which have been omitted in the
RNCS.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.2: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade R (Reception)
Grade
Grade R
LO 1
P13
Grade R
LO 2
P15
Grade R
LO 3
P16
LO 4
Grade R
P17
•
•
•
•
•
•
Assessment standards
Sings & moves creatively to children’s rhymes
available in own environment.
Responds in movement to a variety of rhythms
& tempo in sounds, songs & stories.
Imitates a variety of natural sounds in own
environment.
Distinguishes between talking and singing
voice.
Brings songs from home & shares with others.
Listens and moves creatively to music, stories,
songs and sounds.
Music concepts
Rhythm
Tempo
Pitch
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tone Colour:
Talking voice
Singing voice
Environmental sounds
Music Styles
Combination of various
concepts
Table 5.3: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 1
Grade
Grade 1
LO 1
P20
•
•
•
•
Grade 1
LO 2
P24
Grade 1
LO 3
P28
Grade 1
LO 4
P32
•
•
•
•
•
Assessment standards
Claps & stamps number rhythms and rhymes in
tempo.
Keeps a steady pulse while accompanying a
song.
Sings number and letter songs and rhymes.
Sings tunes rhythmically and at varying tempi
and levels of loudness.
Music concepts
Rhythm
Beat
Tempo
Loudness (dynamics)
•
•
•
•
Experiments with different sounds to
accompany fables and stories as sound effects.
Differentiates between high and low, long and
short, loud and soft sounds.
•
Participates in musical call and response games
and activities.
Plays rhythm, clapping, skipping and singing
games in pairs.
Uses own imagination and fantasy stories to
create sounds.
•
Pitch
High / low
• Rhythm
- Long / short
• Dynamics
- Loud / soft
-
•
•
Form:
call & response
Rhythm
Combination of various
concepts
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.4: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 2
Grade
Grade 2
LO 1
P21
•
•
Grade 2
LO 2
P25
•
•
Grade 2
LO 3
P29
Grade 2
LO 4
P33
•
•
Assessment standards
Demonstrates fundamental pulse and echoes
rhythms from the immediate environment
using body percussion, instrumental
percussion and movement.
Sings songs found in the immediate
environment.
Identifies and sings songs from different
situations and talks about them (e.g. working,
skipping, game songs).
Listens to and responds in movement to
walking, running and hopping notes in songs
from the immediate environment.
Echoes a rhythm by body percussion or by
playing on a percussion instrument to
accompany songs sung together.
Imitates natural and mechanical sounds to
create sound effects.
Music concepts
Pulse (Beat)
Rhythm
•
•
•
-
•
Rhythm
Walking notes (taa)
Running notes (ta-te)
Hopping notes
Rhythm
•
-
Tone colour
Natural sounds
Mechanical sounds
Table 5.5: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 3
Grade
LO 1
Grade 3
P21
•
•
LO 2
Grade 3
P25
•
•
LO 3
Grade 3
P29
LO 4
Grade 3
P33
•
•
•
Assessment standards
Demonstrates difference between running,
walking & skipping notes, and ascending and
descending order of notes.
Sings songs and makes music to express a
variety of ideas, feelings and moods.
Explains why tempo, duration and dynamics
have been used in songs and music to
express feelings and moods.
Listens to and graphically represents walking,
running and hopping notes in terms of low,
middle and high pitch.
Sings songs, rounds and canons in a choir to
express feelings and moods.
Walks, runs, skips and sways to the pulse of
songs fellow learners are singing and the
music they are listening to.
Uses tempo, repetition and dynamics to
create mood and evoke feelings through
music.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Music concepts
Rhythm
- Walking notes (taa)
- Running notes (ta-te)
- Skipping notes (ta-efe)
Pitch:
- ascending/descending
Mood
Tempo
Rhythm (duration)
Dynamics
Mood
Pitch:
- Low / middle / high
Form:
- Round (Canon)
Rhythm
- Walking notes (taa)
- Running notes (ta-te)
- Skipping notes (ta-efe)
Mood
Pulse (Beat)
Tempo
Form
- Repetition
Dynamics
Mood
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.6: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 4
Grade
Grade 4
LO 1
P44
•
•
•
Assessment standards
Uses voice, body, found/made instruments
related to walking, running and skipping note
values in order to explore rhythms and create
sound pictures.
Composes short rhythmic pattern with
crotchet & minim notes & rests, using body
percussion.
Makes wind instruments, e.g. Kazoo,
Tshikona / Dinaka pipes or percussion
instruments, e.g. shakers.
Music concepts
• Rhythm:
- Walking notes (taa)
- Running notes (ta-te)
- Skipping notes (ta-efe)
- Crotchet notes & rests
- Minim notes & rests
• Tone colour:
- Kazoo
- Tshikona
- Dinaka pipes
- Percussion instruments
Grade 4
LO 2
P53
•
•
•
Recognises crotchet & minims notes & rests.
Recognises time-signatures in 4/4, 3/4.
Listens & identifies music instruments
according to appearance, name, sound
production, timbre & pitch classification.
•
Grade 4
LO 3
P56
•
Sings / plays canons, rounds & two part songs
with other learners, using natural
manufactured and found instruments.
Plays simple wind instruments, such as a
Kazoo or Tshikona / Dinaka pipes or
percussion instruments such as shakers in
harmony with others.
•
•
Grade 4
LO 4
P62
•
•
Uses voice, body percussion, natural, found
or made instruments to accompany stories,
dances & songs.
Uses sounds in a free rhythm to build up
sound pictures to accompany stories or
dances.
Rhythm:
Crotchet notes & rests
Minim notes & rests
• Pulse (Beat):
- 4/4 time (march)
- 3/4 time (waltz)
• Tone colour:
- Identify instruments
• Pitch:
- High/low instruments
-
Form:
Round (Canon)
Two-part songs
Tone Colour:
- Kazoo
- Tshikona
- Dinaka pipes
Harmony
Rhythm
- Free rhythm
Style:
- Sound pictures
(Programme music)
-
•
•
•
•
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.7: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 5
Grade
Grade 5
LO 1
P45
•
•
•
•
Grade 5
LO 2
P53
•
•
•
•
Grade 5
LO 3
P57
•
•
Assessment standards
Recognises, repeats & creates rhythms &
poly-rhythms using body percussion & natural
instruments.
Composes rhythmic patterns with crotchet &
minim notes & rests, as well as quaver notes
& rests, using body percussion.
Improvises & creates music using repetition,
accent, call & response.
Sings songs in long 3/4 & normal triplet 3/8.
•
•
•
Recognises letter names of notes on lines &
spaces on treble staff.
Recognises crotchet, minim & quaver notes
values in short melody (see Grade 5, LO 1).
Recognises different timbres of voices in
choral music.
Listens & identifies genres: Traditional,
Kwaito, Free-Kiba, Malombo, Kwasa-Kwasa,
Soukous, Classical, Opera, Musicals, Blues,
Pop, Techno.
•
Sings and plays an instrument in a group with
the appropriate rhythm, pitch and dynamics in
any genre of music.
Combines a number of melorhythm
instruments (drums, marimba) to create
textural blend.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Grade 5
LO 4
P63
•
•
•
Identifies & sings songs from different
societies, cultures and contexts that seem to
communicate the same idea.
Uses own compositions of poetry and song to
draw attention to current social and
environmental issues.
Communicates a musical intention using the
interface of pitch-based harmony
(mellophony) instruments.
Music concepts
Rhythm:
- poly-rhythm
- crotchet (taa)
- quaver (ta-te)
Pulse:
- Long 3/4 (slow waltz)
- normal triplet 3/8 (waltz)
- accent
Form:
- repetition
- call & response
Pitch:
- Letter names on treble staff
- Melody (rhythm and pitch)
- Rhythm:
- Crotchet, minim, quaver
- Tone colour, vocal:
- Soprano, alto, tenor, bass.
Style / Genres:
- Traditional (Folk music)
- Kwaito
- Free-Kiba
- Malombo
- Kwasa-Kwasa
- Soukous
- Classical
- Opera
- Musicals
- Blues
- Pop
- Techno
Rhythm
Pitch
Dynamics
Tone colour:
- Melorhythm instruments
(drums, marimba)
Texture
- Textural blend
•
Pitch
Mellophony
(Pitch-based harmony)
• Harmony
- Mellophony
(Pitch-based harmony)
-
5-14
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.8: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 6
Grade
Grade 6
LO 1
P45
•
•
•
•
•
Grade 6
LO 2
P53
•
•
Grade 6
LO 3
P57
•
Grade 6
LO 4
P63
•
Assessment standards
Focuses on music from a variety of South
African forms [genres, styles].
Improvises and creates music phrases with
voice and/or instruments that explore
dynamics, articulation, pitch and rhythmic
patterns.
Plays simple rhythmic patterns on a drum or
equivalent.
Explores and uses drum hand techniques,
such as base slap, open slap, muffle.
Reads and sings or plays the scale and simple
melodies in C major.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Listens to and discusses the use of repetition
as an organising principle in African music.
Selects a repertoire of songs that are used in
various cultural environments, describes what
cultural events they are drawn from, explains
what the message of the lyrical content is and
what the songs are used for.
•
Sings and/or plays in a group: canons, rounds
and two-part songs from at least three cultural
traditions in SA.
•
Researches, creates and presents music that
conveys and suggests the symbolism of ritual.
•
Music concepts
Style
- South African folk music
Dynamics
Tone colour
Articulation
Pitch
Rhythm
- rhythmic patterns
Pitch:
- Scale
- C major
- Melody
(pitch and rhythm)
Form:
- Repetition
Style:
- African music
- Various cultures
- Lyrical
Form:
Round (Canon)
• Harmony
- Two part songs
• Style:
- Various cultures in SA
• Style:
- symbolism
- ritual
-
5-15
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.9: LOs, ASs and music concepts for Grade 7
Grade
Grade 7
LO 1
P74
•
•
•
•
Grade 7
LO 2
P82
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Grade 7
LO 3
P88
•
•
•
Grade 7
LO 4
P92
•
Assessment standards
Forms rhythmic sentences combining and
mixing different drumming techniques and
percussion patterns.
Improvises and creates music phrases using
concepts such as mood, form and contrast.
Reads and sings or plays the scales and
simple melodies in G major.
Composes music, songs or jingles about
human rights issues or to accompany a
performance or presentation about human
rights.
Classifies African instruments in terms of
ideophones (sic), chordophones,
membranophones, aerophones and Western
instruments according to strings, woodwinds,
brass and percussion.
Discusses any of the following types of
instrument in terms of shape, materials used,
type of sound, how it is played, what makes the
sound.
Drums – made of wood, gourds or clay – to
show the different membranes that are made
of cow, goat or donkey hides;
Percussion instruments – rattles, bells, clap
sticks, slit gongs, mbiras, xylophones,
kalimbas, likembes, lamellaphones.
Stringed instruments – musical bows, lutes,
lyres, harps, zithers, koras, xalams;
Wind instruments – flutes made from bamboo,
reeds, wood, clay and bones.
Trumpets made of animal horns and wood.
Clarinets from the Savannah region made of
guinea-corn or sorghum stems.
Flugelhorn, saxophones and guitars.
Sings and/or plays South African songs from
various cultures with appropriate rhythm,
tempo and dynamics.
Creates suitable melodic or non-melodic
accompaniment for any South African folk
song, anthem or melody.
Investigates and explains the purpose, function
and role of different instruments used in
indigenous, traditional or Western forms of
music in South Africa.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Music concepts
Rhythm:
- Rhythmic sentences
Form
- Phrase
- Contrast
Mood
Pitch:
- Melody
- Scale
- G major
Style / Genre:
- Jingle
Tone colour
Instruments can be divided
according to two different
categories.
Category A:
- Ideophones (sic)
- Chordophones
- Membranophones
- Aerophones
Category B:
- Strings
- Woodwinds
- Brass wind
- Percussion
Style:
- African
- Western
Style:
various South African
cultures
Rhythm
Tempo
Dynamics
Pitch:
- Melodic
- Non-melodic
Style:
- Function, context of
instrument use in different
cultures
-
•
•
•
•
•
5-16
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.10 offers an overview of all the music concepts in the RNCS. The left
column contains eleven basic music concepts. The middle column represents
aspects of that concept which are included in the RNCS, while the right column
refers to aspects of each concept which are omitted in the RNCS.
Table 5.10: Aspects of music concepts included and omitted in the RNCS
1
Music concept
Pulse (Beat)
2
Rhythm
3
Pitch
Melody
4
Form
Aspects included
• Grade 4: 4/4,3/4
• Grade 5: long 3/4, normal
3/8 (triplet)
The terms “long”, “normal”, and
“triplet” are confusing, since the
common use of triple time is
usually 3/4. A triplet indicates 3
notes taking place in the time of
2 notes of the same value.
• Grade 9: 5/4 7/4, 12/8
• Walking notes, running
notes, hopping notes,
skipping notes
• Crotchet, minim, quaver
notes & rests
• Polyrhythm
• High / low
• Ascending / descending
• Grade 5: Letter names:
treble staff
• Major scale
• Grade 6: C maj
• Grade 7: G maj
• Grade 8: F maj
• Grade 9: Key signatures up
to 3 sharps and 3 flats
• Repetition
• Call & response (basic
African form)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aspects omitted
Beat / no beat
Regular / irregular
March / Waltz
Simple / compound time
Semiquavers (tafa-tefe)
Dotted rhythms (irregular),
although this is experienced
as skipping notes in Grade 3
Syncopated rhythms
•
•
Steps / leaps
Minor/other scales e.g. the
pentatonic scale and the
‘blues’ scale
•
•
•
•
•
Contrast / Repetition
AB
ABA
Rondo
Theme & variation
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Music concept
Aspects included
Aspects omitted
5
Harmony
• Harmony
There is a discrepancy between
the African and Western view of
harmony. To “play simple wind
instruments” or “percussion
instruments such as shakers in
harmony with others” (Grade 4,
p. 56) imply an African music
concept which combines nonmelodic and melodic
instruments. In Western music,
harmony implies melodic
instruments only.
• Pitch-based harmony
An African music term, referred
to as mellophony (Grade 5, p.
63).
•
•
•
•
Unison
Part-singing
Unaccompanied melody
Accompanied by chords =
harmony
6
Tempo
•
Fast / slow
•
Faster / slower
7
Dynamics
•
Loud / soft
•
Louder / softer
8
Tone colour
•
Grade 7: classification of
African and Western
instruments
•
Violin
9
Articulation
•
Staccato / Legato
10
Texture
•
•
Textural blend
Grade 8: Polyphony
•
11
Mood
•
Mood, feelings
12
Style
•
•
•
Different cultures, genres
Many African styles
Few Western genres, e.g.
opera, musicals
Blues, Jazz
Unaccompanied melody
(monophony)
Homophony
A wider scope of terms
associated with mood is
necessary. This concept is
often included, but without
general guidelines on how to
determine the mood involving
various other music
concepts.
Western styles, e.g. Baroque,
Classical, Romantic,
Impressionism,
Contemporary
Absolute music
Programme music (Grade 4
learners are expected to
create programme music, but
no reference is made to
examples by composers)
•
•
•
•
•
•
From the above tables it can be deduced that music concepts were randomly
included in the various grades, without a clearly planned progression and spiral
development. This causes a discrepancy between what the RNCS document
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
propagates in the subject policy, and what is prescribed in the assessment
standards. Although the curriculum suggests a spiral development of skills and
concepts (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002b, p. 8), there is a lack of
clear progression from one grade to the next. It is also a matter of concern that
so many aspects of the various concepts are omitted from the overall curriculum
for Music Education.
5.6
WHOLE-BRAIN LEARNING
Whole-brain learning has become an important topic of research (Campbell,
1997; Campbell, Campbell & Dickinson, 2004; Gardner, 2004; Herrmann,
1996a; Le Roux, 2000; Miché, 2002; Michels, 2001; 2002; M.E. van Niekerk,
2002), especially regarding the effect it has on learners in an educational
environment. It is therefore imperative that whole-brain learning is practically
applied during teacher training programmes to serve as a model which can be
emulated. Whole-brain learning is supported by the RNCS, which motivates the
inclusion of different learning styles and multiple intelligences (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2003c, Foreword).
Michels reports that an educator can “fine-tune” the way information is
presented to a learner to make learning more effective and pleasurable (2001,
p. 74). This implies that learning style flexibility has to be catered for in the
design of the different learning opportunities, as well as in the assessment
opportunities. Many authors have commented on the effectiveness of learning
which occurs when the learning style is flexible (Gardner, 2004; Le Roux, 2000;
Michels, 2001; Van Dyk, 2000; 2002; M.E. van Niekerk, 2002).
Different learning styles are mainly influenced by brain dominance. Herrmann
(1996a, p. 17), who established the theory of brain dominance in the early
1980s, posits that the brain consists of four quadrants, each with unique
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
thinking styles. His model of the whole brain and the four respective quadrants
where different styles of thinking are located, is illustrated in figure 5.2.
Left Brain
Right Brain
Synthesising
Figure 5:2: Whole-Brain Model, adapted from Herrmann
(1996a, p. 23; 1996b, p. 1)
As can be seen, the A and B quadrants are situated in the left brain, while
quadrants C and D are part of the right brain. Just as humans naturally prefer to
use one hand more than the other, similarly they have a natural tendency to use
a certain quadrant of the brain more than another quadrant for the processing of
information (Herrmann, 1996a, p. 17). This is what encompasses brain
dominance, or learning style preferences. Therefore, in every class of students,
there would normally be a variety of learning styles represented by all the
students. Some students who are more rational, would be more interested in
logical and factual information (A-brain dominance), while other students will be
more organised and interested in detail (B-brain dominance). C-brain dominant
students like to involve all their senses, while D-brain dominant students like to
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
experiment and are usually very creative. To accommodate all the learning
styles represented by students, lecturers should include a variety of activities to
involve all types of brain dominance preferences.
An important factor relating to music and the whole brain model is that the
unique qualities of music involve aspects which link to all four quadrants. This
distinctive quality makes music a vital part of general education since it teaches
learners of all ages to use all four quadrants of their brains.
•
A-brain aspects in music:
Logical and analytical aspects of thinking are involved when listening to
music and identifying music concepts.
•
B-brain aspects in music:
Music is built up sequentially but forms of music are structured in different
ways. Learners have to use their B-brains when discovering and
experiencing the form of a piece of music.
•
C-brain aspects in music:
Music is a form of expression and communication. It also involves the
emotions and sensory perceptions, all aspects found in C-brain thinking.
•
D-brain aspects in music:
Music is experienced holistically when learners take part in music making
activities, or if they are involved in listening activities. To create music also
relies on D-brain thinking skills.
Interpreted in terms of the whole brain model, learning activities planned for the
implementation of music in schools should accommodate all four quadrants of
the brain. Music is the ideal discipline which stimulates whole brain learning,
since it is compliant with the requirement of being present in all four brain
quadrants.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
5.7
TRAINING STUDENTS IN MUSIC EDUCATION
As stated in Chapter 1, the most important issue in the educational field of
South Africa is to improve the quality of teachers, instead of simply producing
large quantities of poorly trained teachers. Furthermore, teachers need to have
skills, not just the knowledge, to teach (South Africa. Department of Education,
2003b, Foreword). This implies that “teachers have to be shown rather than told
what to do”, as suggested by the former Minister of Education, Ms Naledi
Pandor (Pretorius & Gower, 2009, p. 2). She continues by adding that “the
department is now looking at better ways to train people”. The emphasis is
therefore on the ‘training’ of students instead of their ‘education’. In the next
sections, aspects relating to quality training of teachers will be discussed.
5.7.1 General aspects of teacher training
Enquiring about international trends in the training of students in Music
Education, the research project The Arts Matter revealed noteworthy results.
This project was launched in the UK, lasting from 1996 to 2000 (Harland et al.,
2000). From this study it became clear that well taught arts programmes lead to
a range of advantageous outcomes for learners, schools, and the larger
community. It was noted, however, that these positive outcomes were only
observed where there was evidence of quality arts programmes, implemented
by well-trained arts educators (own bold) (Bolton, 2000, p. i). To assume that
the general academic performance of learners will be boosted through random
exposure to music and the arts is risking ridicule for arts programmes. Policy
makers should realise that the only way to make this statement true is to
provide teachers with excellent skills in music and the arts. This places a huge
responsibility on tertiary institutions, such as universities, where the training of
students in Music and Arts Education takes place.
A myth concerning the quality of Music Education implemented at South African
schools is the belief that one can compensate for weak musical training by
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
strength in teaching skills. During the data gathering process, I could clearly see
the manifestation of this myth, leading to ineffective music implementation and
feelings of incompetence from generalist teachers required to teach music and
the arts.
In Van Eeden’s study of 1995, she commented on the lack of a coherent system
and structure to the teacher training programmes for Music Education
throughout South Africa (p. 3). It is disconcerting that, after more than a decade,
there is still not a coherent system for student training on national level in South
Africa. As a lecturer at the Music Department of the University of Pretoria during
the 1990s, Van Eeden expected students enrolling for Music Education to be
equipped with a musical ear, fair notation reading skills, accompaniment skills in
one or more instrument/s, as well as some musicological background
knowledge (1995, p. 9). These aspects will be considered in the next section,
where the current profile of students enrolling for Music Education will be
discussed.
5.7.2 Music Education at the Faculty of Education, University of
Pretoria
Since 2002, all South African Colleges of Education were amalgamated with
universities and courses had to be restructured. The profile of education
students therefore changed drastically, where students for Music Education in
the Faculty of Education are often enrolled without all the attributes mentioned
by Van Eeden. Usually, an inner musicality, good ear, and a singing voice
cannot be compromised. However, accompaniment and notation skills as well
as musicological aspects do not weigh as heavily, mainly for the reason that the
imbalances of the past have to be rectified, giving previously disadvantaged
students the opportunity to become Music educators. In fact, this research has
confirmed that there is an even greater need for Music educators in
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
disenfranchised and informal communities than in the larger cities and
established communities.
Given that there are now a wide variety of students enrolled for the same Music
Education course – some with highly developed musical skills, while others
have only the basic inner musicality with no formal music training – it implies
that new strategies and methods have to be devised to accommodate such
diverse groups of students. Furthermore, the OBE approach which is accepted
as the norm in South African schools, as well as the RNCS, have to be studied
critically to inform and direct current student training courses in Music
Education. Being influenced by this research project, as well as integrating
years of experience in teacher training, new courses were designed by me and
my colleague, Dr. Riekie van Aswegen, for the specific needs of our students at
the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria.
To stay true to the nature of the RNCS and an outcomes-based approach for
appropriate teacher training, there is a strong emphasis on the development of
music skills in the design of Music Education courses at the Faculty of
Education of the University of Pretoria. Although the focus is on the learning
process, content is not discarded. Many active participant situations wherein
learning can take place are provided. This ensures that certain knowledgebased information has to be mastered, enabling students to become confident
music educators. As Van der Horst and McDonald point out, “it is a myth that
content is not important in Outcomes-Based Education!” (2003, p. 30). The way
in which students have to master the set learning outcomes is a crucial aspect
in the training of students, since it also prepares them for the methodological
skills in Music Education.
The MCM model (figure 5.1) of interpreting Music Education within the
framework of the RNCS, as well as the model of brain dominance (figure 5.2)
and how this impacts on the different expectations and preferences of students,
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
guided the design of new courses for student training in Music Education. (See
tables 5.11 and 5.12 with the detailed course content.)
The outcomes-based approach supports an overarching principle of being
learner-centred (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002b, p. 1). The input
of the facilitator is not the most important factor, as it used to be in former
education systems that nurtured teacher-centeredness. The most prominent
feature regarding the OBE approach, related to the training of students in Music
Education, is:
•
what students can do in terms of learning and applying music knowledge;
and
•
what students can do through mastering of music skills, including the
demonstration of a well developed musical ear, good singing voice,
instrumental skills, notation skills, listening skills, movement to music skills,
directing skills and musical creativity.
The newly implemented curriculum of the university training programme in
Music Education entails that lecturers have to act as role models for the
students to be trained. For this to be effective, lecturers have to model the
principles of effective outcomes based training. Furthermore, lecturers also
have to represent the seven roles of the educator, as outlined in the Norms and
Standards for Educators. These seven roles include (South Africa. Department
of Education, 2002b, p. 3):
•
mediators of learning;
•
interpreters and designers of Learning Programmes and materials;
•
leaders, administrators and managers;
•
scholars, researchers and lifelong learners;
•
community members, citizens and pastors;
•
assessors; and
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Learning Area or Phase specialists.
The following sections refer to three different types of students and training
offered in Music Education at the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria:
•
Music Education specialist students;
•
Arts and Culture students; and
•
Foundation Phase students.
Although the main point of focus is training students as specialists in Music
Education, this does not constitute the full spectrum of work. The following table
displays the different groups of students, the electives and modules offered, as
well as the duration of each module.
Table 5.11: Description of modules offered in Music
Section
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
Description of
students
Music Education
specialist students.
These students can
be in any one of the
phases of training for
education students,
e.g.
• Foundation
Phase
• Intermediate
Phase
• Senior Phase
• FET Phase.
Students specialising
in Music and
Visual Art in the
Intermediate, Senior
or FET Phases.
Generalist students
in the
Foundation Phase.
Modules
Various Music modules:
• Music Education
• Interdisciplinary Music
Practice including
ethnomusicology
• Music Appreciation
including music styles
• Theory of Music
• Choir Conducting and
Stage Productions
• Piano
• Guitar
accompaniment.
• Learning area Arts
and Culture
•
Music Education
Duration
(1 lecture equals
50 minutes)
3 years of 5 lectures
per week in which all
the music modules
are presented.
During the fourth
year, students do an
internship at a school
presenting music in
the Foundation
Phase, or as part of
the learning area Arts
and Culture in the
other phases.
7 weeks of 2 lectures
per week.
14 weeks of 2
lectures per week.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
5.7.3 Training Music Education specialist students
There is a great need for music specialist teachers in South African primary
schools. Delport (1996, p. 65) indicated that during the early 1990s it was a
given that most white schools had a music specialist as Head of the subject.
This, unfortunately, is not currently the case (Klopper, 2004; Rijsdijk, 2003), not
even in best practice schools as I have discovered in this study. But it remains
the ideal, where such a person can act as supervisor and mentor to direct the
music activities in lessons throughout all the phases. Apart from being
appointed as Music educators, they have an important role in the Arts and
Culture learning area, as well as to co-ordinate extra-curricular cultural
activities. Their mentorship for generalist teachers who have to include Music in
their programmes could include:
•
providing help with lesson planning and aids;
•
choosing appropriate songs and listening material; and
•
supplying music making activities for the learners.
Music specialist teachers also have a vital role in communicating the value of
Music Education to principals, heads of departments as well as to teachers,
learners and parents of schools. Therefore, their training as future Music
educators should be as extensive and encompassing as possible, given the
constraints of time, financing and the disparities in the skills and knowledge of
students entering the course concerning their own previous music training.
A Music educator has to be first and foremost a musician. This implies an
inherent musicality with a musical ear, a solid sense of rhythm, and basic
singing skills with good intonation, developed to be able to provide a good
example for learners to imitate. A fair amount of skill regarding sight singing, as
well as ability as a pianist or guitar accompanist are also valuable. Furthermore,
a music educator needs a basic academic knowledge of music which includes
theory and notation, familiarity and understanding of elements of music and
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
music concepts, and acquaintance with standard music compositions which
could be used in Music Education. Additionally, knowledge of music styles and
composers, familiarity with the tone colour and classification of Western and
African instruments, basic harmony skills, as well as choir conducting and
concert directing skills are valuable and highly needed aspects in the training of
Music Education specialists. Furthermore, these aspects all have to be
integrated within the didactical and philosophical principles of Music Education.
For student teachers to become good practitioners in Music Education, it is
necessary for them to convert these philosophical principles into action.
All the above aspects can be divided into two components. On the one hand
there is certain foundational knowledge which students should obtain, and on
the other hand, there are skills which students need to acquire. This is
illustrated in table 5.12. Skills and knowledge can further be divided into aspects
concerning music, and aspects concerning didactics. Although the theoretical
aspects for Music Education involve a wide spectrum, the skills required to be
able to effectively teach music are extensive. This illustrates that it entails
dedication and perseverance for students to be successful in a Music Education
programme. Few other disciplines require the variety which is included in Music
Education.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.12 Knowledge and skills required from Music Education students
Knowledge
Skills
Knowledge of Music
Skills in Music
•
•
•
•
•
•
Music theory and notation
Music styles including Western and
African
Musical instruments, including
Western and African
Principles of stage productions
Principles of choir conducting
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Singing with good intonation and a
clear voice
Playing on percussion classroom
instruments
Accompaniment skills on the piano
Accompanying on the guitar
Identifying the tone colour of a wide
variety of instruments including
Western and African instruments
Identifying various styles in music,
including Western and African
musics
Identifying all music concepts
aurally
Presenting a stage production
Conducting a choir
Knowledge of Didactics
Skills in Didactical principles
•
•
•
Pedagogical theories and
philosophies
Philosophies of music
educationists and other scholars
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Demonstrating and implementing
general pedagogical principles, as
well as that of music educationists
Selecting appropriate songs and
teaching it to a class
Planning and teaching an
instrumental activity to a group
Planning and teaching notation
activities to a class
Planning and teaching movement
activities to a class
Designing a listening questionnaire
or listening guide and presenting it
to a group
Planning and teaching creative
activities to a class
Planning and teaching music
games to a class
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
Involvement with real-life classrooms
An important aspect in the training of students in Music Education is involving
them with real-life classroom situations. At the end of each year of their training
in Music Education, students are required to present Music lessons to learners
at a local school. This forms the practical component of their final examination.
Students are divided into small groups, and plan and present one lesson to a
class of school children. All the students attend the other lesson presentations,
and are required to assess their own lessons as well as those of their peers.
After all the lessons, a reflective session is held where the students’ comments
are discussed. This is deemed to be an invaluable learning opportunity, since
students observe the interaction between learners and facilitators. It also gives
them first hand experience of methodological principles, which is far more
demanding than merely to study these theoretical aspects in books. It
furthermore motivates students and gives them confidence for attempting future
lessons individually, which are required at the beginning of each year during
their Teaching Practice module of the course, as well as during their six months
internship in the fourth year of study.
•
Compiling a professional portfolio
At the end of the third year of study, students are required to compile a
professional portfolio. The underpinning process for compiling such a portfolio is
based on the ability to develop individual learning programmes or work
schedules, as required by the RNCS (South Africa. Department of Education,
2002b, p. 2). This means that students need to be efficient in lesson planning,
and they need to be competent and proficient in the designing and making of
media during their professional career. Another component of the portfolio is the
formulation of a personal philosophy for Music Education. Table 5.13 gives a
detailed description of what is required for the portfolio assignment, while table
5.14 provides a lesson plan template for the planning of all learning activities.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.13: Compiling a Professional Portfolio
What is a Professional Portfolio?
A professional portfolio is the planning ahead of a semester or a year’s lessons (learning
activities) in a specific learning area and for a specific grade.
Compile a Portfolio for Music as part of the learning area Arts and Culture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Formulate your own personal philosophy for Music Education.
Do research on the internet and in the library to include music activities based on a wide
variety of world musics, genres and styles.
Compile a file with lesson plans as well as lesson material. This may include music scores
for instrumental activities, songs, movement and body-percussion activities, listening
guides, listening questionnaires, worksheets, word games and crossword puzzles based on
music, music notation activities, as well as planning for creative activities.
Include masters for all the transparencies.
Supply a container with all the audio material for the above lessons, including CDs and
DVDs.
Use the RNCS as well as the Music Centred Model (figure 5.1) to ensure that all the
assessment standards – music skills and music concepts – are included in the portfolio.
Integrate one activity based on another art form in each lesson, linking this to the overall
theme.
Method of work:
• Determine an age group or grade of learners of your choice.
• Choose nine themes or phase organisers suitable for the age group.
• Collect sound, song, listening and music making material for each theme.
• Use the lesson plan template (table 5.14) to fill in the details of each of the nine lessons.
• Ensure that every lesson includes the following:
- An ice breaker which introduces the theme in a creative way and motivates the learners.
- A song which complements the theme of the lesson.
- A listening activity with a listening guide or listening questionnaire.
- An instrumental or movement activity.
- A rubric for the assessment of learner activities.
• Aim to integrate the other music skills – notation and creativity – where appropriate or
feasible.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.14: Lesson Plan Template
LESSON PLAN Grade:
Lesson number:
Theme or phase organiser:
Date:
Lesson sequence
Description of lesson
events
Assessment standards
Music
Music Skills
Concepts
Media
Audio material
Transparencies
CDs / DVDs
Instruments
Introduction or ice breaker
1
2
3
4
Method of assessment
Integration with other art forms
Give a description of the activity
Learning outcomes for Arts & Culture
Tick the appropriate block/s
•
Create,
interpret &
present
Reflect
Participate &
collaborate
Express &
communicate
Instrumental tuition
Instrumental tuition is another imperative component of the training of music
specialists. It remains, however, a very time consuming and expensive module.
To broaden the profile of students specialising in Music Education, students are
accepted without previous formal training in music. Through years of
experience, it has been established that a prerequisite is for students to pass a
musicality test in which a good singing voice with clear intonation and aural
discrimination are vital. The effectiveness of piano tuition to these students,
however, is debatable, since few students who start at beginner’s level at
university will become proficient and confident to be able to perform or
accompany learners in a classroom. As Herbst, de Wet and Rijsdijk point out,
someone with less than five to six years of instrumental training “cannot be
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
considered capable of providing more than elementary accompaniment to
simple songs, let alone teach the musical arts” (2005, p. 270). The ideal is that
every music specialist teacher should be able to play an accompaniment
instrument well.
The piano remains a favoured instrument for accompanying choirs and enabling
group singing at school assemblies. Apart from providing supportive harmonies,
it can also perform the melodic line during choral practices. Although all the art
forms require unique skills, music requires more years and calendar time to
accomplish fluent instrumental accompaniment skills, especially on the piano. It
is disconcerting to note that an ever-increasing use is being made of backtracks
for school concerts, or worse, that CD recordings with adult singers are used
with which young children have to perform. These recordings are often not in
the appropriate pitch range for children’s voices, or are not of appropriate
content to be sung by young learners.
A challenge faced is that most of the schools in disenfranchised areas do not
have pianos. Although many of these schools focus on a cappella singing, there
is a strong need for piano accompaniment. School choirs often take part in
competitions, such as the Tirisano, ATKV or Super 12 choir competitions, which
involve several hundreds of school choirs nationwide (Van Aswegen, 2005, p.
5:26). These competitions usually include one or more prescribed songs which
require piano accompaniment (Van Aswegen, 2005, p. 3:22).
Compared to the piano, an instrument like the guitar for accompaniment
purposes is relatively inexpensive, can be learnt in a fairly short period of time,
and is portable. Furthermore, it gives the educator the advantage of keeping
eye contact with learners, while the piano is fairly restrictive in this respect.
Guitar accompaniment also enhances a harmonic basis for melodic work. Some
teacher training courses focus on recorder tuition. However, communication
with learners is not possible while playing on this instrument. It also cannot
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
serve as accompaniment, since it is limited to a single melody line. Therefore,
the Music Education courses at the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria,
do not include recorder tuition, but focus on piano and guitar accompaniment
skills.
•
Training the voice for singing
The singing voice is another aspect which deserves more attention in the
training of Music Education specialists. All humans have voices and singing is
the most common form of music making still taking place in South African
schools, even without the presence of a music specialist (Herbst et al., 2005, p.
266). According to Niel van der Watt, Head of the Music Department of Pretoria
High School for Boys, singing is the ideal vehicle to promote continuation of
music training in the FET Phase, since many learners do not have the
opportunity or resources for purchasing instruments or obtaining individual
lessons in these instruments during the former phases of their schooling.
Students specialising in Music Education in the previous dispensation, when it
was still the Teachers Training College, all received individual voice training.
Since amalgamation with the University of Pretoria, however, the number of
lecturers has been drastically reduced (Van Aswegen & Vermeulen, 2008, p.
13). Therefore, a means had to be found to include voice training in an effective
way, without requiring all students receiving individual instruction.
Training the voice in a choral style is ideal to nurture general musicality in
students. It advances the development of the inner ear as well as developing
memory skills, which are very important aspects for music educators. Research
has indicated that choral singing improves the development of the inner ear
more than instrumental training does (Michels, 2001, p. 5:24). In a master class
attended by South African violinist Zanta Hofmeyr, the renowned Itzak Perlman
advised all the string players to learn to sing before attempting to play their
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
instruments (Odendaal, 2009, p. 3). Table 5.15 from Michels’s study indicates
the essential differences between choral and instrumental tuition.
Table 5.15: Essential differences between choral and instrumental tuition
(Michels, 2001, p. 5:24)
CHORAL TUITION
•
INSTRUMENTAL TUITION
Normally a large group of
students
Clear musical end-product;
incentives to learn quickly; high
motivation
Choral rehearsal develops the
voice, the ear and tone quality
•
Normally a small group or individuals
•
•
Teacher provides constant
musical stimulus by performing
him/herself
•
•
Exercises need to engage the ear •
•
Immediate or planned application
Often a vague musical outcome;
isolation of individual instrumentalists
can be de-motivating
Technical exercises not essentially
sound-focused. They are divorced
from aural development
Often teaches NOT through
performing, but through comment
and critique or feeling response.
Often an end in themselves
Exercises are sensori-motor
movement based, and can be
performed without engaging the ear
Exercises processed by left brain
only. When exercise is disguised in a
piece requiring right brain
processing, the left brain controls are
not readily accessible.
•
•
•
•
Bearing in mind that choir work is an integral part of general Music Education
(Van Aswegen, 2005, p. 3:5), it is foreseen that lectures in singing at the Faculty
of Education could simulate a choral style. Furthermore, this provides the ideal
opportunity to expand the students’ repertoire of folk songs of all cultures and
specifically African cultures, an important aspect which Van Aswegen’s study
indicated and which is supported by the RNCS (South Africa. Department of
Education, 2002b, pp. 5, 7). Such singing lectures also hold the benefit of
accommodating many students in one lecture, in contrast to individual
instruction on an instrument. Apart from each student’s voice which is trained,
lectures in this format hold the potential of developing directing and conducting
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
skills in the students, skills which are imperative for the demands of school
practice.
•
Training in choir conducting and stage performances
An important module in the training of Music Education specialist students at
the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, is training in choir conducting as
well as in stage productions. Van Aswegen’s study indicated that teachers are
often forced to train and conduct choirs, even without having music training
(2005, p. 3:18). Therefore, this course is regarded as vitally important to equip
future Music Education specialist teachers for the demands of school practice.
The module in choir conducting and stage productions, developed by my
colleague, Riekie van Aswegen, includes a practical component where students
are required to plan, direct and execute a stage performance with learners of a
local primary school. Small groups of students are assigned to individual
classes at the school. Students plan a performance which portrays a unique or
integrated theme. At the end of the semester, a performance is held at the
school where all the stage productions of the various classes are performed. In
the module on choir conducting, students are individually placed at local school
choirs during the second semester of the academic year. They have to attend
numerous choir practices where they receive additional training in directing from
the school’s choir conductor. Apart from gaining first hand experience during
this process, they also have to plan a concert performance, where all the choirs
are invited and students conduct the songs as part of the practical component
of their final examination.
5.7.4 Training students for the learning area Arts and Culture
Apart from accommodating students with a wide range of experience and skill
regarding Music, the curriculum also requires educators to implement four
discrete art forms into one learning area. This indeed poses an almost
insurmountable challenge for lecturers in teacher training programmes.
However, in Australia, similar changes in the education system were made
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
more than a decade ago, and some innovative approaches were implemented
by such leading experts as Deirdre Russell-Bowie. She already reported on
integrated arts courses during 1997 where two semesters were dedicated to the
training of generalist teachers in arts education:
Within this limited time the basic concepts relating to each of these
strands are covered and students experience practical classroom
activities showing how generalist teachers can implement the
Creative Arts in their classroom and how the Creative Arts can be
integrated with English and mathematics (Russell-Bowie, 1997, p.
37).
As referred to in Chapter 2, there is an ongoing debate regarding the relative
merits of specialist or generalist educators. From the interviews conducted with
teachers currently delivering the Arts and Culture learning area in primary
schools, it became evident that the ideal would be to train teachers to be
specialists in all four discrete art forms. Lecturers in the Faculty of Humanities of
the University of Pretoria designed and implemented a three year BA Arts
Education course during 2000-2003, enrolling 14 students over the four year
span. This course consisted of specialised training in Music and Visual Art, as
well as including some aspects of Drama. The Music and Visual Art
components of the course were extensive, including theoretical training and
practical skills development in both these art forms. The Drama component of
the course was given less emphasis, with a more theoretical nature of content
delivery. Students were given the basic concepts, principles and terms applying
to Drama, while the history of the theatre was also covered. However, students
were not involved in first hand experience or training in the practical skills of the
dramatic arts (interview 64, former student of this course). Although Dance was
not specifically represented in this course, it appeared to be close to the ideal
solution for an integrated arts learning area, since three of the four arts were
included. Unfortunately, only nine of the 14 enrolled students completed the
course, the main complaint and constraint being overload. To specialise in more
than one art form is indeed an overwhelming and time consuming task, for each
art form is jealously claiming the full attention of its students.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
To balance the debate about generalist or specialist teachers for the arts, a cooperative system is suggested for the training of students in the learning area
Arts and Culture at the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria. Instead of
opting for a “Jack of all trades, Master of none” method, where a brief overview
of all four arts is given without any specialisation in any of the arts, a “Master of
one trade, Jack of some” is proposed (Joseph, Van Aswegen & Vermeulen
2008, p. 3; Van Aswegen & Vermeulen 2008, p. 13). In a “Master of one trade,
Jack of some” method, Music specialist students will be trained in Visual Arts
Education for a six month module of two hours per week during their third year
of study, while Visual Art specialist students will receive Music Education during
the concurrent contact sessions. These students will also receive brief training
and exposure to Drama and Dance during a seven week module of two hours
per week in their second year as part of the learning area Arts and Culture.
Since the Faculty of Education at the University of Pretoria does not have a
Drama or Dance department, team planning and team teaching will take place,
involving Drama and Dance experts from the community to expose students to
role models with artistic talent, skill and experience in integrated productions.
Team teaching and planning are aspects which the RNCS (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2003b, p. 3) promotes in providing the expertise
needed for the discrete art forms, while working in a sufficiently economical
way.
In the fourth year of their training, students do an overarching module in the
learning area Arts and Culture, during which they are required to write and
produce a short integrated arts stage production. The validity of this feature of
the course is that schools frequently require teachers to produce stage
productions, while only two of the universities investigated include modules on
these extra-curricular activities during the training of students.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Although the total course structure for the learning area Arts and Culture is not
ideal in that it does not provide for specialised training in all four of the arts, it
may give these students some reference and basic knowledge for their own
task as educators in an integrated arts learning area, as well as prepare them
for integrated arts activities at schools, such as stage productions. The focus
and specialisation, however, will remain in one art form, developing primary
knowledge and skills in either Music or Visual Art (‘Master of one’). Secondary
knowledge and skills will be gained in the other of these two mentioned art
forms.
To motivate the choice of Music and Visual Art as the main art disciplines to
focus on, I rely on the data collected during the research process of this thesis.
During interviews conducted, most teachers felt that Drama was an art form
which could more easily be integrated within the literacy programmes of the
primary school, while movement and Dance has for many decades already
been part of Music Education.
The only way in which Arts and Culture can succeed is if there are
two specialists in every school – one presenting Visual Art in a well
equipped classroom, and another presenting Music and Dance in a
well equipped and large enough venue. Drama should ideally be
integrated with languages (Interview 8).
Other practical implications for choosing Music and Visual Art as focal points in
the learning area Arts and Culture are that schools in the former system mostly
appointed Music and Visual Arts teachers. Since the previous school
programmes did not include Dance and Drama as part of the formal education
of learners, no schools appointed Drama or Dance teachers. Additionally, the
Faculties of Education at the South African universities which were investigated
during my research mostly have Music Education and Visual Arts Education as
electives for their teacher training programmes. Drama and Dance Education
are not usually offered as electives for education students. For these reasons,
the newly implemented programme for teacher training in Arts and Culture at
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
the University of Pretoria give a lower prominence to Drama and Dance. The
curriculum states that learners need to be exposed to all the art forms, yet
certain assessment standards integrate across the learning area and can be
attained simultaneously to prevent overload (South Africa. Department of
Education, 2002b, p. 7). The term “Jack of some” (Van Aswegen & Vermeulen,
2008, p. 13) therefore refers to the additional but less focused knowledge and
skills acquired in three of the four art forms.
5.7.5 Training generalist students for the Foundation Phase
Lecturers in Music Education at South African universities have a major
responsibility in effectively training students for the implementation of Music in
the Foundation and Early Childhood Development (ECD) Phases. The research
conducted in this study revealed that the prevalent predicament within the
implementation of Music Education in primary schools lies within these phases.
Students enrolled for the Foundation and ECD course normally have a wide
range of disciplines and are trained as generalists. Some of these students
have the inner musicality or previous music training to be able to enter a
specialised course with Music as an elective, and indeed enrol for the Music
specialist course. However, most of these students have to be trained in a
condensed course so as to be successful in integrating music into the three
learning programmes of the Foundation Phase namely Literacy, Numeracy and
Life Skills. Before describing the structure and content of the course offered to
students in the Foundation Phase, there are some additional aspects to be
considered.
The course for Music Education is restricted considering the total duration of the
course and the wide variety of other non-musical disciplines which need to be
included in the total programme. Time for Music Education is extremely limited.
Therefore, the training should be effective, focused and accurate.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Students who enrol for courses in Foundation and Early Childhood
Development phases (FP and ECD) comprise the largest under-graduate group
in the Faculty of Education at the University of Pretoria. Up to the year 2002,
these students were given two years of training in Music Education, with three
periods per week in the first year of the course, and two periods per week in the
second year. Even though a full two years were spent on this course, it was
quite a challenge for lecturers to include all the components necessary to
prepare students for effective implementation of Music in the Foundation Phase
of schools. These student teachers all received a concise theoretical knowledge
of music, as well as basic music making skills. The course included the
following aspects:
Knowledge:
•
Music notation systems;
•
Musical instruments;
•
Styles of music.
Music making skills:
•
Developing a singing voice;
•
Developing a musical ear (for example identifying musical instruments,
styles and music concepts or elements aurally);
•
Playing an accompaniment instrument such as the guitar, as well as Orff
percussion instruments;
•
Implementing basic music notation skills by playing, clapping or singing
rhythms and/or melodies; and
•
Choosing appropriate sound material for singing and listening activities.
The above course had to be changed into a condensed module of only 14
weeks, with two periods allocated per week. This comprises only 20% of the
time previously allocated. However, the system requires the same outcomes,
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
namely that generalist teachers in the Foundation Phase are able to implement
Music Education in their own classes.
The question arose of how to choose the most appropriate content and skills in
a condensed version of the above course if the same or better quality education
is expected. In order for the limited number of lecturers to cope with the
pressures of increased numbers of students and less time available, a paradigm
shift had to be made, adopting a new method and approach. The main focus in
the new modular course is to make students aware of the importance of music
and winning their support and enthusiasm for the subject, possibly instilling their
own curiosity and eagerness to later enrol for additional courses to improve
their own skills and knowledge. In addition, students are made aware of good
resources available in the market, especially music series with planned lesson
materials and audio examples, since these are the most difficult to create and
find without adequate experience and knowledge.
The course in Music Education is presented during students’ second year of
study, and takes place in the second semester of the year. The large number of
students (approximately 150) is divided into manageable groups. Each group
receives two consecutive lectures per week. These lectures focus on training
students in various techniques of the didactical principles of Music Education.
Lectures are presented in a manner which models the didactical principles,
involving students in practical music making activities. During the first lectures
of the course, students experience all the music activities and skills which form
the core of Music Education in practice, while also being made aware of the
music concepts that form the knowledge basis of the discipline. During the latter
lectures, methods of presenting music to learners in the Foundation Phase are
illustrated by using themes across the curriculum.
A valuable means of gaining the positive attitude of generalist students in the
Foundation Phase is the system whereby real-life classroom situations are
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
utilised for the presentation of music activities, similar to the method described
with music specialist students. Students are divided into small groups and each
group plans and presents a music lesson to learners in the Foundation Phase of
a local school. This takes place at the end of the course as part of the final
practical examination. This motivates students and gives them confidence for
attempting future lessons in Music Education, since they experience the joy of
learners taking part in fun-filled music activities. A further extension of this
system is that mentor students (music specialist students) are allocated to all
groups who have to present lessons. In conjunction with the lecturers, mentor
music students guide and help the non-specialist students in the planning of
lessons, also coaching them for the final lesson presentation in the school. This
strategy almost serves as a ‘crash course’ in effective Music Education
techniques. Music Education specialist students, on the other hand, gain
valuable experience as mentors in guiding and helping their peers (non-music
specialist student teachers) during the planning and presenting phases of music
lessons, techniques which they would be required to do regularly as part of their
teaching careers in schools. Involving peer mentor training proves to be an
effective method in addition to lecture input.
In the following section, the method of how various skills and knowledge are
presented in the Music modules for various groups of students in the Faculty of
Education, University of Pretoria, will be discussed.
5.7.6 Co-operative learning and group work
To cater for larger numbers of students while the number of lecturers constantly
decreases, a system of co-operative learning has been implemented. In a cooperative learning environment, students are not simply required to work in
groups to complete assignments; the importance of collaborating is rather “on
the process of group dynamics” (Dachs, 1998, p. 71). By assisting each other
and reflecting on the process, the quality of learning is often enhanced. Dachs
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
discusses various forms which group work can adapt, and many have the
added benefit of a healthy and “competitive interaction” developing between
students (Dachs, 1998, p. 73). However, she warns that it can often lead to
some students taking a low profile, resulting in hard-working students taking the
lead and doing most of the work. More able students then also tend to feel
discouraged and demotivated (p. 74). Keeping these limitations in mind, a
strategy of co-operative learning was implemented with Music Education
students at the University of Pretoria whereby groups were kept small and
feedback on the performance of all group members was required after the
completion of projects. Group work was also alternated with individual projects.
5.7.7 Guided-Study
A strategy focusing on individual work by students, which has been found
beneficial in the training of students in Music Education (at the University of
Pretoria) is that of guided-study. The term was originally used referring to an
experimental project by the former Rand Afrikaans University (now the
University of Johannesburg) (Dachs, 1998, p. 76). Instead of self-study, where
students are often left to themselves, guided-study is a process which involves
the reducing of contact or lecture time, while increasing student participation
and continuous assessment. This strategy aims at supporting students
throughout the learning process and giving them responsibility for their own
progress. Another benefit of this strategy is lifelong learning, one of the
outcomes of the RNCS (South Africa. Department of Education, 2002, p. 4).
The method of guided-study was implemented with third year students in Music
Education, where a portfolio of lesson material for music within the integrated
Arts and Culture learning area had to be created by each student. The
continuous assessment strategy gave students the opportunity to be exempted
from a final examination, provided that their minimum promotion level was 70%.
Similar to Dachs’s findings (1998, p. 77), I found that this method was an
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
incentive for students to produce work of a high quality, which they could also
benefit from once they were appointed as teachers in schools and had readymade materials for implementing in the classroom.
After each assessment session, examples of the best portfolios were shown to
the rest of the group, which resulted in a healthy competitiveness gradually
emerging between students. At the end of each term, portfolios were exhibited
to students of other year groups. This caused a self-imposed level of excellence
and proved to be far better motivation for students than external pressure
imposed by lecturers, concurring with a similar effect shown in the Arts Literacy
projects which took place in Arizona during 2002-2005 (Stevenson & Deasy,
2005, p. 47). Students also initiated a system of sharing their portfolios with
each other, thereby creating a wealth of material which is desperately needed
once a teaching career in Music Education begins.
5.7.8 Assessment Strategy
A variety of assessment strategies is necessary to include all forms of thinking
according to the whole brain model. Since activities and assessment strategies
in the newly implemented programme for student training include all four
quadrants of learning styles, all students are catered for. When certain activities
or assessment styles are in quadrants other than students’ own preferred
styles, this challenges them to work outside their comfort zones. Being exposed
to and challenged in all styles of learning and assessment enables student
teachers to be confident in a variety of learning styles to cater for the needs of
all learners in their future classes.
Coupled to the whole brain model in figure 5.2 are the expectations of students
during their training. Depending on the brain dominance of students, they have
certain expectations and preferences of how lectures should be offered, what
type of information they should be given, style in which the information should
be delivered, and the way they would be assessed. These expectations and
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
preferences of students are displayed in table 5.16, which has been adapted
from Herrmann’s model.
Table 5.16: Expectations and preferences of students based on wholebrain learning (Herrmann, 1996a, p. 92).
The student with an A-quadrant
The student with a D-quadrant
thinking preference expects:
thinking preference expects:
Precise, to the point information
Fun and spontaneity
Theory and logical rationales
Playful approaches
Proof of validity
Visual representations, pictures,
Research references
metaphors, overviews
Textbook readings
Discovering and exploration
Numbers, data
Quick pace, variety in format
Opportunity to experiment
The student with a B-quadrant
The student with a C-quadrant
thinking preference expects:
thinking preference expects:
Organised, consistent approach
Group discussions
Staying on track, on time
Sharing, expressing ideas
Complete subject chunks
Kinaesthetic, moving around
A beginning, middle & end
Aural stimulus involving sound
Practice and evaluation
Hands-on learning
Practical applications
Use of all the senses
Examples
Personal & emotional connection
Clear instructions / expectations
User-friendly learning
Since Music and the Arts are now part of a compulsory learning area which
needs to be assessed, a more holistic perspective of the different abilities of
individual learners can be obtained through a variety of assessment methods.
Creative tasks, portfolios and independent projects are included to widen the
spectrum of student skills which are assessed. In Music Education and in the
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
learning area Arts and Culture, there are two aspects which can be assessed.
The one aspect is concerned with the process of obtaining skills and
knowledge, while the other aspect is concerned with an end product. The
product can be in any one of many forms, such as a presentation, a
performance or a portfolio. All these aspects form part of the assessment
strategy as prescribed by the national curriculum (South Africa. Department of
Education, 2003b, p. 26). Both processes and products are continuously
assessed, using different assessment strategies that are applied throughout the
training of students. These are:
•
Formative assessment
Formative assessment has a main purpose of monitoring students’ progress
during a module, by providing feedback to allow the identification of areas of
strengths and weaknesses. Examples include: Identifying music concepts
and music activities from demonstration lessons; selecting appropriate
songs for different age groups of learners; and describing different
philosophies of music educationists.
•
Progressive assessment
This assessment regime distributes individual assessment tasks throughout
a module, with each task designed to assess the outcomes that have been
achieved up to that point. Examples include: Identifying the tone colour of
instruments; notating rhythmic patterns by ear; and accompanying songs on
the guitar.
•
Standards-referenced assessment
Achievement during standards-referenced assessment is measured against
multi-level performance standards that are defined in terms of outcomes,
content and competence. Examples include: Designing and presenting
listening questionnaires to a class; planning and presenting instrumental
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
activities to a class; inventing structured movements to portray form in a
piece of music and presenting it to a class.
•
Summative assessment
Towards the end of modules, summative assessment is applied for the
purpose of determining the extent to which the course outcomes have been
achieved. Usually, this takes place in the form of both a written and oral
examination. Examples include: Compiling a professional portfolio;
presenting a music lesson to learners at a school; conducting a choir during
a concert performance; researching the theories of various music
educationists and formulating a personal philosophy for Music Education.
By including a variety of course activities and assessment practices, the need
for reflective and flexible learning is satisfied, as well as developing the
students’ capabilities for research.
5.7.9 Micro Presentations
The aim of micro presentations as assessment tools is to demonstrate
methodology skills in a simulated classroom situation, whereby fellow students
take the role of school learners. Apart from methodological aspects, student
teachers also have to develop and demonstrate their musical skills. These
include:
•
singing in front of the class, while using the hands for pitch measurements or
Kodály hand signs to direct accurate intonation from the class;
•
conducting the correct beat, as well as using the technique of indicating the
appropriate entry beat of the instrumental work or song;
•
accompaniment skills on piano or guitar;
•
planning and notating an instrumental score for percussion instruments
(melodic or non-melodic);
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
demonstrating by performing on percussion instruments;
•
planning listening guides and listening questionnaires by applying attentive
listening skills to identify prominent elements in the music;
•
planning, demonstrating and teaching structured movements for large
groups of learners, while focusing on structural or other prominent elements
in the music; and
•
planning creative activities whereby their understanding of fundamental
music elements can be demonstrated.
The different aspects that need to be developed in aspiring Music educators
include written and aural knowledge and skills, performance and presentation
skills, as well as creative skills. These aspects can be delivered individually or in
groups. Apart from the assessing of students’ work by lecturers, students need
to gain experience in assessment techniques themselves. Therefore, peerassessment and self-assessment tasks are often included, developing skills to
equip students for their future careers. The following table 5.14 lists the main
skills which are required of Music Education specialist students, as well as the
method by which each will be assessed.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.17: Skills and assessment methods used for Music students
Type of skill
Individual skills
Written and aural work
Studying the principles of music educationists and other scholars.
Recognising a variety of listening questionnaires or listening guides
according to the characteristics of each type.
Recognising well-known compositions aurally, giving the title and
name of the composer.
Identifying the form of an instrumental piece aurally, after several
listening experiences.
Designing a learners’ worksheet or crossword puzzle.
Identifying all the instruments of the symphony orchestra, as well as
African instruments and other folk instruments by ear.
Recognising rhythmic and melodic patterns aurally, linking them to
notated scores.
Notating rhythm patterns which are played (aural dictation).
Identifying folk songs from the score according to the characteristics
of each type.
Collecting folk songs from a variety of cultures.
Determining the appropriate age group for a song from the score.
Evaluating songs from the score, according to their suitability for
group singing for various phases of learners.
Group and individual work
Performance or presentation of given material
Applying the principles of music educationists.
Presenting a listening questionnaire or listening guide to a class.
Performing piano accompaniments to songs individually, while a
group of students are singing the songs.
Accompanying songs with guitar.
Performing a song and teaching it effectively to a class.
Performing an instrumental score on percussion instruments (nonmelodic or melodic) and teaching it effectively to a class.
Demonstrating structured movements or movements for an action
song and teaching it effectively to a class.
Assessment
Peer
Group
Self
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Lecturer
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Type of skill
Group and individual work
Creating new material
Creating a listening questionnaire and recording appropriate music
excerpts based on a specific music concept.
Creating a listening guide for a programmatic composition.
Designing a learners’ worksheet or crossword puzzle.
Creating an instrumental score for non-melodic percussion
instruments to accompany an instrumental composition.
Creating an instrumental score for melodic percussion instruments
to accompany a song.
Creating a melody for a given text.
Creating a new text for a well-known folk song.
Creating a jingle for a television advertisement.
Creating a rhythmic round for non-melodic percussion instruments.
Creating structured movements for an instrumental composition to
illustrate form.
Creating movements for action songs.
Creating a set of 40 non-melodic instruments for use in a classroom.
Creating a music game for a class of approximately 40 learners.
Assessment
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Some of the above skills are presented by small groups of students as microlessons during lectures. Before students are given assignments for the planning
and executing of these micro-presentations, one or more demonstration
lectures are given by the lecturer to illustrate the techniques and concepts
required for the assignment. For effective time-management, students work in
groups and are given contact time to plan and practise their presentations.
Lecturers are involved in a mediating role, providing suggestions or
recommendations to improve their presentations. During the lecture when the
assessment takes place, all groups attend the other presentations. Apart from
assessing the other groups, every group has to do a self-assessment. After all
the presentations, a reflection session is held to discuss which methods or
techniques are more effective than others.
Applying this assessment strategy has resulted in the overall improvement of
the standard of work delivered. Although students are not all initially skilled at
communicating in front of others, they gain confidence and learn most by
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
observing what others do. They also learn to assess practical work objectively,
one of the most difficult aspects of becoming a music educator.
Apart from mastering music making techniques themselves, students have to
be trained to become proficient facilitators, capable of leading a group of
unskilled learners in a classroom to make music. This is quite a daunting task,
since it requires a dexterous level of skill and self-confidence to perform and
demonstrate vocal techniques, instrumental playing, body percussion and
movement, notation skills as well as creative techniques in front of a class. At
the end of the year, the skills developed during lecture situations are transferred
to real-life classrooms. As previously described, small groups of students
present lessons to learners at a nearby school, while the other students attend
the lessons and assess each other’s presentations. A reflection session is held
after all the lessons, requiring feedback and comments from all the students.
On the following pages, some examples of assessment criteria and assessment
rubrics for micro-presentations are given. The assessment criteria enable the
students to know exactly what is required of them, and how to plan and present
each assignment. Since specific marks are allocated to each of the assessment
standards, they know what the main points of focus are and how they will be
assessed. Developing these assessment rubrics over a few years has indicated
that the more detailed and delimited the given assessment criteria, the better
the quality of the presentations of the students. Experience has also shown that
leading by example, enthusiastically demonstrating and explaining the
appropriate methodological principles, is the best way to raise the level of
teaching skills. As Regelski succinctly noted: “telling is not teaching” (1981, p.
360).
I have devised three different micro-presentations, each described with an
assessment rubric added to indicate all the points that students will be
assessed on (tables 5.18 - 5.24). Clear descriptions of all the methodological
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aspects are included according to the requirements of an efficient Music
educator. An example of a peer- and self-assessment form is also added at the
end, indicating empty spaces for comments where students have to critically
assess the methods utilised and verifying why certain marks are allocated (table
5.24). The micro presentations include:
•
an instrumental activity (tables 5.18 and 5.19);
•
a listening activity (tables 5.20 and 5.21); as well as
•
a singing activity (tables 5.22 and 5.23).
Table 5.18: Assessment criteria for an instrumental activity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Assessment criteria for an instrumental activity
Work in groups. The time limit for each presentation is 12 minutes.
Plan a non-melodic accompaniment for an instrumental soundtrack.
Use flashcards or a transparency displaying different colours for each section of the
form.
Choose suitable music with a lively beat and clear form. Do research on the
composer and composition, and include short but relevant information from this
during your presentation. A suitable theme may also be added.
Create an instrumental score for four groups of non-melodic instruments. Listen to
the music several times to be able to identify clear rhythmic patterns and the form
structure.
Identify easily recognisable rhythm patterns in the composition and try to imitate
those in the orchestration.
Repeat simple rhythm patterns – this is more effective than complex rhythm
patterns or frequent rhythmical changes.
Alternate instruments, using one or two groups at a time. All instruments playing
simultaneously should be reserved for an effective climax in the coda of a
composition.
Ensure that instrumental tone colours and rhythms are contrasted – strong rhythmic
patterns should be alternated with a lighter textural orchestration, including longer
note values or rests.
Use sparkling effects such as trills or cymbals sparingly as highlights in the
orchestration.
Use drums – which have a very dominating sound – for strong beats, but avoid
shorter note values on these instruments.
Simplify the notation on transparency. For example, work out a four-bar pattern for
every section, then write each pattern once only and use repeat signs.
Use large enough notation or lettering on the transparency or flashcards.
Use colour to identify different sections in the music.
Add pictures of instruments for easy recognition of instrumental parts.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.19: Assessment rubric for an instrumental activity
Assessment rubric for an instrumental activity
Preparation
• Has everything been well planned?
• Have instruments been placed in groups before the lecture?
• Is the instrumental score ready on transparency or flashcards?
• Is the sound recording or CD ready?
• Are all the presenters prepared and organised?
Media
• Is the transparency or flashcards visually striking and colourful?
• Is all the space used effectively on the transparency?
• Is the notation and lettering large and easy to read?
• Are there suitable pictures or illustrations?
• Are the correct transparency techniques applied? (Pointing, revealing and
overlay techniques, etc.)
Learning content
• Does the instrumental score complement the music?
• Is the form of the music represented in the instrumental score?
• Are the rhythm patterns correctly notated?
• Are the instrumental parts interesting and varied, yet simple enough for
successful performance by the learners?
• Have the name of the composer and the title of the work been included?
Style of Presentation
• Do all group members take an active part in the presentation – is each one
given an opportunity to take the lead?
• Is a brisk lesson tempo maintained?
• Are rhythm patterns clearly demonstrated?
• Are all the rhythm patterns of different instrumental groups efficiently practised
beforehand?
• Does the tempo of the practising session coincide with the tempo on the sound
recording?
• Are the instruments correctly ‘counted in’, using the appropriate number of
beats?
• Is the emphasis on making music – not too much talking?
• Are all the learners involved?
Originality and X-factor
• Is there an original touch and creativity?
• Is it a musical performance?
• Is there a balance between fun and learning?
Total
15
15
25
30
15
100
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.20: Assessment criteria for a listening activity
Assessment criteria for a listening activity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Work in groups. The time limit for each presentation is 12 minutes.
Plan a micro listening presentation using extracts from one of the following
compositions: Saint-Saëns – Carnival of the Animals; Prokofiev – Peter and the Wolf;
or Tchaikovsky – The Nutcracker.
Design a listening guide (sequence charts, call charts or theme charts) with
information about the music to make it interesting for the learners. Create
transparencies which include effective pictures, as well as the name of the composer
and title of the work. Also include short themes of the music in notation.
Create a listening questionnaire to use with the chosen composition. Short excerpts
should be recorded to illustrate clear music concepts. Concentrate on tone colour as
well as on one or two other music concepts. Add the name of the composer and the
title of the composition. Number each excerpt, and make sure that there is a clear
instruction of what is expected of learners.
Do research using resource material in the library or on the internet for information on
the composition and composer. This information has to be creatively adapted and
incorporated into learner friendly media; including a unique and innovative design.
Photocopy the listening questionnaire for members of the class.
Plan music activities in which the above listening guide and listening questionnaire can
be demonstrated.
Introduce the music theme with an ice breaker to draw the learners’ attention.
Play the excerpts of the listening questionnaire once, ensuring that all learners listen
attentively and fill in the answers individually. Implement an original way in which
answers can be checked when the same excerpts are played for a second time.
Ensure that all group members are actively involved during the whole presentation.
Every group member should present a part of the micro-lesson.
Hand copies of the listening questionnaire to the lecturer and to all members of the
class before your presentation.
Make sure that all group members have a master copy of the listening guides and
listening questionnaire as well as of the sound track, ready for inclusion in your music
portfolio which is due at the end of the third year.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.21: Assessment rubric for a listening activity
Assessment rubric for a listening activity
Planning the listening guide and listening questionnaire
• Has core content been chosen for the listening guide which illuminates and
enriches the music composition?
• Is the information relevant and sufficient for the chosen age group of the
learners, yet brief enough to retain their attention?
• Are both the listening questionnaire and listening guide visually attractive
with suitable pictures to enhance the music theme?
• Have appropriate music excerpts been chosen to illustrate specific music
concepts?
• Are the excerpts numbered on the listening questionnaire?
• Are the name of the composer and the title of the composition included?
• Is there a clear instruction for what is expected of the learners?
20
Striking visual aids
• Is there a variety of media displayed, including first, second and third
generation media?
• Are the visual materials interesting and colourful, and is it appropriate to
illustrate the music effectively?
40
Style of presentation
• Is the ice-breaker effective in involving the class and making them excited
about the theme?
• Is there active involvement of all group members who are presenting?
• Are all group members given an opportunity to take the lead during the
presentation?
• Is there effective use of time with brisk alternating of activities?
• Is the emphasis more on listening to music and less on talking or explaining?
• Has the presentation technique been well planned and implemented by
group members – does each one know exactly what to do?
• Does the group succeed in involving the class in active listening and
participation?
• Is an innovative way implemented to check the answers of the listening
questionnaire when excerpts are played for the second time?
20
Innovative and creative presentation.
• Is there a unique style and creativity which makes the presentation a
memorable experience?
20
Total
100
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.22: Assessment criteria for a singing activity
Assessment criteria for a singing activity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Work in groups. The time limit for each presentation is 15 minutes.
Choose an unknown song, preferably a folksong from any country, suitable for the
target group of your choice.
Write the song on transparency according to the correct notation and transparency
techniques. The transparency should be colourful and visually attractive. Lettering
should be large and neat – the typed texts used in printed song books are too small.
Rather use the notation as a given and add the text in a large font afterwards.
Add a suitable picture complementing the text, or consider using a series of pictures to
help learners remember the text. This is especially useful for young learners in the
Early Childhood Development or Foundation Phases. Groups of children receive sets
of pictures and place them in the correct order after listening to the song once.
At least one phrase, for example the refrain, should include staff notation. Make use of
the normal groupings of notes – separate quavers (as often found in songbooks) are
more difficult to read for inexperienced learners: quavers joined together are easier to
understand than separate quavers.
E.g:
is better than
Plan the teaching method of the song.
All presenters in the group should know the song by heart.
Play a recording of one verse, or sing one verse of the song. You may choose a
recorded accompaniment or backtrack for the song, or you may choose to provide your
own guitar or piano accompaniment. Ensure that the pitch on the recording is not too
low – young learners are unable to sing pitches below middle C (McLachlan, 1975, p.
9). Also ensure sure that the sound recording does not have a male voice if the target
group is young learners with unchanged voices – children have difficulty in intonating
the correct pitch from a male voice an octave lower.
Involve learners in a meaningful way when they hear the song for the first time. Ask
relevant questions about the song, e.g. phrases sounding the same or different.
Alternatively, learners can arrange transparency cards or pictures illustrating the text,
or they can imitate suitable movements which complements the song.
Teach the song phrase by phrase by singing while the learners imitate it.
Give the correct starting note on a melodic instrument, e.g. use chime bars or a chord
on the guitar.
Take care not to count ‘one, two, three’ if the song is does not have a three beat timesignature, or if it starts with an upbeat. Plan beforehand how many beats to ‘count in’.
Correct mistakes immediately if learners sing a phrase incorrectly.
As soon as the learners know one verse, other verses can be added. However, too
many verses for one song are often too time-consuming for a micro-presentation.
Movements or playing on classroom instruments can be added to make it more
interesting.
Make sure that all presenters are actively involved during the whole presentation.
Show enthusiasm to motivate the learners.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.23: Assessment rubric for a singing activity
Assessment rubric for a singing activity
Preparation
• Does everyone in the group know the song and text?
• Do all participate with confidence?
Media
• Are striking transparencies or other media used?
• Is the text large enough?
• Are there pictures which complement the theme?
• Is notation successfully included?
Choice of Song
• Is the text and difficulty level of the song appropriate for the target group?
• Is it an interesting and singable song?
• Is the text explained briefly if it is a folksong in another language?
Accompaniment and/or backtrack
• Is the accompaniment successful by using an appealing and appropriate
backtrack?
• Does the group provide their own accompaniment on the piano or guitar? Is
this accompaniment performed expertly, complementing the singing?
• Are learners adding the accompaniment by playing on classroom
instruments?
Style of Presentation
• Do the presenters know the song well?
• Do the presenters sing accurately in tune with solid intonation?
• If a sound recording is used, is it appropriate for classroom use? Is it the
correct pitch (not too low), with clear female or children’s voices?
• Is the correct starting note given, with appropriate ‘counting in’ and flow
during the teaching of the song?
• Do all members of the group take an active part in the presentation?
• Are all presenters given an opportunity to take the lead?
• Have effective movements or an instrumental activity been added?
• Is the emphasis on making music and not on talking?
Originality and X-factor
• Is there an original and creative approach?
• Is there an interesting introduction given before teaching the song?
• Have effective props or costumes been added to complement the theme?
Total
15
15
10
15
30
15
100
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Table 5.24: Peer assessment and self-assessment form
Peer assessment and self-assessment form
Assessment criteria
Comments
Mark
Preparation
15
Media
15
Learning content
25
Style of Presentation
30
Originality and X-factor
15
Total
100
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
5.8
SUMMARY
This chapter focused on OBE as an education system, the Revised National
Curriculum Statement, as well as on the philosophy underpinning the wholebrain learning theory. All these aspects shaped the design of the student
training courses which have been implemented at the Faculty of Education,
University of Pretoria. A vital aspect of the student training courses, but which
needs reconsideration, is that the number of lectures have decreased
significantly, especially regarding the training of students in the Foundation
Phase, while the demands for Music Education are ever increasing in the
national integrated curriculum.
An important aspect which should be considered is that teacher training never
really ends – it should be a continuous process maintained by means of INSET
courses. Being informed of the latest curricular developments and involved in
developing new skills make the educators of the future lifelong learners. In the
subsequent chapter I offer a synthesis of the inquiry.
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
CHAPTER 6
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1
INTRODUCTION
As indicated by the research title, this study was set against the context of the
implementation of Music within the integrated learning area Arts and Culture for
South African primary schools. The study examined the research questions
through the interpretive paradigm. By exploring the experiences of teachers, I
deepened my understanding of the dynamics between the curriculum (RNCS),
how it is interpreted by individual teachers, and how it is translated into action in
real classrooms. It also gave me insight in how lecturers and policy makers
view, interpret and act on the curriculum policy. I furthermore made a critical
study and evaluation of available resources, specifically regarding the suitability
of Music activities for use in Arts and Culture programmes.
The literature review in Chapter 2 revealed that there is inconsistency in the
application of an integrated Arts curriculum, and that further research is needed
to direct the implementation of Music Education within an integrated Arts and
Culture learning area. Although internationally Arts Education is often perceived
as an encompassing term, various art forms are frequently taught separately. In
the South African curriculum, however, the Arts are approached in an
intermingled fashion to simulate the blend which characterises traditional
African arts. A major problem observed regarding the implementation of Music
is that the training of teachers often does not correspond to the demands set by
school practice.
6-1
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
6.2
FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH
Finding the results of research is usually a mixture of joy and pain – on the one
hand it is a joy to have the answers that one has been searching for, but on the
other hand it is painful because not all the answers you had hoped for or
expected, were realised.
Some surprising results were found regarding the implementation of Music
Education. In the Intermediate and Senior phases, an encouraging and
constructive feedback is that learners’ general knowledge regarding music and
culture is expanded through the implementation of the new curriculum. Attitudes
towards music and cultural activities are also positively influenced. Learners
work diligently on research projects, obtaining insight and information from
people in the community, thereby reaching out to other cultures and embracing
respect and value for different arts practices. This information is assembled in
portfolios, and all the learners’ work is assessed and calculated as part of their
overall progress in each school year.
The reverse side of the coin is that the huge emphasis on theoretical
knowledge, gained through verbal discussions and research projects, diverts
valuable time away from actual music making activities. Music is first and
foremost about the product of music making or musicing (Elliott, 1995, p. 50). It
appears that very little time is allocated to actual music making activities such
as singing and playing on instruments.
Although a new curriculum has been implemented with novel and innovative
ideas, the same problems which were identified more than two decades ago in
Van der Merwe’s study (1986) seem to persist and have even deteriorated.
Where learners in the Senior phase used to spend approximately 49% of the
time during music lessons on singing activities, the number of songs taught in
the Senior phase of today’s South African primary schools seems to be cut
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
down to an average of only 8 songs per annum, this being in the ‘best scenario’
schools. In Van der Merwe’s 1986 study, it was also noticed that playing on
instruments was very limited in the Senior phase, while the same learners
indicated that they took part in many instrumental activities during their earlier
school years (Van der Merwe, 1986, p. 44). Instrumental activities have all but
disappeared in the current implementation of Music Education. This
phenomenon has also been reported in research undertaken in Botswana
(Bennett, 2001, p. iii).
Furthermore, there is an emphasis on the making of music instruments in
various grades as prescribed by the curriculum (Grade 4 and Grade 7).
However, very little if any music making activities take place during which these
instruments are utilised. This results in the instruments becoming ‘objects of art’
or ‘props’, since without actively musicing with these instruments, there is no
music taking place.
Another factor that negatively influences music making activities is the time
educators have to spend on assessment. Each learner needs to be
continuously assessed, and this is far more challenging and time-consuming
during practical activities than in theoretical and written assignments. The
portfolios indicating assessment and growth in learners’ knowledge may seem
impressive, but in practice there is little if any growth of music making skills.
The main issue identified in this study is the integrating of four art forms by
one teacher. In many African arts genres, for example the “tshikona”, various
arts are blended using “song, dance, drama poetry and design” (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2002b, p. 110). This is a typical example of the fusion
of musical arts in Africa. One of the underlying philosophical aspects in African
music is that one must be actively involved and take part as a group – music
only has meaning when there is participation. The ideal vehicle for integrated
arts, therefore, is the African arts practices. This is also the underpinning
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
principle on which the national curriculum for Arts and Culture has been based.
In Western music practices, the emphasis lies with the individual and with the
discrete art forms. Most South African university programmes which were part
of this study still emphasise separate Arts Education with little or no integration.
The challenge is to find feasible ways to include both African and Western arts
practices.
Arts specialists all agree that their art form requires dedication, skills and
intensive training to be able to achieve the necessary level of competence to
teach it effectively. The curriculum demands integration, therefore teachers are
in a survival mode, opting to focus on theoretical knowledge and values, since
these can be attained by any teacher, regardless of the individual’s artistic
talent in various arts.
All the findings of this research are displayed in figure 6.1 overleaf, which refers
back to the main focus of investigation, as well as the triangulation of the data
collection process (see figure 1.1, Chapter 1).
6-4
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Arrows from within the triangle lead to explanatory text boxes, briefly describing
the main findings of the research.
Music Teacher: findings
•
Teachers have to integrate four arts into
one learning area
Teachers are rarely trained in more than
one art form
Generalist teachers in Foundation phase
often do not include Music Education
Time allocation not equally divided
between art forms
Lack of adequate equipment and venues
for Music Education
Lack of communication between policy
makers and school
Little support from departments to uplift
standard of Music Education
Highly complex curriculum, claiming a lot of
time for assessment
Insufficient and inadequate resources
(books and CDs) for implementation of
effective Music Education.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Student training: findings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Emphasis still on training discrete arts
Varying degrees of integrated arts
presented
Integrated arts programmes indicate
overload
Insufficient communication between
different universities
Insufficient communication between
universities and policy makers
Insufficient communication between
universities and schools
No standard curriculum for student
training in Music and Arts Education.
Policy makers & curriculum: findings
•
•
•
•
•
Complex and highly sophisticated
curriculum
FESs not always Music or Arts
specialists
Lack of communication between policy
makers and schools
Lack of communication between policy
makers and universities
Need for regular INSET courses.
Resources: findings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inconsistent standard of
commercially available books for
Arts and Culture
Music sections often not written by
Music Education specialists
Usually lacks sound material (CDs)
Themes often focus on superficial
links between arts
Often no coherent progression of
music knowledge or concepts
Emphasis on knowledge about
music instead of on music making
Insufficient and vague descriptions
of music making activities
Insufficient information and activities
for African music.
Figure 6.1: Research focus and findings
6-5
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
6.3
ANSWERING THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to answer the questions of the research in the four focus areas where
data was collected, recommendations are suggested in each of the focus areas.
The following list is not necessarily presented in order of priority, but clustered
to provide an overview for the reader.
6.3.1
•
Schools and the music teacher
To integrate four arts into one learning area by a single teacher is not
conducive to the integrity of each art form. The ideal is that every school
appoints at least two specialists, being Music Education and Visual Art
specialists. The venues, equipment and nature of the activities for these two
art forms are so varied and specialised, that it is not feasible to be taught in
the same classroom and by the same teacher. Where Visual Art focuses on
learners working individually, Music mainly involves group activities and
cooperation. Since movement and dance activities often form part of Music
Education, the Dance component of the Arts and Culture learning area can
be accommodated during Music activities. Drama should ideally be
integrated within the languages, since it enhances the literacy programme
and is based on communication skills. Furthermore, the Language, Literacy
and Communication learning area is allocated the largest part of notional
time given to any learning area.
•
Whenever possible, schools should utilise Music specialists for the
implementation of Music Education in the Foundation phase. Music
specialists are often appointed as generalists in the Foundation phase –
these teachers should be encouraged to deliver Music for a whole grade in
the Foundation phase, while other teachers take care of one of the other
disciplines in exchange. Alternatively, these teachers need to be used as
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
mentors to support other teachers involved in the implementation of Music.
Methods of applying team teaching in the Foundation Phase should be
explored.
•
Time allocation needs scrupulous attention from principals and heads of
departments to make sure that sufficient time is allocated to Music
Education. Although the total learning area is only allocated 8% of notional
time according to national policy, it implies that at least one period of 30
minutes per week should be utilised for Music Education.
•
School principals should be made aware of the detrimental effect it has on
learners when teachers of other disciplines are used to teach Music (Primos,
1993, p. 102).
•
Teachers should endeavour to find ways to integrate practical music making
activities in their programmes. They should focus more on the development
of music skills in their learners than on developing skills of collecting
information about music – skills which are already adequately catered for in
other disciplines of the overall curriculum.
•
Creative and innovative ways to supply adequate equipment for Music
Education need attention. The manufacturing of sets of home-made
percussion instruments by the learners as stipulated by the curriculum could
be adapted to supply active music-making opportunities for all learners,
including those in the Foundation phase.
•
Teachers should be encouraged to continually strive to improve their
teaching capabilities and musical skills, since “teacher improvement rarely
occurs by chance” (Delport, 1996, p. 16 [Appendix]). This can be enhanced
by regular attendance of INSET courses, where capacity to develop their
6-7
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
own learning programmes, as required by the RNCS (South Africa.
Department of Education, 2003b, Foreword), can be expanded.
6.3.2
•
Policy makers and the curriculum
The benefits of the RNCS should be celebrated and emphasised, focusing
on the major improvement of Arts and Culture being well-established as an
official and assessed learning area.
•
A concerted effort should be made by Music Education specialists at
universities and schools to influence the perception of policy makers who
often view Music as an elitist subject reserved for the privileged few. A
paradigm shift needs to be made to emphasise the role of Music Education
as a basic right for all learners.
•
Policy makers should be influenced to realise the need for Music Education
specialists in advising roles as First Education Specialists (FESs) at
departmental level, in order to provide guidance and support to teachers in
the field. Involving subject advisors in post-graduate courses in Music
Education would be an important aspect in changing perspectives of the
value and role of Music in education.
•
Since Music Education is currently in a survival mode and often does not
take place in disenfranchised communities, the utilitarian role of Music
Education in the overall curriculum, implemented as a vital tool in developing
listening, language and literacy skills as well as general brain development
for all learners, should be promoted. Without the skill of using the ears for
active listening, instead of for passive hearing, no other school training could
be successful, since the whole education system is based on the ear as a
main means by which knowledge and skills are conveyed.
6-8
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
•
In a country where crime is a constant threat, the positive role of Music
Education and cultural activities in bringing about human dignity,
compassion, and an awareness of social responsibilities, cannot be
underestimated.
•
The provincial departments of education should supply adequate support by
means of INSET courses (in-service training of teachers) to uplift the
standard of Music Education. Excellent Music educators and lecturers from
universities should be identified to be actively involved in these courses. The
Universities of Pretoria, North-West and Stellenbosch currently endorse
such practices by involving teachers in short courses, enabling them to gain
further training and skills for the demands of an integrated curriculum. Such
courses should be implemented on a large scale in all provinces.
•
Any curriculum needs regular revision. The RNCS provides a solid base to
work from, but it is time for it to be revised and reformed to make it more
realistic, feasible and practical for teachers to implement, especially for
generalist teachers in the Early Childhood Development and the Foundation
phases.
6.3.3
•
Universities and teacher training
In this study, Music and Visual Arts have been identified as main art forms. It
is proposed that students receive specialist training in one of these main art
forms (Music and Visual Art). The same specialist students should receive a
secondary specialisation in the other main art form, as well as a short
overview of Drama and Dance.
•
Students specialising in Music should be well trained as musicians, with
extensive Music Education skills in planning and executing practical music
6-9
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
making activities for groups of learners. They should furthermore be
equipped with a solid knowledge base of musics from a variety of styles and
genres to cope with the demands of the curriculum and a multicultural
school system. They should also gain insight and first hand knowledge of
methods by which meaningful integration between various arts can be
accomplished, maintaining the integrity of each discrete art form.
•
Regular contact is necessary with, and feedback from, students who have
completed courses in Music and Arts Education, and who are currently in
teaching posts, to make sure that course material is still relevant and up-todate with the demands of school practice.
•
Lecturers in the discrete art forms at one institution should work as a team
towards the accomplishment of excellence in the training of students in the
arts, emphasising specialist skills, with some links across the Arts. Lecturers
in languages should be encouraged to include Drama as component of the
language discipline to enhance and enrich their courses.
•
Universities should work towards nationwide co-ordination in the training of
students regarding Music Education as part of the learning area Arts and
Culture. A standardised course for Education students, specialising in Music
Education as part of the learning area Arts and Culture, should be
developed.
6.3.4
•
Resources
There is an urgent need for a Basal Integrated Arts Series specifically for the
South African context. This need was already identified in terms of Music
Education more than two decades ago (Van der Merwe, 1986, p. 133). Key
role players in Music Education as well as in the other Arts should be
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
involved in this process, combining the strengths of a variety of specialists
and ensuring that there is coherency regarding progression of concepts and
activities. The most important feature for the music sections of such a series
should be that it includes sound material (CDs) for listening as well as for
singing and other music making activities.
•
A website for music resources should be set up, providing songs, music
activities as well as networking opportunities for primary school teachers all
over South Africa. This could stimulate ‘idea factories’ where teachers share
information and provide support and solutions to challenges faced during
their daily experiences. Although most schools in South Africa do not have
internet access or computers, this service could used by mentor teachers or
FESs to provide support for schools in disenfranchised areas during cluster
meetings.
•
A graded song book with folk songs reflecting all cultures and languages in
South Africa would be very valuable in helping teachers choose suitable
songs for inclusion during Music lessons; especially if it is accompanied by a
CD with accompaniments for the songs (backtracks). An inspiring project in
this regard has been the compilation of such a song book by the Western
Cape Education Department (2008b), which includes songs in five
languages as well as an accompaniment CD. Another publication which has
already been implemented and tested through various INSET courses, and
which was specifically compiled for use by students and teachers in the
Foundation phase with little or no background in music, is Junior Collage, a
book accompanied by two CDs (Van Aswegen & Vermeulen, 2000). This set
includes sound excerpts for all the music concepts, as well as listening
material, songs, and backtracks for all the songs.
•
There is a specific need for sound recordings and books with African music
for classroom activities. The curriculum places a high priority on the
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Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
inclusion of African music in a variety of styles, yet there is little material
available commercially, especially regarding sound CDs with songs, and
DVD material which includes directions for the performance of movements
with the songs. A positive step in providing a solution has already been
taken through the publication of the new edition of African Collage
(Vermeulen & Van Aswegen, 2008), which contains information on the basic
principles of African music, listening questionnaires and sound tracks of a
wide variety of African instruments, as well as a compilation of traditional
African songs supported by backtracks for use in the classroom. This
material has already been tested through implementation during various
INSET courses as well as by music teachers in schools.
•
An important resource which is urgently needed in the South African tertiary
setting is a handbook for the training of teachers in Music Education. This
need has already been observed by Van Eeden in 1995 (p. 160). Although
valuable international publications, such as Deirdre Russell-Bowie’s
pioneering book on integrated Arts, MMADD about the Arts (2006), have
served to fill a gap, there remains a need for a South African publication
specifically suited to the unique demands of local circumstances and
cultures. The only book issued for this purpose in the South African context,
was Philip McLachlan’s book on Education in Class Music, published in
Afrikaans more than three decades ago (1975). Apart from current changes
in the curriculum, multi-cultural approaches as well as new trends regarding
the integration of the arts should be included in such a publication.
6.4
•
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Further research is urgently needed regarding the implementation of music
in the Foundation phase, since this is the area of greatest concern and
where Music Education most frequently does not take place. There is a
policy that only the class teacher – usually a generalist – may teach the
6-12
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
learners in the Foundation phase. This implies that all learning areas have to
be implemented by one teacher. With a ‘crowded’ curriculum, an emphasis
on Literacy and Numeracy, and a multitude of assessment standards to be
reached, Music is usually moved to the last period on a Friday. In effect, the
Music lesson never takes place since there are always other, ‘more urgent’
outcomes to be achieved. Methods by which music can be functionally
integrated into all the other learning areas of the Foundation Phase need to
be explored.
•
Further research is required to investigate and compare the courses in
Music and Arts education at all South African universities, and to determine
in which ways students are trained to serve the needs of Music and the Arts
at schools.
•
Research is vital for a better understanding and knowledge of the musical
arts in Africa, especially regarding the African music concepts in the RNCS
and the implementation thereof in the learning area Arts and Culture.
•
Research is needed to find feasible solutions to the low emphasis given to
practical music making activities in schools. Group instrumental activities
such as drumming and percussion bands should be investigated as
alternative pathways to realise the outcomes for Music Education in the
curriculum.
•
Research should give the lead regarding the smooth transition of the general
Arts and Culture learning area into the discrete art forms of the FET phase.
At the moment, learners who want to specialise in one of the four discrete
art forms in Grades 10-12 are expected to proceed from the general Arts
and Culture learning area in Grade 9 to the specialised art form in Grade 10.
While this may be possible for students talented in Visual Arts or Drama, this
6-13
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
is not possible for Music which requires years of skills and knowledge to
develop and mature to the required level expected for Grade 10.
6.5
CONCLUSION
One of the envisaged outcomes of this research is that existing music
programmes at various universities countrywide should expand and develop to
be
more
consistent
and
coherent.
It
is
recommended
that
greater
communication should exist between lecturers of all institutions, so as to equip
teachers-in-training with excellent musicianship skills. Students should also
receive methodological skills to cope with the challenges of an integrated
curriculum, as well as with large numbers of learners simultaneously making
music. The sustainability and expansion of well trained teachers in the Arts and
Culture learning area remains of the utmost importance if an effect is desired in
the lives of all South African children.
A well implemented Music Education programme in all South African schools
would contribute to a community which can benefit from improved health,
education, self-perception and emotional wellbeing of all its children. There is a
great need for creating opportunities for the children of all communities to be
musically nurtured, developing talent and providing joyful activities in sometimes
discouraging or uninspiring school environments. Music is the one area in
schools where children can be empowered to make changes in the way
humankind views the world.
Figure 6.2 illustrates a model of the envisaged aspects which could lead to
Music teachers increasingly experiencing success in their classrooms. Where
the model for this research started as a triangle (figure 1.1), this evolved into a
shape with more angles, representing a star to emulate hope and success for
the future of Music Education in South Africa.
6-14
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
SUCCESS
Support from
Support from
policy makers
schools and
Music
the community
teachers
Excellent training
Ample resources
and regular
of high quality
INSET courses
which include
sound material
Figure 6.2: Aspects leading to success in Music Education
6-15
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
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Association for Music Therapy.
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D.J. Elliott (Ed.), Praxial Music Education: Reflections and Dialogues (pp.
249-266). New York: Oxford University Press.
Woodward, S.C. (2007). Nation Building-One Child at a Time: Early Childhood
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pp. 33-42.
Wright, S. (2001). Guiding Learning Processes in the Integration of the Arts.
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S-18
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1:
Semi-structured interview schedule for Arts and Culture
teachers in Primary schools.
APPENDIX 2:
Letter of Permission: Approval of participation in research –
Subjects and institutions
APPENDIX 3:
Letter of informed consent for the Educator
A-1
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
APPENDIX 1
Semi-structured interview schedule for Arts and Culture teachers in Primary schools.
Semi-gestruktureerde onderhoud vir Kuns en Kultuur onderwysers in Primêre skole.
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
It should take approximately 60 minutes to complete this interview.
Dit behoort ongeveer 60 minutes te neem om die onderhoud te voltooi.
SECTION A
A1
School environment / Skoolomgewing
Name of School / Naam van Skool
Describe the socio economic status of the school parents.
Beskryf die sosio-ekonomiese status van die skool se ouers.
A2
High / Hoog
Average / Gemiddeld
Low / Laag
Classroom environment and resources / Klaskameromgewing en hulpmiddels
Is there a special venue or classroom for presenting Music or the other art forms? Describe the use of the
venue or classroom/s for the different art forms. / Is daar ’n spesiale lokaal of klaskamer vir die aanbieding
van Musiek of die ander kunste? Beskryf die gebruik van die lokaal/lokale vir die onderskeie kunsvorme.
A3
Which type of utilities, equipment and funding are available and being used regularly for the presentation of
Music? Also name specific classroom instruments and where they are stored. Did the school recently receive
melodicas and guitars? / Watter tipe hulpmiddels, toerusting en fondse is beskikbaar en word gereeld vir
die aanbieding van Musiek gebruik? Noem ook spesifieke klaskamerinstrumente en waar hulle geberg word.
Het die skool onlangs melodikas en kitare ontvang?
A4
Which utilities or equipment are not adequately provided, but which you regard as important for the
successful implementation of Music? / Watter hulpmiddels of toerusting ontbreek, wat u as belangrik vir die
suksesvolle implementering van Musiek beskou?
A-2
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
SECTION B
B
Profile of the teacher and personal details / Profiel van die onderwyser en persoonlike besonderhede
Name
Tel numbers
Naam
Tel nommers
B1
Training / Opleiding
Qualifications /
Kwalifikasies
Description / Beskrywing
After school training
Naskoolse opleiding
Additional diploma or course/s
Bykomende diploma of kursus/se
B2
In which of the art forms, if any, did you receive training? For how many years? Describe.
In watter van die kunsvorme, indien enige, het u opleiding ontvang? Vir hoeveel jaar? Beskryf.
Art form / Kunsvorm
Description / Beskrywing
Music / Musiek
Visual art / Visuele kuns
Drama
Dance / Dans
A-3
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
SECTION C
C
Time Allocation for the Arts / Tydstoekenning vir die Kunste
How many periods are allocated to the learning area Arts and Culture every week?
Hoeveel periodes word weekliks aan die leerarea Kuns en Kultuur toegestaan?
How long are the periods for Arts and Culture (in minutes)?
C2 Hoe lank is die periodes vir Kuns en Kultuur (in minute)?
How many learners are there in the average class?
C3 Hoeveel leerders is daar in ’n gemiddelde klas?
Which percentage of time is generally given to each of the arts in relation to the number of periods
C4 allocated? / Watter persentasie tyd word gemiddeld aan elk van die kunste gegee in verhouding met die
aantal periodes?
Describe the balance or focus point of the Arts and Culture learning area in
terms of time allocated to each art form. / Beskryf die balans of fokuspunt
Art form / Kunsvorm
%
van die Kuns en Kultuur leerarea in terme van tyd toegeken aan elke
kunsvorm.
C1
Music / Musiek
Visual Art / Visuele kuns
Drama
Dance / Dans
C5
How is the learning area Arts and Culture subdivided between teachers and number of periods in the
various grades? / Hoe word die leerarea Kuns en Kultuur tussen onderwysers en aantal periodes in die
verskillende grade verdeel?
Foundation Phase
Intersen Phase
C6
Comment on the division of the arts and the time allocation given to each of the art forms in your school. /
Lewer kommentaar oor die verdeling van die kunste en die tydindeling wat toegeken is aan elke kunsvorm
in u skool.
A-4
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
SECTION D
D
D1
Implementing Music as part of the Arts and Culture learning area /
Implementering van Musiek as deel van die leerarea Kuns en Kultuur
The Value of Music / Die Waarde van Musiek
Why do you think Music, as part of the learning area Arts and Culture, is important in the school programme? /
Waarom dink u is Musiek, as deel van die leerarea Kuns en Kultuur, belangrik in die skoolprogram?
D2
Questions on Arts and Culture as an integrated learning area in the new curriculum /
Vrae oor Kuns en Kultuur as ’n geïntegreerde leerarea in die nuwe kurrikulum
In your opinion, what are the advantages and/or disadvantages of an integrated learning area for Arts and Culture? /
Wat is volgens u die voordele en of nadele van ’n geïntegreerde leerarea vir Kuns en Kultuur?
Advantages:
Disadvantages:
In your view, what is the ideal solution for the implementation of Music within the learning area Arts and Culture?
Should the arts be presented by one or more teacher/s? / Wat is u siening rakende die ideale oplossing vir die
implementering van Musiek binne die leerarea Kuns en Kultuur? Behoort die kunste deur een of meer onderwyser/s
aangebied te word?
D3
What are your feelings regarding OBE and groupwork in the learning area Arts and Culture? /
Hoe voel u oor UGO en groepwerk in die leerarea Kuns en Kultuur?
D4
Which music activities regularly form part of lessons? Which of the music activities do the learners enjoy the
most? / Watter musiekaktiwiteite word gereeld by lesse ingesluit? Watter van hierdie musiekaktiwiteite geniet
die leerders die meeste?
D5
Open-ended discussion: Name any other relevant comments / questions you would like to add.
Oop gesprek: Noem enige ander relevante opmerkings / vrae wat u graag wil byvoeg.
A-5
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
APPENDIX 2
Letter of Permission: Approval of participation in research – Subjects and institutions
Music Department
School of the Arts
Faculty of Humanities
University of Pretoria
Dear
_______________________________
Name of School: _______________________________
APPLICATION FOR PERMISSION: PARTICIPATION IN RESEARCH
I am requesting permission to include your school in a research project for postgraduate study.
Researcher:
Study:
Study leaders:
Dorette Vermeulen
DMus
Prof C. van Niekerk & Prof H. van der Mescht
Title of research project:
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Background to the study:
The South African education curriculum, including the arts, has changed dramatically during the last few years.
Instead of separate syllabi for each of the art forms as in the past, there is now an integrated learning area for Arts
and Culture which encompasses all the arts. This new curriculum places high demands on the teachers, and it is
imperative to gain insight regarding how education students should be trained for these demands. The experience
and perspectives of your teachers are extremely valuable in order to arrive at meaningful solutions to the problem.
Part of the study is planned with the inclusion of a few local primary schools. The voluntary participation of schools
involve interviews with teachers responsible for the Music component in the learning area Arts and Culture. One
teacher from each of the following phases are invited to participate:
•
Foundation phase
•
Intersen phase.
Possible risks or disadvantages for participation in the study:
Information disclosed during interviews or questionnaires is not foreseen to be of a sensitive nature. Apart from the
time which interviews/questionnaires may take, participation should not involve any disadvantages or risks to the
school, institution or individuals. Should participants prefer confidentiality, their anonymity will be respected.
Benefits of participation in the study:
Participants in the study, as well as the wider educational community, should benefit from the research. The study
should provide insight for student training concerning the effective implementation of Music in the learning area Arts
and Culture. The outcomes of the research will be made available to any interested participants.
I hope that you will consider favourably this request for participation in the research.
Yours sincerely
_________________________
Dorette Vermeulen (researcher)
A-6
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
APPENDIX 3
Letter of informed consent for the Educator
Music Department
School of the Arts
Faculty of Humanities
University of Pretoria
Contact details of study leaders
Prof C. van Niekerk & Prof H. van der Mescht
Tel: (012) 420-2600 / (012) 420-2191
E-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
Researcher:
Department:
Student no:
Student address:
Tel no of student:
Dorette Vermeulen
Music
89748370
131 Anderson Street
Brooklyn
Pretoria
0181
(012) 362-0125 / (082) 556-3268
Title of the study:
Implementing music in an integrated arts curriculum for South African primary schools
Dear Colleague
You are invited to participate in a research project aimed at finding out how teachers in the Arts and Culture learning
area integrate Music and the various art forms of the curriculum. I hereby ask your kind permission for an interview in
which your responses to questions relevant to the topic of the study can be recorded. I would be most willing to share
the outcomes of the research via e-mail after completion of the study, if required by participants. I do not regard the
information that you will disclose during the interview as being sensitive. However, should you wish to remain
anonymous, your anonymity will be respected. You may decide to withdraw at any stage should you wish not to
continue with the interview.
If you are willing to participate in this study, please sign this letter as a declaration of your consent.
I, ________________________________________, give permission that my responses to the interview may be
used for the purpose of research and education. I am fully aware of the nature of the research and acknowledge that
I may withdraw at any time and that my participation in this research is voluntary. The information that I will disclose
during the interview is not regarded as being sensitive. However, should I wish to remain anonymous, my anonymity
and confidentiality will be adhered to. I understand that this research is for the development of music in South Africa.
Participant:
______________________________ Date: ___________
DMus student/researcher: Dorette Vermeulen:
______________________________ Date: ___________
A-7
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