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Clinical
Practice
Guidelines
for Quality
Palliative
Care
FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
National Consensus Project Steering Committee
Robert Arnold, M.D.
Judith R. Peres, L.C.S.W.-C.
University of Pittsburgh School of
Medicine
Last Acts Partnership
Ann Berger, R.N., M.S.N., M.D.
Beth Israel Medical Center
National Institutes of Health, Warren
Grant Magnuson Clinical Center
True Ryndes, A.N.P., M.P.H.
J. Andrew Billings, M.D.
Massachusetts General Hospital
Palliative Care Service
Harvard Medical School Center for
Palliative Care
Anne Cordes, M.B.A.
American Academy of Hospice and
Palliative Medicine
Constance M. Dahlin, M.S.N.,
A.P.R.N., B.C., P.C.M.
Massachusetts General Hospital
Betty Ferrell, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N.
City of Hope National Medical Center
Karen Orloff Kaplan, M.P.H., Sc.D.
Last Acts Partnership
Mary Labyak, M.S.W., L.C.S.W.
The Hospice of the Florida Suncoast
Judy Lentz, R.N., M.S.N., O.C.N.,
N.H.A.
Hospice and Palliative Nurses
Association
Diane E. Meier, M.D., F.A.C.P.
Center to Advance Palliative Care
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Russell K. Portenoy, M.D.
National Hospice Work Group
San Diego Hospice & Palliative Care
J. Donald Schumacher, Psy.D.
National Hospice and Palliative Care
Organization
Deborah Witt Sherman,
Ph.D., A.P.R.N., A.N.P.,
B.C.-P.C.M., F.A.A.N.
New York University
David Simpson, M.A., L.S.W.
Hospice of the Western Reserve
Martha Twaddle, M.D., F.A.C.P.,
F.A.A.H.P.M.
Palliative CareCenter and
Hospice of the North Shore
Charles F. von Gunten, M.D.,
Ph.D., F.A.C.P.
San Diego Hospice & Palliative Care
J. Richard Williams, Jr., M.D.
VITAS Healthcare Corporation
Clinical
Practice
Guidelines
for Quality
Palliative
Care
Palliative care programs are
growing in response to patient
need. They provide assessment
and treatment of pain and other
symptoms; help with patientcentered communication
and decision-making; and
coordination of care across
settings and through serious
illness. These Guidelines were
developed through consensus of
care organizations and describe
the core precepts and structures of
clinical palliative care programs.
National
Project
NationalConsensus
Consensus
Project
flilliative
Care
One Penn Center West, Suite 229
109
Cambridge
Place
Pittsburgh,
PA. 15276-0100
Brooklyn,
NY
11238
Phone: (412) 787-1002
(718) 622-0089 phone
Fax: (412) 787-9305
(718) 622-0577 fax
www.nationalconsensusproject.org
May 2004
F OR Q UA L I T Y PA L L I AT I V E C A RE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
By its very nature, a consensus document brings together the thinking of many
individuals, and this has certainly been the case in this project. The Steering
Committee of the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care extends
its thanks to all the health care professionals who gave us the benefit of their
support, experience and thoughtful comments as the Guidelines were developed.
In addition, we thank the following individuals who made significant contributions
to the successful completion and publication of the Guidelines. We offer thanks to
Deborah Heller, Ph.D., who provided invaluable help with the initial organization
of the project; Marianne Matzo, Ph.D., A.P.R.N., B.C., F.A.A.N., who helped
with the initial drafting and referencing research; and Mary Meyer, who provided
administrative support for the project. We extend special thanks to Judi Lund
Person of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization for her assistance
in editing the final draft of the Guidelines.
We are grateful to the following institutions for their support:
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Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY
City of Hope National Medical Center
Harvard Medical School Center for Palliative Care
The Hospice of the Florida Suncoast
Massachusetts General Hospital
Hertzberg Palliative Care Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
National Hospice Work Group
National Institutes of Health, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center
New York University, Steinhardt School of Education, Division of Nursing
Palliative Care Center and Hospice of the North Shore
San Diego Hospice and Palliative Care
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Vitas HealthCare
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
FUNDERS
THE NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
We are deeply grateful to the following organizations and foundations for the
financial support that made this project possible:
• American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine
• Center to Advance Palliative Care
• The Charitable Leadership Foundation
• Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association
• Hospice of the Western Reserve
• Last Acts Partnership (formerly Partnership for Caring)
• Mayday Fund
• National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization
• The Purdue Pharma Fund
• The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
v
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
CONSORTIUM ORGANIZATIONS
American Academy of Hospice
and Palliative Medicine
4700 W. Lake Avenue
Glenview, IL 60025-2485
847/375-4712
www.aahpm.org
Center to Advance Palliative Care
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
1255 Fifth Avenue, Suite C-2
New York, NY 10029-6574
212/201-2670
www.capc.org
Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association
Penn Center West One, Suite 229
Pittsburgh, PA 15276
412/787-9301
www.hpna.org
Last Acts Partnership
1620 “Eye” Street, Suite 202
Washington, DC 20006
202/296-8071
www.lastactspartnership.org
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization
1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 625
Alexandria, VA 22314
703/837-1500
www.nhpco.org
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NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Table of Contents
Foreword................................................................................................................... 1
Definition of Palliative Care ...................................................................................................................3
Background.............................................................................................................................................4
Patient Population Served.......................................................................................................................4
Specialty-Level Palliative Care and Palliative Care in Primary Treatment Settings...............................5
Core Elements of Palliative Care ............................................................................................................5
Models of Palliative Care Delivery .........................................................................................................7
The Need for Further Expansion of Palliative Care Services .................................................................8
Palliative Care Across the Continuum ....................................................................................................9
The Need for Consensus ....................................................................................................................... 11
Purpose of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care .............................................. 11
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care.......................................... 14
Domain 1: Structure and Processes of Care.......................................................................................... 16
Domain 2: Physical Aspects of Care ..................................................................................................... 21
Domain 3: Psychological and Psychiatric Aspects of Care................................................................... 24
Domain 4: Social Aspects of Care ........................................................................................................ 27
Domain 5: Spiritual, Religious and Existential Aspects of Care .......................................................... 29
Domain 6: Cultural Aspects of Care..................................................................................................... 31
Domain 7: Care of the Imminently Dying Patient ................................................................................ 33
Domain 8: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Care...................................................................................... 35
Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 39
Notes on References .............................................................................................. 41
References by Section............................................................................................ 43
Appendix 1
Palliative Care and the Hospice Movement in the United States.......................................................... 57
Responding to Community Need ......................................................................................................... 58
History of the National Consensus Project........................................................................................... 61
Organizational Structure of the National Consensus Project............................................................... 62
Process for Developing Consensus........................................................................................................ 63
Appendix 2
National Consensus Project Advisory Committee ............................................................................... 65
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
vii
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Foreword
Palliative care and hospice programs have grown rapidly in recent years in
response both to growth in the population living with chronic, debilitating and
life-threatening illness and to clinician interest in effective approaches to the care of
such patients. (1, 2) Palliative care is medical care provided by an interdisciplinary
team, including the professions of medicine, nursing, social work, chaplaincy,
counseling, nursing assistants and other health care professions, focused on the
relief of suffering and support for the best possible quality of life for patients facing
serious life-threatening illness, and their families. It aims to identify and address
the physical, psychological, spiritual and practical burdens of illness. (2) This report
will provide background on the clinical and educational imperatives that are driving
the growth of palliative care and hospice services, review the outcomes of palliative
care, describe its clinical components and the range of service models available, and
present a professional consensus on the clinical guidelines for quality palliative care
services.
The initiative to create a consensus on clinical practice guidelines for quality
palliative care in the United States has its roots in the recommendations of three
Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports, Approaching Death, When Children Die, and
Crossing the Quality Chasm, as well as the American Association of Colleges of
Nursing (AACN) report, Peaceful Death, and a recent monograph by the National
Hospice Work Group (NHWG) and the Hastings Center, in association with the
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO), entitled Access to
Hospice Care: Expanding Boundaries, Overcoming Barriers. (3, 4) All five reports call
for substantive changes to improve access to palliative care across the life span, in
all health care settings, during all stages of debilitating chronic or life-threatening
illness or injury. These changes include enhancements in the quality of care,
restructuring of health care system regulations on service, education of health care
professionals and research to support evidence-based palliative care practice.
Broadening medical care to integrate palliative and life-prolonging interventions is
a major challenge for health care in the United States. Because palliation is a critical
dimension of health care, all patients should have access to primary health care
practitioners who are skilled and knowledgeable about basic palliative therapies.
All physicians need to know when the services of interdisciplinary specialist-level
palliative care clinicians are indicated and how to access them. When a patient
moves into the late stages of a life-threatening or debilitating condition, the relative
Note: Reference numbers in parentheses refer to the grouped references on pages 43 to 55.
For complete citations, go to the bibliography at www.nationalconsensusproject.org/guidelines.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
1
need for palliative care increases, and access to hospice programs must be enhanced
to assure comprehensive and high-intensity palliative care during this stage of illness
and during family bereavement. Such an approach should provide all patients with
an integrated approach to treatment that looks to quality of life as well as quality of
care throughout their experience with the health care system. Similarly, the palliative
care needs of patients and families across the continuum should be met by a
genuine and collaborative partnership between palliative care providers and hospice
programs. Close coordination and partnerships between palliative care and hospice
programs are critical to achieving continuity of palliative care throughout the full
course of an illness and across the continuum of care settings.
The effort to integrate palliative care into all health care for debilitating and lifethreatening illnesses should help to ensure that:
1. Pain and symptom control, psychosocial distress, spiritual issues and practical
needs are addressed with patient and family throughout the continuum of care.
2. Patients and families obtain the information they need in an ongoing and
understandable manner, in order to grasp their condition and treatment
options. Their values and goals are elicited over time; the benefits and burdens
of treatment are regularly reassessed; and the decision-making process about
the care plan is sensitive to changes in the patient’s condition.
3. Genuine coordination of care across settings is ensured through regular
and high-quality communication between providers at times of transition
or changing needs, and through effective continuity of care that utilizes the
techniques of case management.
4. Both patient and family are prepared for the dying process and for death, when
it is anticipated. Hospice options are explored, opportunities for personal
growth are enhanced and bereavement support is available for the family.
The purpose of the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care is to
establish Clinical Practice Guidelines that promote care of consistent and high quality
and that guide the development and structure of new and existing palliative care
services. These guidelines are applicable to specialist-level palliative care delivered in
a range of treatment settings, as well as to the work of providers in primary treatment
settings where palliative approaches to care are integrated into daily clinical practice.
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NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Palliative Care's Place in the Course of Illness
Life-Prolonging Therapy
Diagnosis
of Serious
Illness
Palliative Care
Medicare
Hospice
Benefit
Death
Definition of Palliative Care (5)
The goal of palliative care is to prevent and relieve suffering and to support the
best possible quality of life for patients and their families, regardless of the stage
of the disease or the need for other therapies. Palliative care is both a philosophy
of care and an organized, highly structured system for delivering care. Palliative
care expands traditional disease-model medical treatments to include the goals of
enhancing quality of life for patient and family, optimizing function, helping with
decision-making and providing opportunities for personal growth. As such, it can be
delivered concurrently with life-prolonging care or as the main focus of care. (6)
Palliative care is operationalized through effective management of pain and other
distressing symptoms, while incorporating psychosocial and spiritual care according
to patient/family needs, values, beliefs and culture(s). Evaluation and treatment
should be comprehensive and patient-centered, with a focus on the central role of the
family unit in decision-making. Palliative care affirms life by supporting the patient
and family’s goals for the future, including their hopes for cure or life-prolongation,
as well as their hopes for peace and dignity throughout the course of illness, the
dying process and death. Palliative care aims to guide and assist the patient and
family in making decisions that enable them to work toward their goals during
whatever time they have remaining. Comprehensive palliative care services often
require the expertise of various providers in order to adequately assess and treat the
complex needs of seriously ill patients and their families. Members of a palliative
care team may include professionals from medicine, nursing, social work, chaplaincy,
nutrition, rehabilitation, pharmacy and other professional disciplines. Leadership,
collaboration, coordination and communication are key elements for effective
integration of these disciplines and services.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
3
Background
The hospice and pain management movements have demonstrated the efficacy of the
patient-centered model of interdisciplinary team care and provided the impetus to
formalize and promote a broader application of palliative care in the United States.
In recent years, palliative care services outside hospice have increased rapidly in
response to the growth in the population living with debilitating and life-limiting
illnesses. The increase in demand for these services reflects the need to integrate and
extend the well-established philosophy and practice of hospice care in this country
to all stages of illness and to every care setting, including attention to symptom
distress, patient and family support, and care coordination across settings. While
there are aspects of contemporary palliative care that require specialized training
for expert levels of knowledge and skill, the need for attention to palliative care
issues is pervasive in the health care system. Palliative care, as an emerging health
care specialty, is an important part of the response to these needs, serving both as a
resource and a model for improved care throughout the trajectory of serious and lifethreatening illness.
Patient Populations Served (7)
For the purposes of this document, the term life-threatening or debilitating illness is
assumed to encompass the population of patients of all ages and a broad range of
diagnostic categories, who are living with a persistent or recurring condition that
adversely affects their daily functioning or will predictably reduce life expectancy.
Based on this definition, the patient population referred to includes:
■ Children and adults with congenital injuries or conditions leading to dependence
on life-sustaining treatments and/or long-term care by others for support of the
activities of daily living.
■ Persons of any age with acute, serious and life-threatening illnesses (such as severe
trauma, leukemia or acute stroke), where cure or reversibility is a realistic goal, but
the conditions themselves and their treatments pose significant burdens.
■ Persons living with progressive chronic conditions (such as peripheral vascular
disease, malignancies, chronic renal or liver failure, stroke with significant
functional impairment, advanced heart or lung disease, frailty, neurodegenerative
disorders and dementia).
■ Persons living with chronic and life-limiting injuries from accidents or other forms
of trauma.
■ Seriously and terminally ill patients (such as persons living with end-stage
dementia, terminal cancer or severe disabling stroke), who are unlikely to recover
or stabilize, and for whom intensive palliative care is the predominant focus and
goal of care for the time remaining.
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NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Specialty-Level Palliative Care and Palliative Care
in Primary Treatment Settings
Palliative care is both a general approach to patient care that should be routinely
integrated with disease-modifying therapies and a growing practice specialty for
appropriately trained physicians, nurses, social workers, chaplains and others whose
expertise is required to optimize quality of life for those with life-threatening or
debilitating chronic illness. Primary practitioners, in the routine course of providing
health care, are expected to provide basic elements of palliative care (e.g., pain and
symptom assessment and management, advance care planning). In other cases,
complexity may determine that the patient or their family requires the services
of palliative care specialists. Specialist palliative care providers are professionals
whose work is largely or entirely involved with palliative care and who have received
appropriate training and credentialing in the field. It is an expectation, fostered by
these clinical guidelines, that palliative care services delivered by all health care
professionals within the scope of their disciplines and care settings will rise to the
level of “best practices” in order to meet the needs of their patients. The specialty
of palliative care (programs and professionals committed largely or entirely to the
delivery of palliative care), like other medical specialties, requires defined areas of
expertise, skill and self-regulation. In health care settings without direct access to
palliative care specialty services, resources should be sought through, for example,
telemedicine or other forms of remote consultation.
The goal of these clinical guidelines is not to substitute one set of services (palliative)
for another set of services (curative or disease-modifying), but rather to create
an environment in which the needs of the patient, based on a comprehensive
assessment, are fully considered. Only then can a reasonable determination be
made of what mix of services is required to meet the physical, psychological, social,
practical and spiritual needs of patients and their families. Good health care requires
continual reappraisal of the benefits and burdens of therapies, and a proactive
engagement with the philosophy of palliative care supports this fundamental tenet of
the practice of medicine.
Core Elements of Palliative Care
The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of palliative care provides a
foundation and context for palliative care in all settings. The National Consensus
Project agreed on the following key elements of palliative care:
■ Patient population: The population served includes patients of all ages experiencing
a debilitating chronic or life-threatening illness, condition or injury. (7)
■ Patient- and family-centered care: The uniqueness of each patient and family is
respected, and the patient and family constitute the unit of care. The family is
defined by the patient or, in the case of minors or those without decision-making
capacity, by their surrogates. In this context, family members may be related
or unrelated to the patient; they are individuals who provide support and with
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
The World Health
Organization defines
palliative care as (5)
“An approach which improves
the quality of life of patients
and their families facing lifethreatening illness, through the
prevention, assessment, and
treatment of pain and other
physical, psychosocial, and
spiritual problems.
Palliative care:
g Provides relief from pain and
other distressing symptoms;
g Affirms life and regards dying
as a part of the life cycle;
g Intends neither to hasten nor
postpone death;
g Offers a support system to
help patients live as actively
as possible until death;
g Offers a support system to
help the family cope during
the patient’s illness and
in their own bereavement,
including the needs of
children;
g Uses a team approach to
address the needs of patients
and their families, including
bereavement counseling, if
indicated;
g Will enhance the quality of
life, and may also positively
influence the course of a
patient’s illness.”
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whom the patient has a significant relationship. The care plan is determined by the
goals and preferences of the patient and family, (8) with support and guidance in
decision-making from the health care team. (9)
Timing of palliative care: Palliative care ideally begins at the time of diagnosis of
a life-threatening or debilitating condition and continues through cure, or until
death, and into the family’s bereavement period. (2)
Comprehensive care: Palliative care employs multidimensional assessment to identify
and relieve suffering through the prevention or alleviation of physical, psychological,
social and spiritual distress. (10) Care providers should regularly assist patients
and their families to understand changes in condition and the implications of
these changes as they relate to ongoing and future care and goals of treatment.
Palliative care requires the regular and formal clinical process of patient-appropriate
assessment, diagnosis, planning, interventions, monitoring and follow-up.
Interdisciplinary team: Palliative care presupposes indications for, and provision of,
interdisciplinary team evaluation and treatment in selected cases. (11) The palliative
care team must be skilled in care of the patient population to be served. Palliative
care teams may be expanded to include a range of professionals, based on the
services needed. They include a core group of professionals from medicine, nursing
and social work, and may include some combination of volunteer coordinators,
bereavement coordinators, chaplains, psychologists, pharmacists, nursing assistants
and home attendants, dietitians, physical-, occupational-, art-, play-, music-, and
child-life-therapists, case managers and trained volunteers.
Attention to relief of suffering: The primary goal of palliative care is to prevent and
relieve the many and various burdens imposed by diseases and their treatments,
and consequent suffering, including pain and other symptom distress. (12)
Communication skills: Effective communication skills are requisite in palliative
care. These include developmentally appropriate and effective sharing of
information, active listening, determination of goals and preferences, assistance
with medical decision-making, and effective communication with all individuals
involved in the care of patients and their families. (13)
Skill in care of the dying and the bereaved: Palliative care specialist teams must be
knowledgeable about prognostication, signs and symptoms of imminent death,
and the associated care and support needs of patients and their families before
and after the death, including age-specific physical and psychological syndromes,
opportunities for growth, normal and aberrant grief, and bereavement processes. (14)
Continuity of care across settings: Palliative care is integral to all health care
delivery system settings (hospital, emergency department, nursing home, home
care, assisted living facilities, outpatient and nontraditional environments
such as schools). The palliative care team collaborates with professional and
informal caregivers in each of these settings, in order to ensure coordination,
communication and continuity of palliative care across institutional and home care
settings. Prevention of crises and unnecessary transfers are important outcomes of
palliative care. (15)
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
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Equitable access: Palliative care teams should work toward equitable access to
palliative care across all ages and patient populations, all diagnostic categories, all
health care settings including rural communities, and regardless of race, ethnicity,
sexual preference or ability to pay. (16)
Quality improvement: Palliative care services should be committed to the pursuit
of excellence and high quality of care. Determination of quality requires regular
and systematic evaluation of the processes of care and measurement of outcomes
data using validated instruments. (17) These aims are built around the core need
for palliative care to incorporate attention at all times to safety and the systems of
care that reduce error, and to be:
® Timely—delivered to the right patient at the right time.
® Patient-centered—based on the goals and preferences of the patient
and the family.
® Beneficial and/or effective—demonstrably influencing important patient
outcomes or processes of care linked to desirable outcomes.
® Accessible and equitable—available to all who are in need and who
could benefit.
® Knowledge- and evidence-based.
® Efficient and designed to meet the actual needs of the patient and
not wasteful of resources.
Models of Palliative Care Delivery
Palliative care is appropriate for all patients from the time of diagnosis with a lifethreatening or debilitating condition, and service delivery should be structured
accordingly. Palliative care services are most effective when integrated into specific
care settings (e.g., hospital, nursing home, assisted living, home care, etc.). This
requires training in the fundamentals of palliative care for practitioners in a range
of primary treatment settings, as well as establishing referral patterns and access to
credentialed palliative care specialists and formal palliative care teams.
Efforts to introduce and sustain palliative care delivery must be tailored to the
needs of the patient population, providers, institution, specific care setting and local
community. Palliative care services must organize and maintain an interdisciplinary
team that can provide sufficient services including support for the family,
continuity of care, optimal use of institutional and community resources, and close
collaboration with other professionals involved with the care of the patient. Models
of adult palliative care delivery may not be well suited to the needs of children.
Where possible, pediatric palliative care should be delivered by professionals
with skill and training in the care of children across a range of care settings,
developmental stages and diagnostic categories. (18)
The established and proven model of palliative care at the end of life is hospice care.
This form of care has been normalized in the United States through the provision of
a Medicare Part A entitlement, the Medicare Hospice Benefit. (See Appendix 1 for
a discussion of hospice care in the United States.) For individuals whose condition
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
7
warrants the use of similar comprehensive services at an earlier period in life, there is
a broad array of emerging palliative care programs situated in acute hospital, hospice,
home care, nursing home and community settings. Common organizational delivery
models for palliative care programs inclusive of hospice programs include: (19)
■ Consultation service team (usually in a hospital, office practice setting, nursing
home or home setting), consisting of physician, nurse and/or social work evaluations.
■ Dedicated inpatient unit (acute and rehabilitation hospital, nursing home) or
combined with freestanding inpatient hospice.
■ Combined consultative service team and inpatient unit (hospital and nursing home).
■ Combined hospice program and palliative care program (hospital, nursing home
and some freestanding hospice inpatient facilities).
■ Hospital- or private-practice-based outpatient palliative care practice or clinic.
■ Hospice-based palliative care at home.
■ Hospice-based consultation in outpatient settings.
The Need for Further Expansion of Palliative Care Services
Repeated surveys of patient preferences and current care outcomes strongly support
the need for expanded access to palliative care services. There continues to be a
high prevalence of undertreated pain and other distressing symptoms in hospital,
office practice, home care and nursing home settings among seriously ill patients
of all ages and in all stages of illness. In addition, multiple studies document poor
communication about the goals of care among health care practitioners, patients and
families. (13) Despite the fact that more than 90 percent of Americans say they would
rather be cared for at home, more than three-quarters of all deaths in the U.S. occur
in hospitals (about 50 percent) or nursing homes (about 25 percent). (20) Recent
research demonstrates high family caregiver burden, as well as increased morbidity
and mortality for the family members of patients with chronic and life-threatening
illness. (21)
Infant and child mortality rates associated with once-fatal illnesses and conditions
are decreasing and more children now survive with severe or life-threatening
disabilities. Palliative care for children is influenced by developmental considerations
affecting diagnostic, treatment and communication approaches, as well as options
for care. Physical, emotional and spiritual suffering in both pediatric patients and
their families is clearly documented in recent studies. Serious illness in children
is associated with high levels of uncertainty about prognosis and optimum
management strategies, as well as great difficulty in accepting the possibility of
death. Advance directives are not recognized for children, although the role of
children in shared medical decision-making about their own care is critical. In
contrast to older adults, nearly all of whom have Medicare coverage, about 15
percent of American children have no health insurance at all, and those with
coverage have widely variable access to palliative care services. Nearly 85 percent of
pediatric deaths currently occur in hospitals where pediatric palliative care services
are largely unavailable or inadequate. (18)
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NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Further impetus for expansion of palliative care services is the strong correlation
between patient/family care preferences and the services provided by palliative
care specialists. Studies show that patients’ top priorities are to be free of physical
and psychological distress; to have some control over decisions about their health
care; to avoid death-prolonging treatments; and to improve relationships with and
reduce burden on their families. (8) The evidence base of the hospice experience for
patients/families during the last few months of a terminal illness, as well as more
recent palliative care outcome studies, demonstrate the ability of palliative care to
help patients achieve these goals throughout the trajectory of a progressive or lifethreatening illness. (22) Other studies have demonstrated financial benefits associated
with palliative care programs, including reduction in hospital length of stay, costs and
utilization, (23) and increased numbers of referrals to and length of stay in hospice
programs. (24)
The need for palliative care in the United States can be met through ongoing health
professional education in palliative care principles and practice; increasing access to
palliative care specialists in hospital, nursing home and home care settings; promoting
timely access to hospice services to all eligible patients; creatively integrating hospice
and palliative care programs across treatment settings; and defining appropriate
accountability and performance measures for palliative care services.
Palliative Care Across the Continuum
The growing need for and interest in palliative care underscores the importance of
practice guidelines aimed at promoting palliative care clinical services of a high and
consistent quality across all relevant care settings in the United States. Most people
receive health care in multiple clinical settings: physicians’ offices, hospitals, schoolbased clinics, nursing homes, emergency facilities and at home. It is well established
that communication among these various care settings is extremely difficult,
resulting in discontinuities of care. Continuity of care is especially important for
patients and families facing life-threatening illness or injury. Toward this end, a
core value of palliative care is the promotion and facilitation of continuity of care
to avoid needless suffering and errors, eliminate patient and family perceptions of
abandonment, and ensure that choices and preferences are respected. (13, 15)
Almost all persons with serious illness spend at least some time in a hospital,
usually on multiple occasions, in the course of the disease or condition. More than
50 percent of adult and 85 percent of pediatric deaths occur in hospitals. Similarly,
almost half the population age 65 or older will spend some time in a nursing home
prior to death, more than half of persons over age 85 die in a nursing home, and 43
percent of persons over age 65 reside in a long-term care facility at some time before
they die. (26) Data from numerous studies demonstrate high degrees of symptom
distress across all age groups in hospitalized and nursing home patients; high use
of burdensome nonbeneficial technologies among the seriously ill; (27) caregiver
burden on families; (21) and problems with communication between these patients,
their families and their treating physicians about the goals of care and the medical
decisions that should follow. (13)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
The Urban Institute
reports,
“The nation is about to
experience a great demographic
shock. Between 2010 and 2030
the over-65 population will rise
over 70 percent, while under
current law the population
paying payroll taxes will rise
less than 4 percent.”(25) This
demographic change, when
aligned with progressively
higher health care costs,
diminishing labor and financial
resources, insecurity of federal
entitlements and longer
life expectancies creates a
dramatic projection of future
health care needs. Further,
the number of children living
with life-limiting conditions
with significant disability
and morbidity continues to
increase. (18) These factors
help to illustrate the need for
more effective application and
coordination of chronic disease
management services, including
the integration of palliative care,
in order to more effectively
meet the needs of the growing
number of persons living with
life-threatening and debilitating
illnesses.
9
In addition to serving as a principal location of care, hospitals are the primary training
site for the nation’s future health care professionals. As a result, hospitals have become
a major locus of current efforts to improve access to palliative care. Providers must
learn how to respond competently to the various forms of human suffering, know how
to work with the medical system on behalf of patients and families, and to regard care
of the dying, as well as the care of the chronically and seriously ill, as a core clinical
responsibility. They must be taught and mentored at their point of entry into health
care and in the environment—the hospital setting—where the majority of people
will spend some time during a serious illness. Students of medicine and nursing are
acculturated during their training to value what is taught and practiced by their
seniors. Palliative care must be taught during clinical rotations in the hospital, in order
for it to be viewed as an essential competency for a health professional.
Experiences in nonhospital community settings, including hospice, are also necessary
to train future practitioners in both the primary and specialist-level skills required
to ensure quality palliative care across all health care settings. As mandated by both
the Liaison Council on Medical Education (undergraduate medical education) and
the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (residency and fellowship
training), this requires formal educational experiences both within and outside the
hospital environment in order to fully understand the importance of continuity of
care and the challenges of delivering it. Furthermore, the essential skills of learning to
access and utilize community resources, and how to establish practice patterns that
will promote palliative care in all settings, can only be gained through educational
experiences in the range of settings where patients receive care. (28)
While the practice guidelines for palliative care clinical programs contained in this
document are applicable in institutional settings for both pediatric and adult patient
populations, focused efforts are required to improve access to quality palliative care
in nursing homes, where perceived and actual regulatory barriers, limited resources
and staff turnover often make the provision of expert palliative care services difficult.
Additional education and training of nursing home professionals and all directcare staff in the principles and practice of palliative care is a priority of long-term
care professional organizations, and many facilities are developing palliative
care capabilities on-site or through contractual relationships with palliative care
clinicians. Promotion of contractual relationships between nursing homes and
hospices is also a prevalent and growing model of palliative care delivery in the
nursing home setting. Compared to nursing homes without hospice relationships,
homes with hospice relationships show significant reductions in hospitalizations,
hospital lengths of stay, restraint use, use of injection analgesics, and insertion of
intravenous lines and feeding tubes, as well as a higher likelihood of detection and
treatment of pain. (29) Consequently, a nursing home’s ability to provide the types of
palliative services identified in this document may be achieved through development
of on-site capabilities in the delivery of quality palliative care; through seeking one
or more contractual relationships with local hospices or palliative care experts;
and, as some long-term care facilities have demonstrated, through development of
palliative care consultation services in addition to hospice contracts. (30)
10
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
The Need for Consensus
Professional consensus on what constitutes high-quality palliative care is
prerequisite to the effective delivery of such services across the continuum
of care. This consensus process provides credible common ground to begin
systematic improvements in palliative care delivery. In addition, the consensus
process fosters the development of a broad-based and enduring palliative care
constituency through the dissemination of these guidelines throughout the many
sectors of the U.S. health care system.
Purpose of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care
The mission of the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care is to
create a set of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of palliative care
in the United States. Specifically, these Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality
Palliative Care aim to promote quality and reduce variation in new and existing
programs, develop and encourage continuity of care across settings, and facilitate
collaborative partnerships among palliative care programs, community hospices
and a wide range of other health care delivery settings.
While the focus of this document is on the specialist component of palliative care
(programs and professionals whose work is primarily focused on palliative care),
most palliative care needs to be delivered in primary treatment settings in the
course of routine care. This requires guidance for health care professionals who
lack specialist training in palliative care. Thus, these guidelines are intended to
serve as a comprehensive description of what constitutes a high-quality palliative
care clinical service, as well as a resource for practitioners addressing the
palliative care needs of patients and families in primary treatment settings.
In the United States, practice standards for palliative care during the last
phase of life have developed over the last 20 years through hospice professional
organizations and regulatory bodies. These standards and precepts, along
with published palliative care service guidelines from Australia, New Zealand
and Canada, served as the basis for the development of these clinical practice
guidelines. (31)
The success of this project will be determined by the degree to which the
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care are used to: 1) foster the
integration of the principles, philosophy and practices of palliative care across
care settings; 2) stimulate and guide the development and evaluation of new and
existing services within and across care settings; 3) ensure that palliative care
services deliver care of consistent and measurably high quality; 4) promote formal
recognition of specialty status for certification initiatives in palliative care; and 5)
support the expansion of efforts by hospices and other palliative care programs to
coordinate care services across the continuum.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
The purposes of these
Clinical Practice
Guidelines for Quality
Palliative Care are to:
1. Facilitate the development
and continuing
improvement of clinical
palliative care programs
providing care to patients
and families with lifethreatening or debilitating
illness.
2. Establish uniformly
accepted definitions of
the essential elements in
palliative care that promote
quality, consistency and
reliability of these services.
3. Establish national goals for
access to quality palliative
care.
4. Foster performance
measurement and quality
improvement initiatives in
palliative care services.
5. Foster continuity of
palliative care across
settings (home, residential
care, hospital, hospice).
11
Selected References for Foreword
American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Bioethics
and Committee on Hospital Care (2000). Palliative Care for
Children. Pediatrics 106(2 Pt 1): 351–357.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2002).
Peaceful Death: Recommended Competencies and Curricular
Guidelines for End-of-Life Nursing Care. Washington:
American Association of Colleges of Nursing; available at
www.aacn.nche.edu/Publications/deathfin.htm.
American Board of Internal Medicine, Committee on
Evaluation of Clinical Competence (1998). Caring for the
Dying: Identification and Promotion of Physician Competency.
Philadelphia: American Board of Internal Medicine.
American College of Surgeons (2002). The American College
of Surgeons: Statement on Principles Guiding Care at the
End of Life. Journal of the American College of Surgeons
194(5): 664.
American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee (1994).
The Care of Dying Patients: A Position Statement from
the American Geriatrics Society. Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society 43(5): 577–578; available at
www.americangeriatrics.org/products/positionpapers/
careofd.shtml.
Children’s International Project on Palliative/Hospice
Services (ChIPPS) Administrative/Policy Workgroup,
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (2001).
A Call for Change: Recommendations to Improve the Care of
Children Living with Life-Threatening Conditions. Alexandria,
Va.: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization.
White paper; available at www.nhpco.org/files/public/
ChIPPSCallforChange.pdf.
Ferris FD, Balfour HM, et al. (2002). A Model Guide to
Hospice Palliative Care. Ottawa: Canadian Hospice Palliative
Care Association.
Field MJ and Cassel CK, eds., et al. (1997). Approaching
Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. Washington:
Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.
Field MJ, Behrman DE, eds., et al. (2003). When Children
Die: Improving Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Children
and Their Families. Washington: Institute of Medicine,
National Academy Press.
Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association, American Nurses
Association (2002). Scope and Standards of Hospice and
Palliative Nursing Practice. Washington: American Nurses
Publishing.
American Society of Clinical Oncology End of Life Care
Task Force (1998). Cancer Care During the Last Phase of
Life. Journal of Clinical Oncology 16: 1986–1996.
Institute of Medicine (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A
New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington: Institute
of Medicine, National Academy Press.
Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and
Ireland; available at www.palliative-medicine.org/.
Jennings B, Ryndes T, et al. (2003). Access to Hospice Care:
Expanding Boundaries, Overcoming Barriers. Hastings
Center Report, Supplement 33(2): S1–59.
Last Acts (2002). Means to a Better End: A Report on Dying
in America Today. Washington: Last Acts; available at
www.lastacts.org.
12
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (2000).
Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs. Alexandria, Va.:
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization.
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (2003).
NHPCO Facts and Figures. Alexandria, Va.: National
Hospice and Palliative Care Organization; available at
www.nhpco.org/files/ublic/facts_and_ figures_0703.pdf
Palliative Care Australia (1999). Standards for Palliative
Care Provision (third ed.); available at www.pallcare.org.au/
publications/Standards_99.pdf.
Schapiro R and Byock I (2003). Living and Dying Well with
Cancer: Successfully Integrating Palliative Care and Cancer
Treatment. Princeton, NJ: Promoting Excellence in
End-of- Life Care, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Teno J (2000). TIME: Toolkit of Instruments to Measure
End-of-Life Care; available at www.chcr.brown.edu/pcoc/
toolkit.htm.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
NHPCO Standards: {ARE 3, 3.1-3.3, 3.5, 3.6, 8, 14, 14.1, 14.2;
CCS 3.1-3.4, 6, 10, 10.1-10.3, 11, 11.1, 11.3, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 14,
14.1, 14.2; HIF CCS 3; HIF SIC 1,1.1-1.7, 5; HRCF SIC 1,
1.1-1.9, 2, 2.1-2.6, 3, 3.1, 5, 7, 7.1-7.4; HR 1, 1.3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4,
7.2; IDT 1.1, 4.1, 5.1; PI 1.1, 2, 2.1-2.3, 3.2, 4, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.2,
5.3, 6, 6.1,6.2}1
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
13
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care
Baseline Assumptions
The following assumptions are fundamental
to the development of the Clinical Practice
Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care:
Goal guidelines: These palliative care
guidelines represent goals that palliative care
services should strive to attain, as opposed to
minimal or lowest acceptable practices.
■
Health care quality standards: These
palliative care guidelines assume that
palliative care services will follow established
practice standards and requirements for
health care quality such as safety, effective
leadership, medical record keeping and error
reduction.
■
Codes of ethics: These guidelines assume
adherence to established professional and
organizational codes of ethics.
■
Ongoing revision: Palliative care
guidelines will evolve as professional practice,
the evidence base and the health care system
change over time. These guidelines were
written assuming an ongoing process of
evidence-based evaluation and revision. (32)
■
• Peer-defined guidelines: These clinical
practice guidelines were developed through
a consensus process including a broad range
of palliative care professionals; they are not
linked to regulatory or reimbursement criteria
14
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
and are not mandatory. However, they are
written with the intent that they will be used
as guidelines to promote the development of
highest-quality clinical palliative care services
across the health care continuum.
Specialty care: When this document refers
to specialty-level palliative care services it
assumes provision of services by palliative
care professionals within an interdisciplinary
team whose work reflects substantial
involvement in the care of patients with lifethreatening or debilitating chronic illnesses,
and their families. Palliative care qualifications
are determined by organizations granting
professional credentials and programmatic
accreditation.
■
Continuing professional education:
These guidelines assume ongoing professional
education for all palliative care professionals
in the knowledge, attitudes and skills required
to deliver quality palliative care across the
domains established in this document.
■
Applicability of guidelines: These
guidelines should promote integration and
application of the principles, philosophy
and practices of palliative care across the
continuum of care by both professional and
certified caregivers in these settings.
■
Clinical Practice Guidelines for
Quality Palliative Care
Excellence in specialist-level palliative care requires expertise in the clinical
management of problems in multiple domains, supported by a programmatic
infrastructure that furthers the goals of care and supports practitioners. Eight
domains were identified as the framework for these guidelines: Structure and
Processes; Physical Aspects of Care; Psychological and Psychiatric Aspects of
Care; Social Aspects of Care; Spiritual, Religious and Existential Aspects of Care;
Cultural Aspects of Care; Care of the Imminently Dying Patient; and Ethical and
Legal Aspects of Care. These domains were drawn from the work of the previously
established Australian, New Zealand, Canadian, Children’s Hospice International,
and NHPCO standards efforts. (31)
The guidelines rest on fundamental processes that cross all domains and encompass
assessment, information sharing, decision-making, care planning and care
delivery. Each domain is followed by specific clinical practice guidelines regarding
professional behavior and service delivery. These are followed by justifications,
supporting and clarifying statements, and suggested criteria for assessing whether or
not the identified expectation has been met. References to the literature supporting
these recommendations are included in the guidelines.
Domains of Quality Palliative Care
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Structure and Processes of Care
Physical Aspects of Care
Psychological and Psychiatric Aspects of Care
Social Aspects of Care
Spiritual, Religious and Existential Aspects of Care
Cultural Aspects of Care
Care of the Imminently Dying Patient
Ethical and Legal Aspects of Care
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
15
Domain 1: Structure and Processes of Care
Guideline 1.1 The plan of care is based on a comprehensive interdisciplinary
assessment of the patient and family. (10, 11)
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
Assessment and its documentation are interdisciplinary and coordinated.
Initial and subsequent assessments are carried out through patient and family
interview, review of medical records, discussion with other providers, physical
examination and assessment, and relevant laboratory and/or diagnostic tests or
procedures. (33)
Assessment includes documentation of disease status, including diagnoses and
prognosis; comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders; physical and psychological
symptoms; functional status; social, cultural, spiritual and advance care planning
concerns and preferences, including appropriateness of referral to hospice. (34)
Assessment of children must be conducted with consideration of age and stage of
neurocognitive development. (35)
Patient and family expectations, goals for care and for living, (8) understanding of
the disease and prognosis, (13) as well as preferences for the type (8) and site of care
(20, 26) are assessed and documented.
The assessment is reviewed on a regular basis. (36)
Guideline 1.2 The care plan is based on the identified and expressed values, goals
and needs of patient and family (8), and is developed with professional guidance
and support for decision-making. (9)
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
16
Criteria:
The care plan is based upon an ongoing assessment, determined by goals set
with patient and family, and with consideration of the changing benefit/burden
assessment at critical decision points during the course of illness. (8)
The care plan is developed through the input of patient, family, caregivers, involved
health care providers, and the palliative care team with the additional input, when
indicated, of other specialists (37) and caregivers, such as school professionals,
clergy, friends, etc. (38)
Care plan changes are based on the evolving needs and preferences of the patient and
family over time, and recognize the complex, competing and shifting priorities in
goals of care. (36)
The interdisciplinary team coordinates and shares the information, provides support
for decision-making, develops and carries out the care plan, and communicates the
palliative care plan to patient and family, to all involved health professionals and to
the responsible providers when patients transfer to different care settings. (13, 15)
Treatment and care setting alternatives are clearly documented and communicated,
and permit the patient and family to make informed choices. (8, 13)
Treatment decisions are based on goals of care, assessment of risk and benefit, best
evidence and patient/family preferences. Re-evaluation of treatment efficacy and
patient-family preferences is documented. (36, 39)
The evolving care plan must be clearly documented over time. (39)
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Guideline 1.3 An interdisciplinary team provides services to the patient and family,
consistent with the care plan.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
Specialist-level palliative care is delivered by an interdisciplinary team. (11)
The team includes palliative care professionals with the appropriate patient
population-specific education, credentialing and experience, and ability to meet
the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family.
(14) Of particular importance is hiring physicians, nurses and social workers
appropriately trained and ultimately certified in hospice and palliative care.
The interdisciplinary palliative care team involved in the care of children, either as
patients or as the children of adult patients, has expertise in the delivery of services
for such children. (35)
The patient and family have access to palliative care expertise and staff 24 hours
per day, seven days per week. (40)
Respite services are available for the families and caregivers of children or adults
with life-threatening illnesses. (41)
The interdisciplinary team communicates regularly (at least weekly, more often as
required by the clinical situation) to plan, review and evaluate the care plan, with
input from both patient and family. (42)
The team meets regularly to discuss provision of quality care, including staffing,
policies and clinical practices. (42)
Team leadership has appropriate training, qualifications and experience. (43)
Policies for prioritizing and responding to referrals in a timely manner are
documented. (44)
Guideline 1.4 The interdisciplinary team may include appropriately trained and
supervised volunteers. (45)
■
■
Criteria:
If volunteers participate, policies and procedures are in place to ensure the
necessary education of volunteers, and to guide recruitment, screening, training,
work practices, support, supervision and performance evaluation, and to clarify
the responsibilities of the program to its volunteers.
Volunteers are screened, educated, coordinated and supervised by an appropriately
educated and experienced professional team member.
Guideline 1.5 Support for education and training is available to the interdisciplinary
team.
■
Criteria:
Educational resources and continuing professional education focused on the
domains of palliative care contained in this document are regularly provided to
staff, and participation is documented. (46)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
17
Guideline 1.6 The palliative care program is committed to quality improvement in
clinical and management practices. (17)
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The palliative care program must be committed to the pursuit of excellence and the
highest quality of care and support for all patients and their families. Determining
quality requires regular and systematic measurement, analysis, review, evaluation,
goal setting, and revision of the processes and outcomes of care provided by the
program.
Quality care must incorporate attention at all times to:
o Safety, and the systems of care that reduce error.
o Timeliness, care delivered to the right patient at the right time.
o Patient-centered care, based on the goals and preferences of the patient
and the family.
o Beneficial and/or effective care, demonstrably influencing important patient
outcomes or processes of care linked to desirable outcomes.
o Equity, care that is available to all in need and who could benefit.
o Efficiency, care designed to meet the actual needs of the patient so that it does
not waste resources.
The palliative care program establishes quality improvement policies and
procedures.
Quality improvement activities are routine, regular, reported and are shown to
influence clinical practice.
The clinical practices of palliative care programs reflect the integration and
dissemination of research and evidence of quality improvement.
Quality improvement activities for clinical services are collaborative,
interdisciplinary, and focused on meeting the identified needs of patients and their
families.
Patients, families, health professionals and the community may provide input for
evaluation of the program.
Guideline 1.7 The palliative care program recognizes the emotional impact on the
palliative care team of providing care to patients with life-threatening illnesses and
their families. (47)
■
■
18
Criteria:
Emotional support is available to staff and volunteers as appropriate.
Policies guide the support of staff and volunteers, including regular meetings for
review and discussion of the impact and processes of providing palliative care.
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Guideline 1.8 Palliative care programs should have a relationship with one or more
hospices and other community resources in order to ensure continuity of the
highest-quality palliative care across the illness trajectory. (38)
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
Palliative care programs must support and promote continuity of care across
settings and throughout the trajectory of illness.
As appropriate, patients and families are routinely informed about and offered
referral to hospice and other community-based health care resources.
Referring physicians and health care providers are routinely informed about the
availability and benefits of hospice and other community resources for care for
their patients and families as appropriate and indicated.
Policies for formal written and verbal communication about all domains in
the plan of care are established between the palliative care program, hospice
programs, and other major community providers involved in the patients’ care.
Policies enable timely and effective sharing of information among teams while
safeguarding privacy.
Where possible, hospice and palliative care program staff routinely participate
in each other’s team meetings to promote regular professional communication,
collaboration and an integrated plan of care on behalf of patients and families.
Palliative and hospice care programs, as well as other major community providers,
routinely seek opportunities to collaborate and work in partnership to promote
increased access to quality palliative care across the continuum.
Guideline 1.9 The physical environment in which care is provided should meet
the preferences, needs and circumstances of the patient and family to the extent
possible.
■
■
Criteria:
When feasible, care is provided in the setting preferred by the patient and their
family. (19, 20)
When care is provided away from the patient’s home, the care setting addresses
safety and, as appropriate and feasible, flexible or open visiting hours, space for
families to visit, rest, eat or prepare meals, and meet with the palliative care team
and other professionals, as well as privacy and other needs identified by the family.
(48) The setting should address the unique care needs of children as patients,
family members or visitors. (35)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
19
Selected References for Domain 1
Doyle D, ed. (2003). Volunteers in Hospice and Palliative
Care: A Handbook for Volunteer Service Managers. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Singer PA, Martin DK, et al. (1999b). Domains of Quality
End-of-Life Care from the Patients’ Perspective. Journal of
the American Medical Association 281: 162–168.
Emanuel LL, von Gunten CF, et al. (1999). Education
for Physicians on End-of-Life Care (EPEC) Curriculum.
Chicago: American Medical Association; available at
www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/2910.html.
Steinhauser KE, Christakis NA, et al. (2000). Factors
Considered Important at the End of Life by Patients,
Family, Physicians, and Other Care Providers. Journal of the
American Medical Association 284(19): 2476–2482.
Kristjanson LJ (1986). Indicators of Quality of Palliative
Care from a Family Perspective. Journal of Palliative Care
1(2): 8–17.
SUPPORT Principal Investigators (1995). A Controlled
Trial to Improve Care for Seriously Ill Hospitalized Patients.
The Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for
Outcomes and Risks of Treatments (SUPPORT). Journal of
the American Medical Association 274(20): 1591–1598.
Lickiss JN, Turner KS, et al. (2004). The interdisciplinary
team. In: Doyle D, Hanks GWC, Cherny N, Calman K, eds.
Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine (third ed.) New York:
Oxford University Press, pp. 42–46.
Lo B, Quill T, et al. (1999). Discussing Palliative Care
with Patients. ACP-ASIM End-of-Life Care Consensus
Panel. American College of Physicians–American Society
of Internal Medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine 130(9):
744–749.
Meier DE, Back AL, et al. (2001). The Inner Life of
Physicians and Care of the Seriously Ill. Journal of the
American Medical Association 286(23): 3007–3014.
Monroe B (2004). Social Work in Palliative Medicine. In:
Doyle D, Hanks GWC, Cherny N, Calman K, eds. Oxford
Textbook of Palliative Medicine. New York: Oxford University
Press, pp. 1005–1017.
Vachon ML (1998). Caring for the Caregiver in Oncology and
Palliative Care. Seminars in Oncology Nursing 14(2): 152–157.
Zwarenstein M, Reeves S, et al. (2001). Interprofessional
Education: Effects on Professional Practice and Health Care
Outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1):
CD002213.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
NHPCO Standards {ARE 1.1, 3.3, 3.4, 8; CC 1, 1.1-1.3, 1.5 2,
2.1, 2.3;CCS 1, 1.1-1.3, 2, 2.1, 2, 2.1-3.3, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 14.1,
14.2; HIF CCS 3; HIF SIC 1,1.1-1.7, 5; HR 1.1, 3.5, 3.6, 4, 4.14.5, 5, 5.1- 5.4, 6, 6.1-6.3, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.5, 9, 9.1, 9.2; HRCF SIC
1, 1.1-1.9, 2, 2.1-2.6, 3, 3.1, 5, 7, 7.1-7.4; IDT 3.1, 6, 6.3, 7.1, 11.1
12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 13.3, 15.5; LG 8.2, 12; MI 1.1, 1.2, 3.3}1
Quill TE (2000). Perspectives on Care at the Close of Life.
Initiating End-of-Life Discussions with Seriously Ill Patients:
Addressing the “Elephant in the Room.” Journal of the
American Medical Association 284(19): 2502–2507.
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
20
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Domain 2: Physical Aspects of Care
Guideline 2.1 Pain, other symptoms and side effects are managed based upon the best
available evidence, which is skillfully and systematically applied. (32)
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The interdisciplinary team includes professionals with specialist-level skill in symptom
control (11, 14).
Regular, ongoing assessment of pain, nonpain symptoms (including but not limited
to shortness of breath, nausea, fatigue and weakness, anorexia, insomnia, anxiety,
depression, confusion and constipation), treatment side effects and functional
capacities are documented. (49-79) Validated instruments, where available, should be
used. (80) Symptom assessment in children and cognitively impaired patients should be
performed with appropriate tools. (35)
The outcome of pain and symptom management is the safe and timely reduction
of pain and symptom levels, for as long as the symptom persists, to a level that is
acceptable to the patient.
Response to symptom distress is prompt and tracked, through documentation in the
medical record. (39, 51)
Barriers to effective pain management should be recognized and addressed, including
inappropriate fears of the risks of side effects, addiction, respiratory depression and
hastening of death in association with opioid analgesics. (49-51)
A risk management plan should be implemented when controlled substances are
prescribed for long-term symptom management.
Patient understanding of disease and its consequences, symptoms, side effects of
treatments, functional impairment and potentially useful treatments is assessed. The
capacity of the patient to secure and accept needed care and to cope with the illness
and its consequences is assessed. (13) (See Domain 3: Psychological and Domain 8:
Ethics).
Family understanding of the disease and its consequences, symptoms, side effects,
functional impairment and treatments is assessed. The capacity of the family to secure
and provide needed care and to cope with the illness and its consequences is assessed.
(13, 21)
Treatment of distressing symptoms and side effects incorporates pharmacological,
nonpharmacological and complementary/supportive therapies. (78, 79) Approach to
the relief of suffering is comprehensive, addressing physical, psychological, social and
spiritual aspects. (10) (See especially Domain 3: Psychological and Domain 4: Social
Support).
Referrals to health care professionals with specialized skills in symptom management
are made available when appropriate (e.g., radiation therapists, anesthesia pain
management specialists, orthopedists, physical and occupational therapists, child life
specialists). (37)
Family is educated and supported to provide safe and appropriate comfort measures
to the patient. Family is provided with backup resources for response to urgent needs.
(See Domain 3: Psychological and Domain 4: Social Support).
A process for quality improvement and review of physical and functional assessment and
effectiveness of treatment is documented and leads to change in clinical practice. (17)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
21
Selected References for Domain 2
American Geriatrics Society (1998). The Management of
Chronic Pain in Older Persons. Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society 46(5): 635–651.
American Pain Society Quality of Care Committee (1995).
Quality Improvement Guidelines for the Treatment of Acute
Pain and Cancer Pain. Journal of the American Medical
Association 274(23): 1874–1880.
Benedetti C, Brock C, et al. (2000). NCCN Practice
Guidelines for Cancer Pain. Oncology (Huntington) 14(11A):
135–150.
Ben-Zacharia AB and Lublin FD (2001). Palliative Care in
Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Neurologic Clinics 19(4):
801–827.
Berger AM, Portenoy RK, Weissman DE, eds. (2002).
Principles & Practices of Palliative Care & Supportive
Oncology (second ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins.
Borasio GD, Shaw PJ, et al. (2001). Standards of Palliative
Care for Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results
of a European Survey. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & Other
Motor Neuron Disorders 2(3): 159–164.
Breitbart WH, Chochinov H, et al. (1998). Psychiatric Aspects
of Palliative Care. In: Doyle D, Hanks GWC, MacDonald N,
eds. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine (second ed.) New
York: Oxford University Press, pp. 933–959.
Bruera E and Portenoy R, eds. (1998). Topics in Palliative
Care, Volume 2. New York: Oxford University Press.
22
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Bruera E and Portenoy R, eds. (2001). Topics in Palliative
Care, Volume 5. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chang VT, Thaler HT, et al. (1998). Quality of Life
and Survival: The Role of Multidimensional Symptom
Assessment. Cancer 83(1): 173–179.
Doyle D, Hanks GWC, MacDonald N, eds. (1998). Oxford
Textbook of Palliative Medicine (second ed.) New York:
Oxford University Press.
Emanuel LL, von Gunten CF, et al. (1999). Education
for Physicians on End-of-Life Care (EPEC) Curriculum.
Chicago: American Medical Association.
Ferrell B and Coyle N, eds. (2001). Textbook of Palliative
Nursing. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ferrell B, Bendnash G, Grant M, Rhome A (2000). End-ofLife Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC); available at
www.aacn.nche.edu/elnec.
Greenberg B and McCorkle R, et al. (2000). Palliative Care
for HIV Disease in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral
Therapy. Journal of Urban Health 77(2): 150–165.
Hodson ME (2000). Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis in the
Adult. Respiration 67(6): 595–607.
Lynn J, Ely EW, et al. (2000). Living and Dying with Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society 48(5 Suppl): S91–100.
McCaffery M and Pasero C (1999). Pain Clinical Manual. St.
Louis, Mo.: Mosby.
Persons A (2002). The Management of Persistent Pain in
Older Persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
50(6 Suppl): S204–224.
Portenoy R and Bruera E, eds. (1997). Topics in Palliative
Care, Volume 1. New York: Oxford University Press.
Portenoy R and Bruera E, eds. (1998). Topics in Palliative
Care, Volume 3. New York: Oxford University Press.
Portenoy R and Bruera E, eds. (2000). Topics in Palliative
Care, Volume 4. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wilkie DJ, Brown MA, et al. (2001). Toolkit for Nursing
Excellence at End-of-Life Transition (TNEEL). Seattle:
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; CD-ROM.;
www.tneel.uic.edu/tneel.asp.
Wolfe J, Grier HE, et al. (2000). Symptoms and Suffering
at the End of Life in Children with Cancer. New England
Journal of Medicine 342(5): 326–333.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
NHPCO Standards{IDT 1.1; HR 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4; CCS 1, 1.2,
1.3, 2, 2.1, 2.5, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 5.4, 6, 10, 11, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 14,
14.1, 14.2; IDT 4.1, 5.1, 6, 11.2, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 13.3;
MI 3.3; PI 4, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4}1
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
23
Domain 3: Psychological and Psychiatric Aspects of Care
Guideline 3.1 Psychological and psychiatric issues are assessed and managed
based upon the best available evidence, which is skillfully and systematically
applied. (32, 81)
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
24
Criteria:
The interdisciplinary team includes professionals with patient-specific skill and
training in the psychological consequences and psychiatric comorbidities of serious
illness for both patient and family, (82) including depression, (55) anxiety, (53)
delirium (54) and cognitive impairment. (68, 84) (See Domain 2: Physical Aspects
of Care).
Regular, ongoing assessment of psychological reactions (83) (including but not
limited to stress, anticipatory grieving and coping strategies) and psychiatric
conditions occurs and is documented. (36) Whenever possible, a validated and
context-specific assessment tool should be used. (80, 84, 85)
Psychological assessment includes patient understanding of disease, symptoms,
side effects and their treatments, as well as assessment of caregiving needs,
capacity and coping strategies. (13, 81, 83, 86)
Psychological assessment includes family understanding of the illness and its
consequences for the patient as well as the family; assessment of family caregiving
capacities, needs and coping strategies. (13, 21, 81, 83, 84, 87)
Family is educated and supported to provide safe and appropriate psychological
support measures to the patient. (21, 87)
Pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic and complementary therapies are employed in
the treatment of psychological distress or psychiatric syndromes, as appropriate.
(84) Treatment alternatives are clearly documented and communicated and permit
the patient and family to make informed choices. (13)
Response to symptom distress is prompt and tracked, through documentation in
the medical record. Regular reevaluation of treatment efficacy and patient-family
preferences is documented. (36)
Referrals to health care professionals with specialized skills in age-appropriate
psychological and psychiatric management are made available when appropriate
(e.g., psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers). Identified psychiatric
comorbidities in family or caregivers are referred for treatment. (37)
Developmentally appropriate assessment and support is provided to pediatric
patients, their siblings, and the children or grandchildren of adult patients. (35)
Communication with children and cognitively impaired individuals occurs using
verbal, nonverbal and/or symbolic means appropriate to developmental stage and
cognitive capacity.
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
■
■
Treatment decisions are based on goals of care, assessment of risk and benefit,
best evidence and patient/family preferences. The goal is to address psychological
needs, treat psychiatric disorders, promote adjustment, and support opportunities
for emotional growth, healing, reframing, completion of unfinished business and
support through the bereavement period. (83-87)
A process for quality improvement and review of psychological and psychiatric
assessment and effectiveness of treatment is documented and leads to change in
clinical practice. (17)
Guideline 3.2 A grief and bereavement program is available to patients and
families, based on the assessed need for services. (88)
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The interdisciplinary team includes professionals with patient-populationappropriate education and skill in the care of patients and families experiencing
loss, grief and bereavement. (14, 89)
Bereavement services are recognized as a core component of the palliative care
program. (88, 90-93)
Bereavement services and follow-up are made available to the family for at least 12
months, or as long as is needed, after the death of the patient. (93)
Grief and bereavement risk assessment is routine, developmentally appropriate and
ongoing for the patient and family throughout the illness trajectory, recognizing
issues of loss and grief in living with a life-threatening illness. (92)
Clinical assessment is used to identify people at risk of complicated grief and
bereavement, and its association with depression and comorbid complications,
particularly among the elderly. (88, 90, 92, 93)
Information on loss and grief and the availability of bereavement support services,
including those available through hospice and other community programs, is
made routinely available to families before and after the death of the patient, as
culturally appropriate and desired. (90)
Support and grief interventions are provided in accordance with developmental,
cultural and spiritual needs, expectations and preferences of the family, including
attention to the needs of siblings of pediatric patients and children of adult
patients. (91)
Staff and volunteers who provide bereavement services receive ongoing education,
supervision and support. (47, 94)
Referrals to health care professionals with specialized skills are made when
clinically indicated. (37)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
25
Selected References for Domain 3
American Academy of Pediatrics (2000). The Pediatrician
and Childhood Bereavement. Pediatrics 105(2): 445–447.
Rando TA (1993). Treatment of Complicated Grief.
Champaign, Ill.: Research Press.
Bouton BL (1996). The Interdisciplinary Bereavement Team:
Defining and Directing Appropriate Bereavement Care.
Hospice Journal 11(4): 15–24.
Rando TA, ed. (2000). Clinical Dimension of Anticipatory
Mourning. Champaign, Ill.: Research Press.
Brown CK (1995). Bereavement Care. British Journal of
General Practice 45(395): 327.
Singer P, Martin DK, et al. (1999). Domains of Quality Endof-Life Care from the Patient’s Perspective. Journal of the
American Medical Association 281: 163–168.
Casarett D, Kutner JS, et al. (2001). Life After Death: A
Practical Approach to Grief and Bereavement. Annals of
Internal Medicine 134(3): 208–215.
Teno JM (1999). Putting Patient and Family Voice Back Into
Measuring Quality of Care for the Dying. Hospice Journal
14(3–4): 167–176.
Chochinov HM, Hack T, et al. (2002). Dignity in the
Terminally Ill: A Developing Empirical Model. Social
Science & Medicine 54(3): 433–443.
Vachon ML, Kristjanson L, et al. (1995). Psychosocial
Issues in Palliative Care: The Patient, the Family, and the
Process and Outcome of Care. Journal of Pain & Symptom
Management 10(2): 142–150.
Cohen SR and Leis A (2002). What Determines the Quality
of Life of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients from Their Own
Perspective? Journal of Palliative Care 18(1): 48–58.
Gillance H, Tucker A, et al. (1997). Bereavement: Providing
Support for Siblings. Paediatric Nursing 9(5): 22–24.
Hockley J (2000). Psychosocial Aspects in Palliative
Care—Communicating with the Patient and Family. Acta
Oncologica 39(8): 905–910.
Maddocks I (2003). Grief and Bereavement. Medical Journal
of Australia 179(6 Suppl): S6–7.
Main J (2002). Management of Relatives of Patients Who Are
Dying. Journal of Clinical Nursing 11(6): 794–801.
Vachon ML (2004). The Stress of Professional Caregivers.
In: Doyle D, Hanks GWC, Cherny N, and Calman K. Oxford
Textbook of Palliative Medicine. New York: Oxford University
Press, pp. 992–1004.
Werth,JL Jr., Gordon JR, et al. (2002). Psychosocial Issues
Near the End of Life. Aging and Mental Health 6(4): 402-12.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
NHPCO Standards {BCS 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.4; CCS 5.4; IDT 1,
1.1, 1.6, 3.3, 5.1, 6.3; PI 4, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.2, 6}1
Prigerson HG and Jacobs SC (2001). Perspectives on Care
at the Close of Life. Caring for Bereaved Patients: “All the
Doctors Just Suddenly Go.” Journal of the American Medical
Association 286(11): 1369–1376.
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
26
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Domain 4: Social Aspects of Care
Guideline 4.1 Comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment identifies the social
needs of patients and their families, and a care plan is developed in order to
respond to these needs as effectively as possible. (95)
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The interdisciplinary team includes professionals with patient-population-specific
skills in the assessment and management of social and practical needs during a
life-threatening or chronic debilitating illness. (14)
Practitioners skilled in the assessment and management of the developmental
needs of children should be available for pediatric patients and the children of
adult patients, as appropriate. (35)
A comprehensive interdisciplinary social assessment is completed and
documented, to include: family structure and geographic location; relationships;
lines of communication; existing social and cultural networks; perceived social
support; medical decision-making; work and school settings; finances; sexuality;
intimacy; living arrangements; caregiver availability; access to transportation;
access to prescription and over-the-counter medicines and nutritional products;
access to needed equipment; community resources including school and work
settings; and legal issues. (8, 9, 12, 13, 20, 21, 35, 36, 38, 96-100) (See Domain 6:
Culture).
Routine patient and family meetings (101) are conducted with members of the
interdisciplinary team to assess understanding and address questions, provide
information and help with decision-making, discuss goals of care and advance care
planning, determine wishes, preferences, hopes and fears, provide emotional and
social support and enhance communication.
The social care plan is formulated from a comprehensive social and cultural
assessment and reassessment, and reflects and documents values, goals and
preferences as set by patient and family over time. (8, 20) Interventions are planned
to minimize adverse impact of caregiving on the family and to promote caregiver
and family goals and well-being. (21)
Referrals to appropriate services are made that meet identified social needs
and promote access to care, help in the home, school or work, transportation,
rehabilitation, medications, counseling, community resources and equipment. (38)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
27
Selected References for Domain 4
Baluss ME (2002). Palliative Care: Ethics and the Law. In:
Berger AM, Portenoy RK,Weissman DE, eds. Principles
& Practice of Palliative Care& Supportive Oncology.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 902–914.
Covinsky KE, Goldman L, et al. (1994). The Impact
of Serious Illness on Patients’ Families. SUPPORT
Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and
Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment. Journal of
the American Medical Association 272(23): 1839–1844.
Koenig BA and Gates-Williams J (1995). Understanding
Cultural Difference in Caring for Dying Patients. Western
Journal of Medicine 163(3): 244–249.
Rice AM (2000). Sexuality in Cancer and Palliative Care 1:
Effects of Disease and Treatment. International Journal of
Palliative Nursing 6(8): 392–397.
Rice AM (2000). Sexuality in Cancer and Palliative Care
2: Exploring the Issues. International Journal of Palliative
Nursing 6(9): 448–453.
Covinsky KE, Landefeld CS, et al. (1996). Is Economic
Hardship on the Families of the Seriously Ill Associated
with Patient and Surrogate Care Preferences? SUPPORT
Investigators. Archives of Internal Medicine 156(15): 1737–
1741.
Scott JT, Harmsen M, et al. (2003). Interventions for
Improving Communication with Children and Adolescents
About Their Cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews (3): CD002969.
Crawley LM, Marshall PA, et al. (2002). Strategies for
Culturally Effective End-of-Life Care. Annals of Internal
Medicine 136(9): 673–679.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
Curtis JR, Patrick DL, et al. (2001). The Family Conference
as a Focus to Improve Communication About End-ofLife Care in the Intensive Care Unit: Opportunities for
Improvement. Critical Care Medicine 29(2 Suppl): N26–33.
NHPCO Standards {CCS 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 9, 9.1, 9.2,
9.3, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 11, 11.3, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 13,
13.1, 13.2, 14, 14.1, 14.2; IDT 1.1, 5.1, 6, 6.3, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3 }1
Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL, et al. (2000). Understanding
Economic and Other Burdens of Terminal Illness: The
Experience of Patients and Their Caregivers. Annals of
Internal Medicine 132(6): 451–459.
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
28
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Domain 5: Spiritual, Religious and Existential Aspects of Care (102, 103)
Guideline 5.1 Spiritual and existential dimensions are assessed and responded
to based upon the best available evidence, which is skillfully and systematically
applied. (32, 104)
■
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■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The interdisciplinary team includes professionals with skill in assessing (14, 104)
and responding (105) to the spiritual and existential issues that pediatric and adult
patients with life-threatening illnesses and conditions, and their families, are likely
to confront.
Regular, ongoing exploration (104) of spiritual and existential concerns occurs
and is documented (including but not limited to life review, assessment of hopes
and fears, meaning, purpose, beliefs about afterlife, guilt, forgiveness and life
completion tasks). (39) Whenever possible a standardized instrument should be
used. (80)
A spiritual assessment is utilized to identify religious or spiritual/existential
background, preferences, and related beliefs, rituals and practices of the patient
and family. (106, 107)
Periodic reevaluation of the impact of spiritual/existential interventions and
patient-family preferences is documented. (36)
Spiritual/existential care needs, goals and concerns are addressed (8, 103, 104) and
documented, and support is offered for issues of life completion (104) in a manner
consistent with the individual’s and family’s cultural and religious values. (106)
Pastoral care and other palliative care professionals facilitate contacts with
spiritual/religious communities, groups or individuals, as desired by the patient
and/or family. Patients have access to clergy in their own religious traditions. (107)
Professional and institutional use of religious symbols is sensitive to cultural and
religious diversity. (107)
The patient and family are encouraged to display their own religious/spiritual
symbols. (107)
The palliative care service facilitates religious or spiritual rituals as desired by
patient and family, especially at the time of death. (109)
Referrals to professionals with specialized knowledge or skills in spiritual and
existential issues are made available when appropriate (e.g., to a chaplain familiar
with or from the patient’s own religious tradition). (37)
A process for quality improvement is documented and leads to change in clinical
practice. (17)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
29
Selected References for Domain 5
Breitbart W (2002). Spirituality and Meaning in Supportive
Care: Spirituality- and Meaning-Centered Group
Psychotherapy Interventions in Advanced Cancer. Supportive
Care in Cancer 10(4): 272–280.
Cassell ES (1982). The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of
Medicine. New England Journal of Medicine 306: 639–645.
Daaleman TP and VandeCreek L (2000). Placing Religion
and Spirituality in End-of-Life Care. Journal of the American
Medical Association 284(19): 2514–2517.
Kagawa-Singer M and Blackhall LJ (2001). Negotiating
Cross-Cultural Issues at the End of Life: “You Got to
Go Where He Lives.” Journal of the American Medical
Association 286(23): 2993–3001.
Lo B, Ruston D, et al. (2002). Discussing Religious and
Spiritual Issues at the End of Life: A Practical Guide for
Physicians[Comment]. Journal of the American Medical
Association 287(6): 749–754.
Neuberger J (1994). Caring for Dying People of Different
Faiths. Baltimore: Mosby.
Post SG, Puchalski CM, et al. (2000). Physicians and Patient
Spirituality: Professional Boundaries, Competency, and
Ethics. Annals of Internal Medicine 132(7): 578–583.
Sloan RP, Bagiella E, et al. (2000). Should Physicians
Prescribe Religious Activities? New England Journal of
Medicine 342(25): 1913–1916.
Sulmasy DP (1999). Is Medicine a Spiritual Practice?
Academic Medicine 74(9): 1002–1005.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
NHPCO Standards {HRCFCDCS 2, 5.2; IDT 7, 7.1, 11, 11.1,
11.2}1
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
30
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Domain 6: Cultural Aspects of Care
Guideline 6.1 The palliative care program assesses and attempts to meet the
culture-specific needs of the patient and family.
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The cultural background, concerns and needs of the patient and their family are
elicited and documented. (110-112)
Cultural needs identified by team and family are addressed in the interdisciplinary
team care plan. (110-112)
Communication with patient and family is respectful of their cultural preferences
regarding disclosure, truth-telling and decision-making. (113, 114)
The program aims to respect and accommodate the range of language, dietary and
ritual practices of patients and their families. (79, 114, 115)
When possible, the team has access to and utilizes appropriate interpreter services.
(116)
Recruitment and hiring practices strive to reflect the cultural diversity of the
community. (117)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
31
Selected References for Domain 6
Christakis NA and Sachs GA (1996). The Role of Prognosis
in Clinical Decision Making. Journal of General Internal
Medicine 11(7): 422–425.
Koenig BA and Gates-Williams J (1995). Understanding
Cultural Difference in Caring for Dying Patients. Western
Journal of Medicine 163(3): 244–249
Crawley LM, Marshall PA, et al. (2002). Strategies for
Culturally Effective End-of-Life Care. Annals of Internal
Medicine 136(9): 673–679.
Kolarik RC, Arnold RM, et al. (2002). Objectives for
Advance Care Planning. Journal of Palliative Medicine 5(5):
697–704.
Ersek M, Kagawa-Singer M, et al. (1998). Multicultural
Considerations in the Use of Advance Directives. Oncology
Nursing Forum 25(10): 1683–1690.
Krakauer EL, Crenner C, et al. (2002). Barriers to Optimum
End-of-Life Care for Minority Patients. Journal of the
American Geriatrics Society 50(1): 182–190.
Hallenbeck J and Goldstein MK (1999). Decisions at the End
of Life: Cultural Considerations Beyond Medical Ethics.
Generations: Journal of the American Society on Aging 23(1):
4–29.
Teno JM, Clarridge BR, et al. (2004). Family Perspectives
on End-of-Life Care at the Last Place of Care. Journal of the
American Medical Association 291(1): 88–93.
Hern HE Jr., Koenig BA, et al. (1998). The Difference
That Culture Can Make in End-of-Life Decisionmaking.
Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics 7(1): 27–40.
Teno JM, Stevens M, et al. (1998). Role of Written Advance
Directives in Decision Making: Insights from Qualitative
and Quantitative Data. Journal of General Internal Medicine
13(7): 439–446.
Hopp FP and Duffy SA (2000). Racial Variations in End-ofLife Care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 48(6):
658–663.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
Kagawa-Singer M and Blackhall LJ (2001). Negotiating
Cross-Cultural Issues at the End of Life: “You Got to
Go Where He Lives.” Journal of the American Medical
Association 286(23): 2993–3001.
NHPCO Standards {ARE 2, 2.1, 2.2; CCS 6.1, 11.1, 11.2, 12.4;
HR 8, 8.1, 8.2; IDT 4, 4.1.9, 5, 5.1, 5.1.10, 7.1.3, 7.3}1
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
32
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Domain 7: Care of the Imminently Dying Patient
Guideline 7.1 Signs and symptoms of impending death are recognized and
communicated, and care appropriate for this phase of illness is provided to patient
and family. (118)
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The patient’s and family’s transition to the actively dying phase is recognized,
when possible, and is documented and communicated appropriately to patient,
family and staff. (118)
End-of-life concerns, hopes, fears and expectations are addressed openly
and honestly (119) in the context of social and cultural customs (120) in a
developmentally appropriate manner. (121)
Symptoms at the end of life are assessed and documented with appropriate
frequency (122) and are treated based on patient-family preferences. (8)
The care plan is revised to meet the unique needs of the patient and family at this
phase of the illness. (36) The need for higher intensity and acuity of care during the
active dying phase is met and documented.
Patient and family wishes regarding care setting for the death are documented. (20)
Any inability to meet these needs and preferences is reviewed and addressed by the
palliative care team.
As patients decline, the hospice referral option will be introduced (or reintroduced)
for those who have not accessed hospice services. (38)
The family is educated regarding the signs and symptoms of approaching death
(13, 118) in a developmentally-, age-, and culturally-appropriate manner. (119-121)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
33
Selected References for Domain 7
Brody H, Campbell ML, et al. (1997). Withdrawing Intensive
Life-Sustaining Treatment—Recommendations for
Compassionate Clinical Management. New England Journal
of Medicine 336(9): 652–657.
Ellershaw J and Ward C (2003). Care of the Dying Patient:
The Last Hours or Days of Life. British Medical Journal
326(7379): 30–34.
Krakauer EL, Penson RT, et al. (2000). Sedation for
Intractable Distress of a Dying Patient: Acute Palliative
Care and the Principle of Double Effect. The Oncologist 5(1):
53–62.
Pickett M and Yancey D (1998). Symptoms of the Dying. In:
McCorkle R, Grant R, Frank-Stromborg M, Baird S, eds.
Cancer Nursing: A Comprehensive Textbook (second ed.)
Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, pp. 1157–1182.
Rousseau P (2002). Management of Symptoms in the Actively
Dying Patient. In: Berger AM, Portenoy RK, Weissman DE,
eds. Principles & Practice of Palliative Care & Supportive
Oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp.
789–798.
Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C, et al. (1990). Symptom
Prevalence and Control During Cancer Patients’ Last Days
of Life. Journal of Palliative Care 6(3): 7–11.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
NHPCO Standards {CC 2.6, 3, 3.1, 3.2; CCS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
7.1, 7.2, 8, 9, 9.3, 10, 11, 11.1, 1.2, 11.3, 12, 12.1, 12.3, 13, 14, 15,
15.1, 15.315.4; HIFCCS 5, 5.1; HRCFCCS 5, 5.1}1
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
34
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Domain 8: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Care
Guideline 8.1 The patient’s goals, preferences and choices are respected within the
limits of applicable state and federal law, and form the basis for the plan of care. (8)
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
The interdisciplinary team includes professionals with knowledge and skill in
ethical, legal and regulatory aspects of medical decision-making. (123)
The patient or surrogate’s expressed wishes, in collaboration with the family and
the interdisciplinary team, form the basis for the care plan. (8)
The adult patient with decisional capacity determines the level of involvement of
the family in decision-making and communication about the care plan. (124)
Evidence of patient preferences for care is routinely sought and documented in the
medical record. Failure to honor these preferences is documented and addressed
by the team. (8, 34)
Among minors with decision-making capacity, the child’s views and preferences
for medical care, including assent for treatment, should be documented and given
appropriate weight in decision-making. When the child’s wishes differ from those
of the adult decision-maker, appropriate professional staff members are available
to assist the child. (35, 124)
The palliative care program promotes advance care planning in order to
understand and communicate the patient’s or an appropriate surrogate’s
preferences for care across the health care continuum. (34)
When patients are unable to communicate, the palliative care program seeks to
identify advance care directives, evidence of previously expressed wishes, values
and preferences, and the appropriate surrogate decision-makers. The team must
advocate the observance of previously expressed wishes of the patient or surrogate
when necessary. (8, 34, 125)
Assistance is provided to surrogate decision-makers on the legal and ethical bases
for surrogate decision-making, including honoring the patient’s known preferences,
substituted judgment and best interest criteria. (8, 9, 125)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
35
Guideline 8.2 The palliative care program is aware of and addresses the complex
ethical issues arising in the care of persons with life-threatening debilitating
illness. (123, 126)
■
■
■
■
Criteria:
Ethical concerns commonly encountered in palliative care are recognized and
addressed, using ethical principles to prevent or resolve ethical dilemmas,
including: beneficence, respect for persons and self-determination, and associated
regulatory requirements for truth-telling, capacity assessment, confidentiality,
assent and permission for persons not of legal age to consent, and informed
consent; attention to justice and nonmaleficence and associated avoidance of
conflicts of interest. (123, 126) The team recognizes the role of cultural variation
in the application of professional obligations, including truth-telling, disclosure,
decisional authority and decisions to forgo therapy. (See Domain 6: Cultural
Considerations). Attention must be paid to the role of children and adolescents in
decision-making. (35)
Care is consistent with the professional codes of ethics, and the scope, standards
and code of ethics of palliative care practice are modeled on existing professional
codes of ethics for all relevant disciplines. (128, 129)
The palliative care team aims to prevent, identify and resolve ethical dilemmas
related to specific interventions such as withholding or withdrawing treatments
(including nutrition and hydration), instituting DNR orders, and the use of
sedation in palliative care. (127, 130, 131)
Ethical issues are documented; (39) referrals are made to ethics consultants or a
committee, as appropriate. (132)
Guideline 8.3 The palliative care program is knowledgeable about legal and
regulatory aspects of palliative care. (123)
■
■
36
Criteria:
Palliative care practitioners are knowledgeable about legal and regulatory issues,
including federal and state statutes and regulations regarding medical decisionmaking, advance care planning and directives; (123) the roles and responsibilities
of surrogate decision-makers; (124, 125) appropriate prescribing of opioids and
other controlled substances; (51) pronouncing death; (134, 135) request for autopsy
and organ transplant; (136) and associated documentation in the medical record.
Patients and families are routinely advised of the need to seek professional advice
on creating or updating property wills and guardianship agreements. (133)
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Selected References for Domain 8
American College of Physicians, American Society of
Internal Medicine End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel (1998).
Ethics Manual, Fourth Edition. Annals of Internal Medicine
128(7): 576–594.
Koenig BA (1997). Cultural Diversity in Decision-Making
About Care at the End of Life. Approaching Death: Improving
Care at the End of Life. Washington: National Academy
Press, pp363–382.
Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical
Association (1999). Medical Futility in End-of-Life Care.
Journal of the American Medical Association 281(10): 937–941.
Meisel A, Snyder L, et al. (2000). Seven Legal Barriers to
End-of-Life Care: Myths, Realities, and Grains of Truth.
Journal of the American Medical Association 284(19):
2495–2501.
Baluss ME (2002). Palliative Care: Ethics and the Law. In:
Berger AM, Portenoy RK, Weissman DE, eds. Principles
& Practice of Palliative Care & Supportive Oncology.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 902–914.
Berry P and Griffie J (2001). Planning for the Actual Death.
In: Ferrell B and Coyle N, eds. Textbook of Palliative Nursing.
New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 382–394.
Block SD and Billings JA (1994). Patient Requests to Hasten
Death. Evaluation and Management in Terminal Care.
Archives of Internal Medicine 154(18): 2039–2047.
Campbell ML and Guzman JA (2003). Impact of a Proactive
Approach to Improve End-of-Life Care in a Medical ICU.
Chest 123(1): 266–271.
Cherny NI and Portenoy RK (1994). Sedation in the
Management of Refractory Symptoms: Guidelines for
Evaluation and Treatment. Journal of Palliative Care 10(2):
31–38.
Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical
Association (1992). Decisions Near the End of Life. Journal
of the American Medical Association 267: 2229–2233.
Ganzini L, Volicer L, et al. (2003). Pitfalls in Assessment of
Decision-Making Capacity. Psychosomatics 44(3): 237–243.
Prendergast TJ and Luce JM (1997). Increasing Incidence
of Withholding and Withdrawal of Life Support from the
Critically Ill. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care
Medicine 155(1): 15–20.
Quill TE and Cassel CK (1995). Nonabandonment: A Central
Obligation for Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine 122(5):
368–374.
Quill TE, Lo B, et al. (1997). Palliative Options of Last
Resort: A Comparison of Voluntarily Stopping Eating and
Drinking, Terminal Sedation, Physician-Assisted Suicide,
and Voluntary Active Euthanasia. Journal of the American
Medical Association 278(23): 2099–2104.
Truog RD, Cist AF, et al. (2001). Recommendations for
End-of-Life Care in the Intensive Care Unit: The Ethics
Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Critical
Care Medicine 29(12): 2332–2348.
NOTE: An easy reference to the various sections of the
NHPCO Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2000)
is provided in brackets at the end of each domain.
NHPCO Standards {ARE 3, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 6.2, 8, 8.1,
8.2; CCS 14.1, 14.2; IDT 11; 15.1}1
1
References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002) are
cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
37
38
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
CONCLUSION
Palliative care services aim to support patients of all ages with debilitating and
life-threatening illness, and their families, through the full course of the illness,
regardless of its duration, until cure or until death, and through the bereavement
period. Palliative care is delivered through skilled and interdisciplinary attention
to pain and other distressing symptoms; emotional, spiritual and practical support;
assistance with complex medical decision-making; and coordination across the
continuum of health care settings. The goal is to help the patient and family
achieve the best possible quality of life in accordance with their values, needs
and preferences. These guidelines for quality palliative care programs represent
a consensus opinion of the major palliative care organizations and leaders in the
United States, and are based both on the available scientific evidence and expert
professional opinion.
Clinical practice guidelines such as these have become the accepted means of
promoting consistency, comprehensiveness and quality across many domains of
health care. The widespread adoption of these guidelines in the United States will
help to establish palliative care as an integral component of the health care of persons
living with life-threatening and debilitating chronic illness. It is hoped that these
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Palliative Care will encourage access to high-quality
palliative care that patients and their families can come to expect and rely upon.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
39
40
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Notes on References
The following are selected references, divided by section, that provide the evidence
base for the National Consensus Project Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care.1
The references focus on well-designed, useful studies, both observational and
experimental, as well as published consensus statements and expert opinions.
Particularly in Domains 2 and 3 (the sections on physical and psychological distress),
only a small portion of the relevant literature is provided.
All participants in the National Consensus Project (NCP) were invited to suggest
key references. We also conducted a variety of literature searches in Medline and
the Cochrane Collaboration, and reviewed many articles and textbooks, primarily
in the fields of medicine and nursing. Where experimental evidence of good quality
care exists, it is cited. Other references reflect the expert opinion of consensus efforts,
professional organizations and experts in the field. This document does not represent
an exhaustive review of the literature relevant to hospice and palliative care. For
the Introduction and Domain 1: Structure and Processes of Care, which address
fundamental features of palliative care, we provide thorough documentation, while
in the sections on physical or psychological distress, key articles or recent summaries
that complement the many excellent textbooks on palliation are cited under General
References.
The National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization provided a “cross-walk” of
the NCP guidelines with their Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002).
References to this document are listed in brackets.
A Note on the “State of the Science”
While many key concepts about end-of-life care were well articulated 40 years ago
in the founding days of the hospice movement, an array of excellent studies can be
cited in the past few decades during which palliative care has developed as a distinct
discipline. Research that confirms, refines, extends and occasionally refutes hospice
notions has blossomed, and the growth of the evidence base has been impressive
in recent years. In selected areas, particularly in pain and symptom management,
as well as in some aspects of psychological care and bereavement, well-designed
experimental studies have begun to appear. Meanwhile, instruments appropriate
for measuring palliative care outcomes, such as patient and family satisfaction,
symptom distress, functional status, mood and quality of life, continue to improve.
1
Note: For complete citations, go to the bibliography at
www.nationalconsensusproject.org/guidelines.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
41
The elements of palliative care have also become better defined and thus more
subject to evaluation studies. For example, the use of artificial nutrition and
hydration near the end of life is a practice generally shunned by hospice pioneers,
and still often considered inappropriate for most dying patients. However, the utility
of these interventions in selected patients is now recognized, but well-designed
experimental studies are lacking. The randomized controlled trial has been difficult
to carry out in the field of palliative care — being too intrusive and time consuming
to be performed with very sick persons or with families under great stress. New
measurement methodologies and study designs are needed.
Palliative care shares with other fields of medicine and nursing many well-recognized
standards of care (e.g., continuity, communication, patient-centeredness) that have
not been subjected to extensive, careful experimental verification. Some of the central
tenets of the field — for example, interdisciplinary care, teamwork, patient-/familycentered decision-making, and an integrated, comprehensive approach to assessing
and treating all forms of suffering — have never been validated in experimental
studies. Demonstration projects and multi-center research will be necessary to test
the utility of these care approaches in large patient populations.
The failings of the current health care system however, are well documented. The
best documented and most consistent finding of numerous studies over the past few
decades has been confirmation of the original observations of the founders of the
hospice movement that inadequacies in symptom control, psychosocial and spiritual
support (including bereavement care), shared decision-making, and attention to
alternative sites of care fall short of common-sense standards for quality of care,
leaving many observers (clinicians, patients, and family members) dissatisfied. A
broad range of problems have been identified and extensively documented. These
studies constitute the early descriptive phase of palliative care research. At the same
time, hospice and palliative care have been shown to provide an alternative that
consistently enhances patient and family satisfaction, often improves physical and
emotional distress and regularly leads to cost-savings.
Many studies, mostly using survey methodology, offer a broad overview of this
process, but except for studies of symptom management, there is a dearth of detailed
examination of current practices and the impact of discrete interventions. For
instance, late referrals to hospice programs in the United States have been decried
for many years by proponents of palliative care. But the factors leading to this
pattern, the impact of late referral on key outcomes and the effectiveness of various
remedies have not been studied. More detailed qualitative and cross-cultural studies
could be useful for understanding the forces that lead to this situation.
The science of palliative care is moving beyond its early, largely descriptive phase
of development in which problems in end-of-life care were identified and solutions,
although described, were not necessarily carefully tested.
42
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
References, by section
Introduction
1. Growth of hospice and palliative care programs in the United States: (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation,Fund MM
2000;Billings JA,Pantilat S 2001;Pan CX, Morrison RS 2001;White KR, Cochran CE 2002;National Hospice and Palliative
Care Organization 2003;Pantilat SZ,Billings JA 2003)
2. Palliative care is concurrent care, available from the time of diagnosis, not an alternative to “conventional” care: (Ryndes T
1995;Portenoy RK 1998;MacDonald N 2002;Meyers FJ,Linder J 2003;Selwyn PA,Forstein M 2003)
3. Key recent reports promote the development of palliative care and hospice: (Field MJ,Cassel CK 1997; Institute of Medicine
2001;American Association of Colleges of Nursing 2002;Field MJ, Behrman DE 2003;Jennings B, Ryndes T 2003)
4. Other important reports promote palliative care and hospice: (Hastings Center 1987;American Nurses Association
1991e;American Nurses Association 1991b;American Nurses Association 1991c;American Nurses Association 1991d;American
Nurses Association 1991a;Children’s Hospice International 1993;American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee
1994;American Nurses Association 1994a;American Nurses Association 1994b;Jacox A., Carr D.B. 1994;American
Pain Society Quality of Care Committee 1995;American Academy of Neurology Ethics and Humanities Subcommittee
1996;Council on Scientific Affairs AMA 1996;Hospice Nurses Association 1996;Higginson IJ, Sen-Gupta G 1997;Hospice and
Palliative Nurses Association 1997;McSkimming SA, Super M 1997;National Council For Hospice And Specialist Palliative
Care Services 1997;National Hospice Organization Standards and Accreditation Committee 1997;American Board of Internal
Medicine Committee on Evaluation of Clinical Competence 1998;American Geriatrics Society Panel on Chronic Pain in
Older Persons 1998;American Society of Clinical Oncology End of Life Task Force 1998;Ferrell BR, Virani R 1998;American
Association of Critical-Care Nurses 1999;Emanuel LL, von Gunten CF 1999;Ferrell B.R., Grant M. 1999;Grossman SA,
Benedetti C 1999;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 1999;National Comprehensive Cancer Network 1999;National
Task Force on End-of-Life Care in Managed Care 1999;Oncology Nursing Society 1999;American Academy of Pediatrics,
Committee on Bioethics and Committee on Hospital Care 2000;American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial
Aspects of Child and Family Health 2000;American Medical Directors Association 2000;Bednash G,Ferrell B 2000;Joint
Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations 2000;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization
2000;Brown ST, Blacker S 2001;Foley KM,Gelband H 2001;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2001;National Advisory
Committee on Palliative Care 2001;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 2001a;National Hospice and Palliative
Care Organization 2001b;Roundtable O 2001;American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Emergency
Physicians 2002;American College of Surgeons 2002;Ferris F. D., Balfour H. M. 2002;Hospice and Palliative Nurses
Association 2002e;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2002b;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2002d;Hospice
and Palliative Nurses Association 2002f;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2002a;Hospice and Palliative Nurses
Association 2002c;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association,American Nurses Association 2002;Last Acts 2002;Medicare
Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) 2002;Moon M,Boccutti C 2002;National Comprehensive Cancer Network
2002;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 2002;National Institute of Health Consensus Development Program
2002;American Medical Association Council on Ethics and Judicial Affairs 2003;American Nurses Association 2003;Fins
JJ, Peres JR 2003;Hopper SS 2003;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2003;National Comprehensive Cancer Network
2003b;National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2003a;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 2003;Hospice and
Palliative Nurses Association 2004b;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2004a;American Pain Society Task Force on
Pain,Symptoms and End of Life Care undated;Smits HL, Furletti M undated)
5. Definition of palliative care: (Finlay IG,Jones RV 1995;Billings JA 1998;National Council For Hospice And Specialist
Palliative Care Services 2002;World Health Organization 2002)
6. Modified from (World Health Organization 2002)
7. A broad patient population is appropriate for palliative care: (Field MJ,Cassel CK 1997;Mann SM,Welk TA 1997;Post
LF,Dubler NN 1997;American Association of Colleges of Nursing 2002;Field MJ, Behrman DE 2003)
8. Patient-and family-centered care; the importance of eliciting and responding to patient and family values and goals:
(Kristjanson LJ 1986;Kristjanson LJ 1989;Goldberg R, Guadagnoli E 1990;Teno JM, Mor V 1991;Kristjanson LJ,Ashcroft T
1994;Murphy DJ, Burrows D 1994;1995;Teno JM, Hakim RB 1995;Kristjanson LJ, Sloan JA 1996;Greisinger AJ, Lorimor RJ
1997;Kristjanson LJ, Leis A 1997;Kristjanson LJ, Nikoletti S 1998;Krumholz HM, Phillips RS 1998;Singer PA, Martin DK
1999a;Singer PA, Martin DK 1999b;Teno JM 1999;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL 2000;Norton SA,Talerico KA 2000;Phillips RS,
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
43
Hamel MB 2000;Steinhauser KE, Christakis NA 2000;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC 2000;Tolle SW, Tilden VP 2000;Andrews SC
2001;Bruera E, Sweeney C 2001;Price KJ,Kish SK 2001;Teno JM, Casey VA 2001;Contro N, Larson J 2002;Teno JM, Fisher ES
2002;American Academy of Pediatrics and the Institute for Family-Centered Care 2003;Carline JD, Curtis JR 2003;Teno JM,
Clarridge BR 2004) {ARE 3, 3.1-3.3, 3.5, 3.6, 8, 14, 14.1, 14.2 HIFCCS 3; HIFSIC 1,1.1-1.7, 5; HRCFSIC 1, 1.1-1.9, 2, 2.1-2.6,
3, 3.1, 5, 7, 7.1-7.4}. See also information-sharing (13), site of care (20, 26), advance care planning (34), and Domain 4: Social
Aspects of Care, Domain 5: Spiritual, Religious and Existential Aspects of Care, and Domain 6: Cultural Aspects of Care.
9. Professional assistance with decision-making: (Murphy DJ, Burrows D 1994;Morrison RS, Zayas LH 1998;Braddock CH,
3rd., Edwards KA 1999;Baggs JG,Schmitt MH 2000;Borum ML, Lynn J 2000;Hopp FP,Duffy SA 2000;Foster LW,McLellan
LJ 2002;Gattellari M, Voigt KJ 2002;Chao C, Studts JL 2003;Teno JM, Clarridge BR 2004)
10. Comprehensive (integrated biopsychosocial/spiritual) care: (Finlay IG,Jones RV 1995;Billings JA 1998;National Hospice
and Palliative Care Organization 2000;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC 2000;Tolle SW, Tilden VP 2000;Ellershaw J, Smith C
2001;Chochinov HM, Hack T 2002a;Lamberg L 2002;Patterson LB,Dorfman LT 2002;Ternestedt BM, Andershed B 2002)
11. Interdisciplinary teamwork, interdisciplinary assessment, and team education: (Given B,Simmons S 1977;Twycross RG
1990;Higginson IJ, Wade AM 1992;Shortell SM, Zimmerman JE 1994;Norsen L, Opladen J 1995;Council on Scientific Affairs
AMA 1996;Billings JA,Block S 1997;Coyle N 1997;Field MJ,Cassel CK 1997;Higginson IJ,Hearn J 1997;O’Neill B,Fallon
M 1997;Ross DD, O’Mara A 1997;American Board of Internal Medicine Committee on Evaluation of Clinical Competence
1998;Block S,Billings JA 1998;Ferrell BR, Virani R 1998;Ramirez A, Addington-Hall J 1998;Baggs JG, Schmitt MH
1999;Emanuel LL, von Gunten CF 1999;Ferrell B.R., Grant M. 1999;Lynn J,Harrold J 1999;Steel K, Ribbe M 1999;Abrahm
JL 2000;Benedetti C, Brock C 2000;Francke AL 2000;Freeborne N, Lynn J 2000;National Hospice and Palliative Care
Organization 2000;Smeenk FW, de Witte LP 2000;Sommers LS, Marton KI 2000;Emanuel LL, Alpert HR 2001;Ferrell
B,Coyle N 2001;Glass E, Cluxton D 2001;Krammer, Ringel SP 2001;Mularski RA, Bascom P 2001;Smith SA 2001;Zwarenstein
M, Reeves S 2001;American Association of Colleges of Nursing 2002;Brown-Hellsten M, Hockenberry-Eaton M
2002;Higginson IJ, Finlay I 2002;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2002d;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association
2002f;Abrahm JL 2003;De Conno F, Panzeri C 2003;Field MJ, Behrman DE 2003;Haggerty JL, Reid RJ 2003;Higginson IJ,
Finlay IG 2003;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2003;Matzo ML,Sherman DW 2003;Smith TJ, Coyne P 2003;Lickiss
JN, Turner KS 2004) {IDT 1.1, 14, 14.1,14.2; HR 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4; CC 2.2;IT 1}
12. Attention to relief of all forms of suffering: (Cassell ES 1982;Cassell EJ 1991;Cassell EJ 1992;Cassell EJ 1999;National
Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 2000;Thompson G,McClement S 2002)
13. Communication skills: information-sharing and psychosocial support of patient and family: (Buckman R 1992;Argent J,
Faulkner A 1994;Murphy DJ, Burrows D 1994;Northouse LL, Dorris G 1995;1995;Diem SJ, Lantos JD 1996;Maguire P, Booth
K 1996;Tulsky JA, Chesney MA 1996;Degner LF, Kristjanson LJ 1997;Quirt CF, Mackillop WJ 1997;Faulkner A 1998;Fischer
GS, Tulsky JA 1998;Tulsky JA, Fischer GS 1998;Fischer GS, Arnold RM 2000;Hilden JM, Watterson J 2000;Larson DG,Tobin
DR 2000;Leydon GM, Boulton M 2000;Morrison RS, Siu AL 2000;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization
2000;Northouse LL, Mood D 2000;Roter DL, Larson S 2000;Steinhauser KE, Christakis NA 2000;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC
2000;Breen CM, Abernethy AP 2001;Bucher JA, Loscalzo M 2001;Detmar SB, Muller MJ 2001;Faulkner A, Argent J 2001;Fins
JJ,Solomon MZ 2001;Glajchen M,Zuckerman C 2001;Perrin KO 2001;Scott JT, Entwistle VA 2001;Clever SL,Tulsky JA
2002;Emanuel EJ, Ash A 2002;Kolarik RC, Arnold RM 2002;Rauch P,Arnold R 2002;Rauch PK, Muriel AC 2002;Tattersall
MH, Gattellari M 2002;Back AL, Arnold RM 2003;Byock I,Miles SH 2003;Field MJ, Behrman DE 2003;Scott JT, Harmsen
M 2003;Seymour J 2003;Fallowfield L 2004;Jeffrey D 2004;Maguire P,Pitceathly C 2004) {CCS 3.3, 6, 11,12.3, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 14,
14.1, 14.2; IDT 4.1, 5.1; HR 7.2}
14. Palliative care team members have professional-level expertise in care of the dying and bereaved, and are appropriately
credentialed: (Twycross RG 1990;Council on Scientific Affairs AMA 1996;Frager G 1996;Billings JA,Block S 1997;Frager G
1997;O’Neill B,Fallon M 1997;Ross DD, O’Mara A 1997;American Board of Internal Medicine Committee on Evaluation of
Clinical Competence 1998;Block S,Billings JA 1998;Ferrell BR, Virani R 1998;Ramirez A, Addington-Hall J 1998;Emanuel
LL, von Gunten CF 1999;Ferrell BR, Grant M. 1999;Lynn J,Harrold J 1999;Steel K, Ribbe M 1999;Abrahm JL 2000;American
Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics and Committee on Hospital Care 2000;Benedetti C, Brock C 2000;Freeborne
N, Lynn J 2000;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 2000;von Gunten CF, Ferris FD 2000;2001;Ferrell B,Coyle
N 2001;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2001;Krammer, Ringel SP 2001;Mularski RA, Bascom P 2001;Smith
SA 2001;Wilkie DJ 2001;Wilkie DJ, Brown MA 2001;American Association of Colleges of Nursing 2002;Billings JA, Block
SD 2002;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2002d;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2002f;Hospice
and Palliative Nurses Association 2002a;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2002c;Hospice and Palliative Nurses
Association,American Nurses Association 2002;Meier DE 2002;Abrahm JL 2003;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association
2003;Matzo ML,Sherman DW 2003) {IDT 1.1; 15;HR 1, 1.3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4}
15. Continuity of care across settings: (Field MJ,Cassel CK 1997;Higginson I 1999;Morrison RS, Siu AL 2000;Blackford J,Street
A 2001;Ferris FD, Balfour HM 2002;Friedman BT, Harwood MK 2002;Moore S, Corner J 2002;Bliss J,While A 2003;Burge F,
Lawson B 2003;Field MJ, Behrman DE 2003;Haggerty JL, Reid RJ 2003;Jennings B, Ryndes T 2003;Moore C, Wisnivesky J
2003;Nelson KA,Walsh D 2003;Ryndes T,Emanuel L 2003;Twaddle ML, Sheehan M 2003)
44
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
16. Equitable access to services: (National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 2000;Smeenk FW, de Witte LP 2000;Meier
D. E. 2002;Jennings B, Ryndes T 2003)
17. Quality improvement and quality assurance: (McCarthy M,Higginson I 1991;Higginson I 1993;McWhinney IR, Bass MJ
1994;American Pain Society Quality of Care Committee 1995;Coyne PJ 1995;Bruera E 1996b;Campbell ML 1996;Hearn
J,Higginson IJ 1997;Lynn J 1997;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 1997;National Hospice Organization
Standards and Accreditation Committee 1997;Rudberg MA, Teno JM 1997;Scanlon C 1997;Teno JM, Landrum K 1997;American
Board of Internal Medicine Committee on Evaluation of Clinical Competence 1998;Donaldson MS,Field MJ 1998;Robbins
M 1998;United Hospital Fund 1998;Du Pen SL, Du Pen AR 1999;Teno JM,Coppola KM 1999;Lynn J 2000;Morrison RS,
Siu AL 2000;Reese D, Raymer M 2000;Rosenfeld K,Wenger NS 2000;Teno J 2000;Ellershaw J, Smith C 2001;Hermann CP
2001;Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine, 2001;Kizer KW 2001b;Kizer
KW 2001a;Teno JM, Clarridge B 2001;Teno JM, Field MJ 2001;Epstein RM,Hundert EM 2002;Hanks GW, Robbins M 2002;Last
Acts 2002;Lynn J, Nolan K 2002;National Quality Forum 2002;Shaughnessy PW, Hittle DF 2002;Steinhauser KE, Bosworth HB
2002;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC 2002;Thompson G,McClement S 2002;Aspinal F, Addington-Hall J 2003;McGlynn EA, Cassel
CK 2003;National Quality Forum 2003) {PI 1.1, 2, 2.1-2.3, 3.2, 4, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.2, 5.3, 6, 6.1,6.2}
18. The need for pediatric services: (Kazak AE, Penati B 1996;American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics and
Committee on Hospital Care 2000;Children’s International Project on Palliative/Hospice Services (ChIPPS) 2000;Hilden JM,
Watterson J 2000;McCallum DE, Byrne P 2000;Sahler OJ, Frager G 2000;Wolfe J 2000;Wolfe J, Grier HE 2000;Children’s
International Project on Palliative/Hospice Services (ChIPPS) 2001;Feudtner C, Hays RM 2001;Contro N, Larson J
2002;Davies B, Brenner P 2002;Rauch P,Arnold R 2002;Rauch PK, Muriel AC 2002;Davies B, Collins JB 2003;Field MJ,
Behrman DE 2003;Higginson IJ,Thompson M 2003;Solomon MZ, Browning D 2003)
19. Programs provide a range of services in a variety of settings: (Munley A, Powers CS 1982;Haines A,Booroff A 1986;Higginson
IJ, Wade AM 1992;Mercadante S, Genovese G 1992;Dudgeon DJ,Kristjanson L 1995;Ferrell BA 1995;O’Brien LA, Grisso
JA 1995;Castle NG, Mor V 1997;Meier DE, Morrison RS 1997;Weissman DE 1997;Bernabei R, Gambassi G 1998;Bradley
EH, Peiris V 1998;Dunlop RJ,Hockley JM 1998;Ferrell BR, Virani R 1998;Smeenk FW, van Haastregt JC 1998;Petrisek
AC,Mor V 1999;Steel K, Ribbe M 1999;Tolle SW, Rosenfeld AG 1999;Center to Advance Palliative Care 2000;Roush CV,Cox
JE 2000;Zerzan J, Stearns S 2000;Billings JA, Ferris FD 2001;Billings JA,Pantilat S 2001;Cain JM 2001;DeSilva DL, Dillon
JE 2001;Miller SC, Gozalo P 2001;Miller SC,Mor V 2001;Pan CX, Morrison RS 2001;Ratner E, Norlander L 2001;Teno JM,
Weitzen S 2001;Ferrell BR,Borneman T 2002;Finlay IG, Higginson IJ 2002;Hanks GW, Robbins M 2002;Happ MB, Capezuti
E 2002;Homsi J, Walsh D 2002;Meier D.E. 2002;Miller SC, Mor V 2002;Miller SC,Mor VN 2002;Pantilat SZ 2002;Reynolds
K, Henderson M 2002;Santa-Emma PH, Roach R 2002;von Gunten CF 2002b;Brumley RD, Enguidanos S 2003;Higginson
IJ, Finlay IG 2003;Kayser-Jones J, Schell E 2003;Keay TJ, Alexander C 2003;Lilly CM, Sonna LA 2003;Meier DE, Thar
W 2003;Miller SC, Mor V 2003;Murkofsky RL, Phillips RS 2003;Pantilat SZ,Billings JA 2003;Zimmerman S, Sloane PD
2003;Teno JM, Clarridge BR 2004)
20. The need for home services recognizing patient and family preferences: (Koenig BA,Gates-Williams J 1995;American Society
of Clinical Oncology End of Life Task Force 1998;Morrison RS, Zayas LH 1998;Smeenk FW, van Haastregt JC 1998;Wennberg
J,Cooper M 1998;Loudon RF, Anderson PM 1999;American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics and Committee
on Hospital Care 2000;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL 2000;Hopp FP,Duffy SA 2000;Keovilay L, Rasbridge L 2000;Waters CM
2000;Middlewood S, Gardner G 2001;Ratner E, Norlander L 2001;Billings JA, Block SD 2002;Bruera E, Russell N 2002;Bruera
E, Sweeney C 2003;Teno LM 2003) {ARE 3.5; CCS 10.2, 13.2, 14; CC 3.1-3.4}
21. Attention to caregiver burden and support: (Tolle SW,Girard DE 1983;Tolle SW, Elliot DL 1984;Tolle SW, Bascom PB
1986;Labrecque MS, Blanchard CG 1991;Higginson I, Priest P 1994;Kristjanson LJ,Ashcroft T 1994;Kristjanson LJ,
Atwood J 1995;1995;Kristjanson LJ, Sloan JA 1996;Hanson LC, Danis M 1997;Kristjanson LJ, Leis A 1997;Lynn J, Teno
JM 1997;Morrison RS, Ahronheim JC 1998;Bern-Klug M, Ekerdt DJ 1999;Singer PA, Martin DK 1999a;Yates P,Stetz KM
1999;Baker R, Wu AW 2000;Early BP, Smith ED 2000;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL 2000;Levine C 2000;Steinhauser KE,
Christakis NA 2000;Tolle SW, Tilden VP 2000;Andrews SC 2001;Goetschius SK 2001;Hickman SE, Tilden VP 2001;Perrin
KO 2001;Teno JM, Clarridge B 2001;Foster LW,McLellan LJ 2002;Main J 2002;Patterson LB,Dorfman LT 2002;Brazil K,
Bedard M 2003;Brodaty H, Green A 2003;Christakis NA,Iwashyna TJ 2003;Dawson S,Kristjanson LJ 2003;Deeken JF, Taylor
KL 2003;Doukas DJ,Hardwig J 2003;Harding R,Higginson IJ 2003;Hecht MJ, Graesel E 2003;Markowitz JS, Gutterman EM
2003;Seymour J 2003;Stuart B, D’Onofrio CN 2003;Williams PD, Williams AR 2003;Rabow MW, Hauser JM 2004) {CCS 3.3,
10, 10.1-10.3, 11, 11.1, 11.3, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 14, 14.1, 14.2; IDT 4.1, 5.1; HR 7.2}
22. Palliative care improves patient satisfaction and other outcomes: (Zimmer JG, Groth-Juncker A 1984;Zimmer JG, GrothJuncker A 1985;Mor V 1987;Mor V, Greer DS 1988;Campbell ML,Frank RR 1997;Hanson LC, Tulsky JA 1997;Smeenk FW,
van Haastregt JC 1998;Bosanquet N,Salisbury C 1999;Bruera E, Neumann CM 1999;Grande GE, Todd CJ 2000;Schneiderman
LJ, Gilmer T 2000;Cohen SR, Boston P 2001;Jack B, Oldham J 2002;Campbell ML,Guzman JA 2003;Jack B, Hillier V
2003;Jack B, Oldham J 2003;Rabow MW, Petersen J 2003;Rabow MW, Schanche K 2003;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T
2003;Christakis NA, Iwashyna TJ 2003;Teno JM, Clarridge BR 2004)
23. Palliative care has fiscal benefits: (Lubitz J,Prihoda R 1984;Zimmer JG, Groth-Juncker A 1984;Zimmer JG, Groth-Juncker A
1985;Mor V 1987;Riley G, Lubitz J 1987;Mor V, Greer DS 1988;McMillan A, Mentnech RM 1990;Lubitz JD,Riley GF 1993;Riley
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
45
GF, Potosky AL 1995;Raftery JP, Addington-Hall JM 1996;Bruera E, Neumann CM 1999;Hogan C, Lunney J 2001;Serra-Prat
M, Gallo P 2001;Beresford J, Byock I 2002;Moore S, Corner J 2002;Cintron A, Hamel MB 2003;Costantini M, Higginson IJ
2003;McCarthy EP, Burns RB 2003a;McCarthy EP, Burns RB 2003b;Smith TJ, Coyne P 2003;Cost Accounting Peer Workgroup
Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care 2004)
24. Palliative care improves hospice utilization: (Mor V 1987;Mor V, Greer DS 1988;Schapiro R,Byock I 2003)
25. Aging America: (Burman L, Penner R 1998)
26 Where people die and where they want to die: (Teno JM 2003;Hansen LC, Henderson M 2002;Wennberg J, Copper M
1998;Kemper P, Murtaugh CM 1991;Bruera E, Russell N 2002;Furst CJ, Doyle D 2004;Ratner E, Norlander L 2001;Jordhoy
MS, Foyers P 2000;Haines A, Booroff A 1986;Teno JM, Clarridge BR 2004;Weitzen S, Teno JM 2003) {CCS 6, 13; CC 3,
3.1,3.2}
27. Problems of burdensome technologies: (Teno JM, Fisher ES 2002)
28. Need for education about palliative care for all health professionals, especially in hospitals: (Sanson-Fisher R,Maguire P
1980;Sanson-Fisher R, Fairbairn S 1981;Maguire P, Fairbairn S 1986b;Maguire P, Fairbairn S 1986a;Arnold RM, Forrow
L 1988;Maguire P,Faulkner A 1988;Weissman DE 1991;Billings JA 1993;Bird J, Hall A 1993;Covinsky KE, Goldman L
1994;1995;Tulsky JA, Chesney MA 1995;Billings JA,Block S 1997;Bruera E, Selmser P 1997;Campbell ML,Frank RR
1997;Field MJ,Cassel CK 1997;Manias E, Kristjanson L 1997;Ross DD, O’Mara A 1997;Seely JF, Scott JF 1997;Block
S,Billings JA 1998;Ferrell BR, Virani R 1998;Oneschuk D,Bruera E 1998;Danis M, Federman D 1999;Emanuel LL, von
Gunten CF 1999;Ersek M, Kraybill BM 1999;Ferrell B, Virani R 1999a;Ferrell B, Virani R 1999b;Ferrell B. R., Grant M.
1999;Ferrell BR, Juarez G 1999;Linder JF, Blais J 1999;Steel K, Ribbe M 1999;Weissman DE, Block SD 1999;Ferrell B, Virani
R 2000b;Ferrell BR, Virani R 2000;Fins JJ,Nilson EG 2000;Lynn J, Schuster JL 2000;Meekin SA, Klein JE 2000;Meisel
A, Snyder L 2000;Oneschuk D, Hanson J 2000b;Sahler OJ, Frager G 2000;Tolle SW, Tilden VP 2000;Wenger NS, Phillips
RS 2000;Faulkner A, Argent J 2001;Jubelirer SJ, Welch C 2001;Mularski RA, Bascom P 2001;Murphy-Ende K 2001;Novak
B, Kolcaba K 2001;Ross DD, Fraser HC 2001;Weissman DE, Mullan P 2001;American Association of Colleges of Nursing
2002;Aronson SG,Kirby RW 2002;Billings JA, Block SD 2002;Ferrell BR,Borneman T 2002;Maguire P,Pitceathly C
2002;Mullan PB, Weissman DE 2002;Spiegel MJ, Meier DE 2002;Weissman DE,Block SD 2002;Weissman DE, Mullan PB
2002;Back AL, Arnold RM 2003;Keay TJ, Alexander C 2003;Razavi D, Merckaert I 2003;Sullivan AM, Lakoma MD 2003)
29. Hospice improves nursing home outcomes: (Baer WM,Hanson LC 2000;Gage B, Miller S 2000;Miller SC, Gozalo P 2000)
30. Professional organizations, programs and studies supporting improved end-of-life care in nursing homes: (Castle NG, Mor
V 1997;Bernabei R, Gambassi G 1998;Bradley EH, Peiris V 1998;Petrisek AC,Mor V 1999;Steel K, Ribbe M 1999;American
Medical Directors Association 2000;Hanson LC,Henderson M 2000;Miller S,2000;Zerzan J, Stearns S 2000;DeSilva DL,
Dillon JE 2001;Miller SC,Mor V 2001;Hanson LC, Henderson M 2002;Miller SC,Mor VN 2002;Reynolds K, Henderson M
2002;Keay TJ, Alexander C 2003;Meador R, Hegeman C 2003;Miller SC, Mor V 2003)
31. Palliative care guidelines from other health care systems: See also Appendix 1 (Palliative Care Australia 1998;Palliative
Care Australia 1999;Freeborne N, Lynn J 2000;Palliative Care Australia 2000;National Advisory Committee on Palliative
Care 2001;New Zealand Ministry of Health 2001;Ferris F. D., Balfour H.M. 2002;Association for Palliative Medicine of Great
Britain and Ireland)
32. Evidence-based guidelines and improvement of palliative care practice over time: (Higginson I, Wade A 1990;Jacox A., Carr
D.B. 1994;Higginson IJ, Hearn J 1996;Kuebler KK, Dahlin C 1996;Glance LG, Osler T 1998;Grossman SA, Benedetti C
1999;National Comprehensive Cancer Network 1999;National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2003b)
Domain 1: Structure and Processes of Care
33. Assessment requires complete review of history, physical examination, laboratory studies, records, etc.: (Bruera E 1996a;Dunn
GP 2001) {CCS 1.2, 1.3, 3, 6; IDT 3.1}
34. Advance care planning: (American Nurses Association 1991c;American Nurses Association 1991d;Lynn J,Teno JM
1993;Teno J, Lynn J 1993;Teno JM, Sabatino C 1993;Cherny NI,Portenoy RK 1994;Teno JM, Lynn J 1994;Teno JM, Nelson
HL 1994;Tulsky JA, Chesney MA 1995;Covinsky KE, Landefeld CS 1996;Davis A 1996;Eleazer GP, Hornung CA 1996;Hakim
RB, Teno JM 1996;Hamel MB, Phillips RS 1996;Miles SH, Koepp R 1996;Murphy ST, Palmer JM 1996;Teno JM,Lynn J
1996;Cleary JF,Carbone PP 1997;Galanos AN, Pieper CF 1997;Hauser JM, Kleefield SF 1997;Hofmann JC, Wenger NS
1997;Mor V, Intrator O 1997;Teno J, Lynn J 1997;Bradley EH, Peiris V 1998;Hammes BJ,Rooney BL 1998;Morrison RS, Zayas
LH 1998;Teno JM, Stevens M 1998;Carmin CN, Pollard CA 1999;Hamel MB, Davis RB 1999;Hamel MB, Teno JM 1999;Hamel
MB, Lynn J 2000;Teno JM, Fisher E 2000;Teno JM, Harrell FE, Jr. 2000;Walsh D, Donnelly S 2000;Wenger NS, Phillips RS
2000;Wu AW, Yasui Y 2000;Happ MB, Capezuti E 2002;Kolarik RC, Arnold RM 2002;Schwartz CE, Wheeler HB 2002;Yurk
R, Morgan D 2002;Allen RS, DeLaine SR 2003;Clarfield AM, Gordon M 2003;Mitchell SL 2003;Scott JT, Harmsen M 2003)
46
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
35. Assessing and treating children as patients and as family members: (McCullough PK 1992;Perrin JM, Shayne, M., and
Bloom, S 1993;McCue K 1994;Mayo S 1996;Sourkes BM 1996;Kunin H 1997;Carmin CN, Pollard CA 1999;International Work
Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement, Work Group on Palliative Care for Children 1999;American Academy of Pediatrics
Committee on Bioethics and Committee on Hospital Care 2000;Collins JJ, Byrnes ME 2000;Sahler OJ, Frager G 2000;Wolfe J
2000;Wolfe J, Grier HE 2000;Armstrong-Dailey A,Zarbock S 2001;Hinds PS, Oakes L 2001;Brown-Hellsten M, HockenberryEaton M 2002;Collins JJ 2002;Rauch P,Arnold R 2002;Rauch PK, Muriel AC 2002;Depaola SJ, Griffin M 2003;Higginson
IJ,Thompson M 2003;Scott JT, Harmsen M 2003;Solomon MZ, Browning D 2003;Tadmor CS, Postovsky S 2003) {ARE 3.3,
3.4; CCS 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 3, 3.1- 3.3, 8, 10, 11, 13}
36. Regular reassessment to recognize shifting and multiple priorities: (American Society of Clinical Oncology End of Life Task
Force 1998;Morita T, Tsunoda J 1999;American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics and Committee on Hospital
Care 2000;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL 2000;Billings JA, Block SD 2002;Hilden JM, Tobin DR 2002) {CC 2.2, 2.4, IDT 11.2,
12, 12.1-12.4; CCS 1-15, 15.1}
37. Access to specialists: (Giordano M 2000;Friedman BT, Harwood MK 2002;Hanks GW, Robbins M 2002;Payne S,Haines R
2002;Lloyd-Williams M 2003;Miller SC, Kinzbrunner B 2003){CSS 5.4; IDT 6}
38. Involve patient and family, community resources, and other supports in developing and carrying out the care plan. Palliative
care programs coordinate and collaborate with hospice and other community programs, including referrals to community resources
(school, work, transportation, rehabilitation, assistance with obtaining medications and medical equipment, financial support):
(Mor V 1987;Mor V, Greer DS 1988;Tulsky JA,Lo B 1992;Tulsky JA,Fox E 1996;Dowdy MD, Robertson C 1998;Schneiderman
LJ, Gilmer T 2000;Friedman BT, Harwood MK 2002;Hanks GW, Robbins M 2002;Meier D. E. 2002;von Gunten CF
2002a;Lee S,Kristjanson L 2003;Miller SC, Kinzbrunner B 2003;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T 2003;Cassidy JP,Davies DJ 2004)
{ RE 1.4; CCS 5.4;IDT 6, 6.3; CCS 14, 14.1, 14.2} {IDT 6, 6.3; 7.1, 11.1; CCS 14, 14.1, 14.2 Change to 53}
39. Documentation of assessment and care plan: (Higginson I,McCarthy M 1989;Bruera E, Kuehn N 1991;Du Pen SL, Du Pen
AR 1999;Collins JJ, Byrnes ME 2000;Nelson JE, Meier DE 2001;Tranmer JE, Heyland D 2003) {ARE 8; CC1.1, 2, 2.3; IDT
12.1, 12.4, 13.3; MI 3.3}
40. Services are available 24 -hours-a-day, 7-days-a-week: (Lynn J, Schuster JL 2000) {CC 1, 1.1-1.3, 1.5; HIF CCS 2; HFCF
CCS 1, 1.1, 1.2, 2; NF ARE, 1.1}
41. Respite services are available: (Cumming M 1993;Ingleton C, Payne S 2003)
42. Overall review of care occurs in weekly team meetings, while regular meetings allow for discussion of quality of care: {IDT 12.1,
12.2, 15.5; HR 1.1}
43. Team leaders are trained for their role: {LG 8.2, 12; HR 9.2}
44. Policies for timely intake are documented: {CC 2.1; MI 1.1, 1.2}
45. Volunteers may be included: (Mount BM 1992;Craig M 1994;Fusco-Karmann C, Gangeri L 1996;Lemkin P 2001;Doyle D
2003){HR 7.5}
46. Staff are supported in obtaining ongoing professional education, including discipline-specific training: (Mount BM 1986;Block
SD,Billings JA 1995;Brown-Saltzman K 1998;Ferrell BR, Virani R 1998;Miller PJ, Hedlund SC 1998;Christ GH,Sormanti M
1999;Ferrell B, Virani R 1999a;Ferrell B, Virani R 1999b;Ferrell B. R., Grant M. 1999;Ferrell BR, Juarez G 1999;Saunderson
EM,Ridsdale L 1999;Csikai EL,Bass K 2000;Ferrell BR,Virani R 2000;Ferrell BR, Virani R 2000;Reese D, Raymer M
2000;Meier DE, Back AL 2001;Roff S 2001;American College of Surgeons 2002;Back AL, Starks H 2002;Ferrell BR,Borneman
T 2002;Leipzig RM, Hyer K 2002;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association 2004b;Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association
2004a;Monroe B 2004) {HR 3.5, 3.6, 4, 4.1-4.5, 5, 5.1- 5.4, 6, 6.1-6.3, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 9, 9.1, 9.2}
47. Staff support is provided, including regular meetings: (Smith SP,Varoglu G 1985;Vachon MS 1995;Vachon ML
1998;Kristjanson LJ, McPhee I 2001;Vachon MLS 2004) {HR 4.5}
48. For care outside the home, patients and families are provided with a safe, home-like atmosphere that allows for privacy, cooking,
visiting at all times, and access for children: {HIFCCS 3; HIFSIC 1,1.1-1.7, 5; HRCFSIC 1, 1.1-1.9, 2, 2.1-2.6, 3, 3.1, 5, 7, 7.1-7.4}
Domain 2: Physical Aspects of Care
I. PAIN
49. Pain in end-of-life care: (Bruera E, Carraro S 1986;Brenneis C, Michaud M 1987;Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C 1987;Berde C,
Ablin A 1990;Ripamonti C,Bruera E 1991;Zaw-Tun N,Bruera E 1992;Portenoy RK 1993;Ferrell BR, Rhiner M 1994a;Ferrell
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
47
BR, Rhiner M 1994b;Jacox A., Carr D. B. 1994;Jacox A., Carr D.B. 1994;Portenoy RK, Thaler HT 1994;Collins JJ, Grier HE
1995;Portenoy RK 1995;Vigano A, Fan D 1996;World Health Organization 1996;Lawlor P, Turner K 1997;Lawlor P, Walker
P 1997;Lynn J, Teno JM 1997;Portenoy RK 1997b;Portenoy RK 1997a;Ripamonti C, Zecca E 1997;Lawlor PG, Turner KS
1998;Morrison RS, Ahronheim JC 1998;Ripamonti C, De Conno F 1998;Vigano A, Bruera E 1998;World Health Organization
1998a;McCaffery M,Pasero C 1999;American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics and Committee on Hospital
Care 2000;Milch RA 2000;Thorns A,Sykes N 2000;Zekry HA,Bruera E 2000;Zeppetella G 2000;Abrahm J 2001;Coluzzi
PH, Schwartzberg L 2001;Greenstreet W 2001;McCracken LM, Matthews AK 2001;Mitten T 2001;American Association
of Colleges of Nursing 2002;Choi YS,Billings JA 2002;Mercadante S, Radbruch L 2002;National Institute of Health
Consensus Development Program 2002;Radbruch L, Sabatowski R 2002;Ripamonti C,Bianchi M 2002;Smith TJ, Staats PS
2002;Thompson G,McClement S 2002;Briggs M,Nelson EA 2003;Mailis A,Furlan A 2003;Quigley C,Wiffen P 2003;Ribeiro
MDC,Zeppetella G 2003;Sittl R, Griessinger N 2003;Zeppetella G,Ribeiro M 2003) {CCS 1, 1.2, 1.3, 2, 2.1, 2.5, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 10,
14; IDT 11.2, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4; MI 3.3}
50. Pain assessment: (Portenoy RK,Hagen NA 1990;Fothergill-Bourbonnais F,Wilson-Barnett J 1992;Johnston CC, Stevens
B 1993;Parmelee PA, Smith B 1993;Savedra MC, Holzemer WL 1993;Bruera E 1994;Ferrell BA 1995;Bruera E, Pereira J
1996;Parmelee PA 1996;Merkel S, Voepel-Lewis T 1997;Portenoy RK 1997a;Chambers CT, Reid GJ 1998;Ferrell BR, Virani R
1998;Morrison RS, Ahronheim JC 1998;Portenoy RK,Lesage P 1999;Collins JJ, Byrnes ME 2000;Francke LS, Greenberg CS
2000;Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations 2000;Sulmasy DP, Ury WA 2000;American Academy
of Pediatrics. Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health 2001;Breau LM, Camfield C 2001;Mercadante
S,Portenoy RK 2001c;Mercadante S,Portenoy RK 2001a;Mercadante S,Portenoy RK 2001b;Collins JJ, Devine TD 2002;Bruera
E,Castro M 2003;Miller SC, Kinzbrunner B 2003) {CCI1.1,2 ;IDT 13.3}
51. Pain treatment: (Bruera E, Carraro S 1986;Brenneis C, Michaud M 1987;Bruera E, Brenneis C 1988;Bruera E 1991;Bruera
E 1992;Walsh TD, MacDonald N 1992;Portenoy RK 1993;Bruera E 1994;Cleeland CS, Gonin R 1994;Jacox A., Carr D. B.
1994;Jacox A., Carr D.B. 1994;Breitbart W, Bruera E 1995;Portenoy RK 1995;Thomas Z,Bruera E 1995;Bozzetti F, Amadori D
1996;Breitbart W, McDonald MV 1996;Lipman AG 1996;Rosenfeld B, Breitbart W 1996;Watanabe S, Belzile M 1996;Cleeland
CS, Gonin R 1997;Portenoy RK 1997b;Ripamonti C,Bruera E 1997;Ripamonti C,De Conno F 1997;Watanabe S, Carmody
D 1997;Bernabei R, Gambassi G 1998;Watanabe S, Pereira J 1998;Du Pen SL, Du Pen AR 1999;Grossman SA, Benedetti C
1999;Manfredi PL, Shenoy S 2000;Tarumi Y, Watanabe S 2000;American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Psychosocial
Aspects of Child and Family Health 2001;Cherny N, Ripamonti C 2001;Filiberti A, Ripamonti C 2001;Gibson J,Grealish L
2001;Manfredi PL, Gonzales GR 2001;American Geriatric Society Panel on Persistent Pain in Older Persons 2002;Barnes
EA,Bruera E 2002;Barnes EA, Palmer JL 2002;Mercadante S, Villari P 2002;Moryl N, Santiago-Palma J 2002;Bell R,
Eccleston C 2003;Harris JT, Suresh Kumar K 2003;Howard RF 2003;Kearns GL, Abdel-Rahman SM 2003;Lander
JA,Weltman BJ;Lussier D 2003;Mailis A,Furlan A 2003;Martinez MJ, Roque M 2003a;Nicholson A, Davies AN 2003;Reid
CM, Davies AN 2003;Ribeiro MDC,Zeppetella G 2003;Siden H,Nalewajek 2003;Tremont-Lukats IW, Teixeira GM;Wiffen P,
Collins S;Zeppetella G,Ribeiro M 2003)
II. OTHER PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
52. Physical symptoms: general: (Cassell ES 1982;Cassel CK 1984;Bruera E, Carraro S 1986;Brenneis C, Michaud M
1987;Bruera E, Brenneis C 1988;Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C 1990;Bruera E, Fainsinger R 1991;Bruera E 1992;AddingtonHall J, Lay M 1995;Bozzetti F, Amadori D 1996;Cleary JF,Carbone PP 1997;Conill C, Verger E 1997;Hearn J,Higginson
IJ 1997;McClement SE, Woodgate RL 1997;Neuenschwander H, Bruera E 1997;Campbell M 1998;Ng K,von Gunten CF
1998;O’Brien T, Welsh J 1998;World Health Organization 1998b;Cassell EJ 1999;Emanuel LL, von Gunten CF 1999;Ferrell
B.R., Grant M. 1999;Kemp C 1999;Shuster JL, Jr., Breitbart W 1999;Twycross R 1999;Wrede-Seaman L 1999;Bednash
G,Ferrell B 2000;Bernard SA,Bruera E 2000;Collins JJ, Byrnes ME 2000;Keay TJ,Schonwetter RS 2000;Leland JY
2000;McCallum DE, Byrne P 2000;Waller A,Caroline NL 2000;Walsh D, Donnelly S 2000;Ellershaw J, Smith C 2001;Emanuel
LL, Alpert HR 2001;Ferrell B,Coyle N 2001;Hermann C,Loonery S 2001;Matzo ML,Sherman DW 2001;Pierucci RL, Kirby
RS 2001;Smith SA 2001;Berger A, Portenoy RK 2002;Coll PP, Duffy JD 2002;Pantilat SZ 2002;World Health Organization
2002;Abrahm JL 2003;Drake R, Frost J 2003;Ellershaw J,Ward C 2003;Keay TJ, Alexander C 2003;Parker RG, Janjan NA
2003;Pinderhughes ST,Morrison RS 2003;Ripamonti C,Brunelli C 2003;Schapiro R,Byock I 2003;Tranmer JE, Heyland D
2003;Woodgate RL, Degner LF 2003;Buckley G,Smyth A 2004) {IDT 5.1; CCS6,11,13,13.1, 13.2, 14, 14.1, 14.2}
53. Anorexia/cachexia: (Bruera E, Carraro S 1986;Bruera E, Chadwick S 1986;Bruera E, Brenneis C 1988;Bruera E, Macmillan
K 1990;Bruera E 1994;Vigano A, Watanabe S 1994;Von Roenn JH, Armstrong D 1994;Watanabe S,Bruera E 1994;Kotler
DP,Grunfeld C 1995;Bozzetti F, Amadori D 1996;Watanabe S,Bruera E 1996;Bruera E 1998b;Kotler DP 1998;Wood L, Palmer
M 1998;Amigo P, Mazuryk ME 2000;Bernard SA,Bruera E 2000;Bruera E,Sweeney C 2000;Kotler LA,Walsh BT 2000;Strasser
F,Bruera ED 2002;Berenstein EG,Ortiz Z;Bruera E,Castro M 2003)
54. Anxiety: (Bruera E, Carraro S 1986;Butters E, Higginson I 1992;Butters E, Higginson I 1993;Maguire P, Faulkner A
1993;Ibbotson T, Maguire P 1994;Breitbart W, Bruera E 1995;Ginsburg ML, Quirt C 1995;Massie MJ,Payne DK 1999;Shuster
JL, Jr., Breitbart W 1999;2000;Payne DK,Massie MJ 2000;Pasacreta J, Minarik P 2001;Breitbart W, Chochinov HM 2004)
48
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
55. Delirium: (Brenneis C, Michaud M 1987;Bruera E 1991;Stiefel F,Bruera E 1991;Stiefel F, Fainsinger R 1992;Harrison
J,Maguire P 1994;Yue M, Fainsinger RL 1994;Breitbart W, Marotta R 1996;Boyle DM, Abernathy G 1998;Lawlor PG,
Watanabe S 1998;Shuster JL, Jr., Breitbart W 1999;Breitbart W,Cohen K 2000;Lawlor PG, Fainsinger RL 2000;Lawlor PG,
Gagnon B 2000;Lawlor PG, Nekolaichuk C 2000;Kuebler KK, English N 2001;Barnes EA, Palmer JL 2002;Breitbart W,
Gibson C 2002;Breitbart W, Tremblay A 2002;Ingham J,Caraceni A 2002;Lawlor PG,Bruera ED 2002;Caraceni A,Grassi L
2003;Breitbart W, Chochinov HM 2004)
56. Depression: (Hardman A, Maguire P 1989;Hopwood P, Howell A 1991b;Hopwood P, Howell A 1991a;Depression Guideline
Panel 1993;Block SD,Billings JA 1994;Fallowfield LJ, Hall A 1994;Ford S, Fallowfield L 1994;Ibbotson T, Maguire P
1994;Billings JA 1995;Breitbart W, Bruera E 1995;Vigano A, Watanabe S 1995;Chochinov HM, Wilson KG 1998;Ganzini L,
Johnston WS 1998;Miller PJ, Hedlund SC 1998;Covinsky KE, Kahana E 1999;Massie MJ,Payne DK 1999;Shuster JL, Jr.,
Breitbart W 1999;Block SD,Panel for the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine End-ofLife Care Consensus Panel 2000;U.S. Preventive Services Task Forces 2000;Wilson KG, Chochinov HM 2000;Block S. D.
2001;Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B 2001;Lloyd-Williams M,Friedman T 2001;Nelson JE, Meier DE 2001;Filiberti A,Ripamonti C
2002;Lloyd-Williams M 2002;National Institute of Health Consensus Development Program 2002;Nelson CJ, Rosenfeld BJ
2002;Breitbart W, Chochinov HM 2004)
57. Dyspnea and other respiratory symptoms: (Rueben DB,Mor V 1986;Ajemian I 1991;Bruera E, de Stoutz N 1993;Bruera E,
MacEachern T 1993;Bruera E 1994;Addington-Hall J, Lay M 1995;Bennett MI 1996;Corner J, Plant H 1996;Kuebler KK,
Dahlin C 1996;Adam J 1997;Boyd KJ,Kelly M 1997;Ripamonti C,Bruera E 1997;Rousseau P 1997;Ripamonti C, Fulfaro
F 1998a;Zepetella G 1998;American Thoracic Society 1999;Bruera E, Belzile M 1999;Ripamonti C 1999;Schwartzstein
RM 1999;Bruera E, Schmitz B 2000;Dudgeon DJ, Kristjanson L 2001;Barnes EA, Palmer JL 2002;Cohen SP,Dawson TC
2002;Coyne PJ, Viswanathan R 2002;Ripamonti C,Fusco F 2002;Shimoyama N,Shimoyama M 2002;Spector N,Klein D
2002;Agarwal R,Shaw P;Jennings AL, Davies AN 2003)
58. Fatigue: (Bruera E, Brenneis C 1988;Breitbart W, Bruera E 1995;Ferrell BR, Grant M 1996;Monti M, Castellani L
1996;Kaasa T, Loomis J 1997;Vogelzang NJ, Breitbart W 1997;Breitbart W, McDonald MV 1998;Cella D, Peterman
A 1998;Barroso J 1999;Grant M, Golant M 2000;Krishnasamy M 2000;Liao S,Ferrell BA 2000;Mock V, Atkinson A
2000;Oyama H, Kaneda M 2000;Porock D, Kristjanson LJ 2000;Adinolfi A 2001a;Adinolfi A 2001b;Bormann J, Shively M
2001;Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B 2001;Cella D, Davis K 2001;Given CW, Given B 2001;Lee KA, Portillo CJ 2001;Miramontes
H 2001;Barnes EA,Bruera E 2002;Barroso J,Lynn MR 2002;National Institute of Health Consensus Development Program
2002;Passik SD, Kirsh KL 2002)
59. Gastrointestinal: (Bruera ED, Roca E 1983;Bruera E, Jackson FI 1985;Brenneis C, Michaud M 1987;Bruera E, Brenneis
C 1988;Bruera E 1994;Bozzetti F, Amadori D 1996;Baines MJ 1997;Oneschuk D,Bruera E 1997;Amigo P, Mazuryk ME
2000;Mercadante S, Ripamonti C 2000;Wenk R, Bertolino M 2000;Ripamonti C, Twycross R 2001;Choi YS,Billings JA
2002;Filiberti A,Ripamonti C 2002;Ahmed N, Ahmedzai S 2003;Feuer DJ,Broadley KE 2003;Goodman ML,Wilkinson S
2003;Westby MJ 2003)
60. Genitourinary: (Smith P,Bruera E 1995;Gray M,Campbell FG 2001;Norman RW,Bailly G 2004)
61. Hiccups: (Kolodzik PW,Eilers MA 1991;Ramirez FC, Graham, D.Y 1992;Bruera E, MacEachern T 1993;Okuda Y, Kitajima
T, Asai T 1998;Walker P, Watanabe S 1998;Lewis JH 2000)
62. Mucositis/stomatitis/xerostomia: (De Conno F, Ripamonti C 1989;Rothwell BR,Spektor WS 1990;Guchelaar HJ, Vermes A
1997;Sweeney MP, Bagg J 1997;Bruera E 1998c;Sweeney MP, Bagg J 1998;Oneschuk D, Hanson J 2000c; Dahlin C, Goldsmith
T 2001;Borbasi S, Cameron K 2002;Shih A, Miaskowski C 2002;Deane K, Whurr R 2003; Clarkson JE, Worthington HV 2003)
63. Nutrition/hydration: (Billings JA 1985;Bruera E, Brenneis C 1988;Bruera E, Brenneis C 1989;Yan E,Bruera E 1991;Bruera
E 1994;Bozzetti F, Amadori D 1996;Bruera E, Belzile M 1996;Mitchell SL, Kiely DK 1997;Mitchell SL, Kiely DK
1998;Steiner N,Bruera E 1998;Covinsky KE, Martin GE 1999;Bruera E 2001;Gessert CE,Calkins DR 2001;Sarhill N, Walsh D
2001;Guggenheimer J,Moore PA 2003;Mitchell SL 2003)
64. Skin care: (Payne RL,Martin ML 1990;Camp-Sorrell D 1991;O’Rourke ME 1991;U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and
Research 1992;Payne RL,Martin ML 1993;Schulte MJ 1993;Femia C,Smith R 1994;Seaman S 1995;Tumberello J 1995;Ayello
EA 1997;Haisfield-Wolfe ME,Rund C 1997;Baranoski S, Salzberg CA 1998;Ayello EA 1999;Ayello EA, Thomas DR
1999;Baranoski S 1999;Goebel RH,Goebel MR 1999;Haisfield-Wolfe ME,Baxendale-Cox LM 1999;Ayello EA 2000;Baranoski
S 2000b;Baranoski S 2000a;Grocott P 2000;Hampton S 2000;Maffei A, Ayello J 2000;2000;Grocott P,Cowley S 2001;Trent
JT,Kirsner RS 2001;Wilkes L, White K 2001;Ayello EA,Braden B 2002;Ayello EA, Cuddigan J 2002;Baldwin KM 2002;Belmin
J, Meaume S 2002;Froiland KG 2002;Hess CT 2002;Holloway S, Bale S 2002;Yoshikawa TT 2002;Baranoski S,Thimsen
K 2003;Bosonnet L 2003;Henoch I,Gustafsson M 2003;Odierna E,Zeleznik J 2003;Piggin C 2003;Trent JT,Kirsner RS
2003a;Trent JT,Kirsner RS 2003b)
65. Sleep disturbance/insomnia: (Gibson J,Grealish L 2001;Hirst A,Sloan R 2002)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
49
III. ORGAN DYSFUNCTION
66. Bone metastases: (Oneschuk D,Bruera E 1996;Fulfaro F, Casuccio A 1998;Ripamonti C, Fulfaro F 1998b;Barton MB,
Dawson R 2001;Ripamonti C,Fulfaro F 2001;Martinez MJ, Roque M 2003a;Martinez MJ, Roque M 2003b)
67. Cardiac disease: (Konstam M, Dracup K 1994;Burns RB, McCarthy EP 1997;Wolinsky FD, Overhage JM 1997;Wolinsky
FD, Smith DM 1997;Krumholz HM, Phillips RS 1998;Maddocks I 1998;Goodlin SJ, Zhong Z 1999;Leland JY 2000;Levenson
JW, McCarthy EP 2000;Anderson H, Card C 2001;Flowers B 2003;Mueller PS, Hook CC 2003;Nordgren L,Sorensen S 2003)
68. Dementia: (Ferrell BA 1995;McCarthy M, Addington-Hall J 1997;Teno JM, Landrum K 1997;O’Brien T, Welsh J
1998;Solomon MZ,Jennings B 1998;Finucane TE, Christmas C 1999;Lynn J, Teno J 1999;Volicer L 1999;Hurley AC, Volicer
L 2000;Volicer L 2001;Volicer L, Hurley AC 2001;Evers MM, Purohit D 2002;Hurley AC,Volicer L 2002;Boult L, Dentler B
2003;Manfredi PL, Breuer B 2003;Volicer L, Hurley AC 2003)
69. Endocrine/metabolic disorders: (Markell MS,Friedman EA 1990;Kovacs CS, MacDonald SM 1995;Walker P, Watanabe S
1996;Walker P, Watanabe S 1997;Rajagopal A, Kala S 2003)
70. Liver disease: (Bolder U, Brune A 1999;Roth K, Lynn J 2000;Kimoto T, Yamanoi A 2001;Riley TR, 3rd,Bhatti AM
2001a;Riley TR, 3rd,Bhatti AM 2001b;Riley TR, 3rd, Chinchilli VM 2001;Donckier V, Van Laethem JL 2003;Testa R, Testa E
2003)
71. Neurological disease: (Borasio GD,Voltz R 1997;Smyth A, Riedl M 1997;Borasio GD,Voltz R 1998;Carter GT,Miller
RG 1998;Ganzini L, Johnston WS 1998;Carver AC, Vickrey BG 1999;Ganzini L, Johnston WS 1999;Parker D, Maddocks
I 1999;Oliver D, Borasio GD 2000;Ben-Zacharia AB,Lublin FD 2001;Borasio GD, Shaw PJ 2001;Foley KM,Carver AC
2001;Mandler RN, Anderson FA, Jr. 2001;Bradley WG 2002)
72. Pulmonary conditions: (Bruera E 1990;Gentile VG,Isaacson G 1996;von Gunten CF,Twaddle ML 1996;Hansen-Flaschen J
1997;Kesten S 1997;Lord E 1997;Robinson WM, Ravilly S 1997;Haddad A 1998;Tonelli MR 1998;Westwood AT 1998;Acres JC
2000;Claessens MT, Lynn J 2000;Hansen-Flaschen JH 2000;Heffner JE 2000;Hodson ME 2000;Levy MM 2000;Lynn J, Ely
EW 2000;Mitchell I, Nakielna E 2000;Edmonds P, Karlsen S 2001;Ferrin M, Happ MB 2001;Hansen-Flaschen JH 2003)
73. Renal disease: (Neu S,Kjellstrand CM 1986;Campbell ML 1991;Cohen LM, McCue JD 1995;Henderson ML 1995;Hamel
MB, Phillips RS 1997;Mesler DE, Byrne-Logan S 1999;Cohen LM, Germain MJ 2003;Poppel DM, Cohen LM 2003)
III. OTHER SYMPTOM CONTROL TOPICS
74. HIV/AIDS: (Expert Working Group on Integrated Palliative Care for Persons with AIDS 1988;Corless IB, Fulton R
1992;Butters E, Higginson I 1993;Goldstone I 1995;Grothe TM,Brody RV 1995;Kemp C,Stepp L 1995;McKeogh M 1995;Fantoni
M, Ricci F 1997;O’Neill JF,Alexander CS 1997;Wood CG, Whittet S 1997;Ropka M,Williams A 1998;Meyer M 1999;Newshan
G,Sherman DW 1999;Vogl D, Rosenfeld B 1999;Witteveen PO, Jacobs HM 1999;Corless IB,Nicholas PK 2000;Greenberg
B, McCorkle R 2000;Nicholson J,Turner N 2000;O’Neill JF, Marconi K 2000;Maartens G, Bekker LG 2001;Matheny SC
2001;Coyne PJ, Lyne ME 2002;Karasz A, Dyche L 2003;O’Neill J,Marconi K 2003;O’Neill JF, Selwyn PA 2003;Selwyn
PA,Forstein M 2003)
75. Emergencies: (Baines MJ 1997;Boyd KJ,Kelly M 1997;Falk S,Fallon M 1997;Gagnon B,Bruera E 1998;Gagnon B, Mancini
I 1998;Abrahm JL 1999;Ripamonti C 1999;Mercadante S, Villari P 2002;Ripamonti C,Fusco F 2002;Jennings AL, Davies AN
2003;Saunders Y, Ross JR 2003)
76. Trauma: (Campbell ML,Frank RR 1997;American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Emergency
Physicians 2002;Seward E, Greig E 2003)
77. Care in the ICU: (Shortell SM, Zimmerman JE 1994;Keenan SP, Busche KD 1997;Lynn J, Harrell F, Jr. 1997;Prendergast
TJ,Luce JM 1997;Dowdy MD, Robertson C 1998;Glance LG, Osler T 1998;Keenan SP, Busche KD 1998;Danis M, Federman
D 1999;Burns JP, Mitchell C 2000;Ostermann ME, Keenan SP 2000;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T 2000;Teno JM, Fisher E
2000;Burns JP, Mitchell C 2001;Curtis JR,Rubenfeld GD 2001;Puntillo KA, Benner P 2001;Rubenfeld GD, Randall Curtis J
2001;Baggs JG 2002;Catlin A,Carter B 2002;Campbell ML,Guzman JA 2003;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T 2003)
78. Pharmacology issues: (Bruera E, Roca E 1985;Ripamonti C,Bruera E 1991;Bernard SA,Bruera E 2000;Peuckmann V, Fisch
M 2000;Choi YS,Billings JA 2002;Ripamonti C,Bianchi M 2002;Ripamonti C, Sweeney C 2002)
79. Complementary medicine: (Bruera E, Fainsinger R 1995;Finlay IG,Jones OL 1996;Bruera E 1998a;Jenkins CA, Scarfe A
1998;Oneschuk D, Fennell L 1998;Cassileth BR 1999;Decker GM 1999;Oneschuk D,Bruera E 1999;Abel J 2000;Daveson
BA,Kennelly J 2000;Nield-Anderson L,Ameling A 2000;Oneschuk D, Hanson J 2000a;Paice JA, Ferrans CE 2000;Paice JA,
Ferrons CE 2000;National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization 2001a;Demmer C,Sauer J 2002;Langenfeld MC, Cipani
50
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
E 2002;Zeltzer LK, Tsao JC 2002;Brenner ZR,Krenzer ME 2003;Garnett M 2003;Hilliard RE 2003;Buckle S 2003;Manfredi
PL,Gonzales GR 2003;Sanders H, Davis MF 2003;Schofield P,Payne S 2003)
80. Standardized instruments of assessment: (Cohen SR, Mount BM 1996b;Neuenschwander H, Bruera E 1997;Teno JM, Byock
I 1999;Donnelly S 2000;Teno J 2000;Anandarajah G,Hight E 2001;Novak B, Kolcaba K 2001;Teno JM, Casey VA 2001;Volicer
L, Hurley AC 2001;Cohen SR,Leis A 2002;Passik SD, Kirsh KL 2002;Sulmasy DP 2002;Deeken JF, Taylor KL 2003;McClain
CS, Rosenfeld B 2003)
Domain 3: Psychological and Psychiatric Aspects of Care
81. Psychological distress in death and dying: (Maguire P 1985;Devlen J, Maguire P 1987a;Devlen J, Maguire P 1987b;Miller
RD,Walsh TD 1991;Dunn SM, Patterson PU 1993;Evans AJ 1994;Parle M, Jones B 1996;Davis CG, Nolen-Hoeksema S
1998;Doka KJ 1998;National Comprehensive Cancer Network 1999;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL 2000;Greenstein M,Breitbart
W 2000;Powazki RD, Palcisco C 2000;Rando TA 2000;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC 2000;Kornblith AB, Herndon JE 2001;Teno
JM, Casey VA 2001;Yedidia MJ,MacGregor B 2001;Jansen LA,Sulmasy DP 2002a;Werth JL, Jr., Gordon JR 2002;Kissane DW,
McKenzie M 2003;National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2003a;Pitceathly C,Maguire P 2003)
82. Professionals with training and skills in providing appropriate care to diverse patient populations: (Haines A,Booroff A
1986;Maguire P 1990;Caldwell J,Scott JP 1994;Chevrier F, Steuer R 1994;Maguire P, Booth K 1996;Maguire P, Faulkner A
1996;Scott JP,Caldwell J 1996;Parle M, Maguire P 1997;Seely JF, Scott JF 1997;Sherry KL, Bruera E 1997;Maguire P, Walsh S
1999;Lemkin P 2001;Payne S 2001;Leipzig RM, Hyer K 2002)
83. Assessment of psychological reactions: (Robbins RA 1991;Ginsburg ML, Quirt C 1995;Taube AW, Jenkins C 1997;Rousseau
P 2000b;Block SD 2001;Roberts S, Black C 2002)
84. Treatment of psychiatric symptoms and use of tools: (Depression Guideline Panel 1993;Prigerson HG, Maciejewski PK
1995;Kissane DW, Bloch S 1997;Bernabei R, Gambassi G 1998;Lawlor PG, Watanabe S 1998;Lawlor PG, Nekolaichuk C
2000;Teno JM, Harrell FE, Jr. 2000;U.S. Preventive Services Task Forces 2000;Kuebler KK, English N 2001;Lloyd-Williams
M 2001;Breitbart W, Gibson C 2002;National Institute of Health Consensus Development Program 2002;Brodaty H, Green A
2003;Caraceni A,Grassi L 2003;National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2003a) {NHPCO: IDT}
85. Quality of life in end stage diseases, including measurement tools: (Higginson I, Wade A 1990;Bruera E, Kuehn N 1991;Cohen
SR,Mount BM 1992;Higginson IJ,McCarthy M 1994;Cohen SR, Mount BM 1995;Wu AW, Damiano AM 1995;Cohen SR,
Mount BM 1996a;Cohen SR, Mount BM 1996b;Cohen SR, Bultz BD 1997;Cohen SR, Mount BM 1997;Greisinger AJ, Lorimor
RJ 1997;Hearn J,Higginson IJ 1997;Lynn J 1997;Neuenschwander H, Bruera E 1997;Rudberg MA, Teno JM 1997;Chang VT,
Thaler HT 1998;Donaldson MS,Field MJ 1998;Smeenk FW, van Haastregt JC 1998;Tierney RM, Horton SM 1998;Axelsson
B,Sjoden PO 1999;Brady MJ, Peterman AH 1999;Singer P, Martin DK 1999;Singer PA, Martin DK 1999a;Singer PA, Martin
DK 1999b;Stewart AL, Teno J 1999;Teno JM, Byock I 1999;Cohen SR,Mount BM 2000;Donnelly S 2000;Gabany JM
2000;Steinhauser KE, Christakis NA 2000;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC 2000;Tolle SW, Tilden VP 2000;Cohen SR, Boston P
2001;DeSilva DL, Dillon JE 2001;Hickman SE, Tilden VP 2001;Sahlberg-Blom E, Ternestedt BM 2001;Chochinov HM, Hack
T 2002a;Cohen SR,Leis A 2002;Contro N, Larson J 2002;Grant M,Hanson J 2002;Miller SC, Mor V 2002;Miller SC,Mor
VN 2002;Steinhauser KE, Bosworth HB 2002;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC 2002;Thompson G,McClement S 2002;Vig EK,
Davenport NA 2002;Aspinal F, Addington-Hall J 2003;Llobera J, Esteva M 2003;Miller SC, Mor V 2003;Patrick DL, Curtis
JR 2003;Scott JT, Harmsen M 2003;Tranmer JE, Heyland D 2003;Vig EK,Pearlman RA 2003)
86. Assessment of patient coping and support: (Maguire P, Hopwood P 1985;Vachon ML, Kristjanson L 1995;Chapman
KJ,Pepler C 1998;Doka KJ 1998;Kavanaugh KM 1998;Roy DJ 1998;Russell P,Sander R 1998;Prigerson HG,Jacobs SC
2001;Yedidia MJ,MacGregor B 2001)
87. Assessment of family coping and support: (Sheehan CJ 1985;Bascom PB,Tolle SW 1995;Kelly B, Edwards P 1999;Bartel DA,
Engler AJ 2000;Hockley J 2000;Thielemann P 2000;Andrews SC 2001;Wogrin C 2001;Main J 2002;Patterson LB,Dorfman LT
2002;Brazil K, Bedard M 2003;Brodaty H, Green A 2003;Dawson S,Kristjanson LJ 2003;Deeken JF, Taylor KL 2003;Kissane
DW, McKenzie M 2003;Volicer L, Hurley AC 2003) See also caregiver burden (21)
88. Grief and bereavement in various patient populations: (Rando TA 1984;Kane RL, Klein SJ 1986;McIntyre BB
1990b;Couldrick A 1992;Levy LH, Derby JF 1993;Rando TA 1993;Payne S,Relf M 1994;Prigerson HG, Reynolds CF,
3rd 1994;Prigerson HG, Frank E 1995;Prigerson HG, Maciejewski PK 1995;Brown LF, Reynolds CF, 3rd 1996;Connor
SR,McMaster JK 1996;Jacob SR 1996;Prigerson HG, Bierhals AJ 1996;Prigerson HG, Shear MK 1996;Rosenzweig AS,
Pasternak RE 1996;Frank E, Prigerson HG 1997;Gillance H, Tucker A 1997;Hall M, Buysse DJ 1997;Kissane DW, McKenzie
DP 1997;Pasternak RE, Prigerson H 1997;Prigerson HG, Bierhals AJ 1997;Prigerson HG, Shear MK 1997;Rozenzweig
A, Prigerson H 1997;Szanto K, Prigerson H 1997;Brown-Saltzman K 1998;Corr CA,Corr DM 1998;Davis CG, NolenHoeksema S 1998;Hall M, Baum A 1998;Schlernitzauer M, Bierhals AJ 1998;van Doorn C, Kasl SV 1998;Zygmont M,
Prigerson HG 1998;Chen JH, Bierhals AJ 1999;Potts S, Farrell M 1999;Prigerson HG, Bridge J 1999;American Academy
of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health 2000;Christ GH 2000;Cuthbertson SJ,
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
51
Margetts MA 2000;Prigerson HG, Maciejewski PK 2000;Rando TA 2000;Casarett D, Kutner JS 2001;Corless IB 2001;Payne
S 2001;Prigerson HG,Jacobs SC 2001;Silverman GK, Johnson JG 2001;Barry LC, Kasl SV 2002;Barry LC,Prigerson HG
2002;Christ GH, Bonanno G 2002;Christ GH, Siegel K 2002;Kirk K,McManus M 2002;Pearce MJ, Chen J 2002;Prigerson
HG 2002;Rawlings D,Glynn T 2002;Rynearson EK, Favell JL 2002;LeBrocq P, Charles A 2003;O’Connor M, Nikoletti S
2003;Kissane DW 2004)
89. Grief and bereavement education for palliative care professionals: (Rando TA 1984;Couldrick A 1992;Huart S,O’Donnell
M 1993;Rando TA 1993;Corless IB, Germino B, Pittman M 1994;Brown CK 1995;Prigerson HG, Frank E 1995;Bouton BL
1996;American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health 2000;Barnes K
2001;Casarett D, Kutner JS 2001;Matsushima T, Akabayashi A 2002)
90. Grief and bereavement education for families: (Brown LF, Reynolds CF, 3rd 1996;Davis CG, Nolen-Hoeksema S 1998;Bartel
DA, Engler AJ 2000;Casarett D, Kutner JS 2001;Ringdal GI, Jordhoy MS 2001;Ellison NM,Ptacek JT 2002;Kirk K,McManus
M 2002;Prigerson HG 2002) {IDT 5.1,6.3,3.3}
91. Bereavement support for children: (McIntyre BB 1990a;McIntyre BB 1990b;Carroll ML,Griffin R 1997;Gillance H, Tucker A
1997;Cox G 1998;Davies B 1999;Potts S, Farrell M 1999;American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects
of Child and Family Health 2000;Doka K 2000;Davies B 2001)
92. Grief and bereavement risk assessment and reassessment: (Payne S,Relf M 1994;Worden W 1996;Frank E, Prigerson HG
1997;Teno JM, Clarridge B 2001;Melliar-Smith C 2002) {BCS 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.4}
93. Bereavement services: (Bouton BL 1996;Hanson LC, Danis M 1997;Hoffman C 1997;Block SD 2001;Payne S 2001;Warren
NA 2002;Schulz R, Mendelsohn AB 2003) {IDT 1.1; BCS 1}
94. Staff support for those providing end-of-life care: (Millison M,Dudley JR 1992;Higginson IJ,McCarthy M 1993;Harper B
1994;Vachon MS 1995;Davies B, Clarke D 1996;Maguire P, Booth K 1996;Vachon ML 1998;Barnes K 2001;Kristjanson LJ,
McPhee I 2001;Leuthner SR,Pierucci R 2001;Puntillo KA, Benner P 2001;Yam BM, Rossiter JC 2001;Hanks GW, Robbins M
2002;Patterson LB,Dorfman LT 2002;Vachon MLS 2004) {BCS 4, 4.1, 4.1}
Domain 4: Social Aspects of Care
95. Social assessment and care plan: (Burrs FA 1995;Koenig BA,Gates-Williams J 1995;Davis A 1996;Eleazer GP, Hornung
CA 1996;Hallenbeck J, Goldstein MK 1996;Koenig BA 1997;Morrison RS, Zayas LH 1998;Christ GH,Sormanti M
1999;Loudon RF, Anderson PM 1999;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL 2000;Hopp FP,Duffy SA 2000;Keovilay L, Rasbridge L
2000;Larson DG,Tobin DR 2000;Reese D, Raymer M 2000;Waters CM 2000;Curtis JR, Wenrich MD 2001;Contro N, Larson J
2002;Crawley LM, Marshall PA 2002;Wright EP, Kiely MA 2002;Seymour J 2003;Tong E, McGraw SA 2003) {IDT 1.1, 5.1, 11,
11.1-11.3; CCS 6, 6.1-6.3, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 9, 9.1-9.3, 10, 10.1-10.3, 11, 11.1, 11.3, 12, 12.1-12.2, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 14, 14.1, 14.2}
96. Family structure and geographic location, relationships and intimacy, and communication in the family: (Fins JJ,Solomon MZ
2001;Glajchen M,Zuckerman C 2001)
97. Work and school
98. Finances: (Covinsky KE, Goldman L 1994;Covinsky KE, Landefeld CS 1996;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL 2000)
99. Sexuality: (Chapman RM 1982;Rice A 2000;Rice AM 2000;Kaub-Wittemer D, Steinbuchel N 2003)
100. Legal issues: (Baluss ME 2002;Derse AR 2002)
101. Routine patient and family meetings: (Davis A 1996;Eleazer GP, Hornung CA 1996;Hallenbeck J, Goldstein MK
1996;Ambuel B 1999;Hallenbeck J,Goldstein MK 1999;Hopp FP,Duffy SA 2000;Larson DG,Tobin DR 2000;Curtis JR, Patrick
DL 2001;Contro N, Larson J 2002;Scott JT, Harmsen M 2003)
Domain 5: Spiritual, Religious and Existential Aspects of Care
102. Definitions: religious, spiritual, existential: (Frankl V 1962;Cassell ES 1982;Grey A 1994;Kearney M,Mount BM
2000;Breitbart W 2002)
103. Importance of spirituality for patients and families: (Corless IB, Fulton R 1992;Oxman TE, Freeman DH, Jr. 1995;Taylor
EJ, Amenta M 1995;Kark JD, Shemi G 1996;Kaldjian LC, Jekel JF 1998;Koenig HG, George LK 1998;Mytko JJ,Knight
SJ 1999;Cox G 2000;Daaleman TP,VandeCreek L 2000;Rousseau P 2000c;Astrow AB, Puchalski CM 2001;Koenig HG
2001;Koenig HG, Larson DB 2001;Mueller PS, Plevak DJ 2001;Fife RB 2002;Koenig HG 2002;Nelson CJ, Rosenfeld BJ
2002;Steensma DP 2002;Mount BM 2003;Sheehan MN 2003;Taylor EJ 2003;Cassidy JP,Davies DJ 2004)
52
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
104. Assessment of spiritual/religious/existential needs of patient and family, and related professional skills training: (Taylor EJ,
Amenta M 1995;Maugans TA 1996;Puchalski CM,Larson DB 1998;Baider L, Russak SM 1999;Cassell EJ 1999;Holland JC,
Passik S 1999;Lo B, Quill T 1999;Sloan RP, Bagiella E 1999;Sulmasy DP 1999;Highfield ME 2000;Post SG, Puchalski CM
2000;Puchalski CM,Romer AL 2000;Sloan RP, Bagiella E 2000;Anandarajah G,Hight E 2001;Astrow AB, Puchalski CM
2001;Hermann CP 2001;Kornblith AB, Herndon JE 2001;Lo B, Ruston D 2002;Nelson CJ, Rosenfeld BJ 2002;Puchalski CM
2002;Sloan RP,Bagiella E 2002;Sulmasy DP 2002;McClain CS, Rosenfeld B 2003) {IDT 7, 7.1, 11, 11.2}.
105. Responding to spirituality: interventions and their outcomes: (Levin JS, Larson DB 1997:Sumner CH 1998:Block SD 2001:
Hebert RS, Jenckes MW 2001:Sulmasy DP 2001:Roberts L, Ahmed I 2003)
106. Cultural sensitivity to religious preferences: (Crawley L, Payne R 2000;Highfield ME 2000;Sherman AC,Simonton S
2001;Kagawa-Singer M 1998;Kagawa-Singer M 2001;Krakauer EL, Crenner C 2002;Moadel A, Morgan C 1999) {IDT 7.1}
107. Sensitive use by institutions of religious symbols, while patients/families display their own symbols and follow their own
rituals: (Neuberger J 1994;Kagawa-Singer M 1998a)
108. Access to clergy: (Goldberg R, Guadagnoli E 1990;Cassidy JP,Davies DJ 2004)
109. Family guidance on wake, memorial service, burial, cremation: (Weber M, Ochsmann R 1998;Bern-Klug M, Ekerdt DJ
1999;Morgan E 2001;Ellison NM,Ptacek JT 2002;Gatrad R,Sheikh A 2002) {CC 2.6}
Domain 6: Cultural Aspects of Care
110. Issues of access to end-of-life care within culture and community: (Gates MF 1991;Todd KH, Samaroo N 1993;Todd KH,
Lee T 1994;Phillips RS, Hamel MB 1996;Meier DE, Morrison RS 1997;Chochinov HM,Kristjanson L 1998;Culture Project
on Death in America and the Center on Crime and Culture 1999;Haber D 1999;Petrisek AC,Mor V 1999;Reese DJ, Ahern RE
1999;Crawley L, Payne R 2000;Zerzan J, Stearns S 2000;Metzger M,Kaplan KO 2001;Crawley LM, Marshall PA 2002;Dixon S,
Fortner J 2002;Flaskerud JH, Lesser J 2002;Gatrad R,Sheikh A 2002;2002;Last Acts 2002;Payne R,Payne TR 2002;Payne SK,
Coyne P 2002;Schneider EC, Zaslavsky AM 2002;Allen RS, DeLaine SR 2003;Maddocks I,Rayner RG 2003;Soares LG 2003)
111. Cultural Assessment: (Pickett M 1993;Blackhall LJ, Murphy ST 1995;Hallenbeck J, Goldstein MK 1996;Murphy ST,
Palmer JM 1996;Bates MS, Rankin-Hill L 1997;Voltz R, Akabayashi A 1997;Bernabei R, Gambassi G 1998;Sagara M,Pickett
M 1998;Beutter MB,Davidhizar R 1999;Blackhall LJ, Frank G 1999;Carrillo JE, Green AR 1999;Cykert S, Joines JD
1999;Borum ML, Lynn J 2000;Karim K, Bailey M 2000;Zoucha R 2000;Zoucha R,Husted GL 2000;Christopher M,Emmott
H 2001;Gessert CE,Calkins DR 2001;Sahlberg-Blom E, Ternestedt BM 2001;Thomas ND 2001;Vincent JL 2001;Baggs JG
2002;Crawley LM 2002;Crawley LM, Marshall PA 2002;Kobylarz FA, Heath JM 2002) {CCS 6.1; 11.1, 11.2, 12.4; IDT 4.1.9, 5.1,
7.3}
112. Cultural identification: (Koenig BA,Gates-Williams J 1995;Noggle BJ 1995;Bates MS, Rankin-Hill L 1997;Brenner
PR 1997;Koenig BA 1997;Kagawa-Singer M 1998a;Kagawa-Singer M 1998b;Morrison RS, Zayas LH 1998;Baggs JG
1999;Oncology Nursing Society 1999;Reese DJ, Ahern RE 1999;Taylor A,Box M 1999;Waters CM 2000;Byock I, Norris K
2001;Kagawa-Singer M,Blackhall LJ 2001;McCracken LM, Matthews AK 2001;Berger A, Pereira D 2002;Crawley LM,
Marshall PA 2002;Iwashyna TJ,Chang VW 2002) {IDT 4, 4.1.9, 5, 5.1.10, -7, 7.1.3}
113. Communication within various cultures: (Koenig BA,Gates-Williams J 1995;Connors RB, Jr.,Smith ML 1996;Davis A
1996;Hakim RB, Teno JM 1996;Hallenbeck J, Goldstein MK 1996;Koenig BA 1997;Ersek M, Kagawa-Singer M 1998;Hamel R
1998;Hallenbeck J,Goldstein MK 1999;Moadel A, Morgan C 1999;Dowsett SM, Saul JL 2000;Hopp FP,Duffy SA 2000;Waters
CM 2000;Bowman KW,Singer PA 2001;Christopher M,Emmott H 2001;Kagawa-Singer M,Blackhall LJ 2001;Levy MM
2001;Thompson G,McClement S 2002)
114. Education on cultural diversity: (Brant J, Ishida D 2000;Ekblad S, Marttila A 2000;Christopher M,Emmott H
2001;Krakauer EL, Crenner C 2002)
115. Cultural rituals: (Kagawa-Singer M 1998a;Kagawa-Singer M 1998b;Romanoff BD,Terenzio M 1998;Langford JM
2000;Kagawa-Singer M,Blackhall LJ 2001;Mariano C 2001;Miles SH 2001;Mitty EL 2001) {ARE 2, 2.1, 2.2}
116. Translation: (Langford JM 2000;Soloman NRZ 2000;Kagawa-Singer M,Blackhall LJ 2001;Sullivan MC 2001)
117. Recruitment for diversity: (Haber D 1999;Karim K, Bailey M 2000;Mechanic D 2002) {HR 8, 8.1, 8.2}
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
53
Domain 7: Care of the Imminently Dying Patient
118. The imminently dying phase is recognized, documented, and communicated: (Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C 1990;Pickett
M,Yancey D 1998;The AM, Hak T 2000;Ellershaw J, Smith C 2001;Kristjanson LJ 2001;Ellershaw J,Ward C 2003;Furst
CJ,Doyle D 2004 )
119. End-of-life concerns, hopes and expectations are addressed openly and honestly: (Neuenschwander H, Bruera E 1997;Lo B,
Quill T 1999;Carrese JA, Mullaney JL 2002) {CCS 9, 9.3, 12}
120. End-of-life concerns are addressed in the context of social and cultural customs: (Pickett M 1993: National Hospice and
Palliative Care Organization 1996;Coyle N, Ingham JM 1999) {CCS 12.3}
121. End-of-life concerns are addressed in a developmentally appropriate manner: (Lo B, Quill T 1999;Wolfe J, Grier HE
2000;Wolfe J, Klar N 2000;Perrin KO 2001;Rauch P,Arnold R 2002;Rauch PK, Muriel AC 2002) {CCS 9, 9.3, 12}
122. Symptoms assessed and treated: (Hastings Center 1987;Lichter I,Hunt E 1990;Ventafridda V, Ripamonti C 1990;Fainsinger
R, Miller MJ 1991;Truog RD, Berde CB 1992;Cherny NI,Portenoy RK 1994;Brody H, Campbell ML 1997;Pickett M,Yancey D
1998;Coyle N, Ingham JM 1999;Du Pen SL, Du Pen AR 1999;Wolfe J, Grier HE 2000;Rousseau P 2002) {See Domains 2 and 3}
{CCS 2, 3}
Domain 8: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Care
123. Interdisciplinary team includes professionals knowledgeable in ethics: (Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs AMA
1992;Rushton CH, Hogue EE 1993;Glover JJ,Rushton CH 1995;Quill TE,Cassel CK 1995;Payne K, Taylor RM 1996;Quill
TE,Brody H 1996;Bruera E, Selmser P 1997;Post LF,Dubler NN 1997;Scanlon C 1997;Bruera E, Fornells H 1998;Quill TE,
Meier DE 1998;Scanlon C 1998;Singer PA,MacDonald N 1998;Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs AMA 1999;Ziring PR,
Brazdziunas D 1999;Csikai EL,Bass K 2000;Meisel A, Snyder L 2000;Zoucha R,Husted GL 2000;Beauchamp TL,Childress
JF 2001;Casarett D, Ferrell B 2001;Forde R, Aasland OG 2001;Price KJ,Kish SK 2001;Bascom PB,Tolle SW 2002;Jansen
LA,Sulmasy DP 2002a;Kyba FC 2002;O’Keefe ME,Crawford K 2002;Brett AS,Jersild P 2003;Lee S,Kristjanson L 2003;Olthuis
G,Dekkers W 2003;Quill TE,Cassel CK 2003)
124. Assessing decision-making capacity: (Miles SH, Koepp R 1996;Koenig BA 1997;Hopp FP 2000;Mezey M, Teresi J
2000;Norton SA,Talerico KA 2000;Ganzini L, Volicer L 2003;Volicer L,Ganzini L 2003)
125. Surrogate decision making: (Baggs JG 1993;Baggs JG,Schmitt MH 1995;Baggs JG,Schmitt MH 1997;Baggs JG, Schmitt
MH 1997;Brody H, Campbell ML 1997;Dowdy MD, Robertson C 1998;Goodlin SJ, Winzelberg GS 1998;Pritchard RS, Fisher
ES 1998;Baggs JG, Schmitt MH 1999;Braddock CH, 3rd., Edwards KA 1999;Baggs JG,Mick DJ 2000;Meisel A, Snyder L
2000;Silveira MJ, DiPiero A 2000;Steinhauser KE, Christakis NA 2000;Steinhauser KE, Clipp EC 2000;Teno JM, Fisher E
2000;Zoucha R,Husted GL 2000;Chochinov HM 2002;Chochinov HM, Hack T 2002a;Chochinov HM, Hack T 2002b;Doukas
DJ,Hardwig J 2003;Ryndes T,Emanuel L 2003) {ARE 3, 3.5;IDT 11}
126. Ethical issues in palliative care: (Blackhall LJ, Murphy ST 1995;Glover JJ,Rushton CH 1995;American College of
Physicians--American Society of Internal Medicine End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel 1998;Dowdy MD, Robertson C
1998;Scanlon C 1998;Scanlon C,Rushton CH 1998;Mezey M, Teresi J 2000;Schwartz JK 2001;Stanley KJ,Zoloth-Dorfman L
2001;Boult L, Dentler B 2003;Cantor MD, Braddock CH 2003;Calman K, MacDonald N 2004) {ARE 8, 8.1, 8.2}
127. Ethics of withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments: (Cassel CK 1987;Task Force on Ethics of the Society of
Critical Care Medicine 1990;Snyder JW,Swartz MS 1993;Block SD,Billings JA 1994;Faber-Langendoen K 1994;Mount BM,
Cohen R 1995;Faber-Langendoen K 1996;Faber-Langendoen K, Spomer A 1996;Brody H, Campbell ML 1997;Asch DA,
Faber-Langendoen K 1999;Hamel MB, Teno JM 1999;Baggs JG,Mick DJ 2000;Faber-Langendoen K 2000;Phillips RS, Hamel
MB 2000;Astrow AB, Puchalski CM 2001;Cist FM, Truog RD 2001;Truog RD, Cist AF 2001;Stroud R 2002;Mueller PS, Hook
CC 2003)
128. Recognizing professional codes of ethics: (Task Force on Ethics of the Society of Critical Care Medicine 1990;American
Nurses Association 1991e;American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee 1994;American Academy of Neurology Ethics
and Humanities Subcommittee 1996;Scanlon C 1996;Wesley CA 1996;American College of Physicians--American Society of
Internal Medicine End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel 1998;Cooper MC 1998;American Association of Critical Care Nurses
2001;Casarett D, Ferrell B 2001){IDT 15.1}
129. Professional specialty groups’ code of ethics: (Baggs JG 1993;Rushton CH, Hogue EE 1993;Faber-Langendoen K
1996;Campbell ML,Frank RR 1997;Prendergast TJ,Luce JM 1997;Loftin LP,Beumer C 1998;Council on Ethical and Judicial
Affairs AMA 1999;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T 2000;American Academy of Pediatrics 2002;Campbell ML,Guzman JA
2003;Reb AM 2003;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T 2003)
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NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
130. Use of artificial nutrition and hydration: (Billings JA 1985;Fainsinger R,Bruera E 1994;Hodges MO, Tolle SW 1994;McCann
RM, Hall WJ 1994;Fainsinger RL,Bruera E 1997;Finucane TE, Christmas C 1999;Teno JM, Mor V 2002)
131. Palliative sedation: (Cherny NI,Portenoy RK 1994;Quill TE, Lo B 1997;Burns JP, Mitchell C 2000;Hallenbeck J
2000;Krakauer EL 2000;Krakauer EL, Penson RT 2000;Rousseau P 2000a;Wein S 2000;Loewy EH 2001;National Hospice
and Palliative Care Organization 2001b;Rousseau P 2001;Beel A, McClement SE 2002;Cheng C, Roemer-Becuwe C
2002;Cowan JD,Palmer TW 2002;Jackson WC 2002;Jansen LA,Sulmasy DP 2002a;Jansen LA,Sulmasy DP 2002b;Morita
T, Hirai K 2002;Quillen T 2002;Rousseau PC 2002;Thorns A 2002;Witte R 2002;Braun TC, Hagen NA 2003;Morita T, Tei Y
2003;Rousseau P 2003;Sykes N,Thorns A 2003)
132. Referrals to ethics specialists or services: (Tulsky JA,Lo B 1992;Tulsky JA,Fox E 1996;Dowdy MD, Robertson C
1998;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T 2000;Lee S,Kristjanson L 2003;Schneiderman LJ, Gilmer T 2003)
133. Legal and regulatory issues: (Swanson JW,McCrary SV 1996;Meisel A, Snyder L 2000;Mezey M, Teresi J 2000;Schlegel
KL,Shannon SE 2000;Thorns A,Sykes N 2000;Luce JM,Alpers A 2001;Midwest Bioethics Center 2001;Ramsey G 2001;Roff S
2001;Baluss ME 2002;Kyba FC 2002;O’Keefe ME,Crawford K 2002) {ARE 6.2; CCS 14.1, 14.2}
134. Death pronouncement: (Gorman WF 1985;Ferris TG, Hallward JA 1998)
135. Immediate post-death care: (Tolle SW,Girard DE 1983;Tolle SW, Elliot DL 1984;Tolle SW, Bascom PB 1986;Romanoff
BD,Terenzio M 1998;Weber M, Ochsmann R 1998;Berry P,Griffie J 2001;Block SL 2001;Matzo ML 2001;Morgan E
2001;Ellison NM,Ptacek JT 2002;Gatrad R,Sheikh A 2002;Rawlings D,Glynn T 2002;Warren NA 2002;Walter T 2003) {CCS
15.4; HIFCCS 5, 5.1; HRCFCCS 5, 5.1}
136. Staff training about death certification and related issues about tissue/organ donation and autopsy: (Tolle SW, Bennett
WM 1987;Kaye NS,Soreff SM 1991;Nearney L 1998;Poole M,Germino B 1998;Romanoff BD,Terenzio M 1998;Weber
M, Ochsmann R 1998;Bern-Klug M, Ekerdt DJ 1999;Verble M,Worth J 2000;Block S. D. 2001;Carrese JA, Mullaney JL
2002;Ellison NM,Ptacek JT 2002;Gatrad R,Sheikh A 2002;Hayden G 2002;Kwan C 2002;Rawlings D,Glynn T 2002;Warren
NA 2002;Forman WB, Kitzes JA 2003;Pollack CE 2003;Zimmerman S, Sloane PD 2003) {CCS 15.3}
137. Rights in end-of-life care: (Meisel A, Snyder L 2000;Ravenscroft AJ,Bell MD 2000;Burt RA 2002;McMillan SC,Weitzner
MA 2003)
138. Physician-assisted suicide: (American Nurses Association 1991b;Doukas DJ, Waterhouse D 1995;Lee MA, Nelson
HD 1996;Tulsky JA, Alpers A 1996;Asch DA,DeKay ML 1997;Suarez-Almazor ME, Belzile M 1997;Quill TE, Meier DE
1998;Emanuel EJ, Fairclough D 2000;Ferrell B, Virani R 2000a;Saunders JM 2000;Tulsky JA, Ciampa R 2000;Saunders
JM 2001;Back AL, Starks H 2002;Dickinson GE, Lancaster CJ 2002;Suarez-Almazor ME, Newman C 2002;Werth JL, Jr.,
Benjamin GA 2002;Meier DE, Emmons CA 2003;Quill TE,Cassel CK 2003)
1 References from sections of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization Standards of Practice for Hospice Programs (2002)
are cited in brackets, using their abbreviations as follows:
ARE Access, Rights, Ethics
MI
Management of Information
BCS
Bereavement Care and Services
PI
Performance Improvement and Outcomes Measurement
CC
Coordination and Continuity of Care
SIC
Safety and Infection Control
CCS
Clinical Care and Services
HIF
Hospice Inpatient Facility
HR
Human Resources
NF
Nursing Facility Hospice Care
IDT
Interdisciplinary Team
HRCF Hospice Residential Care Facility
LG
Leadership and Governance
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
55
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NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Appendix 1
Palliative Care and the Hospice Movement in the United States
While new clinical specialties in palliative medicine and nursing are emerging,
palliative care has been delivered through hospice programs in the United States
for over 30 years. Hospice care is paid for by Medicare and other insurers through
a regulated benefit influencing both access to hospice and the types of services
that hospices are able to provide. Under current Medicare/Medicaid guidelines,
hospice care is covered for beneficiaries of these programs who are certified by their
physician as likely to die within six months if the disease follows its usual course, and
who are willing to give up insurance coverage for medical treatments of the terminal
illness that are focused on cure or on prolongation of life. Many private payers
have similar hospice benefits, although these benefits often have day or dollar caps
without requirement that coverage of other services be waived. Once the hospice
benefit has been accessed, patients and families may receive comprehensive services
across all settings of care from an interdisciplinary team, although the great majority
of hospice care is delivered at home. Medicare/Medicaid and most commercial
insurances pay for medications and equipment related to the terminal illness, as well
as practical, psychosocial, respite and bereavement support for caregivers. (1, 4)
As a prelude to understanding the palliative care movement in the United States, it
is helpful to recall the context in which the Medicare hospice benefit was enacted
in the early 1980s. Post-World War II scientific advances in health care and medical
education created an almost exclusive focus on organ systems, disease states and
injury-related models of care. Due to technological advances and major public health
initiatives during this era, life expectancy grew considerably, and cure became an
expectation. The age-old concern for the patient’s suffering and the quality of his or
her life, a staple of medical practice and the ethos of medicine throughout history,
seemed eclipsed by the focus on medical technology. Dying became a medical event,
usually in a hospital, and often accompanied by significant pain and isolation.
The hospice movement represented a countercultural phenomenon. In effect, hospice
advocates urged the government to give Medicare patients an alternative approach
to high-technology, hospital-based medicine, and elect, instead, to pursue a course
of palliative care. In retrospect, this forced choice of either curative care or palliative
care seems short-sighted. The assumptions that patients with terminal prognoses
could be successfully and easily identified and that they, in turn, would wish to use
hospice care, were not borne out. Furthermore, advances in costly, and variously
effective, interventions that could concurrently ameliorate symptoms, improve
quality of life, and potentially increase life expectancy were not foreseen, making
the six-month rule and fixed per diem hospice reimbursements appear increasingly
arbitrary. (1, 3, 4)
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
57
Notwithstanding these insights, the hospices that grew out of the movement of
the late 1970s and early 1980s have been successful. Surveys in the United States
have consistently demonstrated a high rate of satisfaction with hospice services.
(22) The goals of hospice programs are to create increased opportunity for death
at home, to focus on the symptom-control and psychological and spiritual issues
that are paramount for persons in the terminal phases of an illness, and to provide
bereavement support for their families. Since 1974, over 7 million patients and their
families have received end-of-life care at home (e.g., a private residence, assisted
living facility, group home, homeless shelter) as well as in nursing homes and
hospitals through hospice programs, with escalating use in recent years. (1)
The treatment philosophy and primary clinical characteristics of hospice care and
palliative care are shared. (5) Both palliative care and hospice programs:
Acknowledge the patient and their family as the unit of care, and value reduction
of caregiver mortality and morbidity by actively reducing the physical and
emotional burden associated with caregiving and grief.
Rely on interdisciplinary assessment, treatment and evaluation.
Energetically respond to the consequences of illness facing the patient and family,
including:
® Managing symptoms.
® Providing practical guidance and support of care at home, where most people
spend most of their time and most prefer to be as death approaches.
® Offering anticipatory counseling/crisis prevention/critical decision support.
® Recognizing the need for health promotion, even in the face of physical decline.
Address common forms of patient abandonment, such as health care workers’
dismissal of patients who “failed therapy,” believing “nothing more can be done.”
Incorporate a human development perspective with respect to life-altering illness.
■ ■
■
■
■
Responding to Community Need
Since the mid-1980s, leading hospices have aimed to expand access to services
in order to reach people based on human need, if these individuals did not meet
Medicare hospice eligibility requirements or state hospice licensure definitions.
Some hospices have contributed to palliative care education through relationships
with local universities and colleges in schools of medicine, nursing, pastoral care
and social work. Hospice programs that provide services beyond conventional
hospice benefits are referred to as “upstream hospice,” while those with dedicated
professional education, research and public policy/advocacy components are referred
to as “comprehensive hospice centers.” Some programs have used the term “open
access to hospice” to describe their program’s absence of proscription on taking all
terminally ill patients under care. (3)
In the past eight to ten years, physicians, nurses and other health care professionals
in universities and teaching institutions have championed palliative care efforts
to improve care for those seriously ill patients who do not meet hospice eligibility
criteria or choose not to elect hospice care. These services, while variably defined,
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NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
have been collectively termed “palliative care services.” They may be independent of
hospice services or contractually related to hospices.
Hospices working “upstream” have encountered both financial and regulatory
obstacles in their efforts to offer comprehensive services to patients who either do
not meet Medicare or other eligibility guidelines or who may benefit from costly
therapies that greatly exceed the per diem payment of the Medicare Hospice Benefit.
The Medicare requirements governing hospices inhibit treatment of patients with
prognoses longer than six months; as a result, hospices have established alternative
programs and relationships in order to respond to the palliative care needs of
patients who are ineligible for hospice. The continuing debate over whether and how
to extend the reach of hospice care (either through the expansion of their duties or
the lengthening of the qualifying terminal prognosis) has made it obvious that there
is a broader issue than hospice care to be considered.
Hospice care is completely appropriate at the end of life, but palliative care, in
one form or another, is indicated, throughout all phases of life, whenever there are
significant burdens from illness or trauma. Expanding the reach of hospice care,
therefore, is not the answer to the broader need for palliative care. The values that
underlie palliative care—namely holistic outlooks, case management and attention
to the patient’s quality of life and personhood—are values that must be integrated
into the health care system of which hospice is already an effective part. (1-4)
Hospice Utilization and Growth
Significant increases both in number of
programs and in number of patients served by
hospice programs have been documented in
recent years. (1) More than 885,000 patients
and their families received hospice care in
2002, an increase of nearly 15 percent over
the previous year.
Approximately 80 percent of patients who
die in the United States experience a variable
period of illness and functional decline before
death during which they would benefit from
palliative care. It is estimated that hospices
provide care to 40 percent of adult Americans
who experience death with a preceding
period of dependency in activities of daily
living, and in 2002, 50 percent of U.S. hospice
patients had noncancer diagnoses. Currently,
more than half of American adult patients
who die with a diagnosis of cancer opt for
hospice, while in some communities over 90
percent of patients with cancer receive
hospice care before death. An additional
2 million caregivers received family/
bereavement services from hospice programs
in 2002. (1) Due both to regulatory and
insurance restrictions to access, and because
of the exceptional difficulty of accepting
death as a normal process in this patient
population, a smaller proportion of pediatric
deaths (about 10 percent) are served by
hospice. Pediatric hospice programs have
grown, especially among larger hospices, in
recent years in response to community need.
(3)
Bereavement services are a regulatory
requirement of certified hospice programs.
A recent matched cohort study, employing
Medicare claims data of 195,553 elderly
spouses of hospice and nonhospice
decedents, demonstrated improvement in
survival rates for the spouses of hospice
decedents, particularly among wives.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
59
The palliative care needs of patients and families across the continuum should
be met by a genuine partnership between palliative care and traditional hospice
programs. Close coordination and partnerships between palliative care and
hospice programs is critical to the support of genuine continuity of palliative care
throughout the course of illness and across the continuum of care settings. Palliative
care programs will grow to address the needs of patients and families with long and
indeterminate life expectancies. Late in the disease course, the complex and intensive
terminal care needs of most patients and families facing the end of life are often best
met by comprehensive hospice care.
As of 2002, 41 percent of hospices are delivering palliative care services outside
the Medicare Hospice Benefit, and another 19 percent are planning such services
in order to increase access to palliative care to patients who are ineligible for
or unwilling to enter hospice programs. (1) Nearly a third of the nation’s 3,200
hospices are hospital-based, and many hospital, nursing home and home-care
agency palliative care programs have been both initiated and supported by hospice
professionals. Data suggest that palliative care programs in a range of care settings
(24) result in marked increases in the number of appropriate and timely referrals to
hospice.
As a philosophy of care, the palliative care services and care management offered
by hospices should be available to any patient and family who can benefit from
them. Access to hospice programs should not be influenced by the availability of
life-prolonging therapies or the patient’s desire to pursue these approaches, since
many, if not most, patients wish to continue life-prolonging treatments as long as
the treatment benefits outweigh the burdens. Since these goals are not mutually
exclusive, rational policy would support efforts to amend the Medicare/Medicaid
“waiver of other services” requirements, and require instead continual reevaluation
of cost-beneficial therapies and payment structures.
Finally, while this document has largely focused on the development of guidelines
that have a high degree of applicability in institutional settings, additional focused
efforts are needed to improve access to hospice and palliative care for Americans
in nursing homes, where limited resources, regulatory obstacles and staff turnover
often limit the availability of expert interdisciplinary palliative care services. (29-30)
Interdisciplinary teams in nursing homes, in partnership with hospitals, hospices and
other community resources, must continue to acquire the training and credentialing
in palliative care necessary to care for this patient population. The availability of
contracts with community hospices is another important, feasible and growing
approach to improving access to palliative care services in the nursing home setting.
60
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Palliative Care Services
There is reason to be optimistic about
improving access to palliative care services.
As of 2002, more than 25 percent of academic
medical centers and well over 950 hospitals
(about 20 percent of all hospitals in the
U.S.) indicate that they provide access to a
palliative care program, including hospice.
Additionally, nearly a third of the 3,200 U.S.
hospices are hospital-based. In the last
seven years, more than 1,200 physicians
(including 18 pediatricians) have been
certified as subspecialists by the American
Board of Hospice and Palliative Medicine
(www.abhpm.org) and approximately 7,000
registered nurses, 43 advanced practice
nurses, and nearly 1,000 nursing assistants are
certified in palliative care (www.nbchpn.org).
Over the last three years, more than 1,000
physicians and 1,500 nurses have attended
three-day-long educational conferences
sponsored by Education for Physicians in Endof-Life Care (www.epec.net) and the adult
and pediatric End-of-Life Nursing Education
Consortium (www.aacn.nche.edu/elnec/).
There are 42 postgraduate medical fellowship
programs and two graduate nursing programs
in palliative care across the country, and more
are in planning stages (www.aahpm.org).
In 2003, over 2,300 clinicians attended the
NHPCO-HPNA Joint Clinical Conference to
advance their skills in hospice and palliative
care and more than 1,500 health professionals,
representing over 600 hospitals and hospices,
attended conferences sponsored by the
Center to Advance Palliative Care which were
aimed at helping health professionals and
managers start and sustain palliative care
programs (www.capc.org). Improvements
in access to pediatric palliative care have
evolved through demonstration models
(www.chionline.org), development of
pediatric palliative care curricular materials
(www.ippcweb.org and www.nhpco.org), as
well as increases in federal funding for both
pediatric and adult palliative care research.
Several programs targeted to nursing home
professionals have also been developed
(www.capc.org/specialpopulations). (30)
Educational initiatives in social work include
several fellowship training programs and
Web-based curricula (www.swlda.org) and
(www2.soros.org/death/swlda). (28)
History of the National Consensus Project
Development of U.S. palliative care consensus guidelines was discussed during a
national leadership conference coordinated by the Center to Advance Palliative
Care (www.capc.org) that was held in December 2001 at the New York Academy of
Medicine. Participants at this conference (listed at www.nationalconsensusproject.org)
were identified through a national peer nomination process. The early goals of the
National Consensus Project were:
1. To define an effective national consensus process for establishment of clinical
practice guidelines for quality palliative care in the United States.
2. To develop such guidelines through an evidence-based iterative review process
that involved the major palliative care organizations in the United States and a
large number of professionals in diverse disciplines.
3. To disseminate these guidelines to all stakeholders involved in the delivery of
health care to persons with life-threatening illnesses in the United States.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
61
A time line detailing the activities of the National Consensus Project between
December 2001 and the publication of these guidelines may be found at
www.nationalconsensusproject.org.
Organizational Structure of the National Consensus Project
The National Consensus Project has been structured to maximize the participation
and input of a broad range of palliative care professionals, health care organizations,
policy and standard-setting bodies, consumers and payers. To this end, a series
of working groups has been formed to ensure a comprehensive, transparent and
representative consensus process underpinning the development of Clinical Practice
Guidelines for Palliative Care.
Consortium Organizations for the NCP: Based on recommendations from the
broader palliative care community, five key national palliative care organizations
formed a consortium to oversee and ensure the success of the National Consensus
Project. The consortium includes:
American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine: A physician membership
organization for palliative care and hospice professionals. (www.aahpm.org)
■ Center to Advance Palliative Care: A Robert Wood Johnson Foundation–funded
initiative to promote the development of quality palliative care programs in hospitals
and other health care settings. (www.capc.org)
■ Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association: A nursing membership organization for
palliative care and hospice professionals. (www.hpna.org)
■ Last Acts Partnership: A national, not-for-profit organization dedicated
to improving care and caring near the end of life by informing health care
professionals, advocating for policy change, and empowering private citizens with
information and opportunities for action. (www.lastactspartnership.org)
■ National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization: A hospice and palliative care
advocacy and provider membership organization serving U.S. hospices, palliative
care members and their professional staffs. (www.nhpco.org)
■
Steering Committee: Each of the five consortium organizations has appointed
four representatives to a Steering Committee (members are listed on page vi). The
Steering Committee was charged with the writing and timely completion of the
consensus document, communication and dissemination of progress reports to all
appropriate NCP participants, and procurement of the necessary financial support
for the project. The committee made all decisions regarding the NCP through a
voting process at its regular monthly meetings.
Advisory Committee: An Advisory Committee (members are listed in Appendix
2) was established concurrently with the Steering Committee. This group, which
includes 96 nationally recognized palliative care leaders nominated by their peers,
served as document reviewers and key contributors to document development and
revision.
62
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Liaison Organizations: During the process of document creation, a list of liaison
organizations was developed. More than 100 organizations with major responsibility
for the health care of patients with life-threatening illnesses in the U.S. were asked to
offer their endorsement and to assist in the broadest possible national dissemination
of the standards.
Process for Developing Consensus
The Steering Committee developed a process for drafting and reviewing the
document. The steps in this process are as follows:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
The Steering Committee developed an outline that identified the key domains after
review of all existing standards and consensus documents (31) and input from the
Advisory Committee.
Clinical practice guidelines were developed based on consensus and the best
available scientific evidence.
Drafts of the document were reviewed and edited by the Steering Committee.
Using a 1–4 scale, the committee reviewed and rated each section/item. A score
of 1 was a full rejection; 2 was a rejection with multiple reservations; 3 indicated
acceptance with reservations; and 4 indicated full acceptance of the section/item.
The Steering Committee reviewed and discussed the tally of the ratings and
comments, and through discussion resolved or revised any item receiving less than
70 percent agreement.
The revised document was reviewed by the Steering Committee. When more than
70 percent of committee members voted to accept the document, it was distributed
to the Advisory Committee for review and rating using the 1-4 scale, and to the
five consortium organizations for review by their boards of directors or respective
governing bodies.
Feedback and ratings by the Advisory Committee and consortium organizations
were tallied and reviewed by the Steering Committee. Subsequent revisions were
reviewed, voted on and approved by the Steering Committee. Unanimity of
approval by the boards of all five consortium organizations was required at this
stage of document development.
The document was then distributed to all the liaison organizations for endorsement
and assistance in national dissemination of the guidelines.
In order to ensure the success and effectiveness of the project in improving access
to quality palliative care in the United States, a comprehensive communication
and dissemination plan for the document was developed. The plan is intended to
ensure distribution of the guidelines to organizations, associations, clinicians,
managers, providers, policy-makers, educators, researchers and other individuals
who plan, provide or assess palliative care programs.
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
63
64
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Appendix 2
National Consensus Project Advisory Committee
Kim Acquaviva, Ph.D., M.S.W.
Hospice of the Florida Suncoast
Carla S. Alexander, M.D.
University of Maryland School of
Medicine
Theresa Altilio, A.C.S.W.
Beth Israel Medical Center
John R. Anderson, Ph.D.
American Psychological Association
Constantino Benedetti, M.D.
James Cancer Hospital and
Solove Research Institute
Ted Billings
American Cancer Society
Susan Blacker, M.S.W., R.S.W.
St. Michael’s Hospital
Eduardo Bruera, M.D.
University of Texas MD Anderson
Cancer Center
Ira R. Byock, M.D.
Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center
Margaret Campbell, R.N., M.S.N.,
F.A.A.N.
Detroit Receiving Hospital
David Casarett, M.D., M.A.
Center for Health Equity Research and
Promotion at the Philadelphia VAMC
University of Pennsylvania
Grace Christ, D.S.W.
Columbia University School of Social
Work
Elizabeth J. Clark, Ph.D., A.C.S.W.,
M.P.H.
National Association of Social Workers
Susan Block, M.D.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Inge Corless, R.N., Ph.D., F.A.A.N.
MGH Institute of Health Professions
Kathy Brandt, M.S.
National Hospice and Palliative Care
Organization
Patrick Coyne, R.N., M.S.N., C.S.
Virginia Commonwealth University
School of Medicine
William Breitbart, M.D.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer
Center
LaVera Crawley, M.D.
Initiative to Improve Palliative Care for
African Americans
Stanford University Center for
Biomedical Ethics
Frank Brescia, M.D.
The Medical University of South
Carolina
Micke A. Brown, B.S.N., R.N.
American Society for Pain
Management Nursing
June Dahl, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin Medical
School
Mellar Davis, M.D.
The Cleveland Clinic
Jeanne Dennis, L.C.S.W.
VNS of New York Hospice Care
Derek Doyle, M.D.
National Council for Hospice and
Specialist Palliative Care Services
Thomas Edes, M.D.
Department of Veterans Affairs
Kathy Egan, M.A., B.S.N., C.H.P.N.
Hospice Institute of the Florida
Suncoast
Linda Emanuel, M.D., Ph.D.
Buehler Center on Aging
Northwestern University School of
Medicine
Frank D. Ferris, M.D.
San Diego Hospice & Palliative Care
Marilyn J. Field, Ph.D.
Institute of Medicine
John Finn, M.D.
Maggie Allesee Center for QOL
Hospice of Michigan
Kathleen M. Foley, M.D.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer
Center
Muriel Gillick, M.D.
Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates
Harvard Medical School
Deborah Danoff, M.D.
Association of American Medical
Colleges
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
65
Marcia Grant, D.NSc., R.N., F.A.A.N.
City of Hope Cancer Center
Deborah A. Kurnik, M.B.A.
Children’s Hospice International
Burton Grebin, M.D.
St. Mary’s Healthcare System for
Children
Jean Kutner, M.D., M.S.P.H.
University of Colorado Health Sciences
Center
Terrence Gutgsell, M.D.
Hospice of the Bluegrass
Deborah A. Lafond, M.S., R.N.C.S.,
P.N.P., C.P.O.N.
Children’s National Medical Center
James Hallenbeck, M.D.
Stanford University
School of Medicine
VA Hospice Care Center
Joanne M. Hilden, M.D.
The Children’s Hospital at The
Cleveland Clinic
Bruce Himelstein, M.D., F.A.A.P.
Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin
Gail Gibson Hunt
National Alliance for Caregiving
Nora Janjan, M.D.
University of Texas MD Anderson
Cancer Center
Matthew Loscalzo, M.S.W.
Eastern Virginia Medical School
Gail Lovinger
American Hospital Association
Joanne Lynn, M.D.
Americans for Better Care of the Dying
Neil MacDonald, M.D.
McGill University, Montreal
Sylvia McSkimming, Ph.D., R.N.
Supportive Care of the Dying: A
Coalition for Compassionate Care
Melanie Merriman, Ph.D., M.B.A.
Touchstone Consulting
David Joranson, M.S.S.W.
Pain & Policy Studies Group
University of Wisconsin
Comprehensive Cancer Center
Barry Kinzbrunner, M.D., F.A.C.P.
VITAS Healthcare Corporation
Kenneth W. Kizer, M.D., M.P.H.
The National Quality Forum
Mary Jane Koren, M.D., M.P.H.
The Commonwealth Fund
Kim K. Kuebler, M.N., R.N., A.N.P.-C.S.
Adjuvant Therapies, Inc.
66
J. Cameron Muir, M.D.
Capital Hospice and Capital Palliative
Care Consultants
Patricia Murphy, Ph.D., R.N., A.P.N.,
F.A.A.N.
UMDNJ University Hospital
Naomi Naierman
American Hospice Foundation
Janet E. Neigh
Hospice Association of America
Judith Nelson, M.D., J.D.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Karen Nichols, C.E.O
Valley Hospice, Inc.
Tony O’Brien, M.D.
Marymount Hospice, St. Patrick’s
Hospital, Cork, Ireland
Keith Meador, M.D., Th.M., M.P.H.
Duke University Divinity School
Bruce Jennings, M.A.
The Hastings Center
Charles A. Mowll, F.A.C.H.E.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of
Healthcare Organizations
Robert A. Milch, M.D., F.A.C.S.
The Center for Hospice & Palliative
Care, Buffalo, New York
Steven H. Miles, M.D.
University of Minnesota
Medical School
Galen Miller, Ph.D.
National Hospice & Palliative Care
Organization
Susan C. Miller, Ph.D.
Brown Medical School
NATIONAL CONSENSUS PROJECT
Joseph F. O’Neill, M.D., M.P.H.
White House Office of National AIDS
Policy
Judith Paice, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N.
Northwestern University School of
Medicine
Judy Passerini, C.N.H.A.
Catholic Health Care Services,
Archdiocese of Philadelphia
Richard Payne, M.D.
Duke University Institute on Care at
the End of Life
Christina Pulchalski, M.D.
George Washington Institute for
Spirituality and Health
Gloria Ramsey, R.N., J.D.
New York University Division of
Nursing
Lorraine Tarnove
American Medical Directors
Association
Mary Raymer, M.S.W.
Raymer Psychotherapy and
Consultation Services
Joan Teno, M.D., M.S.
Brown Medical School
Anne Rhome, M.P.H., R.N.
American Association of Colleges of
Nursing
Paula Trahan Rieger, R.N., M.S.N.,
A.O.C.N., C.S., F.A.A.N.
American Society of Clinical Oncology
Paul Rousseau, M.D.
Department of Veterans Affairs,
Phoenix
Cynda Hylton Rushton, D.N.Sc., R.N.,
F.A.A.N.
The Johns Hopkins University and
Children’s Center
Colleen Scanlon, R.N., J.D.
Catholic Health Initiatives
Virginia Tilden, D.N.Sc., R.N.,
F.A.A.N.
Oregon Health Sciences University
Jamie Von Roenn, M.D.
Northwestern University School of
Medicine
T. Declan Walsh, M.D.
Cleveland Clinic Health System
Joan C. Warden- Saunders, R.N.C.,
B.S.N.
National Association of Directors of
Nursing Administration in Long-Term
Care
David E. Weissman, M.D.
Medical College of Wisconsin
Sherry R. Schachter, Ph.D.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer
Center
Thomas Smith, M.D.
Virginia Commonwealth University
School of Medicine
Walter J. Smith, S.J., Ph.D.
The HealthCare Chaplaincy
Lois Snyder, J.D.
American College of Physicians
Daniel Sulmasy, O.F.M., M.D., Ph.D.
Bioethics Institute of New York
Medical College
Marketing Communications:
Stewart Communications, Ltd.
Design:
Nancy Nord Design
Lizabeth H. Sumner, R.N., B.S.N.
San Diego Hospice & Palliative Care
CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY PALLIATIVE CARE
67
For more copies of this publication, please contact:
National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care
One Penn Center West, Suite 229
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15276
(412) 787-1002 phone
(412) 787-9305 fax
www.nationalconsensusproject.org
© 2004, National Consensus Project for Quality
Palliative Care
68
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