Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 Deployment Guide Abstract

Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 Deployment Guide Abstract

Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2

Deployment Guide

Microsoft Corporation

Author: Anita Taylor

Editor: Theresa Haynie

Abstract

This guide describes how to deploy Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 (WSUS 3.0 SP2).

You will find a comprehensive description of how WSUS functions, as well as descriptions of

WSUS scalability and bandwidth management features. This guide also offers procedures for installation and configuration of the WSUS server and how to configure client workstations and servers that will be updated by WSUS. Also included are steps for setting up a WSUS server on an isolated segment of your network and manually importing updates.

Copyright Notice

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All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.

Contents

Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 Deployment Guide..................................................... 9

Introduction to Deploying Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 ........................................... 9

Design the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Deployment..................................................................................... 10

Choose a Type of WSUS Deployment ....................................................................................... 10

Simple WSUS deployment ..................................................................................................... 10

Using computer groups ....................................................................................................... 11

WSUS server hierarchies ....................................................................................................... 12

Distributing updates in different languages within a server hierarchy ....................................... 13

Networks disconnected from the Internet ................................................................................ 14

Branch offices ........................................................................................................................ 14

Network load balancing clusters ............................................................................................. 15

Support for roaming clients..................................................................................................... 15

Choose a WSUS Management Style ......................................................................................... 16

Centralized management ....................................................................................................... 16

Distributed management ........................................................................................................ 17

Choose the Database Used for WSUS 3.0 SP2 ......................................................................... 18

Selecting a database .............................................................................................................. 19

Database authentication, instance, and database name ......................................................... 20

Determine Where to Store WSUS Updates ................................................................................ 20

Local storage ......................................................................................................................... 20

Remote storage ..................................................................................................................... 21

Determine Bandwidth Options to Use ........................................................................................ 22

Deferring the download of updates ......................................................................................... 22

Filtering updates .................................................................................................................... 23

Using express installation files................................................................................................ 23

Background Intelligent Transfer Service ................................................................................. 25

Determine WSUS Capacity Requirements ................................................................................. 25

Minimum Hardware Requirements ......................................................................................... 25

Supported Capacity by Configuration ..................................................................................... 26

Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server............................................................................................... 27

Configure the Network ............................................................................................................... 28

Configure the Proxy Server .................................................................................................... 28

Configure the Firewall ............................................................................................................ 28

Installation of Required Software ............................................................................................... 29

WSUS Server Software Prerequisites..................................................................................... 30

Configure IIS ............................................................................................................................. 30

Configuring IIS 7.0 ................................................................................................................. 31

Client self-update ................................................................................................................... 31

Using the WSUS custom Web site ......................................................................................... 32

Accessing WSUS on a custom port ..................................................................................... 32

Using host headers ................................................................................................................ 32

Upgrade from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2 .............................................................................. 33

Before upgrading from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2 .............................................................. 33

Upgrading a Remote SQL Server Installation from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2 .................... 33

After upgrading ...................................................................................................................... 34

Run WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server Setup ............................................................................................. 34

Before you begin .................................................................................................................... 34

Installing WSUS ..................................................................................................................... 35

If You Are Using Server Manager ........................................................................................ 35

If You Are Using the WSUSSetup.exe File .......................................................................... 36

Using the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Setup Wizard .............................................................................. 36

Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration Console ..................................................................... 39

WSUS Administration Console Software Prerequisites ........................................................... 40

Install the Console.................................................................................................................. 40

Access the WSUS Administration Console ............................................................................. 41

Configure the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server......................................................................................... 41

Using the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Configuration Wizard......................................................................... 42

Choose the upstream server .................................................................................................. 43

Specify the proxy server ......................................................................................................... 43

Connect to the upstream server ............................................................................................. 44

Choose update languages...................................................................................................... 44

Choose update products ........................................................................................................ 45

Choose update classifications ................................................................................................ 45

Configure the synchronization schedule ................................................................................. 46

Configuring WSUS from the administration console ................................................................ 47

Access the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration Console ................................................................... 47

Synchronize the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server..................................................................................... 47

Advanced Synchronization Options ........................................................................................... 48

Update storage options .......................................................................................................... 48

Deferred downloads options ................................................................................................... 48

Express installation files options ............................................................................................. 49

Filtering updates options ........................................................................................................ 49

Set Up E-Mail Notifications ........................................................................................................ 50

Personalize the WSUS Display .................................................................................................. 51

Set Up a Hierarchy of WSUS Servers ........................................................................................ 52

Create Replica Servers ............................................................................................................. 53

Enable reporting rollup from replica servers ............................................................................ 54

Create the Computer Groups..................................................................................................... 54

Setting up computer groups ................................................................................................... 54

Step 1: Specify how to assign computers to computer groups ............................................. 54

Step 2: Create computer groups ......................................................................................... 55

Step 3: Move the computers ............................................................................................... 55

Approve WSUS 3.0 SP2 Updates .............................................................................................. 56

Verify Deployment of Updates ................................................................................................... 56

Secure WSUS 3.0 SP2 Deployment .......................................................................................... 57

Hardening your Windows Server 2003 running WSUS ........................................................... 57

Adding authentication for chained WSUS Servers in an Active Directory environment ............ 57

Step 1: Create an authentication list .................................................................................... 58

Step 2: Disable anonymous access to the WSUS server ..................................................... 58

Securing WSUS with the Secure Sockets Layer Protocol ....................................................... 59

Limitations of WSUS SSL deployments ............................................................................... 59

Configuring SSL on the WSUS server ................................................................................. 59

Configuring SSL on client computers .................................................................................. 61

Configuring SSL for downstream WSUS servers ................................................................. 61

Additional SSL resources .................................................................................................... 62

Update and Configure the Automatic Updates Client ................................................................. 62

Client Requirements .................................................................................................................. 63

Special considerations for client computers set up by using a Windows 2000, Windows Server

2003, or Windows XP image ............................................................................................... 63

Update Client ............................................................................................................................ 64

Automatic Updates client self-update feature .......................................................................... 64

Determine a Method to Configure Clients .................................................................................. 65

Configure Clients Using Group Policy ........................................................................................ 66

Load the WSUS Administrative Template ............................................................................... 66

Configure Automatic Updates ................................................................................................. 67

Specify intranet Microsoft Update service location .................................................................. 68

Enable client-side targeting .................................................................................................... 68

Reschedule Automatic Updates scheduled installations.......................................................... 69

No auto-restart for scheduled Automatic Update installation options ....................................... 69

Automatic Update detection frequency ................................................................................... 70

Allow Automatic Update immediate installation ....................................................................... 71

Delay restart for scheduled installations ................................................................................. 71

Reprompt for restart with scheduled installations .................................................................... 71

Allow non-administrators to receive update notifications ......................................................... 72

Allow signed content from the intranet Microsoft update service location ................................ 72

Remove links and access to Windows Update ........................................................................ 73

Disable access to Windows Update ........................................................................................ 73

Configure Clients in a Non–Active Directory Environment .......................................................... 74

Editing the Local Group Policy object ..................................................................................... 74

Using the registry editor ......................................................................................................... 74

Automatic Update configuration options ................................................................................. 76

Automatic Updates scenarios ................................................................................................. 79

RescheduleWaitTime ............................................................................................................. 79

Example 1: Installation must occur immediately following system startup ......................... 79

Example 2: Installations must occur fifteen minutes after the Automatic Updates service starts ............................................................................................................................ 80

NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers .................................................................................... 80

Example 1: Non-administrator user on a workstation ........................................................ 81

Example 2: Non-administrator user on a server................................................................ 81

Summary of behavior for NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers settings ............................. 82

Interaction with other settings .............................................................................................. 83

Manipulate Client Behavior Using Command-line Options.......................................................... 84

Detectnow Option .................................................................................................................. 84

Resetauthorization Option ...................................................................................................... 84

Client Behavior with Update Deadlines ...................................................................................... 84

Expired and unexpired deadlines ........................................................................................... 85

Deadlines and updates that require restarts ........................................................................... 85

WSUS updates and deadlines ................................................................................................ 85

Set Up a Disconnected Network (Import and Export the Updates).............................................. 86

Step 1: Matching Advanced Options .......................................................................................... 86

Step 2: Copying Updates from the File System .......................................................................... 87

Step 3: Copying Metadata from the Database ............................................................................ 88

Importing Updates to Replica Servers........................................................................................ 90

Import metadata to a replica server ........................................................................................ 90

Appendix A: Unattended Installations ........................................................................................ 90

Appendix B: Configure Remote SQL.......................................................................................... 92

Remote SQL Limitations and Requirements ........................................................................... 93

Database requirements .......................................................................................................... 93

Step 1: Install SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2 or SQL Server 2008 on the back-end computer

........................................................................................................................................... 94

Step 2: Check administrative permissions on SQL Server ...................................................... 95

Step 3: Install WSUS on the front-end computer ..................................................................... 96

Appendix C: Configure WSUS for Network Load Balancing ....................................................... 96

Step 1: Configure remote SQL ............................................................................................... 97

Step 2: Set up the other front-end WSUS servers ................................................................... 97

Step 3: Configure the front-end WSUS servers ....................................................................... 97

Step 4: Set up a DFS share.................................................................................................... 98

Step 5: Configure IIS on the front-end WSUS servers ............................................................. 99

Step 6: Move the local content directory on the first front-end WSUS server to the DFS share 99

Step 7: Configure the NLB.................................................................................................... 100

Step 8: Test the WSUS NLB configuration............................................................................ 101

Step 9: Configure WSUS clients to sync from the DFS share ................................................ 101

Upgrading NLB .................................................................................................................... 101

Appendix D: Configure WSUS for Roaming Clients.................................................................. 102

Step 1: Identify the servers to use as WSUS servers ............................................................ 102

Step 2: Set up the host names on the DNS server ................................................................ 103

Step 3: Set up the DNS server for netmask ordering and round robin ................................... 103

Step 4: Configure the WSUS servers.................................................................................... 103

Step 5: Configure WSUS clients to use the same host name ................................................ 104

Appendix E: List of Security Settings ....................................................................................... 104

Windows Server ................................................................................................................... 104

Audit policy ....................................................................................................................... 104

Security options ................................................................................................................ 105

Event log settings ............................................................................................................. 115

System services................................................................................................................ 116

TCP/IP hardening ............................................................................................................. 121

IIS security configuration ................................................................................................... 123

Enable general IIS error messages ................................................................................ 123

Enable additional IIS logging options ............................................................................. 123

Remove header extensions ........................................................................................... 124

SQL Server .......................................................................................................................... 124

SQL registry permissions .................................................................................................. 124

Stored procedures ............................................................................................................ 125

Appendix F: Prerequisites Schema .......................................................................................... 126

Prerequisites Schema .......................................................................................................... 126

Example ........................................................................................................................... 127

Appendix G: Detect the Version of WSUS ............................................................................... 128

Versioning in WSUS 2.0 ....................................................................................................... 128

WSUS 3.0 SP2 pre-release candidate versions .................................................................... 129

WSUS 3.0 SP2 Release Candidate 1 and later versions....................................................... 129

Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2

Deployment Guide

This guide describes how to deploy Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) 3.0 SP2. You will find a comprehensive description of how WSUS functions, as well as descriptions of WSUS scalability and bandwidth management features. This guide also offers step-by-step procedures for installation and configuration of the WSUS server. You will read how to update and configure

Automatic Updates on client workstations and servers that will be updated by WSUS. Also included are steps for setting up a WSUS server on an isolated segment of your network and manually importing updates, as well as steps for configuring WSUS for network load balancing.

In this guide



Introduction to Deploying Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2



Design the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Deployment



Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server



Configure the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server



Update and Configure the Automatic Updates Client



Set Up a Disconnected Network (Import and Export the Updates)



Appendix A: Unattended Installations



Appendix B: Configure Remote SQL



Appendix C: Configure WSUS for Network Load Balancing



Appendix D: Configure WSUS for Roaming Clients



Appendix E: List of Security Settings



Appendix F: Prerequisites Schema



Appendix G: Detect the Version of WSUS

Introduction to Deploying Windows Server

Update Services 3.0 SP2

This guide describes how to deploy Microsoft® Windows® Server Update Services (WSUS) 3.0

SP2. Begin your WSUS deployment by reading about how WSUS functions, its general requirements, and its features for scalability and bandwidth management. Read how to choose a

network and database configuration for your WSUS 3.0 SP2 installation in Design the WSUS 3.0

SP2 Deployment

. Next, read how to install and configure the WSUS server in the section Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server . Then read how to configure Automatic Updates on client workstations

and servers that will be updated by WSUS in Update and Configure the Automatic Updates

Client .

9

Design the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Deployment

The first step in deploying WSUS 3.0 SP2 is to design the server configuration. The following sections describe various aspects of deployment design—from a simple configuration with a single server to a configuration with multiple WSUS servers. Some of the considerations to take into account are connection bandwidth (for both Internet connections and LAN or WAN connections), network configuration, and different language requirements.

In this guide



Choose a Type of WSUS Deployment



Choose a WSUS Management Style



Choose the Database Used for WSUS 3.0 SP2



Determine Where to Store WSUS Updates



Determine Bandwidth Options to Use



Determine WSUS Capacity Requirements

Choose a Type of WSUS Deployment

This section describes the basic features of all WSUS deployments. Use this section to familiarize yourself with simple deployments with a single WSUS server, as well as more complex scenarios, such as a WSUS server hierarchy or a WSUS server on an isolated network segment. This section also explains how to target different sets of updates to different groups of computers.

Simple WSUS deployment

The most basic WSUS deployment consists of a server inside the corporate firewall that serves client computers on a private intranet, as shown in the "Simple WSUS Deployment" illustration below. The WSUS server connects to Microsoft Update to download updates. This is known as synchronization. During synchronization, WSUS determines if any new updates have been made available since the last time you synchronized. If it is your first time synchronizing WSUS, all updates are made available for download.

Note

Initial synchronization can take over an hour. All synchronizations after that should be significantly shorter.

By default, the WSUS server uses port 80 for HTTP protocol and port 443 for HTTPS protocol to obtain updates from Microsoft. If there is a corporate firewall between your network and the

Internet, you will have to open these ports on the server that communicates directly to Microsoft

Update. If you are planning to use custom ports for this communication, you will have to open those ports instead.

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You can configure multiple WSUS servers to synchronize with a parent WSUS server. Chaining

WSUS servers together is discussed later in this guide.

Simple WSUS Deployment

Automatic Updates is the client component of WSUS. Automatic Updates must use the port assigned to the WSUS Web site in Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS). If there are no

Web sites running on the server where you install WSUS, you can use the default Web site or a custom Web site. If you set up WSUS on the default Web site, WSUS listens for Automatic

Updates on port 80. If you use a custom Web site, WSUS can listen on port 8530 or 8531.

Alternate port numbers cannot be specified at setup time.

If you use the custom Web site, you must also have a Web site set up and running on port 80 to accommodate updating legacy Automatic Updates client software. If you use the custom Web site, remember to include the port number in the URL when you configure Automatic Updates to point to the WSUS server. Other issues to consider when using a custom port for the WSUS Web

site are discussed in "Using the WSUS custom Web site" in Configure IIS later in this guide.

Using computer groups

Computer groups are an important part of WSUS deployments, even a basic deployment.

Computer groups enable you to target updates to specific computers. There are two default computer groups: All Computers and Unassigned Computers. By default, when each client computer initially contacts the WSUS server, the server adds it to both these groups.

Simple WSUS Deployment with Computer Groups

11

You can move computers from the Unassigned Computers group to a group you create. You cannot remove computers from the All Computers group. The All Computers group enables you to target updates to every computer on your network regardless of group membership. The

Unassigned Computers group permits you to target only computers that have not yet been assigned group membership.

One benefit of creating computer groups is that it enables you to test updates. The "Simple

WSUS Deployment with Computer Groups" illustration depicts two custom groups named Test and Accounting, as well as the All Computers group. The Test group contains a small number of computers representative of all the computers contained in the Accounting group. Updates are approved first for the Test group. If the testing goes well, you can roll out the updates to the

Accounting group. There is no limit to the number of custom groups you can create. There are

instructions for creating custom computer groups in Create the Computer Groups later in this

guide.

Note

Do not use WSUS to distribute updates to client computers that are not licensed for your organization. The WSUS license agreement specifically disallows this.

WSUS server hierarchies

You can create complex hierarchies of WSUS servers. Since you can synchronize one WSUS server with another WSUS server instead of with Microsoft Update, you need to have only a single WSUS server that is connected to Microsoft Update. When you link WSUS servers together, there is an upstream WSUS server and a downstream WSUS server, as shown in the

"WSUS Server Hierarchy" illustration below.

There are two ways to link WSUS servers together:

Autonomous mode: An upstream WSUS server shares updates with its downstream server or

servers during synchronization, but not update approval status or computer group information.

Downstream WSUS servers must be administered separately. Autonomous servers can also synchronize updates for a set of languages that is a subset of the set synchronized by their upstream server.

Replica mode: An upstream WSUS server shares updates, approval status, and computer

groups with its downstream server or servers. Downstream replica servers inherit update approvals and cannot be administered apart from their upstream WSUS server.

For more information see Choose a WSUS Management Style .

WSUS Server Hierarchy

12

This type of configuration is useful for many types of deployment. You might use it to download updates once from the Internet and then distribute those updates to branch offices with downstream servers, saving bandwidth on your Internet connection. You might use it to scale

WSUS in a large organization with more client computers than one WSUS server can manage.

You might also use it to move updates closer to where they will be deployed.

Three levels is the recommended limit to a WSUS server hierarchy. This is because each level adds additional lag time to propagate updates throughout the chain. Theoretically there is no limit to how deep you can go, but only deployments with a hierarchy five levels deep have been tested.

The downstream server must always synchronize to an upstream server, as in the "WSUS Server

Hierarchy" illustration above. This keeps synchronizations traveling downstream. If you attempt to synchronize an upstream server to a downstream server, you effectively create a closed loop, which is not supported. You can find step-by-step instructions for synchronizing WSUS servers in

Set Up a Hierarchy of WSUS Servers later in this guide.

When you set up a WSUS server hierarchy, you should point Automatic Updates on all WSUS servers to the farthest downstream WSUS server in the hierarchy. This shields the entire chain from server-to-server protocol-breaking changes, because the downstream WSUS server can be used to update the broken upstream WSUS servers via Automatic Updates.

Important

Confirm that the system time on the upstream and downstream servers is the same.

Downstream servers roll up information to their upstream server immediately after they synchronize. If there is difference in the system time between servers that is greater than one minute, the rollup will fail and the downstream server results will not be rolled up to the upstream server.

Configure the downstream servers to synchronize at different times of day. If you have multiple downstream servers, you should not configure them to synchronize updates and roll up results at the same time of day. This may cause a high load on the upstream server, resulting in rollup failures.

Distributing updates in different languages within a server hierarchy

If you decide to configure your WSUS network as a server hierarchy, you should also determine whether you need to distribute updates in different languages to different parts of your network.

For example, the head office may require only English and French, but a branch may require

English, French, and German. You should consider all the languages used throughout your network when you set up a hierarchy of servers, because you must configure the root server (the server that connects to Microsoft Update) to download updates in all the languages used in the entire network. You can then configure the downstream servers to download updates in the languages they need. Moreover, you should make sure no downstream servers require a language that you are planning to remove from an upstream server.

13

For more information about setting up language options on upstream servers and downstream

servers, see the "Choose update languages" section of the topic Using the WSUS 3.0 SP2

Configuration Wizard .

Networks disconnected from the Internet

It is unnecessary for your entire network to be connected to the Internet in order for you to use

WSUS. If you have a network segment that is not connected to the Internet, consider deploying

WSUS as shown in the "Distributing Updates on an Isolated Segment" illustration below. In this example, you create a WSUS server that is connected to the Internet but isolated from the intranet. After you download updates to this server, you can export the updates to media, handcarry the media to disconnected WSUS servers, and import the updates.

Distributing Updates on an Isolated Segment

Exporting and importing is also appropriate for organizations that have high-cost or lowbandwidth links to the Internet. Even with all the bandwidth-saving options described later in this guide, downloading enough updates for all Microsoft products throughout an organization can be bandwidth-intensive. Importing and exporting updates enables organizations to download

updates once and distribute by using inexpensive media. See Set Up a Disconnected Network

(Import and Export the Updates) for more information about how to export and import updates.

Branch offices

 Using the BranchCache feature:

BranchCache is a new feature in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 that reduces

WAN link utilization and improves application responsiveness. To enable BranchCache acceleration of content served by the WSUS server, install the BranchCache feature on the server and the clients, and ensure that the BranchCache service has started. No other steps are necessary. For information about installing BrancheCache, see the BranchCache Early

Adopter's Guide (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=148741).

 Branch offices with low-bandwidth connections:

In some organizations, branch offices have low-bandwidth connections to the central office but high-bandwidth connections to the Internet. In this case you may want to configure

14

downstream WSUS servers to get information about which updates to install from the central

WSUS server, but download the updates themselves from Microsoft Update. For information

about how to set up this kind of configuration, see Advanced Synchronization Options .

Network load balancing clusters

Network load balancing increases the reliability and performance of your WSUS network. You can set up multiple WSUS servers that share a single SQL Server 2005 or 2008 failover cluster, as in the "Network Load Balancing with a SQL Server Failover Cluster" illustration below. (Note that for this configuration you must use a full SQL Server installation, not the W indows Internal

Database installation provided by WSUS.) You can also have all the WSUS servers use a DFS

share to store their content. See Appendix C: Configure WSUS for Network Load Balancing for

more information about configuring WSUS and SQL Server for network load balancing.

Network Load Balancing with a SQL Server Failover Cluster

Support for roaming clients

If you have many mobile users who log on to your network from different sites, you may want to use the following configuration to allow them to update their computers from the closest WSUS server. In this configuration, shown in the "Roaming Clients Using Different WSUS Servers" illustration below, there is one WSUS server per region, and each region is a DNS subnet. All clients are pointed to the same WSUS server name, which resolves in each subnet to the nearest

WSUS server. See Appendix D: Configure WSUS for Roaming Clients for more information about

how to configure DNS to support roaming clients.

15

Roaming Clients Using Different WSUS Servers

Choose a WSUS Management Style

WSUS supports deployments in both central and distributed management models. These management models enable you to manage your update distribution solution in the way that makes the most sense for your organization. You do not have to use a single management model throughout your organization. It is perfectly acceptable for a single organization to have a centrally managed WSUS deployment serving some computers, and one or more independently managed WSUS deployments serving other computers.

Centralized management

Centrally managed WSUS servers utilize replica servers. Replica servers are not administered separately, and are used only to distribute approvals, groups, and updates. The approvals and targeting groups you create on the master server are replicated throughout the entire organization, as shown in the "WSUS Centralized Management (Replica Servers)" illustration below. Remember that computer group membership is not distributed throughout the replica group, only the computer groups themselves. In other words, you always have to load client computers into computer groups.

16

WSUS Centralized Management (Replica Servers)

It is possible that not all the sites in your organization require the same computer groups. The important thing is to create enough computer groups on the administered server to satisfy the needs of the rest of the organization. Computers at different sites can be moved into a group appropriate for the site. Meanwhile, computer groups inappropriate for a particular site simply remain empty. All update approvals, like computer groups, must be created on the master server.

For step-by-step instructions, see Create Replica Servers later in this guide.

You should also make sure that the upstream server is configured for all the languages required by its replica servers. If you add languages to the upstream server, you should copy the new updates to its replica servers. Changing language options on the upstream server alone might result in a mismatch between the number of updates that are approved on the central server and the number of updates approved on the replica servers.

Distributed management

Distributed management offers you full control over approvals and computer groups for the

WSUS server, as shown in the "WSUS Distributed Management" illustration below. With the distributed management model, there is usually an administrator at each site who decides which update languages are needed, creates computer groups, assigns computers to groups, tests and approves updates, and ensures that the correct updates are installed on the right computer groups. Distributed management is the default installation option for all WSUS installations.

17

WSUS Distributed Management

Choose the Database Used for WSUS 3.0

SP2

You do not need to be a database administrator or purchase database software to use WSUS.

WSUS 3.0 SP2 will install Windows Internal Database if you choose to install a minimal version of

SQL Server. This version of SQL Server is designed to require very little management by the

WSUS administrator. If you already have Windows Internal Database installed, WSUS will use it.

If you want more control over the database, you can also use the full version of SQL Server with

WSUS.

The WSUS database stores the following types of information:

 WSUS server configuration information

 Metadata that describes each update

 Information about client computers, updates, and client interaction with updates

Important

You should not attempt to manage WSUS by accessing data directly in the database.

Manage WSUS by using the WSUS console, or programmatically by calling WSUS APIs.

18

Each WSUS server requires its own database. If there are multiple WSUS servers in your environment, you must have multiple WSUS databases. WSUS does not support storing multiple

WSUS databases on a SQL Server instance. The only exception is the case of a network load

balanced cluster using a SQL Server failover cluster, as described in Appendix C: Configure

WSUS for Network Load Balancing .

WSUS does support running database software on a computer separate from WSUS, but there

are some restrictions. See Appendix B: Configure Remote SQL for more information.

Selecting a database

Use the following information to determine what database software is right for your organization.

Once you have made a selection, see if there are any additional tasks you need to complete to set up the database software to work with WSUS. You can use any database software that is

100-percent compatible with Microsoft SQL. There are two options that have been tested extensively for use with WSUS:

 Windows Internal Database ships with WSUS 3.0 SP2. This version of SQL Server does not have a user interface or tools. Administrators are meant to interact with these products through WSUS.

 Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2008 are full-featured database software from

Microsoft. WSUS 3.0 SP2 requires SQL Server 2005 with Service Pack 2 or SQL Server

2008. If you use the full version of SQL Server, the SQL Server administrator should enable the nested triggers option in SQL Server. Do this before the WSUS administrator installs

WSUS and specifies the database during the setup process. WSUS Setup enables the recursive triggers option, which is a database-specific option; however, it does not enable the nested triggers option, which is a server global option.

Microsoft does not recommend using Windows Internal Database (WID) over SQL. The choice of database is up to you. Some facts to consider are:

 SQL and WID provide the same performance characteristics for a singer server configuration

(where the database and the front-end server are on the same computer. This configuration scales to support several thousand clients. There is no advantage to using SQL rather than

WID in this configuration.

 Full SQL can be deployed remotely and is required for Network Load Balancing (NLB) in a multi-server configuration. NLB provides performance improvements for a multi-server configuration. Therefore, if you want to scale-up a single node, you would need to use Full

SQL.

 WID does not ship with management tools. If you already have Full SQL installed and processes in place for backing up and defragmenting the database, then you should consider using Full SQL for WSUS.

 If you have many WSUS servers (for example, in branch offices) then you should consider using WID on the secondary servers. Because each WSUS server needs a separate instance of SQL, if you only have one SQL server, you will quickly run into database performance issues when multiple WSUS servers use difference instances of the single SQL server.

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Database authentication, instance, and database name

You cannot use SQL authentication with WSUS, which supports only Windows authentication. If you choose Windows Internal Database for the WSUS database, WSUS Setup creates an instance of SQL Server named server\MICROSOFT##SSEE, where server is the name of the computer. With either database option, WSUS Setup creates a database named SUSDB. The name of this database is not configurable.

In most cases each WSUS server will use a different SQL Server instance. One exception is the network load balancing configuration, in which multiple WSUS servers use a clustered SQL

Server instance. For more information about this configuration and how to set it up, see Appendix

C: Configure WSUS for Network Load Balancing .

Determine Where to Store WSUS Updates

Although metadata that describes updates is stored in the WSUS database, the updates themselves are not. Updates are divided into two parts: a metadata part that describes the update, and the files required to install the update on a computer. Update metadata includes the end-user license agreement (EULA) and is typically much smaller than the size of the actual update

You have two choices for update locations. You can store updates on the local WSUS server, or you can store updates on Microsoft Update. There is a configuration using shared update storage

for network load balanced clusters, described in Appendix C: Configure WSUS for Network Load

Balancing . The result for either option is outlined in the following sections. If you have multiple

WSUS servers chained together, each WSUS server in the chain may choose its own update storage options. These options are selected during the setup process, but can also be changed

after installing WSUS. See Advanced Synchronization Options for step-by-step procedures.

Local storage

You can store update files locally on the WSUS server. This saves bandwidth on your Internet connection because client computers download updates directly from the WSUS server. This option requires enough disk space to store the updates you intend to download. There is a minimum requirement of 20 GB of hard disk space to store updates locally, but 30 GB is recommended. Local storage is the default option.

Note

The 30 GB recommendation is only an estimate based on a number of variables, such as the number of updates released by Microsoft for any given product, how many products and update languages are selected, and whether standard update files or express updates are to be downloaded. Although 30 GB should work for most customers, your particular situation might require more than 30 GB of disk space.

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Remote storage

If you want, you can store update files remotely on Microsoft servers. WSUS enables you to use

Microsoft Update for the distribution of approved updates throughout your organization. This is particularly useful if most of the client computers connect to the WSUS server over a slow WAN connection but have high-bandwidth connections to the Internet, or if there are only a small number of client computers.

Clients Downloading Approved Updates from Microsoft Update

In this scenario WSUS is configured so that client computers download updates from Microsoft

Update. When you synchronize the WSUS server with Microsoft Update, you get only the update metadata describing the updates. The files that install updates on client computers are not stored on the WSUS server.

Updates are still approved on the WSUS server, but each client connects to the Internet to download the approved updates from Microsoft servers. These are the same servers Microsoft uses to distribute updates to the public. Although your clients obtain updates from Microsoft over the Internet, you still make the decisions about which updates are approved for distribution. The advantage of this scenario is faster downloads for distributed clients and network bandwidth savings for your organization.

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Determine Bandwidth Options to Use

WSUS allows you to shape the deployment to fit your organization's bandwidth needs. The decisions you make about how to synchronize with Microsoft Update have a dramatic effect on the efficient use of bandwidth. Read the following sections to understand WSUS features for managing bandwidth.

Deferring the download of updates

WSUS enables you to download update metadata before downloading the update itself. With deferred download, updates are downloaded only after the update has been approved, which saves bandwidth and WSUS server disk space. You can test the files prior to deploying them on your network, and client computers download the updates from the intranet. Microsoft recommends deferring the download of updates (the default WSUS configuration), since it makes optimal use of network bandwidth and disk space.

Deferred Downloads of Updates

If you have a chain of WSUS servers, it is recommended that you do not chain them too deeply, for the following reasons:

 In a chain of WSUS servers, WSUS automatically sets all downstream servers to use the deferred download option that is selected on the highest upstream server—in other words, the server that is directly connected to Microsoft Update. However, you may change this configuration (for example, to keep an upstream server doing full synchronization, while downstream servers defer their downloads).

 If you have deferred downloads enabled and a downstream server requests an update that has not been approved on the upstream server, the downstream server’s request triggers a download on the upstream server. The downstream server then downloads the content on a subsequent synchronization, as shown in the "Deferred Downloads Using Multiple WSUS

Servers" illustration. If you have a deep hierarchy of WSUS servers using deferred downloads, there is greater potential for delay as content is requested, downloaded, and then passed down the chain.

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Deferred Downloads Using Multiple WSUS Servers

If you chose to store updates locally during the WSUS setup process, deferred downloads are

enabled by default. You can change this option manually. See Advanced Synchronization

Options for step-by-step procedures.

Filtering updates

WSUS allows you to choose only the updates your organization requires during synchronizations.

You can filter synchronizations by language, product, and classification of update.

In a chain of WSUS servers, WSUS automatically sets all downstream servers to use the update filtering options that are selected on the server directly connected to Microsoft Update. You can change this configuration to get a subset of languages on a downstream server, or you can defer

the download of updates. Deferring downloads is described in Deferring the Download of

Updates .

By default WSUS downloads Critical and Security Updates for all Windows products in every language, as well as Office updates and Windows Defender virus definitions. Microsoft recommends that you limit languages to the ones you actually use in order to conserve bandwidth and disk space. To change language options, or to change product and update classification

options, see Using the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Configuration Wizard .

Using express installation files

You can use express installation files to limit the bandwidth consumed on your local network, at the cost of bandwidth consumption on your Internet connection and disk space. By default WSUS does not use express installation files. To understand the tradeoff, you first have to understand how WSUS updates client computers.

Updates typically consist of new versions of files that already exist on the computer being updated. On a binary level these existing files might not differ very much from updated versions.

The express installation files feature is a way of identifying the exact bytes that change between different versions of files, creating and distributing updates that include just these differences, and then merging the original file with the update on the client computer. Sometimes this is called

delta delivery because it downloads only the difference, or delta, between two versions of a file.

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When you distribute updates this way, there is an initial investment in bandwidth. Express installation files are larger than the updates they are meant to distribute. This is because the express installation file must contain all the possible variations of each file it is meant to update.

The upper part of the "Express Installation Files Feature" illustration shows an update being distributed with express installation files; the lower part of the illustration shows the same update being distributed without using express installation files. Notice that with express installation files enabled, you incur an initial download three times the size of the update. However, this cost is mitigated by the reduced amount of bandwidth required to update client computers on the corporate network. With express installation files disabled, your initial download of updates is smaller, but the full size of the download must then be distributed to each of the clients on your corporate network.

Express Installation Files Feature

The file sizes in the "Express Installation Files Feature" illustration are for illustrative purposes only. Each update and express installation file varies in size, depending on what files need to be updated. Further, the size of each file actually distributed to clients by using express installation files varies depending upon the state of the computer being updated.

Important

Express installation files are often larger than the updates they are meant to distribute.

On the other hand, it is always less expensive to distribute updates within a network using express installation files than to distribute full update files.

Not all updates are good candidates for distribution using express installation files. If you select this option, you obtain express installation files for any updates being distributed this way. If you are not storing updates locally, you cannot use the express installation files feature. By default,

WSUS does not use express installation files. To enable this option, see Advanced

Synchronization Options .

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Background Intelligent Transfer Service

WSUS uses the Background Intelligent Transfer Service 2.0 (BITS) protocol for all its file-transfer tasks, including downloads to clients and server synchronizations. BITS is a Microsoft technology that allows programs to download files by using spare bandwidth. BITS maintains file transfers through network disconnections and computer restarts. For more information about BITS, see the

BITS documentation on the MSDN site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79389.

Determine WSUS Capacity Requirements

Hardware and database requirements are mainly driven by the following factors:

 Number of client computers in your organization.

 Client computer synchronization frequency.

 Number of languages in which updates are approved.

 Single server or network load balancing (NLB, with two front end servers and a single powerful back end server) configuration. Be aware that NLB is not a failover configuration.

The following sections provide hardware requirements and supported capacity information.

Minimum Hardware Requirements

These minimum server hardware and database configuration requirements apply to all installations of WSUS 3.0 SP2.

 CPU – Minimum 1 GHz, 1.5 GHz or faster is recommended

 Graphics card – 16 MB hardware accelerated PCI/AGP video card capable of 1-24*86*16bpp or more

 RAM – Minimum 1 GB, 2 GB or more is recommended

 Page file – at least 1.5 times physical memory

 I/O subsystem – Fast ATA/IDE 100 hard disk or equivalent SCSI drives

 Network adapter – Minimum 10 MB, 100 MB or more is recommended

 Both the system partition and the partition on which you install WSUS 3.0 SP2 must be formatted with the NTFS file system

 Minimum 1 GB of free space on the system partition

 Minimum 2 GB of free space on the volume on which database files will be stored

 Minimum 20 GB of free space on the volume on which content is stored, 30 GB is recommended

 Notice that WSUS 3.0 SP2 cannot be installed on compressed drives.

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Supported Capacity by Configuration

Additional hardware and database requirements depend on your how your organization implements WSUS 3.0 SP2 and your performance expectations. The following table shows performance data for the maximum number of supported clients in two sample configurations: one for NLB and one for a single server implementation. The table includes test specifications and results that were achieved in the Microsoft test lab. You can use this data as a guideline to develop your own test scenarios and to make your hardware and software decisions.

Be aware that your organization’s performance results may vary if you choose to use different hardware; however, the maximum supported capacity figures do not change. That is, if you use a higher performance server than indicated in the table that follows, there may be an increase in the number of client synchronizations per second. However, there is no increase in the maximum number of supported clients for the configuration.

Sample Configurations and Maximum Supported Capacity

Configuration

2 FE servers and one

BE server in an NLB configuration

Maximum Supported Hardware and

Capacity Software

100K clients

Client

Synchronizations

and Updates

Hardware

 FE: Intel Core 2

CPU 6400, 2.13

GHz, 4GB RAM

 BE: 8x AMD

Opteron

Processor 850,

2.2 GHz, 32GB

RAM

Software

 FE: Win2K3

Standard x86 SP2

 BE: Win2K3

Standard x64

SP1, SQL 2005

SP2

SUSDB files (data and log) on separate physical disks each with

200+ GB free space

Delta sync at 7.5 hour frequency

Avg. requests per client:

30

Transaction rate: 3 clients per second

CPU avg. usage: FE

27%, BE 16%

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Configuration Maximum Supported Hardware and

Capacity Software

Client

Synchronizations

and Updates

Single server, non-

NLB

25K clients Hardware: Intel Core

2 Quad CPU Q6600,

2.40 GHz, 4GB RAM

Software: Win2K3

Standard x64 SP2

Delta sync at 1 hour frequency

Avg. requests per client:

10

Transaction rate: 6 clients per second

CPU avg. usage: 21%

Performance notes:

 Transaction rate is defined as the time needed to service a single client, which includes multiple requests.

 Performance testing was done by using delta sync requests. Be aware that an initial request to the server (a full sync) will generate a server CPU spike, as the server needs to build up its internal caches.

 If WSUS clients synchronize with the server more frequently than is shown in the table, there will be a corresponding increment in the server load. For example, if clients synchronize every 4 hours in an NLB configuration, the load will be two times as much as an 8 hour synchronization frequency. Be aware that the Group Policy setting that specifies the number of hours that Windows uses to determine how long to wait before checking for available updates automatically staggers the requests to the server. The exact wait time is determined by using the hours specified minus zero to 20 percent of the hours specified. For example, if this policy is used to specify a 20 hour detection frequency, then all clients to which this policy is applied will check for updates anywhere between 16 and 20 hours. Requests are processed first-in, first-out. If the number of concurrent sync requests exceeds capacity, they are placed in the IIS queue until they can be processed.

 Increasing the number of languages will also increase the server load. Updating in five languages, instead of one language will approximately double the size of the content directory.

 Using the WSUS Admin console to run reports during the client sync process had no noticeable effect on performance.

Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server

After designing the WSUS deployment, you are ready to install the WSUS server component.

Use the five topics listed below to prepare the computer and the network environment for WSUS.

Check hardware and software requirements (as noted in the Determine WSUS Capacity

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Requirements section above). Install the required software, including database software (as

noted in the Installation of Required Software section below). If you want to create a custom Web

site or install WSUS on a computer that already has a Web site, see the IIS section. If you have a firewall or proxy server, see the firewall section to ensure that WSUS has access to updates on the Internet. After you have completed preparations, you can install and configure the WSUS server.

Note

It is not possible to upgrade from Microsoft Software Update Services (SUS) to WSUS

3.0 SP2. You must uninstall SUS before installing WSUS 3.0 SP2. If you are doing a migration from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2, see the section on migrating WSUS.

In this guide



Configure the Network



Installation of Required Software



Configure IIS



Upgrade from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2



Run WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server Setup



Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration Console

Configure the Network

Before you start to install WSUS, you should make sure that your network is configured to work with WSUS. You should check two areas in particular: the proxy server (if your network uses a proxy server to communicate with the Internet) and the corporate firewall

Configure the Proxy Server

When you configure the root WSUS server on your network, you need to know whether there will be a proxy server between the WSUS server and the Internet. If you do, you will need to check the following issues before starting to install WSUS:

 Protocols supported by the proxy server. WSUS will communicate with Microsoft Update via

HTTP and SSL, so the proxy server must support both protocols.

 The authentication method used by the proxy server (basic authentication or Windows authentication).

Configure the Firewall

If there is a corporate firewall between WSUS and the Internet, you might need to configure the firewall to ensure that WSUS can obtain updates.

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To configure the firewall

 To obtain updates from Microsoft Update, the WSUS server uses port 80 for HTTP protocol and port 443 for HTTPS protocol. This is not configurable.

 If your organization does not allow those ports and protocols to be open to all addresses, you can restrict access to the following domains so WSUS and Automatic Updates can communicate with Microsoft Update:

 http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com

 http://*.windowsupdate.microsoft.com

 https://*.windowsupdate.microsoft.com

 http://*.update.microsoft.com

 https://*.update.microsoft.com

 http://*.windowsupdate.com

 http://download.windowsupdate.com

 http://download.microsoft.com

 http://*.download.windowsupdate.com

 http://stats.update.microsoft.com

 http://ntservicepack.microsoft.com

Notes

The steps for configuring the firewall are meant for a corporate firewall positioned between WSUS and the Internet. Because WSUS initiates all its network traffic, there is no need to configure Windows Firewall on the WSUS server.

Although the connection between Microsoft Update and WSUS requires ports 80 and

443 to be open, you can configure multiple WSUS servers to synchronize with a custom port.

Installation of Required Software

The following is a list of required software for the Windows Server operating systems that support

WSUS 3.0 SP2. Ensure that the WSUS server meets the minimum system requirements before running WSUS setup. If any updates require restarting the computer when installation is completed, restart your server before installing WSUS.

For a complete list of system requirements, refer to the Release Notes for Windows Server

Update Services 3.0 SP2.

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WSUS Server Software Prerequisites

 One of the following supported operating systems: Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows

Server 2008 SP1 or later, Windows Server 2003 SP2 or later, or Windows Small Business

Server 2008 or 2003. Note that additional prerequisites apply for Windows Small Business

Server. See the ―Windows Small Business Server Prerequisites‖ section for details.

WSUS 3.0 SP2 is also supported for use in virtual operating system environments.

 IIS 6.0 or later

 Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 or later

 One of the following supported databases: Microsoft SQL Server 2008, SQL Server 2005

SP2, or Windows Internal Database. If one of these versions of SQL Server is not installed, the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Setup Wizard will install Windows Internal Database.

 Microsoft Management Console 3.0

 Microsoft Report Viewer Redistributable 2008

 You cannot run Terminal Services on the computer that is the front-end server of a remote

SQL installation.

Configure IIS

Before installing WSUS, make sure you have Internet Information Services (IIS) installed. By default, WSUS uses the default Web site in IIS. WSUS Setup also gives you the option of creating a Web site on a custom port.

If the IIS service (W3SVC) is stopped during WSUS installation, WSUS Setup starts the service.

Likewise, if you install WSUS to the default Web site and the site is stopped, WSUS Setup starts it.

To install IIS 6.0 on Windows Server 2003

1. Click Start, point to Control Panel, and then click Add or Remove Programs.

2. Click Add/Remove Windows Components.

3. In the Components list, select Application Server. Click Details and make sure that

ASP.NET is selected

4. Click OK, click Next, and then follow the instructions on the screen.

Note

If this machine has been upgraded from Windows 2000, it may have the IIS 5.0 Isolation mode turned on. This must be turned off before installing WSUS 3.0 SP2.

To install IIS 7.0 on Windows Server 2008

1. Start the Server Manager (click Start, click Run, and then type CompMgmtLauncher).

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2. In the tree view, select Roles, then in the Roles pane click Add Roles.

3. In the Add Roles Wizard, click Select Server Roles, select the Web Service (IIS) check box, click Next, and then click Next again.

At this time you may see a message box Add features required for Web Server (IIS)?

Click Add Required Features.

4. In the Select Role Services window, make sure that the following services are selected:

 Common HTTP Features (including Static Content)

 ASP.NET, ISAPI Extensions, and ISAPI Features (under Application

Development)

 Windows Authentication (under Security)

 IIS Metabase Compatibility (under Management Tools, expand IIS 6 Management

Compatibility)

5. Click Next, and then review your selections.

6. Click Install.

Configuring IIS 7.0

After installing IIS 7.0 on Windows Server 2008, you will need to update the IIS configuration file.

1. Open the IIS configuration file:

%WINDIR%\system32\inetsrv\applicationhost.config

2. In the

<system.webServer><modules>

tag, remove

<add name="CustomErrorModule">

, if it is present.

3. In the

<system.webServer><modules>

tag, add

<remove name="CustomErrorModule">

.

The resulting tag should look like this:

<system.webServer>

<modules>

<remove name="CustomErrorModule">

</modules>

</system.webServer>

Client self-update

WSUS uses IIS to update most client computers automatically to WSUS-compatible Automatic

Updates software. To accomplish this, WSUS Setup creates a virtual directory named Selfupdate under the Web site running on port 80 of the WSUS server. This virtual directory, called the selfupdate tree, contains the WSUS-compatible Automatic Updates software.

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Using the WSUS custom Web site

If you configure WSUS on a custom port, you must have a Web site running on port 80. The Web site on port 80 does not have to be dedicated to WSUS. In fact, WSUS uses the site on port 80 only to host the self-update tree.

Malicious programs can target port 80 for HTTP traffic. If WSUS is using a custom port, you can temporarily shut down port 80 throughout your network, but still be able to distribute updates to combat malicious programs.

If you already have a Web site on the computer where you intend to install WSUS, you should use the setup option for creating a custom Web site. This option puts the WSUS Web site on port 8530 or 8531. This port is not configurable.

Note

If you change the WSUS port number after WSUS installation, you must manually restart the IIS service.

Accessing WSUS on a custom port

If WSUS is using a custom port to communicate with clients, you must use a custom URL to access the WSUS Web service. Use the following instructions to configure WSUS when it is running on port 8530 or 8531.

 Include a custom port number in the URL directing the client computer to the WSUS server

(for example, http://WSUSServerName:portnumber).

 For more information about pointing client computers to the WSUS server, see

Determine a

Method to Configure Clients later in this guide.

 If you set up any WSUS servers downstream from a server that uses a custom port number, you must enter the custom port number when configuring the source server settings on the downstream WSUS server.

 You can find instructions for connecting a downstream WSUS server to an upstream WSUS

server in Set Up a Hierarchy of WSUS Servers .

Using host headers

If you decide to use host headers, you should run the configuressl command after configuring

WSUS. If you do not do so, WSUS Reporters may not be able to access the WSUS server.

Note

If you assign host header values to the default Web site, you might interfere with

Windows® SharePoint® Services and Exchange functionality.

To run the configuress1 command

1. Open a command window.

32

2. Navigate to the WSUS Tools directory:

cd WSUSInstallDir\Tools

where WSUSInstallDir is the directory in which WSUS is installed.

3. Type the following command:

Wsusutil configuressl

Note

The configuressl command sets both the host header name and the server certificate name.

Upgrade from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2

The WSUS 3.0 SP2 installation program will upgrade all WSUS 2.0 settings to WSUS 3.0 SP2.

Furthermore, if the installation program finds any SQL Server database other than

SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2 or SQL Server 2008, it will back up the existing database, install

Windows® Internal Database, and migrate the database to it. For more information on databases,

see Choose the Database Used for WSUS 3.0 SP2

Before upgrading from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0

SP2

You should make sure that your WSUS 2.0 installation is in good working order before upgrading.

1. Check for recent errors in the event logs, problems with synchronization between downstream servers and upstream servers, or problems with clients not reporting. Make sure that these issues have been resolved before continuing.

2. You may want to run DBCC CHECKDB to ensure that the WSUS database is correctly indexed. For more information about CHECKDB, see DBCC CHECKDB

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=86948).

3. Back up the WSUS database.

Upgrading a Remote SQL Server Installation from

WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2

If you have installed WSUS 2.0 on one computer and the SQL Server database on another, you must uninstall WSUS 2.0 from the database server before upgrading to WSUS 3.0 SP2.

Note

Please make sure that your WSUS 2.0 database is not corrupt before upgrading.

To upgrade WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2 with a remote SQL Server installation

33

1. Uninstall WSUS 2.0 from the back-end computer. Do not choose to delete the database.

2. Install WSUS 3.0 SP2 on the front-end computer.

The WSUS Operations Guide, available at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=139838 , includes other types of migration documentation, such as migrating from Windows Internal

Database to Microsoft SQL Server.

After upgrading

It is a good idea to reindex the database after you upgrade. For more information about reindexing the database, see Appendix I: Database Maintenance in the WSUS Operations

Guide.

Run WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server Setup

This section describes installing WSUS by using the installer file or Server Manager.

If you want to do an unattended installation, see Appendix A: Unattended Installations later in this

guide.

Important

As a best practice, review the Release Notes for WSUS 3.0 SP2. Release notes contain important information about the release. Look for the WSUS Release Notes on the

Windows Server Update Services Web site

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=139840).

Before you begin

Before you start WSUS Setup, make sure that the root of the drive where WSUS stores updates has the required permissions. WSUS Setup does not modify permissions on the root drive where you store updates, but this drive may not have appropriate permissions set. For example, security tools may have been used to strip away default permissions from the disk before the installation of WSUS. To manage this problem, use the following procedure to check the drive and directories where updates are stored to ensure permissions are set correctly.

To check permissions on the drive and directories where updates are stored

1. Double-click My Computer, right-click the drive where updates are stored, and then click

Sharing and Security.

2. Ensure that the drive has read permissions for the built-in Users group or NT

Authority\Network Service.

3. Ensure that the root folder on the drive also has read permissions for NT

Authority\Network Service.

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4. Ensure that the content directory itself (usually <drivename>:\WSUS\WsusContent) has read permissions for NT Authority\Network Service. These permissions should have been set by the installation program.

The default Web site needs to allow anonymous access (that is, read access) by the

IUSER_servername account. Some applications, notably Windows SharePoint Services, will remove anonymous access.

To check for anonymous access to the default Web site

1. Go to the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, click the server name, click Web

Sites, and then right-click the WSUS Web site.

2. In the context menu select Permissions.

3. In the Security tab you should see the Internet Guest Account listing.

4. If you do not see this account, you will need to add it.

5. Add a user account named IUSR_serverName to the local machine, where serverName is the name of the server.

6. Give this account the following permissions: Read & Execute, List Folder Contents, and

Read. You should deny write access to this account.

7. Return to IIS Manager, right-click the WSUS Web site, and then click Permissions.

8. Add the newly-created user to this Web site.

For more information about allowing anonymous access to Web sites, see Allowing Anonymous

Access to Web Sites (IIS 6.0) at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=75850.

Installing WSUS

After ensuring that the server meets the minimum system requirements and that the necessary account permissions were granted, you are ready to install WSUS 3.0 SP2. Start the installation of WSUS 3.0 SP2 by using the applicable procedure for your operating system and kind of installation (by using either Server Manager or the WSUSSetup.exe file).

If You Are Using Server Manager

To start the installation of WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server by using Server Manager

1. Log on to the server on which you plan to install WSUS 3.0 SP2 by using an account that is a member of the local Administrators group.

2. Click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Server Manager.

3. In the right side pane of the Server Manager window, in the Roles Summary section, click

Add Roles.

4. If the Before You Begin page appears, click Next.

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5. On the Select Server Roles page, select Windows Server Update Services.

6. On the Windows Server Update Services page, click Next.

7. On the Confirm Installation Selections page, click Install.

8. When the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Setup Wizard is started, skip the next section and see the ―To continue installing WSUS 3.0 SP2‖ procedure.

If You Are Using the WSUSSetup.exe File

To start the installation of WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server or the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration

Console by using the WSUSSetup.exe file

1. Log on to the server on which you plan to install WSUS 3.0 SP2 by using an account that is a member of the local Administrators group.

2. Double-click the WSUSSetup.exe installer file.

3. When the Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 Setup Wizard is started, see the ―To continue installing WSUS 3.0 SP2‖ procedure.

Using the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Setup Wizard

The WSUS Setup Wizard is launched from Server Manager or from the WSUSSetup.exe file.

To continue installing WSUS 3.0 SP2

1. On the Welcome page of the Windows Server Update Services 3.0 Setup Wizard, click

Next.

2. On the Installation Mode Selection page, select Full server installation including

Administration Console if you want to install the WSUS server on this computer, or

Administration Console only if you want to install the administration console only.

3. On the License Agreement page, read the terms of the license agreement, click I accept

the terms of the License agreement, and then click Next.

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4. You can specify where clients get updates on the Select Update Source page of the installation wizard. By default, the Store updates locally check box is selected and updates will be stored on the WSUS server in the location that you specify. If you clear the Store updates locally check box, client computers obtain approved updates by connecting to Microsoft Update. Make your selection, and then click Next.

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5. On the Database Options page, select the software that is used to manage the WSUS

3.0 SP2 database. By default, the installation wizard offers to install Windows Internal

Database.

If you do not want to use Windows Internal Database, provide an instance of SQL Server for WSUS to use by selecting Use an existing database on this server or Use an

existing database server on a remote computer. Type the instance name in the

applicable box. The instance name should appear as <serverName>\<instanceName>, where serverName is the name of the server and instanceName is the name of the SQL instance. Make your selection, and then click Next.

6. If you have opted to connect to a SQL Server, on the Connecting to SQL Server

Instance page, WSUS will try to connect to the specified instance of SQL Server. When

it has connected successfully, click Next to continue.

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7. On the Web Site Selection page, specify the Web site that WSUS will use. If you want to use the default Web site on port 80, select Use the existing IIS Default Web site. If you already have a Web site on port 80, you can create an alternate site on port 8530 or 8531 by selecting Create a Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 Web site. Click Next.

8. On the Ready to Install Windows Server Update Services page, review the selections, and then click Next.

9. The final page of the installation wizard will let you know if the WSUS installation completed successfully. After you click Finish the configuration wizard will start.

Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration

Console

After installing WSUS 3.0 SP2 on a server, you can manage WSUS 3.0 SP2 from any computer on your network, as long as the domain of that computer has a trust relationship with the domain of the server. You will need to perform a separate installation, from the same downloaded

39

installation package, on every machine from which you want to run the WSUS 3.0 SP2 administration console.

Important

The WSUS 3.0 SP2 administration console can be used to manage any WSUS server that has a trust relationship with the administration console computer.

WSUS Administration Console Software

Prerequisites

 One of the following supported operating systems: Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows

Server 2008, Windows Server 2003 SP2 or later, Windows Small Business Server 2008 or

2003, Windows Vista, or Windows XP SP3

 Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 or later

 Microsoft Management Console 3.0

 Microsoft Report Viewer Redistributable 2008

Install the Console

To install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 administration console, use the same installation package you downloaded to install the WSUS server.

Note

The latest version of the WSUS setup executable is available on the WSUS Web site

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=74472).

The console-only installation process can be run from the setup UI from the command line. For

more information about command-line installation, see Appendix A: Unattended Installations later

in this guide.

To install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 console only from the UI

1. Double-click the installer file (WSUSSetup-x86.exe or WSUSSetup-x64.exe).

2. On the Welcome page, click Next.

3. On the Installation Mode Selection page, select the Administration Console only check box, and then click Next.

4. Read the terms of the license agreement carefully. Click I accept the terms of the

License Agreement, and then click Next.

5. The final page of the installation wizard will tell you whether or not the WSUS 3.0 SP2 installation was completed successfully. Then click Finish.

To install the WSUS 3.0 SP2 console only from the command line

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1. Open a command window.

2. Navigate to the directory in which you saved the installation executable. (This will be either WSUSSetup-x86.exe or WSUSSetup-x64.exe.)

3. Type one of the following commands: WSUSSetup-x86.exe CONSOLE_INSTALL=1 or

WSUSSetup-x64.exe CONSOLE_INSTALL=1.

4. This will bring up the Welcome page of the installation UI. Click Next.

5. Read the terms of the license agreement carefully. Click I accept the terms of the

License Agreement, and then click Next.

6. Wait for the installation process to finish, and then click Finish.

Access the WSUS Administration Console

Log on using an account that is a member of the local Administrators group or the WSUS

Administrators security group on the computer on which WSUS is installed in order to use all of the features of the WSUS console. Members of the WSUS Reporters security group have readonly access to the console.

To open the WSUS administration console

1. Click Start, point to Control Panel, point to Administrative Tools, and then click

Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2.

2. If you are bringing up the remote console for the first time, you will see only Update

Services in the left pane of the console.

3. To connect to a WSUS server, in the Actions pane click Connect to Server.

4. In the Connect To Server dialog box, type the name of the WSUS server and the port on which you would like to connect to it.

5. If you wish to use SSL to communicate with the WSUS server, select the Use Secure

Sockets Layer (SSL) to connect to this server check box.

6. Click Connect to connect to the WSUS server.

7. You may connect to as many servers as you need to manage through the console.

Configure the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server

After installing WSUS, you are ready to configure the server. During installation, WSUS Setup created a security group called WSUS Administrators for managing WSUS. Add WSUS administrators to this group so that WSUS administrators do not have to be members of the local

Administrators group to manage WSUS.

In this guide

41



Using the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Configuration Wizard



Access the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration Console



Synchronize the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server



Advanced Synchronization Options



Set Up E-Mail Notifications



Personalize the WSUS Display



Set Up a Hierarchy of WSUS Servers



Create Replica Servers



Create the Computer Groups



Approve WSUS 3.0 SP2 Updates



Verify Deployment of Updates



Secure WSUS 3.0 SP2 Deployment

Using the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Configuration

Wizard

The WSUS 3.0 SP2 configuration wizard will be run immediately after installation or at a later time. If you want to change the configuration later, you run WSUS Server Configuration Wizard from the Options page of the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration console. Before configuring the

WSUS server, make sure you know the answers to the following questions:

1. Is the server's firewall configured to allow clients to access the server? See the Configure the

Network section earlier in this document for more details.

2. Can this machine connect to the upstream server (Microsoft Update or an upstream WSUS server)?

3. If this machine is the root WSUS server (the one that connects to Microsoft Update), will it use a proxy server?

4. If a proxy server will be used, does it support both HTTP and SSL protocols?

5. Do you have the name of the proxy server and the user credentials for the proxy server?

6. Do you know the port number on which this machine will connect to the upstream server?

(Although the connection between Microsoft Update and WSUS requires ports 80 and 443 to be open, you can configure a downstream WSUS server to use a custom port.)

The Configuration Wizard allows you to configure the following areas:



Choose the Upstream Server



Specify the Proxy Server



Connect to the Upstream Server



Choose Update Languages

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

Choose Update Products



Choose Update Classifications



Configure the Synchronization Schedule

Note

You will need to configure the upstream server and proxy server before configuring the updates.

Choose the upstream server

Choose the upstream server

1. On the Choose Upstream Server page, select the source from which this server will get its updates (Microsoft Update or another WSUS server).

2. If you choose to synchronize from Microsoft Update, you are finished with this page. Click

Next, or select Specify Proxy Server from the left pane.

3. If you choose to synchronize from another WSUS server, specify the server name and the port on which this server will communicate with the upstream server.

4. To use SSL, check the Use SSL when synchronizing update information check box.

In that case the servers will use port 443 for synchronization. (You should make sure that both this server and the upstream server support SSL.)

5. If this is a replica server, check the This is a replica of the upstream server check box.

(For more information about replica versus autonomous downstream servers, see the

Choose a WSUS Management Style section earlier in this document.)

6. At this point you are finished with upstream server configuration. Click Next, or select

Specify proxy server from the left pane.

Specify the proxy server

Specify the proxy server

1. If you are setting up the root WSUS server that connects to Microsoft Update, you may want to configure it to use a proxy server. On the Specify Proxy Server page of the configuration wizard, select the Use a proxy server when synchronizing check box, and then type the proxy server name and port number (port 80 by default) in the corresponding boxes.

2. If you want to connect to the proxy server by using specific user credentials, select the

Use user credentials to connect to the proxy server check box, and then type the

user name, domain, and password of the user in the corresponding boxes. If you want to enable basic authentication for the user connecting to the proxy server, select the Allow

basic authentication (password is sent in cleartext) check box.

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3. At this point you are finished with proxy server configuration. Click Next to go to the

Connect to Upstream Server page.

Important

The proxy server should be configured to accept both HTTP and HTTPS resources.

Connect to the upstream server

Connect to the upstream server

1. Click the Start Connecting button, which will save and upload your settings and then download information about available updates, products, and classifications. This initial connection will take only a few minutes.

2. While the connection is taking place, the Stop Connecting button will be available. If there are problems with the connection, stop the connection, fix the problems, and restart the connection.

3. After the connection has completed successfully, click Next. If you have chosen to store updates locally, you will go to the Choose Languages page, or you can select a different page from the left pane.

Note

If the connection to your upstream WSUS server (either Microsoft Update or an intranet

WSUS server) fails, you will see a message at the bottom of the screen. Typically it will say something like "An HTTP error occurred." For more information, click the Details link.

Choose update languages

The Choose Languages page allows you to get updates from all languages or from a subset of languages. Selecting a subset of languages will save disk space, but it is important to choose all of the languages that will be needed by all of the downstream servers and clients of this WSUS server.

Choosing languages for an upstream server is not quite the same as choosing languages for a downstream server. The two procedures below explain the differences.

Choose update languages for a server synchronizing from Microsoft Update

1. If you want to get updates in all languages, select Download updates in all languages,

including new languages.

2. If you choose not to get updates for all languages, select Download updates only in

these languages, and select the languages for which you want updates.

If you are configuring a downstream server, use the following procedure.

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Choose update languages for a server synchronizing from an upstream server

1. If the upstream server has been set up to download update files in a subset of languages, you should select Download updates only in these languages (only languages

marked with an asterisk are supported by the upstream server), and select the

languages for which you want updates. You should do this even though you want the downstream server to download exactly the same languages as the upstream server.

2. If the upstream server will download update files in all languages, and you want the downstream server to do the same, select Download updates in all languages

supported by the upstream server. This setting will cause the upstream server to

download updates in all languages, including languages that were not originally set up for the upstream server.

Important

Selecting the Download updates in all languages option on a downstream server will modify the upstream server's behavior to download update files in all languages, no matter how the upstream server was originally configured.

Choose update products

Choose update products

1. The Choose Products page allows you to specify the products for which you want updates.

2. You may check product categories, such as Windows, or specific products, such as

Windows Server 2003. Selecting a product category will cause all of the products under it to be selected. Click Next to proceed to the Choose Classifications page, or select a different page from the left pane.

Choose update classifications

There are nine update classifications that you can use to filter the updates you get from Microsoft

Updates:

 Critical Updates: Broadly released fixes for specific problems addressing critical, nonsecurity related bugs.

 Definition Updates: Updates to virus or other definition files.

 Drivers: Software components designed to support new hardware.

 Feature Packs: New feature releases, usually rolled into products at the next release.

 Security Updates: Broadly released fixes for specific products, addressing security issues.

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 Service Packs: Cumulative sets of all hotfixes, security updates, critical updates, and updates created since the release of the product. Service packs might also contain a limited number of customer-requested design changes or features.

 Tools: Utilities or features that aid in accomplishing a task or set of tasks.

 Update Rollups: Cumulative sets of hotfixes, security updates, critical updates, and updates packaged together for easy deployment. A rollup generally targets a specific area, such as security, or a specific component, such as Internet Information Services (IIS).

 Updates: Broadly released fixes for specific problems addressing non-critical, non-security related bugs.

Choose update classifications

1. The Choose Classifications page allows you to choose the update classifications you want to obtain. You can choose all of the classifications or a subset of them.

2. Click Next to proceed to the Configure Sync Schedule page, or select a different page from the left pane.

Configure the synchronization schedule

Configure the synchronization schedule

1. You will see the Set Sync Schedule page, which allows you to choose whether to perform update metadata synchronization manually or automatically.

2. If you choose to synchronize manually on this server, you will have to initiate the synchronization process from the WSUS Administration console.

3. If you choose to synchronize automatically, the WSUS server will synchronize at specified intervals. Set the time of the first synchronization and specify the number of synchronizations per day you want this server to perform. For example, you can specify that synchronizations will start at 3:00 A.M. and that there will be four synchronizations a day. In that case, synchronizations will run every day at 3:00 A.M., 9:00 A.M., 3:00 P.M., and 9:00 P.M.

After you have completed all of the above configuration steps, click Finished in the configuration wizard. If you have not already launched the WSUS Administration console, you can do so by leaving the Launch the Windows Server Update Services Administration Snap-in check box selected, and you can start the first synchronization by leaving the Begin initial synchronization check box selected.

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Configuring WSUS from the administration console

It is also possible to carry out the same configuration steps outside the Configuration Wizard from the Options node of the WSUS Administration console. To configure or change the upstream server and proxy server settings, select Update Source and Proxy Server. To configure or change the product and classifications for which you want updates, select Products and

Classifications. To update the languages for which you want updates, select Update Files and

Languages.

Access the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Administration

Console

Use the following procedure to access the WSUS administration console.

Members of the local Administrators group or the WSUS Administrators group on the server on which WSUS is installed can use all the features of the WSUS console. Members of the WSUS

Reporters group have read-only access to the console and read-only access to the WSUS data.

To open the WSUS console

 On the WSUS server, click Start, click All Programs, click Administrative Tools, and then click Windows Server Update Services.

Synchronize the WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server

After you select products and update classifications, you are ready to synchronize WSUS. The synchronization process involves downloading updates from Microsoft Update or another WSUS server. WSUS determines if any new updates have been made available since the last time you synchronized. If this is the first time you are synchronizing the WSUS server, all of the metadata for updates in the product categories and classifications that you have selected are synchronized to your WSUS server.

Note

The first synchronization on a WSUS server will generally take a long time. You will not be able to make changes to the server's update filters (products, classifications, languages) while the server is being synchronized.

To synchronize the WSUS server

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1. In the WSUS Administration console, click the Synchronizations node.

2. In the Actions pane, click Synchronize Now.

After the synchronization finishes, you can click Updates in the tree view for this server to view the list of updates.

Advanced Synchronization Options

Advanced synchronization features include various options to manage bandwidth and store updates. There is a description of each of these features, including reasons why these features

are useful and their limitations, in Determine Where to Store WSUS Updates

and Determine

Bandwidth Options to Use earlier in this guide.

Update storage options

Use the Update Files section to determine whether update files will be stored on WSUS or if client computers will connect to the Internet to get updates from Microsoft Update. There is a

description of this feature in Determine Where to Store WSUS Updates earlier in this guide.

To specify where updates are stored

1. In the left pane of the WSUS Administration console, click Options.

2. In Update Files and Languages, click the Update Files tab.

3. If you want to store updates in WSUS, select the Store update files locally on this

server check box. If you want clients to connect to the Internet to get updates, then

select the Do not store updates locally; computers install updates from Microsoft

Update check box.

Important

You can always change from storing updates on Microsoft Update to storing updates locally. However, you must make sure that the disk on which you choose to store updates

has enough space for the updates. See Determine WSUS Capacity Requirements for a

discussion of disk space for local storage. If there is not enough disk space to make the change, you may damage the WSUS installation.

Deferred downloads options

Use the Update Files section to determine if updates should be downloaded during synchronization or when the update is approved. Find a description of this feature in "Deferring

the Download of Updates" in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use earlier in this guide.

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To specify whether updates are downloaded during synchronization or when the update is approved

1. In the left pane of the WSUS Administration console, click Options.

2. In Update Files and Languages, click the Update Files tab.

3. If you want to download only metadata about the updates during synchronization, select the Download updates to this server only when updates are approved check box.

This is the default option. If you want the update files and metadata during synchronization, clear the check box.

Express installation files options

Use the Update Files section to determine if express installation files should be downloaded during synchronization. Find a description of this feature in ―Using Express installation files‖ in

Determine Bandwidth Options to Use earlier in this guide.

To specify whether express installation files are downloaded during synchronization

1. In the left pane of the WSUS Administration console, click Options.

2. In Update Files and Languages, click the Update Files tab.

3. If you want to download express installation files, select the Download express

installation files check box. If you do not want to download express installation files,

clear the check box.

Filtering updates options

Use the Languages section to select the language of the updates to synchronize. There is a

description of this feature in ―Filtering updates‖ in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use earlier in

this guide.

To specify language options

1. In the left pane of the WSUS Administration console, click Options.

2. In Update Files and Languages, click the Update Languages tab.

3. In the Advanced Synchronization Options dialog box, under Languages, select one of the following language options, and then click OK.

 Download updates in all languages, including new languages: This means that all languages will be downloaded during synchronization. If a new language is added, it will be automatically downloaded.

 Download updates only in these languages: This means that only updates targeted to the languages you select will be downloaded during synchronization. If you choose this option, you must also choose each language you want from the list

49

of those available.

Note

If you change language options, Microsoft recommends that you manually synchronize them between the centrally managed WSUS server and its replica servers. Changing language options on the centrally managed server alone might result in a mismatch between the number of updates that are approved on it and the number of updates approved on the replica servers.

Set Up E-Mail Notifications

The WSUS 3.0 SP2 server can be configured to send e-mail notifications of new updates and reports on the status of the WSUS network. Notifications will be sent whenever the WSUS server synchronizes new updates, and status reports can be sent daily or weekly. E-mail notifications do not include rolled-up computer status from replica downstream servers.

Set up e-mail notifications

1. In the WSUS Administration console, click Options in the left pane.

2. In the center pane, click E-Mail Notifications.

3. Click the General tab.

4. If you want update notifications, select the Send e-mail notification when new updates

are synchronized check box.

5. In the Recipients box, type the e-mail addresses of the people who should receive update notifications. Separate the names with semi-colons.

6. If you want status reports, select the Send status reports check box.

7. In the Frequency box, select either Daily or Weekly.

8. In the Send reports at box, set the time at which you want status reports to be sent.

9. In the Recipients box type the e-mail addresses of the people who should receive status reports, delimited by semicolons.

10. In the Language box, select the language in which the status reports should be sent.

11. Click Apply to save these settings.

Note

If both the WSUS administrative console and the WSUS server have the same settings for Daylight Savings Time adjustments, notifications will appear at the correct time. If the adjustments for Daylight Savings Time are different, then notifications will be off by the difference in the Daylight Savings Time adjustment.

Set up the e-mail server

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1. Click the E-Mail Server tab.

2. In the Outgoing e-mail server (SMTP) box, type the name of your SMTP server.

3. In the Port number box, type the server's SMTP port (25 by default).

4. In the Sender name box, type the sender's e-mail display name. Generally this will be the name of the WSUS administrator.

5. In the E-mail address box, type the sender's e-mail address.

6. If the SMTP server requires logon information, select the My SMTP server requires

authentication check box.

7. Enter the user name and password in the respective boxes.

Note

You can change authentication credentials only on a WSUS server, not from a remote administration console.

8. Click Apply to save this information.

9. After saving the e-mail server information, test your configuration by clicking Test. The

Event Viewer will show any issues related to sending the e-mail.

10. If your e-mail notification is not working properly, one place to look is the

SoftwareDistribution.log file (found in your WSUS directory, usually …\Program

Files\Update Services\LogFiles). One error message that is symptomatic of an incorrect

SMTP configuration is the following:

EmailNotificationAgent.WakeUpWorkerThreadProc Exception occurred when sending email of type Summary: System.Net.Mail.SmtpException: Failure sending mail. --->

System.IO.IOException: Unable to read data from the transport connection: net_io_connectionclosed

.

Investigate your SMTP e-mail server configuration to resolve this problem.

Personalize the WSUS Display

You can configure different aspects of the way WSUS server information is displayed in the

WSUS Administration console. You can display information from downstream replica servers when you view computer and update status information. You can have validation errors displayed as pop-up windows. And you can display different types of information in the computer overview's

To Do section.

To display rollup data from downstream replica servers

1. From the WSUS Administration console, click Options, and then click Personalization.

2. On the General tab, select the Include computers and status from replica

51

downstream servers check box.

3. Click OK.

Important

Computer and update status will roll up from downstream replica servers only. It is not possible to get rolled-up status from a downstream autonomous server.

To display validation errors as pop-up windows

1. From the WSUS Administration console, click Options, and then click Personalization.

2. On the General tab, select the Show validation errors as popups check box.

3. Click OK.

Note

If you choose this option, errors will appear as pop-up windows and not as links in the UI.

To display different information in the To Do section

1. From the WSUS Administration console, click Options, and then click Personalization.

2. On the To Do List tab, select one or more of the following items:

 Computers have not reported status for more than 30 days

 WSUS updates are waiting to be approved for install

 Critical updates are waiting to be approved for install

 Computers have requested nonexistent computer groups

 The server database is almost full

 SSL is not enabled

 New products and new classifications have been added in the past 30 days

 Update file languages are enabled on this server, but are no longer supported

by the upstream server

3. Click OK.

Set Up a Hierarchy of WSUS Servers

There is a discussion of the advantages and limitations of setting up WSUS server hierarchies in

"WSUS Server Hierarchies" in Choose a Type of WSUS Deployment earlier in this guide.

To connect a downstream server to an upstream server

1. In the left pane of the WSUS Administration console, click Options.

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2. Select the Update Source and Proxy Server option and click the Update Source tab.

3. Select the Synchronize from another Windows Server Update Services server check box, and then type the server name and port number in the corresponding boxes.

4. If you are planning to use SSL for this connection, select the Use SSL when

synchronizing update information check box. The port used for this connection will be

443.

5. If you want this server to be a replica of the upstream server, select the This server is a

replica of the upstream server check box.

6. Click OK.

Important

When you configure a downstream server, you should make sure that the update languages it supports are a subset of the languages supported on its upstream server. If you choose a language on a downstream server that is not supported on an upstream server, you will not be able to get updates in that language. To remind you of this issue, a task will appear on the home page of the downstream server.

Important

Maximum number of downstream servers talking to upstream root server should not exceed.1000

Create Replica Servers

A description of the benefits of creating a replica server is available in "Centralized Management"

in Choose a WSUS Management Style earlier in this guide.

To create a replica group for centralized management of multiple WSUS servers

1. Install WSUS on a computer at a site where it can be managed by an administrator.

Follow the steps in Run WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server Setup in this guide.

2. Install WSUS on a computer at a remote site, in the same way as in Step 1. When you have launched the Configuration Wizard, go to the Choose Upstream Server page, select the Synchronize from another Windows Server Update Services server check box, and then enter the name of the WSUS server from step 1.

3. If you are planning to use SSL for this connection, select the Use SSL when

synchronizing update information check box.

4. Select the This is a replica of the upstream server check box.

5. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 as necessary to add additional WSUS servers to the replica group.

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Enable reporting rollup from replica servers

You can roll up computer and update status from replica servers to their upstream server.

To enable reporting rollup from replica servers

1. In the WSUS administration console on the upstream server, click Options, and then

Reporting Rollup.

2. Select the Roll up status from replica downstream servers check box, and then click

OK.

Notes

During the client scan, if the server detects the client changed group membership (or name, or IP address, or operating system version), it marks the client as needing a full rollup. The downstream server will roll up these changes to the upstream server during the next rollup after client scan.

Create the Computer Groups

There is a description of why you may want to use this feature, as well as a discussion of

limitations and default settings, in the "Using Computer Groups" section in Choose a Type of

WSUS Deployment earlier in this guide.

Setting up computer groups

Setting up computer groups is a three-step process:

1. Specify how to assign computers to computer groups. There are two options: server-side targeting and client-side targeting. With server-side targeting, you manually add each computer to its group. With client-side targeting, you automatically assign the computers by using either Group Policy or registry keys.

2. Create computer groups.

3. Move the computers into groups by using whichever method you chose in the first step.

Step 1: Specify how to assign computers to computer groups

Use the WSUS console to specify whether you are using client-side or server-side targeting.

To specify the method for assigning computers to groups

1. In the WSUS Administration console, click Options, and then click Computers. In the

Computers dialog box, select one of the following options:

54

 Use the Update Services console. Select this option if you want to create groups and assign computers through the WSUS console.

 Use Group Policy or registry settings on client computers. Select this option if you want to create groups and assign computers using Group Policy or by editing registry settings on the client computer.

2. Click OK to save your settings.

Step 2: Create computer groups

Create computer groups in WSUS. The computer groups must be created on an autonomous

WSUS server, whether you use client-side or server-side targeting. Computer groups cannot be created on a replica server or on a remote administration console.

To create a computer group

1. In the WSUS Administration console, click Computers, and then click All Computers.

2. In the Actions pane, click Add Computer Group.

3. In the Name box, type a name for your new computer group, and then click OK.

Step 3: Move the computers

Use WSUS to move computers into groups, or automate this task.

To move a computer to a different group by using server-side targeting

1. In the WSUS Administration console, click Computers, and then click the computer group of the computer you want to move.

2. In the list of computers, right-click the computer you want to move, and then click

Change Membership in the shortcuts menu.

3. In the Set Computer Group Membership dialog box, click the computer group or groups to which you want to move the computer, and then click OK.

To move a computer to a different group by using client-side targeting

 Use Group Policy or the registry to enable client-side targeting. For more information

about how to configure the client computer, see Determine a Method to Configure

Clients . For more information about the client-side targeting setting, see the "Enable

client-side targeting" section in Configure Clients Using Group Policy later in this guide.

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Approve WSUS 3.0 SP2 Updates

You should approve updates to test the functionality of your WSUS deployment. There are many options for deploying updates; the procedure below covers only the basics. Refer to the Microsoft

Windows Update Services 3.0 SP2 Operations Guide to understand all of your approval options, including Automatic Approval rules.

To approve multiple updates for installation

1. On the WSUS Administration console, click Updates, and then click All Updates or the classification of updates you want to approve.

2. On the list of updates, right-click the update or updates you want to approve for installation, and then click Approve on the shortcuts menu.

3. In the Approve Updates dialog box, click the arrow next to the computer group for which you want to approve the updates, and then click Approved for Install.

4. If you want to approve these updates for subgroups of this group, click the arrow again, and then click Apply to Children.

5. If you want to specify a deadline (that is, a time by which these updates should be installed), click the arrow again, and then click Deadline. You may specify a standard time (one week, one month, etc.) or a custom time.

6. Do the same for any other groups for which you would like to approve the selected updates.

7. When you have finished setting up the approvals, click Approve.

8. You will see the Approval Progress window while the updates are being approved. If there is any problem, such as a conflict among the selected updates, it will be reported here. You may click Cancel to exit the approval process at any time. When the approval process completes successfully, close the window.

Note

If you want to install an update immediately, you can specify a deadline at the current time or in the past. You can find more information about how clients install updates with

deadlines in Client Behavior with Update Deadlines .

Verify Deployment of Updates

When client computers check in with the WSUS server, you can see whether updates have been deployed. By default, client computers check in with WSUS every 22 hours, but this is configurable. For more information about configuring the time when client computers check in

with WSUS, see the "Automatic Update detection frequency" section in Configure Clients Using

Group Policy later in this guide.

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There are many different ways to see whether updates have been deployed. You can get a general view of the network's update status by clicking the name of the WSUS server in the left pane of the WSUS Administration console. The center pane provides a general view of the status of all the computers that report to this WSUS server, and of all the updates known to this server.

You can find more information by clicking the status. Similarly, if you would like to look at the status of different updates, you can click the Updates node in the left pane; if you would like to look at the status of different computers and groups, you can click the Computers node in the left pane.

You can print reports on any of the above categories, or on individual computers or updates, by clicking the item for which you want a report and then clicking Status Report in the Actions pane. You may also set up summary reports by clicking the Reports node in the left pane and then customizing one of the summary reports listed there.

Secure WSUS 3.0 SP2 Deployment

This guide includes three ways to enhance the security of your WSUS server:

 Recommendations for hardening your WSUS server.

 Recommendations for adding authentication between chained WSUS servers in an Active

Directory environment.

 Recommendations for implementing the Secure Sockets Layer protocol on WSUS.

Hardening your Windows Server 2003 running

WSUS

You can find recommended settings for hardening your WSUS server in Appendix E: List of

Security Settings . These recommendations include hardening a number of Windows Server

components, as well as IIS 6.0 and SQL Server 2005 or SQL Server 2008.

Adding authentication for chained WSUS Servers in an Active Directory environment

You can add authentication for server-to-server synchronization.

There are some limitations to enabling authentication. Any WSUS server you want to authenticate must be in an Active Directory environment. If the WSUS servers are in different forests, there has to be trust between forests for this authentication method to succeed.

Enabling authentication is a two-step process:

1. Create a list of downstream WSUS servers allowed to authenticate with this WSUS server, and add this list to a web.config file.

2. In IIS, disable anonymous access to the WSUS server.

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With completion of these two steps, only the downstream computers listed can synchronize with the WSUS server. Each of these steps is detailed below.

Step 1: Create an authentication list

WSUS setup creates a configuration file that enables you to add an explicit list of computers that have access to WSUS. You can find this file in the file system of the WSUS server at:

%ProgramFiles%\Update Services\WebServices\serversyncwebservice\Web.config

Use the

<authorization>

element to define an authentication list. You must add the

<authorization>

element below the

<configuration>

and

<system.web>

elements.

Consider the example below:

<configuration>

<system.web>

<authorization>

<allow users="domain\computer_name,domain\computer_name" />

<deny users="domain\computer_name,domain\computer_name" />

</authorization>

</system.web>

</configuration>

Within the opening and closing

<authorization>

tags, you specify a list of computers that are allowed a connection to the Web service. You must enter these computers as domain\computer_name

. If you want multiple computers, use a comma to separate the names. You can also specify an explicit list of computers that are denied access. Order in this list is important, as the evaluation stops with the first item that applies to the user. If the

<allow users>

element is absent or empty, all servers are allowed.

The XML schema for this list can be found on the MSDN Web site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=47691.

Step 2: Disable anonymous access to the WSUS server

The next step is to configure IIS to disable anonymous access to the ServerSyncWebService virtual directory and enable Integrated Windows authentication.

To configure IIS to disable anonymous access and enable Integrated Windows authentication for the WSUS ServerSynchWebService

1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click

Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

2. Expand the local computer node.

3. Expand the WSUS Web site node

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4. Right-click ServerSyncWebService, and then click Properties.

5. On the Directory Security tab, under Authentication and access control, click Edit.

6. In the Authentication Methods dialog box, clear the Enable anonymous access check box, and then select the Integrated Windows authentication check box.

7. Click OK twice.

Securing WSUS with the Secure Sockets Layer

Protocol

You can use the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol to secure your WSUS deployment. WSUS uses SSL to allow client computers and downstream WSUS servers to authenticate the WSUS server. WSUS also uses SSL to encrypt the metadata passed between clients and downstream

WSUS servers. Note that WSUS uses SSL only for metadata, not for content. This is also the way Microsoft Update distributes updates.

Updates consist of two parts: the metadata that describes the update, and the files to install the update on a computer. Microsoft mitigates the risk of sending update files over an unencrypted channel by signing each update. In addition to signing each update, a hash is computed and sent with the metadata for each update. When an update is downloaded, WSUS checks the digital signature and hash. If the update has been altered, it is not installed.

Limitations of WSUS SSL deployments

There are two limiting issues that administrators considering WSUS SSL deployments need to take into account.

1. Securing your WSUS deployment with SSL increases the workload of the server. You should plan for about a 10 percent loss of performance because of the additional cost of encrypting all the metadata sent over the network.

2. If you are using remote SQL, the connection between the WSUS server and the server running the database is not secured with SSL. If the database connection must be secured, consider the following recommendations:

 Put the database on the WSUS server (the default WSUS configuration).

 Put the remote server running SQL and the WSUS server on a private network.

 Deploy Internet Protocol security (IPSec) on your network to secure network traffic. The

Overview of IPSec http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=147903 offers guidance about how to deploy IPSec in your environment.

Configuring SSL on the WSUS server

The most important thing to remember when configuring the WSUS server to use SSL is that

WSUS requires two ports in this configuration: one for encrypted metadata using HTTPS and one for HTTP. When you configure IIS to use SSL, keep the following points in mind:

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 You cannot set up the entire WSUS Web site to require SSL. This would mean that all traffic to the WSUS site would have to be encrypted, but WSUS encrypts only update metadata. If a client computer or another WSUS server attempts to get update files from WSUS on the

HTTPS port, the transfer will fail.

To keep the WSUS Web site as secure as possible, require SSL only for the following virtual roots:

 SimpleAuthWebService

 DSSAuthWebService

 ServerSyncWebService

 APIRemoting30

 ClientWebService

To keep WSUS functioning, you should not require SSL for the following virtual roots:

 Content

 Inventory

 ReportingWebService

 SelfUpdate

 On the WSUS server, run the command:

wsusutil configuressl certificateName

where certificateName is the DNS name of the WSUS server. For example, if clients will connect to https://myWSUSServer, then certificateName should be myWSUSServer. If clients will connect to https://myWSUSServer.myDomain.com, then certificateName should be myWSUSServer.myDomain.com.

 The certificate of the certification authority must be imported into either the local computer's

Trusted Root CA store or the Windows Server Update Service's Trusted Root CA store on downstream WSUS servers. If the certificate is imported only to the Local User's Trusted

Root CA store, the downstream WSUS server will not be authenticated on the upstream server. For more information about SSL certificates, see How to implement SSL in IIS (KB

299875) (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=86176).

 You must import the certificate to all the computers that will communicate with the server, including all clients, downstream servers, and computers running the administration console remotely. Again, the certificate should be imported into the local computer's Trusted Root CA store or the Windows Server Update Service's Trusted Root CA store.

 You can use any port you like when you configure IIS to use SSL. However, the port you set up for SSL determines the port that WSUS uses for clear HTTP. Consider the following examples:

 If you use the industry standard port of 443 for HTTPS traffic, then WSUS uses port 80 for clear HTTP traffic, which is the industry standard for HTTP.

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 If you use any other port for HTTPS traffic, WSUS assumes that clear HTTP traffic should be sent over the port that numerically precedes the port for HTTPS. For example, if you use port 8531 for HTTPS, WSUS uses 8530 for HTTP.

 You must re-initialize ClientServicingProxy if ServerName, SSL configuration or port number are changed.

Configuring SSL on client computers

There are two important caveats when configuring client computers:

 You must include a URL for a secure port on which the WSUS server is listening. Because you cannot require SSL on the server, the only way to ensure that client computers use a secure channel is to make sure they use a URL that specifies HTTPS. If you are using any port other than 443 for SSL, you must include that port in the URL, too.

For example,

https://<ssl-servername>

specifies a WSUS server that is using port 443 for

HTTPS; however, while https://<ssl-servername>:3051

specifies a WSUS server that is using a custom SSL port of 3051.

For more information about how to point client computers to the WSUS server, see "Specify

intranet Microsoft Update service location" in Configure Clients Using Group Policy later in

this guide.

 The certificate on client computers has to be imported into either the Local Computer's

Trusted Root CA store or Automatic Update Service's Trusted Root CA store. If the certificate is imported only to the Local User's Trusted Root CA store, Automatic Updates will fail server authentication.

 Your client computers must trust the certificate you bind to the WSUS server in IIS.

Depending upon the type of certificate you are using, you may have to set up a service to enable the clients to trust the certificate bound to the WSUS server. For more information, see "Further reading about SSL" later in this section.

Configuring SSL for downstream WSUS servers

The following instructions are for configuring a downstream server to synchronize to an upstream server that is using SSL.

To synchronize a downstream server to an upstream server that is using SSL

1. In the WSUS Administration snap-in, click Options, and then click Update Source and

Proxy Server.

2. In the Update Source box, select Synchronize from another Windows Server Update

Services server check box, type the name of the upstream server and the port number it

uses for SSL connections, and then select the Use SSL when synchronizing update

information check box.

3. Click OK to save the settings.

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Additional SSL resources

Setting up a Certification Authority (CA), binding a certificate to the WSUS Web site, and then bootstrapping client computers to trust the certificate on the WSUS Web site are complex administrative tasks. The step-by-step procedures for each task are beyond the scope of this guide.

However, several articles on the subject are available. For more information and instructions about how to install certificates and set up your environment, see the following pages on the

Microsoft Web site.

 The

Windows Server 2003 PKI Operations Guide

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83159) provides a guide for administrators about how to configure and operate a Windows Certification Authority.

 Configuring SSL on a Web Server or Web Site at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83159 offers step-by-step instructions for setting up

SSL on a Web site.



Certificate Autoenrollment in Windows Server 2003

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=17801) offers instructions about how to automatically enroll client computers running Windows XP in Windows Server 2003 Enterprise environments integrated with Active Directory.



Advanced Certificate Enrollment and Management

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83160) provides guidance about how to automatically enroll client computers in other environments.

Update and Configure the Automatic Updates

Client

After planning the deployment, and installing and configuring the WSUS server, you are ready to work with the client computers. You can use Group Policy or the registry to configure Automatic

Updates. Configuring Automatic Updates involves pointing the client computers to the WSUS server, making sure that the Automatic Updates software is up to date, and configuring any additional environment settings.

In this guide



Client Requirements



Update Client



Determine a Method to Configure Clients



Manipulate Client Behavior Using Command-line Options



Client Behavior with Update Deadlines

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Client Requirements

Automatic Updates, the Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) client software, requires only a network connection. No specific hardware configuration is required.

Automatic Updates is supported for use with the following operating systems:

 Windows Vista

 Windows Server 2008

 Windows Server 2003, any edition

 Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 2 and later

 Windows 2000 Professional with Service Pack 4, Windows 2000 Server with Service Pack 3

(SP3) or later version, or Windows 2000 Advanced Server with SP3 or later version.

Special considerations for client computers set up by using a Windows 2000, Windows Server

2003, or Windows XP image

If client computers are set up by using a Windows 2000 image, a Windows Server 2003 image, or a Windows XP image, and you used Sysprep or another unique SID-generating technology to create the images, the SusClientId registry value is not cleared if it was populated within the image before the image is deployed. If this condition exists, the client computer may not display in

WSUS.

The following table shows the supported methods to clear the SUSClientID registry value, based on the WSUS version and whether the client computer is a virtual machine.

Server

WSUS 2.0

Virtual Machine

NO

WSUS 2.0

WSUS 3.0

YES

NO

Action

 Clear the SUSClientID registry value on the image source before deployment.

 Manually clear or run a script to clear SUSClientID on deployed images.

 Clear the SUSClientID registry value on the image source before deployment.

 Manually clear or run a script to clear SUSClientID on deployed images.

 Clear the SUSClientID

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Server Virtual Machine Action

registry value on the image source before deployment.

 Manually clear or run a script to clear SUSClientID on deployed images.

 Wait for hardware validation to regenerate the

SUSClientID value.

WSUS 3.0 YES

 Clear the SUSClientID registry value on the image source before deployment.

 Manually clear or run a script to clear SUSClientID on deployed images.

For more information and step-by-step instructions to manually clear the SUSClientID registry value, refer to KB article 903262 at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=147910 .

Update Client

WSUS requires the WSUS client, a version of Automatic Updates compatible with WSUS.

Computers running Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and Windows Vista already have the WSUS client installed.

Automatic Updates client self-update feature

Each time Automatic Updates checks the public Web site or internal server for updates, it also checks for updates to itself. This means that most versions of Automatic Updates can be pointed to the public Windows Update site and they will automatically self-update. You can also use the

WSUS server to self-update the client software. For specifics, see the "Client self-update" section

in Configure IIS earlier in this guide.

The self-updating client software is available on the following operating systems:

 Windows Vista

 Windows Server 2008

 Windows Server 2003

 Windows XP with Service Pack 2

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Determine a Method to Configure Clients

How best to configure Automatic Updates and WSUS environment options depends upon your network environment. In an Active Directory environment, you would use Group Policy. In a non-

Active Directory environment, you might use the Local Group Policy object or edit the registry directly.

Administrator-defined configuration options driven by Group Policy—whether set with Group

Policy in an Active Directory environment or via the registry or Local Group Policy object—always take precedence over user-defined options. When you use administrative policies to configure

Automatic Updates, the Automatic Updates user interface is disabled on the target computer.

If you configure Automatic Updates to notify the user of updates that are ready to be downloaded, it sends the notification to the System log and to a logged-on administrator of the computer. You can use Group Policy to enable non-administrators to get this message. If no user with administrator credentials is logged on and you have not enabled non-administrators to get notifications, Automatic Updates waits for an administrator to log on before offering the notification.

By default every 22 hours, minus a random offset, Automatic Updates polls the WSUS server for approved updates; if any new updates need to be installed, they are downloaded. The amount of time between each detection cycle can be manipulated from 1 to 22 hours by using Group Policy.

You can manipulate the notification options as follows:

 If Automatic Updates is configured to notify the user of updates that are ready to be installed, the notification is sent to the System log and to the notification area of the client computer.

 When a user with appropriate credentials clicks the notification-area icon, Automatic Updates displays the available updates to install. In this case, a user with the appropriate credentials is either a logged-on administrator or a non-administrator granted appropriate credentials by means of Group Policy. The user must then click Install, so the installation can proceed. A message appears if the update requires the computer to be restarted to complete the update.

If a restart is requested, Automatic Updates cannot detect additional updates until the computer is restarted.

If Automatic Updates is configured to install updates on a set schedule, applicable updates are downloaded and marked as ready to install. Automatic Updates notifies users having appropriate credentials via a notification-area icon, and an event is logged in the System log. This indicates that the user can install updates.

At the scheduled day and time, Automatic Updates installs the update and restarts the computer

(if necessary), even if there is no local administrator logged on. If a local administrator is logged on and the computer requires a restart, Automatic Updates displays a warning and a countdown for when the computer will restart. Otherwise, the installation occurs in the background.

If it is required to restart the computer, and any user is logged on, a similar countdown dialog box is displayed, warning the logged-on user about the impending restart. You can manipulate computer restarts with Group Policy.

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After the new updates are downloaded, Automatic Updates polls the WSUS server again for the list of approved packages to confirm that the packages it downloaded are still valid and approved.

This means that, if a WSUS administrator removes updates from the list of approved updates while Automatic Updates is downloading updates, only the updates that are still approved are actually installed.

In this guide

Configure Clients Using Group Policy

Configure Clients in a Non–Active Directory Environment

Configure Clients Using Group Policy

When you configure the Group Policy settings for WSUS, you should use a Group Policy object

(GPO) linked to an Active Directory container appropriate for your environment. Microsoft does not recommend editing the Default Domain or Default Domain Controller GPOs to add WSUS settings.

In a simple environment, you link the GPO with the WSUS settings to the domain. In more complex environments, you might have multiple GPOs linked to several organizational units

(OUs), so that you can set different WSUS policy settings on different types of computer.

After you set up a client computer, it will take a few minutes before it appears on the Computers page in the WSUS console. For client computers configured with an Active Directory-based GPO, it will take about 20 minutes after Group Policy refreshes (that is, applies any new settings to the client computer). By default, Group Policy refreshes in the background every 90 minutes, with a random offset of 0–30 minutes.

Note

If you want to refresh Group Policy sooner, you can go to a command prompt on the client computer and type: gpupdate /force.

Load the WSUS Administrative Template

Before you can set any Group Policy options for WSUS, you must ensure that the latest administrative template has been loaded on the computer used to administer Group Policy. The administrative template with WSUS settings is named wuau.adm. Although there are additional

Group Policy settings related to the Windows Update Web site, all the new Group Policy settings for WSUS are contained within the wuau.adm file.

If the computer you are using to configure Group Policy has the latest version of wuau.adm, you do not need to load the file to configure settings. The new version of wuau.adm is available on

Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Administrative template files are stored by default in the

%windir%\Inf directory.

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Important

You can find the correct version of wuau.adm on any computer that has the WSUScompatible Automatic Updates installed. You can use the old version of wuau.adm to point Automatic Updates to the WSUS server in order to self-update for the first time.

After Automatic Updates self-updates, the new wuau.adm file appears in the

%windir%\Inf folder.

If the computer you are using to configure Group Policy does not have the latest version of wuau.adm, you must first load it by using the following procedure.

Note

You can start the Group Policy editor by clicking Start, then Run, then typing

gpedit.msc.

To add the WSUS Administrative Template

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, click either of the Administrative Templates nodes.

2. On the Action menu, click Add/Remove Templates.

3. Click Add.

4. In the Policy Templates dialog box, select wuau.adm, and then click Open.

5. In the Add/Remove Templates dialog box, click Close.

Configure Automatic Updates

The settings for this policy enable you to configure how Automatic Updates works. You must specify that Automatic Updates download updates from the WSUS server rather than from

Windows Update.

To configure the behavior of Automatic Updates

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Configure Automatic Updates.

3. Click Enabled and select one of the following options:

 Notify for download and notify for install. This option notifies a logged-on administrative user before the download and before the installation of the updates.

 Auto download and notify for install. This option automatically begins downloading updates and then notifies a logged-on administrative user before installing the updates.

 Auto download and schedule the install. If Automatic Updates is configured to perform a scheduled installation, you must also set the day and time for the recurring scheduled installation.

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 Allow local admin to choose setting. With this option, the local administrators are allowed to use Automatic Updates in Control Panel to select a configuration option of their choice. For example, they can choose their own scheduled installation time.

Local administrators are not allowed to disable Automatic Updates.

4. Click OK.

Specify intranet Microsoft Update service location

The settings for this policy enable you to specify a WSUS server that Automatic Updates will contact for updates. You must enable this policy in order for Automatic Updates to download updates from the WSUS server.

Enter the WSUS server HTTP(S) URL twice, so that the server specified for updates is also used for reporting client events. For example, type http(s)://servername in both boxes, where

servername is the name of the server. Both URLs are required.

To redirect Automatic Updates to a WSUS server

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Specify Intranet Microsoft update service location.

3. Click Enabled and type the HTTP(S) URL of the same WSUS server in the Set the

intranet update service for detecting updates box and in the Set the intranet

statistics server box. For example, type http(s)://servername in both boxes, where

servername is the name of the server. If the port is not 80 for HTTP or 443 for HTTPS, you should add the port number: https://servername:portnumber.

4. Click OK.

Enable client-side targeting

This policy enables client computers to add themselves to target computer groups on the WSUS server, when Automatic Updates is redirected to a WSUS server.

If the status is set to Enabled, this computer will identify itself as a member of a particular computer group when it sends information to the WSUS server, which uses it to determine which updates should be deployed to this computer. This setting indicates to the WSUS server which group the client computer should use. You must actually create the group on the WSUS server.

If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, no computer group information will be sent to

WSUS.

To enable client-side targeting

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

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Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Enable client-side targeting.

3. Click Enabled, and then type the name of the computer group to which you want to add this computer in the Target group name for this computer box.

4. Click OK.

Note

If you want to assign a client to more than one computer group, you should separate the computer group names with a semicolon plus a space: Group1; Group2.

Reschedule Automatic Updates scheduled installations

This policy specifies the amount of time that Automatic Updates should wait after system startup before proceeding with a scheduled installation that did not take place earlier.

If the status is set to Enabled, a missed installation will occur the specified number of minutes after the computer is next started.

If the status is set to Disabled, a missed installation will occur with the next scheduled installation.

If the status is set to Not Configured, a missed installation will occur one minute after the next time the computer is started.

This policy applies only when Automatic Updates is configured to perform scheduled installations

of updates. If the Configure Automatic Updates policy is disabled, this policy has no effect.

To reschedule Automatic Update scheduled installation

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Reschedule Automatic Update scheduled installations, click

Enabled, and type the number of minutes to wait.

3. Click OK.

No auto-restart for scheduled Automatic Update installation options

This policy specifies that, to complete a scheduled installation, Automatic Updates will wait for the computer to be restarted instead of causing the computer to restart automatically.

If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will not restart a computer automatically during a scheduled installation if a user is logged on to the computer. Instead, Automatic Updates will

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notify the user to restart the computer in order to complete the installation. Be aware that

Automatic Updates will not be able to detect future updates until the restart occurs.

If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, Automatic Updates will notify the user that the computer will automatically restart in five minutes to complete the installation. This policy applies only when Automatic Updates is configured to perform scheduled installations of updates. If the

Configure Automatic Updates policy is disabled, this policy has no effect.

Note

This policy setting does not allow non-administrative Terminal Services users to restart the remote computer where they are logged on. This is because, by default, nonadministrative Terminal Services users do not have computer restart privileges.

To prevent auto-restart for scheduled Automatic Update installation options

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click No auto-restart for scheduled Automatic Update installation

options, and click Enabled.

3. Click OK.

Automatic Update detection frequency

This policy specifies the number of hours that Windows will wait before checking for available updates. The exact wait time is determined by using the number of hours specified minus a random value between 0 and 20 percent of that number. For example, if this policy is used to specify a 20-hour detection frequency, then all computers to which this policy is applied will check for updates anywhere between 16 and 20 hours.

If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will check for available updates at the specified interval.

If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, Automatic Updates will check for available updates at the default interval of 22 hours.

To set Automatic Update detection frequency

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Automatic Update detection frequency, click Enabled, and type the number of hours for the detection interval.

3. Click OK.

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Allow Automatic Update immediate installation

This policy specifies whether Automatic Updates should automatically install certain updates that neither interrupt Windows services nor restart Windows.

If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will immediately install these updates after they have been downloaded and are ready to install.

If the status is set to Disabled, such updates will not be installed immediately.

To allow Automatic Update immediate installation

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Allow Automatic Update immediate installation, and click

Enabled.

3. Click OK.

Delay restart for scheduled installations

This policy specifies the amount of time that Automatic Updates should wait before proceeding with a scheduled restart.

If the status is set to Enabled, a scheduled restart will occur the specified number of minutes after the installation is finished.

If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, the default wait time is five minutes.

To delay restart for scheduled installations

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Delay restart for scheduled installations, click Enabled, and type the number of minutes to wait.

3. Click OK.

Reprompt for restart with scheduled installations

This policy setting specifies the amount of time that Automatic Updates should wait before prompting the user again for a scheduled restart.

If the status is set to Enabled, a scheduled restart will occur the specified number of minutes after the prompt for restart was dismissed.

If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, the default interval is 10 minutes.

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To reprompt for restart with scheduled installations

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Re-prompt for restart with scheduled installations, click

Enabled, and type the number of minutes to wait before restarting.

3. Click OK.

Allow non-administrators to receive update notifications

This policy specifies whether logged-on non-administrative users will receive update notifications.

If Automatic Updates is configured (by policy or locally) to notify the user either before downloading and installation or only before installation, these notifications will be offered to any user, administrator, or non-administrator who is logged on to the computer.

If the status is set to Enabled, Automatic Updates will include non-administrators when determining which logged-on user should receive notification.

If the status is set to Disabled or Not Configured, Automatic Updates will notify only logged-on administrators.

To allow non-administrators to receive update notifications

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Allow non-administrators to receive update notifications, and click Enabled.

3. Click OK.

Note

This policy setting does not allow non-administrative Terminal Services users to restart the remote computer where they are logged in. This is because, by default, nonadministrative Terminal Services users do not have computer restart privileges.

Allow signed content from the intranet Microsoft update service location

If this policy setting is enabled, Automatic Updates receives signed third-party updates from the

Windows Server Update Services server. If this policy is not enabled, users will be able to get updates only from Microsoft.

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To allow signed content from the intranet Microsoft Update service location

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand Windows Components, and then click Windows

Update.

2. In the details pane, click Allow signed content from intranet Microsoft update service

location, and click Enabled.

3. Click OK.

Remove links and access to Windows Update

If this policy setting is enabled, Automatic Updates receives updates from the WSUS server.

Users who have this policy setting enabled cannot get updates from a Windows Update Web site that you have not approved. If this policy setting is not enabled, the Windows Update icon remains on the Start menu; local administrators will be able to visit the Windows Update Web site, from which they could install unapproved software. This happens even if you have specified that Automatic Updates must get approved updates from your WSUS server. In Windows Vista, this setting will gray out the Check for updates option in the Windows Update application.

To remove links and access to Windows Update

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand User Configuration, expand Administrative

Templates, and then click Start Menu and Taskbar.

2. In the details pane, click Remove links and access to Windows Update, and click

Enabled.

3. Click OK.

Disable access to Windows Update

If this policy setting is enabled, all Windows Update features are removed. It blocks access to the

Microsoft Update and Windows Update Web sites, and in Windows Vista will gray out the Check

for updates option in the Windows Update application. The machine will not get automatic

updates directly from Windows Update or Microsoft Update, but it can still get updates from a

WSUS server. This setting overrides the user settings Remove links and access to Windows

Update and Remove access to use all Windows Update features.

To disable access to Windows Update

1. In the Group Policy Object Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand

Administrative Templates, expand System, expand Internet Communication

Management, and then click Internet Communication settings.

2. In the details pane, click Turn off access to all Windows Update features, and click

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Enabled.

3. Click OK.

Configure Clients in a Non–Active Directory

Environment

In a non-Active Directory environment, you can configure Automatic Updates by using any of the following methods:

 Using Group Policy Object Editor and editing the Local Group Policy object

 Editing the registry directly by using the registry editor (Regedit.exe)

Editing the Local Group Policy object

For a listing of the entries and the values to set, see Configure Clients Using Group Policy earlier

in this guide.

Using the registry editor

Administrators who do not wish to use Group Policy may set up client computers using the registry. Registry entries for the WSUS server are located in the following subkey:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate.

The keys and their value ranges are listed in the following table.

Windows Update registry keys

Entry name

AcceptTrustedPublisherCerts

Data type

Reg_DWORD

ElevateNonAdmins

Reg_DWORD

Values

Range = 1|0

1 = Enabled. The WSUS server will distribute signed third-party updates if available.

0 = Disabled. The WSUS server will not distribute thirdparty updates.

Range = 1|0

1 = Users in the Users security group are allowed to approve or disapprove updates.

0 = Only users in the

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Entry name

TargetGroup

TargetGroupEnabled

WUServer

WUStatusServer

Data type

Reg_SZ

Reg_DWORD

Reg_SZ

Reg_SZ

DisableWindowsUpdateAccess

Reg_DWORD

Values

Administrators user group can approve or disapprove updates.

Name of the computer group to which the computer belongs, used to implement client-side targeting (for example, "TestServers.") This policy is paired with

TargetGroupEnabled.

Range = 1|0

1 = Use client-side targeting.

0 = Do not use client-side targeting. This policy is paired with TargetGroup.

HTTP(S) URL of the WSUS server used by Automatic

Updates and (by default) API callers. This policy is paired with WUStatusServer; both must be set to the same value in order for them to be valid.

The HTTP(S) URL of the server to which reporting information will be sent for client computers that use the

WSUS server configured by the WUServer key. This policy is paired with WUServer; both must be set to the same value in order for them to be valid.

Range = 1|0

1 = Disables access to

Windows Update.

0 = Enables access to

Windows Update.

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Automatic Update configuration options

The registry entries for Automatic Update configuration options are located in the following subkey:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate\AU

The keys and their value ranges are listed in the following table.

Automatic Updates Configuration Registry Keys

Entry name

AUOptions

Data type

Reg_DWORD

AutoInstallMinorUpdates

DetectionFrequency

DetectionFrequencyEnabled

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers

Reg_DWORD

Value range and meanings

Range = 2|3|4|5

2 = Notify before download.

3 = Automatically download and notify of installation.

4 = Automatically download and schedule installation. (Only valid if values exist for

ScheduledInstallDay and

ScheduledInstallTime.)

5 = Automatic Updates is required, but end users can configure it.

Range = 0|1

0 = Treat minor updates as other updates are treated.

1 = Silently install minor updates.

Range = n, where n = time in hours (1–22).

Time between detection cycles.

Range = 0|1

1 = Enable

DetectionFrequency.

0 = Disable custom

DetectionFrequency (use default value of 22 hours).

Range = 0|1

1 = Logged-on user gets to

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Entry name

NoAutoUpdate

RebootRelaunchTimeout

RebootRelaunchTimeoutEnabled

RebootWarningTimeout

RebootWarningTimeoutEnabled

RescheduleWaitTime

Data type

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Value range and meanings

choose whether or not to restart his or her computer.

0 = Automatic Updates notifies user that the computer will restart in 5 minutes.

Range = 0|1

0 = Enable Automatic Updates.

1 = Disable Automatic

Updates.

Range = n, where n = time in minutes (1–1,440).

Time between prompting again for a scheduled restart.

Range = 0|1

1 = Enable

RebootRelaunchTimeout

0 = Disable custom

RebootRelaunchTimeout

(use default value of 10 minutes)

Range = n, where n = time in minutes (1–30).

Length, in minutes, of the restart warning countdown, after installing updates with a deadline or scheduled updates.

Range = 0|1

1 = Enable

RebootWarningTimeout

0 = Disable custom

RebootWarningTimeout (use

default value of 5 minutes)

Range = n, where n = time in minutes (1–60).

Time, in minutes, that

Automatic Updates should wait at startup before applying

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Entry name

RescheduleWaitTimeEnabled

ScheduledInstallDay

ScheduledInstallTime

UseWUServer

Data type

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Reg_DWORD

Value range and meanings

updates from a missed scheduled installation time.

Note that this policy applies only to scheduled installations, not deadlines. Updates whose deadlines have expired should always be installed as soon as possible.

Range = 0|1

1 = Enable

RescheduleWaitTime

0 = Disable

RescheduleWaitTime

(attempt the missed installation during the next scheduled installation time).

Range = 0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7

0 = Every day.

1 through 7 = The days of the week from Sunday (1) to

Saturday (7).

(Only valid if AUOptions = 4.)

Range = n, where n = the time of day in 24-hour format (0–

23).

Range = 0|1

1 = This machine gets its updates from a WSUS server.

0 = This machine gets its updates from Microsoft

Update.

The WUServer value is not respected unless this key is set.

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Automatic Updates scenarios

The following scenarios illustrate specific issues

RescheduleWaitTime

If a scheduled installation is missed (because the client computer was turned off) and

RescheduleWaitTime is not set to a value between 1 and 60, Automatic Updates waits until the

next scheduled day and time to perform the installation. If a scheduled installation is missed and

RescheduleWaitTime is set to a value between 1 and 60, then Automatic Updates reschedules

the installation to occur at the Automatic Updates service start time plus the number of minutes specified in RescheduleWaitTime.

There are 3 basic rules for this feature:

1. When a scheduled installation is missed, it will be rescheduled for the system startup time plus the value of RescheduleWaitTime.

2. Changes in the scheduled installation day and time via the Control Panel or Group Policy are respected over the rescheduled time.

3. The rescheduled time has precedence over the next calculated scheduled day and time if the

―next calculated scheduled day and time‖ is later than the rescheduled time. The ―next calculated scheduled day and time‖ is calculated as follows: a. When Automatic Updates starts, it uses the currently set schedule to calculate the ―next calculated scheduled day and time‖. b. The resulting day and time value is then compared to the ScheduledInstallDate. c. If the values are different, Automatic Updates performs the following actions:

 sets a new ―next calculated scheduled day and time‖ within Automatic Updates.

 writes this new ―next calculated scheduled day and time‖ to the ScheduledInstallDate registry key.

 logs an event stating the new scheduled installation day and time.

The following examples show the use of the RescheduleWaitTime value.

Example 1: Installation must occur immediately following system startup

This example shows the consequences of RescheduleWaitTime set to 1.

1. Update installations are scheduled to occur every day at 3:00 A.M.

2. The RescheduleWaitTime registry value is set to 1.

3. Automatic Updates finds an update, downloads it, and is ready to install it at 3:00 A.M.

4. The logged-on user does not see the ―ready to install‖ prompt because the user does not have administrative privileges on the computer.

5. The user shuts down the computer.

6. The user restarts on the computer after the scheduled time has passed.

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7. When Automatic Updates starts, it recognizes that it missed its previously set scheduled installation time and that RescheduleWaitTime is set to 1. It therefore logs an event with the new scheduled time (one minute after the current time).

8. If no one logs on before the newly scheduled time (1 minute interval) the installation begins.

Since no one is logged on, there is no delay and no notification. If the update requires it,

Automatic Updates will restart the computer.

9. The user logs on to the updated computer.

Example 2: Installations must occur fifteen minutes after the Automatic

Updates service starts

This example shows the consequences of RescheduleWaitTime set to 15.

1. Update installations are scheduled to occur every day at 3:00 A.M.

2. The local administrator of the client computer sets the RescheduleWaitTime registry value to

15.

3. Automatic Updates finds an update, downloads it, and is ready to install it at 3:00 A.M.

4. The local administrator ignores the prompt to install the update.

5. The local administrator shuts down the computer.

6. The local administrator restarts on the computer after the scheduled time has passed.

7. When Automatic Updates starts, it recognizes that it missed its previously set scheduled install time, and that RescheduleWaitTime is set to 15. It therefore logs an event with the new scheduled time (fifteen minutes after the current time).

8. The local administrator logs on before the newly-scheduled time.

9. After Automatic Updates has been running for 15 minutes, it starts the scheduled installation.

10. The local administrator is notified five minutes before installation begins by the countdown timer.

11. The timer expires and the installation proceeds.

NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers

To prevent Automatic Updates from restarting a computer while users are logged on, the administrator can create the NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers registry value in s. The value is a DWORD and must be either 0 (false) or 1 (true). If this value is changed while the computer is in a restart pending state, it will not take effect until the next time an update requires a restart.

When the admin creates and sets the NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers registry key to 1, the restart countdown dialog that pops up for the logged on user (active and inactive) will change in the following ways:

Users with administrator credentials

The No button will be active.

Users without administrator credentials

The No button will be inactive.

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Users with administrator credentials

The Yes button will be active if the logged-on user is the only administrator logged on at the time the restart dialog appears.

The restart countdown progress bar and the text underneath the progress bar will not display.

Users without administrator credentials

The Yes button will now be active only if the logged-on user is the only non-administrator logged on at the time the restart dialog appears. However, the Yes button will be inactive if the user’s local security policy prohibits restarting.

The restart countdown progress bar and the text underneath the progress bar will not display.

Example 1: Non-administrator user on a workstation

In this scenario the network has been set up with the following conditions:

 Updates are scheduled to be installed every day at 3:00 A.M.

 Users must run as non-administrative users.

 NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers is set to 1.

 The user is assigned Shut down the system privileges via Group Policy.

Resulting client behavior:

1. Automatic Updates detects and downloads an update and sets the scheduled installation time to 3:00 A.M.

2. The logged on non-administrative user leaves the workstation locked at the end of the day.

3. The scheduled installation starts At 3:00 A.M.

4. This update requires a restart, so Automatic Updates pops up a dialog to the user's locked session saying that a restart is required.

5. At 9:00 A.M. the user unlocks the workstation and sees the restart prompt.

6. The user is unable to click No to dismiss the dialog, but can click Yes because no other users are logged on to the workstation. There is no timeout, so the user can accept the prompt to restart at a convenient time.

Example 2: Non-administrator user on a server

In this scenario the network has been set up with the following conditions:

 By default, users who do not have administrative privileges are not allowed to restart

Windows Servers. This is enforced by the local security policies.

 Multiple non-administrator users are logged on at the time the scheduled installation begins.

 The installation requires that the computer be restarted.

Resulting client behavior:

1. Users are notified of the installation.

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2. When the installation requires a restart, all logged-on users are notified that the computer must be restarted.

3. Event ID 21 is written to the system event log:

4. Non-administrator users are not allowed to dismiss the dialog by clicking No.

5. Since non-administrator users do not have permissions to restart the server, the Yes button is also disabled.

6. If new users log on, they also receive the notification that the server needs to restart.

7. Users log off.

Every time a user logs off, Automatic Updates tests to see if there are any users still logged on.

When there are no logged-on users (therefore no opportunity for user data loss), Automatic

Updates writes Event ID 22 to the system event log as shown below, and begins the restart procedure.

Summary of behavior for NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers settings

The following table shows the difference in behavior with NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers enabled (set to 1) or disabled/not configured (not set to 1).

Scenario following a scheduled installation

With

NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers enabled

Single nonadministrator without restart privilege

With

NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers disabled or not configured

No users logged on Automatic restart immediately following installation

Single user with administrative privileges

Restart notification allows user to start or postpone restart. This notification does not have a countdown timer. Therefore the user must initiate the system restart.

Automatic restart immediately following installation

Restart notification allows user to start or postpone restart. This notification has a 5 minute countdown timer. When the timer expires, the automatic restart begins.

Single user with restart privileges but no other administrative privileges

Restart notification that allows user to initiate the restart but not to postpone it. This notification does not have a countdown timer.

Therefore the user must initiate the system restart.

Restart notification that allows user to initiate the restart but not to postpone it. This notification has a 5minute countdown timer. When the timer expires, the automatic restart begins.

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart or postpone it. This notification does not have a countdown timer.

Therefore the user must wait for an

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart or postpone it. This notification has a

5-minute countdown timer. When the timer expires, the automatic

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Scenario following a scheduled installation

With

NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers enabled

With

NoAutoRebootWithLoggedOnUsers disabled or not configured

authorized user to initiate the system restart. restart begins.

Administrator while other users are logged on

Non-administrator with restart privilege while other users are logged on

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart but does allow the user to postpone it. This notification does not have a countdown timer. Therefore the user must initiate the system restart.

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart or postpone it. This notification does not have a countdown timer.

Therefore the user must initiate the system restart.

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart but does allow the user to postpone it. This notification has a 5 minute countdown timer. When the timer expires, the automatic restart begins.

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart or postpone it. This notification has a

5 minute countdown timer. When the timer expires, the automatic restart begins.

Non-administrator without restart privilege while other users are logged on

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart or postpone it. This notification does not have a countdown timer.

Therefore, the user must wait for an authorized user to initiate the system restart.

Restart notification that does not allow the user to initiate the restart or postpone it. This notification has a

5 minute countdown timer. When the timer expires, the automatic restart begins.

Note: After all users log off, Automatic Updates will restart the computer to complete the installation of the update.

Interaction with other settings

If the ―Remove access to use all Windows Update features‖ setting

(HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\WindowsU

pdate\DisableWindowsUpdateAccess) is enabled, Automatic Updates will not notify that

logged-on user. It makes a local administrator appear as a non-administrator, so that user will not be able to install updates. When this policy is enabled, the Automatic Updates service still runs, and scheduled installations will still occur if they were configured to run.

If the ―Remove links and access to Windows Update‖ Group Policy setting

(HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer\N

oWindowsUpdate) is enabled, then Automatic Updates will continue to get updates from the

WSUS server. Users with this policy set will not be able to get updates that the WSUS

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administrator has not approved on the WSUS server. If this policy is not enabled, the Microsoft

Update icon will remain on the Start menu; local administrators will be able to visit the Microsoft

Update Web site and install software that the WSUS administrator has not approved. This happens even if you have specified that Automatic Updates should get approved updates from the WSUS server. In Windows Vista, enabling this setting will gray out the Check for updates option in the Windows Update application.

The above settings can be overridden by the

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WindowsUpdate\

DisableWindowsUpdateAccess setting.

Manipulate Client Behavior Using Commandline Options

There are two documented command-line options used for manipulating Automatic Updates behavior. These options are helpful for testing and troubleshooting client computers. For troubleshooting information for problems with both the WSUS server and client computers, see the WSUS Operations Guide at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=139838 .

Detectnow Option

Because waiting for detection to start can be a time-consuming process, an option has been added to allow you to initiate detection right away. On one of the computers with the new

Automatic Update client installed, run the following command at the command prompt:

wuauclt.exe /detectnow

Resetauthorization Option

WSUS uses a cookie on client computers to store various types of information, including computer group membership when client-side targeting is used. By default, this cookie expires an hour after WSUS creates it. If you are using client-side targeting and change group membership, use this option in combination with detectnow to expire the cookie, initiate detection, and have

WSUS update computer group membership.

Note that when combining parameters, you can use them only in the order specified as follows:

wuauclt.exe /resetauthorization /detectnow

Client Behavior with Update Deadlines

You can specify a deadline when you approve an update or set of updates on the WSUS server.

Setting a deadline will cause clients to install the update at a specific time, but there are a number

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of different situations, depending on whether the deadline has expired, whether there are other updates in the queue for the client to install, and whether the update (or another update in the queue) requires a restart.

Expired and unexpired deadlines

If the client contacts the server after the update deadline has passed, it will try to install the update as soon as possible. WSUS administrators can set update deadlines to a date in the past in order to have clients install the update immediately.

If the deadline has not passed, the client will download the update and install it the next time an install occurs. For example, if the client downloads an update with a deadline of 6:00 A.M., and the scheduled installation time is 3:00 A.M., the update will be installed at 3:00 A.M. Likewise, if a user starts an install before a (downloaded) update's deadline, the update will be installed.

Deadlines and updates that require restarts

Updates that have deadlines and require restarts will cause a forced restart at the time of the deadline, no matter when the update was actually installed. For example, if an update with a 6:00

A.M. deadline was downloaded and installed at 3:00 A.M., but the computer was not restarted at that time, it will be restarted at 6:00 A.M.

Moreover, if the computer is pending restart (because another update requiring a restart was installed, but the computer was not restarted), and an update with a deadline is installed, the computer will be restarted. The following is an example of client behavior with an unexpired deadline:

1. Update 1, which has no deadline but requires restart, is installed at 1:00 A.M., and the computer is not restarted.

2. Update 2, which has a deadline of 6:00 A.M. and does not require restart, is downloaded and installed at 3:00 A.M.

3. The computer is restarted at 6:00 A.M. (the deadline of Update 2).

The following is an example of client behavior with an expired deadline:

1. Update 1, which has no deadline but requires restart, is installed at 2:00 A.M., and the computer is not restarted.

2. Update 2, which has a deadline of 1:00 A.M. and does not require restart, is downloaded and installed at 3:00 A.M.

3. The computer is restarted after Update 2 is installed, at 3:00 A.M. (the first possible restart time).

WSUS updates and deadlines

A WSUS update (an update that is required in order for WSUS to continue functioning correctly) has installation priority over other kinds of update. If an update with a deadline is blocked by a

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WSUS update, the deadline will apply to the WSUS update, as in the following sequence of events:

1. Update 1, which is a WSUS update with a deadline of 6:00 A.M., and Update 2, which is a non-WSUS update with a deadline of 2:00 A.M., are both downloaded at 1 A.M.

2. The next scheduled install is at 3:00 A.M.

3. The install of Update 1 starts at 2:00 A.M.

If the deadline of a blocked update has expired, the WSUS update that is blocking it will be installed immediately.

Set Up a Disconnected Network (Import and

Export the Updates)

Managing WSUS on a disconnected network involves exporting updates and metadata from a

WSUS server on a connected network and then importing them to the WSUS server on the disconnected network. There is a conceptual discussion of this feature in the "Networks

Disconnected from the Internet" section in Choose a Type of WSUS Deployment earlier in this

guide.

There are three steps to exporting and then importing updates:

1. Make sure that the options for express installation files and update languages on the exporting server are compatible with the settings on the importing server. This ensures that you collect the updates you intend to distribute.

2. Copy updates from the file system of the export server to the file system of the import server.

3. Export update metadata from the database on the export server, and import it into the database on the import server. The last section explains how to import exported updates to a replica server.

In this guide



Step 1: Matching Advanced Options



Step 2: Copying Updates from the File System



Step 3: Copying Metadata from the Database



Importing Updates to Replica Servers

Step 1: Matching Advanced Options

Make sure that the options for express installation files and languages on the exporting server match the settings on the importing server. For example, if you did not select the option for express installation files on the exporting server but did have the express installation file option selected on the importing server, you would not be able to distribute updates by using express

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installation files, because none were synchronized by the exporting server. A mismatch of language settings can have a similar effect.

You do not have to concern yourself with matching the settings for schedule, products and classifications, source, or proxy server. The setting for deferred download of updates has no effect on the importing server. If you are using the option for deferred downloads on the exporting server, you must approve the updates so they can be downloaded before taking the next step, which is migrating updates to the importing server.

To ensure that express installation and language options on the exporting server match settings on the importing server

1. In the WSUS Administration snap-in of the exporting server, click the Options node in the left pane, and then click Update Files and Languages.

2. In the Update Files tab, check the setting for Download express installation files.

3. In the Update Languages tab, check the settings for the update languages.

4. In the WSUS Administration snap-in of the importing server, click the Options node in the left pane, and then click Update Files and Languages.

5. Make sure the settings for Download express installation files and Languages options match the selections on the exporting server.

For more information about these options, see the topics "Using Express Installation Files" and

"Filtering Updates" in Determine Bandwidth Options to Use earlier in this guide.

Step 2: Copying Updates from the File

System

Copy updates from the file system of the exporting server to the file system of the importing server. The procedures described below use the Windows Backup or Restore Wizard, but you can use any utility you like, including xcopy. The object is to copy updates from the file system on the exporting server to the files system of the importing server. When you copy files to the importing server, you must maintain the folder structure for all folders under the content directory.

Make sure that the updates appear in the folder on the importing server that has been designated to store updates; this designation is typically made during the setup process. You should also consider using an incremental backup system to limit the amount of data you need to move each time you refresh the server on the disconnected network.

To back up updates from file system of the exporting server to a file

1. On your exporting WSUS server, click Start, and then click Run.

2. In the Run dialog box, type ntbackup. The Backup or Restore Wizard starts by default, unless it is disabled. You can use this wizard or click the link to work in Advanced Mode and use the following steps.

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3. Click the Backup tab, and then select the folder where updates are stored on the exporting server. By default, WSUS stores updates at

WSUSInstallationDrive\WSUS\WSUSContent\, where WSUSInstallationDrive is the drive on which WSUS is installed.

4. In the Backup media or file name box, type a path and file name for the backup (.bkf) file.

5. Click Start Backup. The Backup Job Information dialog box appears.

6. Click Advanced. Under Backup Type, click Incremental.

7. From the Backup Job Information dialog box, click Start Backup to start the backup operation.

8. Copy the backup file you just created to the importing server.

To restore updates from a file to the file system of the importing server

1. On your importing WSUS server, click Start, and then click Run.

2. In the Run dialog box, type ntbackup. The Backup or Restore Wizard starts by default, unless it is disabled. You can use this wizard or click the link to work in Advanced Mode and use the following steps.

3. Click the Restore and Manage Media tab, and select the backup file you created on the exporting server. If the file does not appear, right-click File, and then click Catalog File to add the location of the file.

4. In the Restore files to box, click Alternate location. This option preserves the folder structure of the updates; all folders and subfolders will appear in the folder you designate.

You must maintain the directory structure for all folders under \WSUSContent.

5. Under Alternate location, specify the folder where updates are stored on the importing server. By default, WSUS stores updates at

WSUSInstallationDrive\WSUS\WSUSContent\, where WSUSInstallationDrive is the drive on which WSUS is installed. Updates must appear in the folder on the importing server designated to hold updates; this is typically done during installation.

6. Click Start Restore. When the Confirm Restore dialog box appears, click OK to start the restore operation.

Step 3: Copying Metadata from the Database

Export update metadata from the database on the exporting server and import it into the database on the importing server using the WSUSUtil.exe utility program. For more information about this utility, see the WSUS Operations Guide at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=139838 .

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Note

You must be a member of the local Administrators group on the WSUS server to export or import metadata; both operations can be run only on a WSUS server.

You should copy updates to a directory on the importing server before you import metadata. If

WSUS finds metadata for an update that is not in the file system, the WSUS console shows that the update failed to be downloaded. This type of problem can be fixed by copying the update to a directory on the importing server and then deploying the update again.

Although you can use incremental backups to move update files to the importing server, you cannot move update metadata incrementally. WSUSutil.exe exports all the metadata in the

WSUS database during the export operation.

Important

Never import exported data from a source that you do not trust. Importing content from a source you do not trust might compromise the security of your WSUS server.

Note

During the import or export process, the Update Service, the Windows NT service that underpins the WSUS application, is shut down.

To export metadata from the database of the exporting server

1. At the command prompt on the exporting server, navigate to the folder that contains

WSUSutil.exe (usually …\Program Files\Update Services\Tools).

2. Type the following:

wsusutil.exe export packagename logfile

For example:

wsusutil.exe export export.cab export.log

The package (.cab file) and log file name must be unique. WSUSutil.exe creates these two files as it exports metadata from the WSUS database.

3. Move the export package you just created to the importing server.

To import metadata to the database of the importing server

1. At the command prompt on the importing server, navigate to the directory that contains

WSUSutil.exe (usually …\Program Files\Update Services\Tools).

2. Type the following:

wsusutil.exe import packagename logfile

For example:

wsusutil.exe import export.cab import.log

WSUSutil.exe imports the metadata from the exporting server and creates a log file of the operation.

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Note

It can take 3–4 hours for the database to validate content that has just been imported.

Importing Updates to Replica Servers

In some situations, you may need to import updates or metadata to a replica server. For example, you may wish to speed up the initial synchronization by copying the updates to the replica server.

To copy update content to a replica server, you may use the same steps described in Step 2:

Copying Updates from the File System . However, because metadata is not ordinarily kept on the

replica server, you must temporarily turn off the replica setting on the server, import the metadata, and then turn it on again.

Import metadata to a replica server

To import metadata to a replica server

1. In the WSUS Administration snap-in, go to Options, then select Update Source and

Proxy Server.

2. On the Update Source tab, clear the This server is a replica server of the upstream

server check box, and then click OK to save the setting.

3. Follow the procedures for exporting and importing metadata described in Step 3: Copying

Metadata from the Database .

4. After completing the import, go back to the Update Source tab of the Update Source

and Proxy Server page, and then select the This server is a replica server of the

upstream server check box. Click OK to save the setting.

Appendix A: Unattended Installations

You can use command-line parameters to run WSUS Setup in unattended mode. When running this way, WSUS Setup does not display a user interface (UI). If you need to troubleshoot the setup process, use the log files, which you can find at the following location:

WSUSInstallationDrive\Program Files\Update Services\LogFiles\

Use command-line parameters from a command prompt.

Type the following command:

WSUSSetup.exe /command-line parameter property=value

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where command-line parameter is a command-line parameter from the WSUS Setup commandline parameters table, where property is a property from the WSUS Setup properties table, and where value is the actual value of the property being passed to WSUS. Both tables are included below.

If you need to pass a value to WSUS Setup, use the property name, an equals sign ("="), and its value. Properties are always paired with values. For example, if you wanted WSUS Setup to install silently and set the WSUS Content Directory to the D:\WSUS directory, you would use the following syntax:

WSUSSetup.exe /q CONTENT_DIR=D:\WSUS

If you need help with WSUSutil.exe, you can use the /help command to display the list of command-line parameters:

WSUSSetup.exe /help

WSUS setup command-line parameters

Option

/q

/u

/p

/?, /h

/g

Description

Perform silent installation.

Uninstall WSUS.

Inspect the system and report any prerequisites that are missing. Does not install WSUS.

Display command-line parameters and their descriptions.

Upgrade from the 2.0 version of WSUS. The only valid parameter with this option is /q (silent installation). The only valid property with this option is DEFAULT_WEBSITE.

WSUS setup properties

Property

CONTENT_LOCAL

CONTENT_DIR

WYUKON_DATA_DIR

Description

0=content hosted locally, 1=host on Microsoft

Update

Path to content directory. Default is

WSUSInstallationDrive\WSUS\WSUSContent, where WSUSInstallationDrive is the local drive with the largest amount of free space.

Path to Windows Internal Database data directory.

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Property

SQLINSTANCE_NAME

DEFAULT_WEBSITE

PREREQ_CHECK_LOG

CONSOLE_INSTALL

ENABLE_INVENTORY

DELETE_DATABASE

DELETE_CONTENT

DELETE_LOGS

CREATE_DATABASE

PROGRESS_WINDOW_HANDLE

MU_ROLLUP

FRONTEND_SETUP

Description

The name should appear in the format

ServerName\SQLInstanceName. If the database instance is on the local machine, use the %COMPUTERNAME% environment variable. If an existing instance is not present, the default is %COMPUTERNAME%\WSUS.

0=port 8530, 1=port 80

Path and file name for log file

0=install the WSUS server, 1=install console only

0=do not install inventory features, 1=install inventory features

0=retain database, 1=remove database

0=retain content files, 1=remove content files

0=retain log files, 1=remove log files (used with the /u install switch).

0=use current database, 1=create database

Window handle to return Microsoft© Windows©

Installer progress messages.

1=join Microsoft Update Improvement Program,

0=don't join

1=do not write the content location to the database, 0=write the content location to the database (for NLB)

Appendix B: Configure Remote SQL

WSUS offers limited support for running database software on a computer that is separate from the computer where the rest of WSUS is installed. This section offers step-by-step instructions for how to install WSUS in this configuration.

Setting up WSUS for remote SQL is a three-step process:

1. Install and configure SQL Server 2005 or SQL Server 2008 on the back-end server.

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2. Confirm that the administrator who is going to install WSUS 3.0 SP2 also has permissions on

SQL Server

3. Install WSUS 3.0 SP2 on the front-end computer, and configure it to use the database on the back-end computer.

Note

For a remote SQL installation on WSUS 3.0 SP2, you install WSUS on the front-end computer only. You do not need to install WSUS on the back-end computer.

Remote SQL Limitations and Requirements

WSUS 3.0 SP2 supports running a compatible version of SQL Server software on a computer that is separate from the computer on which the WSUS 3.0 SP2 application is running. The following requirements apply to a remote SQL installation.

 You cannot use a server configured as a domain controller for the back end of the remote

SQL pair.

 You cannot run Terminal Services on the computer that will be the front-end server of a remote SQL installation.

 Both the front-end computer and the back-end computer must be joined to an Active

Directory domain. If the front end and back end computers are in different domains, establish a cross-domain trust between the domains before running WSUS Setup.

 The front-end computer, the back-end computer, and the downstream server(s) must have identical system times. If the system clocks are not synchronized between all of the computers, rollups will fail and no computer status information will be relayed to the upstream server.

 If you already have WSUS 2.0 installed in a remote SQL configuration and want to upgrade to WSUS 3.0 SP2, do the following before you install WSUS on the front end computer: a. Uninstall WSUS 2.0 (using Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel) on the back-end computer while ensuring that the existing database remains intact. b. Install SQL Server 2005 SP2 or SQL Server 2008 and upgrade the existing database.

Database requirements

WSUS 3.0 SP2 requires SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2 or SQL Server 2008. If you use the full version of SQL Server, the SQL Server administrator should first verify that the nested triggers option on SQL Server is turned on. Do this before setting up the WSUS database.

You cannot use SQL authentication. WSUS supports only Windows authentication. WSUS Setup creates a database named SUSDB. For more information about what is stored in the WSUS

database or how it functions, see Choose the Database Used for WSUS 3.0 SP2 earlier in this

guide.

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Step 1: Install SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2 or

SQL Server 2008 on the back-end computer

Install a SQL Server 2005 database on the back-end computer and enable remote connections.

You may use a named instance or the default instance for the WSUS database.

Set Up Remote SQL Connections

1. Click Start, point at All Programs, point at SQL Server, point at Configuration Tools, and select SQL Server Surface Area Configuration.

2. Choose Surface Configuration for Services and Connections.

Enable Remote SQL Connections

1. In the left window, click the Remote Connections node.

2. Select Local and remote connections and then select Using TCP/IP only.

3. Click OK to save the settings.

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If you plan to run the SQL Server service remotely under a domain account, you will need to register a service principal name (SPN) for this server. For more information about adding an

SPN, please see How to make sure that you are using Kerberos authentication when you create a remote connection to an instance of SQL Server 2005

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=85942).

Important

Running the SQL Server service under a local non-system account is not supported.

Step 2: Check administrative permissions on SQL

Server

Confirm that the person who is going to install WSUS 3.0 SP2 on the front-end computer has administrative permissions on SQL Server.

To ensure administrative permissions on SQL Server

1. Start SQL Server Management Studio (click Start, click Run, and then type sqlwb).

2. Connect to the SQL Engine on the server where SQL Server 2005 or SQL Server 2008 was installed in Step 1.

3. Select the Security node and then select Logins.

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4. The right pane will show a list of the accounts that have database access. Confirm that the person who is going to install WSUS 3.0 SP2 on the front-end computer has an account in this list.

5. If the account does not exist, then right-click the Logins node, select New Login, and add the account.

6. Set up this account for the roles needed to set up the WSUS 3.0 SP2 database. The roles are either dbcreator plus diskadmin, or sysadmin. Accounts belonging to the local Administrators group have the sysadmin role by default.

Step 3: Install WSUS on the front-end computer

Now install WSUS on the front-end computer. This server will need access to the Internet or to another WSUS server to obtain updates. You need to prepare this computer with all the prerequisites for a normal WSUS installation, except for database software.

Run WSUS Setup from the command line, using the

SQLINSTANCE_NAME=servername\instancename command-line option, where servername is

the name of the remote computer, and instancename is the name of the SQL Server instance that you will use for WSUS. This option installs WSUS as the front end of a remote SQL pair and installs the database setup portion of the WSUS setup process on the remote machine.

To install WSUS on the front-end computer

1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder containing the WSUS Setup program, and type:

WSUSSetup.exe SQLINSTANCE_NAME=servername\instancename

2. You will see the Welcome page of the installation wizard. Continue installing WSUS as in

the procedure given in Run WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server Setup .

Note

Optionally, after you have completed the WSUS 3.0 SP2 installation, you can delete the

SQL Server account set up in Step 2.

Appendix C: Configure WSUS for Network

Load Balancing

Network load balancing (NLB) is a strategy that can keep networks running even if one (or more) servers go offline. It can be used in conjunction with WSUS, but requires special steps at setup time.

Confirm that you have completed WSUS setup and configured your SQL Server 2005 or SQL

Server 2008 database as a failover cluster before configuring the NLB cluster. For more

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information about how to set up an NLB cluster, see Network Load Balancing Clusters at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=76491.

Note

None of the servers taking part in the cluster should be a front-end domain controller.

Important

The maximum number of front-end WSUS servers per database instance is four.

Step 1: Configure remote SQL

Confirm that you have configured WSUS for remote SQL according to the procedure in Appendix

B: Configure Remote SQL earlier in this guide.

When you have finished this step, you will have the back-end SQL machine set up, as well as one of the front-end WSUS server machines. In the next step you will set up the other front-end

WSUS servers.

Step 2: Set up the other front-end WSUS servers

In this step you will install WSUS on the other front-end WSUS servers without creating the database.

To install WSUS on the front-end computer

1. At the command prompt, navigate to the folder containing the WSUS Setup program, and type:

WSUSSetup.exe /q FRONTEND_SETUP=1 SQLINSTANCE_NAME=server\instance

CREATE_DATABASE=0

2. You will see the Welcome page of the installation wizard. Continue installing WSUS

using the procedure in Run WSUS 3.0 SP2 Server Setup .

Note

If you are using the default SQL instance, leave the instance name blank. For example, if you are using the default instance on a server named MySQLServer,

SQLINSTANCE_NAME should be MySQLServer.

Step 3: Configure the front-end WSUS servers

All the front-end WSUS servers should use a proxy server and should authenticate by means of the same user name and password. You can configure this in the WSUS administration console.

To configure the proxy server on WSUS front-end servers

1. In the WSUS administration console, select Options, then Update Source and Proxy

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Server.

2. Select the Proxy Server tab, then enter the proxy server name, port, user name, domain, and password, then click OK.

3. Repeat this procedure on all the front-end WSUS servers.

Step 4: Set up a DFS share

You should create a single file location that is available to all the front-end WSUS servers. Even if you do not store updates locally, you will need a location for End User License Agreement files.

You may choose to store them on a Distributed File System share.

Note

It is not necessary to use a DFS share with an NLB cluster. You can use a standard network share, and you can ensure redundancy by storing updates on a RAID controller.

This step explains how to set up DFS on one of the servers in your cluster on a Windows

Server 2003 server.

To set up a DFS share

1. Go to Start, point at All Programs, point at Administrative Tools, and click Distributed

File System.

2. You will see the Distributed File System management console. Right-click the

Distributed File System node in the left pane and click New Root in the shortcut menu.

3. You will see the New Root Wizard. Click Next.

4. In the Root Type screen, select Stand-alone root as the type of root, and click Next.

5. In the Host Server screen, type the name of the host server for the DFS root or search for it with Browse, and then click Next.

6. In the Root Name screen, type the name of the DFS root, and then click Next.

7. In the Root Share screen, select the folder that will serve as the share, or create a new one. Click Next.

8. In the last screen of the wizard, review your selections before clicking Finish.

9. You will see an error message if the Distributed File System service has not yet been started on the server. You can start it at this time.

10. Make sure that the domain account of each of the front-end WSUS servers has change permissions on the root folder of this share. That is, if there is a WSUS server installed locally on the computer that has the DFS share, the Network Service account should have change permissions on the root folder. In addition, the user account of the administrator who will run the movecontent command (in Step 5) should also have change permissions. For each of the remote WSUS servers, the domain/computer account (where domain is the name of the domain and computer is the name of the computer) should have change permissions on the root folder of the share.

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After you install a WSUS update, verify the NTFS permissions on the WSUSContent folder. The NTFS permissions on the WSUSContent folder may be reset to the default values by the installer.

Note

For more information about setting permissions on DFS shares, see KB 308568 , "How To

Set File Permissions for Shares in DFS Replica Sets to Apply to All Replicas"

(http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=86550).

Step 5: Configure IIS on the front-end WSUS servers

In order to access the updates on the DFS share, the front-end WSUS servers must have IIS configured to allow remote access.

To configure IIS for remote access on the front-end WSUS servers

1. On each of the servers, go to Start, point at All Programs, point at Administrative

Tools, and click Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

2. You will see the Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager management console.

3. Click the server node, then the Web Sites node, then the node for the WSUS Web site

(either Default Web Site or WSUS Administration).

4. Right-click the Content node and select Properties.

5. In the Content Properties dialog box, click the Virtual Directory tab. In the top frame you will see The content for this resource should come from:

6. Select A share located on another computer and fill in the UNC name of the share.

7. Click Connect As, and enter the user name and password that can be used to access that share.

8. Be sure to follow these steps for each of the front-end WSUS servers that are not on the same machine as the DFS share.

Step 6: Move the local content directory on the first front-end WSUS server to the DFS share

Now it is possible to move the content directories on the first front-end WSUS server to the DFS share. This is the first WSUS front-end server you set up in Step 1. You will not have to move the local content directory on the front-end servers you set up in Step 2.

To move the content directories on the front-end WSUS servers

1. Open a command window.

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2. Go to the WSUS tools directory on the WSUS server:

cd \Program Files\Update Services\Tools

3. Type the following command:

wsusutil movecontent DFSsharename logfilename

where DFSsharename is the name of the DFS share to which the content should be moved, and logfilename is the name of the log file.

Step 7: Configure the NLB

Refer to Network Load Balancing Clusters at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=76491 for more information about this topic.

To configure Network Load Balancing

1. Enable Network Load Balancing:

 Click Start, then Control Panel, Network Connections, Local Area Connection, and click Properties.

 Under This connection uses the following items, you may see an entry for

Network Load Balancing. If you do not, click Install, then (on the Select Network

Component Type screen) select Service, then click Add, then (on the Select

Network Service screen) select Network Load Balancing, then OK.

 On the Local Area Connection Properties screen, select Network Load

Balancing, and then click OK.

2. On the Local Area Connection Properties screen, select Network Load Balancing, and then click Properties.

3. On the Cluster Parameters tab, fill in the relevant information (the virtual IP address to be shared among the front end computers, and the subnet mask). Under Cluster

operation mode, select Unicast.

4. On the Host Parameters tab, make sure that the unique host identifier is different for each member of the cluster.

5. On the Port Rules tab, make sure that there is a port rule specifying single affinity (the default). (Affinity is the term used to define how client requests are to be directed. Single affinity means that requests from the same client will always be directed to the same cluster host.)

6. Click OK, and return to the Local Area Connection Properties screen.

7. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties, and then click Advanced.

8. On the IP Settings tab, under IP addresses, add the virtual IP of the cluster (so that there will be two IP addresses). This should be done on each cluster member.

9. On the DNS tab, clear the Register this connection's addresses in DNS checkbox.

Make sure that there is no DNS entry for the IP address.

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Step 8: Test the WSUS NLB configuration

You should first make sure that at least one of the WSUS front-end servers can perform an initial synchronization. If the synchronization is successful, continue to the next step. Otherwise, review the WSUS setup and NLB cluster setup.

Step 9: Configure WSUS clients to sync from the

DFS share

Instructions for configuring WSUS client machines are given in Update and Configure the

Automatic Updates Client . However, in the case of WSUS on NLB clusters, you should specify

the virtual address of the NLB cluster rather than one of the individual servers. For example, if you are setting up your clients with a Group Policy object or Local Group Policy object, the setting for the Specify intranet Microsoft update service location setting should be the virtual Web address.

Important

If you are using a DFS share, be careful when uninstalling WSUS from one but not all of the front-end servers. If you allow the WSUS content directory to be deleted, this will affect all the WSUS front-end servers.

Upgrading NLB

Note

Check to see if you have followed all the steps mentioned above to configure WSUS for

NLB.If the steps have not been followed then reconfigure the WSUS for NLB following all the above mentioned steps.

To upgrade NLB on all machines

1. Shut down the NLB service. At the command prompt type nlb.exe suspend.

2. Shut down IIS and the WSUS service. At the command prompt type iisreset/stop and then net stop wsusservice.

3. Ensure no other services are able to access the database during the upgrade window. At the command prompt type nlb.exe disable.

4. Back up your database. a. On your machine hosting the database, click Start, and then click Run. b. In the Open box, type %systemdrive%\%windir%\system32\ntbackup.exe and then click OK. c. In the Backup or Restore Wizard, click Next. d. Verify that Backup files and settings is selected, and then click Next. e. Click Let me choose what to back up, and then click Next.

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f. Under the location where your database files are stored, click the Data and LOG folders, and then click Next. g. Use the Browse button to choose a place to save your backup, type a name for the backup, and then click Next. h. If you want to set additional specifications for your backup, including whether it will be an incremental backup and whether you want to verify the backup, set a recurring schedule for the backup, or other options, click Advanced, and then follow the prompts that appear in the wizard. i. When the wizard is finished, click Finish. j. When the message appears that informs you that the backup is complete, click

Close.

5. Upgrade each frontend machine individually. a. Set up WSUS. At the command prompt type Wsussetup.exe/q/g. b. Review the setup log to verify the upgrade was successful. At the command prompt type Wsussetup.log c. Ensure that IIS and the WSUS service are stopped. At the command prompt type

iisreset/stop and then net stop wsusservice.

d. Proceed to the next machine.

6. Start IIS and the WSUS service. Click the Start button, point to Administrative tools, click Services, and then click the service you want to start.

7. Start the NLB service. At the command prompt, type nlb.exe resume.

Appendix D: Configure WSUS for Roaming

Clients

If there are many roaming WSUS clients on your network, who often log on to your network from different locations, you may want to configure WSUS so that these computers always get their updates from the nearest WSUS server. This procedure presupposes that you have several different DNS subnets in your network, and that you want to install WSUS servers in the subnets.

Step 1: Identify the servers to use as WSUS servers

Identify one server in each of the subnets that you plan to use as a WSUS server. Keep a record of their IP addresses.

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Step 2: Set up the host names on the DNS server

Set up as many DNS host (A) resource records as there are planned WSUS servers.

To set up the host names on the DNS server

1. Launch the DNS console.

2. Click Action, and then click New Host (A).

3. In the New Host dialog box, type the server name (for example, WSUSServer) in the

Name box.

4. Type the appropriate IP address in the IP address box.

5. Click Add Host.

6. Repeat this procedure for the rest of the planned WSUS servers.

Important

Make sure that each of the planned WSUS servers has the same host name.

Step 3: Set up the DNS server for netmask ordering and round robin

To set up netmask ordering and round robin on the DNS server

1. In the DNS console, right-click the DNS server node, click Properties, and then click the

Advanced tab.

2. In the Server options box, select the Enable round robin and Enable netmask

ordering check boxes.

3. Click OK.

Note

With netmask ordering, you restrict name resolution to computers in the same subnet, if there are any. With round robin, if there are multiple name resolutions, the result that is returned will rotate through the list of available hosts. Therefore, if there is a subnet without a WSUS server, host name resolution for clients in that subnet will rotate through the list of WSUS servers in the other subnets.

Step 4: Configure the WSUS servers

Set up and configure the WSUS servers in the different subnets. See Install the WSUS 3.0 SP2

Server for details.

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Step 5: Configure WSUS clients to use the same host name

When you set up WSUS client computers (see Update and Configure the Automatic Updates

Client ), make sure to use the same host name you have set up as the WSUS server.

Appendix E: List of Security Settings

This appendix lists the recommended security settings for WSUS. The recommendations are categorized into settings for Windows Server, IIS, and SQL Server.

Windows Server

The following are security recommendations for Windows Server with WSUS.

Audit policy

Enable audit events to ensure that adequate logs are collected for system activities.

Audit policy settings

Option

Audit account logon events

Audit account management

Security setting

Success, Failure

Success, Failure

Audit directory service access No Auditing

Audit logon events

Audit object access

Success, Failure

No Auditing

Setting rationale

Auditing for successful and failed logon events provides useful data regarding password bruteforcing attempts.

Auditing for successful and failed account management events tracks management activities.

This is only important for domain controllers running the Active

Directory Domain Services (AD

DS).

Auditing for successful and failed logon events provides useful data regarding password bruteforcing attempts.

Auditing object access is unnecessary and creates many unnecessary logs for WSUS

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Option

Audit policy change

Audit privilege use

Audit process tracking

Audit system events

Security setting

Success, Failure

Success, Failure

No Auditing

Success, Failure

Setting rationale

activity.

Auditing for successful and failed policy changes tracks management activities.

Auditing for successful and failed privilege use tracks administrator activities.

Process-tracking events are unnecessary for WSUS implementations.

Auditing for successful and failed system events tracks system activities.

Security options

Configure Windows Server security settings to help ensure optional security and functionality.

Security options settings

Option

Accounts: Administrator account status

Accounts: Guest account

Status

Accounts: Limit local account use of blank passwords to console logon only

Accounts: Rename administrator account

Security setting

Enabled

Disabled

Enabled

Not Defined

Setting rationale

Because it is necessary to have an administrator, the administrator account should be enabled for authorized users.

Because it is risky to have guest accounts, the guest account should be disabled unless specifically required.

Accounts with blank passwords significantly increase the likelihood of network-based attacks.

Renaming the administrator account forces a malicious individual to guess both the account name and password.

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Option

Accounts: Rename Guest account

Audit: Audit the access of global system objects

Audit: Audit the use of backup and restore privilege

Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits

Devices: Allow undock without having to log on

Devices: Allow to format and eject removable media

Security setting

Not Defined

Enabled

Enabled

Disabled

Disabled

Administrators

Setting rationale

Note that even though the account can be renamed, it still uses the same well known SID, and there are tools available to quickly identify this and provide the name.

Because the Guest account is disabled by default, and should never be enabled, renaming the account is not important.

However, if an organization decides to enable the Guest account and use it, it should be renamed beforehand.

This setting needs to be enabled for auditing to take place in the Event Viewer. The auditing setting can be set to

Not Defined, Success or

Failure in the Event View.

For security reasons, this option should be enabled so that auditors will be aware of users creating backups of potentially sensitive data.

Enabling this option shuts down the system if it is unable to log audits. This can help prevent missed audit events.

Enabling very large log files on a separate partition helps mitigate this.

Disabling this option ensures that only authenticated users can dock and undock computers.

This option is not typically useful for desktop images.

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Option

Devices: Prevent users from installing printer drivers

Devices: Restrict CD-ROM access to locally logged-on user only

Enabled

Devices: Restrict floppy access to locally logged-on user only

Enabled

Devices: Unsigned driver installation behavior

Domain controller: Allow server operators to schedule tasks

Domain controller: LDAP server signing requirements

Domain controller: Refuse machine account password changes

Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel

Security setting

Enabled

Warn but allow installation

Disabled

Not Defined

Disabled

Disabled

Setting rationale

Because the Windows GDI system runs in kernel space, allowing a user to install a printer driver could lead to elevated privileges.

Enabling this option prevents remote users from accessing the local CD-ROM, which may contain sensitive information.

In situations in which the server is physically secured and password authentication is required by the Recover

Console, this option can be enabled to facilitate system recovery.

Most driver software is signed.

Administrators should not install unsigned drivers unless the origin and authenticity can be verified and the software has been thoroughly tested in a lab environment first. Because only senior administrators will be working on these systems, it is safe to leave this to their discretion.

The ability to schedule tasks should be limited to administrators only.

This option applies only to domain controllers.

Enabling this option allows machine accounts to automatically change their passwords.

If the domain controller is known to support encryption of

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Option

data (always)

Security setting

Domain member: Digitally encrypt secure channel data

(when possible)

Enabled

Domain member: Digitally sign secure channel data (when possible)

Enabled

Domain member: Disable machine account password changes

Domain member: Maximum machine account password age

Disabled

30 days

Domain member: Require strong (Windows 2000 or later) session key

Interactive logon: Do not display last user name

Enabled

Enabled

Interactive logon: Do not require CTRL+ALT+DEL

Disabled

Setting rationale

the secure channel, this option can be enabled to protect against local network attacks.

Enabling this option provides the most flexibility while enabling the highest security when the server supports it.

Enabling this option provides the most flexibility while enabling the highest security when the server supports it.

Disabling this option allows machine accounts to automatically change their passwords.

Less frequently changed passwords are easier to break than passwords that are changed more frequently.

Enabling this option sets strong session keys for all computers running Windows 2000 or later.

Hiding the last user name should be enabled, especially when the administrator user account is renamed. This helps prevent a passerby from determining account names.

The CTRL+ALT+DEL sequence is intercepted at a level lower than user mode programs are allowed to hook.

Requiring this sequence at logon is a security feature designed to prevent a Trojan

Horse program masquerading as the Windows logon from capturing users' passwords.

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Option Security setting

Interactive logon: Message text for users attempting to log on

[provide legal text]

Interactive logon: Message title for users attempting to log on

[provide legal title text]

Interactive logon: Number of previous logons to cache (in case domain controller is not available)

10 logons

Interactive logon: Prompt user to change password before expiration

Interactive logon: Require

Domain Controller authentication to unlock workstation

Interactive logon: Require smart card

14 days

Enabled

Not Defined

Interactive logon: Smart card removal behavior

Not Defined

Microsoft network client:

Digitally sign communications

(always)

Disabled

Setting rationale

An appropriate legal and warning message should be displayed according to the

Corporate Security Policy.

An appropriate legal and warning message should be displayed according to the

Corporate Security Policy.

This option is usually appropriate only for laptops that might be disconnected from their domain. It also presents a security risk for some types of servers, such as application servers. If a server is compromised and domain logons are cached, the attacker may be able to use this locally stored information to gain domain-level credentials.

Password prompts should be aligned according to the

Corporate Security Policy.

Enabling this option allows a domain controller account to unlock any workstation. This should only be allowed for the local Administrator account on the computer.

If this system will not be using smart cards, this option is not necessary.

If this system will not be using smart cards, this option is not necessary.

For systems communicating to servers that do not support

SMB signing, this option should

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Option Security setting

Microsoft network client:

Digitally sign communications

(if server agrees)

Enabled

Microsoft network client: Send unencrypted password to thirdparty SMB servers

Disabled

Microsoft network server:

Amount of idle time required before suspending session

15 minutes

Microsoft network server:

Digitally sign communications

(always)

Disabled

Microsoft network server:

Digitally sign communications

(if client agrees)

Enabled

Microsoft network server:

Disconnect clients when logon hours expire

Network access: Allow anonymous SID/Name translation

Enabled

Disabled

Setting rationale

be disabled. However, if packet authenticity is required, this can be enabled.

For systems communicating to servers that do support SMB signing, this option should be enabled.

If this option is enabled, then a third-party SMB server could negotiate a dialect that does not support cryptographic functions. Authentication would be performed using plain-text passwords.

This should be set appropriately for the end-user system such that idle connections do not linger or consume resources.

For systems communicating to servers that do not support

SMB signing, this option should be disabled. However, if packet authenticity is required, this can be enabled.

For systems communicating to servers that do not support

SMB signing, this option should be disabled. However, if packet authenticity is required, this can be enabled.

Enabling this option prevents users from logging on after authorized hours.

This option is highly important for securing Windows networking. Disabling it severely restricts the abilities

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Option Security setting

Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of

SAM accounts

Enabled

Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of

SAM accounts and shares

Network access: Do not allow storage of credentials or .NET passports for network authentication

Network access: Let Everyone permissions apply to anonymous users

Network access: Named Pipes that can be accessed

Enabled

Enabled

Disabled

Not Defined

Setting rationale

granted to a user connecting with a Null session.

This option is highly important for securing Windows networking. Enabling this option severely restricts the abilities granted to a user connecting with a Null session.

Because ―Everyone‖ is no longer in the anonymous user’s token, access to IPC$ is disallowed. Pipes that are explicitly set to allow anonymous are inaccessible because the SMB tree connection to this share fails.

This option is highly important for securing Windows networking. Enabling this option severely restricts the abilities granted to a user connecting with a Null session.

Because ―Everyone‖ is no longer in the anonymous user’s token, access to IPC$ is disallowed. Pipes that are explicitly set to allow anonymous are inaccessible because the SMB tree connection to this share fails.

Enabling this option prevents the storage of sensitive passwords in the computers’ cache.

Anonymous users should have no access to computers.

Named pipes should be restricted anonymously.

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Option

anonymously

Security setting Setting rationale

Restricting named pipes breaks some intersystem processes, such as network printing.

Network access: Remotely accessible registry paths

Not Defined

Network access: Shares that can be accessed anonymously

None

Network access: Sharing and security model for local accounts

Network security: Do not store

LAN Manager hash value on next password change

Network security: Force logoff when logon hours expire

Network security: LAN

Manager authentication level

Network security: LDAP client signing requirements

Guest only—local users authenticate as Guest

Enabled

Registry paths should be restricted from remote access unless for monitoring circumstances.

No shares should be accessed anonymously.

Limit all local accounts to

Guest privileges.

Enabling this feature deletes the weaker LAN Manager hashes, reducing the likelihood of password attacks from sniffing the weak hash over the name or from the local SAM database file.

Enabled

Send NTLMv2 response only Sending LM is less secure than

NTLM, and should only be enabled if the system will communicate with computers running Windows 98 or

Windows 95. Additionally, use

NTLMv2 only; however, computers running

Windows 98, Windows 95, or unpatched Windows NT4.0 will not be able to communicate with servers running NTLMv2.

Negotiate signing

This option should be enabled as part of the acceptable policy.

Require signing when authenticating to third party

LDAP servers. This prevents attacks against rogue LDAP

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Option

Network security: Minimum session security for NTLM

SSP-based (including secure

RPC) clients

Require NTLMv2 session security

Network security: Minimum session security for NTLM

SSP-based (including secure

RPC) servers

Require NTLMv2 session security

Recovery console: Allow automatic administrative logon

Recovery console: Allow floppy copy and access to all drives and all folders

Shutdown: Allow system to be shut down without having to log on

Security setting

Disabled

Disabled

Disabled

Setting rationale

servers and clear-text submission of passwords over the network.

The NTLM hashes contain weaknesses that attacks may exploit. When enabled, these requirements strengthen the authentication algorithms for

Windows.

The NTLM hashes contain weaknesses that attacks may exploit. When enabled, these requirements will strengthen the authentication algorithms for Windows.

If automatic administrative logon is enabled, then a malicious user that has console access could simply restart the computer and gain administrative privileges.

However, an organization may enable this feature if the computer is a physically secure server, allowing access to the system if the administrator password is forgotten.

The recovery console can be used as an attack method to gain access to SAM database files offline; therefore, this option should be enabled to prevent those files from being copied to a floppy disk.

This option is used to prevent users without valid accounts from shutting down the system, and is a good precautionary measure.

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Option

Shutdown: Clear virtual memory pagefile

System cryptography: Force strong key protection for user keys stored on the computer

User is prompted when the key is first used

System cryptography: Use

FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing

Security setting

Disabled

Not Defined

System Objects: Default owner for objects created by members of the Administrators group

Administrators group

System objects: Require case insensitivity for non-Windows subsystems

System settings: Optional subsystems

Disabled

Enter POSIX here only if expressly required

Setting rationale

Clearing the memory pagefile at shutdown can help prevent offline analysis of the file, which might contain sensitive information from system memory, such as passwords.

However, in situations in which the computer is physically secured, this can be enabled to reduce time required for system restarts.

Protecting local cryptographic secrets helps prevent privilege escalation across the network, once access to one system is obtained.

Require stronger, standard, and compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing.

Administrators should only have access to the created file.

System settings: Use

Certificate Rules on Windows executables for Software

Restriction policies

Not Defined

Require case-sensitivity for non-Windows subsystems, such as UNIX passwords.

The POSIX execution layer has had multiple local exploits in the past, and should be disabled unless required by third-party software. It is extremely rare for POSIX to be required by commercial software packages.

When certificate rules are created, enabling this option enforces software restriction policies that check a Certificate

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Option Security setting Setting rationale

Revocation List (CRL) to make sure the software's certificate and signature are valid.

Important

The WSUS subdirectories UpdateServicesPackages, WsusContent, and WsusTemp created as shared directories (for WSUS Administrators and the Network Service account) as part of WSUS setup. These directories can be found by default under the

WSUS directory at the root of the largest partition on the WSUS server. Sharing of these directories may be disabled if you are not using local publishing.

Event log settings

Configure Event Log settings to help ensure an adequate level of activity monitoring.

Event log settings

Option Security setting

Maximum application log size 100489 kilobytes

Maximum security log size

Maximum system log size

Prevent local guests group from accessing application log

Enabled

Prevent local guests group from accessing security log

Prevent local guests group from accessing system log

100489 kilobytes

100489 kilobytes

Enabled

Enabled

Setting rationale

A large event log allows administrators to store and search for problematic and suspicious events.

A large event log allows administrators to store and search for problematic and suspicious events.

A large event log allows administrators to store and search for problematic and suspicious events.

Guest accounts should not be able to access sensitive information in the event log.

Guest accounts should not be able to access sensitive information in the event log.

Guest accounts should not be able to access sensitive information in the event log.

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Option

Retain application log

Retain security log

Retain system log

Security setting

7 Days

7 Days

7 Days

Retention method for application log

Retention method for security log

Retention method for system log

As Needed

As Needed

As Needed

System services

Enable only services that are required for WSUS.

Enabled operating system services

Option

Alerter

Security setting

Disabled

Setting rationale

After a week, logs should be stored on a centralized log server.

After a week, logs should be stored on a centralized log server.

After a week, logs should be stored on a centralized log server.

Overwrite audit logs as needed when log files have filled up.

Overwrite audit logs as needed when log files have filled up.

Overwrite audit logs as needed when log files have filled up.

Application Management Manual

Automatic Updates

Clipbook

Automatic

Disabled

Setting rationale

The alerter service is of most use when an administrator is logged into the network and wants to be notified of events.

For computers running WSUS, the service is not necessary.

This service is only necessary when installing new applications to the environment with Active

Directory.

This service is required in order to support a fully patched operating environment.

This service is unnecessary to

116

Option

COM+ Event System

Computer Browser

DHCP Client

Security setting

Manual

Automatic

Automatic

Distributed File System Disabled

Distributed Link Tracking Client Disabled

Distributed Link Tracking

Server

Distributed Transaction

Coordinator

DNS Client

Event Log

Disabled

Disabled

Automatic

Automatic

File Replication

IIS ADMIN Service

Indexing Service

Disabled

Automatic

Manual

Setting rationale

the WSUS environment.

The COM+ event system might be used in the Web-based application.

The computer browser service is required on interactive workstations.

DHCP is necessary to have an

IP address on the WSUS server.

DFS is used for file sharing across multiple servers, which is not needed for WSUS.

This service is appropriate only if a domain has distributed link tracking configured.

This service is appropriate only if a domain has distributed link tracking configured.

This service is appropriate only if a domain uses distributed transactions, which are not needed for WSUS.

DNS is necessary for IPaddress-to-name resolution.

The Event Log service is important for logging events on the system and provides critical auditing information.

This service is used for file replication and synchronization, which is not necessary for

WSUS.

This service is required for

WSUS administration.

This service is used by IIS.

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Option

Intersite Messaging

Security setting

Disabled

Setting rationale

This service needs to be enabled only on domain controllers.

This service is required if the local ICF firewall is being used.

Internet Connection

Firewall/Internet Connection

Sharing

IPsec Services

Manual

Kerberos Key Distribution

Center

License Logging Service

Logical Disk Manager

Logical Disk Manager

Administrative Service

Messenger

Net Logon

NetMeeting Remote Desktop

Sharing

Network Connections

Network DDE

Automatic

Disabled unless functioning as a domain controller

Disabled

Automatic

Manual

Disabled

Automatic

Disabled

Manual

Disabled

This service is required if IPsec has been utilized.

This service is enabled by default in order to join and authenticate to Windows Server domain controllers.

This service is used on systems on which application licensing must be tracked.

This service is used in logical disk management.

This service is used in logical disk management.

This service is only necessary if

NetBIOS messaging is being used.

This service is necessary to belong to a domain.

NetMeeting is an application that allows collaboration over a network. It is used on interactive workstations, and should be disabled for servers as it presents a security risk.

This service allows network connections to be managed centrally.

Network DDE is a form of interprocess communication

(IPC) across networks. Because

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Option

Network DDE DSDM

NTLM Security Support

Provider

Security setting

Disabled

Manual

Performance Logs and Alerts Manual

Plug and Play Automatic

Print Spooler

Protected Storage

Disabled

Automatic

Remote Access Auto

Connection Manager

Disabled

Remote Access Connection

Manager

Disabled

Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Automatic

Remote Procedure Call (RPC)

Locator

Remote Registry

Manual

Manual

Setting rationale

it opens network shares and allows remote access to local resources, it should be disabled unless explicitly needed.

Network DDE is a form of interprocess communication

(IPC) across networks. Because it opens network shares and allows remote access to local resources, it should be disabled unless explicitly needed.

The NTLM Security Support

Provider is necessary to authenticate users of remote procedure call (RPC) services that use transports such as TCP and UDP.

This service is only necessary when logs and alerts are used.

Plug and Play is needed if the system uses Plug and Play hardware devices.

This service is necessary if the system is used for printing.

This service must be enabled because the IIS Admin service depends on it.

Enable this service only for RAS servers.

Enable this service only for RAS servers.

This service is required for RPC communications.

This service is required for RPC communications.

Remote Registry is a key target

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Option

Removable Storage

Security setting

Routing and Remote Access Disabled

Security Accounts Manager

Server

Smart Card

System Event Notification

Task Scheduler

TCP/IP NetBIOS Helper

Telephony

Manual

Automatic

Automatic

Manual

Automatic

Manual

Automatic

Disabled

Setting rationale

for attackers, viruses, and worms, and should be set to manual unless otherwise needed, where the server can enable it.

For a dynamic server, this service is necessary.

Enable this service only for RAS servers.

This service should be enabled, as it manages local accounts.

This service should be enabled or disabled as necessary. The service supports file, print, and named-pipe sharing over the network for this computer.

Because users will not be using smart cards for two-factor logon authentication, this service is unnecessary and should be disabled or set to manual.

This service is needed for

COM+ events.

This service should be enabled or disabled as necessary. The service enables a user to configure and schedule automated tasks on this computer.

This service is used in Windows networking for computers running an operating system earlier than Windows

Server 2003.

This service is not necessary in this environment because telephony devices are not used.

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Option

Telnet

Terminal Services

Windows Management

Instrumentation

Windows Management

Instrumentation Driver

Extensions

Windows Time

Security setting

Disabled

Manual

Uninterruptible Power Supply Manual

Windows Installer

Workstation

Manual

Manual

Manual

Automatic

Automatic

Setting rationale

The telnet service should be disabled and its use strongly discouraged.

Terminal services should be enabled or disabled as necessary.

This service is necessary if a

Uninterruptible Power Supply is used.

Users may choose to use

Windows Installer to install .msi packages on the system; therefore, this service should be set to manual.

WMI provides extended management capabilities.

WMI Driver Extensions allow monitoring of network card connection state in the taskbar.

External time synchronization is required for Kerberos key exchange in Active Directory environments.

The workstation service is necessary for Windows networking.

TCP/IP hardening

Microsoft recommends that you harden the TCP/IP interface for WSUS servers.

TCP/IP registry key settings

Registry key Security setting

Setting rationale

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\SynAtt ackProtect

REG_DWO

RD = 1

Causes

TCP to adjust

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Registry key

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\TcpM axHalfOpen

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\TcpM axHalfOpenRetried

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Enabl eICMPredirect

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Dead

GWDetectDefault

Security setting

REG_DWO

RD = 500

REG_DWO

RD = 400

REG_DWO

RD = 0

Setting rationale

retransmiss ion of SYN-

ACKS.

Helps protect against

SYN attacks.

Helps protect against

SYN attacks.

Prevents the creation of expensive host routes when an

ICMP redirect packet is received.

REG_DWO

RD = 1

Allows

Transmissi on Control

Protocol to detect failure of the default gateway and to adjust the

IP routing table to use another default

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Registry key

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Disabl eIPSourceRouting

HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\IPEna bleRouter

Security setting

Setting rationale

gateway.

REG_DWO

RD = 1

Disables IP source routing.

REG_DWO

RD = 0

Disables forwarding of packets between network interfaces.

IIS security configuration

Consider enabling the following three security settings on the IIS Web server to help ensure secure WSUS administration.

Enable general IIS error messages

By default, IIS gives detailed error messages to remote Web clients. We recommend enabling IIS general, less-detailed error messages. This prevents an unauthorized user from probing the IIS environment with IIS error messages.

To enable general IIS error messages

1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrator Tools, and then click

Internet Information Services Manager.

2. Expand the local computer node.

3. Right-click Web Sites, and then click Properties.

4. On the Home Directory tab, click Configuration.

5. On the Debugging tab, under Error messages for script errors, click Send the

following text error message to client, where the error message reads "An error

occurred on the server when processing the URL. Please contact the system administrator."

Enable additional IIS logging options

By default, IIS enables logging for a number of options. However, we recommend logging several additional key options.

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To enable additional IIS logging options

1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrator Tools, and then click

Internet Information Services Manager.

2. Expand the local computer node.

3. Right-click Web Sites, and then click Properties.

4. On the Web Site tab, under the Active log format box, click Properties.

5. In Logging Properties go to the Advanced tab, and select the check boxes for the following logging options:

 Server Name

 Time taken

 Host

 Cookie

 Referer

Remove header extensions

By default, IIS enables header extensions for HTTP requests. We recommend removing any header extensions for IIS.

To remove header extensions for HTTP requests

1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, point to Administrator Tools, and then click

Internet Information Services Manager.

2. Expand the local computer node.

3. Right-click Web Sites, and then click Properties.

4. On the HTTP Headers tab, select the X-Powered-By: ASP.NET check box, and then click Remove.

SQL Server

The following are security recommendations for SQL Server with WSUS.

SQL registry permissions

Use access control permissions to secure the SQL Server registry keys.

HKLM\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\MSSQLSERVER

ISEC setting

Administrators: Full Control

Rationale

These settings help ensure limited access to

124

ISEC setting

SQL Service Account: Full Control

System: Full Control

Rationale

the application’s registry key to authorized administrators or system accounts.

Stored procedures

Remove all stored procedures that are unnecessary and that have the ability to control the database server remotely.

Unnecessary SQL Server 2005 stored procedures

Description Stored procedures

Delete stored procedures by using the following command:

use master exec

sp_dropextendedproc stored

procedure where stored procedure is the name of the stored procedure to be deleted.

 Sp_OACreate

 Sp_OADestroy

 Sp_OAGetErrorInfo

 Sp_OAGetProperty

 Sp_OAMethod

 Sp_OASetProperty

 SP_OAStop

 Xp_regaddmultistring

 Xp_regdeletekey

 Xp_regdeletevalue

 Xp_regenumvalues

 Xp_regread

 Xp_regremovemultistring

 Xp_regwrite

 sp_sdidebug

 xp_availablemedia

 xp_cmdshell

 xp_deletemail

 xp_dirtree

 xp_dropwebtask

 xp_dsninfo

 xp_enumdsn

 xp_enumerrorlogs

 xp_enumgroups

Rationale

Remove all stored procedures that are not necessary for WSUS and could possibly give unauthorized users the ability to perform command-line actions on the database.

125

Description Stored procedures

 xp_eventlog

 xp_findnextmsg

 xp_fixeddrives

 xp_getfiledetails

 xp_getnetname

 xp_logevent

 xp_loginconfig

 xp_makewebtask

 xp_msver

 xp_readerrorlog

 xp_readmail

 xp_runwebtask

 xp_sendmail

 xp_sprintf

 xp_sscanf

 xp_startmail

 xp_stopmail

 xp_subdirs

 xp_unc_to_drive

Rationale

Appendix F: Prerequisites Schema

The prerequisites.xml file is used to define the prerequisites for an installation. The schema is described in the following section

Prerequisites Schema

The elements of the prerequisites schema are listed in the following table.

Schema Element

PrereqResults

Result

Description

Root element.

The result of a single prerequisite check. There may be 0…n Result elements, one for each prerequisite.

126

Schema Element Description

Status

Check

Components

The localized description of the status code.

The product or component to be checked.

The component(s) for which this is a prerequisite. There may be 0…n Component elements in a Components element.

Component One of the component(s) for which this is a prerequisite.

The description of the problem. Description

Resolution The way the customer may resolve the problem.

In addition, the Result element has an attribute StatusCode. The possible values of StatusCode are 0 (success), 1 (error), 2 (warning).

Example

The following is an example of a prerequisites.xml file.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<PrereqResults>

<Result StatusCode="0">

<Status>Passed</Status>

<Check>Windows Server 2003 Server</Check>

<Components>

<Component>Windows Server Update Services</Component>

</Components>

</Result>

<Result StatusCode="1">

<Status>Failed</Status>

<Check>SQL Server 2005</Check>

<Components>

<Component>Windows Server Update Services</Component>

</Components>

<Description>SQL Server 2005 or later not detected</Description>

127

<Resolution>Download the required version from http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/</Resolution>

</Result>

<Result StatusCode="1">

<Status>Warning</Status>

<Check>SQLINSTANCE_NAME</Check>

<Components>

<Component>Windows Server Update Services</Component>

</Components>

<Description>This database version cannot be upgraded. Version is too old.

</Description>

<Resolution>Choose another location for the database to keep this one otherwise this database will be overridden. </Resolution>

</Result>

</PrereqResults>

Appendix G: Detect the Version of WSUS

The way you detect the version of a WSUS installation has changed in WSUS 3.0 SP2. In previous versions, WSUS used Microsoft© Windows© Installer product keys. In WSUS 3.0 SP2, versioning is persisted in the registry to support new installer technologies such as CBS for

Windows Vista® and Windows Server® 2008.

Versioning in WSUS 2.0

Check for the install state of the following Windows Installer product key:

{A0D46DC6-8950-451A-8990-53C86E17666E}

In WSUS 2.0, the WSUS registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Update Services\Server\Setup

has an InstallType subkey with the following possible values:

Frontend = 32

Backend = 64

FullInstall = 128

128

Note

You can upgrade from WSUS 2.0 to WSUS 3.0 SP2 for installations with the Frontend and FullInstall values. For the Backend value, you would uninstall WSUS, leaving the database behind. This database will be upgraded when the front-end WSUS server that points to the database is upgraded.

WSUS 3.0 SP2 pre-release candidate versions

Versions of WSUS 3.0 SP2 that precede the first release candidate version also have Windows

Installer product keys. There is one product key for 32-bit architectures and another for 64-bit architectures.

{BCE8923B-20C9-4EBD-AB18-31CDC13B92E6}

(x86)

{2E3FC5F0-0415-4e75-A3D3-74077F809FDD}

(x64)

WSUS 3.0 SP2 Release Candidate 1 and later versions

For WSUS 3.0 SP2, there is no Windows Installer product key, but there are two registry values:

InstallType supports only two installation types: 1 = install or 2 = console-only install.

VersionString is a string of the form Major.Minor.Build.Revision.

To detect WSUS versions

1. Check that SUS 1.0 and WSUS 2.0 are not installed (by looking for the product keys).

2. Find the registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Update

Services\Server\Setup.

3. Check the InstallType values (32/64/128 if WSUS 2.0, 1/2 if WSUS 3.0).

4. Check for VersionString values.

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