Research in Urban and Regional Ecology at SKURE Weihua Xu

Research in Urban and Regional Ecology at SKURE Weihua Xu
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology
Research in Urban and
Regional Ecology at SKURE
Weihua Xu
Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS
Oct. 19, 2007
Page 1
Content
 Introduction
 Research fields
 Recent research
 Collaboration field
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Page 2
1. Introduction
 Aug, 1987: Key lab of System Ecology, CAS
 Dec, 2006:State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional
Ecology
 Goals:
 To develop social-economic-natural complex ecosystems
(SENCE) ecology
 To establish theory and methodology for urban and
regional sustainable development
 To provide scientific and technological support for solving
China’s major eco-environmental problems, and for
China’s sustainable development.
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2. Research fields
 Research fields:
focuses on the ecology of social-economic-natural ecosystems
 interaction between humans and nature at multiple
scales;
 methodology of ecological assessment, planning and
management;
 multi-disciplinary study on major environmental and
ecological problems in China;
 policy study on urban and regional sustainable
development.
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2. Research fields
 Research groups:
 Urban and industrial ecology
 Ecosystem analysis and simulation
 Landscape ecology
 Ecological assessment and planning
 Pollution ecology
 China Studies and Environmental Policy Studies
 staff : 46
 Students: 128
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3. Recent research
 Urban ecosystem structure, process and patterns in Beijing
 Land use and ecological process
 Ecological service regionalization in China
 Planning and management of natural reserves
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and patterns in Beijing
 Urban plant composition and healthy
effect
 Air Microbe
 Soil pollution
 Matter metabolism
 Landscape pattern and regional
development
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Plant composition: Study area
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Tree sampling spot:299
Shrub sampling spot:625
Herb sampling spot:1115
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!( !(!(
!(!(
!(!(
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Species: 536
Source
Species
Proportion (%)
Native species
279
52.05
Exotic species (China)
150
27.99
Exotic species (Others)
107
19.96
Sum
536
100
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Pollen allergy plant in Beijing

99 species

Gardens have the highest diversity of pollen allergy plant;

51%of plant species along the streets are pollen allergy .
Sources
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native
%
Exotic
species
(China)
%
Exotic
species
(Others)
%
Total
52
52.5
26
26
31
31
99
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Air microbe
 Community structure
 tempo-spatial characteristics
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
Garden zone

Education zone

Traffic zone
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Community structure of bacteria
 Family: 42; Species: 123
Community structure of fungus
 Family: 14; Species: 40
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
优势菌属依次为枝孢属,无孢菌,交链孢霉属和青霉属。
Fungus
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
2000
1500
1000
500
0
MT J
fungus
1500
1000
500
0
CER
200
放线菌
150
100
50
0
CER
GGR
MTJ
GGR
6000
微生物
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
CER
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MTL
GGR
3
CER
2000
(CFU/m 3)
bacteria
3000
2500
Fungal concentration
3500
Concentration CFU/m
浓度 Concentration CFU/m3
Bacteria concentration (CFU/m 3 )
Spatial change of Microbial concentration
MTJ
GGR
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Bacteria concentration (CFU/m 3 )
8000
7000
细菌
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Fungal concentrations (CFU/m 3 )
Seasonal change of microbial concentration
4000
真菌
3000
2000
1000
0
Spring
Summer
Seasons
Autumn
Winter
Seasons
Spring
250
放线菌
10000
Concentration CFU/m3
Concentration CFU/m3
300
200
150
100
50
8000
6000
4000
微生物
2000
0
0
Summer
Autumn
Season
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CER
MTJ
GGR
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
Season
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
1
2
and pattern in Beijing
4
3
遗传所农场
平西府镇
5
东 小
口
8
Sampling spot of
soil environment
9歇家庄
1
0
6
7
天 通
苑
1
112
13
1
4
15
16
17
1
19
2 8 20
1 25
Sample Belt
24
23 22
26
27
28 2
30 9
3
1
33 3
3 4
5
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32
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Soil Pb (mg/kg)
200
160
120
80
40
0
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郑各庄玉米地
平西府遗传所农场中间小
天通苑东歇家庄农田,玉
平西府威尼斯花园路口
王府花园西院
东三旗路口北汽车市场对
东三旗路口南天通苑西苑
天通苑中心花园
天通苑西北角福华肥牛城
歇家庄路旁
立水桥汽车装饰中心前
立水桥南路
北辰绿色家园南路
五环路西北角
曲美家具城
在大屯路中东口
北辰购物北1000米
北辰四环路口北100米
北辰立交桥下环岛绿化地
四环立交桥南200米
奥林匹克运动中心绿地
和平里北街2-3环间
和平里北街十字路口南
安定路国资委前道路
安贞桥北,五路居
安定门南500米行道树下
方家胡同内150米
安内大街,秦老胡同行道
府学胡同,文天祥祠
安内,中医院前行道树下
美术馆前
长安街,社科院前
天安门东,小白黄杨地
天安门东,行道树下地
天安门南正义路街心绿地
3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Plumbum (Pb )pollution
表层
深层
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Soil As (mg/kg)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
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郑各庄玉米地
平西府遗传所农场中间小
天通苑东歇家庄农田,玉
平西府威尼斯花园路口
王府花园西院
东三旗路口北汽车市场对
东三旗路口南天通苑西苑
天通苑中心花园
天通苑西北角福华肥牛城
歇家庄路旁
立水桥汽车装饰中心前
立水桥南路
北辰绿色家园南路
五环路西北角
曲美家具城
在大屯路中东口
北辰购物北1000米
北辰四环路口北100米
北辰立交桥下环岛绿化地
四环立交桥南200米
奥林匹克运动中心绿地
和平里北街2-3环间
和平里北街十字路口南
安定路国资委前道路
安贞桥北,五路居
安定门南500米行道树下
方家胡同内150米
安内大街,秦老胡同行道
府学胡同,文天祥祠
安内,中医院前行道树下
美术馆前
长安街,社科院前
天安门东,小白黄杨地
天安门东,行道树下地
天安门南正义路街心绿地
3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Arsenic (As) pollution
表层
深层
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Carbon metabolism of urban residential life
Carbon Stock of
residential life
Food
Social,
economic
factors
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Food
consumption
Exhalant CO2
life garbage
Product
Non-durable
Product
consumption
Life Sewage
CO2
Durable
Product
consumption
Amortization
Energy
Energy
consumption
CO、CO2
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Main parameters
Grain 31.9%
74.2%
Vegetable and fruits
17.2%
CO2
Food
Meat 14.0%
consumption
4.3%
Sea food 1.8%
70.2tC .y-1
Life sewage
Eggs 3.9%
Milk 6.2%
Plant oil 12.0%
Drink 10.3%
21.5%
Life
garbage
Others
Others 2.8%
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Matter metabolism of buildings
412.8
住宅系统
325.4
Cement
水泥
1356.1
5229
68.9
Steel
钢筋
bar
(28.56%)
72.3
470.14
新建住宅
砖混结构
1689.9
513.6
2488
701.9
Sand
沙子
2803.7(13.59%)
1938.3
1298.9
Stone
石子
5833.3
(57.86%)
45.8
Wood
木材
筑
剪力墙结构
23.0
63.1
1073.4
Bricks
机砖
10594
框架结构
建
拆除、改造
垃
1284.7
圾
66.3
68.0
1999-2003
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Matter metabolism of building and its environmental effects
Year
年代

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资源
能量
Energy
Solid
固废
waste
EP( GWP)
EP(NEP)
EP(AC)
EP(POCP)
MJ
t
t CO2 eq.
t NO3-eq.
t SO2 eq.
t C2H4 eq
9
1.13×10
6
2.05×10
6
4.07×10
3
2.86×10
10
3.44×10
6
6.32×10
6
1.25×10
4
1959-63
1.62×10
10
1.93×10
6
3.60×10
6
7.07×10
3
1964-68
1.23×10
10
1.47×10
6
2.72×10
6
5.36×10
3
1969-73
7.77×10
9
9.30×10
5
1.72×10
6
3.39×10
3
1974-78
2.55×10
10
2.75×10
6
5.75×10
6
1.08×10
4
1979-83
9.49×10
10
8.77×10
6
2.18×10
7
3.93×10
4
1984-88
1.53×10
11
1.26×10
7
3.59×10
7
6.16×10
4
1989-93
1.84×10
11
1.50×10
7
4.33×10
7
7.38×10
4
1994-98
2.72×10
11
2.19×10
7
6.41×10
7
1.09×10
5
1999-03
5.71×10
11
5.17×10
7
1.34×10
8
2.32×10
5
1949-53
9.30×10
1954-58
9.59×10
2.95×10
1.68×10
1.27×10
8.03×10
2.70×10
1.03×10
1.69×10
2.05×10
3.03×10
6.32×10
3
2.30×10
3
4
7.07×10
3
4
4.03×10
3
4
3.05×10
3
3
1.92×10
3
4
6.50×10
3
5
2.44×10
4
5
4.12×10
4
5
5.00×10
4
5
7.36×10
4
5
1.58×10
5
Note:EP( GWP): Global warming potential,in CO2 equivalent;EP(NEP):
Eutrophication Potential,in NO3- equivalent; EP(AC): Acid potential in SO2 equivalent ;
EP(POCP):Photochemical ozone potential in C2H4.
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3-1 Urban ecosystem structure, process
and pattern in Beijing
Suitability assessment of spatial development in Beijing
生态要素
严格控制区
引导区
适宜区
生态服务功能要素
地表水源保护
地表水源保护一级区
地表水源保护二级区与
三级区
非地表水源保护区
地下水保护
地下水源保护一级区以
及山前平原过渡带地下
水重要补给区
地下水保护二级区与三
级区
非地下水保护区
生物多样性保
护
生物多样性保护重点区
(自然保护区)
景观资源保护
景观资源保护重点区
(森林公园与风景名胜
区)
洪涝调蓄
洪涝调蓄区
非洪涝调蓄区
生态屏障
一、二道绿带、主要城
市水体、绿地
非绿地区
水土流失中度敏感区
水土流失低度敏感区
和不敏感区
沙尘与沙化
沙尘与沙化敏感区
沙尘与沙化不敏感区
地下水超采
地下水严重超采区
地下水未/轻度超采区
生态敏感性要素
水土流失
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水土流失高度敏感区
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3-2 Land use and ecological process
Change of landscape pattern at multi-scale
Watershed - County - Region
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3-2 Land use and ecological process
Changes: 1958-1999
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 Land policy
 Population policy
 Economic systems
reform
 Engineering measures
Farmland
Woodland
Grassland
Abandoned land
80
60
40
20
0
1958
Percentage of land area
Driving force
Percentage of land area
3-2 Land use and ecological process
1978 1987 1990 1995
(a) On gentle slope (0-15)
1999
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1958
1978
1987
1990
1995
1999
Percentage of land area
(b) On mid slope (15-25)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1958
1978
1987
1990
1995
1999
(c) On steep slope (>25)
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3-2 Land use and ecological process
Landscape patternEcological process
(A) Woodland -cropland-grassland
(B)
Woodland-grassland-cropland
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(C) Grassland-woodland-cropland
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3-2 Land use and ecological process
Soil nutrient
TN
1
有机质(%)
全氮(%)
0.066
0.062
OM
0.058
0.054
0.85
0.75
a
b
c
a
4.8
b
c
b
c
0.058
4.5
TP
全磷(%)
有效氮(%)
0.9
0.8
0.05
AN
0.95
0.056
4.2
3.9
0.054
3.6
0.052
a
b
c
a
Type (B) Woodland-grassland-Cropland has a higher
ability in soil and nutrition conservation than others
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3-3 Ecological service regionalization in China
Definition:
According to the spatial differences of eco-environmental elements,
eco-environmental sensitivity and ecological services, the entire
land are divided into different zones with different ecological
services.
Answer two questions:
1. Where and What should be protected?
 Determine the regions with important ecological security to China
or provinces;
 Determine the objectives and targets in regional ecoenvironmental protection;
2. What should not be done?
Determine the limitation for regional human activities
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Current status
Desertification
Soil erosion
Geologic disasters
Soil salinization
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Acid rain
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Eco-environmental sensitivity assessment
Rocky desertification
Acid rain
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Freeze-Thaw Erosion
Soil salinization
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Eco-environmental sensitivity assessment
Desertification
Water and soil erosion
Integrated assessment
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Ecological services assessment
Soil conservation
Key areas for biodiversity
conservation
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Biodiversity conservation
Water-sources conservation
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Ecological services assessment
Wind-break and
desertification control
Integrated assessment
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Flooding storage
Eco-environmental sensitivity
and ecological services
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3-3 Ecological service regionalization
in China
 Ecological zone: 50
 Ecological sub-zone: 206
 Ecological service zone: 1465
 The most important functional zone: 45
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3-3 Ecological service regionalization
in China
Ecological zones
生态大区
东部季风生态大区
33
西部干旱生态大区
8
青藏高寒生态大区
9
合计
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生态区
50
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3-3 Ecological service regionalization
in China
Ecological sub-zones
生态大区
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生态区
生态亚区
东部季风
33
147
西部干旱
8
32
青藏高寒
9
27
合计
50
206
Page
37
3-3 Ecological service regionalization
in China
Ecological services zones
大区
亚区
功能区
东部季风
33
147
1113
西部干旱
8
32
187
青藏高寒
9
27
165
50
206
1465
合计
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区
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3-3 Ecological service regionalization
in China
Major zones with ecological services
Type
No
Area
4
2
(10 km )
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Biodiversity conservation
18
72.0
Water source conservation
13
65.7
Soil conservation
4
25.9
Wind-break and Sand-fixing
4
20.4
Flooding storage
4 Page
8.0 39
3-4 Planning and management
of natural reserve
Effects of human activities on natural reserve
Habitat selection
Bamboo preference in Wolong
100
50
Bamoo percent in homerange (%)
panda percent (%)
Elevation preference in Different Seasons
60
Fall
40
Winter
Average
30
Spring
20
Summer
Bashania fargianus
Fargesia robust
Other bamboo
80
60
40
20
10
0
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Panda1
4000
Panda2
Panda3
Panda4
Panda5
Average
Pandas
Evelation (M)
70
60
50
Panda percent (%)
Panda percent (%)
Spring
Summer
Fall
Winter
80
Slope Selection
Vegetation Selection in Different Seasons
Giant Panda Geomorphic Selection
45
Spring
Summer
Fall
Winter
40
35
30
25
40
20
30
15
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
10
20
Panda percent (%)
0
1000
4
5
2
10
0
0
Main range
Secondary range
Hillside
Dry valley
Branch valley
Geomorphic type
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Low-mountainbrush
Deciduous-broadleaf forest
Broad-confineleaf forest
Confine forest
Evergreen forest
Vegetation type
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Slope (degree)
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70
3-4 Planning and management
of natural reserve
Effects of human activities on natural reserve
Habitat assessment
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3-4 Planning and management
of natural reserve
Effects of human activities on natural reserve
Effect of human activities on panda’s habitat
51.4% of potential habitat are under human’s disturbance
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3-4 Planning and management
of natural reserve
Effects of human activities on natural reserve
Habitat modeling
Main Factors:
population, fuel wood
logging, agriculture,
tourism, traffic
4600
62000
ha
4300
60000
600
4000
500
3700
400
3400
56000
300
3100
54000
200
2800
52000
2500
50000
100
0
1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996
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58000
1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996
year
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ha
ps
Habitat Lost Annully in 1975-1996
Habitat Dynamics in 1975-1996
3-4 Planning and management
of natural reserve
Effects of human activities on natural reserve

Habitat dynamics:1965 -1997
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Liu, Ouyang et al. Science, 2001
Page 44
3-4 Planning and management
of natural reserve
Natural reserve network planning of Hainan Province
Ouyang Zhiyun, Han Yishi, Xiao Han, Wang Xiaoke, 2001, Nature Reserve
Network Planning of Hainan Province, China, No. 32,2001, Division of
Ecological Science, UNECSO, Paris, France
Page 45
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3-4 Planning and management
of natural reserve
National natural reserve planning in China
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4.
Collaboration field

Urban and industrial ecology

Ecosystem analysis and simulation

Landscape ecology

Ecological assessment and planning

Pollution ecology
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Thanks!
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