Preface

Preface
Preface
The content of this handbook is the property of the
International Amateur Radio Union, Region 1
Copying and publication of the content, or parts thereof, is allowed for
non-commercial purposes
This does not apply to extracts of the ITU Radio Regulations
Updated: August 2011
Editor: Ulrich Mueller, DK4VW
Version 8.0
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
i
August 2011
Introduction
This is the eight edition of the HF Managers Handbook and contains changes
agreed during the 2008 IARU Region 1 Conference in Cavtat and 2011 IARU
Region 1 Conference in Sun City. To assist with keeping up with the changes
new recommendations are presented in the colour blue and suppressed or
deleted recommendations are referred to in the colour red.
The HF Managers Handbook is primarily intended as a guide for HF Managers,
and should also be of help to any societies wishing to set up their own HF
Committee. Therefore some historical items are contained in this book for the
benefit of new HF Committee representatives, who may not always know about
matters that have gone in the past.
A number of chapters have also been
transferred across to the main Region 1 website at www.iaru-r1.org
The accuracy of this book to a great extent depends on YOU - the user of the
book. If you find anything that is wrong, or if you find that something should be
added or changed, please tell us. Any ideas for expansions or corrections will be
appreciated.
Former versions of this handbook contained other information like
IARU Region 1 Constitution and Bye-Laws, list of Member Societies, list of
Executive Committee members, list of HF Managers and about Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC), which can be found now at www.iaru-r1.org
Colin J. Thomas, G3PSM
HF Committee Chairman 2005-2008
Ulrich Mueller, DK4VW
HF Committee Chairman
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V.8.0
ii
November 2008
Chapter 1.1
IARU REGION 1 HF COMMITTEE
At the IARU Region 1 Conference in Noordwijkerhout (1989) a completely re-written
IARU Region 1 Constitution and Bye-Laws was adopted. As a consequence the HF
Working Group was transformed into a so-called Specialized Permanent Body, the
IARU, Region 1 HF Committee.
Constitution of the IARU Region 1 HF Committee
The following articles in the IARU Region 1 Constitution and Bye-Laws relate to the
permanent HF Committee:
In the Constitution:
A.1.4.7
Definition of specialized bodies
A.5
Nomination, period of office etc of specialized bodies.
N.B.
Article A.4.11 allows the IARU Region 1 Executive Committee to invite
the chairman of the permanent HF and VHF/UHF/SHF Committees to
their meetings, as has been the custom since 1975.
In the Bye-Laws:
B.1.14
B.1.17/
B.1.17.3
B.3.10-29
Steering Committee at General Conferences: Membership Chairman
Permanent Committees.
Function of Permanent HF Committee
Procedures for set-up and work of Permanent
Specialized Bodies
Delegates to the IARU Region 1 HF Committee should be national HF Managers
and/or members of their national HF Committee or equivalent body.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
1.1-1
January 1994
Chapter 1.2
Terms of Reference for the permanent HF Committee
The permanent HF Committee (C4) deals with matters relating to frequencies
below 30 MHz
Objectives
1.
To co-ordinate the activities of amateurs in Region 1 with respect to frequency
allocations below 30 MHz
2.
To ensure that adequate use is made of existing allocations and to consider
possible new allocations
3.
To co-ordinate and promote scientific investigations by member societies of
IARU Region 1 on all frequencies below 30 MHz
4.
To recommend IARU Region 1 band plans aimed at promoting greater
effectiveness for communications
5
To encourage special projects on the frequency allocations below 30 MHz
aimed at advancing amateur radio communication techniques
6
To assist in the protection of the amateur allocations below 30 MHz from
possible loss by stimulating activity and demonstrating the effective use by amateurs
7
To plan and conduct IARU Region 1 HF contests on these bands
8
To advise on interference problems relating to frequencies below 30 MHz
9
To maintain communication with Member Societies through:
an Internet reflector discussion group
the Region 1 Website
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
1.2-1
March 2006
Chapter 2.0
HF CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS
Foreword.
In this Chapter you will find all valid Conference Recommendations concerning HF
operations. Some of these Recommendations may also be repeated in other
relevant Chapters.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
2-1
November 1990
Chapter 2.1
Standing Conference Recommendations Concerning HF Operations
AWARDS, CERTIFICATES, CUPS AND MEDALS – Chapter 5.0
BEACONS – Chapter 7.2
CONTEST RULES AND REGULATIONS – Chapter 8.0
EMERGENCY WORK – Chapter 4
FIELD DAYS and SPECIAL ACTIVITY DAYS
It is recommended that the HF Phone Field Day in September should no longer be
an IARU Region 1 event, though individual Societies may organise national events
on the first weekend in September if they wish, using the "Guidelines for HF Field
Day Organisers" as a basis.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.13.1.9)
It is recommended that the Phone Field Day shall take place from 1300 UTC on the
first Saturday in September to the following Sunday at 1300 UTC.
(Tel Aviv 1996 - REC/96/TVI/C4.15)
It is recommended that the international listing for the HF CW Field Day be
discontinued for the time being.
(Tel Aviv 1996 - REC/96/TVI/C4.7)
It is recommended that IARU Region1 Member Societies exchange the electronic
log data. The rules should contain a statement saying that Field Day participants
agree automatically to the log exchange upon log submission.
(San Marino 2002 - REC/02/SM/C4.8)
It is recommended that 17 June will be proclaimed as a yearly HF QRP Day.
Region 1 will take steps needed to get this day proclaimed as a yearly international
QRP Day, with the goal that all amateurs world wide use low power on that day every
year.
(Cefalu 1984 - 1.13.2.1)
HF OPERATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS
It is recommended that all members Societies should continue to promote more
experimentation and scientific involvement as well as research.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.8.16.1)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
2.1-1
August 2011
Chapter 2.1
It is recommended that Member Societies of Region 1 should encourage the
experimentation and organise contest sessions devoted to meteor scatter on
stipulated frequencies of the 28 MHz band.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.8.16.3)
It is recommended that transmission modes which are inefficient in their use of
spectrum or which have potential to cause serious interference problems to normal
HF operations should be strongly discouraged on bands below 30 MHz.
Experimental transmissions (i.e. those not associated with normal HF transmission
modes) should be notified to other national societies. The mechanism for notification
by Region 1 Member Societies being a notice in the Region 1 News from the HF
Manager/Secretary of the Member Society concerned.
(De Haan 1993 - C4.3)
It is recommended that IARU Member Societies should encourage the development
of improved openly specified modulation techniques, including corresponding modem
hardware, which can be combined and integrated into channel-sharing digital sharing
protocols.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_11)
HF, LF and MF BANDPLANNING – Chapter 11
IARU MONITORING SYSTEM - Chapter 7.4
OPERATING STANDARDS & PROCEDURES
General approval was expressed for the phonetic alphabet appearing in Appendix 16
of the Geneva Regulations 1959.
(Malmø 1963 - 1.16.3.1)
A booklet on the precise use of the Amateur Code will be prepared for as wide a
distribution as possible. The RSGB, assisted by MRASZ, agreed to produce such a
booklet.
(Brighton 1984 - 1.16.3.2 (1.12.10.1))
It is recommended that the Locator System as described in BM/112 shall be
adopted as the official IARU Region 1 Locator System as from 1 January 1985. (see
Chapter 10.3)
(Cefalu 1984 - 1.16.3.3 (2.8.1.1))
It is recommended that the document related to "Net operation and Amateur Ethics"
shall be adopted. (see Chapter 6.4)
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.16.3.4 (1.12.10.2))
It is recommended that there should be no change to the existing RST reporting
system.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.16.3.5 (2.5.5.1))
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
2.1-2
August 2011
Chapter 2.1
It is recommended that that RSQ reporting be used for digital modes below 30 MHz
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_10)
It is recommended that that the MOS reporting scale be used as a supplement to
the RST reporting scale for digitised speech on frequencies below 30 MHz and
should be included in the HF Managers Handbook.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_18)
It is recommended for stations working “split frequency” to keep the window as
narrow as necessary and to announce the window together with their call sign.
(San Marino 2002 - REC/02/SM/C4.5)
It is recommended that that each Member Society should publish a translation of
the below mentioned documents in their national amateur radio magazine at least
once every second year:
Torremolinos Document C3.24, A Campaign for Better Behaviour
Torremolinos Document C3.50, Packet Radio Relaying Messages of
inappropriate Content
Cefalu Document SI/72, Lists and Nets - a code of Practice
Cefalu Document SI/73, Guidelines for Calling DX
The Radio Amateurs Code
And/or other relevant material.
Each member society should take steps in order to assure that there are given
enough sufficient education in the theme "Operating Ethics" at all courses leading to
an amateur radio license by using the above mentioned documents and/or other
relevant material.
(De Haan 1993 - C4.4)
De Haan 1993 - C4.5 – Suppressed by Article 25 at WRC-03
It is recommended that when the ITU Zones are used for Amateur Radio purposes,
the definition of the border-lines shall be included in the HF Managers Handbook
(see Chapter 9.10).
(Lillehammer 1999 - REC/99/LH/C4.2)
It is recommended that IARU Region 1 urges its Member Societies to motivate their
members to adhere to Amateur Radio ethics, and to take action against stations
practising deliberate and malicious interference on the Amateur Radio Bands.
(Lillehammer 1999 - REC/99/LH/C4.7)
It is recommended that that IARU Region 1 urges its member societies to motivate
all its members to operate their radios according to the Non-Interference Basis (NIB)
principle, in order to reduce deliberate and malicious interference.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_17)
It is recommended that a) That Region 1 endorse IARU Resolution 08-01 (See Chapter 6.1.1)
b) That the ON4UN/ON4WW booklet on ethics & operating practice should be
published on member society websites, and published in paper form in local
languages wherever possible, and that maximum publicity should be given, via
member societies, to these publications.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
2.1-3
August 2011
Chapter 2.1
(Cavtat 2008 - CT08_C3_Rec_44)
REPEATERS
It is recommended that the guidelines for co-ordination of 29 MHz repeaters
outlined in DOC/96/TVI/C4.12 (see Chapter 4.5) should be adopted where
applicable.
(REC/96/TVI/C4.8)
Following the introduction of 4 additional FM Repeater channels a 10m FM Repeater
co-ordinator has been appointed (ON4PC).
It is recommended that Member Societies should encourage the operators of 10
metre FM repeaters to add the requirement for users to transmit a sub-tone (CTCSS)
on the input frequency and for operators to transmit such a sub-tone also on the
output frequency. The required tone shall be announced by the repeater itself so
users may switch to the appropriate sub-tone.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_09)
USE OF AMATEUR BANDS
It is recommended that all members Societies will send the necessary information
to their national Administration so that the latter may take steps to end the illegal use
of the 28 MHz band by CB stations thus ending the violation of the Radio
Regulations.
(Brighton 1981 - 1.8.4.3)
It is recommended that publicity should be given to the 10 MHz band by way of
activity days, DX-weekends articles etc.
(Torremolinos 1990 - C4.3)
It is recommended that that publicity should be given to the 18 and 24 MHz bands
by way of activity days, DX weekend, articles etc.
(Torremolinos 1990 - C4.4)
Noordwijkerhout 1987 – Rec1.8.4.4 – RES 641 Suppressed at WRC-03
Suppressed SC11_C4_13 It is recommended that IARU Region 1 decides to
request IARU, based on IARU Monitoring System data from all regions, to apply
increased pressure on the nations and military powers and alliances operating HF
Over-The-Horizon (OTH) radars, in order to encourage them to program their OTH
radars in such a way that infringements of the exclusive amateur radio bands are
avoided as much as possible.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_04)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
2.1-4
August 2011
Chapter 2.1
It is recommended that a narrow allocation, even on a shared basis, is sought in the
vicinity of 5 MHz, with the ultimate goal to have an allocation of 100 kHz in the 5 MHz
band.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C3_Rec_20)
DATAMODES
It is recommended that a speed of 45.45 bauds be retained, however that speeds
of 50, 75 and 100 bauds should be encouraged.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.8)
It is recommended that each Society, where such requirements still exist, should
press their respective licensing Authorities to remove the requirement for "Dual
Identifying" when using the International Standard CCITT No 2 Code.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.9)
It is recommended that when making use of ASCII, the minimum specification for
the signalling format should be 1 start bit, 7 data bits, 1 parity bit, 1 stop bit. The
parity should be as follows; if generated - even parity if NOT generated - parity bit set
to space.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.10)
It is recommended that all IARU Member Societies shall adopt CCIR 476-1 in both
modes A and B and Region 1 is asked to liaise with Regions 2 and 3 so that AMTOR
may become a truly international standard.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.2.2)
It is recommended that the maximum speed for packet radio should be not more
than 300 baud on HF. The recommended frequency shift is 200 Hz.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 2.3.3.1)
It is recommended that the protocol used for packet radio on HF should be AX.25
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 2.3.3.2)
The AC Resolution 91-2 containing Guidelines for Packet Radio Operators and
Guidelines for Packet Radio BBS Operators was ratified. (Chapter 6.6)
(De Haan 1993 C3)
SPECIALIZED BODIES
The terms of reference of the Permanent HF Committee are approved. (Chapter 1.2)
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.5.2.4)
It is recommended that the HF CONTEST SUB-GROUP is abolished.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_05 and DV05_C4_Rec_06)
Suppressed SC11_C4_13
Suppressed SC11_C4_13
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
2.1-5
August 2011
Chapter 2.1
Suppressed SC11_C4_13
SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT
It is recommended:
That the Conference agrees:
a) More effort should be made to find and support volunteers who can address
the general trend of liberalization in spectrum management through:
1. Technically competent input and advice on HF radio propagation to
professional groups who are sometimes only versed in short-range
EMC matters;
2. Setting up of a scientifically valid long-term assessment of the noise
floor on Amateur Bands below 30 MHz with the intent to raise
complaints over general loss of spectrum effectiveness for the Amateur
Service,
and
b) that the HF Committee suggests to the other spectrum committees that a
similar proposal and recommendation be considered for their spectrum areas.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_05)
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
2.1-6
August 2011
Chapter 3.0
HF OPERATIONS & EXPERIMENTS
VALID CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS:
It is recommended that:
all members Societies should continue to promote more experimentation and
scientific involvement as well as research.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.8.16.1)
It is recommended that:
Societies of Region 1 should encourage the experimentation and organise contest
sessions devoted to meteor scatter on stipulated frequencies of the 28 MHz band.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.8.16.3)
It is recommended that:
Transmission modes which are inefficient in their use of spectrum or which have
potential to cause serious interference problems to normal HF operations should be
strongly discouraged on bands below 30 MHz.
Experimental transmission (i.e. those not associated with normal HF transmission
modes) should be notified to other national societies. The mechanism for notification
by Region 1 Member Societies being a notice in the Region 1 News from the HF
Manager/Secretary of the Member Society concerned.
(De Haan 1993 - C4.3)
It is recommended that:
IARU Member Societies should encourage the development of improved openly
specified modulation techniques, including corresponding modem hardware, which
can be combined and integrated into channel-sharing digital sharing protocols.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_11)
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.0-1
May 2006
Chapter 3.1.1
SATELLITE OPERATIONS
AC RESOLUTION 89-3
concerning amateur satellite usage.
The IARU Administrative Council
recognising the important contributions made by amateur radio societies in the following
areas:
* demonstration to the professional community that radio amateurs contribute to
the development of state-of-the-art technology and techniques,
* provisions of new challenging operational opportunities and training ground for
radio amateurs to acquire new skills,
* providing opportunities for training in an exciting technological field by direct
participation, in schools, universities and professional organisations, and
* stimulating the interest of young people in a worthwhile activity, and
encouraging the pursuit of a technological career to provide the next generation
of industrial and research engineers.
Wishing to stimulate the growth of the Amateur Satellite Service in an orderly manner;
and
strongly supporting the following goals:
* the encouragement of a wide dynamic range of activities stimulating training
through increasing intellectual challenge,
* the stimulation of young people in schools and universities to develop an
interest in amateur radio through participation in amateur satellite activities,
* where allowed, the provision of emergency services, especially to parts of the
world that are less technologically developed, and
* the adoption of a 'code of practice' that ensures the use of amateur frequency
allocations by satellites in accordance with the spirit and ethics of amateur radio.
RESOLVES
1. Member Societies shall make Administrations more aware of the value and
achievements of the Amateur Satellite Service.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.1.1-1
August 2011
Chapter 3.1.1
2. Satellite operating within amateur frequency allocations shall carry payloads
and experiments that are relevant to, of interest to, and freely available for
participation by radio amateurs world-wide.
3. Operational frequencies of amateur satellites shall be in accordance with all
applicable IARU band plans.
4. The use of higher frequency bands by amateur satellites shall be encouraged.
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.1.1-2
August 2011
Chapter 3.1.2
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
RESOLUTION No. 642
Relating to the Bringing into Use of Earth Stations
in the Amateur-Satellite Service
The World Administrative Radio Conference, Geneva, 1979
recognising
that the procedures of Articles 11 and 13 are applicable to the amateur-satellite service;
recognising further
a) that the characteristics of earth stations in the amateur- satellite service vary widely;
b) that space stations in the amateur-satellite service are intended for multiple access
by amateur earth stations in all countries;
c) that co-ordination among stations in the amateur and amateur-satellite services is
accomplished without the need for formal procedures;
d) that the burden of terminating any harmful interference is placed upon the
administration authorising a space station in the amateur-satellite service pursuant to
the provisions of No. 2741 of the Radio Regulations;
notes
that certain information specified in Appendices 3 and 4 cannot reasonably be provided
for earth stations in the amateur-satellite service;
resolves
1. that when an administration (or one acting on behalf of a group of named
administrations) intends to establish a satellite system in the amateur-satellite service
and wishes to publish information with respect to earth stations in that system it may:
1.1
1.2
communicate to the IFRB all or part of the information listed in Appendix
3; the IFRB shall publish such information in a special section of its
weekly circular requesting comments to be communicated within a period
of four months after the date of publication;
notify under Nos. 1488 to 1491 all or part of the information listed in
Appendix 3; the IFRB shall record it in a special list;
2. that this information shall include at least the characteristics of a typical amateur
earth station in the amateur-satellite service having the facility to transmit signals to the
space station to initiate, modify, or terminate the functions of the space station.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.1.2-1
January 1994
Chapter 3.2
29 MHz FM OPERATIONS
The 1987 IARU Region 1 Conference accepted a frequency plan for use in connection
with 29 MHz FM Operations, as an information paper to be included in the HF
Managers Handbook.
At the 2011 Conference the HF Committee agreed to increase the number of FM
Repeater channels to eight. Simplex channels have been moved, one channel was
designated for a Simplex FM Repeater.
Freq. (kHz)
Use
29100 – 29200
FM Simplex – 10 kHz channels
29200 – 29300
All modes, digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended).
29300 – 29510
Satellite-downlink
29510
Segment edge - not to be used. Secure a safe buffer zone.
29520 - 29590
All modes, FM Repeater input, RH1 - RH8
29600
FM Calling channel
29610
All modes, FM Simplex Repeater (parrot, input + output)
29620 - 29690
All modes, FM Repeater output, RH1 - RH8
29700
Band Edge - Not for use.
Note:
Member societies should advise operators not to transmit on frequencies between
29.3 and 29.51 MHz to avoid interference to amateur satellite downlinks.
DO NOT INTERFERE!
Preferred NBFM operating frequencies on each 10 kHz from 29.110 to 29.290 MHz
inclusive should be used.
A deviation of ±2.5 kHz being used with 2.5 kHz as maximum modulation frequency.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.2-1
August 2011
Chapter 3.2
It is recommended that Member Societies should encourage the operators of
10 metre FM repeaters to add the requirement for users to transmit a sub-tone
(CTCSS) on the input frequency and for operators to transmit such a sub-tone also
on the output frequency. The required tone shall be announced by the repeater itself
so users may switch to the appropriate sub-tone.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_09)
List of 10m FM Repeaters
An actual list of 10m FM Repeaters can be found at
http://www.iaru-r1.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=864&Itemid=243
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.2-2
August 2011
Chapter 3.3
29 MHz NBFM PACKET RADIO EXPERIMENTS
1.
In the IARU Region 1 HF Band Plan, the segment 29.200 to 29.300 MHz is
assigned to those who are experimenting with Narrow Band Frequency
Modulated (NBFM) packet radio transmissions.
2.
In order to make it easier "to find" each other, the following working frequencies
should be chosen:
Each 10 kHz from 29.210 to 29.290 MHz
3.
A deviation of +/- 2.5 kHz is recommended with maximum modulation frequency
2.5 kHz.
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.3-1
January 1994
Chapter 3.4
METEOR SCATTER AND MODE PACKET ON 28 MHz BAND
by Marino Miceli, I4SN
A document on this topic was introduced at the 1987 Region 1 Conference and the
Recommendation 9/HF encouraged the members to go ahead on the
experimentation’s.
Another document on this matter was discussed at Torremolinos and Committee C4
endorsed its contents, recommending that a description of the system in use by the
Italian amateurs should be published in the Region 1 News.
Theory of the system.
Ionisation densities insufficient for 144 MHz reflections are very good when
frequencies are lowered several times.
In the case of the 28 MHz band, meteors having a diameter as small as 0.5 mm
produce an ionised trail having the capability to sustain a communication for several
hundreds of milliseconds and a 96 byte packet may be integrally reflected.
The average of meteorites burning in the upper atmosphere is calculated to be
50,000 per second, but the majority have a small size. The ones whose diameter
exceeds 0.1 mm, produce ionised cylinders of very low density and on 144 MHz
these produce a very short echo called a "ping".
Such very short ping, after the peak sometimes useful for VHF, exhibits a "trail"
whose ionisation decreases slowly. The density is not sufficient for 144 MHz but
results in a useful echo on 28 MHz.
In the worst case at the speed of 1200 bit/sec, a string of 48 byte has a good
probability to be received at a distance of 2000 km (or less). So a ping nearly useless
on 144 MHz may support a sufficient quantity of information; in fact a packet of 48 bit
contains: Preamble. flags, 27 characters and closing check-sum.
With 27 characters you may send enough intelligence as for example:
CQ MS DE I2KFX JN 45 PO MONZA
A group of Italian experimenters headed by I2KFX states that on 28 MHz, 11 useful
bursts and 25 pings averaging in 30 minutes. So the "waiting time" i.e. the time
during which there is no possibility to forward a message, does not exceed two
minutes.
The sum of the short periods when connection is possible, permits - in 30 minutes - the
transmission of 36 packets.
In fact, as stated before, the 28 MHz packet traffic does not need to be supported by
spectacular major showers; each corpuscle having the size of a grain of sand creates
a trail which expands to over 60 cm diameter, whose length is 15 km at least.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.4-1
January 1994
Chapter 3.4
Ionisation density is in this case low, but sufficient for 28 MHz refraction.
In the case of bursts you may have instead, 20 seconds of loud signal, with a few more
seconds of weak one.
Though the occurrence of bursts and pings is casual, the period of possible connection
is nearly continuous.
The protocol recommended.
In Italy a timing of 15 seconds proved to be satisfactory; a station sends the same
packet during the period: 1st - 15th seconds and 31st - 45th seconds while the other
listens, but transmits from 16th - 30th and 46th - 60th.
The first couple of windows are named "odd" and others are "even". The protocol is
simplified like the "converse mode" so; only frames UI: un-numbered information is
sent, and the message is included in this "UI frame".
During the 15 seconds period, this frame repeats at the speed of 1200 bit/sec and a
48 byte packet has at least one probability over 46 to meet a "useful trail".
The software ad hoc for "meteor scatter packet" has been developed by I2KFX. When
the diskette containing this programme is inserted in the station computer, the system
is ready for operation.
System operation.
The video screen appears divided into three fields:
1.
The upper part is the "reception window". Every digital signal entering the
RCVR during the 15-second of reception opening, is written there.
2.
In the centre field you see the message you edited - which is ready for
transmission.
I2KFX program provides all necessary sequences; it co-operate with TNC to
prepare the packet and when the 15-seconds assigned to the reception are
expired, activates the XMTR.
In the 15-seconds emission, the frame is repeated integrally; if it consists of 96
byte, repetitions are 23.
3.
The lowest part of the screen is devoted to control functions. The key "F2"
selects the transmission window (odd or even). The key "F3" determines the 15
or 30 seconds timing: Usually on 28 MHz band the shorter time; on 144 MHz
the longer.
All operations are performed by the "I2KFX program" when your station is arranged as
in Figure 1, which is the block diagram of a simple packet radio amateur station.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.4-1
January 1994
Chapter 3.5
IARU Region 1 General Conference 2011 agreed that the
number of the 29 MHz FM Repeater channels is increased to eight.
ON4PC has been appointed as Co-ordinator.
(SC11_C4_04)
COORDINATION OF 29 MHz FM REPEATERS
DOC/96/TVI/C4.12 Rev. 2, modified 2011
INTRODUCTION
With the increase in the number of 29 MHz FM Repeater channels the Sun City
Conference 2011 proposed a coordination process to reduce mutual interference.
GUIDELINES FOR COORDINATION
The distance between two repeaters using the same frequency pair should be at least
250 km.
If the distance of a repeater-location to the boarder of a neighbouring country is less
than 250 km, the HF Committee or the neighbouring national society must be consulted
for co-ordination.
It is recommended that Member Societies should encourage the operators of 10
metre FM repeaters to add the requirement for users to transmit a sub-tone (CTCSS)
on the input frequency and for operators to transmit such a sub-tone also on the
output frequency. The required tone shall be announced by the repeater itself so
users may switch to the appropriate sub-tone.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_09)
If radio link is used between the repeater's RX and TX, it is advisable to use a sub-tone
system (CTCSS).
The holder of a 29 MHz repeater license is free to switch off the repeater when it is
misused or if the repeater in normal conditions causes interference with another one.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.5-1
August 2011
Chapter 3.5
GENERAL RULES FOR REPEATER OPERATION
Repeaters are primarily intended to facilitate mobile operation. Mobile traffic shall
always have priority.
If you can hear each other on the repeater input frequency, QSY to a simplex
frequency.
Never occupy a repeater if simplex traffic is possible because that prevents others from
using it.
Use the minimum amount of power necessary to maintain contact.
Monitor the repeater in order to become familiar with any peculiarities in its operation.
There is no need for long calls. Just simply indicate that you are on the repeater.
Identify legally. You must identify at least every 10 minutes during a contact and at the
end of it.
Pause between transmissions to allow hams to break in and gain access to the
repeater too.
Be thoughtful and keep the transmissions as short as possible. Be aware that your
transmissions are monitored by many listeners. Don't give the amateur radio hobby a
bad reputation!
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.5-2
August 2011
Chapter 3.5
THE 29 MHz FM SEGMENT
FREQUENCY (MHz)
APPLICATION
29.100-29.200
All modes – FM simplex – 10 kHz channels
29.200-29.300
All modes, digimodes, automatically
controlled data stations (unattended)
29.300-29.510
Satellite- downlink
29.510
Band Edge, don't use.
29.520-29.590
FM Repeater Input (10kHz spacing)
29.600
FM Calling channel
29.610
FM Simplex Repeater (parrot, input + output)
29.620-29.690
FM Repeater Output (10kHz spacing)
29.700
Band Edge, don’t use.
FREQUENCIES FOR FM REPEATERS
DESIGNATION
REPEATER INPUT
REPEATER OUTPUT
RH1
29.520 MHz
29.620 MHz
RH2
29.530 MHz
29.630 MHz
RH3
29.540 MHz
29.640 MHz
RH4
29.550 MHz
29.650 MHz
RH5
29.560 MHz
29.660 MHz
RH6
29.570 MHz
29.670 MHz
RH7
29.580 MHz
29.680 MHz
RH8
29.590 MHz
29.690 MHz
************
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
3.5-3
August 2011
Chapter 4
EMERGENCY OPERATIONS
Revised Davos 2005
VALID CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS:
It is recommended that emergency networks should be formed in those countries where
they do not exist and by those who wish to do so.
(Brighton 1981 - 1.9.1.3)
A common form of operator training for message handling is required.
(Brighton 1981 - 1.9.1.5)
Cefalu 1984 – 1.9.1.7 – Suppressed by Region 1 EC – March 2009
It is proposed that the following frequencies be used as centres of activity for
emergency traffic –
Global Centre of Activity per band:
15m
21360 kHz
17m
18160 kHz
20m
14300 kHz
Region 1 Centre of Activity per band:
40m
7110 kHz
80m
3760 kHz
and further recommend that these frequencies be simply termed “Emergency Centres
of Activity”.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_03)
**********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
4.0-1
August 2011
Chapter 5.0
AWARDS, CERTIFICATES, CUPS AND MEDALS
VALID CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS:
Subscribing Member Societies shall restrict the number of certificates issued or
sponsored by their organisation. Only these certificates may be called "Official
Certificates".
(Opatija 1966 - Rec. 1.14.3.3)
It is agreed that the decision taken by the Opatija Conference 1966 (1.14.3.3) shall be
re-affirmed and brought to the notice of all Member Societies for suitable action.
(Brussels 1969 - Rec. 1.14.3.4)
It is agreed that credit for awards and diplomas will be accepted for contacts made on
the 10 MHz band.
(Brighton 1981 - Rec. 1.14.4.2)
Within Region 1 the official Award Manager of the Member Societies should be entitled
to check QSL cards on behalf of the organising Member Society, as long as the
organising Society agrees.
Where written proof of contact is not required when award application is being made, a
simple list of claimed contacts, showing full log details, should be accepted. In case of
doubt or dispute, more positive evidence of contact having taken place, may be
required by the sponsor from the applicant.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - Rec. 1.14.4.3)
It was recommended that IARU Region 1 would establish an award for humanitarian
purposes, as requested in Doc. TS/90/C3.18 and TS/90/C3.31. The criteria would be
considered by the originators of these documents, who would also consider the current
criteria for the "Roy Stevens Memorial Award". Acceptance of the terms of reference
contained in the Revision of Doc. C3.18 and C3.31 is recommended to be adopted as
an information document for future conferences.
(Torremolinos 1990 - Rec. 1.14.1.2)
It was agreed that IARU should recommend to its Member Societies that each
organisation should use its official address when applying for national amateur radio
diplomas.
(Torremolinos 1990 - Rec. 1.14.4.4)
***********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
5.0-1
January 1994
Chapter 5.1
IARU AWARDS
Worked All Continent Award (WAC):
This award is issued by IARU International Secretariat for confirmed two-way contacts
with all six continents:
Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania and South America.
Applicants must be a member of their national IARU Member Societies - if such
organisation exists - and must send their application via their national Award Manager.
Your national Award Manager can give full updated details on rules and endorsements
and/or other required information.
***********
IARU Region 1 Award
This award is issued by Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB) to radio amateurs and
SWL's for confirmed two-way contacts with or reception of stations in countries whose
national organisation is a member of the IARU Region 1.
There are three classes:
Class one:
Contact with/heard all members (At the time of writing 91 members)
Class two:
Contact with/heard 60 countries
Class three: Contact with/heard 40 countries
For updated rules and/or other details, please contact your national Award Manager.
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
5.1-1
January 2009
Chapter 5.2
RULES FOR IARU REGION 1 HUMANITARIAN AWARD
1.
The Award to be awarded to any IARU Region 1 Member Society for its
distinguished service for the community during disasters, emergencies and
humanitarian actions, either in the past (since the foundation of Region 1) or in
the future.
2.
The Award to be a plaque or shield with the appropriate engraving.
3.
All nominations must be made through the National Member Society and must
be received by the IARU Region 1 Secretary before the commencement of an
Opening Plenary of a Region 1 Conference.
4.
The winning Society to be decided by a panel of five, which will be drawn by
ballot at the Opening Plenary of a Region 1 Conference.
The panel will receive the nominations and should a Society who is a member of
the panel, be nominated, this member will withdraw from the panel and another
society will be drawn.
5.
All five members of the panel will have one vote and a simple majority only is
necessary.
The panel shall appoint a Chairman who will announce the result at the Final
Plenary of a Region 1 Conference.
6.
If more than one nominee is proposed, the panel can name two Societies to
receive the Award at any one Region 1 Conference, if they feel both Societies
deserve to be awarded.
The panel may also reject the nominations, if it considers that the nominated
Societies do not adequately qualify.
7.
The Award to be presented to the winning Society at the Region 1 Conference,
or, if circumstances so require, at any other IARU meeting, by an IARU officer.
8.
Engraving and plaque or shield details as well as printing of an accompanying
certificate to be undertaken by the Region 1 Secretariat.
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
5.2-1
January 1994
Chapter 6
OPERATIONAL ETHICS
VALID CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS
It is recommended that the document related to "Net operation and Amateur Ethics"
shall be adopted. (see Chapter 7.4)
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.16.3.4 (1.12.10.2))
It is recommended that the Document C3.25 (Code of Practice for QSL Managers see Chapter 7.5) should be published in the HF Managers Handbook and in "Region 1
News".
(Torremolinos 1990 - Rec. 1.15.3.1)
The AC Resolution 91-2 containing Guidelines for Packet Radio Operators and
Guidelines for Packet Radio BBS Operators was ratified.
(De Haan 1993 - Rec. C3)
It is recommended that;
1.
all Member Societies shall take steps in order to stop all illegal traffic carried
by amateur radio packet network (BBS), as well as on all other modes.
2.
all Member Societies shall instruct all packet radio system operators (sysops)
about their responsibilities and their duty to remove all illegal messages from
the net.
3.
if Member Societies are unable to stop such traffic by themselves, they
should seek necessary help from their telecommunications authorities in
order to put a stop to such traffic.
4.
all Member Societies encourage their members to investigate the possibility
of implementing a safe system of authentication in order to deny access for
for illegal stations or stations with false or "borrowed" call signs.
(REC/96/TVI/C3....)
It is recommended that
1.
Radio amateurs may access digital networks by any means, including dial-up
modems on gateways, the Internet or other electronic means.
However, amateur radio sysops of digital gateways shall ensure that nonamateurs cannot under any circumstances gain access to amateur radio
networks either deliberately or accidentally.
2.
Sysop shall take all and any necessary steps to ensure that the material
(messages) conform with the rules for amateur radio traffic set out in the
Radio Regulations and in the national regulations in the country concerned.
3.
If material is transferred from a public telephone based network, or a public data
network (e.g. the Internet), the person bringing the material into the amateur
network shall do so under her/his own call sign as sender. It should also be
mentioned that the material originates from e.g. the Internet.
4.
References are made to IARU AC Resolution 91-2 (Rev. 95).
(REC/96/TVI/C3...)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.0-1
August 2011
Chapter 6
It is recommended that IARU Region 1 urges its Member Societies to motivate
their members to adhere to Amateur Radio ethics, and to take action against stations
practising deliberated and malicious interference on the Amateur Radio Bands.
(Lillehammer REC/99/LH/C4.7)
It is recommended that IARU Region 1 urges its member societies to motivate all
its members to operate their radios according to the Non-Interference Basis (NIB)
principle, in order to reduce deliberate and malicious interference.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_17)
It is recommended for stations working “split frequency” to keep the window as
narrow as necessary and to announce the window together with their call sign.
(REC/02/SM/C4.5)
It is recommended a) That Region 1 endorse IARU Resolution 08-01 (See Chapter 7.1.1)
b) That the ON4UN/ON4WW booklet on ethics & operating practice should be
published on member society websites, and published in paper form in
local languages wherever possible, and that maximum publicity should be
given, via member societies, to these publications.
(Cavtat 2008 - CT08_C3_Rec_44)
It is recommended that IARU Region 1 endorses the “DX Code of Conduct” and urges
its member societies to publicise and recommend it to their members.
(Sun City SC11_C4_06)
(download “DX Code of Conduct” from http://dx-code.org/ )
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.0-2
August 2011
Chapter 6.1
THE RADIO AMATEUR'S CODE
The radio amateur is:
CONSIDERATE .....
never knowingly uses the air in a manner such as to lessen the enjoyment of others.
LOYAL .......
offers loyalty, encouragement and support to fellow amateurs, local club and national
society through which amateur radio is represented to government, the International
Amateur Radio Union and the International Telecommunication Union.
PROGRESSIVE ......
with knowledge abreast of science, a well built and efficient station and operation above
reproach.
FRIENDLY ......
slow and patient sending when requested; friendly advice and counsel to the beginner;
kindly assistance, co-operation and consideration for the interests of others. These are
the hallmarks of the amateur spirit.
BALANCED .......
radio is a hobby never interfering with duties owed to home, job, school or community.
PATRIOTIC ......
station and skill always ready for service to community and country.
(Modified from the work of Paul M Segal reproduced in the ARRL Radio Amateur's Handbook)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.1-1
January 1994
Chapter 6.1.1
RESOLUTION 08-1
concerning operating standards
The IARU Administrative Council, Konstanz, June 2008,
noting that the Amateur Radio Services are services which rely on self-regulation for
effective use of their spectrum allocation, and
further noting that poor operating behavior adversely affects the enjoyment of all
radio amateurs and does not enhance the reputation of the Amateur Radio Services,
resolves
that all radio amateurs be encouraged to operate to the highest levels of proficiency,
with proper consideration for others using the amateur radio bands;
that the necessary effort be made by member-societies to teach newcomers and
others correct operating behavior;
and therefore
endorses and recommends the principles set out in the booklet “Ethics and Operating
Procedures for the Radio Amateur”1 by John Devoldere, ON4UN and Marc
Demeuleneere, ON4WW, and
encourages each IARU Region to consider this booklet, with a view to adopting it,
including any Regional variations that might be felt appropriate
.
1 The booklet is published from a web document, and is freely downloadable from many amateur radio
websites, including the IARU.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.1.1-1
February 2009
Chapter 6.2
DX CALLING PROCEDURE
It is recommended that the following guidelines be observed when calling DX:
1.
Do not tune up on the DX station's frequency.
2.
Listen carefully for the DX station's callsign, his listening frequency and operating
technique before calling. The DX station may send his callsign infrequently to
control the pile-up, so be patient and do not send "?" or "what is your call?"
3.
Send your own callsign a few times only, and then do not transmit again until
after the DX is heard. Repeated calling introduces large gaps between QSO's
and may cause the DX operator to QSY or QRT.
4.
If the DX is calling a specific station or area only make a call if you fall within the
group he is listening for. Good DX operators do not answer those who call out of
turn.
5.
Use ITU phonetics on SSB. On CW send not faster than the speed of the DX
station.
6.
If the DX station is working split, call on the specified frequency to minimise
QRM to other band users.
7.
Once contact is established pass only as much information as is passed to you,
and when it is known that other stations have called and are waiting for a contact
do not request a QSY or for the DX station to listen for a friend or a list.
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.2-1
January 1994
Chapter 6.3
LISTS AND NETS - A CODE OF PRACTICE
The twin phenomena of lists and nets have risen spontaneously in response to a vastly
increased world-wide ham population and an ever increasing interest in DX awards. In
many cases they provide the only means of working a particular DX station, particularly
on the HF bands. It should be noted that frequently lists are taken at the instigation of a
DX station.
There is a feeling however in some quarters that QSO's made by this means are
somehow less valid or fair than those made under more normal circumstances. It is true
that sometimes there are abuses, but it is also true that lists and nets are here to stay.
Attempts to discriminate against them in terms of awards, would prove fruitless, as
"policing" would be unenforceable and administration impossible.
It is therefore highly desirable that general recognition is given to a set of operating
standards, which would ensure the validity, and acceptability of QSO's made by these
means.
The following suggestions would go some way to minimising current criticisms. It should
be noted that these are NOT advisory notes on procedures, but suggestions in relation
to operating standards and ethics.
1.
The list operator (LO), when taking the list, should endeavour to ensure a fair
and even representation from all those countries calling to participate.
2.
It is not desirable to take a list for use at some future date. In the case of poor
propagation however, a running list may be held over and continued when
possible.
3.
It is desirable to establish with the DX station beforehand how much time he has
available, or how many stations can be worked in the time available.
4.
A valid QSO requires some minimum of two-way exchange of information. As
stations are usually addressed by call sign this information has already been
imparted to the DX station, nevertheless the LO should seek to avoid passing
the whole call sign if possible.
Convention has established that the exchange need only be a correctly received
RS report by both parties. It is therefore the responsibility of the LO at all times to
ensure that this is accomplished fairly, accurately and without assistance. Whilst
repeats are in order, if necessary, verification of partly received reports is not.
Should a relay or a guess be suspected by the LO, the transmitting station
should be instructed to make a second attempt with a changed report. The LO
should not flinch from giving "negative QSO", when not satisfied with the
exchange.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.3-1
January 1994
Chapter 6.3
5.
It is acceptable practice for the LO to nominate another station to monitor and
assist with the procedure in difficult circumstances due to interference or linking
for example.
6.
If conditions fail the LO should terminate the operation rather than allow a "free
for all" under the guise of the list.
7.
It is very important that the LO gives information out at regular intervals, relating
to new lists, QSL managers, length of current list etc. This will be of great
assistance for waiting stations not on the list, and minimise breaking and
interference.
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.3-2
January 1994
Chapter 6.4
NET OPERATION AND AMATEUR ETHICS
The HF WG view with some concern the lack of Amateur ethics prevalent in many of
the present day net operations and therefore recommend that all Region 1 National
Societies make clear to their members:
(1) No net or single operator has the exclusive right to a specific frequency unless
carrying emergency traffic, as defined in the "HF Emergency Operation Procedure".
(2) In the event that a QSO is in progress on a so-called net frequency the net must
either wait until the QSO is terminated or alternatively establish the net elsewhere.
(3) The net controller is responsible for ensuring that the net is conducted in an orderly
manner with courtesy and consideration and does not disturb other traffic.
(4) On no account other than when carrying emergency traffic, as defined in the "HF
Emergency Operating Procedure", may a net hold a frequency when there is no
traffic to be passed.
(5) All National Societies are again requested to direct their efforts to a return on the
bands to the Amateur Radio Operator's Code.
**********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.4-1
January 1994
Chapter 6.5
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR QSL MANAGEMENT
1.
Any DX station appointing a QSL Manager must ensure that satisfactory
arrangements are in place for receiving and responding to incoming
bureau as well as direct cards. Adequate publicity must be given to such
arrangements.
2.
QSL Managers must respond to incoming SWL cards.
3.
Any DX station appointing a QSL Manager must accept responsibility for
that Manager's performance.
4.
QSL Managers must respond "direct" and within a reasonable period of
time if sufficient funds/IRCs/stamps to cover the exact cost of return
postage and a return envelope are enclosed with the request. Airmail
must be used if sufficient funds/IRCs/stamps are enclosed.
5.
QSL Managers must not insist on separate envelopes/applications for
different QSOs or different stations. They must establish internal
procedures to handle such multiple requests.
6.
Recognising that mistakes of time and/or date are frequently made, QSL
Managers must make a reasonably diligent search for QSOs that cannot
immediately be found in the log.
7.
In particular: It is unacceptable to demand a specific number of IRCs or
"green stamps" (US$ bills) if a smaller number would cover the costs
mentioned in Point 4.
It is unacceptable to return cards via the bureau if they were received
direct with sufficient funds/IRCs/stamps as defined in Point 4.
8.
There should be no time limit for applying for QSL cards. Old logbooks
should be passed to responsible DX clubs when the manager no longer
wishes to retain them.
9.
It is encouraged that DXpeditions should respond to bureau QSLs in
addition to direct requests. When this is difficult to arrange then the
DXpedition organisers are recommended to appoint a QSL Manager in a
country where this would be possible. Voluntary support for DXpeditions
should be encouraged. (Cavtat 2008 - CT08_C3_25)
**********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.5-1
January 2009
Chapter 6.6
IARU ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL RESOLUTION 91-2
GUIDELINES FOR PACKET RADIO OPERATORS
1.
Amateur Radio takes pride in being self-regulated. Packet Radio Operators
should continue this tradition.
2.
Packet Radio Operators, like all Amateur Radio Operators, should observe
published Band Plans.
3.
A Packet Radio Operator should not send the following traffic either direct or via
mailboxes:
A.
All advertising for selling, buying or trading goods, including
amateur equipment;
B.
All statements or propaganda on political or religious subjects;
C.
All inappropriate language, as, for instance, the use of swear
words, obscenities, defamatory or libellous language etc;
D.
All material which may infringe Copyright.
E.
All material which infringes privacy, whether personal or corporate.
4.
A Packet Radio Operator utilising a BBS should avoid transmitting unnecessary
or redundant messages and documents in order to enhance network efficiency.
5.
A Packet Radio Operator utilising a BBS should ensure that the callsign of the
originating station, including the name of the person responsible in the case of a
club station, is clearly shown on every message so that the sender can be
identified.
6.
A Packet Radio Operator should avoid messages that are too long for efficient
relay through the network.
7.
A Packet Radio Operator utilising a BBS should ensure that all messages
transmitted are addressed to the appropriate group of recipients and not
addressed to inappropriate areas in order to enhance network efficiency.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.6-1
January 1994
Chapter 6.6
GUIDELINES FOR PACKET RADIO BULLETIN BOARD OPERATORS
1.
The Operator of a Packet Radio Bulletin Board is obliged to provide a reliable
service, within a defined area for a defined purpose.
2.
A Packet Radio Bulletin Board Operator is morally responsible for all messages
forwarded by his system. He should make his best efforts to insure that the
traffic forwarded is appropriate to the Amateur Radio Service and in accordance
with the Guidelines for Packet Radio Operators.
3.
HF Mailboxes should only be used where there is a genuine need that cannot be
provided by VHF or other means.
4.
A Packet Radio Bulletin Board Operator may take action to exclude a User who
persistently contravenes the Guidelines for Packet Radio Operators. Excluding a
User should only be done as a last resort after the User has been warned and
where exclusion does not contravene local regulations.
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.6-2
January 1994
Chapter 6.6.1
PACKET RADIO OPERATIONS ON HF
(REC/96/TVI/C3....)
1.
It is recommended that all Member Societies shall take steps in order to stop
all illegal traffic carried by amateur radio packet radio network (BBS), as well
as on all other modes.
2.
It is recommended that all Member Societies shall instruct all packet radio
system operators (sysops) about their responsibilities and their duty to
remove all illegal messages from the net.
3.
It is recommended that if Member Societies are unable to stop such traffic by
themselves, they should seek necessary help from their telecommunications
authorities in order to put a stop to such traffic.
4.
It is recommended that all Member Societies encourage their members to
investigate the possibility of implementing a safe system of authentication in
order to deny access for illegal stations or stations with false or "borrowed"
callsigns.
(REC/96/TVI/C3.....)
It is recommended that
1.
radio amateurs may access digital networks by any means, including dial-up
modems on gateways, the Internet or other electronic means.
However, amateur radio sysops of digital gateways shall ensure that nonamateurs cannot under any circumstances gain access to amateur radio
networks either deliberately or accidentally.
2.
SysOps shall take all and any necessary steps to ensure that the material
(messages) conforms with the rules for amateur radio traffic set out in the
Radio Regulations and in the national regulations in the country concerned.
3.
if material (message) is transferred from a public telephone based network, or a
public data network (e.g. the Internet), the person bringing the material
(message) into the amateur network shall do so under her/his own callsign as
sender. It should also be mentioned that the material (message) originates
from e.g. the Internet.
4.
References are made to IARU AC Resolution 91-2 (Rev. 95).
****************
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.6.1-1
November 1996
Chapter 6.7
Guidelines for Centres of Activity
CW QRS Centres of Activity
The frequencies 3.555, 14.055, 21.055 and 28.055 should be defined as CW QRS
centres of activity, where radio amateurs who want to develop their CW could meet
one another.
QRP Centres of Activity
In the same spirit the frequencies 3.560, 7.030, 14.060, 18.096, 21.060, 24.906 and
28.060 should be defined as QRP centres of activity, where amateurs who want to
perform low power contacts could meet one another.
It is recommended that that 18130 kHz is adopted as a QRP SSB Centre of Activity
by IARU Region 1.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_08
It is recommended that that 24950 kHz is adopted as a QRP SSB Centre of Activity
by IARU Region 1.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_09)
Digitised Speech Centres of Activity
It is recommended that 3630 kHz, 7070 kHz, 14180 kHz, 21180 kHz and 28330
kHz are adopted as digitised speech Centres of Activity by IARU Region 1, in order to
harmonise these with Region 2.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_10)
It is recommended that 18150 kHz and 24960 kHz are adopted as digitised speech
Centres of Activities by IARU Region 1, and that IARU Region 1 proposes that these
frequencies be adopted by Regions 2 and 3 in the interests of harmonisation.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_11)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.7-1
January 2009
Chapter 6.7
Emergency Centres of Activity
It is proposed that the following frequencies be used as centres of activity for
emergency traffic –
Global Centre of Activity per band:
15m
21360 kHz
17m
18160 kHz
20m
14300 kHz
Region 1 Centre of Activity per band:
40m
7110 kHz
80m
3760 kHz
and further recommend that these frequencies be simply termed “Emergency Centres
of Activity”.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_03)
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
6.7-2
January 2009
Chapter 7.1
The Permanent ARDF Working Group
Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding
The Rules may be found at:
http://www.ardf-r1.org/ardf_rules.html
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.1-1
January 2009
Chapter 7.2
International Beacon Project
Valid Conference Recommendations
Beacon – a station in the Amateur Service or Amateur Satellite Service that
autonomously transmits in a defined format, which may include repetitive data or
information, for the study of propagation, determination of frequency or bearing or for
any other experimental purposes including construction.
(Cavtat 2008 - CT08_C4_Rec_07)
It is recommended that the IBP frequencies as preferred operating frequencies
shall be 18.109-18.111, 24.929-24.931 and 28.199-28.201 MHz.
(De Haan 1993 - Rec. C4.6)
It is recommended that the document "Beacon Policy at 28 and 50 MHz"
(DOC/90/TS/C4.24) be renamed "BEACON OPERATION AT HF AND 50 MHz"
(REC/96/TVI/C4.9)
It is recommended that the document (DOC/96/TVI/C4.6)
"IARU Region 1 HF Beacons - a Guide to Good Practice", be used as guidelines for
the beacon operations of HF Beacons. (See Chapter 8.2.3.)
(REC/96/TVI/C4.10)
It is recommended that HF Beacons may be established on the 1.8, 3.5 and 7 MHz
band in the regions of Africa south of the Equator.
(REC/99/LH/C4.1)
It is recommended that IARU Region 1 General Conference 1999 approves the
recommendations of the AC ad hoc Beacon Committee as outlined in DOC/99/LH/C4.14
(REC/99/LH/C4.3)
It is recommended:
- to start developing a Region 1 Frequency Sharing Beacon Network on one or
more of the assigned frequencies,
- that this network should be constructed such as to also be able to work on 40,86
and the 50 MHz and 70 MHz band
- that smaller Societies who want to take part in the development and who do not
have the financial abilities needed, should be sponsored by « bigger » Societies
with better financial abilities.
(REC/99/LH/C4.5)
It is recommended that that operation of unmanned beacons apart from those
already approved by the IARU Region 1 Coordinator is discouraged on all amateur
bands below 14 MHz, except where coordinated by the IARU Region 1 Beacon
Coordinator under one or more of the following conditions:
a) Beacons are related to scientific study, experiment or specific propagation
requirements;
b) Experimental and operating at very low power.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_04)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.2
February 2009
Chapter 7.2
IARU Administrative Council Resolutions:
AC Resolution 86-1 (Revised 1990) concerning 28 MHz Beacons. (see Chapter 8.2.2)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.2
February 2009
Chapter 7.2.1
International Beacon Project
Terms of Reference for the IARU Region 1 I.B.P.
(IARU Beacon Project) Co-ordinator
1. The IARU Beacon Project (IBP) is established to carry out the policy for HF
beacon operations laid down by the IARU Administrative Council (AC).
2. The IARU Region 1 IBP Co-ordinator shall be appointed at each triennial
General Conference and shall act according to the procedures described in the
Region 1 Bye-Laws.
3. The Region 1 Co-ordinator will deal with all aspects, relevant to the Region 1
geographical area, of policy and planning statements issued by the IBP
International Co-ordinator (IC), appointed by the AC. In this work he will take
account of decisions and recommendations arrived at by a General Conference
and the Executive Committee (EC).
4. The Region 1 Co-ordinator will issue detailed information to Region 1 Member
Societies to guide and assist them to meet the requirements of the Beacon
Project as issued by the IC in respect of geographical coverage, frequency
management, timing of transmissions and technical specifications.
He will draw the attention of the IC to difficulties as they may arise and will inform
the IC from time to time of general progress in the implementation of the regional
plan.
He will submit an annual report to the EC and immediately prior to a General
Conference he will also submit a report to the General Conference covering the
preceding three year period for the general information of Member Societies.
5. The IARU Region 1 IBP Co-ordinator shall attend Region 1 General
Conferences. If deemed necessary by the Chairman of the HF-Committee, and
in consultation with the EC, he may attend meetings of the HF-Committee.
6. The IBP Co-ordinator's expenses will be reimbursed according to articles B.3.25
and B.3.28 of the Region 1 Bye-Laws.
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.2.1-1
January 1994
Chapter 7.2.2
INTERNATIONAL BEACON PROJECT
AC RESOLUTION 86-1 (Rev. 1990)
The IARU Administrative Council,
recognising the popularity of the IARU Beacon Project on 28 MHz, as well as the time
and energy that has been dedicated to the endeavour,
recognising that it is desirable to improve, enhance and technically update the 28 MHz
beacon system, especially in view of the success of the 14.1 MHz program sponsored
by the Northern California DX Foundation,
recognising that the IARU band plans of frequency allocated to the Amateur Service
should exemplify the most efficient use of the frequency spectrum,
resolves that the 28 MHz beacon system be revised according to the following
guidelines:
1.
The segment 28.190 to 28.200 MHz will be assigned as time sharing
frequencies for the IARU Beacon Project, effective immediately.
2.
A world-wide network similar to the 14.1 MHz program of the NCDXF will
operate on 28.200 MHz.
3.
Regional networks, each encompassing approximately a continent, should be
established on integral kilohertz between 28.190 and 28.199 MHz.
4.
IARU member-societies are encouraged to sponsor the operation of beacons in
this network.
5.
Existing beacons operated by an IARU society will have preference in this new
scheme.
6.
The IARU Beacon Project Co-ordinator will submit to the International
Secretariat the technical parameters for the beacons as well as the
specifications for the regional networks, information that will be sent to all
member-societies. He will be responsible for frequency management, for time
allocations and will strive for global coverage.
7.
The Administrative Council will insure that this new scheme of 28 MHz beacons
as well as any other beacon systems in other bands will be adequately
publicised and that the data collected from the operation of the beacons will be
distributed regularly to all member-societies.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.2.2-1
January 1994
Chapter 7.2.2
8.
The segment 28.200-28.225 MHz will be reserved for use by continuous-duty
beacons, to be approved by the IARU Beacon Project Co-ordinator on a caseby-case basis after a satisfactory showing of special need.
9.
Beacons operating outside of the new system for time sharing of frequencies
28.190-28.200 MHz and continuous-duty beacons at 28.200-28.225 MHz will
cease to be protected from interference by IARU band plans on 1 January 1993.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.2.2-2
January 1994
Chapter 7.2.3
IARU REGION 1 HF BEACONS
A GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICE
(DOC/96/TVI/C4.6)
Beacon transmissions have long been used as guides to the presence of HF openings
and have contributed significantly to our knowledge of propagation. However, the
number of HF beacons is steadily increasing and the amount of spectrum available is
under pressure. It is more important than ever that beacon operators are aware of the
technical parameters required, the reasons for them and the procedure to be followed
to obtain an agreed frequency. This is particularly important in respect of bands with
narrow beacon allocations.
It is not the intention of this document to prescribe the exact purpose of any beacon, its
power level or the number of beacons in any country. It is also not intended to be
applied rigorously to experimental or special-purpose beacons. It should, however,
apply to the vast majority of HF beacons for propagation monitoring.
1.
COORDINATION PROCEDURE
The beacon proposal should be agreed within the national society ( with consultation
with neighbouring societies where appropriate) and a provisional frequency chosen.
The proposed frequency should be submitted to the IARU regional HF beacon
coordinator to check for potential interference problems.
2.
TRANSMISSION MODE
In the interests of spectrum economy, the preferred transmission mode at HF is A1a
CW. If F1a is used, the shift should not exceed 250 Hz, with MARK on the nominal
frequency and SPACE on the lower. Care must be taken to ensure that the
transmission has the lowest possible levels of spurious signals, key clicks and phase
noise.
3.
FREQUENCY ACCURACY AND SPACING
All beacons should operate within the IARU-designated sub-bands. Additionally, solo
beacons should avoid frequencies assigned by the IARU to frequency-sharing
networks. Frequencies are currently assigned on an exact kHz (e.g. 28.205.0) or a half
kHz (e.g. 28.205.5). (However, if beacon numbers continue to grow, 100 Hz spacing
may be introduced). Beacons should normally be capable of operating within +/- 25 Hz
of their nominal frequency.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.2.3-1
November 1996
Chapter 7.2.3
4.
MESSAGE
As beacons are often heard at very low signal levels, often among spurious signals, it
is important that their message be simple, unambiguous and repeated frequently. It is
also
necessary to have a short period of carrier for frequency checking and strength
measurement purposes, and to make it easy to distinguish the mark frequency where
FSK is used.
The message should therefore consist of 5-10 seconds of carrier followed by the
callsign and (if required) the grid locator at 10-12 words per minute. Nothing more. No
gaps in transmission.
5.
POWER
To avoid inefficient use of spectrum and presenting an unduly pessimistic impression of
propagation conditions, a minimum power of 10 watts e.r.p. is recommended at HF.
Other than this, there are no recommendations as to power or antennas other than
suitability for purpose and the need to minimise interference.
6.
OPERATION
Operation should be 24-hour continuous. (This does not preclude beacons that switch
to different frequencies or beam headings on a regular basis.)
Beacon operators must try to ensure that the operational parameters of their beacons
remains as stable as possible and that non-operational time is kept to a minimum.
7.
STATUS
It is important that the operational parameters and status of all beacons be widely
known. This information should be sent to the Region 1 HF Beacon Coordinator via the
local beacon coordinator or spectrum manager at least once a year or whenever the
operational parameters are changed.
Martin Harrison, G3USF
Region 1 HF Beacon Coordinator
February 1996
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.2.3-2
November 1996
Chapter 7.3
IARU-Monitoring System
VALID CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS:
IARU Region 1 requests the Administrative Council of IARU to make use of the
provisions of RR1876 in an attempt to have long standing non-amateur transmissions
removed from the exclusive parts of the amateur bands.
(Torremolinos 1990 - 1.5.4.14)
It is recommended that Member Societies in Region 1 who are not participating in the
work of the Monitoring System, should establish or reactivate their National Monitoring
System and make some definite contribution to the defence of the amateur bands or
appoint a Monitoring System Liaison Officer, who will support the actions of the Region
1 Monitoring System. (De Haan 1993 - Rec. C3.B)
It is recommended that the monthly MS Report be circulated to all member societies
for information and so enable them to take such supporting action with their
administration as may from time to time be required. (De Haan 1993 - Rec. C3.C.1)
It is recommended that all Member Societies should bring to the attention of their
members the prevailing situation on the bands by publishing in their journals extracts
from statistics and news items contained in the Monthly MS Report.
(De Haan 1993 - Rec. C3.C.2)
It is recommended to accept document 93/DHB/C3.43 from the EC and to endorse the
decision of the EC as outlined in their document and minuted in paragraph 12.8 of the
EC Meeting, Budapest, May 1992. (De Haan 1993 - Rec. C3.D)
It is recommended that the present organisation of the IARU-MS remains unchanged
until such time that the objectives mentioned in the terms of reference have been
achieved. (Tel Aviv 1996)
It is recommended that a modest increase of the IARU-MS Co-ordinator's budget is
approved in order to facilitate Recommendation A (See chapter 11.4.1) (Tel Aviv 1996)
It is recommended that
a)
the EC of IARU Region 1 and the AC continue investigating with the ITU, CEPT
and other similar international organisations to achieve participation in the monitoring of
harmful interference and
b)
endorsement of this recommendation be sought from IARU Regions 2 and 3.
(Tel Aviv 1996)
It is recommended that the Administrative Council of the IARU gives publicity to the
magnitude of the problem of non-authorized transmissions in the amateur bands, at
IARU stands at international or national telecommunication conferences. (Tel Aviv
1996)
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.3-1
November 1996
Chapter 7.3.1
IARU-Monitoring System
Terms of Reference for the IARU Region 1
IARU IARU Monitoring System Co-ordinator
1.
The IARU Monitoring System (IARU-MS) is established to carry out the policy for
monitoring laid down by the IARU Administrative Council (AC).
2.
The IARU Region 1 Monitoring System shall act decisively, within the limits of
the Executive Committee's guidelines, in defence of the amateur bands and use
it's best endeavour for the removal of those stations not authorised to operate in
those bands.
3.
The IARU Region 1 IARU-MS Co-ordinator shall be appointed at each triennial
General Conference and shall act in accordance with the procedures described
in the Region 1 Bye-Laws.
4.
The IARU Region 1 IARU-MS Co-ordinator shall:
a.
use his best endeavour in defence of the amateur bands against nonauthorised users,
b.
co-ordinate and support the efforts of the Region 1 Member Societies in
protesting the use of amateur frequencies by non-amateur users,
c.
compile regional data and progress reports and forward them to the
IARU-MS International Co-ordinator,
d.
distribute to Region 1 Member Societies information received from the
International Co-ordinator,
e.
assist National Co-ordinators in effectively carrying out their functions
within the IARU-MS,
f.
acknowledge all reports and inquiries received from National Coordinators and periodically summarise to a National Society the status of
its reports,
g.
keep National
developments.
h.
He may receive and process reports from individuals in those countries
where there is no IARU Members Society.
Co-ordinators
adequately
informed
of
current
5.
The IARU Region 1 IARU-MS Co-ordinator will report annually to the EC and to
a General Conference. He shall attend Region 1 General Conferences.
6.
The IARU Region 1 IARU-MS Co-ordinator's expenses will be reimbursed
according to articles B.3.25 and B.3.28 of the Region 1 Bye-Laws.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V7.0
7.3.1-1
November 1996
Chapter 7.3.2
IARU-Monitoring System
IARU AC RESOLUTION 91-1
Concerning the improper use of the amateur bands.
The IARU Administrative Council
Considering
a) the increasing number of reports received from the amateur community
regarding improper use of the amateur bands,
b) that in accordance with the IARU Constitution, it is the obligation of the IARU
and its Member Societies to defend the interests of the Amateur Services,
c) that the best way to deal with cases of improper use of the amateur bands is
by an active involvement of Member Societies with their Administrations, and
d) that the ITU, having no enforcement authority, is unable to address such
matters directly,
Resolves:
1. that Member Societies shall aggressively pursue the processing by their own
Administrations of documented complaints of improper use of the amateur
bands;
2. that documented cases of improper use of the amateur bands that cannot be
solved by the Member Societies with its Administration shall be forwarded by the
Member Society to its regional organisation; and
3. that any cases of improper use of amateur bands processed through an IARU
regional organisation shall be handled by the following procedure:
a) The cases shall be referred to the regional IARU MS co-ordinator in the
region where the transmitting station is located.
b) As soon as possible after receiving a case, the regional IARU MS coordinator will verify the report and ensure that all pertinent information is
included.
c) Upon verification, the IARU MS co-ordinator will ask the regional
secretary to report the incident to the appropriate Member Society in the
region.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.3.2-1
January 1994
Chapter 7.3.2
d) The Member Society will promptly submit the report to its
Administration
e) The Member Society must advise the regional secretary within 30 days
after receiving the report:
1) the date the report was presented to its Administration;
2) to whom it was presented; and
3) any formal or informal response of its Administration.
And further resolves:
1. that the IARU MS regional co-ordinators are encouraged to keep a log by
country in their region of cases of improper use of the amateur bands and to
issue a summary report to the regional secretary once a year;
2. that regional conferences are encouraged to include in their conference
agendas a review of cases of improper use of the amateur bands;
3. that Member Societies are encouraged to seek, in their countries, restrictions
on sale of amateur radio transmitting equipment to persons who do not hold
amateur licenses; and
4. that if a Member Society is unable or unwilling to present a report of improper
use of the amateur bands to its own Administration, the Member Society may
request that the regional organisation present the report directly to its
Administration.
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
7.3.2-2
January 1994
Chapter 7.3.3
IARU-Monitoring System
The Objectives of the IARU-Monitoring System
Superseded
see
http://www.iarums-r1.org/iarums/corner.pdf
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V7.0
7.3.3-1
May 2006
Chapter 7.3.4
IARU-Monitoring System
The Formation of a National Monitoring System
Superseded
see
http://www.iarums-r1.org/iarums/corner.pdf
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V7.0
7.3.4-1
May 2006
Chapter 8.0
Contest Rules and Regulations
Noordwijkerhout 1987 Recommendation 1.12.10.3 - Superseded by recommendation
CT08-C4_Rec_03
It is recommended that the band change stipulation for the single operator categories in IARU
Region 1 HF contests should be eliminated, and should be mentioned in the HF Managers’
Handbook.
(San Marino 2002 - REC/02/SM/C4.6)
REC/96/TVI/C4.13 - Superseded by recommendations DV05_C4_Rec_05 and 06
REC/99/LH/C4.8 – Superseded by recommendations DV05_C4_Rec_05 and 06
It is recommended that all Member Societies shall include information about contest free
segments in their contest rules.
(Tel Aviv 1996 - REC/96/TVI/C4.14)
REC/99/LH/C4.9) - Superseded by recommendation CT08-C4_Rec_03
REC/99/LH/C4.10 - Superseded by recommendations DV05_C4_Rec_05 and 06
It is recommended that paper VIE07_C4_05 ‘Guidelines for HF Contests’ be added to the HF
Manager’s Handbook but with the SWL category in clause 7 amended to delete all after “A
single person using only one receiver” and paragraph 11 on page 5 deleted.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_03)
It is recommended that within the chapter ‘Guidelines for HF Contests’ of the IARU Region 1
HF Manager’s Handbook, a distinct recommendation to incorporate contest free segments in the
rules of contests organized by national societies and its’ subdivisions shall be given and made
well known.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_15)
It is recommended that Region 1 Member Societies check and put into effect rules that relate
to frequency usage for the HF contests that they organize, and that the Region 1 Executive
considers encouraging other IARU Regions to adopt a similar approach.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_16)
It is recommended that contest organizers be encouraged to replace signal strength reports in
contests with some other less predictable exchange, so as to enhance the skill requirements of
contest operators.
( Cavtat 2008 - CT08_C3_Rec_27)
The Committee recommends that an additional category for "Youngsters and Newcomers" be
introduced in contests wherever possible. Details are left to the various contest organizers.
(Cavtat 2008 - CT08_C3_Rec_28)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
8-1
February 2009
Chapter 8.1
GUIDELINES FOR HF CONTESTS
Contents
1. Foreword
2. Contest Committee
3. Classification of contests
4. Preparation for contest
5. Contest rules
6. Duration of contests
7. Competition classes
8. Frequencies
9. Contest Free Band Segments
10. Log formats and adjudication
11. Publication of Logs
1. FOREWORD
The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist Contest Organisers, Contest Managers, Contest
Committees and Contesters with a guide to define some elements of contesting and to
establish some common understandings or "ethics" and to assure equality in dealing with HF
Contest work.
2. CONTEST COMMITTEE
Each Region 1 member society is recommended to appoint a contest committee or an
equivalent body containing at least three experienced persons.
This group should be given the authority and responsibility to take decisions in any dispute or
irregularities in connection with the contest. It is good practice that this group’s decisions are
regarded as final and indisputable, as indicated by the contest rules
3. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTESTS
To assist those countries where amateur radio is a recognised sport, contests are classified
into three categories:
1. INTERNATIONAL CONTESTS.
These are contests where entrants come from more than one country.
2. REGIONAL CONTESTS.
These are contests where entrants come from a few countries within close proximity.
3. NATIONAL CONTESTS.
These are contests where majority of entrants come from one country.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
8.1-1
August 2011
Chapter 8.1
Rules for Regional or National contests should not penalise entrants from working stations
outside of their own country.
4. PREPARATION FOR CONTEST
This is a matter for the contest organiser, but generally on-site-work (e.g. mounting stations
and antennas etc) of technical and/or logistic nature is generally before the contest start. In
certain contests (e.g. Field Days) restrictions may be laid down.
It is a matter for the contest organiser to decide in defining the rules, but generally contest
traffic and any activity in connection with this, only takes place within the contest period and
from the contest site using Amateur Radio frequencies and Internet links.
5. CONTEST RULES
IARU Region 1 wants to encourage creativity and innovation in terms of its approach to
contesting and as such wants to limit the restrictive nature of its guidelines concerning
contesting. Thus, the organising committee is free to decide the rules within the general or
any specific guidelines laid out in this chapter and relevant Conference Recommendations.
The contest shall preferably be fixed to a certain weekend, or day within a week, every year in
order that other member societies can harmonise their contest activity as much as is possible.
The contest committees should ensure that their contest rules are published in good time,
ideally 4 months before the contest, using the web and reflectors and if required magazines.
As a guideline contest organisers may wish to consider the following issues when deciding the
rules for their contest:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Name of contest
Contest period(s)
Sections (competition classes)
Frequencies
Contest call and exchange
Scoring (QSO points)
Multipliers
Final score
Special conditions
Log instructions
Internet linking between stations
Use of Internet for spotting
Rules on skeds (both prior to and during the contest)
Declaration
Log format and means of submission
Publication of logs
Closing date for log
Awards
Dispute
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
8.1-2
August 2011
Chapter 8.1
Depending upon the nature of the contest, organisers need to consider whether or not it is
necessary to warn competitors against, and set penalties for issues such as “log padding1”
and “uniques2”.
6. DURATION OF CONTESTS
To assist contest organisers the following definitions are generally applied:
•
International contests or other contests with an average of more than 1000 participants may
continue for the whole weekend, 48 hrs. For single operators, rest periods may be prescribed.
•
Regional / Continental oriented contests or other contests with an average of between 500
and 1000 participants should not last more than max 36 hrs.
•
National contests or other contests with less than 500 participants should not last more than
max. 24 hrs.
•
•
The time period should be chosen to fall within the weekend around the world (i.e. 1200
UTC Saturday - 1200 UTC Sunday)
National/local contests may use other time periods.
7. COMPETITION CLASSES
The organising society is free to decide which classes are to be included in the contest rules.
It should be left to SWL clubs to organise SWL events in parallel with existing contests.
Generally, the following definitions are used:
•
SO - Single Operator
A SO station is a station manned by one individual operator transmitting not more than one
signal on one running frequency at any time. (Sun City - SC11_C4_03)
•
SOSB - Single Operator Single Band
A SOSB station is a SO station operated on one single amateur band.
•
SOMB - Single Operator Multi Band
A SOMB station is a SO station operating on any of the bands specified in the contest
rules.
•
MO - Multi Operator
A MO station is a station manned by more than one operator. Operation is permitted on all
bands specified in the contest rules.
1
Log padding: where the same station contacts the contest station repeatedly using different callsigns.
Uniques: used here to mean a station callsign that appears in the log submitted by only one of the stations submitting logs to
the contest adjudicator.
2
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
8.1-3
August 2011
Chapter 8.1
•
MOST - Multi Operator Single Transmitter
A MOST station is a multi-operator station transmitting not more than one signal on not
more than one running frequency on a band at any time. (Sun City - SC11_C4_01)
•
MOMT - Multi Operator Multi Transmitter
A MOMT station is a MO station transmitting not more than one signal per band at any
time.
•
QRP
Power limited to 5 watt output
•
QRPP
Power limited to 1 watt or less output
•
SWL
Short Wave Listener - A single person using only one receiver.
8. FREQUENCIES
The frequency planning for all contests should comply with the IARU Region 1 Band Plan
(using contest preferred segments where possible), and depending upon the likely level of
activity use as little spectrum as possible, thus observing the co-existence with non-contesting
radio amateurs. It is important that contests organisers make every endeavour to ensure that
some spectrum is available on each band for non-contest activity for the modes normally used
in the sub-band in question.
In general multi-mode contests are not preferred, as they tend to occupy too much of the
available band allocations. Organisers of contests should, for the same reason, avoid
scheduling a major SSB contest concurrently with a major CW or datamode contest.
Contests should be restricted to 160, 80, 40, 20, 15 and 10m. That is 30, 17 and 12m should
not be used for contests.
The HF Committee encourages member societies to publish contest operating segments
clearly in the rules of the contest and that those segments are considered with due respect to
the IARU Band Plans. (Sun City - SC11_C4_02)
It is recommended that within the chapter ‘Guidelines for HF Contests’ of the IARU
Region 1 HF Manager’s Handbook, a distinct recommendation to incorporate contest free
segments in the rules of contests organized by national societies and its’ subdivisions shall
be given and made well known.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_15)
It is recommended that Region 1 Member Societies check and put into effect rules that
relate to frequency usage for the HF contests that they organize, and that the Region 1
Executive considers encouraging other IARU Regions to adopt a similar approach.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_16)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
8.1-4
August 2011
Chapter 8.1
9. CONTEST PREFERRED BAND SEGMENTS
Contest preferred band segments have been established on some bands. Always consult the
IARU Region 1 Band Plan for actual contest preferred band segments. Currently the following
Contest Preferred Band Segments are:
3.5 MHz CW 3510 – 3560 kHz
14 MHz CW 14000 – 14060 kHz
3.5 MHz SSB 3600 – 3650 kHz & 3700 – 3800kHz
7 MHz
SSB 7060 – 7100 kHz & 7130 – 7200 kHz
14 MHz SSB 14125 – 14300 kHz
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
8.1-5
August 2011
Chapter 8.1
10. LOG FORMAT & ADJUDICATION
Much progress has been made in recent years in the electronic submission of contest logs
and their subsequent computerised adjudication.
Whilst for some contests paper logs, submitted as in the past, may still be appropriate the
general guideline for IARU Region 1 is that all contest organisers should aim to move their
contesters to 100% electronic log submission. Whilst the Cabrillo format for contest log
submission is currently the norm, contest organisers are encouraged to improve the
adjudication process by a general move towards an XML based submission format. National
Society representatives on the HF Managers Committee are encouraged to collaboratively
develop such an innovation.
Without wanting to make the guidelines too detailed, contest organisers are encouraged to
share new ideas both in terms of the process and openness of the adjudication procedure and
the availability of adjudication reports (“UBN” in CQ nomenclature). Contest organisers
should seek advice from their national society’s representative on the IARU Region 1 HF
Committee where sharing and discussion of checking algorithms, contest software, etc,
between different contest organising groups is encouraged and coordinated.
11. Publication of Logs
In relation to the ARRL’s rules covering DXCC Accreditation Criteria there could be difficulties
in terms of stations claiming credits for QSOs that are made with a station that subsequently
submits its log to the Internet, where sufficient detail about the QSO (time, date, band, mode
and callsign). IARU Region 1 is keen to provide incentives for Amateur operation and thus
encourages contest stations not to publish in full their contest logs as this could subsequently
make contacts with their station ineligible for awards such as DXCC.
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Chapter 9.1
The Radio Regulations
Extract from Article 1 – Terms and Definitions
Section I – General terms
1.2 administration: Any governmental department or service responsible for
discharging the obligations undertaken in the Constitution of the International
Telecommunication Union, in the Convention of the International Telecommunication
Union and in the Administrative Regulations (CS 1002).
1.3 telecommunication: Any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals,
writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or
other electromagnetic systems (CS).
1.4 radio: A general term applied to the use of radio waves.
1.5 radio waves or hertzian waves: Electromagnetic waves of frequencies arbitrarily
lower than 3 000 GHz, propagated in space without artificial guide.
1.6 radiocommunication: Telecommunication by means of radio waves (CS) (CV).
1.14 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): Time scale, based on the second (SI), as
defined in Recommendation ITU R TF.460-6. (WRC-03)
For most practical purposes associated with the Radio Regulations, UTC is
equivalent to mean solar time at the prime meridian (0° longitude), formerly
expressed in GMT.
Section III – Radio services
1.19 radiocommunication service: A service as defined in this Section involving the
transmission, emission and/or reception of radio waves for specific
telecommunication purposes.
In these Regulations, unless otherwise stated, any radiocommunication service
relates to terrestrial radiocommunication.
1.56 amateur service: A radiocommunication service for the purpose of self-training,
intercommunication and technical investigations carried out by amateurs, that is, by
duly authorized persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and
without pecuniary interest.
1.57 amateur-satellite service: A radiocommunication service using space stations
on earth satellites for the same purposes as those of the amateur service.
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Section IV – Radio stations and systems
1.61 station: One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters
and receivers, including the accessory equipment, necessary at one location for
carrying on a radiocommunication service, or the radio astronomy service.
1.96 amateur station: A station in the amateur service.
1.109A adaptive system: A radiocommunication system which varies its radio
characteristics according to channel quality.
Section V – Operational terms
1.121 frequency-shift telegraphy: Telegraphy by frequency modulation in which the
telegraph signal shifts the frequency of the carrier between predetermined values
.
1.122 facsimile: A form of telegraphy for the transmission of fixed images, with or
without half-tones, with a view to their reproduction in a permanent form.
1.123 telephony: A form of telecommunication primarily intended for the exchange of
information in the form of speech (CS 1017).
1.125 simplex operation: Operating method in which transmission is made possible
alternately in each direction of a telecommunication channel, for example, by means
of manual control2.
1.126 duplex operation: Operating method in which transmission is possible
simultaneously in both directions of a telecommunication channel2
.
1.127 semi-duplex operation: A method which is simplex operation at one end of the
circuit and duplex operation at the other.2
21.125.1, 1.126.1 and 1.127.1 In general, duplex operation and semi-duplex operation require two frequencies in
radiocommunication; simplex operation may use either one or two.
Section VI – Characteristics of emissions and radio equipment
1.137 radiation: The outward flow of energy from any source in the form of radio
waves.
1.138 emission: Radiation produced, or the production of radiation, by a radio
transmitting station.
For example, the energy radiated by the local oscillator of a radio receiver would not
be an emission but a radiation.
1.139 class of emission: The set of characteristics of an emission, designated by
standard symbols, e.g. type of modulation of the main carrier, modulating signal, type
of information to be transmitted, and also, if appropriate, any additional signal
characteristics.
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1.140 single-sideband emission: An amplitude modulated emission with one
sideband only.
1.141 full carrier single-sideband emission: A single-sideband emission without
reduction of the carrier.
1.142 reduced carrier single-sideband emission: A single-sideband emission in
which the degree of carrier suppression enables the carrier to be reconstituted and to
be used for demodulation.
1.143 suppressed carrier single-sideband emission: A single-sideband emission in
which the carrier is virtually suppressed and not intended to be used for
demodulation.
1.144 out-of-band emission*: Emission on a frequency or frequencies immediately
outside the necessary bandwidth which results from the modulation process, but
excluding spurious emissions.
1.145 spurious emission*: Emission on a frequency or frequencies which are outside
the necessary bandwidth and the level of which may be reduced without affecting the
corresponding transmission of information. Spurious emissions include harmonic
emissions, parasitic emissions, intermodulation products and frequency conversion
products, but exclude out-of-band emissions.
1.146 unwanted emissions*: Consist of spurious emissions and out-of-band
emissions.
1.146A out-of-band domain (of an emission): The frequency range, immediately
outside the necessary bandwidth but excluding the spurious domain, in which out-ofband emissions generally predominate. Out-of-band emissions, defined based on
their source, occur in the out-of-band domain and, to a lesser extent, in the spurious
domain. Spurious emissions likewise may occur in the out-of-band domain as well as
in the spurious domain. (WRC-03)
1.146B spurious domain (of an emission): The frequency range beyond the out-of band domain in which spurious emissions generally predominate. (WRC-03)
1.147 assigned frequency band: The frequency band within which the emission of a
station is authorized; the width of the band equals the necessary bandwidth plus
twice the absolute value of the frequency tolerance. Where space stations are
concerned, the assigned frequency band includes twice the maximum Doppler shift
that may occur in relation to any point of the Earth's surface.
1.148 assigned frequency: The centre of the frequency band assigned to a station.
1.149 characteristic frequency: A frequency which can be easily identified and
measured in a given emission.
A carrier frequency may, for example, be designated as the characteristic frequency.
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1.150 reference frequency: A frequency having a fixed and specified position with
respect to the assigned frequency. The displacement of this frequency with respect to
the assigned frequency has the same absolute value and sign that the displacement
of the characteristic frequency has with respect to the centre of the frequency band
occupied by the emission.
1.151 frequency tolerance: The maximum permissible departure by the centre
frequency of the frequency band occupied by an emission from the assigned
frequency or, by the characteristic frequency of an emission from the reference
frequency. The frequency tolerance is expressed in parts in 106 or in hertz.
1.152 necessary bandwidth: For a given class of emission, the width of the
frequency band which is just sufficient to ensure the transmission of information at
the rate and with the quality required under specified conditions.
1.153 occupied bandwidth: The width of a frequency band such that, below the lower
and above the upper frequency limits, the mean powers emitted are each equal to a
specified percentage ı/2 of the total mean power of a given emission.
Unless otherwise specified in an ITU-R Recommendation for the appropriate class of
emission, the value of ı/2 should be taken as 0.5%.
1.154 right-hand (clockwise) polarized wave: An elliptically- or circularly-polarized
wave, in which the electric field vector, observed in any fixed plane, normal to the
direction of propagation, whilst looking in the direction of propagation, rotates with
time in a right-hand or clockwise direction.
1.155 left-hand (anticlockwise) polarized wave: An elliptically- or circularly-polarized
wave, in which the electric field vector, observed in any fixed plane, normal to the
direction of propagation, whilst looking in the direction of propagation, rotates with
time in a left-hand or anticlockwise direction.
1.156 power: Whenever the power of a radio transmitter, etc. is referred to it shall be
expressed in one of the following forms, according to the class of emission, using the
arbitrary symbols indicated:
– peak envelope power (PX or pX);
– mean power (PY or pY);
– carrier power (PZ or pZ).
For different classes of emission, the relationships between peak envelope power,
mean power and carrier power, under the conditions of normal operation and of no
modulation, are contained in ITU-R Recommendations which may be used as a
guide.
For use in formulae, the symbol p denotes power expressed in watts and the symbol
P denotes power expressed in decibels relative to a reference level.
1.157 peak envelope power (of a radio transmitter): The average power supplied to
the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one radio frequency cycle at the
crest of the modulation envelope taken under normal operating conditions.
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1.158 mean power (of a radio transmitter): The average power supplied to the
antenna transmission line by a transmitter during an interval of time sufficiently long
compared with the lowest frequency encountered in the modulation taken under
normal operating conditions.
1.159 carrier power (of a radio transmitter): The average power supplied to the
antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one radio frequency cycle taken
under the condition of no modulation.
1.160 gain of an antenna: The ratio, usually expressed in decibels, of the power
required at the input of a loss-free reference antenna to the power supplied to the
input of the given antenna to produce, in a given direction, the same field strength or
the same power flux-density at the same distance. When not specified otherwise, the
gain refers to the direction of maximum radiation. The gain may be considered for a
specified polarization.
Depending on the choice of the reference antenna a distinction is made between:
a) absolute or isotropic gain (Gi), when the reference antenna is an isotropic
antenna isolated in space;
b) gain relative to a half-wave dipole (Gd), when the reference antenna is a halfwave
dipole isolated in space whose equatorial plane contains the given
direction;
c) gain relative to a short vertical antenna (Gv), when the reference antenna is a
linear conductor, much shorter than one quarter of the wavelength, normal to the
surface of a perfectly conducting plane which contains the given direction.
1.161 equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.): The product of the power
supplied to the antenna and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an
isotropic antenna (absolute or isotropic gain).
1.162 effective radiated power (e.r.p.) (in a given direction): The product of the
power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a half-wave dipole in a given
direction.
1.163 effective monopole radiated power (e.m.r.p.) (in a given direction): The
product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a short vertical
antenna in a given direction.
1.164 tropospheric scatter: The propagation of radio waves by scattering as a result
of irregularities or discontinuities in the physical properties of the troposphere.
1.165 ionospheric scatter: The propagation of radio waves by scattering as a result
of irregularities or discontinuities in the ionization of the ionosphere.
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Chapter 9.2
The Radio Regulations
ARTICLE 2 (Extracts)
Nomenclature
Section I. Frequency and Wavelength Bands
2.1
The radio spectrum shall be divided into nine frequency bands, which shall be
designated by progressive whole numbers in accordance with the following table. As
the unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz), frequency shall be expressed:
- in kilohertz (kHz), up to and including 3 000 kHz;
- in megahertz (MHz), above 3 MHz, up to and including 3 000 MHz;
- in gigahertz (GHz), above 3 GHz, up to and including 3 000 GHz.
However, where adherence to these provisions would introduce serious difficulties,
for example in connection with the notification and registration of frequencies, the list
of frequencies and related matters, reasonable departures may be made.
Band
Number
Symbols
4
VLF
5
Frequency Range (lower
limit exclusive, upper limit
inclusive)
Corresponding Metric
subdivision
Metric
Abbreviations for
the Bands
Myriametric waves
B.Mam
3 to
30 kHz
LF
30 to
300 kHz
Kilometric waves
B.km
6
MF
300 to
3000 kHz
Hectometric waves
B.hm
7
HF
3 to
30 MHz
Decametric waves
B.dam
8
VHF
30 to
300 MHz
Metric waves
B.m
9
UHF
300 to
3000 MHz
Decimetric waves
B.dm
10
SHF
3 to
30 GHz
Centimetric waves
B.cm
11
EHF
30 to
300 GHz
Millimetric waves
B.mm
300 to
3000 GHz
Decimillimetric waves
12
2.2
In communications between administrations and the ITU, no names,
symbols or abbreviations should be used for the various frequency bands other than
those specified in No. 2.1.
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Section II. Dates and Times
2.3
Any date used in relation to radio communication shall be according to the
Gregorian Calendar.
2.4
If in a date the month is not indicated either in full or in an abbreviated form, it
shall be expressed in an all-numeric form with the fixed sequence of figures, two of
each representing the day, month and year.
2.5
Whenever a date is used in connection with Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC),
this date shall be that of the prime meridian at the appropriate time, the prime meridian corresponding to zero degrees geographical longitude.
2.6
Whenever a specific time is used in international radio communication activities,
UTC shall be applied, unless otherwise indicated, and it shall be presented as a
four-digit-group (0000-2359). The abbreviation UTC shall be used in all languages.
Section III. Designation of Emissions
2.7
Emissions shall be designated according to their necessary bandwidth and their
classification in accordance with the method described in appendix S1.
**********
EXTRACT OF RR APPENDIX 1
Section II. Classification
§3 The class of emission is a set of characteristics conforming to §4 below.
§4 Emissions shall be classified and symbolised according to their basic characteristics
as given in Sub-Section IIA and any optional additional characteristics as provided
for in Sub-Section IIB.
§5 The basic characteristics (see Sub-Section IIA) are:
(1) first symbol - type of modulation of the main carrier;
(2) second symbol - nature of signal(s) modulating the main carrier;
(3) third symbol - type of information to be transmitted.
Modulation used only for short periods and for incidental purposes (such as, in many
cases, for identification or calling) may be ignored provided that the necessary
bandwidth as indicated is not thereby increased.
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Chapter 9.2
Sub-Section IIA. Basic Characteristics
§6 (1) First symbol - type of modulation of the main carrier
(1.1) Emission of an unmodulated carrier
N
(1.2) Emission in which the main carrier is amplitude-modulated (including
cases where sub-carriers are angle-modulated)
(1.2.1)
Double-sideband
A
(1.2.2)
Single-sideband, full carrier
H
(1.2.3)
Single-sideband, reduced or variable level carrier
R
(1.2.4)
Single-sideband, suppressed carrier
J
(1.2.5)
Independent sidebands
B
(1.2.6)
Vestigial sideband
C
(1.3) Emission in which the main carrier is angle-modulated
(1.3.1)
Frequency modulation
F
(1.3.2)
Phase modulation
G
(1.4)Emission in which the main carrier is amplitude- and angle-modulated either
simultaneously or in a pre-established sequence
D
(1.5) Emission of pulses
(2. Emissions where the main carrier is directly modulated by a signal which has
been coded into quantized form (e.g. pulse code modulation) should be
designated under (1.2) or (1.3))
(1.5.1) Sequence of unmodulated pulses
P
(1.5.2) A sequence of pulses
(1.5.2.1) modulated in amplitude
K
(1.5.2.2) modulated in width/duration
L
(1.5.2.3) modulated in position/phase
M
(1.5.2.4) in which the carrier is angle-modulated during the angle-period
of the pulse
Q
(1.5.2.5) which is a combination of the foregoing or is provided by other
means
V
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(1.6) Cases not covered above, in which an emission consists of the main carrier
modulated, either simultaneously or in a pre-established sequence, in a combination of two or more of the following modes: amplitude, angle, pulse
W
(1.7) Cases not otherwise covered
§6
(2)
X
Second symbol - nature of signal(s) modulating the main carrier
(2.1) No modulating signal
0
(2.2) A single channel containing quantized or digital information without
the use of a modulating sub-carrier (3. This excludes time-division multiplex)
1
(2.3) A single channel containing quantized or digital information with the
use of a modulating sub-carrier (3. This excludes time-division multiplex)
2
(2.4) A single channel containing analogue information
3
(2.5)Two or more channels containing quantized or digital information
7
(2.6) Two or more channels containing analogue information
8
(2.7) Composite system with one or more channels containing quantized
or digital information, together with one or more channels containing analogue information
9
(2.8) Cases not otherwise covered
§6
X
(3)
Third symbol - type of information to be transmitted
(4. In this context the word "information" does not include information of a
constant, unvarying nature such as is provided by standard frequency
emissions, continuous wave and pulse radars, etc)
(3.1) No information transmitted
N
(3.2) Telegraphy - for aural reception
A
(3.3) Telegraphy - for automatic reception
B
(3.4) Facsimile
C
(3.5) Data transmission, telemetry, telecommand
D
(3.6) Telephony (including sound broadcasting) E
(3.7) Television (video)
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(3.8) Combination of the above
W
(3.9) Cases not otherwise covered
X
Sub-Section IIB. Optional Characteristics
for the Classification of Emissions.
§7
Two optional characteristics should be added for a more complete description of
an emission. These are (see also Recommendation 62):
Fourth symbol - Details of signal(s)
Fifth symbol - Nature of multiplexing
Where the fourth or fifth symbol is used it shall be as indicated below.
Where the fourth or fifth symbol is not used this should be indicated by a dash
where each symbol would otherwise appear.
§7
(1)
Fourth symbol - Details of signal(s)
(1.1) Two-condition code with elements of differing numbers and/or
durations
A
(1.2) Two-condition code with elements of the same number and duration
without error-correction
B
(1.3) Two-condition code with elements of the same number and duration
with error-correction
C
(1.4) Four-condition code in which each condition represents a signal
element (of one or more bits)
D
(1.5) Multi-condition code in which each condition represents a signal
element (of one or more bits)
E
(1.6) Multi-condition code in which each condition or combination of
conditions represents a character
F
(1.7) Sound of broadcasting quality (monophonic)
G
(1.8) Sound of broadcasting quality (stereophonic or quadraphonic) H
(1.9) Sound of commercial quality (excluding categories given in subparagraphs 1.10 and 1.11)
J
(1.10) Sound of commercial quality with the use of frequency inversion or
band-splitting
K
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(1.11) Sound of commercial quality with separate frequency-modulated
signals to control the level of demodulated signal
L
(1.12) Monochrome
M
(1.13) Colour
N
(1.14) Combination of the above
W
(1.15) Cases not otherwise covered
§7
(2)
X
Fifth symbol - Nature of multiplexing
(2.1) None
N
(2.2) Code-division multiplex
(5. This includes bandwidth expansion techniques)
C
(2.3) Frequency-division multiplex
F
(2.4) Time-division multiplex
T
(2.5) Combination of frequency-division and time-division multiplex W
(2.6) Other types of multiplexing
X
**********
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Chapter 9.3
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
ARTICLE 5
(E X T R A C T )
Frequency Allocations
5.1
In all documents of the Union where the terms Allocation, Allotment and
Assignment are to be used, they shall have the meaning given them in Nos 1.16
to 1.18.
5.2
For the allocation of frequencies the world has been divided into three Regions
as shown on the following map and described in Nos 5.3 to 5.9.
Section II. Categories of Services and Allocations
5.23
Primary and Secondary Services
5.24
(1)
Where, in a box of the Table in Section IV of this Article, a band is
indicated as allocated to more than one service, either on a world-wide or
Regional basis, such services are listed in the following order:
5.25
a) services the names of which are printed in "capitals" (example: FIXED);
these are called "primary" services;
5.26
b) services the names of which are printed in "normal characters"
(example: Mobile); these are called "secondary" services (see Nos. 5.28
to 5.31).
5.27
(2)
Additional remarks shall be printed in normal characters (example:
MOBILE except aeronautical mobile).
5.28
(3)
Stations of a secondary service:
5.29
(a) shall not cause harmful interference to stations of primary services to
which frequencies are already assigned or to which frequencies may be
assigned at a later date;
5.30
(b) cannot claim protection from harmful interference from stations of a
primary service to which frequencies are already assigned or may be
assigned at a later date;
5.31
(c) can claim protection, however, from harmful interference from
stations of the same or other secondary service(s) to which frequencies
may be assigned at a later date.
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5.32
(4) Where a band is indicated in a footnote of the Table as allocated to a
service "on a secondary basis" in an area smaller than a Region, or in a
particular country, this is a secondary service (see Nos. 5.28 to 5.31).
5.33
(5) Where a band is indicated in a footnote of the Table as allocated to a
service "on a primary basis", in an area smaller than a Region, or in a particular
country, this is a primary service only in that area or country.
5.42
5.43
Miscellaneous Provisions:
(1) Where it is indicated in these Regulations that a service may operate
in a specific frequency band subject to not causing harmful interference, this
means also that this service cannot claim protection from harmful interference
caused by other services to which the band is allocated under Chapter SII of
these Regulations.
**********
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Chapter 9.4
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
ARTICLE 25
Amateur services
Section I – Amateur service
25.1 § 1 Radiocommunication between amateur stations of different countries shall
be permitted unless the administration of one of the countries concerned has notified
that it objects to such radiocommunications. (WRC-03)
25.2 § 2 1) Transmissions between amateur stations of different countries shall be
limited to communications incidental to the purposes of the amateur service, as
defined in No. 1.56 and to remarks of a personal character. (WRC-03)
25.2A 1A) Transmissions between amateur stations of different countries shall not be
encoded for the purpose of obscuring their meaning, except for control signals
exchanged between earth command stations and space stations in the amateursatellite service. (WRC-03)
25.3 2) Amateur stations may be used for transmitting international communications
on behalf of third parties only in case of emergencies or disaster relief. An
administration may determine the applicability of this provision to amateur stations
under its jurisdiction. (WRC 03)
25.4 (SUP - WRC 03)
25.5 § 3 1) Administrations shall determine whether or not a person seeking a licence
to operate an amateur station shall demonstrate the ability to send and receive texts
in Morse code signals. (WRC-03)
25.6 2) Administrations shall verify the operational and technical qualifications of any
person wishing to operate an amateur station. Guidance for standards of
competence may be found in the most recent version of Recommendation
ITU R M.1544. (WRC-03)
25.7 § 4 The maximum power of amateur stations shall be fixed by the administrations concerned. (WRC-03)
25.8 § 5 1) All pertinent Articles and provisions of the Constitution, the Convention
and of these Regulations shall apply to amateur stations. (WRC-03)
25.9 2) During the course of their transmissions, amateur stations shall transmit their
call sign at short intervals.
25.9A § 5A Administrations are encouraged to take the necessary steps to allow
amateur stations to prepare for and meet communication needs in support of disaster
relief. (WRC-03)
25.9B § 5B An administration may determine whether or not to permit a person who
has been granted a licence to operate an amateur station by another administration
to operate an amateur station while that person is temporarily in its territory, subject
to such conditions or restrictions it may impose. (WRC-03)
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Chapter 9.4
Section II – Amateur-satellite service
25.10 § 6 The provisions of Section I of this Article shall apply equally, as
appropriate, to the amateur-satellite service.
25.11 § 7 Administrations authorizing space stations in the amateur-satellite service
shall ensure that sufficient earth command stations are established before launch to
ensure that any harmful interference caused by emissions from a station in the
amateur-satellite service can be terminated immediately (see No. 22.1). (WRC-03)
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Chapter 9.5
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
RESOLUTION No. 640
Relating to the International Use of Radio communications,
in the Event of Natural Disasters, in Frequency Bands
Allocated to the Amateur Service
SUPPRESSED – WRC-97
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Chapter 9.6
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
RESOLUTION NO. 641
Relating to the use of 7000-7100 kHz
by the broadcasting service
Suppressed – WRC-03
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Chapter 9.7
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
RESOLUTION No. 642
Relating to the Bringing into Use of Earth Stations
in the Amateur-Satellite Service
The World Administrative Radio Conference, Geneva, 1979
recognising
that the procedures of Articles 11 and 13 are applicable to the amateur-satellite service;
recognising further
a) that the characteristics of earth stations in the amateur- satellite service vary widely;
b) that space stations in the amateur-satellite service are intended for multiple access
by amateur earth stations in all countries;
c) that co-ordination among stations in the amateur and amateur- satellite services is
accomplished without the need for formal procedures;
d) that the burden of terminating any harmful interference is placed upon the
administration authorising a space station in the amateur-satellite service pursuant to
the provisions of No. 2741 of the Radio Regulations;
notes
that certain information specified in Appendices 3 and 4 cannot reasonably be provided
for earth stations in the amateur- satellite service;
resolves
1. that when an administration (or one acting on behalf of a group of named
administrations) intends to establish a satellite system in the amateur-satellite service
and wishes to publish information with respect to earth stations in that system it may:
1.1 communicate to the IFRB all or part of the information listed in Appendix 3;
the IFRB shall publish such information in a special section of its weekly circular
requesting comments to be communicated within a period of four months after
the date of publication;
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Chapter 9.7
1.2 notify under Nos. 1488 to 1491 all or part of the information listed in
Appendix 3; the IFRB shall record it in a special list;
2. that this information shall include at least the characteristics of a typical amateur
earth station in the amateur-satellite service having the facility to transmit signals to the
space station to initiate, modify, or terminate the functions of the space station.
**********
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Chapter 9.8
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
APPENDIX 14
Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Signals to Be Used
in Radiotelegraphy Communications Except in the
Maritime Mobile Service
(See Article 52)
Section I. Q Code
Introduction
1. The series of groups QRA to QUZ, listed in this Appendix, are for use by all services.
2. The QAA to QNZ series are reserved for the aeronautical service and the QOA to
QQZ series are reserved for the maritime services. These series are not listed in these
Regulations.
3. Certain Q code abbreviations may be given an affirmative or negative sense by
sending YES or NO respectively, immediately following the abbreviation.
4. The meanings assigned to Q code abbreviations may be amplified or completed by
the addition of appropriate other groups, call signs, place names, figures, numbers, etc.
It is optional to fill in the blanks shown in parentheses. Any data which are filled in
where blanks appear shall be sent in the same order as shown in the next of the
following tables.
5. Q code abbreviations are given the form of a question when following by a question
mark. When an abbreviation is used as a question and is followed by additional or
complementary information, the question mark should follow this information.
6. Q code abbreviations with numbered alternative signification’s shall be followed by
the appropriate figure to indicate the exact meaning intended. This figure shall be sent
immediately following the abbreviation.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.8-1
January 1994
Chapter 9.8
Abbreviations Available for All Services
Only abbreviations related to Amateur Radio Service are included.
Q: Question. A: Answer or Advice.
---------------------------------------------------------------QRA Q:
A:
What is the name of your station?
The name of my station is ...
QRG Q:
A:
What is my exact frequency (or that of ..)?
Your exact frequency (or that of...) is ...kHz (or MHz)
QRH Q:
A:
Does my frequency vary?
Your frequency varies.
QRI
How is the tone of my transmission?
The tone of your transmission is ...
1. good
2. variable
3. bad.
Q:
A:
QRK Q:
A:
What is the intelligibility of my signals (or those of ...)?
The intelligibility of your signals (or those of ...) is ...
1. bad
2. poor
3. fair
4. good
5. excellent.
QRL Q:
A:
Are you busy?
I am busy (or I am busy with ...). Please do not interfere.
QRM Q:
A:
Are you being interfered with?
I am being interfered with
1. nil
2. slightly
3. moderately
4. severely
5. extremely
QRN Q:
A:
Are you troubled by static?
I am troubled by static
1. nil
2. slightly
3. moderately
4. severely
5. extremely.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.8-2
January 1994
Chapter 9.8
QRO Q:
A:
Shall I increase transmitter power?
Increase transmitter power.
QRP Q:
A:
Shall I decrease transmitter power?
Decrease transmitter power.
QRQ Q:
A:
Shall I send faster?
Send faster (... words per minute).
QRR Q:
A:
Are you ready for automatic operations?
I am ready for automatic operation. Send at ... words per minute.
QRS Q:
A:
Shall I send more slowly?
Send more slowly (... words per minute).
QRT Q:
A:
Shall I stop sending?
Stop sending.
QRU Q:
A:
Have you anything for me?
I have nothing for you.
QRV Q:
A:
Are you ready?
I am ready.
QRW Q:
A:
Shall I inform ... that you are calling him on ... kHz (or MHz)?
Please inform ... that I am calling him on ... kHz (or MHz).
QRX Q:
A:
When will you call me again?
I will call you again at ... hours (on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QRZ Q:
A:
Who is calling me?
You are being called by ... (on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSA Q:
A:
What is the strength of my signals (or those of ...)?
The strength of your signals (or those of...) is ...
1. scarcely perceptible
2. weak
3. fairly good
4. good
5. very good.
QSB Q:
A:
Are my signals fading?
Your signals are fading.
QSD Q:
A:
Is my keying defective?
Your keying is defective.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.8-3
January 1994
Chapter 9.8
QSK Q:
QSL
A:
Can you hear me between your signals and if so can I break in on your
transmissions?
I can hear you between my signals; break in on my transmission.
Q:
A:
Can you acknowledge receipt?
I acknowledge receipt.
QSO Q:
A:
Can you communicate with ... direct (or by relay)?
I can communicate with ... direct (or by relay through ...).
QSP Q:
A:
Will you relay to ...?
I will relay to ....
QSS Q:
A:
What working frequency will you use?
I will use the working frequency ... kHz
QSV Q:
A:
Shall I send a series of Vs on this frequency (or .... kHz (or MHz))?
Send a series of Vs on this frequency (or ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSX Q:
A:
Will you listen to ... (callsign(s)) on ... kHz (or MHz)?
I am listening to ... (call sign(s)) on ... kHz (or MHz).
QSY Q:
A:
Shall I change to transmission on another frequency?
Change to transmission on another frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSZ Q:
A:
Shall I send each word or group more than once?
Send each word or group twice (or ... times).
QTA Q:
A:
Shall I cancel ...?
Cancel ...
QTC Q:
A:
How many messages have you for me?
I have ... messages for you (or for ...).
QTH Q:
A:
What is your location?
My location is ...
QTR Q:
A:
What is the correct time?
The correct time is ... hours.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.8-4
January 1994
Chapter 9.8
Section II. Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Signals
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Abbreviation
or Signal
Definition
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AA
All after ... (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
AB
All before ... (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
ADS
Address (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
AR
End of transmission (.-.-. to be sent as one signal).
AS
Waiting period (.-... to be sent as one signal).
BK
Signal used to interrupt a transmission in progress.
BN
All between ... and ... (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
CFM
Confirm (or I confirm).
CL
I am closing my station.
CQ
General call to all stations (see Article 52).
CS
Call sign (used to request a call sign).
DDD
Used to identify the transmission of the distress message by a station not
itself in distress (see No. 3164).
DE
"From ..." (used to precede the call sign of the calling station).
DF
Your bearing at ... hours was ... degrees, in the doubtful sector of this
station, with a possible error of ... degrees.
E
East (cardinal point).
ER
Here ...
ETA
Estimated time of arrival.
K
Invitation to transmit.
KMH
Kilometres per hour.
KTS
Nautical miles per hour (knots).
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.8-5
January 1994
Chapter 9.8
MIN
Minute (or Minutes).
MPH
Statute miles per hour.
N
North (cardinal point).
NIL
I have nothing to send to you.
NO
No (negative).
NW
Now.
OK
We agree (or It is correct).
PBL
Preamble (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
R
Received.
REF
Reference to ... (or Refer to ...).
S
South (cardinal point).
SIG
Signature (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
SOS
Distress Signal (...---... to be sent as one signal).
TFC
Traffic.
TTT
This group when sent three times constitutes the safety signal (see No.
3221).
TU
Thank you.
TXT
Text (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
VA
End of work (...-.- to be sent as one signal).
W
West (cardinal point).
WA
Word after ... (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
WB
Word before ... (used after a question mark to request a repetition).
XXX
This group when sent three times constitutes the urgency signal (see No.
3196).
YES
Yes (affirmative).
***********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.8-6
January 1994
Chapter 9.9
ITU RADIO REGULATIONS
TABLE OF COUNTRY PREFIX ALLOCATIONS
AAA – ALZ
AMA - AOZ
APA - ASZ
ATA - AWZ
AXA – AXZ
AYA - AZZ
A2A - A2Z
A3A - A3Z
A4A - A4Z
A5A - A5Z
A6A - A6Z
A7A - A7Z
A8A - A8Z
A9A - A9Z
USA
Spain
Pakistan
India
Australia
Argentina
Botswana
Tonga
Oman
Bhutan
United Arab Emirates
Qatar
Liberia
Bahrain
BAA - BZZ
China
CAA - CEZ
CFA - CKZ
CLA - CMZ
CNA - CNZ
COA - COZ
CPA . CPZ
CQA - CUZ
CVA - CXZ
CYA - CZZ
C2A - C2Z
C3A - C3Z
C4A - C4Z
C5A - C5Z
C6A - C6Z
* C7A-C7Z
C8A - C9Z
Chile
Canada
Cuba
Morocco
Cuba
Bolivia
Portugal
Uruguay
Canada
Nauru
Andorra
Cyprus
The Gambia
Bahamas
W.M.O.
Mozambique
DAA - DRZ
DSA - DTZ
DUA - DZZ
D2A - D3Z
D4A - D4Z
D5A - D5Z
D6A - D6Z
D7A – D9Z
Germany
Rep. of Korea
Philippines
Angola
Cape Verde
Liberia
Comoros
Rep. of Korea
EAA – EHZ
EIA – EJZ
EKA - EKZ
Spain
Ireland
Armenia
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
ELA - ELZ
EMA - EOZ
EPA - EQZ
ERA - ERZ
ESA - ESZ
ETA - ETZ
EUA - EWZ
EXA - EXZ
EYA - EYZ
EZA - EZZ
E2A - E2Z
E3A - E3Z
¤E4A - E4Z
E5A - E5Z
E7A – E7Z
Liberia
Ukraine
Iran
Moldova
Estonia
Ethiopia
Belarus
Kirghiz
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Thailand
Eritrea
Palestine
New Zealand - Cook Islands (WRC-07)
Bosnia & Herzegovina (WRC-07)
FAA - FZZ
France
GAA – GZZ
United Kingdom
HAA - HAZ
HBA - HBZ
HCA - HDZ
HEA - HEZ
HFA - HFZ
HGA - HGZ
HHA - HHZ
HIA - HIZ
HJA – HKZ
HLA - HLZ
HMA - HMZ
HNA - HNZ
HOA - HPZ
HQA - HRZ
HSA - HSZ
HTA - HTZ
HUA - HUZ
HVA - HVZ
HWA - HYZ
HZA - HZZ
H2A - H2Z
H3A - H3Z
H4A - H4Z
H6A - H7Z
H8A - H9Z
Hungary
Switzerland
Ecuador
Switzerland
Poland
Hungary
Haiti
Dominican Rep
Colombia
Rep. of Korea
People's Dem. Rep of Korea
Iraq
Panama
Honduras
Thailand
Nicaragua
El Salvador
Vatican City
France
Saudi Arabia
Cyprus
Panama
Solomon Islands
Nicaragua
Panama
9.9-1
October 2007
Chapter 9.9
IAA - IZZ
Italy
RAA – RZZ
Russia
JAA - JSZ
JTA - JVZ
JWA - JXZ
JYA - JYZ
JZA - JZZ
J2A - J2Z
J3A - J3Z
J4A - J4Z
J5A - J5Z
J6A - J6Z
J7A - J7Z
J8A- J8Z
Japan
Mongolia
Norway
Jordan
Indonesia
Djibouti
Grenada
Greece
Guinea-Bissau
Saint Lucia
Dominica
St Vincent
& Grenadines
SAA - SMZ
SNA - SRZ
#SSA- SSM
#SSN- SSZ
STA - STZ
SUA - SUZ
SVA - SZZ
S2A - S3Z
S5A- S5Z
S6A - S6Z
S7A - S7Z
S8A - S8Z
S9A - S9Z
Sweden
Poland
Egypt
Sudan
Sudan
Egypt
Greece
Bangladesh
Slovenia
Singapore
Seychelles
South Africa
Sao Thome and Principe
KAA - KZZ
USA
LAA - LNZ
LOA - LWZ
LXA - LXZ
LYA - LYZ
LZA - LZZ
L2A - L9Z
Norway
Argentina
Luxembourg
Lithuania
Bulgaria
Argentina
MAA - MZZ
United Kingdom
NAA - NZZ
USA
OAA - OCZ
ODA - ODZ
OEA - OEZ
OFA - OJZ
OKA - OLZ
OMA - OMZ
ONA - OTZ
OUA - OZZ
Peru
Lebanon
Austria
Finland
Czech Rep.
Slovak Rep.
Belgium
Denmark
PAA - PIZ
PJA - PJZ
PKA - POZ
PPA - PYZ
PZA - PZZ
P2A - P2Z
P3A - P3Z
P4A - P4Z
P5A - P9Z
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
Indonesia
Brazil
Suriname
Papua New Guinea
Cyprus
Aruba
People's Dem. Rep.
of Korea
TAA - TCZ
TDA - TDZ
TEA - TEZ
TFA - TFZ
TGA - TGZ
THA - THZ
TIA - TIZ
TJA - TJZ
TKA - TKZ
TLA - TLZ
TMA - TMZ
TNA - TNZ
TOA - TQZ
TRA - TRZ
TSA - TSZ
TTA - TTZ
TUA - TUZ
TVA - TXZ
TYA - TYZ
TZA - TZZ
T2A - T2Z
T3A - T3Z
T4A - T4Z
T5A - T5Z
T6A - T6Z
T7A - T7Z
T8A - T8Z
Turkey
Guatemala
Costa Rica
Iceland
Guatemala
France
Costa Rica
Cameroon
France
Central African Republic
France
Congo
France
Gabon
Tunisia
Chad
Ivory Coast
France
Benin
Mali
Tuvalu
Kiribati
Cuba
Somalia
Afghanistan
San Marino
Palau
UAA - UIZ
UJA - UMZ
UNA - UQZ
URA - UZZ
Russia
Uzbekistan
Kazakhstan
Ukraine
QAA – QZZ
Service abbr.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.9-2
January 2009
Chapter 9.9
VAA - VGZ
VHA - VNZ
VOA - VOZ
VPA - VQZ
VRA - VRZ
VSA - VSZ
VTA - VWZ
VXA - VYZ
VZA - VZZ
V2A -V2Z
V3A - V3Z
V4A - V4Z
V5A - V5Z
V6A - V6Z
V7A - V7Z
V8A - V8Z
Canada
Australia
Canada
United Kingdom
China
United Kingdom
India
Canada
Australia
Antigua and Barbuda
Belize
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Namibia
Micronesia
Marshall Isl
Brunei
WAA - WZZ
USA
XAA - XIZ
XJA - XOZ
XPA - XPZ
XQA - XRZ
XSA - XSZ
XTA - XTZ
XUA - XUZ
XVA - XVZ
XWA - XWZ
XXA - XXZ
XYA - XZZ
Mexico
Canada
Denmark
Chile
China
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Viet Nam
Laos
China – Macau (WRC-07)
Myanmar
YAA - YAZ
YBA - YHZ
YIA - YIZ
YJA - YJZ
YKA - YKZ
YLA - YLZ
YMA - YMZ
YNA - YNZ
YOA - YRZ
YSA - YSZ
YTA - YUZ
YVA - YYZ
YZA - YZZ
Y2A - Y9Z
Afghanistan
Indonesia
Iraq
Vanuatu
Syria
Latvia
Turkey
Nicaragua
Romania
El Salvador
Serbia
Venezuela
Serbia
Germany
ZAA - ZAZ
Albania
ZBA - ZJZ
United Kingdom
ZKA - ZMZ
New Zealand
ZNA – ZOZ
United Kingdom
ZPA - ZPZ
Paraguay
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
ZQA - ZQZ
ZRA - ZUZ
ZVA - ZZZ
Z2A - Z2Z
Z3A - Z3Z
United Kingdom
South Africa
Brazil
Zimbabwe
Macedonia
2AA - 2ZZ
United Kingdom
3AA - 3AZ
3BA - 3BZ
3CA - 3CZ
#3DA- 3DM
#3DN- 3DZ
3EA - 3FZ
3GA - 3GZ
3HA - 3UZ
3VA - 3VZ
3WA - 3WZ
3XA - 3XZ
3YA - 3YZ
3ZA - 3ZZ
Monaco
Mauritius
Equatorial Guinea
Swaziland
Fiji
Panama
Chile
China
Tunisia
Viet Nam
Guinea
Norway
Poland
4AA - 4CZ
4DA - 4IZ
4JA - 4KZ
4LA - 4LZ
4MA - 4MZ
4NA – 4NZ
4OA-4OZ
4PA - 4SZ
4TA - 4TZ
*4UA- 4UZ
4VA - 4VZ
4XA - 4XZ
4WA - 4WZ
*4YA- 4YZ
4ZA - 4ZZ
Mexico
Philippines
Azerbaijan
Georgia
Venezuela
Yugoslavia
Montenegro (WRC-07)
Sri Lanka
Peru
United Nations
Haiti
Israel
Timor Leste (WRC-03)
ICAO
Israel
5AA - 5AZ
5BA - 5BZ
5CA - 5GZ
5HA - 5IZ
5JA - 5KZ
5LA - 5MZ
5NA - 5OZ
5PA - 5QZ
5RA - 5SZ
5TA - 5TZ
5UA - 5UZ
5VA - 5VZ
5WA - 5WZ
Libya
Cyprus
Morocco
Tanzania
Colombia
Liberia
Nigeria
Denmark
Madagascar
Mauritania
Niger
Togo
Western Samoa
9.9-3
January 2009
Chapter 9.9
5XA - 5XZ
5YA - 5ZZ
Uganda
Kenya
6AA - 6BZ
6CA - 6CZ
6DA - 6JZ
6KA - 6NZ
6OA - 6OZ
6PA - 6SZ
6TA - 6UZ
6VA - 6WZ
6XA - 6XZ
6YA - 6YZ
6ZA - 6ZZ
Egypt
Syria
Mexico
Korea
Somalia
Pakistan
Sudan
Senegal
Madagascar
Jamaica
Liberia
7AA - 7IZ
7JA - 7NZ
7OA - 7OZ
7PA - 7PZ
7QA - 7QZ
7RA - 7RZ
7SA - 7SZ
7TA - 7YZ
7ZA - 7ZZ
Indonesia
Japan
Yemen
Lesotho
Malawi
Algeria
Sweden
Algeria
Saudi Arabia
8AA - 8IZ
8JA - 8NZ
8OA - 8OZ
8PA - 8PZ
8QA - 8QZ
8RA - 8RZ
8SA - 8SZ
8TA - 8YZ
8ZA - 8ZZ
Indonesia
Japan
Botswana
Barbados
Maldives
Guyana
Sweden
India
Saudi Arabia
9AA - 9AZ
9BA - 9DZ
9EA - 9FZ
9GA - 9GZ
9HA - 9HZ
9IA - 9JZ
9KA - 9KZ
9LA - 9LZ
9MA - 9MZ
9NA - 9NZ
9OA - 9TZ
9UA - 9UZ
9VA - 9VZ
9WA - 9WZ
9XA - 9XZ
9YA - 9ZZ
Croatia
Iran
Ethiopia
Ghana
Malta
Zambia
Kuwait
Sierra Leone
Malaysia
Nepal
Congo (D.R.C.)
Burundi
Singapore
Malaysia
Rwanda
Trinidad and Tobago
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
*
Series allocated to
international organisations
¤
Provisional allocations
in accordance with Article 19.33
#
Half series
9.9-4
January 2009
Chapter 9.10
Definition of ”ITU-Zones”
when used by radio amateurs
Zone
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
KL (west of 141W)
KL (east of 141W), VE6, VE7, VE8, VY1 (south of 80N and west of 110W)
VE3/4/5/8 (south of 80N and between 90 & 110W)
VE2/3/4/8 (south of 80N and between 70 and 90W including all Baffin Island)
OX (south of 80N)
W6 (CA), W7 (ID, NV, OR, WA), W7 (AZ, MT, UT, west of 110W)
W4 (TN west of 90W), W5 (NM, OK, TX), W5 (AR, LA, MS west of 90W), W7
(WY), W7 (AZ, MT, UT east of 110W), W8 (MI west of 90W), W9 (IL, WI
west of 90W), W0 (CO, IA, KS, MN, NE, ND, SD), Wà (MO west of 90W)
W1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT), W2 (NJ, NY), W3 (DE, MD, PA), W4 (AL, FL,
GA, KY, NC, SC, VA), W4 (TN east of 90W), W5 (AR LA, MS east of 90W) ,
W8 (OH, WV), W8 (MI east of 90W), W9 (IN), W9 (IL, WI east of 90W), W0
(MO east of 90W)
VE1, VE2, VE8 (south of 80N and east of 70W but excluding Baffin Island),
CY9, CY0, FP, VO1, VO2, VY2
FO8 (Clipperton), XE, XF4
C6, CO, FG, FM, FJ/FS, HH, HI, HK0 (San Andres), HP, HR, J3, J6, J7,
J8, KG4, KP1, KP2, KP3/4, KP5, P4, PJ (Netherlands Antilles), PJ (Sint
Maarten), TG, TI, V2, V3, V4, VP2 (Anguilla), VP2 (Br. Virgin Is.) VP2
(Montserrat), VP5, VP9, YN, YS, YV0,ZF, 6Y, 8P, 9Y
CP (north of 16,5S), FY, HC, HC8, HK, HK0 (Malpelo), OA, PY (west of
60W) PZ, TI9, YV, 8R
CP (east of 60W) , PY (north of 16,5S & east of 60W), PY0 (Fernando de
Noronha), PY0 (St Peter & Paul)
CE (north of 40S), CE0 (Juan Fernandez), CE0 (San Felix), CP (south of
16,5S), CX, LU (north of 40S), ZP
PY (south of 16,5S), PY0 (Trinidade)
CE (south of 40S), LU (south of 40S), VP8 (Falklands)
TF
JW (south of 80N), JX, LA, OH, OH0, OJ0, OY, OZ, SM
UA1 (between 60 and 80N and west of 50E), UA9 (between 60 and 80N
and west of 50E)
R1F (FJL south of 80N), UA1 (between 60 and 80N and east of 50E), UA9
(between 60 and 80N and between 50 and 75E)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
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November 2000
Chapter 9.10
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
UA9/0 (betwwen 60 and 80N and between 75 and 90E)
UA0 (between 60 and 80N and between 90 and 110E)
UA0 (between 60and 80N and between 110 and 135E)
UA0 (between 60 and 80N and between 135 and 155E)
UA0 (between 60 and 80N and between 155 and 170E)
Uaà (between 60 and 80N and east of 170E)
C3, EI, F, GD, GI, GJ, GM, GU, LX, ON, PA, 3A
DL, HA, HB, HB0, HV, I (excluding IG9 & IH9), IS, LZ, OE, OK, OM, S5, SP,
SV, SV (Mt. Athos), SV5, SV9, T7, T9, TK, YO, YU, Z3, ZA, 1A0 (SMOM),
4U (Geneva), 9A, 9H
EK (Armenia), ER (Moldova), ES (Estonia), EU (Belarus), LY (Lithuania),
R1M (MV Island), UA1 (south of 60N), UA2, UA3, UA4 (west of 50E), UA6,
UN (Kazakhstan west of 50E), UR (Ukraine), YL (Latvia), 4J (Azerbaijan), 4L
(Georgia)
EX (Kyrgyztan west of 75E), EY (Tajikstan), EZ (Turkmenistan, UA4 (east of
50E), UA9 (south of 60N and west of 75E), UK (Uzbekistan), UN
(Kazakhstan between 50 and 75E)
EX (Kyrgyzstaneast of 75E), UA9/0 (south of 60N and between 75 and 90E),
UN (Kazakhstan east of 75E)
JT, UA8T (west of 110E), UA0 (south of 60N and between 90 and 110E)
BY (north of 44N), JT, UA8V (east of 110E), UA0 (south of 60N and between
110 and 135E)
UA0 (south of 60N and between 135 and 155E including Primor’ye and
Sakhalin but excluding the Kurils)
UA0 (south of 60N and between 155 and 170E including the Kurils)
CT3, CU, EA8
CN, CT, EA, EA6, EA9, IG9, IH9, ZB, 3V, 7X
SU, 5A
A4, A6, A7, A9, HZ, JY, OD, TA, YI, YK, ZC4, 4X, 5B, 7O, 9K
EP, YA
A5, AP, S2, VQ9, VU (India), VU (Laccadives), 4S, 8Q
BY (west of 90E), 9N
BY (between 90 and 110E, excluding Hainan)
BV, BY (south of 44N and east of 110E, including Hainan), HL, P5, VR2/VS6,
XX9
JA, JD1 (Ogasawara)
C5, D4, EL, J5, S0, TU, TY, TZ, XT, 3X, 5N, 5T, 5U, 5V, 6W, 9G, 9L
S9, ST, ST0, 1J, TL, TT, 3C
E3, ET, J2, ST, ST0, T5, 5X, 5Z, 7O
HS, VU (Andemans), XU, XV, XW, XZ
DU, 1S (Spratly)
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9.10-2
November 2000
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80
H4, P2, YB8/9 (east of 130E)
D2, TN, TR, 3C0, 9Q, 9U, 9X
C9, D6, FH, FR (Reunion), FR (Gloriosos), FR (Juan de Nova), FR
(Tromelin), S7, Z2, 3B6/7, 3B8, 3B9, 5H, 5R, 7Q, 9J
V8, VK9 (Christmas), VK9 (Cocos-Keeling), YB1-7, YB8/9 (west of 130E),
9M2, 9M6/8, 9V
VK4, VK8, VK9 (Willis)
FK, VK9 (Mellish Reef), YJ, 3D2 (Conway Reef), 3D2 (Rotuma)
A2, V5, ZS, ZS8, 3DA, 7P
VK6
VK1, VK2, VK3, VK5, VK7
VK9 (Lord Howe), VK9 (Norfolk), VK0 (Macquarie), ZL, ZL7, ZL8, ZL9
KH1, KH3, KH4, KH5 (Palmyra but not Jarvis), KH5 (Kingman Reef), KH6/7,
KH7K, T32 (Northern Line Islands only)
A3, FW, KH5 (Jarvis), KH8, T31, ZK1 (North Cook west of 160W), ZK1
(South Cooks west of 160W), ZK2, ZK3, 5W
CE0 (Easter), FO, T32 (Central & Southern Line Islands), VR6, ZK1 (South
Cooks east of 160W), ZK1 (North Cooks east of 160W)
KC6/T8, KH2, KH0, V6 (west of 150E)
C2, KH9, T2, T30, T33, V6 (east of 150E), V7
ZD7, ZD8, ZD9
Antarctica (north of 80S and between 20W and 40E), 3Y (Bouvet)
FT (Amsterdam), FT (Crozet), FT (Kerguelen), VK0 (Heard)
Antarctica (north of 80S and between 40 and 100E)
Antarctica (north of 80S and between 100 and 160E)
Antarctica (north of 80S and between 160E and 140W)
Antarctica (north of 80S and between 140 and 80W), 3Y (Peter 1)
Antarctica (north of 80S and between 80 and 20W), VP8 (S. Georgia), VP8
(S. Orkneys), VP8 (S. Sandwich), VP8 (S. Shetlands)
Antarctica (between 80 and 90S South Pole))
JW (north of 80N), OX (north of 80N), R1F (FJL north of 80N), UA0 (Severnaya
Zemlya north of 80N), VE8 (north of 80N)
CE0 (Sala y Gomez)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.10-3
November 2000
Chapter 9.10
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JD1 (Minami Torishima)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
9.10-4
November 2000
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APS02-01
90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
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Geographical zones for high frequency broadcasting zones (CIRAF)(Amateur Radio version)
180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100
Chapter 9.10.1
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Chapter 10.0
STANDARDS
VALID CONFERENCE RECOMMENDATIONS:
RTTY, AMTOR and PACKET RADIO
It is recommended that:
- A speed of 45.45 baud be retained, however that speeds of 50, 75 and 100 bauds
should be encouraged.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.8)
- Each Society, where such requirements still exist, should press their respective
licensing Authorities to remove the requirement for "Dual Identifying" when using the
International Standard CCIT No 2 Code.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.9)
- When making use of ASCII, the minimum specification for the signalling format should
be 1 start bit, 7 data bits, 1 parity bit, 1 stop bit. The parity should be as follows;
if generated - even parity
if NOT generated - parity bit set to space.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.10)
All IARU Member Societies shall adopt CCIR 476-1 in both modes A and B and Region
1 is asked to liaise with Regions 2 and 3 so that AMTOR may become a truly
international standard.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.2.2)
It is recommended that the maximum speed for packet radio should be not more than
300 baud on HF. The recommended frequency shift is 200 Hz.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 2.3.3.1)
It is recommended that the protocol used for packet radio on HF should be AX.25
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 2.3.3.2)
The AC Resolution 91-2 containing Guidelines for Packet Radio Operators and
Guidelines for Packet Radio BBS Operators was ratified.
(De Haan 1993 C3)
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.0-1
January 1994
Chapter 10.1
TECHNICAL STANDARDS
Valid Conference Recommendations:
RTTY, AMTOR & PACKET RADIO
It is recommended that:
- A speed of 45.45 baud be retained, however that speeds of 50, 75 and 100 bauds
should be encouraged.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.8)
- Each Society, where such requirements still exist, should press their respective
licensing Authorities to remove the requirement for "Dual Identifying" when using the
International Standard CCIT No 2 Code.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.9)
- When making use of ASCII, the minimum specification for the signalling format should
be 1 start bit, 7 data bits, 1 parity bit, 1 stop bit. The parity should be as follows;
if generated - even parity
if NOT generated - parity bit set to space.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.1.10)
All IARU Member Societies shall adopt CCIR 476-1 in both modes A and B and Region
1 is asked to liaise with Regions 2 and 3 so that AMTOR may become a truly
international standard.
(Cefalu 1984 - 2.3.2.2)
It is recommended that the maximum speed for packet radio should be not more than
300 baud on HF. The recommended frequency shift is 200 Hz.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 2.3.3.1)
It is recommended that the protocol used for packet radio on HF should be AX.25
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 2.3.3.2)
MORSE CODE SPEEDS:
It is recommended that for the determination of Morse Code speeds, as known from
commercial practise, the 50 bit key word "PARIS" (which includes one 7 bit word space)
shall be used as basis for calculations.
(Brighton 1981 - Rec. 1.12.7.1)
QSL CARDS:
It is recommended that QSL cards exchanged through the bureaux of Member
Societies shall:
(i) have a minimum size of 8 cm by 13.5 cm and a maximum size of 10.5 cm by 15 cm;
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.1-1
January 1994
Chapter 10.1
(ii) have the call sign of the recipient clearly shown on the reverse side;
(iii) should not weigh more than 4 grams per card.
(Scheveningen 1972 - Rec. 1.15.2.1)
QSL cards exchanged through the QSL Bureaux of Member Societies should
preferably have a size of 9 cm x 14 cm.
(Cefalu 1984 - Rec. 1.15.2.3)
It is recommended to provide a lower margin on the information side or the back of at
least 15 mm and the addressee's call sign written into this information stripe. This
margin must be kept free from any other printing.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - Rec. 1.15.2.4)
*******
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.1-2
January 1994
Chapter 10.1.1
TECHNICAL STANDARDS
FACSIMILE STANDARDS
Recommendation:
For preferred characteristic values for facsimile transmissions in the amateur radio
service.
(a)
The video (picture modulation) signal is generated at the audio frequency level,
similar as in the SSTV technique; the edge frequencies for "black" and "white"
are 1500 Hz and 2300 Hz respectively; the frequencies corresponding to the
half-tones are positioned in between the two frequencies. The audio frequency
bandwidth is 3000 Hz max.
(b)
The rotation speed of the picture drum is switchable between 60, 90, 120, 150,
180 and 240 rpm with 60, 120, 180 and 240 rpm being the preferred values.
(c)
The index of co-operation shall be provisionally 288 in accordance with CCITT
regulations; minor deviations from this value are permissible.
(d)
Phasing-in signals and end-of-picture signals will be chosen at a later stage
taking into account practical considerations as regards the state-of-the-art.
(e)
All amateur radio frequency allocations should be open for this new mode. Also
operation via repeater stations and amateur satellites should be allowed. The
calling frequency on 2 m is to be 144.700 MHz.
(f)
For the transmissions on the HF bands, the class of emission should be A4J, i.e.
frequency shift keying by the basic signal of an audio frequency sub-carrier,
which modulates the main carrier in amplitude by single sideband with
suppressed carrier, or F4, i.e. direct frequency modulation (shift-keying) of the
main carrier by the modulating signal.
In addition, on frequencies above 144.500 MHz F4/FM, i.e. frequency modulation of the
RF carrier by a frequency modulated sub-carrier should be permitted.
*******
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.1.1-1
January 1994
Chapter 10.1.2
TECHNICAL STANDARDS
S-METER STANDARDS
In order to make a uniform reporting system on the amateur bands possible, taking into
account the widespread use of the 'subjective' S-system, taking into account the large
deviations between the characteristics of S-meters on current amateur equipment, the
IARU Region 1 recommends the use of the "S"-system for signal strength reporting on
the amateur bands, based on the following standards:
(a)
One S-point corresponds to a level difference of 6dB.
(b)
On the bands below 30 MHz a meter deviation of S-9 correspond to an available
power of a CW signal generator connected to the receiver input terminals, of 73dBm.
(c)
On the bands above 30 MHz this power shall be -93dBm.
Comments:
1.
Signal reporting on the amateur bands at the moment is based on the wellknown "subjective" RST system. Although the system is very useful, the
availability of modern, sometimes professionally made, receiving equipment,
makes the use of a less subjective system for the measurement of the strength
of the received signal possible. The system to be chosen, however, must not
deviate too much from the "subjective" system.
2.
The first, and most important, standard to be recommended will be the definition
of a "S"-point. A value of 6dB seems very practical. It corresponds to an already
widespread "unofficial" standard and gives the least problems for nonmathematically oriented amateurs.
3.
Once having agreed upon the value of one S-point, a second, less important, but
very useful recommendation would be the definition of a reference level.
Taking into account the practical situation it will not be possible to define one
reference level for all amateur bands. On the HF bands a level of -73dBm (50 µV
over 50 Û) does not deviate too much from current practice. On the higher
bands, however, where thermal noise is in many cases the limiting factor, a
lower level must be chosen and -93dBm (5 µV over 50 Û) seems appropriate.
4.
Although the standards given above are based on continuous signals, in real
traffic non-continuous signals (i.e. A3j) will be encountered. It, therefore, is
necessary to define in more detail the measurement system.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.1.2-1
January 1994
Chapter 10.1.2
5.
We hope that the current recommendation will be followed by all equipment
manufacturers, so that in a not too distant future one will know how to interpret
the strength report of the other station.
Societies should advise as much as possible their members about equipment
manufacturers adhering to this recommendation and shall try to avoid publication
of receiver design which do not in principle use the recommended standards.
Simple means for calibration of at least the 6dB level ratio should be published.
TABLE
S
HF bands dBm
(V over 50 ohm)
Bands above 30 MHz dB
(V over 50 ohm)
9 + 40 dB
-33 (5millivolt)
-53 (0.5 millivolt)
9 + 30 dB
-43 (1.6 millivolt)
- 63 (0.16 millivolt)
9 + 20 dB
-53 (500 microvolt)
-73 (50 microvolt)
9 + 10 dB
-63 (160 microvolt)
-83 (16 microvolt)
9
-73 (50 microvolt)
-93 (5 microvolt)
8
-79 (25 microvolt)
-99 (2.5 microvolt)
7
-85 (12.6 microvolt)
-105 (1.26 microvolt)
6
-91 (6.3 microvolt)
-111 (0.63 microvolt)
5
-97 (3.2 microvolt)
-117 (0.32 microvolt)
4
-103 (1.6 microvolt)
-123 (0.16 microvolt)
3
-109 (0.8 microvolt)
-129 (0.08 microvolt)
2
-115 (0.4 microvolt)
-135 (0.04 microvolt)
1
-121 (0.21 microvolt)
-141 (0.02 microvolt)
*************
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.1.2-2
January 1994
Chapter 10.2
OPERATIONAL STANDARDS
Valid Conference Recommendations:
OPERATING STANDARDS & PROCEDURES.
General approval was expressed for the phonetic alphabet appearing in Appendix 16 of
the Geneva Regulations 1959. (Malmø 1963 - 1.16.3.1)
A booklet on the precise use of the Amateur Code will be prepared for as wide a
distribution as possible. The RSGB, assisted by MRASZ, agreed to produce such a
booklet. (Brighton 1984 - 1.16.3.2 (1.12.10.1))
The Locator System as described in BM/112 shall be adopted as the official IARU
Region 1 Locator System as from 1 January 1985. (see Chapter 13.2.3)
(Cefalu 1984 - 1.16.3.3 (2.8.1.1))
It is recommended that there should be no change to the existing RST reporting
system.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.16.3.5 (2.5.5.1))
The Conference maintains its present position concerning the necessity of a Morse
Code test without technical aids as part of the license requirements for radio operators
on bands below 30 MHz.
(De Haan 1993 - C4.5)
It is recommended:
a) To keep the number of special prefix applications to the Telecommunication
Administrations of each Society as low as possible and in line with the Radio
Regulations;
(Cefalu 1984 - Rec. 1.11.1.1)
b) Instead to consider the use of special suffixes when only a restricted number of
different call sign is necessary;
(Cefalu 1984 - Rec. 1.11.1.2)
c) that the Executive Committee submit this recommendation for information and
consideration to the next IARU Conference of Regions 2 and 3.
(Cefalu 1984 - Rec. 1.11.1.3)
********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.2-1
January 1994
Chapter 10.2.1
STANDARD FREQUENCY STATIONS
Argentina
Call sign
LOL
Standard Frequencies
5,000, 10,000, 15,000 kHz simultaneous (1100-1200,
1400-1500, 1700-1800, 2000-2100, 2300-2400 UTC)
Time interval signals
3 min of 1 kHz and 440 kHz modulation (A2) alternately,
commencing all the minutes which are multiples of 5 except the 55th minute, this being
reserved for a precision time signal which consists of a 5ms pulse every second for 3
min (except the 59th second) at 1 kHz.
Announcements
In between the 3 min tone periods. For the first minute a DUT1
code is sent. For the second minute the station callsign in morse code is sent followed
by the origin of the transmission, ie "Observatorio Naval Buenos Aires".
Location
Buenos Aires (34:37S 58:21W)
Transmitter
2 kW
AUSTRALIA
Call sign
VNG (Closed 2002)
CANADA
Call sign
CHU
Standard Frequencies
3,330, 7,850, 14,670 kHz simultaneous (H24).
Time interval signals
Seconds pulses are 300 cycles of the 1 kHz tone (H2A); the
beginning of each pulse of each minute is 0.5 seconds long. The sequence and form of
the pulses are also modified as follows:
1. The 19th pulse of each minute is omitted
2. The 1st to 9th pulses are omitted from the first minute of each hour.
3. The 1st to 15th pulses of each minute may be split so as to indicate the
difference DUT1 between UT1 and UTC in magnitude to the nearest 0.1 second
and in sign.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V7.0
10.1.2-1
December 2006
Chapter 10.2.1
4. The 31st to 39th pulses of each minute are shortened to 10 cycles of 1 kHz
and each is followed by a frequency shift code which can be employed to
synchronise remote clocks to UTC (NRC)
Announcements
The 51st to 59th pulses of each minute are omitted. During this
time station identification and time are announced in French and English (H3E).
Location
Ottawa (45:18N 75:45W)
Transmitter
3 kW on 3,330 and 14,670 kHz. 10 kW on 7,335 kHz
CHINA
Call sign
BPM
Standard frequencies
2,500 kHz (0730-1100 UTC)
5,000 kHz and 10,000 kHz (H24)
15,000 kHz (0100-0900 UTC)
Announcements
Callsign in morse and voice (Chinese) at H+29 and H+59
Location
Lingtong. Pucheng County (approx 35:00N 109:30E)
----Call sign
BSF
Standard frequencies
5,000 kHz and 15,000 kHz (H24 except at H+35 to H+40)
Announcements
Callsign in morse and voice (Chinese) at H+09, H+19, H+29, H+49
and H+59
Location
Chung-Li (24:57N 121:09E)
_____________________________________
FRANCE
Call sign
FFH (Closed)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V7.0
10.1.2-2
December 2006
Chapter 10.2.1
GERMANY
Callsign
DCF77
Standard Frequency
77.5 kHz (H24)
Time interval signals
The carrier is amplitude-modulated with second
marks. At the beginning of each second (with the exception of the 59th second of
each minute), the carrier amplitude is reduced to 25% for the duration of either 0.1 or
0.2 seconds. The start of the carrier reduction marks the precise beginning of the
second. The minute is marked by the absence of the previous second mark.
Location
Mainflingen (50.01N 09:00E)
Transmitter
50 kW ERP
Antenna
150m high vertical omni with capacity hat.
______________________________________
ITALY
Call sign
IAM (Closed 1998)
Call sign
IBF (Closed 1990)
JAPAN
Callsign
JJY (now on 40 kHz and 60 kHz only)
UNITED KINGDOM
Call sign
MSF
Standard frequency
60 kHz (H24)
Location
Rugby (52:11N 01:11W) until 31st March 2007
Anthorn (54:55N 03:15W) from 1st April 2007
Transmitter
15 kW e.m.r.p.
______________________________________
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V7.0
10.1.2-3
December 2006
Chapter 10.2.1
USA
Call signs
WWV and WWVH
Standard frequency 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 kHz. (H24)
Time interval signals
100 Hz subcarrier, BCD code, one bit per second. The
pulses begin 30 ms after the start of a second. A 170 ms pulse represents a “0” bit, a
470 ms pulse represents a “1”. During the first second of a minute, no pulse is
transmitted. A position identifier lasting 770 ms is transmitted every 10 s.
Announcements
and 59 (WWVH)
Locations
Hawaii.
Announcement in minutes 00 and 30 (WWV), minutes 29
WWV Fort Collins, CO (40:41N 105:02W) and WWVH Kekaha-Kauai,
Transmitters
2.5 kW on 2,500 kHz, (WWVH 5 kW)
10 kW on 5,000/10,000 and 15,000 kHz
2.5 kW on 20,000 kHz
Call sign
WWVB
Standard frequency 60 kHz (H24)
Time interval signals
Location
Fort Collins, CO (40:41N 105:02W).
Transmitter
50kW radiated power
*********
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V7.0
10.1.2-4
December 2006
Chapter 10.3
THE LOCATOR SYSTEM
1. History
The scoring in official IARU Region I VHF/UHF/SHF contests as well as in most subregional contests is based upon the distance in kilometres between two stations making
a complete QSO . To facilitate the measurement of this distance, at a meeting of the
VHF Working Group in the Hague in October 1959 a code system was adopted for
giving the location of a station. This was the QRA-Locator system, devised in Germany,
originally based on a two-stage sub-division of geographical longitudes and latitudes
starting from the Greenwich meridian and from 40 degrees North.
At the Region I Conference in Malmo (1963) the system was refined by introducing a
third sub-division, and in its final form the QRA-Locators consisted of a five-character
code, viz. two capital letters, a two digit number and a lower-case letter, for example
CM72j.
Many Region I societies developed maps based on this system, either of their own
country or of larger parts of Western Europe.
At a meeting of the Region I VHF Working Group in Brussels (1965) Dr. H. R. Lauber,
HB9RG, VHF Manager of USKA, showed the first prints of the Region I QRA-Locator
map, issued on four sheets and made through his good offices at the request of the
VHF Working Group.
At the Region I Conference in Opatija (1966) this map was adopted as the official
Region I QRA-Locator map, while at the Region I Conference in Scheveningen the
system was re-baptised with the more appropriate name QTH-Locator. In the meantime
it had become very popular and was used not only during contests but also for general
amateur work on the VHF/UHF/SHF bands. For instance, collecting "square" (the first
two letters of the QTH-Locator indicating a square of 2 degrees longitude wide and 1
degree latitude high) became one of the most widely practised sports.
When amateurs outside Region 1, especially in North America (Region II), became
interested in using a form of QTH-Locator during their contacts, contests etc. and
started investigating the system devised in Region I, they found this Locator system
repeated itself several times around the globe. Hence they considered this ambiguous
system not very suitable for exchanging QTH information, for instance during EME
contacts.
Furthermore, the QTH-Locator system was not very consistent in the set-up of
sub-divisions, particularly with regard to the fifth character (letter). A more consistent
system, if introduced, would be of use to the many amateurs who employed computers
- from PC's to programmable packet calculators - to calculate distances and determine
antenna directions form QTH- Locators.
For reasons like the ones outlined above, at a meeting of the IARU Region I VHF
Working Group in Amsterdam (1976) SM5AGM, VHF manager of SSA , proposed to
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.3-1
January 1994
Chapter 10.3
start discussions on a better Locator system that could replace the existing one and
would be usable world-wide.
As there would not be much sense in changing to a world-wide applicable Locator
system in Region I if the other Regions would not adopt it, at the Region I Conference in
Miskolc-Tapolca (1978) it was agreed that Region 1 would consult the other two
Regions on this matter. This consultation resulted in an exchange of system proposals
between the Regions, and at a certain moment more than 20 different systems and
variations on systems, generated in the various Regions, were under consideration!
At the VHF Working Group meeting in Maidenhead (1980) it was felt that the time had
come to make a choice, and it was agreed that the best choice would be the system
devised by John Morris, G4ANB, but with a modification concerning the starting point of
the grid of the first sub-division. This system was widely published in amateur
magazines of member societies in Region I as well as in the other Regions.
Thanks to the efforts of Folke Rosvall, SM5AGM - aided, amongst others, by ZL2AMJ
(Region III) and W2X (Region II) - agreement between the Regions could be reached
and all Regions have now accepted the so-called Maidenhead Locator which
henceforth will simply be known as the Locator.
Region II adopted the Locator in 1982, Region III in 1983. at the IARU Region I
Conference in Cefalu (1984) Region I adopted the Locator system, and the introduction
date was set at January 1, 1986. As from this date all official Region I contests are run
using the new Locator system
2. Description of the Locator system
The Locator system is a grid system, allowing to give the location of a station by a code
consisting of six characters, viz. two capital letters, a two-digit number and, again, two
capital letters. For example: J031DG.
The system is set up as follows. The globe is divided in 18 x 18 = 324 fields, each 20
degrees longitude wide and 10 degrees latitude high (for an overview see the map in
Appendix 1).
Each of these fields is divided in 10 x 10 = 100 squares, each 2 degrees longitude wide
and 1 degree latitude high.
Finally, each of the squares is divided in 24 x 24 = 576 sub- squares each 5 minutes
longitude wide and 2,5 minutes latitude wide. The coding/numbering is, as shown in
Appendix 2, always from west to east and from south to north, and the origin of the
system its at 180 degrees west, 90 degrees south.
As fare as "squares" are concerned, the system is compatible with the old QTH-Locator
system, both having squares of 2 degrees longitude, 1 degree latitude. The only
difference, of course, is in the coding; for instance, square CM in the QTH-Locator
system will in the Locator system be square J022. Consequently, for the collectors of
"square" continuity is assured.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
10.3-2
January 1994
Chapter 11.0
IARU REGION 1 HF BAND PLAN
as revised at the General Conference Sun City 2011
FREQUENCY
MAX
(kHz)
BANDWIDTH PREFERRED MODE AND USAGE
(Hz)
135.7 – 137.8
200
CW, QRSS and narrow band digital modes
RR 5.67A Stations in the amateur service using frequencies in the band 135.7-137.8 kHz shall not exceed a maximum
radiated power of 1 W (e.i.r.p.) and shall not cause harmful interference to stations of the radionavigation service
operating in countries listed in No. 5.67. (WRC-07) (Cavtat 2008)
1.8 MHz
Band:
RR 5.67B The use of the band 135.7-137.8 kHz in Algeria, Egypt, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya, Lebanon, Syrian Arab Republic, Sudan and Tunisia is limited to the fixed and maritime mobile services.
The amateur service shall not be used in the above-mentioned countries in the band 135.7-137.8 kHz, and this should be
taken into account by the countries authorising such use. (WRC-07)(Cavtat 2008)
1810 - 1838
1838 - 1840
1840 - 1843
1843 - 2000
200
500
2700
2700
CW, 1836 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
Narrow band modes
All modes – digimodes, (*)
All modes, (*)
3.5 MHz Band:
Radio Amateurs in countries that have a SSB allocation ONLY below 1840 kHz, may continue to use it, but the
National Societies in those countries are requested to take all necessary steps with their licence administrations to adjust
the phone allocations in accordance with the Region 1 Bandplan. (Davos 2005)
3500 - 3510
3510 - 3560
3560 - 3580
3580 - 3590
3590 - 3600
200
200
200
500
500
CW, priority for intercontinental operation
CW, contest preferred, 3555 kHz - QRS Centre of Activity
CW, 3560 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
Narrow band modes - digimodes
Narrow band modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended)
3600 - 3620
2700
3600 - 3650
2700
3650 - 3700
3700 - 3800
2700
2700
3775 - 3800
2700
All modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data station (unattended),
(*)
All modes, 3630 kHz - Digital Voice Centre of Activity, SSB contest
preferred, (*)
All modes, 3690 kHz - SSB QRP Centre of Activity
All modes, SSB contest preferred,
3735 kHz - Image Centre of Activity
3760 kHz - Region 1 Emergency Centre of Activity
All modes, priority for intercontinental operation
Intercontinental operations should be given priority in the segments 3500-3510 kHz and 3775-3800 kHz.
Where no DX traffic is involved, the contest segments should not include 3500-3510 kHz or 3775-3800 kHz. Member
societies will be permitted to set other (lower) limits for national contests (within these limits).
3510-3600 kHz may be used for unmanned ARDF beacons (CW ) (Davos 2005)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
11-1
August 2011
Chapter 11.0
10
MHz:
Member societies should approach their national telecommunication authorities and ask them not to allocate frequencies
to other than amateur stations in the band segment that IARU has assigned to intercontinental long distance traffic.
7000 - 7040
7040 - 7047
7047 - 7050
200
500
500
7050 - 7053
7053 - 7060
7060 - 7100
2700
2700
2700
7100 - 7130
7130 - 7200
7175 - 7200
2700
2700
2700
CW, 7030 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
Narrow band modes - digimodes
Narrow band modes – digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended)
All modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations (unattended) (*)
All modes - digimodes
All modes, SSB contest preferred
7070 kHz - Digital Voice Centre of Activity
7090 kHz - SSB QRP Centre of Activity
All modes, 7110 kHz – Region 1 Emergency Centre of Activity
All modes, SSB contest preferred, 7165 kHz - Image Centre of Activity
All modes, priority for intercontinental operation
10100 - 10140
10140 - 10150
200
500
CW, 10116 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
Narrow band modes – digimodes
SSB may be used during emergencies involving the immediate safety of life and property and only by stations actually
involved in the handling of emergency traffic.
The band segment 10120 kHz to 10140 kHz may be used for SSB transmissions in the area of Africa south of the
equator during local daylight hours.
18 MHz Band:
14 MHz Band:
News bulletins on any mode should not be transmitted on the 10 MHz band.
14000 - 14060
14060 - 14070
14070 - 14089
14089 - 14099
200
200
500
500
14099 - 14101
14101 - 14112
14112 - 14125
14125 - 14300
2700
2700
2700
14300 - 14350
2700
18068 - 18095
18095 - 18105
18105 - 18109
200
500
500
18109 - 18111
18111 - 18120
18120 - 18168
2700
2700
CW, contest preferred, 14055 kHz - QRS Centre of Activity
CW, 14060 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
Narrow band modes - digimodes
Narrow band modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended)
IBP, exclusively for beacons
All modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations (unattended)
All modes
All modes, SSB contest preferred,
14130 kHz - Digital Voice Centre of Activity
14195 kHz ± 5 kHz - Priority for Dxpeditions
14230 kHz - Image Centre of Activity
14285 kHz - SSB QRP Centre of Activity
All modes, 14300 kHz - Global Emergency centre of activity
CW, 18086 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
Narrow band modes - digimodes
Narrow band modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended)
IBP, exclusively for beacons
All modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations (unattended)
All modes,
18130 kHz - SSB QRP Centre of Activity
18150 kHz - Digital Voice Centre of Activity
18160 kHz - Global Emergency Centre of Activity
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
11-2
August 2011
Chapter 11.0
28 MHz Band:
24 MHz Band:
21 MHz Band:
21000 - 21070
21070 - 21090
21090 - 21110
21110 - 21120
21120 - 21149
21149 - 21151
21151 - 21450
24890 - 24915
24915 - 24925
24925 - 24929
24929 - 24931
24931 - 24940
200
CW, 21055 kHz - QRS Centre of Activity
21060 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
500 Narrow band modes - digimodes
500 Narrow band modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended)
2700 All modes (excluding SSB) - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended
500 Narrow band modes
IBP, exclusively for beacons
2700 All modes
21180 kHz - Digital Voice Centre of Activity
21285 kHz - SSB QRP Centre of Activity
21340 kHz - Image Centre of Activity
21360 kHz - Global Emergency Centre of Activity
200
CW, 24906 kHz - QRP centre of activity
500
500
Narrow band modes - digimodes
Narrow band modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended)
IBP, exclusively for beacons
2700 All modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations (unattended)
24940 - 24990
2700 All modes
24950 kHz - SSB QRP Centre of Activity
24960 kHz - Digital Voice Centre of Activity
28000 - 28070
200
28070 - 28120
28120 - 28150
500
500
28150 - 28190
28190 - 28199
28199 - 28201
28201 - 28225
28225 - 28300
28300 - 28320
28320 - 29100
500
29100 - 29200
29200 - 29300
29300 - 29510
29510 – 29520
29520 – 29590
29600
29610
29620 - 29700
2700
2700
2700
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
CW, 28055 kHz - QRS Centre of Activity
28060 kHz - QRP Centre of Activity
Narrow band modes - digimodes
Narrow band modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations
(unattended)
Narrow band modes
IBP, regional time shared beacons
IBP, worldwide time shared beacons
IBP, continuous duty beacons
All modes - beacons
All modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations (unattended)
All modes
28330 kHz - Digital Voice Centre of Activity
28360 kHz - SSB QRP Centre of Activity
28680 kHz - Image Centre of Activity
All modes - FM simplex – 10 kHz channels
All modes - digimodes, automatically controlled data stations (unattended)
Satellite-downlink
Guard channel
All modes - FM Repeater input (RH1 – RH8)
All modes - FM calling channel
All modes - FM Simplex Repeater (parrot - input and output)
All modes - FM Repeater outputs (RH1 – RH8)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
11-3
August 2011
Chapter 11.0
Member societies should advise operators not to transmit on frequencies between 29.3 and 29.51 MHz to
avoid interference to amateur satellite downlinks.
Preferred NBFM operating frequencies on each 10 kHz from 29.110 to 29.290 MHz inclusive should be used.
A deviation of ±2.5 kHz being used with 2.5 kHz as maximum modulation frequency.
DEFINITIONS
All modes
CW, SSB and those modes listed as Centres of Activity, plus AM (Consideration should
be given to adjacent channel users).
Image modes
Any analogue or digital image modes within the appropriate bandwidth, for example SSTV
and FAX.
Narrow band modes All modes using up to 500 Hz bandwidth, including CW, RTTY, PSK etc.
Digimodes
Any digital mode used within the appropriate bandwidth, for example RTTY, PSK, MT63 etc.
(*)
Lowest dial setting for LSB Voice mode: 1843, 3603 and 7053 kHz
NOTES
Amplitude modulation (AM) may be used in the telephony sub-bands providing consideration is given to adjacent
channel users. (NRRL Davos 05).
CW QSOs are accepted across all bands, except within beacon segments. (Recommendation DV05_C4_Rec_13)
Sideband Usage
Below 10MHz use lower sideband (LSB), above 10 MHz use upper sideband (USB).
The frequencies in the band plan are understood as “transmitted frequencies” (not those of the suppressed carrier!)
Contests:
Contest activity shall not take place on the 10, 18 and 24 MHz bands.
Non-contesting radio amateurs are recommended to use the contest-free HF bands (30, 17 and 12m) during the
largest international contests. (DV05_C4_Rev_07)
Member societies are encouraged to publish contest operating segments clearly in the rules of their contests and
that those segments are considered with due respect to the IARU band plans. (SC11_C4_02).
The CW contest-preferred segment from 7000-7025kHz has been withdrawn from the Region 1 band plan . Societies
should encourage contest organisers to include a rule that restricts contest activity to a limited frequency range within
the CW allocation. The choice of the frequency segment is left to the discretion of the contest organisers, but should
take into account expected activity levels and show consideration for non-contest operation. (SC11_C4_05).
Unmanned transmitting stations:
IARU member societies are requested to limit this activity on the HF bands. It is recommended that any unmanned
transmitting stations on HF shall only be activated under operator control except for beacons agreed with the IARU
Region 1 beacon coordinator, or specially licensed experimental stations.
The term “automatically controlled data stations” includes Store and Forward stations.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
11-4
August 2011
Chapter 11.0
History
2005 Davos
Introduction of band plan by bandwidth.
Effective 1 January 2006
2008 Cavtat
Several modifications:
Effective 29 March 2009
CW segment extend from 7000-7035 kHz to 7000-7040 kHz.
Narrow band modes, digimodes segment moved and extended
from 7035-7038 kHz to 7040-7047 kHz.
Narrow band modes, digimodes, automatically controlled stations (unattended) segment
moved and extended from 7038-7040 kHz to 7047-7050 kHz.
All modes, digimodes, automatically controlled stations (unattended) segment
moved from 7040-7043 kHz to 7050-7053kHz.
Introduction of all modes, digimodes segment 7053-7060 kHz.
Introduction of CW preferred segment 7000-7025 kHz.
Introduction of SSB preferred segments 7060-7100 kHz and 7130-7200 kHz.
Introduction of Digital Voice Activity Centres:
3630 kHz, 7070 kHz, 14130 kHz, 18150 kHz, 21180 kHz, 24960 kHz, 28330 kHz.
2011 Sun City
Several modifications:
Effective 17 August 2011
CW contest preferred segment 7000-7025 kHz withdrawn.
Segment 29100-29200 kHz changed from max. bandwidth 2700 Hz to max. 6000 Hz.
Introduction of new segment 29100-29200 kHz for FM simplex operation (10 kHz channels).
Removal of FM simplex channels 29520-29550 kHz and 29610-29650 kHz.
Number of FM Repeater channels increased to eight, former FM simplex channels
became new repeater input, respectively repeater output channels.
FM repeater channels renumbered, RH1 = 29520 / 29620 kHz, RH8 = 29590 / 29690 kHz.
Introduction of FM Simplex Repeater 29610 kHz (parrot, input + output).
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
11-5
August 2011
Chapter 11.1
HF, LF and MF Bandplanning
It is recommended:
1.
that it is essential that Member Societies actively promote the IARU band plans within
their country in order to encourage all amateurs to honour them.
2.
that all Member Societies draw their member's attention to these band plans at
least once a year, in their publications.
3.
that the Amateur Service makes full use of the spectrum allocated to the source.
(Tel Aviv 1996 - REC/96/TVI/C3....)
It is recommended that the following proposed principles for new IARU Region 1 HF
bandplans be accepted, and that the principles be included in the IARU Region 1 HF
Manager’s Handbook.
• CW operation is accepted across all bands, except within beacon segments.
• Telephony (including AM) is limited to certain telephone segments.
• Digital data modes are limited to certain digital segments.
• Digitised speech is considered a digital data mode regarding bandplanning matters.
• The current IARU Region 1 bandplan is well known and receives a high degree of respect
within Region 1; hence major changes to the bandplan are not necessary for the time being.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_13)
It is recommended that the bandplan created by the Bandplan Working Group be approved
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_14)
It is recommended that the new HF bandplan (as discussed and passed in the HF
Committee) is approved and recommended for use from 1st January 2006.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_17)
Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_15 – Superseded by recommendation CT08_C4_Rec_13.
It is recommended by the IARU Region 1 ARDF Working Group to include in the 3.5 MHz
bandplan the new line “3,510-3,600 kHz – unmanned ARDF beacons”.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_12)
It is recommended that that in view of the fact that non-amateur stations tend to use
apparently empty spaces in the shared bands, all Societies are urged to encourage their
members fully to occupy these bands.
(Stresa 1956 - 1.8.3.1)
Tel Aviv 1996 - REC/96/TVI/C3.... – superseded by recommendation CT08_C4_Rec_14
It is recommended that:
1.
footnotes to Region 1 HF Band Plans should be avoided.
2.
any controversies in connection with the Region 1 HF Band Plans should be
regulated by remarks to the band plan and should be agreed by the majority.
(Tel Aviv 1996 - REC/96/TVI/C4.5)
Lillehammer 1999 - REC/99/LH/C4.6 – Superseded by recommendation CT08_C4_Rec_14
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
11.1-1
January 2009
Chapter 11.1
San Marino 2002 - REC/02/SM/C4.12 – Superseded by recommendation CT08_C4_Rec_14
It is recommended that that REC/99/LH/C4.6 and REC/02/SM/C4.12 be deleted, and the
current entry in the Region 1 Band Plan for the 136kHz band be amended to:
FREQUENCY
MAX
(kHz)
BANDWIDTH
(Hz)
135.7 – 137.8
200
PREFERRED MODE AND USAGE
CW, QRSS and narrow band digital modes
RR 5.67A Stations in the amateur service using frequencies in the band 135.7-137.8 kHz shall not exceed a maximum radiated
power of 1 W (e.i.r.p.) and shall not cause harmful interference to stations of the radionavigation service operating in countries
listed in No. 5.67. (WRC-07) (Cavtat 2008)
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_14)
It is recommended that that the frequencies 3.555 kHz, 14.055 kHz, 21.055 kHz and 28.055
kHz should be defined as CW QRS centres of activity, where radio amateurs who want to
develop their CW could meet one another. This should be stated as a guideline in the HF
Managers’ Handbook. In the same spirit the frequencies 3.560 kHz, 7.030 kHz, 14.060 kHz,
18.086 kHz, 21.060 kHz, 24.906 kHz and 28.060 kHz should be defined as QRP centres of
activity, where amateurs who want to perform low power contacts could meet one another.
This should be stated as a guideline in the HF Managers’ Handbook.
(San Marino 2002 - REC/02/SM/C4.9)
It is recommended that that 18130kHz is adopted as a QRP SSB Centre of Activity by IARU
Region 1.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_08
It is recommended that that 24950 kHz is adopted as a QRP SSB Centre of Activity by IARU
Region 1.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_09)
It is recommended that 3630 kHz, 7070 kHz, 14180 kHz, 21180 kHz and 28330 kHz are
adopted as digitised speech Centres of Activity by IARU Region 1, in order to harmonise
these with Region 2.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_10)
It is recommended that 18150 kHz and 24960 kHz are adopted as digitised speech Centres
of Activities by IARU Region 1, and that IARU Region 1 proposes that these frequencies be
adopted by Regions 2 and 3 in the interests of harmonisation.
(Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec_11)
Cavtat 2008 – CT08_C4_Rec 13 – Recommendation Incorporated into the Region 1
Bandplan.
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
11.1-2
January 2009
Chapter 12
Deleted and Suppressed Recommendations
BEACONS
It is recommended that Conference should discourage operation of unmanned
beacon stations on 7 and 10MHz.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_08)
CONTEST RULES AND REGULATIONS
It is recommended that Member Societies of IARU Region 1 shall co-ordinate with
the Contest Sub-Group before introducing a new international contest. Publicity by
Region 1 Member Societies shall only be given to those contests that are recognised
by the Contest Sub-Group.
(Tel Aviv 1996 – REC/96/TVI/C4.13)
It is recommended that the Registration Policy for HF Contests, as given in the
attached annex to DOC/99/LH/C4.9 with the following amended footnotes, should be
followed when new HF Contests are established.
Step 1 to 3: If the CSG Chairman does not reply to the applicant within ninety days,
the application shall be deemed to be approved.
Step 6: If the organising body does not reply to the CSG Chairman within ninety
days, approval for the contest shall be deemed to have lapsed.
(Lillehammer 1999 – REC/99/LH/C4.8)
It is recommended that Member Societies in IARU Region 1 who organise contests,
are encouraged to formulate the contest rules in such a way that participants in other
contests may be worked for contest credit. Provisions for how this can be done,
should be worked out by the Contest Sub-Group and published in the HF Managers
Handbook, Chapter 7: Guidelines for HF Contest Work.
(Lillehammer 1999 – REC/99/LH/C4.10)
The Conference maintains its present position concerning the necessity of a Morse
Code test without technical aids as part of the licence requirements for radio
operators on bands below 30 MHz.
(De Haan 1993 – C4.5)
It is recommended:
that the "Guidelines for HF Contest Work" be adopted by all contest
organisers,
that all HF Contest activities be based on these Guidelines,
that Member Societies should have these Guidelines copied and distributed to
relevant bodies (Contest Managers, Contest Committees, Contest Clubs,
Handbooks etc.),
that these Guidelines are distributed to Regions 2 and 3 for information and
possible adoption. (See Chapter 9.1)
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.12.10.3)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
12-1
February 2009
Chapter 12
It is recommended that that an addition be made to Chapter 7.1 item 2.4.2 in the
HF Managers Handbook. After the present text the following should be added:
“Once operation is started on one band, the station must remain on that band for at
least ten minutes. Exception: NEW multipliers may be worked on other bands.”
(Lillehammer 1999 - REC/99/LH/C4.9)
EMERGENCY WORK
It is recommended that emergency networks should be formed in those countries
where they do not exist and by those who wish to do so.
(Brighton 1981 – 1.9.1.3)
It is recommended that IARU Region 1 Societies should request their authorities for
permission to use amateur frequencies in the case of internal emergencies and
international emergencies, in accordance with Resolution BN/640 and that a common
propcedure be used.
(Brighton 1981 – 1.9.1.4)
The proposed Emergency Operating Manual was approved as suitable guidance for
use in international emergency traffic handling and should be published as the HF
INTERNATIONAL EMERGENCY OPERATING MANUAL.
(Cefalu 1984 - 1.9.1.7)
SPECIALISED BODIES
It was recommended
- to establish an IARU Region 1 Contest Committee;
- to co-operate with non-IARU contest organisers;
- to define class 1 contests;
- to revise the rules of the IARU World Championship;
- to choose HF contests for continental score lists of the existing IARU Region 1 HF
Championship.
The IARU Region 1 Contest Committee will be known as the HF CONTEST SUB-GROUP. It
is agreed that this sub-group should operate within the permanent HF Committee. Once a
modus operandi is established it is expected that the majority of business could be conducted
by correspondence.
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 –1.5.13.1)
USE OF AMATEUR BANDS
It is recommended that Doc.02/SM/C4.3 rev 2 be accepted as a new principle of
bandwidth approach for band planning. The existing band plan remains. Doc C4.3
(after harmonising the frequency list with the actual band plan) will be published
together with the existing band plan, in the HF Managers’ Handbook as a help. In
this way every Society will have the opportunity to educate members to understand
the new band plan approach.
(San Marino 2002 - REC/02/SM/C4.3)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
12-2
February 2009
Chapter 12
It is recommended that the new HF band plan (as discussed and passed in the HF
Committee) is approved and recommended for use from 1st January 2006.
(Davos 2005 – DV05_C4_Rec_17)
It was unanimously recommended:
To endorse and approve Resolution 641 (Rev.HFBC-87);
To ask IARU Region 1 Executive Committee and IARU Administrative Council
to present and support adequately implementation of this resolution at ITU
forum;
To request member Societies to bring Resolution 641 (Rev.HFBC-87) to the
attention of their respective Telecommunication Administrations, asking them
to take action to conform;
To request the IARU Monitoring Service to follow the situation in the 70007100 kHz band and to inform the relevant bodies - .
(Noordwijkerhout 1987 - 1.8.4.4)
It is recommended that:
1.
Member Societies in Region 1 ask their national telecommunications
administration for an access to the LF range in the form of a segment preferably in
the vicinity of 136 kHz on a secondary, non-interference basis. (RR 342 - 4.4)
2.
However, this should not prevent Member Societies from asking for other
frequencies if considered realistic and it should not prevent IARU Region 1 from
working in favour of the agreed worldwide frequency allocation in the area 160-190
kHz.
(Tel Aviv 1996 - REC/96/TVI/C3....)
Code of Practice for the 136 kHz band :
No sub-divisions of the band 135.7-137.8 kHz are made for local or DX contacts or
specific modes. Taking the above into consideration, and that there are LORAN C
spurii present, that the 6.6 Hz segment centred on 136.45485 kHz is used for narrow
band transmission.
Narrow band transmissions are also preferred above 137.6 kHz.
Stations should make use of a stable VFO or synthesiser to encourage the
acceptance of common frequency working.
Transmitter testing should be carried out below 136 kHz.
Weekend mornings should be avoided for long duration transmitter testing.
Where possible, a telephone number should be incorporated in beacon
messages.
(Lillehammer 1999 - REC/99/LH/C4.6)
136 kHz Band Plan
Guidelines: No rigid band plan is proposed, but amateurs are asked to work within
the following conventions, giving long distance communication and experimentation
priority:
•
135.7 – 136.0 Station tests & transatlantic reception window
●
135.9 – 135.98 kHz preferred transatlantic window for Europe to North
American transmissions of very slow CW (QRSS)
•
136.0 – 137.1 CW
● 135.980 – 136.050 kHz preferred transatlantic window for Europe/North American
contacts
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
12-3
February 2009
Chapter 12
•
137.1 – 137.6 non-CW modes (Hell, Wolf, PSK, etc.)
•
137.6 – 137.8 Very slow CW (QRSS) centred on 137.7
●
137.700 – 137.800 kHz preferred transatlantic window for Europe to North
American transmissions
Extension and Harmonisation: Region 1 members seek to broaden the allocation, gain
primary status and influence other IARU Regions to adopt the CEPT
recommendation.
(San Marino 2002 - REC/02/SM/C4.12)
IARU Region 1
HF Managers Handbook V8.0
12-4
February 2009
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