Snow Ice Control Chapter 7: and

Snow Ice Control Chapter 7: and
Chapter 7:
Snow and
Ice Control
chapter contents
Characteristics of Effective Snow and Ice Control110
Preparing for Winter Operations
Snow Fence
Prepare Equipment
Inspect Snow Plow Truck
Conduct Pre-trip Checklist
Snow and Ice Control Strategies
Which Strategy to Use
Importance of Forecasting
Chemicals for Anti-icing and Deicing
Calcium Chloride
Enhancing Friction
Keeping Records
After the Storm
Material and Equipment
Sewer Drains
Snow Storage
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Safety Tips for Snow and Ice Control
Always check with your supervisor and follow your agency’s safety policies and procedures.
Suggested personal safety gear
• Layers of clothes, extra gloves, heavy boots
• Shovel and ice scraper
• Flashlight for night operations
• Sunglasses for glare
• Water and/or hot liquid
Advance preparation
• Be properly trained and thoroughly familiar with all equipment and chemicals.
• Make sure an up-to-date first-aid kit, emergency contact information, and hand-held
radios or cell phones are available in your vehicle.
• Be in good physical condition with adequate rest.
• Perform a pre-trip safety check of truck and equipment. Make sure the vehicle has
adequate warning lights in good working order.
• Make a practice run of assigned route to check for obstacles and potential problem
• Know the contact procedures for reporting crashes or equipment breakdowns.
During operations
• Dress in layers with heavy boots.
• Wear highly visible apparel when out of your vehicle.
• Plow at appropriate speed.
• Watch for pedestrians and other vehicles.
• Don’t back up without a spotter.
• Operate wings carefully.
• Make sure warning lights are activated.
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
Today’s motorists—and the needs of our economy—demand that roads be
open and reasonably safe in almost any kind of weather. A road department’s
ability to remove snow efficiently and open roads quickly is often the standard by which the department is judged. Winter road maintenance is so
important that many local governments size their entire road maintenance
program—that is, the number of maintenance employees, the number and
kind of vehicles, etc.—to accommodate winter maintenance activities. Snow
and ice control is often a major budget item for many local governments.
Snow and ice control operations have two goals. First, make roadways passable. Second, provide adequate pavement friction to allow vehicles to brake,
turn, and accelerate safely. This chapter discusses how road workers can help
agencies meet these goals. Topics include preparing for winter operations,
snow and ice control strategies, chemicals for anti-icing and deicing, enhancing friction, and post-storm activities.
Ten Commandments for Snow Fighters
1. Thou shalt present thyself to thy job physically and mentally fit and
properly clothed for any emergency in order to withstand the rigors of
thy task.
2. Thou shalt always inspect thy lights, windshield wipers, defrosters,
flares, and other safety equipment before entering thy cab.
3. Thou shalt know thy spreading and plowing routes, as well as the
performance of thy spinner and the life of thy plow blade.
4. Thou shalt faithfully remain alert in order to avoid guardrails, headers,
stalled cars, manhole covers, railroad tracks, and mailboxes. Otherwise thee may smite thy windshield with thy head.
5. Thou shalt contain thy temper, even though cars and trucks pass
thee on both sides and tailgate thee too close for comfort. Anger only
multiplies thy prospects of coming to grief by accident.
6. Thou shalt use thy radio as briefly as possible—assuming thee is fortunate enough to have one. Remember thy fellow workers may need
to communicate in an emergency.
7. Thou shalt interrupt the flow of power to thy spreader before attempting to free any foreign objects or blockage if thee treasures thy
8. Thou shalt render thy truck and spreader out of gear and stoutly set
thy brakes before dismounting from thy cab.
9. Thou shalt govern thy speed according to conditions, else thee may
wind up with thy truck upside down.
10. Thou shalt mind thy manners on the roadway, clearly signal thy intentions, and remember that it is more blessed to give than to receive.
[Adapted from the National Local Technical Assistance Program/Salt Institute. Source: Rural & Urban Roads, 1980]
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Characteristics of Effective Snow and Ice Control
An effective snow and ice control program will have the following characteristics: Snow and ice are removed from (or prevented from reaching) roads, side
streets, shoulders, and intersections in compliance with agency policies and
Preparing for Winter Operations
A detailed discussion of all pre-season preparations is beyond the scope of
this book. The following sections provide guidelines for installing snow fences
and for getting equipment ready.
Snow Fence
Preventing snow from drifting on or sticking to road surfaces is less expensive and time consuming (and safer for motorists and maintenance crews)
than removing snow and ice from the road. Snow fences, both structural and
“living,” slow snow-laden winds, causing the snow to drop and collect downwind from the fence. Properly located and installed snow fences significantly
reduce the need to remove drifting snow and accumulated ice from the road.
See figure 7-1.
Structural or living snow fences with about 50 percent of the total surface
area open for the wind to blow through have the largest snow storage capacity. (Denser fences have shorter drift lengths, allowing for closer setbacks, but
denser fences also have less storage capacity.)
The most effective snow fence height is generally 6–16 feet. (Fifty-percent
porous, structural fences that are less then 6 feet tall typically do not provide
enough snow storage capacity.)
Locate structural snow fence far enough from the road that the downwind
drift does not extend onto the road. The optimum distance for a 50-percent
porous, structural fence is normally 35 times the height of the fence. For
example, a 6-foot fence would create a drift of approximately 210 feet.
Figure 7–1. Properly installed snow fences cause snow to collect downwind (WDM)
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
Ideally, install structural snow fence perpendicular to the general prevailing
winds. Sometimes, however, depending on wind and roadway angles, snow
fence will have to be installed parallel to the roadway.
Leave a gap under the structural fence equal to about 10 percent of the
fence height to improve snow-trapping efficiency. Do not leave horizontal
gaps in structural or living snow fence.
Extend the end of the fence past the roadway area that you want to protect
from the wind. The optimum extension is approximately 20 times the height
of the fence. This is necessary to accommodate variations in wind direction
and because the wind wraps around the ends of the fence.
Living snow fences—rows of trees, tall shrubs, or corn left standing in the
field—can also be very effective.
Appendix B illustrates proper installation of 50-percent porous, structural
snow fence on flat terrain, as well as the proper configuration for a living
snow fence of standing corn.
Prepare Equipment
Different models of spreading equipment vary in spreading rates, and different materials spread at different rates. Therefore, each spreader should
be individually calibrated for the specific material that will be used. Refer to
manufacturers’ recommendations.
To keep all winter maintenance equipment in top condition, local agencies
have regular maintenance routines.
Inspect Snow Plow Truck
Snow plow trucks are the key to successful winter maintenance operations.
Keeping them in good working order is essential.
After every use, equipment operators should inspect their snow plow trucks
and other equipment and report needed repairs. It is critical to pay attention
to all of the parts of the truck as well as the equipment attached to it.
Conduct Pre-trip Checklist
A pre-trip checklist is required for commercial driver’s license (CDL) compliance. Following the checklist will help prevent equipment failure and resulting
accidents, injuries, and deaths.
Equipment Checklists
For a sample equipment checklist, see appendix C.
For a sample snow plow inspection checklist, see appendix D.
For a sample pre-trip checklist, see appendix E.
If your agency has its own checklists, use them instead. As always, consult
your supervisor, and follow your agency’s policies and procedures.
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Snow and Ice Control Strategies
There are three general strategies for snow and ice removal/control:
• Anti-icing—applying chemicals to prevent snow and ice from bonding to
• Plowing—removing accumulated snow and ice from pavement.
• Deicing—applying chemicals to break the bond between snow/ice and
Generally speaking, anti-icing is used immediately before or at the beginning
of a storm. Plowing is conducted when the storm is active or while the wind
is still blowing. Deicing is conducted after the storm and when snow and ice
are frozen solid to the roadway surface.
Which Strategy to Use?
Not all agencies use all three snow and ice control strategies. Many agencies
use a flexible combination of these strategies before, during, and after each
particular storm. For example, it is common to simultaneously plow snow
and apply salt or other chemicals. Any of these strategies may be combined
with application of abrasives (see Enhancing Friction later in this chapter).
Consult your supervisor, and follow your agency’s policies and procedures.
Knowledge of past storms, as well as accurate predictions about the timing,
duration, and severity of imminent storms, helps maintenance supervisors
make informed decisions about which strategies and materials to use, chemical application rates, and frequency of treatment.
Current and predicted pavement temperatures are the most important data
for selecting appropriate snow and ice control strategies. The effectiveness of
deicing chemicals is directly related to pavement temperature, not air temperature.
Importance of Forecasting
A winter maintenance program is only as good as your agency’s ability to
accurately predict the onset of a winter storm. It is critical to know when a
storm will arrive and how air and pavement temperatures are changing along
with wind direction and velocity. Accurate information about pavement temperatures is especially critical for selecting appropriate materials. Salt brine,
for example, becomes less effective as the temperature approaches 18°F. (See
Materials Selection, later in this chapter.)
For reliable forecasts tailored to your jurisdiction, Iowa’s local agencies can
access the Iowa DOT’s extensive road weather information system (RWIS)
network and value-added meteorological service. In addition, it is useful to
establish a network of local contacts—maintenance supervisors in neighboring jurisdictions—who can provide real-time information about an approaching storm.
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
Anti-icing is a proactive approach to snow and ice control. It consists of applying liquid chemicals (usually salt brine) to pavement before, or at the very
beginning of, a storm. The chemicals create a barrier layer that helps prevent
snow and ice from bonding to the pavement surface. Accumulating snow can
be easily removed by snow plows, leaving the pavement relatively dry. See
figure 7–2.
Anti-icing chemicals will become diluted as snow turns into water and as
accumulating snow is removed by plows. To offset the dilution and maintain
the barrier, you may need to reapply chemicals during the storm.
Consider carefully before reapplying chemicals during the storm; the chemical may quickly become diluted and/or be plowed off the roadway. It is generally good practice to reapply during a storm after you’ve plowed/scraped the
snow off and before the temperature starts to fall and the snow and ice begin
to bond (freeze) to the pavement. (After the storm is over, you can switch to
deicing to help clear the road surface if you are using chemicals that will be
active at the forecasted temperature.)
Benefits and Cautions
Anti-icing has several benefits:
• Anti-icing often reduces total chemical use and may reduce costs related
to materials, equipment, and time.
• Because pavement conditions are better when ice formation is prevented,
anti-icing may provide more mobility and safer service.
If snow is blowing
across and off the
road, consider carefully before applying
anti-icing chemicals
that may cause snow
to stick to the roadway.
• Anti-icing helps prevent frost formation on the pavement for some time following application, and post-storm cleanup is generally easier and faster.
Anti-icing may be less effective during periods of heavy, freezing rain, in
blowing snow conditions, or in intense snowfall. If a storm gets ahead of antiicing efforts, agencies generally switch to normal deicing strategies.
Figure 7–2. Urban anti-icing operations (WDM)
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Anti-Icing Preparation Checklist
• Order chemicals and provide for proper chemical storage.
• Inventory equipment.
• Test/calibrate application equipment.
• Make sure communication channels are functioning. Establish interagency agreements. Share your plans with the media.
• Understand your agency’s policies and procedures regarding level of
service (LOS), peak traffic levels, and operations.
• Plan routes and conduct dry runs to identify trip length and time, obstacles, and trouble spots.
Anti-Icing Guidelines
1. Apply anti-icing material immediately before or just as a storm begins
to prevent bonding of snow or ice to the pavement.
2. Use accurate pavement temperature and other road weather information to decide when to begin applying chemicals.
3. Anti-icing is often effective for heavy frosts. Early application of chemicals is important for frost or light freezing drizzle.
4. Apply with stream nozzles so the material is distributed directly on the
vehicle wheel paths.
5. Schedule applications on selected sections of the roadway (e.g., bridge
decks) if the temperature and conditions could produce frost or black ice.
6. Consider spot applications on hills, curves, and intersections.
7. Apply material during low-traffic periods if possible.
8. When frost on the shoulder begins moving into the traveled lanes,
reapply chemicals.
Things Not to Do
1. Do not apply anti-icing chemicals with fan sprayers.
The surface can refreeze if precipitation
or moisture on the
pavement dilutes the
chemical, or if temperatures drop below
the effective temperature of the anti-icing
2. Do not apply chemicals when the wind is blowing hard enough to carry
the material off the roadway. Be aware of areas that are sensitive to
blowing chemicals.
3. Reapplication is not always necessary. Residual chemicals can remain
on the roadway for several days.
4. Do not apply chemicals if the wind is blowing snow off the road.
Anti-Icing Training
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO) has developed an interactive, self-directed training program to
help road maintenance personnel understand and implement anti-icing
effectively. The Anti-Icing/RWIS Training package is available to members of
the National Association of County Engineers (NACE) free of charge. You can
order your copy, through Iowa’s Local Technical Assistance Program, 515294-9481, Cities can borrow the Anti-Icing/RWIS Training
package from Iowa LTAP.
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
During and after a storm, use snow plows to clear roads as needed. See
figure 7–3. Snow plowing is a challenge in both rural and urban areas. In
rural areas operators must deal with blowing and drifting snow along with
decreased visibility. In urban areas operators must deal with parked cars, narrow streets, and cul-de-sacs.
• Plow roads to remove snow and loose ice before applying deicing
• Coordinate plowing activities with co-workers to avoid creating windrows
at intersections and to prevent removal of another operator’s applied
Many agencies have
snow ordinances that
describe when snow
plowing will be conducted and designate
snow routes. Consult
your supervisor, and
follow your agency’s
• Keep your supervisor informed of changing road and weather conditions.
• Remove snow from roads as quickly as possible to reduce compaction.
• Use underbody blades to help remove compacted snow or slushy snow.
• Use carbide edge inserts on snow plow blades to extend the life of the
Minimize dilution of
deicing chemicals by
plowing immediately
before applying the
• Adjust the blade angle to maximize cutting efficiency or snow-throwing
• Do not push or blow snow off a bridge into the water or onto traffic
• Know the height of your truck box, and raise the box only to move
material to the back of the box.
• Avoid making sudden moves.
• Pace your speed to the general traffic’s speed as much as possible.
Figure 7–3. Cleared road (WDM)
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• When plowing on a two-way road or street, stay on the proper side of the
• To avoid hitting obstacles, be aware of the width of your truck/equipment.
• Be aware of your surroundings, especially hazards like downed power
poles, traffic signals, overhead structures, and power lines.
• Obey traffic laws and use your seat belt.
• Make sure your truck windows and lights are clean.
• Be courteous toward other drivers, bicyclists, and pedestrians.
• Be aware of your truck’s changing braking abilities as the loaded box
Avoiding Snow Clouds
Even a very light snow cloud behind your truck can temporarily reduce
motorists’ ability to see you (and your ability to see them) and increase your
chances of being hit from behind.
Snow clouds can form during any plowing operation, but truck speed and
wind contribute to clouds.
If you can, avoid plowing when it’s windy. For example, if it is not essential
to plow a shoulder immediately, postpone plowing until the wind has died
Different equipment and configurations—snow plow trucks, V plows, tandem
vehicles, wing plows, and snow blowers—can be used for snow removal,
depending on storm conditions and severity. Following are common uses for
various kinds of equipment:
V Plows: Deep Snow, Heavy Drifts
V plows are heavy and can move a lot of snow and punch through big drifts.
See figure 7–4. To prevent getting stuck, however, the snow plow must travel
at a slow forward speed. When using a V plow, start at the middle of the roadway and work your way toward the edges with additional passes.
Tandem Plows: Multi-Lane Facilities
When clearing a multi-lane facility, several snow plows working in tandem
will remove snow more quickly. See figure 7–5.
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
Figure 7–4. V snow plow (WDM)
Figure 7–5. Tandom snow plow (WDM)
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Wing Plow: Shoulders
After snow has been moved to the edge of the street or onto the shoulder,
you can use a wing plow to move the snow further away from the roadway
and reduce the potential for blowing snow to drift back onto the roadway.
See figure 7–6. You can also use wing plows to clear snow from sidewalks or
Snow Blower: Clean Up
In congested areas, use a snow blower to load snow into haul trucks for
removal to a remote location. See figure 7–7.
Figure 7–6. Winging operations (WDM)
Figure 7–7. Snow blower (WDM)
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
Deicing consists of applying chemicals to snow and ice to break their bond
with the pavement. See figure 7–8.
If anti-icing strategies were not implemented before the storm, or if a storm
“gets ahead” of anti-icing efforts, agencies may conduct deicing activities.
Normally deicing is conducted when the temperature drops at the end of the
storm activities and the snow/ice has bonded to the pavement.
Deicing chemicals work by lowering the freezing point of water. As the snow/
ice turns to water, the deicing chemicals will become diluted and may need to
be reapplied.
Figure 7–8. Urban application of deicing chemicals (WDM)
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Chemicals for Anti-icing and Deicing
Common materials are sodium chloride or rock salt (NaCl) (dry, wet, or in
solution, or brine), calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and
calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). Figure 7–9 shows the lowest temperatures at which these materials are generally effective. For applications rates,
see your agency’s procedures.
In Iowa, the most common deicing chemicals are salt and calcium chloride
solutions. A salt solution or brine (23.3 percent concentration) freezes at 18°F;
a calcium chloride solution (29.8 percent concentration) freezes at -20°F.
Salt is the most common deicing material used in Iowa. In addition to being
an effective deicing material, salt provides immediate anti-skid protection
while starting the melting process.
To effectively melt snow and/or ice (and therefore prevent or break the bond
with the pavement), salt must be dissolved in solution. If dry salt is applied to
a pavement, the necessary moisture for dissolution must come from pavement surface moisture or from humidity in the air. If the pavement temperature is below freezing, dry salt rapidly loses its effectiveness because moisture on the pavement needed to make salt solution is already frozen.
Figure 7–9. The lowest temperature at which different chemicals are effective
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
Guidelines for Applying Salt
• For deicing activities on two-lane pavements with low to medium traffic
volumes, apply a windrow of salt in a strip along the centerline. Traffic
will move salt off the centerline. The resulting salt brine will move down
the pavement cross slope and toward the shoulders, melting snow and
ice across the entire road width. With this application pattern, less salt is
wasted (than with spinners, for example) and quickly gives vehicles clear
pavement under at least two wheels.
• For deicing activities on multiple-lane pavements with medium to high
traffic volumes, apply salt in a pattern that covers the full width of the
roadway to provide melting action over the full width of the pavement.
• “Play the wind” when spreading salt. A strong wind blowing across a
street or roadway can cause salt to drift as it comes out of the spreader,
perhaps blowing salt onto the shoulder and into the ditch or into a street
gutter. This is particularly true in rural areas where there are few wind
breaks. How the wind affects spreading depends on both wind velocity
and pavement condition. Use the wind to help distribute the salt where
you want it.
• On super-elevated curves, apply salt to the high side of the curve so the
brine will flow down and across the roadway.
Pre-Wetting Salt
Pre-wetting salt has become common practice. Wetting provides moisture to
make brine, resulting in faster melting action. In addition, wet salt has less
tendency to bounce off the road or to be blown off by traffic, saving 20 to 30
percent in wasted salt, which can more than pay for pre-wetting.
If snow is blowing
across and off the
road, let the wind help
with snow removal.
In these cases, be
careful not to wet the
pavement surface
by adding chemicals
that will cause snow
to begin sticking and
creating slick spots
on the roadway.
Common chemicals used for pre-wetting salt are liquid calcium chloride and
salt brine:
• Liquid calcium chloride is used widely for pre-wetting salt because it
draws moisture from the air and releases heat when it dissolves. Applications of 6 to 10 gallons per cubic yard of salt are recommended. Calcium
chloride has the added advantage of melting snow/ice at lower temperatures.
• Using salt brine to pre-wet is becoming more common because of its
lower cost. Some agencies are producing their own salt brine solution
(23 percent). Liquid calcium magnesium acetate and magnesium chloride
are also used.
Some agencies pre-wet the salt by spraying it as it is loaded into the truck.
However, the application is more uniform if truck-mounted equipment is used
to spray the salt as it leaves the spreader. This also eliminates the problem of
handling pre-wetted salt that is not immediately used.
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Salt Brine
Salt brine is commonly used in Iowa for anti-icing activities. Salt brine is a
mixture of approximately 23 percent rock salt and water.
Although commercial brine makers are available, many agencies manufacture their own brine makers with water tanks and PVC pipe. The brine can be
stored in large tanks where it will be convenient for loading the material into
saddle tanks on the sides of the V-box or anti-icing equipment.
Calcium Chloride
Calcium chloride is more expensive than salt and requires special handling.
In addition, it tends to leave the pavement wet for a while, causing blowing
snow to stick to the pavement. But calcium chloride is more effective in melting snow and ice at lower temperatures than salt and is faster acting. Calcium
chloride draws moisture from the air and, when it dissolves, actually gives
off heat. These unique properties make it valuable in severe conditions. Used
strategically, usually in combination with salt, calcium chloride can be a useful and cost-effective deicing material.
Mixing even a small amount of calcium chloride with salt (see Pre-wetting
Salt earlier in this chapter) can be very effective. The calcium chloride will start
melting quickly, and the resulting brine and heat allow the salt to start working faster.
Store calcium chloride in moisture-proof bags until needed. Otherwise, its
ability to draw moisture can cause it to cake into large chunks.
There are four methods of applying liquid calcium chloride:
1. Dispensed from a tank on the spreader at the same time the salt is
spread on the road.
2. Applied to each loader-bucket of salt just before salt is placed in the
3. Applied to entire load of salt in the spreader.
4. Applied to entire salt stockpile before the winter season.
Enhancing Friction
Sand and other abrasives improve vehicle traction on snow and ice-covered
roads. (Even dry or pre-wetted salt improves traction briefly after it is spread.)
Abrasives can be used at all temperatures, but their use is especially important when it is too cold for chemical deicers to work. Since abrasives must
stay on the surface to be effective, they should not be used when they will
be covered with more snow or when they will be blown off quickly by traffic. Heavy traffic reduces the effectiveness of abrasives, requiring repeated
Sand is the most commonly used abrasive, but slag, cinders, and bottom ash
from power plants are also used.
Sometimes deicing chemicals are mixed with sand. The sand gives immediate traction, and the chemicals melt the snow either immediately or when the
temperature rises. However, to be effective the chemical must remain on the
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
pavement, which is difficult to achieve in most cases. Mixing salt with sand
reduces the salt’s melting effectiveness.
A minimum amount of salt (50 to 100 pounds of salt per cubic yard) must be
mixed with abrasives to keep them unfrozen and usable. Pre-wetting sand
with liquid deicing material is also effective. The chemical helps to anchor the
sand into the ice surface, makes the sand easier to load from the stockpile,
and causes the sand to spread more evenly from mechanical spreaders.
Keeping Records
During snow and ice control operations, equipment operators may be
required to record their activities. Such records can serve two purposes: They
help staff track and manage current operations, and they provide information
to help supervisors and operators improve future operations.
The information to be reported on trip tickets will vary from agency to agency.
Check with your supervisor. Sample information includes the following:
• Operator’s name
• Vehicle ID
• Date(s) and duration of shift
• Description of roads treated
• Beginning and end times of each treatment cycle
• Treatment locations and time if not done on a prescribed cycle
• Type of treatment performed on each cycle or run
• Road and traffic conditions observed on each cycle or run
• Percentage of streets cleared, by classification
• Total personnel in the field
• Inventory of equipment and operational status
• Inventory of materials
• Number and extent of breakdowns, and future availability of equipment
• Accumulation of overtime
• Snow accumulation
• Planned operations
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After the Storm
Conduct post-storm activities as soon as possible so you are ready for the
next snowfall.
Material and Equipment
• Return unused materials to the stockpile.
• Wash trucks and clean equipment.
• Check all blades.
• Check skid shoes on wings for excessive wear.
• Look over all equipment and check for cracks in welds or any missing
parts. Point out any problems to your shop mechanic.
• Do another walk around of the truck checking tires, lights, and wipers.
Sewer Drains
Clear drains so that melting snow and ice can move quickly off the road.
Snow Storage
Sometimes local agencies don’t have room on or near the roadway to store
the snow that has been plowed. This is fairly common in urban areas. To move
the snow and completely clear traffic lanes and parking spaces, local agencies
load the snow into trucks and haul it away to remote storage areas.
Storage areas may be on or near a lake or in remote open areas. They should
be in locations that can handle the snow-melt runoff without overburdening
existing drainage features and without violating Environmental Protection
Agency requirements.
Local Roads Maintenance Workers’ Manual
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO). 1997. Highway Safety Design and Operations Guide.
Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials.
Andrle, S.J., K. Knapp, T.J. McDonald, and D.E. Smith. 2001. Iowa Traffic
Control Devices and Pavement Markings: A Manual for Cities and
Counties. Iowa DOT Project TR-441. Ames, IA: Center for Transportation
Research and Education.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2003. Manual on Uniform Traffic
Control Devices (MUTCD) for Streets and Highways. 3rd Ed. Washington,
DC: United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Iowa One Call (IOC). 2006. Iowa One Call Home.
Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB). 2005. Minnesota Snow and Ice
Control: Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators. Manual Number 20051. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Local Road Research Board.
Salt Institute. 1991. The Snowfighter’s Handbook: A Practical Guide for Snow
and Ice Control. Alexandria, VA: Salt Institute.
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