Technical Data Industrial Lighting a

Technical Data Industrial Lighting a
Industrial Lighting
Technical
Data
Key information
Look for the symbol a throughout the
Technical Data section. It indicates that a
key fact or other important information will
follow.
TD-1
Technical Data References
1. IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America)
120 Wall St. Floor 17
New York, NY 10005
Phone; (212) 248-5000
FAX; (212) 248-5017
http://www.iesna.org
2. NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
1300 North 17th St.
Suite 1847
Rosslyn, Virginia, 22209
Phone; (703) 841-3200
FAX; (703) 841-3300
http://www.nema.org
3. UL (Underwriters Laboratories)
333 Pfingsten Road
Northbrook, Illinois, 60062-2096
Phone; (847) 272-8800
FAX; (847) 272-8129
http://www.ul.com
4. CSA (Canadian Standards Association - International)
178 Rexdale Blvd.
Toronto, Ontario, M9W 1R3, CANADA
Phone; (416) 747-4000
FAX; (416) 747-4149
http://www.csa-international.org
5. NFPA (National Fire Prevention Association) (Publishers of National Electrical Code)
1 Batterymarch Park
PO Box 9101
Quincy, MA, 02269-9101
Phone; (617) 770-3000
FAX; (617) 770-0700
http://www.nfpa.org
6. USDA/FSIS (United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service)
1400 Independence Ave. S.W.
Washington, DC, 20250-3700
Phone; (202) 720-7025
http://www.fsis.usda.gov
7. NSF (National Sanitation Foundation International)
PO Box 130140
789 North Dixboro Rd.
Ann Arbour, MI 48113-0140
Phone: (734) 769-8010
FAX; (734) 769-0109
http://www.nsf.org
TD-2
Industrial Application Worksheet
Reflectances
Ceiling
Length (L)
Ceiling ______ %
Walls
______ %
Floor
______ %
Ceiling
Cavity
Design Criteria
Width (W)
(RC)
Room
Cavity
Footcandles (FC) ________________________
Fixture Cat. No. _________________________
Lamp Cat. No. __________________________
Lumens per Luminaire (LL)* ______________
Work
Plane
Light Loss Factor (LLF) ___________________
Coefficient of Utilization (CU) ______________
Floor
* Lumens per lamp X number of lamps.
Room Cavity Ratio (RCR)
5 [RC (L+W)]
RCR =
LxW
=
5[
(
+
)]
=
x
Number of Fixtures (F)
F =
L x W x FC
x
x
LL x LLF x CU
x
x
=
Length Fixture Spacing (LF)
(ROW SPACING)
Width Fixture Spacing (WF)
(COLUMN SPACING)
No. of Rows (R) =
No. of Columns (C) =
FxW
L
LF =
x
C =
F
C
=
=
Length
R
=
=
=
Total Fixtures (T)
WF =
Width
C
=
=
T =
R X C
= ___ X ___ =
Spacing Criterion (Spacing-to-Mounting Height Ratio)
The spacing criterion is a number that indicates the ratio of the maximum spacing between luminaires to the mounting height above the
workplane. This ratio should not be greatly exceeded if uniformity of illumination is desired. The spacing criterion can be found on a
photometric report.
Maximum Luminaire Spacing = Spacing Criterion X Room Cavity (RC) = ____ X ____ =
TD-3
Recommended Lighting Levels
Recommended lighting levels
are from the IESNA Lighting
Handbook, 9th edition, 2000.
Many factors have an impact on
proper light levels, including
age, speed, accuracy, contrast,
glare, flicker, distribution and
others. The influence of these
factors may raise or lower the
levels shown in this table. For
detailed information regarding
these and related issues, consult the IESNA Handbook.
Indoor Activity
Assembly
Simple
Difficult
Exacting
Avg. Fc1
Avg. Lux
30
100
300 to 1000
300
1000
3000 to 10,000
Raw material processing (cleaning, cutting, crushing sorting, grading)
Course
10
Medium
30
Fine
50
Very Fine
100
Inspection
Simple
Difficult
Exacting
30
100
300 to 1000
300
1000
3000 to 10,000
30
30
30
10
300
300
300
100
30
50
300 to 1000
300 to 1000
300
500
3000 to 10,000
3000 to 10,000
Storage Rooms or Warehouses
Inactive
Active, bulky items, large labels
Active, small items, small labels
5
10
30
50
100
300
Cleanrooms
Workspace
802
8002
Food Processing
Workroom
Inspection Areas
302
1502
3002
15002
Materials Handling
Shipping and receiving
Wrapping, packing, labeling
Picking stock, classifying
Loading, inside truck
Machining
Rough bench or machine work
Medium bench or machine work
Fine bench or machine work
Extra-fine bench or machine work
Outdoor Activity
Avg. Fc
Avg. Lux
Horizontal/Vertical
Horizontal/Vertical
5/3
3/3
5/3
50/30
30/30
50/30
10/3
1/0.3
100/30
10/3
Building Exteriors
Active entrances
Inactive entrances (normally locked)
Building surrounds
Storage yards
Active
Inactive
Building and Monuments, Floodlighting (vertical only)
Bright surroundings, light surface
3
Bright surroundings, dark surface
10
Dark surroundings, light surface
3
Dark surroundings, dark surface
3
1. The task may be horizontal, inclined or vertical.
2. Minimum level.
TD-4
100
300
500
1000
30
100
30
30
Environmental Conditions
DIRT AND MOISTURE
Dirt accumulates on the lamp and optical surfaces of a lighting system and reduces the amount of light emitted from the
luminaire. It also can change the distribution pattern of the light.
Most well-engineered industrial luminaires are designed to reduce the effects of dirt accumulation using one of several
methods. Open ventilated luminaires may be used where the dirt is dry and non-corrosive. These tend to collect less dirt on
the lamp envelope and inner reflector surfaces than those with closed tops. If a bottom lens is used on the optical system, the
top of the reflector also should be closed to prevent dirt from accumulating on the inside surface of the lens.
Where ambient dirt is heavy, adhesive or corrosive, enclosed optical systems should be used. Enclosed industrial luminaires
should always be gasketed to prevent dirt from being drawn into the optical system during the cooling down period after a
luminaire is turned off. Multistage charcoal filters may be included as an option if the dirt is heavy, or dust-tite optical systems
may be used.
Dirt accumulation results in lower illuminance on the workplane. The total amount of light loss due to dirt depreciation
depends on the type and amount of dirt accumulated, the lamp’s type and shape, and the design, finish and materials used in
the optical system. Lighting designers have developed a system to measure the degree of light loss associated with dirt
accumulation on a luminaire’s optical surfaces. This system is called the Luminaire Dirt Depreciation factor.
The Luminaire Dirt Depreciation factor (LDD) may be determined for a specific fixture type as follows:
1. The luminaire maintenance category is selected from the following table (Figure 1).
Maintenance
Category
I
II
III
IV
V
Top Enclosure
1. None
1. None
2. Transparent with 15% or more uplight through apertures
3. Translucent with 15% or more uplight through apertures
4. Opaque with 15% or more uplight through apertures
1. Transparent with less than15% uplight through apertures
2. Translucent with less than15% uplight through apertures
3. Opaque with less than 15% uplight through apertures
1. Transparent unapertured
2. Translucent unapertured
3. Opaque unapertured
1. Transparent unapertured
2. Translucent unapertured
3. Opaque unapertured
Bottom Enclosure
1. None
1. None
1. None
1. None
1. Transparent unapertured
Figure 1. To assist in determining Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD) factors, luminaires are separated into five categories (I through V). To arrive at
categories, luminaires are arbitrarily divided into sections, a Top Enclosure and a Bottom Enclosure, by drawing a horizontal line through the light center
of the lamp or lamps. The characteristics listed for the enclosures are then selected as best describing the luminaire. Only one characteristic for the top
enclosure and one for the bottom enclosure should be used in determining the category of a luminaire. Percentage of uplight is based on 100% for the
luminaire. The maintenance category is determined when there are characteristics in both enclosure columns. If a luminaire falls into more than one
category, the lower numbered category is used.
TD-5
2. The atmosphere (one of five degrees of dirt conditions) in which the luminaire operates is found as follows.
Dirt in the atmosphere comes from two sources: that passed from adjacent air, and that generated by work done
in the vicinity. Dirt may be classified as adhesive, attracted, or inert, and it may come from intermittent or
constant sources. Adhesive dirt clings to luminaire surfaces by its stickiness, whereas attracted dirt is held by
electrostatic force. Inert dirt varies in accumulation, from practically nothing on vertical surfaces to as much as
a horizontal surface holds before the dirt is dislodged by gravity or air circulation. Examples of adhesive dirt are
grease from cooking, particles from machine operation borne by oil vapor, particles borne by water vapor as in
a laundry, and fumes from metal-pouring operations or plating tanks. Examples of attracted dirt are hair, lint,
fibers, and dry particles that are electrostatically charged from machine operations. Examples of inert dirt are
nonsticky, uncharged particles such as dry flour, sawdust, and fine cinders.
The following table is used to evaluate the atmospheric dirt category (Figure 2):
Very Clean
Clean
Medium
Dirty
Very Dirty
Generated Dirt
None
Very Little
Noticeable but not
heavy
Accumulates
Rapidly
Constant
Accumulation
Ambient Dirt
None (Or none
enters area)
Some (Almost
none enters
area)
Some enters area
Large amount
enters area
Almost none
excluded
Removal or Filtration
Excellent
Better than
average
Poorer than
average
Only fans or
blowers if any
None
Adhesion
None
Slight
Enough to be visible
after some months
High-Probably
due to oil,
humidity, static
High
Figure 2. Operating Atmosphere Dirt Category (Source: IESNA)
TD-6
3. From the appropriate luminaire Maintenance Category, the Atmospheric Dirt Condition and planned Cleaning Cycle, the LDD factor may be found from the table in figure 3.
For example, if the category is I, the atmosphere is dirty, and cleaning occurs every 3 years, the LDD will be
approximately 0.71.
Industrial Applications (General)
Atmospheric Dirt Condition
Cleaning Cycle
Maintenance Typical Luminaire Types
Category
1yr
Very Clean
2yr 3yr
1yr
Clean
2yr 3yr
1yr
Medium
2yr
3yr
I
Open High Bays/Strips
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.93
0.89
0.86
0.89
0.84
0.79
II
Apertured Fluorescent w/ >15% up
0.97
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.90
0.87
0.90
0.85
0.82
III
Apertured Fluorescent w/ <15% up
0.92
0.88
0.84
0.90
0.84
0.80
0.87
0.79
0.73
IV
Solid-Top Fluorescent
0.93
0.89
0.86
0.88
0.81
0.75
0.81
0.70
0.62
V
Enclosed High Bays & Low Bays
0.92
0.89
0.87
0.88
0.83
0.80
0.83
0.76
0.71
1yr
Dirty
2yr
3yr
1yr
Industrial Applications (Heavy)
Atmospheric Dirt Condition
Cleaning Cycle
Maintenance Typical Luminaire Types
Category
1yr
Medium
2yr 3yr
Very Dirty
2yr 3yr
I
Open High Bays/Strips
0.89
0.84
0.79
0.85
0.77
0.71
0.74
0.62
0.53
II
Apertured Fluorescent w/ >15% up
0.90
0.85
0.82
0.86
0.80
0.75
0.83
0.75
0.69
III
Apertured Fluorescent w/ <15% up
0.87
0.79
0.73
0.83
0.74
0.67
0.79
0.68
0.60
IV
Solid-Top Fluorescent
0.81
0.70
0.62
0.73
0.60
0.50
0.64
0.47
0.37
V
Enclosed High Bays & Low Bays
0.83
0.76
0.71
0.78
0.70
0.64
0.73
0.63
0.56
Figure 3. Luminaire Maintenance Category Curves (Source: IESNA)
TD-7
ROOM SURFACE DIRT DEPRECIATION FACTOR
Dirt that accumulates on the walls, floor and ceiling surfaces of an industrial space can effectively reduce the average illumination levels on work surfaces. The reduction of light levels can be as much as 10 to 15% in very dirty areas where the room
surfaces are not cleaned regularly. To determine the effect of Room Surface Dirt Depreciation (RSDD) on illuminance levels,
determine the Atmospheric Dirt Condition from fig. 2, the Cleaning Cycle, and use the tables in fig. 4
INDUSTRIAL LUMINAIRES WITH LESS THAN
AtmosphericDirt
Condition
Cleaning Cycle
RCR
10% UPLIGHT
Very Clean
Clean
Medium
Dirty
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.94
0.93
0.92
2
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.94
0.93
0.92
3
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.98
0.96
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.94
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.92
0.90
4
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.94
0.92
0.91
0.92
0.91
0.90
5
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.97
0.95
0.94
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.91
0.90
0.91
0.90
0.89
6
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.97
0.95
0.94
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.91
0.90
0.91
0.89
0.88
7
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.97
0.95
0.94
0.94
0.92
0.91
0.93
0.90
0.89
0.90
0.88
0.87
8
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.96
0.94
0.93
0.93
0.91
0.90
0.92
0.89
0.88
0.89
0.87
0.86
9
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.92
0.90
0.89
0.91
0.88
0.87
0.88
0.86
0.85
10
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.96
0.93
0.92
0.92
0.90
0.88
0.91
0.87
0.85
0.87
0.85
0.83
INDUSTRIAL LUMINAIRES WITH
Atmospheric Dirt
Condition
Cleaning Cycle
RCR
10% TO 40% UPLIGHT
Very Clean
Clean
Medium
Dirty
Very Dirty
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1yr
2yr
3yr
1
0.98
0.97
0.95
0.95
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.91
0.90
0.91
0.89
0.87
0.89
0.86
0.84
2
0.97
0.96
0.94
0.95
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.92
0.89
0.91
0.88
0.86
0.88
0.85
0.83
3
0.97
0.96
0.94
0.94
0.92
0.91
0.92
0.90
0.88
0.90
0.87
0.85
0.87
0.84
0.82
4
0.96
0.95
0.93
0.94
0.91
0.90
0.91
0.89
0.87
0.89
0.85
0.83
0.85
0.82
0.80
5
0.95
0.94
0.92
0.93
0.91
0.90
0.91
0.88
0.86
0.88
0.84
0.82
0.84
0.81
0.79
6
0.95
0.94
0.92
0.93
0.90
0.89
0.90
0.87
0.85
0.87
0.83
0.81
0.83
0.80
0.78
7
0.94
0.93
0.91
0.92
0.89
0.88
0.89
0.86
0.84
0.86
0.82
0.80
0.82
0.79
0.77
8
0.94
0.93
0.91
0.92
0.88
0.87
0.88
0.85
0.83
0.85
0.81
0.78
0.81
0.77
0.75
9
0.94
0.93
0.91
0.92
0.88
0.87
0.88
0.85
0.82
0.85
0.80
0.77
0.80
0.76
0.74
10
0.94
0.93
0.90
0.92
0.88
0.86
0.87
0.84
0.81
0.84
0.79
0.76
0.79
0.74
0.72
Figure 4. Room Surface Dirt Depreciation (Source: IESNA)
TD-8
Very Dirty
LUMINAIRE DISTRIBUTION TYPES
•
Direct lighting. When luminaires direct 90 to 100% of their output downward, they form a direct lighting system.
The distribution may vary from widespread to highly concentrated, depending on the reflector material, finish, and
contour and on the shielding or optical control media employed.
•
Semi-Direct lighting. The distribution from semi-direct units is predominantly downward (60 to 90%) but with a
small upward component to illuminate the ceiling and upper walls.
•
Direct-Indirect lighting. When the downward and upward components of light from luminaires are about equal
(each 40 to 60% of total luminaire output), the system is classified as general diffuse. Direct-indirect is a special
(non-CIE) category within this classification, in which the luminaires emit very little light at angles near the horizontal.
•
Semi-indirect lighting. Lighting systems that emit 60 to 90% of their output upward are classified as semi-indirect.
•
Indirect lighting. Lighting systems classified as indirect are those that direct 90 to 100% of the light upward to the
ceiling and upper side walls.
Most industrial lighting applications use direct or semi-direct distribution types for efficiency.
TD-9
INGRESS PROTECTION
The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) uses the term “Ingress Protection” or IP to define the environmental
protection of an enclosure. This is described in IEC Standard 529. The IP classification system designates by means of a
two digit number, the degree of protection against ingress of dust and moisture. The first digit defines the level of protection against solid objects, while the second digit defines the level of protection against moisture. The higher the digit, the
greater is the level of protection.
FIRST DIGIT
Degree of protection against solid objects
SECOND DIGIT
Degree of protection against water
0
Non-protected
0
Non-protected
1
Protected against a solid object
greater than 50mm such as a hand
1
Protected against water dripping
vertically
2
Protected against a solid object greater
than 12mm such as a finger
2
Protected against dripping water when
incident up to 15° from vertical
3
Protected against a solid object greater
than 2.5mm such as a wire or a tool
3
Protected against water spraying at an
angle of up to 60°
4
Protected against a solid object greater
than 1.0mm such as a wire or thin strip
4
Protected against water splashing from
any direction
5
Dust-protected. Prevents ingress of
dust sufficient to cause harm
5
Protected against jets of water from any
direction
6
Dust-tight. No dust ingress
6
Protected against heavy seas or powerful
jets of water. Prevents ingress sufficient
to cause harm
7
Protected against harmful ingress of water
when immersed between a depth of
150mm and 1 meter
8
Protected against submersion. Suitable for
continuous immersion in water
Figure 5. Ingress protection definitions
PROTECTION AGAINST MOISTURE
UL and CSA define several levels of protection against moisture damage to a luminaire. These definitions describe the space
in which the luminaire is intended to operate without damage to the electrical or mechanical components from the environment. These definitions cover pure water protection only, not damage protection from acidic or alkaline conditions.
Dry Location – A location not normally subject to dampness, but may include a location subject to temporary dampness as in
the case of a building under construction, provided that ventilation is adequate to prevent an accumulation of moisture.
Damp Location – An exterior or interior location that is normally or periodically subject to condensation of moisture in, on, or
adjacent to electrical equipment, and includes partially protected locations.
Wet Location – A location in which water may drip, splash, or flow on or against electrical equipment. A wet location fixture
is constructed so that water cannot enter or accumulate in the wireway, lampholders or other electrical parts. a Wet
location does not mean hose-down. A rating for low-pressure (100psi) or high-pressure (200psi) hose-down is an additional
option.
TD-10
Environmental Considerations
TEMPERATURE
Low ambient temperatures exist in unheated heavy industrial plants, frozen food plants, and cold storage warehouses.
Lighting equipment has to be selected to perform under these cold conditions. Fluorescent luminaires in particular should be
verified for starting and operating characteristics. a Fluorescent lamps are designed to provide rated light output within a
narrowly defined range of bulb wall temperatures. Operating fluorescent lamps outside of this range will detrimentally affect
light output.
Abnormally high temperatures are common at luminaire mounting heights in foundries, steel mills, and forge shops. Great
care should be taken in selecting lighting equipment for mounting in these locations. It is particularly important to consider
the operating temperature limits of fluorescent and HID ballasts. High operating temperatures can cause failure or reduce
operating life significantly. Where necessary, ballasts should be remotely located at a cooler location, or special high-temperature equipment should be used. Fluorescent lamp output at high operating temperatures will be adversely affected as described above. Incandescent lamps operated under high-temperature conditions, as in an oven, may experience a reduction
in life. a It is very important to choose a luminaire that has been tested and rated to perform in the maximum ambient
temperature conditions expected in the space and at the intended mounting height.
In general, the thermal performance of luminaires depends on the way in which they are used. There are some thermal issues
that can be essentially isolated. Two of these are the effect of the luminaire on the operating temperature of the lamp and the
effect of lamp heat on luminaire materials.
Lamp Operating Temperature
The performance of many lamp types is dependent on the bulb wall temperature. This is particularly true for fluorescent
lamps, for which both light output and electrical power input—and thus luminous efficacy—vary with the temperature of the
coldest spot on the bulb wall. The lamp temperature is a function of the heat balance between the lamp and its surroundings.
Effects on Luminaire Materials
Since lamps emit energy at infrared as well as visible wavelengths, it is important to understand the radiant properties of
materials used in luminaires. The transmittance and reflectance of most materials are wavelength dependent. Thus, for example, a lens material can be selected that has high visible transmittance but low infrared transmittance, thereby reducing the
amount of heat radiated from the luminaire. However, the heat that is trapped in the luminaire causes the lamp temperature to
be greater than it would be otherwise. This may be desirable if higher lamp temperatures are needed to boost efficiency, but
consideration should be given to the possibility of increased thermal stresses within the luminaire.
Ballast components also contribute to heat generation. The watts loss, or the difference between the lamp energy consumed
and the input wattage to the ballast, not only increases the cost of operating the system, but also becomes a source of heat
within the luminaire. a One kilowatt-hour of expended energy is equal to 3400 BTU of heat generation.
Generated heat must be dissipated to the outside of the luminaire. To do this, radiating fins are added to housing castings,
special coatings may be used or controlled air circulation may be designed through the optical cavity and around the ballast
compartment. a If insufficient heat is removed from the luminaire, serious damage or failure to the electrical components,
lenses or reflector surfaces can result.
The National Electrical Code (NEC), the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC), and their respective testing laboratories set specific
temperature limits for electrical components and critical areas immediately surrounding a luminaire. Much of their testing is
performed at an ambient temperature of 25°C (77°F). For industrial applications, testing may be performed at higher ambient
temperatures of 40°C (104°F), 55°C (131°F), or 65°C (149°F) and approved luminaires are listed for use in these higher
ambient conditions.
Ballasts and other auxiliary equipment, sockets, and wires have definite safe operating temperature limits defined by UL and
CSA. Ballast components such as capacitors, ignitors, and transformers all are susceptible to reduced life or failure if operated
TD-11
above there design limits. a The expected operating life for the insulation system in a transformer is reduced by 50% for
each increase of 13°C above its design temperature.
Very high or low ambient temperatures may cause non-electrical components to fail. For example, contact of hot glass with
cold air or water may result in breakage, and excess heat may cause thermoplastics to distort. Glass and plastic components
should be chosen very carefully to prevent cracking, shattering, deformation, or other deterioration.
Higher-than-nominal line voltages usually cause higher temperatures within electrical components. Lower voltages do not
necessarily produce lower temperatures.
Metal components and their finishes may be affected by temperature within a luminaire. Metals are used in a luminaire’s
construction to conduct heat as well as to provide rigidity and strength to the luminaire. Replacement of metal components
with plastics or fiberglass materials could reduce thermal conductivity and seriously affect the life and performance of the
luminaire components.
Acrylic reflectors and refractors are very susceptible to the combined effects of heat and the ultra violet radiation generated in
some HID light sources such as metal halide lamps.
Celsius / Fahrenheit Conversion Chart
Deg F
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
32
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
212
TD-12
To
Deg C
Deg C
-40
-34
-29
-23
-18
-12
-7
-1
0
4
10
16
21
27
32
38
43
49
54
60
66
71
77
82
88
93
99
100
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
To
Deg F
-40
-31
-22
-13
-4
5
14
23
32
41
50
59
68
77
86
95
104
113
122
131
140
149
158
167
176
185
194
203
212
CORROSION
In many lighting applications, industrial luminaires are subjected to ambient conditions that can cause deterioration of the
optics as well as the mechanical and electrical components. Deterioration of the optical components (reflectors and refractors) will lead to reduced illumination levels, and a change in the lighting patterns that may be irreversible. Electrical components such as lamp socket shells, lead wires and ballast components will ultimately lead to fixture failure although these
components usually may be replaced. Mechanical components such as the ballast housing, mounting mechanism, hardware,
and optical housing may corrode to the point that they are no longer serviceable and may in fact become a danger to employees and equipment located beneath them. Typically, mechanical component failure will require replacement of the entire
luminaire.
Adverse corrosive environments can take many forms and are indigenous to some types of industry. General industrial
environments will normally contain some level of humidity and dust which will cause deterioration to unprotected aluminum
and steel components. Oils and detergents will cause a slow deterioration of unprotected aluminum and acrylic lenses. Salts
in combination with atmospheric humidity will corrode unprotected aluminum very quickly. Some salts will even corrode
stainless steel and FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester) housings. In chemical processing industries such as metal manufacturing, fertilizer manufacturing, mining, pulp and paper, and food processing, acids, bases and corrosive gases may be in
the environment.
Under each of these conditions, luminaire components require some level of protection from corrosion.
Humidity and Dust — Under conditions normally encountered in light to medium manufacturing and warehousing
applications, small amounts of dry dust will accumulate on luminaire surfaces. By themselves these dust accumulations will
cause no adverse affects to the luminaire. The dust that adheres to the optical surfaces will reduce light output as it accumulates. a Luminaires should be cleaned at regular intervals to maintain light levels.
Water condensation from high humidity or temperature fluctuations can corrode metal surfaces of both the optical reflectors
and the ballast housings. Cast aluminum ballast housings are protected from normal moisture corrosion by a polyester
powder coating that is applied electrostatically and baked at high temperature to form a continuous film. Aluminum reflectors
are clear anodized or coated with the same polyester film to also provide a hard protective coating.
If the level of condensation is high enough, such as in cold storage or unheated areas, water may accumulate in the optical
system of enclosed luminaires and the ballast housing and cause corrosion of electrical components. Where this condition
exists, luminaires should be specified with the Wet Location option by adding “WL” as a suffix to the luminaire catalog
number. a The Wet Location label option also signifies that the luminaire meets all UL and CSA requirements for proper,
safe operation in environments subject to spray of non-corrosive and non-flammable liquids. Fixtures require rigid conduit
mounting or a wet-location hook.
Oils and Detergents — Soaps and Detergents may affect unprotected aluminum over a period of time. a Polyester
coatings and standard anodizing are usually sufficient protection. Most oils will not directly affect acrylic or polycarbonate
refractors. In order to prevent light depreciation caused by a build-up of dirt and oil on a refractor surface, solvents are
required to remove this oily dirt from the refractor surfaces. These solvents may attack the plastic eventually requiring that the
lenses be replaced. If the refractors are not cleaned, the build-up will not only reduce light output, but will also increase the
operating skin temperatures of the acrylic causing yellowing and eventual breakdown. Where oil is present in the atmosphere
and may collect on lens surfaces, it is recommended that glass lenses be specified to avoid depreciation or failure of the
optics.
Salts — Marine Applications: Most salt solutions will attack and corrode aluminum, steel and FRP materials, some more
quickly than others. In marine applications, the relatively high complex salt solution also combines with marine organisms to
corrode aluminum alloys very quickly. a For marine applications, special copper-free aluminum alloys further protected by
a continuous coating of Teflon® FEP or comparable corrosion resistant coatings and special Stainless steel hardware should
be used.
Salts — Industrial Applications: Most salts used in industrial applications are metallic chlorides, sulfates and nitrates.
These include calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium chloride, sodium nitrate, ferric chloride, and zinc chloride.
Bare aluminum, standard anodized aluminum and steel are not recommended for use in any applications where these salts
are present in the atmosphere. a In these situations, an optional Teflon® FEP or corrosion resistant protective coating on
both the aluminum ballast housing and the aluminum reflector surfaces is recommended.
TD-13
Acids — The most common acids used in industrial production facilities include hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, phosphoric,
and hydrofluoric. These are commonly found in metal manufacturing and finishing, food processing, and the manufacture of
textiles, fertilizers, ceramics and brick, batteries, explosives, plastics, petroleum products, and glass. Steel and aluminum
castings and even anodized aluminum reflectors will corrode rapidly when dilute solutions of any of these acids are present.
a Where acids are present in the atmosphere, request an optional Teflon ® FEP or corrosion resistant protective coating on
both the ballast housing and the aluminum reflector surfaces.
Bases — Very few bases are actually used in industrial processes. The most common ones, sodium hydroxide and
potassium hydroxide are used extensively in the production of lye and soda lye, and are used in the pulp and paper industry,
chemical processing, petroleum products and food processing. Both of these bases will corrode aluminum and steel. a To
protect against the corrosive influence of sodium or potassium hydroxide, request an optional Teflon ® FEP or corrosion
resistant protective coating on both the ballast housing and the aluminum reflector surfaces.
Corrosive Gases — Chlorine, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide are the most common corrosive gases used in industry.
These may be used in the production of pulp and paper, rubber, pharmaceuticals, and petroleum as well as in food processing
and metal finishing. All of these will corrode aluminum and steel. a To protect against the possibility of corrosion from these
gases, request an optional Teflon® FEP or corrosion resistant protective coating on both the ballast housing and the aluminum
reflector surfaces.
Protective Finishes
Anodizing — This finish seals the spun aluminum reflectors, is buffed to increase specularity and provides a long-lasting
optical control surface. The standard anodize finish will protect the aluminum for an indefinite period against normal dust and
moisture associated with operation in ambient temperatures ranging from -40° to +65° C and higher.
Polyester Powder Coating — Polyester coating provides a proven alternative to baked enamel coatings or anodizing
for increased protection of both steel and aluminum components. Both steel and aluminum parts are first cleaned in a fivestage process to remove all surface contaminants. Steel and aluminum parts go through separate cleaning operations to
ensure that no contaminants are introduced from one material to the other. All parts are then sealed with a chromate-free,
thermally activated compound before charged polyester powder is applied electrostatically in automated booths. Finally, the
powder is cured at high temperature in a baking oven.
The result is a finish that is a continuous film of polyester protecting all exposed metal surfaces from moisture and corrosion.
Adhesion to properly prepared metal surfaces is excellent. a The polyester membrane is highly flexible, allowing for thermal
expansion and contraction of components without cracking. It is impact and scratch resistant. It also passes the 1000Hr salt
spray and humidity tests prescribed under ASTM B 117, D 1654 and ASTM D 2247, D 1654 respectively.
Corrosion-Resistant Coating — Polyester powder is a standard finish coating on aluminum ballast housings as well as
some reflectors to prevent corrosion in most low-corrosion industrial atmospheres. In areas where corrosion is normally
caused by humidity, with or without low salt solutions, polyester powder properly applied will provide excellent protection. For
additional protection, a double coating of polyester may be specified.
Teflon® FRP Corrosion Resistant Coating — DuPont Teflon fluoropolymers have become almost a household name
as a non-stick easily-cleanable cooking surface. Industrial uses for Teflon make use of this property extensively for bearings
and other low-friction products. This is only one of the properties of Teflon that make its use in industrial applications so
promising.
Teflon is transparent to UV and resistant to oxidation, surface fouling, discoloration, and embrittlement. It is resistant to
enzymatic and microbiological attack and will not harbor fungal or bacterial growth, making it excellent for use in the food
processing industry. It remains stable at extremely low (-454° F) and high temperatures (+550° F). It is highly resistant to
dielectric breakdown and arcing over a wide range of environmental conditions. It has excellent resistance to aging in the
TD-14
presence of solvents, oils, UV, and other environmental conditions. It has excellent fatigue resistance, especially in applications involving high flexing or vibration. It is an excellent barrier to water permeation and is completely resistant to hydrolysis.
As a clear lens coating, Teflon is highly light-transmissive with a very low refractive index, even in the presence of aggressive
environmental agents. This characteristic allows for greater protection without significant interference of optical performance.
a
Teflon is extremely resistant to corrosion from industrial chemicals. The only chemicals known to affect it are molten
alkali metals and highly reactive fluorinating agents. Under any of the harsh conditions listed above, Teflon is unaffected.
Other Considerations
GASKETING
Where moisture and chemical corrosion are concerns, it is not enough to consider protecting only the external mechanical
components of a lighting fixture. Internal components are also susceptible to corrosion. Ballast transformers are protected
from moisture at the manufacturing stage by being vacuum impregnated with a silica-filled polyester varnish. Most capacitors are dry-type with a thermoplastic case and encapsulated lead terminations. These are also rated for continuos operation
at 100°C unlike oil filled capacitors that are rated 90°C. Ignitors used in HPS and pulse start metal halide ballasts are always
encapsulated in a non-moisture absorbing insulating compound. Lamp socket screw-shells are nickel-coated brass, as are
wiring termination connectors. Every precaution is taken to ensure that moisture entering the luminaire during normal
operating conditions will not cause failure of the electrical components.
Where atmospheric moisture also contains corrosive chemicals, or corrosive dust is likely to collect on the luminaire surfaces, extra protection can be provided by additional gasketing at the ballast housing and optical cavity. This gasketing can
be made of one of several different materials depending on the chemical composition of the corrosive material. a Typical
gasketing materials used in the manufacture of industrial luminaires include closed-cell neoprene, Santoprene, EPDM
rubber and silicone. Each of these elastomers has mechanical properties that make them the ideal choice for specific industrial applications.
Closed-Cell Neoprene — A common gasket material used in interior lighting luminaires. It is relatively oil resistant
(class E) and performs well over temperature ranges normally found on the exterior surfaces of lighting fixtures (up to
105°C). It has a high tensile strength and good wear resistance. a It has good resistance to lubricating oils, hydraulic oils,
vegetable oils, animal fats, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, diluted acids, and alkalis. Conversely, it has a low resistance to
fuel oils, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones and concentrated acids. It is not accepted by NSF for use in the food processing
industry because of its cellular construction.
Santoprene — A thermoplastic rubber with a continuous operating temperature range of -60 to 135°C. It has excellent
resistance to moisture, vegetable oils, animal fats and oils.
a
It is approved by NSF for use in the food processing industry.
EPDM Rubber — Commonly used as a lens gasket material in enclosed optical systems due to its ability to operate
continuously at slightly higher temperatures (135°C) and resist water permeation better than neoprene. Like neoprene, it has
a high tensile strength and good wear resistance, but unlike neoprene is has a very low resistance to mineral or vegetable
oils. a It is silicone-free, making it ideal for use in metal cleaning and finishing operations.
Silicone — Silicone has a continuous operating temperature range of -100°C to 250°C. a It is used in industrial
luminaires where a higher temperature seal is required. In spite of its excellent resistance to temperature extremes however,
it has a poor resistance to abrasion and is generally not used in components that are subject to periodic opening and
resealing during maintenance. It also has a very low resistance to mineral or vegetable oils. Silicon is also attacked by
alkaline and dilute acid solutions.
TD-15
HOUSING MATERIALS
Aluminum
Aluminum’s low density, high strength in many alloys, good corrosion resistance and thermal properties make it the choice of
material for ballast housing construction. Easily formed via dies, extrusion or casting, aluminum is a very versatile alloy.
Common die-cast aluminum will contain approximately 3- 4% copper content to allow for appropriate die-casting properties.
In most applications, indoor and outdoor, this alloy is an excellent choice. It is very capable of resisting corrosion from the
majority of contaminants found in those spaces. a Inflated corrosive environments existing in a coastal area demand a
different alloy. Marine grade aluminum must contain less than 0.4% copper in its content. This lower copper content minimizes the opportunity for corrosion.
Steel
Most steel used in lighting manufacturing is low carbon. The steel is cold rolled to produce a better finish and improve
mechanical properties. Stamping, rolling or a combination of these processes forms the steel into its final shape. The steel is
normally painted before stamping or rolling, although sometimes it is painted after the forming processes are complete. Used
predominately in commercial and light industrial environments, steel is more susceptible to corrosion if not properly painted.
This should be carefully considered before it is placed in a harsh environment.
Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is an alloy of steel with varying amounts of Carbon, Manganese, Silicon, Chromium and Nickel. Molybdenum
is added in the 316 grade. Type 304 and 316 are the most common grades used in the lighting industry with 304L and 316L
(low carbon) alloys also being used. Stainless steel is used primarily for it’s high resistance to corrosive atmospheres and
moisture, with the 316 grade offering the best corrosion resistance. Housings manufactured from stainless steel are usually
of welded construction. Ballast and optical components have to be attached to the housing using special brackets and hardware. The forming and welding processes do not produce the same precision as with cast housings and can lead to improper
component fit or loosening of components in high vibration areas. The high cost of manufacturing stainless steel housings
makes its use as a housing material very limited.
Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester (FRP)
FRP is a polyester plastic material that is reinforced with fiberglass strands to provide a strong, rigid material sometimes used
in luminaires. The drawback to using FRP in luminaire housings is that it acts as an insulator, trapping heat within the housing
and causing electrical components to overheat thereby shortening operating life. In interior industrial applications, routine
cleaning may also cause deterioration of the polyester material allowing glass fibers to become released.
HARDWARE
Stainless Steel
Stainless steel hardware is considered by many to be the answer to corrosion problems. This can be a dangerous assumption
where industrial lighting products are concerned. Many industrial ballast housings are manufactured from cast aluminum that
contains a percentage of copper in the base alloy. Most grades of stainless steel will corrode from the galvanic action between
dissimilar metals when in contact with these alloys making normal maintenance of these luminaires almost impossible. In
effect, the stainless hardware fuses to the mating aluminum part. a Where stainless steel hardware is required to resist
corrosive atmospheres, a grade of stainless that is compatible with the aluminum alloy must be used in the mating component.
TD-16
Galvanized/Zinc-Plated Steel
Galvanized steel parts are used in lighting products in various components. Zinc plating coats wire forms that are manufactured into supports and wire guards. Whether galvanized or plated, the zinc coating allows for protection of the base metal
from most corrosive elements.
SR27
The standard hardware used in most industrial luminaires is zinc plated steel with a special SR27 coating for extra corrosion
protection. The SR27 coating is rated for 1000hr salt spray to standard ASTM E 117. Unlike stainless steel hardware, when
used in aluminum castings, there is no dissimilar metal contact to promote corrosion from galvanic action. This hardware
does not corrode and seize into the aluminum castings.
OPTICAL MATERIALS
Aluminum
Aluminum is the predominate material used in the construction of reflectors for industrial lighting products. a The low
density, corrosion resistance and high reflectivity of aluminum make it an excellent choice as a reflector material. The ease of
shaping and reflective properties allows for it to control various light sources. It may be either anodized or painted. Both the
anodizing process and painting enhances the reflective properties and act as protective coatings to assist in greater corrosion
resistance.
Glass
Glass is used in lighting as a refractor, reflector, and shielding media. The high resistance of borosilicate glass to thermal
shock makes it a dominant material as a reflector and refractor in industrial lighting products and wall-mounted units. a
Although glass is difficult to form into exacting shape, its inert properties make it ideal for high temperature environments and
areas where corrosive compounds may be prevalent. Tempered glass in sheet form normally serves the purpose as a shielding media protecting the lamp and optical surfaces from contamination.
H.I.D. Acrylic
Today’s newest and best-performing optical acrylic materials are developed specifically for use with high intensity discharge
lamps. They feature long-lasting UV stabilizers that minimize the effect of UVA and UVB radiation. They are designed for a
maximum continuous operating skin temperature of 80° C. At higher operating temperatures, acrylic begins to yellow under
the effect of UV radiation. Over time, the yellowing will cause temperatures to increase, and ultimate failure will occur. It is
important, therefore, that luminaires incorporating acrylic reflectors and/or refractors be designed, tested and used in ceiling
ambients that maintain skin temperatures below 80°C. Properly engineered luminaires using acrylic optical components are
listed by wattage and lamp type for use in maximum ambient temperatures. a To ensure trouble-free performance from
these luminaires, never use an acrylic optical system in an ambient higher than its listed rating.
Steel
Most steel used in lighting manufacturing is low carbon. The steel is cold rolled to produce a better finish and improve
mechanical properties. Stamping, rolling or a combination of these processes forms the steel into its final shape. Normally,
the steel is painted before stamping or rolling, but sometimes it is painted after the forming processes are complete. a Used
predominately in commercial and light industrial environments, steel is more susceptible to corrosion if not properly painted.
Post-fabrication painting should be considered if steel is to be placed in a harsh environment.
TD-17
Chemical Resistance
Abietic acid
Acetandehyde 100%
Acetic 100%
Acetic Anhydride
Acetic Glacial
Acetic, 10%
Acetone 100%
Acetonitrile
Acetophenone
Acrylic anhydride
Allyl acetate
Allyl methacrylate
Alcohols
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Aluminum chloride
Aluminum Sulfate
Ammonia, dilute
Ammonia, liquid
Ammonium Chloride2
Amyl Acetate
Ammonium Hydroxide
Aniline
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Barium Sulfide
Benzaldehyde
Benzene
Benzonitrile
Benzoyl chloride
Benzene, sulfonic 10%
Benzoic
Borax
Boric
Bromine
Butyl acetate
n-Butyl amine
n-Butyl chloride
Butyl acetate
Butyl methacrylate
Butyl stearate
Butyric, 100%
Calcium Chloride2
Caustic soda 2%
Caustic soda 10%
Carbon disulphide
Calcium Hydroxide
Carbon Tetrachloride
Cetane
Chloracetic, 10%
Chlorine
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Chlorobenzene
Chloroform
Chlorosulfonic acid
Chromic, 5%
Citric, 10%
Common salt
Copper Chloride2
A
A
N
N
P
F
P
P
P
F
P
P
N
F
N
N
Y
Y
E
G
E
G
E
G
E
G
E
E
E
E
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
U
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
M 30%
A
A
A
A 25%
A 25%
M 25%
A 25%
A
A
A
M
A
A
A
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
N
Y
Y
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
G
P
P
F
E
G
E
G
P
E
Y
E
E
E
E
E
E
Y
P
P
F
P
E
E
A
A
A
A
U
M
A
U
U
A
A
U
U
A
A
M
M
A
A
A
U
U
M
M
A
M
A
A
A
Y
Y
F
F
P
F
F
E
P
E
E
E
E
E
N
G
G
E
E
E
E
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
F
P
F
P
P
N
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
A
A
N
Y
P
G
P
G
P
G
P
G
E
E
E
E
A
N
G
F
E
E
E
E
N
Y
P
P
N
P
P
G
N
F
F
G
F
P
A
N
N
F
G
F
G
P
E
P
E
F
E
N
N
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
A
A
A
Glass
Stainless
Steel
Polycarbonate
Acrylic
Aluminum
Hot Teflon
FEP1
Materials/Substrates (20°C amb.)
Hot Epoxy
Cold Epoxy
Hot
polythermoset
Cold
polythermoset
Hot polythermoplastic
Cold polythermoplastic
Standard
Anodizing
Protective Coatings
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Note 1: Some halogenated solvents may cause moderate swelling. Note 2: Also applies to nitrate and sulfate. Hot = 180°F or boiling point of solvent; Cold = 70°F;
Blank = no info, contact vendor; A = acceptable for use with; E = does not attack; F = some attack, but useable in some instances; G = relatively no attack; M = may
be suitable, depending on application; N = rapidly attacked; P = attacked, NOT RECOMMENDED for use; U = UNACCEPTABLE for use with Perspex/Teflon FEP.
TD-18
Chemical Resistance
Fatty Acids
Ferric chloride
Ferric phosphate
Fluoronaphthalene
Fluoronitrobenzene
Fluosilicic
Formaldehyde, 37%
Formic Chloride 10% aq
Formic, 90%
Furane
Gasoline
Glycerol
Hexachloroethane
Hexane
Hydrazine
Hydrobromic, 20%
Hydrochloric, 20%
Hydrocyanic
Hydrofluoric, 20%
Hydrofluoroboric acid
Hydrogen peroxide, dilute
Hydrogen perox., concentrated
Hypochlorous, 5%
Iron Chloride2
A
A
M
A
U
U
A
M
Stainless
Steel
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Y
Y
P
F
P
P
F
F
P
P
F
F
F
F
A
A
A
A
A
U
U
A
A
U
A
A
A
N
G
G
E
E
E
E
Glass
Polycarbonate
Acrylic
A
A
Decahydronapthalene
Diesel oil
Dialkyl pthalate
Dibutyl phthalate
Dibutyl sebacate
Biethyl carbonate
Diethyl ether
Dimethyl formaide
Di isobutyl adipate
Dimethyl formamide
Dimethyl hydrazine uns.
Dioxane
Epichlorohydrin
Esters
Ethers
Ethylene dibromide
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl ether
Ethyl hexoate
Ethylene bromide
Ethylene dichloride
Ethylene glycol
Ethylene oxide, dry
Ethylene oxide, moist
Aluminum
Crude oil
Cyclohexane
Cyclohexanol
Cyclohexanone
Cyclohexene
Hot Teflon
FEP1
Materials/Substrates (20°C amb.)
Hot Epoxy
Cold Epoxy
Hot
polythermoset
Cold
polythermoset
Hot polythermoplastic
Cold polythermoplastic
Standard
Anodizing
Protective Coatings
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
Y
P
G
P
F
P
G
P
G
N
E
N
G
N
P
P
P
P
E
F
A
A
Y
G
G
E
E
E
E
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
F
P
G
F
F
N
A
A
A
A
A
A
M
A
A
A
A
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
A
N
N
N
N
G
G
G
F
G
G
G
P
G
G
E
P
F
F
E
P
G
E
E
G
G
G
E
G
A
U
U
M
A
A
U
U
M
A
A
M
M
U
A
A
Note 1: Some halogenated solvents may cause moderate swelling. Note 2: Also applies to nitrate and sulfate. Hot = 180°F or boiling point of solvent; Cold = 70°F;
Blank = no info, contact vendor; A = acceptable for use with; E = does not attack; F = some attack, but useable in some instances; G = relatively no attack; M = may
be suitable, depending on application; N = rapidly attacked; P = attacked, NOT RECOMMENDED for use; U = UNACCEPTABLE for use with Perspex/Teflon FEP.
TD-19
Chemical Resistance
P
F
F
A
Lactic, 5%
Lanolin
Lead
Lysol
N
G
G
F
P
F
N
A
A
A
A
Magnesium Chloride2
Mercury
Methacrylic acid
Methanol
Methylamine
Methyl benzoate
Methyl cycohexanol
Methyl ethyl ketone
Methyl methacrylate
Methyl napthalene
Methyl salicyclate
Monochlorobenzene
Maleic, 25%
Mineral oil
N
Naptha
Napthalene solid
Napthols
Nickel Chloride2
Nitric, 30%
Nitric, 5%
2-Nitro butanol
Nitrobenzene
n-Octane
Nitromethane
Nitrogen Tetroxide
2-Nitro 2-methyl propanol
n-Octadecyl alchohol
Oleic
Ozone
Oxalic
Paraffin
Pentachloro benzamide
Perchloroethylene
Perfluoroxylene
Petroleum ether
Phenol, 5%
Phosphoric
Phosphorus Petachloride
Phthalic acid
Picric
Pinene
Piperidene
Polyacrylonitrile
Potassium acetate
Potassium Chloride2
Potassium dichromate10%
Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium Permanganate
Pyridine
A
A
E
E
E
E
E
E
A
A
A
A
A
U
U
U
A
A
A
A
A
N
Y
G
E
G
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
A liq.
A
N
N
N
E
P
F
E
P
F
E
P
F
E
P
F
E
G
E
E
P
G
A
A
A
A
U
U
M
A
M
A
M
A
A
A
A
A
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
G
G
E
E
E
E
A
A
A
Y
N
G
G
F
F
G
G
F
F
G
G
F
F
N
G
F
G
F
G
F
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
N
P
P
P
P
E
E
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
Glass
Hot Epoxy
F
Stainless
Steel
Cold Epoxy
P
Polycarbonate
Hot
polythermoset
P
Acrylic
Cold
polythermoset
Y
Aluminum
Hot polythermoplastic
Ketones
Hot Teflon
FEP1
Cold polythermoplastic
Materials/Substrates (20°C amb.)
Standard
Anodizing
Protective Coatings
M
U
U
A
A
U
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
M
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Note 1: Some halogenated solvents may cause moderate swelling. Note 2: Also applies to nitrate and sulfate. Hot = 180°F or boiling point of solvent; Cold = 70°F;
Blank = no info, contact vendor; A = acceptable for use with; E = does not attack; F = some attack, but useable in some instances; G = relatively no attack; M = may
be suitable, depending on application; N = rapidly attacked; P = attacked, NOT RECOMMENDED for use; U = UNACCEPTABLE for use with Perspex/Teflon FEP.
TD-20
Chemical Resistance
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
Y
E
F
E
F
E
E
A
M
U
A
A
M
A
A
M
U
U
M
U
M
M
U
U
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
N
N
E
P
P
E
P
N
E
F
P
E
P
N
E
G
F
E
F
N
Tannic
Tetrabromoethane
Tetrachloroethylene
Trichloroacetic acid
Tetrahydrofuran
Tetrahydronapthalene
Tricresyl phosphate
Triethanolamine
Trisodium Phosphate
Toluene
Trichloraethane
Trichloroethylene
N
G
G
E
E
E
E
Vegetable Oil
Vinyl methacrylate
Y
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
F
E
P
E
G
E
F
E
E
E
E
E
Water
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
N
Glass
Hot Epoxy
E
F
E
P
Stainless
Steel
Cold Epoxy
E
E
E
P
Polycarbonate
Hot
polythermoset
E
F
E
P
Acrylic
Cold
polythermoset
E
E
E
P
Aluminum
Hot polythermoplastic
Y
Y
N
N
Hot Teflon
FEP1
Cold polythermoplastic
Soap & detergents
Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Chloride2
Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium hypochlorite 10%cl
Sodium peroxide
Sodium thiosulfate 40%
Sodium Sulfide
Solvents, aliphatic/arom.
Stannous chloride
Sulfur
Stearic
Sulfuric, 50%
Sulfuric, 80%
Materials/Substrates (20°C amb.)
Standard
Anodizing
Protective Coatings
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
U
U
A
A
Xylene
Y
E
E
E
E
E
E
A
Zinc Chloride2
N
E
E
E
E
E
E
A
A
Note 1: Some halogenated solvents may cause moderate swelling. Note 2: Also applies to nitrate and sulfate. Hot = 180°F or boiling point of solvent; Cold = 70°F;
Blank = no info, contact vendor; A = acceptable for use with; E = does not attack; F = some attack, but useable in some instances; G = relatively no attack; M = may
be suitable, depending on application; N = rapidly attacked; P = attacked, NOT RECOMMENDED for use; U = UNACCEPTABLE for use with Perspex/Teflon FEP.
TD-21
Typical Harsh Location Environments
Industry
Corrosive Chemical
Source/Process
Metal Manufacturing & Finishing
Hydrochloric Acid
Nitric Acid
Sulfuric Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
Chlorine Gas
Zinc Chloride
Ammonium Chloride
Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide
Solder Flux, Metal Cleaners
Metal Finishing and Coating
Metal Cleaning and Finishing
Metal Finishing
Pickling Baths
Metal Refining
Soldering Fluids
Soldering Pastes
Lye or Soda Lye
Brick, Ceramics and Glass
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrofluoric Acid
Sulfuric Acid
Cleaning Tile & Brickwork
Etching
Glass Manufacturing
Textiles
Nitric Acid
Chlorine Gas
Die Manufacturing
Bleaching
Chemicals
Nitric Acid
Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide
Chlorine Gas
Nitrogen Dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide
Explosive Manufacturing
Chemical Production
Organic Chlorine Compounds
Explosive Manufacturing
Bleaches, Disinfectants,
Refrigerants
Fertilizers
Nitric Acid
Sulfuric Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Plastics
Nitric Acid
Plastics Manufacturing
Food Processing
Phosphoric Acid
Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide
Sulfur Dioxide
Cleaning Agents
Soap Manufacturing
Disinfectants, Bleaches, Mold
Prevention
Pulp and Paper
Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide
Chlorine Gas
Lye, Soda Lye,
Bleaching
Harsh ambient conditions are found frequently in many heavy industrial environments. Placing lighting fixtures in these
areas requires careful thought and consideration for their long-term and efficient operation. Usually these harsh ambient
locations also require quality illumination for the safety of workers, quality of manufactured product and efficiency of the
overall operation.
Choosing an efficient light source, ballast and optical system is only part of the lighting design process. Of equal importance is choosing a luminaire that is designed to perform in the environment for which it is intended. High heat, humidity,
dust and corrosive atmospheres all play a part in depreciating a luminaire, causing high maintenance costs and loss of
illumination that is vital to the operation of the facility.
Use the information and charts above to facilitate the decision-making process for your industrial application.
TD-22
Special Environments – Hazardous Areas
Hazardous areas are locations where atmospheres may be exposed to the release of flammable dusts, vapors, or gases in
explosive concentrations. The National Electrical Code requires that these areas be classified and sets rules for the types of
luminaires that may be installed in them. Luminaires are typed in Article 500 of the NEC as Class I, Class II, and Class III
locations . All electrical equipment must be tested and listed (or approved) by class, division and group for use in each
respective area. The hazardous materials defined in each of these Classifications are; Class I; Flammable gases or vapors,
Class II; Combustible dust, and Class III; Combustible fibers or flyings. Each class is subdivided into two Divisions depending
on the likelihood that the hazard will be present. Division 1 applies to an area where the hazardous condition would normally
exist, while Division 2 applies to an area where there is a potential for the hazardous condition to exist.
Each Classification is also subdivided by Groups representing the types of gas, or dust that will or might be present. Gases fall
into Groups A, B, C, or D. Dusts fall into Groups E, F or G. There is no Group subdivision for Fibers or Flyings.
CLASS
DIVISION
GROUP
I
GAS
1. Area where gases or vapors are normally present
2. Area where gases or vapors are handled or stored
but are normally confined
A. Acetylene
B. Hydrogen
C. Ethyl Ether etc
D. Gasoline, Natural gas etc.
II
DUST
1. Area where combustible dust is always present
2. Area where combustible dust may be present
E. Metal dust
F. Carbon black, Coal dust etc.
G. Flour or Grain
1. Production areas
2. Handling or storage areas
Atmospheres containing
Wood, Textile or synthetic
fibers
III
FIBERS
Environmental Constraints
Lighting equipment must be chosen from the listing for the class, group, and division of the hazardous material present in
the areas where they are to be used. Improper application of a luminaire can result in fire or explosion, which could cause
serious injury or death to the occupants. Classification of these areas within a plant must be made prior to selection of the
light source and luminaire type.
TD-23
Special Environments – Marine
Most salt solutions will attack and corrode aluminum, some more quickly than others. In marine applications, the relatively
high complex salt solution also combines with marine organisms to corrode aluminum alloys very quickly.
UL Standard 1572 covers the requirements for marine listing of luminaires for installations such as ocean piers, coastal
areas, marinas and other salt water corrosive atmospheres.
The UL Marine listing (UL 1572) sets requirements for the construction, performance and labeling of fixtures used in these
environments. The following are highlights of the requirements for a fixture intended for use outside or in severly wet
locations.
CONSTRUCTION
•
•
•
•
•
•
No external fusing.
Stranded wire required.
Gasketing of seams and joints required.
Equipped with an outlet box or threaded opening for marine-type cable (except cord-equipped fixtures).
The aluminum allloy shall have a copper content of .4% or less if painted, plated or unplated.
Corrosion protection required on ferrous metal surfaces. Must comply with 200-hour salt spray (fog) test ASTM 3117-94
in which pitting, cracking or other deterioration is no more severe than that of a similar test of passivated 304 stainless
steel.
PERFORMANCE
Moisture Resistance Test – Fixture must not leak when subject to a solid stream of water from a one-inch diameter
nozzle, under pressure of 15 pounds per square inch, from a distance of 10 feet for five minutes.
Shock Test – Assembled fixture with lamp is subjected to 5,000 shock impacts, each having a 25 g peak acceleration and
a duration of 20-25 milliseconds. The lampholder must not show evidence of damage.
TD-24
Special Environments – Cleanrooms
A cleanroom is a room in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled to specified limits. These particles can be
in the form of dust, spores, vapors, skin flakes, hair fragments etc. If present in a sensitive environment, they can destroy or
severely alter products being manufactured. To keep contamination to a minimum, a cleanroom must be designed and
constructed according to very strict guidelines, and the lighting fixtures selected need to maintain the integrity of the space.
Cleanrooms are classified according to the number and size of particles found in a given cubic measure of space. Particle
limits are set forth by Federal Standard 209E and, more recently, by ISO standards 14644-1 and 14644-2. Because these ISO
standards are international in scope and are directly impacted by ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certification criteria, they are often
accepted as replacing Federal Standard 209E classes. Both of these standards refer to the maximum allowable number of
particles of a given diameter per cubic area of measure, but differ in describing both the size particle and the area of concentration. Also different under each system are procedures for testing and measuring these environments, both initially and for
ongoing conformance.
In order to achieve a Class 1 or Class 10 (Federal Standard 209E) or ISO Class 3 or Class 4 level, laminar airflow design is
incorporated into the cleanroom. Laminar airflow moves all air in a vertical or a horizontal pattern through the space. With
vertical airflow, the entire ceiling system consists of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or ultra-low penetration air
(ULPA) filters, which screen out 99.995% and 99.999% of the particles respectively. All incoming purified air moves in a
vertical pattern through the ceiling, down to a raised, ducted floor, and back up through the outer walls. With horizontal
laminar flow, the same principal is used with a horizontal pattern and filtered walls.
As the process in the cleanroom becomes less critical, greater quantities of particles may be present in the air without causing
problems in the manufacturing process. Thus, the class of the cleanroom may be higher. Federal Standard 209E will determine the class of cleanroom required for the activity to be performed.
Federal Standard 209E
Particle Size
Cleanroom
Class
.1 microns
.2 microns
.3 microns
.5 microns
Airborne Particle Limits
5.0 microns
English
SI
(ft)
(m)
(ft)
(m)
(ft)
(m)
(ft)
(m)
(ft)
(m)
1
M1.5
35
1,240
7.5
265
3
106
1
35
–
10
M2.5
350
12,400
75
2,650
30
1,060
10
353
–
100
M3.5
–
750
26,500
300
10,600
100
3,530
–
1,000
M4.5
–
–
–
1,000
35,300
7
247
10,000
M5.5
–
–
–
10,000
353,000
70
2,470
100,000
M6.5
–
–
–
100,000
3,530,000
700
24,700
ISO Classification Chart – Selected ISO airborne particulate cleanliness classes for cleanrooms and clean zones
Maximum concentration limits (particles/m3 of air) for
for particles equal to and larger than the considered sizes below
Classn. number
ISO 1
ISO 2
ISO 3
ISO 4
ISO 5
ISO 6
ISO 7
ISO 8
ISO 9
0.1µ m
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
–
–
–
0.2µ m
2
24
237
2,370
23,700
237,000
–
–
–
0.3µ m
–
10
102
1,020
10,200
102,000
–
–
–
0.5µ m
–
4
35
352
3,520
35,200
352,000
3,520,000
35,200,000
1.0µ m
–
–
8
83
832
8,320
83,200
832,000
8,320,000
5.0µ m
–
–
–
–
29
293
2,930
29,300
293,000
TD-25
Special Environments – Food Processing
Sanitation is a critical part of the food processing industry. Because of this, a thorough cleaning and sanitizing program must
be incorporated into the food production process. High-pressure washdown with hot water and/or sanitation chemicals may
approach 1000-psi nozzle pressure. Lighting fixtures must be designed and manufactured so as not to leak, corrode, harbor
bacteria, or cause fires or electrical problems. Lamps must be protected so that if they break, glass or other materials shall not
contaminate the food production area.
The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) is a not-for-profit, independent, third party certifier of products and systems for
conformity with consensus and official regulations and specifications, industry standards, and product specific test protocols. NSF requires that all materials, which could come in contact with food products, meet the stringent requirements of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDA). In order to determine its suitability for use in food processing and food handling
areas, the equipment and the manufacturer must pass a stringent series of tests. NSF performs all tests in their own laboratories.
Lighting equipment falls under the NSF C-2 listing procedure (Special Equipment and/or devices). The C-2 procedure has
protocols that analyze the physical design of, the specific properties of each substance used in the manufacture of, and the
fabrication of the fixture. In addition, NSF investigates the reliability of the manufacturer and the manufacturing process as it
relates to the listed product.
There are three certifiable locations for equipment used in food processing.: Non-food Zone, Splash Zone and Food Zone.
Only the first two are applicable to lighting fixtures. These zones are defined in the following NSF Table:
NSF Certification
Description Of Location/Use and
Commentary
Typical Lighting Applications
NON-FOOD ZONE
Areas where direct contact with food products
during normal operations would not be expected.
Equipment is located outside the normal washdown
area. There is a concern that the fixture will add
contamination to the protected space or food
product (i.e. Cleanability - will the finish withstand
cleaning, chipping paint, deteriorating paints or
finishes, lens impact resistance, lamp glass
breakage, etc.)
Kitchens; Food Storage; Dry process areas;
Damp process areas - no drip possibility.
SPLASH ZONE
Areas where direct contact with food products
during normal operations would not be expected;
however, the fixture may be situated such that liquids
used in the processing or cleaning procedures, may
splash, spill, or otherwise soil - either intentionally or
inadvertently - the surface of the fixture. There then
is the potential for dripping or draining onto other
surfaces or even the process. Since these fixtures are
often used in washdown areas, a Wet-Location
listing is not sufficient. Fixtures must be tested to
withstand high-pressure hose washdown. The
concerns of Non-Food Zone also apply.
Wet or damp process areas; High Pressure
purging or decontamination used in the
process; Area using hose washdown
FOOD ZONE
Areas where direct contact with food products is
normally expected and surfaces from which the food
may drip, drain, or splash back onto surfaces
normally in contact with food. Equipment other than
lighting fixtures typically require this certification
(i.e. work tables, cutting boards, other direct contact
equipment).
Category not typically used for lighting
TD-26
Lamp Information
Fluorescent Lamps
Fluorescent lamps have excellent starting and restrike characteristics. Most start instantly with little or no flicker. Fluorescent
lamps are sensitive to temperature extremes. Optimum light output for most fluorescent lamps occurs when the bulb wall
temperature is 100° F. Any temperature above or below optimum reduces light output. Fluorescent lamps are available in a
range of color temperatures from 3,000 to 6,500 degrees Kelvin and 60-96 CRI. The following values represent averages;
consult lamp/ballast catalogs for specifics. Consult factory for additional information on lamps that are available for specific
global markets.
PERCENT OUTPUT & WATTS
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS, 4-FOOT T12 FLUORESCENT LAMP
RELATIVE WATTS
100
75
50
RELATIVE LIGHT OUTPUT
25
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
200
180
BULB WALL TEMPERATURE, DEGREES F
Initial
Mean
Lumens Lumens
Lamp Type
Lumen
Depreciation
Lamp Life
(3hrs/start)
Color
Lamp Efficacy*
Rendering
Mean
CRI
Lumens/Watt
F40 T12 Energy Saving
2,650
2,306
.87
20,000
60 – 70
65
F40 T12 Energy Saving High Color
2,800
2,520
.90
20,000
70 – 80
71
F32 T8
2,850
2,565
.90
20,000
75
86
F32 T8 High Color
2,950
2,655
.90
20,000
82 – 95
89
F32 T8 Long Life
3,000
2,850
.95
24,000
85
95
F48 T12
2,900
2,610
.90
9,000
60 – 70
54
F48 T12 Energy Saving
2,400
2,160
.90
9,000
62
54
Slimline
F96 T12 Energy Saving
5,500
4,950
.90
12,000
60 – 70
79
F96 T8
5,700
5,244
.92
15,000
75
98
F96 T8 High Color
5,900
5,369
.91
15,000
82 – 85
100
High Output
F48 T12 HO
4,050
3,483
.86
12,000
60 – 70
51
F96 T12 HO Energy Saving
8,000
6,960
.87
12,000
60 – 70
67
F96 T8 HO
8,200
7,626
.93
18,000
75
95
*Based on ANSI input watts of a 2-lamp ballast, T12 using magnetic ballast, T8 using electronic ballast.
TD-27
H.I.D. Lamps
The most common H.I.D. lamps are metal halide (MH) and high pressure sodium (HPS). Both feature long lamp life and can
withstand temperature extremes without significant loss of light output. Both sources require time to start up and restrike. For
HPS lamps, color temperature is 2,000°K and CRI is 20 to 25. For MH lamps, color temperature is 3,000 to 4,100°K and CRI
is 65 to 70+. Consult factory for additional information on lamps that are available for specific global markets. Lamp/ballast
system performance may vary per manufacturer. Certain metal halide lamps should be enclosed. Consult factory for details.
Nominal
Lamp
Wattage
Initial
Lumens
Mean
Lumens
Lamp
Life
10 hrs/start
Color
Rendering
CRI
Typical
Start-Up
Minutes3
Typical
Restrike
Minutes
Metal Halide – Clear
10,000
65
2-5
10-15
10,000
65
2-5
10-15
20,000
65
2-5
10-15
12,000
65
2-5
10-15
Metal Halide – Coated
175W
14,000
10,000
10,000
70
2-5
10-15
250W
21,500
17,000
10,000
70
2-5
10-15
400W
36,000
25,000
20,000
70
2-5
10-15
1,000W
107,000
85,000
12,000
70
2-5
10-15
Metal Halide High Output – Clear
400W
44,000
34,000
20,000
65
2-5
10-15
Pulse Start Metal Halide1 – Clear (requires special ballast and ignitor)
70W
5,500
4,070
12,000
65
2
3-4
100W
9,000
6,390
15,000
65
2
3-4
150W
15,000
11,300
15,000
65
2
3-4
200W
21,000
15,800
15,000
65
2
3-4
320W
32,000
21,200
20,000
65
2
3-4
350W
36,000
27,000
20,000
65
2
3-4
400W
44,000
37,400
30,0002
65
2
3-4
Pulse Start Metal Halide1 – Coated (requires special ballast and ignitor)
150W
14,250
10,300
15,000
70
2
3-4
200W
20,000
14,400
15,000
70
2
3-4
350W
34,500
24,900
20,000
70
2
3-4
400W
42,000
35,200
30,0002
70
2
3-4
Pulse Start Metal Halide Reg-lag1 – Clear (requires reg-lag ballast and ignitor)
250W
23,750
19,000
20,000
65
2
3-4
400W
44,000
37,400
30,0002
65
2
3-4
Pulse Start Metal Halide Reg-lag1 – Coated (requires reg-lag ballast and ignitor)
250W
22,600
17,500
20,000
70
2
3-4
400W
42,000
35,200
30,0002
70
2
3-4
High Pressure Sodium – Clear
70W
6,400
5,440
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
100W
9,500
8,550
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
150W
16,000
14,400
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
200W
22,000
19,600
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
250W
28,000
25,200
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
310W
37,000
33,300
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
350W
46,500
44,000
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
400W
50,000
45,000
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
1,000W
140,000
126,000
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
High Pressure Sodium – Coated
70W
5,950
5,058
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
100W
8,800
7,920
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
150W
15,000
13,500
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
250W
26,000
23,400
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
400W
47,500
42,750
24,000
20 – 25
3-4
1-2
175W
250W
400W
1,000W
14,400
22,000
36,000
110,000
12,000
17,000
25,000
88,000
1. High lumen, pulse start lamp/ballast system with a capacitor and internal ignitor
2. 120 hours per start
3. Time to reach 90% of full light output
INDUSTRIAL LIGHTING GUIDE
TD-28
Lamp Efficiency
Mean
Lumens/Watt
69
68
63
88
57
68
63
85
85
58
64
75
79
66
77
94
69
72
71
88
76
94
70
88
78
86
96
98
101
107
126
113
126
72
79
90
94
107
Ballast Characteristics
All electric discharge lamps are characterized as negative resistance light sources. Therefore, they require support devices that
limit the current when voltage is applied, to prevent the lamp from being destroyed. The ballast is the device limiting the current
capability.
Additionally, the ballast provides the lamp with proper voltage to reliably start and operate the lamp throughout its rated service
life. A transformer integral to the ballast circuit matches voltage required for the lamp to the available supply voltage.
Fluorescent and HID lamps exhibit several electrical characteristics that have important effects on ballasts. The following
definitions will help explain those characteristics.
Starting Voltage
Fluorescent Rapid Start lamps contain cathodes which are preheated by the ballast. A variety of fluorescent rapid start ballasts
are available to produce reliable starting for specific ambient temperatures. Mercury Vapor and most Metal Halide lamps
incorporate integral starting electrodes which allow the lamps to start at relatively low voltages in ambient temperatures
ranging above -20°F (-30°C). High Pressure Sodium and low wattage (less than 100 watts) Metal Halide lamps require
separate electronic starting devices (called “ignitors”) which deliver a high voltage pulse to establish the arc. HPS will start
reliably above -40°F (-40°C) ambient temperatures. The pulse repeats each cycle with a maximum pulse width of 15
microseconds. Once the lamp arc is established, the ignitor drops out of the circuit.
Starting Current
This is the initial current available to the lamp during warm-up. If the current is incorrect, the lamp may not start or reach its
rated operating performance. Rated lamp life may be affected.
Operating Current
This is the rated current flow under nominal operating conditions once the lamp arc has been established and is performing
at rated levels. The starting current may differ from the operating current. Care should be taken to load circuits to the highest
load conditions (amperes). Normal power factor ballasts have higher starting currents than operating. Low wattage (100
watts or less) Metal Halide and HPS lamps have the highest current demand during restrike (hot start).
Fluorescent lamp operating voltage remains relatively constant throughout rated life. Lamp life, ballast life, and light output
may be affected if the operating voltage varies significantly from the voltage specified for the ballast. In general, fluorescent
ballasts should be operated within ±7½% of their rated voltage. Mercury Vapor and Metal Halide lamp operating voltage
remains relatively constant throughout rated life, although lamp manufacturing tolerances can allow for as much as ±10%
variance from nominal. As a result, depending on the type of ballast being used, HID lamp wattage may vary considerably.
High Pressure Sodium lamp operating voltage rises continually from initial installation until end of life. HPS ballasts are
designed to provide increased voltage requirement to the lamp through rated life. For example, a 400W HPS lamp normally
starts at 100 volts and increases to 140 volts at end of life.
Operating Wattage
Fluorescent lamps operate at rated wattage if the supply voltage is nominal and the lamp is operating at an ambient
temperature of 77°F (25°C). HID lamps operate at rated wattage only if the lamp voltage and supply voltage is nominal. Lamp
wattage, light output, and lamp life may be affected if any conditions vary from nominal.
Crest Factor
This is the ratio of peak to RMS (root mean square) current. For example, the crest factor of a true sine wave form is 1.41.
Lamp manufacturers’ published data is based on lamps operated on a standard reactor ballast with a 1.41 crest factor. Input
voltage to a commercial ballast is a sine wave, but the secondary voltage wave shape in the inductive and capacitive type ballast
is distorted, and their crest factors are higher than 1.41. Tests indicate that ballasts with higher crest factors may result in
depreciation of lumen output or reduced lamp life. In general, a maximum lamp current crest factor of 1.7 for fluorescent
ballasts is recommended. HID constant-wattage and constant-wattage autotransformer ballasts have a crest factor of about
1.8. Metal Halide and HPS ballasts approach 1.65. HID lamp recommendations suggest a maximum crest factor of 2.0 for
Mercury Vapor and 1.8 for Metal Halide and HPS.
TD-29
Power Factor
Power factor (phase between voltage and current) is the ratio of line watts to line volts x line amps, expressed in a percentage.
A high power factor (HPF) ballast must have a power factor of at least 90% at nominal line voltage and lamp voltage. In most
cases, as the lamp and capacitors age, the power factor will drop below 90%. A normal power factor (NPF) ballast has a power
factor below 90%, usually around 50%. NPF compact fluorescent ballasts can be as low as 28%. A normal power factor ballast
has almost twice the line current as a high power factor ballast, thereby requiring larger wire sizes, breakers, switches, etc.
for the equivalent connected load. Some power utilities may assess a penalty charge for inefficient use of power due to low
power factor equipment.
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Electronic fluorescent ballasts generally operate at a frequency in excess of 20,000 hz to optimize lamp efficacy. Electronic
ballasts may feed back interference into the power system resulting in interference with sensitive electronic equipment such
as communications or data processing equipment. High quality electronic ballasts use filters and enclosures to reduce
conducted and radiated EMI to acceptable limits as specified by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
Ballast Sound Ratings
Core and coil ballasts may produce a slight hum due to the magnetic action within the ballast. Fluorescent ballasts are sound
rated by a letter code, A through D. An A sound rating is the quietest ballast and is typically recommended for commercial
applications. Because solid state electronic ballasts do not contain a core and coil, they will generally operate quieter than
magnetic ballasts.
Ballast Case Temperature
The ballast case temperature is affected by changes in ambient temperature and voltage increase. Fluorescent ballasts contain
a Class P thermal switch which will disconnect the ballast if it exceeds 105°C. Excessive ambient temperature or voltage supply
may significantly reduce the life of the ballast.
Harmonic Distortion
All ballasts generate harmonic currents of some magnitude in the electrical distribution system. The ratio of RMS (root mean
square) harmonic current to the RMS fundamental current is the Total Harmonic Distortion or THD. THD is often used to
assess the ability of a fluorescent electronic ballast to control harmonic currents. The proposed ANSI standard for electronic
ballasts specifies a maximum THD of 32%. Conventional magnetic ballasts are generally in the range of 10% to 20%. Most
hybrid electronic ballasts (containing both electronic and electromagnetic components) fall into the area of 20% to 30% THD.
Solid-state electronic ballasts (containing virtually all electronic components) are usually less than 10%.
Ballast Regulation
This is the ability of a ballast to control lamp wattage when subjected to line voltage variation. Consideration should be given
to line voltage variations expected on a given electrical system where HID lamps are used. Most new power distribution
systems are designed to provide ±3% of nominal voltage. However, some systems, especially older ones, may have variances
up to ±10% from nominal. Regulation characteristics for various ballast types are listed in the ballast data tables. Typically,
the cost of a ballast rises with the degree of regulation available. The better the regulation, the higher the cost.
Primary Dropout Voltage
All power distribution systems experience dips and peaks in line voltage as well as other transient conditions. Well regulated
systems seldom see voltage fluctuations of 20% or more. Be sure to check the primary dropout voltage rating on HID ballasts
if voltage variations are of concern. Voltage dips in excess of this rating may cause the lamps to extinguish and recycle.
TD-30
Ballast Information
A
Fluorescent Ballasts
Fluorescent systems offer a wide range of magnetic and state-of-the-art electronic ballasts. Continuing developments in
both ballast and lamp design optimization have resulted in many highly efficient, energy-saving ballast/lamp systems. Very
often the energy savings realized will quickly pay back the higher initial cost of utilizing the newer ballasts. Often the investment is further enhanced because the newer energy saving and electronic ballasts, due to their cooler operation, have a much
longer life span than standard ballasts.
Typical Lithonia Lighting nomenclature
Lamp types
Typical LPW w/T8 lamps (4’ length)
Frequency operation
Causes stroboscopic effect?
Sound rating
Operating temperature ratio
Typical harmonic distortion
Allowable line voltage variation the
ballast can withstand and still
properly operate the lamp
Cold weather starting versions available?
Suitable for high ambient temperatures?
Magnetic
Electronic
ES
T12, T8
72
60Hz
Yes, moderate
A–D
Base
15 – 30%
GEB
T12, T8
86
20-25KHz
No
A+
12% cooler
<=20%
±7.5%
±10% - ±25%
Yes
No
Yes
No
TD-31
Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Ballasts
ELECTRONIC
LAMP
Socket
Descr.2
Watts/
Lamp
Mfr.
2GX7
13TT
OS
GX24Q-1
13DTT
BALLAST
4-Pin Short Post1
Catalog
Color
Number
(K)
CF13DS/E/8
Lumens
Initial Mean
27, 30, 41
3
Min. Start Ballast Maximum
Type temp. (°F) factor Amps Watts
120/277/347
800
720
GEB10
-5/-5/0
> .98 .13/.06
14
PHL
GE
OS
PL-C 13W/
F13DBX/SPX
CF13DD/E/8
27 (/4P )
27, 30, 35, 41 (/4P3)
27, 30, 35, 41
900
900
900
720
765
765
GEB10
-5/-5/0
> .98 .13/.06
14
PHL
PL-C 18W/
27 (/4P3)
1250
1160
1040
985
GEB10
-5/-5/0
> .98 .17/.08
18
1250
1063
DMHL 50/na/na
> .90 .20/.08
17
3
GE
OS
F18DBX/SPX
CF18DD/E/8
27, 30, 35, 41 (/4P )
27, 30, 35, 41
26DTT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-C 26W/
F26DBX/SPX
CF26DD/E/8
27, 35, 41 (/4P3)
27, 30, 35, 41 (/4P3)
27, 30, 35, 41
1800
1700
1825
1500
1440
1530
GEB10
GED
DMHL
-5/-5/0
-5
50
> .98 .24/.11 27
> .99 .25/na 30
> .90 .23/.10 21
18TRT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-T 18W/
30, 35, 41 (/4P3)
1200
3
F18TBX/SPX 27, 30, 35, 41 (/A/4P ) 1120
CF18DT/E/IN/8
27, 30, 35, 41
1200
960
950
960
GEB10
-5/-5/0
> .98 .17/.08
18
26TRT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-T 26W/
30, 35, 41 (/4P3)
1800
3
F26TBX/SPX 27, 30, 35, 41 (/A/4P ) 1610
CF26DT/E/IN/8
27, 30, 35, 41
1800
1440
1370
1440
GEB104
-5/-5/0
> .98 .24/.11
27
GED
-5
> .99
30
GX24Q-3
32TRT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-T 32W/
30, 35 (/4P3)
2400
3
F32TBX/SPX 27, 30, 35, 41 (/A/4P ) 2200
CF32DT/E/IN/8
27, 30, 35, 41
2400
1920
1870
1920
GEB104
GED
DMHL
-5/-5/0
-5
50
GX24Q-4
42TRT
PHL
OS
PL-T 42W/
CF42DT/E/IN/8
2560
2560
GEB10 -5/-5/na
GED
-5
GX24Q-2
GX24Q-3
GX24Q-2
GX24Q-3
18DTT
30, 35, 41 (/4P3)
27, 30, 35, 41
3200
3200
.25/na
> .98 .30/.13 34
> .99 .30/na 37
> .90 .33/.14 39
> .98 .41/.18
> .99 .40/na
GEB Non-dimming, harmonic distortion < 10%, power factor > .98.
GED Dimming to 10%, harmonic distortion < 10%, power factor > .99.
DMHL Dimming to 5%, harmonic distortion < 20%, power factor > .90 (Lutron Hi-Lume).
Notes:
1 No post on 13-watt twin-tube lamps.
2 For socket base visual, see next page.
3 4P designates 4-pin lamp. For some, the catalog number for the 2-pin lamp is the same except for this ADDITION.
4 347V available with Philips lamp ONLY. 347V data not shown; consult factory.
TD-32
45
48
Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Ballasts
ELECTRONIC
Socket Description
Wattage & Lamp
Gotham Luminaires
2GX7
13W TT
CF, CFZ, CFL
GX24q-1
13W DTT
GX24q-2
18W DTT
GX24q-3
26W DTT
GX24q-2
18W TRT
GX24q-3
26W TRT
32W TRT
GX24q-4
42W TRT
Diagram
AF, AFW, AFV, AFZ,
AFVW, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CF,
CFV, CFZ, CFL
AF, AFW, AFV, AFZ,
AFVW, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CF,
CFV, CFZ, CFL
AF, AFW, AFV, AFZ,
AFVW, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CF,
CFV, CFZ, CFL
AF, AFW, AFV,
AFVW, LGF, LGFV,
LAF, CF, CFV,
CFL, CFVL
AF, AFW, AFV,
AFVW, LGF, LGFV,
LAF, CF, CFV,
CFL, CFVL
AF, AFW, AFV,
AFVW, LGF, LGFV,
LAF, CF, CFV,
CFL, CFVL
Notes:
1 Various operating factors can cause differences between laboratory data and actual field measurements. Dimensions
and specifications are based on the most current available data and are subject to change without notice.
TD-33
Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Ballasts
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC
Socket Description
Watts & Lamp
G23
9TT
GX23
13TT
Gotham Luminaires
AF, AFW, AFV, AFVW,
AFZ, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CFV,
CF, CFZ, CFL
AF, AFW, AFV, AFVW,
AFZ, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CFV,
CF, CFZ, CFL
13DTT
AF, AFW, AFV, AFVW,
AFZ, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CFV,
CF, CFZ, CFL
18DTT
AF, AFW, AFV, AFVW,
AFZ, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CFV,
CF, CFZ, CFL
G24d-3
26DTT
AF, AFW, AFV, AFVW,
AFZ, AFZW, DFW,
LGF, LAF, CFV,
CF, CFZ, CFL
GX32d-2
22DTT
LGF, LAF,
CFL
GX32d-3
28DTT
LGF, LAF,
CFL
GX23-2
G24d-2
Notes:
1 Various operating factors can cause differences between laboratory data and actual field measurements. Dimensions
and specifications are based on the most current available data and are subject to change without notice.
TD-34
Diagram
Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Ballasts
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC
LAMP
BALLAST (single lamp)
2-Pin Long Post
Socket
Watts/
Descr.1
Lamp
G23
9TT
GX23
Mfr.
Ballast
Catalog
Color
Number
(K)
Inital
Lumens
Mean
Temp.
Start
Factor
Max. Amps
Watts
PHL
GE
OS
PL-S 9W/
F9BX/SPX
CF9DS/8
27, 35, 41, 50
27, 35, 41, 50
27, 35, 41, 50
600
600
580
498
500
NP2
15° F.
25° F.
15° F.
.89/.94/na .14/.17/.08
11/13/15
13TT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-S 13W/
F13BX/SPX
CF13DS/8
27, 30, 35, 41, 50
27, 30, 35, 41, 50
27, 30, 35, 41, 50
900
825
800
747
710
NP2
5° F.
32° F. .95/1.02/na .29/.34/.08
0° F.
17/21/25
GX23-2
13DTT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-C 13W/
F13DBX23T4SPX
CF13DD/8
27, 30, 35, 41/USA
27, 30, 35, 41, 65
27, 30, 35, 41
860
860
780
714
730
NP2
32° F.
32° F. .95/1.02/na .29/.34/.08
0° F.
17/21/25
G24d-2
18DTT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-C 18W/
F18DBXT4SPX
CF18DD/8
27, 30, 35, 41
27, 30, 35, 41, 65
27, 30, 35, 41
1250
1160
1250
1038
985
NP2
5° F.
5° F.
5° F.
.97/1.0/na .36/.17/.08
25/24/25
G24D-3
26DTT
PHL
GE
OS
PL-C 26W/
F26DBXT4SPX
CF26DD/8
27, 30, 35, 41
27, 35, 41
27, 30, 35, 41
1800
1700
1825
1494
1440
NP2
23° F.
15° F.
15° F.
.88/.90/na .29/.31/.12
28/33/38
GX32d-2 22DTT
PHL
PL-C 15mm/22W/
27, 35, 41, 50
1200
996
-20° F.
.90/na/na
.45/na/na
26/na/na
GX32d-3 28DTT
PHL
PL-C 15mm/28W/
27, 35, 41, 50
1600
1328 -20° F.
1.0/na/na
.60/na/.13
33/na/28
120/277
Notes:
1 For socket base visual, see next page.
2 Not published. Consult manufacturer for non-published data.
TD-35
Fluorescent Electronic Ballasts
Generic Electronic Ballast Option
Lithonia Lighting maintains in its distribution centers and selected field warehouses, the industry’s broadest and largest
inventory of luminaires with popular electronic ballasts. If ballast quality, performance and availability are a concern, but you
have no vendor preference, specifying Lithonia's generic electronic ballast option assures you an electronic ballast that meets
or exceeds ANSI standards for high-frequency electronic ballasts. Ballasts provided will be from nationally recognized manufacturers with established warranty and service programs. Specify GEB for a ballast with less than 20%THD or GEB10 for a
ballast with less than 10%THD.
GEB/GEB10 Specifications
GEB/GEB10 Ordering Information
• UL listed, class P, non-PCB ballast.
• Minimum line transient as shown in IEE587,
category A and ANSI-62.41.
• Ballast circuit type: instant or rapid start, series
or parallel wired.
• Ballast operation: 120V nominal (108V-132V),
60Hz, or 277V nominal (249V-305V), 60 Hz.
• Ballast meets 1988 Federal Efficacy Standard
(Law 100-357) where applicable.
• Meets FCC rules/regulations Part 18, 15J for
EMI / RFI.
• Minimum lamp starting temperatures: standard
lamps 50°F, energy-saving lamps 60oF.
• Power factor equal to or greater than .95.
• Maximum lamp crest factor 1.7.
• Minimum 3-year ballast manufacturer's warranty.
Voltage
Configuration
Type
120
277
(blank) Standard (see box)
1/3 One 3-lamp ballast
1/4 One 4-lamp ballast
GEB (THD<20)
GEB10 (THD<10)
Add designation to fixture catalog number.
Example: 2SP G 3 32 A12 120 GEB10
Lithonia Standard Ballast Configurations
1-lamp
2-lamp
3-lamp
4-lamp
fixtures:
fixtures:
fixtures:
fixtures:
One 1-lamp ballast
One 2-lamp ballast
One 1-lamp ballast and one 2-lamp ballast
Two 2-lamp ballasts
GEB/GEB10 Performance Matrix
GEB only
GEB and GEB10
Lithonia
lamp Lamp
Desc. type
U31 24” T8-U(1-5/8")
U316 24” T8-U(6")
32 48” T8
40 48” T12
U40 24” T12-U(6”)
U403 24” T8-U(3”)
96 96” T12
96HO 96” T12 HO
Lamp
wattage
No. of
lamps
operated
Max.
ANSI
Watts
Min.
ballast
factor
Circuit
type1
Circuit
wiring2
Sound
rating
Std
1
36
0.85
IS or RS
S or P
A
Std
2
62
0.85
IS or RS
S or P
A
Std
33
95
0.85
IS or RS
S or P
A
Std
43
114
0.85
IS or RS
S or P
A
Std
1
41
0.85
RS
S
A
Std
2
74
0.85
RS
S or P
A
Std
33
110
0.85
RS
S
A
ES
1
31
0.83
RS
S
A
ES
2
63
0.83
RS
S or P
A
ES
33
93
0.83
IS
S
A
Std
2
140
0.85
IS
Slimline
B
ES
2
116
0.85
IS
Slimline
B
Std
2
209
0.85
RS
S
B
ES
2
178
0.85
RS
S
B
NOTES:
1 IS = instant start, RS = rapid start.
2 S = series, P = parallel.
3 Single ballast operating all lamps in 3-lamp or 4-lamp configuration.
TD-36
Fluorescent Magnetic (60Hz) Ballasts
TYPE OF
BALLAST
TYPE OF
MEASUREMENT
EQUIPMENT
REQUIRED
TESTING
PROCEDURE
PREHEAT
Starting Current and
Operating Current
Ammeter
(0–1 amp scale)
Measure amps between lamp and colored highvoltage secondary ballast lead.
Starting Voltage
Voltmeter
(0–300V scale)
Remove lamp.
1-lamp: Measure voltage between red lead and white
lead.
2-lamp: Measure voltage between a red lead and
white lead; between blue lead and white lead.
RAPID START
Starting Voltage
(0–1000 V scale)
Voltmeter
Measure voltage between a blue lead and highestreading red lead.
Filament Voltage
(0–1000V scale)
Voltmeter
1-lamp: Measure voltage between two red leads;
between two blue leads.
2-lamp: Measure voltage between two red leads;
between two blue leads; between two yellow leads
800MA
Starting Voltage
(0–1000V scale)
Voltmeter
Measure voltage between a blue lead and highestreading red lead.
Filament Voltage
(0–1000V scale)
Voltmeter
1-lamp: Measure voltage between two red leads;
between two blue leads.
2-lamp: Measure voltage between two red leads;
between two blue leads; between two yellow leads.
1500MA
Starting Voltage
(0–1000V scale)
Voltmeter
Measure voltage between a blue lead and highestreading red lead.
Filament Voltage
(0–1000V scale)
Voltmeter
1-lamp: Measure voltage between two red leads;
between two blue leads.
2-lamp: Measure voltage between two red leads;
between two blue leads; between two yellow leads.
SLIMLINE
Starting Voltage
(0–1000V scale)
Voltmeter
Remove lamp. Measure voltage between primary
and electrostatic or secondary leads of each lamp
as indicated below. For high-voltage type, seriessequence ballast, red lead must be in position while
measuring starting voltage of remaining lamp.
1-lamp: Measure between red lead and white lead.
2-lamp (series): Measure between red lead and
white lead. Insert lamp in red and white position
and measure between blue lead and black lead.
2-lamp (leadlag): Measure between red lead and
white lead; between blue lead and white lead.
INSTANT START
Starting Voltage
( 0–1000V scale)
Voltmeter
Remove lamp. Measure voltage between primary
and electrostatic or secondary leads of each lamp
as indicated below. For high-voltage type, seriessequence ballast, red lead must be in position while
measuring starting voltage of remaining lamp.
1-lamp: Measure between red lead and white lead.
2-lamp (series): Measure between red lead and
white lead. Insert lamp in red and white position
and measure between blue lead and black lead.
2-lamp (leadlag): Measure between red lead and
white lead; between blue lead and white lead.
TD-37
H.I.D. Ballasts
Terms
Ballast Regulation – The ability of a ballast to control lamp wattage (and therefore light output) when subject to changes in line voltage.
Dip Tolerance – The amount of line voltage drop a ballast can sustain before the lamp extinguishes. Usually expressed as a percent; the higher the
percentage, the better.
Ballast losses – The amount of additional energy a ballast consumes to operate the lamp (line watts minus lamp watts). There is usually a tradeoff between ballast losses and ballast regulation.
CWA – Constant Wattage Autotransform er (lead-type regulator), the most widely used H.I.D. ballast today, offering good ballast regulation
and moderate ballast losses. Available for metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps.
SCWA – Pulse start version of the CWA ballast. Yields greater lumen capability. Pulse start metal halide lamps only.
LLRPSL – Low Loss Reactor used in areas with very little line voltage variation. Designed as an energy saving system, 277V only. Pulse start
metal halide lamps only.
RLB – Regulated Lag Ballast (LAG type regulator, “reg-lag”), used in areas where excellent line dip tolerance is critical. It exhibits the best
ballast regulation. Pulse start metal halide lamps only.
MRB – Magnetic Regulated Ballast. This type of ballast, also referred to as regulated or stabilized type, has operating characteristics similar
to the RLB. High-pressure sodium sources only.
Ballast Type
Input
Watts
Ballast Regulation
Ballast
Losses
Line Voltage / Lamp Wattage
Avg. Dip
Voltages 1
Tolerance%
Metal Halide
400W CWA
458
±10% / ±10%
Medium
50%
120,208,240,277,347,480
400W SCWA2
456
±10% / ±10%
Medium
50%
120,208,240,277,347,480
350W SCWA2
400
±10% / ±10%
Medium
40%
120,208,240,277,347,480
400W LLRPSL2
425
±5% / ±9%
Low
25%
277
350W LLRPSL2
375
±5% / ±9%
Low
25%
400W RLB2
465
±10% / ±7%
High
45-50%
250W RLB2
298
±10% / +5%, -7%
High
30%
120,208 240,277,347,480
175W RLB2
220
±10% / +4%, -6%
High
30%
120,208,240,277,347,480
277
120,208 240,277,347,480
High Pressure Sodium
400W CWA
457
±10% / ±10%
Med. to High
40%
120,208,240,277,347,480
250W CWA
295
±10% / ±10%
Med. to High
30%
120,208,240,277,347,480
400W MRB
480
±10% / ±3%
High
45%
120,208,240,277,480
1. For international applications, 50 hertz equipment and other voltages are available. Consult factory.
2. For use with pulse start lamps.
Temperature Effect on
HID Ballast/Component Life
39
14
300%
200%
65
100%
52
55
42
27
40
0%
80
60
40
20
Ambient Temperature--Celsius
65°C Ambient
Rated System
TD-38
D
29
D
% Of Rated Life
400%
D
Temperature has a tremendous effect on the life expectancy of a ballast and its related components; therefore, it
is important not to exceed the maximum ambient temperature rating of the fixture. Operating a fixture in an
environment that is cooler than its rated ambient temperature will greatly increase ballast life. It is generally
accepted that for every 13°C drop below the fixture’s
rated ambient temperature, the life of the ballast
doubles. Capacitor life is doubled when ambient temperatures drop 10°C below rating.
Thermal Effects on Ballast Life
500%
55°C Ambient
Rated System
0
D
40°C Ambient
Rated System
H.I.D. F-Can Ballasts
Electrical Characteristics and Part Numbers
Metal Halide, 90% P.F. & -20°F starting
Wattage
Ansi
Code
Max. Line
Amps.
Input
Watts
Dropout
Volt/age
Advance
Cat. No.
LDL Part #
Advance
Magnetek
Cat. No.
-
-
LDL Part Sound
Magnetek Rating
Max. Ballast
to Lamp (ft)
Adv/Mag.
120/277 Volts
35
M-130
.95/.40*
56
85/190
72C5081NP
B
7/7
50
70
M-110
M-98
1.15/.65*
2.0/.90*
72
94
90/208
90/208
72C5181NP
72C5280NP
RL40481 11210-236C-TC
RL33681 11210-506C-TC RL33684
-
B
B
10/20
20/20
100
150
M-90
M-102
2.4/1.05*
3.7/1.6*
125
185
75/165
75/160
72C5381NP
72C5482NP
RL30781 11210-239C-TC RL30784
RL33381 11210-539C-TC RL33384
B
B
15/20
10/20
175
250
M-57
M-58
2.0/.87
2.6/1.2
205
295
66/152
65/150
72C5581NP
72C5782NP
RL02981 1110-245SC-TC RL02984
RL14181 1110-246SC-TC RL14184
B
C
Determined
by wire
400
M-59
3.9/1.7
460
50/115
72C6082NP
RL31581 1110-247SC-TC RL31584
C
size
20/20
15/20
120/347 Volts
70
100
M-98
M-90
2.0/.80*
2.2/.75*
94
125
90/260
75/285
72C52C2NP
72C53C1NP
RL336H1 11210-511C-TC
RL307H1 11210-606C-TC RL307H4
B
B
175
250
M-57
M-58
1.9/.65
2.5/1.1
208
295
66/180
65/190
72C55C1NP
72C57C2NP
RL029H1
RL141H1
1110-564C-TC
1110-566C-TC
B
C
LDL Part #
Advance
Magnetek
Cat. No.
12210-261C-TC
12210-236C-TC
-
Determined by
wire size
HPS, 90% P.F. & -40°F starting
Ansi Max. Line
Wattage Code Amps.
Input
Watts
Dropout
Volt/age
Advance
Cat. No.
Max. Ballast
LDL Part Sound to Lamp (ft)
Magnetek Rating Adv/Mag.
120/277 Volts
35
50
S-76
S-68
.80/.35*
1.4/.62*
55
75
90/208
90/208
72C7884NP
RL23181
RL23184
B
B
10/10
10/15
70
100
S-62 1.6/.70*
S-54 2.20/1.0*
97
125
90/208
90/208
72C7984NP
72C8084NP
RL13881 12210-237C-TC RL13884
RL13981 12210-239C-TC RL13984
B
B
7/10
15/10
150
S-55
185
90/208
72C8185NP
RL14081
RL14084
B
5/10
2.8/1.2*
12210-241C-TC
120/347 Volts
70
100
S-62 1.69/.63*
S-54 2.2/.90*
109
126
90/260
90/260
72C79C4NP
72C80C4NP
RL138H1 12210-552C-TC
RL139H1 12210-606C-TC
-
B
B
7/10
15/10
150
S-55 2.8/1.03*
185
90/260
72C81C5NP
RL140H1 12210-602C-TC
-
B
5/10
HPS, White Son, 90% P.F. & -40°F starting
Ansi Max. Line
Wattage Code
Amps.
Input
Watts
Dropout
Volt/age
Advance
Cat. No.
LDL Part #
Advance
Magnetek
Cat. No.
LDL Part
Magnetek
Sound
Rating
Max. Ballast
to Lamp (ft)
Adv/Mag.
120 Volts
35
S-99
0.9*
45
-
72C7705NP
RL41011
-
-
B
2/2
50
100
S-104
S-105
2.2
2.2
68
120
-
72C7805NP
72C8005NP
RL4111
RL41211
-
-
B
B
2/2
2/2
*Occurs during momentary outage (open circuit amps).
TD-39
Ballast Circuits
Ballast Type
Available Input
Voltage
Starting Current
(Power Factor)
% Line Variation=
% Wattage Change
Ballast
Losses
Lamp Current
Crest Factor
HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM
REACTOR
120V for 36
50, 70, 100
and 150W lamps.
Higher than operating
(50% NPF Standard)
(90% HPF Available)
± 5% = ± 12%
LOW
1.4 to 1.5
Slightly higher than
operating for 100 and 150
watt. Less than operating
for 70 watt. (90% + HPF)
± 5% = ± 12%
MEDIUM TO
HIGH
1.5
Less than operating
(90% + HPF)
± 10% = ± 10%
MEDIUM TO
HIGH
1.5
± 10% = ± 3%
HIGH
1.7
70W is slighly lower than
operating 100W is slightly
higher than operating
(90% + HPF)
± 5% = ± 10%
MEDIUM
1.5
Lower than operating
(90% + HPF)
± 10% = ± 10%
MEDIUM
Higher than operating
(90% + HPF)
± 5% = ± 10%
LOW
1.45
± 10% = ± 10%
MEDIUM
1.60
HIGH REACTANCE AUTOTRANSFORMER
All votages for
70, 100 and 150W
lamps.
CONSTANT-WATTAGE AUTOTRANSFORMER
(AUTO-REGULATED LEAD)
All voltages for 200
250, 310, 400 and 1000W
lamps
CONSTANT-WATTAGE
(MAGNETIC REGULATOR 0R REGULATED LAG)
All voltages for 200
and 400W lamps.
Less than operating
(90% + HPF)
METAL HALIDE
HIGH REACTANCE AUTOTRANSFORMER
(HX)
All voltages except 480V
for 70, 100 and 150W
lamps.
CONSTANT-WATTAGE AUTOTRANSFORMER
(PEAK-LEAD)
All voltages for 175W
lamps and higher.
1.6 to 1.8
LOW LOSS LINEAR REACTOR BALLAST
(LLRPSL – PULSE START)
277V only for
150-450W lamps.
SUPER CONSTANT-WATTAGE AUTOTRANSFORMER
(SCWA – PULSE START)
All voltages for
150W lamps and higher.
TD-40
Lower than operating
(90% + HPF)
Ballast Circuits
Ballast Type
Available Input
Voltage
Starting Current
(Power Factor)
% Line Variation=
% Wattage Change
Ballast
Losses
Lamp Current
Crest Factor
MERCURY VAPOR
REACTOR
240 & 277V
for 100, 175, 250 and
400W. 480V for 1000W
lamps.
Higher than operating
(50% NPF Standard)
(90% HPF Available)
± 10% = ± 5%
LOW
1.4 to 1.5
Lower than operating
(90% + HPF)
± 10% = ± 5%
MEDIUM
1.6 to 2.0
Less than operating
(90% + HPF)
± 13% = ± 2%
HIGH
1.8 to 2.0
CONSTANT-WATTAGE AUTOTRANSFORMER
All votages for
all lamp wattages.
CONSTANT-WATTAGE AUTOTRANSFORMER
(AUTO-REGULATED LEAD)
All voltages for
all lamp wattages.
NOTE: Ungrounded power distribution systems may carry transient line voltage under fault conditions. Because high transients can
cause premature ballast lamp failure, it is not recommended that luminaires be operated on any ungrounded 480V or other
ungrounded system.
The ballast serves four basic functions: (1) Matches the line voltage to the required lamp operating voltage; (2) Limits the
allowable lamp current since all ballasted lamps have a negative resistance; (3) Provides the required open circuit voltage
to start the lamp; and (4) Regulates the input voltage to provide proper lamp lumen output.
TD-41
Ballast Data
High Pressure Sodium Ballasts
All HPS ballasts require both a magnetic circuit to produce the proper open circuit voltage and control the current and a special electronic
starting circuit. This circuit applies a high-pulse voltage required to strike an arc, 2500V for 400W and below, 3000V for 1000W. The pulse
repeats each cycle with maximum pulse width of 15 microseconds. The pulsing circuit is de-energized after the lamp arc is established.
Wattage
ANSI
Ballast
Type
35
S76
S76
S68
S68
S68
S62
S62
S62
S62
S62
S62
S62
S62
S54
S54
S54
S54
S54
S54
S54
S54
S55
S55
S55
S55
S55
S55
S55
S55
S56
S56
S56
S56
S56
S55
S55
S55
S55
S55
S55
S66
S66
S66
S66
S66
S66
S50
S50
S50
S50
S50
S50
S51
S51
S51
S51
S51
S51
S51
S51
S51
S51
S51
S111
S111
S111
S111
S111
S111
S52
S52
S52
S52
S52
S52
R
R
R
R
HX
R
R
HX
HX
HX
HX
HX
CWA
R
R
HX
HX
HX
HX
HX
CWA
R
R
HX
HX
HX
HX
HX
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CW
CW
CW
CW
CW
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
50
70
100
150
200
250
400
750
1000
Power
Factor
Wiring
Diagram
NPF
HPF
NPF
HPF
HPF
NPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
NPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
NPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
H1
H2
H1
H2
H5
H1
H2
H5
H4
H4
H4
H6
H3
H1
H2
H5
H4
H4
H4
H6
H3
H1
H2
H5
H4
H4
H4
H6
H3
H7
H7
H7
H7
H8
H9
H9
H9
H9
H9
H9
H7
H7
H7
H7
H7
H2
H7
H7
H7
H7
H7
H8
H7
H7
H7
H7
H7
H8
H9
H9
H9
H9
H9
H7
H7
H7
H7
H7
H8
H7
H7
H7
H7
H7
H8
Regulation
LineV=LampW
Minimum
Starting
Ambient
Primary
Voltage
Dropout
Voltage
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=±12%
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=*
±5%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=*
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=*
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
±10%=*
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=±10%
±10%=*
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
±10%=±3%
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-28°C/-20°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
-40°C/-40°F
120
120
120
120
120/277
120
120
120/277
208
240
480
TB
120/277
120
120
120/277
208
240
480
TB
120/277
120
120
120/277
208
240
480
TB
120/277
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
TB
96
96
96
96
96/222
96
96
96/222
166
192
385
*Within trapezoid
TD-42
90/208
96
96
96/222
166
192
385
90/208
96
96
96/222
166
192
385
90/208
90
156
180
208
360
85
145
165
185
330
90
156
180
208
360
90
156
180
208
360
90
156
180
208
360
84
145
168
195
336
90
156
180
208
360
90
156
180
208
360
Starting
Current
Open
Operating Circuit
Current Current
1.35
0.84
0.78
0.38
1.80
1.18
0.95
0.55
0.65/0.30
0.61/0.26
2.10
1.60
0.89
0.75
0.90/0.35
0.82/0.36
0.50
0.48
0.44
0.41
0.21
0.21
See Specific Voltage
0.85/0.36
0.85/0.36
3.00
2.10
1.50
1.05
1.30/0.60
1.15/0.50
0.76
0.67
0.66
0.58
0.33
0.29
See Specific Voltage
0.70/0.30
1.15/0.50
4.50
3.20
2.20
2.20
2.00/0.88
1.60/0.72
1.15
0.96
1.00
0.83
0.50
0.42
See Specific Voltage
0.96/0.42
1.65/0.72
1.15
1.75
0.58
1.00
0.48
0.82
0.41
0.75
0.26
0.44
See Specific Voltage
0.80
1.70
0.45
1.00
0.40
0.90
0.35
0.75
0.20
0.40
1.50
2.22
0.92
1.28
0.75
1.11
0.66
0.95
0.41
0.56
See Specific Voltage
1.65
2.70
1.00
1.50
0.85
1.30
0.75
1.15
0.44
0.65
See Specific Voltage
2.80
3.90
1.70
2.25
1.45
1.95
1.30
1.70
0.70
1.05
See Specific Voltage
1.00
4.20
0.60
2.40
0.50
2.10
0.40
1.80
0.25
1.05
6.7
7.1
3.9
4.1
3.4
3.6
2.9
3.1
1.7
1.8
See Specific Voltage
6.70
9.50
4.00
5.50
3.70
4.75
2.80
4.15
1.75
2.40
See Specific voltage
0.00
0.68
0.00
0.90
0.99/0.44
0.00
1.30
1.40/0.62
0.85
0.75
0.36
0.20/0.09
0.00
1.80
2.20/0.95
1.27
1.10
0.57
0.70/0.30
0.00
2.50
3.00/1.25
1.65
1.45
0.80
0.96/0.42
1.26
0.77
0.65
0.58
0.35
1.50
0.90
0.75
0.65
0.40
1.30
0.75
0.65
0.56
0.35
2.20
1.15
1.00
0.95
0.60
295
2.30
1.40
1.20
1.30
1.00
1.60
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.40
3.0
1.7
1.5
1.3
0.80
5.90
3.30
3.20
2.70
1.65
Input
Wattage
46
46
62
62
66
86
86
91
91
91
93
93
95
115
115
130
130
130
130
130
170
170
188
188
188
188
188
188
190
188
188
188
188
188
188
196
196
196
196
196
245
245
245
245
245
240
295
295
295
295
295
457
457
457
457
457
457
480
480
480
480
480
835
835
835
835
835
835
1100
1100
1100
1100
1100
Ballast Data
Low Pressure Sodium Ballasts
High Reactance-High Power Factor ballasts and Reactor-High Power Factor ballasts are used with Low Pressure Sodium lamps because the
lamps require an open circuit voltage that is three to seven times higher than the lamp operating voltage.
Wattage
18
35
55
90
Power
Factor
Wiring
Diagram
Regulation
LineV=LampW
Minimum
Starting
Ambient
Open
Starting Operating Circuit
Input
Current Current Current Wattage
1.10
1.00
ANSI
HX
NPF
L1
L69
HX
HPF
L2
-28°C/-20°F
120
48
HX
HPF
L2
±5%=±6%
277
111
0.08
HX
HPF
L5
±10%=±5%
120
48
0.80
±5%=±5%
HX
HPF
L3
±10%=±5%
L70
HX
HPF
L5
HX
HPF
L3
120
±5%=±6%
Primary
Voltage
Dropout
Voltage
Ballast
Type
48
0.20
31
0.18
0.27
1.00
0.12
0.45
30
0.56
2.50
60
208
83
0.45
0.32
1.45
60
-28°C/-20°F
240
96
0.40
0.28
1.25
±10%=±5%
277
111
0.35
0.24
1.10
60
±10%=±5%
R
HPF
L4
±10%=±5%
480
185
0.20
0.15
0.60
60
HX
HPF
L5
±10%=±5%
120
66
0.95
0.74
2.50
80
HX
HPF
L3
±10%=±5%
L71
HX
HPF
L5
208
114
0.55
0.43
1.45
80
-28°C/-20°F
240
132
0.48
0.37
1.25
HX
HPF
L3
±10%=±5%
277
152
0.42
0.32
1.10
80
±10%=±5%
R
HPF
L4
±10%=±5%
480
250
0.30
0.19
0.60
80
HX
HPF
L2
±10%=±5%
120
66
1.20
1.16
4.00
125
HX
HPF
L5
±10%=±5%
208
114
0.70
0.67
2.30
125
L72
HX
HPF
L2
-28°C/-20°F
240
132
0.60
0.58
2.00
HX
HPF
L5
±10%=±5%
277
152
0.50
0.50
1.70
125
R
HPF
L4
±10%=±5%
480
240
0.40
0.29
0.90
125
±10%=±5%
30
60
80
125
TD-43
Ballast Data
Metal Halide Ballasts
Note: Mercury Vapor lamps may be used with Metal Halide ballasts except when using a Pulse Start ballast.
Ballast
Type
Power
Factor
Wattage
ANSI
70
M98
HX
HPF
100
M90
HX
HPF
150
M102
HX
HPF
150*
M102 LLRPSL
HPF
150*
M102
SCWA
HPF
M57/H39 CWA
HPF
175
175*
M137 LLRPSL
HPF
175*
M137
HPF
200*
M136 LLRPSL
HPF
200*
M136
SCWA
HPF
M58/H37 CWA
HPF
250
SCWA
250*
M138 LLRPSL
HPF
250*
M138
HPF
*Pulse Start
TD-44
SCWA
Wiring
Diagram
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
Minimum
Regulation
LineV=LampW
Starting
Ambient
+5%=+7%
-280C \ -200F
+5%=+12%
-280C \ -200F
+5%=+12%
-300C \ -200F
+5%=+10%
-300C \ -200F
+10%=+6%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+10%
-280C \ -200F
+5%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
+5%=+15%
-300C \ -200F
+10%=+10%
-300C \ -200F
+10%=+10%
-300C \ -200F
+5%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
Operating
Current
Open
Circuit
Current
.80
.50
0.43
0.55
.85
.50
0.43
0.50
1.90
1.04
0.90
1.15
90
156
180
208
1.20
0.80
0.69
0.60
1.15
0.66
0.58
0.50
2.60
1.50
1.30
1.15
120
208
240
277
90
156
180
208
0.95
0.55
0.50
0.42
1.60
0.90
0.80
0.70
3.65
2.10
1.80
1.58
277
170
0.70
0.63
1.50
120
208
240
277
60
104
120
138
1.40
0.80
0.70
0.60
1.70
1.00
0.85
0.75
1.00
0.60
0.50
0.45
120
208
240
277
480
TB
60
1.30
1.80
104
1.40
1.50
120
1.10
1.30
138
1.00
1.12
240
0.60
0.65
See Specific Voltage
1.80
1.65
1.55
1.25
0.70
277
205
0.80
0.75
1.05
194
120
208
240
277
480
70
120
140
160
280
1.00
0.60
0.50
0.45
0.25
1.90
1.05
0.95
0.80
0.50
1.00
0.60
0.50
0.45
0.25
208
208
208
208
208
277
180
1.00
0.80
1.25
218
120
208
240
277
480
60
104
120
138
360
0.75
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.35
2.00
1.20
1.00
0.85
0.50
2.00
1.20
1.00
0.85
0.25
232
232
232
232
232
120
208
240
277
480
TB
60
2.30
2.50
104
1.30
1.45
120
1.15
1.25
138
1.00
1.10
240
0.35
0.60
See Specific Voltage
1.40
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.45
277
200
1.25
1.10
1.35
275
120
208
240
277
480
60
104
120
138
240
2.30
1.30
1.15
1.00
0.35
2.50
1.45
1.25
1.10
0.60
1.40
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.45
288
288
288
288
288
Primary
Voltage
Dropout
Voltage
120
208
240
277
90
156
180
208
120
208
240
277
Starting
Current
Input
Wattage
95
130
185
173
190
295
288
Ballast Data
Metal Halide Ballasts (continued)
ANSI
Ballast
Type
Power
Factor
Wiring
Diagram
320*
M132
LLRPSL
HPF
M5
320*
M132
SCWA
HPF
350*
M131
LLRPSL
HPF
350*
M131
SCWA
HPF
M59/H33
CWA
HPF
400*
M135
LLRPSL
HPF
400*
M135
SCWA
HPF
450*
M144
LLRPSL
HPF
450*
M144
SCWA
HPF
1000
M47/H36
CWA
HPF
Wattage
400
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M1
M1
M1
M1
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M5
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
Minimum
Regulation
LineV=LampW
Starting
Ambient
+5%=+10%
-300C \ -200F
+10%=+10%
-300C \ -200F
+5%=+9%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+9%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+10%
-280C \ -200F
+5%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
+5%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+10%
-400C \ -400F
+10%=+10%
-280C \ -200F
Primary
Voltage
Dropout
Voltage
Starting
Current
Operating
Current
Open
Circuit
Current
277
200
1.70
1.40
1.70
349
120
208
240
277
480
60
104
120
138
240
1.80
1.05
0.90
0.80
0.45
3.25
1.90
1.65
1.40
0.80
2.30
1.35
1.15
1.00
0.60
368
368
368
368
368
277
200
2.10
1.50
2.10
375
120
208
240
277
480
65
115
130
150
240
2.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
0.65
3.60
2.10
1.80
1.55
0.90
1.60
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.40
400
400
400
400
400
120
208
240
480
TB
80
104
120
240
8.00
1.90
1.65
0.85
277
200
2.10
1.70
2.10
435
120
208
240
277
480
80
140
160
185
320
3.60
2.00
1.80
1.60
0.90
4.00
2.20
2.00
1.70
1.00
1.00
0.60
0.50
0.45
0.30
448
448
448
448
452
277
200
2.30
1.90
2.30
485
120
208
240
277
480
60
105
120
135
225
4.20
2.40
2.10
1.80
1.00
4.50
2.60
2.25
2.00
1.10
1.60
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.40
503
503
503
503
505
120
208
240
270
480
TB
80
140
160
180
320
8.00
4.60
4.00
3.50
2.00
9.0
6.00
.30
1.95
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.95
See Specific Voltage
9.0
6.00
5.30
3.50
4.60
3.00
4.00
2.60
2.30
1.60
See Specific Voltage
Input
Wattage
458
1080
*Pulse Start
HAZARD WARNING: USE OF METAL HALIDE LAMPS
These lamps can cause serious skin burn and eye inflammation from short-wave radiation (ultraviolet) if outer envelope of the
lamp is broken or punctured and the arc-tube continues to operate. Do not use where people will remain for more than a few
minutes unless adequate shielding or other safety precautions are used. Certain types of lamps that will automatically extinguish
when the outer envelope is broken are commercially available.
TD-45
Ballast Data
Mercury Vapor Ballasts
The most popular design for Mercury Vapor is the constant-wattage autotransformer. It supplies a reasonable degree of regulation, high power
factor, low line extinguishing voltage and line starting current (lower than or equal to operating current). The constant-wattage type is built
as an isolation transformer. The modified constant-wattage type includes isolated secondary as the CW, but regulation is similar to a CWA
ballast. In an autotransformer ballast, circuits are designed to accept the higher current needed during the warm-up period. The reactor type
is a simpler design that can be used when the voltage to strike the arc is approximately the same as the line voltage.
Wattage
ANSI
50
H46
75
H43
100
H38-H44
175
H39
250
H37
400
H33
1000
H36
Ballast
Type
HX
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
HX
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
HX
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
HX
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
Power
Factor
NPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
NPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
NPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
NPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
Wiring
Diagram
M3
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M3
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
M3
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
M1
M1
M1
M1
M1
M2
Regulation
LineV=LampW
±5%=±12%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±5%=±12%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±5%=±12%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±5%=±12%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
±10%=±5%
Minimum
Starting
Ambient
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
-28°C/-20°F
Primary
Voltage
120
120
208
240
277
480
120
120
208
240
277
480
120
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
TB
120
208
240
277
480
TB
Dropout
Voltage
80
55
95
110
127
220
90
64
110
126
145
250
90
60
104
120
139
240
See
90
70
110
140
155
250
See
60
104
120
139
240
See
68
117
135
156
272
See
70
120
140
160
280
See
Open
Starting Operating Circuit
Current
Current Current
2.10
1.60
0.24
0.60
0.67
0.30
0.35
0.39
0.20
0.30
0.33
0.15
0.26
0.29
0.13
0.15
0.16
0.10
2.90
1.60
0.24
0.80
0.82
0.50
0.46
0.48
0.29
0.40
0.41
0.25
0.35
0.36
0.22
0.20
0.21
0.13
3.60
2.10
0.50
1.00
1.05
0.64
0.58
0.60
0.37
0.50
0.52
0.32
0.43
0.45
0.28
0.26
0.26
0.16
Specific Voltage
0.60
3.30
0.45
1.80
1.80
0.80
1.10
1.10
0.40
0.90
0.90
0.40
0.78
0.78
0.35
0.44
0.44
0.40
Specific Voltage
2.50
2.50
0.85
1.50
1.50
0.60
1.25
1.25
0.49
1.10
1.10
0.29
0.62
0.62
0.38
Specific Voltage
3.20
3.90
0.78
2.00
2.20
1.80
1.70
1.95
0.44
1.50
1.70
0.39
0.95
0.98
0.24
Specific Voltage
7.50
9.20
1.73
4.33
5.30
1.00
3.75
4.60
0.87
3.25
4.00
0.75
1.88
2.30
0.47
Specific Voltage
Input
Watts
74
74
74
74
74
74
94
93
93
93
93
93
125
123
123
123
123
123
123
205
200
200
200
200
200
200
285
285
285
285
285
285
454
454
454
454
454
454
1080
1080
1080
1080
1080
1080
HAZARD WARNING: USE OF MERCURY VAPOR LAMPS
These lamps can cause serious skin burn and eye inflammation from short-wave radiation (ultraviolet) if outer envelope of the
lamp is broken or punctured and the arc-tube continues to operate. Do not use where people will remain for more than a few
minutes unless adequate shielding or other safety precautions are used. Certain types of lamps that will extinguish automatically
when the outer envelope is broken are commercially available.
TD-46
Ballast Data
Fluorescent Ballasts
Fluorescent ballasts are designed to meet the electrical requirements of a specific type of lamp. Preheat, Slimline Instant Start and Rapid Start
are commonly used ballasts. Preheat and Rapid Start ballasts provide a starting current to heat the lamp electrodes before the lamp is ignited.
Slimline Instant Start ballasts ignite the lamp by providing a high initial voltage between the lamp electrodes. A larger autotransformer is
required for these ballasts to create the high starting voltage. Since fluorescent systems are generally used indoors, fluorescent ballasts
incorporate a thermal protective device (Class P switch) to prevent a fire hazard if the ballast should overheat.
Lamp Type
Power
Factor
Wiring
Diagram
Minimum
Starting
Primary
Voltage
Operating
Current
Input
Watts
Compact Fluorescent
22W
HPF
F8
-32°C/0°F
120
0.22
26
28W
HPF
F8
-32°C/0°F
120
0.30
33
26W
26W
HPF
HPF
F9
F9
-20°C/-5°F
-20°C/-5°F
120
277
0.24
0.11
27
27
32W
32W
HPF
HPF
F9
F9
-20°C/-5°F
-20°C/-5°F
120
277
0.30
0.13
34
34
TD-47
H.I.D. Ballast Testing
Mercury
BALLAST
1. HID Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Test Limits
LAMP
Wattage
ANSI
Number
Open
Circuit
Voltage
RMS
50
75
100
175
250
400
2–400 (ILO)
2–400 (Series)
700
1000
H46
H43
H38
H39
H37
H33
2–H33
2–H33
H35
H36
225–255
225–255
225–255
225–255
225–255
225–255
225–255
475–525
405–455
405–455
Secondary
Short
Circuit
Current
Amps
0.85–1.15
0.95–1.70
1.10–2.00
2.00–3.60
3.00–3.80
4.40–7.90
4.40–7.90
4.20–5.40
3.90–5.85
5.70–9.00
2. HID Short-Circuit Lamp Current
To assure the ballast is delivering the proper current under
lamp starting conditions, a measurement may be taken by
connecting an ammeter between the lamp socket center pin
and the socket shell with rated input voltage applied to the
ballast. If available, a socket adapter may be used.
1. Energize ballast with proper rated input
voltage.
2. Measure current with ammeter at A1 and A2
as shown below.
3. Readings must be within test limits shown
on left.
High Reactance Autotransformer (HX)
70
100
150
M98
M90
M102
230–280
240–275
235-290
0.95–1.25
1.35–1.70
2.05-2.55
When using a clamp-on ammeter for this measurement, be
certain the meter is not near the magnetic field of the ballast
or any steel member which might distort the magnetic field.
1.50–1.90
2.90–4.30
2.20–2.85
3.50–4.50
3.50–4.50
3.30–4.30
4.80–6.15
7.40–9.60
When short-circuit lamp current test results in high, low or no
reading, further checks should be made to determine whether
cause is attributable to improper supply voltage, shorted or
open capacitor or inoperative ballast. Checks may be made as
follows:
Metal Halide
Constant Wattage Autotransformer (CWA)
175
250
250
400
2–400 (ILO)
2–400 (Series)
1000
1500
M57
M80
M58
M59
2–M59
2–M59
M47
M48
285–320
230–270
285–320
285–320
285–320
600–665
400–445
400–445
Linear Reactor Pulse Start (LLRPSL)
150
175
200
250
320
350
400
450
M102
M137
M136
M138
M132
M131
M135
M144
250-305
250-305
250-305
250-305
250-305
250-305
250-305
250-305
• Supply Voltage Check
2.00-2.50
1.70-2.10
1.80-2.70
2.40-3.00
3.00-3.70
3.40-4.40
3.70-4.50
4.20-5.20
Low Pressure
Sodium*
High Pressure Sodium*
Super Constant Wattage Autotransformer Pulse Start (SCWA)
TD-48
150
175
200
250
320
350
400
450
M102
M137
M136
M138
M132
M131
M135
M144
215-265
240-290
215-265
240-290
240-290
240-300
240-300
255-315
2.15-2.65
1.85-2.25
1.90-2.30
2.35-2.90
3.00-3.70
3.00-3.75
3.60-4.40
3.90-4.75
35
50
70
100
150
150
200
250
310
400
1000
S76
S68
S62
S54
S55
S56
S66
S50
S67
S51
S52
110–130
110–130
110–130
110–130
110–130
200–250
200–230
175–225
155–190
175–225
420–480
0.85–1.45
1.50–2.30
1.60–2.90
2.45–3.80
3.50–5.40
2.00–3.00
2.50–3.70
3.00–5.30
3.80–5.70
5.00–7.60
5.50–8.10
18
35
55
90
135
180
L69
L70
L71
L72
L73
L74
300–325
455–505
455–505
455–525
645–715
645–715
0.30–0.40
0.52–0.78
0.52–0.78
0.80–1.20
0.80–1.20
0.80–1.20
Measure Line Voltage. If ballast is multi-voltage unit, make
certain input voltage connection is made to proper input
voltage terminal or lead.
• Capacitor Check
Verify capacitor rating is as required and shown on ballast
label.
• Ballast Check
Perform Open-Circuit Voltage test to ensure operation
within the RMS range shown in the table to the left.
Short-Circuit Current Test
INPUT
OUTPUT
A1
CAP
LINE
V1
BALLAST
COMMON
LAMP
SOCKET A2
* CAUTION: Always disconnect the ignitor before measuring the output
voltage of High Pressure Sodium ballasts and Pulse Start metal halide
ballasts. High voltage starting pulses can damage commonly used multimeters.
3. HID Ballast Continuity
Continuity of Primary Coil
Continuity of Secondary Coil
1. Disconnect ballast from power supply and discharge the
capacitor.
1.
Disconnect ballast from power supply and discharge the
capacitor.
2. Check for continuity of ballast primary coil between
input leads.
2.
Check for continuity of ballast secondary coil between
lamp and common leads.
LINE V
LINE V
CAP
C
CAP
C
LAMP
COM
LAMP
COM
COM
COM
LINE V
LAMP
LINE V
LAMP
CAP
C
LAMP
COM
CAP
COM
CAP
C
COM
LAMP
LINE V
C
COM
COM
C
LINE V
LAMP
COM
LAMP
CAP
COM
LAMP
COM
NOTE: Information compiled by Advance Transformer Co. and reprinted with permission.
TD-49
Wiring Diagrams
High Pressure Sodium
120V
120V
TO LAMP
X3
TO LAMP
X3
X1
LAMP
IGNITOR
277V
LAMP
X1
IGNITOR
X3
120V
LAMP
CAP
CAP
X2
X1
IGNITOR
X2
X2
COM
COM
COM
H1
H3
CAP
277V
277/CAP
VOLTS
LAMP
X3
COM
X1
LAMP
COM
120V
LAMP
X2
COM
H4
COM
LAMP
COM
H5
VOLTS
X1
IGNITOR
COM
X2
X3
208V
IGNITOR
COM
LAMP
240 V
X3
277V
COM
X2
COM
LAMP
VOLTS
X1
IGNITOR
H6
277 VOLTS
LAMP
X3
CAP
LAMP
240V
X1
208 V
IGNITOR
LAMP 1
X3
CAP
X1
X2
X2
LAMP 2
X2
COM
H7
LAMP
X1
IGNITOR
IGNITOR
LAMP
COM
X3
LINE V
120V
COM
COM
H2
CAP
LAMP
INPUT
LAMP
CAP
COM
CAP
H8
H9
Metal Halide / Mercury Vapor
LINE V
LINE V
LINE V
CAP
CAP
LAMP
COM
COM
COM
LAMP
LAMP
COM
COM
COM
LINE V
LINE V
LINE V
LAMP
LAMP
COM
TD-50
LAMP
COM
COM
Wiring Diagrams
Low Pressure Sodium
120V
CAP
LAMP
LAMP
LAMP
LAMP
VOLTS
COM
CAP
COM
L1
LAMP
CAP
CAP
COM
COM
LAMP
VOLTS
VOLTS
COM
COM
COM
L2
LINE V
F
L3
VOLT
CAP
LAMP
15 AMP KTK FUSE
REQUIRED
LAMP
VOLT
LAMP
CAP
COM
COM
COM
COM
L4
L5
CUTOUT LAMPHOLDER
LAMP
CUTOUT LAMPHOLDER
BLUE
LAMP
BLACK
LINE
BALLAST
LINE
WHITE
BLUE
BALLAST
WHITE
RED
LAMP
CUTOUT LAMPHOLDER
BLACK
F1
F2
CUTOUT LAMPHOLDER
LINE
LAMP
LAMP
BLACK
WHITE
YELLOW
YELLOW
CUTOUT LAMPHOLDER
BLUE
BLUE
BALLAST
LAMP
RED
RED
BLACK
WHITE
BLUE
BALLAST
RED
RED
WHITE
LAMP
RED
BALLAST
LINE
BALLAST
LINE
BLUE
BLACK
LAMP
F3
F4
F5
F6
BLACK
BALLAST
BLUE
BLACK
BALLAST
WHITE
BLUE
WHITE
L
A
M
P
L
A
M
P
F7
BLACK
BALLAST
WHITE
F9
LAMP
CUTOUT LAMPHOLDER
WHITE
F8
BLUE
BLUE
RED
RED
LINE
BLUE
WHITE
BLACK
LINE
LINE
BLUE
BLACK
WHITE
YELLOW
YELLOW
BALLAST
BLUE
BLUE
RED
RED
F10
TD-51
Wind Map
TD-52
Glossary
A Guide to Lighting and Electrical Industry Terms and Abbreviations
A
AC
Alternating current. Also armored cable.
Accent lighting
Directional lighting used to emphasize a particular object such as piece of art, a retail display, or draw
attention to a specific location or area.
AFCI
Arc-fault circuit interrupter.
AL
Aluminum.
Alzak
A finish produced by electrochemically brightening and anodizing a special high purity aluminum alloy. It
is used to provide reflectors with a high permanent reflectivity and corrosion and abrasion resistant finish.
It is a registered trademark of the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA).
Ambient temperature
“Surrounding” – the ambient temperature is the temperature of the air that surrounds the fixture in the
room. Temperature surrounding a lamp or luminaire. A critical criterion for fixture selection especially in
extreme temperature environments.
Ampere
(Abbr. A) The standard unit of measuring an electric current that is equal to one coulomb per second. It
defines the rate of flow or quantity of electrons, moving past a given point in a circuit.
Anodized
An electrolytic process for converting an aluminum surface to aluminum oxide. Anodized coatings are
transparent coatings that are physically part of the metal. They are generally colorless but may be dyed in
a variety of colors. The coating is hard and highly resistant to corrosion.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute. A professional institute comprised of representatives from safety
protection agencies, manufacturers, and consumers. This institute published industry standards from
product specifications.
APPA
American Public Power Association.
Arc tube
A tube enclosed within the outer glass envelope of an H.I.D. lamp and made of clear quartz or ceramic that
contains the arc stream
Arc tube voltage rise
An operating characteristic of high pressure sodium lamps whereby the arc tube voltage gradually rises
over the lamp life. Accelerated arc tube voltage rise occurs when light is improperly reflected back through
the arc tube (such as with an incorrect reflector) increasing temperature and voltage, and thereby shortening lamp life.
Area coverage factor
Pertains to control systems and emergency lighting equipment and is used to estimate the number of
fixtures (or lamp heads) required to produce the desired light level.
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Material.
AWG
American wire gauge.
Auto regulator
More often called a “constant wattage autotransformer.” This is the most popular ballast circuitry because
if offers excellent regulation at a moderate cost, and is considered to be the industry standard.
B
Baffle
A shield of metal, wood or plastic used to screen a light source from normal angles of viewing. Aluminum
baffles are commonly used in parabolic fixtures such as Lithonia Lighting Paramax and Optimax fixtures.
TD-53
Glossary
Ballast
An electromagnetic device used in fluorescent and H.I.D. luminaires to provide the necessary starting
voltage and to limit the lamp current during operation.
Ballast, electronic
A ballast that operates fluorescent lamps at high frequencies, using semi-conductor components to increase the frequency in combination with smaller inductive components to provide the lamp current
control.
Ballast factor
A light loss factor that must be applied to lumen calculations for fluorescent lamps. It is the ratio of actual
lumen output of a lamp operating with a commercial ballast to the rated lumen output operating with a
laboratory reference ballast.
Bi-metal switch
A small thermal switch made of two different metals, which expand at differing rates when heated causing
the switch contacts to open.
Branch circuit
That part of the building wiring system between the final over-current protective device (typically at the
electrical panel) and the electrical equipment that consumes power.
Breaker
An electromechanical device that acts as a switch and fuse combination to protect and disconnect a circuit
in case of an overload.
Brownout
A system-wide reduction in voltage, causing fluorescent and H.I.D. lamps to partially extinguish, thus
reducing available light.
C
Candela
Unit of luminous intensity, describing the intensity of a light source in a specified direction.
Candlepower
An older terminology for luminous intensity. Defined as the intensity in candelas of light from a source.
Capacitor
An electrical circuit component which stores energy in an electrostatic field.
Coefficient of utilization
(Abbr. CU) Portion of rated bare-lamp lumens that exit the fixture and reach the work plane. The CU
accounts for the light directly from the luminaire as well as light reflected directly from the luminaire as
well as light reflected off the room surfaces. The CU value is used in lighting calculations to estimate light
levels or the number of luminaires needed. The CU is determined from a photometric test and is typically
published on product catalog sheets in a tabular form.
Color-rendering index
(Abbr. CRI) A measure of the degree of color shift that an object under goes when illuminated by a light
source as compared with the color of the same object when illuminated by a reference source of comparable color temperature.
Color temperature
The “whiteness” of a light source indicated in degrees Kelvin, typically between 0 and 6000°K.
Contrast
Relationship between the luminance of an object or detail and it’s background.
CRI
Color-rendering index.
CSA
Canadian Standards Association.
Current
The flow of electricity, measured in amps.
Current rise time
A dimmer performance characteristic that indicated the degree of filtering provided within the dimmer.
Cutoff angle
Angle from the vertical at which a reflector, louver or other shielding device cuts off direct visibility of a
lamp. It is the complimentary angel of the shielding angle.
TD-54
Glossary
Cutoff luminaire
Outdoor lighting accomplished by means of “cut off” fixture which essentially cuts off light output above
70° nadir. This generally results in better glare control.
Cut sheet
Also called submittal sheet, specification sheet and spec sheet. A data sheet that shows fixture dimensions, descriptions, options, and photometrics. These sheets are submitted by Lithonia Lighting agents
through the contractor, engineer and architect to obtain final approval on the specific equipment to be
furnished.
CW
Constant-wattage ballast. A type of H.I.D. ballast in which the primary and secondary coil are magnetically,
not electrically, connected. Considered a higher-performance, higher cost ballast featuring excellent regulation.
CWA
Constant wattage autotransformer. A type of H.I.D. ballast in which the primary and secondary coils are
electrically connected. Considered an appropriate balance between cost and performance.
D
Damp Location
Refers to a fixture suitable for installation in a location that is protected from weather, but subject to
moderate degrees of moisture, such as in cold storage warehouses or under partially protected canopies.
Damp location is standard on all fixtures except on emergency lighting equipment, when DL is added ot
the description.
Daylight compensation
A technique used to maintain a set light level. It utilizes a dimmer controlled by a photocell such that the
intensity of the lamps tracks with the daylight level detected by the photocell. As daylight levels increase,
lamp intensity decreased, consuming less energy.
DC
Direct current.
E
EMI
Electromagnetic interference.
EMT
Electrical metallic tubing.
ENT
Electrical non-metallic tubing.
ESCO
Energy service company.
F
FA
Fire alarm.
FLA
Full load amperes.
FLC
Full load current.
G
GFCI
Ground fault circuit interrupter.
TD-55
Glossary
H
HID
High-intensity discharge.
High power factor
(Abbr. HPF) Type of ballast with a .9 or higher rating power factor, which is achieved by using a capacitor.
High-pressure sodium
(Abbr. HPS) Type of high-intensity discharge lamp in which light is produced by radiation from sodium
vapor.
Hot restrike
The phenomenon of reinstating or re striking the arc in an H.I.D. light source after a momentary power
loss. Hot restrike occurs when the arc tube has cooled a sufficient amount.
Housing
Body of a fixture.
HVAC
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning.
Hydroforming
A method of forming sheet meal in which the metal is placed on a flexible rubber diaphragm which is
supported by oil under pressure. The meal is formed around a male punch as the diaphragm is raised.
The result part is generally of uniform thickness and quite strong.
Hz
Hertz (cycles per second).
I
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Ignitor
A device that generates a voltage pulse to start discharge lamps without having to pre-heat the electrodes.
Injection molding
Process for manufacturing plastic lenses whereby hot liquid plastic is injected into a lens mold of desired
shape and size.
IOU
Invester-owned utility.
ISO
International Organization for Standardization.
Iso-footcandle curve
(Also iso-plot) Used to illustrate points of equal illuminance on planes perpendicular to the lamp axis.
ITL
Independent Testing Laboratories. This independent laboratory is located in Boulder, CO. Lighting manufacturers use this laboratory to conduct photometric or environmental test for luminaires.
J
J-box
Junction box. A code–approved steel or plastic enclosure in which several wires come together for
connection, such as the taps for fixtures.
K
kHz
Kilohertz.
kV
Kilovolt.
kVA
Kilovolt-ampere.
TD-56
Glossary
kW
Kilowatt.
kWh
Kilowatt hour.
Knockout
(Abbr. KO) A portion of a metal enclosure which has been partially cut out but remains in place. It can be
easily removed or “knocked out” to permit an electrician to attach switches, convenience outlets, conduit
connectors, etc. Often referred to as a “KO.”
L
Lamp
The source of light in a fixture. Fluorescent lamps are often called “tubes.” Incandescent lamps are often
called “light bulbs.”
Lampholder
The bracket that holds a lamp in place.
Lay-in troffer
A fluorescent fixture that “lays” into a grid tee suspended ceiling.
LCD
Liquid crystal display.
LED
Light-emitting diode. Small circuit lamp used extensively in exit lights.
Lens
Diffuser or refractor for a light fixture. Usually made of glass or plastic.
Lens frame
The retainer (usually metal) to hold the lens in place in a fixture.
L.E.R.
Luminaire Efficacy Rating. Developed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and
approved by the National Lighting Collaborative to fulfill the requirements of the Energy Policy Act of
1992. The result is a lumens per watt rating that can be used to compare the energy efficiency of various
products. NEMA document LE5 describes the calculation of LER as:
EFF x TLL x BF
Input Watts
where EFF = luminaire efficiency, TLL = number of lamps per luminaire X rated lumens per lamp,
BF = ballast factor, and Input Watts = total system watts of the lumiinaire
Lexan
A trademarked polycarbonate material (General Electric) with inherent qualities of electrical insulation,
long life and durability. Used in the construction of many Lithonia Lighting products.
Life Safety Code®
A code written by the NFPA to ensure that building owners place equipment that will help to save lives in
an emergency. For example, emergency lighting equipment meets Life Safety Code requirements by
placing one footcandle of light on the “path of egress” or exit path in a building.
Light pollution
Light distributed in outdoor areas where light is not desired. Light pollution is typically caused by outdoor
lighting fixtures which may emit a substantial amount of light in an upward direction. This creates a
“haze” of light in the atmosphere that cannot be efficiently utilized.
Light trespass
Light that goes beyond the planned area.
Louver
Grid type assembly used instead of a lens on a fixture. Can range from small-cell plastic to the large-cell
anodized louvers used in parabolic fluorescent fixtures.
Low bay
Pertains to an application and/or the type of lighting in a manufacturing area or warehouse where the
ceiling height is 25 feet or lower.
Low power factor
An uncorrected power factor of less than .90.(see N.P.F.)
TD-57
Glossary
Low-pressure sodium
(Abbr. LPS) Type of high-intensity discharge lamp in which light is produced by radiation from sodium
vapor. Considered a monochromatic light source that renders most colors as grey.
Lucalox
Trademarked General Electric brand name for a high-pressure sodium lamp.
Lumalux
Trademarked Sylvania brand name for a high pressure sodium lamp.
Luminaire
A complete lighting unit, consisting of a lamp or lamps, the parts designed to distribute the light (housing), and any necessary starting components (ballast).
Luminaire efficiency
Total lumen output of a luminaire expressed as a percent of rated bare lamp lumens, as determined by
photometric tests.
Luminous efficacy
Total lumens emitted by a lamp divided by total lamp input power.
Lux
(Abbr. LX) The metric unit of measurement of the illuminance of a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen
per square meter.
M
Medium base
The familiar metal screw base used on standard household incandescent lamps. Medium-base sockets
accept lower-wattage lamps of this base size.
Mercury vapor
(Abbr. MV) A type of high-intensity discharge lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by
radiation from mercury. Emits a greenish cast of light.
Metal eggcrate
Metal louvers of various cell sizes typically used in fluorescent troffers.
Metal halide
(Abbr. MH) A type of high intensity discharge lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by
radiation of metal halide and mercury vapors in the arc tube. Includes clear and phosphor-coated lamps
that differ in their color-rendering characteristics.
Mitered
Refers to a fixture doorframe in which the corner pieces are joined together at a 45º angle as opposed to
square overlapping corners. A mitered corner is considered to be more architecturally pleasing.
Mogul base
A type of metal screw base used on larger lamps, primarily HID and some incandescent. Mogul-base
sockets accept higher-wattage lamps of this base size.
Mounting height
In given applications, the distance from the luminous area of the luminaire (typically the bottom) to the
floor or work plane.
Multi-tapped ballast
A ballast with tapped leads (wires) on the primary side which enables the ballast to function on more than
one supply voltage.
N
Nadir
The point of direction directly below the luminaire (0º angle).
NAED
Abbreviation for National Association of Electrical Distributors.
NEC
National Electrical Code. Complied by the NFPA to provide guidelines for the installation and application of
electrical equipment.
NECA
National Electrical Contractors Association. Professional society for electrical contractors, most of whom
are union members.
NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
TD-58
Glossary
NEMRA
National Electrical Manufacturers Representatives Association.
NPF
Normal Power Factor. A ballast/lamp conbination in which not components have been added to correct the
power factor; hence, normal power factor.
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association. The organization that publishes the National Electrical Code® and the
Life Safety Code®.
O
Occupancy sensor
Control device that acts as a light switch upon sensing that a person has entered a space. May be
ultrasonic, infrared, or other type.
OEM
Original equipment manufacturer.
Optics
The light-emitting or light-controlling components of a light fixture (reflector, refractor, lens, louvers,
etc.).
P
Panelboard
An electrical distribution device which converts incoming electrical power into several smaller circuits and
provides overload protection in the form of circuit breakers or fuses.
PAR lamp
Parabolic Aluminized Reflector lamp. An incandescent or low voltage lamp used to redirect light from the
filament in a manner resembling a parabolic reflector.
Paracube
A metallic-coated plastic louver comprised of small squares. Often used to replace the lens in an installed
troffer to enhance appearance. Also used in rooms with computer screens because of glare-reducing
qualities.
Path of egress
Quickest way out of a facility, usually under emergency conditions.
Photoelectric cell
A device used to convert radiant or light energy into the electrical energy, often used to control outdoor
light fixtures.
Photometrics
A photometric report is a set of printed data describing the light distribution, efficiency, and spacing
criteria of a luminaire. This report is generated from a test conducted in a photometric laboratory. A
photmetric curve is a two dimensional drawing illustrating the intensity of light emitted from a luminaire.
Plenum
Space between the structural ceiling slab and the finished ceiling.
Polyester powder paint
A type of plastic paint in a powder form that is sprayed on fixture parts. The paint and the metal fixture
parts are given opposite electrostatic charges, which causes the powder to adhere to the surface. It then
goes through a baking process that melts the paint to form a durable finish.
Power surge
A sudden surge of high voltage on a power distribution circuit, usually caused by lighting or the switching
on/off of heavy loads, especially motors.
Q
Quartz restrike
A system using quartz lamps to provide instantaneous light in the event of a power outage. It is used as
a supplement to HID sources that otherwise may require several minutes to restart after a power outage.
R
Reflector
The portion of a light fixture that shrouds the lamps and directs the light emitted from the lamps.
TD-59
Glossary
Refractor
A device used to redirect the light flow from a source, primarily by bending the waves of light.
Regressed
Describes a troffer doorframe in which the lens or louver is positioned above the ceiling plane.
Regulation
The ability of a ballast to hold constant (or nearly constant) the output watts (light output) during fluctuations in the voltage feeding the ballast. Normally specified as + or – percent change in output compared
to + or – percent change in input.
Reloc
Lithonia Lighting brand name for certain manufactured wiring systems (for lighting and electrical branch
circuit wiring) that are relocatable and reusable.
Remote head
A lamp head that is wired to an emergency lighting unit, but is mounted away from the unit itself. If a
power outage occurs, the parent unit supplies emergency power to the remote head.
retrofit
Refers to upgrading a fixture, room, building, etc., by furnishing new parts or equipment. Also, to change
a fixture out in the field.
RFI
Radio frequency interference.
Room cavity ratio
(Abbr. RCR) A ratio of room geometry used to quantify how light will intereact with room surfaces. The
room cavity is the portion of the space from the bottom of the luminaire to the workplane.
S
Screw-slot
Type of ceiling system, and type of fixture mounting trim, in which room partitions are screwed directly
into ceiling-mounted metal screw slot grids, making it easy to move the partitions around.
Shielding angle
The angle measured from the ceiling plane to the line of sight where the bare lamps in a luminaire becomes visible. The shielding angle affects direct glare. It is the complementary angle of the cutoff angle.
Sine wave
Wave form that represents periodic oscillations. Electrical voltage and current is transmitted in the form
of these waves.
Slipfitter
Metal connector that attaches a floodlight to a pole.
S/MH
Spacing-to-Mounting Height Ratio. Also called Spacing Criterion. Indicates the ratio of the maximum
spacing between luminaires to the mounting height above the work plane to achieve uniform illuminance.
Calculated from the photometric data, this ratio is multiplied by the application mounting height to determine the recommended maximum luminaire spacings. This ratio should not be greatly exceeded if uniform of the illumination is desired.
Socket
Component that holds the lamp base and supplies electrical power.
Spacing Criterion
See S/MH.
Specification
The precise written detail of the building contract that accompanies the building plans. Normally includes
all requirements of the general contractor and subcontractors to furnish and install the specified materials
and equipment using prescribed method and workmanship.
Spec sheet
Also called specification sheet, submittal sheet and cut sheet. A data sheet that shows fixture dimensions,
descriptions, options, and photometrics. These sheets are submitted by Lithonia Lighting agents through
the contractor, engineer and architect to obtain final approval on the specific equipment to be furnished.
Stroboscopic effect
Condition where high speed machinery or other rapidly moving objects appear to be standing still due to
the alternating current supplied to light sources.
TD-60
Glossary
Submittal sheet
See spec sheet.
T
Tapped ballast
A ballast with tapped leads (wires) on the primary side which enables the ballast to function on more than
one supply voltage.
Teflon
A fluoropolymer resin by Dupont. Used as a coating on some industrial fixtures to prevent corrosion
where there are certain type of pollutants in the air surrounding the fixture.
Tempered glass
Type of glass used in some light fixtures owing to its higher resistance to breakage than normal glass.
Tenon
Thermal protector
A metal device that enables an outdoor luminaire to be mounted to a pole.
A device that protects a ballast from overheating. The Class P thermal protector used in most ballasts is a
bi-metal switch that opens a circuit when the ballast becomes overheated, and closes the circuit when the
ballast cools down.
THHN
A type of heat-resistant thermoplastic conductor insulation used in some fixture wiring.
U
UL
Underwriters’ Laboratories. An independent organization whose responsibilities include rigorous testing
of electrical products. When products pass these tests, they can be labeled and advertised as “UL listed.”
UPS
Uninterruptible power supply.
V
VA
Volt-ampere.
Visor
A shield that can be mounted on top or sides of an outdoor fixture. The top visor provides horizontal
cutoff when a fixture is aimed 30° below horizontal. The independent side visors provide 45° horizontal
cutoff.
Volt
(Abbr. V) The unit of measuring electrical potential. It defines the force of pressure of electricity for the
satisfactory operation of an electrical device.
Voltage
Electrical potential or potential difference expressed in volts.
Voltmeter
Device used to measure in volts the differences of potential between different points in an electrical circuit.
W
Wall bracket
A type of wall-mounted fluorescent fixture for commercial and residential markets. Often used in corridors, lavatories and hospital rooms.
Wind chart
A chart showing the average annual wind velocities of various regions in the U.S.
Wall pack
(Also wall-pak) A wall-mounted light fixture. Often used for outdoor security lighting and small general
area lighting.
Wallwash
Term used to describe lighting that illuminates vertical surfaces, usually from ceiling to floor without
shadows or hot spots. Fixtures used to accomplish this task are called wallwashers.
TD-61
Glossary
Watt
(Abbr. W) The unit for measuring electrical power. It defines the energy consumed by an electrical device
when it is in operation. The cost of operating and electrical device is determined by the watts it consumes
times the hours of use. Volts x Amps = Watts
Wind load
Wind speed in miles per hour to which an outdoor lighting pole will be subjected. Wind loads vary geographically and are listed in an AASHTO publication,“Standard Specification for Structural Supports for
Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals.”
Wireguard
Assembly made of wire and usually mounted over the face of a fixture to protect the lamps or housing.
Work plane
The level at which work is done and at which illuminance is specified and measured. For office applications, this is typically a horizontal plane 30 inches above the floor. This measurement is important in all
calculations determining footcandle levels.
Wraparound
A surface-mounted commercial fluorescent fixture featuring a curved plastic lens that wraps around the
fluorescent lamp.
TD-62
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement