7KHDWUH/LJKWLQJ :LQWHU

7KHDWUH/LJKWLQJ :LQWHU
7KHDWUH/LJKWLQJ
:LQWHU
6DPSOH([DP)LUVW4XL]
6DPSOH([DP6HFRQG4XL]
/HFWXUH7RSLFV_'HVLJQ3URMHFWV:RUNVKHHWV_/LJKWLQJ/LQNV
Instructor:
/DUU\:LOG, Assistant Professor of Theatre
Office: JFAC 124A
Phone: 626-2513
Office Hours: 2pm to 3pm, Monday through Friday
E-mail address: [email protected]
Course objective:
To provide the student with a fundamental knowledge of the history, principles, procedures
and techniques of theatrical stage lighting.
Text:
7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ
$Q,QWURGXFWLRQWR6FHQH'HVLJQDQG&RQVWUXFWLRQ/LJKWLQJ6RXQG
&RVWXPHDQG0DNHXS (4th edition) by J. Michael Gillette. (Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 2000).
Supplemental material:
$%LEOLRJUDSK\RI6HOHFWHG/LJKWLQJ/LWHUDWXUH
-HDQ5RVHQWKDO$3KRWR(VVD\RQ/LJKW
7KH/LJKW/DE
Class Meetings:
Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00am to 12:15pm in JC 129.
Lecture Topics:
x
%ULHI+LVWRU\RI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
/LJKWLQJDQGWKH&RPSXWHU
7KH)XQFWLRQVDQG4XDOLWLHVRI/LJKW
&RORULQ/LJKW
0RGHOLQJZLWK/LJKW
/LJKW3ORW/LVWVDQG6FKHGXOHV
/LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU6SRWOLJKW
)UHVQHO/HQV6SRWOLJKW
3$5FDQ
)ROORZ6SRW
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU)ORRGOLJKW%RUGHU/LJKW
)LUVW/LWWOH4XL]
&RQWURO6\VWHPV
(OHFWULFDO7KHRU\DQG3UDFWLFH
$Q$SSURDFKWR/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQ
Lighting the Musical
/LJKWLQJWKH$UHQDDQG7KUXVW6WDJH
/LJKWLQJWKH'DQFH
Concert Lighting
Paper Projects...
x
x
x
&UHDWLQJD/LJKWLQJ&RPSRVLWLRQZLWK9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE
'HYHORSLQJD5HSHUWRU\/LJKW3ORW
7KH)LQDO3URMHFW
WorkSheets
x
x
x
*HO:RUNVKHHW
%HDP:ULJKW:RUN6KHHW
,QVWUXPHQW&KRLFH:RUNVKHHW
Each student is expected to...
1. $WWHQG a performance (or dress rehearsal) of both 7KH%XQJOHU (February 19 - 22)
and 7KH/DUDPLH3URMHFW (April 23 - 26),
2. Demonstrate his/her ability to IRFXV a Fresnel lens spotlight,
3. )RFXV and VKXWWHU an Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight,
4. Create a SDWFK and H[HFXWH a series of Qs on the MainStage (6WUDQG0DQWUL[0;)
console,
5. Participate on the lighting crew for at least one of the two MainStage faculty
productions: 7KH%XQJOHU or 7KH/DUDPLH3URMHFW.
Grading:
x
7ZRH[DPV-- 50%
x
x
x
x
9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE3URMHFW-- 10%
5HSHUWRU\/LJKW3ORW-- 10%
)LQDO3URMHFW-- 10%
&UHZZRUN-- 20%
Disability Policy:
If you have a physical, psychiatric/emotional, medical or learning disability that may
impact on your ability to carry out assigned course work, I urge you to contact the staff in
the 2IILFHRI'LVDELOLW\6HUYLFHV2'6, (Karen Gerety, Coordinator), University Center
217, 626- 2371. They will review your concerns and determine, with you, what
accommodations are necessary and appropriate. All information and documentation of
disability is confidential.
Lighting Links
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
$OWPDQ6WDJH/LJKWLQJ&RPSDQ\
Lighting Instruments
&RORUWUDQ, a division of Leviton
Lighting Instruments, Control Consoles, Dimmers
'RYH6\VWHPV
Control Consoles, Dimmers
(7&(OHFWURQLF7KHDWUH&RQWUROV
Control Consoles, Dimmers, Lighting Instruments
*$03URGXFWV
Color Media, Patterns (Gobos), Scenic Projector
/(/LJKWLQJDQG(OHFWURQLFV
Lighting Instruments
/HH)LOWHUV
Color Media
0F.HUQRQ6RIWZDUH
The home of /LJKWZULJKW, %HDPZULJKW and John’s Pearls of Wisdom.
5RVFR/DERUDWRULHV
Color Media, Paint, Fog Machines
6WUDQG/LJKWLQJ
Control Consoles, Dimmers, Lighting Instruments
Larry Wild’s Home Page
(PDLOTXHVWLRQVDQGFRPPHQWVWR/DUU\
:LOGDWZLOGO#QRUWKHUQHGX
/DVWXSGDWHG$XJXVW
‹E\/DUU\:LOG1RUWKHUQ
6WDWH8QLYHUVLW\$EHUGHHQ6'
$%ULHI2XWOLQH
RIWKH
+LVWRU\RI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ
5HIHUHQFH
Bel Geddes, Norman. 0LUDFOHLQWKH(YHQLQJ. Garden City, NY: Double Day and
Co., Inc. 1960
Bergman, Gosta Mauri. /LJKWLQJLQWKH7KHDWUH. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell
International. 1977
Fuchs, Theodore. 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ New York: B. Blum. 1963 (1929)
Hartman, Louis. 7KHDWUH/LJKWLQJ$0DQXDORIWKH6WDJH6ZLWFKERDUG New
York: DBS Publications. 1970 (1930)
Owen, Bobbi. /LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHUVRQ%URDGZD\. New York:
Greenwood Press. 1991.
Owens, Bobbi. 6FHQH'HVLJQHUVRQ%URDGZD\. New York: Greenwood Press. 1991.
Pendleton, Ralph. 7KH7KHDWUHRI5REHUW(GPRQG-RQHV. Middletown, CT.
Wesleyan University Press. 1958
2QWKH,QWHUQHW
Kliegl Bros.Collector’s Society
/LJKWLQJ(TXLSPHQW - /LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHUV - /LJKWLQJ(GXFDWRUV - 7LPH/LQH
/LJKWLQJ(TXLSPHQW
*HQHUDO,OOXPLQDWLRQ &DQGOH2LO/DPS*DV(OHFWULF
6SHFLILF,OOXPLQDWLRQ /LPH/LJKW$UF/LJKW(OHFWULF6SRWOLJKW
*HQHUDO,OOXPLQDWLRQ
*HQHUDOLOOXPLQDWLRQ provides a diffuse, shadow less, wash of light over the entire
stage space.
x
&DQGOH
o ,WDO\ Candles are introduced in both the academic
(7HDWUR2OLPSLFR) and court (7HDWUR)DUQHVH) theatres.
o (QJODQGV Used in the SULYDWH (indoor) WKHDWUHV and Ingo
Jones’ (1573-1652) &RXUW0DVTXHV .
o V Reintroduced during the English Restoration.
0RXQWLQJ3RVLWLRQV &KDQGHOLHUV over both the stage and the house,
)URQWHGJH of the stage (footlights), and /DGGHUV between each pair
of side wings.
x 2LO/DPS
o V Swiss chemist Aime Argand develops the modern oil lamp
which soon replaces the candle as the primary light source.
o 0RXQWLQJ3RVLWLRQV The same as with candles--&KDQGHOLHUV, )RRW
OLJKWV, and /DGGHUV in the wings.
x *DV
o The world’s first gas stage-lighting system is installed at the
&KHVWQXW6WUHHW7KHDWUH in Philadelphia.
o Gas-lighting systems are installed in London’s two legitimate
houses: 'UXU\/DQH and &RYHQW*DUGHQ.
o V Gas light is in experimental use in most countries of the
Western World.
o V Gas lighting is widely adapted and the JDVWDEOH (control
board) makes its appearance.
o V The incandescent mantle (the $XHUEXUQHU) is introduced
producing a much brighter and safer light.
o 0RXQWLQJ3RVLWLRQV )RRWOLJKWV, %RUGHU/LJKWV (between each pair of
scenic borders), and :LQJ/LJKWV (between each pair of scenic
wings). For example in the late V, the stage of the 5R\DO7KHDWUH
in Stockholm was illuminated with 562 burners:
ƒ 66 in the )RRW/LJKWV,
ƒ 8 sets of :LQJ/LJKWV with 9 gas jets each, and
ƒ 8 %RUGHU/LJKWV with 44 burners per position.
x (OHFWULF
o Thomas Edison perfects the first practical incandescent electric
lamp.
o London’s 6DYR\7KHDWUH installs the world’s first electric
lighting system-- 824- 16 candle power ODPSV were used to light the
stage and an additional 334 lights illuminated the auditorium.
o The first American installation of electric lights is at Boston’s
%LMRX
V7KHDWUH.
o V By the end of the 19th century most "modern" theatres have
switched from gas lights to the much safer electric lights.
o .OLHJO%URWKHUV installs an electrical lighting system with 96
resistance dimmers (and 20 additional dimmers for house lights) at
the 0HWURSROLWDQ2SHUD+RXVH in New York City. See the illustration
below.
o 0RXQWLQJ3RVLWLRQV The same as with gas-lighting: )RRWOLJKWV,
%RUGHUOLJKWV and :LQJOLJKWV. When the new 6WRFNKROP2SHUD+RXVH
opened in , the stage was illuminated with a three color (white,
red, and green) lighting system using 544- 25 candle power lamps
per color-- a total of 1632 lights.
ƒ 40/color in the )RRW/LJKWV,
ƒ 9 %RUGHU/LJKWV with 40 lights/color.
o
ƒ 9
sets of :LQJ/LJKWV with 8 lamps/color, and
7KH0HWURSROLWDQ2SHUD+RXVH1HZ<RUN&LW\
(1903)
The above illustration of the "new" electrical system at the 0HWURSROLWDQ2SHUD
+RXVH is from a 1913 .OLHJO%URWKHUV catalogue. Note the eight set of ERUGHUOLJKWV
above. the four sets of ZLQJOLJKWV on the sides of the stage, the seven EXQFKOLJKWV
mostly up stage, the VZLWFKERDUG in the basement and the HOHFWULFLDQ standing in the
"prompter’s box."
6SHFLILF,OOXPLQDWLRQ
6SHFLILFLOOXPLQDWLRQ, introduced by the OLPHOLJKW in the middle of the 19th
century, provides a sharp, highly controlled shaft of light. These shafts were used to
highlight a small area of the stage, a principle actor, or create the illusion of sunlight
(or moonlight). These units were typically placed in the balconies of the auditorium
or the galleries on the sides of the stage house. The electrical installation at
New York’s 0HWURSROLWDQ2SHUD included 14 OHQVER[HV (spotlights), 12 powerful
RSHQIDFHGFDUERQDUFIORRGOLJKWV and 12- ODPSEXQFKOLJKWV (floodlights) in
addition to the four color (white - amber - red - blue) foot lights, proscenium lights,
and the eight sets of border lights.
x
/LPH/LJKW
o The FDOFLXPOLJKW (also known as a OLPHOLJKW or 'UXPPRQG
OLJKW) is demonstrated by Thomas Drummond, it’s inventor.
o English actor-manager Charles Macready uses a OLPHOLJKW at
London’s &RYHQW*DUGHQ.
o VV The OLPHOLJKW is in general use in "modern" theatres. By
the end of the V as many as eleven units were used in
productions at Stockholm’s 5R\DO7KHDWUH .
V The OLPHOLJKW is beginning to be replaced by the newer and
brighter FDUERQDUF lamp.
x $UF/DPS
o
x Sir Humphry Davy demonstrates a FDUERQDUF
ODPS powered by a 2,000 cell battery. Further
development is halted by the lack of a readily available
power supply.
x Hippolyte Pixii, a French instrument maker,
builds an experimental direct current dynamo
(generator).
x An DUFODPS is used to create a sunrise effect
at the Paris Opera’s production of Meyerbeer’s /H
3URSKHWH.
x Charles Brush develops a practical dynamo
making the FDUERQDUFODPS a workable source of light
x VThe FDUERQDUFODPS begins to replace the
FDOFLXPOLJKW in the "modern" theatre. The illustration
on
the left is a .OLHJO1R, a 5" /HQV%R[ with a 25
.OLHJO1R
amp
(2750 watt) FDUERQDUFODPS (1913).
5" 25 amp
spotlight x V The newer and safer LQFDQGHVFHQW spotlight,
using a modern 1000 watt lamp, begins to replace the
FDUERQDUF for general theatrical use.
x V &DUERQDUFODPSV continue to be used as a
IROORZVSRW until the end of the 20th century.
x
(OHFWULF6SRWOLJKW
.OLHJO1R1
5" 1000 watt spotlight
x Louis Hartmann builds a small
(5" lens) spotlight, a EDE\OHQV, which
used a 50 candle power (approximately 50
watt) lamp for David Belasco’s production
of 7KH0XVLF7HDFKHU.
x Hartman uses 4-- 250 watt EDE\
OHQVHV (in addition to 31-- 1,5000 watt
carbon-arc spots) in Belasco’s 7KH5RVHRI
5DQFKHUR.
x Edison introduces the 500 watt
lamp.
x Edison introduces a
"concentrated filament" lamp for use in a
OHQVKRRG (spotlight).
x Kliegl Brothers markets the 1R
, a 5" %DE\6SRW built around a 100
candle power lamp. According to the
catalogue, the unit provided a "mild ray of
light."
x The 1000 watt lamp becomes
available.
x Designer Norman Bel Geddes
replaces the FDUERQDUFODPS in a OHQVER[
with a 1000w incandecent lamp.
x V 5", 6" and 8" PlanoConvex
spotlights (OHQVKRRGV), using a 1000 watt
lamp, begin replacing the /LPH/LJKW and
&DUERQ$UF lamp.The illustration on the
left is of a .OLHJO1R1, a 5" /HQV%R[
with a 1000 watt lamp (1926). Note the
similarity between the 1R and the 1R
1.
x Kliegl Brothers introduces the
)UHVQHOOHQVVSRWOLJKW.
x V Both Kliegl Brothers
(.OLHJOLJKW) and Century (/HNR/LJKW)
introduce the HOOLSVRLGDOUHIOHFWRU
VSRWOLJKW.
/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHUV
$GROSKLD$SSLD1RUPRQ%HO*HGGHV5REHUW(GPRQG-RQHV)HGHU
-HDQ5RVHQWKDO7KDURQ0XVVHU-XOHV)LVKHU.HQ%LOOLQJWRQ
x
$GROSKLD$SSLD (1862-1928)
Swiss writer/designer, $GROSK$SSLD was one of the leading visionary of
the late 19th century. Many believe that the modern concept of lighting
design began with his writing.
In 'LH0XVLNXQGGLH,QV]HQLHUXQJ0XVLFDQG6WDJLQJ (1899) he
distinguished three kinds of stage light.
1. +HOOLJNHLW, the "diffused light" which illuminated the general acting
space,
2. *HVWDOWHQGHV/LFKW, the "creative light" which creates the highlights
and shadows, revealing the three dimensional world, and
3. 3DLQWHG/LJKW, the highlight and shadows painted on the scenery by
the scenic artist. This static, painted light, was not a part of Appia’s
vision.
7ULVWDQDQG,VROGH
VFHQH for Wagner’s 7ULVWDQDQG,VROGH:
Appia’s sketches indicate a
plastic, three dimensional set
(steps, columns, ramps,
platforms) revealed in
directional light. He believed
that shifting light should
create an inner drama which
flows and changes with the
texture of the music; that the
intensity, color and direction
of the light should reflect the
changing atmosphere or
mood of the work. Perhaps
the best illustration of this
concept is Appia’s PLVHHQ
"The terrace in front of Tristan’s castle is modeled in light and shadows as a
dream vision, in dazzling sunlight when Tistan sinks into unconsciousness,
in the blood-red light of sunset fading into twilight and, finally, into a hazy
darkness around the lonely, white figure of Isolde." (Bergman. p327-328)
Appia suggests four different lighting looks or cues:
o
o
o
o
starting with (4) "dazzling sunlight"
x-fading into (4) "blood-red light of sunset"
fading into (4) "twilight" and
finally (4) "hazy darkness."
This was difficult in 1899 when the primary lighting equipment consisted of
foot lights, rows of border lights and perhaps a dozen lime lights (or arc
lamps).
x
1RUPDQ%HO*HGGHV (1893-1958)
1RUPDQ%HO*HGGHV, an American theatrical (and industrial) designer, was
born in Adrian, Michigan, briefly attended the Cleveland Institute of Art and
the Art Institute of Chicago and was an illustrator in a Detroit advertising
agency. In the evenings he built a model theatre complete with a model
electric lighting system. He used this model to experiment with "modern"
staging. As he writes in his autobiography, 0LUDFOHLQWKH(YHQLQJ (1960),
these experiments...
made it clear that the first row of overhead lamps should be
in front of the proscenium instead of behind it. Overhead
lamps located at a forty-five-degree angle in front of the
curtain line produced modeling in facial features, and life to
the eyes, which neither border nor footlights could achieve.
They were equally favorable for the figures and clothing of
the players and, owing to the concentrated beam, did not
strike the scenery. (p.136)
In 1916, at the age of 23, he left the Detroit advertising world to became the
resident designer for Aline Barnsdall’s short lived /LWWOH7KHDWUHRI/RV
$QJHOHV. The company leased the 450 seat theatre at the Egan Dramatic
School and Bel Geddes, with the aid of the company’s electrician, built a
dozen spotlights by installing new 1000 watt lamps in twelve old FDUERQDUF
ODPSOHQVKRRGV. According to his autobiography...
I placed lights in the auditorium chandeliers, on the sides of
the balcony rail, and put a whole line of them behind the
proscenium. This was as they had been in my Detroit model.
The system replaced the theater stage lighting equipment of
low intensity flood lighting from foots, borders, and bunch
lamps. The new method provided high intensity individual
lamps, which could be focused on any area of the stage floor
or scenery, in any color, with a variable amount of light due
to individual dimmer control. All were operated from the
stage switchboard by a single electrician. This installation, at
the /LWWOH7KHDWUHRI/RV$QJHOHV in 1916, was the first use of
focus lamps as the sole means of lighting the stage. Two
years later I made the first installation in New York...Today
the system is in universal use. (p. 161)
Two years later in 1918 he (1) presented a successful lighting demonstration
to Broadway producer Winthrop Ames, (2) was contracted to redesign the
lighting system, using new 1000 watt spotlights, at the both the /LWWOH
7KHDWUH (now the +HOHQ+D\HV7KHDWUH) and the %RRWK7KHDWUH, (3) lit, with
18- 1000 watt spotlights, a six show, summer stock season, at the 3DEVW
7KHDWUH in Milwaukee, (Sets designed by 31 year old Robert Edmond
Jones), and (4) received his first New York design credit.
Today he is primarily remembered for his massive theatrical designs,
especially those for Austrian director: Max Reinhardt (1873-1943). Like
most designers of the period, he created both the scenic environment and the
lighting design.
7KH'LYLQH&RPHG\
Probably his most famous theatrical creation
was the monumental 1921 design for Dante
Alagherii’s 7KH'LYLQH&RPHG\. The set for
this unproduced project was 124’ wide and
148’ deep. The two massive side towers
which framed the SLW were each 59 feet tall.
This imaginative theatrical concept exists
today as a notated "script", sketches, a
scaled ground plan and front elevation, and
a number of photographs taken on an 8’ by
8’ model.
He designed two massive productions for Max Reinhardt-- 7KH0LUDFOHin
1924 and 7KH(WHUQDO5RDG in 1937. For the New York production of Karl
Vollmoeller’s word-less Biblical pageant: 7KH0LUDFOH, Bel Geddes
converted the 2000+ seat Century Theatre into a realistic 15th century
cathedral. In 1937, for 7KH(WHUQDO5RDG, an Old Testement spectacle by
Kurt Weill (score) and Franz Werfel (text), he created, on the huge stage of
Oscar Hammerstein’s Manhatten Opera House, a winding road which
reached from the front edge of the orchestra to the "Promised Paradise."
This four hour production which had a cast of hundreds and tons of solidlybuilt scenery was a critical success but a commercial failure.
In the fall of 1931, Bel Geddes designed and staged a three act, two hour
fifteen minute melodramatic interpretation of Shakespeare’s +DPOHW. The
production starring Raymond Massy ran for 28 performances at the
Broadhurst Theatre. The thirteen scenes were presented on a single
architectural set containing a flat neutral playing area, four large raised
platforms, a series of steps, four huge towers, and a wrap-around cyc. There
were ten hidden entrances into the acting space. Like other Bel Geddes
designs, the set broke the proscenium line thrusting the action of the play
twenty feet into the auditorium. Locations within the unit set were
established through the choice of specific props and the careful focus of the
beams of light.
Six years earlier in a French production of -HDQQH'
$UF, on a very similar
architectural set, Bel Geddes used only 3 sections of border lights, 24- 1000
watt 6 inch "focusing" spot lights, 3- 400 watt "baby" spots and 18- 1000
watt cyclorama floods. His autobiography, 0LUDFOHLQWKH(YHQLQJ was
published in 1960, two years after his death (Garden City, NY: Double Day
and Co., Inc). Link to 1RUPDQ%HO*HGGHV
production credits listed in the
,QWHUQHW%URDGZD\'DWDEDVH (www.ibdb.com).
x
5REHUW(GPRQG-RQHV (1887-1954)
5REHUW(GPRQG-RQHV is considered the father of American scene design.
He graduated from Harvard in 1910, traveled to Europe to study the "New
StageCraft" and returned to America at the beginning of World War I. He
shocked American audiences in 1915 with his simple presentational set for
Arthur Hopkin’s production of 7KH0DQ:KR0DUULHGD'XPE:LIH
(directed by Granville Barker).
0DFEHWK
The %DQTXHW6FHQH - Act III, Scene iv
Today he is primarily
remembered for the staging
of Eugene O’Neill’s 'HVLUH
8QGHUWKH(OPV (1924) and
his vivid dramatic lighting
for Arthur Hopkins’ three
Shakespearean productions:
5LFKDUG,,, (1920) with John
Barrymore, 0DFEHWK (1921)
with Lionel Barrymore, and
+DPOHW (1922) with John
Barrymore. The
expressionistic production of
0DFEHWK was performed on a
bare stage under the constant
gaze of three gigantic,
moveable, witches masks.
The primary acting areas
were isolated in carefully
focused shafts of light.
For this production of 0DFEHWK, Jones used 14- Spotlights on the First
Electric, 5- Spotlights on each of the two Torm positions and 4 Baby Spots
(focused on the three masks) in the foot light trough. Six lamps were used to
light the %DQTXHW6FHQH (III,iv) illustrated above-- two down lights center,
one side light from stage left and the three baby spots focused on the masks.
Link to 5REHUW(GPRQG-RQHV’ production credits listed in the ,QWHUQHW
%URDGZD\'DWDEDVH (www.ibdb.com).
x $EH)HGHU (1909-1997)
$EH)HGHU, who liked to refer to himself as a "worker in light" invented the
position of /LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHU. After studying engineering and theatre
technology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon
University) in Pittsburgh, PA he went to New York City and began a fifty
year career in Light. Over three hundred Broadway shows including
Nazimova’s productions of *KRVWV (1935) and +HGGD*DEOHU (1936), ,
G
5DWKHUEH5LJKW (1937), ,QKHULWWKH:LQG (1955), 0\)DLU/DG\ (1956), and
&DPHORW (1960) carry the "Lighting by Feder" credit. Between 1935 and
1939 he lit more than 200 projects for the WPA Federal Theatre. Included in
this extensive list is T.S. Elliot’s 0XUGHULQWKH&DWKHGUDO (1936), the Living
Newspaper’s presentations of 3RZHU (1937) and 2QH7KLUGRID1DWLRQ
(1938) and Orson Welles’ famous productions of a "vodoo" 0DFEHWK (1936)
x
set on a West Indies island, 'U)DXVWXV (1937) staged on a bare stage
surrouinded by black drapes, and 7KH&UDGOH:LOO5RFN (1938) which was
locked out of its theatre by the government and forced to give an "outlaw"
performance in the Venice Theatre. Link to the FTP Production Notebooks
(prompt scripts) for Dr. Faustus and Macbeth.
In addition to design, he wrote the unit on stage lighting in John Gassner’s
3URGXFLQJWKH3OD\ (1940). He used his lighting design for Nazimova’s
production of Ibsen’s *KRVWV (1935) at the Empire Theatre to illustrate
typical practice in the mid-1930s. The layout, which he considered
"necessary for general lighting of this type of production" included..
o
o
o
o
o
6-- 500 watt 6" Ellipsoidals on the balcony rail
22-- 400 watt 6" Fresnels on the First Pipe,
4-- 400 watt 6" Fresnels on the First Torm left and right
2-- Sections of 200 watt strip lights on the First Pipe, and,
2-- Sections of 60 watt foot lights.
In addition to the general light, Feder used 2-- 250 watt baby spots, 5-- 1000
watt 16" Beam Projectors, 2-- 1000 watt flood lights and 7-- R-40 strip
lights to light the backings of Stewart Chaney’s set. In contrast he used 78
units (including 7 front-of-house) for Welles’ 0DFEHWK and 114 (with 22
front-of-house) lamps on 'U)DXVWXV.
Building on his theatrical experience, Feder created a second career as an
architectural lighting designer. Structures which carry the Lighting by Feder
credit include New York’s RCA/GE building in Rockefeller Center, the
Empire State building and the United Nations building. In 1993 Abe Feder
was the first to be honored as a 86,77'LVWLQJXLVKHG/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHU
Link to $EH)HGHU’s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway
Database (www.ibdb.com).
x
-HDQ5RVHQWKDO (1912-1969)
Today, over thirty years after her death, -HDQ5RVHQWKDOis primarily
remembered as the Lighting Designer for some of the great musicals of the
nineteen-fifties and sixties and the early comedies of Neil Simon. This list of
Broadway shows includes :HVW6LGH6WRU\ (1957), 7KH6RXQGRI0XVLF
(1959), %DUHIRRWLQWKH3DUN (1963), )LGGOHURQWKH5RRI (1964), +HOOR
'ROO\ (1964), 7KH2GG&RXSOH (1965), &DEDUHW (1966), and 3OD]D6XLWH
(1968).
After briefly studying acting and dance at New York’s Neighborhood
Playhouse and three years at Yale University she arrived in New York and
became a technical assistant with the WPA Federal Theatre, Project 891.
John Houseman was the producer, Orson Welles the director, Nat Carson the
scene designer, and Abe Feder the lighting designer. When Houseman took
a leave of absence in the fall of 1936 to stage Leslie Howard in
Shakespeare’s +DPOHW at the Imperial Theatre, he brought Rosenthal along as
the assistant stage manager in charge of lighting. When the man from the
rental house, who was to install the electrical system became ill, Rosenthal
suddenly became the "worker in light." I assume the lighting system she
designed was similar to the layout created by Abe Feder for Welles’
Elizabethan productions at the Federal Theatre. This was, perhaps, her
earliest OLJKWLQJ credit.
Following the outlaw performance of 7KH&UDGOH:LOO5RFN, John Houseman
was fired and Orson Welles resigned from the Federal Theatre. These two
men joined forces and created the legendary Mercury Theatre. Jean
Rosenthal became their production and lighting manager. Although credited
as the "Production Manager," it is believed that she designed the lighting for
the eight productions staged by the company.
Probably her most influencial work was with the 0DUWKD*UDKDP'DQFH
&RPSDQ\ (1934-1969) and the 1HZ<RUN&LW\%DOOHW (1948-1957). Her
imprint on the world of dance is huge. Echoing a comment by dance
designer Thomas Skelton, "Jeannie Rosenthal invented dance lighting." Link
to -HDQ5RVHQWKDO’s production credits listed in the ,QWHUQHW%URDGZD\
'DWDEDVH (www.ibdb.com).
For more information on Miss Rosenthal, link to my Jean Rosenthal page.
x
7KDURQ0XVVHU (1925- )
7KDURQ0XVVHU is the current 'HDQRI$PHULFDQ/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHUV She
graduated from Berea College in 1946 and like Rosenthal, attended Yale
University (MFA: 1950) before moving to New York and becoming an
assistant in Rosenthal’s studio. Her first Broadway lighting credit was Jose
Quintero’s staging of Eugene O’Neill’s /RQJ'D\V-RXUQH\LQWR1LJKW (1956)
at the original Helen Hayes Theatre.
Among the many musicals she designed are two of the longest running
Broadway shows: Michael Bennett’s $&KRUXV/LQH (1975 to 1990), which
introduced a computer controled lighting system to the Broadway theatre,
and Gower Champion’s QG6WUHHW (1980 to 1988). Her dramatic credits
include Neil Simon’s autobiographical trilogy: %ULJKWRQ%HDFK0HPRLUV
(1983), %HOR[L%OXHV (1985), and %URDGZD\%RXQG (1987). She has worked
with the -RVH/LPRQ'DQFH&RPSDQ\, the $PHULFDQ%DOOHW7KHDWUH, and the
Dallas and Miami Opera Companies.
In 1972 she won her first 7RQ\$ZDUG for Michael Bennett’s )ROOLHV which
was followed by 7RQ\
V for Michael Bennett’s$&KRUXV/LQH (1976) and his
'UHDPJLUOV (1982). She was honored as a 86,77'LVWLQJXLVKHG/LJKWLQJ
'HVLJQHU in 1996. Link to 7KDURQ0XVVHU’s production credits listed in the
,QWHUQHW%URDGZD\'DWDEDVH (www.ibdb.com).
x
-XOHU)LVKHU (1937- )
In his 30 year career, Jules Fisher,
a graduate of Carnegie Institute
of Technology (now CarnegieMellon) (1960), has lit over 150
Broadway and off-Broadway
shows, as well as film, dance,
opera, television, and rock-androll concert tours. His first
Broadway credit was 6SRRQ
5LYHU$QWKRORJ\ which opened at
the Booth Theatre in September
1963. He has received 16 Tony
nominations and has won 7 Tony
awards, a record in the lighting
(1996)
category, for 3LSSLQ (1973),
8O\VVHVLQ1LJKWWRZQ (1974),
'DQFLQ¶ (1978), *UDQG+RWHO (1990), 7KH:LOO5RJHUV)ROOLHV (1991), -HOO\¶V
/DVW-DP (1992), and (Co-designed with Peggy Eisenhauer) %ULQJLQµGD
1RLVH%ULQJLQµGD)XQN (1996). In addition to his seven Tony awards,
Fisher has been honored twice, in 1987 and again in 1995, by the 86,77.
He designed the lighting for Kevin Kline’s "Great Performances" production
of +DPOHW (1990) for PBS, and has lit productions of 3RUJ\DQG%HVV and $
0LGVXPPHU1LJKW¶V'UHDP for the New York City Opera company.
He was production supervisor (and lighting designer) for tours of the Rolling
Stones (for which he won a 1976 ,(6/XPHQ$ZDUG), KISS, David Bowie,
and the rock concert version of 7KH:KR
V7RPP\.
He has designed the lighting for the Radio City Music Hall presentation of
7KH7HHQDJH0XWDQW1LQMD7XUWOHV, the $FDGHP\$ZDUGV6KRZ,
Quincy Jones'5HXQLRQRQWKH0DOO concert for President Bill Clinton’s
inaugural, $PHULFD¶V0LOOHQQLXP/LYH$OO6WDU&RQFHUW1HZ<HDU¶V(YH
and the concert segments of Barbra Streisand’s 1976 film: $6WDULV
%RUQ and the theatre segments of Rob Marshall'
s &KLFDJR7KH0XVLFDO
(2002).
In 1993 he began the %URDGZD\/LJKWLQJ0DVWHU&ODVV, a four day seminar
conducted by major New York lighting designers. Link to -XOHV)LVKHU'
s
production credits listed in the ,QWHUQHW%URDGZD\'DWDEDVH
(www.ibdb.com).
.HQ%LOOLQJWRQ (1946- )
.HQ%LOOLQJWRQis probably the most successful "young" lighting designer.
After graduating from high school, he went directly to New York City where
he studied at Lester Polakov'
s 6WXGLRDQG)RUXPRI6WDJH'HVLJQ and
"apprenticed" with Peggy Clark and Tharon Musser. As he has said, "If I'
ma
good designer today it'
s because I learned so much from Tharon -- I always
x
x
x
x
x
x
say I went to Musser U." He began as a "go for" and worked his way up to
"assistant." He observed Tharon at work and used her techniques in small
off-Broadway venues. After receiving his first New York lighting credit, an
off-Broadway production: )RUWXQHDQG0HQ
V(\HV and supervising several
non-union designers in Broadway houses, he got his big chance. In the fall
of 1973 he received (what I believe was) his first Broadway credit for the
three show season of the 1HZ3KHRQL[5HSHUWRU\7KHDWUHat the Ethel
Barrymore Theatre. One of the three productions, a revival of Dürrenmatt'
s
7KH9LVLW, was nominated for a Tony.
Billington has designed over 75 Broadway shows, 50 off-Broadway
productions, 60 operas for companies like the Houston Grand Opera, the
Chicago Lyric Opera, the New York City Opera, the Christmas and Easter
Show for Radio City Music Hall and Las Vegas acts for performers like
Ann-Margaret, Shirley MacLaine and Liberace. He has developed a
reputation for lighting big production: 6ZHHQ\7RGG (1979), Discover Card'
s
6WDUVRQ,FH, 5LYHUGDQFH, and )RRWORRVH (1998); and especially star driven
revivals of classic American musicals: 0\)DLU/DG\ (1981) with Rex
Harrison, )LGGOHURQWKH5RRI (1990) with Topol. and +HOOR'ROO\ (1995)
with Carol Channing,
In 1997 he won the 7RQ\ for the Broadway revival of Bob Fosse'
s &KLFDJR
and was honored as a 86,77'LVWLQJXLVKHG/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHU in 1996. He is
presently an Adjunct Professor of Drama at Carnegie-Mellon University.
s production credits listed in the ,QWHUQHW%URDGZD\
Link to .HQ%LOOLQJWRQ'
'DWDEDVH (www.ibdb.com).
/LJKWLQJ(GXFDWRUV
6WDQOH\0F&DQGOHVV7KHRGRUH)XFKV
x
6WDQOH\0F&DQGOHVV (1897-1967)
6WDQOH\0F&DQGOHVV, architect, designer, author, illumination consultant
and lighting professor at Yale University from 1925 to 1964, was probably
the most influencial teacher in the field of theatrical lighting.
After graduating from the University of Wisconsin in 1920, 0DF received a
Master of Arts degree in architecture from Harvard University (1923). He
worked several years as an architect before becoming a lighting consultant
in the late 1920s. He used an ellipsoidal reflector in the house light fixtures
he designed for the Center Theatre in New York'
s Radio City (1932). These
units were the prototype for the ellipsoidal reflector spotlight he created for
Ed Kook and Chuck Levy'
s Century Lighting-- The /HNR.
In 1925, he and George Pierce Baker (1866-1935), who he had met at
Harvard, created Yale University’s School of Drama. The following year,
1926, he offered the first academic class in Stage Lighting. During his 39
year tenure at Yale he would teach some of America’s most important
lighting designers including both Jean Rosenthal and Tharon Musser. $
*ORVVDU\RI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ was published in 1926, this was followed by $
6\OODEXVRI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ, first published in 1927, and $0HWKRGRI
/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH (1932). McCandless’ PHWKRG is still the basic foundation
of modern stage lighting.
He retired from teaching in 1964 and died three years later at the age of 70.
x
7KHRGRUH)XFKV (1904- )
7KHRGRUH)XFKV, an author, teacher, and theatre consultant, graduated from
high school at the age of 15 and had earned a bachelor’s degree in both
Chemical and Electrical Engineering by the time he was 19. According to
one source, he was a lighting design student of Stanley McCandless, before
joining the staff of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. He retired
from Northwestern, after 42 years of service, at the end of the 1969-1970
academic year.
His most significant work, 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ, was published by Little Brown
and Company in 1929, making it one of the earliest theatrical lighting texts.
Ten years later in 1939, Samuel French published +RPH%XLOW/LJKWLQJ
(TXLSPHQWIRUWKH6PDOO6WDJH, an expansion of Chapter Seven from his
1929 work. In the early 1950s he self published, through Northwestern
University, several "books" on suggested layouts of stage lighting equipment
for the school and college auditorium.
One of his major contributions as a consultant, especially in educational
theatres in the midwest, was the 3ODVWHU&\F -- replacing the traditional 6N\
'URS with a permanent, off-white, sand-blasted plastered rear wall.
He was presented the 86,77$ZDUG for his "lifetime contribution to the
performing arts community" at the 1980 Kansas City Conference. His
professional papers have been archived in the 7KHRGRUH)XFKV&ROOHFWLRQRQ
7KHDWUH7HFKQRORJ\ in the Lee Library on campus of Brigham Young
University in Provo, Utah.
7LPH/LQH
The first reference to a designer is KLJKOLJKWHG.
x
1879- Edison "invents" the incandescent lamp
1880’s
x
1881- London’s 6DYR\7KHDWUH installs the first theatrical electrical lighting
system
1890’s
x
1899- $SSLD
V 0XVLFDQG6WDJLQJ is published
1900’s
1903- .OLHJO%URWKHUV installs a 96 dimmer stage lighting system at the
0HWURSROLWDQ2SHUD+RXVH
x 1904- /RXLV+DUWPDQQ uses a "baby len" in Belasco’s 7KH0XVLF7HDFKHU
x
1910’s
1915-5REHUW(GPRQG-RQHV designs 7KH0DQ:KR0DUULHGD'XPE:LIH
1916- 1RUPDQ%HO*HGGHV builds a 1000 watt Spotlight from a carbon arc
lens box.
x 1916- Bel Geddes lights the Little Theatre of Los Angles entirely with 1000
watt Spotlights.
x 1918- Jones and Bel Geddes work together at the 3DEVW7KHDWUH in
Milwaukee
x
x
1920’s
1921- Robert Edmond Jones designs 0DFEHWK
1921- Norman BelGeddes designs 7KH'LYLQH&RPHG\
1924- Norman BelGeddes designs 7KH0LUDFOH
1925- 6WDQOH\0F&DQGOHVV offers the first 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ course at Yale
University
x 1929- 7KHRGRUH)XFKV’ 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ is published
x 1929- Kliegl Brothers introduces the Fresnel Lens spotlight
x
x
x
x
1930’s
x
1932- Stanley McCandless’ $0HWKRGRI/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH is published
x
x
x
x
x
1933- Century (/HNR) and Kliegl (.OLHJOLJKW) introduce the Ellipsoidal
Reflector Spotlight
1935- $EH)HGHU designs the lighting for *KRVWV
1936- -HDQ5RVHQWKDO designs the lighting for +DPOHW staring Leslie
Howard
1937- Norman BelGeddes designs 7KH(WHUQDO5RDG
1937- Abe Feder designs the lighting for the Federal Theatre’s production of
'U)DXVWXV
1940’s
1940 - Abe Feder’s approach to lighting is published in Gassner’s 3URGXFLQJ
WKH3OD\
x 1943- Jean Rosenthal designs the lighting for 5LFKDUG,,,
x
1950’s
1956- 7KDURQ0XVVHU designs the lighting for /RQJ'D\
V-RXUQH\LQWR
1LJKW
x 1956- Abe Feder designs the lighting for 0\)DLU/DG\
x 1957- Jean Rosenthal designs the lighting for :HVW6LGH6WRU\
x
1960’s
x
x
x
1960- Abe Feder designs the lighting for &DPHORW
1963- -XOHV)LVKHU designs the lighting for 6SRRQ5LYHU$QWKRORJ\
1964- Jean Rosenthal designs the lighting for +HOOR'ROO\
1970’s
x
x
x
x
x
1972- Tharon Musser wins a 7RQ\ for her lighting design for )ROOLHV
1973- .HQ%LOOLQJWRQ designs the lighting for 7KH9LVLW
1973- Jules Fisher wins a 7RQ\ for his lighting design for 3LSSLQ
1975- Tharon Musser wins a 7RQ\ for her lighting design for &KRUXV/LQH
1979- Ken Billington designs the lighting for 6ZHHQ\7RGG
1980’s
x
1982- Tharon Musser wins a 7RQ\ for her lighting design for 'UHDPJLUOV
1990’s
x
1997- Ken Billington wins a 7RQ\ for his lighting design for &KLFDJR
Stage Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 21, 2003
© 2001 - 2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University, Aberdeen, SD 57401
/LJKWLQJDQGWKH&RPSXWHU
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 20: Mechanical Drafting
(pgs. 494 - 497 - Computer Drafting)
,QWHUQHW
9HFWRU:RUNV7XWRULDOVIRUWKH7KHDWUH
Scroll down to 'UDIWLQJWKH/LJKW3ORW, a 3') file.
:KDWW\SHVRIFRPSXWHUVRIWZDUHSURJUDPVDUHXVHGE\WKHOLJKWLQJ
GHVLJQHU"
Today computer programs are used to GUDIW the light plot, generate
the SDSHUZRUN (hookup chart, instrument schedule), determine
EHDPVSUHDG and give the designer the ability to YLVXDOL]H the
lighting cues before entering the theatre.
:KDWLVD&$'SURJUDP"
A &omputer $ided 'rafting program. With a CAD program it is
possible to draft the light plot on a computer screen with the click
and drag of a mouse, instead of on a drafting board with a pencil, Tsquare and lighting template.
:KLFK&$'SURJUDPLVPRVWSRSXODUZLWKDUFKLWHFWVDQGHQJLQHHUV"
Autodesk’s $XWR&$', an extemely expensive ($ 3,400) and versatile
CAD program, is the industry standard in both the architectural and
engineering market.
:KLFKLVIDYRUHGE\OLJKWLQJGHVLJQHUV":K\"
Many lighting designers use Nemetschek’s 9HFWRU:RUNV. :K\"
Because the programmers at VectorWorks have developed
commands and routines which support the specific needs of the
lighting designer. MiniCad 7 and VectorWorks 8 were both shipped
with a /LJKWLQJ7RRO.LW. In Version 9, Vectorworks expanded the
Lighting ToolKit into 6SRWOLJKW -- "the undisputed standard in
entertainment and lighting design software, 9HFWRU:RUNV6SRWOLJKW
merges sophisticated 2D drafting and powerful 3D modeling with
advanced lighting design and production tools. Now it’s easy to
create OLJKWSORWV, place set and scenic elements on stage, automate
UHSRUWV and VFKHGXOHV, and YLVXDOL]H design concepts in 3D."
In addition to 6SRWOLJKW and the earlier /LJKWLQJ7RRO.LW, there is also
a shareware add on, $XWR3ORW, which includes a large V\PEROOLEUDU\
and a collection of PDFURVFRPPDQGV which makes plot
development much more efficient.
:KDWLVDSDSHUZRUNSURJUDP"
A paper work program is a VSUHDGVKHHW or GDWDEDVH which can be
used to generate the +RRN8S&KDUW, ,QVWUXPHQW6FKHGXOH, 6KRS
2UGHU, &RORU&XW/LVW... When a lighting instrument is placed on the
plot, 9HFWRU:RUNV creates within the document, a data file for that
symbol. The designer then enters the assigned criteria -- instrument
number, mounting position, control channel, color, purpose, dimmer,
etc.... -- into that file. When the plot is complete, the entire database
can be exported from the CAD program and imported into the
SDSHUZRUNSURJUDP where it can be organized into the +RRN8S
&KDUW,QVWUXPHQW6FKHGXOH...
:KLFKLVFRQVLGHUHGWKHLQGXVWU\VWDQGDUG"
/LJKW:ULJKW, a cross between a VSUHDGVKHHW and a GDWDEDVH
program, was specifically written to manage a professional lighting
designers paperwork. It knows that dimmers should not be
overloaded and that striplights have more than one color. It can find
mistakes, figure circuit and dimmer needs, and automatically
renumber a pipe. /LJKW:ULJKW has the ability to export a "patch" file
(in USITT ASCII format) which then can be imported into an RII
OLQHHGLWRU2/(. A free, fully functional, 50 unit demo version is
available on line.
:KDWJHQHUDOVRIWZDUHSURJUDPVFDQDOVREHXVHGWRFUHDWHDGHVLJQHU
VOLVWV
DQGVFKHGXOHV"
Although it is not as efficient, or have the error checking capability
of /LJKW:ULJKW any VSUHDGVKHHW or GDWDEDVH program can be used to
create a basic +RRNXS&KDUW or ,QVWUXPHQW6FKHGXOH. I personally use
MicroSoft ([FHO.
:KDWDUHXWLOLW\SURJUDPV"
Utility programs can be used to HGLW the patch or cue sheet, to
GHWHUPLQHWKHVL]H of a pool of light, ILQGDQHDUPDWFK to a
specific color from a by gone era or FRQWURO the dimmers.
:KDWLVDQRIIOLQHHGLWRU"
An RIIOLQHHGLWRU, or OLE, allows a designer to prepare and edit a
show on an IBM compatible computer instead of on the actual
control board. Most modern consoles (but not the 6WUDQG0DQWUL[
series) are able to save the show files (patch and cues) to a standard
3.5" disk. Once a rehearsal has finished, the designer can take the
disk to his office (or home), edit the files on his own machine, save
them back to disk, and then reload the edited files to the console
before the next rehearsal. Obviously the specific RIIOLQHHGLWRU must
match the control console software.
:KDWLV%HDP:ULJKW"
%HDP:ULJKW, which is bundled with /LJKW:ULJKW, is an easy to use
utility that helps the designer select the best available light. for each
situation. Enter the distance from the light to the actor and the
desired size of the pool and the program will suggest the best
instrument. The program takes into account how closely the beam
size matches the area to be covered, the intensity of the light, and the
evenness of the coverage. If a zoom unit, such as a Fresnel, is one of
the options, the program will suggest the spot to flood adjustment to
give the needed coverage. A 46 unit demo version is available on
line.
There is also a 9HFWRU:RUNV$XWR3ORW PDFURFRPPDQG which will
plot the area illuminated by a light. &OLFN on the instrument, enter the
ILHOGDQJOH in the dialogue box, FOLFN on the light plot where the lamp
is focused, and 9: will show you the DUHD covered.
:KDWLV*HO)LQG"
*HO)LQG is a small DOS utility I wrote many years ago. After
entering a specific gel color, the program searches through two
published databases and selects five similar colors.
:KDWLV(QWHUWDLQPHQW7HFKQRORJ\
V+RUL]RQ"
+RUL]RQ is as PC based lighting control system. It includes a control
program which is installed on a PC computer with a Pentium
Processor and a "white box" which translates the computer’s
commands to DMX512, the digital language all modern dimmers
understand.
:KDWSLHFHRIWKHOLJKWLQJKDUGZDUHGRHVWKLVVRIWZDUHSURJUDPUHSODFH"
The stand alone, dedicated, lighting console.
:KDWLVDOLJKWLQJYLVXDOL]DWLRQSURJUDP"
A lighting designer can use a YLVXDOL]DWLRQSURJUDP to determine,
before he arrives at the theatre, how his choice of mounting
positions, color and intensity will effect the looks he can create on
stage. Programs range from West Side System’s 9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE,
a desk top light lab, to Cast Lighting’s :\VLZ\J a complete lighting
design software package. This program will take the design team
from the initial drawings through the associated paper work into a
virtual Q to Q run through of the the show.
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 23, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
7KH)XQFWLRQVDQG4XDOLWLHVRI/LJKW
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 12: Lighting Design
:KDWDUHWKHIXQFWLRQVRUSXUSRVHVRIOLJKW"
x
x
x
x
x
x
&RPSRVLWLRQ: The creation of a series of inter-related LPDJHV which assists
the director in presenting his interpretation of the play.
9LVLELOLW\: The responsibility of the designer to provide enough light for the
audience WRVHH the performer.
0RGHOLQJ: The use of high light and shadow WRUHYHDO the three dimensional
form of the performer.
)RFXV: The designer’s use of contrast WRIRFXV the audience’s attention.
,QIRUPDWLRQ: The use of light WRHVWDEOLVK the time of day, the season, and
the location of the play’s action.
0RRG: The reflection of the ever changing HPRWLRQDOFRQWHQW of the play. It
is, in a way, very close to the style of production.
:KDWDUHWKHFRQWUROODEOHSURSHUWLHVRUTXDOLWLHVRIOLJKW"
x
,QWHQVLW\ The amount of light reflected by the performer and the
background.
)DFWRUVGHWHUPLQLQJWKHLQWHQVLW\RIWKHOLJKW
Type of instrument
Wattage of the lamp
Length of throw
Size of the pool of light
Color of the gel
Amount of electricity reaching the lamp (dimmer level)
Reflective quality of the make-up, costume and setting
x &RORU The color of the light reflected by the performer and the background.
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
)DFWRUVGHWHUPLQLQJWKHFRORURIWKHOLJKW
o
o
o
o
Color of the gel
Color temperature of the lamp
Intensity of the lamp (dimmer level)
Color of the costume, make-up and setting
x
'LUHFWLRQ The direction (or angle) of the light determines the length and
location of the shadows cast by the performer and the three dimensional
props around him.
)DFWRUGHWHUPLQLQJWKHGLUHFWLRQRIWKHOLJKW Where the instrument is
placed.
x
'LVWULEXWLRQ The distribution of light determines which part (or parts) of
the stage will be lit.
)DFWRUVGHWHUPLQLQJWKHGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHOLJKW
Where the light is focused
The type of light
The focus (spot or flood) of the light
The use of "masking" devices: shutters, barn doors, and top hats
The direction (angle) of the light
x 7H[WXUH Texture is the quality of the light-- its diffusion or clarity. Does it
have a soft edge or is it hard edged? Is the field of the light smooth, diffuse,
or is it heavily textured?
o
o
o
o
o
)DFWRUVGHWHUPLQLQJWKHWH[WXUHRIWKHOLJKW
The type of light
The use of diffusion gel
The use of a gobo
x 0RYHPHQW Movement is any FKDQJH in the intensity, color, direction,
distribution, or texture of the light. Such a change is a light cue.
o
o
o
:KDWLVWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKHIXQFWLRQVDQGWKHSURSHUWLHVRIOLJKW"
&RPSRVLWLRQ is the end product of the lighting design and is
influenced more by the other functions than by the controllable
properties of light.
9LVLELOLW\ is determined by the LQWHQVLW\, FRORU, and GLUHFWLRQ of the
light.
)RFXV is determined by the LQWHQVLW\ and GLVWULEXWLRQ of the light.
0RGHOLQJ is determined by the GLUHFWLRQ of the light.
,QIRUPDWLRQ is presented by the LQWHQVLW\ ('D\LVEULJKWDQGQLJKWLV
GDUN), FRORU ('D\LVSDOH\HOORZDQGQLJKWLVGDUNEOXH) and GLUHFWLRQ
(6XQOLJKWULVHVVWDJHOHIWDQGVHWVVWDJHULJKW) of the light.
0RRG, or WRQH or VW\OH, is determined by the LQWHQVLW\ (&RPHGLHVDUH
EULJKW), FRORU (&RPHGLHVDUHZDUP), GLUHFWLRQ (&RPHGLHVKDYHIHZ
VKDGRZV) and GLVWULEXWLRQ (&RPHGLHVDUHHYHQO\OLW) of the light.
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 27, 2003
© 2001-2004 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
&RORULQ/LJKW
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 6: Color,
,QWHUQHW
$9LUWXDO'HPRQVWUDWLRQRIWKH7KHDWULFDO8VHRI&RORU (Use the EDFNEXWWRQ to
return to this page)
&KDSW/LJKWDQG&RORU from Wilard Bellman’s /LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH$UWDQG
3UDFWLFH (3rd edition, Louisville, KY: Broadway Press, 2001).
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDGGLWLYHDQGVXEWUDFWLYHFRORUPL[LQJ"
$GGLWLYH color mixing is used in light. The three light
primaries-- 5ed, %lue and *reen, --when combined
(added) will produce :hite light. The three
secondaries are produced when two of primaries are
mixed.
x
x
x
5ed + %lue = 0agenta;
%lue + *reen = &yan; and
5ed + *reen = <ellow.
6XEWUDFWLYH color mixing is used with paint. The three paint
primaries-- 0agenta, &yan and <ellow, --when mixed together will
produce black. Subtractive color mixing is also used to produce
colored light-- White light, when passed through a 5ed color media
(which subtracts the %lue and *reen hues), produces 5ed light.
:KDWLVWKHFRORUWHPSHUDWXUHRIZKLWHOLJKW"
The FRORUWHPSHUDWXUH measures, in .elvin, how "white," or hot, a
light source appears. The color temperature of most theatrical lamps
is between 2800 . and 3200 .. The lower the temperature, the more
"yellow" the light will appear.
:KDWKDSSHQVWRWKHFRORUWHPSHUDWXUHRIDODPSZKHQWKHODPSLVGLPPHG"
The color temperature will drop; a process known as "amber drift."
:K\LVFRORUPHGLDXVXDOO\UHIHUUHGWRDVJHO"
*HO, an organic product (%ULJKDP or 5RVFR*HO), was the original
color media. Because it tended to fade under high wattage lamps, it
was replaced by an acetate (plastic) based product (5RVFROHQH or
&LQHPRLG) in the mid 1950s and a poly-carbonate (also plastic) based
product (5RVFROX[, /HH or *DP&RORU) in the early 80s. *HO has
remained the traditional, or generic, name for theatrical FRORUPHGLD.
:KDWWKUHHOLQHVRIFRORUPHGLDJHODUHDYDLODEOHLQWKH0LQQHDSROLVDUHD"
x
x
x
Roscolux
Lee
Gamcolor
:KDWLVWKHFRVWRID[VKHHWRI5RVFROX["
, as quoted in the 2002-2003 SECOA Catalogue
+RZPDQ\LQVWUXPHQWVFDQEHJHOOHGIURPRQHVKHHW"
6L[ The standard gell cut for a 6" Fresnel or Ellipsoidal is 7.5" x
7.5".
+RZPDQ\LQVWUXPHQWV"
)RXU The standard gell cut for a 8" Fresnel or Ellipsoidal is
10"x10".
/LVWHOHYHQEDVLFDFWLQJDUHDFRORUV\RXZRXOGVWRFN
Specific gels using the 5RVFROX[ series of colors...
Two SLQNV a VRIWZDUPQRFRORUSLQN and a more intense,
GDUNHUSLQN\SLQN;
o R33: 1R&RORU3LQN
o R34: )OHVK3LQN
x Two ODYHQGHUV a ZDUPODYHQGHU and a FRROODYHQGHU
o R51: 6XSULVH3LQN
o R55: /LODF
x Two DPEHUV a ZDUPDOPRVWQRFRORUEDVWDUGDPEHU and a
GDUNHUKHDYLHU%$;
o R02: %DVWDUG$PEHU
o R01: /LJKW%DVWDUG$PEHU
x One pale \HOORZ for "realistic" sunlight
o R08: 3DOH*ROG
x
x
Four EOXHV evenly spaced between LF\QRFRORUEOXH and YHU\
GDUNEOXH
o R63: 3DOH%OXH
o R67: /LJKW6N\%OXH
o R69: %ULOOLDQW%OXH
o R80: 3ULPDU\%OXH
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDZDUPFRORU"
:DUP colors are generally associated with
fire and sun light -- 1R&RORU3LQN, 3DOH
<HOORZ, /LJKW%DVWDUG$PEHU...
5/LJKW%DVWDUG$PEHUU
$QHXWUDOFRORU"
1HXWUDO colors appear warm when
compared to a cool color and cool when
compared to a warm color -- 6SHFLDO
/DYHQGHU, 6XSULVH3LQN...
56SHFLDO/DYHQGHU
$FRROFRORU"
&RRO colors are associated with the sky and
water -- 3DOH%OXH, /LJKW%OXH*UHHQ...
53DOH%OXH
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: February 4, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
0RGHOLQJZLWK/LJKW
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 12: Lighting Design. pp.
290-293.
:KDWDUHWKHVWDQGDUGGLUHFWLRQVRIOLJKW":KDWHIIHFWGRHVHDFKSURGXFHRQ
WKHDFWRU"
)URQWOLJKW by
itself, even
when cross
focused, gives
a very flat
quality to the
figure, but it is
good for
lighting the
actor’s eyes.
6LGHOLJKW
reveals the
dimensionality
of the actor.
6LGHOLJKW
from both
sides of the
stage will
produce
adequate,
although
shadowy,
visibility. A
little IURQW
OLJKW will help
the audience
see the actor’s
face.
%DFNOLJKW
highlights the
actor’s head
and shoulders
and can be
used to
separate him
from the
background.
'RZQOLJKW is
very GUDPDWLF
but it is not
very good for
lighting an
actor’s faces.
8SOLJKW
reverses the
position of the
shadows. It
can be used to
create a
PRPHQWRI
KRUURU
Images created in 9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE.
:KDWDUHWKHWUDGLWLRQDOIURQWRIKRXVHPRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQVLQWKH
SURVFHQLXPWKHDWUH"
&HLOLQJ&RYH (or Ceiling Beam): A slot in the ceiling of the theatre.
Balcony 5DLO.
%R[%RRPV located in the ER[VHDWV suspended from the side walls of the
auditorium.
x )2+3LSH hung over the first couple of rows of the orchestra section of the
auditorium.
x 3URMHFWLRQ%RRWK in the back of the balcony.
x
x
x
:KLFKSRVLWLRQVGRZHKDYHLQ-RKQVRQ&HQWHU"
x
x
x
x
&HLOLQJ&RYH.
6LGHSLSHV over the two front exit doors.
3URMHFWLRQ%RRWK.
Four *XQ5DFNV (short )2+3LSHV) suspended below the ceiling above the
four transverse aisles .
:KDWPRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQVDUHDYDLODEOHRQVWDJH"
(OHFWULF3LSHV Generally the spacing between HOHFWULFSLSHV is 6 to 10 feet
with the )LUVW(OHFWULF hung 1 or 2 feet upstage of the Act Curtain. There are
four HOHFWULFSLSHV on the -)$&0DLQ6WDJH.
x %RRPV The spacing between ERRPV is also generally between 6 and 10
feet. In a GDQFH show or PXVLFDO, it is not unusual to locate a ERRP on each
side of the stage directly under an HOHFWULFSLSH.
x )ORRU )RRWOLJKWV and URYHUV-- a single light placed on a short stand --are
considered IORRU mounted lamps.
x 6HW Backing lights and on stage practicals (such as a ZDOOVFRQFH or ILUH
SODFHHIIHFW) are often mounted directly to the VHW
x
:KDWLVDERRP"
A ERRP is a 10 to 12 foot vertical (1" or 1 1/2" diameter) pipe
screwed into a large heavy (50 pound) base. It is the standard
mounting position for VLGHOLJKWV in a PXVLFDO or GDQFH show. Booms
are not permanent mounting positions. They are rigged and cabled
for each production and struck when the show closes.
:KHUHGR,QRUPDOO\KDQJVLGHOLJKWV":K\"
I tend to mount VLGHOLJKWV at the ends (starting approximately 20’ left
and right of the center line) of the overhead electric pipes. These
high angle VLGHOLJKWV are generally referred to as 3LSH(QGV (or
simply (QGV) in the professional theatre.
:K\"
Because it is fast and efficient. Hanging and powering 24 lamps on 6
ERRPV will take approximately 8 man hours. Hanging and powering
24 lamps on three electric pipes will usually take less than one man
hour.
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 28, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKW3ORW/LVWVDQG6FKHGXOHV
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 12: Lighting Design. pp.
293 - 298.
2XWVLGHUHDGLQJ
William B. Warfel. 7KH1HZ+DQGERRNRI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ*UDSKLFV. New York:
Drama Book Publishers. 1990.
Light Plot | Lists and Schedules
/LJKW3ORW
:KDWLQIRUPDWLRQQRUPDOO\DSSHDUVRQD/LJKWSORWRUOD\RXW"
The OLJKWSORW is a plan view of the stage showing where each
lighting instrument is ORFDWHG. The LQVWUXPHQWW\SH (Ellipsoidal,
Fresnel, Scoop, etc...) is represented by a symbol. Each light is
identified by a XQLWQXPEHU generally placed within the symbol.
Depending on the designer, the FRORU, SXUSRVH (or IRFXV), FLUFXLW and
FRQWUROFKDQQHO for each unit may also be listed on the plot.
Today most lighting designers create their light plots on a computer
screen using a CAD program such as 9HFWRU:RUNV. The LQVWUXPHQW
QXPEHU, FRORU, FRQWUROFKDQQHO, etc. (called attributes in CADspeak)
are entered into the computers memory and associated with each
symbol plotted on the drawing. This information is then exported
from the CAD program and imported into a data base or spread sheet
program (such as Microsoft ([FHO) where it is sorted by FKDQQHO
QXPEHU generating a KRRNXSFKDUW.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQD%URDGZD\SORWDQGDVWXG\SORW"
A %URDGZD\SORW shows only the ORFDWLRQ, XQLWQXPEHU, and W\SH of
light. In the commercial New York theatre the plot is the document
used by the electrician to hang the show. All he needs to know is
what type of light to hang and where it should be placed.
A VWXG\SORW, generally used in the educational theatre, adds the
FRORUSXUSRVHFRQWUROFKDQQHO, and FLUFXLWQXPEHU. You will often
find a VWXG\SORW on the SURGXFWLRQWDEOH of a Brodway show.
:KDWDUHWKHWZRFRPPRQVFDOHVXVHGLQGUDIWLQJDOLJKWSORW"
1/2" = 1’0" (used primarily by New York designers) and 1/4" = 1’0".
:KDWLQIRUPDWLRQFDQEHQRWDWHGDGMDFHQWWRWKHLQVWUXPHQWV\PERORQD
VWXG\SORW"
The FRORU, SXUSRVH (or focus), control FKDQQHO and FLUFXLW number.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDQDOLJQHGV\VWHPDQGWKHDLPHGV\VWHPRI
LQVWUXPHQWRULHQWDWLRQ"
In an DOLJQHGSORW, all lamps typically point either up stage or down
stage. In an DLPHGSORW, the unit is pointed in the general direction
the light will eventually be focused. Most commercial designers use
an DOLJQHGSORW because they are easier and faster to draft and
typically have a "more professional" appearance.
:KDWDUHWKHWZREDVLFUXOHVZKLFKDSSO\WRLQVWUXPHQWQXPEHULQJ"
The units in each mounting position (&RYH, 3LSH, %RRP) are
numbered from 1 to Q starting at the stage left end of a SLSH, FRYH or
UDLO position and the top of a ERRP or ODGGHU. Each unit is identified
by PRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQ and LQVWUXPHQWQXPEHU. For
example: 3LSH is the fifth lamp (starting from stage left) on the
fourth electric and %RRP5 is the fourth unit (from the top) on the
first boom stage right.
:KDWLVWKHWUDGLWLRQDOVSDFLQJIRUXQLWV"
Six inch spotlights (Ellipsoidals and Fresnels) are typically located
on 18" (1’-6") centers. A 40 foot electric pipe can hold a maximum of
27- 6" lights.
)RUXQLWV"
24 inch (2’-0") centers.
+RZLVDWRUPHQWRUSRVLWLRQVXFKDVDERRPRUODGGHULQGLFDWHGDQG
GHWDLOHGRQDOLJKWSORW"
The WUXHORFDWLRQ of the boom or ladder is indicated on the light
plot. An HOHYDWLRQ of the position, showing the location of each
instrument, is generally placed off to the side of the sheet.
:KDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRIWKHLQVWUXPHQWNH\RUOHJHQG"
An LQVWUXPHQWNH\ is used to assign meaning (LQVWUXPHQWW\SH) to
each of the graphic symbols. The LQVWUXPHQWNH\ below (drafted in
VectorWorks) shows the standard graphic symbol (in 1/2 inch scale)
for four lighting instruments: An (OOLSVRLGDO, )UHVQHO, 3$5&DQ, and
6FRRS. The symbol on the far right shows the location of the FRORU,
iQVWUXPHQWQXPEHU, FRQWUROFKDQQHO, SXUSRVH (or focus) and FLUFXLW
information.
,QVWUXPHQW.H\
:KDWHVVHQWLDOLQIRUPDWLRQPXVWEHLQFOXGHGLQDWLWOHEORFN"
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Name of the show,
Producing organization,
Title of the sheet (/LJKW3ORW),
Designer’s name: /LJKWLQJE\,
Scale,
Initals of the draftsman (if other than the designer),
Date,
Version number, and
Sheet number: RI.
A /LJKW3ORW created in 9HFWRU:RUNV
8VLQJWKHOLJKWSORWDQGLQVWUXPHQWNH\DERYHZKLFKLQVWUXPHQWVDUH
(OOLSVRLGDOV" Lamps number 1, 2, 7, 12 and 13.
)UHVQHOV" Lamps number 4, 6, 8 and 10.
3$5&DQV" Lamps number 3 and 11.
6FRRSV" Lamps number 5 and 9.
:KLFKLQVWUXPHQWVDUHSOXJJHGLQWRFKDQQHO"
Lamps number 1 and 2, Moonlight from stage left.
:KLFKFKDQQHOFRQWUROVWKHLQVWUXPHQWVIRFXVHGLQWRWKHGRZQFHQWHU
DUHD"
Channel 2.
:KLFKLQVWUXPHQWVDUHLQGLYLGXDOO\FRQWUROOHG"
Lamps number 4, 7 and 10.
:KLFKLQVWUXPHQWVDUHWZRIHU
GWRJHWKHU"
There are five groups of lamps which are ganged (twofer’d) together.
They are units number 1 and 2, 3 and 11, 5 and 9, 6 and 8, and 12
and 13.
:KLFKFKDQQHOVFRQWUROVWKHLQVWUXPHQWVJHOOHGLQ5"
Channels 1, 2 and 3. The three channels which control the left, center
and right areas.
:KDWLVWKHPLQLPXPQXPEHURIFLUFXLWV"
Eight. One per channel.
7KHPD[LPXPQXPEHURIFLUFXLWV"
Thirteen. One per light.
/LVWVDQG6FKHGXOHV
:KDWOLVWVDQGVFKHGXOHVPDNHXSDOLJKWLQJGHVLJQHU
VSDSHUZRUN"
x
x
x
Hook Up Chart,
Instrument Schedule,
Shop Order,
x
x
x
Magic Sheet,
Cue (Q) List, and
Cue (Q) Sheet.
:KDWILHOGVXVLQJGDWDEDVHWHUPLQRORJ\FDQEHXVHGWRLGHQWLI\DQG
GHILQHHDFKOLJKWLQJLQVWUXPHQW"
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
The mounting position: )LUVW(OHFWULF
Unit number: Instrument type: 6RXUFHƒ
Lamp wattage: Z
Dimmer number: Circuit number: Channel number: Focus (or purpose):;/!5
Color: 5
2QZKLFKILHOGLVWKHLQVWUXPHQWVFKHGXOHVRUWHG"
Mounting position and unit number.
7KHKRRNXSFKDUW"
Channel number.
8QGHUZKDWFLUFXPVWDQFHVLVDVKRSRUGHUQHFHVVDU\"
If the equipment for a show is to be rented (or possibly borrowed)
the designer will need to develop a VKRSRUGHU, a very detailed list of
all the equipment needed to light the production. This list must
include the
x
x
x
x
x
x
%DVLFKDUGZDUH (4- 40’ pipes; 6- 10’ booms w/ 50# boom
bases),
/LJKWLQJLQVWUXPHQWV (24- 6x9 Lekos w/ lamp, c-clamp and
color frames),
&DEOH (6 cables 80/100’ w/ twofers and 20’ jumpers),
$FFHVVRULHV (pipe stiffeners and scenery guards),
&RORU (12- 7.5" cuts of R34), and
&RQWUROHTXLSPHQW (96- 2.4Kw dimmers, Memory control
board - 48 channel, 96 dimmers).
If it’s not in the VKRSRUGHU, it will not be at the theatre.
'HYHORSDVKRSRUGHUIRUWKHVLQJOHSLSHOLJKWSORWLQTXHVWLRQ
%DVLF+DUGZDUH
26’- 1 1/2" Pipe
x /LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV
5- 6" Ellipsoidals w/ lamp, c-clamp and color frames
4- 8" Fresnels w/ lamp, c-clamp and color frames
2- PARCans w/ WFL lamp, c-clamp and color frames
2- 16" Scoops w/ lamp, c-clamp and color frames
x &DEOHV
8- Cables 75/100
5- Twofers
x &RORU
2- 7.5" cuts of R08
2- 10" cuts of R34
4- 10" cuts of R51
2- 7.5" cuts of R63
2- 16" cuts of R80
x
:KHQLQWKHGHVLJQSURFHVVLVWKHFXH4OLVWGHYHORSHG"
The FXH4OLVW should be developed near the end of the rehearsal
period, sometime after the first UXQWKURXJK but before WHFK.
:KDWLQIRUPDWLRQVKRXOGEHLQFOXGHGRQWKHFXH4OLVW"
x
x
x
x
x
The cue number: /4
A description of the cue (action or line): -RH;VWR'&
The page in the script (or score): SJ
A description of the lighting effect: &ORVHWR'&DUHD
The count in seconds (or beats): :KDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRIWKHPDJLFVKHHW"
The PDJLFVKHHW, or cheat sheet, is a quick reference, usually only
one or two pages long, to every FKDQQHO and the group of lighting
instruments it controls. The information is typically organized by
IXQFWLRQ (or purpose) -- grouped by DUHD, FRORU, and GLUHFWLRQ. It is
used by the designer during tech and dress rehearsals to speed up the
process of setting and adjusting levels. For example, if the director
comments "Down left is kind of dark," the designer may consult the
PDJLFVKHHW to discover which channels control the pink front lights
focused down left and then asks the electrician: "Would you please
raise channels 20 and 21 -- 2 points."
:KDWLQIRUPDWLRQVKRXOGEHLQFOXGHGRQWKH&XH4VKHHW"
The FXH4VKHHW is the light board operator’s script. It indicates
what physical actions (for example: Cross fade from Sc1.11 to
Sc.1.12) the operator must perform when the stage manager gives the
go.
The cue sheet must include the
x
x
x
Cue number (/4),
Count (), and the
Action the operator must execute (6F[6F).
If the stage manager does not call the show, the cue sheet will also
include the
x
x
"Go" line or action (&KRUXVH[LWV86), and a
Brief description of the effect (86IDGHVWR).
Stage Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: February 6, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU6SRWOLJKWV
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 14: Lighting Production,
pp. 340 - 344.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDIORRGOLJKWDQGDVSRWOLJKW"
A IORRGOLJKW produces a large, almost uncontrollable wash of light; a
VSRWOLJKW, on the other hand, produces a small (8’ to 12’ diameter),
highly controlled pool of light. )ORRGOLJKWV are generally used to
light the backdrop while VSRWOLJKWV are used to light the actor.
:KDWLQVWUXPHQWLVQRUPDOO\XVHGWROLJKWWKHDFWRU"
Spotlight.
7KHVFHQHU\"
Floodlight.
/LVWVL[WUDGLWLRQDOOLJKWLQJLQVWUXPHQWVZKLFKDUHFRPPRQO\XVHGRQWKH
PRGHUQVWDJHDQGLQGLFDWHZKLFKDUHVSRWOLJKWVDQGZKLFKDUHIORRGOLJKWV
x
x
x
x
x
x
Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlight -- Spotlight
Fresnel Lens Spotlight -- Spotlight
PARcan -- Spotlight
Ellipsoidal Reflector Floodlight (Scoop) -- Floodlight
Border Light -- Floodlight
Follow Spot -- Spotlight
(YDOXDWHHDFKRIWKHVHLQVWUXPHQWVE\LWVEHDPDQJOHVSLOODQGHGJHTXDOLW\
,QVWUXPHQW
(OOLSVRLGDO
)UHVQHO
3$5&DQ
%HDP$QJOH 6SLOO
Fixed
Very little
(GJH4XDOLW\
Hard
Variable
Quite a bit
Soft
Fixed
Some
Soft
6FRRS
Fixed
%RUGHU/LJKW Fixed
)ROORZ6SRW Variable
A lot
Soft
A lot
Soft
Almost none Hard
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU6SRWOLJKW
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU6SRWOLJKW/HNR
The six inch, 750 watt (OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU6SRWOLJKW, often
referred to as a /HNR. (OOLSVRLGDO, (56, or 3URILOH6SRW
(primarily in Europe) is the work horse of the commercial theatre.
The instrument produces a hard edged, highly controlled pool of
light. In academic and community theatres it is primarily found
Front-Of-House in the Ceiling Cove, and on the Balcony Rail and
Box Booms. Most commercial productions are lit almost entirely
with (OOLSVRLGDOV. The size of the pool of light is determined by
the throw distance and which of the five available lens chains the
designer chooses. (Cost of an Altman 6" (6.5x4.5 through 6x22)
(56 with a 750w lamp: $ 228)
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU6SRWOLJKW
/HQV )LHOG
'LDPHWHU 0XOWLSOLFDWLRQ ,QWHQVLW\
&KDLQ $QJOH
DW
WKURZ )DFWRU0) ZLWKZ(+*
1
32 fc @ 40’ throw
[ 55 Degrees 41’
[
[
[
[
37 degrees 27’
.67
55 fc @ 40’ throw
26 Degrees 19’
.47
95 fc @ 40’ throw
19 Degrees 14’
.35
115 fc @ 40’ throw
11 Degrees 8’
.2
135 fc @ 40’ throw
Multiplication Factor = Diameter of pool / Throw distance
Diameter of pool = Throw distance * Multiplication Factor
6NHWFKWKHVWDQGDUGOLJKWSORWV\PEROVIRUWKHILYH(OOLSVRLGDOV
:KDWW\SHRIOHQVV\VWHPLVXVHGLQDQ(OOLSVRGDO5HIOHFWRU6SRWOLJKW"
Most (OOLSVRLGDOV use a lens chain composed of two six inch SODQR
FRQYH[OHQVHV arranged in a belly-to-belly configuration. See )LJXUH
on page 334. Lenses are specified by their diameter and focal
length. A [ lens is 6 inches in diameter and has a 9 inch focal
length.
:KDWW\SHRIUHIOHFWRU"
An HOOLSVRLGDO shaped reflector. An HOOLSVH has two focal points. The
filament of the ODPS is placed at one focal point and the VKXWWHUV or
JRER is placed near the second. The second focal point is also the
focal point of the lens chain. See )LJXUH and on page
342.
:KLFKLQVWUXPHQWD[RUD[VKRXOGEHXVHGIRUDORQJHUWKURZ"
The [. The longer IRFXVOHQJWK lens has a narrower beam angle.
:KDWGRWKHQXPEHUV[DQG[PHDQ"
The first number, 6, is the GLDPHWHU of the lens. The second number,
x12, is the IRFDOOHQJWK of the lens.
:KDWUDQJHZDWWDJHRIODPSVDUHXVHGLQWKH(OOLSVRLGDO"
The traditional Ellipsoidal was designed for the and watt lamp. The new 6RXUFH)RXU ERSs designed by ETC use a
specially created and highly efficient 575 watt lamp.
+RZODUJHDSRRORIOLJKWZRXOGEHSURGXFHGE\D[GHJUHH
(OOLSVRLGDOZLWKD
WKURZ"
The diameter would be .
There are three ways to determine the size of a pool of light:
*UDSKLFDO with a protractor, straight edge and scale (or a
CAD program),
x 0DWKHPDWLFDO Size of pool = multiplication factor * throw
distance, or with a
x Computer VRIWZDUHSURJUDP such as %HDP:ULJKW.
x
Using the PDWKHPDWLFDODSSURDFK 20 foot throw * .47
multiplication factor (for a 6x12) = 9.4 feet
,IWKHLQWHQVLW\RID[(OOLSVRLGDOLVIRRWFDQGOHVZLWKD
WKURZ
ZKDWZRXOGEHWKHLQWHQVLW\RIWKHOLJKWZLWKD
WKURZ"
First, establish the %HDP&DQGOH3RZHU of the instrument by
multiplying the LQWHQVLW\ (IF#
) times the square of the given
WKURZGLVWDQFH (40’). The %&3 = 95 * 40 * 40 = EFS.
Then divide the %&3 (152,000 bcp) by the square of the QHZ throw distance
(20’). The intensity of the light = 152,000 bcp / 400 (the 20’ throw squared)
= IRRWFDQGOHV.
+RZGR\RXVKDSHWKHSDWWHUQRIOLJKWIURPDQ(OOLSVRLGDO"
You can shape (actually frame or square-off) the pattern of light with the
four IUDPLQJVKXWWHUV.
:KDWLVDJRERSDWWHUQ"
A JRER is a pattern (or template) which can be dropped into the "gate" of an
Ellipsoidal creating a crude slide projector. A JRER can be used to project
either a realistic image, such as a OHDISDWWHUQ, or simply create a WH[WXUHG
light. See )LJXUH and on page 345.
:KDWLVD=RRP(OOLSVRLGDO"
Although the Ellipsoidal generally has a fixed beam angle, Strand, ETC and
Altman each manufacturer a pair of =RRP(OOLSVRLGDOV. One unit zooms
from 15 to 30 degrees and the second unit zooms from 25 to 50 degree. The
cost of either (7&6RXUFH=RRPs, with lamp, is $ 507 -- $ 187 more than
the fixed beam unit.
,QZKDWPRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQDUH(OOLSVRLGDOVWUDGLWLRQDOO\KXQJ"
)URQWRIKRXVH Balcony rail, Cove, Box Booms, FOH Pipe, Booth Pipe
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: February 13, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV
)UHVQHO/HQV6SRWOLJKW
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 14: Lighting Production,
pp 334 - 337.
)UHVQHO/HQV6SRWOLJKW)UHVQHO
The 6 inch, 750 watt )UHVQHO is a soft edged, variable beam
instrument which is primarily used in the educational and
community theatre. It is normally used on stage for DUHDOLJKWV
and JHQHUDOZDVKHV. The size of the pool of light is determined
by the throw and the position of the IRFXVNQRE: Spot to Flood.
(Cost of an Altman 6" )UHVQHO with a 750w lamp: $ 124)
)UHVQHO/HQV6SRWOLJKW
)RFXV 'LDPHWHUDW
,QWHQVLW\ZLWKZDWWODPS
230 fc @ 20’ feet
6SRW 6’ (MF=.3)
)ORRG 28’ (MF=1.4)
22 fc @ 20’ feet
)UHVQHO/HQV6SRWOLJKW)UHVQHO
The 8 inch, 1000 to 2000 watt )UHVQHO is a soft edged, variable beam
lamp which provides a greater punch than its 6 inch brother. It is
primarily used on stage for strong washes of side and back light or
when the throw is too long for a 6 inch unit. The size of the pool of
light is determined by the throw and the position of the focus knob:
Spot to Flood. (Cost of an Altman 8" )UHVQHO with a 1000w lamp: $
226).
)UHVQHO/HQV6SRWOLJKW
)RFXV 'LDPHWHUDW
,QWHQVLW\ZLWKZDWWODPS
189 fc @ 30’ feet
6SRW 6’ (MF=.2)
)ORRG 25’ (MF=.83)
22 fc @ 30’ feet
:KDWLVD)UHVQHOOHQV"
The )UHVQHOOHQV, developed in 1822 (for use in light houses) by
$XJXVWLQ)UHVQHO (1788-1827), is a less massive form of the more
common SODQRFRQYH[ lens.
+RZGRHVLWGLIIHUIURPDSODQRFRQYH[OHQV"
$XJXVWLQ)UHVQHO reduced the mass of the plano-convex lens by
converting the convex side of the lens into a series of FRQFHQWULF
SULVPDWLFULQJV. From the front, a )UHVQHO lens looks like a bullseye. See )LJXUH on page 334.
:KDWDUHWKHWZRFRPPRQO\DYDLODEOHVL]HVRIWKHDWULFDO)UHVQHOV"
inch and inch
:KDWUDQJHRIODPSVZDWWDJHGRHVHDFKXVH"
LQFK 500 and 750 watt.
LQFK 1000, 1500, and 2000 watt.
:KDWLVWKHILHOGDQJOHRID)UHVQHODWVSRWIRFXV"$WIORRGIRFXV"
6SRWIRFXV 16°.
)ORRGIRFXV 70°.
+RZGR\RXFKDQJHD)UHVQHOIURPDVSRWWRIORRGIRFXV"
By sliding the IRFXVNQRE from the back (spot position) of the light
to the front (flood position) of the light. See )LJXUH on page
347.
+RZODUJHDSRRORIOLJKWZRXOGEHSURGXFHGE\D)UHVQHODWVSRWIRFXV
ZLWKD
WKURZ"$WIORRGIRFXV"
6SRW 9 feet.
)ORRG 42 feet
0DWKIRU6SRW)RFXV 30 foot throw * .3 multiplication factor = 9
feet
+RZGR\RXVKDSHWKHSDWWHUQRIOLJKWIURPD)UHVQHO"
The pattern of light from a )UHVQHO can be shaped with a EDUQGRRU.
See )LJXUH on page 347.
:KDWGHYLFHFDQEHXVHGWRFXWGRZQWKHVSLOOIURPD)UHVQHO"
The spill from a )UHVQHO can be reduced with a WRSKDW or IXQQHO.
See )LJXUH on page 348.
:KDWLVD3$5QHO"+RZLVLWGLIIHUHQWIURPD)UHVQHO"
A 3$51HO is an ETC 6RXUFH)RXU)UHVQHO. It is a newly
created fixture with the flexability of a fresnel and the
performance of a 6RXUFH3$5. The beam angle range is
from 25° (Spot: 16.4'pool @ 40'throw -- 82fc with a 575w
lamp) to 45° (Flood: 15.6'pool @ 20'throw -- 81fc with a
575w lamp).
,QZKDWPRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQVDUH)UHVQHOVWUDGLWLRQDOO\KXQJ"
)UHVQHOV are generally hung EDFNVWDJH behind the proscenium arch .
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: February 13, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV
3$5&DQ
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 14: Lighting Production,
p. 350.
3$5&DQ
The 3$5&DQ is designed as a holder and "top hat" for the 8 inch,
1000 watt PAR64 lamp. These rugged and efficient lamps, which
gained popularity in the concert field, are typically used backstage
for strong washes of down and back light. The size of the pool of
light is determined by the throw and which of the four lamps the
designer chooses. The 9163 (Very Narrow Spot) produces a
strong visible shaft of light which can be used to simulate shafts
of sun or moon light or create a )LQJHURI*RG effect. (Cost of an
Altman 3$5&DQ with a 1000w PAR64 lamp: $ 97)
3$5FDQZLWKZ3$5ODPSV
/DPS %HDP'HVFULSWLRQ
3RRODW
,QWHQVLW\
))1 9163Very Narrow Spot 3 1/2’ x 8 1/2’ 1000 fc
))3
))5
))6
163 Narrow Spot
0)/ Medium Flood
:)/ Wide Flood
5’ x 9’
825 fc
7 1/2’ x 16’
313 fc
12’ x 18’
100 fc
:KDWLVD3$5ODPS"
3$5 stands for 3arabolic $luminized 5eflector. It is a self
contained, sealed-beam lamp which includes a parabolic reflector, a
filament, and a lens.
:KDWVL]HVZDWWDJHVRI3$5ODPSVDUHXVHGLQWKHWKHDWUH"
x
x
x
x
ZDWW PAR38. (Normally found in low budget community theatres.).
ZDWW PAR56.
ZDWW PAR56(Q) and PAR64.
ZDWW PAR64(Q).
(The PAR56(Q) and PAR64(Q) are WXQJVWHQKDORJHQ (or "quartz") lamps.)
:KDWLVWKHVKDSHRIWKHSRRORIOLJKWIURPD3$5"
The shape of both the PAR56 and PAR64 is RYDO. The long axis is
approximately twice the length of the short axis.
:KDWLVWKHGLDPHWHURIWKHOHQVRID3$5"
LQFKHV. The diameter of the bulb of an American lamp is specified
in 1/8s if an inch. A 3$5 is 4 3/4" in diameter, a 3$5 is 7" and
a 7 has a tube shaped bulb which is 2 1/2 inches across.
:KDWIRXUEHDPDQJOHVDUHDYDLODEOHLQZ3$5ODPSV"
x
x
x
x
9163 Very Narrow Spot. (MF= .17 x .42)
163 Narrow Spot. (MF= .25 x .45)
0)/ Medium Flood. (MF= .375 x .8)
:)/ Wide Flood. (MF= .6 x .9)
:KLFKRIWKHVHODPSVGRZHXVHDW-)$&":K\"
:)/ Wide Flood. :K\" Because the :ide )/ood will produce a
pool large enough to cover the width (approximately 10 feet)
between two on-stage electric pipes.
+RZODUJHDSRRORIOLJKWZRXOGEHSURGXFHGE\D3$5:)/ZLWKD
WKURZ"
14’ -5" x 21’ -7".
0DWK 24’ throw * .6 multiplication factor (short axis) = 14.4’ = 14’ 5" .
24’ throw * .9 multiplication factor (long axis) = 21.6’ = 21’ -7"
,QZKDWSDUWRIWKHHQWHUWDLQPHQWLQGXVWU\DUH3$5&DQVWKHSULPDU\OLJKW
VRXUFH"
The 3$5&DQ was first used in the 1970’s to light the large scale
5RFN&RQFHUWV staged in hockey arenas.
:KHUHDQGKRZDUH3$5&DQVXVHGLQWKHWKHDWUH"
3$5&DQV are normally used back stage to create strong washes of
EDFN and GRZQOLJKW.
:KDWLVD6RXUFH3$5"
6WDU3DU
Both ETC (6RXUFH3DU) and Altman (6WDU3DU) have
developed a 575 watt unit using a parabolic reflector to
gather and focus the light. Like the 3$5, these
instruments come with four interchangeable lenses -- VNSP
(MF=.25), NSP (MF=.3), MFL (MF=.35x.5) and WFL
(MF=.55x1). (Cost of an ETC 6RXUFH3DU with a 575w
lamp: $ 175)
:KDWLVDQ$&/"
$&/ stands for $LUFUDIW/DQGLQJ/LJKW, a 28v, 250 watt, PAR64 with
a very short lamp life (about 25 hours) and an extremely narrow
beam angle -- 5°, a 30'throw produces a 2'pool of light (MF=.07).
Because of the low voltage, four units are traditionally wired in
series and circuited into one dimmer. They produce a very intense
shaft of light.
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 4, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV
)ROORZ6SRW
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 14: Lighting Production,
pp. 350 - 352.
)ROORZ6SRW
The follow spot, a large, heavy, and expensive high intensity variable
beam angle (]RRP) spot light, is traditionally used to high light (VSRW)
the lead performer, or performers, in a musical or dance production.
The light should have an internal iris, a color-changer, a douser, and
should be able to produce a sharp edged, head spot, from the back of the
auditorium. Most musicals require a minimum of two lamps. (Cost of
an Altman 1000Q )ROORZ6SRW with a 1000w lamp: $ 1100)
$OWPDQ)ROORZ6SRWV
Altman 4 with 1000watt FEL lamp
Altman &RPHW with 360watt FLE lamp
64fc @ 80’
125fc @ 80’
Altman 6DWHOOLWH with 575watt HMI (Metal Halide) lamp 375fc @ 80’
Each unit is set at the tightest beam angle.
:KDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRID)ROORZ6SRW"
,VRODWH the major performer (star) in a pool of light. There are two
basic approaches to the use of a Follow Spot. In a Broadway Show
the star (or stars) is spotted from the moment he makes his entrance
to the moment he leaves the stage. In an academic or community
production, the star (or soloist) is usually only spot lighted during the
musical numbers.
:KDWOLJKWVRXUFHLVXVHGLQWKH0DLQ6WDJHIROORZVSRW"
A 1000 watt "quartz" lamp. Our unit is similar to the $OWPDQ4.
:KDWLQWHUQDOGHYLFHVDUHXVHGWRVKDSHWKHOLJKWEHDP"
An LULV and a VKXWWHU. The iris, which can change the size of the pool
of light from a KHDGVSRW to IXOOERG\ is used more frequently than
the shutter.
+RZPDQ\FRORUVDUHFRPPRQO\KHOGLQWKHFRORUERRPHUDQJ"
6L[. For a musical or ballet I would include (1) a "no color pink," (2)
a "warm lavender," (3) a "very pale blue" and (4) a "light frost." The
frost can be used to soft edge the pool of light, giving it a more
subtle and less theatrical look.
+RZDUHWKHVHFRORUVLGHQWLILHG"
By their location, slot number, in the color boomerang. Both lamp
and color are assigned numbers. A follow spot cue might sound like
"Warning: Lamp 1 in color 2 on Dolly -- Go."
:KDWLVWKHPLQLPXPQXPEHURI)ROORZ6SRWVQHFHVVDU\WROLJKWDPXVLFDO"
7ZR. Because the plot of a typical American musical is a love story
there will undoubtly be a duet ("Tonight") between the pair of young
lovers (Tony and Maria in :HVW6LGH6WRU\).
:KDWDUHWKHVWDQGDUGZDUQLQJVJLYHQWRDQHZRSHUDWRU"
Keep the light off the front of the stage.
Keep the light off the act curtain.
Learn to "site" the lamp so you can "open" on the performer.
Know where the edge of \RXU beam falls.
Don’t let the performer slip out of the light.
Include the entire body. Remember sometime they move unexpectedly.
Don’t let the beam get too big. The light should be a OLWWOH larger than the
performer.
x Don’t jiggle.
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 4, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU)ORRGOLJKW
%RUGHU/LJKW
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 14: Lighting Production,
pp. 347 - 349.
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU)ORRGOLJKW
(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU)ORRGOLJKWor 6FRRS
The 1000 watt, 16 inch Ellipsoidal Reflector Floodlight (or Scoop) is
generally used to light the backdrop (or cyc) and/or provide a general
wash of light over the entire stage. (Cost of an Altman 16" 6FRRS with
a 1000w lamp: $ 179)
LQFK(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU)ORRGOLJKW
ZLWKZDWWODPS
7KURZGLVWDQFH 5’
3RROGLDPHWHU 10’
,QWHQVLW\
20’
40’
1120fc 70fc
:KDWDUHWKHWZRFRPPRQO\DYDLODEOHVL]HVRIWKHDWULFDO(OOLSVRLGDO
5HIOHFWRU)ORRGOLJKWVRU6FRRSV"
7ZHOYH and VL[WHHQ inch.
:KDWZDWWDJHODPSVDUHXVHGLQHDFK"
x
x
LQFK 500 watt
LQFK 1000 watt
:KHUHDQGKRZDUH6FRRSVWUDGLWLRQDOO\XVHGLQWKHWKHDWUH"
6FRRSV are generally used to OLJKWWKHEDFNGURS (or cyc), provide a
ZDVKRIGRZQOLJKW over the entire stage or ZRUNOLJKWV for the loadin and load-out.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDQ(OOLSVRLGDO5HIOHFWRU)ORRGOLJKWDQGD
&<&/LJKW"
A &<&/LJKW is a large rectangular (12"x16") floodlight with a
reflector designed to provide a smooth even wash of light across a
vertical surface (&\F) hung eight feet from the face of the light.
Generally two to four units are placed within a giant yoke creating a
huge strip light. See )LJXUH on page 349.
%RUGHU/LJKWV
%RUGHU (or 6WULS) /LJKW
Four to six sections of 6’ or 8’ Border (or Strip) Lights, using 150
R40 or PAR38 lamps, are generally used to light the backdrop (or
cyc) and/or provide a general wash of light over the entire stage.
(Cost of an Altman 6’, 12 lite 6WULSOLJKW w/ 12- 150w lamps: $
408)
%RUGHU/LJKWVZLWKDIRRWWKURZ
17’ x 18’
,QWHQVLW\
ZZODPS
64fc / circuit
7’ x 11’
280fc / circuit
%RUGHU/LJKW %RUGHU/LJKW
3$5)/ 17’ x 25’
3$563 7’ x 15’
:KDWZDVWKHRULJLQDOIXQFWLRQRIWKH%RUGHUOLJKW"
To light the up stage scenery.
:KDWDUHWKHWZRVWDQGDUGOHQJWKVRID%RUGHU6WULS"
6L[ foot, 12 lamp and HLJKW foot, 16 lamp.
:KDWW\SHRIODPSVDUHXVHGLQ6WULSOLJKWVWRGD\"
Either 5HIOHFWRUODPSV (such as the 150watt R-40FL) or 3$5
ODPSV.
+RZPDQ\FLUFXLWVDUHLQWKHWUDGLWLRQDO%RUGHUOLJKW"
Three.
+RZDQGZKHUHDUH6WULSOLJKWVXVHGLQWKHWKHDWUH"
Like scoops, 6WULSOLJKWV are generally used to OLJKWWKHEDFNGURS
(or cyc), provide a ZDVKRIGRZQOLJKW over the entire stage or ZRUN
OLJKW for the load-in and load-out.
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 6, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
&RQWURO6\VWHP
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 14: Lighting Production,
pp. 355-373.
:KDWW\SHRIFRQWUROERDUGZDVXVHGRQ%URDGZD\EHIRUH"
Before 1975, stage lights in a Broadway theatre were controlled by a
SLDQRERDUG -- 12- 6,000 watt or 14- 3,000 watt mechanically
mastered resistance dimmers (called SODWHV) mounted in an aesbestes
lined wooden box the size of an upright piano. See )LJXUHV
DQG on pages 356 and 357.
:KHUHZHUHWKHVHERDUGVORFDWHG"
Back stage.
+RZPDQ\ERDUGVZHUHXVHGIRUDPXVLFDO"
6L[: 82 dimmers controlling a total of 282,000 watts of light. Five
14/3000 watt boards and one 12/6000 watt board for the high
wattage strip lights which illuminated the back drop.
$SOD\
)RXU: 56 dimmers controlling a total of 198,000 watts of light. Three
14/3000 watt boards and one 12/6000 watt board.
:KDWGHWHUPLQHGKRZPDQ\ERDUGVZHUHXVHG"
The number of electricians management would hire for the running
crew of the show. Generally one operator could control two boards.
A play had two electricians and a musical would have three.
:KDWKDSSHQHGLQWKDWFKDQJHGWKLVWUDGLWLRQDOSUDFWLFH"
/6
When $&KRUXV/LQH opened at the Shubert
Theatre in November 1975, lighting designer
Tharon Musser specified a computer-assisted
memory lighting system (EDI’s LS-8) to control
the shows 96 dimmers (311 units). This was the
first Broadway show to use an "electronic"
lighting system. Broadway jumped directly from
the resistance dimmer to computer control.
+RZGLGWKLVFKDQJHHIIHFWWKHPDNHXSRIWKHFRPPHUFLDOHOHFWULFFUHZ"
Since only one of the three electricians was needed to operate the
board, two additional follow spots could be used.
:KHUHVKRXOGWKHOLJKWLQJFRQVROHEHORFDWHG"
In the back of the auditorium. :K\" So the board operator has the
same view of the stage as the audience.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDPDQXDOSUHVHWDQGD
In a PDQXDO preset board (for example: a 2 scene preset) the dimmer
levels for each lighting cue are set manually by the board operator at
each rehearsal and performance.
&RPSXWHUDVVLVWHGPHPRU\FRQVROH"
With a FRPSXWHUDVVLVWHGPHPRU\ system, each lighting cue, after
it has been created manually by the board operator, is loaded into
memory. During the performance, instead of setting the lighting
levels for each cue, the operator simply pulls the look from the
board’s PHPRU\ and sends it to the GLPPHUUDFN.
The (7&([SUHVV console pictured below can be used as either a
WZRVFHQHSUHVHW or as a FRPSXWHUDVVLVWHGPHPRU\ console.
(7&([SUHVV
&RQWURO&RQVROH
with monitor
)HDWXUHV
x
x
x
x
x
x
24 Channel
two-scene
operation
48 Channel
single-scene
operation
96 Channel
preset memory
operation
600 Q memory
240 Submasters
Can control up
to 1,024
Dimmers
%ULHIO\GHVFULEHKRZDWZRVFHQHSUHVHWFDQEHXVHGWRFRQWUROWKHOLJKWVIRUD
VPDOOVFDOHPXVLFDORUGUDPD"
In a WZRVFHQHSUHVHW each channel is controlled by two sliders (or
SRWV). The board operator uses the FURVVIDGHU to shift control from
one set of sliders (6FHQH$) to the other set of sliders (6FHQH%).
While 6FHQH$ is in the active (or live) mode, the board operator sets
the levels for the next cue in 6FHQH%. When the cue is called the
board operator will execute the shift from 6FHQH$ to % with the
FURVVIDGHU. Once the cue is executed the board operator will first
clear the preset panel and then set the levels for the following cue in
6FHQH$.
:KDWLVDVSOLWFURVVIDGHU"
Today most WZRVFHQHSUHVHW consoles use a VSOLWFURVVIDGHU to
fade from 6FHQH$ to 6FHQH%. A VSOLWFURVVIDGHU uses two masters.
One controls 6FHQH$; the other-- 6FHQH%. When both masters are
moved together one scene fades in while the other fades out. Because
there are two controls, 6FHQH$ can fade to black before 6FHQH% is
brought to full or 6FHQH$ can lag behind in the fade as 6FHQH% is
being brought up.
:KDWLVWKHPDMRUDGYDQWDJHRIEHLQJDEOHWRVWRUHWKHOLJKWLQJ4VLQWKH
FRQVROH
VPHPRU\"
Obviously, it is IDVWHU, HDVLHU, and certainly more DFFXUDWH, to load
the cues from the computer’s memory than it is to have the board
operator manually set the level of each channel for every cue.
:KDWLVWKHPDMRUGLVDGYDQWDJH"
It takes a considerable amount of WLPH to write (or program) the cues
into the console’s memory. For all practical purposes, it is impossible
to create a show "on the fly." Generally most of the cues must be
written and loaded before the first technical rehearsal.
In my opinion the most flexible control console has the option of
being run as ...
x
x
x
a WZRVFHQHSUHVHW,
a manual board with programmable VXEPDVWHUV or
a PHPRU\FRQVROH with sequential cues.
:KDWDUH6XE0DVWHUV"+RZFDQWKH\EHXVHGWREXLOGWKHOLJKWLQJ
FRPSRVLWLRQV"
A 6XE0DVWHU is a slider which electronically controls a group of
channels. For example, 6XE0DVWHU can be a SLQNIXOOVWDJHZDVK
and 6XE0DVWHU: a EOXHZDVK. A look can be created by
manipulating these two 6XE0DVWHUV and then saved into memory as
a cue.
:KDWLVPHDQWE\KLJKHVWWDNHVSUHFHGHQFH"
When building a composition with the SubMasters, if a dimmer is in
more than one SubMaster, that dimmer will respond to the highest
reading. For example if dimmer 1 is at a level of 50% in SubMaster
A and a level of 90% in SubMaster B, and both SubMasters are at
full (100%), the intensity of the light on stage will be 90%.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDEXPSEXWWRQDQGDVRORVZLWFK"
Normally there is a button at the bottom of each slider which can be
programmed to be a EXPS button, a VROR switch, or simply turned
RII. When programmed as a EXPS button, when it is pressed the
channel will go to full. As a VROR switch, when pressed the channel
will go to full and the rest of the stage will go to black. %XPS and
VROR buttons are primarily used in the concert world to spot a brief
solo.
:KDWLVWKHPLQLPXPQXPEHURIFRQWUROFKDQQHOVQHHGHGWROLJKWDVPDOO
SURGXFWLRQRIDSOD\RUPXVLFDO"
Twenty Four
+RZPDQ\FRQWUROFKDQQHOVDUHDYDLODEOHRQWKH0DLQ6WDJHFRQVROH"
The 6WUDQG0DQWUL[0; contains control channels.
+RZPDQ\6XE0DVWHUV"
There are four pages of 6XE0DVWHUV and each channel can become a
6XE0DVWHU so a total of (4 * 48) looks can be saved.
+RZPDQ\GLIIHUHQWOLJKWLQJFXHVFDQEHVWRUHGLQWKHV\VWHP
VPHPRU\"
. Each lighting look can become a cue.
/LVWWKUHHWHFKQLTXHVZKLFKFDQEHXVHGWRGLVWULEXWHWKHHOHFWULFDOSRZHU
IURPWKHGLPPHUUDFNWRWKHOLJKWLQJLQVWUXPHQW"
Run a FDEOH from each light (VWDJHFLUFXLW) to the GLPPHU. This is the
Broadway approach.
x Hard wire the VWDJHFLUFXLW to the GLPPHU through the SDWFKSDQHO. See
)LJXUH on page 372.
x Hard wire the VWDJHFLUFXLW directly to the GLPPHU. A GLPPHUSHUFLUFXLW
system
x
%ULHIO\GHVFULEHKRZDGLPPHUSHUFLUFXLWV\VWHPZRUNV.
In a modern theatre, every permanently installed outlet (VWDJHFLUFXLW)
is hard wired to a 2400 watt GLPPHU. 300 circuits equals 300
dimmers.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQVRIWSDWFKDQGKDUGSDWFK"
In VRIWSDWFKthe board operator uses the control console’s numerical
key pad to assign (or SDWFK) a GLPPHU, or group of GLPPHUV, to a
FRQWUROFKDQQHO. In an older theatre, each permanently installed
outlet (or VWDJHFLUFXLW) terminated in a plug and each dimmer
terminated in one or more outlets in the SDWFKSDQHO. +DUGSDWFK
was physically plugging each circuit’s plug into a dimmer’s outlet.
:KLFKGRZHKDYHRQWKH0DLQ6WDJH"
Soft patch.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDGLPPHUDQGDFKDQQHO"
A GLPPHU is the electrical device which controls the amount of
electricity which reaches the light; the FKDQQHO is the "device" which
controls the dimmer. The instrument is plugged into GLPPHU 58
which in turn is controlled at the console (OLJKWERDUG) by FKDQQHO 1.
:KDWLVDSDWFKSDQHO"
The SDWFKSDQHO was typically a large, very expensive, metal box,
often placed off stage in the wings, which contained one plug for
every permanently installed VWDJHFLUFXLW and one or more outlets for
every GLPPHU. Generally a GLPPHU had one outlet for every 1000
watts. A SDWFKSDQHO was installed when the lighting system
contained a large number of 20 amp VWDJHFLUFXLWV but only a few
high wattage GLPPHUV. The SDWFKSDQHO in the original layout of the
-)$&0DLQ6WDJH contained 245 plugs and 216 outlets (for 36
dimmers) in a 5x5x7’ metal box located down stage right. See )LJXUH
on page 371.
:KDWLVLWVIXQFWLRQ"
To make it possible to plug any VWDJHFLUFXLW (or light) into any
GLPPHU. It is the SDWFK system that makes modern flexible lighting
possible.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDGLPPHUUDFNDQGDGLPPHUSDFN"
A GLPPHUUDFN is part of a theatre’s permanent lighting system
while a GLPPHUSDFN is generally a temperary setup borrowed or
rented for a specific show.
+RZPDQ\GLPPHUVDUHLQDVWDQGDUGUDFN"
96 - 2.4Kw dimmers.
+RZPDQ\GLPPHUVDUHQRUPDOO\DYDLODEOHLQDQRIIWKHVKHOIGLPPHU
SDFN"
Six, twelve or twenty four.
:KDWDUHWKHDYDLODEOHFDSDFLWLHV"
watt, watt and watt.
'HYHORSDQHTXLSPHQWOLVWIRUDVPDOOOLJKWLQJFRQWUROV\VWHPFRQWDLQLQJ
ZDWWGLPPHUVFRQWUROOHGWKURXJKDVLPSOHWZRVFHQHSUHVHQWFRQVROH
(7&([SUHVV, 2 scene, 24 channel, memory control
FRQVROH
$
3,843
1- 6WUDQG&' (24x2.4Kw) GLPPHUSDFN w/ stage pin outlets
$
5,824
1- 100’ '0;FRQWUROFDEOH
$
88.00
1-
$SSUR[LPDWHO\KRZPXFKZRXOGVXFKDV\VWHPFRVWLQWKH0LQQHDSROLV
PDUNHW"
7RWDOFRVW for this 24 channel control system: . The average
cost per dimmer is $ 406.
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: March 1, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
(OHFWULFDO7KHRU\DQG3UDFWLFH
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 13: Electrical Theory and
Practice
:KDWLVWKHVWDQGDUGYROWDJHLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV"
volts.
:KDWLVWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQYROWVDPSVDQGZDWWV"
'HILQLWLRQV
9ROWDJH is the force (or potential force) behind the electrons
as they move through the circuit,
x DPSHUDJH is the amount of electrical current flowing in the
circuit, and
x ZDWWDJH is the amount of power, or work, performed.
x
:DWWDJH is equal to YROWDJH times DPSHUDJH, or as a mathematical
formula: : 9$ -- the :HVW9LUJLQLD)RUPXOD.
$PSHUDJH is equal to ZDWWDJH divided by YROWDJH, as a
mathematical formula: $ :9 or in North America, $ :
.
:KDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRIWKHFLUFXLWEUHDNHURUIXVH"
The FLUFXLWEUHDNHU (or fuse) protects the theatre’s wiring from an
electrical overload which could cause a fire.
:KDWVKRXOGGHWHUPLQHWKHUDWLQJRIWKHFLUFXLWEUHDNHU"
The capacity of the EUHDNHU (or fuse) is determined by size of the
theatre’s wiring. For example, a #12 AWG wire, which according to
the 1DWLRQDO(OHFWULFDO&RGH can safely carry 20 amps, should be
fused at 20 amps.
:KDWLVWKHFDSDFLW\LQDPSVRIFDEOH"
20 amps, 2400 watts @ 120 volts
2IFDEOH"
15 amps, 1800 watts @ 120 volts
2IFDEOH"
13 amps, 1560 watts @ 120 volts
2IFDEOH"
10 amps, 1200 watts @ 120 volts
'HILQH6x
x
x
12 gauge wire, FDSDFLW\ DPSV
Three conductors: +RW, 1HXWUDO (or Common) and *URXQG
6- Two or more VWUDQGHGFRQGXFWRUV with a serving of cotton between the
copper and the insulation. Jute fibers, or other fillers, are twisted together
with the conductors to make a round cord. The RXWHUMDFNHW is of high quality
rubber.
+RZPDQ\ZDWWODPSVFDQEHJDQJHGRQRQHFDEOH"
7ZR lights.
#14 gauge cable has a rated capacity of 15 amps or 1800 watts (at
120 volts). 1800 watts divided by 750 watts per light = 2.4
instruments. Obviously you can not have a .4 lamp.
+RZPDQ\ZDWWODPSVFDQEHJDQJHGWRJHWKHURQRQHFDEOH"
Also WZR.
:KDWW\SHRIFRQQHFWRUVDUHFRPPRQO\XVHGLQWKHWKHDWUH"
20amp 6WDJH3LQ (Cost: $ 10.00 / pair in the 2004 StageTechnology
catalogue)
x 20amp 7ZLVWORFN (Cost: $ 12.25 / pair)
x 15amp 8*URXQG3DUDOOHO%ODGH (also known as a Household or Edison
plug) (Cost: $ 8.75 / pair)
x
See )LJXUH on page 368.
:KLFKW\SHRIFRQQHFWRUGRZHXVHLQ-RKQVRQ&HQWHU"
Twenty amp WZLVWORFN. Broadway and most commercial road houses
use pin connectors, college and university theatres generally use
either pin or twistlock connectors and many community theatres use
parallel blade (household) plugs.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWKHOLQHFRQQHFWRUDQGWKHORDGFRQQHFWRU"
The ORDG connector is the plug on the light and the OLQH connector is
the outlet in the ZDOOSRFNHW, FRQQHFWRUVWULS or on the back of the
GLPPHUSDFN.
:KDWDUHWKHLUPRUHFRPPRQQDPHV"
The load connector is the PDOH plug and the line connector is the
IHPDOH plug.
$FFRUGLQJWRWUDGLWLRQDOSUDFWLFHZKDWVKRXOGEHWKHFRORURIWKHLQVXODWLRQ
RIWKHKRWZLUH
Black
7KHQHXWUDOZLUHDQG
White
7KHJURXQGZLUH"
Green
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDFDEOHDQGDMXPSHU"
A FDEOH is generally long, at least 50 feet, and typically runs between
the light and the dimmer rack. A MXPSHU is short, 10 to 50 feet and is
used with a WZRIHU to gang two instruments together.
:KDWLVDWZRIHU"
A two-fer is a < connector with RQHPDOH plug and WZRIHPDOH
plugs. It is used with a MXPSHU to JDQJ two lamps together on the
same cable. See )LJXUH on page 369.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDWKUHHZLUHVLQJOHSKDVHVHUYLFHDQGD
In a three-wire, single phase service the voltage between the two hot
lines (black insulated wires) is 240 volts and the voltage between any
hotline and the neutral (white insulated wires) is 120 volts.
)RXUZLUHWKUHHSKDVHVHUYLFH"
In a four-wire, three phase service the voltage between the three hot
lines (black insulated wires) is 208 volts and the voltage between any
hotline and the neutral (white insulated wires) is 120 volts. See the
6LGH%DU(OHFWULFDO:LULQJon page 330.
:KLFKZLOO\RXILQGLQPRVWPRGHUQWKHDWUHV"
Four-wire, three-phase service
StageCraft Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Created: November 27, 2001; Last updated: November 24, 2003
© 2001- 2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
$Q$SSURDFKWR6WDJH/LJKWLQJ
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 12: Lighting Design
2XWVLGH5HDGLQJ
Stanley McCandless. $0HWKRGRI/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH, 4th edition. New York:
Theatre Arts Books. 1932 - 1958.
%ULHIO\RXWOLQHWKHSURFHVVRIOLJKWLQJDVKRZ
My approach to lighting is primarily based on 6WDQOH\0F&DQGOHVV’
PHWKRG. McCandless was a professor at Yale University (1925-1964)
and was one of the first teachers to offer a course in Stage Lighting.
His two major works, $0HWKRGRI/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH and $6\OODEXV
RI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ were originally published in the 1930s.
I divide the process into three phases: 5HVHDUFK'HVLJQ and
([HFXWLRQ
1. 5HVHDUFK3KDVH
1. 5HDGWKHVFULSW
1. What is the setting of the play?
2. When does it take place?
3. What is the time frame of each scene?
4. What (and where) is the "light source?"
5. Are specific Qs mentioned in the text?
6. What is the style of the work? The mood?
2. ([DPLQHWKHVFHQHDQGFRVWXPHGHVLJQV
1. What is the location of the doors, windows,
and drops?
2. Have lighting positions been blocked by scenic
pieces?
3. What is the color of the set? Of the costumes?
3. 9LVLWWKHWKHDWUH
1. Is there a cove position? Box booms? Balcony
rail?
2. How many electric pipes are available?
3. How many instruments do you have?
4. How many dimmers?
5. Do they all work?
6. What type of control console will you be
working with?
4. :DWFKDUHKHDUVDO
1. How does the director use the stage?
2. Where are the major scenes played?
3. What cues are suggested by the staging?
4. Where will specials need to be located?
5. 'HVLJQ3KDVH
0. Create a /LJKWLQJ.H\.
1. Divide the stage into /LJKWLQJ (Acting) $UHDV.
2. Replicate the /LJKWLQJ.H\ into each of the
/LJKWLQJ (Acting) $UHDV.
3. Add 7RQLQJDQG%OHQGLQJ lights
4. Add 6SHFLDOV and %DFNJURXQG lights
5. Draft a /LJKW3ORW indicating where each lamp
will be hung.
6. Develop a +RRNXS&KDUW showing which
dimmer (or channel) controls each light or
each group of lights
7. Write a 4/LVW indicating when (line or action)
each lighting change (Lite Q) will happen.
6. ([HFXWLRQ3KDVH
0. Hang, gel and plug the lights as indicated on
the 3ORW and +RRNXS&KDUW.
1. )RFXV the lights
2. Set the light levels for each of the
FRPSRVLWLRQV indicated on the 4/LVW
3. Intigrate (7HFK5HKHDUVDO the lighting Qs into
the flow of the show.
:KDWDUHWKHIRXUFKDSWHUVRI0F&DQGOHVV
0HWKRGRI/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH"
x
x
x
x
Lighting the $FWLQJ$UHD
7RQLQJDQG%OHQGLQJ the acting areas
Lighting the %DFNJURXQG
Adding 6SHFLDOV
+RZGRWKH\UHODWHWR0\3HUVRQDO$SSURDFK"
As with mounting positions, I divide my lights into two groups.
Those units hung )URQWRI+RXVH in the FRYH, on the EDOFRQ\UDLO
and ER[ERRP positions and those hung 2Q6WDJH on HOHFWULFSLSHV,
ERRPV, ODGGHUV, and on the VHW.
)URQWRI+RXVH lights are for YLVLELOLW\--
x
x
Lighting the $FWLQJ$UHDV and/or
)URQWZDVKV
2Q6WDJH lights are for PROGLQJ and VHSDUDWLRQ-x
x
x
x
x
x
Washes of ;OLJKW, 'RZQ/LJKW and %DFN/LJKW to tone and
blend the stage
Lighting the F\F or EDFNGURSV
Lighting the EDFNLQJV behind windows, doors and archways
6XQOLJKW and 0RRQOLJKW
3UDFWLFDOV: Wall sconces, chandeliers, table lamps... and
6SHFLDOV
)URQW/LJKW
:KDWLVDQDFWLQJDUHD"
According to Gillette, DFWLQJDUHDV are "those spaces on the stage
where specific scenes are played." (page 301). The shape and size of
the DFWLQJDUHD (or areas), is determined by the scene designer’s
setting and the director’s blocking. The entire stage space may be one
large DFWLQJDUHD (as in a Neil Simon comedy, for example) or
divided into numerous small DFWLQJDUHDV (as in Tennessee William’s
6WUHHWFDU1DPHG'HVLUH, Arthur Miller’s 'HDWKRID6DOHVPDQ or a
Shakespearean tragedy).
$OLJKWLQJDUHD"
A OLJKWLQJDUHD is a small section of the total acting space. Each area
is "a cylindrical space approximately eight to twelve feet in diameter
and seven feet tall." (page 301) See )LJXUH on page 301.
Although there is a distinction between a OLJKWLQJDUHD and an DFWLQJ
DUHD, I, like many teachers and designers, use the terms
interchangeably.
:KDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRIWKHDFWLQJDUHDOLJKWV"
Acting area lights LOOXPLQDWH the performers face and, by varying the
intensity between the OLJKWLQJDUHDV, helps IRFXV the audience’s
attention.
+RZPDQ\OLJKWLQJDUHDVDUHQRUPDOO\XVHGIRUDVPDOOSURGXFWLRQ"
The number of lighting areas depends on the size of the stage. Small
productions on a small stage (24’ x12’) generally use VL[ areas.
Larger works on larger stages (36’ x24’) use up to ILIWHHQ. The total
acting space for 3OD\ER\RIWKH:HVWHUQ:RUOG has been divided by
teacher / designer J. Michael Gillette into 14 lighting areas. See
)LJXUH on page 305.
:KHUHDUHWKH\XVXDOO\ORFDWHG"
With a VL[DUHDV\VWHP, three are down stage and three are up stage.
Generally the total acting space is divided into two (DS and US) or
three (DS, CS and US) full stage plains. Each plain is then divided
into an odd (usually 3 or 5) number of lighting areas. Gillette’s
design for 3OD\ER\ is based on a 5 (across) by 3 (deep) grid.
+RZPDQ\LQVWUXPHQWVVKRXOGEHXVHGWROLJKWHDFKDUHD"
7ZR (or more). Stanley McCandless’ original system used only two
lights. I generally use three or four per area. Today most designers
follow Gillette’s example and surround the performer with three to
six units.
:KHUHVKRXOGWKHVHLQVWUXPHQWVEHORFDWHG"
Following McCandless’ theory, both lights should be mounted
DERYH in IURQW of, and to the OHIWDQGULJKW of the performer. The
three down stage areas are usually lit by six lamps (Ellipsoidals)
hung in the &HLOLQJ&RYH; the three up stage areas are lit by six units
(Fresnels) hung on the )LUVW(OHFWULF. A total of 12 lights for six
areas.
:KDWFRORUVDUHWUDGLWLRQDOO\XVHGWROLJKWWKHDFWRU"
McCandless believed that one of the two lamps should be gelled in a
warm color (5%DVWDUG$PEHU) and the other in cool color
(53DOH%OXH). I, like most designers today, would gel both units in
the same color (5%DVWDUG$PEHU) or in two similar colors (5
1R&RORU3LQN and 5%DVWDUG$PEHU).
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQD.H\OLJKWDQGD)LOOOLJKW"
The .H\/LJKW establishes the high lights; the )LOO/LJKW controls the
color and depth of the shadow area. The .H\)LOO relationship can
be established by either a difference in FRORU or LQWHQVLW\. The .H\
/LJKW is the brighter or the warmer of the two units.
:KDWLVWKH/LJKWLQJ.H\"
The OLJKWLQJNH\ is a drawing indicating the direction and color of
each instrument lighting the acting area. See )LJXUH on page
301 and )LJXUH on page 304. Campare the /LJKWLQJ.H\ in
)LJXUH with the partial /LJKW3ORW in )LJXUH on page
306.
:KDWSDWWHUQVFDQEHXVHGLQJDQJLQJDFWLQJDUHDOLJKWV"
Usually all of the lights focused on an area are ganged on the same
channel. A six area system requires six channels-- one per area.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDIURQWZDVKDQGWKHDFWLQJDUHDV\VWHP"
In a )URQW:DVK, the six (or 10) front "area" lights are controlled by
one channel producing a full stage (width) wash. It is also possible to
gang the front area lights by color. Using the 3OD\ER\ layout as an
example, the five lamps in 53DOH$PEHU*ROG could be grouped
on one channel, and the five lamps gelled in 56XSULVH3LQN could
be ganged on a second channel.
:KDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRIDFXUWDLQZDUPHU"
The FXUWDLQZDUPHU is generally a system of lamps, often 2 or 3- 8"
Fresnels, focused on the DFWFXUWDLQ and used to add a little warmth
to the stage area as the audience enters the house.
+RZFDQWKHOLJKWLQJDUHDV\VWHPEHDGDSWHGWRWKHWKUXVWDQGDUHQDVWDJH"
In a typical arena theatre with a 24’ x 24’ DFWLQJDUHD, the stage space
is divided into nine 8’ OLJKWLQJDUHDV with each area illuminated by
three (separated by 120 degrees) or four (separated by 90 degrees)
lights.
2Q6WDJH0RGHOLQJ/LJKW
:KDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRIWRQLQJDQGEOHQGLQJOLJKWV"
x
x
x
x
%OHQG the pools of acting area light together, and
Add a layer of color to WRQH the costumes and setting.
5HYHDO the actor’s form and
6HSDUDWH him from the background.
:KDWW\SHRILQVWUXPHQWVGLG0F&DQGOHVVVXJJHVWIRUWRQLQJDQGEOHQGLQJ
OLJKWV"
Twelve to sixteen feet of three color %RUGHUOLJKWV hung on the center
of the First Electric and a similar length of three color )RRWOLJKWV
:KDWSDWWHUQVRIOLJKWGR,XVHWRWRQHDQGEOHQGWKHVWDJH"
I, and most designers today, use combinations of VLGH, EDFN, and
GRZQZDVKHV to tone and blend the acting areas. These colors and
positions are generally included in the /LJKWLQJ.H\. See )LJXUH
on page 304.
:KDWLVDZDVK"
According to Jean Rosenthal, a ZDVK bathes a section of the stage
with an "even field of light using a circuit of two or more lamps."
(7KH0DJLFRI/LJKW, page 178)
$FURVVZDVK"
A FURVVZDVK is a group of two to four instruments mounted on a
boom, ladder or the end of an electric pipe and focused DFURVV the
stage.
$GRZQZDVK"
A GRZQZDVK is a group of three to five instruments evenly
distributed on an electric pipe and focused VWUDLJKWGRZQ.
$EDFNZDVK"
A EDFNZDVK is a group of three to five instruments evenly
distributed on an up stage electric pipe and focused into a down stage
plane. Traditionally, lamps hung on the second electric or focused on
an actor standing under the first electric.
:KHUHRQWKHRYHUKHDGOLJKWSLSHVFDQLQVWUXPHQWVEHPRXQWHGWRSURGXFH
KLJKDQJOHVLGHOLJKW"
On the outside ends of an electric pipe.
:KDWLVWKLVSRVLWLRQFDOOHG"
Pipe ends, or simply: "Ends."
+RZPDQ\GLIIHUHQWFRORUVRIWRQLQJDQGEOHQGLQJOLJKWVDUHXVXDOO\XVHG"
At least WZR, a warm (pink, yellow or amber) and a cool (blue).
Often a WKLUG color will be added. Three colors -- 5%DVWDUG
$PEHU, 53DOH$PEHU*ROG, and 50LVW%OXH-- were used in
the 3OD\ER\ design. Each color was chosen to reflect a dramatic
function. In addition to the three systems of side and back light,
Gillette’s "night wash" in 5%ULJKW%OXH could also be considered
WRQLQJOLJKW. See )LJXUH$ on page 308.
+RZDUHWRQLQJDQGEOHQGLQJOLJKWVWUDGLWLRQDOO\JDQJHG"
Traditionally by FRORU, GLUHFWLRQ and SRVLWLRQ.
&\F%DFNJURXQG/LJKW
:KDWW\SHRIOLJKWLQJLQVWUXPHQWLVWUDGLWLRQDOO\XVHGWROLJKWWKH
[
6N\&\F"
Either 6FRRSV (4 to 6 units per color), %RUGHUOLJKWV (40 feet -- 5- 8’
or 7- 6’ strips), or &\FOLJKWV (4 sections). See )LJXUH& on page
308. Gillette used eleven "Cyc Lights" (probably Scoops) to create a
two color wash on the back drop.
+RZPDQ\FRORUVRIF\FOLJKWVDUHXVXDOO\XVHG"
Three. :K\" Because strip lights are traditionally wired with three
circuits.
:KDWVSHFLILFFRORUVDUHFRPPRQO\XVHG"
For realistic productions of drama, opera, musicals and dance the
Sky Cyc is often lit with three different shades of EOXH-- A dark blue
(53ULPDU\%OXH), a middle blue (56N\%OXH) and a light blue
(53DOH%OXH). If the designer is forced to use only two circuits, I
would gel one in Dark Blue (5) and leave the other circuit :KLWH.
Gillette’s two colors for the 3OD\ER\ design were 5 and 5/LJKW
6WHHO%OXH.
Abstract non-realistic productions, such as modern dance, often light
the backdrop with the three light primaries:5HG (50HGLXP5HG),
%OXH (53ULPDU\%OXH) and *UHHQ (53ULPDU\*UHHQ).
:K\VKRXOGWKHEDFNGURSEHOLWIURPERWKWKHWRSDQGWKHERWWRP"
If the drop is lit with Scoops or Border lights, and the designer wants
an HYHQZDVK across the sheet, it is necessary to light it from both the
top and the bottom. Also, if the drop is lit from both the top and the
bottom, it is possible to create a VXQULVHHIIHFW.
,IWKHVN\GURSFDQRQO\EHOLWIURPRQHSRVLWLRQZKLFKWRSRUERWWRPLV
SUHIHUUHG"
Bottom. :K\" Lighting the bottom of the cyc will keep the
audience’s focus low
:KDWLVDJURXQGURZ"
A JURXQGURZ is another name for the mounting position used to
light the bottom of the drop. A JURXQGURZ is also the name of the
piece of scenery used to mask the JURXQGURZ lights.
:KDWSUDFWLFDOSUREOHPVFDQEHHQFRXQWHUHGZKHQOLJKWLQJWKHF\FIURPWKH
ERWWRP"
These floor mounted lights are often in the way for scene shifts.
Actors and dancers have also been known to trip over them.
+RZDUHWKHVHSUREOHPVVROYHGLQWKHFRPPHUFLDO1HZ<RUNWKHDWUH"
The lamps are usually upstage of the cyc, lighting the seamless drop
from behind. They are often hung on an electric pipe whose "in" trim
is only a foot above the floor. During a shift, the pipe and JURXQG
URZ lights, can be lifted into the loft getting it out of the way of
moving scenery.
:KDWLVDEDFNLQJOLJKW"
A small light placed behind (or off-stage of) a door or window unit
and used to light the scenic backing.
:KDWLQVWUXPHQWLVQRUPDOO\XVHGWROLJKWDEDFNLQJ"
In the non-commercial, academic and community theatres, the usual
instrument is the 150 watt 3$5&DQ. I have also used FOLSRQ
UHIOHFWRUOLJKWV (with a 60 to 100 watt lamp) which I have purchased
at Menards. In the commercial world many designers use a :L]DUG,
a 10 inch, 400 watt flood light, or a 6" )UHVQHO
%ULHIO\GHVFULEHKRZWROLJKWDZLQGRZEDFNLQJ
I would use WZR lights per window. (1) A IORRGOLJKW mounted near
the top of the flat to light the 6N\&\F and (2) a VSRWOLJKW (an
Ellipsoidal or Fresnel) hung off stage and focused through the
window to provide a shaft of VXQOLJKW. There are four windows in the
back wall of Gillette’s design for 7KH:LQVORZ%R\. (See )LJXUH
on page 72). To create both a day and night look I would need at
least 8 IORRGOLJKWV (2 per window - day / nite) and 8 VSRWOLJKWV (2 per
window - sun / moon).
$QLQWHULRUGRRUEDFNLQJ
I would use WZR lamps. (1) A IORRGOLJKW mounted near the top of the
back side of the door flat to light the "room" and (2) a VSRWOLJKW hung
further off stage and focused on the back of the door. This lamp will
high light the actor as he opens the door to exit.
$QDUFKHGHQWUDQFHLQWRKDOOZD\
I would use IRXU lights. Two IORRGOLJKWV mounted over the arch to
light the hall, and two VSRWOLJKWV located 4 to 6 feet off stage from
the edge of the arch and cross focused to the center of the entrance.
These two units will high light the performer as he enters (or exits)
through the hall.
:KDWJDQJLQJSDWWHUQLVXVHGIRUEDFNLQJOLJKWV"
All the units within a specific backing are generally ganged together
on the same dimmer. If there are five door and/or windows in a set,
the lighting designer should assign at least five dimmers. Go to
)LJXUH on page 72. Gillette’s rendering of 7KH:LQVORZ%R\ set
indicates two doors (down left and up right) and one large window. I
would provide at least four dimmers...
x
x
x
x
DL Door,
UC Window - Day,
UC Window - Night, and
UR Door.
6SHFLDOVDQG(IIHFWV
:KDWLVDVSHFLDO"
In a way, any instrument which is not an DFWLQJDUHDOLJKW, a WRQLQJ
DQGEOHQGLQJOLJKW, or a EDFNJURXQGOLJKW is a VSHFLDO. Generally a
special is used to create a tight pool of light to isolate a specific
moment in the play, emphasize an important entrance, or provide a
shaft of sun light (or moon light) through a window.
+RZGRHVD%URDGZD\GHVLJQHUSORWLQWKHVSHFLDOVDPRQWKEHIRUHWKHVKRZ
JRHVLQWRUHKHDUVDO"
Normally, entrance and furniture specials can be easily plotted as
soon as the scene designer’s floor plan has been finalized. The
designer will then add six or eight additional lamps, "spares," usually
in the cove and on the first electric, to cover the director’s last minute
requests.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDPRWLYDWLQJOLJKWDQGDPRWLYDWHGOLJKW"
The PRWLYDWLQJOLJKW is the practical, or fixture, which is
"illuminating" the scene. The PRWLYDWHGOLJKW is the theatrical unit
(or units) which actually light the actor. The Ellipsoidal mounted
outside a window to produce a beam of sunlight is a motivaWHGlight.
The floor lamp, wall sconce, or chandelier is a motivaWLQJ light. Both
motivaWLQJ and motivaWHG lights are considered VSHFLDOV See )LJXUH
% on page 308. The three 6" Fresnels (motivaWHG lights) on the
second and third electric augment the light produced by the three oil
lamps (motivaWLQJ lights) sitting on the small tables.
&DQDPDMRUGUDPDWLFVFHQHEHSOD\HGRQO\XQGHUWKHPRWLYDWLQJRU
PRWLYDWHGOLJKW"
1R, probably not. Both motivating and motivated light create
interesting, and often revealing, compositions, but they tend not to
provide enought light on the actor’s face to satisfy either the director
or an audience. Generally the VSHFLDOV are reinforced with a little
front light from the DFWLQJDUHD units.
:KDWLVDIL[WXUHRUSUDFWLFDO"
A fixture is the on-stage motivaWLQJ light. It can be a floor lamp,
desk lamp, wall sconce, or chandelier. It can also be an oil lamp or
candle.
:K\VKRXOGWKH\EHFRQWUROOHGWKURXJKWKHVZLWFKERDUG"
Normally every fixture (motivaWLQJ light) has at least one theatrical
unit (motivaWHG light) to create the dramatic effect. If the practical is
turned on in a Light Q, at least three channels will move: (1) the
fixture, (2) the VSHFLDO area, and (3) the associated front area light.
:K\DUHIL[WXUHVQRUPDOO\XQGHUODPSHG"
A sixty watt lamp in a wall sconce or chandelier would blind the
audience. Relamping the fixture with a 25 watt bulb would present a
more enjoyable experience.
+RZFDQZHFUHDWHWKHHIIHFWRIOLJKWQLQJRQVWDJH"
Lightning is traditionally produced by IODVKLQJ several high wattage
lights. I have used 1000 watt scoops (with a 3200K degree lamp) and
PARCans with 1000 watt, VNSP lamps. Forty years ago we flashed
the white circuit of our three color Border Lights. Twenty-six 150
watt light bulbs (3900 watts) per Border can produce quite a bit of
light.
Stage Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Last updated: March 1, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKWLQJWKH$UHQDDQG7KUXVW6WDJH
5HVRXUFHV
7H[W
J. Michael Gillette. 7KHDWULFDO'HVLJQDQG3URGXFWLRQ, 4th edition. Mountain
View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company. 1999. Chapter 12: Lighting Design, pp.
310-312.
+RZFDQWKH0F&DQGOHVVV\VWHPEHDGDSWHGWRWKH$UHQDDQG7KUXVWVWDJH"
Stanley McCandless’ method can be easily adapted to the needs of
the sculptural stage. The "method" designer can still divide the stage
into OLJKWLQJDUHDV, add washes of WRQLQJDQGEOHQGLQJOLJKWV, and
highlight a climactic moment with a couple of carefully focused
VSHFLDOV. Only EDFNJURXQGOLJKWV (and then only for DUHQD
productions) need to be sacrificed.
:KDWDUHWKHVWDQGDUGPRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQV"
Most DUHQD or WKUXVWVWDJH theatres have a ULJLGSLSHJULG suspended
sixteen to twenty feet above the deck. This grid normally extends six
to eight feet beyond the edge of the stage, there fore a 24’x24’ acting
area would require a 40’x40’ grid. This grid would traditionally be
divided into four foot squares.
:KDWLVWKHW\SLFDOQXPEHURIOLJKWLQJDUHDVLQDQDUHQDOD\RXW"
The "standard" 24’ square acting area is typically divided into QLQH
8x8 OLJKWLQJDUHDV.
:KHUHDUHWKH\ORFDWHG"
The lighting areas are generally arranged in a WKUHHE\WKUHHJULG.
:KLFKDUHDLVPRVWLPSRUWDQW"
The FHQWHUFHQWHU acting area is the DUHQD equivilant of a
proscenium theatre’s down center area.
:KDWLVWKHPLQLPXPQXPEHURIODPSVQHHGHGSHUDUHD"
Three.
+RZVKRXOGWKH\EHGLVWULEXWHGDURXQGWKHSHUIRUPHU"
7KUHH/LWH6\VWHP1R
&RORU
They should be HYHQO\VSDFHGaround the
performer. The separation angle between
lights should be about GHJUHHV.
Although three lights is the
minimum, most designers follow J.
Michael Gillette’s example and
assign IRXUODPSV (separated by GHJUHHV) to each area. This four light
approach is known as the GRXEOH
0F&DQGOHVV system. See )LJXUH
on page 310 and )LJXUH
on page 312.
:KLFKFRORUV\VWHPVDUHPRVWHIIHFWLYH"
7KUHH/LWH7KUHH&RORU
R01 - R51 - R63
Two basic approaches have been used with
the three light system. 2QH: all three lamps
are in the same (or closely related) color and
7ZR: A neutral is added to McCandless’
warm and cool colors creating a warm (5
%DVWDUG$PEHU) - neutral (56XSULVH
3LQN) - cool (53DOH%OXH) system.
With the GRXEOH0F&DQGOHVV
approach, two lamps (opposites) are
usually gelled in a warm color and
two in a cool color.
:KDWLQVWUXPHQWVDUHXVHGIRUWRQLQJDQGEOHQGLQJOLJKWV"
Toning and blending lights tend to be )UHVQHOV or 3$5ODPSV.
:KHUHDUHWKH\ORFDWHG"
They are typically hung over the stage creating a wash of GRZQ
OLJKW.
:KDWLVWKHEDFNGURSLQDQDUHQDSURGXFWLRQ"
The stage IORRU.
+RZLVLWOLJKWHG"
The "backdrop" in an arena theatre is lit from DERYH using both the
DFWLQJDUHD lights and the WRQLQJDQGEOHQGLQJ lights.
:KDWDUHWKHWZRPDMRUSUREOHPVHQFRXQWHUHGZKHQOLJKWLQJDQDUHQD
SURGXFWLRQ"
Keeping light out of the audience’s eyes, especially those sitting in the first
row..
x Direction, with the exception of down light, is no longer a design function.
What is side light to half the audience is front light to one quarter of the
audience and back light to the other quarter.
x
Stage Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Last updated: May 3, 2001
© 2001 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
/LJKWLQJWKH'DQFH
5HVRXUFHV
Jean Rosenthal and Lael Wertenbaker. 7KH0DJLFRI/LJKW. 1972. Boston: Little,
Brown and Company. Chapter 9: "To Dance in Light"
Joel E. Rubin and Leland H. Watson. 7KHDWULFDO/LJKWLQJ3UDFWLFH. 1954. New
York: Theatre Arts Books. "Ballet and Modern Dance," pp. 31-37.
Thomas R. Skelton. "Handbook of Dance Stagecraft." 'DQFH0DJD]LQH. October
1955 to December 1956.
Lee Watson. /LJKWLQJ'HVLJQ+DQGERRN. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
"Dance," pp. 129-153.
Tom Skelton’s 7ZHOYH'DQFH$UHDV | Jean Rosenthal’s %DVLF'DQFH/LJKW3ORW
/LJKWLQJWKH/RFDO'DQFH5HFLWDO
:KDWLVWKHSULPDU\GLIIHUHQFHLQHPSKDVLVEHWZHHQOLJKWLQJDGUDPDWLF
SURGXFWLRQDQG
In drama the primary goal of the designer is
to OLJKWWKHDFWRU
VIDFH. The figure on the
left is front lit by one lamp located in the
center of the Cove.
OLJKWLQJDGDQFHSHUIRUPDQFH"
In dance the primary goal of the designer is
to UHYHDOWKHVFXOSWXUDOTXDOLWLHV of the
dancer’s body. The figure on the left is side
lit by two lamps. One mounted on a boom in
the stage left entrance and the other hung on
a boom in the stage right entrance. Notice
the edges of the figure are well lit, but the
front of the body is in shadow.
:KDWLVWKHSULPDU\OLJKWSRVLWLRQVXVHGLQGUDPDWLFOLJKWLQJ"
Front light from the &RYH, %DOFRQ\5DLO, and )LUVW(OHFWULF.
,QGDQFHOLJKWLQJ"
Side light from ERRPV located in each side entrance.
,I\RXRQO\KDGWZHOYHLQVWUXPHQWVZKHUHZRXOG\RXKDQJWKHPWROLJKWD
SOD\"
Six lamps in the Cove and six lamps on the First Electric.
$GDQFHFRQFHUW"
Six lamps on three booms stage left and six lamps on three booms
stage right. Each position would hold two lamps. One light would be
hung 8’ off the deck (KHDGKLJK) and the other 2’ (VKLQEXVWHU) from
the floor. The First Boom should be placed at the down stage edge of
the apron, the Second in the first entrance, and the Third Boom up
stage, in the third entrance.
:KRGHYHORSHGRULQYHQWHGGDQFHOLJKWLQJ"
Most dance lighting techniques originated with the work of -HDQ
5RVHQWKDO (1912-1969). Shortly before her death in 1969 she wrote
about dance lighting at the end of the Second World War.
Ballet was expected to be pink and pretty. The
systems for lighting it were inflexible. Equipment,
standard in European opera houses, consisted of firstpipe positions, a boom or tormentor, one left and one
right. Supplemental lights were borderlights and strips
of light above or on the sides, simply hauled in, one to
twenty of them, at four feet to six or seven feet. There
were a couple of what we privately called "bellybutton crosslights." (Actually, they hit the crotch.) So
the first ten feet of the stage was lit for visibility and
available for change of color -- blue for 6ZDQ/DNH,
pink for /HV%LFKHV. After that there was just scenery
light, flat and without depth or mood.
My system UHTXLUHGIL[HGERRPVDORQJWKHVLGHDW
HYHU\HQWUDQFHDVDEDVLVIRUIOH[LELOLW\DQGIRU
OLJKWLQJWKHZKROHVWDJH. That made the ballets look
different, which roused the ire of the European
choreographers. (7KH0DJLFRI/LJKW. 1972. pg. 117118)
The emphasis on "fixed booms...at every entrance" is mine. Most of
Rosenthal’s dance plots used four booms per side with two
($PHULFDQ'DQFH)HVWLYDO) to four (7KH1HZ<RUN&LW\%DOOHW) to six
(7KH0DUWKD*UDKDP'DQFH&RPSDQ\) to twelve (%DOOHW
,QWHUQDWLRQDO) lamps per boom.
:LWKZKLFKGDQFHFRPSDQLHVZDVVKHDVVRFLDWHG"
She began working with the 0DUWKD*UDKDP company in 1934.
During her 35 year tenure she designed 53 productions. Her last
work for Graham, 7KH$UFKDLF+RXUV, opened two weeks before her
death. She was also the resident lighting designer with the 1HZ<RUN
&LW\%DOOHW between 1948 and 1957. Works carrying the "Lighting by
Jean Rosenthal" credit are still in the Ballet’s repertory.
:KRLV7KRPDV6NHOWRQ"
Thomas R Skelton (1928-1994), one of America’s most distinguished
commercial New York lighting designers, taught at Yale University
and the New York Studio and Forum of Stage Design. Like Jean
Rosenthal, much of his work was in the world of dance. He designed
for 7KH$PHULFDQ%DOOHW7KHDWUH, 7KH-RIIUH\%DOOHW, 7KH1HZ<RUN
&LW\%DOOHW, and 7KH2KLR%DOOHW. Like Stanley McCandless at Yale,
he developed a "method" to light the dance stage which was
published in the 1950’s.
:KHQDQGLQZKDWPDJD]LQHGLGKHSXEOLVKKLVDSSURDFKWRGDQFH
OLJKWLQJ"
Tom Skelton’s "method" was published as "The Handbook for Dance
Stagecraft" in 'DQFH0DJD]LQH between October 1955 and
December 1956. His reference to lighting equipment is out of date,
but the techniques he outlines are still valid.
:KDWDUHKLVWZHOYHDUHDVRIGDQFHOLJKWLQJ"
1. Front wash
2. Side wash: Left to Right
3. Side wash: Right to Left
4. Down Stage Plane
5. Center Stage Plane
6. Up Stage Plane
7. Left Path
8. Center Path
9. Right Path
10. Diagonal: Down Left to Up Right
11. Diagonal: Up Left to Down Right
12. Center Pool of Down Light
These twelve "areas" could be lit with a minimum of 15 lamps.
Three in the Cove, three on the First Electric, one in the center of the
Second (mid-stage) Electric, and four on each side. The four side
lights would be divided between three booms: two (side and
diagonal) on the down stage torm, and one on each of the center and
up stage boom. Each light would need to be separately controlled.
:KDWLVWKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQDSDWK
A SDWK is a pattern of light which runs from upstage to downstage.
The &HQWHU3DWK covers the down center, center center, and up
center stage areas. 3DWKV are traditionally lit from the front with
lamps mounted in the Cove and on the First Electric.
DSODQHDQG
A SODQH is a pattern of light which run from stage left to stage right.
The 'RZQ6WDJH3ODQH covers the down left, down center, and down
right stage areas. Planes are traditionally lit from from the side with
lamps mounted on booms located at each end of the plane.
DZDVK"
A ZDVK is when the full stage is lit by one group of lights. Each lamp
in the group is placed so that it lights the stage from approximately
the same direction.
%ULHIO\GHVFULEH-HDQ5RVHQWKDO
VEDVLFGDQFHOLJKWSORW
Rosenthal’s "basic dance plot" used between 6 and 12 lamps front of
house, 15 units on the First Electric, 5 instruments on the Second,
Third and Fourth Electric, and 16 lights on 8 booms. These 52 (to
58) units were controlled through 12 to 14-- 3,000 watt dimmers and
12-- 500 watt dimmers in an auxillary (or 3UH6HW) board. House
border lights and foot lights, if available, were used for general
washes and cyc lights. This analysis is based on plots from the
$PHULFDQ'DQFH)HVWLYDO (1949-1950) and 3DJH%DOOHW
V)UHQFK
7RXU (1950) which are located in the -HDQ5RVHQWKDO&ROOHFWLRQ at
the University of Wisconsin in Madison.
+RZPDQ\OLJKWSLSHVGLGVKHXVH"
)RXU pipes on 7 to 8 foot centers.
%RRPV"
(LJKW booms, four stage left and four stage right. One boom was
placed in each entrance.
+RZPDQ\FLUFXLWVRIIURQWOLJKW"
)RXU, a warm and a cool full stage wash from the front-of-house
(%R[%RRPV, %DOFRQ\5DLO, or &RYH) and a warm and cool wash from
the First Pipe.
6LGHOLJKW"
6L[ per plane, three stage left and three stage right. Each side had a
high side light (SLSHHQG), a mid torm (7 to 8 feet above the deck)
warm and a mid torm cool.
+RZPDQ\SRROVRIGRZQOLJKW"
7ZHOYH. Three pools (Left - Center - Right) in each of the four
planes. Because the pools were individually controlled by a 500 watt
dimmer in the auxillary board, each down light could be used as a
special as well as part of a wash.
:KLFKLQVWUXPHQWVFRXOGFKDQJHFRORUDQGIRFXVEHWZHHQQXPEHUV"
The HLJKWERRPPRXQWHGODPSV on each side of the stage could be
re-gelled between pieces. The pipe mounted instruments could be recolored between programs.
:KDWZDVKHUEDVLFFRORUSDOHWWH"
Rosenthal tended to use a limited number of basic tints from the
Brigham catalogue.
Brigham 2: )OHVK3LQN
Brigham 17: 6SHFLDO/DYHQGHU (sometimes called 6XSULVH
3LQN)
x Brigham 29: 6WHHO%OXH
x Brigham 62: /LJKW6FDUOHW (also known as %DVWDUG$PEHU)
x
x
This group included two warms ()OHVK3LQN and %DVWDUG$PEHU), a
neutral (6SHFLDO/DYHQGHU), and a cool (6WHHO%OXH). Tom Skelton
adds ...
Any three of these four colors ... coming from
different angles will collectively flatter all costumes
and all makeups. That’s a pretty big statement but I
think it is pretty well time-proven. Furthermore, these
four colors are sufficiently different to permit a color
range for mood value; the non-used colors then are
dimmed to provide only a little light to fill in the
shadows. ("Handbook of Dance Stagecraft," 'DQFH
0DJD]LQH, January 1956)
In addition to the four basic tints, both she and Skelton developed a
set of "special effect colors." These included
x
x
x
x
x
x
Brigham 9: 'XEDUU\3LQN for "weight and passion"
Brigham 27: /LJKW%OXH for a stark cool blue and "stylized
moonlight"
Brigham 40: /LJKW*UHHQ%OXH for "mysterious unatural
effects."
Brigham 50: /LJKW/HPRQ or...
Brigham 51: 0HGLXP/HPRQ for "stylized sunshine"
Brigham 57: /LJKW$PEHU for "impressionistic sunshine"
Brigham color is no longer available. A near match in Roscolux or
Lee might be...
%ULJKDP
5RVFROX[
/HH
B2: Flesh Pink
R33: No Color Pink
L153: Pale Salmon
B9: Dubarry Pink
R36: Medium Pink
L110: Middle Rose
B17: Special
Lavender
R54: Special Lavender
L136: Pale Lavender
B27: Light Blue
L141: Bright Blue
B29: Steel Blue
R65: Daylight Blue
B40: Light Green
Blue
B50: Light Lemon
L165: Daylight Blue
L116: Medium Blue
Green
R07: Pale Yellow
L103: Straw
B51: Medium Lemon R12: Straw
L101: Yellow
B57: Light Amber
R15: Deep Straw
L104: Deep Amber
B62: Light Scarlet
R04: Medium Bastard
Amber
L152: Pale Gold
Alternative colors were determined with *HO)LQG.
:KDWLQVWUXPHQWVGLGVKHXVHLQKHUEDVLFGDQFHSORW"
x
x
)URQWRI+RXVH 6" Ellipsoidals (Lekos)
)LUVW3LSH)XOO6WDJH:DVKHV 6" Fresnels
x
x
x
3LSH(QGV 8" Fresnels
3RROVRI'RZQ/LJKW 6" Ellipsoidals (Lekos)
%RRPV One 6" Ellipsoidals (Leko) and one 6" Fresnel on
each.
:KDWDSSURDFKGR,XVHWROLJKWWKHORFDOGDQFHUHFLWDO"
Most designers have faced the challange of lighting the local dance
recital. These productions tend to have a large cast, often over two
hundred, which will present many short three to four minute pieces
choreographed to a wide variety of music -- from John Philip Sousa
through Michael Jackson to Piotr Ilyitch Tchaikovsky.
Typically, there is a limited amount of rehearsal time on stage. The
dancers (students) normally arrive the morning of the first
performance. Each class is allotted twenty minutes to a half hour.
During this period, they may run through the number twice. A few of
the dancers may even be in costume. But this rehearsal is always out
of sequence. Late afternoon we will have the one and only run
through / dress rehearsal. It is at this point the designer discovers he
has two "blue" numbers back to back. He has only three to four
minutes to create another look and save it to memory. This rehearsal
stops for no one.
I tend to use four systems to build my basic recital plot.
A WKUHHFRORU (Pink - Blue - White) IURQWZDVK from the
Front-of-house position,
x A WZRFRORUVLGHZDVK from both stage left (Pink and Blue)
and stage right (Bastard Amber and Blue),
x A [JULG of No Color GRZQOLJKWV, and
x A WKUHHFRORU (Red, Blue, and Green) IXOOVWDJHGRZQEDFN
ZDVK from the center and upstage electric.
x
I tend to use the down and back lights to accentuate the colors of the
costumes and separate the dancer from the background, the side
lights to mold the dancer, and the front light to fill in the shadows to
keep the Mom and Dads happy.
$Q([DPSOH
7KH$EHUGHHQ5HFUHDWLRQDQG&XOWXUDO&HQWHU
V$5&&
'DQFH5HFLWDO
3UH6FKRRO,/RRNLQWKH0LUURU
The $EHUGHHQ5HFUHDWLRQDQG&XOWXUDO&HQWHU
V$5&&'DQFH
5HFLWDO contained 41- 2 to 4 minute acts performed by a cast of over
400 students ranging in age from pre-school to adult. The 2 hour, 15
minute (with intermission) performance included presentations by
students enrolled in 0RGHUQ%DOOHW-D]]3RLQWH7DS&ORJJLQJ, and
6ZLQJ.
The seventy three instrument plot included...
x
x
x
x
x
x
A ILYHFRORU (5%DVWDUG$PEHU5/LJKW5HG51R
&RORU3LQN5/LJKW6N\%OXH and 53ULPDU\%OXH)
)URQW:DVK from the Cove,
A WZRFRORU (5)OHVK3LQN and %/LJKW6N\%OXH) full
stage 6LGH:DVK from stage left and
A WZRFRORU (5/LJKW%DVWDUG$PEHU and 5/LJKW6N\
%OXH) full stage 6LGH:DVK from stage right,
1LQH3RROV of :KLWH 'RZQOLJKW in a 3x3 grid.
A pair of %RRPV in the down stage plane with 7KUHH6LGH
OLJKWV -- High (56XUSULVH3LQN) , Mid (5/LJKW5HG
and 5*ROGHQ$PEHU) and Shin (:KLWH) -- plus a PinSpot
for the Mirror Ball on each, and
A WKUHHFRORU (55HG'LIIXVLRQ5%OXH'LIIXVLRQ
and 5*UHHQ'LIIXVLRQ) full stage %DFN'RZQ:DVK
from the Second and Fourth Electric.
My prime consideration when distributing the 73 units (21
Ellipsoidals, 19 Fresnels, 16 PARCans, 14 Scoops, 2 PinSpots and a
Mirror Ball) was to efficiently, and effectively, light the 48’ wide by
40’ deep stage space. A couple of comments: I used PARCans with
1000 watt Wide FLood (WFL) lamps for the /LJKW5HG and 3ULPDU\
%OXH )URQW:DVK because two units would provide full stage
coverage and the scoops on the Fourth Electric did double duty -they not only provided a full stage 5HG%OXH and *UHHQ :DVK, they
also (after being reflected off the back of the Third Border) lit the
Sky Cyc.
For the most part, the 41 looks in the show (one per dance) were
developed by combining three submasters -- a fulll stage %OXH:DVK,
a full stage 3LQN:DVK and 1LQH3RROVRI:KLWH'RZQOLJKW. Link to
the Light Plot (3')), Hook-Up Chart (3')) and additional
photographs of the $5&&'DQFH5HFLWDO
%DOOHW,97KH/DPERI*RG
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Created March 1999; Last updated: June 19, 2003
© 1999-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University, Aberdeen, SD
7KHDWUH6WDJH&UDIW
&UHDWLQJD/LJKWLQJ&RPSRVLWLRQ
ZLWK
9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE
2Q/LQH5HVRXUFHV
7KH/LJKW/DE
$Q,QWURGXFWLRQWR9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE
9//+HOS)LOH
Using 9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE which is loaded on the GateWay computer in the Theatre
Classroom (JC129) create a look for each of the following five moments.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A winter VXQULVH .
A late summer DIWHUQRRQ.
A fall VXQVHW.
A warm evening under a URPDQWLFPRRQ.
A GDUNPRRQOHVVQLJKW.
Use no more than IRXU lights, not including the F\FOLJKWV, to create each look.
The images will be evaluated using the following five questions...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Does the image you created reflect the ORRN
VGHVFULSWLRQ?
Is your FRORUFKRLFH appropriate?
Is theLQWHQVLW\ (level) acceptable?
Does your FKRLFHRISRVLWLRQ reveal the three dimensionality of the performer?
Does the F\FDGGRUGHWUDFW from the final image?
Does your "brief paragraph" provide the QHFHVVDU\LQIRUPDWLRQ to recreate your
image?
Save the look to RQH Microsoft :RUG or :RUG3DG document. :ULWH a brief paragraph for
each look giving the ORFDWLRQ, FRORU and LQWHQVLW\ of the lights, including cyc lights, used.
When you have completed the assignment, save the document to your subdirectory (folder)
on the lab computer.
7KH3URMHFWLV'XHRQ:HGQHVGD\1RYHPEHU
([DPSOHVIURPWKH)DOO6WDJH&UDIW&ODVV
Below are two 9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE3URMHFWV which were submitted by the fall 2001
6WDJH&UDIW class. Both students did a good job in solving the design problem. Each could
have improved their "brief paragraph" which described the "location, color and intensity of
the lights, including cyc lights, used." Because their 06:RUG documents were printed as
PDF (Portable Document Format) files, you may need to download the free Adobe Acrobat
Reader to view their compositions.
Example Project 1 | Example Project 2
StageCraft Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Updated: August 16, 2003
© 1998 - 2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
'HYHORSLQJD5HSHUWRU\/LJKW3ORW
/LQNVWR
The /LJKWLQJ7HPSODWH for the 3URMHFW7KHDWUH in 9HFWRU:RUNV format:
7KBB/W3ORWBYPFG
A )ORRU3ODQ, in 3') format, showing the Lighting Positions, in the 3URMHFW
7KHDWUH. You may need to download the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view (or
print) this file.
A :HE3DJH outlining the process I used in developing a 60 unit 6DPSOH5HSHUWRU\
/LJKW3ORW.
Some ,QVWUXFWLRQ on Creating a Light Plot Using 9HFWRU:RUNV.
7KH3URMHFW
The 'HDQRIWKH6FKRRORI)LQH$UWV has received permission from the 8QLYHUVLW\
3UHVLGHQW to purchase new lighting instruments for the Fine Arts Center. Your
budget is You have been requested to develop...
An (TXLSPHQW/LVW (specific type and number of lights) with &RVW
(VWLPDWH and
x A 5HSHUWRU\/LJKW3ORW.
x
In developing the cost estimate, use the price listings in the /LJKWLQJ,QVWUXPHQWV
web pages.
Your SORW should include...
x
x
x
x
)URQW light,
3LSHHQGV (high side) left and right,
%DFN (and or 'RZQ) light and
at least a WZRFRORU wash on the VN\F\F.
Your UHSSORW should be able to provide...
x
x
x
x
x
x
0F&DQGOHVV DFWLQJDUHDV,
Light for both GD\ and QLJKW scenes,
6XQ light,
0RRQ light,
Illumination for large scale PXVLFFRQFHUWV and
Dramatic lighting for the YLVLWLQJGDQFHRUWKHDWUHFRPSDQ\ which arrives
at 2 o’clock and performs at 8.
You should GUDIW your light plot using a computer and a CAD software program
(9HFWRU:RUNV is installed on the machine in the class room).
7KLV3URMHFWLV'XHRQ7KXUVGD\0D\.
7KH3URMHFW7KHDWUH
The VWDJH of your theatre has the following dimensions (see the )ORRU3ODQ of the
3URMHFW7KHDWUH) :
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Proscenium ZLGWK 32’
Proscenium KHLJKW 16’
6WDJHGHSWK plaster line to back wall: 32’
$SURQGHSWK plaster line to front edge of stage: 4’
:LQJVSDFH left and right: 6’
7RWDOZLGWK of stage house: 44’
Grid KHLJKW 24’
/LQHVHWV are on 1’ centers
There are IRXUHOHFWULFSLSHV (on 8’ centers): Line Sets #3, #11, #19 and #27
There is a &RYH position thirty feet (throw) from the proscenium line.
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Updated: April 17, 2003
© 2000 - 2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
7KHDWUH3URMHFWV6WDJH/LJKWLQJ
)LQDO3URMHFW
6RPH,QVWUXFWLRQRQ8VLQJ9HFWRU:RUNVDQG$XWR3ORW9:
*URXQG3ODQ of 7KH%XQJOHU in 9HFWRU:RUNV format: %XQJOHUBYPFG
4XHVWLRQ,/LJKWLQJ7KH%XQJOHU
You are the lighting designer for a production of 7KH%XQJOHU, a farcial comedy by Moliere.
The production will be staged in the 3URMHFW7KHDWUH.
,QVWUXPHQWV
Use the equipment you specified in the 5HSHUWRU\/LJKW3ORW project.
0RXQWLQJSRVLWLRQV
The 3URMHFW7KHDWUH is equipped with five mounting positions. A &RYH, 30 feet from
the Proscenium Line, and )RXUIRRW/LJKW3LSHV (max out trim: 24 feet) on
stage. You have access to 4-- 10 foot %RRPV if needed. Boom mounted lights may
be powered through wall/floor pockets.
'LPPHUV
The theatre is equipped with 144-- 2.4 Kw dimmer (a dimmer per circuit). There are
24 circuits in the Cove, 24 on the First, Second, Third and Fourth electrics, 8 in the
stage left floor pockets, 8 in the stage right floor pockets and 8 in the up stage floor
pockets
Your console has 48 control channels.
7KH6HWWLQJ
A courtyard in southern Italy. The primary acting area is a 16 foot octagon with a
fountain (or bench) in the center. The Sky Cyc is used as the backdrop. Black legs
and borders mask the sides and top of the stage.
1RWHVIURPWKH'LUHFWRU
It’s a comedy, make it bright.
1RWHVIURPDQRWKHU/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQHU
The play is set in southern Italy. The days are hot and the nights are cool. A gobo
for the reveler’s scene (Act III) would be neat. For an arena production of this play I
used warm (R02 - R08 - R33) front, side and back lights and blue (R67) down
lights.
3DUW$/LJKW3ORW
Using 9HFWRU:RUNV. develop a /LJKW3ORW indicating where each lamp would be
mounted. Using standard symbols, indicate the type of lamp you will use and assign
each instrument a unit number, control channel, color, and purpose. Save the /LJKW
3ORW to your subdirectory (folder) on the desk top.
3DUW%+RRN8S&KDUW
Using 0LFUR6RIW([FHO and the attributes from the "Fixture Data" data base
associated with the 9HFWRU:RUN
s drawing (/LJKW3ORW) create a +RRN8S&KDUW
which will indicate the logic of the control structure. Show which units will be
ganged together, their type, focus, color and control channel. Save the +RRN8S
&KDUt to your sub directory (folder) on the desk top.
3DUW&/LJKWLQJ&RPSRVLWLRQV
Develop a /LJKWLQJ&RPSRVLWLRQ, in the form of a &XH6KHHW, for the following
three moments...
x
x
x
The PreSet
The beginning of Act One
The "Reveler’s" scene in Act Three.
3DUW'9LVXDOL]DWLRQ
Using 9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE develop a look for each of the three compositions and paste
the image into a 06:RUG (or :RUG3DG) document. Save the document to your
subdirectory on the desk top.
'XH)ULGD\0D\
4XHVWLRQ,,/LJKWLQJD0RPHQW
3DUW$&RORU.H\
Using no more than IRXU lamps (plus cyc lights), develop a &RORU.H\ for the
following "Moment." Show on the &RORU.H\, what type of lamps and which
specific colors you would use, as well as their general direction. Indicate which
lamp would be the .(< light.
3DUW%/LJKW3ORW
Using 9HFWRU:RUNV develop a /LJKW3ORW indicating how you would adapt the
FRORUNH\ to the 3URMHFW7KHDWUH stage. Save the /LJKW3ORW to your subdirectory
(folder) on the desk top.
3DUW%9LVXDOL]DWLRQ
Using 9LUWXDO/LJKW/DE develop a look for the moment and paste the image into a
:RUG (or :RUG3DG) document. Save the document to your subdirectory (folder) on
the desk top.
0RPHQW
$3DULVSURVWLWXWHVWDQGVQHDUDVWUHHWODPSEHFNRQLQJDSDVVHUE\
'XH)ULGD\0D\
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Updated: April 24, 2003
© 2000 - 2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
*HO:RUNVKHHW
Gel Worksheet
Company: Lee_____
1.
GamColor_____
2.
3.
What are the gel numbers for the three secondary colors?
1.
3.
RoscoLux_____
What are the gel numbers for the three primary colors?
1.
2.
Name: ______________________
2.
3.
What color would you use for...
_____a candle flame
_____daylight
_____a rising sun
_____an Arizona sun
_____a Minnesota sun
_____a warm, romantic moon
_____an evil, sinister moon
_____the dark of night
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Updated: August 29, 2002
© 1999 - 2002 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
%HDP:ULJKW:RUNVKHHW
%HDP:ULJKW is a small, easy to use EHDPVSUHDG utility that will help the lighting designer
choose the correct instrument. In addition to providing the designer with photometric
information (EHDPVSUHDG and LQWHQVLW\), the program will also UHFRPPHQG a specific light.
The program takes into account how closely the EHDPVL]H matches the OLJKWLQJDUHD as
well as the LQWHQVLW\ of the light. It will choose from one or more types ((OOLSVRLGDOV
)UHVQHOV3$5V) and if the choice is a "zoom" unit (such as a )UHVQHO), the program will
zoom to the correct beam size. A demo is available.
([DPSOH3UREOHP
+RZODUJHDSRRORIOLJKWZLOOEHSURGXFHGE\DQ$OWPDQ[HOOLSVRLGDOKXQJDWWKH
FHQWHURIWKH-)$&0DLQ6WDJH&RYHDQGIRFXVHGRQDQDFWRUVWDQGLQJDWWKHFXUWDLQ
OLQH"
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
)LUVW Determine the KHLJKW of the &RYH above the stage floor (
IHHW) and the
3ODQKRUL]RQWDOGLVWDQFH from the &XUWDLQ/LQH to the /LJKW (26
feet).
Open %HDP:ULJKW
/RDG the VWJFUIWEZ data file.
&OLFN the 6KRZ$OO button.
&KHFN Ellipsoidal under ,QVWUXPHQW7\SHV
&KRRVH the instrument ($OWPDQ[(OOLSVRLGDO) from the GURS
GRZQOLVWER[ under 1DPH
(QWHU the 7ULP+HLJKW and )ORRU'LVWDQFH in the WH[WER[HV in the
&ULWHULD section.
&OLFN the 'UDZDV(QWHUHG button .
RU
Use the VFUROOEDUV in the 6HFWLRQYLHZ to change the 7ULP+HLJKW and
)ORRU'LVWDQFH of the lamp
5HDG the pool diameter, intensity, throw distance from the 5HVXOWV
section.
6FUHHQ6KRWRI%HDP:ULJKW
$QVZHU6L]HRIWKHSRRORIOLJKWILHOGGLDPHWHU 14.6 feet (14’7")
x :KDWZLOOEHWKHLQWHQVLW\" 152 foot candles
x :KDWLVWKHDFWXDOWKURZGLVWDQFH" 31.62 feet
x +RZPDQ\RIWKHVHXQLWVZLOOEHQHHGHGWRSURYLGHD
ZLGH
ZDVKIURPWKLVSRVLWLRQ" 4
(Width_of_:DVK / :DVKB6SDFLQJ = 1XPEHU of units)
x
([DPSOH3UREOHP
:KLFK$OWPDQ)UHVQHORUZRXOG\RXXVHWRSURYLGHDQ
SRRORIGRZQOLJKW
IURPDQHOHFWULFSLSH
DERYHWKHGHFN"
Open %HDP:ULJKW
/RDG the VWJFUIWEZ data file.
&KHFN Fresnel under ,QVWUXPHQW7\SHV
(QWHU the 7ULP+HLJKW (24’) and )ORRU'LVWDQFH (0’) in the WH[WER[HV
in the &ULWHULD section.
x &OLFN the 'UDZDV(QWHUHG button .
x &OLFN the )LQG%HVW0DWFK button .
x 5HDG the instrument recommendation from the GURSGRZQOLVWER[ in
the 1DPH section.
x
x
x
x
x
&OLFN the )LQG2WKHUV/LNH7KLV button to develop a drop-down list
of other instruments that might be acceptable.
$QVZHU 8" Fresnel at 3/4 spot focus.
8VLQJ%HDP:ULJKWZKLFKLVORDGHGRQWKH*DWH:D\FRPSXWHULQWKH7KHDWUH
&ODVVURRP-&VROYHWKHIROORZLQJSUREOHPV
How large a pool of light will be produced by an (7&6RXUFHƒ ellipsoidal hung at
the center of the -)$&0DLQ6WDJH Cove and focused on an actor standing at the curtain
line?
How many $OWPDQ[V will it take to provide a 40’ wide front wash at the curtain line
from lamps mounted in the Cove?
Which $OWPDQ)UHVQHORU, would you use to provide a 12’ pool of down light
from an electric pipe 18’ above the deck?
Which Altman HOOLSVRLGDO would you use to light an 8’ lighting area at the curtain line
from the IDU cove of the Capitol Theatre? (Trim height of cove = 24’ -- Plan distance from
far cove to curtain line = 27’)
Which ETC Source 4 HOOLSVRLGDO would you use to light a 12’ lighting area at the curtain
line from the QHDU cove of the Capitol Theatre? What alternative units (both ETC and
Altman) are available? (Trim height of cove = 24’ -- Plan distance from near cove to curtain
line = 12’)
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Updated: December 3, 2001
© 1998 - 2001 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
,QVWUXPHQW6HOHFWLRQ:RUN6KHHW
:KLFKLQVWUXPHQWDQ(OOLSVRLGDOD)UHVQHO3DU&DQD6FRRSZRXOG\RXXVHWR
_____create a strong VKDIW of sun light,
_____light the front HGJH of the stage from the cove,
_____light the XSVWDJH acting areas from the first electric,
_____light the sky F\F,
_____create moon light VWUHDPLQJ through a window,
_____cross light the XSVWDJH plane from the ends of the fourth electric,
_____create a VRIWHGJHG pool of light around the cafe table,
_____create a ER[RIOLJKW around the up stage door,
_____project a cloud SDWWHUQ on the cyc,
_____provide a broad ZDVKRIFRORU over the entire stage,
_____EDFNOLJKW the center stage plane from the third electric,
_____create a KDUGHGJHG box of light around the door?
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Posted: December 12, 2001
© 1999 - 2001 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
6HOHFWHG%LEOLRJUDSK\RI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ
/LWHUDWXUH
x
Auerbach, Bruce, editor. 3UDFWLFDO3URMHFWVIRU7HDFKLQJ/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQ$
&RPSHQGLXP. New York: USITT. 1990.
Practical lab projects which can be used in a lighting class.
x
Bellman, Willard F. /LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH$UWDQG3UDFWLFH, 2nd edition. 1974.
Detailed basic college/university text. Includes units on both the technical and
artistic aspects of stage lighting. There are appendixes on projected scenery and
lighting the arena and thrust-apron stage.
x
Bentham, Frederick. 7KH$UWRI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ, 2nd ed. London: Pitman. 1976
A very good British text.
x
Bergman, Gosta Mauri. /LJKWLQJLQWKH7KHDWUH. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell
International. 1977
A survey of the history and development of theatrical lighting.
x
Boulanger, Norman and Warren C. Lounsbury. 7KHDWUH/LJKWLQJIURP$WR=
Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1992.
A dictionary approach to stage lighting.
x
Bowman, Wayne. 0RGHUQ7KHDWUH/LJKWLQJ. New York: Harper. 1957
A basic college/university text.
x
Essig, Linda. /LJKWLQJDQGWKH'HVLJQ,GHD. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College
Publishers. 1997.
A college level text, from the lighting professor at the University of Wisconsin,
which emphasizes art over equipment.
x
Fuchs, Theodore. 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ. New York: B. Blum. 1963
The first stage lighting text (originally published in 1929); much information still of
value. Available in reprint.
x
Goffin, Peter. 6WDJH/LJKWLQJIRU$PDWHXUV, 4th ed. London: J. Garnet Miller Ltd.
1955.
British practices used in amateur theatre.
x
Hartman, Louis. 7KHDWUH/LJKWLQJ$0DQXDORIWKH6WDJH6ZLWFKERDUG. New
York: DBS Publications. 1970 (1930)
Lighting as practiced on the early 20th century productions of David Belasco.
x
Hays, David. /LJKWRQWKH6XEMHFW6WDJHOLJKWLQJIRUGLUHFWRUVDQGDFWRUVDQGWKH
UHVWRIXV. New York: Lime Light Editions. 1989.
A non-technical introduction to stage lighting for directors and actors. Contains
units on lighting instruments, the hook-up, the focus, the light plot, lighting control,
areas and angles, levels and cues, the cue sheet and tracking sheet, concept, color,
crew, and manners.
x
McGrath, Ian. $3URFHVVIRU/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 1990.
An advanced college/university text. British practice.
x
McCandless, Stanley. $0HWKRGRI/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH, 4th edition. New York:
Theatre Arts Books. 1958.
An early, basic college/university text by the father of lighting instruction in the
Unived States. Contains units on lighting the acting area, blending and toning,
lighting the background, and creating special effects. The technical elements are
now some what out-of-date.
x
McCandless, Stanley. $6\OODEXVRI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ. Self published. 1956.
An advanced lighting text.
x
Miller, James Hull. 6WDJH/LJKWLQJLQWKH%RRQGRFNV. Contemporary Drama
Services (Arthur Meriwether Inc. Education Resources). 1981
Theatrical lighting in non-theatre settings using "improvised" equipment.
x
Moody, James. &RQFHUW/LJKWLQJ7HFKQLTXHV$UWDQG%XVLQHVV. Boston: Focal
Press. 1989.
A very readable manual written by one of the leading lighting designers in the
concert field.
x
Mumm, Robert C. 3KRWRPHWULFV+DQGERRN. Shelter Island, NY: Broadway Press.
1992.
Published photometric data (intensity and beam spread), pulled from manufacturers’
spec sheets, for "obscure" lighting equipment.
x
Palmer, Richard. 7KH/LJKWLQJ$UW7KH$HVWKHWLFRI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQ, 2nd
edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1994.
An advanced college/university lighting text.
x
Pilbrow, Richard. 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ, rev. ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.
1979.
The most readable semi-text about the actual working of the business; good
illustrations. British practice.
x
Pilbrow, Richard. 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ'HVLJQ7KH$UWWKH&UDIWWKH/LIH. Design
Press. 1997
A rewrite of Pilbrow’s earlier text.
x
Reid, Francis. 7KH$%&RI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ. New York: Drama Book Publishers.
1992
A dictionary approach to British practice.
x
Reid, Francis. 7KH6WDJH/LJKWLQJ+DQGERRN 3rd edition. New York: Theatre Arts
Books/Metheun. 1987
A basic book of British practice from the president of Strand Lighting.
x
Rosenthal, Jean and Lael Wertenbaker. 7KH0DJLFRI/LJKW. Boston: Little, Brown
and Company in association with Theatre Arts Books. 1972.
Excellent volume with Ms Rosenthal’s career and design philosophy plus plots for
the original Broadway productions of 3OD]D6XLWH and +HOOR'ROO\.
x
Rubin, Joel E. and Leland H. Watson. 7KHDWULFDO/LJKWLQJ3UDFWLFH New York:
Theatre Arts Books. 1954
An analysis of American theatrical lighting in the 1950s. Contains chapters on
collegiate practices, commercial indoor productions (drama, musicals, dance,
opera), arena productions (musical, drama, ice shows), open-air productions,
puppetry, and television. Now out of print.
x
Sandström, Ulf. 6WDJH/LJKWLQJ&RQWUROV. Oxford: Focal Press. 1997.
An indepth study of the evolution, design, and operation of an electronic, computer
assisted lighting control systems.
x
Shelly, Steven Louis. $3UDFWLFDO*XLGHWR6WDJH/LJKWLQJ. Boston: Focal Press.
1999.
A "nuts and bolts" examination of some of the tools and methods used by the
lighting designer.
x
Warfel, William B. and Walter R. Klappert. &RORU6FLHQFHIRU/LJKWLQJWKH6WDJH.
New Haven: Yale University Press. 1981.
Contains color maps and CIE color co-ordinates for Cinegel, Cinemoid, Dura 60,
Geletran, GPC, Lee, Roscocolar, Roscolene, and Roscolux.
x
Warfel, William B. 7KH1HZ+DQGERRNRI6WDJH/LJKWLQJ*UDSKLFV. New York:
Drama Book Publishers. 1990
An indepth study of lighting design documentation: i.e. light plots, hook-up charts,
focus sheets.
x
Watson, Lee. /LJKWLQJ'HVLJQ+DQGERRN. New York: McGraw-Hill,Inc. 1990.
An excellent survey of current American lighting practice. Includes units on musical
(opera, dance, revues, operetta, musical comedy) and nonmusical (proscenium,
arena, thrust stage, dinner theatre, avant-garde) theatre. There are additional units on
photographic, concert, architectual, and industrial lighting.
Stage Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Revised: January 20, 2003
© 2001 - 2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University, Aberdeen, SD 57401
$3KRWR(VVD\RQ/LJKW
from
7KH0DJLFRI/LJKW
by
Jean Rosenthal and Lael Wertenbaker
Photography by Steven A. Sint
Edited by Marion Kinsella
Lighting equipment courtsey of Kliegl Brothers
The following photo essay was shot on a miniature stage (scale: two inches to one foot)
using small versions of the fresnel and ellipsoidal spotlights. The figures are sculptor’s
scale-model manikins. The essay is preceded by a mini light plot.
The essay was designed to show in simple terms how light coming from the standard
theatre lighting positions will look when focused to light an actor in a given area on the
stage. The mini light plot is a ground plan showing where the light pipes and instruments
are hanging in relation to the stage. The plot also has on it an elevation of one of the
tormentor pipes (or "booms," as they are sometimes called) for side lighting, and the
ground plan of the tormentor positions used in the photo essay.
Each of the photo essays will refer back to the mini light plot for position of the instrument
used. Through the use of this reference, the logic of why instruments are positioned as they
are to achieve the desired angle and effect will become evident. >,KDYHDGGHGDQXPEHURIEUDFNHWHGFRPPHQWVEDVHGRQHLWKHUP\SHUVRQDOH[SHULHQFHRU
WKHVWXG\RI0LVV5RVHQWKDO
VZRUNDUFKLYHGZLWKWKH:LVFRQVLQ+LVWRULFDO6RFLHW\ORFDWHG
DWWKH8QLYHUVLW\RI:LVFRQVLQLQ0DGLVRQ,KDYHIRXQGWKH3KRWR(VVD\RQ/LJKWWREH
DQH[FHOOHQWWHDFKLQJWRRO7KHIROORZLQJOLQNZLOORSHQWKHPLQLOLJKWSORWLQLW
VRZQ
EURZVHUZLQGRZ/:@
1RSLSHGLDJRQDO[OLJKWV Fresnel
lamps no. 1 and no. 4 on a 45-degree
angle cross-focus to center stage. Both
lamps are on half focus. [No. 2 Pipe 1 - 4] )LJXUH
>'LDJRQDO[OLJKWZLOOSURGXFHDGHTXDWH
DOWKRXJKVKDGRZILOOHGLOOXPLQDWLRQ7KH
DGGLWLRQRIDOLWWOHIURQWOLJKWIURPWKH
&RYHRU5DLOSRVLWLRQZLOOLPSURYHWKH
DXGLHQFH
VDELOLW\WRUHDGWKHDFWRU
VIDFH
6HH)LJXUH7ZRHLJKWLQFKIUHVQHOVDW
HDFKHQGRIWKH3LSHVKRXOGOLJKWWKHIXOO
ZLGWKRIWKHED\$GGLWLRQDOIUHVQHOV
SODFHGLQWKHVHFRQGWKLUGDQGIRXUWKED\
FDQFUHDWHDIXOOVWDJHFURVVZDVK/:@
1RSLSHHQGV Ellipsoidal lamps no. 1
and no. 5 are focused diagonally to center
stage, and both are shuttered upstage and
downstage to stay inside the first bay. The
onstage, or bottom, edge of each light has
been squared off on the shutters to keep
the floor pattern tidy. [No. 1 Pipe 1 - 5] )LJXUH
>(OOLSVRLGDOVPDNHLWSRVVLEOHWR
DFFXUDWHO\FRQWUROWKHEHDPRIOLJKW
(OOLSVRLGDO3LSH(QGVDUHRIWHQXVHGWR
OLJKWDQDFWRUZKRLVRQO\DFRXSOHRIIHHW
IURPWKHVHW7ZR[HOOLSVRLGDOVDW
HDFKHQGRIWKH3LSHVKRXOGFURVVOLJKW
WKHIXOOZLGWKRIWKHED\/:@
%DFNOLJKW Ellipsoidal backlight from the
no. 4 pipe center position, on sharp focus.
[No. 4 Pipe Center] )LJXUH
>%DFNOLJKWKLJKOLJKWVWKHKHDGDQG
VKRXOGHUVDQGFDQEHXVHGWRVHSDUDWHWKH
DFWRUIURPKLVEDFNJURXQG)URPWKH
IURQWEDFNOLJKWOLNHGRZQOLJKWFUHDWHV
PDWFKLQJSDWWHUQVRISDUDOOHOEHDPV
)RXU[HOOLSVRLGDOVFRXOGEDFNOLJKW
WKHHQWLUHZLGWKRIWKHED\/:@
Fresnel backlight from the same no. 4
pipe center position, on half focus. [No. 4
Pipe Center] >1RWLFHWKHVRIWHGJHRIWKHIORRUSDWWHUQ
/:@
)LJXUH
&RPELQDWLRQ showing no. 2 pipe fresnel
x-light (lamps no. 2 and no. 3) and no. 4
pipe fresnel backlight, all focused to
downstage center, all on half focus.[No. 2
Pipe 2 - 3, No. 4 Pipe Center] )LJXUH
>$JDLQFURVVDQGEDFNOLJKWZLOOSURGXFH
DGHTXDWHEXWVKDGRZILOOHGLOOXPLQDWLRQ
7KHDGGLWLRQRIDOLWWOHIURQWOLJKWIURPWKH
&RYHRU5DLOSRVLWLRQZLOOLPSURYHWKH
DXGLHQFH
VDELOLW\WRUHDGWKHDFWRU
VIDFH
7KH6HFRQG3LSHIUHVQHOVODPSVDQG
DUHRQDVKDUSGHJUHHDQJOHFURVV
IRFXVWRFHQWHUVWDJH6HH)LJXUH
'RZQOLJKWV No. 1 pipe ellipsoidal lamps
no. 2 and no. 4. The focus is straight
down and sharp. The downlight can be
very dramatic but is not very good for
faces. Viewed from the front, downlights
create matching patterns of parallel
beams. [No. 1 Pipe 2 - 4] >7KHWKUHHGRZQOLJKWVRQWKH)LUVW3LSH
FDQEHZRUNHGWRJHWKHUWRFUHDWHDQ
HYHQO\VSDFHGZDVKRUFRQWUROOHG
LQGLYLGXDOO\WRGHYHORSDJULGRIVSHFLDOV
7ZHOYHODPSVWKUHHSHUED\LQIRXUED\V
FDQFUHDWHDIXOOVWDJHJULG7KLVSDWWHUQ
LVVHHQLQPRVWRIKHUGDQFHSORWV/:@
)LJXUH
)LJXUH
In order to show the comparison of
control of the light beam in an ellipsoidal
with the ambiant haze light of a fresnel,
we have placed two figures on the stage.
One figure is in the center of the light and
the other is just outside the ring of light.
Although the photograph exaggerates the
situation a little, it tells the story clearly.
In )LJXUH we have an ellipsoidal
downlight on sharp focus, and we cannot
see the second figure at all. [No. 1 Pipe 3]
In )LJXUH we have replaced the
ellipsoidal with a fresnel, and the second
figure has become visible in the ambiant
haze of light, even though the fresnel is
also on sharp focus. Both lamps are from
the no. 1 pipe no. 3 position.[No. 1 Pipe
3]
)LJXUH
)LJXUH
)URQWOLJKW An ellipsoidal from the center
of the ceiling cove, or second balcony
position, focused to downstage center.
Upstage the shuttering is off the
backdrop; downstage it is to the edge of
the stage, and the sides are squared off for
a cleaner floor pattern. By itself, this
frontlight gives a very flat quality to the
figure, even when x-focused, but it is
good for seeing eyes in faces. [Cove
Center] >%HFDXVHYHU\IHZ%URDGZD\KRXVHVKDG
&RYHSRVLWLRQVLQWKHVDQGV
)URQWOLJKWODPSVZHUHXVXDOO\PRXQWHG
RQWKH%DOFRQ\5DLO7KLVPHDQWWKDWQRW
RQO\ZDVWKHDFWRU
VIDFHEULJKWO\OLWEXW
VRZDVWKHVFHQHU\EHKLQGKLP/:@
%R[OLJKWV An ellipsoidal from the boxright position. In the shuttering it has been
cut off the right proscenium, the upstage
drop, and the edge of the stage
downstage, which would include staying
off the proscenium on stage left. [Box
Right] )LJXUH
>7KUHH[HOOLSVRLGDOVVKRXOGJLYHDIXOO
VWDJHZDVK/:@
An ellipsoidal from the box left position
combined with a no. 2 pipe fresnel (lamp
no. 2) focused to downstage center. [Box
Left, No. 2 Pipe 2] )LJXUH
>7KHIUHVQHOVLGHOLJKWIURPWKH6HFRQG
3LSHDGGVGHSWKEXWVRPHILOOIURPHLWKHU
VWDJHULJKWRUWKHIURQWLVVWLOOQHHGHG
/:@
7RUP[OLJKW No. 1 torm left, lamp no. 3.
An ellipsoidal focused straight across,
covering the stage for the figure from
stage right to stage left, or full x-stage
coverage. [No. 1 Torm Left 3] )LJXUH
)LJXUH
7KLVLVWKHEDVLFVLGHOLJKWSRVLWLRQIRU
GDQFH,QDPXVLFDORUGUDPDWKLV
LQVWUXPHQWFRXOGUHSUHVHQWDULVLQJRU
VHWWLQJVXQ)LOOOLJKWFRXOGFRPHIURP
WKHVWDJHULJKWWRUP/:@
7RUP[OLJKW From both no. 1 torm left,
lamp no. 3, and no. 1 torm right, lamp no.
3. Both are focused for head high at
center and give full x-stage coverage.
[No. 1 Torm Left & Right 3] >7KLVKDVEHFRPHWKHVWDQGDUGPRXQWLQJ
SRVLWLRQIRUOLJKWLQJGDQFH&RPSDUHWKH
PLGWRUPFURVVOLJKWZLWKWKHKLJKVLGH
OLJKWIURPWKH)LUVW3LSHSLSHHQGV6HH
)LJXUH/:@
/RZ[OLJKWRUVKLQEXVWHU No. 1
torm left, ellipsoidal lamp no. 4, focused
straight across the stage and shuttered
both upstage and downstage off the
opposite, masking legs. It is also shuttered
off the floor with the bottom of the light,
making the beam invisible until someone
moves into it. [No. 1 Torm Left 4] >/LNHWKHPLGWRUPFURVVOLJKWWKH
VKLQEXVWHULVRQHRIWKHPDLQVWD\VRID
VKLQEXVWHULVRQHRIWKHPDLQVWD\VRID
GDQFHOLJKWLQJGHVLJQHU
VYRFDEXODU\
/:@
)LJXUH
)LJXUH
8SOLJKW Ellipsoidals from no. 1 torms
left and right, lamps no. 4. They are
focused to head high at center stage.
There is no shuttering upstage, and the
light has not been shuttered off the floor.
The only cuts are off the downstage
masking legs (wings) opposite each lamp.
[No. 1 Torm Left & Right 4]
A combination of uplight from no. 1 torm
left no. 4 ellipsoidal and a high torm xlight from no. 1 torm right no. 1
ellipsoidal. The high torm lamp is
shuttered off both the upstage and
downstage masking legs. The stage right,
or onstage, edge of the light has been
shuttered to square off the pattern as we
see it on the floor. [No 1 Torm Left 4, No.
1 Torm Right 1] )LJXUH
>7KHGDQFHUVDUHPRYLQJLQWRWKHVWDJH
ULJKWOLJKWVRWKHVWDJHOHIWVKLQEXVWHULV
SURYLGLQJILOOOLJKW$VDQDOWHUQDWLYHWKH
KLJKVLGHOLJKWFRXOGFRPHIURPDQ
HOOLSVRLGDOKXQJRQWKHULJKWHQGRIWKH
)LUVW3LSH/:@
+LJKWRUPGLDJRQDOV Ellipsoidals in the
first and second bay stage left, no. 1 torm
left no. 1 ellipsoidal and no. 2 torm left
no. 1 ellipsoidal . Focus is to center and
covers the figure from left to center stage.
[No. 1 Torm Left 1, No. 2 Torm Left 1] )LJXUH
>$VHFRQGHOOLSVRLGDOIRFXVHGWRWKH
FHQWHUOLQHFRXOGEHDGGHGWROLJKWWKH
GDQFHUVIURPFHQWHUWRVWDJHULJKW$
VLPLODUHIIHFWFRXOGEHSURGXFHGZLWK
3LSH(QGV1RWLFHWKDWHDFKED\KDVLWV
RZQVHWRI7RUPV0RVWGDQFHSURJUDPV
ZHUHGRQHZLWKIRXUED\VUHTXLULQJD
PLQLPXPRIHLJKWERRPV/:@
)LJXUH
To the high torm diagonal ellipsoidals we
add a midtorm fresnel x-light in the first
bay, no. 1 torm left no. 2 fresnel. The
addition of the fresnel in the first bay
gives more distance and separation to the
two figures. The fresnel is focused
straight across for full x-stage coverage in
the first bay. [No. 1 Torm Left 1 - 2, No.
2 Torm Left 1]
To the high torm diagonals (No. 1 torm
left, no. 1 ellipsoidal and no. 2 fresnel.
No. 2 torm left, no. 1 ellipsoidal) we add
the box boom left ellipsoidal. (See
Figures 10, 11, 17 and 18.) [Box Left, No.
1 Torm Left 1 - 2, No. 2 Torm Left 1] )LJXUH
>7KHDGGLWLRQRIWKHGLDJRQDOIURQWOLJKW
IURPWKH%R[%RRPZLOOILOOLQVRPHRIWKH
VKDGRZV/:@
&RPELQDWLRQ Ellipsoidal x-light. No. 1
torm left no. 3 ellipsoidal, no. 1 torm right
no. 3 ellipsoidal. Fresnel x-light. No. 2
pipe no. 1 and no. 4 fresnels. All focused
to center stage. (See Figures 1 and 13.)
[No. 1 Torm Left & Right 3, No. 2 Pipe 1
- 4] )LJXUH
>6RPHIURQWOLJKWIURPWKH&RYHRU
%DOFRQ\5DLOZRXOGKHOSWKHDXGLHQFHVHH
WKHDFWRU
VIDFH/:@
&RPELQDWLRQ of the center ceiling cove
ellipsoidal with the no. 2 pipe no. 1
fresnel. The frontlight by itself is flat, but
by adding the no. 2 pipe end x-light we
begin to achieve a little modeling on the
figures. [Cove Center, No. 2 Pipe 1]
)LJXUH
Now by adding the no. 2 pipe fresnels
from both ends of the pipe (lamps no. 1
and 4) and taking a lower-intensity
reading on the frontlight, we still have
good "face" light from the front but better
modeling. (See Figures 1 and 9.) [Cove
Center, No. 2 Pipe 1 - 4] )LJXUH
>7KHFRPELQDWLRQRIIURQWOLJKWIURPWKH
FHLOLQJ&RYHDQGFURVVOLJKWIURPWKHHQGV
RIWKH6HFRQG3LSHPDNHVDJRRGDOO
SXUSRVHJHQHUDOZDVK7KHDGGLWLRQRI
%DFNOLJKWZRXOGLPSURYHVHSDUDWLRQ
&RPSDUHWKHOLJKWRQWKHIDFHVLQWKLV
ILJXUHZLWKWKHIDFHOLJKWLQ)LJXUH
/:@
&RPELQDWLRQ No. 1 torm left, ellipsoidal
no. 4 as an uplight, hitting the back of the
figure on stage left; no. 1 pipe ellipsoidal
no. 3 as a downlight on the figure center
stage. [No. 1 Torm Left 4, No. 1 Pipe 3] >$GUDPDWLFLPDJHIRUDEULHIPRPHQWLQ
DVKRZ&RPSDUHZLWKWKHGRZQOLW
ILJXUHVLQ)LJXUH/:@
)LJXUH
Return to the Jean Rosenthal Page
Images and text copyrighted © 1972 by the estate of Jean Rosenthal and Lael Wertenbaker
Bracketed comments copyrighted © 1998 by Larry Wild, Northern State University,
Aberdeen, SD
7KH/LJKW/DE
A /LJKW/DE is typically a collection of ten to
twelve old lighting instruments, a few hundred
feet of cable, and a six or twelve channel control
board installed in a little used class room or an
out-of-the-way storage area.
A simple square grid is usually hung from the
ceiling or supported on the floor with four
ERRPV. The height of the grid is typically no
more than ten feet, making it easy to move,
focus, or regell a lamp.
%DVLF/LJKW/DE
The focus point, or /LJKWLQJ$UHD, is normally
located in the center of the grid. Often a short
platform or table is used as a "stage." The student
designer places the subject -- a bust of
Shakespeare, an assembly of geometric shapes, a
scaled model of a set -- on the stage and
surrounds it with light.
The /DE is usually used to experiment with different instruments, mounting positions, and
especially color. One question asked by the Costume Designer is "How will the lights effect
the colors of my costumes?" A few experiments in the lab should provide the answer.
The layout for the %DVLF/LJKW/DE (see figure on the left) includes 22 lamps: 13- 3 1/2
Ellipsoidals, 6- 6" Fresnels, and 3- 6x9 Ellipsoidals hung on a ten foot square grid
supported 8’ off the deck. The throw distance from the grid to the center of the "stage" is a
little over six feet, the size of the pool of light created by a 6x9 Ellipsoidal at that distance
is four feet. This plot makes it possible to experiment with different instruments (fresnels
and ellipsoidals), positions (front, side, and back), as well as color and intensity. Each lamp
would be individually cabled to the control board where it would be patched by the student
designer.
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Last updated: August 19, 2002
© 1999 - 2002 by Larry Wild, Northern State University , Aberdeen, SD
7KHDWUH6FHQH'HVLJQ
6DPSOH4XHVWLRQVIRUWKH0LG7HUP([DP
7KH0LG7HUP([DPZLOOEH7KXUVGD\$SULO
1. Who are the four production designers?
2. Which union represents the commercial American scene designer? How do you
become a member of that union?
3. Briefly discuss the differences, in scenic demands, between the proscenium theatre,
the arena theatre, and the thrust stage theatre.
4. What should be the color of the masking drapes?
5. Out of what type of material should they be cut?
6. What does a designer look for when analyzing a script?
7. What are the standard heights of the flats in a stock set?
8. What is the maximum width of a flat?
9. What is the width of a door flat?
10. Why do doors, on a conventional box set, open off stage?
11. What is the difference between a double hung sash window, casement window, and
French window?
12. What are the standard sizes of stock theatrical platform/wagons?
13. What is the standard tread width? Riser height?
14. Sketch how a 3-step unit can suggest a flight of stairs to the second floor.
15. Briefly discuss Mordecai Gorelik’s "Action-Documentation-Metaphor" approach to
scene design.
16. What is the difference between representationalism and presentationalism? Which
style was used for $'ROO
V+RXVH?
17. What is a box set? How does it differ from a wing-border-backdrop set?
18. What is the difference between "Realism" and "Formalism?"
19. List four of the practical considerations a designer must consider when designing
the set for a play or musical.
20. What, according to Darwin Payne (7KH6FHQRJUDSKLF,PDJLQDWLRQ) are the
"scenographer’s areas of influence?"
21. What is the difference between the "general background" and "specific units of
scenery?"
22. List four scenic units which Darwin Payne would call "specific units of scenery."
23. If a door is primarily used for an important entrance, where on stage should it be
located?
24. If a character must observe, through a set window, an important piece of action,
where on stage should that scenic window be placed?
25. What is the difference between presentational material and the working drawing?
26. Which, a rendering or a scale model, better illustrates a designer’s concept of how
the set will look under light?
27. What is orthographic projection?
28. What is a floor plan? A front elevation?
29. How much dimensional information needs to be provided on the drawings?
30. What information should be included in the Title Block?
31. Where on the drawing should the Title Block be located?
32. List three drawings which should be included in a set of working drawings?
33. What are the two most commonly used CAD programs?
34. Describe three techniques which can be used to brace a set.
35. What is the difference between a simultaneous set and a unit set?
36. Who were Adolph Appia and Edward Gordon Craig?
37. Briefly define the 1HZ6WDJHFUDIW.
38. Who was Robert Edmond Jones? What was his influence on American scene
design?
39. List the title of at least one major Broadway show designed by Boris Aronson, Jo
Mielziner, Donald Oenslager and Oliver Smith.
40. Who was the first professor of scene design at the Yale School of Drama?
Scene Design Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Posted: March 9, 2004
Copyright ©: 2004 by Larry Wild, Northern State University
6DPSOH4XHVWLRQV)LUVW4XL]LQ6WDJH
/LJKWLQJ
1. Briefly, but fully, LGHQWLI\ the following ...
o Adolph Appia
o Norman Bel Geddes
o Abe Feder
o Jean Rosenthal
o Gel
o Cinemoid
o Surprise Pink
o Pipe End
o Shin Buster
o Down Light
o Cross Wash
o Boom
o Ladder
o Hook-Up Chart
o Leko
2. What are four IXQFWLRQV, or purposes of light?
3. List five FRQWUROODEOHTXDOLWLHV, or properties of light.
4. What types of computer VRIWZDUHSURJUDPV are used by the lighting designer?
5. What SDSHUZRUN program is considered the industry standard?
6. What is the major difference between 5RVFROHQH and 5RVFROX[?
7. List the Roscolux numbers for the three OLJKWSULPDULHV.
8. What color would you use for...
o a bright morning sun?
o a warm romantic moon?
o an evil, sinister moon?
o the dark of night?
o a setting sun?
9. List three of the four IURQWRIKRXVHPRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQV in the Johnson Center.
10. How many on stage OLJKWSLSHV do we have?
11. What is a OLJKWLQJNH\?
12. What is the difference between a %URDGZD\SORW and a 6WXG\SORW?
13. What are the two basic rules which apply to LQVWUXPHQWQXPEHULQJ?
14. What WHQILHOGV (using data base terminology) can be used to identify and define
each instrument?
15. On which field is the ,QVWUXPHQW6FKHGXOH sorted?
16. Under what circumstances is a 6KRS2UGHU necessary?
17. What is the function of the 0DJLF6KHHW?
18. Using the above OLJKWSORW, which instruments are...
o Ellipsoidals?
o Fresnels?
o PARCans?
o Scoops?
o Which units are controlled by channel 4?
o Which lamps are Side Lights?
o What units are gelled in Roscolux 51?
o Which lamps are focused Down Center?
19. If this pipe had to be cabled, what is the PLQLPXP number cable runs necessary to
power this position? The PD[LPXP number?
20. How many WZRIHUV would you need for the minimum number of cable runs?
21. Using the above light plot, develop a +RRN8S&KDUW and an ,QVWUXPHQW
6FKHGXOH.
22. What is the difference between a VSRWOLJKW and a IORRGOLJKW?
23. What is the difference in HGJHTXDOLW\ between an HOOLSVRLGDOUHIOHFWRUVSRWOLJKW
and a )UHVQHOOHQVVSRWOLJKW?
24. What is a JRER?
25. What is a 6RXUFH ellipsoidal and how does it differ from a "standard" 750watt
ellipsoidal?
26. Which, a [ or a [ ellipsoidal reflector spotlight should be used for the longer
throw?
27. If the equipment catalog says that a 6x16 ellipsoidal gives a 14 foot ball of light at a
40 foot throw, what will be the VL]HRIWKHSRROat a 32 foot throw?
If the unit provides 115 IRRWFDQGOHV with a 750 watt lamp at a 40 foot throw, what
will be the LQWHQVLW\ of the light with a 32 foot throw?
How many 6x16s will it take to create a 36 foot wide wash of down light from a
pipe mounted 32 feet off the deck?
28. What are the two sizes of )UHVQHOOHQVVSRWOLJKWV? What ZDWWDJH lamps are used in
each?
29. What is a 3$5&DQ? A 3$5OLJKW?
30. What is the VKDSH of the pool of light from a PAR64?
31. In what HQWHUWDLQPHQWLQGXVWU\ are PARCans the primary lighting instrument?
32. What is the IXQFWLRQ of the Follow Spot?
33. What is the PLQLPXPQXPEHU of Follow Spots necessary to light a small musical?
Why?
34. Where, and how, are 6FRRSV traditionally used in the live theatre?
35. What are the two VWDQGDUGOHQJWKV of strip lights?
36. Indicate ZKLFK lighting instrument--an Ellipsoidal reflector spotlight, Fresnel,
ParCan, Scoop, or Strip light--you would use to...
o light the front edge of the stage from the FHLOLQJFRYH
o light the VN\F\F from below
o create VXQOLJKW streaming through a window
o create a KDUGHGJHG pool of light
o FURVVOLJKW the area downstage of the sky cyc
o SURMHFW a cloud pattern on the sky cyc
Lighting Home Page
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Last up-dated: March 26, 2001
© 2001 by Larry Wild, Northern State University
6DPSOH4XHVWLRQV6HFRQG4XL]LQ6WDJH
/LJKWLQJ
1. Where should the lighting FRQWUROFRQVROH be located? Why?
2. What is the minimum number of FKDQQHOV needed to light a small drama? A
musical?
3. Describe how you can use a WZRVFHQHSUHVHW to light a musical.
4. What is a VXEPDVWHU? 6SOLWFURVVIDGHU? %XPSEXWWRQ?
5. What modern innovation made the GLPPHUSHUFLUFXLW system workable?
6. What is the difference between a GLPPHU and a FKDQQHO?
7. How many dimmers will you find in a standard GLPPHUUDFN?
8. Briefly describe two techniques which can be used to GLVWULEXWH the power from the
dimmer rack to the lighting instrument.
9. What is the difference between VRIWSDWFK and KDUGSDWFK?
10. What is the VWDQGDUGYROWDJH in the United States?
11. What is the relationship between YROWVZDWWV, and DPSV?
12. According to traditional practice, what should be the color of the insulation of the
QHXWUDO (or common) wire in an electrical distribution system? Of the JURXQG?
13. What is the FDSDFLW\, in amps, of #12 cable? Of #14 cable?
14. How many 575 watt Source 4s can be ganged on one #12 cable?
15. Using the McCandless approach, how many OLJKWLQJDUHDV are normally used to
light a small (24’x16’) dramatic production?
16. Where are they traditionally ORFDWHG?
17. What is the PLQLPXPQXPEHU (total) of instruments needed to light these acting
areas?
18. In which two MainStage PRXQWLQJSRVLWLRQV would these instruments be hung?
19. What is the difference between the NH\OLJKW and the ILOOOLJKW?
20. How did McCandless create the NH\ILOOUHODWLRQVKLS?
21. List two patterns (direction) of light I use to WRQHDQGEOHQG the stage?
22. What is the PLQLPXPQXPEHURIFRORUV needed to "tone and blend" the stage?
23. List two instruments which can be used to OLJKWWKHF\F?
24. What two colors are traditionally used to UHDOLVWLFDOO\OLJKW the sky cyc?
25. Why should the back drop be lit from both the WRSDQGWKHERWWRP?
26. If it can only be lit from RQHSRVLWLRQ, which (top or bottom) is preferred?
27. Why should a fixture, or practical, be controlled WKURXJKWKHFRQWUROFRQVROH?
28. What is the W\SLFDOQXPEHU of lighting areas in an arena / thrust layout?
29. Which area is PRVWLPSRUWDQW?
30. What is the PLQLPXPQXPEHU of lamps needed per area?
31. How should they be GLVWULEXWHG around the performer?
32. What is the "EDFNGURS" in an arena production?
E-mail questions and comments to Larry Wild at [email protected]
Last up-dated: April 22, 2003
© 2001-2003 by Larry Wild, Northern State University
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement