AMBIENT AIR MONITORING NETWORK PLAN FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2012

AMBIENT AIR MONITORING NETWORK PLAN FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2012
DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT
AMBIENT AIR MONITORING
NETWORK PLAN FOR CALENDAR
YEAR 2012
Prepared for:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Prepared by:
Ambient Air Monitoring Program
Air and Radiation Administration Management
Maryland Department of the Environment
May 23, 2011
MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT
1800 Washington Boulevard | Baltimore, MD 21230 | www.mde.state.md.us
410-537-3000 | 800-633-6101 | TTY Users: 800-735-2258
Martin O’Malley, Governor | Anthony G. Brown, Lt. Governor
Robert M. Summers, Ph.D., Secretary
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
Page
1.
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................7
2.
REQUIREMENTS FOR MONITORING NETWORK DESCRIPTIONS ...........................9
3.
MARYLAND AIR MONITORING NETWORK .................................................................9
3.1 General Information....................................................................................................11
4.
SPECIFIC POLLUTANT NETWORK DESCRIPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS ........22
4.1 Carbon Monoxide (CO) – General Description and Sampling Method .....................23
4.1.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................23
4.1.2 Sources ...........................................................................................................23
4.1.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................23
4.2 Lead (Pb) – General Description and Sampling Method............................................23
4.2.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................24
4.2.2 Sources ...........................................................................................................24
4.2.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................24
4.3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) – General Description and Sampling Method.....................24
4.3.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................25
4.3.2 Sources ...........................................................................................................25
4.3.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................25
4.4 Ozone (O3) – General Description and Sampling Method .........................................25
4.4.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................25
4.4.2 Sources ...........................................................................................................26
4.4.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................26
4.5 PM10 – General Description and Sampling Method ...................................................26
4.5.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................26
4.5.2 Sources ...........................................................................................................27
4.5.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................27
4.6 Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) – General Description and Sampling Method..........27
4.6.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................27
4.6.2 Sources ...........................................................................................................28
4.6.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................28
4.7 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – General Description and Sampling Method .........................28
4.7.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................28
4.7.2 Sources ...........................................................................................................29
4.7.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................29
4.8 PAMS (Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations) – General Description
and Sampling Method ................................................................................................29
4.8.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................30
4.8.2 Monitoring Locations .....................................................................................30
4.8.3 Sources ...........................................................................................................30
4.8.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................31
4.9 Air Toxics – General Description and Sampling Method ..........................................31
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4.9.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................31
4.9.2 Monitoring Locations .....................................................................................31
4.9.3 Sources ...........................................................................................................31
4.9.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................31
4.10 NCore – General Description and Sampling Method.................................................32
4.10.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................33
4.10.2 Monitoring Locations .....................................................................................33
4.10.3 Sources ...........................................................................................................33
4.10.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................33
4.11 The Rural Aerosol Intensive Network – General Description....................................33
4.11.1 Monitoring Requirements...............................................................................34
4.11.2 Monitoring Locations .....................................................................................34
4.11.3 Sources ...........................................................................................................34
4.11.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012 ....................................................................34
APPENDIX A – TOPOGRAPHIC AND AERIAL MAPS.......................................................... 35
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ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS
Air Quality System.
AQS
AQS ID
9-digit site identification number in AQS database.
ARMA
MDE’s Air and Radiation Management Administration
BAM/BAMM Beta Attenuation [Mass] Monitor typically used for measuring continuous
particulate matter.
CAA
Clean Air Act
CAAA
Clean Air Act Amendments
CBSA
Core Based Statistical Area
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
CSA
Combined Statistical Area
CSN
Chemical Speciation Network
CO
Carbon Monoxide
EGU
Electrical Generating Unit
FEM
Federal Equivalent Method typically used by local and state agency to measure
particulate matter and determine NAAQS attainment status.
FID
Flame Ionization Detector
FRM
Federal Reference Method typically used by local and state agency to measure
particulate matter and determine NAAQS attainment status.
GC
Gas Chromatograph
HAPS
Hazardous Air Pollutants
IMPROVE
Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments
IR
Infrared (radiation)
MDE
Maryland Department of the Environment
MSA
Metropolitan Statistical Area typically used by the EPA to study air quality trends
in major metropolitan areas across the U.S.
NAA
Non-attainment Area
NAAQS
National Ambient Air Quality Standards used for determining attainment status.
NCore
National Core multi-pollutant monitoring stations
NESCAUM Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management
nm
Nanometer, an SI unit for measuring length; 1 nm equals 10-9 meter.
NO
Nitrogen Oxide
NO2
Nitrogen Dioxide
NOx
Oxides of Nitrogen (ozone precursor)
NOy
Total Reactive Nitrogen Species (ozone precursor)
O3
Ozone
OC/EC
Organic Carbon/Elemental Carbon
PAMS
Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station
Pb
Lead
Particulate matter with an equivalent diameter less then or equal to 2.5 m.
PM2.5
PM10
Particulate matter with an equivalent diameter less then or equal to 10 m.
PMcoarse
Particulate matter with an equivalent diameter less then or equal to 10 m minus
Particulate matter with an equivalent diameter less then or equal to 2.5 m.
QA
Quality Assurance
RAIN
Rural Aerosol Intensive Network
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SIP
SLAMS
SO2
STN
TEOM
m
US EPA
UV
VOCs
State Implementation Plan
State or Local Air Monitoring Stations
Sulfur Dioxide
PM2.5 Speciation Trends Network
Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance
Micrometer (10-6 meter)
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Ultraviolet
Volatile Organic Compounds
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1. INTRODUCTION
In 1970, Congress passed the Clean Air Act (CAA) that authorized the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for
pollutants shown to threaten human health and welfare. Primary standards were set according to
criteria designed to protect public health, including an adequate margin of safety to protect
sensitive populations such as children and asthmatics. Secondary standards were set according
to criteria designed to protect public welfare (decreased visibility, damage to crops, vegetation,
and buildings, etc.). As part of the CAA, both local and state agencies are required to maintain
and operate ambient air quality monitoring networks.
The six pollutants that currently have NAAQS are: ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO),
sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and lead (Pb).
They are commonly called the "criteria" pollutants. When air quality does not meet the NAAQS
for one of the criteria pollutants, the area is said to be in “non-attainment” with the NAAQS for
that pollutant. Currently, Maryland is designated as non-attainment for both ground-level ozone
and particulate matter, but the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) will be
requesting that EPA redesignate the particulate matter non-attainment area to attainment. Maps
of non-attainment areas are shown in Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2. Counties outside of Maryland
are included as they are part of the non-attainment area (NAA); however, this document will
address only monitors in Maryland.
The EPA ozone precursor revisions to the air monitoring regulations (40 CFR Part 58)
required by Title 1, Section 182 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) were
promulgated on February 12, 1993. The CAAA requires that the States incorporate enhanced
monitoring for ozone, speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx),
carbonyls, and meteorological parameters into their State Implementation Plan (SIP). The Part
58 regulations refer to these enhanced monitoring stations as photochemical assessment
monitoring stations (PAMS). There is no ambient standard for any of the VOCs.
Section 112 of the 1990 CAAA identified 188 toxics. As part of the monitoring effort for
toxics, MDE is operating an Air Toxic Network and provides analytical support for sampling
sites in EPA Region 3.
As part of the CAA, states are required to submit an annual network plan to the U.S. EPA
for review and approval. Since 2007, EPA has required State and Local Air Pollution Control
Agencies to make this plan available for public inspection at least thirty days prior to formal
submission to EPA. Refer to the Requirements for Monitoring Network Descriptions section for
details.
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Figure 1-1.
Map depicting non-attainment areas for 8-hour ozone in Maryland and surrounding
jurisdictions that are part of the NAA.
Figure 1-2.
Map depicting non-attainment areas for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Maryland and
surrounding jurisdictions that are part of the NAA.
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2. REQUIREMENTS FOR MONITORING NETWORK DESCRIPTIONS
In October 2006, the U.S. EPA issued final regulations concerning state and local agency
ambient air monitoring networks. These regulations require an annual monitoring network plan
including the information described below.
The annual monitoring network plan as described in §58.10 must contain the following
information for existing and proposed site(s):

The Air Quality System (AQS) site identification number.

The location, including street address and geographical coordinates.

The sampling and analysis method(s) for each measured parameter.

The operating schedules for each monitor.

Any proposals to remove or move a monitoring station within a period of 18 months
following plan submittal.

The monitoring objective and spatial representative scale for each monitor.

The identification of suitable and non-suitable for comparison against the annual
PM2.5 NAAQS as described in §58.30.

The Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA),
Combined Statistical Area (CSA) or other area represented by the monitor.
3. MARYLAND AIR MONITORING NETWORK
Maryland currently operates 26 air monitoring sites around the state and measures
ground-level concentrations of criteria pollutants, air toxics, meteorology, and other researchoriented measurements. Although monitoring takes place statewide, most of the stations are
concentrated in the urban/industrial areas, which have the highest population and number of
pollutant sources. This network is maintained and operated by the Ambient Air Monitoring
Program (the Program), Air and Radiation Management Administration, Maryland Department
of the Environment. A comprehensive air monitoring network map is shown in Fig 3-1.
Additional topographic and aerial maps are provided in Appendix A.
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Figure 3-1
Maryland’s air monitoring network map
Note: Piney Run also marks the Frostburg Improve site which is just a few meters away.
Note: Frostburg Haze Cam is located at Eastern Garrett Co. Vol. Fire Department.
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3.1 General Information
The following tables include information required as part of the monitoring network
description. General information (e.g. site name, AQS identification number, latitude, longitude,
etc.) can be found in Table 3-1. Specific information related to each parameter measured at air
monitoring sites is given in Table 3-2a, b. Monitoring method descriptions can be found in
Table 3-3. Lastly, parameters measured as part of the air toxics, PAMS, IMPROVE, and
speciated PM2.5 mass are listed in Table 3-4.
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Table 3-1 General information for current Maryland ambient air monitoring sites.
SITE NAME,
AQS ID
STREET ADDRESS
CITY,
COUNTY
Aldino,
240259001
3560 Aldino Road
Aldino,
Harford
21028
39.563333,
-76.203889
Suburban
Aldino Rd.
1150
2008
14
Baltimore-Towson
21226
39.181511,
-76.537544
Suburban
-
-
-
-
NA
Bladensburg,
Prince
20710
George’s
38.941697,
-76.933698
Suburban
Edmonston
Road
-
-
155
DC-ArlingtonAlexandria
38.536722,
-76.617194
Rural
Stafford
Road
-
-
53
DC-ArlingtonAlexandria
38.902500,
-76.653056
Rural
Queen Anne
Bridge Road
-
-
151
Baltimore-Towson
39.410000,
-76.296667
Rural
Waehli Road
-
-
16
Baltimore-Towson
39.310833,
-76.474444
Suburban
200
1993
5
Baltimore-Towson
Fairhill, Cecil 21921
39.701111,
-75.860000
Rural
8381
2008
26
Wilmington, DE-MDNJ
Baltimore City 21224
39.287680,
-76.547616
Suburban
Eastern
Avenue
(Route 150)
21901
2008
45
Baltimore-Towson
Brandon Shores Power
Baltimore Haze
Plant
Cam @ Brandon
Anne Arundel
1000 Brandon Shores Dr.
Shores
Bladensburg VFD,
240330025
Bladensburg Volunteer
Fire Department, 4213
Edmonston Road
Calvert Co,
240090011
350 Stafford Road
Davidsonville,
240030014
Edgewood,
240251001
Essex,
240053001
4600 Telegraph Road
Fire Dept 20*,
245100008
Baltimore City Fire
Department,
5714 Eastern Avenue
Frostburg
HazeCam
Barstow,
Calvert
20678
Davidsonville Recreation
Davidsonville,
Center, 3801 Queen
21035
Anne Arundel
Anne Bridge Road
Edgewood Chemical
Edgewood,
21010
Biological Center (APG),
Harford
Waehli Road
Essex,
600 Dorsey Avenue
21221
Baltimore
Fairhill,
240150003
Frederick Airport,
240210037
DISTANCE
TRAFFIC
CORE BASED
ZIP LATITUDE, LOCATION NEAREST TRAFFIC
FROM
COUNT
STATISTICAL AREA
CODE LONGITUDE SETTING
ROAD
COUNT
NEAREST
YEAR
(CBSA)
RD. (M)
Frederick County
Airport, 180 E Airport
Drive
Eastern Garrett Co. Vol.
Fire Dept.
401 Finzel Road
Franklin
Avenue
Telegraph
Road (Route
273)
Frederick,
Frederick
21701
39.408056,
-77.375833
Suburban
Disposal
Plan Road
5
1998
9
DC-ArlingtonAlexandria
Finzel,
Garrett
21532
-
Rural
-
-
-
-
NA
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SITE NAME,
AQS ID
STREET ADDRESS
CITY,
COUNTY
Frostburg Improve
240239000
Frostburg Reservoir
Finzel,
Garrett
Furley,
245100054
Glen Burnie,
240031003
Hagerstown,
240430009
DISTANCE
TRAFFIC
CORE BASED
ZIP LATITUDE, LOCATION NEAREST TRAFFIC
FROM
COUNT
STATISTICAL AREA
CODE LONGITUDE SETTING
ROAD
COUNT
NEAREST
YEAR
(CBSA)
RD. (M)
39.705896,
Piney Run
21532
Rural
1141
NA
-79.012117
Road
Furley E.S. Recreational
Center, 4633 Furley
Baltimore City 21206
Avenue
Anne Arundel Co Public
Works BLDG, 7409
Glen Burnie,
21061
Baltimore Annapolis
Anne Arundel
Blvd
18530 Roxbury Road
39.328890,
-76.552500
Urban and
City Center
39.169533,
-76.627933
Suburban
Furley Ave.
Baltimore
Annapolis
Blvd (Route
648).
Roxbury
Road
Baltimore-Towson
-
-
38
16801
2008
98
Baltimore-Towson
50
1993
49
HagerstownMartinsburg
Hagerstown,
Washington
21740
39.565556,
-77.721944
Rural
Beltsville,
Prince
George's
20705
39.055277,
-76.878333
Suburban
Muirkirk
Road
-
-
409
D.C., Arlington,
Alexandria
Massey, Kent 21650
39.305000,
-75.797333
Rural
Maryland
Line Road
(Route 330)
1392
2008
121
NA
-
-
49
Baltimore-Towson
16261
2008
26
Baltimore-Towson
15300
1990
23
Baltimore-Towson
Howard University’s
Beltsville Laboratory,
12003 Old Baltimore
Pike
Millington Wildlife
Management Area,
Massey-Maryland Line
Road (Route 330)
Northeast Police Station,
1900 Argonne Drive
Northwest Police Station,
5271 Reisterstown Road
Oldtown Fire Station,
1100 Hillen Street
Padonia Elementary
School, 9834 Greenside
Drive
Baltimore City 21218
Cockeysville,
21030
Baltimore
39.460833,
-76.631111
Suburban
Greenside
Drive
-
-
93
Baltimore-Towson
PG Equestrian
Center, 240338003
PG County Equestrian
Center, 14900
Pennsylvania Ave.
Greater Upper
Marlboro,
20772
Prince
George's
38.811940,
-76.744170
Rural
Pennsylvani
a Avenue
46651
2008
191
D.C., Arlington,
Alexandria
Piney Run,
240230002
Frostburg Reservoir,
Finzel
Finzel, Garrett 21532
39.705916,
-79.012028
Rural
Piney Run
Road
-
-
1141
NA
HU-Beltsville,
240330030
Millington,
240290002
NE Police,
245100006
NW Police,
245100007
Oldtown,
245100040
Padonia,
240051007
Baltimore City 21215
Baltimore City 21202
39.340556,
-76.582222
39.344444,
-76.685278
39.298056,
-76.604722
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
Suburban
Suburban
Argonne
Drive
Reisterstown
Road
Urban and
Hillen Street
City Center
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SITE NAME,
AQS ID
STREET ADDRESS
CITY,
COUNTY
Lathrop E. Smith
Environmental Education Rockville,
Montgomery
Center, 5110
Meadowside Lane
South Carroll,
1300 W. Old Liberty
Winfield,
240130001
Road
Carroll
Southern Maryland,
Hughesville,
Oaks Road
240170010
Charles
Rockville,
240313001
DISTANCE
TRAFFIC
CORE BASED
ZIP LATITUDE, LOCATION NEAREST TRAFFIC
FROM
COUNT
STATISTICAL AREA
CODE LONGITUDE SETTING
ROAD
COUNT
NEAREST
YEAR
(CBSA)
RD. (M)
20855
21784
20622
39.114444,
-77.106944
39.444167,
-77.041667
38.504167,
-76.811944
Rural
Meadowside
Lane
Rural
Liberty Road
(Route 26)
10962
Rural
Oaks Road
-
-
-
2008
-
77
248
723
DC-ArlingtonAlexandria
Baltimore-Towson
DC-ArlingtonAlexandria
* Fire Dept 20 was called S.E. Police Station in previous reports. It was relocated from the S.E. Police Station site to the fire department next door
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Table 3-2a.
Parameter information for current Maryland ambient air monitoring sites
PROBE
METHOD
REPRESENTATIVE MONITORING
HEIGHT
OBJECTIVE
CODE
SCALE
(M)
Maximum
4/20/1990
047
6
Urban
Ozone
concentration
SITE NAME,
START
PARAMETER
AQS ID
DATE
Aldino,
240259001
Baltimore
Haze Cam @
Brandon
Shores
Bladensburg
VFD,
240330025
Calvert Co.,
240090011
Davidsonville,
240030014
Edgewood,
240251001
Essex,
240053001
Ozone
Visibility
4/1/2007
NA
NA
NA
Public
Notification
PM2.5
1/1/2007
118
4
Neighborhood
Population
Exposure
Ozone
4/1/2005
047
4
Urban
Ozone
6/6/1980
047
4
Urban
Ozone
3/10/1980
047
3.8
Urban
PM2.5
1/1/1999
120
2.1
Neighborhood
Air toxics
1/1/1993
150
4.0
Neighborhood
Carbon
Monoxide
4/1/1967
054
4.6
Middle
Nitric Oxide
1/1/1993
074
4.6
Neighborhood
Nitrogen
Dioxide
1/1/1972
074
4.6
Neighborhood
Oxides of
Nitrogen
1/1/1980
074
4.6
Neighborhood
Ozone
1/1/1972
047
4.6
Neighborhood
4.0
Neighborhood
4.5
Neighborhood
5
Neighborhood
Type 2 PAMS:
6/1/1996 128/126/102
VOCs
PM10
Continuous
4/1/1967
PM2.5 Chemical 10/1/2000
122
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Highest
Concentration
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Highest
Concentration
Maximum
Precursor
Emissions
Impact
Maximum
Precursor
Emissions
Impact
Maximum
Precursor
Emissions
Impact
Population
Exposure
Maximum
Precursor
Emissions
Impact
Population
Exposure
Population
TYPE
SAMPLE
SCHEDULE
SLAMS
Every hour
NA
NA
SLAMS Every 3 days
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS Every 3 days
Toxics
Every 6 days
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
PAMS
Every hour,
Every 6 days
SLAMS
Every hour
STN
Every 3 days
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SITE NAME,
START
PARAMETER
AQS ID
DATE
Speciation
PM2.5
Fairhill
240150003
1/1/1999
120
4.7
Neighborhood
Sulfur Dioxide 1/1/1972
060
5
Neighborhood
Hagerstown,
240430009
HU-Beltsville,
2400330030
Population
Exposure
Highest
Concentration
Regional
Transport
Regional
Background
TYPE
SAMPLE
SCHEDULE
SLAMS Every 3 days
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
Ozone
1/1/1992
047
4
Urban
PM2.5
1/1/1999
120
3.7
Regional
PM2.5
Continuous
6/28/2006
170
3.7
Regional
3/10/2004
131
13
Neighborhood
6/20/2001
120
13
Middle
7/9/1998
047
3.4
Urban
Population
Exposure
SLAMS
3/1/2004
NA
4
Regional
Regional
Transport
Improve Every 3 days
10/1/2005
-
NA
NA
8/20/2006
047
10
Neighborhood
PM10
4/11/90
122
2.7
Neighborhood
PM2.5
1/1/1999
118
2.2
Neighborhood
PM2.5
Continuous
5/1/2005
731
4
Urban
Fire Dept 20, PM10 total 0-10
µm
245100008
PM2.5
Frederick
Airport,
Ozone
240210037
Frostburg
IMPROVE
Improve
Parameters
240239000
Frostburg
Visibility
HazeCam
Furley,
Ozone
245100054
Glen Burnie,
240031003
PROBE
METHOD
REPRESENTATIVE MONITORING
HEIGHT
CODE
OBJECTIVE
SCALE
(M)
810
Exposure
Ozone
4/1/1999
047
3.6
Urban
PM2.5
4/1/1999
120
2
Neighborhood
Air toxics
5/10//2006
150
4
Neighborhood
Lead
12/12/2011
TBD
2
Neighborhood
Nitric Oxide
and Reactive
Oxides of
Nitrogen
5/28/2008
075
4
Urban
Ozone
5/1/2005
047
4
Urban
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
Regional
Background
SLAMS Every 3 days
SLAMS
Every hour
Population
SLAMS Every 6 days
Exposure
Source Oriented SLAMS Every day
Public
Notification
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Highest
Concentration
Population
Exposure
Highest
Concentration
Highest
Concentration
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Every hour
-
NA
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS Every 6 days
SLAMS
Every day
SPM
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS Every 3 days
Toxics
Every 6 days
NCore
Every 3 days
General /
Background
NCore
Every hour
Highest
NCore
Every hour
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SITE NAME,
START
PARAMETER
AQS ID
DATE
Type 3 PAMS: 5/10/2005
VOCs
NE Police,
245100006
NW Police,
245100007
Oldtown,
245100040
126
4
Urban
Upwind
Background
TYPE
SAMPLE
SCHEDULE
Unofficial Every 6 days,
PAMS every 3 hours
PM2.5
7/10/2004
118
2
Urban
Population
Exposure
NCore
Every 3 days
PM2.5
Continuous
9/1/2005
170
2
Urban
Population
Exposure
SLAMS
Every hour
PMcoarse
1/1/2011
176
2
Neighborhood
NCore
Every 3 days
810
2
Urban
NCore
Every 6 days
NA
4
Urban
General /
Background
NA
Every 2
hours
Sulfate (PM2.5) 8/29/2005
NA
4
Urban
General /
Background
NCore
Every hour
Trace Carbon
12/20/2006
Monoxide
554
4
Urban
General /
Background
NCore
Every hour
Trace Sulfur
Dioxide
9/29/2006
560
4
Urban
NCore
Every hour
Ozone
6/19/1989
047
General /
Background
Population
Exposure
SLAMS
Every hour
PM2.5
Continuous
1/24/08
731
2
Neighborhood
SPM
Every hour
Air toxics
1/1/1992
150
4
Neighborhood
Toxics
Every 6 days
PM2.5
1/1/1999
120
8.8
Neighborhood
SLAMS
Every day
PM2.5
1/1/1999
120
9.7
Neighborhood
Air Toxics
1/1/1991
150
4
Middle
1/1/1982
054
4.2
Middle
9/2004
NA
4
NA
1/1/1982
074
4.2
Middle
4/1/2002
170
4.5
Middle
PM2.5 |Chemical
12/5/2004
Speciation
PM2.5
Elemental &
2005
Organic Carbon
Millington,
240290002
PROBE
METHOD
REPRESENTATIVE MONITORING
HEIGHT
CODE
OBJECTIVE
SCALE
(M)
Concentration
Population
Exposure
Carbon
Monoxide
Light Scatter
Nitric Oxide,
Nitrogen
Dioxide, and
Oxides of
Nitrogen
PM2.5
Continuous
4
Urban
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Forecasting
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Highest
Concentration
NA
SLAMS Every 3 days
Toxics
Every 6 days
SLAMS
Every hour
NA
Every hour
Highest
Concentration
SLAMS
Every hour
Highest
Concentration
SLAMS
Every hour
Version: 1.2
17
PROBE
METHOD
REPRESENTATIVE MONITORING
HEIGHT
CODE
OBJECTIVE
SCALE
(M)
Highest
1/1/1999
120
4.9
Middle
Concentration
Population
1/1/1979
047
3.8
Neighborhood
Exposure
SITE NAME,
START
PARAMETER
AQS ID
DATE
PM2.5
Ozone
Padonia,
240051007
1/1/1999
120
4.7
Neighborhood
Ozone
4/1/2002
047
4.4
Urban
PM2.5
5/1/2002
120
4.8
Neighborhood
Light Scatter
Nitric Oxide,
and Reactive
Oxides of
Nitrogen
Trace Carbon
Monoxide
9/2004
NA
4
NA
5/1/2004
075
4
Regional
6/1/2004
554
4
Regional
Ozone
4/1/2004
047
4
Regional
PM2.5
Continuous
7/1/2004
731
4
Regional
PMcoarse
1/1/2011
TBD
2
Urban
2005
NA
4
Regional
Regional
Transport
7/2004
NA
4
Regional
Regional
Transport
1/1/2007
560
4
Regional
Sulfate (PM2.5) 7/1/2004
NA
4
Regional
PM2.5
PG Equestrian
Center,
240338003
Piney Run,
240230002
PM2.5
Chemical
Speciation
(IMPROVE)
PM2.5
Elemental &
Organic Carbon
Trace SO2
Rockville,
240313001
South Carroll,
240130001
Ozone
1/1/1980
047
4
Urban
PM2.5
Continuous
8/22/08
170
4
Neighborhood
PM2.5
1/1/1999
4.9
Neighborhood
Ozone
7/14/1983
4
Urban
047
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
NA
Regional
Transport
Regional
Transport
Regional
transport
Regional
transport
General/
Background
Regional
Transport
Regional
Transport
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
Population
Exposure
TYPE
SAMPLE
SCHEDULE
SLAMS
Every day
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS Every 3 days
NA
Every hour
NCore
Every hour
NCore
Every hour
NCore
Every hour
NCore
Every hour
NCore
Every 3 days
Improve Every 3 days
NA
Every 2 hours
NCore
Every hour
NCore
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS
Every hour
SLAMS Every 3 days
SLAMS
Every hour
Version: 1.2
18
SITE NAME,
START
PARAMETER
AQS ID
DATE
Southern
Maryland,
240170010
Ozone
10/2/1984
PROBE
METHOD
REPRESENTATIVE MONITORING
HEIGHT
CODE
OBJECTIVE
SCALE
(M)
047
4
Regional
General /
Background
TYPE
SAMPLE
SCHEDULE
SLAMS
Every hour
Note: Based on the air monitoring regulations CFR 40 part 58 7.30 (a) (1), data collected by the PM2.5 monitor
located at Oldtown is representative at the middle scale and will not be compared to the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15
g/m3. Ambient air monitoring sites operate year-round except ozone where noted; Ozone final monitoring rule
announced August, 2011 would change the season to March through October. Following an EPA directive, nitrogen
dioxide (NO2) measured by method codes 574 and 591 is no longer being reported. This change is limited to the
nitrogen oxides analyzers located at HU-Beltsville and Piney Run.
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
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Aldino
Bladensburg
Calvert Co.
Davidsonville
Edgewood
Essex
Fairhill
Frederick Airport
Fire Dept 20
Furley
Glen Burnie
Hagerstown
HU-Beltsville
Millington
NE Police
NW Police
Oldtown
Padonia
PG Equestrian
Center
Piney Run
Rockville
South Carroll
Southern
Maryland
1
TOTALS
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
13
2
1
1
3
2
2
2
87
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
5
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
17
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
7
14
2
5
2
1
1
1
3
2
Note the above table does not include RAIN, Visibility, or IMPROVE monitors; see Table 3-2a and Section 4 for
details about those monitors
Table 3-3.
Monitoring methods and associated AQS codes used in the Maryland ambient air
monitoring network.
PARAMETER
METHOD
CODE
Air Toxics*
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Monoxide, Trace
Lead
Light Scatter
Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide
Nitric Oxide, and Reactive Oxides Of
113
054
554,593
TBD
NA
074
574,591
SAMPLE ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION
Capillary GC ITD Mass Spectrometer
Nondispersive Infrared Photometry
Nondispersive Infrared Photometry
TBD
Open-Air Integrating Nephelometer
Chemiluminescence
TECO 42S Chemiluminescence for Low Level Measurements
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Version: 1.2
20
3
1
1
1
2
10
2
1
2
1
3
2
21
2
2
1
9
3
3
1
1
1
TOTALS
Trace SO2
Trace CO
Sulfate (PM2.5)
SO2
Speciated PM2.5
PM coarse
PM10 (continuous)
PM10 Filter Based
PM2.5 (continuous)
PM 2.5 Elemental &
Organic Carbon
PM2.5 Filter Based
PAMS VOC's
O3
NOY
NOX
NO2
NO
Light scatter
Lead
Parameter counts by site (cross-reference to Table 3-2a)
CO
Site Name
Air Toxics
Table 3-2b
PARAMETER
Nitrogen
Oxides Of Nitrogen
PAMS VOCs*
PAMS VOCs*
Ozone
PM10 Total 0-10 µm
PM10 Continuous
PM2.5
PM2.5
PM2.5 Species* Constituents: Trace
Elements
PM10-PM2.5(PM coarse)
PM2.5 Species* Constituents: Ions
PM2.5 Species* Constituents:
Organics
PM2.5 Continuous
PM2.5 Speciation Mass
PM2.5- Elemental and Organic Carbon
IMPROVE Parameters*
Sulfur Dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide, trace
Sulfate-PM2.5
Visibility
METHOD
CODE
SAMPLE ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION
074
128
126
047,091
132
731
120
118
Chemiluminescence
Gas Chromatograph with Flame; GC FID
Cryogenic Pre-concentration Trap GC/FID
Ultra Violet Photometry
Gravimetric, Andersen RAAS 10-300
Beta Attenuation
Gravimetric, Andersen RAAS 2.5-300
Gravimetric, Partisol Plus 2025
811
Energy Dispersive XRF using Teflon Filter
176
812
Gravimetric, Partisol Plus 2025
Ion Chromatography using Nylon Filter
813
Using Quartz Filter - Thermo-Optical Transmittance
731
810
Beta Attenuation
Gravimetric, Met One SASS using Teflon
OCEC, Self-contained Non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) Detector
NA
System.
NA
4 Module, Improve Protocol analysis
060
Pulsed Fluorescence
560,600 Pulsed Fluorescence
NA
Pulsed Fluorescent with High Efficiency SO4 to SO2 Converter
NA
Camera
*See Table 3-4 for constituents belonging to these groups
Table 3-4 Constituent compounds and species measured in Maryland.
CONSTITUENT
GROUP
COMPOUNDS IN THE CONSTITUENT GROUP
Air Toxics
Dichlorodifluoromethane, Chloromethane, 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2,tetrafluoroleth, Chloroethene,
1,3-Butadiene, Bromomethane, Chloroethane, Trichlorofluoromethane, Acrolein, Acetone,
1,1-Dichloroethene, Methylene Chloride, Carbon disulfide, Isopropyl Alcohol,
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, Trans-1,2-Dichloroethene, 1,1-Dichloroethane,
2-methoxy-2-methyl-Propane, Methyl ethyl Ketone (2-butanone), Cis-1,2-Dichloroethene, Hexane,
Chloroform, Ethyl Acetate, Tetrahydrofuran, 1,2-Dichloroethane,
1,1,1-Trichloroethane, Benzene, Carbon tetrachloride, Cyclohexane, 1,2-Dichloropropane,
Bromodichloromethane, Trichloroethylene, Heptane, Cis-1,3-Dichloro-1-Propene,
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone, Trans-1,3-Dichloro-1-Propene, 1,1,2-Trichloroethane, Toluene,
Dibrochloromethane, Methyl butyl Ketone, (2-Hexanone), 1,2-Dibromoethane, Tetrachloroethylene,
Chlorobenzene, Ethyl benzene, m & p- Xylene, Bromoform (Tribromomethane), Styrene, 1,1,2,2Tetrachloroethane, o-Xylene, 1-Ethyl-4-Methylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4Trimethylbenzene, Benzyl Chloride, 1,3-dichlorobenzene,
1,4-Dichlorobenzene, 1,2-Dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, and Hexachloro-1,3-Butadiene
IMPROVE
Parameters
Aerosol light extinction, Aerosol light scattering, Air temperature, Aluminum, Ammonium ion,
Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium sulfate, Arsenic, Bromine, Calcium, Chloride, Chlorine
Chromium, Copper, Elemental carbon, Humidity, Hydrogen, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese,
Molybdenum, Nickel, Nitrate, Nitrite, Organic carbon, Phosphorus, PM10, PM2.5, Potassium, Relative
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CONSTITUENT
GROUP
COMPOUNDS IN THE CONSTITUENT GROUP
PAMS VOCs
Humidity, Rubidium, Selenium, Silicon, Sodium, Strontium, Sulfate, Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfur, Titanium,
Vanadium, Zinc, and Zirconium
Acetone, Ethane, Acetylene, Propane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, Benzene, i-Butane, n-Butane,
i-Pentane, n-Pentane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, i-Propylbenzene, n-hexane,
2-methylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, Cyclopentane, Ethylbenzene, n-Propylbenzene,
3-methylpentane, Toluene, Styrene, n-Heptane, 2-methylhexane, 2,4-dimethylpentane, 2,3,4trimethylpentane, o-Xylene, 3-methylhexane, 2,3-dimethylpentane, Formaldehyde,
n-Octane, 2-methylheptane, Cyclohexane, 3-methylheptane, n-Nonane, m&p-Xylenes,
Methylcyclohexane, Methylcyclopentane, n-Decane, n-Undecane, Acetaldehyde,
1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 1-Butene, Propene,
1-Pentene, 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene, 2-methyl-1-pentene, 2-methyl-2-butene, c-2-hexene,
c-2-pentene, c-2-Butene, Cyclopentene, 4-methyl-1-pentene, t-2-hexene, t-2-Butene,
t-2-pentene, Isoprene
Sulfate, EC/OC, light scattering, trace SO2 , trace CO, ozone, continuous PM2.5, surface meteorology,
visual scene images - Haze Cam, IMPROVE parameters
RAIN
Speciated
PM2.5 Mass
Aluminum, Ammonium, antimony, Arsenic, Barium, Bromine, Cadmium, Calcium,
Carbonate carbon, Cerium, Cesium, Chlorine, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Elemental carbon, Europium,
Gallium, Gold, Hafnium, Indium, Iridium, Iron, Lanthanum, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Mercury,
Molybdenum, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrate, OCX, OCX2, Organic carbon, Phosphorus, Pk1_OC, Pk2_OC,
Pk3_OC, Pk4_OC, Potassium, PyrolC, Rubidium, Samarium, Scandium, Selenium, Silicon, Silver,
Sodium, Strontium, Sulfate, Sulfur, Tantalum, Terbium, Tin, Titanium, Total carbon, Vanadium,
Wolfram, Yttrium, Zinc, and Zirconium
4. SPECIFIC POLLUTANT NETWORK DESCRIPTIONS AND
REQUIREMENTS
EPA Ambient Air Monitoring requirements for some pollutants are based on CBSA
population counts. Some Maryland CBSA’s include parts of surrounding jurisdictions, Table 4-1.
CFR 40, TABLE D–5 OF APPENDIX D TO PART 58, requires that population be based on the latest
available census figures. Population counts used for this year’s report are 2008 estimates sourced
from AQS.
Table 4-1. Population by CBSA for those CBSA’s which contain one or more Maryland counties
(Source: AQS, updated in 2008)
CBSA Name
Baltimore-Towson, MD
Cambridge, MD
Cumberland, MD-WV
Easton, MD
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV
Lexington Park, MD
Ocean Pines, MD
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington,
PA-NJ-DE-MD
Salisbury, MD
CBSA
Population
2,552,994
30,674
102,008
33,812
222,771
86,211
46,543
5,687,147
States Included in the CBSA
DC
MD
PA
VA
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
DE
√
√
109,391
WV
√
√
√
√
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
Version: 1.2
22
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria,
DC-VA-MD-WV
4,796,183
√
√
√
√
4.1 Carbon Monoxide (CO) – General Description and Sampling Method
Carbon monoxide (CO) is measured by infrared absorption photometry. Air is drawn
continuously through a sample cell where infrared light passes through it. Carbon monoxide
molecules in the air absorb part of the infrared light, reducing the intensity of the light reaching a
light sensor. The light is converted into an electrical signal related to the concentration of carbon
monoxide in the sample cell.
4.1.1 Monitoring Requirements
There is no minimum requirement for the number of CO monitoring sites. Operation of
the existing CO sites in Maryland is required until the Program requests discontinuation of a site
in the Annual Network Plan and the EPA Regional Administrator approves the request. Where
CO monitoring is ongoing, at least one site must be a maximum concentration site for that area
under investigation.
4.1.2 Sources
CO is formed when carbon in fuel is not completely burned. The EPA estimates that
approximately 60% of all CO emissions are from motor vehicle exhaust. Other sources include
incinerators, wood stoves, furnaces, and some industrial processes. Concentrations are highest
along heavily traveled highways, and decrease significantly the further away the monitor is from
traffic. Therefore, CO monitors are usually located close to roadways or in urban areas.
4.1.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
No changes planned.
4.2 Lead (Pb) – General Description and Sampling Method
On October 15, 2008 EPA substantially strengthened the national ambient air quality standards
(NAAQS) for lead (see 73 FR 66934). EPA revised the level of the primary (health-based)
standard from 1.5 µg/m3 to 0.15 µg/m3, measured as total suspended particles (TSP, but PM10
will be allowed at NCore sites) and revised the secondary (welfare-based) standard to be
identical in all respects to the primary standard. On December 30, 2009, EPA proposed revisions
to the lead monitoring requirements pertaining to where State and local monitoring agencies
would be required to conduct lead monitoring. The final rule became effective on January 26,
2011.
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
Version: 1.2
23
4.2.1 Monitoring Requirements
Table 4-2 Shows Monitoring Required due to Revisions to Pb ambient air monitoring regulations
Requirement
One source-oriented SLAMS site located to
measure the maximum Pb concentration
resulting from each non-airport Pb source
which emits 0.50 or more tons per year
One source-oriented SLAMS site located to
measure the maximum Pb concentration
resulting from airport which emits 1.0 or
more tons per year
Non-source oriented Pb monitoring at each
required NCore site in a CBSA having a
population of 500,000 or more.
Appendix
to Part 58
Required
Comments
4.5(a)
0
The Program modeled the .57tpy GenOn Energy
in Charles County and found it below the
threshold and will be submitting a wavier for it.
4.5(a)
0
The Program, in conjunction with EPA Region
III, found no Pb sources satisfying this
requirement in the 2007 emissions inventory
4.5(b)
1
4.2.2 Sources
Lead (Pb) is a metal found naturally in the environment as well as in manufactured
products. The major sources of lead emissions have historically been motor vehicles (such as
cars and trucks) and industrial sources. As a result of EPA's regulatory efforts to remove lead
from gasoline, emissions of lead from the transportation sector dramatically declined by 95
percent between 1980 and 1999, and levels of lead in the air decreased by 94 percent between
1980 and 1999. Today, the highest levels of lead in air are usually found near lead smelters.
Other stationary sources are waste incinerators, utilities, lead-acid battery manufacturers and
general aviation airports. Soil can pick up lead from exterior paint, or other sources such as past
use of leaded gas in cars.
4.2.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
To satisfy EPA’s requirements for lead monitoring at NCore sites, the Program will
deploy a low volume, PM10, lead monitor at the HU-Beltsville site by December 12, 2011.
4.3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) – General Description and Sampling Method
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is measured indirectly. First, nitrogen oxide (NO) is measured
using the chemiluminescence reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with ozone (O3). Air is drawn into a
reaction chamber where it is mixed with a high concentration of ozone from an internal ozone
generator. Any NO in the air reacts with the ozone to produce NO2. Light emitted from this
reaction is detected with a photomultiplier tube and converted to an electrical signal proportional
to the NO concentration. Next, total nitrogen oxides (NOx) are measured by passing the air
through a converter where any NO2 in the air is reduced to NO before the air is passed to the
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24
reaction chamber. By alternately passing the air directly to the reaction chamber, and through
the converter before the reaction chamber, the analyzer alternately measures NO and NOx. The
NO2 concentration is equal to the difference between NOx and NO.
4.3.1 Monitoring Requirements
There is no minimum requirement for the number of NO2 monitoring sites. Operation of
the existing NO2 sites in Maryland is required until the Program requests discontinuation of a site
in the Annual Network Plan and the EPA Regional Administrator approves the request. At least
one NO2 monitor must be located to measure regional maximum concentration within the
geographic area that it represents.
4.3.2 Sources
Oxides of nitrogen are produced during high-temperature burning of fuels. Sources of
NOx include motor vehicles and stationary sources that burn fossil fuels such as power plants and
industrial boilers.
4.3.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
No changes planned.
4.4 Ozone (O3) – General Description and Sampling Method
Ozone (O3) is measured by ultraviolet absorption photometry. Air is drawn continuously
through a sample cell where ultraviolet light passes through it. O3 molecules in the air absorb
part of the ultraviolet light, reducing the intensity of the light reaching a light sensor. The light is
converted into an electrical signal related to the concentration of O3 in the sample cell.
4.4.1 Monitoring Requirements
Within an O3 network, at least one O3 site for each MSA, or CSA if multiple MSAs are
involved, must be designed to record the maximum concentration for that particular metropolitan
area. More than one maximum concentration site may be necessary in some areas. The
appropriate spatial scales for O3 sites are neighborhood, urban, and regional. Since O3 requires
appreciable formation time, the mixing of reactants and products occurs over large volumes of
air, and this reduces the importance of monitoring small-scale spatial variability. The appropriate
spatial scales for O3 sites are neighborhood, urban, and regional.
The prospective maximum concentration monitor site should be selected in a direction
from the city that is most likely to observe the highest O3 concentrations, more specifically,
downwind during periods of photochemical activity. Since O3 levels decrease significantly in
the colder parts of the year in many areas, O3 is required to be monitored only during the “ozone
Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan for Calendar Year 2012
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25
season” as designated in the 40 CFR Part 58 Appendix D, which in Maryland is April 1 through
October 31.
4.4.2 Sources
Ozone is not emitted directly from a pollution source but is formed in the lower
atmosphere by the reaction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in
the presence of sunlight and warm temperatures. Sources of nitrogen oxides include
automobiles, power plants and other combustion activities. VOCs can come from automobiles,
gasoline vapors, and a variety of large and small commercial and industrial sources that use
chemical solvents, paint thinners, and other chemical compounds. NOx and VOC’s or
“precursors of ozone” can travel for many miles before chemical reactions in the atmosphere
form O3.
4.4.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
The Program has begun to install a new monitoring site at University of Maryland Center
for Environmental and Estuarine Studies near Cambridge on Maryland’s Eastern Shore.
Monitoring is expected to begin in late 2011 pending availability of resources.
4.5 PM10 – General Description and Sampling Method
The Program uses both manual gravimetric and automated monitors to measure PM10
mass concentrations in the Maryland network. The PM10 Beta Attenuation Monitor (BAM)
automatically measures and records dust concentrations with built-in data logging. It uses the
principal of beta ray attenuation to provide a simple determination of mass concentration. An
external pump pulls a measured amount of air through a filter tape for a one hour period. The
filter tape, impregnated with ambient dust, is placed between the source and the detector thereby
causing the attenuation of the measured beta-particle signal. The degree of attenuation of the
beta-particle signal is used to determine the mass concentration of particulate matter on the filter
tape and hence the hourly volumetric concentration of particulate matter in the ambient air.
Gravimetric samplers draw air through a specially designed inlet that excludes particles
larger than 10 microns in diameter for a period of 24 hours. The particles are collected on a
Teflon filter that is weighed to determine the particulate mass. These samplers report the air
volume measured during the sampling period allowing the concentration (mass/volume) to be
calculated.
4.5.1 Monitoring Requirements
Maryland must operate the minimum of two PM10 SLAMS monitoring sites as listed in
40 CFR Part 58 Appendix D Table D-4.
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4.5.2 Sources
Major sources of PM10 include steel mills, power plants, motor vehicles, industrial plants,
unpaved roads, and agricultural tilling. The wide variety of PM10 sources means that the
chemical and physical composition of coarse particles is highly variable.
4.5.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
No changes planned.
4.6 Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) – General Description and Sampling Method
The Program also uses both manual gravimetric and automated monitors, BAM’s, to
measure PM2.5 mass concentrations in Maryland. A filter attached to the inlets of these monitors
excludes particles having diameters greater than 2.5 microns. Otherwise, the monitors work as
described for PM10 gravimetric and automated monitoring, section 4.5. Some of the gravimetric
monitors are specially equipped to collect PM2.5 samples which are later analyzed into
concentrations of the samples’ chemical constituents or species, see Table 3-4 for list of speciated
PM2.5 mass.
The Program uses MetOne Super SAAS samplers and IMPROVE samplers for the
collection of samples for the chemical speciation of PM2.5. The samplers collect 3 to 4 filter
samples simultaneously every third or sixth day for a period of 24 hours. These samples are then
sent to an EPA contract laboratory for chemical analyses. There are over 50 species consisting of
ions, metals and carbon species quantified by the analyses (see Table 3-4).
4.6.1 Monitoring Requirements
Maryland must operate at least the minimum number of required PM2.5 sites listed in 40
CFR Part 58 Appendix D Table D-5. These required monitoring stations or sites must be located
to represent community-wide air quality. In addition, the following specific criteria also apply:

At least one monitoring station is to be sited in a population-oriented area of expected
maximum concentration.

For areas with more than one required station, a monitoring station is to be located in
an area of poor air quality.

Each state shall install and operate at least one PM2.5 site to monitor for regional
background and at least one PM2.5 site to monitor regional transport.
Maryland is also required to operate continuous fine particulate analyzers at three
monitoring sites, and one of those sites must be collocated for quality assurance purposes.
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In addition, chemical speciation is encouraged at sites where the chemically resolved data
would be useful in developing the State Implementation Plan (SIP) and supporting health effects
related studies.
Please note that data collected by the PM2.5 monitors located at Oldtown and Fire Dept 20
is representative of the middle scale and will not be compared to the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15
g/m3.
4.6.2 Sources
PM2.5 pollution is emitted from combustion activities (such as industrial and residential
fuel burning and motor vehicles). PM2.5 can also form in the atmosphere from precursor
compounds through various physical and chemical processes.
4.6.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012

MDE’s remaining, six Andersen RAAS FRM’s will be replaced by thermo Fisher
2025 FRM samplers by the end of 2011.

MDE proposes to terminate PM2.5 sampling at the Bladensburg VFD (240330025)
site in PG County and at the NE Police (245100006) site in Baltimore City
pending approval by EPA Region III. The Program reported these sites to be
redundant in its 5 -Year Network Assessment.
4.7 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – General Description and Sampling Method
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is measured with a fluorescence analyzer. Air is drawn through a
sample cell where it is subjected to high intensity ultraviolet light. This causes the sulfur dioxide
molecules in the air to fluoresce and release light. The fluorescence is detected with a photo
multiplier tube and converted to an electrical signal proportional to the SO2 concentration.
4.7.1 Monitoring Requirements
On June 22, 2010 EPA published final rules revising SO2 monitoring networks. The rule
requires monitoring organizations to submit a plan for establishing SO2 monitoring sites in
accordance with these requirements by July 1, 2011. Table 4-3 shows monitoring required in all
Maryland CBSA’s due to revisions to the SO2 ambient air monitoring regulations.
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Table 4-3. Monitoring Required by Revisions to SO2 Ambient Air Monitoring Regulations for all Maryland
CBSA’s
Requirement
Monitors based on population in
each CBSA weighted by a SO2
emissions index
Regional Administrator Required
Monitoring
NCore Monitoring
Appendi
x to
Part 58
CBSA
affected
Required
Comments
4.4.2
BaltimoreTowson, MD
PA-NJ-DEMD
DC-VA-MDWV
2
Only one additional monitor required in Maryland
2
No additional monitors required in Maryland
3
No additional monitors required in Maryland
4.4.3
0
4.4.5
2
EPA Region III has not informed the Program of
any administrator required monitoring
Already satisfied at both NCore sites
4.7.2 Sources
The main sources of SO2 are combustion of coal and oil (mostly from electrical
generating units (EGUs), refineries, smelters, and industrial boilers). Nationally, two-thirds of
all sulfur dioxide emissions are from EGUs. Coal operated EGUs account for 95% of these
emissions.
4.7.3 Changes Planned for 2011-2012

The Program will operate one additional SO2 monitor in the Baltimore-Towson
CBSA by January 1, 2013 to satisfy that CBSA’s monitoring requirement to have
two monitors. It is tentatively proposed to locate this monitor at the existing
Padonia site. The proposed spatial scale is neighborhood and the monitoring
objective is population exposure. MDE will re-examine the PWEI with updated
emission inventory information taking into account SO2 emissions reductions
realized through the implementation of the Maryland Healthy Air Act prior to
installation of this monitor.

The Program proposes to change the SO2 monitoring objective at the Essex site to
highest concentration pending approval from EPA Region III. This change is
based on analysis reported in MDE’s 5 -Year Network Assessment.
4.8 PAMS (Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations) – General Description and
Sampling Method
The purpose of the PAMS program is to provide an air quality database that will assist in
evaluating and modifying control strategies for attaining the ozone NAAQS. The selection of
parameters to be measured at a PAMS site varies with the site’s ozone nonattainment designation
(moderate, serious, severe or extreme) and whether the site is upwind or downwind of ozone
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precursor source areas. The parameters are O3, NO, NOx, NO2, NOy and speciated volatile
organic compounds (VOCs).
Methods used to sample and analyze VOCs and NOy follows (NO/NOx and O3 have
already been described in Sections 4.3 and 4.4, respectively):
Ambient air is collected in eight 3-hour canister samples every 3rd (June –
August) day using a XonTech Model 910A Canister Sampler with a Model 912 multicanister sampling adapter. The canisters are returned to the laboratory for analysis on an
EnTech/Agilent GC/FID system.
Ambient air is collected in 24-hour canister samples every sixth day using a
XonTech Model 910A Canister Sampler. The canisters are returned to the laboratory for
analysis on an EnTech/Agilent GC/FID system. These are the same canister samples
listed in section 4.9 below but analyzed for the PAMS list of compounds.
Ambient air is collected and analyzed on-site every hour (June – August) using a
Perkin Elmer VOC Air Analyzer with dual flame ionization detectors.
Ambient air is sampled hourly for NOy using a TECO, Model 42C low level
oxides of nitrogen analyzer.
4.8.1 Monitoring Requirements
Maryland must operate at least the minimum PAMS monitoring network listed in 40 CFR
Part 58 Appendix D Table D-6. PAMS sites sample during the months of June, July, and August.
The following specific criteria apply:
At least one site is established to monitor the magnitude and type of precursor
emissions in the area where maximum precursor emissions are expected.
At least one site is established to characterize upwind background and transport
O3 and its precursor concentrations entering the area.
At least one NOy site per area is established to monitor maximum O3
concentrations occurring downwind from the area of maximum precursor emissions.
4.8.2 Monitoring Locations
There are three monitors that are part of the PAMS network. The Type 1 is located at
HU-Beltsville, Prince George’s County; the Type 2 is located at Essex, Baltimore County; and
the Type 3 is located at Aldino, Harford County. Refer back to Table 3-2a for parameter
information and monitoring objective at each monitoring site. For a map of monitoring locations
in Maryland refer to Appendix A.
4.8.3 Sources
PAMS VOC’s can come from automobiles, gasoline vapors, and a vast variety of large
and small commercial, and industrial sources that use chemical solvents, paint thinners and other
chemical compounds.
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4.8.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
No changes are planned.
4.9 Air Toxics – General Description and Sampling Method
Air toxics, or hazardous air pollutants (HAPS), are those pollutants which are known or
suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive or birth defects, or
adverse environmental effects. The Program’s air toxics network measures the toxic VOCs
listed in Table 3-4. Air toxics samples are collected for 24 hours in canisters with a XonTech
model 910A canister sampler on an every sixth day schedule. The canisters are returned to the
laboratory for analysis on an Entech/Agilent gas chromatograph mass spectrometer system.
4.9.1 Monitoring Requirements
As part of the EPA Region III Cooperative Toxic Monitoring Program, Maryland
operates four air toxic monitoring stations to assess general urban levels. Toxics are sampled
every sixth day year-round.
4.9.2 Monitoring Locations
There are four monitors measuring air toxics in Maryland: Essex, Baltimore County, NE
Police and Oldtown, Baltimore City, and HU-Beltsville, Prince George’s County. Refer back to
Table 3-2a for parameter information and monitoring objective at each monitoring site. For a
map of monitoring locations in Maryland refer to Figure 3-1.
4.9.3 Sources
Toxics can come from automobiles, gasoline vapors, and a large variety of large and
small commercial and industrial sources that use chemical solvents, paint thinners and other
chemical compounds.
4.9.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
The Program proposes to end monitoring of Air Toxic compounds at the NE Police site
in Baltimore City pending the approval of EPA Region III.
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4.10 NCore – General Description and Sampling Method
On October 30, 2009 EPA’s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS)
formally approved The Program’s request that both the HU-Beltsville and Piney Run monitoring
stations to be designated NCore sites.
NCore, or National Core multi-pollutant monitoring stations, is a new National
monitoring network required in the October 17, 2006 revisions to the Air Monitoring
Regulations (40CFR, Part 58). NCore sites are required to measure, at a minimum, PM2.5
particle mass using continuous and integrated/filter-based samplers, speciated PM2.5, PM10-2.5
particle mass, speciated PM10-2.5, O3, SO2, CO, NO/NOy, wind speed, wind direction, relative
humidity, and ambient temperature.
Sampling methods for PM2.5, speciated PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO/ NOy are described under the
individual pollutant sections throughout this document. Trace level measurement of CO and SO2
is performed at NCore sites. PM10-2.5, or PMCoarse is determined by the difference between
collocated PM10 and PM2.5 FRM samplers. There is no generally accepted method to perform
PM10-2.5 chemical speciation at this time.
The meteorological parameters are measured as follows:

The Vaisala WXT520 PTU module contains separate sensors for pressure, temperature
and humidity measurement. The measurement principle of the pressure, temperature and
humidity sensors is based on an advanced RC oscillator and two reference capacitors
against which the capacitance of the sensors is continuously measured. The
microprocessor of the transmitter performs compensation for the temperature dependency
of the pressure and humidity sensors.

The Vaisala WXT520 uses RAINCAP Sensor 2- technology in precipitation
measurement. The precipitation sensor comprises of a steel cover and a piezoelectrical
sensor mounted on the bottom surface of the cover. The precipitation sensor detects the
impact of individual raindrops. Hence, the signal of each drop can be converted directly
to accumulated rainfall. An advanced noise filtering technique is used to filter out signals
originating from other sources and not raindrops.

The Vaisala WXT520 uses WINDCAP sensor technology in wind measurement. The
wind sensor has an array of three equally spaced ultrasonic transducers on a horizontal
plane. Wind speed and wind directions are determined by measuring the time it takes the
ultrasound to travel from each transducer to the other two. The wind sensor measures the
transit time (in both directions) along the three paths established by the array of
transducers. This transit time depends on the wind speed along the ultrasonic path. For
zero wind speed, both the forward and reverse transit times are the same. With wind
along the sound path, the up-wind direction transit time increases and the down-wind
transit time decreases.
The Program operates other meteorological parameters not required by the NCore
network, and they are measured as follows:
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
MetOne’s Model 092 instrument is used to measure barometric pressure. The instrument
directly senses the weight of the air column or the atmospheric pressure.

The Climatronics’s P/N 102342 Pyranometer is used to measure solar radiation. The
detector element is a circular wirebound multi-junction thermopile. This thermopile
sensor absorbs solar radiation and converts it to heat. The heat flows through the sensor
to the pyranometer housing and generates a voltages output signal that is proportional to
the solar radiation.
4.10.1 Monitoring Requirements
Each State is required to operate one NCore site that must be physically established by
January 1, 2011. Urban NCore stations are to be located at the urban or neighborhood scale to
provide representative concentrations of exposure expected throughout the metropolitan area.
Rural NCore stations are to be located to the maximum extent practicable at a regional or larger
scale away from any large local emission source so that they represent ambient concentrations
over an extensive area.
4.10.2 Monitoring Locations
The Program has been operating pilot NCore sites at HU-Beltsville since 2005 and Piney Run
since 2004. The Beltsville site is considered an Urban NCore site and Piney Run, a Rural NCore
site. Refer to Table 3-2a for parameter information and monitoring objective at each site. For a
map of monitoring locations in Maryland, refer to Figure 3-1.
4.10.3 Sources
Sources have already been addressed under the individual pollutant sections throughout
this document.
4.10.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
Operation of a lead monitor as described in section 4.2.3.
4.11 The Rural Aerosol Intensive Network – General Description
The Rural Aerosol Intensive Network (RAIN) is a small network of three monitoring
sites coordinated by NESCAUM that supports the regional haze rule by determining relative
contributions of source regions to visibility. RAIN monitors accomplish this by providing
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detailed characterization of transported pollution with both a visibility 1 and fine particle focus.
The Program participates in this network.
4.11.1 Monitoring Requirements
See table 3-4 for a list of RAIN parameters.
4.11.2 Monitoring Locations
Frostburg – (Piney Run), Maryland, Mohawk Mt., Connecticut, and Acadia NP, Maine
4.11.3 Sources
Airborne fine particles consisting of sulfate, nitrate, and organic-carbon impair visibility.
Sulfate forms from sulfur dioxide released by fuel burning sources such as power plants. Nitrate
sources include highway and off-road vehicles, construction equipment. Organic-carbon sources
also include on and off-road vehicles and also wildfires. Some of these pollutants are released
locally, but some are transported hundreds of miles into the region.
4.11.4 Changes Planned for 2011-2012
No changes Planned
1
MDE operates other sites having monitors that measure visibility, sulfate, OC/EC and light scatter, see Tables 3-1
and 3-2a for details.
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APPENDIX A– TOPOGRAPHIC AND AERIAL MAPS
This section contains topographic and aerial maps for air monitoring stations in
Maryland. Detailed information regarding each monitoring station (e.g. coordinates, parameters,
method codes, etc.) can be found in Table 3-2a, Table 3-2b, Table 3-3, and Table 3-4.
Figure A 1.
Topographic map of air monitoring sites in Baltimore, MD.
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Figure A 2.
Topographic map of air monitoring sites in Southern Maryland counties.
Figure A 3.
Topographic map of air monitoring sites in Western Maryland counties.
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Figure A 4.
Topographic map of air monitoring sites in Carroll and Frederick counties.
Figure A 5.
Topographic map of air monitoring sites to the north of Washington, DC.
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Figure A 6.
Topographic map of air monitoring sites located in Northeastern counties and the Eastern
Shore.
Figure A 7.
Aerial map of Aldino air monitoring site in Harford County, MD.
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Figure A 8
Aerial map of Haze Cam site at Brandon Shores
Figure A 9.
Aerial map of Bladensburg VFD air monitoring site in Prince George’s County, MD.
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Figure A 10.
Aerial map of Calvert Co air monitoring site in Calvert County, MD
Figure A 11.
Aerial map of Calvert Co air monitoring site in Calvert County, MD
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Figure A 12.
Aerial map of Edgewood air monitoring site in Harford County, MD.
Figure A 13.
Aerial Map of the Essex air monitoring site in Baltimore County, MD
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Figure A 14.
Aerial map of Fairhill air monitoring site in Cecil County, MD.
Figure A 15.
Aerial map of Frederick Airport air monitoring site in Frederick County, MD.
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Figure A 16.
Aerial map of Furley air monitoring site in Baltimore City, MD.
Figure A 17
Aerial map of Frostburg Haze Cam site
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Figure A 18.
Aerial map of Glen Burnie air monitoring site in Anne Arundel County, MD.
Figure A 19.
Aerial map of Hagerstown air monitoring site in Washington County, MD.
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Table A-20
Aerial map of the future Horn Point air monitoring site in Dorchester County, MD
Figure A 20.
Aerial map of HU-Beltsville air monitoring site in Prince George’s County, MD.
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Figure A 21.
Aerial map of Millington air monitoring site in Kent County, MD.
Figure A 22.
Aerial map of NE Police air monitoring site in Baltimore City, MD.
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Figure A 23.
Aerial map of NW Police air monitoring site in Baltimore City, MD.
Figure A 24.
Aerial map of Oldtown air monitoring site in Baltimore City, MD.
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Figure A 25.
Aerial map of Padonia air monitoring site in Baltimore County, MD.
Figure A 26 Aerial map of PG Equestrian Center air monitoring site in Prince George’s County, MD.
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Figure A 27.
Aerial map of Piney Run air monitoring site in Garrett County, MD.
Figure A 28.
Aerial map of Rockville air monitoring site in Montgomery County, MD.
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Figure A 29.
Aerial map of Fire Dept. 20 air monitoring site in Baltimore City, MD.
Figure A 30.
Aerial map of South Carroll air monitoring site in Carroll County, MD.
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Figure A 31.
Aerial map of Southern Maryland air monitoring site in Charles County, MD.
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