Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module User’s Guide

Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module User’s Guide
Agilent 83487A
Optical/Electrical Plug-In
Module
User’s Guide
© Copyright 2000
Agilent Technologies
All Rights Reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without prior written
permission is prohibited,
except as allowed under copyright laws.
Agilent Part No. 83487-90023
Printed in USA
March 2000
Agilent Technologies
Lightwave Division
1400 Fountaingrove Parkway
Santa Rosa, CA 95403-1799,
USA
(707) 577-1400
Notice.
The information contained in
this document is subject to
change without notice. Companies, names, and data used
in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted.
Agilent Technologies makes
no warranty of any kind with
regard to this material, including but not limited to, the
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose. Agilent
Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein
or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this
material.
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is subject to restrictions as set
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(ii) of the Rights in Technical
Data and Computer Software
clause at DFARS 252.227-7013
for DOD agencies, and subparagraphs (c) (1) and (c) (2)
of the Commercial Computer
Software Restricted Rights
clause at FAR 52.227-19 for
other agencies.
Warranty.
This Agilent Technologies
instrument product is warranted against defects in
material and workmanship for
a period of one year from date
of shipment. During the warranty period, Agilent Technologies will, at its option, either
repair or replace products
which prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair,
this product must be returned
to a service facility designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay
shipping charges to Agilent
Technologies and Agilent
Technologies shall pay shipping charges to return the
product to Buyer. However,
Buyer shall pay all shipping
charges, duties, and taxes for
products returned to Agilent
Technologies from another
country.
Agilent Technologies warrants that its software and
firmware designated by Agilent Technologies for use with
an instrument will execute its
programming instructions
when properly installed on
that instrument. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that
the operation of the instrument, or software, or firmware
will be uninterrupted or errorfree.
Limitation of Warranty.
The foregoing warranty shall
not apply to defects resulting
from improper or inadequate
maintenance by Buyer, Buyersupplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation
outside of the environmental
specifications for the product,
or improper site preparation
or maintenance.
No other warranty is
expressed or implied. Agilent
Technologies specifically disclaims the implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness
for a particular purpose.
Exclusive Remedies.
The remedies provided herein
are buyer's sole and exclusive
remedies. Agilent Technolo-
ii
❍ The OFF symbols
are used to mark the
positions of the instrument power line
switch.
gies shall not be liable for any
direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, whether based on
contract, tort, or any other
legal theory.
The CE mark is a registered trademark of
the European Community.
Safety Symbols.
CAUTION
The caution sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure which, if not correctly performed or adhered
to, could result in damage to
or destruction of the product.
Do not proceed beyond a caution sign until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and met.
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of
the Canadian Standards Association.
The C-Tick mark is a
registered trademark
of the Australian Spectrum Management
Agency.
WARNING
The warning sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure which, if not correctly performed or adhered
to, could result in injury or
loss of life. Do not proceed
beyond a warning sign until
the indicated conditions are
fully understood and met.
The instruction manual symbol. The product is marked with this
warning symbol when
it is necessary for the
user to refer to the
instructions in the
manual.
The laser radiation
symbol. This warning
symbol is marked on
products which have a
laser output.
The AC symbol is used
to indicate the
required nature of the
line module input
power.
| The ON symbols are
used to mark the positions of the instrument
power line switch.
ISM1-A
This text denotes the
instrument is an
Industrial Scientific
and Medical Group 1
Class A product.
Typographical Conventions.
The following conventions are
used in this book:
Key type for keys or text
located on the keyboard or
instrument.
Softkey type for key names that
are displayed on the instrument’s screen.
Display type for words or
characters displayed on the
computer’s screen or instrument’s display.
User type for words or charac-
ters that you type or enter.
Emphasis type for words or
characters that emphasize
some point or that are used as
place holders for text that you
type.
The Agilent 83487A—At a Glance
The Agilent 83487A—At a Glance
The Agilent 83487A optical/electrical plug-in module is one of several plug-in
modules available for the Agilent 83480A, 54750A mainframes. The main features of the Agilent 83487A are:
• Integrated, calibrated optical channel.
• 2.85 GHz optical channel bandwidth and user selectable 12.4 or 20 GHz
electrical channel bandwidth.
• 750 nm to 860 nm wavelength range.
• Optical channel has 1063/1250 Mb/s datacom filters.
• 62.5/125 µm (maximum) multimode, user selectable optical input connector
option.
• Electrical measurement channel.
• Trigger channel input to the mainframe.
• 3.5 mm (m) connectors on the electrical measurement channel and trigger
channel.
• One probe power connector.
• One auxiliary power connector.
NOTE
If you wish to use the Agilent 83487A optical plug-in module in an Agilent 54750A digitizing oscilloscope, a firmware upgrade must first be installed. Order the Agilent 83480K
communications firmware kit and follow the installation instructions.
The purpose of the plug-in module is to provide measurement channels,
including sampling, for the mainframe. The plug-in module scales the input
signal, sets the bandwidth of the system, and allows the offset to be adjusted
so the signal can be viewed. The output of the plug-in module is an analog signal that is applied to the ADCs on the acquisition boards inside the mainframe.
The plug-in module also provides a trigger signal input to the time base/trigger
board inside the mainframe.
For GPIB programming information, refer to the Agilent 83480A, 54750A
Programmer’s Guide supplied with the mainframe.
iii
Measurement Accuracy
Measurement Accuracy
To ensure that you obtain the specified accuracy, you must perform a plug-in
module vertical calibration. The calibration must also be performed when you
move a plug-in module from one slot to another, or from one mainframe to
another. Refer to Chapter 3, “Calibration Overview” for information on performing a plug-in module vertical calibration.
CAUTION
The Agilent 83487A optical/electrical plug-in module input circuitry can be
damaged when the total input power levels exceed +10 dBm (10 mW) on the
optical channel or ±2 V + peak ac (+16 dBm) on the electrical channel. To
prevent input damage, this specified level must not be exceeded.
Measurement accuracy—it’s up to you!
Fiber-optic connectors are easily damaged when connected to dirty or damaged cables
and accessories. The Agilent 83487A optical/electrical plug-in module’s front-panel
INPUT connector is no exception. When you use improper cleaning and handling techniques, you risk expensive instrument repairs, damaged cables, and compromised measurements.
Before you connect any fiber-optic cable to the Agilent 83487A optical/electrical plug-in
module, refer to “Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements” on page 5-14.
iv
General Safety Considerations
General Safety Considerations
This product has been designed and tested in accordance with IEC Publication 61010-1, Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement,
Control and Laboratory Use, and has been supplied in a safe condition. The
instruction documentation contains information and warnings that must be
followed by the user to ensure safe operation and to maintain the product in a
safe condition.
WARNING
There are many points in the instrument which can, if contacted, cause
personal injury. Be extremely careful. Any adjustments or service
procedures that require operation of the instrument with protective
covers removed should be performed only by trained service
personnel.
WARNING
If this instrument is not used as specified, the protection provided by
the equipment could be impaired. This instrument must be used in a
normal condition (in which all means for protection are intact) only.
WARNING
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the Agilent 83487A optical/
electrical plug-in module from mains before cleaning. Use a dry cloth
or one slightly dampened with water to clean the external case parts.
Do not attempt to clean internally.
WARNING
This is a Safety Class 1 product (provided with a protective earthing
ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall only be
inserted in a socket outlet provided with a protective earth contact.
Any interruption of the protective conductor inside or outside of the
product is likely to make the product dangerous. Intentional
interruption is prohibited.
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualified
personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not remove covers.
v
General Safety Considerations
WARNING
For continued protection against fire hazard, replace line fuse only
with same type and ratings, (type T 0.315A/250V for 100/120V
operation and 0.16A/250V for 220/240V operation). The use of other
fuses or materials is prohibited. Verify that the value of the linevoltage fuse is correct.
• For 100/120V operation, use an IEC 127 5×20 mm, 0.315 A, 250 V, Agilent
part number 2110-0449.
• For 220/240V operation, use an IEC 127 5×20 mm, 0.16 A, 250 V, Agilent
Technologies part number 2110-0448.
CAUTION
Before switching on this instrument, make sure that the line voltage selector
switch is set to the line voltage of the power supply and the correct fuse is
installed. Assure the supply voltage is in the specified range.
CAUTION
This product is designed for use in Installation Category II and Pollution
Degree 2 per IEC 1010 and 664 respectively.
CAUTION
VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS: When installing the product in a cabinet, the
convection into and out of the product must not be restricted. The ambient
temperature (outside the cabinet) must be less than the maximum operating
temperature of the product by 4°C for every 100 watts dissipated in the
cabinet. If the total power dissipated in the cabinet is greater than 800 watts,
then forced convection must be used.
CAUTION
Always use the three-prong ac power cord supplied with this instrument.
Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using this cord may cause
instrument damage.
CAUTION
Do not connect ac power until you have verified the line voltage is correct.
Damage to the equipment could result.
CAUTION
This instrument has autoranging line voltage input. Be sure the supply voltage
is within the specified range.
vi
General Safety Considerations
CAUTION
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) on or near input connectors can damage circuits
inside the instrument. Repair of damage due to misuse is not covered under
warranty. Before connecting any cable to the electrical input, momentarily
short the center and outer conductors of the cable together. Personnel should
be properly grounded, and should touch the frame of the instrument before
touching any connector.
vii
General Safety Considerations
viii
Contents
The Agilent 83487A—At a Glance iii
1 Getting Started
The Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module 1-3
Options and Accessories 1-7
Menu and Key Conventions 1-9
Step 1. Inspect the Shipment 1-10
Step 2. Install the Plug-in Module 1-11
Returning the Instrument for Service 1-12
2 Channel Setup Menu
Channel Setup Menu 2-2
Displaying the Channel Setup Menus 2-5
3 Calibration Overview
Factory Calibrations 3-4
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical 3-7
Complete Calibration Summary 3-19
4 Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications 4-3
Characteristics 4-8
Declaration of Conformity 4-9
5 Reference
In Case of Difficulty 5-2
Measuring High Power Waveforms 5-6
Error Messages 5-10
Electrostatic Discharge Information 5-12
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements 5-14
Agilent Technologies Service Offices 5-24
Contents-1
1
The Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module
Options and Accessories 1-7
Menu and Key Conventions 1-9
Step 1. Inspect the Shipment 1-10
Step 2. Install the Plug-in Module 1-11
Returning the Instrument for Service 1-12
Getting Started
1-3
Getting Started
Getting Started
Getting Started
This chapter gives a description of the plug-in module, lists options and accessories, explains menu and key conventions used, shows how to install your
Agilent 83487A, and gives information for returning the plug-in module for
service.
Refer to Chapter 2, “Channel Setup Menu” for information on operating the
plug-in module.
Refer to Chapter 3, “Calibration Overview” for calibration information.
Refer to Chapter 4, “Specifications and Regulatory Information” for information on operating conditions, such as temperature.
CAUTION
This product is designed for use in INSTALLATION CATEGORY II and
POLLUTION DEGREE 2, per IEC 1010 and 664 respectively.
CAUTION
The input circuits can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Therefore, avoid applying static discharges to the front-panel input connectors.
Before connecting any coaxial cable to the connectors, momentarily short the
center and outer conductors of the cable together. Avoid touching the frontpanel input connectors without first touching the frame of the instrument. Be
sure that the instrument is properly earth-grounded to prevent buildup of
static charge. Refer to “Electrostatic Discharge Information” on page 5-12.
1-2
Getting Started
The Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module
The Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In
Module
The Agilent 83487A incorporates two measurement channels, one optical and
one electrical. The electrical channel has two selectable bandwidth settings. In
the lower bandwidth mode of 12.4 GHz, oscilloscope noise performance is
excellent, while the 20 GHz mode allows greater fidelity for high speed signals.
The calibrated, integrated optical channel has over 2.85 GHz bandwidth and
allows easy, precise measurements of single-mode or multimode optical signals.
The integrated optical channel reduces electrical mismatch loss variation by
eliminating signal distorting cables and connectors associated with the use of
external receivers in order to accurately characterize optical waveforms. The
optical channel is calibrated to provide both accurate display of the received
optical waveform in optical power units and measurement of the signal’s average power. In addition, the User Cal feature provides for consistent accuracy
at any wavelength between 750 nm and 860 nm using a source and power
meter.
The Agilent 83487A also is a calibrated reference receiver that is measured to
conform to specifications for Fibre Channel (FC) 1063 and Gigabit Ethernet
for transmitter compliance testing. By pressing a front-panel key or issuing an
GPIB command, a filter is inserted or removed from the measurement channel
by a very repeatable Agilent Technologies microwave switch. The switch
removes the potential variability and the time wasted by manually inserting
and removing the filter, and maximizes measurement repeatability.
The electrical measurement channel may be used to perform measurements
on tributary electrical signals, to evaluate receiver performance in transceiver
testing, for measurements with Agilent Technologies’ wide range of external
optical receivers, or for general purpose measurements.
1-3
Getting Started
The Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module
The Agilent 83487A provides:
• 2.85 GHz, integrated, calibrated optical channel with sensitivity to below
–17 dBm
• 12.4 GHz and 20 GHz electrical channel
• Trigger channel input to the mainframe
• Switchable reference filters for transceiver compliance testing
• Compliance testing at Fibre Channel 1063 and Gigabit Ethernet 1250 rates
• Measurement capability for single-mode or multimode optical signals
1-4
Getting Started
The Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module
Front panel of the plug-in module
The plug-in module takes up two of the four mainframe slots. The optical
channel provides calibrated measurement of optical waveforms in power
units. The electrical channel provides calibrated measurement of electrical
signals in volts. Bandwidths are selectable on both channels to optimize sensitivity and bandwidth.
The front panel of the plug-in module has two channel inputs and an external
trigger input. The front panel also has a Probe Power connector for
Agilent 54700-series probes, an Aux Power connector for general purpose use,
and a key for each channel that displays the softkey menu. The softkey menu
allows you to access the channel setup features of the plug-in module.
The front-power Probe Power connector allows automatic channel scaling and
probe calibration with Agilent 54700 series probes. The front-panel Aux Power
connector provides only power to Agilent 54700 series probes for use as a trigger input. Probe calibration and scaling are not required for a trigger input.
Front panel of the plug-in module.
1-5
Getting Started
The Agilent 83487A Optical/Electrical Plug-In Module
Trigger
The external trigger level range for this plug-in module is ±1 V. The trigger
source selection depends on the plug-in module location. For example, if the
plug-in module is installed in slots 1 and 2, then the trigger source is listed as
trigger 2. If it is installed in slots 3 and 4, then the trigger source is listed as
trigger 4.
CAUTION
The maximum safe input voltage is ±2 V + peak ac (+16 dBm).
CAUTION
The input circuits can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Therefore, avoid applying static discharges to the front-panel input connectors.
Before connecting any coaxial cable to the connectors, momentarily short the
center and outer conductors of the cable together. Avoid touching the frontpanel input connectors without first touching the frame of the instrument. Be
sure that the instrument is properly earth-grounded to prevent buildup of
static charge. Refer to “Electrostatic Discharge Information” on page 5-12.
1-6
Getting Started
Options and Accessories
Options and Accessories
Options
Option 0B1
Option 0B0
Option UK6
Additional set of user documentation
Deletes the user documentation
Measured performance data
Option 001
Option 002
Option 011
Option 012
Option 013
Option 014
Option 015
Option 017
Option 041
Latest version of operating firmware for the Agilent 83480A
Latest version of operating firmware for the Agilent 54750A
Diamond HMS-10 connector interface
FC/PC connector adapter
DIN connector adapter
ST connector adapter
Biconic connector adapter
SC connector adapter
1063 and 1250 Mb/s switchable internal filters
Optional
accessories
Agilent 10086A
Agilent 11982A
Agilent 54006A
Agilent 54008A
Agilent 54118A
Agilent 83430A
Agilent 83440B/C/D
Agilent 83446A/B
Agilent 83447A
83487-60006
83487-60007
83487-60008
ECL terminator
High-speed lightwave receiver
6 GHz divider probe
22 ns delay line
500 MHz to 18 GHz trigger
Lightwave digital source
High-speed lightwave receiver
Lightwave clock and data receiver
Lightwave trigger receiver
FC/PC 5 dB (mm) 850 nm attenuator and patchcord
ST 5 dB (mm) 850 nm attenuator and patchcord
SC 5 dB (mm) 850 nm attenuator and patchcord
1-7
Getting Started
Options and Accessories
Connection
devices
Agilent 1250-1158
Agilent 1250-1749
Agilent 81000FI
Agilent 81000KI
Agilent 81000SI
Agilent 81000VI
Agilent 81000WI
1-8
SMA (f-f) adapter
APC 3.5 (f-f) adapter
FC/PC/SPC/APC connector interface
SC connector interface
DIN 47256/4108.6 connector interface
ST connector interface
Biconic
Getting Started
Menu and Key Conventions
Menu and Key Conventions
The keys labeled Trigger, Disk, and Run are all examples of front-panel keys.
Some front-panel keys bring up menus on the right side of the display screen.
These menus are called softkey menus.
Softkey menus contain functions not available directly by pressing the frontpanel keys. To activate a function on the softkey menu, press the unlabeled
key immediately next to the annotation on the screen. The unlabeled keys
next to the annotations on the display are called softkeys.
Additional functions are listed in blue type above and below some of the frontpanel keys. These functions are called shifted functions. To activate a shifted
function, press the blue front-panel Shift key and the front-panel key next to
the desired function.
Throughout this manual front-panel keys are indicated as, for example, Timebase. Softkeys are indicated as, for example, Mask Align. The softkeys displayed
depend on the front-panel key pressed and which menu is selected. Shifted
functions are indicated by the front-panel Shift key followed by, for example,
the Local function (above the Stop/Single front-panel key) and will be shown as
Shift, Local.
A softkey with On and Off in its label can be used to turn the softkey’s function
on or off. To turn the function on, press the softkey so that On is highlighted.
To turn the function off, press the softkey so that Off is highlighted. An On or
Off softkey function will be indicated throughout this manual as, for example,
Test On.
A softkey such as Sweep Triggered Freerun offers you a choice of functions. In this
case, you could choose Triggered by pressing the softkey until Triggered is highlighted, or choose Freerun by pressing the softkey until Freerun is highlighted. A
choices softkey will be indicated throughout this manual as, for example,
Sweep Triggered Freerun Triggered.
When some softkeys, such as Calibrate probe, are pressed the first time, a measurement will be made and the result will be provided. Some softkeys, such as
Offset, require the entry of a numeric value. To enter or change the value, use
the general purpose knob located below the front-panel Measure section.
1-9
Getting Started
Step 1. Inspect the Shipment
Step 1. Inspect the Shipment
1 Verify that all system components ordered have arrived by comparing the
shipping forms to the original purchase order. Inspect all shipping containers.
The shipment includes:
• Agilent 83487A with the ordered options and adapters.
• 5 dB optical attenuator and patch cord, 1 each
• APC 3.5 (f-f) adapter, Agilent part number 5061-5311, 2 each
• SMA 50Ω termination, Agilent part number 1810-0118, 2 each
If your shipment is damaged or incomplete, save the packing materials and
notify both the shipping carrier and the nearest Agilent Technologies service
office. Agilent Technologies will arrange for repair or replacement of damaged
or incomplete shipments without waiting for a settlement from the transportation company. Notify the Agilent Technologies customer engineer of any problems.
2 Make sure that the serial number and options listed on the instrument’s rearpanel label match the serial number and options listed on the shipping
document.
1-10
Getting Started
Step 2. Install the Plug-in Module
Step 2. Install the Plug-in Module
You do not need to turn off the mainframe to install or remove the plug-in
modules.
Note
If you wish to use the Agilent 83487A in an Agilent 54750A digitizing oscilloscope, a
firmware upgrade must first be installed. Order the Agilent 83480K communications
firmware kit and follow the installation instructions.
The plug-in module can be installed in slots 1 and 2 or 3 and 4 on the
Agilent 83480A or Agilent 54750A mainframe. The plug-in module will not
function if it is installed in slots 2 and 3.
To make sure the analyzer meets all of the published specifications, there
must be a good ground connection from the plug-in module to the mainframe.
The RF connectors on the rear of the plug-in module are spring-loaded, so finger-tighten the knurled screw on the front panel of the plug-in module to
make sure the plug-in is securely seated in the mainframe.
CAUTION
Do not use non-Agilent Technologies extender cables to operate the plug-in
module outside of the mainframe. The plug-in module can be damaged by
improper grounding when using extender cables.
Note
Use of the Agilent 83487A requires that firmware revision A.06.0 or later be installed in
the Agilent 83480A or Agilent 54750A mainframe.
1-11
Getting Started
Returning the Instrument for Service
Returning the Instrument for Service
The instructions in this section show you how to properly return the instrument for repair or calibration. Always call the Agilent Technologies Instrument
Support Center first to initiate service before returning your instrument to a
service office. This ensures that the repair (or calibration) can be properly
tracked and that your instrument will be returned to you as quickly as possible. Call this number regardless of where you are located. Refer to “Agilent
Technologies Service Offices” on page 5-24 for a list of service offices.
Agilent Technologies Instrument Support Center . . . . . . . . . . . (800) 403-0801
If the instrument is still under warranty or is covered by an Agilent Technologies maintenance contract, it will be repaired under the terms of the warranty
or contract (the warranty is at the front of this manual). If the instrument is
no longer under warranty or is not covered by an Agilent Technologies maintenance plan, Agilent Technologies will notify you of the cost of the repair after
examining the unit.
When an instrument is returned to a Agilent Technologies service office for
servicing, it must be adequately packaged and have a complete description of
the failure symptoms attached. When describing the failure, please be as specific as possible about the nature of the problem. Include copies of additional
failure information (such as the instrument failure settings, data related to
instrument failure, and error messages) along with the instrument being
returned.
Preparing the instrument for shipping
1 Write a complete description of the failure and attach it to the instrument.
Include any specific performance details related to the problem. The following
1-12
Getting Started
Returning the Instrument for Service
information should be returned with the instrument.
• Type of service required.
• Date instrument was returned for repair.
• Description of the problem:
• Whether problem is constant or intermittent.
• Whether instrument is temperature-sensitive.
• Whether instrument is vibration-sensitive.
• Instrument settings required to reproduce the problem.
• Performance data.
• Company name and return address.
• Name and phone number of technical contact person.
• Model number of returned instrument.
• Full serial number of returned instrument.
• List of any accessories returned with instrument.
2 Cover all front or rear-panel connectors that were originally covered when you
first received the instrument.
CAUTION
Cover electrical connectors to protect sensitive components from electrostatic
damage. Cover optical connectors to protect them from damage due to physical
contact or dust.
CAUTION
Instrument damage can result from using packaging materials other than the
original materials. Never use styrene pellets as packaging material. They do not
adequately cushion the instrument or prevent it from shifting in the carton.
They may also cause instrument damage by generating static electricity.
3 Pack the instrument in the original shipping containers. Original materials are
available through any Agilent Technologies office. Or, use the following
guidelines:
• Wrap the instrument in antistatic plastic to reduce the possibility of damage
caused by electrostatic discharge.
• For instruments weighing less than 54 kg (120 lb), use a double-walled, corrugated cardboard carton of 159 kg (350 lb) test strength.
• The carton must be large enough to allow approximately 7 cm (3 inches) on
all sides of the instrument for packing material, and strong enough to accommodate the weight of the instrument.
• Surround the equipment with approximately 7 cm (3 inches) of packing material, to protect the instrument and prevent it from moving in the carton. If
packing foam is not available, the best alternative is S.D-240 Air Cap™ from
1-13
Getting Started
Returning the Instrument for Service
Sealed Air Corporation (Commerce, California 90001). Air Cap looks like a
plastic sheet filled with air bubbles. Use the pink (antistatic) Air Cap™ to
reduce static electricity. Wrapping the instrument several times in this material will protect the instrument and prevent it from moving in the carton.
4 Seal the carton with strong nylon adhesive tape.
5 Mark the carton “FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE”.
6 Retain copies of all shipping papers.
1-14
2
Channel Setup Menu 2-2
Displaying the Channel Setup Menus
2-5
Channel Setup Menu
Channel Setup Menu
Channel Setup Menu
Channel Setup Menu
This chapter describes the Channel Setup menu. A key tree and description of
the available functions is included.
CAUTION
The input circuits can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Therefore, avoid applying static discharges to the front-panel input connectors.
Before connecting any coaxial cable to the connectors, momentarily short the
center and outer conductors of the cable together. Avoid touching the frontpanel input connectors without first touching the frame of the instrument. Be
sure that the instrument is properly earth-grounded to prevent buildup of
static charge. Refer to “Electrostatic Discharge Information” on page 5-12.
At the top of the plug-in module are the Channel keys. These keys give you
access to the Channel Setup menu for each input. The Channel Setup menu is
displayed on the right side of the screen when the Channel key is pressed.
There are several types of softkeys available. A description of the different
softkeys and their functions is provided in the Agilent 83480A, 54750A
User’s Quick Start Guide supplied with the mainframe.
NOTE
The plug-in module has both an electrical channel and an optical channel. Although
many of the softkeys are similar, some differences exist. Examples in this book using the
optical channel will note when the user would see differences if using the electrical
channel.
2-2
Channel Setup Menu
Channel Setup Menu
Figure 2-1. Optical Channel Setup menu.
2-3
Channel Setup Menu
Channel Setup Menu
Figure 2-2. Electrical Channel Setup menu.
2-4
Channel Setup Menu
Displaying the Channel Setup Menus
Displaying the Channel Setup Menus
To display the optical Channel Setup menu, press the Optical Channel key
located above the optical input connector.
To display the electrical Channel Setup menu, press the Electrical Channel key
located above the electrical input connector.
2-5
Channel Setup Menu
Display
Display
The Display softkey turns the channel display off and on. When the channel display is on, a waveform is displayed for that channel, unless the offset is
adjusted so the waveform is clipped off the display.
The channel number, vertical scaling, and offset are displayed at the bottom
left of the waveform area. They remain on the display until the channel is
turned off, or an automatic measurement is performed. The automatic measurement results share the same area of the display as the channel setups.
When the channel display is off, the waveform display for that channel is
turned off, pulse parameter measurements are stopped and acquisition on
that channel is stopped, unless it is needed as an operand for waveform math
functions.
Even though the channel display is off, you can still use the plug-in as a trigger
source or as a function source in the Math menu. However, the analyzer will
not trigger unless one or more of the other channel displays are turned on, or
unless a math function is using one of the channels.
Key Path
Channel, Display
Scale
The Scale softkey controls the vertical scaling of the waveform. If the fine
mode is off, then the knob and arrow keys change the vertical scaling in a
1-2-5 sequence. When fine mode is on, the knob and arrow keys change the
vertical scaling in 1 mV increments. You can also use the keypad to enter values in 1 mV increments, independent of the fine mode selection.
The scale will be displayed in volts or watts, as selected by the Units softkey.
(Amperes, or unknown are available on electrical channels only.)
Key Path
Channel, Scale
2-6
Channel Setup Menu
Offset
Offset
The Offset softkey moves the waveform vertically. It is similar to the position
control on analog oscilloscopes. The advantage of digital offset is that it is calibrated. The offset voltage for electrical channels is the voltage at the center of
the graticule area, and the range of offset is ±12 times the full resolution channel scale. For optical channels, the offset wattage is the wattage two graticule
divisions above the bottom of the screen. This is set because, unlike voltage
displays, "negative" power levels do not exist but the zero power level can be
viewed clearly when the offset is set to zero watts. You can use the knob,
arrow keys, or keypad to change the offset setting. The fine mode also works
with offset.
When an Agilent 54700-series active probe is connected to the probe power
connector, the offset control adjusts the external scale factor and offset of the
hybrid inside the active probe. A probe connected to the auxiliary power connector will function, but the channel scale factor will not be adjusted automatically.
The optical channel displays the value in watts and the electrical channel displays the value in volts.
Key Path
Channel, Offset
Bandwidth/Wavelength....
You can use the Bandwidth/Wavelength.... softkey to change the bandwidth and
wavelength settings.
Bandwidth
This function is available on the electrical channel only.
You can use the Bandwidth function to select either the 12.4 GHz or 20 GHz
bandwidth.
Key Path
Channel, Bandwidth/Wavelength...., Bandwidth
Filter
The Filter function turns the filter on and off.
2-7
Channel Setup Menu
Channel autoscale
Key Path
Channel, Bandwidth/Wavelength...., Filter On Off
Wavelength
This function is available on the optical channel only.
The Wavelength function selects the desired wavelength for calibrated measurements. The factory calibrated wavelength is 850 nm. A user-calibrated
wavelength is also available and can be calibrated in the range from 750 nm to
860 nm. Refer to Chapter 3, “Calibration Overview” for additional information
on performing a calibration.
Key Path
Channel, Bandwidth/Wavelength...., Wavelength
Filter
This function selects the specific filter for the type of compliance testing to be
performed.
Key Path
Channel, Bandwidth/Wavelength...., Filter, 1063 Mb/s or 1250 Mb/s
Channel autoscale
The Channel autoscale softkey provides a convenient and fast method for determining the standard vertical scale setting with the highest resolution that will
not clip the waveform. Timebase and trigger settings are not affected.
This function is useful in manufacturing environments where the timebase
and trigger settings remain constant and only the vertical scale needs to be
adjusted for signal level variations in multiple devices under test.
Key Path
Channel, Channel autoscale
2-8
Channel Setup Menu
External scale....
External scale....
The External scale softkey allows you to set up the analyzer to use external optical-to-electrical converters or attenuators. Scaling is automatically adjusted to
account for the external device.
Key Path
Channel, External scale....
Atten units
The Atten units function lets you select how you want the probe attenuation
factor represented. The choices are decibel or ratio. The formula for calculating decibels is:
Pout
Vout
20 log ------------ or10 log -----------Pin
Vin
Attenuation
The Attenuation function lets you select an attenuation that matches the device
connected to the analyzer. When the attenuation is set correctly, the analyzer
maintains the current scale factors if possible. All marker values and voltage or
wattage measurements will reflect the actual signal at the input to the external device.
The attenuation range is from 0.0001:1 to 1,000,000:1. When you connect a
compatible active probe to the probe power connector, adjacent to the channel input, the instrument automatically sets the attenuation. For all other
devices, set the probe attenuation with the knob, arrow keys, or keypad.
Note
Refer to Chapter 3, “Calibration Overview” for information on calibrating to the tip of the
probe.
Key Path
Channel, External scale...., Attenuation
2-9
Channel Setup Menu
External scale....
Units
The Units function lets you select the unit of measure appended to the channel
scale, offset, trigger level, and vertical measurement values. For the optical
channel these units are Volts or Watts. For the electrical channel the units are
Volts, Amperes, Watts, or unknown. Use Volt for voltage probes, Ampere for
current probes, Watt for optical-to-electrical (O/E) converters, and unknown
when there is no unit of measure or when the unit of measure is not one of the
available choices.
Key Path
Channel, External scale...., Units
Ext gain and Ext offset
When you select Ampere, Watt, or unknown on an electrical channel or Voltage on an optical channel, two additional functions become available: External
Gain and External Offset. These two additional functions allow you to compensate for the actual characteristics of the probe rather than the ideal characteristics. For example, you might have an amplified lightwave converter
with ideal characteristics of 300 V/W with 0 V offset, but actual characteristics
of 324 V/W with 1 mV of output offset. In this case you would set the External
Gain to 324 V/W and the External Offset to 1 mV.
Key Path
Channel, External scale...., Units, Volt, Ext gain or Ext offset
Channel, External scale...., Units, Watt, Ext gain or Ext offset
Channel, External scale...., Units, Unknown, Ext gain or Ext offset
2-10
Channel Setup Menu
Calibrate
Calibrate
The Calibrate softkey allows you to null any skew between probes or cables,
remove the effects of offsets in the internal O/E converter, recalibrate the
responsivity of the O/E converter, and check the present calibration status of
the analyzer.
Key Path
Channel, Calibrate
Skew
The Skew function changes the horizontal position of a waveform on the display. The Skew function has a range of ≈ +100 µs. You can use skew to compensate for differences in cable or probe lengths. It also allows you to place the
triggered edge at the center of the display when you are using a power splitter
connected between the channel and trigger inputs. Another use for skew is
when you are comparing two waveforms that have a timing difference. If you
are interested in comparing the shapes of two waveforms rather than the
actual timing difference, you can use Skew to overlay one waveform on top of
the other waveform.
To skew two channels
Turn both channels on and overlay the signals vertically.
Expand the time base so the rising edges are at about a 45 degree angle.
Adjust the skew on one of the channels so that the rising edges overlap at the 50 percent points.
Key Path
Channel, Calibrate, Skew
2-11
Channel Setup Menu
Calibrate
Cal status
The Cal status function displays a screen similar to Figure 2-3.
Key Path
Channel, Calibrate, Cal Status
Figure 2-3. A typical Cal Status display.
Current Date
This is the current date and time. You can compare this to the last plug-in
module calibration time to see how long it has been since calibration was performed.
Current Frame
∆Temp
This is the temperature change on the inside of the instrument since the last
mainframe calibration was performed. The number indicates how many
degrees warmer or cooler the mainframe is compared to the last calibration.
Channel 1
Calibration
Status
The instrument displays Calibrated or Uncalibrated, depending on
whether the last plug-in module calibration is still valid. A calibration can be
invalidated if:
• The mainframe has cycled power.
• The plug-in has been repaired, reprogrammed, or removed from the
mainframe.
• The instrument’s operating temperature has changed and remains more than
5°C from the temperature at which the Plug-in calibration was performed.
Uncalibrated indicates the plug-in module vertical calibration is invalid.
2-12
Channel Setup Menu
Calibrate
Plug-in
This function lists the model number, serial number, date, time, and temperature delta. The temperature ∆ is the mainframe temperature change since the
last calibration. If this temperature ∆ is greater than ±5°C since the last mainframe calibration, then you must perform a plug-in module calibration to
achieve the specified dc accuracy.
Offset zero
The Offset zero function performs a quick offset calibration on the optical channel. Since the primary source of calibration error on the optical channel is offset drift, this function is useful:
• after the plug-in module vertical calibration described in Chapter 3, “Calibration Overview” has been performed,
and
• if the plug-in module has not been removed and reinstalled.
Performing an Offset zero calibration is much faster than performing a complete vertical calibration.
Key Path
Channel, Calibrate, Offset zero
O/E cal
The plug-in module is provided with factory optical calibrations at 850 nm and
1550 nm. The O/E cal function allows you to calibrate the instrument for use at
one additional user-defined wavelength between 750 nm and 860 nm. This calibration does not affect the factory calibrations.
Calibrate probe
Connect a voltage probe to the plug-in and press Calibrate probe.
The analyzer calibrates to the tip of the probe by setting the probe attenuation
to the actual attenuation ratio of the probe. The analyzer also automatically
compensates for any offset the probe may introduce. The CAL signal is internally routed to the probe tip for Agilent Technologies probes.
Key Path
Channel, Calibrate, Calibrate probe
2-13
3
Factory Calibrations 3-4
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
Complete Calibration Summary 3-19
Calibration Overview
3-7
Calibration Overview
Calibration Overview
Calibration Overview
This chapter describes the calibration of the mainframe and the plug-in modules. It is intended to give you, or the calibration laboratory personnel, an
understanding of the various calibration procedures available, and how they
were intended to be used. There is a description of the calibration menu
included in the manuals provided with the plug-in modules and probes.
Proper calibration is critical to measurement accuracy and repeatability. The
Agilent 54750A/83480A and their associated modules and accessories require
that both factory and user calibrations be implemented at the recommended
intervals in order to perform measurements at their published specifications.
This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section describes factory
calibrations. A factory calibration consists of verifying instrument performance to all specifications. If an instrument fails to meet specifications,
adjustment or repair may be necessary. For most users, this will mean shipping the instrument back to an authorized service center. Some users may
purchase the required instrumentation and perform the factory timebase calibrations themselves using the optional Agilent 83480A, 54750A Service
Guide.
The second part of the chapter addresses calibrations that are routinely performed by the end user. Subsections in each of the two main sections discuss
the individual calibrations. In addition, there are summary tables at the end of
each of these sections summarizing the main areas addressed. The third part
of the chapter consists of a complete calibration summary table. Both factory
and user calibrations must be performed regularly in order to ensure proper
measurement accuracy and repeatability.
3-2
Calibration Overview
Calibration Overview
CAUTION
The input circuits can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). Avoid
applying static discharges to the front-panel input connectors. Before
connecting a coaxial cable to the connectors, momentarily short the center and
outer connectors of the cable together. Avoid touching the front panel input
connectors without first touching the frame of the instrument. Be sure that the
instrument is properly earth-grounded to prevent buildup of static charge. It is
strongly recommended that an antistatic mat and wristband be used when
connecting to electrical channel inputs.
Calibration interval
Agilent Technologies recommends that the factory calibration be performed
on a periodic basis. Agilent Technologies designs instruments to meet specifications over the recommended calibration interval provided that the instrument is operated within the specified operating environment. To maintain
specifications, periodic recalibrations are necessary. We recommend that the
plug-in module be calibrated at an Agilent Technologies service facility every
12 months. Users are encouraged to adjust the calibration cycle based on their
particular operating environment or measurement accuracy needs.
Required warm-up time
The instrument requires a 1 hour warm-up period before any of the calibrations mentioned in this chapter are performed. It is not enough for the instrument to be in the standby setting. It must be turned on and running for the
entire hour.
Remote operation
Remote programming commands for calibrations are included in the
Agilent 83480A/54750A Programming’s Guide. Performing calibrations
remotely is slightly different than the operation of front-panel calibrations.
3-3
Calibration Overview
Factory Calibrations
Factory Calibrations
The following calibrations are performed at the factory:
Mainframe Calibration
O/E Factory Wavelength Calibration
Table 3-1. Factory Calibration Summary
Measurements
Affected
Recommended
Interval
Accuracy and
continuity of the
timescale
Channels affected:
optical & electrical. All
time base
measurements such as
rise time, fall time, eye
width, and jitter.
The photodetector
responsivity
Channels affected:
optical. Amplitude
accuracy of all optical
channel
measurements. Optical
power meter accuracy.
Annually at Agilent
service center or if
operating temp has
changed and remains
5°C or more from
calibration
temperature. See
service manual.
Annual factory recalibration of standard
wavelengths.
Calibration
What is calibrated
Mainframe
Calibration
O/E Factory
Wavelength
Calibration
Softkey Path
Utility
Calibrate
Calibrate frame
Not user accessible.a
a. Refer to “O/E User-Wavelength Calibration” on page 3-9.
Mainframe Calibration
Mainframe calibration affects both optical and electrical measurements. Mainframe calibration improves timebase accuracy. All timebase measurements
such as rise time, fall time, eye width, jitter, and so forth are affected by the
timebase accuracy.
The calibration factors are stored in the nonvolatile RAM of the instrument.
There is a switch on the back panel of the instrument that allows the mainframe calibration to be protected or unprotected. Next to the switch there is a
drawing that shows each switch’s function and protected position. Refer to the
3-4
Calibration Overview
Factory Calibrations
optional Agilent 83480A, 54750A Service Guide for more details about the
mainframe calibration, and the position of the rear-panel memory protect
switches.
CAUTION
To prevent access to the mainframe calibration switch, place a sticker over the
access hole to this switch.
CAUTION
Do not attempt a Mainframe calibration without consulting the
Agilent 83480A, 54750A Service Guide.
A mainframe calibration should be performed on a periodic basis, annually, or
when the ambient operating temperature has changed by and remains 5°C different than the operating temperature at which the last mainframe calibration
was performed. To see how much the operating temperature has changed
since the last mainframe calibration and the date of the last mainframe calibration, check the Calibration status by pressing the following key sequence:
Utility, Calibrate, and then Cal status on.
The temperature change is displayed at the top of the display as shown in the
following figure.
Figure 3-1. Current Frame ∆Temp condition
3-5
Calibration Overview
Factory Calibrations
If the Current Frame ∆Temp listing is greater than ±5°C, then the mainframe should either be calibrated at the current operating temperature or be
placed in an ambient air temperature that is within 5°C of the temperature of
the current calibration.
O/E Factory Wavelength Calibration
Optical/electrical (O/E) factory wavelength calibration, compensates for the
photodetector responsivity. The accuracy of all optical channel measurements
is dependent on proper O/E calibration. O/E calibrations should be performed
annually. Most customers return their optical plug-ins to an authorized Agilent
Technologies service center for this calibration at the same time they are having their mainframes re-calibrated.
The Agilent 83480-series optical modules have one or two standard wavelengths (850 nm or 1310/1550 nm). The O/E Calibration function allows you to
calibrate the instrument for use at one additional user-defined wavelength.
This calibration does not affect the factory calibrations. See the following section on User Calibrations for additional information on this procedure.
3-6
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
The following calibrations can be performed by the user:
O/E User Wavelength Calibration
Plug-in Module Vertical Calibration
Offset Zero Calibration
Dark Calibration
Probe Calibration
Channel Skew
External Scale
Electrical channels have calibration procedures for:
• adjusting timebase skew, for matching propagation delay between channels,
probes, cables, and so forth
• using external probes
Optical channels have calibration procedures for:
• adjusting timebase skew
• monitoring and adjusting internal offsets
• performing a user-defined O/E responsivity adjustment
CAUTION
The input circuits can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). Avoid
applying static discharges to the front panel input connectors. Before
connecting a coaxial cable to the connectors, momentarily short the center and
outer connectors of the cable together. Avoid touching the front panel input
connectors without first touching the frame of the instrument. Be sure the
instrument is properly earth-grounded to prevent buildup of static charge. An
antistatic mat and wristband are strongly recommended, particularly when
working with TDR modules.
3-7
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
Table 3-2. Optical and Electrical Channel User Calibration Summary
Calibration
What is calibrated
O/E User Wavelength
Calibration
The photodetector
responsivity
Plug-in Vertical
Calibration
Vertical offset and
vertical scale accuracy
for both electrical and
optical channels.
Offset Zero
Calibration
Vertical offset is
calibrated for the
optical channel only.
This calibration
doesn’t include vertical
scale accuracy.
Dark Calibration
Dark calibration
measures the channel
offset signal without
any light present and
this value is used in
the extinction ratio
algorithm.
3-8
Measurements
Affected
Recommended
Interval
Key Path
Channels affected:
optical. All optical
channel
measurements at user
wavelengths.
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Any optical or
electrical vertical
measurements such as
Vp to p, eye height,
extinction ratio, and
the optical power
meter
Channels affected:
optical. Any optical
vertical measurements
including: Vp to p, eye
height, and extinction
ratio.
Annual re-calibration
of user defined nonfactory wavelengths
Optical Channel Setup
Calibrate
O/E Cal
Perform after any
power cycle or once
every 10 hours during
continuous use or if
operating temperature
changes by more than
2°C.
Utility
Calibrate
Calibrate Plug-in
Perform a plug-in
vertical calibration in
order to meet
published
specifications.
Because the offset
zero calibration
performs only the
offset portion of the
plug-in vertical
calibration, it should
only be used before
fast non-critical
measurements.
Before extinction ratio
measurements if the
vertical scale or offset
has changed since the
last dark calibration or
after a plug-in vertical
calibration is
performed.
Optical Channel Setup
Calibrate
Offset 0
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Extinction ratio.
Shift, Meas eye
Extinction ratio
Dark Cal
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
Table 3-3. Miscellaneous User Calibration Summary
Calibration
What is calibrated
Probe calibration
Probe Attenuation
Channel Skew
Calibrates out the
small differences in
delay between
channels. Useful for
looking at timing
differences between
channels
Compensates for gain
or loss associated with
external devices
(calibrates vertical
scale to external
device
External Scale
Measurements
Affected
Recommended
Interval
Channels affected:
electrical. Any
electrical
measurement taken
with the probe
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Multiple channel
measurements.
Whenever a probe is
connected
Electrical Channel Setup
Calibrate
Calibrate probe
Before multiple
channel
measurements when
measuring timing
differences between
channels.
Channel Setup
Calibrate
Skew
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Any measurement
taken through an
external device
(component or
transducer
Whenever using
external devices
(component or
transducer)
Channel Setup
External Scale
Key Path
O/E User-Wavelength Calibration
This optional optical/electrical (O/E) calibration is for optical measurements
only. It compensates for the photodetector’s responsivity. The vertical accuracy of all optical channel user wavelength measurements is dependent on
proper O/E user wavelength calibration. O/E user-wavelength calibrations
should be performed annually or whenever a new wavelength is being measured. To perform a O/E user-wavelength calibration, a CW optical source with
a known optical output power level is required. Refer to the specifications for
the plug-in module for the acceptable power level ranges.
3-9
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
NOTE
The optical channel calibration accuracy is heavily dependent on the accuracy to which
you know the optical source power. For best results, measure the optical source power
with an optical power meter such as the Agilent 8153A and use precision optical connectors. In addition, proper connector cleaning procedures are essential to obtaining an
accurate calibration.
To perform an O/E user-wavelength calibration
1 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel optical channel SETUP key.
2 Press Calibrate, and then O/E cal.
3 Input the correct wavelength, and follow the instructions on the screen.
Figure 3-2. Plug-in calibration menu
To use an O/E user-wavelength calibration
1 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel optical channel SETUP key.
2 Press Bandwidth/wavelength and then wavelength.
3 Press Usr wavelength and then Enter.
3-10
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
Plug-in Module Vertical Calibration
The plug-in module vertical calibration is for both optical and electrical measurements. It allows the instrument to establish the calibration factors for a
specific plug-in when the plug-in is installed in the mainframe. The plug-in calibration factors are valid only for the specific mainframe slot in which it was
calibrated. The plug-in vertical calibration establishes vertical accuracy.
A plug-in vertical calibration should be done if:
• The mainframe has cycled power.
• The plug-in has been repaired, reprogrammed, or removed from the
mainframe.
• The instrument’s operating temperature has changed and remains more than
5°C from the temperature at which the Plug-in calibration was performed.
To obtain the best measurement results, it is recommended that a user vertical calibration be performed after every 10 hours of continuous use or if the
temperature has changed by greater than 2°C from the previous vertical calibration.
To view the temperature change
This procedure displays the temperature change that the instrument has
undergone since the last Plug-in Vertical Calibration.
1 Press the front-panel channel SETUP key.
2 Press Calibrate and then Cal status on.
The current plug-in ∆Temp value is listed for each installed module.
To perform a plug-in module vertical calibration
1 Remove any front-panel connections from electrical channels.
2 Cover the optical inputs for the optical channels.
3 Press Utility, Calibrate..., and then Calibrate plug-in....
4 Select the plug-in module to be calibrated, press 1 and 2 or 3 and 4.
5 Press Start cal to start the calibration.
6 Follow the on-screen instructions.
3-11
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
No additional equipment is required to perform a plug-in vertical calibration.
Reference signals are both generated and routed internally, for the optical and
electrical channels. If you are prompted to connect the calibrator output to
the electrical channel during an optical vertical calibration, then the factory
O/E calibration has been lost. The module must then be returned to Agilent
Technologies for calibration.
Offset Zero Calibration
The offset zero calibration performs a quick offset calibration on the optical
channel for optical measurements. Since the primary source of calibration
error on the optical channel is offset drift, this function is useful between the
plug-in module vertical calibrations if the plug-in module has not been
removed or reinstalled and the operating temperature has not changed more
than ±5°C. In order to ensure that instrument specifications are met, perform
the plug-in vertical calibration.
Performing an offset zero calibration is much faster than performing a complete vertical calibration. For critical measurements where offset measurement uncertainty is important to consider, perform an offset zero calibration
between module vertical calibrations. Perform an offset zero calibration if the
vertical scale or offset changes.
To initiate an offset calibration
1 Disconnect all inputs from the module being calibrated.
2 Cover all optical inputs.
3 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel optical channel SETUP key.
4 Press Calibrate and then Offset zero.
3-12
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
Figure 3-3. Offset Zero Calibration
Dark Calibration
The dark calibration is for optical measurements, or electrical measurements
if an external O/E is being used. This calibration measures the optical channel
offset signal when there isn’t any light present and then uses this information
in performing extinction ratio measurements. Dark calibrations should be
done for the following conditions:
•
•
•
•
•
Before any critical extinction ratio measurements are made
After a plug-in vertical calibration
If a module has been removed
If the mainframe power has been cycled
If extinction ratio measurements are being made after the vertical scale or the
offset has changed.
If the line power has been cycled, the dark calibration invokes either the offset
zero calibration or plug-in vertical calibration as needed. This increases the
time required for the dark calibration to complete. The Dark cal softkey is
located within the Extinction ratio menu.
3-13
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
To initiate a dark calibration
1 Press the Display key. Press the Color grade softkey, and set its setting to on.
Color grade must be enabled to perform an extinction ratio measurement and
a dark calibration. In addition, the dark level (amplitude when there is no signal
present) must be on the screen to perform a dark calibration.
2 Press the blue shift key, and then the Meas eye softkey which is located beneath
the display.
3 Press Extinction ratio... and then Dark cal.
Disconnect all inputs from the module, including the trigger signal, and block
any ambient light to the photodetector with a connector plug. Follow the
instructions on the screen.
Figure 3-4. Dark calibration menu
3-14
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
Channel Skew Calibration
This calibration affects both optical and electrical measurements. The skew
calibration changes the horizontal position of a waveform on the display. The
skew calibration has a range of approximately 100 µs. You can use skew to
compensate for the differences in cable or probe lengths. It also allows you to
place the trigger edge at the center of the display when you are using a power
splitter connected between the channel and trigger inputs. Another use for
skew is when you are comparing two waveforms that have a timing difference.
If you are interested in comparing the shapes of two waveforms rather than
the actual timing difference, you can use skew to overlay one waveform on top
of the other waveform.
To skew two channels
1 Turn both channels on and overlay the signals vertically.
2 Expand the time base so that the rising edges are at about a 45° angle.
3 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel channel SETUP key.
4 Press Calibrate and then Skew.
5 Adjust the skew on one of the channels so that the rising edges overlap at the
50% points.
Probe Calibration
Probe calibration applies to electrical measurements only. For active probes
such as the Agilent 54701A, which the instrument can identify through the
probe power connector, the instrument automatically adjusts the channel vertical scale factors to the probe’s nominal attenuation, even if a probe calibration is not performed.
For passive probes or non-identified probes, the instrument adjusts the vertical scale factors only if a probe calibration is performed. Probe calibration
allows the instrument to establish the gain and offset of specific probes that
are connected to a channel of the instrument, and then apply those factors to
the calibration of that channel.
The analyzer calibrates to the tip of the probe by setting the probe attenuation
to the actual attenuation ratio of the probe. The CAL signal is internally routed
to the probe tip for Agilent Technologies active probes.
3-15
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
The mainframe’s CAL signal is a voltage source, therefore you can let the
instrument compensate for the actual characteristics of your probe by letting
the instrument calibrate to the tip of the probe. The instrument automatically
calibrates to the tip of the probe, sets the probe attenuation, and compensates
for any probe offset.
If you do not perform a probe calibration but want to use a passive probe,
enter the attenuation factor using the following steps:
1 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel channel SETUP key.
2 Press External scale and then Attenuation.
You can use the probe calibration to calibrate any network, including probes or
cable assemblies. The instrument calibrates the voltage at the tip of the probe
or the cable input.
To calibrate an Agilent Technologies identifiable probe
1 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel-channel SETUP key.
2 Press Calibrate and then Calibrate Probe.
To calibrate a non-identifiable probe
1 Connect the voltage probe to the plug-in.
2 Attach the probe tip to the CAL hook that is located near the floppy disk drive.
3 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel channel SETUP key.
4 Press Calibrate and then Calibrate probe.
If the probe being calibrated has an attenuation factor that allows the instrument to adjust the gain (in hardware) to produce even steps in the vertical
scale factors, the instrument will do so. Typically, probes have standard attenuation factors such as divide by 10, divide by 20, or divide by 100.
3-16
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
Figure 3-5. Electrical Channel Calibrate Menu
To calibrate other devices
The information in this section applies to both optical and electrical measurements. Since the mainframe’s CAL signal is a voltage source, it cannot be used
to calibrate to the probe tip when the units are set to Ampere, Watt, or
Unknown. Instead, set the external gain and external offset to compensate for
the actual characteristics of the probe or device. If you do not know the actual
characteristics, you can refer to the typical specifications that came with the
probe or device.
1 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel channel SETUP key.
2 Press External scale.
3 Press Atten units Ratio, Attenuation 1:1, and then Units Ampere (Volt, Watt, or
Unknown).
4 Press Ext gain, and enter the actual gain characteristics of the probe or device.
5 Press Ext offset, and enter the offset introduced by the probe or device.
3-17
Calibration Overview
User Calibrations—Optical and Electrical
External Scale
Both optical and electrical channels have an External scale setting which
allows the user to enter in an offset value to compensate for gains or losses not
associated with the device under test. This feature is useful for adjusting out
the effects of devices such as test fixtures and attenuators so that the reading
on the display gives the measurement value associated with only the actual
device under test.
To adjust the external scale
1 Press the plug-in module’s front-panel channel SETUP key.
2 Press External scale, and set the Atten units to "decibel".
3 Press Attenuation, and enter the appropriate values.
Figure 3-6. External Scale Menu
3-18
Calibration Overview
Complete Calibration Summary
Complete Calibration Summary
Table 3-4. Complete Calibration Summary (1 of 2)
Measurements
Affected
Recommended
Interval
Accuracy and
continuity of the
timescale
Channels affected:
optical & electrical. All
time base
measurements such
as rise time, fall time,
eye width, and jitter.
O/E Factory
Wavelength
Calibration
The photodetector
responsivity
O/E User Wavelength
Calibration
The photodetector
responsivity
Plug-in Vertical
Calibration
Vertical offset and
vertical scale accuracy
for both electrical and
optical channels.
Channels affected:
optical. Amplitude
accuracy of all optical
channel
measurements.
Optical power meter
accuracy.
Channels affected:
optical. All optical
channel
measurements at user
wavelengths.
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Any optical or
electrical vertical
measurements such
as Vp to p, eye height,
extinction ratio, and
the optical power
meter
Annually at Agilent
service center or if
operating temp has
changed and remains
5°C or more from
calibration
temperature. See
service manual.
Annual factory recalibration of standard
wavelengths.
Calibration
What is calibrated
Mainframe Calibration
Key Path
Utility
Calibrate
Calibrate frame
Not user accessible.a
Annual re-calibration
of user defined nonfactory wavelengths
Optical Channel Setup
Calibrate
O/E Cal
Perform after any
power cycle or once
every 10 hours during
continuous use or if
operating temperature
changes by more than
2°C.
Utility
Calibrate
Calibrate Plug-in
3-19
Calibration Overview
Complete Calibration Summary
Table 3-4. Complete Calibration Summary (2 of 2)
Measurements
Affected
Recommended
Interval
Vertical offset is
calibrated for the
optical channel only.
This calibration
doesn’t include
vertical scale
accuracy.
Channels affected:
optical. Any optical
vertical measurements
including: Vp to p, eye
height, and extinction
ratio.
Dark Calibration
Dark calibration
measures the channel
offset signal without
any light present and
this value is used in
the extinction ratio
algorithm.
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Extinction ratio.
Probe calibration
Probe Attenuation
Channel Skew
Calibrates out the
small differences in
delay between
channels. Useful for
looking at timing
differences between
channels
Compensates for gain
or loss associated
with external devices
(calibrates vertical
scale to external
device
Channels affected:
electrical. Any
electrical
measurement taken
with the probe
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Multiple channel
measurements.
Perform a plug-in
vertical calibration in
order to meet
published
specifications.
Because the offset
zero calibration
performs only the
offset portion of the
plug-in vertical
calibration, it should
only be used before
fast non-critical
measurements.
Before extinction ratio
measurements if the
vertical scale or offset
has changed since the
last dark calibration or
after a plug-in vertical
calibration is
performed.
Whenever a probe is
connected
Calibration
What is calibrated
Offset Zero Calibration
External Scale
Channels affected:
optical & electrical.
Any measurement
taken through an
external device
(component or
transducer)
a. Refer to “O/E User-Wavelength Calibration” on page 3-9.
3-20
Key Path
Optical Channel Setup
Calibrate
Offset 0
Shift, Meas eye
Extinction ratio
Dark Cal
Electrical Channel
Setup
Calibrate
Calibrate probe
Before multiple
channel
measurements when
measuring timing
differences between
channels.
Channel Setup
Calibrate
Skew
Whenever using
external devices
(component or
transducer)
Channel Setup
External Scale
4
Specifications 4-3
Characteristics 4-8
Declaration of Conformity
4-9
Specifications and Regulatory
Information
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications and Regulatory Information
This chapter lists specifications and characteristics of the Agilent 83487A.
Specifications apply over the temperature range +15°C to +35°C (unless otherwise noted) after the instrument’s temperature has been stabilized after
60 minutes of continuous operation.
Refer to the Agilent 54701A Active Probe Service Guide for complete probe
specifications.
Specifications
Specifications described warranted performance.
Characteristics
Characteristics provide useful, nonwarranted, information about the functions and performance of the instrument. Characteristics are printed in
italics.
Calibration cycle
Agilent Technologies designs instruments to meet specifications over the recommended calibration interval provided that the instrument is operated
within the specified operating environment. To maintain specifications, periodic recalibrations are necessary. We recommend that the plug-in module be
calibrated at an Agilent Technologies service facility every 24 months. Users
are encouraged to adjust the calibration cycle based on their particular operating environment or measurement accuracy needs.
4-2
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications
Specifications
Table 4-1. Agilent 83487A Electrical Channel Vertical Specifications
Bandwidth (–3 dB)
dc to 12.4 GHz or 20 GHz, user selectable
dc Accuracy—single voltage marker a
12.4 GHz
±0.4% of full scale
±2 mV ±1.5% (reading – channel offset)
± (2%/°C) (∆Tcal b) (reading) – 0.4%/hr (∆Timecal c) (reading)
20 GHz
±0.4% of full scale
±2 mV ±3% of reading– channel offset
± (2%/°C) (∆Tcal b) (reading) – 0.4%/hr (∆Timecal c) (reading)
dc Difference—two marker accuracy on
same channel a
12.4 GHz
±0.8% of full scale
±1.5% of delta marker reading
± (2%/°C) (∆Tcal b) (reading) – 0.4%/hr (∆Timecal c) (reading)
20 GHz
±0.8% of full scale
±3% of delta marker reading
± (2%/°C) (∆Tcal b) (reading) – 0.4%/hr (∆Timecal c) (reading)
Transition Time (10% to 90%)
calculated from T=0.35/BW,
characteristic
12.4 GHz
≤28.2 ps
20 GHz
≤17.5 ps
Maximum RMS Noise
12.4 GHz
≤0.5 mV (0.25 mV typical)
4-3
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications
Table 4-1. Agilent 83487A Electrical Channel Vertical Specifications (Continued)
≤1 mV (0.5 mV typical)
20 GHz
Scale Factor (full scale is eight divisions)
Minimum
1 mV/div
Maximum
100 mV/div
dc Offset Range
±500 mV
Nominal Impedance
50 Ω
Connector
3.5 mm (m)
Reflections
≤5% for 30 ps rise time
Dynamic Range
±400 mV relative to channel offset
Maximum Safe Input Voltage
16 dBm peak ac ±2V dc
a. It is recommended that a user vertical calibration be performed after every 10 hours of continuous use or if the temperature has changed
by greater than 2°C from the previous vertical calibration.
b. Where ∆Tcal represents the temperature change in Celsius from the last user vertical calibration. Note that the temperature term goes to
zero upon execution of a vertical calibration.
c. Where ∆Timecal represents the time since the last user vertical calibration. The uncertainty due to time typically stabilizes after 24 hours.
This term goes to zero upon execution of a vertical calibration.
4-4
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications
Table 4-2. Agilent 83487A Optical Channel Vertical Specifications
Bandwidth (–3 dB)
dc to 2.85 GHz (dc to 3.0 GHz characteristic)
Maximum Specified Peak Input Powera
Continuous Wave
0.6 mW (–2.2 dBm)
Modulated
0.4 mW (–4 dBm)
dc Accuracy (single markerb) c
±0.4% of full scale ±6 µW
±3% (reading – channel offset)
± (2%/°C) (∆Tcal d) (reading) – 0.4%/hr (∆Timecal e) (reading)
dc Difference
(two marker accuracy, same channel b) c
±0.8% of full scale
±3% of delta marker reading
± (2%/°C) (∆Tcal d) (reading) – 0.4%/hr (∆Timecal e) (reading)
Transition Time (10% to 90%), calculated
from T=0.48/bandwidth, optical
<160 ps, unfiltered mode
RMS Noise, filtered or unfiltered mode
Characteristic: < 1.5 µW
Maximum: < 2.5 µW
Scale Factor (full scale is eight divisions)
Minimum
5 µW/div
Maximum
100 µW/div
dc Offset Range
+0.2 mW to –0.6 mW, referenced to two divisions
above bottom of screen
Connector Type
62.5/125 µm maximum multimode, user selectable connector option
Input Return Loss
20 dB (HMS-10 connector with fully filled 62.5 µm fiber)
Filtered Bandwidth
Measured response conforms to:
Calibrated Wavelength
Reference receiver specifications for Fibre Channel 1063 and Gigabit Ethernet
1250.
850 nm
Average Power Monitor
4-5
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications
Table 4-2. Agilent 83487A Optical Channel Vertical Specifications (Continued)
Specified operating range (average power)
–30 dBm to –2.2 dBm (1 µW to 500 µW)
Maximum peak power input (typical)
(4000 µW (6 dBm) typical)
Factory calibrated accuracy (20°C to 30°C)
±5% of reading ±100 nW ± connector uncertainty
User calibrated accuracy f
(<5°C temp change)
±2% of reading ±100 nW ± power meter uncertainty
Maximum Safe Input
10 mW peak
Wavelength Range
750 to 860 nm
a. Exceeding the specified input power level will cause waveform distortion.
b. Referenced to average power monitor.
c. It is recommended that a user vertical calibration be performed after every 10 hours of continuous use or if the temperature has changed
by greater than 2°C from the previous vertical calibration.
d. Where ∆Tcal represents the temperature change in Celsius from the last user vertical calibration. Note that the temperature term goes to
zero upon execution of a vertical calibration.
e. Where ∆Timecal represents the time since the last user vertical calibration. The uncertainty due to time typically stabilizes after 24 hours.
This term goes to zero upon execution of a vertical calibration.
f. A user calibration can be performed with average optical power levels from 100 to 400 µW, however, the instrument optical accuracy
specification is only valid for average optical calibration powers of
200 ±50 µW.
Table 4-3. Electrical and Optical Channels
Temperature
Operating
Non-operating
15°C to +35°C
–40°C to +70°C
Humidity
Operating
Non-operating
4-6
up to 90% relative humidity (non-condensing) at ≤35°C
up to 95% relative humidity (non-condensing) at ≤65°C
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Specifications
Table 4-4. Power Requirements
Supplied by mainframe.
Table 4-5. Weight
Net
approximately 1.2 kg (2.6 lb.)
Shipping
approximately 2.1 kg (4.6 lb.)
4-7
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Characteristics
Characteristics
The following characteristics are typical for the Agilent 83487A. Refer to the
Agilent 54701A Active Probe Service Guide for complete probe characteristics.
Table 4-6. Trigger Input Characteristics for Electrical and Optical Channels
Nominal Impedance
50 Ω
Input Connector
3.5 mm (m)
Trigger Level Range
±1 V
Maximum Safe Input Voltage
±2 Vdc + ac peak (+16 dBm)
Percent Reflection
≤10% for 100 ps rise time
Refer to the Agilent 83480A, 54750A User’s Guide for trigger specifications.
4-8
Specifications and Regulatory Information
Declaration of Conformity
Declaration of Conformity
4-9
5
In Case of Difficulty 5-2
Measuring High Power Waveforms 5-6
Error Messages 5-10
Electrostatic Discharge Information 5-12
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Agilent Technologies Service Offices 5-24
Reference
5-14
Reference
In Case of Difficulty
In Case of Difficulty
This section provides a list of suggestions for you to follow if the plug-in module fails to operate. A list of messages that may be displayed is also included in
this chapter.
Review the procedure being performed when the problem occurred. Before
calling Agilent Technologies or returning the unit for service, a few minutes
spent performing some simple checks may save waiting for your instrument to
be repaired.
This chapter also includes information regarding measuring high power waveforms with the Agilent 83480/Agilent 83487A, electrostatic discharge (ESD),
procedures for cleaning both optical and electrical connections, and a list of
Agilent Technologies Service Offices.
5-2
Reference
In Case of Difficulty
If the mainframe does not operate
Make the following checks:
• Is the line fuse good?
• Does the line socket have power?
• Is the unit plugged in to the proper ac power source?
• Is the mainframe turned on?
• Is the rear-panel line switch set to on?
• Will the mainframe power up without the plug-in module installed?
If the mainframe still does not power up, refer to the optional
Agilent 83480A, 54750A Service Guide or return the mainframe to a qualified service department.
5-3
Reference
In Case of Difficulty
If the plug-in does not operate
1 Make the following checks:
• Is the plug-in module firmly seated in the mainframe slot?
• Are the knurled screws at the bottom of the plug-in module finger-tight?
• Is a trigger signal connected to a trigger input?
• If other equipment, cables, and connectors are being used with the plug-in
module, are they connected properly and operating correctly?
• Review the procedure for the test being performed when the problem appeared. Are all the settings correct? Can the problem be reproduced?
• Are the connectors clean? See “Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements” on page 5-14 for more information.
2 Perform the following procedures:
• Make sure the instrument is ready to acquire data by pressing Run.
• Find any signals on the channel inputs by pressing Autoscale.
• See if any signals are present at the channel inputs by pressing Trigger, Sweep,
freerun.
After viewing the signal, press triggered.
• Make sure Channel Display is on by pressing Channel, Display on off, on.
• Make sure the channel offset is adjusted so the waveform is not clipped off
the display.
• If you are using the plug-in module only as a trigger source, make sure at
least one other channel is turned on. If all of the channels are turned off, the
mainframe will not trigger.
5-4
Reference
In Case of Difficulty
• Make sure the mainframe identifies the plug-in module by pressing Utility,
then System config....
The calibration status of the plug-in modules is listed near the bottom of the
display, in the box labeled “Plug-ins”. If the model number of the plugin module is listed next to the appropriate slot number, then the mainframe
has identified the plug-in.
If “~known” is displayed instead of the model number of the plug-in
module, remove and reinsert the plug-in module in the same slot.
If “~known” is still displayed, the mainframe may need to have the latest
operating system firmware installed. Options 001 and 002 provide this
firmware on a 3.5 inch diskette. To load new firmware, follow the
instructions provided with this diskette. If you do not have the optional
diskette, contact your local Agilent Technologies Service Office (refer to
“Agilent Technologies Service Offices” on page 5-24).
If the mainframe firmware is current and the plug-in module is correctly
installed, then the memory contents of the plug-in module are corrupt.
Contact a qualified service department.
If all of the above steps check out okay, and the plug-in module still does not
operate properly, then the problem is beyond the scope of this book. Return
the plug-in module to a qualified service department.
5-5
Reference
Measuring High Power Waveforms
Measuring High Power Waveforms
The Agilent 83487A is specified to accurately measure peak modulated signal
powers up to 400 µW (–4 dBm)1. If a signal has an average power of 200 µW
(–7 dBm) with an extinction ratio of 10 dB or higher, then the peak power may
be assumed to be roughly double the average power, or 400 µW. When signal
powers exceed this 400 µW level, the photodiode amplifier of the
Agilent 83487A may begin to saturate. This in turn can distort the shape of the
waveform and produce a false waveform image. A device that has a compliant
waveform may then actually fail a mask test.
This issue becomes more complex for devices which have a large overshoot in
the “0” to “1” transition. It is not unusual to have 100% overshoot when
working with high speed multimode transceivers. If the nominal ‘1’ level is
400 µW, and the overshoot is 100%, the peak power seen by the
Agilent 83487A is 800 µW (with 100% overshoot present, peak power is
roughly four times average power). This power level is likely to cause amplifier
saturation and waveform distortion. If tests are made in the Agilent 83487A filtered mode, the overshoot is suppressed by the filtering that takes place after
the amplification. Post-amplification filtering can hide the overshoot that may
cause distortion.
Steps to guarantee accurate results
Achieving accurate measurement results may require limiting the power going
into the Agilent 83487A optical port. For the 100% overshoot example above
(200 µW average power, 400 µW ‘1’ level, 800 µW peak power), the signal
must be attenuated by a factor of two (3 dB). A basic rule of thumb for signals
with up to 100% overshoot is that the average power should not exceed
100 µW (–10 dBm).
1. While the Agilent 83487A module is specified to receive a continuous wave peak power of up
to 600 µW (–2.2 dBm), high frequency ringing in a modulated signal can cause compression
at lower levels around 400 µW peak power.
5-6
Reference
Measuring High Power Waveforms
Average power can be measured directly using the internal power meter of the
Agilent 83487A, by pressing: blue Shift key, More meas key on the numeric keypad and
then the Avg Power softkey. Then select the data to be reported in dBm.
Average power measurements are made independent of the amplifier in the
optical receiver and are accurate up to an average input power level of 500 µW
or –3.0 dBm (2000 µW peak power input).
If overshoot is present, the correct level of attenuation is the difference
between the average power and –10 dBm. For example, a –3 dBm average
power signal would require 7 dB of attenuation (–3 dBm minus –10 dBm =
7 dBm, which requires a 7 dB attenuator). This is based upon the assumption
of a worst case overshoot of 100%. The end result is that the maximum peak
signal at the instrument input must be below 400 µW (–4 dBm). Again, this is
peak power and should not be confused with average power. Attenuation is
not required for signals that do not exceed 400 µW peak. Table 5-1 on
page 5-8 shows the conversion from average power to peak power when the
overshoot is 100% (the peak power is double the “1” level power), and the
attenuation needed to make measurements for power levels of these magnitudes. Note that the current maximum average power allowed by the standards is –5 dBm.
5-7
Reference
Measuring High Power Waveforms
Table 5-1. Recommended Attenuation for Signals > –10 dBm with 100% Overshoot
100% Overshoot Attenuation
Average Power
Peak Power (100%)
Attenuator
Net Input
µW
dBm
µW
dBm
dB
Avg.
dBm
Peak
dBm
100
–10.0
400
–4.0
0.0
–10.0
–4.0
125
–9.0
500
–3.0
1.0
–10.0
–4.0
200
–7.0
800
–1.0
3.0
–10.0
–4.0
316
–5.0
1265
1.0
5.0
–10.0
–4.0
400
–4.0
1600
2.0
6.0
–10.0
–4.0
500
–3.0
2000
3.0
7.0
–10.0
–4.0
800
–1.0
3200
5.1
9.1
–10.0
–4.0
1000
0.0
4000
6.0
10.0
–10.0
–4.0
In order to find out if your device under test may be exceeding the input
power requirements for the Agilent 83487A, first measure the average power
with the internal power meter, and then measure the peak power on the eye
diagram. If the average power exceeds –10 dBm (100 µW), you may need to
attenuate the signal (this assumes there is 100% overshoot present). Insert
the recommended attenuation from Table 5-1, and then measure the average
power again. If you are using a laboratory attenuator, then you will have a digital readout of the attenuation. If you are using a simple fixed attenuator, then
the attenuation value will be the difference between the average power reading with and without the attenuator.
The Agilent 83480A allows the attenuation to be accounted for and removed
from the measurement. Press the Optical Channel Setup key (above the optical
connector), and then the External scale softkey. Enter in the value of the attenuator, and the instrument will then read the true signal level prior to attenuation. You can then go back and measure the peak power on the eye diagram
again. If this measurement is the same as the original peak measurement without the attenuator, then you do not have compression and you are in a safe
measurement power zone with or without the attenuator. If the peak measure-
5-8
Reference
Measuring High Power Waveforms
ment was less without the attenuator, then you had compression during the
initial measurement; the second measurement with the attenuator and associated offset adjustment is the accurate measurement.
Using the fixed 5 dB attenuator
The Agilent 83487A is shipped with a nominal 5 dB attenuator (±1.5 dB),
which will provide correct attenuation for most signals up to –5 dBm average
power (the current allowable standard). Follow the procedure outlined above
to use this attenuator and enter in the correct offset value.
For many signals, the easiest way to proceed is to always use the attenuator
with the correct offset. A couple of exceptions to this recommendation are:
• when you are splitting the signal for multiple tests or if there is already another source of attenuation in front of the Agilent 83480/Agilent 83487A, or
• when you know there is no high frequency ringing associated with the device
under test and you want to use the high sensitivity of the Agilent 83487A.
CAUTION
The fiber-optic connectors on the 5 dB attenuator, like all fiber-optic
connectors, are easily damaged when connected to dirty or damaged cables
and accessories. Before making any connections to the attenuator, refer to
“Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements” on page 5-14.
Summary
The Agilent 83480A with the Agilent 83487A plug-in module was designed for
high sensitivity and has excellent waveform fidelity for signals with peak powers less than 400 µW (–4 dBm). For signals with peak powers greater than
400 µW (–4 dBm), a multimode attenuator is used to maintain high waveform
fidelity. By using the right attenuator, and entering the correct attenuation
factor into the external scale variable, the Agilent 83480A/Agilent 83487A
makes true Fibre Channel and Gigabit Ethernet compliance measurements
throughout the entire power range specified by the standards.
For more information, see Measuring High Power Waveforms with the
Agilent 83480/83487A, Product Note 83480-1. This is available through your
local Agilent Technologies sales office or at www.agilent.com/go/lightwave.
5-9
Reference
Error Messages
Error Messages
The following error messages are for the plug-in module. Typically, the error
messages indicate there is a problem with either the plug-in or the mainframe.
This section explains what the messages mean and offers a few suggestions
that might help resolve the error condition. If the suggestions do not eliminate
the error message, then additional troubleshooting is required that is beyond
the scope of this book. Refer to the Agilent 83480A, 54750A Service Guide
for additional troubleshooting information.
Additional error messages are listed in the Agilent 83480A, 54750A User’s
Guide for the mainframe.
Memory error occurred in plug-in_:Try reinstalling plugin
The mainframe could not correctly read the contents of the memory in the
plug-in.
1 Remove and reinstall the plug-in module. Each time a plug-in is installed, the
mainframe re-reads the memory in the plug-in module.
2 Verify the plug-in module is firmly seated in the mainframe slot.
3 Verify the knurled screws at the bottom of the plug-in module are finger-tight.
4 Install the plug-in in a different slot in the mainframe.
Busy timeout occurred with plug-in_:Try reinstalling
plug-in
The mainframe is having trouble communicating with the plug-in module.
Make sure there is a good connection between the mainframe and the plug-in
module.
1 Remove and reinstall the plug-in module.
2 Verify the plug-in module is firmly seated in the mainframe slot.
3 Verify the knurled screws at the bottom of the plug-in module are finger-tight.
4 Install the plug-in in a different slot in the mainframe.
5-10
Reference
Error Messages
Communications failure exists at slot_:Service is
required
An illegal hardware state is detected at the mainframe-to-plug-in module
interface of the specified slot.
If the slot is empty, there is a mainframe hardware problem. Refer to the
Agilent 83480A, 54750A Service Guide.
If a plug-in is installed in the slot, there is a plug-in module hardware problem.
Return the plug-in module to a qualified service department.
ID error occurred in plug-in_:Service is required
The information read from the memory of the plug-in module does not match
the hardware in the plug-in module. This can be caused by a communication
problem between the mainframe and the plug-in module. Make sure there is a
good connection between the mainframe and the plug-in.
1 Remove and re-install the plug-in module.
2 Verify the plug-in module is firmly seated in the mainframe slot.
3 Verify the knurled screws at the bottom of the plug-in module are finger tight.
4 The standard Agilent 54750A mainframe does not accept the Agilent 83487A
optical/electrical plug-in module. To use the module, a firmware upgrade must
first be installed. Order the Agilent 83480K communications firmware kit and
install according to the instructions.
5 The Agilent 83480A, 54750A mainframes do not accept plug-in modules
designed for use with the Agilent 54710A, 54720A.
Plug-in is not supported_:System firmware upgrade is
needed
The mainframe may need to have the latest operating system firmware
installed. Options 001 and 002 provide this firmware on a 3.5 inch diskette. To
load the new firmware, follow the instructions provided with the diskette. If
you do not have the optional diskette, contact your local Agilent Technologies
Service Office.
Cal not possible
The power is too low to perform a user O/E calibration.
5-11
Reference
Electrostatic Discharge Information
Electrostatic Discharge Information
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage or destroy electronic components.
All work on electronic assemblies should be performed at a static-safe work
station. The following figure shows an example of a static-safe work station
using two types of ESD protection:
• Conductive table-mat and wrist-strap combination.
• Conductive floor-mat and heel-strap combination.
5-12
Reference
Electrostatic Discharge Information
Both types, when used together, provide a significant level of ESD
protection. Of the two, only the table-mat and wrist-strap combination
provides adequate ESD protection when used alone.
To ensure user safety, the static-safe accessories must provide at least 1 MΩ
of isolation from ground. Refer to Table 5-2 for information on ordering
static-safe accessories.
WARNING
These techniques for a static-safe work station should not be used
when working on circuitry with a voltage potential greater than
500 volts.
Reducing ESD Damage
The following suggestions may help reduce ESD damage that occurs during
testing and servicing operations.
• Personnel should be grounded with a resistor-isolated wrist strap before removing any assembly from the unit.
• Be sure all instruments are properly earth-grounded to prevent a buildup of
static charge.
Table 5-2. Static-Safe Accessories
Agilent Part
Number
Description
9300-0797
Set includes: 3M static control mat 0.6 m × 1.2 m (2 ft× 4 ft) and 4.6 cm
(15 ft) ground wire. (The wrist-strap and wrist-strap cord are not included.
They must be ordered separately.)
9300-0980
Wrist-strap cord 1.5 m (5 ft)
9300-1383
Wrist-strap, color black, stainless steel, without cord, has four adjustable
links and a 7 mm post-type connection.
9300-1169
ESD heel-strap (reusable 6 to 12 months).
5-13
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Cleaning Connections for Accurate
Measurements
Today, advances in measurement capabilities make connectors and connection techniques more important than ever. Damage to the connectors on calibration and verification devices, test ports, cables, and other devices can
degrade measurement accuracy and damage instruments. Replacing a damaged connector can cost thousands of dollars, not to mention lost time! This
expense can be avoided by observing the simple precautions presented in this
book. This book also contains a brief list of tips for caring for electrical connectors.
Choosing the Right Connector
A critical but often overlooked factor in making a good lightwave measurement is the selection of the fiber-optic connector. The differences in connector types are mainly in the mechanical assembly that holds the ferrule in
position against another identical ferrule. Connectors also vary in the polish,
curve, and concentricity of the core within the cladding. Mating one style of
cable to another requires an adapter. Agilent Technologies offers adapters for
most instruments to allow testing with many different cables. Figure 5-1 on
page 5-15 shows the basic components of a typical connectors.
The system tolerance for reflection and insertion loss must be known when
selecting a connector from the wide variety of currently available connectors.
Some items to consider when selecting a connector are:
• How much insertion loss can be allowed?
• Will the connector need to make multiple connections? Some connectors are
better than others, and some are very poor for making repeated connections.
• What is the reflection tolerance? Can the system take reflection degradation?
• Is an instrument-grade connector with a precision core alignment required?
• Is repeatability tolerance for reflection and loss important? Do your specifica-
5-14
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
tions take repeatability uncertainty into account?
• Will a connector degrade the return loss too much, or will a fusion splice be required? For example, many DFB lasers cannot operate with reflections from
connectors. Often as much as 90 dB isolation is needed.
Figure 5-1. Basic components of a connector.
Over the last few years, the FC/PC style connector has emerged as the most
popular connector for fiber-optic applications. While not the highest performing connector, it represents a good compromise between performance, reliability, and cost. If properly maintained and cleaned, this connector can
withstand many repeated connections.
However, many instrument specifications require tighter tolerances than most
connectors, including the FC/PC style, can deliver. These instruments cannot
tolerate connectors with the large non-concentricities of the fiber common
with ceramic style ferrules. When tighter alignment is required, Agilent
Technologies instruments typically use a connector such as the Diamond
HMS-10, which has concentric tolerances within a few tenths of a micron. Agilent Technologies then uses a special universal adapter, which allows other
cable types to mate with this precision connector. See Figure 5-2.
5-15
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Figure 5-2. Universal adapters to Diamond HMS-10.
The HMS-10 encases the fiber within a soft nickel silver (Cu/Ni/Zn) center
which is surrounded by a tough tungsten carbide casing, as shown in
Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3. Cross-section of the Diamond HMS-10 connector.
The nickel silver allows an active centering process that permits the glass fiber
to be moved to the desired position. This process first stakes the soft nickel
silver to fix the fiber in a near-center location, then uses a post-active staking
to shift the fiber into the desired position within 0.2 µm. This process, plus the
keyed axis, allows very precise core-to-core alignments. This connector is
found on most Agilent Technologies lightwave instruments.
5-16
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
The soft core, while allowing precise centering, is also the chief liability of the
connector. The soft material is easily damaged. Care must be taken to minimize excessive scratching and wear. While minor wear is not a problem if the
glass face is not affected, scratches or grit can cause the glass fiber to move
out of alignment. Also, if unkeyed connectors are used, the nickel silver can be
pushed onto the glass surface. Scratches, fiber movement, or glass contamination will cause loss of signal and increased reflections, resulting in poor return
loss.
Inspecting Connectors
Because fiber-optic connectors are susceptible to damage that is not immediately obvious to the naked eye, poor measurements result without the user
being aware. Microscopic examination and return loss measurements are the
best way to ensure good measurements. Good cleaning practices can help
ensure that optimum connector performance is maintained. With glass-toglass interfaces, any degradation of a ferrule or the end of the fiber, any stray
particles, or finger oil can have a significant effect on connector performance.
Where many repeat connections are required, use of a connector saver or
patch cable is recommended.
Figure 5-4 shows the end of a clean fiber-optic cable. The dark circle in the
center of the micrograph is the fiber’s 125 µm core and cladding which carries
the light. The surrounding area is the soft nickel-silver ferrule. Figure 5-5
shows a dirty fiber end from neglect or perhaps improper cleaning. Material is
smeared and ground into the end of the fiber causing light scattering and poor
reflection. Not only is the precision polish lost, but this action can grind off the
glass face and destroy the connector.
Figure 5-6 shows physical damage to the glass fiber end caused by either
repeated connections made without removing loose particles or using
improper cleaning tools. When severe, the damage of one connector end can
be transferred to another good connector endface that comes in contact with
the damaged one. Periodic checks of fiber ends, and replacing connecting
cables after many connections is a wise practice.
The cure for these problems is disciplined connector care as described in the
following list and in “Cleaning Connectors” on page 5-21.
5-17
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Use the following guidelines to achieve the best possible performance when
making measurements on a fiber-optic system:
• Never use metal or sharp objects to clean a connector and never scrape the
connector.
• Avoid matching gel and oils.
Figure 5-4. Clean, problem-free fiber end and ferrule.
Figure 5-5. Dirty fiber end and ferrule from poor cleaning.
5-18
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Figure 5-6. Damage from improper cleaning.
While these often work well on first insertion, they are great dirt magnets. The
oil or gel grabs and holds grit that is then ground into the end of the fiber.
Also, some early gels were designed for use with the FC, non-contacting connectors, using small glass spheres. When used with contacting connectors,
these glass balls can scratch and pit the fiber. If an index matching gel or oil
must be used, apply it to a freshly cleaned connector, make the measurement,
and then immediately clean it off. Never use a gel for longer-term connections
and never use it to improve a damaged connector. The gel can mask the extent
of damage and continued use of a damaged fiber can transfer damage to the
instrument.
• When inserting a fiber-optic cable into a connector, gently insert it in as
straight a line as possible. Tipping and inserting at an angle can scrape material
off the inside of the connector or even break the inside sleeve of connectors
made with ceramic material.
• When inserting a fiber-optic connector into a connector, make sure that the fiber end does not touch the outside of the mating connector or adapter.
• Avoid over tightening connections.
Unlike common electrical connections, tighter is not better. The purpose of
the connector is to bring two fiber ends together. Once they touch, tightening
only causes a greater force to be applied to the delicate fibers. With connectors that have a convex fiber end, the end can be pushed off-axis resulting in
misalignment and excessive return loss. Many measurements are actually
improved by backing off the connector pressure. Also, if a piece of grit does
happen to get by the cleaning procedure, the tighter connection is more likely
to damage the glass. Tighten the connectors just until the two fibers touch.
5-19
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
• Keep connectors covered when not in use.
• Use fusion splices on the more permanent critical nodes. Choose the best connector possible. Replace connecting cables regularly. Frequently measure the
return loss of the connector to check for degradation, and clean every connector, every time.
All connectors should be treated like the high-quality lens of a good camera.
The weak link in instrument and system reliability is often the inappropriate
use and care of the connector. Because current connectors are so easy to use,
there tends to be reduced vigilance in connector care and cleaning. It takes
only one missed cleaning for a piece of grit to permanently damage the glass
and ruin the connector.
Measuring insertion loss and return loss
Consistent measurements with your lightwave equipment are a good indication that you have good connections. Since return loss and insertion loss are
key factors in determining optical connector performance they can be used to
determine connector degradation. A smooth, polished fiber end should produce a good return-loss measurement. The quality of the polish establishes
the difference between the “PC” (physical contact) and the “Super PC” connectors. Most connectors today are physical contact which make glass-to-glass
connections, therefore it is critical that the area around the glass core be clean
and free of scratches. Although the major area of a connector, excluding the
glass, may show scratches and wear, if the glass has maintained its polished
smoothness, the connector can still provide a good low level return loss connection.
If you test your cables and accessories for insertion loss and return loss upon
receipt, and retain the measured data for comparison, you will be able to tell in
the future if any degradation has occurred. Typical values are less than 0.5 dB
of loss, and sometimes as little as 0.1 dB of loss with high performance connectors. Return loss is a measure of reflection: the less reflection the better
(the larger the return loss, the smaller the reflection). The best physically
contacting connectors have return losses better than 50 dB, although 30 to
40 dB is more common.
5-20
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Visual inspection of fiber ends
Visual inspection of fiber ends can be helpful. Contamination or imperfections
on the cable end face can be detected as well as cracks or chips in the fiber
itself. Use a microscope (100X to 200X magnification) to inspect the entire
end face for contamination, raised metal, or dents in the metal as well as any
other imperfections. Inspect the fiber for cracks and chips. Visible imperfections not touching the fiber core may not affect performance (unless the
imperfections keep the fibers from contacting).
WARNING
Always remove both ends of fiber-optic cables from any instrument,
system, or device before visually inspecting the fiber ends. Disable all
optical sources before disconnecting fiber-optic cables. Failure to do
so may result in permanent injury to your eyes.
Cleaning Connectors
The procedures in this section provide the proper steps for cleaning fiberoptic cables and Agilent Technologies universal adapters. The initial cleaning,
using the alcohol as a solvent, gently removes any grit and oil. If a caked-on
layer of material is still present, (this can happen if the beryllium-copper sides
of the ferrule retainer get scraped and deposited on the end of the fiber during
insertion of the cable), a second cleaning should be performed. It is not
uncommon for a cable or connector to require more than one cleaning.
CAUTION
Agilent Technologies strongly recommends that index matching compounds
not be applied to their instruments and accessories. Some compounds, such as
gels, may be difficult to remove and can contain damaging particulates. If you
think the use of such compounds is necessary, refer to the compound
manufacturer for information on application and cleaning procedures.
Table 5-3. Cleaning Accessories
Item
Agilent Part Number
Any commercially available denatured alcohol
—
Cotton swabs
8520-0023
Small foam swabs
9300-1223
Compressed dust remover (non-residue)
8500-5262
5-21
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
Table 5-4. Dust Caps Provided with Lightwave Instruments
Item
Agilent Part Number
Laser shutter cap
08145-64521
FC/PC dust cap
08154-44102
Biconic dust cap
08154-44105
DIN dust cap
5040-9364
HMS10/dust cap
5040-9361
ST dust cap
5040-9366
To clean a non-lensed connector
CAUTION
Do not use any type of foam swab to clean optical fiber ends. Foam swabs can
leave filmy deposits on fiber ends that can degrade performance.
1 Apply pure isopropyl alcohol to a clean lint-free cotton swab or lens paper.
Cotton swabs can be used as long as no cotton fibers remain on the fiber end
after cleaning.
2 Clean the ferrules and other parts of the connector while avoiding the end of
the fiber.
3 Apply isopropyl alcohol to a new clean lint-free cotton swab or lens paper.
4 Clean the fiber end with the swab or lens paper.
Do not scrub during this initial cleaning because grit can be caught in the
swab and become a gouging element.
5 Immediately dry the fiber end with a clean, dry, lint-free cotton swab or lens
paper.
6 Blow across the connector end face from a distance of 6 to 8 inches using
filtered, dry, compressed air. Aim the compressed air at a shallow angle to the
fiber end face.
Nitrogen gas or compressed dust remover can also be used.
5-22
Reference
Cleaning Connections for Accurate Measurements
CAUTION
Do not shake, tip, or invert compressed air canisters, because this releases
particles in the can into the air. Refer to instructions provided on the
compressed air canister.
7 As soon as the connector is dry, connect or cover it for later use.
If the performance, after the initial cleaning, seems poor try cleaning the connector again. Often a second cleaning will restore proper performance. The
second cleaning should be more arduous with a scrubbing action.
To clean an adapter
The fiber-optic input and output connectors on many Agilent Technologies
instruments employ a universal adapter such as those shown in the following
picture. These adapters allow you to connect the instrument to different types
of fiber-optic cables.
Figure 5-7. Universal adapters.
1 Apply isopropyl alcohol to a clean foam swab.
Cotton swabs can be used as long as no cotton fibers remain after cleaning. The
foam swabs listed in this section’s introduction are small enough to fit into
adapters.
Although foam swabs can leave filmy deposits, these deposits are very thin, and
the risk of other contamination buildup on the inside of adapters greatly outweighs the risk of contamination by foam swabs.
2 Clean the adapter with the foam swab.
3 Dry the inside of the adapter with a clean, dry, foam swab.
4 Blow through the adapter using filtered, dry, compressed air.
Nitrogen gas or compressed dust remover can also be used. Do not shake, tip,
or invert compressed air canisters, because this releases particles in the can
into the air. Refer to instructions provided on the compressed air canister.
5-23
Reference
Agilent Technologies Service Offices
Agilent Technologies Service Offices
Before returning an instrument for service, call the Agilent Technologies
Instrument Support Center at (800) 403-0801, visit the Test and Measurement
Web Sites by Country page at http://www.tm.agilent.com/tmo/country/English/
index.html, or call one of the numbers listed below.
Agilent Technologies Service Numbers
Austria
01/25125-7171
Belgium
32-2-778.37.71
Brazil
(11) 7297-8600
China
86 10 6261 3819
Denmark
45 99 12 88
Finland
358-10-855-2360
France
01.69.82.66.66
Germany
0180/524-6330
India
080-34 35788
Italy
+39 02 9212 2701
Ireland
01 615 8222
Japan
(81)-426-56-7832
Korea
82/2-3770-0419
Mexico
(5) 258-4826
Netherlands
020-547 6463
Norway
22 73 57 59
Russia
+7-095-797-3930
Spain
(34/91) 631 1213
Sweden
08-5064 8700
Switzerland
(01) 735 7200
United Kingdom
01 344 366666
United States and Canada
(800) 403-0801
5-24
Index
A
accessories and options, 1-7
active probe, 2-7
Agilent offices, 5-24
Atten units softkey, 2-9
attenuation
range, 2-9
Attenuation softkey, 2-9
attenuator, scaling, 2-9, 5-9
automatic measurement, 2-6
auxiliary power connector, 1-5
B
Bandwidth key, 2-7
Bandwidth/Wavelength... softkey, 2-7
C
cabinet, cleaning, v
Cal status softkey, 2-12
Calibrate probe softkey, 2-13
Calibrate softkey, 2-11
calibration
external scale, 3-14
factory, 3-4
mainframe, 3-4
O/E, 2-13, 3-6
O/E converters, 3-14
O/E user wavelength, 3-9
offset zero, 2-13, 3-12
overview, 3-1
plug-in module vertical calibration, 3-11
probe, 3-15
probes, 3-14
skew, 3-14
user, 3-7
validity, 2-12
voltage probe, 3-15
care
of cabinet, v
care of fiber optics, iv
channel
display, 2-6
input, 1-5
scale, 2-10
setup, 1-2, 2-2
Channel 1 Calibration Status message, 2-12
Channel autoscale softkey, 2-8
Channel key, 1-2, 2-2
classification
product, v
cleaning
adapters, 5-23
cabinet, v
fiber-optic connections, 5-14, 5-22
non-lensed connectors, 5-22
compressed dust remover, 5-21
connection devices, 1-7
connector
care, 5-14
cotton swabs, 5-21
Current Date message, 2-12
Current Frame Delta Temp, 2-12
customer assistance, vii
D
damaged shipment, 1-10
decibel calculation, 2-9
declaration of conformity, 4-9
digital offset, 2-7
Display softkey, 2-6
dust caps, 5-22
E
electrostatic discharge, 5-12
ESD
reducing damage caused by ESD, 5-13
static-safe work station, 5-13
Ext gain softkey, 2-10
Ext offset softkey, 2-10
extender cables, 1-11
external scale calibration, 3-14
External scale... softkey, 2-9
external trigger
input, 1-5
level, 1-6
F
factory calibration, 3-4
fiber optics
care of, iv
cleaning connections, 5-14
Index-1
Index
connectors, covering, 1-13
Filter key, 2-7
foam swabs, 5-21
front panel overview, 1-5
fuse, 1-11
values, vi
H
high power signals, 5-6
horizontal waveform, 2-11
I
IEC Publication 61010-1, v
input
connector, 5-14
INPUT connector, iv
inspecting
instrument, 1-10
instrument
returning for service, 1-12
K
key conventions, 1-9
M
mainframe calibration, 3-4
mainframe troubleshooting, 5-3
marker value, 2-9
math function, 2-6
maximum power input, iv
menu overview, 1-9
O
O/E cal softkey, 2-13
O/E calibration, 3-6
O/E converter calibration, 3-14
O/E user wavelength calibration, 3-9
offset, 2-6–2-7, 2-10, 2-13
Offset softkey, 2-7
offset zero calibration, 3-12
Offset zero softkey, 2-13
optical
channel, 2-7
Index-2
optical-to-electrical converter scaling, 2-9
options and accessories, 1-7
P
packaging for shipment, 1-13
plug-in message, 2-13
plug-in module
features, iii
front panel, 1-5
serial number, 1-10
plug-in module vertical calibration, 3-11
power
level, 2-7
maximum input, iv
probe
attenuation, 2-9, 2-13
attenuation factor, 2-9
characteristics, 2-10
power, 2-7
power connector, 1-5
probe calibration, 3-14, 3-15
pulse parameter measurements, 2-6
R
regulatory information, 4-2
returning for service, 1-12
S
safety, v
laser classification, v
safety information, iii, vii, 1-11
sales and service offices, 5-24
Scale softkey, 2-6
serial number, 1-10
service, 1-12
returning for, 1-12
sales and service offices, 5-24
shifted function keys, 1-9
shipping
procedure, 1-12
skew calibration, 3-14
Skew softkey, 2-11
softkey
menu, 1-5
overview, 1-9
Index
specifications, 4-2
swabs, 5-21
T
technical assistance, vii
temperature change, 2-13
trigger
external, 1-6
level, 2-10
source, 2-6
troubleshooting, 5-2
U
Units softkey, 2-6, 2-10
user calibrations, 3-7
V
vertical
measurement, 2-10
scale, 2-6–2-8
waveform, 2-7
voltage
measurement, 2-9
probe, 2-13
voltage probe calibration, 3-15
W
wattage measurement, 2-9
waveform
display, 2-6
horizontal, 2-11
waveforms
high power, 5-6
Wavelength key, 2-8
wavelength settings, 2-7
Index-3
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