Manual 21901751

Manual 21901751
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DOCUMENT INFORMATION
REPORT TITLE
DRAFT CAPITAL CITY MASTER PLAN REPORT - PART 2
PROJECT TITLE
MASTER PLANNING FOR NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH
PROJECT REF NO.:
310-05-04-0001
CLIENT:
SINGAPORE COOPERATION ENTERPRISE, SINGAPORE
SUBMISSION DATE:
20-07-2015
FILE NAME:
INR1401_AP_DRAFT CAPITAL CITY MASTER PLAN REPORT - PART 2
APPROVALS
NAME
AUTHOR
REVIEWER
DESIGNATION
DATE
ANG CHIT SIK ASVIN
DAYANITHI THANGAVEL
SONALI MEHTA
KAUSTUBH TAMASKAR
SENIOR ENGINEER
SENIOR PLANNER
URBAN DESIGNER
PROJECT MANAGER
15-07-2015
JAMES ROBERT ELLISON
KUM CHUN SEETOH
ANANDAN KARUNAKARAN
VICE PRESIDENT (COASTAL ENGINEERING)
DEPUTY PROJECT DIRECTOR
PROJECT DIRECTOR
15-07-2015
Number of copies issued: 03
VERSION NO.
DATE ISSUED
DETAILS
APPROVAL FOR ISSUE
1
02-07-2015
DRAFT 1
ANANDAN KARUNAKARAN
2
20-07-2015
FINAL
ANANDAN KARUNAKARAN
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CONTENTS
PREFACE
VII
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
IX
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
XI
CHAPTER 1.INTRODUCTION
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1.1INTRODUCTION
1.2
PROJECT DELIVERABLES
1.3
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 1.4
METHODOLOGY 1.4.1 DATA COLLECTION
1.4.2 SITE VISIT
1.4.3 MEETINGS WITH OFFICIALS
1.4.4 TRAINING WORKSHOPS
1.4.5 DATA ANALYSIS
1.4.6 URBAN SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK (USF)
1.4.7 VISION FORMULATION
1.4.8 CAPITAL CITY MASTER PLAN
1.5
ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT
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CHAPTER 2.CAPITAL CITY CONTEXT
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
REGIONAL CONTEXT
ESTABLISHING THE PLANNING AREA BOUNDARY
CITY CONTEXT
2.3.1 SITE CONNECTIVITY 2.3.2 ADJACENT EMPLOYMENT CENTRES
2.3.3 EXISTING SETTLEMENTS
2.3.4 RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE
2.3.5 NATURAL FEATURES
SUMMARY: CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES
2.4.1 CONSTRAINTS
2.4.2 OPPORTUNITIES
CHAPTER 3.CAPITAL CITY PROJECTIONS
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
OVERVIEW OF THE CAPITAL CITY
3.1.1 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY
FEATURES OF A SUCCESSFUL CAPITAL CITY
ECONOMIC POSITIONING OF THE AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY
DEMOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
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3.5
3.6
3.7
DEMAND METHODOLOGY
3.5.1 INDUSTRIAL SECTORS
3.5.2 SERVICES SECTOR ~ IT/ITES SECTOR
3.5.3 FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE HUB
EMPLOYMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR ECONOMIC USES
LAND DEMAND FOR HOUSING AND SUPPORT REAL ESTATE USES
CHAPTER 4.CAPITAL CITY MASTER PLAN
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
URBAN SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK
4.1.1 KEY SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES IN THE CAPITAL CITY
4.1.2 SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK
VISION, GOALS AND STRATEGIES
CONCEPT PLAN
4.3.1 VASTU CONSIDERATIONS
4.3.2 PLANNING STRATEGIES
4.3.3 TOWNSHIP MODEL
BROAD DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
WORLD CLASS INFRASTRUCTURE
4.5.1 ROAD NETWORK - EFFICIENT GRID
4.5.2 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION NETWORK
JOBS & HOMES FOR ALL
4.6.1 CITY OF DECENTRALIZED EMPLOYMENT CENTRES
4.6.2 PROPOSED EMPLOYMENT PLAN
4.6.3 PROPOSED COMMERCIAL CENTRES
4.6.4 CITY OF SELF-SUSTAINED TOWNSHIPS
4.6.5 PROPOSED RESIDENTIAL PLAN
CLEAN & GREEN
4.7.1 WATER NETWORKED CITY
4.7.2 PROPOSED GREEN AND BLUE PLAN
4.7.3 WATERFRONT CITY
4.7.4 PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY CITY: NMT PLAN
QUALITY LIVING
4.8.1
CONVENIENT & FLEXIBLE CITY
4.8.2
PROPOSED PUBLIC FACILITIES PLAN
EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
4.9.1 MODEL CITY OF SMART SOLUTIONS
IDENTITY & HERITAGE
4.10.1 CITY WITH STRONG CULTURAL ROOTS
4.10.2 CITY WITH GREEN IDENTITY
CAPITAL CITY - LANDUSE PLAN
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4.12
4.13
CAPITAL CITY - ZONING PLAN
VILLAGE INTEGRATION & LAND POOLING STRATEGY
4.13.1 LAND RETURN STRATEGY
4.13.2 VILLAGE INTEGRATION STRATEGY
CHAPTER 5.CAPITAL CITY INDUSTRIAL PLAN
5.1
5.2
5.3
INDUSTRIAL PLAN
5.1.1 OVERVIEW
INDUSTRIAL INFRASTRUCTURE PLANS
5.2.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2.2 PLANNING METHODOLOGY 5.2.3 PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS
CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6.INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISIONS
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
INTEGRATED URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT
6.1.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS
6.1.2 PROPOSED URBAN WATER CYCLE
6.1.3 WATER SUPPLY
6.1.4 SEWERAGE
6.1.5 FLOOD MANAGEMENT
6.1.6 OVERLAPPING MEASURES FLOOD MANAGEMENT
6.2.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS
6.2.2 PROPOSED FLOOD MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
6.2.3 CONCEPT PROPOSALS
6.2.4 FURTHER DETAILED STUDIES REQUIRED WATER SUPPLY
6.3.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS
6.3.2 WATER SUPPLY STRATEGIES
6.3.3 POTENTIAL SOURCES OF WATER
6.3.4 WATER DEMAND PROJECTION
6.3.5 WATER SUPPLY PROPOSALS
6.3.6 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
6.3.7 CRITICAL ISSUES FOR WATER SUPPLY
SEWERAGE
6.4.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS
6.4.2 WASTE WATER STRATEGIES
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
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6.4.3 SEWAGE FLOW PROJECTION
6.4.4 WASTEWATER PROPOSALS
6.4.5 CRITICAL ISSUES FOR SEWERAGE
SOLID WASTE
6.5.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS
6.5.2 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 6.5.3 SOLID WASTE PROJECTIONS
6.5.4 PROPOSED SHORT TERM SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
6.5.5 PROPOSED LONG TERM SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
6.5.6 CRITICAL ISSUES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
POWER SUPPLY
6.6.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS
6.6.2 POWER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
6.6.3 POWER SUPPLY PROJECTIONS 6.6.4 POWER SUPPLY PROPOSALS
6.6.5 CRITICAL ISSUES FOR POWER SUPPLY
CHAPTER 7.PHASING STRATEGY
7.1
7.2
DEVELOPMENT PHASING
7.1.1 PHASE 1: CATALYSE
7.1.2 PHASE 2: MOMENTIZE
7.1.3 PHASE 3: SUSTAIN
PHASE-WISE LANDUSE DISTRIBUTION
CHAPTER 8.FOLLOW-UP MEASURES
8.1
8.2
8.3
IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS
8.1.1 ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION PLANS 8.1.2 POLICY FRAMEWORK RELATED ACTIONS
8.1.3 INFRASTRUCTURE ACTIONS
INFRASTRUCTURE FOLLOW UP MEASURES
8.2.1 FLOOD MANAGEMENT
8.2.2 WATER SUPPLY 8.2.3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
8.2.4 POWER SUPPLY
THE WAY FORWARD
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1
CAPITAL CITY LANDUSE DISTRIBUTION TABLES AND PLANS
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LIST OF FIGURES
FIG.2.1 CAPITAL REGION CONCEPT PLAN
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FIG.2.2 ESTABLISHING PLANNING AREA BOUNDARY
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FIG.2.3 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY CONNECTIVITY
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FIG.2.4 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY CONTEXT
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FIG.2.5 EXISTING SETTLEMENTS WITHIN THE AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.2.6 RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE
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FIG.2.7 NATURAL FEATURES ON SITE AND SURROUNDINGS
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FIG.3.1 AP CAPITAL REGION
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FIG.3.2 DRIVING FACTORS OF A SUCCESSFUL CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.3.3 ECONOMIC POSITIONING OF AMARAVATI AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.3.4 COMPUTATION OF LAND DEMAND FOR IDENTIFIED INDUSTRIAL USES
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FIG.3.5 EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
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FIG.3.6 COMPUTATION OF LAND DEMAND FOR SERVICES SECTORS – IT/ITES SECTOR, ETC
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FIG.3.7 EXAMPLES OF IT/ITES SECTOR
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FIG.3.8 ARTIST IMPRESSIONS OF FINANCIALS AND R&D HUBS IN INDIA
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FIG.3.9 COMPUTATION OF LAND DEMAND – GOVERNMENT COMPLEX
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FIG.3.10 METHODOLOGY FOR THE COMPUTATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND POPULATION
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FIG.3.11 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR THE COMPUTATION OF LAND DEMAND FOR HOUSING AND REAL
ESTATE SUPPORT USES
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FIG.3.12 SUPPORTING REAL ESTATE USES
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FIG.4.1 URBAN SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK
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FIG.4.2 VASTU CONSIDERATIONS IN MASTER PLAN
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FIG.4.3 SITE SLOPES TOWARDS RIVER KRISHNA
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FIG.4.4 LOCATION OF HILLS
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FIG.4.5 MAIN ENTRY FROM EAST
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FIG.4.6 CONCEPT STRUCTURE SHOWING THREE AXIS AND THREE NODES
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FIG.4.7 VILLAGE TOWNSHIP MODEL
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FIG.4.8 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY TOWNSHIP MODEL
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FIG.4.9 MAIN CITY NODES AND AXES
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FIG.4.10 DOWNTOWN
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FIG.4.11 INDUSTRIAL BELT
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FIG.4.12 EXPRESSWAY AND ARTERIAL ROAD GRID
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FIG.4.13 FOUR ZONES
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FIG.4.14 REGIONAL CENTRES
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FIG.4.15 LOOP ROAD
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FIG.4.16 GREEN NETWORK
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FIG.4.17 PUBLIC TRANSIT
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FIG.4.18 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY STRUCTURE PLAN
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FIG.4.19 PROPOSED ROAD HIERARCHY MATRIX FOR AMARAVATI
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FIG.4.20 EXAMPLE OF A GRID ROAD NETWORK - BARCELONA
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FIG.4.21 EXAMPLES OF PROPOSED ROAD TYPES
FIG.4.22 CONCEPTUAL RESIDENTIAL ROAD HIERARCHY
FIG.4.23 CONCEPTUAL INDUSTRIAL ROAD HIERARCHY
FIG.4.24 PROPOSED RIGHT OF WAY WIDTHS
FIG.4.25 PROPOSED ROAD NETWORK PLAN
FIG.4.26 TYPICAL ROAD SECTIONS
FIG.4.27 TYPICAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
FIG.4.28 PROPOSED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN
FIG.4.29 POSSIBLE ARRANGEMENT OF ROADS WITH RAPID TRANSIT (DOWNTOWN ROAD)
FIG.4.30 PROPOSED EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION MAP
FIG.4.31 PRIMARY EMPLOYMENT CENTRES
FIG.4.32 SECONDARY EMPLOYMENT CENTRES
FIG.4.33 TERTIARY EMPLOYMENT CENTRES
FIG.4.34 PROPOSED EMPLOYMENT PLAN
FIG.4.35 DISTRIBUTION OF COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS
FIG.4.36 EXAMPLES OF COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS
FIG.4.37 TOWNSHIP PLAN
FIG.4.38 PROPOSED POPULATION DISTRIBUTION PLAN
FIG.4.39 COMMERCIAL CENTRES WITHIN TOWNS
FIG.4.40 AMENITIES WITHIN TOWNS
FIG.4.41 PROPOSED RESIDENTIAL PLAN
FIG.4.42 DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS
FIG.4.43 MOOD IMAGES - HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL
FIG.4.44 MOOD IMAGES - MEDIUM RISE RESIDENTIAL
FIG.4.45 MOOD IMAGES - LOW RISE RESIDENTIAL
FIG.4.46 MOOD IMAGES - MIXED USE DEVELOPMENTS
FIG.4.47 FLOOD PRONE AREAS
FIG.4.48 CONNECTING EXISTING WATER TANKS AND CANALS
FIG.4.49 CENTRAL GREEN LUNG
FIG.4.50 CIVIC AND RECREATIONAL AXIS
FIG.4.51 PROPOSED GREEN AND BLUE PLAN
FIG.4.52 DISTRIBUTION OF PARKS AND OPEN SPACES
FIG.4.53 PROPOSED WATER ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY
FIG.4.54 PROPOSED WATER TAXI MAP TO CONNECT THE CLUSTER OF ISLANDS
FIG.4.55 BUND SECTIONS ALONG THE WATERFRONT
FIG.4.56 PROPOSED NON MOTORIZED TRANSPORT PLAN
FIG.4.57 EXAMPLES OF MODES OF NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORT
FIG.4.58 DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATION FACILITIES
FIG.4.59 DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH FACILITIES
FIG.4.60 DISTRIBUTION OF CITY LEVEL SPORTS FACILITIES
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FIG.4.61 DISTRIBUTION OF CIVIC FACILITIES
FIG.4.62 EXAMPLES OF PUBLIC FACILITIES PLANNED ACROSS THE CITY
FIG.4.63 PROPOSED PUBLIC FACILITIES PLAN
FIG.4.64 DISTRIBUTION OF CIVIC FACILITIES AND RESERVED SITES
FIG.4.65 WATER SUPPLY PLAN
FIG.4.66 POWER SUPPLY PLAN
FIG.4.67 WASTE WATER PLAN
FIG.4.68 SOLID WASTE PLAN
FIG.4.69 EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES
FIG.4.70 PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE PLAN FIG.4.71 EXAMPLES OF INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES PLANNED ACROSS THE CITY
FIG.4.72 PROPOSED RELIGIOUS TOURISM PLAN
FIG.4.73 IMPORTANT HERITAGE SITES WITHIN THE CITY
FIG.4.74 PROPOSED KEY FEATURES - AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY
FIG.4.75 PROPOSED AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY LANDUSE PLAN
FIG.4.76 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY LANDUSE DISTRIBUTION
FIG.4.77 PROPOSED AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY ZONING PLAN
FIG.4.78 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY ZONING DISTRIBUTION
FIG.4.79 EXAMPLE OF LAND POOLING SCHEME IN THULLUR VILLAGE
FIG.4.80 KEY PLAN - TYPICAL VILLAGE EXPANSION PLAN
FIG.4.81 TYPICAL VILLAGE EXPANSION PLAN
FIG.5.1 LOCATION OF AMARAVATI
FIG.5.2 AMARAVATI STRATEGICALLY LOCATED IN-BETWEEN BRICS AND ASEAN COUNTRIES
FIG.5.3 KEY FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO INDUSTRIAL ECO-SYSTEM
FIG.5.4 STRATEGIC SKILL DEVELOPMENT FACILITATING ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE CAPITAL CITY
FIG.5.5 ENVISAGED ECO-SYSTEM AND FOCUS INDUSTRIES OF AMARAVATI
FIG.5.6 BUSINESS PARK LANDUSE PLAN
FIG.5.7 EXAMPLES OF BUSINESS PARK DEVELOPMENTS
FIG.5.8 INDUSTRIAL LANDUSE PLAN
FIG.5.9 EXAMPLES OF LIGHT AND HEAVY INDUSTRIES
FIG.5.10 LOGISTICS ZONE PLAN
FIG.5.11 EXAMPLES OF LOGISTICS INDUSTRIES
FIG.5.12 BROAD INDUSTRIAL PLANNING CONCEPT
FIG.5.13 KEY FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY
FIG.5.14 RECOMMENDED TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL LAYOUT FIG.5.15 DYNAMIC ROLE OF AMARAVATI CITY
FIG.5.16 TYPICAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FLOWCHART
FIG.5.17 PROPOSED LOCATION OF EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE SUB-STATIONS – S/S (4NOS), INDUSTRIAL
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT – IETP & TRANSFER STATION - TS
FIG.5.18 DYNAMIC ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE COMPLEMENTING EXISTING AND NEW CITY THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
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FIG.6.1 PRAKASAM BARRAGE
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FIG.6.2 INTEGRATED URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT
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FIG.6.3 PROPOSED URBAN WATER CYCLE
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FIG.6.4 CATCHMENT AND INDUNDATION AREA OF KONDAVEETI VAGU (CRDA, 2015)
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FIG.6.5 PROPOSED FLOOD MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
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FIG.6.6 PREVENT: REINFORCE AND REALIGN KRISHNA RIVER BUND
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FIG.6.7 CONTROL: DETAIN STORMWATER IN INTERNAL DETENTION PONDS
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FIG.6.8 CONTROL: DETAIN STORMWATER IN EXTERNAL DETENTION PONDS
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FIG.6.9 INDICATIVE LOCATIONS OF RESERVOIRS 1 AND 2
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FIG.6.10 TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR GREEN AND BLUE NETWORK
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FIG.6.11 2M DEM CONTOUR IMAGE SHOWING THE LOW LYING AREAS (CRDA, 2015)
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FIG.6.12 PHOTO OF EXISTING BUND
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FIG.6.13 PULICHINTALA DAM
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FIG.6.14 EXISTING AND POSSIBLE BARRAGE LOCATIONS (CRDA, 2015)
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FIG.6.15 WATER SUPPLY RESOURCES FOR CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.6.16 INDICATIVE WATER SUPPLY PIPELINE NETWORK AND WATER DISTRIBUTION CENTRES FOR THE
CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.6.17 PHASE 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
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FIG.6.18 PHASE 2 WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
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FIG.6.19 DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
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FIG.6.20 EXISTING SOLID WASTE FACILITIES NEAR THE CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.6.21 DOOR TO DOOR COLLECTION IN VIJAYAWADA
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FIG.6.22 EXISTING SOLID WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) PLANT IN AJITHSINGH NAGAR, VIJAYAWADA
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FIG.6.23 CLOSED WASTE SORTING (MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES, 2015)
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FIG.6.24 INDICATIVE SOLID WASTE TRANSFER STATIONS AND THE SOLID WASTE TRANSFER DIRECTION 98
FIG.6.25 HAZARDOUS WASTE SYMBOLS (TODD WASTE MANAGEMENT, UK ,2015)
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FIG.6.26 RECYCLING BINS ALONG ORCHARD ROAD, SINGAPORE
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FIG.6.27 MODERN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT RECOVERY AND TRANSFER CENTRE, TACOMA, US.
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FIG.6.28 PNEUMATIC WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM IN SINGAPORE, (HDB 2015)
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FIG.6.29 EXISTING LOCATIONS OF OVERHEAD POWER LINES IN CAPITAL CITY BOUNDARY
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FIG.6.30 PROPOSED LONG TERM TRANSMISSION LINE ALIGNMENTS FOR CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.6.31 EXISTING PYLONS LEADING TO THULLUR
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FIG.6.32 PROPOSED SHORT TERM TRANSMISSION LINE ALIGNMENTS FOR CAPITAL CITY
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FIG.7.1 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY PHASE 1 PLAN
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FIG.7.2 KEY PROJECTS - PHASE 1
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FIG.7.3 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY PHASE 2 PLAN
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FIG.7.4 KEY PROJECTS - PHASE 2
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FIG.7.5 AMARAVATI CAPITAL CITY PHASE 3 PLAN
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FIG.7.6 KEY PROJECTS - PHASE 3
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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 2.1 LAND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN ORIGINAL PLANNING BOUNDARY
TABLE 2.2 LAND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN PROPOSED PLANNING BOUNDARY
TABLE 2.3 EXISTING SETTLEMENTS TABLE
TABLE 3.1 LOCATION AND LAND EXTENT OF BENCHMARKED FINANCIAL/BUSINESS DISTRICTS
TABLE 3.2 LOCATION AND LAND EXTENT OF BENCHMARKED R&D HUBS
TABLE 3.3 SUMMARY OF DEMAND ASSESSMENT FOR ECONOMIC USES; SOURCE: JURONG RESEARCH
TABLE 3.4 SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS
TABLE 3.5 SUMMARY OF POPULATION PROJECTIONS
TABLE 3.6 URDPFI GUIDELINES 2015
TABLE 3.7 SUMMARY OF DEMAND COMPUTED FOR RESIDENTIAL AND SUPPORT REAL ESTATE USES
TABLE 4.1 INDUSTRIAL ROAD HIERARCHY
TABLE 4.2 INDUSTRIAL ROAD HIERARCHY
TABLE 4.3 RESIDENTIAL LAND DISTRIBUTION TABLE
TABLE 4.4 PROVISION OF PUBLIC FACILITIES (BASED ON URDFI GUIDELINES)
TABLE 5.1 INDUSTRIAL DIRECT AND INDIRECT EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
TABLE 5.2 LAND AREA SAFEGUARDED FOR PHASE 1, 2 & 3 DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 5.3 BROAD UTILITIES DEMAND (INDUSTRIAL ZONES)
TABLE 5.4 WASTEWATER - QUALITY LIMITS (MG/L EXCEPT WHERE OTHERWISE STATED) TABLE 6.1 WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS FOR KRISHNA RIVER AND PRAKASAM BARRAGE
TABLE 6.2 WATER DEMAND RATES USED FOR MUNICIPAL WATER DEMAND PROJECTIONS
TABLE 6.3 PROJECTED MUNICIPAL WATER DEMAND FOR 2050
TABLE 6.4 PROJECTED INDUSTRIAL WATER DEMAND FOR 2050
TABLE 6.5 SUMMARY OF WATER DEMAND PROJECTION
TABLE 6.6 PROPOSED WATER TREATMENT PLANT CAPACITY
TABLE 6.7 WATER SUPPLY DEMAND PROJECTIONS
TABLE 6.8 PROJECTED MUNICIPAL SEWAGE GENERATION (MILLION LITRES PER DAY, MLD)
TABLE 6.9 PROJECTED INDUSTRIAL SEWAGE GENERATION (MILLION LITRES PER DAY, MLD)
TABLE 6.10 PROJECTED WASTE GENERATION RATE (KG PER CAPITA PER DAY)
TABLE 6.11 PROJECTED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION FOR YR 2050 (TONS/DAY)
TABLE 6.12 PROJECTED INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION FOR YR 2050 (TONS/DAY)
TABLE 6.13 POWER SUPPLY DEMAND FACTORS
TABLE 6.14 POWER SUPPLY DEMAND PROJECTIONS
TABLE 7.1 PHASE 1 AREA LAND USE DISTRIBUTION
TABLE 7.2 PHASE 2 AREA LAND USE DISTRIBUTION
TABLE 7.3 PHASE 3 AREA LAND USE DISTRIBUTION
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THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
PREFACE
Project Background
Andhra Pradesh is building a new
Capital City following the bifurcation of
the state in February 2014. The new city
is located near Vijayawada and Guntur
and it is envisaged to be a world class
Capital City for the people of Andhra
Pradesh.
Project Scope and Commissioning
On 08 December 2014, the
governments of Singapore and Andhra
Pradesh signed a Memorandum of
Understanding to collaborate on the
master planning and development of
the new Andhra Pradesh Capital City.
The Memorandum of Understanding
was signed between the Infrastructure
Corporation of Andhra Pradesh and
International Enterprise (IE) Singapore
and witnessed by Chief Minister of
Andhra Pradesh, Nara Chandrababu
Naidu and Singapore’s Second Minister
for Trade and Industry of Singapore, S.
Iswaran.
The Centre for Liveable Cities and
Singapore Cooperation Enterprise
have also provided their expertise
and assistance in master planning and
development of Andhra Pradesh’s
institutional
capacity
in
urban
governance and related areas through
training programmes for AP officials
responsible for the development of the
Capital City.
View from the Prakasam Barrage Road
Surbana International Consultants
Pte Ltd and Jurong Consultants Pte
Ltd were appointed by the Singapore
government to undertake the master
planning for the Andhra Pradesh
Capital City Project. Surbana was the
lead consultant in planning, urban
design and infrastructure planning; and
Jurong, the sub-consultant conducted
the economic studies, positioning and
industrial estate planning.
This project comprises of the following
milestones:
Capital Region Plan
- To set the planning direction and
strategies for the Capital Region of
Andhra Pradesh.
Capital City Master Plan
- To prepare a detailed Master plan
(Landuse and Zoning Plans) for the new
Capital City of Andhra Pradesh.
Seed Development Master Plan
- To prepare Urban Design and
development control guidelines for the
first section of the Capital City
Capital Region Plan
The Capital Region Plan submitted at
the end of stage 1, provided a regional
master plan that would provide a guide
for the future development of the
Capital Region Area and the new city.
The completion of the Capital Region
Plan on 30 March 2015 marked the
achievement of the first milestone for
the Singapore-Andhra Pradesh Capital
City Project collaboration.
Capital City Master Plan – Part 1:
Zoning Report
Part 1 of the Capital City Master plan
report presented the Zoning Plan
and regulations for the Capital City of
Andhra Pradesh which is one of the
key tools to implement the proposed
City Master Plan. The report provided
a clear mechanism for directing
the development in the public and
private sectors to follow a clear set of
development objectives, definitions
and regulations that reflect the planning
concepts proposed in the Master Plan.
Capital City Master Plan – Part 2:
Detailed Master Plan Report
This report presents the detailed
development strategies for each
development goals discussed in the
Capital Region plan report. These
strategies are then translated into an
implementable Landuse Plan. The plan
provides a clear growth direction for
the Capital city.
The report also presents development
phasing and action plans which provide
a clear mechanism for directing the
future development.
Completion of the second
milestone
The completion of Capital City Master
Plan Reports - Part 1 and 2, earmarks
the completion of the second milestone
for the Singapore-Andhra Pradesh
Capital City Project collaboration.
VIII
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
IX
We would like to acknowledge and thank the following individuals and organizations for their invaluable insights
and contributions towards the preparation of the “Capital City Master Plan - Part 2: Detailed Master Plan Report.”
Andhra Pradesh Government Officers
Giridhar Aramane, IAS, Principal Secretary to Government, Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department
Srikant Nagulapalli, IAS, Commissioner, Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority, Vijayawada
Pothireddy Thimma Reddy, Director of Town & Country Planning
Dr. Pamu Panddu Runga Rao, Enginnering in Chief, Public Health
Avula Suresh, Additional Director, Town Planning
Local Body/ Police Officials within Capital Region
Ganeshan Veerapandian, I.A.S., Municipal Commissioner, Vijayawada
Dr. Sreedhar Cherukuri, I.A.S., Joint Collector, Guntur & incharge Municipal Commissioner, Guntur
Prabhala Gopinadh, Municipal Commissioner, Tenali
A.B.Venkateswara Rao, IPS, Commissioner of Police, Vijayawada
P.H.D. Ramakrishna, IPS, Superintendent of Police, Guntur
Officials from CRDA
Ravi Ramakrishna Rao, Head Planning, CRDA
Veepanagandla Ramudu, Planner, CRDA
Rikkala Srinivasa Reddy, Divisional Forest Officer, AP CRDA, Vijayawada
G.A.Suryanarayana, P.S. to Commissioner, CRDA, Vijayawada
Gullapalli Nageswara Rao, Planning Officer, CRDA, Vijayawada
Bathula Sesha Srinivasa Rao, Executive Engineer, CRDA, Vijayawada
D. Mallikharjuna Rao, Administrative Officer, CRDA, Vijayawada
Bandla Siva Sankar Prasad, I.F.S., Member Secretary, AP Pollution Control Board, Hyderabad.
Dr.A. Nageswara Rao, Scientist-E, AP State Application Centre, Hyderabad
T. Narendra Babu, Scientist-E, AP State Application Centre, Hyderabad
Dr. G. Prasada Rao, Scientist-E, AP State Application Centre, Hyderabad
Dr. G. Kumaraswami, Team Leader, AP State Application Centre, Hyderabad
Dr. P. Eswaramma, Team Leader, AP State Application Centre, Hyderabad
A farmer sitting outside his neighbour’s house in Neerukonda Village.
X
We would also like to acknowledge and thank the diverse expert panel from Centre for Liveable cities (CLC) who guided the
engineers in preparation of the final Infrastructure proposal.
Panel of Experts from Centre for Liveable Cities (CLC)
Mr. Khoo Teng Chye, Executive Director, Centre for Liveable Cities
Mr Wong Kai Yeng – Former Senior Vice President of Singbridge International Pte Ltd, Former Group Director in Urban
Redevelopment Authority (URA).
Over 30 years of experience in planning and water management.
Mr Loh Ah Tuan – Former Director-General for Environmental Protection and Deputy Chief Executive Officer of National
Environment Agency (NEA)
Over 30 years of experience in Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (MEWR), having portfolios in environmental
planning and environmental public health.
Mr Yap Kheng Guan – Former Senior Consultant and Senior Director at the Public Utilities Board (PUB) and former(Adjunct)
Professor at Nanyang Technological University (NTU)
Involved in developing Singapore’s drainage infrastructure over a period of over 30 years.
Mr Chan Yoon Kum – Former Deputy Chief Executive of the Public Utilities Board (PUB)
Over 30 years of experience in various aspects of water supply management such as policies, engineering, operations and
maintenance of water supply plants and networks.
Mr Soh Siew Cheong – Former Senior Vice President of Singapore Power (SP) and Senior Advisor, Energy Market Authority
Over 40 years of experience with Singapore Power and EMA involving in the planning and development of the power system and
the regulatory policies of the power industry.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report presents the “Capital City Detailed Master Plan”. Before presenting the
Detailed Master plan proposal, the report provides a conclusion of the detailed site
analysis undertaken by the planning teams. This analysis forms the basis for the
preparation of the Master plan.
Capital city Landuse Plan, Transportation Plan, Employment Plan, Residential Plan,
Green and Blue Plan, Industrial Plan and Infrastructure Plans illustrate the overall
Master plan strategies for the Capital city. Further, the report presents the village
land integration strategy and the Phasing plans for the Capital city development.
1.1 VISION, GOALS AND STRATEGIES
XII
Vision:
People’s Capital of Andhra Pradesh
The New Capital of Andhra Pradesh
demonstrate global quality of life
is envisioned to be the pioneer
standards to offer high levels of
Smart City of India. It aims to be
convenience to people of all ages.
World Class and at par with the
The proposal will capitalize on the
standards set forth by countries
rich heritage possessed by the
such as Singapore. The new capital
region and utilize it to create a
will be an economic powerhouse
unique identity for the new capital.
that will create a range of jobs
Sustainability and efficient man-
for existing resident villagers by
agement of resources will form
upgrading their skills, as well as
another important pillar of this
provide high-tech and knowledge
new capital. It will be supported by
based industry jobs to be globally
maintaining the clean and green
competitive. Housing will be at the
character that the site currently
core of its planning and will aim
demonstrates by mimicking these
to provide affordable and quality
ideas in to the new capital master
homes to all its residents. It will
plan.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Goals and Strategies
World Class
Infrastructure
Jobs & Homes
for all
135 Km of Public Transport corridors by 2050
> 1,000 km of Road Network by 2050
4.5 Million Resident Population by 2050
1.8 Million Jobs by 2050
Strategies:
• Build state of art public transport both for Capital Region
and Capital City
• Develop a highly efficient road network at par with
international standards
• Encourage high percentage of modal share using public
transport
• Plan for a long term 2050 horizon and reserve transit
corridors where necessary
• High speed Railway to have a station in the Capital City
• Develop a world class International Airport to serve the
Capital Region
• Capitalize on the opportunity to use National Waterway
for trade
• Plan strategically to allow easy transfer between different
modes of transport
Strategies:
• Promote high-value added agriculture and agro-based
industries
• Create opportunities for existing dwellers to upgrade
skills
• Introduce a mix of knowledge based high-tech industries
to attract investments
• Encourage home ownership to create a sense of identity
for citizens
• Provide sufficient affordable housing to cater to the
needful
• Strategize a slum free city through careful planning
• Phase out industries strategically for long term sustained
growth
• Create a favourable policy framework to implement and
support the Capital City development
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Green and Clean
Quality Living
Efficient Resource
Management
> 20% area reserved for Green and Blue
30+ km Public River Waterfront
Parks and Public Facilities within 5-10 minute
walking distance
Flood resistant City
Towards Net Zero Discharge
> 250km of Heritage and Tourism Network
using Roads, Metro and Waterways
Strategies:
• Create a network of parks and greens by integrating the
village ponds
• Ensure access to park for every citizen within easy
walking distance
• Make productive use of natural features on the site
without damaging them
• Reserve most of the waterfront along Krishna river for
public use
• Mandate retaining the green network reserved in the
Capital City Plan
• Reserve high value agriculture land as no development
zone wherever possible
• Utilize the natural features such as forest and hills to
create a regional green network.
• Create an image of city sitting within the water and
greens
Strategies:
• Ensure public transit is within easy walking distance for
all
• Convenience of neighbourhood centre amenities within
walking distance
• Safe environment with universal access for all ages
• Provide opportunities for learning and enhancing careers
within the Capital City and Region
• Provide excellent health care facilities at affordable costs
within easy reach
• Ensure ample opportunities to live, work, learn and play
• Ensure ease of commute within 30 minutes from origin
to destination with Capital City
Strategies:
• Adopt efficient flood control techniques and protect
most waterways in the city
• Promote “Reduce, Recycle and Reuse”
• Establish state of art waste management and disposal
systems across the city
• Develop a smart grid in the city for efficient management
of power and energy
• Encourage use of renewable energy to maximum extent
possible
• Integrate the storm water drainage system with the
existing canal and village tank network and utilize for
flood management and recreation
• Encourage certification of projects using global standards
such as IGBC and LEED
Strategies:
• Preserve all historic and culturally important sites
• Promote culture and heritage attractions for locals and
tourists alike
• Compliment adjacent cities, at the same time establish a
unique identity
• Integrate the existing villages as a vital component of city
development
• Development nodes within the city that reflect the
culture of the State and region.
• Dedicate strategic locations that will allow people to
come together and organize cultural activities
• Create a tourism circuit that links all the existing heritage
features and new nodes created in the city.
imgarcade.com
www.wm.com
www.deccanchronicle.com
Identity and
Heritage
XIII
The following strategies translate the 6 key goals of the capital city vision into an implementable detailed Master plan:
WORLD CLASS INFRASTRUCTURE
JOBS AND HOMES FOR ALL
CLEAN AND GREEN
Capital City Road Network Plan
Capital City Employment Plan
Capital City Green and Blue Plan
Develop a well connected road network plan with 5 hierarchies of
roads, including, expressways, arterial, sub-arterial arterial, and
collector road grid.
Allocate 7,745 Ha of land for numerous commercial and industrial
developments across the city. The plan proposes decentralization
of the various employment nodes to create jobs closer to homes.
Protect all the existing rivers and water bodies, and integrate them
with the proposed green and blue network. These nature areas
occupy about 14,680 Ha of total land area within the Capital city.
Capital City Public Transport Plan
Capital City Residential Plan
Capital City Non motorized Transport (NMT) Plan
Propose a well connected public transportation network that would
tap to the approved Vijayawada MRT network.
Safeguard 8,060 Ha of land for a variety of residential developments
across the city. The plan distributes residential developments as per
housing densities in line with the Capital city township model.
Develop a well connected non motorized network along the green
and corridors of the city. This network will encourage green modes
of non motorized transports such as bicycles, skates, segways, etc.
XIV
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
QUALITY LIVING
EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
IDENTITY AND HERITAGE PLAN
XV
Capital City Public Facilities Plan
Capital City Water and Power Supply Plan
Capital City Tourism Circuit Plan
Ensure a good quality of life within the Capital city by distributing
numerous civic and cultural facilities as per the public facility
provision standards and the Capital city township model.
Ensure adequate provision of water and power supply across the
new Capital city.
Protect all historical sites of cultural and religious importance, and
develop a religious tourism circuit with the Capital city.
Capital City Waste Water and Solid Waste Management Plan
Capital City Key Attractions Plan
Develop an extensive waste management network across the Capital
city. Mitigate the flooding issues within the city by developing a
proper storm water management plan.
Develop a city with a strong green identity through its numerous
iconic green developments and a well woven green and blue
network.
Proposed Regional Level Facility
Provision for the Capital City
Commercial
Facilities
Educational
Facilities
Health
Facilities
Sports &
recreation
Civic facilities
Community Centre
1 per 100,000 population. 5.0 ha site.
Town Centre
1 per 500,000 population. 4.0 ha site.
Vocational / ICT
Institute
1 per 1 million population. 4.0 ha site.
Engineering College
1 per 1 million population. 4.0 ha site
Medical College
1 per 1 million population. 15.0 ha site
Multi-specialty
Hospital
1 per 100,000. 6.3 Ha
District Hospital
1 per 250,000 population. 6.0 ha site
District Sports
Centre
1 for every 100,000 population. 8.0 ha
site.
Divisional Sports
Centre
1 for every 1million population. 20.0
ha site.
District Office
1 per 1 million population. 4.8 ha site
Police Line
1 per 2 million population. 6.0 ha site.
District Jail
1 per 1 million population. 10.0 ha
site.
Public Facility Provision Standards for Capital City
CAPITAL CITY DETAILED MASTER PLAN
CAPITAL CITY ZONING MAP
XVI
Capital City Landuse Plan
21%
Capital City Zoning Map
5% 2%
7%
Residential Village MxS Comm.
10%
Indus.
26%
Parks and Open spaces
12% 3%
Water
10% 3%
26%
Infra. RS
Residential
8%
10%
Comm. Industrial
39%
10% 2% 4%
Parks and Open spaces
Roads RS SP
The Capital city Detailed Master plan integrates the various city layers as one comprehensive landuse plan The Zoning Map is an implementable plan which identifies specific zoning districts within the Capital city
that will guide future developments within the city.
based on their predominant land use, and the desired intensity and building height for that area.
8,060 ha
7,745 ha
1,300 ha
9,860 ha
Residential land
Civic Facilities
Commercial and industrial land
Parks and Open Spaces
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
As illustrated in the Capital city Zoning map, the following zoning districts are proposed for the Capital city:
• Residential (R1, R1A, R2 and R3)
• Commercial (C1, C2, C2a, C3, C4 and C5)
• Industrial (i1, L1)
• Parks and Open Spaces (P1, P2, P3)
• Special Areas (SP1 , SP2)
• Reserved Sites (RS1, RS2)
PHASING STRATEGY
WAY FORWARD
To enable successful implementation of the Capital City Master
Plan, a development phasing has been proposed for guiding the
implementation and government budget requirements for the
immediate and future projects. With this intention, the Capital City
Detailed Master Plan proposes 3 development phases catering to
the city’s short, medium and long term requirements.
The project management team has developed a list of Action Plans
to facilitate CRDA and Government of Andhra Pradesh to Implement
the Capital City Master Plan swiftly and in an organized manner.
The list that follows is only a set of initial steps necessary in order to
kick-start the development, and is not a comprehensive list of all the
implementation issues that CRDA and the Government of Andhra
Pradesh will need to address. These actions are an addition to the
extensive policy framework and institutional set up being taken up
in parallel by CRDA.
Phase 1: Catalyze
Phase 1 will span for the first 10 years for catalyzing urban
developments within the Capital City. This phase will include a large
number of infrastructure projects in order to create the critical base
for development.
Administrative Actions
Phase 2: Momentize
Phase 2 will focus on the medium term development (2025-2035)
in order to momentize urban development within the Capital City.
Phase 3: Sustain
Phase 3 will focus on the long term development (2035-2050) to
complete the vision and goals for the Capital city.
Capital City Phase 1 Plan
15,280 ha
Land area in Phase 1
1. Initiate a detail land and topography survey of the Capital City
Area by July 2015.
2. Initiate a detail hydrological study for the entire Capital City area
by July 2015.
3. CRDA to undertake a detail study to identify land parcels to be
returned as part of Land Pooling under the AP Land pooling
Act,2014. This study will include a detailed site survey and base
mapping of the Capital city.
4. Construct the by-pass road that will form the gateway to the
Capital City up-to the Seed Development area by June 2016.
5. Reserve the Right-of-Way for the High Speed Rail corridor.
Policy Framework related Actions
6. Develop a framework to achieve the targeted 50% affordable
housing within the Capital City by December 2015.
7. CRDA to facilitate development of all the Public Facilities such as
Schools, Neighborhood Centers, Town Centers as per phasing.
8. CRDA and the Government of Andhra Pradesh to develop policy
framework to protect the identified heritage and tourism areas.
Infrstructure Actions
Capital City Phase 2 Plan
7,900 ha
9. Divert the High-Tension Cables out of the Capital City by
December 2016.
10. Build the Water Treatment Plant to the west of Seed Development
at priority by June 2016.
11. CRDA to conduct a detailed infrastructure study of the Capital
city.
Capital City Phase 3 Plan
Land area in Phase 2
16,600 ha
Land area in Phase 3
XVII
XVIII
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THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
1
View of the Undavalli hill from Kondaveeti Vagu
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
2
Surbana & Jurong together form the
Project Management Team (PMT). The
project is spread over 3 stages and 7
Activities.
1.2 PROJECT
DELIVERABLES
1.3 BACKGROUND
AND PURPOSE
The deliverables for each stage are
Having completed the Capital Region
Plan that lays out a strategy for short
and long term development for the
entire CRDA area of about 7,420 sqkm
as part of the Stage 1 deliverables, the
Project Management Team has now
duly completed the details of Stage
2 Capital City Master Plan that covers
about 391sqkm. These proposals form
the basis of this report and marks the
end of Stage 2 of the project.
Stage 1: Inception report
Status: Submitted
Stage 1 : Capital Region Plan :
• Activity 1: Data Inventory, Analysis
and Inception
• Activity 2: Regional Context analysis,
Economic positioning and SocioDemographic Study
• Activity 3: Visioning, Programming
and Structure Plan
Stage 1: Capital Region Plan Report.
(Progress Report)
Status: Submitted
Stage 2:
Part 1: Zoning Plan Report
Status: Submitted
Part 2: Capital City Master Plan
Status: Current Report
Stage 2: Capital City Master Plan:
• Activity
4:
Concept
Master
Plan, Transportation Plan and
Infrastructure Plan
• Activity 5: Zoning Plan for new
Capital City.
Stage 3: Seed Development Master
Plan Report (Final Report)
Status: To be submitted in July 2015
Stage 3: Seed Development Master
Plan:
• Activity 6: Urban Design Proposal for
Seed Development
• Activity 7: Development Guidelines
for Seed Development
This report will provide details on the
works of Stage 2: Capital City Master
Plan
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
1.4 METHODOLOGY
1.4.1 Data Collection
Surbana and Jurong teams collected
the necessary data from the Andhra
Pradesh agencies during the period of
December 2014 and May 2015. Using
this data the teams filtered out specific
relevant data that can be applied in the
development of the Capital City Master
Plan. The data was received in several
formats including GIS, Autocad, Excel
sheets and hard copy reports.
1.4.2 Site Visit
In January 2015, Surbana and Jurong
teams undertook a 2 day elaborate site
visit to get a first hand feel of the site and
surroundings. The team also interacted
with local people to understand their
concerns and issues to be considered
during the formation of the master
plan. All this information was utilized in
the site analysis and formation of the
plans as explained below.
1.4.3 Meetings with Officials
Several meetings were held during the
team’s stay in Hyderabad that included
CRDA officials and Dr. P. Narayana,
Minister of Municipal Administration
& Urban Development, Urban Water
Supply and Urban Planning for Andhra
Pradesh. The team from SIngapore
included officials from
Surbana
International Consultants Pte Ltd
(Surbana), JURONG Consultants Pte Ltd
(Jurong), Centre for Livable Cities (CLC),
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI),
Singapore Cooperation Enterprise (SCE)
and International Enterprise (IE).
1.4.4 Training Workshops
A delegation of 23 Andhra Pradesh
officials attended the APLUGP (Andhra
Pradesh Leaders in Urban Governance
Programme) organized by CLC in
Singapore from 19th to 24th January.
Surbana and Jurong teams were actively
involved throughout this workshop.
Surbana and Jurong presented and
discussed the progress of the Master
Plan with the delegation members
to get their insights and views on the
ideas being considered.
1.4.5 Data Analysis
Parallel to this, planners from
Surbana and Jurong were analyzing
the relevant data received from the
Andhra Pradesh agencies. The analysis
included understanding of physical
site features such as hills, rivers,
canals, forests, drains, etc., along
with an understanding of the sociodemographic and economic profile of
the Capital City area.
1.4.6 Urban Sustainability
Framework (USF)
Establishing the USF is the most critical
step preceding the Vision as this guides
the Goals and Strategies. It lays out the
Key Performance Indicators to address
the social, economic and environmental
issues specific to the focus area.
1.4.7 Vision Formulation
Using the understanding of all of the
above, combined with the feedback
from the Andhra Pradesh officials
during the APLUGP, the planners from
Surbana and Jurong calibrated the
appropriate Vision and strategies for
development for both the Capital
Region and the Capital City.
1.4.8 Capital City
Master Plan
After having understood the potential
opportunities and constraints within
the Capital Region and Capital City,
Surbana and Jurong developed detail
Capital City Mater Plan. This plan lays
out various strategies to help achieve
the identified goals in order to develop
this city as world class capital city that
respects its roots and people, but at
the same time lays the foundation for a
state of art modern city.
1.5 ORGANIZATION
OF THE REPORT
In addition to this introductory chapter,
the report consists of the following
chapters:
Chapter 2: Capital City Analysis
This chapter reviews role of the Capital
City within the Capital Region. The
chapter further analyzes the Capital
city’s site topography, surrounding
context, demography, natural features
and heritage to present a number of
opportunities and constraints for the
Capital city development.
These opportunities and constraints
guide the Capital city Master plan
described in the following chapters.
Chapter 3: Capital City Projections
This chapter summarizes the key
findings of the socio-economic analysis
conducted for the Capital city. The
Chapter then presents the economic
and socio-demographic projections
for the Capital city up-till the year
2050.
Detailed methodology and
assumptions adopted to determine
these projections is also presented in
this chapter.
Chapter 4: Capital City Master plan
This chapter presents the sustainability
framework proposed for the Capital
City based on it’s economic, social and
environmental issues. Sustainability
targets and KPI’s are then set to enable
it’s sustainability in the long run.
The Chapter then presents the
proposed vision, goals and strategies
for the capital city.
The Chapter introduces the Vastu
considerations adopted in preparation
of the Capital City concept and structure
plan. A Township model follows the
concept plan which guides preparation
of the landuse plan.
All the above strategies are then
translated into various landuse layers
that provide implementable urban
solutions to achieve the goals set out
in the Capital city vision. The Chapter
finally concludes with the overall city
Landuse and Zoning Plan, and the
Village Land integration strategy.
Chapter 5: Capital City Industrial Plan
This chapter presents the Industrial
land uses proposed within the capital
city. These layers have been discussed
in detail as they will play a key role in
accelerating growth within the Capital
city.
Chapter 6: Capital City Infrastructure
Provisions
As Infrastructure planning will play a vital
role in initiating urban developments
within the city, this chapter presents the
various infrastructure layers including
sewerage, drainage and power supply
in detail. This chapter will discuss the
flood management strategies that
should be adopted within the Capital
city.
Chapter 7: Capital City Phasing
This chapter presents the proposed
phasing for the Capital city. 3 strategies
phases are presented in the chapter
with a brief description of key projects
within each phase.
Chapter 8: Follow up Measures
This chapter elaborates the immediate
actions to be undertaken by CRDA in
order to successfully implement the
Master plan.
This chapter also introduces the next
stage of the project.
3
4
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THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
2
CAPITAL CITY CONTEXT
This chapter summarizes the Capital city existing context analysis. This analysis
forms the base guiding the Amaravati Capital city Master plan.
The chapter covers the following topics:
1. Regional context
2. Establishing the planning area boundary
3. City context
4. Constraints and Opportunities
Riverside along Manthana Sathyanaraya Arogyalayam
2.1 REGIONAL CONTEXT
The Capital Region Plan report
presented the Regional context analysis
in detail, and proposed the Capital
Region Concept Plan.
6
At this stage, will adopt the Capital
Region Concept Plan to form the basis
of the regional context analysis for
the Amaravati Capital city. The Capital
Region Plan will thus, guide the Capital
city Concept Plan in terms of location,
positioning and role of the Capital city
within the Capital Region and the new
Andhra Pradesh state.
LEGEND
Existing Urban Area
Proposed Urbanized Area
Proposed Industrial Zone
Proposed Airport Area
Development Corridor
Forest
Dedicated Freight Corridor
High Speed Rail
Fig.2.1 Capital Region Concept Plan
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Suburban Rail
Proposed HSR/DFC Station
Major Railway Station
Airport
Port
National Airport 4
Barrage
Agricultural Protection Zone 1
Agriculture Protection Zone 2
Future Urbanizable Agriculture Land
State Highway/ Major Road
National Highway/ Expressway
Planning Boundary
Capital City Boundary
Capital Region Boundary
River
The following proposals and conclusions
of the Capital Region Plan will guide the
preparation of the Amaravati Capital
city master plan:
• The New Amaravati Capital city and
Vijayawada will grow as twin cities
in the future due to their close
proximity. The diverse economy of
the two cities will compliment each
other and ultimately emerge as a
Mega City.
• Development Corridors connect
the Capital city and the Regional
Centres. As illustrated in Figure
2.1, Regional Centres have been
planned around the existing towns
of Nuzvid, Gudivada, Tenali, Guntur,
Sattenapalle,
Nandigama
and
Parmaru. The development corridors
provide opportunity for linear
developments with special uses such
as clean industries, infrastructure
projects, logistics based activities,
etc. These activities will be permitted
along these corridors.
• A radial network with well spaced
highways, expressways and transport
corridors cater to smooth city
travel and fast connections within
the Capital Region. The upcoming
national projects i.e. High Speed
Rail and the new Highway will pass
through Vijayawada and the new
Capital city.
• The region’s rich heritage and
environmentally sensitive areas are
earmarked as conservation areas.
And the Capital city will be promoted
as a ‘Temple Tourism’ Destination.
• The future urbanization area for the
Capital city beyond the year 2050 is
allocated in the south west.
2.2 ESTABLISHING THE
PLANNING AREA
BOUNDARY
The Capital Region Plan proposes a
radial road network that considers the
Amaravati Capital city and Vijayawada
as the epicenter with national highways
connecting the various regional centres
to the Capital city. These towns are
also interconnected by 2 ring roads
planned within the Capital region. The
existing Vijayawada city and the land
pooled Amaravati Capital city site are in
proximity to the inner ring road.
The area under the land pooling act
covers 217 sq km. However in order to
reduce encroachments and unplanned
fragmented growth, city boundaries
are usually established with roads and
natural features. Hence, to establish
a clear distinct boundary for the
Amaravati Capital city, the master
plan proposes a larger boundary as
illustrated in Figure 2.2. The inner ring
road proposed in the Capital region
plan forms the western, southern and
eastern periphery of the new proposed
boundary. Hence, the extended area
for the master plan covers 391.63 sq
km.
As river Krishna is the most important
natural feature of the Amaravati
Capital city, the master plan proposes
the northern city boundary to be
established up-till the national highway
9 (NH9) in order to engage both sides of
the riverfront.
The master plan will only guide the
development of these land areas
through zoning regulations in order
to achieve the vision and goals of the
Amaravati Capital city master plan
2050.
Original Boundary
217 sqkm
The master plan will propose a fully
functional network of roads and
public transport within the original
land pooled planning boundary. This is
done in order to ensure the successful
implementation of the master plan
despite acquisition or redevelopment
of the additional land illustrated in
Figure 2.2
+
Additional Area
174 sqkm
=
Total Area
391 sqkm
Additional Area 2
30 sqkm
Original Boundary
217 sqkm
For the purpose of elaborating the
master plan, this report will primarily
consider the new boundary of 391.6 sq
km to provide a complete picture of the
development up-till the year 2050.
Additional Area 1
144 sqkm
Major plans such as the Detailed
Landuse Plan 2050 and Zoning Plan will
be illustrated both for the original and
the proposed boundaries.
Fig.2.2 Establishing Planning Area Boundary
LEGEND
Waterfront Area
Proposed Planning Area
Original Planning Area
Suburban railway station
Railway
Existing settlement
River
Island
Hill
Boundary 1
Boundary 2
Airport
Landuse
Area (Ha)
%
Area (Ha)
%
16320.2
75%
Developable Land
28404.8
73%
Hills
426.5
2%
Hills
932.9
2%
Islands
1750.9
8%
Islands
3033.6
8%
Village Settlements
1449.4
7%
Village Settlements
3418.7
9%
River
1277.7
6%
River
2737.0
7%
Water-bodies
497.5
2%
Water-bodies
636.3
2%
21722.2
100%
39163.3
100%
Developable Land
Total
Table 2.1 Land Distribution within original Planning Boundary
Landuse
Total
Table 2.2 Land Distribution within proposed Planning Boundary
7
2.3 CITY CONTEXT
2.3.1 Site Connectivity
8
Air connectivity
• Existing Gannavaram airport is at 30
minutes drive from the city centre
• Expansion of this airport is planned
in the near future and it will be
upgraded to an international airport.
Road connectivity
• The existing national highway (NH5)
will connect the Amaravati Capital
city to Vijayawada and Guntur, and
further connect to Vishakapatnam
and Chennai.
• A new national highway alignment
has been approved in order to
increase the Amaravati Capital city’s
connectivity to the neighbouring
Vijayawada city.
• The national highway 9 will connect
the Amaravati Capital city to
Hyderabad and Machlipatnam
Fig.2.3 Amaravati Capital city Connectivity
LEGEND
New Potential Road
Existing Settlement
Existing National Highway
Existing Road
Approved National Highway
Proposed National Highway
Proposed High Speed Rail
Alignment
National Rail Line
Airport
Hill
River
Gannavaram Airport
Vijayawada Rail Station
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Road leading to Vijayawada
Rail Connectivity
• The Amaravati Capital city has good
connectivity to the Vijayawada rail
station via NH5. The Vijayawada
rail station is one of the busiest rail
station in the country.
• Subsequently, there is an existing rail
junction in the Mangalagiri town.
• A new High Speed Rail alignment has
also been proposed for the Amaravati
Capital city. As illustrated in Figure
2.3, this alignment runs along the
approved national highway.
• There is a planned MRT network
within Vijayawada. There is potential
to tap on this public transportation
network and extend it into the
Amaravati Capital city.
Opportunities
• The approved National Highway in
the east will provide the necessary
infrastructure and quick connectivity
required for the phase 1 of the
Amaravati Capital city development.
• The new Amaravati Capital city
can tap into the proposed MRT
alignment for Vijayawada to develop
comprehensive mass transit system
to meet the projected public
transport demand in the future.
• A
comprehensive
Public
Transportation Plan needs to be
prepared to guide the planning and
development of public transport
both at the regional and city level.
• Transport hubs integrating these
modes (BRTS, mass transit) with
the other modes such as rail and
roads can be established around the
Amaravati Capital city to ease modal
transfer.
2.3.2 Adjacent Employment
Centres
Although the Amaravati Capital city
is largely green field at present, a
number of important economic hubs
abut the city, including Vijayawada,
Ibrahipatanam,
Mangalagiri
and
Guntur.
Vijayawada - Business Capital
Vijayawada, the second largest city in
Andhra Pradesh state is situated on
the northern banks of river Krishna.
Vijayawada, today, functions as the
“Business Capital of Andhra Pradesh”.
The Capital Region Plan proposes
a central twin city accommodating
Vijayawada and the Amaravati Capital
city as a Mega city with complementary
economic roles.
Guntur - Education Hub
Guntur is the third most populous
city within Andhra Pradesh. The
city is renowned for its numerous
educational institutions, and functions
as the “Education Hub” of the state.
Additionally, the city is also the largest
producer of chillies and is known for
its chili, cotton and tobacco exports.
E-commerce and other business related
industries are also fast growing within
Guntur.
Ibrahimpatanam - Industrial Suburb
Ibrahimpatnam town is 17 kms away
from Vijayawada City. The town is
popular for its Dr Narla Tata Rao
Thermal Power Station, Railway Wagon
Workshop at Rayanapadu (4km away).
The town has educational institutions
and residential quarters for employees
of the power plant. The town will
continue its role as the “Industrial
suburb” in the future.
9
Mangalagiri - Logistics Hub
Mangalagiri is an important pilgrimage
centre, popular for handloom weaving
units and agriculture. The town is
strategically located between the three
biggest cities in the region. Due to its
strategic location the town functions
as a “Logistics Hub”. The existing
population is expected to grow to 0.22
mi from the current 0.1 mi by the year
2021.
In the presence of these existing
established economic centres, the
new Capital must position itself with
complementary economic functions
with a unique positioning strategy in
order to create a sustainable economic
structure within the region.
Fig.2.4 Amaravati Capital city Context
LEGEND
Capital City
Existing Economic Centre
Existing Settlement
Existing Road
Existing National Highway
Approved National Highway
National Rail Line
Airport
Hill
River
Vijayawada City
Ibrahimpatnam Town
Mangalagiri Town
2.3.3 Existing Settlements
6
10
At present, a number of settlements
exist within the Amaravati Capital city.
Located next to the existing Vijayawada
city and the Ibrahimpatanam town,
the Amaravati Capital city houses 31
villages and 2 small sub urban towns.
Name
13
8
3
9
11
10
1
15
14
12
2
5
Fig.2.5 Existing Settlements within the Amaravati Capital city
1
Vijayawada City
2
Mangalagiri Town
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
3
Thullur Village (source: www.panoramia.com)
Abbarajupalem
Population
490
Ainavolu
1,838
Ananthavaram
3,391
Borupalem
1,190
Dondapadu
2,189
The existing settlements can be broadly
divided into 3 categories based on their
existing demographics ans site context.
These categories have been listed
below:
• Villages (6,000 - 50,000 population)
• Towns (50,000 - 150,000 population)
• City (1 - 5 million population).
Harischandrapuram
1,136
Jupudi
4,765
Kachavaram
2,212
Kotikalapudi
3,059
Krishnayapalem
1,560
Kuragallu
4,340
Lingayapalem
1,554
Malkapuram
1,360
Opportunities
Mangalagiri (M)
7
4
Table 2.3 Existing Settlements Table
• The existing settlements provide
the critical population base for
development of the new Amaravati
Capital city.
• Growth within the new Capital city
will boost economic growth within
these existing centers and boost
local economy.
• The master plan will ensure
conservation of these existing
settlements and create employment
opportunities for the city’s existing
population.
LEGEND
0 - 5,000 population
5,000 - 50,000 population
50,000 - 150,000 population
1,000,000 - 5,000,000 population
Existing Settlement
Existing National Highway
Approved National Highway
National Rail line
Airport
Hill
River
107,197
Mulapadu
4,188
Nekkallu
1,908
Nelapadu
1,028
Nidamarru
6,196
Pedaparimi
6,887
Pedda Madduru
1,400
Penumaka
7,918
Pitchikalapalem
54
Rayapudi
4,817
Sakhamur
1,218
Tadepalli
64,149
Thullur
7,794
Trilochanapuram
1,178
Uddandarayunipalem
1,503
Vaddamanu
2,716
Vaddeswaram
6,275
Velagapudi
2,688
Venkatapalem
3,732
Vykuntapuram
3,126
Total
265,056
Source: Population Census, Directorate of
Census operations, Andhra Pradesh, 2011
Existing settlements within the Amaravati Capital city
4
Abbarjupalem Village
8
Mandadam Village
12
Penumakka Village
5
Amaravati township
9
Malkapurlam Village
13
Pedamudduru Village
6
Borupalem Village
18 0
Venkatapalem
14
Tadepalle
7
Kanchikacherla Village along NH9
11
Water tank near Nelapadu Village
15
Undavalli
11
2.3.4 Religious and
Cultural Heritage
12
The site proposed for the new
Amaravati Capital city has an important
cultural setting within the Capital
region. The site is in proximity to the
famous temple town of Amaravati,
the historic Kondapalli fort and Kanaka
Durga temple. The famous Undavalli
Caves, Mangalagiri and Bhavani Temple
are situated within the proposed
Amaravati Capital city boundary. The
importance of these attractions is listed
below:
Amaravati Town
Amaravati is a very important Buddhist
pilgrimage centre. It has been declared
as one of the heritage cities within
India. The town houses the famous
Amaravati Dhyana Budha Statue and
Amareshwar Temple. The town will
continue to remain as one of the
important heritage tourism centres.
Amaravati
Capital city
Kondapalli Fort
Kondapalli is a 14th century fort
situated on top of a hill in the Kondapalli
village, close to the sub urban town
of Ibrahimpatanam. The fort is a local
Fig.2.6 Religious and Cultural Heritage
LEGEND
Capital City
Important Heritage Site
Other Heritage Site
Existing Settlement
Existing Roads
Airport
Hill
River
Kondapalli Fort
Amravathi Buddha
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Undavalli Caves
tourist attraction. Apart from the fort,
Kondapalli village is also famous for its
colourful hand crafted wooden toys.
Undavalli Caves
Undavalli Caves are historic 4th 5th century AD monolithic caves,
illustrating Indian rock cut architecture
situated along the river Krishna. These
caves will provide the Amaravati Capital
city with a unique heritage attraction.
These caves must be protected with
proper interpretation facilities.
Kanaka Durga Temple
Kanaka Durga is a famous Temple
situated on top of the Indrakeeladri
hill in Vijayawada city. Situated along
the river Krishna, the temple is an
important pilgrimage centre.
Mangalagiri Temple
Mangalagiri, Sri Narasimha Swamy
temple is one of the oldest Vaishnavite
(lord Vishnu) temples in South India.
The temple’s 11 storey lofty Gali
Gopuram (Temple Tower) is a main
attraction to pilgrims as well as tourists.
Opportunities
• The new Amaravati Capital city
master plan must preserve and
protect the regions unique rich
cultural heritage and attractions.
There is immense potential to
develop a religious tourism circuit
within the Amaravati Capital city that
would connect these attractions.
• The master plan can also aim to
strengthen visual and physical
connectivity to these heritage
destinations
through
special
development corridors.
2.3.5 Natural Features
The proposed Amaravati Capital city
site has a number of scenic natural
features providing abundant water and
greenery within the city. The 30 km
long river Krishna waterfront will be a
prime public attraction in the future.
Hills
A number of small hills are situated
within the vicinity of the Amaravati
Capital city. These include Undavalli,
Neerukunda, Mangalagiri, Kondapalli
and Pedamadduru. Kondapalli is the
highest hill with an elevation of 450 m
above mean sea level.
River Krishna
The new Amaravati Capital city site is
situated on the banks of river Krishna,
the third largest river in centralsouthern India.
Cluster of islands on River Krishna
A number of scenic natural islands exist
within the river Krishna. These islands
can be developed as eco tourism
attractions in the future.
Water-bodies
Numerous small water bodies and
channels run within the city. Being
along the river Krishna, the site is
prone to flooding, hence, proper flood
mitigation techniques must be adopted
for sustainable developments. These
measures can engage the extensive
network of canals and village tanks to
form a micro water network within the
city.
Existing Water Tanks
Amaravati Capital city must capitalize
on its environmental features to project
its image as a green & resilient city
13
Opportunities
• All existing hills and river Krishna
must be protected as they provide
the Amaravati Capital city with
critical natural open spaces and
green cover.
• The 30 km long river Krishna
waterfront can be developed as a
vibrant centre for the Amaravati
Capital city.
• Kondapalli and Neerukunda hills
form a North-South cardinal axis that
could be developed as an important
administrative corridor in the
proposed master plan development.
• A seamless network of green and
blue can be created by interweaving
the existing water tanks and canals
together. This network can be
supported with reservoirs to mitigate
flood related issues within the city.
• The cluster of islands on river Krishna
should be protected and developed
as eco tourism attractions within the
city.
Fig.2.7 Natural Features on Site and Surroundings
LEGEND
Waterfront
Water bodies
Eco tourism clusters on the islands
Water tanks
Existing National Highway
Approved National Highway
National Rail Line
Airport
Hills
River
Important Hill
River Krishna
Islands on River Krishna
Mangalagiri Hill (source: tripadvisor.com)
14
2.4 SUMMARY:
CONSTRAINTS AND
OPPORTUNITIES
2.4.1 Constraints
Although, the new Amaravati Capital
city is primarily a greenfield site, a
number of development constraints do
exist. These include:
• About 11% of the city’s land is
undevelopable as it is occupied by
hills, rivers and water bodies.
• Large amount of land within the
Amaravati Capital city falls in the
medium to low flood risk zone.
Proper flood mitigation techniques
must be adopted in these flood
prone areas.
• Existing rural settlements occupy
about 9% of the city’s land area.
• Large amount of land within the
Amaravati Capital city is privately
owned by the land owners. The
master plan preparation must
provide adequate area for these land
owners in lieu of their farmer land in
accordance to the AP Land Pooling
Act 20141
• River Krishna is vital water resource
within the region. The river is prone
to water pollution and other hazards,
thus, the master plan must provide
an adequate environmental buffer
along the river front.
• About 8% of the city’s land area
is occupied by a cluster of scenic
islands on river Krishna. Despite
their strategic location, these islands
cannot be developed extensively
as they fall in the high flood risk
zone. Thus, these islands must
be protected with proper flood
mitigation strategies.
2.4.2 Opportunities
•
The development opportunities offered
by the new Amaravati Capital city are
listed below:
• About 73% of the city’s land is
developable as it falls under the low
to medium flood risk zone.
• As highlighted in the Regional Plan
previously, there is potential to
develop an industrial hub in close
proximity to the international airport
along the national highway 5.
• The Amaravati Capital city has a
potential to be developed as a
central ‘Temple Tourism’ hub due
to its proximity and connectivity to
the numerous heritage assets of the
region.
• The master plan must ensure
conservation of the existing
settlements as they provide
the critical population base for
development of the new Amaravati
Capital city.
The Amaravati
Capital city can tap on this existing
workforce to accelerate economic
and infrastructure within the region.
• The Amaravati Capital city master
plan must preserve and protect the
city’s unique religious and cultural
heritage. There is immense potential
to develop a religious tourism circuit
within the Amaravati Capital city
that would connect the region’s
numerous cultural and religious
attractions.
• The master plan can also aim to
1 Andhra Pradesh Land Pooling Act 2014
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
•
•
•
•
•
•
strengthen visual and physical
connectivity to these heritage
destinations
through
special
development corridors.
9% of land area within the Amaravati
Capital city is acquired by nature
areas including, the river Krishna
and a number of scenic hills. These
nature areas must be protected as
they provide the Amaravati Capital
city with critical natural open spaces
and green cover.
The cluster of islands on river Krishna
can be developed as low density ecotourism clusters.
The 30 km long waterfront along
river Krishna can be for active and
passive recreational uses. These
areas will form the heart of the
Amaravati Capital city
A seamless network of green and
blue can be created by interweaving
the existing water tanks and canals
together. This network can be
supported with reservoirs to mitigate
flood related issues within the city.
Kondapalli and Neerkunda hills form
a North-South cardinal axis that
could be developed as an important
administrative corridor in the
proposed master plan development.
The approved National Highway in
the east will provide the necessary
infrastructure and quick connectivity
required for the phase 1 of the
Amaravati Capital city development.
The new Amaravati Capital city
can tap into the proposed MRT
alignment for Vijayawada to develop
comprehensive mass transit system
to meet the projected public
transport demand in the future.
3
CAPITAL CITY PROJECTIONS
The economic development and socio-demographic strategy for the Amaravati
Capital city is formulated keeping in perspective the current characteristics of
the region viz. existing economic activity levels, socio-demographic indicators,
connectivity and linkages, natural resources, government thrust areas, etc.
In view of this, a detailed review of the influence region (viz. Andhra Pradesh state)
and the CRDA region had been undertaken to understand the current economic and
demographic scenario, key natural resources and raw materials present, industrial
and infrastructure initiatives proposed under the AP Reorganization Act, etc. The
earlier Capital Region Plan report presented findings of the on-ground market
assessment, critical analysis of statistical data and industry consultations.
This chapter primarily focuses on the economic development opportunities and
broad socio-demographic projections for the Amaravati Capital city. The chapter is
divided into the following broad sub sections:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The famous historic Buddha statue in Amaravati Town
Overview of the Amaravati Capital city;
Features of a successful Capital city;
Envisaged economic positioning of the Amaravati Capital city;
Broad Demographic Projections.
3.1 OVERVIEW OF THE
CAPITAL CITY
16
3.1.1 Amaravati Capital city
Background
The Andhra Pradesh State Government
has earmarked a 7,325 sq. km area in
the Krishna and Guntur districts for
development of a new Capital Region for
the state. The capital region comprises
of 291 small villages, 9 medium towns,
1 large city & 1 metropolitan city.
It has a total current population of
approximately 5.8 million .
In addition, a 391 sq. km area located
centrally within the capital region has
been identified for the development
of a new Amaravati Capital city for
the state. The location of the Capital
city vis-à-vis the other major urban
centers in the capital region area are as
highlighted in the exhibit alongside.
Fig.3.1 AP Capital Region
Source: Jurong Research
The new Amaravati Capital city is situated in proximity to famous historical and religious heritage sites
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
The new riverfront Amaravati City of
Andhra Pradesh state is proposed to
be developed between Guntur and
Vijayawada cities. Located towards the
south – western part of Vijayawada
and towards north of Guntur, the
demarcated land is home to various
age old religious and cultural sites of
importance such as Buddhist stupa,
Undavalli Caves, Bhavani Temple,
Narasimhaswamy Temple, Dharanikota,
etc.
The city is envisaged to have twin
water frontage of approximately 15km
overlooking the perennial river of
Krishna. Four lane radial roads and high
speed trains are expected to connect
the Capital city to the major urban
centers of Vijayawada, Guntur and
envisaged satellite townships in other
urban centers of the capital region such
as Gudivada, Nuzvid, Sattenpalli and
Nandigama.
The current economic activity in the
identified 391 sq. km Capital city area
is primarily agricultural (viz. production
and harvesting of crops including rice,
paddy, sugarcane, pulses, spices, etc.)
with negligible activity observed in
the industrial and services sectors.
Figure 3.1 on the left highlights the
geographical extent of the capital
region and location of the envisaged
Amaravati Capital city.
3.2 FEATURES OF
A SUCCESSFUL
CAPITAL CITY
Commonly, a Capital city is often the
political-administrative centre and seat
of control for a specific geographical
area. A Capital city is essentially viewed
as a mélange of various attributes such
as the seat of political and government
administration, financial centre, hub for
trade and industry, superior physical/
social infrastructure and knowledge
base. However, the changing urban
landscape in current times have
redefined rules of capital cities from
being mere administrate centres to
cohesive smart cities. The latter are a
medley of factors such as technology
enabled and citizen participative
governance, transit oriented habitats,
meaningful public-private partnerships
and financial sustainability, etc. In view
of these evolving trends, a review
has been undertaken of some of the
key factors critical for the success of a
newly planned Amaravati Capital city.
Driving factors of a successful
Capital city
Based on an analysis of successful
capital cities in India and around the
world, some of the key ingredients of
a successful Capital city were observed
to include:
Urban mobility and Transit oriented
habitats
Efficient and effective public transport
system ensures easy intra city
movement of residents. The city of
Singapore is a testimony for its effective
public transportation system viz. metro
rail connectivity and synergy between
various modes of transportation. In
addition, by adopting a transit oriented
development model, the Capital city
has the opportunity to promote walk to
work concept for its citizens. The transit
oriented model promotes reliance on
public transport for everyday users
through strategic landuse planning.
Sustainable development
Adopting planning measures to
ensure clean air and water, hygienic
living conditions, preservation of
the ample green spaces, minimize
carbon footprint, promote clean
and high value industries, etc. Some
of the popular means adopted by
the cities include use of renewable
energy resources, water conservation
techniques, etc. The Amaravati Capital
city is bestowed with a temperate
climate and the geographical features
that could be capitalized on by tapping
induce comprehensive development.
By adopting the smart city development
model, the envisaged Amaravati Capital
city can assure basic infrastructure,
efficient urban mobility and public
transport, robust IT connectivity,
e-governance and citizen participation,
safety and security of citizens.
Fig.3.2 Driving factors of a successful Capital city
Source: Jurong Research
solar energy and conserving rain water,
etc. These advantages coupled with
the efficient urban planning to avoid
the establishment of high pollutive
industries within the Amaravati Capital
city limits will promote the new city as
a sustainable city over the long term.
Superior social infrastructure
Presence of social infrastructure plays
a crucial role in the attraction and
retention of human capital in any new
city. Adequate presence of quality
educational
facilities,
healthcare
establishments, financial institutions,
lifestyle avenues, etc. will ensure
the same. The growth trajectories of
Hyderabad and Bangalore indicated
that the emergence of these cities as
established economic hubs in India was
predominantly due to the presence of
superior social infrastructure facilities
Skill development & intellectual
capital
A study of evolution of some of
the prominent urban centres in
India highlights the importance of
promoting the intellectual capital and
skilled workforce in order to attract
investments in the Hi-tech/ knowledge
sectors and industrial sectors. This
could be achieved in the Amaravati
Capital city through establishment of
research & development eco-system,
skill development centres and by
promoting professional educational
institutions for specific disciplines.
Smart planning
A smart city is one which integrates the
use of technology in the governance. A
smartly planned city is proven to have
reduced administrative costs, increase
efficient utilization of resources and
Proactive policy framework &
simplified clearances mechanism
The urban and economic policy
framework clearly outlining the
objectives, action plans, public-private
partnership opportunities, fiscal and
regulatory incentives, etc. would play
a pivotal role in attracting investments
from the private sector into the city.
Further, initiatives such as single
window clearance mechanism would
promote the ease of doing business in
the city, which is critical in attracting
investments from across borders.
Preservation of heritage
A commonly observed principle of
the current day city planning is the
preservation of age old heritage
structures, monuments and places of
historical importance. Additionally,
governments of various states have
taken special measures to promote
tourism. This is observed to have
enforced inter cultural tolerance and
fortify cross border relationships. The
new Amaravati Capital city of Andhra
Pradesh could be positioned to reflect
the rich culture and heritage of the
region whilst imbibing contemporary
urban design and architecture.
3.3 ECONOMIC
POSITIONING OF
THE AMARAVATI
CAPITAL CITY
The Amaravati Capital city is located
centrally in the capital region, which
is characterized by strong network
of transport infrastructure via rail
(Vijayawada and Guntur cities have
major railway stations), roads (the NH-5
and the NH- 9 pass through the region),
and a domestic airport near Vijayawada
city (proposed to be converted as an
international airport). Further, the
region is located in proximity to the
proposed sea port in Machilipatnam.
The economy of the capital region is
primarily driven by agricultural (viz.
production and harvesting of crops
including paddy, cotton, sugar-cane,
pulses, spices, etc.) and service sectors
(viz. trading, construction, hospitality,
etc.). The industrial activity in the region
is limited to upstream manufacturing
and characterized by disorganized
industrial units across sectors such
as food processing, textile, nonmetallic minerals, pharmaceuticals,
aquaculture, etc.
As highlighted earlier, the current
economic activity within the identified
391 sq. km Amaravati Capital city area
is primarily agricultural (viz. production
and harvesting of crops including
rice, sugar-cane, pulses, spices, etc.)
with negligible activity observed in
the industrial and services sectors.
However, the Amaravati Capital city and
the surrounding region is known for the
perennial Krishna river, creeks, scenic
islands and various age old religious
and cultural sites of importance such
as Durga temple, Buddhist Stupa,
Undavalli caves, Bhavani Temple,
Narasimhaswamy Temple, Dharanikota,
etc., which attract thousands of national
and international tourists.
The Amaravati Capital city and
the surrounding region are also
characterized by the presence of several
technical educational institutions,
professional colleges which supply
adequate number of graduates across
various disciplines every year. This
highlights the sufficient availability
of skilled workforce required by the
hi-tech services sectors. In addition,
the capital region is also known for
the entrepreneurial ambitions of its
highly skilled population who account
for majority of the private industrial
investments in the erstwhile Andhra
Pradesh state and across India.
As highlighted above, the key
characteristics of the Capital city and
the surrounding region including
abundant natural resources, adequate
availability of skilled workforce,
excellent connectivity and existing
social infrastructure in Vijayawada
and Guntur cities posses the potential
to trigger enhanced economic
development activity in the Amaravati
Capital city.
Therefore, keeping in view the
hinterland synergies and the inherent
strengths of the region, a socioeconomic positioning strategy has
been formulated for the Amaravati
17
Business District
The Amaravati Capital city is expected
to house the large corporate houses,
headquarters of banking and financial
institutions, etc. The dedicated business
district will comprise of a corporate
hub, a financial hub and boasts of high
rise buildings.
18
Fig.3.3 Economic Positioning of Amaravati Amaravati
Capital city
Source: Jurong Research
Capital city. The key components of the
proposed economic positioning are as
discussed below:
Capital Complex
The Capital administrative complex
will form the core component of the
Amaravati Capital city. Administrative
facilities such as assembly, secretariat,
high court, directorates, etc. will be
located within the Capital city.
Industry & Logistics
The Amaravati Capital city is proposed
to house clean and non-polluting
industries within its jurisdiction. The rich
agricultural production, existing Food
Processing eco-system in the region
and the significant potential to expand
to downstream/high value adding
activities aid in the establishment of
the sector in the city. Further, the rising
income levels, increasing digitization
and significant government thrust will
trigger the setting up of electronic
manufacturing companies in the
Amaravati Capital city. The Mega Food
Processing Park scheme and Electronic
Manufacturing Cluster schemes could
also be exploited for the development
of physical infrastructure. In addition
to the core sectors, support segments
such as logistics, packaging and printing
are also proposed to be in the city.
IT/ITeS Zone
The Capital city is proposed to attract
a share of the high-growth IT/ITeS
sector in the state. The ambitious plans
unveiled by the state government for
promotion of the sector and the image
of erstwhile Andhra Pradesh state as
one of the key hubs for IT/ITeS activity
will aid in the promotion of the sector
in the Amaravati Capital city. The zone is
proposed to comprise large campuses
as well as incubation centers developed
for encouraging start-up companies.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Knowledge Hub
Keeping in mind the criticality of
developing an intellectual capital base,
the city is proposed to house premier
technical/professional institutions with
impetus on R&D and innovation. The
knowledge hub will also comprise a
dedicated R&D cluster to accommodate
micro/SME units focused on innovation
and new product development, etc.
Tourism/Heritage/Leisure Hub
The tourism hub will include
development and beautification of
existing places of religious/cultural
importance as well as the development
of new age theme/amusement parks.
The hub will also comprise golf courses,
sports arenas and other entertainment
avenues for senior level executives and
general workforce.
Housing & Support Real Estate
The Amaravati Capital city will have
provisions for residential housing for
people across various incomes groups
(viz. HIG, MIG and LIG/EWS) and
support real estate uses such as retail,
shopping, healthcare,etc.
3.4 DEMOGRAPHIC
PROJECTIONS
As highlighted in the preceding
sections, the Amaravati Capital city
is envisaged to be positioned as the
key economic and administrative hub
in the new Andhra Pradesh State.
The emergence of the region as the
Capital city is expected to attract
significant economic development
activity going forward. For the region
to sustain the anticipated economic
activity, it is important to set aside
available adequate land for setting up
industries and corporates, undertake
development of basic infrastructure
and impart necessary training and
skill development for its people to be
industry ready.
Therefore, as part of this section, a
broad assessment of historical trends
in the identified economic uses for
the Amaravati Capital city has been
undertaken with a view to estimate the
future growth trends in these sectors.
Further, the estimated future growth
trends in these sectors have been
utilized to project the following for the
next 35 years (till year 2050):
• Land demand for the identified
economic uses
• Population and demographics of the
Amaravati Capital city
• Land demand for housing and
support real estate uses
Land Demand Assessment
The primary objective of this section
is to present to the reader the findings
of the comprehensive demand assessment undertaken for the identified
economic uses. In view of the same,
the subsequent sections of this report
would highlight the following:
• Overview
of
the
approach,
methodology
and
key
tasks
undertaken in the ‘land demand
assessment’ exercise.
• Findings
from
the
‘demand
assessment’ exercise undertaken for
the envisaged Amaravati Capital city
of Andhra Pradesh
As a prelude to understand the detailed
approach and methodology adopted
for the demand assessment exercise, it
is essential to gain an understanding of
various salient features of this exercise.
The key assumptions made for this
exercise are as discussed below:
Salient features/ key assumptions:
• Demand for the proposed Amaravati
Capital city has been forecasted from
the year 2015 to 2050, for a 35 year
period
• Demand has been assessed based on
exhibited dynamics in consonance
with future potential ascertained for
the identified economic groups
• Demand forecast exercise has been
undertaken using relevant historical
trends and future industry growth
projections, etc.
• The augmented growth in demand has
been estimated with the assumption
that the increase in demand would
occur with the optimum utilization
of various inherent advantages,
hinterland synergies (availability of
raw materials & potential manpower
base along with increased access
to infrastructure facilities in the
Amaravati Capital city.
• The demand assessment has
been undertaken primarily for 3
components viz. the capital complex
comprising
of
administrative
infrastructure,
the
industrial
and service sectors, housing and
supporting real estate
3.5 DEMAND
METHODOLOGY
The demand estimation methodology
and summary of demand assessment
are covered in the subsequent sections.
3.5.1 INDUSTRIAL SECTORS
The demand assessment for the
identified industrial sectors (viz. Food
& Beverages, Electronics/Hardware
manufacturing, Logistics, Packaging,
etc.) for the Amaravati Capital city has
been undertaken through quantitative
(detailed statistical approach) and
qualitative techniques.
The approach primarily involves an
estimation of incremental value of
output expected to be produced by
identified sectors and conversion of
the same into incremental number
of units and incremental land area
requirements based on output per unit
ratios and land area per unit standards.
Figure 3.4 on the right highlights the
detailed approach and methodology
adopted for the computation of land
demand for the identified industrial
uses.
Step 1: Assessment of historical base
The primary industrial data (published
by Annual Survey of Industries) was
collected both at India and Andhra
Pradesh level to have a comprehensive
understanding of the historical industry
dynamics including value of output,
number of units, employment per unit,
etc.
19
Step 2: Forecasting relevant industry
variables
The India level value of output data
was forecasted (for the next 35 years)
using appropriate industry growth
rates published by industry bodies and
planning commission reports.
Step 3: Ascertain the share of Andhra
Pradesh in the value of output at India
level
An assessment of historical and current
share of Andhra Pradesh state (for each
industry group) in the India level output
was undertaken. Further, the share of
Andhra Pradesh state was forecasted
for the future based on historical
growth trends, industry reports,
policy initiatives, etc. to ascertain the
incremental value of output expected
to be produced in the state.
Step 4 – Ascertain the share of Capital
Region/ ity in the value of output at
State Level
An assessment of historical and current
share of Capital Region (industry
data pertaining to influence districts
was studied as a proxy for the capital
region) in the state level output was
undertaken. After which, the share
of Capital Region/City was forecasted
for the future based on historical
growth trends, industry reports,
policy initiatives, etc., to ascertain the
Fig.3.4 Computation of land demand for identified industrial uses
Source: Jurong Research
Fig.3.5 Examples of Industrial Sector
Source: Ministry of External Affairs, India
incremental value of output expected
to be produced in the region
20
Step 5 – Ratio analysis & estimation of
incremental no. of units
The ASI published industry data has
been analyzed to ascertain the variables
such as output per unit, employment
per unit, etc. These variables were then
subsequently utilized to project the
incremental number of units required
to produce the incremental value of
output projected (as derived in step 4)
in the city.
Step 6 – Derivation of industry-wise
land standards
At this stage, typical land area
requirements for each industry
group were determined through
benchmarking of industrial clusters/
parks as well as through industry
consultations.
Fig.3.6 Computation of land demand for services sectors – IT/ITeS sector, etc
Source: Jurong Research
Fig.3.7 Examples of IT/ITeS Sector
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Step 7 – Estimation of land demand for
identified industrial sectors
The established typical land area per
unit standards has been utilized to
project the incremental land demand
for accommodating the incremental
number of units in the region over the
next 35 years (till year 2050).
In addition, for the purpose of
estimating the land demand for logistics
space (primarily warehousing space is
proposed to be part of the Amaravati
Capital city whereas the other key
urban centers currently located along
key transportation corridors within
the capital region are proposed to be
developed as multi – modal logistics
hubs), key capital cities are
benchmarked to estimate the per
capita logistics space demand in these
cities.
Further, the per capita space
benchmarks (viz. approx. 2.5-3 sft per
person in Mumbai & 2-2.5 sft per person
in Kolkata, etc.) thus derived have
been multiplied by the total projected
population in the Amaravati Capital
city to estimate the total logistics builtup space demand for the Amaravati
Capital city. Post this; the market led
FAR benchmarks (viz. typically about
0.5) have been adopted to derive the
land area requirement to cater to the
projected logistics built-up space in the
Capital city over the next 35 years.
3.5.2 SERVICES SECTOR
~ IT/ITeS SECTOR
The demand assessment for the Hi-tech
sectors (IT/ITES, etc.) for the Amaravati
Capital city has been undertaken
through quantitative (detailed statistical
approach) and qualitative techniques
The approach primarily involves
estimation of incremental industry
revenues (based on industry reports
and planning commission forecasts)
and assessment of the built-up area
and land area required to generate the
forecasted industry revenues.
Figure 3.6 on the left exhibits the
detailed approach & methodology
adopted for computation of land
demand for the Hi-tech components.
Step 1
This step involved an analysis of
historical India level IT exports and
estimated projections for India IT
exports for the next 35 years. Based on
the historical growth trends observed
in the national IT exports and keeping
in view the growth forecasts by the
publications of NASSCOM, AP IT
department, etc. appropriate growth
rates have been adopted to project the
industry revenues till year 2050.
Step 2
This step involved an assessment of
historical trends of share of Andhra
Pradesh in India IT exports and
projected share based on growth
forecasts outlined in AP IT policy 2014
– 2020. Based on the current industry
dynamics, it is estimated that the
current share of Andhra Pradesh in all
India exports is approximately 0.4%.
In addition, based on the objectives
outlined by AP state Government in AP
IT policy 2014-20, it was projected that
the share of AP IT exports in national
exports would reach 5% by 2020. These
variables have been utilized to project
the broad industry export revenues of
the state over the next 35 years.
Step 3
This step involved an assessment of
historical trends of share of Amaravati
Capital city/region in the IT exports of
Andhra Pradesh state and projection
of share of capital region/city over the
next 35 years keeping in perspective
the envisaged economic positioning of
the city and hinterland synergies.
Step 4
This step involved an estimation of
overall IT/ITES industry revenues
utilizing the IT exports forecasts for
the Amaravati Capital city. For this, an
assessment of historical share of IT
exports in the overall industry revenues
was undertaken at India level. The same
conversion rate (approximately 80%)
was adopted to estimate the overall IT/
ITES industry revenues.
Step 5
This step involved an estimation of
the total built-up area required for
generating the forecasted IT industry
revenues for the Amaravati Capital city.
For the purpose of this assessment,
industry trends in Andhra Pradesh and
other major IT hubs were evaluated
to understand the built-up office
space requirement to generate IT/ITES
industry revenues. This assessment
indicates a range of approximately 55
- 60 sft of office space requirement for
INR 1 million of IT industry revenue
generated. The same conversion
rate was utilized to convert the
projected IT industry revenues in the
Amaravati Capital city to built-up space
requirement over the next 35 years.
Step 6
This step involved an estimation of land
area required to accommodate the
projected built-up space requirement
in the Amaravati Capital city. For the
purpose of this estimation, an FSI of
approximately 2.5 (based on market
benchmarks) was utilized to compute
the land area (in acres) required for
multi-tenanted office spaces and an
FSI of approximately 0.7 was utilized
to compute the land area required for
large IT/ITES campuses.
3.5.3 FINANCIAL AND
CORPORATE HUB
In line with the envisaged economic
positioning of the Capital city as the
Financial and Corporate hub in the
context of the state and the region,
a benchmarking exercise has been
undertaken to ascertain the land
demand for the Financial and Corporate
hub to be developed over the next 2 -3
decades.
Table 3.1 on the right highlights
the location and land extent of
benchmarked
financial/business
districts utilized for the computation of
demand for the services sectors.
R & D/ INNOVATION HUB
The Capital city is proposed to be
promoted as one of the prominent
knowledge hubs for Research &
Development and innovation in the
country. The skilled manpower base,
entrepreneurial ambitions of the
people from the region, revolutionary
changes in the digital technologies,
significant thrust on ‘make in India’
are expected to aid in the promotion
of the start-up companies involved
in research & development and new
product development. Therefore,
keeping in perspective the inherent
strengths of the region and the
envisaged economic positioning of the
Capital city, a dedicated R&D/start-up
cluster is proposed to be developed as
a part of the Capital city.
Financial/
Corporate Hub
Location
GIFT city
Gujarat, India
BKC complex
Mumbai, India
Lujiazui Financial
District
Shanghai, China
Approx. land
extent (acres)
886
900
1,679*
Table 3.1 Location and land extent of benchmarked financial/business districts
Source: Jurong Research; *Corresponds to total designed development area
R&D Hub
Location
Approx. land extent
(acres)
Alexandria Knowledge
Park
Hyderabad, India
300
ICICI Knowledge Park
Hyderabad, India
International Bio-tech
Park
Pune, India
Table 3.2 Location and land extent of benchmarked R&D hubs
Source: Jurong Research
Fig.3.8 Artist Impressions of Financials and R&D hubs in India
In addition, for the purpose of
ascertaining the land demand
allocation, a benchmarking exercise
Source: Government of GUJARAT and OrcuttWinslow
200
100
21
has been undertaken of some of the
prominent R&D parks in the country.
Table 3.2 on the right highlights the
details of the benchmarked R&D hubs
in India.
22
CAPITAL COMPLEX
The capital complex forms the core
component of the Capital city. The
capital complex is proposed to
comprise Assembly building, state
Government secretariat, High court,
offices of directorates and other key
administrative offices critical for the
functioning of the Capital city of a state.
This section highlights the methodology
adopted for the computation of broad
land demand for the proposed capital
complex within the Capital city.
Fig.3.9 Computation of land demand – Government complex
Source: Jurong Research; Corresponds to total designed development area
Broad land demand estimation (acres) and phasing plan
Key economic uses
Phase 1
(10 years)
Phase 2
(10 - 20 years)
Phase 3
(20-35 years)
Capital Complex
800
-
-
IT/ITeS Complex
143
148
139
Corporate Complex
51
62
187
Financial Hub
85
103
312
Start – up/ Innovation Hub
44
114
242
Industrial Sectors
1,706
2,662
6,556
Education Hub*
1,102
1,154
1,713
Total
2,729
2,989
7,336
Table 3.3 Summary of demand assessment for economic uses; Source: Jurong Research
* The land demand for the education hub has been arrived through URDPFI (Urban and Regional Development plans formulation and implementation)
2015 guidelines.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Step 1: Identification of comparable
states and capital cities
A benchmarking analysis has been
undertaken to analyse the comparable
states in India and their capital cities.
States which are broadly similar in
terms of size and population have been
compared.
Step 2: Analysis of area occupied by
Government machinery & employees
per hectare
Master plan documents of the
benchmarked capital cities were
referred for the computation of the
area allocated for the Government
machinery. Further, number of
government employees accommodated
in the Government complex was
sourced from government websites as
well as the Master Plan document.
These details have been further
analysed to estimate the total
number of Government employees
accommodated per hectare in these
capital cities.
Step 3: Broad estimation of number
of employees to be shifted to the new
Amaravati Capital city
The broad estimation of number of
government employees to be shifted
to the new Capital city was done using
secondary research. The total number
of state Government employees
currently working in Hyderabad
(common capital) was further split on
the basis of population ratio of Andhra
Pradesh & Telangana. In addition, the
numbers derived in this method have
been validated through secondary
research.
Step 4: Estimation of land area to be
allocated for capital complex
As highlighted in step 3, the total
number of employees expected to
be shifted to new Capital city and the
employees per hectare benchmarks
have been utilized to estimate the
broad land area requirement for the
capital complex. The exhibit (Table 3.3)
on the left highlights the summary of
broad land assessment undertaken for
identified economic uses in the Capital
city.
In addition to the above, land demand
estimation for other key economic uses
such as tourism hubs (approx. 1,000
acres) and golf courses (approx. 500
acres) have been undertaken based
on the benchmarking of comparable
developments in India and around the
world.
3.6 EMPLOYMENT AND
DEMOGRAPHIC
PROJECTIONS FOR
ECONOMIC USES
Having assessed the land demand
potential for identified economic uses
(the key drivers of economic activity
in the Amaravati Capital city), this
section focuses on estimating the total
employment expected to be created by
the identified economic uses and the
population projections for the capital
over the next 35 years.
The methodology adopted for the
computation of the employment and
the population is as highlighted in
Figure 3.10 on the right.
Step 1
Based on the demand assessment
undertaken for the identified economic
uses, the land area projections for
each sector have been converted into
direct employment based on various
parameters. For the industrial sectors,
the employment per unit standard
(based on historical trends as published
by ASI) has been utilized whereas for
the service sectors, appropriate per
capita FAR benchmarks have been
utilized. In addition, for estimating
the employment in the Government
sector, a secondary research has been
undertaken.
Step 2
Additionally, the direct employment
estimated has been utilized to project
the indirect employment creation
based on established industry norms
(utilizing sources such as Industry
Ministries/ Industry Chambers/ etc.).
The indirect employment refers to
activities such as services established
to aid in the manufacturing industry
(packaging/ warehousing/ welding/
etc.), support activity of the population
(education, healthcare, entertainment
etc.) and general economic activity
in the city (banking/ courier service/
insurance/ etc).
23
Step 3
The sum of direct and indirect
employment in the Amaravati Capital
city is estimated to be the total
employment expected to be generated
in the Amaravati Capital city over the
next 35 years. The total employment
base established in the step above was
then utilized to determine the total
population in the Amaravati Capital city,
utilizing the workforce participation
rates prevalent in Andhra Pradesh
(i.e. conversion of employment into
population using WPR).
Step 4
The established labor force participation
(the prevalent ratio of 40-44% based
on central statistics office) was applied
to the employment base estimated
to convert the total employment
projections into the total population
projections for the Amaravati Capital
city in the next 35 years.
Step 5
The total incremental population
thus derived has been added to the
existing population in the Capital city
to estimate the total population of the
Amaravati Capital city.
Fig.3.10 Methodology for the computation of employment and population
Source: Jurong Research
India has a large number of skilled workforce
24
% of Incremental
Jobs by 2050
Incremental
employment
Phase I
(10 Years)
Phase 2
(10 - 20 years)
Phase 3
(20-35 years)
Government
46,096
4,432
11,524
IT / ITeS
51,062
58,422
156,542
Corporate Complex
24,692
31,727
106,931
Financial Hub
41,153
52,879
178,218
Start-up/Innovation hub
6,273
18,818
2,439
Education Hub
5,934
7,625
25,698
Industrial sectors
18,001
30,082
82,152
Indirect Employment
158,409
175,550
484,242
Total
351,620
379,534
1,047,747
Table 3.4 Summary of employment projections
Source: Jurong Research
Population
(in mn)
Year 0
Phase 1
(10 years)
Phase 2
(10-20 years)
Phase 3
(20-35 years)
Incremental
Population
0.38
0.86
0.90
2.34
Total Population
(cumulative)
0.38
1.24
2.15
4.49
Table 3.5 Summary of population projections
Source: Jurong Research
Total
Population
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
The
incremental
employment
projections derived based on the
aforementioned methodologies are
highlighted in Table 3.4.
Further, the incremental population
projections derived based on the
above
highlighted
employment
projections and the applicable work
force participation (approx. 40-45%) is
as highlighted in Table 3.5.
India has a rapidly growing urban population
3.7 LAND DEMAND
FOR HOUSING AND
SUPPORT REAL
ESTATE USES
The employment and population
projections estimated in the above
module have been utilized to estimate
the broad land area requirements for
housing and other support real estate
uses within the Amaravati Capital city.
The exhibit on the right (Figure 3.11)
outlines the methodology adopted
for computation of the demand for
residential and support real estate
uses such as healthcare, education,
shopping/retail,
social/recreational,
sports facilities, etc. in the Amaravati
Capital city.
Step 1 - The employment projections
computed in the earlier module were
split into Top Management, Middle
Management and Workers based
on our understanding of on-ground
dynamics and industry consultations.
Step 2 – The hierarchy level employment
computed in the above step had been
converted to total population across
these income categories utilizing
appropriate workforce participation
ratios.
Step 3 – The population projections
across various income categories were
divided by the applicable household
ratios (approx. 4 - 4.5) to compute
the total number of incremental
households required to accommodate
the incremental population.
Step 4 – The total residential builtup space essential for projected
households was computed based
on the living space requirements
of households as per the industry
practices. The assessment of living
space requirement was undertaken
based on the typical requirements
of each level of management i.e. top
management, middle management
and workers. Accordingly an area of
1,500 sft; 1,100 sft and 600 sft per unit
were assumed for the three categories
respectively.
25
Step 5 – The total built-up residential
spaces required to accommodate the
projected households were converted
to land area requirement utilizing
appropriate FAR benchmarks. For the
purpose of this assessment, FAR of 1
had been assumed for HIG households,
FSI of 2 had been assumed for MIG
households and FAR of 1.5 had been
assumed for LIG households.
Step 6 – Upon estimating the total
population projected for the Amaravati
Capital city for the next 35 years, the
Urban Development Plan Formulation
and Implementations (UDPFI) guidelines
as published by Ministry of Urban Affairs
& Employment, Government of India
were used to evaluate the total land
requirement for the support facilities
such as commercial, healthcare, socialrecreational, education, sports facilities
and other support uses.
Fig.3.11 Methodology adopted for the computation of land demand for housing and real estate support uses
Source: Jurong Research
Fig.3.12 Supporting Real Estate Uses
Source: releaseMyAd (left) JudsonDesigners (right)
Facilities
26
Convenience Shopping
Local Shopping including Service Centre
Community Centre including Service Centre
District Centre
Local Wholesale Markets/ Mandis
Dispensary
Nursing Home, Child
Welfare and MATERNITY
Centre (25 - 30 beds)
Polyclinic
Intermediate Hospital
(Category B)
Intermediate Hospital
(Category a)
Multi Speciality Hospital
General Hospital
FAMILY Welfare Clinic
Diagnostic Centre
Veterianary Hospital
Dispensary for Pets
No. of Units
Per
Population
Commercial Facilities
1
5,000
Area per
unit (sqm)
1,500
1
15,000
4,600
1
100,000
50,000
1
500,000
400,000
1
1,000,000
100,000
Healthcare Facilities
1
15,000
1,200
1
100,000
3,000
1
100,000
3,000
1
100,000
10,000
1
100,000
37,000
1
100,000
1
250,000
1
50,000
1
50,000
1
500,000
1
100,000
Educational Facilities
1
2,500
1
5,000
1
7,500
63,500
60,000
800
800
2,000
300
Pre-Primary School
Primary School
Sr. Secondary School
Integrated School
Without Hostel (Class 1-XII)
Integrated School
with Hostel (Class 1-XII)
School for Physcially
Challenged
School for Mentally
Challenged
College
Technical Eduaction
Centre (A) ITI + Polytechnic
Technical Eduaction Centre
(A) ITI + Technical Centre +
Coaching Centre
8,00
4,000
18,000
1
100,000
35,000
1
100,000
39,000
1
45,000
7,000
1
1,000,000
2,000
125,000
50,000
1
1,000,000
40,000
1
1,000,000
40,000
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Facilities
No. of Units
Engineering College
Medical College
Other Professional College
Nursing & Paramedical
Institute
LPG gowdown/
Gas Gowdown
Milk Distribution
1
1
1
Per
Population
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
Area per
unit (sqm)
60,000
150,000
60,000
The URDPFI guidelines adopted for
the purpose of estimating the land
demand for support real estate uses
are highlighted in the Table 3.6 on the
left.
1
1,000,000
2,000
The land demand estimated for
residential and other supporting real
estate uses are highlighted in Table 3.7
on the left.
Distribution Services
1
50,000
1
5,000
Sports Facilities
Residential Unit Play Area
1
5,000
Neighbourhood PLay Area
1
15,000
District Sports Centre
1
100,000
Divisional Sports Centre
1
1,000,000
Police, Civil Defence and Home Guards
POlice Post
1
50,000
POlice Station
1
90,000
Traffic & Police Control Room
1
0
District Office and Battalion
1
1,000,000
Police Line
1
2,000,000
District Jail
1
1,000,000
Civil Defense and
1
1,000,000
Home Guards
Safety Management
Disaster Management Centre
1
200,000
520
150
5,000
15,000
80,000
200,000
1,600
15,000
0
48,000
60,000
100,000
20,000
10,000
Table 3.6 URDPFI guidelines 2015
Source: Jurong Research
Population
(in mn)
Phase 1
(10 years)
Phase 2
(10-20 years)
Phase 3
(20-35 years)
Residential Housing
Mixed Use
Education/
Institutional
Sports Facilities
Police, Civil Defense,
Safety Management &
Distribution Services
2,739
975
2,842
1,022
7,663
2,888
1,102
1,154
3,263
640
670
1,893
103
109
307
Table 3.7 Summary of demand computed for residential and support real estate uses
Source: Jurong Research
As mentioned, these standards have
been extracted from the URDPFI
guidelines, and then modified to suit
the context of the Amaravati Capital
city.
4
CAPITAL CITY MASTER PLAN
This chapter present the Capital city Master plan to guide development in the
Amaravati Capital city.
The chapter covers the following topics:
1. Vision, Goals and Strategies
2. Concept Plan
3. Broad Development Strategies
4. World Class Infrastructure
5. Jobs and Homes for all
6. Clean and Green
7. Quality Living
8. Efficient Resource Management
9. Identity and Heritage
10.Landuse Plan
11.Zoning Plan
View from the barrage looking towards the Seetanagram hill
4.1 URBAN SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK
28
As part of the overall planning process,
an Urban Sustainability Framework is
established to provide guiding principles
and overarching parameters for the
subsequent planning processes that
will ensure the long term sustainability
of the Amaravati Capital city.
Though sustainability issues may differ
from city to city and are unique to a
particular city or region based on its
historical context, it can be concluded
that the main sustainability issues
generally revolve around these 6 key
areas.
The critical components in city
development that may affect the long
term sustainability of the city will
be explained as to how they can be
addressed consistently in all stages and
aspects of city planning.
Besides identifying key sustainability
issues, the framework will also set
the sustainability targets and Key
Performance Indicators (KPI’s) for
the city’s long term development.
The sustainability targets form the
overarching parameters to be achieved
through the implementation of the
master plan in the next 20 and 40 years.
In establishing the framework, a
“Targeted Approach” is adopted with
identification of 6 specific sustainability
areas to be examined. This approach
was developed by Surbana based on
past planning experiences. It helps
urban planners to identify the context
specific issues of the city, following
the broad guidance of the 6 areas of
concerns as shown in the following
diagram.
Fig.4.1 Urban Sustainability Framework
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
4.1.1 KEY SUSTAINABILITY
ISSUES IN THE
CAPITAL CITY
Several important issues have been
identified that need to be addressed
in terms of sustainability. The Surbana
and Jurong teams have prioritized the
following 6 issues that will transform
into the Goals of the Master Plan.
1. Creating Jobs
4.1.2 SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK
Key Issues
Existing Condition and Potential
Creating Jobs
This issue is directly related to Economic Sustainability of the new Amaravati Capital • Generate jobs to sustain a population of 4.5 million
city. In order to attract people to come to this new Capital city, they must be able
people in the Amaravati Capital city.
to find employment. The existing potential of Agro-based industries needs to be • Generate knowledge based and high-tech jobs
to sustain a population of about 2 million people
capitalized upon for this purpose.
within the Amaravati Capital city
Attracting Investments
The Amaravati Capital city is to be developed on a greenfield site. Therefore, • Identify key strategic projects that will form part
of the initial phases of developments in order to
attracting investments to kick-start development and sustaining the same in the long
attract investments both locally and globally.
run is a bigger challenge. The employment generators need to be carefully proposed
to balance the needs of the locals and also to attract global investors.
Housing
Housing provision has been a key concern throughout India for a long time. Currently, • Target minimum 50% affordable housing to cater to
Low and Medium Income group
most of the housing supply is catered for the High Income Group, despite having a
strong demand for housing by Low and Medium Income Group people. Government • Ensure strict planning and construction standards at
par with global norms to ensure quality of housing
needs to devise strategies to develop affordable housing for the vast majority of
people that are not being considered at the moment.
Nature and Environment
The Amaravati Capital city is blessed with a rich array of natural and environmental • Preserve all natural features and enhance their
characters
features. These include the Krishna River, Kondapalli Reserved Forest, Mangalagiri
Reserved Forest, Tadepalli Reserved Forest among others. In addition to this, there
are several canals and river tributaries that pass through the Amaravati Capital city
area that need to be carefully considered in the planning.
Floods
The Capital Region is also prone to floods. Management of the flood waters, • Design a sustainable flood management system
especially within the Amaravati Capital city will be one of the key considerations in • Utilize existing canals and water-bodies
the planning.
Heritage
Several heritage and cultural features fall either within or in close proximity to the • Develop a heritage tourism circuit to connect all
Amaravati Capital city. A few of these include Amaravati, Undavalli caves, Kondapalli
heritage sites
Fort, etc. It becomes critical to protect these features and also integrate them in the • Allocate necessary facilities to compliment the
tourism at these heritage sites
planning. A comprehensive strategy to develop a heritage tourism circuit needs to be
considered at the Amaravati Capital city level. The circuit should be well integrated
with the Capital Region tourism circuit.
2. Attracting investments
Targets/KPI’s
3. Provision of good quality housing
4. Nature and Environment
5. Flood Management
6. Heritage & Culture
29
4.2 VISION, GOALS AND STRATEGIES
Vision:
People’s Capital of Andhra Pradesh
The New Capital of Andhra Pradesh
demonstrate global quality of life
is envisioned to be the pioneer
standards to offer high levels of
Smart City of India. It aims to be
convenience to people of all ages.
World Class and at par with the
The proposal will capitalize on the
standards set forth by countries
rich heritage possessed by the
such as Singapore. The new capital
region and utilize it to create a
will be an economic powerhouse
unique identity for the new capital.
that will create a range of jobs
Sustainability and efficient man-
for existing resident villagers by
agement of resources will form
upgrading their skills, as well as
another important pillar of this
provide high-tech and knowledge
new capital. It will be supported by
based industry jobs to be globally
maintaining the clean and green
competitive. Housing will be at the
character that the site currently
core of its planning and will aim
demonstrates by mimicking these
to provide affordable and quality
ideas in to the new capital master
homes to all its residents. It will
plan.
Goals and Strategies
World Class
Infrastructure
Jobs & Homes
for all
135 Km of Public Transport corridors by 2050
> 1,000 km of Road Network by 2050
4.5 Million Resident Population by 2050
1.8 Million Jobs by 2050
Strategies:
• Build state of art public transport both for Capital Region
and Amaravati Capital city
• Develop a highly efficient road network at par with
international standards
• Encourage high percentage of modal share using public
transport
• Plan for a long term 2050 horizon and reserve transit
corridors where necessary
• High speed Railway to have a station in the Amaravati
Capital city
• Develop a world class International Airport to serve the
Capital Region
• Capitalize on the opportunity to use National Waterway
for trade
• Plan strategically to allow easy transfer between different
modes of transport
Strategies:
• Promote high-value added agriculture and agro-based
industries
• Create opportunities for existing dwellers to upgrade
skills
• Introduce a mix of knowledge based high-tech industries
to attract investments
• Encourage home ownership to create a sense of identity
for citizens
• Provide sufficient affordable housing to cater to the
needful
• Strategize a slum free city through careful planning
• Phase out industries strategically for long term sustained
growth
• Create a favourable policy framework to implement and
support the Amaravati Capital city development
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Green and Clean
Quality Living
Efficient Resource
Management
Identity and
Heritage
> 20% area reserved for Green and Blue
30+ km Public River Waterfront
Parks and Public Facilities within 5-10 minute
walking distance
Flood resistant City
Towards Net Zero Discharge
> 250km of Heritage and Tourism Network
using Roads, Metro and Waterways
Strategies:
• Create a network of parks and greens by integrating the
village ponds
• Ensure access to park for every citizen within easy
walking distance
• Make productive use of natural features on the site
without damaging them
• Reserve most of the waterfront along Krishna river for
public use
• Mandate retaining the green network reserved in the
Amaravati Capital city Plan
• Reserve high value agriculture land as no development
zone wherever possible
• Utilize the natural features such as forest and hills to
create a regional green network.
• Create an image of city sitting within the water and
greens
Strategies:
• Ensure public transit is within easy walking distance for
all
• Convenience of neighbourhood centre amenities within
walking distance
• Safe environment with universal access for all ages
• Provide opportunities for learning and enhancing careers
within the Amaravati Capital city and Region
• Provide excellent health care facilities at affordable costs
within easy reach
• Ensure ample opportunities to live, work, learn and play
• Ensure ease of commute within 30 minutes from origin
to destination with Amaravati Capital city
Strategies:
• Adopt efficient flood control techniques and protect
most waterways in the city
• Promote “Reduce, Recycle and Reuse”
• Establish state of art waste management and disposal
systems across the city
• Develop a smart grid in the city for efficient management
of power and energy
• Encourage use of renewable energy to maximum extent
possible
• Integrate the storm water drainage system with the
existing canal and village tank network and utilize for
flood management and recreation
• Encourage certification of projects using global standards
such as IGBC and LEED
Strategies:
• Preserve all historic and culturally important sites
• Promote culture and heritage attractions for locals and
tourists alike
• Compliment adjacent cities, at the same time establish a
unique identity
• Integrate the existing villages as a vital component of city
development
• Development nodes within the city that reflect the
culture of the State and region.
• Dedicate strategic locations that will allow people to
come together and organize cultural activities
• Create a tourism circuit that links all the existing heritage
features and new nodes created in the city.
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4.3 CONCEPT PLAN
Kondapalli Hill
32
Kanak Durga Temple
‘Vastu’ has played a critical role in
Indian city planning and architectural
design since ancient times. The
Amaravati Capital city concept has
thus, been derived from the ancient
Vastu city planning principles. These
principles help in identifying the city’s
urban pattern, ceremonial axis and
ensure positive flow of energy into the
new city.
4.3.1 Vastu Considerations
The Amaravati Capital city concept
plan encompasses the following Vastu
principles to develop a comprehensive
city Master plan:
Neerukunda Hill
1. Site setting:
Vastu lays emphasis on careful site
selection based on its topography
and position of nearby hills and water
bodies. The Amaravati Capital city
site has been carefully chosen within
the Capital region due to its proximity
to river Krishna, the holy town of
Amaravati
and existing Vijayawada
city.
Fig.4.2 Vastu Considerations in Master Plan
2. Cardinal Axis (Orientation)
Vastu city planning lays emphasis
on aligning the primary roads and
important city axes along the northsouth cardinal direction and the
equator. The concept plan adopts this
principle to determine the alignment of
the central administrative centre.
3. Grid Pattern:
Fig.4.3 Site slopes towards river Krishna
Fig.4.4 Location of hills
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.4.5 Main entry from east
In line with the above Vastu principle,
the concept proposes development
of the Amaravati Capital city in a
rectangular grid aligned to cardinal
directions with primary roads aligned
to north-south poles and the equator.
This connects life with cosmic structure,
and individual intelligence with cosmic
intelligence. This grid network will
also help in developing east facing
residential developments in the future.
4. North-east axis:
Vastu suggests that the north-eastern
winds bring in positive flow of energy.
Hence, the Amaravati Capital city
concept suggests development of a
north-eastern axis to welcome flow of
positive energy into the new city. As
the existing Vijayawada city lies in the
north-east of the proposed site, the
new Amaravati Capital city will tap on
the north eastern corridor to tap on
the first entry point from the existing
Vijayawada city.
5. Brahmastan-green hub
Vastu city planning, expresses the
importance of a ‘Brahmastan’ (Silent
Centre) as the centre of any space such
as galaxy, molecule, atom,etc. Thus, it
recommends development of a central
core open space within each city as the
centre magnet of the development.
The concept plan acknowledges this
recommendation and proposes a
central green hub within the Amaravati
Capital city.
6. Modular Planning
Vedic city planning recommends
modular development of clusters
such as neighbourhoods with central
‘Brahmastan’ - central open space. The
Amaravati Capital city will be planned as
4.3.2 Planning Strategies
Establishing growth corridors
The Concept plan for the Amaravati
Capital city proposes 3 important axes
which serve as potential corridors
within the city.
1. Civic axis
The Concept plan proposes an
important North-South cardinal axis
housing the states civic core with
administrative functions like the state
assembly, government offices, etc. The
scenic Kondapalli and Neerkunda hills
form the anchors to this axis. These hills
will form scenic backdrops at either end
of the axis.
2. Recreation axis
A north - eastern axis is planned along
the existing the Kondaveeti Vagu river
anchored by the historic Kanak Durga
temple and Neerukunda hill. This
axis will be developed as the city’s
recreational corridor housing a number
of parks and open spaces with no
development edge along either banks
of the river. The recreation axis will
also bring in positive flow of energy as
highlighted in the vastu principles.
3. Waterfront axis
The Concept plan also proposes an axis
along the river front lying between the
civic and recreational axis. This axis
shall house the city’s downtown area
with a vibrant waterfront commercial
district that will create a distinctive
skyline for the Amaravati city.
Determining development nodes
The Concept plan proposes 3
development nodes as the anchor of
the 3 axes. These include:
33
4. Government node
Situated close to the waterfront in the
north, this node in envisioned to be
the vibrant commercial and civic heart
of the city housing the state’s new
administrative core and city’s central
business district.
4
3.
Wa
ter
f
ron
tA
xis
1. Civic Axis
flexible modular towns with adequate
public facilities.
5. University node
The university node has been identified
close to the Neerukunda hill located
more centrally for easy connectivity
and ample open spaces in its vicinity.
6
n
tio
rea
is
Ax
ec
2. R
6. Recreation node
The recreation node is planned in the
north-east at close proximity to the
famous Undavalli caves housing a
sports hub and a number of cultural
activities.
5
Other Strategies:
7. Township Planning
The concept proposes residential
developments to be clusters into
townships. Each township will be
planned in accordance to the township
model discussed in the following
sections.
8. Industrial Planning
The concept plan carefully integrates
industrial clusters within the city along
the peripheral national highways. These
clusters will be well connected to the
residential areas via multiple modes of
public transport.
Fig.4.6 Concept structure showing three axis and three nodes
Civic Axis
Recreation Axis
Waterfront Axis
4.3.3 Township Model
Village
Neighbourhood
34
Added
Commercial
1
+
Existing
Villages
2
Township model is an urban planning
tool which guides the planning process
by providing an integrated landuse
module that ensures well balanced
provision of residential, commercial,
industrial and civic facilities for a
projected population. Together with the
overall city structure plan, this model
helps in preparing an implementable
city landuse plan.
3
Village
Neighbourhood
Centre
Before proceeding with the township
model adopted for the Amaravati
Capital city, the following section will
present the village neighbourhood
model which will be adopted in the
existing village settlements.
Township
Village Neighbourhood Model
Village
Neighbourhood
Centre
New
Neighbourhood
Centre
4
Town
Centre
Fig.4.7 Village Township Model
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
The village neighbourhood model
(Figure 4.7) is based on an urban
integration and village up-gradation
strategy. Thus, the main aim of the
model is to ensure adequate provision
of civic amenities within the existing
villages and carefully integrate these
areas with future urban settlements
within the Amaravati Capital city.
1. Retention of existing villages
The model proposes retention of
existing village cores and supporting
them by introducing missing civic
amenities and commercial centres.
These vibrant centres will form the
heart of the villages by providing active
public spaces.
2. Village Neighbourhood Centre
This civic and commercial node
forms a typical model for the Village
Neighbourhood Centre. All existing
villages shall be upgraded using this
model.
3. Village Neighbourhood
The residential land that needs to be
returned to the village land owners
under the Land Pooling Act, 20141 will
be allocated within the vicinity of these
existing settlements. This shall help in
developing a larger community, and
form the village neighbourhood.
4. Integration of Village
Neighbourhoods within townships
Village
Neighbourhoods
will
be integrated with new urban
neighbourhoods to form a township.
Each township will be supported with a
Town Centre (TC).
The Capital city township model is
illustrated in the following section.
Capital city - Township Model
The township model (Figure 4.8)
proposed for the new Amaravati
Capital city, is designed using the
strategy of hierarchical distribution of
population, landuses, open spaces and
infrastructure.
The township model is guided by the
following design principles:
Establishing the Cell as Core of
Community Centric Planning
A cell - the smallest unit element in the
township model - is designed based on
the principle of comfortable walking
distance and flexibility of land parcel
division in the cell unit.
The dimension of 400x400 meters is
dedicated to house up to 2,700 housing
units2, creating a small community
with greenery, playground and vehicle
free community spaces essential for a
pleasant living environment.
Developing Walkable Neighbourhoods
The cells are amalgamated into
walkable neighbourhoods of 25,000 to
60,000 population with the following
characteristics:
• Well served by pedestrian friendly
“local streets” and pedestrian
network
• Supported by basic amenities
such as neighbourhood shops,
kindergarten, park and primary
school, located at walkable
distances (approximately 400 m
radius)
While emphasising on efficient use
of land resources to house people
and activities, the model ensures
efficient movement of people, goods
and services, adequate provision of
facilities, and a harmonious spatial
pattern of landuses. The model does
not omit the creation of strong and
aesthetically pleasing visual identity.
Creating Vibrant Townships
The neighbourhoods are integrated into
townships that accommodate 150,000
to 400,000 residential population with
the following characteristics:
• Efficient
transport
system
facilitated by the hierarchy of
roads, ranging from major arterial
1
2 Estimated number based on the High
Density scenario of 170 DU per hectare
Andhra Pradesh Land Pooling Act, 2014
Creating Jobs Close to Homes
The proposed township model
proposes a number of employment
nodes such as commercial offices, light
industries and business parks in close
proximity to residential developments.
These economic nodes will be well
connect to residential developments
through public transport.
Integration of Villages
The proposed township model
carefully integrates the existing village
settlements by creating a peripheral
road along the villages and providing
commercial centre and public facilities
in close proximity to the existing
settlements. An example of village
integration shall be explained in the
later section of the report.
35
Legend
Mixed Use
Low - Medium Density Residential
Medium - High Density Residential
Village
Cell
Industry
Basic Community
3200 - 4000 m
road to local access roads. Arterial
roads run along the periphery
defining the township boundaries
and interconnecting the various
townships together.
• Self sustainability supported by
a hierarchy of commercial and
communal centres varied in scale
and service catchment, topped by
township centre that serve as a
one-stop service centre providing
retail, social, institutional, health
and public transportation services
• Greenery and walkability are
brought forward by the preservation
of existing water channels as well as
flora and fauna, while introducing
new and connected parks varied in
size and service catchment area
Green Buffer
Town Green
Neighbourhood Park
Neighbourhood
Primary School
Residential Community
Secondary School
Junior College
Town Centre
Township
Neighbourhood Centre
Integrated Site Planning
Sports Facility
MRT Station
Major Arterial Road
Minor Arterial Road
Collector Road
MRT Corridor
BRT Corridor
1800 - 2400 m
Fig.4.8 Amaravati Capital city Township Model
36
4.4 BROAD DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES
dential developments, the city will be
clustered into 4 development zones.
The following broad development
strategies are proposed, to translate
the concept plan into the Capital city
Structure plan:
6. Regional centres - Each devel-
1. Main city nodes and axes - 3
Fig.4.9 Main city nodes and axes
Fig.4.10 Downtown
Fig.4.11 Industrial belt
development nodes (Figure 4.9) have
been proposed at the junction of the
3 key axes illustrated in the concept
plan. These include, civic node, university node and recreational hub.
2. Downtown - The downtown
(Figure 4.10) will be the heart of the
Amaravati Capital city. It is planned
along the river Krishna waterfront to
create an iconic image and skyline.
Housing the city’s CBD, the downtown
sits between the ceremonial and recreational axis making it a central hub of
activities.
3. Industrial hub- The city’s main
Fig.4.12 Expressway and Arterial Road
Grid
Fig.4.13 Four Zones
Fig.4.14 Regional Centres
industrial hub will be planned at the
southern end of the North-South cardinal axis. The hub will be planned linearly along the regional ring for quick
connectivity to national highways. The
proposed industrial hub shall be located in proximity to the future airport
illustrated in the Capital Region plan.
4. Expressway & arterial grid- In
order to connect the various important
nodes, the structure plan proposes a
well connected network of expressways and arterial roads. (Figure 4.12)
5. 4 zones - In order to decentralize
Fig.4.15 Loop Road
Fig.4.16 Green Network
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.4.17 Public Transit
employment opportunities and resi-
opment zone will be facilitated with
a large commercial node, namely, the
Regional Centre. (Figure 4.14) These
centres will provide employment
opportunities close to homes and ease
development pressure on the downtown.
7. Loop road - A loop road connects
the downtown and all the 4 Regional
Centres. This arterial road will also
house the city’s public transportation
corridor. (Figure 4.15)
8. Green network - Located in the
city centre, the Central Green Hub
(Bramhstan) will be the largest open
space of the city. Additionally, the river
Krishna waterfront and surrounding
hills are also important green nodes
within the city. A well woven network
of green and blue spines interconnect
the green blue nodes of the city, and
lead to a vibrant waterfront along river
Krishna. (Figure 4.16)
9. Transit - The Amaravati Capital
city will have a well integrated network
of public transport which will tap on
to the approved Vijayawada MRT line
and extend it to the various parts of
the city. Additionally the city will also
tap on the existing suburban rails and
proposed high speed rail network.
The structure plan, illustrated in Figure
4.18 will guide preparation of the Detail
Master plan.
37
Fig.4.18 Amaravati Capital city Structure Plan
4.5 WORLD CLASS
INFRASTRUCTURE
38
One of the primary goals for the new
Amaravati Capital city is to provide world
class infrastructure for its residents.
The following section proposes road
and public transportation strategies
that will help in achieving this goal.
Urban Expressway
4.5.1 Road Network Efficient grid
A grid network is proposed for the
new Amaravati Capital city. The grid
network comprises roads designed
and classified based on functions and
capabilities. Figure.4.19 shows the
proposed road hierarchy matrix.
Arterial Road
Sub-Arterial Road
4 classifications of roads (as
prescribed by the Urban and Regional
Development Plans Formulation and
Implementation Guidelines URDPFI
2014) were identified and used as the
major classes of roads in the Master
Plan. They are:• Urban Expressway
• Arterial
• Sub-arterial, and
• Collector
Collector Road
Unclassified roads such as local and
access roads are not identified at Master
Plan level, however detailed guidelines
for local roads should be prepared to
guide developers during development
control. The proposed grid network will
also be sub-categorised based on the
level of social interaction, in line with
international practice to create streets
for people in urban settings.
Fig.4.19 Proposed Road Hierarchy Matrix for Amaravati
Fig.4.20 Example of a Grid Road Network - Barcelona
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.4.21 Examples of Proposed Road Types
Urban Expressways
• Two urban expressways, which
connect NH5 and NH9, are proposed
to serve the Capital city.
• The main urban expressway will
provide circulation along the fringe
of the city, therefore allowing
through-traffic to bypass the Capital
city Core.
• A semi-expressway will provide a
traffic route from the main urban
expressway to the CBD
• Speeds along urban expressway are
generally high to minimise travel
time along the expressways
• Major Industrial Zones to be located
near the expressways.
Arterial Road Network
• An arterial and sub-arterial network
is developed to ensure mobility
between the major areas within
the City i.e. CBD, commercial zones,
major townships and transport hubs.
• The arterial network also serves as
the major transit corridors, especially
for rapid transit systems
• The sub-arterial network supports
the arterial network, and is the
primary access to township
development zones
• Infrastructure mains are to be
located within or adjacent to the
arterial network to ensure access to
utilities
• Traffic speeds along arterial roads
should be maintained at 40-60kmh.
Collector Road Network
• The collector road network is
the main distributor of traffic at
neighbourhood level.
• Access to developments are to be
gained from the collector roads.
• Access and Local roads are to be
connected to the collector road
network
• Collector roads are to be generally
designed
for
higher
social
interaction, and therefore speeds
should be limited to no more than
40kmh, depending on context.
• Village Roads are to be integrated to
the Collector Road network
The figures below show the conceptual
hierarchy defined for the residential
and industrial plots.
Standard Road Elements
The road elements for these road crosssections need to cater for all users.
39
In the expressway and arterial roads,
the cross-sections should cater for
higher vehicular volume, whereas in
the sub-arterial and collector roads,
emphasis should be given to the public
and non-motorised transport users,
particularly pedestrians and cyclists,
and bus and rapid transit riders.
For the purposes of this master plan,
the road widths for the defined roads
are set as shown in Fig 4.24.
Road cross-section standardisation
can help to ensure road elements are
included at this master planning level.
To do this, road design guidelines have
been developed for use in the master
plan (see Table 4.1). These guidelines
may be further refined based on the
local authority’s requirements.
Arterial Road
Arterial Road
Fig.4.25 Proposed Road Network Plan
Collector
Expressway
60m width
Residential
Fig.4.22 Conceptual Residential Road
Hierarchy
Sub-Arterial
Arterial
50m width
Expressway
Sub-Arterial
Expressway
Local
Collector
Sub-Arterial
40m width
Collector Roads
25m width
Industrial
Fig.4.23 Conceptual Industrial Road
Hierarchy
Fig.4.24 Proposed Right of Way Widths
The road sections can be developed
with the following facilities:• Median – The divider between
opposing traffic lanes
• Carriageway – Traffic Lanes for all
vehicular traffic
• Rapid Transit Lanes – Dedicated
lanes for Rapid Transit
• Hard Shoulder – The emergency stop
lanes on expressways
• On-street Parking – On-street
parking where traffic movements or
speeds are low
• Verge – Easement space provided for
utilities, maintaining visibility splays,
or drainage
• Planting Strips – For planters /
greenery
• Footway – Pedestrian paths
• Cycleway – Cycle paths
It is recommended that detailed road
cross-section guidelines are developed
at city level to include geometric design
standards as part of development
guidelines.
40
Table 4.1 Industrial Road Hierarchy
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
41
Expressway - National Highway
Arterial Roads with Public Transportation Corridor
Sub Arterial Roads with Bus Routes
Distributer Roads along Residential Streets
Fig.4.26 Typical Road Sections
Arterial - National Highway
Arterial road within the CBD
Arterial Roads within Industrial Areas
Sub Arterial Roads along commercial streets
Distributer Roads within Rural areas
Sub-arterial Roads within Industrial Areas
Collector Roads within Industrial areas
4.5.2 Public Transportation
Network
42
Development of a well connected
public transportation is critical for the
capital city development. This section
illustrates the various modes of public
transport that have been proposed for
the Capital city.
Bus Network
The Andhra Pradesh State Road
Transport Corporation (APSRTC) can
kickstart the development of the public
transportation system by providing bus
routes from nearby towns to provide
connectivity between the existing
villages, neighbouring towns and cities
i.e. Vijayawada. This short to medium
term strategy will not only provide
the local residents with a convenient
Name
Capacity (passengers
per vehicle)
Capacity per hour
per direction
Fare collection
Speed (km/h)
Capital cost/km
mode of transport, it will also provide
flexibility in terms of public transport
due to the ease of adding additional
services or routes to provide public
transport coverage to and within the
Capital City. Once these routes become
fully operational and can sustain
demand, a higher capacity system, such
as mass transit, can be introduced. The
bus routes with high public transport
usage and passengers volume can be
upgraded to mass transit systems such
as Bus Rapid Transit.
The mass transit systems will be
supplemented by the local public bus
system, which would also function
as feeder systems connecting to the
mass transit. Due to its flexibility in
operations and routes, the local bus
routes can still run concurrently with
BRT
LRT
MRT
50-200
200-300
1,000 - 2,000
10,000-45,000
2,000-50,000
30,000 - 70,000
Off-board
On-board
Off-board
27-48
50-70
50-120
USD 1-2 million
usd 5-10 million
USD 20-40 million
Table 4.2 Industrial Road Hierarchy
the construction of the rapid transit
systems to maintain connectivity within
the Capital City. These routes running
parallel to the mass transit systems can
eventually be phased out, or remain as
secondary connections, depending on
demand and coverage.
Rapid Transit Networks
Rapid transit system has been proposed
as a long term strategy. The Rapid transit
system is an efficient public transport
system operating in urban areas with
high capacity and frequency, and grade
separation from other traffic. The most
common rapid transit solutions being
used around the globe are:
• Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
• Light Rail Transit (LRT)
• Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
A comparison of these three systems is
given in Table 4.2. Bus rapid transit (BRT)
is a bus-based mass transit system. A
BRT system generally has specialized
design, services and infrastructure to
improve system quality and remove
the typical causes of delay with a fully
dedicated right of way (bus way). BRT
aims to achieve high capacity and
speed with the flexibility, lower cost
and simplicity.
Light Rail Transit (LRT) is a rail-based
rapid transit which uses dedicated
tracks to guide its vehicles. Typical
systems are trams and guided trains.
These systems can be built as part of
the road network, or as a separated rail
system similar to the BRTS.
Fig.4.27 Typical Public Transport Systems and Infrastructure
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) is also railbased, but has a carrying capacity
much higher than the LRT system. MRT
is typically separated from the roads,
running on dedicated rail alignments
either elevated or underground, as the
vehicle speeds need to be high even
in an urban zone. MRT requires high
capital and running cost and are only
built if there is critical passenger mass.
Proposed BRT
Due to BRT’s advantages of low initial
capital cost and fast implementation, it
is purposed to be the initial core transit
system for Amaravati. BRT system will be
located at only arterial and sub arterial
roads where there is sufficient space
in the ROW. Five BRT lines in total are
purposed and these lines are designed
such that all the major townships and
vital places in the city such as CBD
and transport hub in Amaravati can be
reached by BRT system. These BRT lines
intersect one another at interchange
stations where passengers can change
from one BRT line to another and
continue their journey until reaching
their destination.
Proposed MRT
As a newly established Amaravati
Capital city and regional centre, the
population in Amaravati is expected
to grow exponentially. The BRT
system alone can not meet the future
passenger capacity, and the need for
fast connection inside the city as well
in between Amaravati and Vijayawada.
MRT tracks will be located at elevated
corridors above the top-level roads,
namely arterial and sub arterial roads.
Due to the long implementation time
for MRT, the MRT system is to be
designed in two phases:
• Phase 1: MRT 1 (40 km) & MRT 2 (34
km)
• Phase 2: MRT 3 (37 km) & MRT 4 (36
km)
Phase 1 is more critical and urgent in
the near future which covers the major
area of the city while Phase 2 serves as
a supplement to Phase 1 after the city
development matures. MRT 1 connects
the Amaravati Capital city Amaravati
with the neighbouring city Vijayawada.
Therefore the Vijayawada Airport
can also be reached by residents of
Amaravati through MRT 1 and local
public transport in Vijayawada. The
local section of MRT 1 inside Amaravati
runs East-West at the Northern bank of
Krishna River parallel to the expressway
NH 9; after crossing the Krishna River,
at the southern bank, MRT 1 runs
North-South through the boundary of
CBD and ends at the potential site of
the new airport.
MRT 2 is a proposed East-West Line
in the city of Amaravati. The western
part of the line is aligned parallel to the
southern bank of Krishna River and cut
through the CBD area. The eastern part
of the line goes a bit off the southern
bank of Krishna River. At the eastern
boundary of the city, it bends towards
north across the Krishna River and
intersects with MRT 1. Afterwards
it runs eastwards parallel to the
expressway NH 9.
MRT 3 aims to serve the south- west
of Amaravati. Both end termini of
MRT 3 connect with MRT 2 of Phase
1. One end of MRT 3 connects with
the western terminus of MRT 2 and
the other connects MRT 2 close to
the southern bank of Krishna River.
Therefore Western section of MRT 2
and MRT 3 together form a closed loop.
MRT 3 also intersects with MRT 1 at the
southern part of the city.
MRT 4 aims to serve the south-east of
Amaravati. Both end terminals of MRT
4 connect with MRT 2 of Phase 1. One
end of MRT 3 connects MRT 2 at the CBD
and the other at the eastern boundary
of the city. This line goes through the
boundaries of major townships as
well as the transport hub. MRT 4 also
intersects with both MRT 1 and MRT 3
at the southern part of the city.
High Speed Rail (HSR)
The Indian Ministry of Railways’ whitepaper “Vision 2020” proposed six
potential high-speed rail corridors
(HSR) connecting commercial, tourist,
and pilgrimage hubs. The corridor
which passes through Amaravati
city starts from Chennai leads to
Vijayawada where it splits into two
lines; one towards Hyderabad and the
other towards Vijayawada Airport.
Integrated Transport Hubs
Integrated Transport Hubs are a form
of Transport-oriented Developments
(TOD), and are fully air-conditioned
transport interchanges seamlessly
linked to rail system, rapid transit and
bus stations and adjoining commercial
developments such as shopping malls.
With this integration, commuters
can easily run errands and shop
conveniently and comfortably, before
transferring to their connecting buses
or trains. There are two types of
integrated transport hubs proposed in
Amaravati.
43
The first type is located where
interactions between multiple transport
modes occur. As shown in Figure 4.28,
the transport hub is located at the
intersections of high speed rail, BRT,
MRT 2, MRT 3 and MRT 4. Passengers
could change between different modes
of transport comfortably inside the airconditioned buildings, and eating and
shopping in between long haul journey.
The second type of Transport hubs
are relatively smaller in scale than
the first type and involves single type
of transportation mode. This type
of transport hub is located at the
interchange stations of different MRT
lines where high volume of passengers
is expected.
These transport hubs can also act as
a hub to allow private vehicle trips
to transfer onto public transport. By
providing incentives such as car parking,
commuters can park at the peripheral
transport hubs, and then transferring
onto the rapid transit systems to travel
to the city centre. This is particularly
important for existing villages, as the
villagers are likely to travel to these
transport hubs before transferring onto
a public transit network.
Fig.4.28 Proposed Public Transportation Plan
Fig.4.29 Possible Arrangement of Roads with Rapid Transit (Downtown Road)
44
4.6 JOBS & HOMES
FOR ALL
4.6.2 Proposed
employment Plan
One of the primary goals for the new
Capital city is to ensure sustainable
jobs and quality affordable homes
for all. The master plan translates
this goal into development strategies
through implementable Employment
and Residential landuse plans. These
plans and their development strategies
have been discussed in the following
sections.
The proposed Employment Plan
translates the decentralization strategy
into an implementable land use plan
by proposing a clear hierarchy of
commercial and industrial clusters
while ensuring quick accessibility to
public transport.
4.6.1 City of decentralized
employment centres
Fig.4.30 Proposed Employment Distribution Map
Fig.4.31 Primary Employment Centres
Fig.4.32 Secondary Employment Centres
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.4.33 Tertiary Employment Centres
The socio-economic study discussed
in the previous chapter, suggests the
need to create 1.8 million jobs by 2050.
These jobs include 1.5 million service
sector jobs and 0.3 million industrial
jobs within the Capital city. The Master
plan proposes distribution of these jobs
into decentralized employment centres
across the new Amaravati Capital
city as illustrated in Figure 4.30. The
decentralization will help in creating a
network well-distributed employment
opportunities for all. In line with
the broad development strategy
employment opportunities have been
distributed in the following hierarchy of
employment centres:
1. Primary Employment Centres:
Central Business District (CBD),
Administrative civic core and
Industrial developments
2. Secondary Employment Centres:
4 Regional centres and a multidisciplinary university
3. Tertiary Employment Centres: Town
centres, neighbourhood centres
and mixed use developments
The Employment plan illustrated in
Figure 4.34 can be sub divided into a
Commercial use plan and an Industrial
use plan. The following section will
discuss the Commercial plan in detail,
while the Industrial use plan and its
strategies will be discussed in chapter
5.
Commercial use plan
To facilitate and accommodate 1.5
million jobs in the commercial sector,
the Commercial use plan focuses on
the following key features:
• Downtown – Develop a distinct
waterfront CBD and administrative
core to support economic growth
within the city as well as to establish
a distinctive city skyline and image.
• Regional Centre (RC) - 4 RCs, have
been planned along the loop road.
These centres help in decentralising
the employment opportunities
within the Amaravati Capital city and
ease development pressure within
the CBD.
• Town Centre (TC)- 14 TCs catering
to about 150,000 to 400,000 people
have been planned within each
town. Each centre provides the
necessary commercial and public
facilities within the township.
• Neighbourhood Centre (NC) - Each
town centre will be supported by a
number of NCs providing local level
retail and community facilities.
• Mixed-use developments: About
12% of land has been safeguarded
for mixed use developments. These
Developments have been planned
along the transit corridors close to
the regional and town centres. These
developments capitalize on the high
market value of the land around key
commercial centres.
• Village Neighbourhood Centres - As
illustrated in township model earlier,
these centres will support the daily
needs of the village population.
• Accessibility and interconnection
between the commercial centres has
been ensured through the proposed
road and public transport network.
4.6.3 Proposed commercial
centres
This section provides a brief description
of the various types of commercial
centres discussed earlier:
Civic Centre and Central Business District (CBD)
Downtown shall house the commercial
heart of the city housing an iconic
waterfront Central Business District
(CBD) and administrative civic core. The
downtown covers a land area of about
1067 Ha constituting about 3% of city’s
land area. This area has been indicated
as the SEED development area in the
proposed Employment Plan illustrated
in Figure 4.34.
As the state’s capital, the administrative
core will house the state legislative
assembly, high court, secretariat and
other important public and semi-public
offices. All these functions have been
aligned along the north-south corridor
in line with the proposed structure
plan.
45
The Central Business District will house
the city’s primary commercial activities
such as large corporate offices, hotels,
malls, business centres, convention
centre, etc. Planned along the river
Krishna this vibrant centre would
define the city’s iconic skyline. A
detailed urban design proposal for the
downtown (SEED development area)
will be presented in the next stage of
the project.
Regional Centre
The Regional Centres (RC) serve
the purpose of decentralisation by
establishing commercial hubs of
distinctive character outside the
City Centre to provide employment
opportunities near residential areas.
As illustrated in the city structure plan,
4 Regional Centres have been planned
along the main city loop road along
the transit corridor acting as important
transit hubs for the residents. These
centres occupy about 217 Ha of land
creating about 350,000 jobs by 2050.
Their primary role is to provide a onestop destination for retail, office and
entertainment facilities within each of
the 4 zones in the city. Each Regional
centre is supported by large city
level civic facilities such as hospitals,
education institutions, etc.
Fig.4.34 Proposed Employment Plan
1.5 million
Service Sector Jobs by 2050
10%
Mix
20%
Commercial
6% 1%
5% 2%
Hotel WH R&D Log
0.3 million
Industrial Jobs by 2050
43%
12%
Industries
CBD/SEED
*Mix - Mixed Use Areas, WH - Warehouse Retail, R&D - Business Parks, Log - Logistics
Fig.4.35 Distribution of Commercial and Industrial developments
Town Centre
46
Mood Images - Downtown
Mood Images - Regional Centres
The Town Centre (TC) plays a central
role in the compact and integrated
township development concept. Each
of the 18 townships will have a TC
integrated with a public transit system
that caters to the commercial needs
of the township. To best serve the
population catchment, the TCs are
strategically located in the centre of the
towns to maximise their accessibility.
Containing a mix of retail and office
commercial as well as entertainment
uses, the TC is also a source of local
employment. Township level facilities,
such as library, hospital, town hall, town
park and public open spaces have also
been planned within the TC to further
strengthen its role as the township’s
activity core.
Neighbourhood Centre
Mood Images - Town Centres and Neighbourhood Centres
Mood Images - Mixed-use Developments
Fig.4.36 Examples of Commercial developments
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Neighbourhoods are small communities
within a town which comprises of a
number of neighbourhoods housing
about 25,000 to 60,000 population
each. Each neighbourhood is facilitated
with a neighbourhood centre (NC)
which provides daily need facilities
for residents within a short walking
distance. These facilities include retail,
vegetable and grocery shops, tailor
and stationery shops, etc. Healthcare
facilities as well as other small-scale
businesses and services are also housed
within the NC.
Besides serving as a local market NC’s
are proposed to be integrated with
Community Centres (CC). This will
help to foster a sense of community
through a number of community group
activities, enabling social support,
information sharing, etc. The facilities
provided by the CCs would include a
community hall, library, community
recreation and leisure areas, child
and elderly care centre. Community
development projects and activities
could also be hosted in the CC. Parks and
sports fields are planned in proximity to
the NC to offer open spaces for families
and community groups to interact and
play.
Mixed use Development
About 912 Ha of mixed use commercial
developments have largely been
planned along the public transport
corridors and within the downtown
area to create a 24 hour vibrant mixed
use character. Apart from the CBD,
these developments have strategically
been located in close proximity to the
waterfront, regional and town centres
due to the high market demand of
these areas.
Mixed use developments can include a
large complex or a single building that
comprises a combination of residential,
commercial, cultural, institutional
functions that are physically or
functionally
connected.
Widely
employed as an urban revitalisation
tool, the live-in population in mixed
use areas ensures activity and
vibrancy during both office and nonoffice hours. High density mixed use
developments reduce the walking
distance between residences and
workplace, thus, encouraging the use
of public transportation system. These
developments create a greater variety
of housing options catering to the
needs of a more diversified population.
Village Neighbourhood centres
As illustrated in the township model,
small-scale village neighbourhood
centres and markets are proposed
within the existing village settlements.
These centres will provide daily need
shops and act as a gathering point
and interaction space for the village
community. It will host markets on a
regular basis, such as weekend farmers’
market, to sell locally produced
products as well as promote cottage
industries and local arts and crafts.
These centres usually possess the
characters of flexible sheltered spaces
that enable multiple functions.
Retail-warehouse Development
The
Commercial
landuse
plan
proposes about 100 Ha of warehouse
retail clusters. These large big box
developments
will
encompass
elements of both retail and warehouse
functions together.
Other Commercial
Apart from the above-mentioned
commercial
development
types,
several other selected areas in the City
will possess commercial character, such
as the tourism resorts on the islands in
river Krishna, hotels, etc. These are the
places of interest where tourists will
visit. These special commercial areas
will have boutique shops, thematic
entertainment facilities, arts and crafts
shops promoting local culture and F&B
areas.
Business Parks, Logistics and Industrial
typologies will be discussed in Chapter
5 - Capital city Industrial Plan.
4.6.4 City of Self-sustained
townships
The Amaravati Capital city master
plan aims to accommodate 4.5 million
people by providing quality affordable
homes for all. The plan organizes and
distributes affordable homes into
residential clusters across the city.
In line with the broad development
strategy, the plan aims to decentralize
employment centres and create
self sufficient townships across the
Amaravati Capital city.
An integration of land use and
transport planning sets the foundation
of the plan, as residential clusters are
distributed along the transit corridors in
line with the township model illustrated
earlier. The model is the key tool for
distributing residential developments
across the city.
Key Strategies
Key planning strategies adopted for the
Amaravati Capital city master plan have
been elaborated below:
1. Residential clustering
The Amaravati Capital city has been
structured into 4 residential zones
accommodating 18 integrated and selfsustainable townships. Each township
is equipped with local employment
hubs, social infrastructure, recreational
spaces and amenities;
2. Population Distribution
Proportionally distribute 4.5 million
people across the Amaravati Capital
city into high, medium and low density
residential areas. This distribution is
based on the development’s proximity
to urban centres, transit corridors and
natural features.
4. Density Distribution
Distribute population densities as per
location i.e. city centre, city fringe,
regional centres and their peripheries,
suburban areas and villages to facilitate
organised urban growth. This strategy
will help in supporting the market
demand generated by the various
employment centres.
T 13
RIVER EDGE
T 10
DOWNTOWN
T9
T8
T 15
T 16
T7
T6
T4
T3
T 17
T2
T1
Fig.4.38 Proposed Population Distribution Plan
T 12
T 13
RIVER EDGE
T 10
T9
T7
T5
This
will
help
in
optimizing
infrastructure and create smaller
interwoven communities.
HSR
T5
6. Transit Oriented Development
Create transit-oriented and walkable
communities which have access to a
range of housing choices as well as
ample employment, amenities and
services.
6. Phased Development
Strategically plan and expand urban
growth within the city through strategic
development phasing.
T 14
T 11
5. Integration of existing villages
Protect all existing village settlements;
and in line with the township model,
carefully integrate them within each
township while allowing these areas to
have flexibility in planning.
7. Work, Live and Play
Support each township with adequate
commercial, civic and recreational
facilities in order to create balanced
self sufficient townships.
47
T 12
T 11
T8
DOWNTOWN
T 15
T6
T4
T2
T3
T 14
T 16
HSR
T 17
T1
Fig.4.37 Township Plan
Fig.4.39 Commercial Centres within Towns
Fig.4.40 Amenities within Towns
4.6.5 Proposed
Residential Plan
48
The Residential use plan, translates the
above strategies into an implementable
landuse plan as illustrated in Figure 4.41.
The plan proposes 5 main residential
typologies for the new Amaravati
Capital city. These typologies have been
distributed in accordance with the
township model discussed earlier. The
following section elaborates the urban
character and planning principles for
these typologies:
1. High Density Residential
The proposed landuse plan safeguards
6.3% of total developable land for
high density residential developments,
which corresponds to 22.2% of the total
residential area within the city. These
high density residential use clusters
primarily comprise of private/public
multi family high rise apartments with
integrated community facilities. These
facilities include a common playground,
club house, multi-purpose hall, car park
etc. At a maximum height of G+15,
the development density of such
developments would be approximately
170 dwelling units per hectare of land.
Fig.4.41 Proposed Residential Plan
2460 ha
4465 ha
High Density residential
Medium Density residential
10%
Low Den. Resi.
1125 ha
40%
Medium Density Residential
Low Density residential
22%
High Density Residential
19%
Village settlements
8%
Mix
*Low Den. Resi. - Low Density Residential, Mix - Mixed Use Areas
Fig.4.42 Distribution of Residential developments
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Planned along transit corridors and
close to commercial centres, the high
rise residential will enjoy access to
these infrastructure and facilities whilst
the high footfall brought by high density
developments will make infrastructure
and businesses more viable.
Clusters of high density luxury
apartments have also been planned
along the river Krishna waterfront.
These apartments will capitalize on the
scenic views of the existing hills and river
Krishna to create a distinctive identity
which will attract both developers and
home buyers.
2. Medium Density Residential
11.4% of developable land is proposed
for medium rise developments,
corresponding to 40.3% of the total
residential area, the highest within
the city. Similar to the high density
residential, the medium density
residential use also encourages mid rise
multifamily public/private apartments
with common facilities within its
compound. The maximum height of
these apartments G+7 storeys typically
allows these clusters to house about
150 dwelling units per hectare.
The medium rise residential use also
allows semi-detached and attached
housing typologies as this area includes
the land that needs to be returned to
the farmers under the AP land pooling
act 20141.
Typically, medium density residential
clusters have been planned along the
transit corridor, where walkability is
of prime importance. This housing
typology is expected to house most of
the affordable housing due to its relative
high density and low construction cost
per unit.
3. Low Density Residential
Occupying approximately 2.9% of the
developable land, the proposed low
density residential clusters take up
10.16% of the total residential land in
1 Andhra Pradesh Land Pooling Act, 2014
Fig.4.43 Mood Images - High Rise Residential
Fig.4.45 Mood Images - Low Rise Residential
Fig.4.44 Mood Images - Medium Rise Residential
Fig.4.46 Mood Images - Mixed use Developments
the Amaravati Capital city. They are
largely planned in town peripheries
close to the neighbourhood centres.
The maximum height of G+1 typically
allows for 45 dwelling units to be housed
in one hectare. The housing typologies
proposed under this category include
detached and semi-detached houses.
This typology caters to both suburban
areas and prime luxury residential
clusters.
up about 5.4% of the developable land
in GCoB, and 19% of the total land
allocated for residential use. Village
neighbourhood centres have been
proposed with these villages, supported
civic facilities such as schools, polyclinic,
police station, community centre, etc in
the periphery of these settlements. The
height of these settlements is restricted
to G+2 storeys in order to create a
uniform typology.
4. Village Residential
Though anticipating a significant drop
in rural population, all existing village
settlements have been protected in
the landuse plan. The plan encourages
redevelopment of these areas into
more planned developments. It takes
5. Mixed Use Residential
Mixed use residential takes up about
2.3% of the total developable land in
GCoB and 8.2% of total residential land
use. Typically found in the City Centre
and along the arterial roads, mixed use
developments are used as a strategy
to bring activities and vitality into the
commercial areas during non-office
hours through the live-in population.
The different uses can either be housed
in one single building or individually in
the same compound. For the former, it
is common that the first or the lower
floors are assigned for commercial use,
that requires the street frontage for
walk-in businesses, whilst the residence
is housed in the upper floors for better
privacy.
Special mixed use development
clusters have been planned within
the administrative civic core and SEED
development.
Table 4.3 Residential Land Distribution Table
Name
Area (ha)
Area (sq km)
Percentage (%)
High Density Residential
2460.03
24.6
22.2%
Medium Density Residential
4464.36
44.6
40.3%
Low Density Residential
1125.92
11.26
10.2%
Village Residential
2114.03
21.14
19.1%
Mixed Use
912.62
9.13
8.2%
11076.95
110.77
100%
Total
4.7 CLEAN & GREEN
Clean and Green is one of the main goals
of the Amaravati Capital city vision. The
Master plan aims to translate this goal
into tangible landuse and infrastructure
strategies.
50
4.7.1 Water networked city
Due to close proximity to the river, the
Amaravati Capital city site is prone to
flooding. In order to mitigate this issue,
one of the main design strategies of
the green and blue network plan is to
interconnect all the existing reservoirs,
water bodies and green spines to form
an extensive water-networked city.
Key Strategies
Key strategies proposed for the green
and blue network include:
1. Connecting existing canals and
tanks:
Integrate all the existing water tanks
and irrigation canals within the green
and blue spines to create a well
connected network of green and blue
features. Apart from integrating the
existing water-bodies, this will also help
in weaving the existing flora and fauna.
Civic Axis
Fig.4.48 Connecting existing water tanks and canals
Fig.4.47 Flood Prone Areas
Fig.4.49 Central Green Lung
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
na
t io
a
e
r
is
Rec A x
l
Fig.4.50 Civic and Recreational Axis
2. Central green lung:
As indicated in the Vastu concept,
special land has been allocated for a
large open space within the centre of
the site. This forms the central green
lung of the city. This green lung will
house a large water reservoir which
would help in collecting rainwater from
the various canals of the city during
rains, and later channel this water to
other water bodies. Being located in
the city centre close to the proposed
university, this area will house a number
of recreational parks, event scapes, etc.
3. Civic & Recreational Axis:
2 primary axes identified in the city
structure plan will act as the primary
green spines in the green and blue
network. The civic axis shall house large
linear parks and corridors. Being close
to the state government offices these
parks and open spaces will be very
formal in character.
The recreational axis in the north east
will be more informal axis with fluid
landscapes housing the city’s heritage,
sports and recreation attractions.
Starting from the city’s green lung
the recreational axis will terminate
at the river front close to the existing
Undavalli caves.
4. Green network as infrastructure
solutions:
The green and blue network will also
support various infrastructure facilities
such as storm water network, water
supply, etc. These infrastructure
provisions will be elaborated in Chapter
6 - Infrastructure provision.
5. Variety of interfaces:
The network will create a variety of
interfaces between passive and active
recreational facilities through active
recreation activities such as stadiums,
multi-purpose halls, sports hub, theme
parks, golf courses, etc which will be
proposed close to the passive green
and blue spines.
4.7.2 Proposed Green
and Blue Plan
The proposed Green and Blue plan
translates these strategies into an
implementable land use plan. The plan
can be summarized into the following
planning strategies and typologies:
Green & Blue lattice:
• Green grid – The green and blue
network primary follows the road
network creating passive recreational
fingers across the city. These fingers
are anchored with large parks and
open spaces close to the 2 reservoirs.
Each finger terminates at the scenic
river Krishna waterfront.
• Active, beautiful and clean waterways
weave through the Amaravati
Capital city. These waterways follow
the existing irrigation canals and
reservoirs to form an interwoven
water network.
• The plan creates a variety of
interfaces between the green and
blue creating different water themed
public spaces such as lake parks,
waterfront corridor, linear parks, etc
Primary green spaces:
• 7200 Ha of Primary green spaces
including large city parks, lakes,
town parks, neighbourhood parks,
water bodies and public plazas
form the foundation of the city
scale recreational network that
provides recreation opportunities
and improves a sense of community.
These parks help in creating large
public open spaces which can double
up as event spaces for the larger
community within the Capital city.
• Primary greens are planned along
the existing canals and water
bodies to serve as city’s main
ecological corridors. They play a
dual role in flood management, and
environmental conservation of the
native species.
51
Secondary green links:
• 1910 Ha of secondary greens weave
through the townships connecting
the various town and neighbourhood
parks.
• Planned as the secondary green
fingers of the city, these greens
act as passive recreational spaces,
interactive jogging trails and non
motorized transports corridors
across the city.
Recreational Landscapes
• 780 Ha of recreational landscapes
include theme parks, golf courses,
sports and recreational spaces. These
areas house active recreational
facilities for the Capital city.
• In line with the township model
several sports and recreation parcels
have been allocated in the town
centre, and in proximity to the
neighbourhood centre.
• Large city level sports facilities such
as cricket stadium, golf courses and
theme parks have been strategically
distributed across the city.
Fig.4.51 Proposed Green and Blue Plan
9200 ha
Public Parks and open spaces
Water bodies
• 4815 Ha of existing water bodies
including rivers, canals, irrigation
channels and reservoirs have been
carefully protected and integrated
with the green spaces as discussed
in the previous section.
780 ha
Sports and recreation
49% 3% 1%
Primary Greens Golf TP
13% 2%
Sec. Greens Sports
4815 ha
Water bodies
21%
11%
River
Waterbodies
*TP - Theme Park, Sec. Greens - Secondary greens
Fig.4.52 Distribution of Parks and open spaces
4.7.3 Waterfront City
River Krishna waterfront is one of the
key assets for the Amaravati Capital city.
Key recommendations and strategies
for the waterfront and island clusters
include:
52
Krishna riverfront development
• The riverfront along river Krishna
is planned as a vibrant city edge
housing a number of commercial,
recreational, entertainment and
housing facilities. These activities
will both interact and engage with
the waterfront as illustrated in Figure
4.53.
• The riverfront will house the city’s
iconic civic core and central business
district (CBD).
• All the green spines of the city
terminate on the waterfront. This is
done to draw people to the vibrant
multi-functional waterfront.
Fig.4.53 Proposed water engagement strategy
• The master plan encourages tourism
developments along the water front
by proposing hotels, theme parks
and other tourism related activities.
Bund along the waterfront
• In order to mitigate flooding issues
along the water edge a Bund has
been proposed along the river
Krishna waterfront.
• As illustrated in the site sections
(Figure 4.55), the waterfront plan
engages the Bund by utilizing it as
a road sloping into the park and as
an active public space. The plan
proposes integration of the Bund with
the development. The Bund will also
help in activating the waterfront as a
continuous waterfront promenade.
Engagement of Islands
• Attractive eco tourism themed
facilities such as an island theme
park, island resorts, recreational
parks and golf courses have been
proposed on the clusters of islands
on river Krishna.
• The islands house a number of high
end waterfront residential clusters to
tap on the market demand of these
scenic natural landscapes.
Water-taxi
• A well connected network of water
taxis is also proposed to connect
the various eco-tourism attractions
on the cluster of islands on river
Krishna. These water taxis will inter
connect the islands and mainland
within the city.
Connections to the tourism
circuit
• The iconic waterfront & eco tourism
focused islands are an integral part
of the city tourism circuit.
• Bhavani island, one the largest river
islands, will connect the cluster
of islands to the capital region’s
religious tourism circuit.
A
B’
A’
Amphitheatre
B
C’
Section AA’
C
Ghats
C
LEGEND
Promenade
WATER TAXI ROUTE
Section BB’
Fig.4.54 Proposed water taxi map to connect the cluster of islands
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.4.55 Bund sections along the Waterfront
Section CC’
4.7.4 Pedestrian Friendly
City: NMT Plan
Systems that are driven by human or
animal power (without use of any fossil
fuel) are called non‐motorized systems.
Such systems have the advantages of
not generating air pollution and noise
pollution as well as not consuming
non-renewable energy. Currently, NonMotorised Transport (NMT) share in
the capital region is the highest among
all transportation modes; however
dedicated non-motorized transport
facilities are not prevalent in the
existing road infrastructure. Therefore,
it is important to implement proper
non-motorised transport networks
to ensure the safety of passengers
and create environment friendly city
transport system.
City Parks
In order to promote non-motorised
transport modes such as walking and
cycling, more green zones are proposed
to make the city NMT-friendly. Several
large parks, some medium parks and
various small parks are scattered in the
city strategically around villages and
settlements for both recreation and
flood management.
Primary hierarchy network is proposed
with routes connecting large and
some medium parks, while secondary
hierarchy network is proposed with
routes connecting the rest medium
parks and small parks. Primary hierarchy
network and secondary hierarchy
network are also interconnected by
secondary hierarchy routes. Primary
hierarchy network has a total route
length of 150 km and secondary
hierarchy network has a total route
length of 170 km. The two hierarchy
networks account for 17% of the city
land area.
53
These hierarchy routes are specially
dedicated for pedestrians and cyclists.
Park trails with facilities such as resting
chairs along the way could enhance
walker’s experience. Separated bike
trails along the greens with proper
signage increase safety for cyclists and
people on roller skates.
Waterfront Promenade
As a gateway between Amaravati and
Vijayawada, the Krishna River is worth
to be developed into a recreational
place for both local residents and
tourists. Lake parks can be built along
both sides of the Krishna River creating
a 35 km long publicly accessible
waterfront trail, connecting the city’s
east and west. At night, the promenade
will be lit with attractive night lighting.
People can stroll under the shades of
trees and have a panoramic view of the
river on the promenade both day and
night. Visitors can also hop onto a river
taxi to further explore the Krishna River.
Fig.4.56 Proposed Non Motorized Transport plan
On-road Facilities
Pedestrian and cyclists are usually
the minorities on the road which
impose safety problems. In India,
even roads with pedestrian paths,
they are encroached by shops and
parking of vehicles. Thereby, one of
the important parts of NMT Network
Plan is the reserving and constructing
the pedestrian and cycling paths and
infrastructure in the road reserve.
Fig.4.57 Examples of modes of Non-motorized Transport
1 Multi specialty
hospital per 100,000
population
1 Higher Education
college per 1 million
population
54
4.8 QUALITY LIVING
Civic and recreational facility provisions
play a critical role in determining the
quality of life within a city. Civic facilities
are the basic services which cannot be
supplied directly to individual dwelling
units but satisfy specific community
needs.
4.8.1 Convenient &
flexible city
Fig.4.58 Distribution of Education Facilities
Fig.4.59 Distribution of Health facilities
1 Town Centre per
100,000 population
1 Sports field per
Township
Fig.4.60 Distribution of City level Sports facilities
Fig.4.61 Distribution of Civic facilities
The Amaravati Capital city Master
plan ensures adequate provision of
civic facilities across the Capital city
by proposing a public facility provision
standard for the city. This standard has
been carefully planned to suit the Indian
context & follows the URDFI guidelines.
The facility provision standard also takes
references from other well planned
cities such as Singapore, Cape town etc.
These standards have been discussed in
detail in Chapter 4 - Amaravati Capital
city Projections. The public facilities
within the Amaravati Capital city have
been planned at 4 hierarchical levels.
These include:
• State/City Level
• Regional/District Level
• Township Level
• Local/ Neighbourhood Level
State & city Level Civic Facilities
University
Hospitals
Fig.4.62 Examples of public facilities planned across the city
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Religious Institutions
As the new state capital, the city will
host a number of large-specialized
facilities catering to state and the capital
region. These include large multidisciplinary hospitals, sports stadiums,
multidisciplinary national university,
etc. As the administrative capital, the
city will house important government
offices and public institutions such as
high court, legislative assembly and
the secretariat. Other large state level
social infrastructure including science
centers, convention halls, cultural
centres, tourism hub etc will also be
housed with the city.
Regional Level Civic Facilities
Regional level civic facilities including
district hospitals, sports and recreation
facilities, civic plaza/central park as
well as libraries, have been planned
based on the anticipated population
catchment of each zone illustrated in
the city structure plan. These facilities
are usually planned in proximity to
the regional centre, and will act as a
weekend destination for the residents
of the particular region it serves. They
are mostly of considerable scale with
sufficient capacity to host city level
events.
Township Level Civic Facilities
In line with the township model,
numerous civic and community
facilities required by a town will be
provided in close proximity to the
town centre. Facilities including small
hospitals/polyclinics,
crematoriums,
cremation grounds and cemeteries
will be provided in accordance to the
population catchment.
Facilities to serve community cultural
and recreational needs, such as place
of worship, town library, sports &
recreational facilities and town parks,
will be located in a central location that
maximizes accessibility to the service
population. Each township will also
offer at least one vocational/higher
education institute with sports field/
swimming complex located close to
these education facilities to increase
its usage frequency. In the daytime,
physical education can be conducted
on the sports field and swimming pool
for the students, and serve the public
needs for sports and wellness activities
in the off-office hours.
Local Level Civic Facilities
The main agenda of the local
level facilities is to serve the daily
community needs through the
provision of relatively small-scale local
facilities such as primary/secondary
schools and health centres. In contrary
to national level facilities, central
location to the respective service
population is a key element for the
planning of civic facilities at this level,
and walking distance for the users is
carefully considered in the evaluation
of accessibility of the decided location.
To increase the economies of scale,
local and neighbourhood level facilities
like post offices, health centres, police
posts are incorporated within the
neighbourhood centres.
55
4.8.2 Proposed public
facilities plan
The public facilities plan safeguards
special land for city and regional level
civic facilities, including:
• 574 Ha of land for primary schools,
secondary schools and junior
colleges.
• 578 Ha of land for a state level multidisciplinary university campus and
other higher education institutions.
• The plan proposes 175 Ha of land for
reserve sites and white sites. These
sites can also be used to develop
civic and community facilities.
Proposed Regional Level Facility Provision for the Capital city
Commercial
Facilities
Educational
Facilities
Community Centre
1 per 100,000 population. 5.0 ha site.
Town Centre
1 per 500,000 population. 4.0 ha site.
Vocational / ICT Institute
1 per 1 million population. 4.0 ha site.
Engineering College
1 per 1 million population. 4.0 ha site
Medical College
1 per 1 million population. 15.0 ha site
Profession College
1 per 1 million population. 6.0 ha site
Nursing College
1 per 1 million population. 2.0 ha site
Health
Facilities
Multi-speciality Hospital
1 per 100,000. 6.3 Ha
District Hospital
1 per 250,000 population. 6.0 ha site
Parks &
Open Spaces
Town Park
1 per township. 6.0 ha site
Sports &
recreation
Civic facilities
Sports Field
1 per township . 1.5 ha site.
District Sports Centre
1 for every 100,000 population. 8.0 ha site.
Divisional Sports Centre
1 for every 1million population. 20.0 ha site.
District Office
1 per 1 million population. 4.8 ha site
Police Line
1 per 2 million population. 6.0 ha site.
District Jail
1 per 1 million population. 10.0 ha site.
Table 4.4 Provision of Public facilities (Based on URDFI Guidelines)
Fig.4.63 Proposed Public facilities Plan
574 ha 578 ha
Schools
17%
Primary School
150 ha
University & Institution
19%
Reserved Sites
7%
Secondary School Junior College
25 ha
White Sites
43%
University & higher Education institutions
11% 2%
Reserved sites Wh.
*Wh. - White Sites
Fig.4.64 Distribution of Civic Facilities and Reserved Sites
4.9 EFFICIENT RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
56
4.9.1 Model City of
Smart Solutions
Model City of Smart Solutions
Amaravati is envisioned to be a model
city of Smart Infrastructure Solutions
covering the following aspects:-
Flood Management
Fig.4.65 Water Supply Plan
Fig.4.66 Power Supply Plan
An integrated approach to the
management of stormwater is
proposed. A hierarchy of flood
management strategies have been
identified and provided as a solution
to resolve the existing inundation
caused by Kondaveeti Vagu, as well
as flooding from the Krishna River. As
part of the flood management strategy,
conservation of flood water as a water
resource is also identified for water
supply. The conservation of raw water
supply can help to augment water
resources to the new Amaravati Capital
city.
Water Supply
Fig.4.67 Waste Water Plan
Kondaveeti Vagu
Fig.4.68 Solid Waste Plan
Existing Water Tanks
Fig.4.69 Existing infrastructure facilities
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Existing Barrage over river Krishna
The Amaravati Capital city will receive
water supply from two sources - Krishna
River and the inland water reservoirs.
A proposed interlinked water supply
network and four Water Treatment
Plants will provide water to the four
zones within the Amaravati Capital
city. This water supply network would
be supported by Water Distribution
Centres
Sewerage
The sewerage strategies and proposals
for the short- and long-term were
developed based on the phased
development of the Amaravati Capital
City. A decentralised sewerage system
is proposed for the Amaravati Capital
City, with 100% coverage of the
development area. By treating effluent
to a high standard, the treated effluent
can then be reused in non-potable
applications such as agricultural,
horticultural or industrial use.
Solid Waste
Solid Waste In the long term, the waste
generated by the Amaravati Capital
City will be treated by the combined
Solid Waste Management System, from
collection to segregation to energy
recovery.
It is recommended that segregation
of waste and energy recovery be done
either at dedicated facilities at the Solid
Waste Management Facility located
outside the Amaravati Capital city
boundary, at Guntur.
Waste can be collected and transferred
directly to the Integrated Solid Waste
Management Facility, which may
comprise Waste-to-Energy plants,
recycling centres and anaerobic
digestors / composting plants.
Power Supply
In the short term, it is proposed that
the Amaravati Capital City draws its
power from the Vijayawada Thermal
Power Plant by connecting to the
national power grid. The Capital City
can also supplement traditional power
generation in the future by developing
alternative renewable energy sources
such as solar, wind and biomass.
57
Singapore’s Reservoir with recreation
facilities
As part of the Solid Waste Management
Plan, energy produced from the Waste
to Energy plant can also supplement
the power demand of the Capital City.
Smart technology can be introduced
as part of the drive to reduce power
demand. For example smart meters,
efficient appliances and modern
materials used in building can help to
reduce energy losses.
Singapore’s Deep Tunnel Sewage
Summary
The integrated approach that has been
adopted when providing infrastructure
can be utilised using smart
technologies, for example sensors
installed in upstream dams which
control downstream flood mitigation
installations such as sluice gates, etc.
Water Treatment Plant
Fig.4.70 Proposed Infrastructure Plan
Recycling Centre
Composing Plant
These strategies will be discussed in
detail in Chapter 6 - Infrastructure
Provisions
Fig.4.71 Examples of infrastructure facilities planned across the city
Nellore Electrical Substation
Waste-to-Energy Plants (Source: Wall Street Journal)
45 km
Water circuit
58
61 km
road circuit
145 km
mrt circuit
Amaravati Buddha Statue
Fig.4.72 Proposed Religious Tourism Plan
4.10IDENTITY & HERITAGE
The Master plan respects and supports
the rich cultural and religious heritage of
the city. The plan strongly recommends
development of proper interpretation
and common public facilities for the
numerous historic assets of the city.
4.10.1City with strong
cultural roots
Religious Tourism circuit
The tourism plan as illustrated in Figure
4.72, proposes a religious tourism
circuit which connects all the important
religious and cultural heritage sites to
provide tourists with a well connected
tourism network. This circuit will further
tap to the Capital region tourism circuit.
The tourism circuit will be anchored
with following key destinations:
1. Amaravati Temple and Buddha
statue
2. Ananthavaram Temple
3. Neerukonda Hill
4. Kondapalli Fort
5. Undavalli Caves
6. Mangalagiri Temple
7. Bhavani Island
These destinations will house key
tourist spots and facilities. Proper
interpretation facilities will also be
developed in proximity to these
attractions.
Unavalli Caves
Mangalagiri Temple
Fig.4.73 Important Heritage Sites within the city
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Kondapalli Fort
Kanak Durga Temple
The tourism circuit further encompasses
the cities iconic waterfront and eco
tourism islands which be connected to
the circuit via the Bhavani Island and
Undavalli Caves respectively.
4.10.2 City with Green
Identity
59
The Master plan proposes the following
key features that will establish the
Amaravati Capital city’s Green Identity:
1
9
5
7. Civic Facilities
7
The Amaravati Capital city will house the
state’s administrative offices including
high court, legislative assembly,
secretariat and other government
offices.
8
1. Golf Course
3
The plan safeguards 380 Ha of land to
develop 3 golf courses for recreation.
6
1
4
2
1
8. CBD
2. Central Park
A central park is proposed in the city
centre close to the university campus.
Fig.4.74 Proposed Key features - Amaravati Capital city
3. Cricket Stadium
4. University
The city will house an international
standard cricket stadium along the
waterfront.
510 Ha of land has been safeguarded
for a multi-disciplinary university
campus close to the city centre.
5. Canals and Greens
Numerous green spines and canals
weave through the Capital city housing
passive recreational facilities.
An iconic waterfront Central Business
District (CBD) has been planned along
the river Krishna waterfront.
6. Transport Hub
A transportation hub housing the highspeed rail, MRT & suburban rail has
been proposed in the North east.
9. Iconic Bridge
An iconic bridge has been proposed to
connect the downtown to the cluster of
islands.
4.11CAPITAL CITY LANDUSE PLAN
60
The various city layers discussed in the
previous section combine to form a
comprehensive landuse as illustrated in
Figure 4.75. The plan creates 1.8 million
jobs and accommodates over 4.5
million residential population within
the city. The landuse plan proposes the
following development strategies:
City of Decentralized Employment
Centres
750 Ha of land has been allocated for
numerous commercial and industrial
developments across the city. The
plan proposes decentralization of the
various employment nodes to create
jobs closer to homes.
City of Self Sufficient Townships
8900 Ha of land has been safeguarded
for
a
variety
of
residential
developments across the city. The plan
distributes residential developments
as per housing densities in line with
the township model discussed earlier.
The plan protects all the existing village
settlements within the city.
Fig.4.75 Proposed Amaravati Capital city Landuse Plan
4.5 million
1.8 million
Population by 2050
21%
5% 2%
7%
Jobs by 2050
10%
26%
12% 3%
10% 3%
Water networked city
The master plan ensures protection of
all the existing rivers and water bodies
and integrates them into the proposed
green and blue network. These nature
areas occupy about 14,800 Ha of the
total land area within the Capital city.
Waterfront City
Residential Village MxS Comm.
Industrial
Parks and Open spaces Sports
Water Edu.
Infra. RS
*MxS - Mixed Use, Comm. - Commercial, Sports - Sports & Recreation Edu. - Educational, Infra. - Roads and Infrastructure, RS - Reserved Sites & SEED Development Area
Fig.4.76 Amaravati Capital city Landuse Distribution
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Careful consideration has been given
to the river Krishna waterfront which
will house the city’s CBD, Civic core,
Mixed use development and high end
waterfront housing. The waterfront has
been planned in several thematic zones
engaging the bund proposed along the
river edge.
Pedestrian Friendly City
The Master plan proposes a well
connected network for non motorized
transport along the green and blue
corridors of the city. This network
will encourage green modes of non
motorized transports such as bicycles,
skates, segways, etc.
City with Social Infrastructure
To ensure a good quality of life within
the Capital city a set of public facility
standards has been prepared. The
Master plan distributes civic and
cultural facilities in compliance with
these standards and the township
model discussed earlier.
City of Smart solutions
Modern and smart infrastructure
provisions have been proposed for the
capital. These provisions will ensure
good sanitation, and adequate water
and power supply across the city. They
will also mitigate the flooding issues
within the city.
City with strong cultural roots
The Master plan respects and supports
the rich cultural and religious heritage
of the city. The plan proposes a religious
tourism circuit to connect the various
attractions within the city.
City with Green Identity
Numerous iconic developments define
the city’s green identity.
4.12CAPITAL CITY ZONING PLAN
Figure 4.77 illustrates the Zoning plan
proposed for the Capital city. The Zoning
Plan and its details were presented in
the“Capital city Master plan - Part 1:
Zoning Plan” report. A brief description
of the zoning categories is given below:
R1 - Low Density Residential Zone
The R1 is a zoning district established
to develop low density residential
developments. The Zone allows
development of detached and semi
detached houses.
R1A- Village Residential Zone
R1A is a residential district offering
low rise developments within the
existing villages. The R1A Zone is
intended to offer low rise housing as
part of the farming community and
complementary public facilities as
needed.
R2- Medium Density Residential Zone
R2 is a zoning district established to
allow medium density residential
developments across the city, and
create well planned medium density
housing complexes with ample open
spaces.
R3- High Density Residential Zone
The High Density Apartment Residential
Zone (R4) are multi-family high density
housing options planned within the
Capital city to provide a high-quality
public transport oriented lifestyle.
C1- Mixed-use Commercial Zone
The Mixed Use Commercial Zone (C1)
is an area to be used mainly for mixed
residential and commercial purposes,
which can have up to 20% GFA used for
commercial purpose.
61
C2- Community commercial zone
The Community Commercial Zone (C2)
creates attractive small neighbourhood
level commercial establishments.
C2A- Community commercial zone
The Community Commercial Zone (C2A)
includes the commercial land that will
be returned to the village land owners
under the Andhra Pradesh Land Pooling
Act, 2014. This zone creates attractive
small mixed use establishments to
foster local businesses.
C3- Medium density commercial zone
The Medium Density Commercial Zone
(C3) is an area established to create a
medium rise commercial zone within
the Regional centres.
C4- Retail warehouse zone
The Warehouse Retail Zone (C4)
is established to accommodate
businesses that encompass elements
of retail and warehouse functions
together.
C5- Business Park
Business Parks are specifically set
aside for non-pollutive industries
and businesses that engage in high
technology, research and development
(R&D), high value added and knowledge
intensive activities.
The plan also proposes a number of
reserved sites and special areas for
development of important defense,
civic and infrastructure facilities.
Fig.4.77 Proposed Amaravati Capital city Zoning Plan
10200 ha
Residential Zone
26%
Residential
7200 ha
Commercial and industrial
Zone
8%
10%
Comm.
Industrial
15200 ha
Parks and Open Spaces
39%
10% 2%
Parks and Open spaces
Roads RS
4%
SP
*Comm. - Commercial, RS - Reserved Sites, SP - Special Areas
Fig.4.78 Amaravati Capital city Zoning Distribution
4.13VILLAGE INTEGRATION
& LAND POOLING
STRATEGY
62
4.13.1 Land return strategy
There are 29 village settlements that
are currently under land pooling
by the CRDA and Andhra Pradesh
Government. Several strategies have
been identified to effectively implement
the land pooling mechanism without
compromising the integrity of the
Master plan.
Land Pooling act:
In keeping with the will of the
Government to build ‘people’s capital’,
the land procurement mechanism has
been designed to be voluntary and
based on consensual process of land
pooling. Land pooling mechanism is
mainly adopted for development of the
Amaravati Capital city area, wherein
the land parcels owned by individuals
or group of owners are legally
consolidated by transfer of ownership
rights to the Authority, which later
transfers the ownership of a part of
the land back to the land owners for
undertaking of development for such
areas.
Note: Land to be returned is indicated in hatch
Fig.4.79 Example of Land Pooling Scheme in Thullur village
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
The broad objective of the scheme is
to do justice to the families affected
by the construction of a livable and
sustainable Amaravati Capital city for
the state of Andhra Pradesh by making
the land owners and local residents as
partners in development. Accordingly
the Govt have issued the “Andhra
Pradesh land Pooling scheme”.
Quantum of land to be returned:
As part of the Land Pooling Scheme, for
every acre of Agricultural Land pooled
in:
• 800 to 1,000 sq yards of residential
land has to be returned back to the
owner &
• 100 to 450 sq yards of commercial
land has to be returned back to the
owner
The exact number depends on the
quality of agriculture land, location and
a few other criteria identified by the
CRDA.
Master Plan Strategy for Land
Pooling:
There were several criteria that were
important in allocating the land to be
returned as part of Land Pooling, out of
which, following were the key ones:
• The returned land should be within
the same Village Administrative
Boundary
• It should be as close as possible to
the existing village settlements
• All parcels to have good road
connectivity.
Using this strategy, appropriate
land parcels have been identified
to be returned. The adjacent map
demonstrates an example of Thullur
village, where the hatched land parcels
have been identified to be returned for
this particular Village Administrative
Boundary.
4.13.2 Village integration
strategy
The existing village settlements pose
a very unique challenge to the Master
plan. The mandate is to retain all the
existing settlements on ground as part
of the master plan. Following strategies
have been adopted to ensure the
smooth integration of the villages with
the new Amaravati Capital city.
Framing of the villages:
Currently, there is no definite boundary
for the village settlements. As part
of the Master plan, local roads have
been introduced to frame the villages
in order to define their extents. This
will enable good connectivity of the
existing settlements without being
hindered by the proposed landuses in
the neighbouring areas.
Village expansion:
When planning for the above mentioned
roads, sufficient buffer has been kept
to allow the villages to expand in its
immediate surroundings. This allows
for a certain degree of flexibility to
these existing village settlements by
giving them space to breathe and not
lock them within the adjacent new
planned developments.
63
Drawings to be updated
Amenities within the village
expanded area:
In addition to the above two strategies,
the villages have been equipped with all
the missing amenities such as schools,
neighbourhood shopping, metro, etc
within the newly planned townships
that they are part of. This way, the
quality of life of the people residing in
the village will be improved together
with all the other new residents of the
Amaravati Capital city.
Fig.4.80 Key Plan - Typical village expansion plan
Fig.4.81 Typical village expansion plan
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THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
5
CAPITAL CITY
INDUSTRIAL PLAN
This chapter summarizes the Industrial proposal for the Capital City Master
plan. The proposal is summarized in the following sections:
1. Industrial Plan
2. Industrial Infrastructure Plans
The Capital City has an existing young workforce
5.1 INDUSTRIAL PLAN
66
The New Capital City Amaravati is
envisaged to play a role as an economic
hub and an administrative centre for the
Andhra Pradesh State. In addition, it has
a potential larger influence area in the
South, complementing and competing
for Industrial investment location with
existing regional urban centers in India.
Therefore, targeting industrial sectors
that have higher hinterland synergies
while focusing to attract niche & high
value sectors and strategic economic
drivers are crucial for the new capital
which is geographically situated at a
strategic location (figures 5.1 & 5.2).
Focusing on nascent and niche sectors
also provide a first mover advantage
and unique value proposition to
differentiate and position the city
amongst other established urban
centers while avoiding the crowding
out effect in the talent market.
Fig.5.1 Location of Amaravati
There is a need to compete for global
talents and investment in the next
decade or so especially when Andhra
Pradesh hopes to embark on a more
innovative & attractive industrial
outlook. In order to survive & excel well
both nationally and in the world arena,
a suitable industrial environment has to
be established in Amaravati to incubate
new business, attract investment,
generate jobs and facilitate operations
of companies.
5.1.1 Overview
This section focuses on both the
quantitative and the qualitative aspects.
The attention is given to not only the
strategic locations of these industries
but their relationships with other
land uses of the Capital City such as
Residential, Commercial, Infrastructure
and so forth.
The existing industrial activities are
currently noticed to be concentrated
in and around the fringe of Vijayawada,
Mangalagiri and Tadepalli. However,
to surge forward, there is a need to
look beyond these industrial zones and
traditional existing industries.
The key objective of the overall
planning process is to be able to create
an effective industrial/business ecosystem (refers to figure 5.3 overleaf)
where the domestic industries in terms
of Small Medium Enterprises (SME) as
well as multinational companies are
able to attract to Amaravati not only
to start up business but also to scale up
and diversify in the long term.
Before embarking further on this, a
comparative study of more similar/
relevant examples have been carried
out as to ascertain what makes these
Fig.5.2 Amaravati strategically located in-between BRICS and
ASEAN Countries
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
cases tick, what are the success factors
that Amaravati needs to be aware of,
and the pitfalls to avoid.
Learning on Singapore’s Industrialization Process
became the focal point. In terms of
product content, there was a shift from
labor-intensive products towards those
of higher technological content and
worker-skilled products.
The shifit towards industrialization
was promoted as a strategy of
diversifying Singapore’s traditional
role as an entrepot. The very early
stages of Singapore’s industrialization
strategies were based on promoting
export-oriented and labor-intensive
industrialization. The government
formulated and implemented the
industrialization program through the
Economic Development Board (EDB)
in 1968. By the mid-1970s, the country
had undergone a quarter-century of
rapid industrial advance based on lowcost labor, to middle-level technology.
This transformation had also resulted in
a rapid increase in exports and foreign
revenue earned.
Information technology was chosen
as the strategic principal instrument
to bring about further change in
the process of industrialization. The
second main industry focused was
on computers and electronics . This
industry constituted Singapore’s largest
industry, in terms of both number of
jobs and “value added-ness” by the
late 1980s. Other major sectors of
economy in Singapore include entrepot
trade, export-oriented manufacturing
petroleum refining/shipping, goods/
services (domestic economy), and
specialized services for the international
market in the area of banking and
finance, telecommunications, and
tourism.
In attracting Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI), Export Expansion Incentives (Relief
from Income Tax) were introduced. This
helped Singapore penetrate export
markets and also bring in advanced
technology. The manufacturing sector’s
continued success was largely a
function of Singapore’s ability to attract
foreign investment through a favorable
business climate and also to provide
investors with an educated, trained,
and disciplined labour force.
At the present moment, the Singapore
government has set its sights on the
biomedical sciences cluster. Biopolis in
One-North is set-up for this purpose.
The government bears the initial cost
of infrastructure development. The
government believes that in building a
vibrant enterprise, a total ecosystem is
crucial for its success. Hence, Biopolis
was designed and planned with this in
mind.
Singapore’s
industrial
evolution
after 1979 was further escalated
with improvements in the level of
technology. In the process, a further
raise in manpower productivity
This is because the agglomeration of
companies, big or small, foreign or local
within a localized geographical area will
gain from the synergy and symbiosis
of the relationship. Ultimately, this will
bring about an increase in innovation
industries contact ensured that
incentives were regularly adjusted to
permit the manufacturing section to
adapt to new foreign market shifts.
Although Taiwan is already very
successful, it is constantly reinventing
itself to stay ahead of the curve. A Six Year
Development Plan was implemented in
1976. Firstly, infrastructure investment
was made to enhance the performance
of the manufacturing sector. Secondly,
the government established state
owned enterprises to produce a select
range of capital intensive goods on
a large scale to serve the large and
rapidly growing local market and to
exploit export opportunities. The
diversification of export markets and
export products also reduced Taiwan’s
vulnerability over time.
Fig.5.3 Key Factors contributing to Industrial Eco-System
and entrepreneurship. In creating
a more conducive environment,
Intellectual Property Law was set up
to protect this intellectually capital
intensive industry.
In
a
nutshell,
Singapore’s
industrialization is about taking gradual
steps to climb up the value chain, and
it was not a process that was done
overnight. It takes long term planning
and bold decisions for Singapore to
progress this far.
Learning on Taiwan’s Industrialization Process
Taiwan started a new industrialization
strategy in the early 1960s. More liberal
trading regimes in the export markets
of importance to Taiwan were adopted.
The manufacturing sector was also
switched to focus on the export market
and development of a wide range
of export-oriented, light and labour
intensive industries such as clothing,
electrical/electronic products, plastic,
wood and metal manufacturing. The
government and industries were
both very responsive to international
market trends. The close government-
In anticipation of a slower growth
due to the oil crisis in 1979, the
government placed greater priority on
producing higher quality products with
sophisticated technology and more
highly skilled labour content. In support
of this move, the government granted
a range of special incentives, raised
its spending on scientific research
and education, established industrial
parks and zones with each of them
housing firms of similar industries
to improve efficiency. Incentives
were also introduced to encourage
export oriented, technology intensive
industries which include tax breaks,
custom duties exemption, etc.
Taiwan’s
private
and
public
entrepreneurial
capacity
has
demonstrated time and again that it
can adjust quickly to changing market
conditions. It is likely that this high
degree of flexibility and resilience
together with Taiwan’s other assets
such as sound economic management
and the existence of an educated,
resourceful, hard working population
will ensure a favorable outlook for
both manufacturing and trade in the
foreseeable future.
Inference
Almost all countries started from
almost a very low industrial base.
But what was common in all of the
countries studied was that they had
definite strategies on how to proceed
from their base levels to their targeted
goals. Most, if not all strategies are
subjected to revision in the face of
changing economic and business
climate either externally or internally.
In other words, these strategies were
long term projections but were flexible
to adapt very quickly to changes in
the business environment. The other
critical feature was the existence of
institutions that solely took charge of
the trade and industry.
Human Capital is by far the most
important element in the whole chain
of industrialization. Countries in order
to move up the value chain will have
ensured that their human resource
capacity mounds in tandem with the
industrial demand. Human capacity
may need time to build up especially
if the country wants to move up to a
higher technological plane (refers to
figure 5.4).
From a physical planning point of view,
there was a need to safeguard sites
for the construction of institutions
of higher learning particularly in the
technical line. It was not just about
safeguarding enough sites to set up
the requisite institutions (i.e. enough
for the projected population) but at
strategic locations well served by public
transportation to ensure maximum
accessibility.
The other noticeable feature was the
creation of an economic ecological
system capable of promoting and
enhancing the total industrial and
business environment. For ease of
doing business, setting up of business
park where the clustering of industries
could take place as well as a total
business corridor/cluster where the
locations of higher learning institution,
government agencies and business/
science/technological park are located
in proximity with one another are
critical considerations. In addition,
there needs to be a good and reliable
infrastructure (such as sewerage,
power, telecom, water, etc.), and
an efficient transportation network
to complete the whole industrial
ecological system.
Incentives, in the form of tax breaks
are another factor considered to be an
important feature to attract FDI coming
into the state. There is a need for these
well-thought and selective incentives
or policies to make the country
attractive to foreign investment.
However, incentives should be very
selective and controlled to enhance
their effectiveness.
67
Objective
The nature of the Industrial Landscape
of Amaravati is intended to be
dynamic to strike a desirable balance
between industrial and non-industrial
employment opportunities for a more
sustainable economic framework.
Hence, the critical objective of
industrial planning at the strategic
developmental level is to determine
the amount of industrial land for the
short, medium and long term time
frame whilst the new Capital City
is evolving and growing. And more
importantly, adequate infrastructure
provision should go in tandem with the
development and phasing strategies.
68
Fig.5.4 Strategic Skill Development facilitating Economic growth of the Capital City
An open economy is another way to go
forward. This is basically an outward
oriented growth strategy. This approach
entails a possibility of technological
transfer which is beneficial to the host
in the long run. With these possibilities,
one can hope for technological spillovers which can support home growth
industries. With the opening up of
the domestic market, the local SMEs
will have to compete with foreign
companies resulting in productivity
gain and ultimately, a faster industrial
growth rate.
The economy of the Capital City
Amaravati has to continue to evolve
nimbly, ride on regional economic
growth and tap into opportunities
from all over the world. Improved
productivity in manufacturing and
diversity in the industry are essential
to maintain a competitive edge. These
are to be accompanied further by the
expansion of excellence and creating
conditions for clusters of activities
to flourish, particularly in tourism,
healthcare, tertiary education, financial
services and research & development.
Hence, the envisaged industrial
clusters and the proposed strategies
(refers to figure 5.5) for Amaravati
industrial development will facilitate
the industrialization eventually moving
from Labour intensive to Knowledge
intensive over time. By 2050, these
industries to generate approximately
1,8000,000 employment opportunities
and approximately 301,700 Industrial
Jobs. Please see Table 5.1 for direct and
indirect employment details.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
It is crucial to have ample land supply
at strategic locations to cater for the
range of industries selected including
those of high technological content
and those related to Research and
Development. The other aspect is to
provide for balanced distribution of
jobs and housing needs throughout the
Capital City. There is a need to bring
jobs to the masses where appropriate.
This in turn, will have a secondary effect
of cutting down the carbon footprint as
a result of less people traveling long
distances to work.
The industries that have been selected
for Amaravati although non-pollutive
in nature still do have some degree
of nuisance factor possibly through
excessive industrial vehicles moving
around these areas which may create
a certain degree of noise pollution. The
operation of these industries itself may
also contribute to the noise. Hence,
in the selection of locations for these
industries, there is a balance of this
anticipated “nuisance” factor with the
degree of convenience.
The idea is to buffer and minimize
the adverse impacts of “nuisance”
factors while optimising land use and
increasing the accessibility to the huge
labor pool of local skilled and lowskilled workers existing in the region.
The R&D, Industrial and Logistics
developments have to be planned in
tandem with the skill set and housing
availability to support a balanced worklive environment.
Types of Industrial Zone
As described in chapter 4, the Capital
City is proposed to house clean and
non-polluting industries along with
IT/ITeS, Financial and R&D clusters
within its jurisdiction. The Mega Food
Processing Park scheme and Electronic
Manufacturing Cluster schemes could
also be explored for the development
of physical infrastructure. In addition
Fig.5.5 Envisaged Eco-System and Focus Industries of Amaravati
Year 2025
Year 2035
Year 2050
Total
R&D
6,300
18,800
2,400
27,500
Industries
12,800
28,400
81,300
122,500
Logistics
5,200
1,700
900
7,700
Total (Direct)
24,300
48,900
84,600
157,700
Total (Indirect)
Total (Direct +
Indirect)
28,500
43,000
72,000
144,000
52,800
91,900
156,600
301,700
Table 5.1 Industrial Direct and indirect Employment Opportunities
to the core sectors, support segments
such as logistics, packaging and printing
are also proposed to be part of the city.
A total land area of approximately
4,420 ha has been safeguarded within
the proposed Capital City boundary
(389 sqkm) to accommodate these
envisaged clusters. These Industrial
land areas have been categorized into
3 Zones as follows,
1. Business Park Zone (C5)
2. Industrial Zone (I1)
3. Logistics Zone (L1)
The Business Park Zone (refer to figure
5.6) is specifically set aside for nonpollutive industries and businesses that
engage in high technology, research and
development (R&D), high value added
and knowledge intensive activities.
The value of the business park zone
is between industrial and commercial
uses. Approximately 477 ha of land
area are safeguarded for this purpose
Fig.5.6 Business Park Landuse Plan
Fig.5.7 Examples of Business Park Developments
The Industrial Zone (refers to figure
5.8) is safeguarded especially for light &
clean industries. These include low rise
detached, semi-detached and terrace
factories to high-rise multi tenanted,
multi storied factories. As mentioned
earlier, the types of industries envisaged
in the Capital City Amaravati are
predominantly environment friendly as
described below:
Clean Industries: These are industries
that do not generate air and water
pollution and do not generate noise
and smell nuisance which can affect
surrounding
developments.
The
factories also shall not use large
quantities of hazardous substances
such as solvents, acids and other
chemicals. No buffer is necessary for
such industries.
Green Industries: These industries
shall not generate large quantities of
trade effluent or solid waste. They shall
also not generate excessive impulsive
or continuous noise. They shall also
not use large quantities of hazardous
substances such as solvents, acids &
other chemicals. A buffer of 50m-100m
is necessary from the nearest residential
district for such industries.
Orange Industries: These type of
general industries may be allowed
subject to adequate buffer from the
nearest residential zone.
A total land area of approximately 3,754
ha is safeguarded for this purpose
The Logistics Zone (refers to figure 5.10)
will accommodate the predominant
activities related to transport, logistics,
goods distribution and storage for
regional, national and international
transit. Generally, these developments
consist of warehouses, loading &
unloading bays, open storage facilities
and supporting ancillary services with
efficient internal vehicular circulation
and external multi-modal transport
links. Please refer to Zoning Plan report
for more details. Approximately 188
ha of land area are safeguarded for
Logistics related activities.
If these land areas and locations for
industrial activities with adequate
infrastructure
are
not
being
69
70
safeguarded at the early stage,
residential, commercial and other land
uses that have a higher real estate value
will occupy these locations in no time,
leading to the loss of these strategic
sites, ultimately, losing out on the
industrial strategic intent as a whole.
Distribution of Industries
Broadly, the following locational criteria
have been used to safeguard the
adequate land for Industrial activities.
• Proximity to Vijayawada City, new
Amaravati City Centres, existing
Machilipatnam Sea Port, existing
Gannavaram Airport and the
proposed airport.
• Connectivity to the existing national
highways and proposed ring road
and rail lines
• Topographical condition
• Environmental consideration
• Availability of the existing and
proposed utilities
• Optimum land utilisation (vertical
distribution)
• Connectivity to public transport
• Compatible synergy with other land
uses such as residential, commercial
and recreational uses to promote
total business environment
Nearer to the residential areas are
used mainly for light and clean (Green)
industries whilst those further away
from the residential are safeguarded for
the general (Orange) industries. Based
on environmental considerations, some
general industries may create some
nuisance in terms of noise and smell.
These may cause some “disturbances”
to the nearby residents, and hence
should be sited at least 500m to 1 km
away from the residential areas.
The higher technological content
industries particularly those with a
high content of innovation and R&D
are located close to the location
where there are already established
institutions, residential, commercial
and recreational developments in
place.
The locations of these industries
contribute to the “total industrial
innovative technological eco-system.”
Time-sensitive industries, high value
but “weight loss” industries (high
value products but “light weight” in
terms of actual weight of the products
produced) will be located closer to the
proposed New Airport city area for the
conveniences in terms of accessibility
to the airport and the whole ecosystem of the area.
At a more micro level or within each
industrial estate, Clustering Concepts
are to be introduced and organized in
terms of appropriate industrial zones to
arrive at the various types of industrial
compatibilities and synergies. Within
each individual estate there is a need
to demarcate specific plot sizes to
accommodate various industrial types.
This is to prevent/regulate the first
come first served syndrome which may
distort the original planning intentions
for the development. Within each
industrial estate/ technological park
there is a need to
• Review the phasing for industrial
development and proposed subphasing
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.5.8 Industrial Landuse Plan
Fig.5.9 Examples of light and heavy industries
• Propose an efficient internal road
layout for the smooth functioning of
the industrial operations
• Integrate the planning of the
industrial area with adjacent
developments
• Locate similar industrial types,
together within the development so
as to allow the sharing of common
facilities and to have linkages in
production; the feed-stock of one
can be the output of another
• Propose a development program
to
phase
the
infrastructure
development and transportation
routes to prevent any operational
inconvenience
Green and Blue Network
Good quality working and living
environment can be created through
forward planning and strategic
Fig.5.10 Logistics Zone Plan
Fig.5.11 Examples of Logistics Industries
Fig.5.12 Broad Industrial Planning Concept
distribution of green public open
spaces within the industrial zones. The
designation of these public open spaces
has to be at the appropriate locations
and at right sizes with respect to the
catchment served to be meaningful
and effective.
As illustrated in figure 5-12, the more
prominent green public open spaces
include the extensive road-fronting
linear park along the ring road and
major arterial roads, the main Industrial
Central Spine straddling across the
central portion of the industrial site in
the east west direction, informal pocket
parks and the green buffers or planting
strips. These spaces ensure that all
workers and visitors will have full access
to active and passive recreational
opportunities. The provision of cycling
paths within these linear parks promote
71
72
eco-friendly and healthy life style.
Linear green parks double as buffer
between Residential and Industrial as
well. More importantly, the formal or
informal public open spaces will not
only increase property values but also
to provide visual relief at any time of
day and night.
Supporting Uses
The supporting facilities such as
Gateway/Administrative Buildings and
Amenity centres are suitable to site
common facilities to serve the working
community, improve orientation and
design character of the development.
Gateway buildings provide one stop
location for all administrative, customs
and security matters. Proper mix of
activities such as exciting retail, office
space, training areas, meeting rooms,
incubators, indoor kids play area and
interactive landscape, induce vibrancy
in these facilities. The amenity centres
shall be located with the walkable
distance (300m) at the junctions
where the Roads and Green Spine
interact. Therefore, these centres can
be easily accessed by cars, service
vehicles and pedestrians. Importantly,
tenants will not provide duplicate
facilities such as recreational facilities,
automated teller machines, postal
agencies, clinics, restaurants and eating
places, convenience sundry stores,
maintenance offices etc.
As logistics facilities provide the
basic infrastructure support for the
entire industrial area and involve the
movement of heavy vehicles, adequate
common truck parking, maintenance/
repair/cleaning facilities and fuelling
station shall also be provided at suitable
locations.
Planning Process
The method of allocating the various
land clusters and the drawing up of the
master plan comprise a step by step
process, starting with the identification
of site constraints and opportunities,
the evolvement of the initial concept
for the selected development and
the alignment of the concept with
development vision. This is followed
by the logical location of the cluster
identified by the strategic study, and
the consideration of the existing landuses.
The typical layout of industrial
development
adheres
to
the
operational efficiency (see figure
5-13) in terms of industrial clustering
and parcellation, transportation and
infrastructure practicality, demand
capacity and network and the
environmental conduciveness for
work through the careful planning of
workers’ accommodation, public open
spaces, link-ways and the appropriate
provision of amenity centers, fire
stations, etc. (Refer to figure 5-14 for a
typical industrial layout).
Principle of Clustering
Fig.5.13 Key Factors contributing to Industrial Efficiency
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
The main principle guiding the layout
for industrial developments is the
clustering of the different industrial
clusters. This approach is critical as
the cluster orientation approach will
serve as a good marketing tool for
Fig.5.14 Recommended Typical Industrial Layout
ease of marketing efforts. By having
focus industries identified within
the industrial park, anchor tenants
will correspondingly attract other
supporting industries with higher
likelihood of synergies. The grouping of
these industries to achieve the clustered
effect is based on the following:
• Similar industries can be grouped
on planning and environmental
grounds.
• Locating similar industrial types
together will allow the sharing
of common facilities and to have
linkages in productions.
• Incompatible industries are not
sited next to one another as these
industries may be detrimental
to one another technically and
environmentally.
• Strong synergy between similar
industries shall be encouraged to
support each other, if the sizes of
these sub-zones are adequately large
to create an optimal critical mass.
Once this is achieved, it is easier for the
various supporting industries or even
related institutions to set up in close
proximity to these clusters.
Principles of Lot Sizes/
Configuration
Following the clustering exercise,
the next step involves knowing the
onset of the type of industries that
the new Capital City Amaravati would
like to promote in the industrial
zones. With the consideration of
maximum road frontage and flexible
plot amalgamation, a detailed layout
plan should be drawn up as quickly as
possible.
Generally, potential locators prefer
to select advantageous locations and
configure sites to closely meet their
own requirements. This situation
would make the marketing process
more complex and difficult to control.
In addition, after the early potential
locators have tailored their own sites,
there may be a substantial amount of
odd shaped remnant pieces of land that
will be difficult to sell. Furthermore, the
resultant parcel pattern may deviate
significantly from the original master
plan design and seriously damage
the functional and environmental
qualities embodied in the plan’s design.
Infrastructure and utility provisions may
also have to be completely redesigned
and re-planned.
The logistics developments located
within the industrial zones shall be
designed in such a way that they allow
flexibility of turning some industrial
developments into a Special Economic
Zone/Bonded Zone in the future if so
desired.
Development Phasing
The general guiding principles for
development phasing of the Industrial
zones are as follows:
1. To provide a regional balance in
the distribution of employment
opportunities
and
residents’
population
2. To intensify existing and identified
growth nodes where appropriate
and strategic to ensure these
growth catalysts are effective and
fulfilling their intended purposes.
3. Priority to be given to the following
wherever possible:
• Areas
with
existing/ready
infrastructure, such as along major
transportation routes and within
close proximity to other infrastructure network such as sewerage,
water and power. This provides the
possibility of cutting down up front
capital cost.
• Unencumbered areas i.e. no
committed developments where
the political, development or social
pressure is assumed to be at its
minimum
• Areas where there is already some
form of labour source and expertise
The Capital City is a melange of various
attributes and primarily focuses on
the IT/ITeS, Research & Development
clusters to establish an intellectual
capital of Andhra Pradesh in long
term. Hence, the economic role of
the proposed Capital City will be
dynamic and the industrial landscape
is programmed with short, medium
and long term phasing strategies to
facilitate this vision.
As illustrated in figure 5-15, Amaravati
City is located in between the proposed
zone of logistics hubs in the east and the
zone of manufacturing hubs in the west.
Until these manufacturing and Logistics
zones are well developed over time,
the Capital City will also accommodate
all relevant industrial activities besides
IT/ITeS, Financial and R&D clusters. In
short term, land area safeguarded for
Phase 1 of the industrial development
within the Capital City will be able to
accommodate the industries generating
immediate job opportunities.
73
Fig.5.15 Dynamic Role of Amaravati City
Phase 1
(Year 2025)
Phase 2
(Year 2035)
Phase 3
(Year 2050)
R&D (ha)
(Year 2025)
180
477
Industries (ha)
1,400
2,510
3,754
Logistics (ha)
130
160
188
Table 5.2 Land area safeguarded for Phase 1, 2 & 3 developments
In medium & long terms, when the
suitable skilled workforce is available
and the regional level manufacturing
& logistics hubs are established with
suitable eco-system, the Capital City
will steer towards establishing itself
as an intellectual capital. Phase 2 and
Phase 3 land areas locations are safe
guarded accordingly. Please refer to
Table 5-2 for the land area safeguarded
for different phases of the industrial
development.
It is recommended to review the
market studies, the overall master plan
and the phasing strategies at least,
every 5 years to regulate and manage
the growth of the Capital City and the
CRDA Region.
74
5.2 INDUSTRIAL
INFRASTRUCTURE
PLANS
• Forecast of utilities requirements
and recommendation on the
infrastructure provisions
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.3 PLANNING
ASSUMPTIONS
Infrastructure development plays
a paramount role in determining
the success of new Capital City
development.
Comprehensive
infrastructure and utilities services
shall be provided in tandem with the
phasing development of the Capital
City. These include storm water
drainage, water supply, sewerage, solid
waste disposal, power supply, and
telecommunications.
The
strategic
directions
for
infrastructure planning of the Capital
City development are aimed to achieve
the following:
• To provide highest standard and
quality of infrastructure and utilities
services
• To optimize the use and efficiency of
existing infrastructure
• To gear towards supporting a clean,
sustainable and high quality living
5.2.2 PLANNING
METHODOLOGY
The methodology used for the planning
of the various infrastructure services:
• Meeting with the relevant local
authorities and compilation and
analysis of the data gathered
• A site visit to the planning area
covered in the Broad Infrastructure
Plan
The following assumptions have been
adopted for the Broad Infrastructure
Planning:
• The
proposed
infrastructure
provisions are catered for the
proposed Capital City planning area
only.
However, these proposed
infrastructure provisions can make
use of the existing infrastructure
systems, if upgrading or capacity
expansion permits.
• Findings and Deliverables from
Market Study and Physical Planning
teams for the proposed Capital City
planning area, such as Land Use
Distribution, Population Projection
and Industry Analysis will form the
main basis for the infrastructure
planning.
• The major industries identified are
Food & Beverages, Electronics /
Hardware, Packaging, Printing and
Logistics
WATER SUPPLY
The water supply assessment provides
the estimated projection of the water
demand for potable & recycled water
usage for the proposed industrial zone
within the Capital City development.
Total water demand depends on the
unit water demand rate for industries.
This will vary in accordance to the
spectrum of industries and industrial
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
process. Based on the industries
identified, the unit water demand rate
varies from 15 to 140 m3/ha/d.
Based on the proposed unit water
demand and the proposed land use
distribution & projected population, as
well as other assumptions described
earlier, the total water demand has
been worked out as shown in Table 5.3.
Total water demand includes potable
water plus recycled water. The ultimate
total water demand for the industrial
development has been worked out
to be about 203,000 m3/d which is
177,500 m3/d potable water + 25,500
m3/d of recycled water.
Both potable water and recycled
water shall be used for the industrial
zone within the Capital City. To meet
the ultimate water requirements, a
water treatment plant is proposed
to meet potable water requirement
and the source for recycled water will
be from the proposed IETP (Industrial
Effluent Treatment Plant) within the
development.
The recycled water can be used for nonpotable purposes such as landscaping,
Industries
Type
Business Park
Land Area
(Ha)
477
3,754
188
4,419
Total
Average
Water
Demand
(m3/d)
29,000
171,000
3,000
203,000
Potable
Water
Demand
(m3/d)
23,000
154,000
500
177,500
Recycled
Water
Demand
(m3/d)
6,000
17,000
2,500
25,500
Sewage
20,000
135,500
500
156,000
Solid Waste
Generated
(T/d)
86
676
34
796
Power
Demand
(MVA)
428
1,512
5
1,945
Telecom
Demand
(Lines)
51,500
182,000
5,500
239,000
Light IndustriLogistics Zone
al Zone
Table 5.3 Broad Utilities Demand (Industrial Zones)
Total
cooling and others. In order to
achieve this, dual water supplies and
distribution systems are proposed for
potable water and recycled water.
SEWERAGE
The conceptual sewerage plan
addresses the broad concepts of the
sewerage system and location of IETP
(Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant).
The objectives of the sewerage system
are to cater for the anticipated peak
discharge requirements and to pretreat the waste water to the required
discharge standards. Various demand
estimation and requirement of facilities
are then worked out based on the
land use distribution and population
projection.
The sewage generation computation is
based on 80% of the average potable
water demand plus 10% infiltration rate.
Based on the land use distribution and
population projection of the various
planning areas, the sewage generation
has been worked out as shown in Table
5.3. The ultimate sewage generation for
the industrial development has been
worked out to be about 156,000 m3/d.
Individual industries shall be required to
pre-treat their wastewater to acceptable
standards, prior to discharging into
the proposed sewerage. An example
for limit of trade effluent standards
extracted from Public Utilities Board,
Singapore is shown in Table 5.4. In case
of any overflow into the water body, the
quality of the effluent after treatment
shall meet the standards for discharge
in accordance to the local standards.
Some important issues when siting an
IETP are locations near receiving water
bodies (such as natural drain/channel),
distance from sewage generation
area, and the topography of the area.
The sewage will be treated at the
IETP and the treated effluent will be
recycled. The quality of the effluent
after treatment shall meet the local
standards. The proposed location of
Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant is
shown in Figure 5.17.
The proposed IETP serves only the
southern Industrial zone where light
to medium industries are proposed.
Sewage generated from other industrial
zones which are mostly service based
and light industry shall be treated in
proposed sewage treatment plant
located at north eastern part of Capital
City.
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
This section shall address the
generation of solid waste for the
industrial development.
Based on the land use distribution
and the type of industries, the solid
waste generation has been worked
out as shown in Table 5.3. Solid waste
generation rate varies from 150 to
210 kg/ha/d for different types of
industry proposed. The ultimate solid
waste generation for the industrial
development has been worked out to
be about 796 T/d.
Industrial waste generated is collected,
segregated and stored in transfer
station before being sent to landfill
disposal or incineration plant. The
Parameter
Limit of Trade Effluent
Parameter
Limit of Trade Effluent
BOD (5days @ 20oC)
400
Fluoride
15
COD
600
Iron
50
Suspended solids
400
Lead
5
Total dissolved solids
3000
Manganese
10
pH
6–9
Mercury
0.5
Arsenic
5
Nickel
10
Barium
10
Oil and grease
60
Beryllium
5
Phenols
0.5
Boron
5
Selenium
10
Cadmium
1
Silver
5
Chloride
1000
Sulfate
1000
Chromium
5
Sulfide
1
Copper
5
Zinc
10
Cyanide
2
Table 5.4 Wastewater - Quality Limits (mg/L except where otherwise stated)
Source: Requirements for Discharge of Trade Effluent into the Public Sewers” Public Utilities Board, Singapore
proposed location of transfer station is
shown in Figure 5.18.
These stations shall provide facilities
to sort and store recyclable wastes.
These not only reduce the non-biodegradable wastes disposed of in the
site, but at the same, minimize the
amount of solid wastes to be disposed.
Therefore, in addition to providing
more convenient service to system
customers, these stations also serve to
reduce the amount of vehicular traffic
at the landfill site.
Fig.5.16 Typical Solid waste disposal flowchart
75
76
POWER SUPPLY
TELECOMMUNICATION
Power is one of the critical infrastructure
for the prosperity and growth of the
proposed Capital City.
The development of the new Capital City
will require new telecommunications
infrastructure to serve the needs of the
area. As the project is starting from
virtually a clean slate, this presents a
great opportunity for the city to build
a state-of-the-art ICT infrastructure
that will rival the best in the region.
The new infrastructure will enable the
Capital City to not only serve the new
industries and institutions but also
better serve its populace with better
e-Government services.
The electricity demand figure is
based on the assumption that the
study area will be fully developed
at that time, the market conditions
are as per the proposed land use and
industrial processes are similar to the
focused industries. In the early years
of the development, the electricity
demand will be low and the growth
varies according to the actual market
condition. Modular expansions and
close monitoring of the electricity
take-up rate are recommended. Unit
power demand rate varies in the
range of 60 to 500 kVA/ha/FSI. The
electrical power demand estimated is
shown in Table 5.3. The ultimate power
demand projection for the industrial
development has been worked out to
be about 1,945 MVA.
Fig.5.17 Proposed Location of Extra High Voltage Sub-Stations – S/S (4Nos), Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant
– IETP & Transfer Station - TS
The location of proposed extra high
voltage sub-stations is shown in Figure
5.17.
These sub-stations serve only the
southern portion of industrial area
where most of the light and medium
industries are proposed. As the
industrial development progresses,
substations are recommended to be
built in phases, concurrent with the
development phases, based on the
electrical power demand estimated.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Based on the proposed land use and
projected population, the telecom
demand has been worked out and
shown in Table 5.3. The ultimate
telecom demand for the industrial
development has been worked out to
be about 239,000 lines.
To ensure a robust network, a ring
configuration is recommended for the
main trunk route. Depending on the
extent of resilience required, the last
leg to the customer’s premises can be
a ring or a star configuration. For the
industries, the Government agencies
and the more critical public institutions,
we are suggesting a loop configuration
for a more robust network.
5.3 CONCLUSION
In a nutshell, the establishment of
the industrial zones will benefit the
Amaravati Capital City and the existing
settlements in the following ways as
Figure 5.18 illustrates:
77
• To drive up employment growth
• To increase and diversify value added
economic activities
• To improve productivity levels
• To rise income levels
• To realize and commercialize the
concepts originated in R&D clusters
More detailed studies, analysis and
plans are required to further guide
the implementation efforts for the
development. These will include
feasibility study, business plan, urban
design, land sales documents, detailed
infrastructure and engineering plans,
etc. These plans are essential to ensure
timely and coordinated provision of
infrastructure as well as community
facilities so that architects and
engineers can work out the detailed
design drawing for the construction of
infrastructure and buildings.
The Industrial Zones for the Capital
City should be read in conjunction
with the Zoning Plan for the planning
parameters, overall strategic direction,
and framework and the role that the
Capital City plays. The guidelines will
be important in allowing investors &
talents a fully transparent view of the
upcoming developments in Amaravati,
aid in their business planning and
heighten their confidence in the future
of Amaravati – The Intellectual Capital.
Fig.5.18 Dynamic Role of Industrial Landscape complementing Existing and New City
78
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THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
6
INFRASTRUCTURE
PROVISIONS
The new Capital City, Amaravati is an almost greenfield site and is
therefore lacking in infrastructure. Major investment in infrastructure
is required in the coming years to prepare the site as the new Capital of
Andhra Pradesh.
The immediate infrastructural requirements have been identified in
this master plan. This is to guide the future detailed studies that will be
conducted to develop detailed infrastructure plans for the Capital City.
These recommendations have been included in the land use master
plan in order to reserve appropriate land space for infrastructure
development.
The key areas investigated in this study are:
1. Flood Management
2. Water Supply
3. Waste Water
4. Solid Waste, and
5. Power Supply
Views of the Elluru Canal Bridge from the banks of river Krishna
6.1 INTEGRATED URBAN
WATER MANAGEMENT
80
6.1.1 Existing Conditions
After discussions with the Local
Authorities and carrying out site
investigations, it was identified that
the site of the new Capital City faces
many challenges, especially in water
management.
During the monsoon season, there
is a lot of storm water collected in
the Krishna River upstream of the
Prakasam Barrage, and within the site
due to heavy rainfall. Inundation occurs
in some of the low lying areas within
the Capital City development area. The
flood waters eventually dissipate by
being discharged into the Krishna River,
and then by gravity on into the sea.
During the dry season, the Krishna
River is the main source of raw water
for potable and agricultural use. This
source can run low and lead to a deficit
of water supply in the region. The
urbanisation process arising from the
development of the Capital City will put
additional strain on the water supply
from the Krishna River.
In summary, some of the key issues
identified are:
• Flooding due to the rainfall in the
Kondaveeti Vagu catchment in the
monsoon season;
• Water availability during the dry
seasons; and
• Water pollution in Kondaveeti Vagu
and the Krishna River
6.1.2 Proposed Urban
Water Cycle
In order to effectively manage water in
the new Capital City, a holistic approach
to the urban water cycle is required.
This will help the Capital City to become
self sufficient in water, flood resilient,
and have a clean water environment.
Separate sections addressing, sewerage,
water supply and flood management
in detail have been developed in this
Chapter. In order to ensure that these
strategies work in concert with each
other, they have been developed with
the entire urban water cycle in mind.
6.1.3 Water Supply
6.1.4 Sewerage
6.1.5 Flood Management
Reliable, sufficient and
continuous water supply
Separate sewerage system
Prevent flooding in the Capital
City
Ensure that water supply is continuously
available even during periods of
drought through the storage of raw
water.
Clean potable water for all
households and users
Water should be treated to World
Health Organisation standards where it
is of potable quality and that this water
is of the same quality once it arrives at
the point of use.
Collection of all waste water
Effective demand management
The raw sewage should be treated to
a level that is suitable for the chosen
disposal method and is acceptable to be
discharged into the surrounding waters
without any environmental impact.
Water is a limited resource. Therefore
measures must be put in place to
control the usage of water by the end
users. This can be through policy and/
or technology
A summary of the key elements of the
objectives is given and how they are
inter-related. The strategies defined in
each subsequent section are designed
to meet each of these objectives.
There are also concerns that there is
discharge of partially treated effluent
from sewage treatment plants into
the Krishna River and the Buckingham
Canal. This has the potential to cause
serious health issues if not controlled
when the population expands.
Fig.6.1 Prakasam Barrage
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Sewage produced in the region should
be conveyed in a dedicated enclosed
sewerage system. There must not be a
case where the sewage can escape into
the storm water network. Rain water
should be dealt with in a completely
separate system.
The sewerage network should serve all
parts of the Capital City to give 100%
coverage.
Proper treatment and disposal
Flooding in the Capital City is
unacceptable.
Therefore
robust
strategies must be put in place with
levels of redundancy to prevent this
from happening.
Make flood water available for
usage
Water is an important resource and
whilst any flood management scheme
must focus on preventing inundation
it should not make water unavailable
to the Capital City. Therefore, flood
mitigation measures should control,
but not totally remove water.
Maintain raw water supply
throughout the year
Whilst too much water is a problem, as
too little water can also pose issues in
the Capital City. Where there are water
resources in the city, it is important that
these are maintained throughout the
year.
6.1.6 OVERLAPPING
MEASURES
Each of these objectives overlap
to a certain degree. This overlap is
summarised as follows and in Fig.6.2.
As can be seen it is essential that the
actions of one element of the water
management cycle does not have a
negative impact on others.
Rainwater Harvesting
Storage of rainwater within the Capital
City will augment the supply of raw
water during the dry season. This can
be achieved by means of detention
ponds and storage reservoirs.
By intercepting and diverting rainfall
into these storage reservoirs, this will
also help to mitigate flooding within the
Capital City. It is important that whilst
flooding is prevented, the strategy
must not impact on water availability.
Pollution Control
By creating storage reservoirs to
conserve rainwater, the Capital City
gains an additional source of raw water
supply for potable use during the dry
season. These reservoirs can also be
be designed with biofeatures such as
swales which would help polish the
water quality. This will help to address
the water pollution issue, and at the
same time, create another source of
water supply albeit for non-potable
use.
Treated Effluent as a Water
Resource
The augmentation of raw water supply
helps to reduce the water demand
placed on the Krishna River. This strain
can be further reduced by exploring
alternative water sources.
Sewage effluent, if treated to a high
enough standard and quality, can be
safely used for many purposes including
irrigation and industry.
Active-Beautiful-Clean Waters (ABC)
features such as swales and detention
ponds can also be used for flood
management, and also to polish
treated effluent before discharging into
the waterbodies.
Further details of the individual
stages of the urban water cycle will be
elaborated in the following sections.
Fig.6.3 shows the conceptual urban
water cycle for the Capital City.
Monsoon Season
Natural Water Cycle
Rainfall
Runoff
Non-potable Water Usage
for Industrial and Irrigation
Storage of
Rainwater
Evaporation
Storage Reservoirs
Evaporation
Discharge of
Treated
Effluent
Rainwater as a
Resource
Sewage Treatment Plant
Residential and
Commercial Usage
Sewage
Discharge
Fig.6.2 Integrated Urban Water Management
Fig.6.3 Proposed Urban Water Cycle
Reuse of
Treated
Effluent
81
6.2 FLOOD MANAGEMENT
82
6.2.1 Existing Conditions
Inundation of Amaravati
The Krishna River is a major inter-state
river flowing through the states of
Maharastra, Karnataka, Telangana and
Andhra Pradesh.
The Capital City is located approximately
100km upstream of the mouth of
Krishna River, along the southern
bank. Kondaveeti Vagu is a tributary to
Krishna River, as shown in Fig.6.4.
The Kondaveeti Vagu catchment
draining towards the Krishna River has
a total area of 453 km². Kondaveeti
Vagu originates from the Kondaveedu
Hill Range and joins the Krishna River
upstream of existing Prakasam Barrage.
Together with its own tributaries,
Kondaveeti Vagu flows across the
Capital City and causes inundation over
about 13,500 acres of land every year
during the monsoon season.
This catchment on average receives
1,073 mm of annual rainfall. The total
quantity of water received from rainfall
is 17.16 thousand million cubic feet
(TMC) per year. Storm water runoff is
estimated at about 3.84 TMC. 80% of
this surface runoff will be received by
this catchment and discharged to the
sea via the Krishna River without any
utilisation during the monsoon period.
occurs two to three times annually.
Of the 13,500 acres of the inundation
area, about 10,600 acres is within
the planning area of the Capital City.
Therefore, the Kondaveeti Vagu flood
issue is a critical issue that needs to
be addressed in detail after the master
planning stage.
A detailed flood analysis of Kondaveeti
Vagu, as proposed by the Government
of Andhra Pradesh Water Resources
Department, is in progress. This will
be completed subsequent to the
finalisation of this report.
Fig.6.4 also shows the extent of the
flooding area within the Kondaveeti
Vagu Catchment, as reported by CRDA.
Based on historical records, floods are
caused by the following reasons:
• An under-designed local drainage
network to convey the storm water
• The high water level in the Krishna
River preventing Kondaveeti Vagu
from discharging by gravity
There is an existing bund along the
Krishna River, which prevents fluvial
flooding in the Capital City area when
the water level in the Krishna River is
high. Based on satellite imagery, the
level of the existing bund was identified
at between 3 to 5 metres above
the highest recorded flood level in
Krishna River of +21.7m. The bund was
constructed using simple earthwork.
The current structural condition of the
bund is unknown.
The inundation of the low lying areas
within the Capital City development
area will usually last for 5 to 7 days
during each spell of heavy rain and this
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.6.4 Catchment and Indundation Area of Kondaveeti Vagu (CRDA, 2015)
Fig.6.6 Prevent: Reinforce and Realign Krishna River Bund
6.2.2 Proposed Flood
Management Strategies
to prevent flooding from the Krishna
River.
The land in the Capital City area
is mostly open space or rural with
agriculture land. With the urbanisation
of the catchment area, the surface
runoff volume and speed are expected
to increase tremendously. Flood risks
will rise if there is lack of proper storm
water management provided as part
of the development. To mitigate the
potential flooding issues and to build up
a sustainable storm water management
system, flood management strategies
are proposed as follows (refer to
Fig.6.5):
• Prevent: Reinforce and realign the
existing the Krishna River Bund
• Control: Detain storm water in
detention ponds within Capital
City and in external sites within the
catchment area
• Conserve: Create raw water storage
using reservoirs
• Buffer: Provide an extensive green
and blue drainage network
• Dispose: Discharge excess water into
the Krishna River
• Protect: Raising of the proposed
platform levels to above the design
flood level
The realignment of the Krishna
River Bund is proposed for the Seed
Development area where the initial
start-up phase will take place. This will
protect an additional land area between
the Krishna River and the seed area for
development.
6.2.3 Concept Proposals
Prevent: reinforce and realign
the existing Krishna River Bund
Fig.6.7 Control: Detain Stormwater in Internal Detention Ponds
The existing river bund along the
Krishna River is approximately 3 to 5m
above the highest recorded flood level
of the Krishna River. This bund should
be realigned closer to the river where
required, strengthened, and reinforced
It is recommended that after the
construction of the new bund, the
existing bund be removed to enable
the development of this area. (Refer to
Fig.6.6)
Control: Detain storm water
Detention ponds will be a key
component in the flood management
strategy for the Capital City. The ponds
can serve as temporary storage to
retain storm water runoff, and provide
enough buffer to prevent flooding.
Nine detention ponds have been
proposed within the Capital City to
mitigate flooding and improve the
storm water control. Detention ponds
are proposed at the low-lying areas,
the junctions of two different streams,
and at the new water bodies proposed
within the green and blue plan. The
location of the detention ponds are
determined based on the future land
use. Most of the ponds are sited within
the vicinity of green spaces to maximise
their use as green spaces (See Fig.6.7).
These detention ponds are to detain
storm water runoff during heavy
rainfall, and then discharge slowly into
the reservoirs for water conservation.
Prevent
Reinforce and Realign Existing Krishna
River Bund
Control
Detain storm water
Detain storm water
in detention ponds
in detention ponds
in external sites
within Capital City
within catchment
Conserve
Create raw water resource using
reservoirs
Buffer
Provide an extensive green and blue
drainage network
Dispose
Discharge excess water into Krishna
River
Protect
Raising of platform levels
Fig.6.5 Proposed Flood Management
Strategies
Control: Detain storm water
Externally
In addition to the internal detention
ponds within the Capital City, it is
recommended that two external
detention ponds be constructed
outside the Capital City boundary to
detain water upstream close to source.
This will help to reduce surface runoff
into the Capital City planning area. This
will also provide additional control
measures to retain water upstream
during heavy storm events.
83
The proposed locations of the two
detention ponds are shown in Fig.6.8.
84
The design and size of these ponds are
subject to a detailed hydraulic study of
the Kondaveeti Vagu after the master
planning stage. CRDA should prepare
to acquire the additional land outside
the boundary of the Capital City for the
construction of these external ponds.
Conserve: Create raw water
storage using Reservoirs
Fig.6.8 Control: Detain Stormwater in External Detention Ponds
Two reservoirs have been proposed
within the Capital City (see Fig.6.9).
Reservoir R1 is fed by storm water
from the south-eastern half of the
City through various detention ponds.
Reservoir R2 is located at a high level,
and is fed using pumps from Reservoir
R1, the Krishna River and the nearby
detention ponds within the Capital City.
The two reservoirs will augment water
supply to the Capital City by providing
raw water storage. The feasibility
study of Reservoir R2 is currently being
undertaken by the Water Resources
Department. The estimated storage
capacity of Reservoir R2 is 5 TMCs.
Fig.6.9 Indicative locations of Reservoirs 1 and 2
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
CRDA should carry out a water yield
study to determine the storage capacity
of Reservoir R1 after the completion of
the master plan.
Buffer: Provide an extensive
green and blue drainage
network
There is currently no proper delineated
green buffer within the existing land
of the Capital City. In terms of flood
management, a proper storm water
drainage network, including a flood
buffer, would be required to collect
and discharge the storm water runoff
efficiently. An extensive green and blue
drainage network has been proposed
in the Capital City. A minimum buffer of
30m is proposed to be reserved along
all the major canals. In the future,
there should be no development of
permanent structures within these
flood control reserves. Fig.6.10 shows
a typical cross-section utilised in the
green and blue network.
Dispose: Discharge excess water
into Krishna River
As a final measure of protection, it is
recommended that a comprehensive
system of sluice gates and pumps are
Fig.6.10 Typical Cross-section for Green and Blue Network
provided at the outfalls of the Capital
City boundary where the surface runoff
discharges into the Krishna River.
When the reservoirs are 100% full, the
sluice gates will be opened to discharge
the excess storm water into the Krishna
River. However, for extreme rainfall
events where water level in the Krishna
River is high, and excess storm water
cannot be discharged via gravity to the
river. The sluice gates will then be closed
to prevent backwater effects from the
Krishna River, and discharge pumps will
be activated to pump out the excess
storm water to the the Krishna River.
Protect: Raising of Platform
levels
It is recognised that the Capital City
requires extra protection from flooding,
for example, the CBD area, major
transport corridors, utility installations
such as water treatment plants,
electrical substations and others.
A minimum development platform
level should be set for the Capital
City to ensure that these areas are
not affected by flooding. This can be
done by setting the proposed platform
levels of the Capital City higher than
the historical flood level within the
site. A general top-up level is not
recommended for the entire site, and
a detailed hydraulic study is required
to identify the proposed platform
levels for the different areas within the
Capital City. As a rule of thumb, the
existing ground level should be topped
up to a level higher than the maximum
predicted flood level in each particular
zone.
Based on the topographical survey, as
shown in Fig.6.11, it is noted that the
ground level of the existing villages are
at +25m above mean sea level (AMSL).
In addition, it is understood that the
historical flood level of the Krishna
River is at around +21.7m AMSL.
Hence, the minimum platform level for
future developments within the Capital
City should be set at +25m AMSL or at
a level higher than the historical flood
level in the particular area, subject to
further detailed hydrological studies for
the Kondaveeti Vagu catchment.
6.2.4 Further Detailed
Studies Required
The following detailed studies should
be undertaken by CRDA before the
construction of the Capital City:
Detailed study of reinforcing
the Existing Krishna River Bund
The existing bund is made using simple
earthworks years ago to provide a
barrier preventing flash floods from
breaching the Krishna River bund. It
is necessary to partially re-design or
reinforce the existing bund to provide
a higher level of protection, taking into
consideration of the effect of climate
change which could lead to extreme
storm events in the future.
A detailed study of the existing bund,
its current condition, and its potential
level of protection is required. This will
identify further improvement works
required to upgrade the bund in the
sections not to be realigned. This
study may also include modern bund
reinforcement construction methods
and phasing of construction.
Detailed Hydraulic Study of
Kondaveeti Vagu
85
The planning for the flood management
system requires a detailed hydrological
study of the Kondaveeti Vagu
catchment, and also a detailed study
on the potential water yield from
this catchment. Due to the complex
variables involved in the detailed
planning of flood management, it is
recommended that the development
of flood management measures be
done in stages.
Feasibility Study of the Detention
Ponds in external sites
The proposed locations of the external
detention ponds have been advised by
the Local Authorities and are indicative
only. CRDA should commission further
studies for the site selection, catchment
size, size of detention ponds, etc.
Feasibility Study of the Detention
Ponds within the Capital City
The proposed locations of the internal
detention ponds shown are indicative
and are subject to further detailed
study. These detention ponds are
located within the green buffers.
However, the design and locations
may be revised and resized based on
detailed site conditions such as soil
type, topographical conditions and
existing land use.
Feasibility Study for Reservoir R1 and
Hydraulic Studies for both reservoirs
Two reservoirs have been proposed in
the master plan. A feasibility study of
the Reservoir R2 west of the Capital
Fig.6.11 2m DEM Contour image showing the low lying areas (CRDA, 2015)
City is currently being undertaken by
the Local Authorities. To supplement
this reservoir, an additional reservoir,
Reservoir R1 is proposed in this master
plan. CRDA should conduct a feasibility
study to confirm its location and
capability after the master planning
stage. In addition, hydraulic studies for
both Reservoirs R1 and R2 are essential
to ascertain the balance between water
supply and demand.
Fig.6.12 Photo of Existing Bund
6.3 WATER SUPPLY
86
6.3.1 EXISTING CONDITIONS
SOURCES OF RAW WATER
The current issue facing the Capital City
is the reliability of raw water source to
supply to the Capital City.
Currently, the water supply situation
in the vicinity of the Capital City site,
such as in Vijayawada and Guntur is
sufficient but will not be able to support
the future developments in the Capital
City.
There are two major conventional
sources of water which can be used for
the Capital City:• Krishna River; and
• Kondaveeti Vagu
The existing villages located within the
Capital City site are supplementing
their water supply by extracting ground
water. Groundwater extraction is
mainly used for irrigation and to meet
their daily domestic requirements.
This minor source of water is unreliable
as it depends on the water table, and as
such, is not recommended as a source
of raw water for the new Capital City.
Unconventional sources of water, for
example, treated effluent, are also
currently used within Vijayawada for
irrigation purposes.
6.3.2 WATER SUPPLY
STRATEGIES
A reliable water supply system is
imperative to support the future
developments in the Capital City. To
increase the attractiveness of the City,
the quality of the potable water supply
to the City should be of a high standard
which allows people to drink straight
from the tap.
The
following
strategies
are
recommended to ensure a long-term
and sustainable water supply to the
Capital City.
There are three overarching water
supply strategies which will guide the
development of this infrastructure in
the Capital City:• Reliable, Sufficient and Continuous
Water Supply
• Clean potable water for all
households
• Effective Demand Management
Reliable, Sufficient and
Continuous Water Supply
Conventional water sources such as
the Krishna River and the inter-basin
transfers and Kondaveeti Vagu are able
to provide sufficient supply of water for
the Capital City.
However, it was identified that without
proper storage facilities, the surplus
water that arrives during the monsoon
or rainy seasons would be wasted and
discharged into sea.
It is therefore critical for CRDA to
develop new storage reservoirs along
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Krishna River to support the long
term water demand of the Capital
City and put these in place before fully
developing the City.
Rainfall within the Kondaveeti Vagu
catchment could be captured to provide
a source of raw water. This can be done
by constructing reservoirs to store the
runoff.
While these reservoirs would need
to have sufficient capacity to store as
much of the rainfall as possible, the
rainfall may not be sufficient. In this
case, they could also be recharged by
drawing raw water from the Krishna
River and utilizing raw water from the
upstream Pulichintala Dam.
Active Beautiful and Clean Waters
features such as detention ponds can
also be introduced to retain water
and act as potential storage reservoirs
where suitable.
unwasted water, it is recommended that
the water supply network development
includes the use of good quality pipes,
proper construction, and monitoring
measures to detect leaks.
Clean potable water for all
households
Amaravati aspires to be one of the
most liveable Capital Cities in India. It is
important to set a high quality for water
supply where one can drink directly
from the tap. Hence, it is important to
improve the quality of the water supply
to the Capital City.
This can help in reducing the demand
on the water supply using less costly
efforts.
Effective Demand Management
CRDA needs to study the soft measures,
and provide an overall Water Demand
Management framework to identify
the cost-effective solutions that may
reduce water demand significantly with
minimal effort and cost.
Water demand may be managed by
introducing hardware measures such
In addition, commercial and industrial
entities may be provided with subsidies
to invest in water-saving fixtures and
solutions to alleviate pressure on water
demand.
Treated effluent would be more costly,
and therefore some demand control
may be required.
There is also opportunity to develop
rain-water harvesting systems in the
Capital City. However, this would be
carried out at the development level.
Conceptually, rain-water harvesting
systems would capture surface runoff
within each development, and these
would be used in each development
for non-potable uses, such as flushing
toilets and/or watering of plants.
In many cities, unaccounted-for water
losses may be up to 30% of the water
produced.
To increase potential water supply and
as water saving fixtures, pressure
management, losses / non-revenue
water reduction and soft measures
such as water tariffs/metering and
pricing design, education and behaviour
change programs.
Fig.6.13 Pulichintala Dam
6.3.3 POTENTIAL SOURCES
OF WATER
For the Capital City, there are 3 potential
sources of water supply identified:• Water from Krishna River, with
augmentation from Godavari River
• Surface Runoff from Kondaveeti
Vagu
• Water from Unconventional Sources,
such as reuse of treated wastewater
Water from Krishna River
As a major raw water source, the
Krishna River is shared among four
states. The State of Andhra Pradesh
is located at the lower reaches of the
River. The total water demand for all
four riparian states is about 4,200 TMC.
Approximately 2,060 TMC is available
from the Krishna River if 75%
dependability, or reliability, is assumed.
Table 6.1 shows the water balance
analysis for Krishna River and Prakasam
Barrage, as provided by CRDA officials
during site visits. The water balance
analysis indicates that there is sufficient
raw water supply to support the future
developments in the Capital City.
Supply from Krishna River to Prakasam
Barrage is approximately 111 TMC
annually. There is an on-going project
constructing an inter-basin canal
from the East Godavari District linking
Godavari River to the Krishna River
upstream of the Capital City.
This increases the potential water
supply to Prakasam Barrage to
approximately 191 TMC annually.
After deducting current irrigation
and drinking demands, there is an
estimated surplus of 35 TMC annually.
Description
Quantity
(TMC/yr)
Remarks
Krishna River
A
Total annual effective water available for allocation
2060.00
To be shared among four states
Pulichinthala Catchment
B
Allocation to Nagarjuna Sagar
Reservoir
C
Deduction from allocation
D
Effective Allocation from Upstream
60.00
E
Pulichinthala Reservoir’s catchment’s annual yield
101.00
F
Evaporation
(9.00)
G
Infiltration
(1.00)
H
Total Inflow to Pulichintala Reservoir
151.00
D+E+F+G
J
Allocation Transfer from Godavari River
(40.00)
Offset by Diversion from Godavari River, (L)
K
Supply to Prakasam Barrage from Pulichintala Catchment
111.00
This represents potential supply to Prakasam Barrage
80.00
Allocated for the Pulichinthala Catchment by Krishna
Water Council
(20.00)
Deduction due to water savings downstream of
Prakasam Barrage.
80.00
To be released downstream of Pulichinthala Dam
Godavari Lift Canal Project (projected completion in 2016)
L
Diversion from Godavari River
Prakasam Barrage (3-5 TMC storage)
M
Total Inflow to Prakasam Barrage
N
Wet Season Irrigation (aka 1st crop irrigation)
(136.00)
P
Drinking
(15.00)
Q
Estimated Surplus at Prakasam Barrage after completion
of Godavari Lift Canal Project
40.00
of raw water should be explored in the
detailed study for water supply to the
Capital City.
Storage facilities are required to store
the surplus from Godavari River.
Prakasam Barrage has a storage
capacity of 3 to 5 TMCs, and therefore
much of the unutilised surplus would
flow into the sea.
Current unconventional sources include
treated effluent (to be discussed in
Section 6.4) which can be used to
supplement water supply for nonpotable use.
In the near term, the increase in water
demand from the Seed Development
can be met by the raw water currently
available in the Krishna River.
Surface Runoff from
kondaveeti Vagu
Table 6.1 Water Balance Analysis for Krishna River and Prakasam Barrage
Ref
The projected surplus of 35 TMC/yr
from Godavari River will be released
upstream of Prakasam Barrage.
191.00
Currently 35 TMC/yr allocated to Andhra Pradesh
The second conventional source
of water for the Capital City is the
Kondaveeti Vagu.
As previously described in the Flood
Management
Strategies
section,
Kondaveeti Vagu catchment receives
approximately 3.8 TMC of surface
runoff every year, and these currently
discharge into Krishna River without
being utilised.
Upon urbanisation of the Capital City,
the surface runoff would increase, and
would be discharged to the sea if not
conserved or retained.
There is currently no infrastructure in
the Capital City to retain this surface
runoff.
Water from
Sources
Unconventional
In addition to the conventional sources
of water, the unconventional sources
In the future, treated effluent can
continue to be used in Vijayawada for
horticultural and agricultural purposes.
In the long run, by treating effluent
to higher standards, these treated
effluents can even be used by industry.
Dual reticulation systems may also be
implemented, and may encourage the
reuse of treated effluent. However,
a feasibility study would need to be
conducted to determine whether such
system is required, as dual-reticulation
system is costly to implement and there
is a risk of cross-connection which will
contaminate the potable water. If
there is sufficient water capacity from
conventional sources, dual reticulation
may not be necessary.
In the very long term, desalinisation
plants may be built along the coastline of
Andhra Pradesh as an alternative water
source to supplement the water supply
to the Capital City. While this scenario
is unlikely, this can be a contingency
plan to mitigate climate change effects
in case Andhra Pradesh faces drier and
longer monsoon seasons in the future.
87
6.3.4 WATER DEMAND
PROJECTION
88
By 2050, the Capital City would have
experienced rapid urbanisation and
population growth.
This will have a huge impact on the
future water demand. In this master
plan, the demand for base municipal
and industrial water usage have been
projected.
existing water supply and future
demand, and this will then allow the
future supply to be planned for.
These projections are preliminary, and
further demand studies are required
as the Capital City develops to ensure
that the supply of water demand can
be maintained.
MUNICIPAL WATER DEMAND
i.e. commercial and institutional land
uses, the water demand was calculated
based on gross floor area (GFA).
The water demand unit rates were
derived after benchmarking against
the various water supply planning
guidelines in India, Singapore, Malaysia
and South Africa. Table 6.2 shows the
water demand unit rates used for the
purposes of the Capital City study.
These projections are useful in
determining the gap between the
Water demand for residential land use
was estimated based on the population
projection by 2050. For other land uses,
Total municipal water demand in 2050
is estimated to be 864 MLD (0.03 TMC/
day) as shown in Table 6.3.
Table 6.2 Water Demand Rates used for
Municipal Water demand projections
Table 6.3 Projected Municipal Water
Demand for 2050
INDUSTRIAL WATER DEMAND
Type
Unit Rate
Unit
Land Use Type
Residential
Commercial
Institutional
150
6
2.5
lpcd
l/m2/d
l/m2/d
Residential
Commercial
Institutional
Total
Water Demand
(MLD)
676
163
25
864
There are 13 proposed industrial
clusters in the Capital City, four of which
are major industrial zones located in
the south of the Capital City. The other
zones are industrial pockets located
within residential townships. The water
demand was calculated based on the
proposed plot area with the unit rates
ranging from 15 to 140 m³/ha/day
depending on the type of industry.
Total industrial water demand in 2050
is estimated to be 203 MLD, including
177.5 MLD (0.0063 TMC/day) potable
water and 25.5 MLD (0.009 TMC/day)
recycled water. A summary of Industrial
water demand is shown in Table 6.4.
As summarised in Table 6.5, the total
water demand for 2050 is 1041.5 MLD
potable water (0.037 TMC/day) and
25.5 MLD non-potable water (0.009
TMC/day).
Table 6.4 Projected Industrial Water Demand for 2050
Land Use
Industrial
Water Demand (MLD)
Potable
Non- potable
Total
177.5
25.5
203
Table 6.5 Summary of Water Demand Projection
Land Use
Municipal
Industrial
Total
Water Demand (MLD)
Potable
Non- potable
Total
864.0
177.5
1041.5
0
25.5
25.5
864.0
203.0
1067.0
Table 6.6 Proposed Water Treatment Plant Capacity
Water Treatment
Service Zone
Water Source
Plant
WTP1
1
Krishna River
Capacity (MLD)
260
WTP2
2
R2
500
WTP3
3
R1
400
WTP4
4
Krishna River
70
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.6.14 Existing and Possible Barrage Locations (CRDA, 2015)
6.3.5 WATER SUPPLY
PROPOSALS
The key measures to support the overall
water supply strategies are:• Create storage reservoirs along
Krishna River to store raw water from
Krishna River and water diverted
from Godavari River
• Create storage reservoirs to collect
surface runoff and flood water from
Kondaveeti Vagu
• Implement rain water harvesting at
individual developments
• Reuse of treated wastewater for
non-potable use
Create Storage Reservoirs
along Krishna River
Additional storage facilities are required
to store raw water from Krishna River
and Godavari River.
Change of land use from agriculture
to other uses in the Capital City will
reduce the demand for irrigation water
and result in an increase of unutilised
raw water. This could also be stored,
hence, there is a need to create storage
reservoirs outside the Capital City
with sufficient capacity to store raw
water to supply to the proposed water
treatment plants to meet the long term
water demand.
Fig.6.14 shows the existing storage
reservoirs along Krishna River. There
are current plans to create an additional
storage upstream of the Capital City to
store water from the Godavari Water
Transfer and Pulichintala Dam.
Create Storage Reservoirs
Within the Capital City
One of the conventional sources of
water supply is storm water collected
within the Kondaveeti Vagu catchment.
Two reservoirs, R1 and R2 are proposed
within the Capital City to intercept
and store the rain water during the
monsoon season.
The total capacity of the proposed
reservoirs is estimated at 7 TMC. The
2 reservoirs should be linked and
integrated to balance and optimise
the total storage capacity. After the
completion of these two reservoirs,
the raw water supply for the Capital
City will be from both the Krishna River
and the new storage reservoirs (see
Fig.6.15).
89
Implement Rainwater
Harvesting at Individual
Developments
Rainwater harvesting presents an
opportunity to collect storm water for
non-potable uses as the Capital City
receives moderate annual rainfall of
1,000 mm per annum.
An approach that CRDA could take
is to make installations of rain water
harvesting systems compulsory for
large urban developments within the
Capital City.
Reuse of Treated Wastewater
for Non-potable Use
As 80% of the potable water consumed
will
become
wastewater,
the
wastewater from the Capital City can
be treated and reused for non-potable
use. The treatment technology depends
on the quality of waste water collected
and its intended end use. If the entire
Capital City is sewered in the future,
it could supply enough of non-potable
water for industrial use, thus reducing
the dependence on potable water.
The excess treated effluent could then
be stored and reused for irrigation
purposes, and depending on demand
and the quality of discharge, could be
recycled for industrial usage.
6.3.6 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
According to the demand projections,
the Capital City needs to generate
1,041.5MLD (0.037 TMC/day) or
Fig.6.15 Water Supply Resources for Capital City
380,148.5 ML (13.4 TMC) of potable
water per year by 2050. As a modern
and liveable city, the Capital City must
be served by a reliable and complete
water supply system. To provide a
complete water supply system, the
following water supply infrastructure
has been taken into consideration:
• Water Treatment Plants
• Water Distribution Centres
• Water Supply Network
Water Treatment Plants
There are currently no existing WTPs
within the Capital City area. The nearest
WTP is located at Vijayawada and this
plant is reaching its service limit.
To ensure the quality of potable water
and increase water accessibility, it is
necessary to construct new WTPs within
the Capital City. For water supply, the
entire City shall be divided into various
supply zones. Each zone shall be served
by one WTP and a corresponding water
supply distribution system.
The water treatment plants planned for
should have adequate redundancy to
cater to treatment contingencies while
the pipe networks are duly looped to
provide the supply feed contingencies.
The capacity for the WTPs shall be
based on the sum of water demand
projections in their service zone.
90
The locations shall be selected after
taking into consideration the following
aspects:
• Distance to the water source –
selected locations should be close
enough to the raw water source to
optimise transmission pipe length.
• Future land use plan – the treatment
plants may be located near greenery,
open spaces, and near future growth
areas that will consume large
amounts of water, for example, the
industrial clusters and high-density
residential townships.
As shown in Fig.6.16, the entire
Capital City has been divided into four
indicative supply zones, each served
by a WTP. The capacities of each WTP
are estimated based on the demand
projection of their supply zones.
WTP 1 and WTP 4 will take water from
the Krishna River. WTP 2 draws water
from Reservoir R2 and WTP 3 will draw
water from Reservoir R1. Table 6.5
summarises the service zone, water
source and capacity of each WTP.
Treated water shall be pumped from
the WTP to various water distribution
centres (WDC) within each supply zone.
Each WDC comprises of at least one
storage tank, pumping station, and also
several water towers. To achieve the
desired pressure to supply water by
gravity to the farthest point in its service
zone, each WDC should be located on
high ground. It is recommended that
the pressure in the distribution network
is maintained between 1.5 - 4 bars.
After the master planning stage, CRDA
should carry out a detailed feasibility
study to confirm the suitability of the
proposed WTP locations, their intake
channels, the supply capacities and
redundancy in plant capacity.
The study should also address the high
turbidity, and the quality of raw water
from Krishna River during the monsoon
period which could have an impact on
the WTP.
Water Distribution Centres
WDCs have been proposed to allow
temporary storage of treated water
from the WTP before the treated
water is distributed to individual
developments by gravity.
The WDCs may be designed to have
1-day storage capacity. However, this
should be studied further to determine
the optimal storage capacity required
based on international standards.
Up to three WDCs have been proposed
for each township. After the master
planning stage, CRDA will need to carry
out detailed feasibility studies for each
WDC to confirm the number and the
suitability of the locations and their
capacities.
Siting of the treated water tanks should
be on high ground where possible, for
flat terrain, the treated tanks will have
to elevated to regulate the treated
water supply during peaks of the day
using gravity flow.
The current proposals are to have
ground tanks to provide storage at
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.6.16 Indicative Water Supply Pipeline Network and Water Distribution Centres for the Capital City
each WDC, however direct pumping
to the water towers is also possible. A
detailed study should be carried out to
determine the most suitable system to
be implemented in the Capital City.
Water Supply Network
An extensive water supply network has
been proposed within the Capital City.
The alignments provided are indicative
only. The pipe networks should be tied
in with the road infrastructure plan
with sufficient alignments, and pipe
size should be laid to provide for future
growth and contingencies.
By providing a loop, or interconnected
pipeline system to connect each
service zone, the network can provide
redundancy during maintenance and
repair. The water pipeline corridors are
to be reserved along road side tables
and within green corridors.
Construction Phasing Plan
The construction process for the Capital
City has been divided into three phases:
• Phase 1: 2015-2025 (10-years)
• Phase 2: 2025-2035 (10-years)
• Phase 3: 2035-2050 (15-years)
In the first ten years of construction,
WTP 1 and its corresponding water
supply network should be ready to
supply 260MLD (0.0091 TMC/day)
of potable water (Refer to Fig.6.17).
The raw water source of WTP 1 is the
Krishna River. The raw water intake
structure of WTP1 shall be located
upstream of the discharge point of the
cooling water from the existing coalfired power plant. The supply network
will cover the Seed Development area
and the phase 1 planning Area.
the construction of water supply
network, the proposed inter-connection
between each zone may provide a
backup plan to supply sufficient water
to meet the daily demand.
6.3.7 CRITICAL ISSUES FOR
WATER SUPPLY
CRDA needs to address reliability of
water supply in terms of dependable
yield, reflecting the yield-storage
relationship (a function of catchment
area, long term records of rainfall data,
storage capacity and inflow to the
reservoirs). It is recommended that
a yield study be conducted to ensure
that the water supply to the Capital
City is adequate and continuous. The
water quality of the various sources,
particularly raw water from the rivers
must also be studied.
During the phase 2 construction period,
WTP 2 and its corresponding water
supply network should be built (refer to
Fig.6.18). The water source of WTP 2 is
from Reservoir R2. By the end of phase
2, 760 MLD (0.027 TMC/day) of potable
water will be supplied to the planning
area of phase 1 and phase 2 to meet
the daily demand.
From year 2035 to year 2050, WTP 3,
WTP 4 and their corresponding water
supply network should be built. WTP
3 is supplied by Reservoir R1 while
WTP 4 is supplied by the Krishna River.
After completion of these WTPs, the
total capacity of the Water Treatment
Plants is 1,230MLD (0.043 TMC/day),
which can cater for the projected water
demand of the entire Capital City.
Another key issue related to water
supply is the lack of storage facilities
for raw water from the Krishna River,
raw water diverted from the Godavari
River and runoff from Kondaveeti Vagu.
Even with the proposed Reservoirs R1
and R2 within the Capital City, there is
still a shortage of storage capacity for
raw water to ensure a constant supply
Each WTP is designed to have its own
supply service zone. However, during
Land Use Type
Residential
Commercial Retail
Phase 1
Water Supply (MLD)
Phase 2
Phase 3
181.8
12.0
333.2
12.0
560.3
125.6
Institutional
1.0
1.0
287.6
Industrial
58.0
116.0
203.0
Cummulative Total Demand
WTP to be Constructed
Cummulative Total Supply
252.7
WTP 1
260
462.1
WTP 2
500
1176.5
WTP 3+4
1230
Table 6.7 Water Supply Demand Projections
of raw water to the proposed water
treatments plants throughout the year.
This is because the augmentation of
water from Godavari River is seasonal,
and therefore cannot be considered a
reliable source, unless the supply can
be captured.
91
Hence, it is imperative for CRDA to
develop sufficient storage reservoirs
within or outside the Capital City to
store the raw water collected during
the monsoon season to supply to the
proposed water treatment plants
throughout the year.
To this end, a detailed feasibility study
of the proposed external storage
reservoirs, in addition to Reservoirs R1
and R2 and the proposed additional
barrage upstream of the Capital City
should be undertaken immediately
after the master planning stage to
determine the size, locations, pumping
of high volume over high heads and
other facilities to ensure a sustainable
and high quality of water supply to the
Capital City.
Fig.6.17 Phase 1 Water Distribution Network
Reuse of treated wastewater should
also be studied and considered as a
potential source of water as reliability
may be an issue.
Other than the annual raw water
supply figure allocated to AP provided
for conceptual planning, it is important
to conduct detailed study the supply
pattern to AP over the years to ensure
uninterrupted supply to the Capital City.
The detailed study should also cover
the contingency plans for a prolonged
drought situation which may occur.
Fig.6.18 Phase 2 Water Distribution Network
92
6.4 SEWERAGE
6.4.2 Waste Water Strategies
6.4.1 Existing Conditions
The
following
strategies
are
recommended to provide a sustainable
and an environmentally friendly
wastewater system to the Capital City:-
Demand (10 mg/l), Suspended Solids
(10 mg/l) and Chemical Oxygen Demand
(10 mg/l), can be re-used in nonpotable applications to supplement the
water supply, for example in industries,
agriculture or horticulture.
• Development of a Modern Sewerage
System covering 100% of the City
• Wastewater
Treatment
to
International Standards
By re-using treated sewage effluent,
the non-potable water demand for the
Capital City can be met without the
need for additional supply of raw water.
There is currently no formal
sewerage system within the Capital
City site. Traditional pit latrines are
predominantly used by the local
residents in the villages. A report by the
non-government organisation, Centre
for Science and Environment (CSE),
Delhi, based on surveys of wastewater
profiles of 71 Indian cities, highlights
the lack of infrastructure and neglect of
sewage with less than 30 percent of the
country’s officially recorded sewage
being treated in proper facilities. About
70-80 percent of India’s wastewater
ends up in its rivers and lakes.
A lack of modern sanitation can cause
contamination of water resources and
environmental degradation. Many
Indian cities suffer water scarcity
and pollution problems caused by
encroachments into lakes and water
bodies. Inequity of water and sewage
disposal infrastructure between rich
and poor areas is another phenomenon
in Indian cities, with high-income zones
having most of the available amenities.
To be a model city in India, it is essential
to develop a modern sewerage network
and treatment system for the proposed
Capital City.
The network should be developed to
protect the environment and to ensure
the quality of life in the City.
Development of a Modern
Sewerage System
A modern and comprehensive sewerage
network should be developed to serve
all the Capital City.
The coverage of the proposed sewerage
network should encompass 100% of
the Capital City. This sewerage network
should be a completely separate
system from the storm water drainage
network.
In the short term, pit latrines which are
being used at the existing villages within
the Capital City should be phased out
and replaced with septic tanks.
In the long term, a piped sewer
network connecting all households
within the villages can be developed
to connect the sewer network serving
the Capital City to convey wastewater
to the sewage treatment plants (STPs)
for treatment.
Wastewater Treatment to
International Standards
Sewage effluent, when treated to a
high discharge quality, e.g. discharge
effluent quality of Biological Oxygen
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
A combination of these two strategies
will ensure that sewage that is produced
within the Capital City can be treated
completely, and therefore would be
safe for discharge into the waterways
in the vicinity of the Capital City.
The key measures to support the overall
wastewater management strategies
are:• Separate Sewerage System
• Comprehensive Sewerage Network
• High Quality Treatment System
• Proper Disposal or Effective Reuse of
Recycled Water
6.4.3 Sewage Flow
Projection
A sewage flow projection has been
established to analyse the gap between
the existing conditions and future
demands by 2050.
This allows the sizing of the land to
be reserved for the future Sewage
Treatment Plants (STPs).
Municipal waste water
For the purposes of this study, the
sewage flow in 2050 is projected based
on the assumption that 80% of the
potable water consumed daily will be
collected as sewage. Sewage generated
by the residential areas within
industrial clusters is considered as part
of the municipal wastewater. The total
municipal sewage flow is projected at
702 MLD or 0.025 TMC/day (refer to
Table 6.8).
Industrial waste water
There are 13 proposed industrial
clusters in the Capital City. Each
cluster consists of a mix of residential,
commercial, heavy industry and light
industry. The total industrial waste
water flow in 2050 is estimated at 175
MLD or 0.006 TMC/day (refer to Table
6.9). It is recommended that for the
heavy industry clusters, a separate
collection system is developed.
6.4.4 Wastewater Proposals
Based on the demand projection, the
total capacity of the proposed STPs
should be 735.1 MLD or 0.026 TMC/day
by 2050 to meet the demand. It is vital
for CRDA to develop a comprehensive
sewerage network and sewage
treatment plants to process the waste
water from the Capital City.
Separate Sewerage System
To manage the wastewater generated
from the daily activities within the
Capital City, the Capital City is divided
into 5 sewerage catchments. Each
catchment would be served by an
STP (refer to Fig.6.19). In addition,
a dedicated industrial STP should
be provided to serve the southern
industrial clusters. The proposed STPs
Township
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T10
T11
T12
T13
T14
T15
T16
T17
Downtown
Railway
Riveredge
Total
Sewage Generated
(MLD)
38.7
30.4
11.3
34.9
55.8
21.0
25.9
25.2
47.9
68.0
27.2
43.2
22.5
27.9
42.0
26.2
75.0
23.2
24.9
30.9
702.3
Table 6.8 Projected Municipal Sewage
Generation (Million Litres per Day, MLD)
Township
Industrial Waste
Water (MLD)
Industrial
174.6
Table 6.9 Projected Industrial Sewage
Generation (Million Litres per Day, MLD)
are located at the low lying areas to
allow collection of sewage by gravity.
These should accessible by road
and should be located within close
proximity of water bodies for discharge
of the treated sewage effluent.
The land reserved for the STPs should
be sufficient to build the necessary
sewage treatment capacity. The STPs
can be built in phases using modules
and expanded where the need arises, so
that the initial capital expenditure can
be kept to the minimum. For example,
an initial 40MLD STP can be built in the
allocated site, and once a threshold is
met (i.e. operational 30MLD demand),
a second module can be constructed.
Comprehensive Sewerage
Network
A gravity sewerage system is
recommended for collecting the
sewage to reduce the need for
pumping. It should be designed with
minimum number of lifting stations
where possible, while maintaining selfcleansing velocities.
The alignment of the trunk sewers shall
follow the proposed utilities corridor
along the arterial road to provide access
for installation and maintenance. After
the master planning stage, CRDA should
carry out a detailed feasibility study
for the sewerage system to confirm
the suitability of the sewerage system,
proposed locations of the STPs, effluent
discharge locations and treatment
technology.
The dried sludge from the proposed
sewage treatment plant can be used as
fertiliser in the short term, however in
the long term, these can be transported
to the external Integrated Solid Waste
Management Facility (ISWMF) in the
future for disposal.
High Quality Treatment System
The sewage effluent in the STPs if
treated to meet stringent standards,
which can then be used to supply
directly to the industries for nonpotable use.
93
Discharge to the waterways and
detention ponds is also possible by
treating the sewage to a high discharge
quality. If the sewage effluent is treated
to the standards of BOD (10 mg/l),
COD (10 mg/l) and SS (10 mg/l), it can
be discharged to any waterways or
recycled for industrial use.
The municipal STPs will not only
receive domestic waste water from
the households, but also industrial
waste water generated from the small
industrial pockets located within the
residential townships.
The industrial waste water must be
pre-treated on-site before discharging
into the municipal sewerage network.
It is critical to periodically check the
quality of the pre-treated industrial
waste water before it flows into the
municipal sewerage network. This
will also improve the quality of the
treated effluent, and reduce the cost of
the treatment, as there would not be
requirement for additional processes
i.e. removal of heavy metals etc.
Proper Disposal or Effective
Reuse of Recycled Water
Some of the treated sewage effluent
generated from the individual STPs
could be stored at the STPs and supply
for non-potable use, such as irrigation
of the landscaped areas within the
Fig.6.19 Decentralised Wastewater Management System
Capital City. The treated sewage effluent
could be loaded on to water tankers
for irrigation during the dry season or
distributed to the landscape areas in
the parks or along the roadside through
a network of irrigation pipelines.
Storage will need to be provided for
the non-potable use, and the excess
may be discharged to the waterways
or to the detention ponds to mix with
the raw water as an additional source
of raw water for the proposed water
treatment plants.
6.4.5 Critical Issues
for Sewerage
The main issue related to wastewater
management is the lack of wastewater
collection and treatment facilities in
and around the Capital City to support
the future developments.
Hence, CRDA should conduct a detailed
feasibility study for the wastewater
management system immediately after
the master planning stage to ensure
that the facilities are in place to serve
the Seed Development and the entire
Capital City in the future.
6.5 SOLID WASTE
6.5.1 Existing Conditions
94
Current Waste Generation
Once the waste is consolidated into
skips, the secondary collection system
of using lorries to pick up the skips and
to transport them to the land fill sites
for dumping.
Rubbish is generally disposed of
by burning or is sent to the nearby
dumpsites. The closest facilities are
the landfill sites in Vijayawada and a
municipal dumpyard at Guntur. The
locations of these sites are shown in
Fig.6.20.
In some cases, the lorries would move
the MSW to another larger transfer
point prior to the dumpsites.
The Capital City site is largely a green
field site with some existing villages.
There is currently informal solid waste
collection or processing taking place.
Vijayawada and Guntur are the only
large Urban Local Bodies (ULB) in the
Capital Region with a population of
more than 500,000.
Currently 450 – 500 tons of Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW) are collected
daily in Vijayawada and disposed at
the Jakkampudi dump site. Around
300 tons of MSW are collected daily
in Guntur. This is disposed of at the
Naidupet dump site.
Current Waste Collection
The primary waste collection is carried
out by individual workers going door to
door, collecting waste onto hand carts
from each household before being
transferred to bin points (see Fig.6.21).
Fig.6.20 Existing Solid Waste Facilities near the Capital City
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
as plastics, bottles and metals. The
remaining waste is then disposed into
skips.
These bin points are dirty, odorous
and unhygienic. At these locations,
manual sorting takes place, often in
the road way, to remove the recyclable
and higher value waste items such
Current Waste Treatment
The dumping sites at Vijayawada
are nearing capacity with the site at
Jakkampudi being scheduled to close
by the end of 2015. These sites cannot
be relied upon to accept the solid waste
from the Capital City (see Fig.6.22).
There are negotiations taking place
currently to use a site at Ibrahim
Patnam to take over from Jakkampudi.
The dump site used by Guntur is at
Naidupet. This site is approximately 30
hectares and has an expected lifespan
of another 20-25 years.
The operations and maintenance of
the existing dump sites are poor, posing
environmental health and nuisance to
workers and nearby residential areas.
Future Developments
The current waste management
system needs modernisation and
reorganisation if it is to effectively serve
the new Capital City.
The existing dump site at Naidupet has
been identified as a possible location
for a new solid waste facility. At this
location, there is sufficient space to
expand the dumping area and/or to
construct new solid waste management
facilities.
Fig.6.21 Door to Door Collection in Vijayawada
TOWARDS ZERO WASTE
The most fundamental approach to
managing solid waste is to not produce
it in the first place.
6.5.2 Solid waste
management Strategies
By reducing the production at source, it
is possible to control solid waste without
the need for increased infrastructure or
processing.
To make the new Capital City an
attractive and liveable city, a solid
waste management system which is
convenient, reliable and consistent in
service must be put in place.
An example of reducing waste is the
reduction of use of packaging when
selling goods.
To provide sufficient capacity for
disposal for the Capital City, it is
important to develop long and short
term plans for Vijayawada and Guntur.
Meeting the needs of these cities will
lay the foundations for building up the
required capacity and facilities for the
Capital City in the future.
This will also, in turn, encompass the
infrastructure plans for the entire
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region
including Amaravati, the Capital City
Seed Development and other smaller
ULBs and villages.
Fig.6.22 Existing Solid Waste to Energy (WTE) Plant in Ajithsingh Nagar, Vijayawada
There are three overarching strategies
which will guide the development of
solid waste management in the Capital
City:• Towards Zero Waste
• Solid Waste as a Resource
• Recover energy from Waste
These types of initiatives have often
been championed by NGOs.
SOLID WASTE AS A RESOURCE
From the environmental point of
view, solid waste does not have to be
considered an environmental problem
- it can also be considered as a potential
resource.
By managing waste correctly from the
point of the production all the way to
disposal, several types of resources can
be recovered from the waste:
• Recyclable waste, such as plastics,
metals and organic waste;
• Combustible waste for energy
production; and
• Organic matter for composting.
RECOVER ENERGY FROM WASTE
Energy recovery from waste is a
concept of converting non-recyclable
waste material into heat, electricity, or
fuel.
This can be accomplished by the use
of Waste to Energy (WTE) Plant. This
is most commonly done in the form
of an incinerator that can burn solid
waste and use this energy to produce
electricity.
The following long term proposals will
seek to address the requirements of the
Capital City when it is fully developed:• Rehabilitation of Current Collection
Systems
• Treatment of Waste at Integrated
Solid Waste Management Facilities
(ISWMF)
• Special Solid Waste Management
• Inculcate
Responsible
Public
Behaviour on Waste
• Encourage Use of Technology
• Regulation,
Legislation
and
Enforcement
• Flexibility in a Robust Plan
95
6.5.3 Solid Waste
Projections
96
Solid waste generation will increase
significantly as a result of the projected
population and economic growth in
the Capital City. Solid waste generated
from for the Capital City is projected up
to 2050 in this study.
These projections are based on the
national average. The following
projections are to be used as a
starting point for estimating solid
waste generation, and are subject
to further detailed studies regarding
the waste volume and characteristics
representative of local waste.
Municipal Waste
The current municipal solid waste
generation rate is estimated at 0.5 kg/
capita/day1. It is assumed that with the
population and economy grow in the
Capital City, the solid waste generation
rate in the future will increase.
According to the ‘Sustainable Solid
Waste Management in India’ study by
Columbia University in 2012, the waste
generation rate is expected to increase
linearly over time.
Based on this assumption, the waste
generation rate is estimated at 0.813
kg/capita/day by 2050 (Refer to Table
6.10).
1 Source: Position Paper on the Solid Waste
Managemetn Sector in India, Department of
Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, 2009
The projected municipal waste
generation in 2050 is calculated based
on this rate together with the projected
population for the various proposed
townships in the Capital City, and is
summarised in Table 6.11.
In total, the estimated waste generated
from the entire Capital City is 3,662
tonnes per day.
Industrial Waste
Based on the land use distribution and
the type of industries, the industrial
solid waste generation has been
worked out as shown in Table 6.12.
The solid waste generation rate varies
from 150 to 210 kg/ha/day for different
types of industry.
The ultimate solid waste generation for
the industrial development has been
worked out to be an average of 796
tonnes per day.
Township
Solid Waste
(tons/day)
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
T9
T10
T11
T12
T13
T14
T15
T16
T17
194
180
46
214
255
130
147
150
259
398
157
168
109
121
206
132
412
Downtown
Railway
Riveredge
Total
138
98
148
3662
Table 6.11 Projected Municipal Solid
Waste Generation for Yr 2050 (tons/day)
Year
Waste
Generation Rate
(kg/Capita/day)
LAND USE
Waste
Generation
Rate (tons/day)
2001
0.439
2011
0.498
BUSINESS PARK
86
2021
0.569
2031
0.693
LIGHT INDUSTRIAL
ZONE
676
2036
0.693
LOGISTICS ZONE
34
2041
0.741
TOTAL
796
2050
0.813
Table 6.10 Projected Waste Generation
Rate (kg per capita per day)
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Table 6.12 Projected Industrial Solid
Waste Generation for Yr 2050 (tons/day)
6.5.4 Proposed Short
Term Solid Waste
Management System
The development of the new Capital
City will take place over many
years before the Capital City is fully
developed. Therefore, both short term
and long term proposals must be put
in place to take care of the solid waste
generated from the Capital City.
The short term strategy is to solve the
current solid waste problems being
faced by Vijayawada and Guntur which
in turn will take care of the solid waste
from the initial phases of development
in the Capital City.
In the short term, it is recommended
that the operation and maintenance
of the existing dump site at Naidupet
be improved to receive the solid waste
from the Capital City, Vijayawada and
Guntur, as well as the smaller nearby
ULBs in the vicinity.
A sanitary landfill must also be
developed at the existing dump
site at Naidupet. Hence, there is a
need to improve the operations and
maintenance of Naidupet dump site
and upgrade it to a sanitary landfill.
CRDA will need to conduct a detailed
feasibility study on the short term
improvement to the solid waste
management system to serve the
Capital City.
These short-term strategies will lead on
to the development of the long-term
strategies, for example, the sanitary
landfill can also be further developed
as one of the facilities in the Integrated
Solid Waste Management Facility
(ISWMF).
6.5.5 Proposed long
term Solid Waste
Management System
The following proposals have been
formulated to achieve the long-term
strategies:• Rehabilitation of Current Collection
Systems
• Treatment of Waste at Integrated
Solid Waste Management Facilities
(ISWMF)
• Special Solid Waste Management
• Inculcate
Responsible
Public
Behaviour on Waste
• Encourage Use of Technology
• Regulation,
Legislation
and
Enforcement
• Flexibility in a Robust Plan
Rehabilitation of Current
Collection Systems
The current system employed for the
collection of waste is not efficient. The
two principal short-comings are the
environmental damage caused by the
inadequate consolidation facilities and
the extraction of combustible items in
the solid waste itself before reaching
the dumping site. Unless these issues
are addressed, it will not be possible
to support a modern solid waste
processing system. The collection
system is the critical link that supports
the rest of the waste management
chain.
The current system of using hand carts
should be modernised and motorised.
The area an individual collector is able
to cover by foot is relatively small and
so this leads to the requirement of
many bin points in residential areas.
These facilities are currently unsightly
and pose an environmental threat to
the public. By increasing the coverage
area of primary collection using
motorised carts, the number of these
bin points can be reduced. As these bin
points are being consolidated, the bin
points can be modernised to include
sorting facility and a compactor. Based
on current estimates, 15-20 bin points
can be merged into one bin centre.
The sorting of the rubbish at these
centres should take place in a dedicated
building that can allow mechanised
bulk-handling and compaction. These
new facilities will help to ensure that
a dependable and consistent supply
of solid waste is transported to the
designated dump site.
As the livelihood of the waste collectors
are dependent on the existing solid
waste management system, it is
important that these people are taken
care of during the consolidation of the
bin points. To ensure that livelihoods
are not lost, the consolidation centres
should be formed by cooperatives made
up of the existing waste collectors.
This way, the lives of the people involved
in the collection chain can be improved
as they will no longer be exposed to
potentially harmful materials whilst
still providing an income through the
recyclables collected and sorted at the
consolidation centres.
With a stream-lined, closed collection
system in place, it will be possible
to support more sophisticated and
environmentally friendly forms of solid
waste treatment (see Fig.6.23).
For the new Capital City, a modern
waste collection system must be put
in place to increase the attractiveness
of the Capital City. Door-to-door
collection systems can be implemented
for landed properties where residents
dispose the rubbish into bins located
outside the properties along the roads.
Rubbish trucks would go from house to
house to empty the bins on a regular
basis. For high-rise residential buildings,
individual refuse chutes or centralised
refuse chutes should be provided for
residents to dispose rubbish.
Rubbish would be collected at collection
bins located at the ground floor. These
bins would be emptied to a motorised
vehicle. The motorised cart or truck
would then transfer the waste to a bin
centre for collection by larger rubbish
trucks.
Alternatively, compactors can be
provided at the bottom of centralised
refuse chutes for direct collection by
rubbish trucks without the need of a
bin centre as a transfer station.
For high-income group (HIG) housing,
modern collection technologies such
as pneumatic waste collection systems
may be considered. The implementation
of the various modern waste collection
systems can be done through a set of
building development guidelines.
As the system of collection is being
modernised, the existing dump site
should be upgraded to become a
sanitary landfill. A sanitary landfill has
formal processes in place to isolate the
waste away from the environment and
to handle and compact the waste.
Fig.6.23 Closed Waste Sorting (Missouri Department of Natural Resources, 2015)
This can help to maximise the lifespan
of the facilities and to help mitigate
environmental damage such as
leachate escaping from the site.
TREATMENT OF WASTE AT
INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT FACILITY (ISWMF)
Integrated Solid Waste Management
is a comprehensive waste prevention,
collection, recycling, composting, and
disposal programme.
The major ISWM activities are waste
prevention, recycling and composting,
and combustion and as well as disposal
in properly designed, constructed, and
managed landfills.
While the collection of waste can be
carried out externally, the segregation
of waste from recyclables to compost
and even to combustible waste can be
carried out at the integrated facility.
Recycling and composting facilities can
be co-located with the segregation
facility so that waste can be dealt with
in the same compound.
After these processes, the remaining
waste that can be converted to energy
at a Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant, and
the by-products of the WTE (mostly
ash) can then be transported to an
engineered landfill nearby.
The following is a list of typical
facilities in an Integrated Solid Waste
Management Facility:• Sorting/Material Recovery Plant
• Anaerobic Digestion (AD)/Compost
Plant
• WTE (Waste-To-Energy) Plant
• Engineered Landfill
• Bio-medical Waste Incinerator
• Construction & Demolition (C&D)
Waste Recycling Plant
• Other waste recycling plants and
facilities
There are current plans to develop an
ISWMF at an existing landfill site in
Naidupet, near Guntur, to treat waste
from Guntur Municipal Corporation.
The existing open dumping ground at
Naidupet has not reached its capacity
and is a relatively large site of 30
hectares. The comparatively short
distance to this site from the Capital
City means that in the early stages of
the development, the existing dump
site is suitable to serve the Capital City,
particularly the seed development.
The size of the site means efforts can
be made to modernise the processing
whilst the dumping operations
continue. This modernisation of solid
waste management system can be
carried out through the concept of
integrated solid waste management.
To kickstart the development of the
Integrated Solid Waste Management
Facility in Naidupet, it is recommended
that a WTE plant be constructed.
97
98
From site observations, there is
sufficient volume of MSW collected
from Vijayawada and Guntur, which
can provide enough waste material
for a WTE plant. In addition, the
characteristics of the existing MSW
may also be suitable for incineration
at WTE plants. Further detailed studies
such as waste characteristic studies
would be needed to verify these before
proceeding with the WTE plant in
Naidupet.
This will help to reduce the volume of
waste being dumped at the ISWMF and
further extend the lifespan of this site.
This energy production would also help
to offset energy demands.
Fig.6.24 shows the possible routes for
solid waste transfer from the Capital
City to the IWSMF in Naidupet Guntur.
There are several thermal and non
thermal technologies available for
converting the solid waste to energy.
The most common and widely used
is incineration. This can reduce the
volume of waste by up to 90% leaving
only incinerator bottom ash which in
turn can either be dumped or recycled.
Technologies such as gasification
require very specialised machinery
and personnel that can be difficult to
maintain whilst giving only marginal
benefits. Therefore, a well established
technology such as incineration will be
more likely to succeed.
When constructed, the WTE Plant could
take in total 800 tons of material per day.
Whilst this will meet the requirements
of Vijayawada and Guntur it will not
meet the requirements of the Capital
City. Therefore the design of the plant
must be modular to allow for future
expansion.
To construct a facility such as a WTE
plant, large scale investment must be
made. These funds may not be readily
available as all the capital investment
must be made upfront.
Therefore, an option for the
Government is to partner with a
private entity through a Public Private
Partnership (PPP) programme to
develop the WTE plant. This could be
in the form of licensing to operate or
through a build-operate and transfer
arrangement.
In order to attract private investment
there must be several key elements in
place:Premium Tariffs
The generation of clean energy should
attract a premium over conventional
forms. This can be in the form of a
higher tariff rate paid per million
unit of generation. This premium can
encourage alternative generation and
by association cleaner solid waste
disposal methods.
Ownership of waste
The operator of the WTE plant must be
guaranteed a constant supply of solid
waste with specific characteristics.
Problems have been encountered in
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.6.24 Indicative Solid Waste Transfer Stations and the Solid Waste Transfer Direction
other sites where the rubbish is too
wet or does not have sufficiently high
calorific value. In such cases the plant
would become financially non-viable.
To avoid this, a closed supply chain of
rubbish should be implement, whereby
there is ownership of the rubbish once
it is in the collection chain.
If the disposal company has full control
of their supply chain then they are in a
strong position to guarantee a constant
supply.
To this end, the proposed consolidation
centres with compactor can be
constructed by the owner of the WTE
plant so that the waste collected at the
consolidation centres are owned by the
WTE plant.
Tipping Levies
To help make the plant financially viable
CRDA should allow the operator to levy
a tipping fee if required. Not charging
for tipping would maximise the amount
of waste received at the plant but this
might not be attractive to a prospective
investor. Therefore allowance for fees
should be made to allow for a levy if
desired.
Special Solid Waste
Management
As part of development of the
solid waste management system,
it is important that the solid waste
management providers are engaged
to identify systems to manage special
waste.
Some of the special waste that would
be required to be treated within the
Capital City are hazardous waste,
clinical waste and heavy industrial
waste.
In regards to the clinical waste, the
World Health Organisation (WHO) has
published Guidance for Healthcare
Waste Management, which are to be
adhered to in order to achieve safe and
sustainable management of healthcare waste.
Typically these wastes would be
contained, transported and disposed
off-site by a specialist waste
management service.
Similarly, industrial hazardous waste
varies from industry to industry. In this
situation, a separate regime would be
required for the collection, treatment
and disposal of waste from different
industries.
This poses a difficult challenge for
the municipal waste management
systems. Similar to the clinical waste,
it is recommended that specialists
are engaged for these services. The
providers for these specialised wastes
are typically from the private sector.
As such, it is important to engage these
providers when developing the Capital
City waste management strategy.
Inculcate Responsible
Behaviour on Waste
Public
Public participation is crucial to achieve
the vision of “Towards Zero Waste”.
To address this, a scheme can be
introduced for households and
waste collection workers where
the households would segregate
recyclables at source and the profits
from sale of recyclables be passed on
to the waste collection workers.
The scheme will improve the
productivity of the workers as they
can now focus on their primary job of
collecting MSW, instead of spending
time to pick out recyclables from MSW.
Encourage Use of Technology
The technological level of waste
collection in India is still at the early
stages of development. This provides
an opportunity for the Capital
City to implement modern and
smart technologies for solid waste
management.
For example, pneumatic waste
conveyance systems for waste
collection at household level have
been implemented successfully in
Singapore and Japan. Automated waste
sorting machines using autoclaves or
mechanical sorting can be introduced
in the Integrated Solid Waste
Management Facilities.
Regulation, Legislation and
Enforcement
One of the potential key issues with
waste collection in the Capital City is
legislative framework and regulations
must be in place to support the waste
industry.
Regulations and legislations for
the solid waste management can
be implemented at the industrial
and commercial level, for example
by mandating recycling for certain
industries such as packaging, etc.
At the commercial and industrial level,
audits and incentives may be provided
by a regulatory body to ensure that
proper waste management is achieved
by commercial and industrial entities.
Regulations can also be provided at
collection level. The phasing out of
bin points may deny waste collection
workers the earnings they make from
picking out recyclables from the MSW
collected from households.
Regulatory measures can also be
introduced at household level by
implementing waste collection fees.
By adding cost to disposing rubbish,
consumers may become more savvy
and recycle more where possible.
The Capital City Waste Management
Strategy will be required to provide
guidance on how to engage the
stakeholders, for example through
Public Education Campaigns, using
consistent marketing (see Fig.6.26),
working with businesses and residents,
solid waste management service
providers, and incentive policies.
By adjusting the fees for recycling and
general waste, the waste quality can
also be partially controlled, for example
collection fees can be set lower for
waste which has been pre-segregated
at household level, compared to
un-segregated waste. Reduction in
waste collection fees may be given
to households with good records of
recycling.
Suitable enforcement would be required
to ensure that these legislations and
regulations are followed.
Fig.6.25 Hazardous Waste Symbols (Todd Waste Management, UK ,2015)
Fig.6.26 Recycling Bins along Orchard Road, Singapore
99
Flexibility in a Robust Plan
100
Ultimately, the infrastructure provisions
within the Capital City will depend on
the proposed Solid Waste Management
framework that will be implemented.
While the Integrated Solid Waste
Management Facilities would be
located outside the Capital City,
technological, social and legislative
advances in the next 35 years would
guide the development of the
collection, segregation and treatment
of waste in the Capital City.
As such, it is of utmost importance
that a robust approach is adapted to
ensure solid waste infrastructure can
be provided within the City, whatever
the form may be.
Therefore, space has been reserved at
the Capital City Master Plan to ensure
that infrastructure such as transfer
stations, bin centres, sorting centres
or even pneumatic waste collection
systems can be provided if required.
6.5.6 Critical Issues for Solid
Waste Management
The main issue related to solid
waste management is the lack of a
comprehensive primary and secondary
collection system and disposal and
treatment facilities for the solid waste
generated from the Capital City.
Although the solid waste generated
from the Seed Development can be
collected and disposed directly at
the Naidupet dumping ground, CRDA
should look into long term solutions to
manage all the solid waste generated
from the Capital City.
The proposed Integrated Solid Waste
Management Facility at Naidupet is a
medium to long-term solution for solid
waste management and it requires
heavy investment from either the
government or from the private sector.
To ensure the financial viability of
the ISWMF, and also facilities such
as WTE, it is important that there is a
critical mass and constant supply of
solid waste to the WTE daily so that
sufficient waste can be incinerated to
generate electricity.
As the WTE requires a constant supply
of appropriate solid waste to ensure its
viability, new collection systems would
be required to complement the WTE
plant requirements.
Hence, it is critical for CRDA to conduct
detailed feasibility study of a complete
solid waste management system to
serve the Capital City after the master
planning stage using the framework for
an Integrated Solid Waste Management
Master Plan for Andhra Pradesh.
Fig.6.27 Modern Solid Waste Management Recovery and Transfer Centre, Tacoma, US.
This is particularly important in the
case of developing the ISWM Centre
and WTE Plant as these will require a
considerable investment of resources
both in terms of time and money.
It is recommended that CRDA studies
the viability of constructing a WTE plant
through a PPP programme to serve the
Capital City.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.6.28 Pneumatic Waste Collection System in Singapore, (HDB 2015)
6.6 POWER SUPPLY
6.6.1 Existing Conditions
The nearest power plant is the
Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant
(VTPP), which is located just outside the
northern boundary of the Capital City
on the northern bank of the Krishna
River. This power plant is coal–fired.
There is an allocation of 1,000 MW and
planned 800 MW from the upgrading
of the Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant
to supply to the Capital City. However,
this supply to the Capital City must
be guaranteed for the entire Master
Plan to be realised. Even with this
committed supply, it is still not sufficient
to meet the long-term demand of
the Capital City. There needs to be a
detailed development strategy in place
to ensure that the Capital City power
demands are met.
The Capital City area is well located
to connect to the national power grid
of India. There are currently several
transmission lines running through the
development area. The power lines
currently link the Vijayawada Thermal
Power Plant to a primary electrical
substation which distributes power to
the existing towns and villages within
the Capital City area and the south of
the Capital City, including Thullur.
Fig.6.29 shows the existing alignments
of the overhead power lines running
through the development site.
The age of the transmission and
generation equipment in the region
is currently not known. This will be
a factor in the investment program
for the region, therefore this should
be established as part of the detailed
study to be conducted after the master
planning stage.
101
6.6.2 POWER SUPPLY
REQUIREMENTS
There is a hierarchy of importance in any
power supply strategy where different
aspects of power supply should be
addressed in order. If a prior issue is not
addressed, then the subsequent work
would be compromised.
The
following
strategies
are
recommended to ensure long term and
sustainable power supply to the Capital
City:• Availability of Supply
• Adequacy of Supply
• Reliability of Supply
• Quality of Supply; and
• Efficiency of Supply
Availability of Supply
For any modern city, it is vital that all
parts of the Capital City have access to
electricity.
To ensure that people and investment
are attracted to the Capital City, it is
imperative to provide a reliable source
of power supply to support the modern
lifestyle, employment centres and the
industries.
If power cannot be accessed, then
generation becomes a secondary
issue. It is therefore essential in the
plan that space is reserved for power
Fig.6.29 Existing Locations of Overhead Power Lines in Capital City Boundary
infrastructure to extend in appropriate
sizes across the entire Capital City.
Adequacy of Supply
Once the issue of extending the supply
to all households and industry is
resolved, then the issue of adequacy
of the supply being received should be
addressed.
In order to attract a wider range of
industry, higher electricity loads will
need to be supported. How this is
supplied is also important - if there is
spare capacity available to a developer
in a short space of time, then the
location of the site will be much more
attractive than if a developer has to
wait for months or years before the
supply is provided.
Therefore, a buffer in the supply of
electricity should be planned for to
attract investment to the Capital City.
Reliability of Supply
Another important aspect to be
addressed is the reliability of supply. If
the supply is not constant, not only will
the population in the Capital City be
dissatisfied, commercial and industrial
investors would also be discouraged.
Factory production would be disrupted
by interruptions in power supply.
Therefore, investors will be looking for
assurance that a steady power supply
can be guaranteed.
Quality of Supply
102
Many high tech industries require
a high quality supply. The quality of
supply is measured in variations in
voltage. Small voltage drops might not
have a large effect on household supply
but can damage industrial equipment.
Therefore, in order to attract hightech industries to invest in the Capital
City, the quality of the supply must be
addressed.
Efficiency of Supply
Transmission is not the only aspect to
making power commercially attractive
and socially amenable. Cost is a critical
factor. Whilst this is not under the direct
control of the CDRA, schemes such as
off peak tariffs should be supported.
Efficiency in terms of generation
should not just cover fiscal cost but
should also consider environmental
cost. Cleaner technologies can avoid
later environmental and social costs
for electricity generation. To stimulate
these cleaner technologies preferential
generation tariffs should be considered.
Based on the above strategies, the
following proposals are recommended
for the Capital City:• Reliable Power Generation
• Development of Renewable Energy
• Secure and Stable Power Supply
Network
• Investment in High Quality System
• Demand Management and Public
Education
Table 6.13 Power Supply Demand Factors
Demand Factor
(kW/unit)
(w/m2 GFA)
Land Use Type
Commercial Retail
Business Park/office
Residential (terrace house, apartment)
Residential (Semi detached)
Residential (Detached)
Community Facility
Education Facility
Table 6.14 Power Supply Demand Projections
Land Use Type
Residential
Commercial Retail
50
40
4
6
6
5
10
Phase 1
Power Demand (MW)
Phase 2
Phase 3
282.0
352.0
513.4
449.1
1439.1
837.3
Business Park/ office
28.3
56.6
169.7
Community Facility
113.5
227.0
681.1
Education Facility
23.8
47.7
143.1
Industrial
298.8
597.5
1792.6
Communal Facilities
134.9
327.6
467.6
Total
1233.3
2218.9
5530.6
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
6.6.3 Power Supply
Projections
demand for industrial land use is
estimated to be 1,792.6MW.
Power demand is expected to increase
as a result of rapid urbanisation and
population growth. Demand projections
for municipal use industrial use have
been established and described in the
following sections.
6.6.4 Power Supply
Proposals
Municipal Power Demand
Municipal power demand has been
established based on demand factor,
dwelling unit numbers, land use areas
and Gross Floor Area (GFA) of the
proposed developments. As not all the
electrical equipment are drawing a load
at the same time, a diversity factor is
also taken into consideration.
Demand factors for power demand
are listed in Table 6.13. The demand
factors have been defined based on the
typical demand of developed countries
by different landuse. By doing so, the
estimates are conservative. These
demand factors may be reviewed in
the detailed study and revised where
applicable. In addition, communal
facilities power demand such as street
lighting, has been assumed to be 1,200
kW/km2.
The projected municipal power demand
for the Capital City is summarised in
Table 6.14.
Industrial Power Demand
It is recommended that the industrial
power supply is expanded using
modules. Unit power demand rate
varies in the range of 60 to 500 kVA/
ha/FSI (Floor Space Index). The power
The following gives an overview on
how each of the requirements for
power supply are being addressed in
the master plan. Whilst these are not
exhaustive, they detail the reservations
that have been made in the land use
plan.
Reliable Power Generation
In the short term generation will be met
by the Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant
(VTPP) located close to the Capital City.
Existing power lines running through
the site mean that obtaining connection
to source is relatively straight forward.
Within the plan, allowance has been
made for the city to connect to the
national grid. This will allow electricity
supply from other parts of India to
be transmitted to the Capital City and
will reduce the reliance on having
generation close to the urban area.
Development of Renewable
Energy
While a shortfall of power is not
expected in the short term, the demand
of power supply will increase drastically
when the City further develops.
Development of renewable energy
sources can be considered to
supplement the conventional power
supply to the Capital City.
This can be done by encouraging the
development of renewable energy
sources such as solar, biomass, and
waste to energy facilities within
the Capital City via policies and
development guidelines.
In addition, by implementing modern
grid technologies such as bidirectional
meters, the Capital City may also sell
excess energy produced from the
renewable energy sources i.e. solar
panels back to the grid as an additional
source of supply, therefore reducing
supply demand from the national
power grid.
Secure and Stable Power Supply
Network
The road cross section has provision
for underground power cables in the
service corridors. During the early
stages of development, ducting can
be laid to allow the utility company to
pull the cables later to serve the future
development.
Along the major roads provision
has been reserved allowing for
larger ducting to be laid. Along the
expressways there is a larger reserve to
allow for cheaper forms of transmission
if required.
It is recommended that the power
supply within the Capital City should be
through an underground transmission
and distribution network.
By doing so, the power lines within
the Capital City are less susceptible to
outages during extreme events such as
cyclones and high-wind thunderstorms.
In addition, the requirements for
maintenance of these underground
cables are reduced due to the
underground protection. An additional
benefit is in aesthetics - there would
not be any unsightly overhead power
lines running through the City.
In the lifetime of any electricity
transmission network, there will be
equipment issues even with regular
maintenance. Therefore a minimum of
single redundancy should be built into
the power supply system.
This way, spare equipment can kick in
seamlessly without any interruption to
supply. To this end, sufficient land has
been reserved to house the necessary
equipment for distribution in the land
use plan .
Another consideration could be the
use of a mesh network for distribution
rather than a radial system.
The power is transmitted at higher
voltages direct into the city centre
requiring less distribution cabling.
However this requires that an electrical
substation of considerable size to be
built in the down town area.
These should be considered in the
detailed design study of the power
supply network after the planning
stage.
Investment in High Quality
System
To improve the quality of the power
supply, high quality equipment should
be installed at the outset.
The cost of replacing this equipment at
a later date will offset any short-term
savings that are made.
103
Fig.6.30 shows the conceptual plan
of transmission line alignments
serving the Capital City. The existing
transmission lines running through the
Capital City are to be diverted to the
periphery of the Capital City. These
lines will connect to substations in the
perimeter, which will then distribute
power to the smaller substations
located strategically within the Capital
City via the new underground power
network.
A 220/132 kV Substation is proposed
in the City Core to serve the interim
developments. Upfront investment
for the electrical systems is required
to ensure that the systems and
technologies introduced would remain
relevant during the initial development
of the City.
It is noted that additional substations
should be identified if a mesh network is
to be employed as these would need to
be located in the city core. In addition,
a mesh network would introduce more
redundancies, therefore would ensure
a more stable and reliable network.
However this system would cost more
in the long run if initial investment is
minimal.
To this end, the interim phase of
diversion of the transmission lines
should tie into the supply of the initial
phases of development with high
quality equipment.
Fig.6.30 Proposed Long Term Transmission Line Alignments for Capital City
Fig.6.31 Existing Pylons leading to Thullur
104
In the long term, this same equipment
would be able to remain in place even
when further development is made as
the transformers would have been built
to cater for the additional capability to
distribute electricity to the immediate
area.
It should essential that the Central
Government buys into an investment
program to improve power supply to
the region.
Demand Management and
Public Education
Other than augmenting the power
supply, it is also important to introduce
soft approaches to power conservation,
i.e.
introduce
energy-efficiency
buildings in the Capital City, educate
the public on energy conservation,
and introduce a comprehensive tiered
pricing strategy to encourage efficient
use of energy.
This can help to reduce the Capital
City’s demand of energy, therefore
allowing the City to operate with lower
energy requirements.
6.6.5 CRITICAL ISSUES FOR
POWER SUPPLY
There are many elements that need to
be addressed in the power sector. The
following is deemed to be critical and
should be prioritised in the next steps
in the development of the Capital City.
It is important to free up the land
currently
encumbered
by
the
transmission lines. These need to be
planned early as the entire project to
divert these will likely run into several
years.
By rediverting these transmission lines
in the early years, and developing the
underground transmission network
early in the development of the Capital
City, capital costs can also be kept low
due to less complexities.
Transmission lines to and distribution
lines from this substation are to be
laid underground. It is noted that in
the short term, existing transmission
mains need to be maintained; as such,
a temporary arrangement is proposed
(see Fig.6.32 overleaf).
It is also important to introduce
redundancy into the system planning.
This should be part of all plans. This
would be very difficult and costly to try
and retrofit the power supply system
at a later date. This redundancy will
be a key factor and distinguishing
element in the services that are
supplied to industry in Andra Pradesh
and surrounding states. This will help
to bring in investment and promote
economic growth.
Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant (VTPP)
is a regional power plant and it supplies
power to areas within and outside
the Capital City. Although it has spare
capacity currently and has set aside
about 1,000 MW for the development
of the new Capital City, the government
should ensure that the spare capacity is
not eroded by other demand outside of
the Capital City.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Fig.6.32 Proposed Short Term Transmission Line Alignments for Capital City
The Government of Andhra Pradesh
should also put in place concrete steps
to demonstrate how it can supply the
1,000 MW to the Capital City. This is
crucial to ensure the viability of the
Capital City. Even with the 1,000 MW
reserved for the Capital City, there is
still a need to source for additional
supply to meet the ultimate demand
of the Capital City of 5,530.6 MW with
newer and more modern technologies.
CRDA must also conduct a detailed
feasibility study on the need to upgrade
the VTTP and the need to construct a
new power plant to meet the ultimate
power demand from the Capital City.
As the electricity energy grid in India
expands and develops, it will be vital
that the Capital City is connected to this
National Grid. The National grid will
give access to power generation across
the country and help alleviate the need
to construct power generation in the
Capital City locale.
7
PHASING STRATEGY
Development Phasing plays a critical role in the success of a Master plan.
This chapter presents the strategic development phasing for the successful
implementation of the Amaravati Capital city Master plan.
The chapter is divided into the following sub-sections:
1. Development Phasing
2. Phase I
3. Phase 2
4. Phase 3
Existing commercial developments along river Krishna
7.1 DEVELOPMENT
PHASING
106
To enable successful implementation
of the Amaravati Capital city Master
Plan, a development phasing has
been proposed for guiding the
implementation and government
budget requirements for the immediate
and future projects. With this intention,
the Amaravati Capital city Detailed
Master Plan proposes 3 development
phases catering to the city’s short,
medium and long term requirements.
7.1.1 Phase 1: Catalyse
This phase will span for the first 10 years
for catalyzing urban developments
within the Amaravati Capital city. It will
include a large number of infrastructure
projects in order to create the critical
base for development.
This phase will catalyse developments
within the capital by tapping on the
existing and upcoming infrastructure,
including the Vijayawada MRT and the
new national highway.
The first phase will provide a variety of
housing options for 850,000 population
Comprising about 39% of the total
Amaravati Capital city Area, this phase
will create 350,000 jobs in the civic,
commercial and industrial sectors
Key Projects
• Development of the government
administrative core along the northsouth axis housing the secretariat,
high-court, legislative assembly,
chief ministers office and other
government offices.
• Development of the proposed
Business Park within the SEED
Development Area.
• Development
of
the
northeastern Regional Centre housing a
transportation hub.
• Development of the light Industrial
cluster proposed in proximity to the
SEED Development Area (towards
west). This cluster will primarily
house high-tech light industries.
Fig.7.1 Amaravati Capital city Phase 1 Plan
0 - 10 years
850,000
39%
350,000
Timespan
Administrative Civic Core
Business Park
Fig.7.2 Key projects - Phase 1
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
High Tech Industries
Total Capital city Area
Population
Urban Jobs
7.1.2 Phase 2: Momentize
This phase will focus on the medium
term development (2025-2035) in order
to momentize urban development
within the Amaravati Capital city.
Building
on
the
infrastructure
developed in the previous phase, Phase
2 will momentize development by
creating new employment centres and
expanding residential areas.
• Development of the Amaravati
Capital city central park and water
reservoir.
• Development of the proposed MRT
network within the city.
• Development of the gateway
commercial node on the northern
bank of river in close proximity to the
existing Vijayawada city
107
This phase will span over 10 years (2035
- 2035). Phase 2 will accommodate
over 900,000 more people and create
380,000 more jobs for its residents.
Key Projects
• Development of the proposed
residential
developments
in
proximity to the western edge of
the north-south ceremonial axis aka
administrative core.
• Development of the southern
industrial cluster along the national
highway.
Fig.7.3 Amaravati Capital city Phase 2 Plan
10 - 20 years 900,000
Timespan
Population
18.4%
380,000
Total Capital city Area
Urban Jobs
Residential Townships
Fig.7.4 Key projects - Phase 2
Commercial Gateway
MRT Lines
7.1.3 Phase 3: Sustain
108
This phase will focus on the long
term development (2035-2050) of
the city in order to achieve successful
implementation of the overall master
plan.
This phase will sustain growth and
capitalize on the infrastructure
developed in the previous phases.
Spanning over 15 years (2035 2050), this phase will largely support
medium and high density population
accommodating 2.4 million people
within the Amaravati Capital city.
proposed within the north-eastern
recreation node.
• Development of the national high
speed rail ink.
• Development of numerous high
density residential clusters in the
western and southern parts of the
city.
• Development of the downtown
(SEED Development Area) water
front cluster.
Section 7.2 presents the detailed
landuse distribution of the 3
development phases. (Tables 7.1,7.2 &
7.3)
As the employment centres within
the Amaravati Capital city will now be
reasonably established, this phase will
create over 1 million more jobs for its
residents.
Key Projects
• Development of eco-resorts on the
clusters of islands in river Krishna.
• Development of the Sports City
Fig.7.5 Amaravati Capital city Phase 3 Plan
20 - 35 years 2.4 million
Island Resorts
High Density Residential
Fig.7.6 Key projects - Phase 3
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
High Speed Rail
Timespan
Population
42.6%
1 million
Total Capital city Area
Urban Jobs
7.2 PHASE-WISE LANDUSE DISTRIBUTION
Phase 1: 2015 - 2025 (Catalyze)
Phase 2: 2025 - 2035 (Momentize)
Phase 3: 2035 - 2050 (Sustain)
Table 7.1 Phase 1 Area Land use Distribution
Table 7.2 Phase 2 Area Land use Distribution
Table 7.3 Phase 3 Area Land use Distribution
109
Landuse
Area
(Ha)
Area
(sq km)
%
Landuse
Area
(Ha)
Area
(sq km)
%
Landuse
Area
(Ha)
Area
(sq km)
%
Commercial
650.41
6.50
4%
Commercial
562.20
5.62
8%
Commercial
591.60
5.92
4%
Primary Green
3924.57
39.2
25.68%
Golf
86.31
0.9
1.20%
Golf
297.11
2.97
8%
Secondary green
510.04
5.1
3.34%
Primary Green
789.06
7.9
10.96%
Primary Green
2573.82
25.74
7%
Hotel/Resort
16.36
0.2
0.11%
Secondary green
548.06
5.5
7.61%
Secondary green
856.67
8.57
6%
1060.29
85.59
10.6
0.9
6.94%
0.56%
Industries
Logistics
387.70
106.08
3.9
1.1
5.39%
1.47%
Hotel/Resort
492.85
4.93
2%
Mixed Use
44.52
0.4
0.29%
Mixed Use
201.38
2.1
2.80%
Industries
Institution
2306.41
78.31
23.06
0.69
13.83%
0.41%
Reserved Sites
30.58
0.3
0.20%
Reserved Sites
47.94
0.5
0.67%
Infrastructure
68.89
0.78
0.47%
High Density Residential
386.58
3.9
2.53%
High Density Residential
382.97
3.8
5.32%
Logistics
81.54
0.82
0.49%
Medium Density Residential
1292.25
12.92
8%
Medium Density Residential
1505.22
15.05
21%
Mixed Use
666.71
6.67
4%
25.93
0.3
0.17%
Low density residential
127.3
1.3
1.77%
Reserved Sites
70.72
0.71
0.42%
River
3159.14
31.6
20.68%
River
0.0
0.0
0
High Density Residential
1690.48
16.90
10.14%
Research and Development
Roads
103.47
1342.63
1.0
13.4
0.68%
8.79%
Research and Development
Roads
77.34
773.06
0.8
7.7
1.07%
10.74%
Medium Density Residential
1666.89
16.67
10%
Low density residential
972.68
9.73
5.83%
Junior College
12.45
0.1
0.08%
Junior College
12.08
0.1
0.17%
River
1.29
0.01
0.01%
Primary School
45.41
0.5
0.30%
Primary School
54.33
0.5
0.75%
Secondary School
42.32
0.4
0.28%
Secondary School
55.55
0.6
0.77%
Research and Development
Roads
295.81
1776.72
2.96
17.77
1.77%
10.65%
SEED
469.83
4.7
3.07%
SEED
304.20
3.0
4.23%
Junior College
68.51
0.69
0.41%
Sports and Recreation
49.21
0.5
0.32%
Sports and Recreation
39.03
0.4
0.54%
Primary School
127.55
1.28
0.76%
Theme Park
117.46
1.2
0.77%
University
350.53
3.5
4.87%
Secondary School
155.74
1.56
0.93%
University
159.55
1.6
1.04%
Village settlements
350.08
3.5
4.86%
SEED
293.13
2.93
1.76%
Village settlements
1371.13
13.7
8.97%
Water
429.75
4.3
5.97%
Sports and Recreation
189.71
1.90
1.14%
Warehouse
27.73
0.3
0.18%
White Sites
7.61
0.1
0.11%
Village settlements
392.81
3.93
2.36%
Water
349.20
3.5
2.29%
Total
7197.78
72
100%
Warehouse
73.41
0.73
0.44%
2.99
0.0
0.02%
Water
875.18
8.75
5.25%
15279.64
152.8
100%
White Sites
15.28
0.15
0.09%
16679.56
166.79
100%
Industries
Infrastructure
Low density residential
White Sites
Total
Total
110
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THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
8
FOLLOW-UP MEASURES
This chapter summarizes the follow-up measures to be undertaken by CRDA
for successful implementation of the Capital City Masterplan:
The chapter covers the following topics:
1. Introduction
2. Infrastructure Follow-up Measures
3. The Way Forward
Boat parked near Uddandarayunipalem village
8.1 IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS
112
The Project Management Team (PMT) has developed a list of Action
Plans to facilitate CRDA and Government of Andhra Pradesh to
implement the Capital City Master Plan swiftly and in an organized
manner.
Action Plan 2 - Detail Hydrological Study
Action Plan 4 - Construct By-pass Road
Action Plan 3 - Land Pooling Exercise
Action Plan 5 - Reserve HSR Corridor
Initiate a detail hydrological study for the entire Capital City area
by July 2015.
Construct the by-pass road that will form the gateway to the Capital
City up-to the Seed Development area by June 2016.
The list that follows is only a set of initial steps necessary in order
to kick-start the development and in no way is a comprehensive list
of all the implementation issues that CRDA and the Government
of Andhra Pradesh will need to address. These action plans are an
addition to the extensive policy framework and institutional set up
being taken up in parallel by CRDA.
8.1.1 Administrative Action plans
Action Plan 1 - Detail Land Survey
Initiate a detail land and topography survey of the Capital City Area
by July 2015.
CRDA to undertake a detail study to identify land parcels to be
returned as part of Land Pooling Exercise. This study will include a
detailed site survey and base mapping of the Capital city.
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
Reserve the Right-of-Way for the High Speed Rail corridor.
8.1.2 Policy Framework related Actions
Action Plan 6 - Build Affordable Housing
Develop a framework to achieve the targeted 50% affordable
housing within the Capital City by December 2015.
Action Plan 7 - Develop Public Facilities
CRDA to facilitate development of all the Public Facilities such as
Schools, Neighborhood Centers, Town Centers as per phasing.
Action Plan 8 - Protect Heritage Areas
CRDA and the Government of Andhra Pradesh to develop policy
framework to protect the identified heritage and tourism areas.
8.1.3 Infrastructure Actions
Action Plan 9 - Divert High Tension Cables
Divert the High-Tension Cables out of the Capital City by December
2016.
Action Plan 10 - Build WTP
Build the Water Treatment Plant to the west of Seed Development
at priority by June 2016.
Action Plan 11 - detail Infrastructure Study
CRDA to conduct a detailed infrastructure study of the Capital city.
113
114
8.2 INFRASTRUCTURE
FOLLOW UP
MEASURES
8.2.1 Flood Management
Further Detailed Studies Required
The following detailed studies need to
be carried out before the construction
of Capital City:
• Detailed study of reinforcing the
Existing Krishna River Bund
• Detailed
Hydraulic
Study
of
Kondaveeti Vagu
• Detailed feasibility study for
implementation of ABC Waters
Features
8.2.2 Water Supply
Further Detailed Studies Required
The following list summarizes the
feasibility studies required to further
develop water supply network in the
Capital city:
• Detailed feasibility studies to confirm
the suitability of the location of WTP
• Detailed feasibility studies to confirm
the suitability of the location for
each WDC
8.2.3 Solid Waste
Management
Further Detailed Studies Required
The following list summarises the
feasibility studies required to further
develop solid waste management in
the Capital City:
• Proposed
Waste
Management
Systems Feasibility Study
• Solid Waste Characteristics Study
• Integrated Solid Waste Management
Facilities Studies at Regional level
• Study on collection, treatment
and disposal of hazardous and biohazardous waste
8.2.4 Power Supply
Further Detailed Studies Required
The following list summarises the
feasibility studies required to further
develop power supply network in the
Capital City:
• Proposed Underground Cabling
Network Study
• Study on the Diversion of the
Overhead Cables
• Detailed Power Demand Study
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
8.3 THE WAY FORWARD
The Capital City Masterplan sets a
direction of growth according to the
identified goals and objectives and to
cater to the projected employment and
population demand up to 2050. This
plan will help attract investments phase
wise in an organized manner in order
to kick-start the development in the
short term and also to allow organized
growth in the long term.
Any effective plan needs to be reviewed
over a period of time. We suggest CRDA
reviews the Capital City Masterplan
every 5 years in order to make the
necessary modifications to cater to the
market forces and also to keep up with
the developments in technology etc.
The next stage work will involve
developing a detail master plan for
the SEED Development area which will
form the core of the Capital City. It will
help lay the image of Capital City to the
investors and to the world at large.
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1
116
CAPITAL CITY LANDUSE DISTRIBUTION TABLES AND PLANS
Capital City Land use Distribution (within Land Pooling Boundary)
SNo. Landuse
Capital City Land use Distribution (Entire Planning Area)
Area (Ha) Area (Sq Km)
%
SNo. Landuse
Area (Ha)
Area (sq km)
%
1
Commercial
1420.26
14.20
6.54%
1
Commercial
1804.22
18.04
4.62%
2
Golf course
167.48
1.67
0.77%
2
Golf course
383.43
3.83
0.98%
3
Primary Green
3590.90
35.91
16.53%
3
Primary Green
7287.45
72.87
18.61%
4
Secondary Green
1344.55
13.45
6.19%
4
Secondary green
1914.76
19.15
4.89%
5
Hotel/Resort
308.20
3.08
1.42%
5
Hotel/Resort
509.20
5.09
1.30%
6
Industries
1226.00
12.26
5.64%
7
Infrastructure
73.17
0.73
0.34%
8
Institution
50.63
0.51
0.23%
6
7
8
Institution
Industries
Infrastructure
68.89
3754.39
163.91
0.68
37.54
1.64
0.18%
9.59%
0.42%
9
Logistics
88.29
0.88
0.41%
9
Logistics
187.61
1.88
0.48%
10
Mixed Use
273.07
2.73
1.26%
10
Mixed Use
912.62
9.13
2.33%
11
Reserved Sites
97.37
0.97
0.45%
11
Reserved Sites
149.23
1.49
0.38%
12
High Density Residential
856.41
8.56
3.94%
12
High Density Residential
2460.03
24.60
6.28%
13
Low Density Residential
365.38
3.65
1.68%
13
Medium Density Residential
4464.36
44.64
11.00%
14
Medium Density Residential
3774.03
37.74
17.37%
14
Low density residential
1125.92
11.25
2.88%
15
River Krishna
1454.01
14.54
6.69%
15
River Krishna
3160.43
31.60
8.07%
16
Research and Development
245.88
2.46
1.13%
17
Roads
2142.80
21.43
9.86%
16
17
Research and Development
Roads
476.63
3892.47
4.77
38.92
1.22%
9.94%
18
Junior College
52.14
0.52
0.24%
18
Junior College
93.04
0.93
0.24%
19
Primary School
141.46
1.41
0.65%
19
Primary School
227.29
2.27
0.58%
20
Secondary School
146.33
1.46
0.67%
20
Secondary School
253.60
2.54
0.65%
21
SEED
1067.16
10.67
4.91%
21
SEED
1067.16
10.67
2.73%
22
Sports and Recreation
172.62
1.73
0.79%
22
Sports and Recreation
277.95
2.78
0.71%
23
University
415.56
4.16
1.91%
23
Theme Park
117.46
1.17
0.30%
24
Village Settlements
1082.21
10.82
4.98%
24
University
510.08
5.10
1.30%
25
Warehouse Retail
27.73
0.28
0.13%
25
Village settlements
2114.03
21.14
5.41%
26
Water Bodies
1123.78
11.24
5.17%
26
Warehouse Retail
100.87
1.01
0.26%
27
White Sites
14.78
0.15
0.07%
27
Water Bodies
1654.13
16.54
4.23%
21722.22
217.22
100.00%
28
White Sites
25.89
0.26
0.07%
39157.05
391.57
100%
Total
Total
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
The following plans illustrate the
detailed landuse proposal within the
land pooling boundary (217 sq km) and
the entire planning area (391 sq km) of
the Amaravati Capital city. The landuse
plans are followed by the zoning plans
for the same.
117
Capital City Landuse Plan (within land pooling boundary)
118
Capital City Landuse Plan (entire planning area)
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
119
Capital City Zoning Plan (within land pooling boundary)
120
Capital City Zoning Plan (entire planning area)
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
121
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122
THE NEW CAPITAL CITY OF ANDHRA PRADESH | CAPITAL CITY MASTERPLAN REPORT - PART 2
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