UNDERMINING PELL VOLUME II How Colleges’ Pursuit of Prestige and

UNDERMINING PELL VOLUME II How Colleges’ Pursuit of Prestige and
NEW
AMERICA
EDUCATION
POLICY
UNDERMINING
PELL
VOLUME II
How Colleges’ Pursuit of Prestige and
Revenue is Hurting Low-Income Students
Stephen Burd
#underminingpell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
2
About the Author
Stephen Burd is a Senior Policy Analyst on
the New America Foundation’s Education
Policy Program. He can be reached at
[email protected]
Acknowledgments
Funding for this report was provided by Lumina
Foundation, an independent, private foundation
committed to increasing the proportion of Americans
with high-quality degrees, certificates and other
credentials to 60 percent by 2025. Lumina’s outcomesbased approach focuses on helping to design and
build an accessible, responsive and accountable higher
education system while fostering a national sense
of urgency for action to achieve Goal 2025. For more
information on Lumina, visit: www.luminafoundation.
org. The views expressed in this report are those of its
authors and do not necessarily represent the views of
Lumina Foundation, its officers or employees.
The New America Education Policy Program’s work
is made possible through generous grants from the
Alliance for Early Success; the Annie E. Casey Foundation;
the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; the Evelyn
and Walter Haas, Jr. Fund; the Grable Foundation;
the Foundation for Child Development; the Joyce
Foundation; the Kresge Foundation; Lumina Foundation;
the Pritzker Children’s Initiative; the William and Flora
Hewlett Foundation; and the W. Clement and Jessie V.
Stone Foundation.
About New America
New America is a nonprofit, nonpartisan public policy
institute that invests in new thinkers and new ideas to
address the next generation of challenges facing the
United States.
Correction
This updated copy of Undermining Pell: Version II corrects
an error in Department of Education data which listed
the net price for low-income students at the College of
William and Mary as $19,976 instead of $4,917.
Photo Credits
Images are used under license from Shutterstock.
© 2014 New America
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UNDERMINING
PELL
VOLUME II
CONTENTS
Introduction
2
About Average Net Price Data
4
Methodology
5
Private Nonprofit Colleges
6
Public Colleges
20
Conclusion
36
Notes
37
2
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
INTRODUCTION
For more than a decade, Baylor University has made climbing up
the U.S. News & World Report college rankings a top goal of the
institution. In the strategic plan it wrote in 2002, the Texas school
vowed to be named a “top tier” national research university.1
To carry out its plan, Baylor, which is now led by former
Clinton prosecutor Kenneth Starr, hiked its tuition, built
up its campus, and set out to attract higher-caliber
faculty members and students. Working closely with the
enrollment management firm Noel-Levitz, the school
redesigned its student aid offerings to better compete
for top students.2 As a result, Baylor boosted spending on
institutional scholarships, from $42 million in 2002-03 to
about $150 million in 2011-12.3
The university’s effort has paid some significant
dividends. Baylor has, according to the Waco TribuneHerald, transformed itself from “a sleepy regional Baptist
University” into “a research institution with nationally
known scholars in the arts and sciences.”4 The university
has risen in the U.S. News rankings, although not as far
as it would have liked (it is now ranked as the 71st best
national university), and the average student SAT score is
up to 1236 from 1176 in the fall of 2001.5
But not everyone has benefited from the university’s
transformation. With a substantial share of Baylor’s
scholarship aid going to affluent students, the university’s
low-income students have not fared well. While Pell
Grant recipients make up 24 percent of the school’s
student body, the university covers the full financial
need of only 13 percent of aid recipients on its campus.6
Meanwhile, the school charges those from families
making $30,000 or less a year a hefty average net price
of $21,370.
Unfortunately, the way that Baylor spends its institutional
aid dollars is becoming increasingly common at four-year
institutions across the country. Low-income students are
paying a high price for these policies.
This report examines U.S. Department of Education data
showing the net price -- the average amount of money
that students and their families have to pay after all
grant and scholarship aid is deducted from the listed
price -- for low-income students at more than 1,400 fouryear colleges in the 2011-12 academic year. The analysis
finds that hundreds of colleges expect the neediest
students to pay an amount that equals at least half of
their families’ yearly earnings.
This report follows up on a paper New America released
last year looking at the net price data for the 2010-11
academic year.7 The news is that things are getting worse.
The financial hurdles, the analysis finds, continue to be
highest in the private nonprofit college sector, where
only a few dozen mostly exclusive colleges meet the
financial need of the low-income students they enroll. As
compared with last year, the number of private colleges
that charge students with family incomes of $30,000 or
less an average net price under $10,000 has dropped
significantly. At the same time, the number of schools
that charge the lowest-income an average net price over
$15,000 has risen substantially.
Many private colleges have small endowments, making
it extremely difficult for them to provide adequate
support to those students with the greatest need.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Indeed, it is often the poorest schools that enroll the
largest proportion of federal Pell Grant recipients and
charge these students high net prices because of their
own limited resources. At the same time, many of these
institutions provide deep discounts to wealthier students
because they believe it is necessary for the schools’
survival.8
This is not, however, just a question of institutional
wealth. Some of the country’s most prosperous
private colleges are stingy with need-based aid. These
institutions tend to use their financial aid to reel in the
top students, as well as the most affluent.
The analysis finds that
hundreds of colleges
expect the neediest
students to pay an
amount that equals half
or more of their families’
yearly earnings
While the problem is not as extreme among public
colleges and universities, it is rapidly escalating. As more
states cut funding for their higher education systems,
public colleges are increasingly adopting the enrollment
management tactics of their private-college counterparts
– to the detriment of low-income and working-class
students alike.9 In fact, nearly two of every five public
four-year colleges now leave the most financially needy
students on the hook for more than $10,000 per year.
Fifty years ago, the federal government committed
itself to removing the financial barriers that prevent
low-income students from enrolling in and completing
college. Policymakers have sought to achieve this goal
primarily through the Pell Grant program, which spent
about $32 billion in the 2013 fiscal year to help about 9
million financially needy students pay for college.10
For years, colleges complemented the government’s
efforts by using their financial aid resources to open their
doors to the neediest students. But those days appear to
be in the past. Over the past several decades, a powerful
enrollment management industry has emerged to show
colleges how they can use their institutional aid dollars
strategically in order to increase both their prestige and
revenue.11
Worse yet, there is compelling evidence to suggest that
many schools are engaged in an elaborate shell game:
using Pell Grants to supplant institutional aid they would
have otherwise provided to financially needy students,
and then shifting these funds to help recruit wealthier
students.12 This is one reason why even after historic
increases in Pell Grant funding, low-income students
continue to take on heavier debt loads than ever before.13
They are not receiving the full benefits intended.
Overall, too many four-year colleges, both public and
private, are failing to help the government achieve its
college-access mission. They are, instead, adding hurdles
that could hamper the educational progress of needy
students, or leave them with mountains of debt after they
graduate.
As Congress begins work on reauthorizing the Higher
Education Act, policymakers must take notice of how
colleges are spending their institutional aid dollars.
Federal action is needed to ensure that colleges
continue to provide a gateway to opportunity, rather than
perpetuating inequality by limiting college access only to
those who are rich enough to afford it.
3
,,
4
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
ABOUT AVERAGE
NET PRICE DATA
A college’s commitment to helping low-income students can’t be
measured along a single dimension. It matters how many low-income
students they enroll and how much these students are asked to pay.
Until recently, though, policymakers, researchers, and journalists have
mostly had to rely on a single measure to do so: the proportion of Pell
Grant recipients each college enrolls.
While this dataset provides a useful tool for comparing
colleges based on their record of admitting low-income
students, it does not tell us anything about the schools’
commitment to making college affordable for these
individuals. For example, if a college enrolls a large
number of Pell Grant recipients but doesn’t come close to
meeting their remaining financial need, it may be setting
them up for failure.
In 2008, Congress recognized the need for policymakers
to get better information about how colleges are
spending their institutional aid dollars – financial aid
they provide students from their own resources. As
part of legislation to reauthorize the Higher Education
Act, lawmakers required colleges to report to the U.S.
Department of Education their average “net price”—the
average amount of money that students and their
families have to pay after all grant and scholarship
aid from all sources is deducted from the listed price.
Congress specified that colleges should report the net
price broken down by income only for first-time, full-time
students who received federal financial aid.14
The net price data provide a pretty clear picture of
the financial hurdles that low-income students face at
individual campuses, and they open a window on how
colleges are spending their institutional aid dollars.15
But the view is far from complete, as the data include
only those students who receive federal Title IV grants
or loans. Wealthy students who receive only merit aid
from their schools are not captured in these data. As a
consequence, we don’t have a full portrait of the extent
to which colleges are using their aid to help those
without financial need.
Another complication with the net price data is that
some colleges calculate student and family income in
a way that is different from the federal government.
The vast majority of colleges determine student and
family income and aid packages using the “federal
methodology” -- the same formula that the federal
government employs to calculate eligibility for things
like Pell Grants. But some elite private colleges use their
own “institutional methodologies” to determine student
and family income for awarding their institutional aid
dollars. These calculations tend to be more exacting than
the federal formula for determining the need of their
students. For example, in the case of divorce, some of
these schools, unlike the government, take into account
the income of the non-custodial parent when awarding
their own aid. These institutional formulas can produce
income estimates for students and their families that
differ significantly from the results under federal
calculations.
Recent reporting by The Chronicle of Higher Education
suggests that an unknown number of elite colleges
are counting only students they consider to be needy,
based on their more exacting standards, in the lowestincome average net price bracket.16 As a result, they are
excluding from the lowest-income band students that the
government determines to be poor but the institutions
don’t. This choice can make colleges look more generous
than other elite schools that use the federal methodology
to calculate the average net price data they provide the
Education Department. It is important to remember that
this issue applies only to some elite colleges and is not
an issue for most institutions. To the extent that some
colleges are reporting net price data this way, the broad
problem described in this report—high net prices being
charged to students the government considers to be low
income—is even worse than our analysis suggests.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
METHODOLOGY
Like last year’s report, this year’s paper judges four-year colleges based
on two criteria: the proportion of low-income students they enroll and the
average net price they charge the lowest-income students.
Colleges report both the Pell and net-price-by-income
data to the U.S. Department of Education’s Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), which
displays the school-by-school data on the College
Navigator website.
The Pell data represent the proportion of all
undergraduates on a campus that have Pell Grants. The
average net price data represent the average amount
of money that students and their families have to pay
after all grant and scholarship aid from all sources is
deducted from the listed price. Colleges report the net
price data broken down by income only for first-time, fulltime students who received federal financial aid. Public
colleges and universities report on in-state students only.
This paper specifically looks at the data for students with
family incomes of $30,000 or less. Both the Pell and net
price data are for the 2011-12 academic year.
Institutions Examined:
828
Nonprofit
Private
Four-Year
Colleges
598
Public
Four-Year
Colleges
This year’s paper examines a larger number of
institutions than last year’s did. This report, for example,
looks at 828 private nonprofit four-year colleges,
compared with 479 last year. Similarly, this report
examines 598 public four-year colleges, as opposed
to 480 last year. However, to make comparisons to last
year’s findings, this report includes sidebars that analyze
the results when looking only at the schools that were
included in last year’s report.
This paper looks at public and private four-year colleges
with undergraduate enrollments of 750 or more that
are located in the 50 states and the District of Columbia
(although a few schools with lower enrollments were
included if they appeared in last year’s Undermining Pell
report). Schools that did not report average net price
data to IPEDS were excluded, as were private colleges for
which endowment information wasn’t readily available.
Throughout the paper, a color-coded, nine-block grid
will be used to highlight how different colleges perform,
relative to the two dimensions used to assess them: the
percentage of students enrolled in Pell Grants, and the
average net price for low-income students. The outermost
blocks of the grid represent four types of colleges:
‘Green colleges’ are those institutions which
enroll large numbers of Pell students and offer
affordable programs.
‘Blue colleges’ are also affordable, but offer fewer
places to Pell students.
‘Yellow colleges’ do the reverse of blue colleges:
offering many places to Pell students, but at high
costs.
‘Red colleges’ perform poorly on both metrics:
they are expensive, and provide few places to Pell
students.
In addition to these four ‘outermost’ blocks, five
‘intermediate’ college types are represented by blended
colors, as indicated on the example diagram below.
Pell
Recipients
Low Net Price, High Pell School
30%
15%
High Net Price, Low Pell School
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
5
6
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PRIVATE
NONPROFIT
COLLEGES
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Some private nonprofit colleges are making extraordinary efforts
to recruit, enroll, and financially assist low-income students.
Unfortunately, they are few and far between. Only 43 private
colleges, or 5 percent of the schools examined, charged students
with family incomes of $30,000 or less an average net price under
$10,000 in the 2011-12 school year.
Certainly, a substantial number of private colleges have
small endowments, making it extremely difficult for them
to provide adequate support to those students with the
greatest need. Indeed, it is often the poorest schools that
enroll the largest proportion of Pell Grant recipients and
charge these students high net prices because of their
own limited resources.
However, many private colleges that have the means to
enroll a substantial share of Pell Grant recipients and
charge them a low price choose not to do so. These
include some of the country’s most exclusive colleges,
which tend to have generous financial aid policies but
few low-income students. They also include a substantial
number of colleges that use their institutional aid as a
competitive weapon to attract the students they desire,
rather than to meet the financial need of their students.
This paper examined 828 private nonprofit four-year
colleges and found the following:
• 785 private colleges, or 95 percent of those
examined, charge students with family incomes of
$30,000 or less an average net price of over $10,000;
571, or 69 percent, charge over $15,000; 221, or 27
percent, charge over $20,000; and 61, or 7 percent,
require these students to come up with an average
of $25,000 or more each year.
• The proportion of Pell Grant recipients that colleges
enroll and the net price they charge them is closely
tied to schools’ wealth. To illustrate: at 599 private
colleges, or 72 percent of those examined, Pell
Grant recipients make up 25 percent or more of the
student body. The median endowment for these
schools is $28 million, and the median net price they
charge the lowest-income students is $16,728. In
contrast, at 54 private colleges, or 7 percent of those
examined, Pell Grant recipients make up less than
15 percent of the institutions’ student bodies. The
median endowment of these schools is $599 million,
and the median net price they charge the neediest
students is $13,016.
• This is not just a question of wealth. There are 95
private colleges with endowments of more than
$250 million that charge low-income students an
average net price over $10,000; 60 that charge over
$15,000; 33 that charge over $20,000; and 11 that
charge over $25,000.
7
8
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PRIVATE COLLEGES:
HIGH PELL, LOW NET PRICE
There are 24 private nonprofit colleges at which Pell Grant recipients
make up more than 15 percent of their students and that have
average net prices for the lowest-income under $10,000.
Fourteen of these colleges are among the wealthiest
higher education institutions in the country. The other
10 are a diverse group made up mostly of colleges that
enroll fewer than 2,000 undergraduates. The poorest
(with endowments under $100 million) are predominantly
religiously affiliated schools that have a mission of serving
financially needy students.
Of the 14 wealthy colleges on the list, six have Pell
enrollments of 20 percent of more. These six schools
– Amherst, Cooper Union, Grinnell, the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Smith, and Vassar – generally have
strong leaders who have made a personal commitment to
making their campuses, which have long been among the
most elite in the country, more socioeconomically diverse.
In so doing, they have bucked conventional wisdom and
have shown that even the most selective schools can find
large numbers of low-income students who can thrive at
their institutions.
One institution that has made great strides is Vassar
College in Poughkeepsie, NY. A little less than a decade
ago, Vassar looked a lot like its peer institutions, with only
about 12 percent of its freshmen receiving Pell Grants.17
The college kept control of its student aid budget by
rejecting each year a number of applicants simply because
they were financially needy.
Today, more than one-fifth of Vassar’s students are Pell
Grant recipients. The school not only welcomes low-income
students but provides them with enough need-based
financial aid to ensure that they don’t have to take out any
federal student loans.
What changed? In 2006, Vassar hired Catharine Bond Hill,
a noted economist whose work has focused on college
access and affordability, as its president. Hill has written
numerous papers and opinion articles decrying the
paucity of low-income students at highly selective private
colleges.18
Almost immediately after taking over as president, Hill
instated a “need-blind” admissions policy at Vassar so
that the school would no longer consider an applicant’s
financial circumstances in its admissions process. “It’s
become increasingly clear that when promising students
fail to apply to our college for fear that they may not be
able to afford to come here – or that they will not get
in because of their financial need – the cost to Vassar, to
those students and their families, and to our collective
future is far greater than we can ever measure,” Hill wrote
in the college’s alumni magazine.19
She then followed up in 2008 by announcing that the
school would replace loans with grants in the financial aid
packages offered to students from families with annual
incomes of $60,000 or less.20
Soon afterward, the economy tanked and Vassar’s
endowment fell by $80 million, to $765 million. Still, Hill
not only stuck with the need-blind and no-loan policies but
also had the school provide $1 million more in need-based
aid than had been originally budgeted. She made clear that
any reductions in operating costs would not come from
financial aid.21
While these actions made the college more attractive to
low-income students, the school also had to beef up its
recruiting practices to find financially needy students who
had the academic qualifications to succeed at Vassar. How
did the college achieve this feat? Among other things, the
school did so by:
• Launching an aggressive effort to recruit at high
schools in low-income neighborhoods.
• Forging partnerships with community-based
organizations and college-access programs that work
to prepare low-income students for college.
• Partnering with QuestBridge, a nonprofit organization
that acts as a matchmaker between low-income
students and elite colleges.
As a result of these efforts, Pell Grant recipients now make
up 22 percent of Vassar’s student body, and the students
Vassar deems to be among the lowest income pay an
average net price of just $6,595. It is important to note
that Vassar is one of the elite colleges that uses its own,
more exacting financial aid methodology to determine
which students belong in the lowest-income average net
price bracket. As a result, the college excludes from the
lowest-income band some students that the government
determines to be poor but the institution doesn’t. Had
Vassar included those students, as most colleges do, its
average net price for low-income students would likely be
higher.
Hill has little patience for the merit aid arms race. She
argues that government action may be needed to get
colleges to disarm and focus on helping students who
could truly benefit from attending their institutions.
“Many of the pressures facing colleges and universities,
both private and public, make a wealthier student look
more attractive than a poor one, even if the poor one
has equal or greater talents. That is why we are seeing
increases in merit aid and reduced commitment to needbased aid,” Hill recently wrote. “Public policy needs to
change this equation, and tying the availability of federal
and state subsidies to performance on low- and middleincome access would help.”22
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
High Pell, Low Net Price (Private Colleges)
Pell
Recipients
30%
Vassar College
Cooper Union
MIT
15%
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
#undermining pell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
Institution
Rust College
Keystone College
St Thomas University
Gallaudet University
St Mary of the Woods Coll.
Holy Names University
Calumet College St Joseph
St Francis College
Illinois Institute of Tech.
Smith College
Grinnell College
Vassar College
State
MS
PA
FL
DC
IN
CA
IN
NY
IL
MA
IA
NY
% Pell
90
56
53
51
49
45
43
42
32
24
23
22
Net Price
$8,276
$7,937
$8,072
$7,266
$8,755
$8,572
$8,065
$9,505
$9,927
$9,350
$8,370
$6,595
Institution
Presbyterian College
Amherst College
Cooper Union
Mass. Institute of Tech.
Williams College
University of Richmond
Wellesley College
Stanford University
Wesleyan University
Pomona College
Rice University
Cornell University
State
SC
MA
NY
MA
MA
VA
MA
CA
CT
CA
TX
NY
% Pell
22
21
21
20
19
19
19
18
18
17
17
17
Net Price
$9,601
$3,614
$9,597
$4,995
$6,186
$9,098
$9,316
$3,506
$7,755
$2,751
$6,841
$9,980
9
10
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PRIVATE COLLEGES:
LOW PELL, LOW NET PRICE
There are 19 colleges that enroll a relatively small share of Pell Grant
recipients but support them generously – charging net prices to the
lowest-income ranging from $2,880 at Harvard University to $9,738
at Franklin & Marshall College in Pennsylvania.
This group includes six Ivy League institutions: Brown,
Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, the University of
Pennsylvania, and Yale. These colleges are so rich that they
can afford to be need-blind in admissions and to meet
the full financial need of students with grant aid. Yet, they
have long been bastions of privilege, enrolling only a small
share of low-income students.
Most of the other colleges in this group are liberal arts
colleges that meet the full financial need of the limited
number of low-income students that they enroll. While
some of these institutions are “need blind,” others are “need
aware,” meaning that they take financial considerations into
account when admitting a subset of their students. Several
also provide merit aid to attract top students.
Washington University in St. Louis, for example, has never
made much of an effort to recruit low-income students.
Instead it has used merit aid to propel itself up the
private-college pecking order.23 Today, 14 percent of Wash
U. freshmen have no financial need and receive merit
scholarships, averaging about $10,000 each.24 Meanwhile,
only 7 percent of the college’s students qualify for Pell
Grants – the least of all colleges examined in this paper.
Some other colleges in this group have expressly rejected
the approach that Wash U. has taken. In 2007, Hamilton
College announced that it was dropping out of the merit
aid arms race and redirecting its institutional aid dollars
entirely to need-based aid. The school had previously
offered half-tuition merit scholarships to several dozen
top students it hoped to lure away from the country’s most
elite liberal arts colleges, such as Amherst and Williams.25
But with more and more students coming from families
with significant amounts of financial need, Hamilton
officials decided that the policy no longer made sense.
“We’re going to need more financial aid in our budget over
time, but before I ask the college for additional resources,
I think the responsible thing to do is look at allocating
the funds we have now,” Monica Inzer, the school’s dean
of admissions and financial aid, said at the time. “It’s right
for us to walk away from this now, ethically and morally. It
doesn’t feel right for us to discount the price for families
that can afford to pay, and maybe not to have enough for
others.”26
Since the policy change, Hamilton has increased its needbased aid budget by 85 percent, to $32 million.27 The
college has also become “need blind” in admissions and
continues to meet the full financial need of its students.
These policies are a stretch for an institution that has an
endowment that is half the size of those of its most elite
competitors. But both Inzer and the college’s president,
Joan Hinde Stewart, are personally committed to making
the college more socioeconomically diverse. After all,
both were the first in their families to go to college. “To
me this is personal,” Stewart told Inside Higher Ed. “This
is something that matters because of my history and
background. I needed inspiration and aid to go to college.”28
Hamilton is not alone. Franklin & Marshall College has
also abandoned its merit aid program. In 2008, the school
was spending about a quarter of its institutional aid
budget chasing after students from upper-middle-income
and wealthy families in the Northeast. Nearly two-thirds
of its freshmen were “full pay” students. Meanwhile, only 5
percent of first-year students received Pell Grants.29
But the college was struggling to get the students it
wanted. Despite its substantial investment in merit aid,
Franklin & Marshall often lost top students to competitors
offering steeper discounts. So the college decided to
change gears, phase out its merit aid program, and target
high-achieving students from low-income families.30
Over the last five years, Franklin & Marshall has increased
the financial aid it provides to its freshmen by 95 percent,
from $5.8 million to $11.3 million.31 The college has forged
key partnerships with high-quality charter schools and
college-outreach organizations like the Posse Foundation
to strengthen its recruitment of low-income students.32
And it has instituted innovative support programs to help
financially needy students transition to college.
These policy changes have produced results. The
proportion of Pell Grant recipients at Franklin & Marshall
has more than doubled since the college phased out its
merit aid program. And those numbers are expected to
grow further, as Pell Grant recipients now make up 17
percent of the incoming freshman class.33
According to Daniel R. Porterfield, Franklin & Marshall’s
president, the school’s change of focus has been a boon
for the institution. Enrolling a larger share of Pell Grant
recipients “has actually improved the long-term health of
the college,” he says. “We have enhanced our reputation
as a national institution. We have deepened the bench of
academically strong students and at the same time, we are
more diverse than ever before.”34
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Low Pell, Low Net Price (Private Colleges)
Pell
Recipients
30%
Brown University
15%
Franklin & Marshall College
Harvard University
Washington University in St. Louis
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
#undermining pell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
Institution
Washington Univ. St. Louis
Middlebury College
Harvard University
California Institute of Tech.
Colgate University
Franklin & Marshall
Princeton University
Bates College
Hamilton College
State
MO
VT
MA
CA
NY
PA
NJ
ME
NY
% Pell
7
10
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
Net Price
$8,784
$8,846
$2,880
$6,444
$8,101
$9,738
$7,707
$9,095
$7,025
Institution
University of Pennsylvania
Georgetown University
Duke University
Yale University
Bowdoin College
Haverford College
Brown University
Vanderbilt University
Dartmouth College
State
PA
DC
NC
CT
ME
PA
RI
TN
NH
% Pell
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
Net Price
$7,578
$9,122
$3,813
$6,172
$4,936
$7,021
$5,404
$7,364
$8,094
11
12
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PRIVATE COLLEGES:
LOW PELL, HIGH NET PRICE
It was not all that long ago that Northeastern University accepted
nearly all of the tens of thousands of students who applied. Many
were part-time and evening students. Most lived only a short car ride
or subway ride away.
But those days seem far in the past. Over the last two
decades, the university in Massachusetts has undergone
a remarkable transformation – from urban commuter
campus to highly selective national research university.35
In the mid-1990s, Northeastern was struggling, with only
about half of its students graduating. The school’s new
president, Richard Freeland, charted a fresh course for the
institution – to make it a “smaller, better university” that
would target higher-achieving students throughout the
country.36 To carry out his vision, he went on a building
spree, replacing parking lots with fancy new dormitories,
as well as state-of-the art academic, research, and
recreational facilities.37 He sought out top-notch
professors. And he opened up the university’s coffers
to try to buy, with generous merit scholarships, a more
upscale student body.
Freeland stepped down in 2006 (he is now the
Commissioner of Higher Education for Massachusetts),
but the effort he started continues under the leadership
of Joseph Aoun. Today, the top 25 percent of students
Northeastern admits are automatically considered for a
merit scholarship, with awards ranging from $5,000 to
$25,000 each for the first year. National Merit finalists
receive a $30,000 merit-based award from the institution.
And the school provides full-tuition scholarships to
75 freshmen “who have distinguished themselves
academically, who have demonstrated curiosity and
creativity that extend far beyond the classroom to
impact the world around them, and who have displayed
an entrepreneurial approach to study, achievement, and
life.”38
By the standards that colleges use to judge their
performance these days, the efforts of Freeland and Aoun
have paid off big time. Northeastern has catapulted up
the U.S. News & World Report rankings, rising more than
100 spots since 2002.39 In the 2014 edition, the university
broke the top 50 for the first time, making it a top-tier
institution in the magazine’s estimation.40 The average
SAT scores of incoming freshmen have risen over 160
points since 2006, to nearly 1400.41 And the university
now admits only about one out of every three students
who applies.42
But Northeastern’s generous merit aid policies have left
some students out in the cold. Pell Grant recipients now
make up only 14 percent of the university’s student body,
and the school’s lowest-income students pay a net price
of $18,542. (Northeastern officials say that the school
will start this year to meet the full financial need of its
freshmen.43 So it’s possible that this figure will come
down in future years.)
Northeastern is one of 48 private colleges that enroll
15 percent or fewer Pell Grant recipients and charge the
lowest-income students an average net price ranging
from $10,022 at Harvey Mudd College in California
to $30,770 at the Catholic University of America in
Washington, D.C. At nearly a quarter of these institutions,
the neediest students pay an average net price of
$20,000 or more.
Like Northeastern, many of the colleges use merit aid
as part of a broader strategy to build their prestige and
propel themselves up the rankings. And while many of
these institutions strive to compete with the most-elite
institutions for top students, their endowments, while
substantial, tend to pale in comparison. As a result, these
colleges often have to rely heavily on tuition dollars
to finance their operations, giving them a significant
incentive to use their institutional aid to attract full-pay
students as well. Meanwhile, low-income students who
enroll in these schools are generally left with a large
gap between what the government says they should be
expected to pay and what they are being charged.
Some of the colleges on the list, however, say they only
give out merit aid because they feel they have no other
choice.
Larry Dow, dean of admissions and financial aid at Trinity
College in Hartford, CT, recently told The Hechinger Report
that his school’s “heels are getting nipped at by the
merit” scholarships his competitors are showering on
applicants.44 “I’ve taken more and more calls in the last
two years of, ‘my kid’s in at six places, and five of them
gave my kid merit money and you didn’t,’ ” he said.45
The pressure on the school to respond by spending a
limited amount of its precious resources on merit aid
means that it has less money to aid truly needy students.
“You can’t sustain this process of giving limited financial
aid to families that don’t necessarily need it,” Dow stated.
“The question is, what’s going to give?”46
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Low Pell, High Net Price (Private Colleges)
Pell
Recipients
30%
Northeastern University
15%
Trinity College
Harvey Mudd College
Catholic University
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
#undermining pell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
Institution
Catholic Univ. of America
Saint Joseph's University
Quinnipiac University
Boston University
High Point University
Furman University
Saint Louis University
University of Dayton
Loyola University Maryland
Wake Forest University
Carnegie Mellon University
Bentley University
Stonehill College
Elon University
Northeastern University
Texas Christian University
Whitman College
George Washington Univ.
Washington College
Villanova University
Bucknell University
Northwestern University
Boston College
Lehigh University
State
DC
PA
CT
MA
NC
SC
MO
OH
MD
NC
PA
MA
MA
NC
MA
TX
WA
DC
MD
PA
PA
IL
MA
PA
% Pell
13
14
14
15
15
13
14
15
14
12
14
15
13
10
14
15
13
14
15
12
10
14
13
14
Net Price
$30,770
$30,503
$29,248
$26,947
$24,721
$24,522
$23,882
$21,520
$20,672
$20,493
$20,372
$19,429
$19,411
$19,001
$18,542
$18,293
$18,280
$17,988
$16,822
$16,676
$15,692
$15,633
$15,564
$15,400
Institution
Muhlenberg College
University of Notre Dame
Dickinson College
Rockhurst University
Claremont McKenna
Trinity University
Washington & Lee
Lafayette College
Saint Olaf College
Skidmore College
Scripps College
Kenyon College
Davidson College
Colorado College
Johns Hopkins University
Connecticut College
Trinity College
Macalester College
Oberlin College
Gettysburg College
Swarthmore College
Carleton College
Tufts University
Harvey Mudd College
State
PA
IN
PA
MO
CA
TX
VA
PA
MN
NY
CA
OH
NC
CO
MD
CT
CT
MN
OH
PA
PA
MN
MA
CA
% Pell
12
12
12
11
14
14
9
11
15
15
12
9
13
11
13
14
14
15
12
14
15
13
12
12
Net Price
$15,106
$15,104
$14,932
$14,709
$14,394
$13,993
$13,741
$13,682
$13,415
$13,212
$13,124
$12,908
$12,699
$12,279
$12,077
$11,759
$11,109
$11,062
$10,914
$10,802
$10,793
$10,770
$10,715
$10,022
13
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PRIVATE COLLEGES:
HIGH PELL, HIGH NET PRICE
At 737 of the 828 private colleges examined, Pell Grant recipients make
up more than 15 percent of the student body and the lowest-income
students are charged an average net price over $10,000. This group
includes about two dozen wealthy schools, with endowments of $500
million or more. These colleges are very active in the financial aid
arms race – doling out substantial amounts of merit aid to compete for
students.
At the other end of the spectrum, 564 of these colleges
have endowments of less than $100 million. Like their
wealthier peers, these institutions offer generous discounts
to try to attract students. But they do so for an entirely
different reason: Many of them consider it to be a matter of
survival.
Colleges with Endowments Over $500
Million
In the summer of 2008, Baylor University made an offer
to incoming freshmen that was too good to pass up. The
Baptist university said it would pay students it had already
admitted a $300 credit from the campus bookstore if they
would agree to retake the SAT. Students who raised their
scores by at least 50 points were guaranteed an additional
$1,000 merit scholarship. Those who increased their scores
even further could qualify “for a higher-level merit-based
Baylor Gold Scholarship,” according to an e-mail message
the school sent these students outlining the offer.47
Speaking to the student newspaper, which broke the story,
a senior Baylor official acknowledged that the school was
eager to see those scores rise. “People do pay attention to
test scores,” said Reagan Ramsower, Baylor’s vice president
for finance at the time. “The university does benefit from
higher average scores, and students benefited from book
credits. It’s a win-win situation.”48
The people that Baylor was trying to impress were the
editors of U.S. News & World Report who compile the
magazine’s annual rankings of colleges. As described above,
the university has made rising up those rankings a key goal.
And the university has mostly succeeded, in part by doling
out substantial sums of merit aid to attract top students to
the campus.
Today, all students who apply for admission are
automatically considered for one of four academic
scholarships. National Merit finalists who select Baylor
as their first choice are eligible to receive a full-tuition
scholarship for up to four years. Other students who have
high SAT scores and rank at the top of their class can
receive up to $20,000 a year off their tuition. Those with
slightly lower SAT scores and class rank are eligible for
smaller awards.49
Many of these scholarships go to affluent students.
According to data that the school discloses to the College
Board, 34 percent of freshmen at Baylor have no financial
need and receive merit aid, averaging about $13,000 a
year.50
,,
14
Seven colleges on our
list provide more than 20
percent of their non-needy
freshmen with merit aid,
while charging the lowestincome an average net
price over $20,000
Not everyone is pleased with the university’s
transformation. At the same time that the school has
been pumping up its use of merit aid and redesigning its
campus, it has raised its tuition significantly. Some of the
university’s alumni fear that the school is pricing out its
traditional clientele – the sons and daughters of Baptist
families who are pursuing careers in education and social
work and can’t afford to take on a lot of debt. “Almost all of
my friends could not have gone to Baylor under the current
tuition,” Bette McCall Miller, the daughter of former Baylor
president Abner McCall, told the Waco Tribune-Herald in
2012.51
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
High Pell, High Net Price
(Private Colleges with Endowments Over $500 million)
Pell
Recipients
Rochester Institute of Technology
30%
Mount Holyoke College
Brandeis University
15%
Denison University
Tulane University
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
#undermining pell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
Selected Institution
State
New York University
NY
Santa Clara University
CA
Drexel University
PA
Tulane University
LA
Rensselaer Polytechnic
NY
University of Miami
FL
Baylor University
TX
Rochester Institute of Tech NY
University of Tulsa
OK
Case Western Reserve
OH
Syracuse University
NY
Yeshiva University
NY
Southern Methodist Univ.
TX
(Endowment > $500 million)
% Pell
21
16
22
17
17
20
24
32
18
21
27
19
18
Net Price
$27,274
$27,218
$26,049
$25,722
$24,154
$22,221
$21,370
$21,348
$20,590
$19,976
$18,579
$18,227
$18,001
Selected Institution
(Endowment > $500 million)
Pepperdine University
Emory University
Berry College
University of Southern Cal.
University of Rochester
University of Chicago
Brandeis University
Bryn Mawr College
Mount Holyoke College
Columbia University
Denison University
College of The Holy Cross
State
CA
GA
GA
CA
NY
IL
MA
PA
MA
NY
OH
MA
% Pell
21
23
27
23
19
16
20
19
23
21
17
16
Net Price
$17,456
$17,035
$16,166
$14,338
$13,878
$13,267
$12,754
$12,505
$12,238
$12,018
$10,691
$10,670
15
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
The university, however, shows no sign of retreating from
its aggressive use of merit aid. “Baylor must continue to
be attentive to the broader market in which we compete
for the best and brightest undergraduate, graduate, and
professional students,” the university’s latest strategic plan,
written in 2012 under the leadership of President Kenneth
Starr, states.52
Baylor is one of seven colleges on this list that provide
more than 20 percent of their non-needy freshmen with
merit aid, while charging the lowest-income an average
net price over $20,000. The others are: Drexel University
in Pennsylvania (33 percent merit aid, $26,049 net price
for the students with the greatest need); Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute in New York (26 percent, $24,154);
Santa Clara University (28 percent, $27,218); Tulane
University (35 percent, $25,722); the University of Miami
(21 percent, $22,221); and the University of Tulsa (45
percent, $20,590).53 Just as at Baylor, a larger share of
affluent freshmen at these schools receive merit aid
than low-income students receive Pell Grants on these
campuses.
Colleges with Endowments
Under $100 Million
Among private colleges, the schools with the fewest
resources tend to serve the largest share of low-income
students. For instance, Pell Grant recipients make up an
average of 41 percent of the student body at the 564
private colleges with endowments of less than $100
million, compared with 16 percent at those with at least
$1 billion endowments. These schools have a difficult time
supporting the large numbers of low-income students they
enroll, charging the neediest students an average net price
of nearly $18,000 (compared to about $11,000 at schools
with endowments of $1 billion or more). Unsurprisingly,
low-income students don’t tend to fare as well – in terms
of remaining in and graduating from college – at these
institutions than at richer schools.
,,
16
Admissions experts say
that providing discounts
on tuition can be an
effective short-term tactic
for struggling colleges. As
a longer-term strategy it
can be treacherous.
While many of these schools used to provide need-based
aid exclusively, they say they simply can’t afford to continue
to do so. Instead, they offer deep discounts on their tuition
just to get more-affluent students in the door. Because
these schools are so dependent on tuition revenue, their
success in meeting their enrollment goals each year can be
critical to their survival.
Admissions experts say that providing discounts on
tuition can be an effective short-term tactic for struggling
colleges, as long as they can bring in larger numbers
of students without having to add new faculty or build
new facilities.54 But as a longer-term strategy, it can be
treacherous – the more tuition-dependent schools discount
their tuition, the less they have to spend in other areas
important to student recruitment, including the quality of
the academic programs and the upkeep of facilities.55
Franklin Pierce University is a case in point.
Ninety-six percent of the revenue of the small private
college in Rindge, NH, comes from the tuition dollars it
receives.56 But to attract students to the campus, Franklin
Pierce has, over the past several years, discounted its
$30,000 tuition by an average of nearly 60 percent for
its freshmen.57 As a result, the school, which has only an
$11 million endowment, has seen its net tuition revenue
plunge, from $24 million in 2008 to $18 million in 2012.58
Because of its financial problems, both Moody’s Investors
Service and Standard & Poor’s have downgraded the
university’s credit rating, making it more difficult for the
school to borrow to stay afloat.59
In order to cut costs, Franklin Pierce has discontinued
majors in American studies, theater and dance, graphic
communications, fine arts, math, and arts management. It
has also eliminated health insurance plans for students. In
addition, the school has kept faculty and staff wages and
salaries flat, and reduced some of the benefits it provides
its employees.60
To try to right the ship, the university has introduced new
programs in higher-demand fields, such as health sciences
and environmental studies. It has also been looking to
reduce its extremely high tuition discount rate, the share of
tuition and fee revenue devoted to institutionally funded
grant aid.
“This trend is unsustainable and must be reversed,” says
James F. Birge, the university’s president. “Unfortunately,
reducing scholarships is easier said than done.”61
Tuition discounting has become so widespread among
small, have-not private colleges, that it has reached a
point of diminishing returns, many higher education
experts say. “When the schools in your peer group all
have discounts, it becomes an untenable competition for
students, with everyone having to increase their discounts,”
David L. Warren, president of the National Association of
Independent Colleges and Universities, recently told The
New York Times.62
Some schools – like Converse College in Spartanburg, SC –
have lately decided to jump off that merry-go-round.
For years, the small women’s college provided tuition
discounts to nearly all of its students, meaning that few, if
any, paid the full price. Despite this generosity, Converse
struggled to attract students. So it has decided to take a
new tack – it slashed its published tuition for all students
from $29,000 to $16,500, a 43 percent reduction, but did
not discount the price.63
According to President Elizabeth A. Fleming, the move has
already begun paying dividends, with both applications and
donations on the rise.64
“When I think about tuition discounting, it seems deceptive,
like a smoke-and-mirrors game,” Fleming stated. “I think
a majority of colleges like us could do exactly what we’re
doing if they trusted that they don’t have to buy students.”65
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Pell Grant recipients
make up an average
of 41 percent of the
student body at
private colleges with
endowments of less
than $100 million,
compared with 16
percent at those
with at least $1 billion
endowments
17
,,
18
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
SIDEBAR:
PRIVATE COLLEGE TRENDS
Kenyon College is a rather reluctant player in the merit aid arms race,
but it is a player nonetheless.66 In recent years, the school in Gambier,
OH, increased the amount of institutional aid that it gives to non-needy
students so that it could better compete with other prominent liberal
arts colleges in the state, such as Oberlin College, which offer even more
generous merit aid awards to their students.67 At the same time, the
average net price that it charges the lowest-income students has risen
to $12,908 in 2011-12 from $8,557 in 2010-11.
Kenyon is one of 19 private colleges that were low-netprice schools in last year’s Undermining Pell report that
are now charging the most financially needy students an
average net price above $10,000.
At the same time, there are five private colleges that
were high-net-price schools in last year’s report that are
now charging the lowest-income students an average net
price under $10,000. These include Colgate University
and Franklin & Marshall College.
Still, when looking at only the 479 private colleges that
were included in last year’s Undermining Pell, the news is
mostly bad:
• The number of private colleges that charged
students with family incomes of $30,000 or less an
average net price under $10,000 has dropped from
53, or 11 percent of the schools examined, to 41, or
8 percent.
• The number of private colleges that charged the
most financially needy an average net price over
$15,000 has grown to 315, or 66 percent of those
examined, from 291, or 61 percent.
• The number of private colleges that charged the
lowest-income an average net price over $20,000
has also increased, to 122, or 26 percent of those
examined, from 105, or 22 percent.
• Meanwhile, the number of private colleges at which
Pell Grant recipients make up more than 15 percent
of the student body and the lowest-income are
charged an average net price under $10,000 has
dropped from 33 to 23 schools.
The first illustration on the following page lists 19 newly
high-net-price schools. Like Kenyon, most of the schools
on the list are small liberal arts colleges that provide
generous amounts of merit-based aid in the financial aid
packages they offer students.
Take Beloit College in Wisconsin. According to data that it
provided to the College Board, 24 percent of its freshmen
have no need and receive scholarships, averaging around
$18,000 each.68
In a presentation, titled “How I Learned to Stop Worrying
and Love Merit Awards: The Tuition Driven Schools’
Dilemma,” Scott Bierman, Beloit’s president, argues that
tuition-dependent schools, like his institution, have little
choice in the current competitive environment but to
offer merit aid in order to attract “the applicant pool
that you actually want to have at your school.”69 He cites
surveys that show that about three-quarters of Beloit
freshmen say that the institutional aid they received
played a “very important role” in their decision to attend
the school.70
Surprisingly, four schools that made the list –
Connecticut, Reed, and Swarthmore Colleges, and
Columbia University – don’t offer merit aid. It’s possible
that some of these schools, which meet 100 percent of
their students’ need, are doing so by requiring students
and their parents to take on larger debt loads.
It’s more probable, however, that a shortcoming with
the net price data is coming into play for at least some
of these colleges. According to The Chronicle of Higher
Education, Swarthmore College, for example, uses the
federal formula for assessing students’ need when
deciding which students belong in the lowest-income
average net price bracket.71 However, Swarthmore uses
its own “institutional methodology” to determine student
and family income for awarding its institutional aid
dollars. These calculations tend to be more exacting
than the federal formula and, as a result, often produce
income estimates for students and families that differ
significantly from the results under federal calculations.
In using the “federal methodology” to report the net price
data to the Education Department, Swarthmore included
in the lowest-income band students it doesn’t think are
as poor as the government does. Had the college only
included students that it believed to be poor, as some
elite colleges do, its average net price for the lowestincome students would likely have been lower.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
State
CA
NY
PA
IA
CT
MD
CT
OH
NY
IL
NC
NJ
OH
MN
WI
OR
GA
WI
CA
Net Price
(2011)
$6,901
$9,715
$7,383
$9,496
$7,641
$9,788
$6,460
$8,805
$6,277
$8,459
$7,165
$9,549
$8,557
$8,407
$6,869
$8,918
$7,494
$9,931
$7,977
Net Price
(2012)
$10,022
$10,151
$10,793
$11,095
$11,109
$11,215
$11,759
$11,984
$12,018
$12,233
$12,699
$12,899
$12,908
$13,415
$13,563
$13,576
$13,931
$14,694
$18,613
There are also seven newly low-net-price schools in our
data. These include Franklin & Marshall College, which
has phased out its merit aid program and is now focused
on recruiting high-achieving low-income students.72 To
carry out this goal, the college has steadily increased
its spending on need-based financial aid over the last
several years.73
30%
Beloit College
Columbia
15% University
State
FL
NY
Net Price
(2011)
$13,972
$12,222
Net Price
(2012)
$8,072
$8,101
CA
$18,302
$8,572
IN
$14,665
$8,755
MA
$11,146
$9,350
PA
$13,567
$9,738
IL
$11,289
$9,927
* Colleges with Pell percentages above 45% are not illustrated.
Pitzer College
Kenyon College
0%
$0
These efforts have paid off. Not only has the college
significantly expanded the proportion of Pell Grant
recipients it serves, but it has also reduced the average
net price that the lowest-income students pay from
$14,437 in 2010-11 to $9,738 in 2011-12.
Institution
St Thomas University*
Colgate University
Holy Names
University*
Saint Mary-of-TheWoods College*
Smith College
Franklin & Marshall
College
Illinois Institute of
Technology
Private Nonprofit Institutions with
Net Prices Rising Above $10,000
Pell
Recip.
,,
Institution
Harvey Mudd College
Union College
Swarthmore College
Graceland University
Trinity College
Mcdaniel College
Connecticut College
The College of Wooster
Columbia University
Monmouth College
Davidson College
College of St Elizabeth
Kenyon College
Saint Olaf College
Beloit College
Reed College
Brenau University
Ripon College
Pitzer College
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
The number of private
colleges that charged
students with family
incomes of $30,000 or less
an average net price under
$10,000 has dropped from
53 to 41
Private Nonprofit Institutions with
Net Prices Falling Below $10,000
Pell
Recip.
30%
Illinois Institute of Technology
Smith College
Franklin & Marshall College
15%
Colgate College
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
19
20
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PUBLIC
COLLEGES
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
As we have seen, only a small number of private colleges are using their
financial aid resources to make college more accessible and affordable
for the neediest students. Instead, most are charging students with
family incomes of $30,000 or less a net price exceeding $10,000.
The news is better in the public higher education sector.
About half of public four-year colleges enroll at least
30 percent low-income students and charge them a
manageable net price of less than $10,000.
But don’t be fooled. The merit aid arms race is raging
at a large number of public colleges and universities.
State disinvestment and institutional status-seeking
are working together, hand in hand, to encourage an
increasing number of public institutions to adopt the
enrollment tactics of their private-college counterparts
– often to the detriment of the low-income students they
enroll.
This paper examined 598 public four-year colleges,
including all of the public flagship universities and many
state regional colleges, and found the following:
• 235 public colleges, or 39 percent of those examined,
charge the lowest-income in-state students a net
price over $10,000; and 35 of those institutions, or
6 percent of the schools, require these students to
come up with $15,000 or more.
• These high-net price colleges are especially
concentrated in states that have adopted a hightuition model. For example, 54 of these schools, or
nearly a quarter of the institutions, are located in
two states – Ohio and Pennsylvania – that have long
followed such a model. Nearly half the high-netprice schools come from 11 states – Connecticut,
Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina,
Vermont, and Virginia – that have taken this
approach.
• Low-income students attending public universities
in their home states paid an average net price above
$10,000 in half of the states.
• Many public colleges that have the means to
enroll a significant share of Pell Grant recipients
and charge them a low net price choose not to do.
These include some of the country’s most exclusive
campuses, which enroll only a small proportion of
low-income students. They also include a substantial
number of colleges that use their institutional aid as
a competitive weapon to attract the students they
desire, rather than to meet the financial need of their
students.
21
`
22
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
BEST OF THE BEST:
LOW-TUITION STATES
Once again, the data show that the lowest-income students fare the best
in states that have kept the cost of attending their public institutions
relatively low. Unfortunately, with more and more states divesting from
their public college systems, low-cost states are getting harder and
harder to find.
Take, for example, Hawaii, which has a low-cost public
higher education system. In the Aloha State, in-state
public four-year college students with family incomes of
$30,000 or less paid an average net price of just $5,909
in the 2011-12 academic year – an amount they could
pretty much cover by taking out federal student loans.
In contrast, the most financially needy in-state students
attending public four year colleges in Ohio paid an
average net price that was almost double that amount:
$11,511. And while not a single public college in Hawaii
charged the lowest-income students an average net
price over $10,000 (the highest being $8,164 at the
University of Hawaii at Hilo), 21 public colleges in Ohio
did, with 7 charging more than $15,000. This includes
Miami University in Ohio, which has been an extremely
aggressive participant in the merit aid wars.74 The
neediest in-state students at the university’s Oxford
campus pay an average net price of nearly $18,000.
In addition to Hawaii, other low-cost states that stand
out in terms of keeping their public colleges accessible
and affordable for the lowest-income in-state students
include: North Carolina (average net price of $6,511),
Washington ($6,939), Louisiana ($7,008), New York
($7,268), and California ($7,293).
Meanwhile, low-income in-state students who attend
public four-year colleges face average net prices over
$10,000 in 25 states, including high-tuition ones such
as Delaware ($14,168), New Hampshire ($13,802),
Pennsylvania ($13,038), South Dakota ($11,808), and
Illinois ($11,806).
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
23
Cheapest and Most Expensive
States for Low-Income Students
$5k
$7k
$9k
$11k
$13k
$15k
3
Washington
$6,939
49
48
New Hampshire
$13,802
Pennsylavnia
$13,038
50
Delaware
$14,168
2
North Carolina
$6,511
1
Hawaii
$5,909
Source: U.S. Department of Education and New America
Note: Data represent the average net price that first-time, full-time students with family incomes
of $30,000 or less are charged, after all grant and scholarship aid is taken into account, to attend
public colleges in their home states. The net price data are from the 2011-12 academic year.
#undermining pell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
24
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PUBLIC COLLEGES:
LOW PELL, LOW NET PRICE
Eighty public colleges enroll 30 percent or fewer Pell Grant recipients and
charge the lowest-income in-state students an average net price under
$10,000 – ranging from $3,305 at the State University of New York at
Farmingdale to $9,972 at the University of Nebraska.
This group includes the most elite public universities in
the country, such as the Universities of Michigan, Virginia,
and Wisconsin at Madison. Like their private-college
counterparts, these schools tend to offer generous
amounts of need-based aid. Yet, compared with other
state colleges, these institutions enroll only a small share
of low-income students.
Many of these colleges go to great lengths to attract outof-state students. Recent research suggests that the more
a public research university enrolls out-of state students,
the fewer seats it has left for low-income and minority
students.75 This makes sense as public colleges, reeling
from large-scale state budget cuts, tend to enroll wealthy
out-of-state students who can pay the higher tuition
rates charged to these students.76
At the University of Michigan, for instance, Mary Sue
Coleman, who retired as the school’s president this
summer, made an aggressive push in recent years to
recruit students from outside of Michigan. “As a state, if
you look at all 15 universities, we are underperforming in
terms of our out-of-state student population,” she said in
2012. “That is, we have capacity, and these students come
paying full freight.”77’
In the fall of 2013, 41 percent of entering freshmen were
out-of-state students,78 up from about 30 percent in
2008.79
Critics of Coleman say that these efforts have changed
the character of the university. “Michigan has become
a tale of two colleges: a moderately expensive one
(approximately $27,000 a year for undergraduate tuition,
fees, books, miscellaneous expenses, and room and board)
serving an in-state student body that is moderately
diverse, and an extremely expensive one (approximately
$55,000 a year) serving an out-of-state student body that
is overwhelmingly wealthy and white,” Scott Kurashige, a
professor of American culture, history, and Afro-American
and African studies at the University of Michigan, wrote
in The Chronicle of Higher Education recently. “…The result
is that the university not only reflects the race and class
inequities inherent in our society, it actually reinforces
and aggravates them.”80
At Michigan, Pell Grant recipients make up only 16
percent of students. Meanwhile, 20 percent of freshmen
at the school have no need and receive merit aid from
the school, averaging $6,816 per student.81
While the University of Michigan fares poorly in terms of
enrolling Pell Grant recipients, the University of Virginia
remains among the least socioeconomically diverse
public colleges in the country. Pell Grant recipients
make up 12 percent of the student body at UVa. Only
the University of Delaware educates a smaller share of
students with Pell Grants among public universities.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Low Pell, Low Net Price (Public Colleges)
Pell
Recipients
30%
SUNY Farmingdale
Univ. of Michigan
Ann Arbor
15%
University of Nebraska
University of Iowa
University of Virginia
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
#undermining pell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
See next page for data
25
26
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Institution
University of Virginia
College of William & Mary
Bellevue College
James Madison University
St. Mary's College of Md.
Colorado Mountain College
University of Michigan Ann Arbor
University of Wisconsin Madison
Clemson University
College of New Jersey
University of Iowa
University of Maryland,
College Park
Brazosport College
Georgia Institute of
Technology
Indiana Univ. Bloomington
Louisiana State University
Truman State University
Univ. Illinois Urbana-Ch.
University Of Connecticut
Univ. of Minn. Crookston
University of North
Carolina - Chapel Hill
Purdue University
Salisbury University
Texas A&M University
Great Basin College
Midland College
North Carolina State Univ.
Oklahoma Panhandle
State University
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
University of Nebraska
University of Wisconsin La Crosse
Dickinson State University
Iowa State University
Louisiana Tech University
Texas A&M Univ. Galveston
University of Alaska
Anchorage
University of ConnecticutAvery Point
University of Kentucky
University Of South
Carolina - Columbia
University of Wyoming
Michigan State University
Minot State University
SUNY Farmingdale
Towson University
University of Arkansas
State
VA
VA
WA
VA
MD
CO
% Pell
12
12
14
14
15
16
Net Price
$4,755
$4,917
$5,765
$9,727
$5,746
$4,007
MI
16
$5,431
WI
16
$7,323
SC
NJ
IA
18
18
19
$6,666
$8,286
$9,132
MD
19
$7,605
TX
20
$4,446
GA
20
$5,326
IN
LA
MO
IL
CT
MN
20
20
20
20
21
21
$4,726
$3,852
$8,005
$8,626
$9,312
$7,336
NC
21
$5,376
IN
MD
TX
NV
TX
NC
22
22
22
23
23
23
$6,410
$9,118
$5,148
$8,550
$7,081
$5,876
OK
23
$4,667
MN
23
$9,184
NE
23
$9,972
WI
23
$8,872
ND
IA
LA
TX
24
24
24
24
$7,321
$8,620
$5,751
$7,084
AK
24
$8,922
CT
24
$5,416
KY
24
$9,472
SC
24
$9,751
WY
MI
ND
NY
MD
AR
24
25
25
25
25
25
$7,490
$6,394
$9,457
$3,305
$8,250
$8,736
Institution
State % Pell
Net Price
University of Georgia
University of Minnesota
Duluth
University of Washington
- Seattle
Valley City State University
Western Washington
University
Appalachian State
University
Colorado State University
Michigan Technological
University
Ramapo College of New
Jersey
Vincennes University
Binghamton University
Bismarck State College
Fort Hays State University
New Mexico Institute Of
Mining & Technology
University of Wisconsin Eau Claire
Radford University
State University Of New
York At New Paltz
University of Colorado
Denver
University of Texas At
Austin
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
West Virginia University
Minnesota State
University, Mankato
Sonoma State University
Suny College At Oneonta
University Of North
Carolina At Wilmington
University Of Wisconsin Whitewater
Weber State University
Madison Area Technical
College
Olympic College
State University Of New
York At Buffalo
Texas Tech University
University Of ConnecticutStamford
University Of Minnesota Morris
University Of North
Carolina School Of The Arts
University Of Wisconsin Stout
GA
25
$8,306
MN
25
$8,993
WA
25
$7,229
ND
25
$8,124
WA
25
$8,620
NC
26
$5,559
CO
26
$9,147
MI
26
$8,894
NJ
26
$8,809
IN
NY
ND
KS
26
27
27
27
$8,214
$9,840
$5,548
$8,021
NM
27
$6,355
WI
27
$8,686
VA
28
$9,920
NY
28
$7,935
CO
28
$9,965
TX
28
$8,814
WI
28
$9,026
WV
28
$6,366
MN
29
$9,890
CA
NY
29
29
$9,844
$8,591
NC
29
$7,000
WI
29
$7,557
UT
29
$7,407
WI
30
$6,586
WA
30
$5,452
NY
30
$8,745
TX
30
$9,809
CT
30
$5,250
MN
30
$7,541
NC
30
$7,051
WI
30
$9,969
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Research suggests the more a
public research university enrolls
out-of-state students, the fewer
seats it has left for low-income
and minority students
27
,,
28
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
PUBLIC COLLEGES:
HIGH NET PRICE
Many of the 235 public colleges that charge the lowest-income instate students a net price over $10,000 are active participants in the
institutional financial aid arms race. Oregon State University entered the
fray in the late 1990s – and it did so with gusto.
In an interview with The Atlantic Monthly in 2005, Bob
Bontrager, Oregon State’s head of enrollment management
at the time, revealed the fervor with which he approached
the job when he said of his competitors: “I personally
prefer kicking their ass.” He explained, “It’s a zero-sum
game. There are a finite number of prospective students
out there. Are you going to get them or is your competitor
going to get them?”82
According to Bontrager, Oregon State took this aggressive
approach out of necessity. From 1981 through 1996, the
university saw its enrollment plunge from 17,700 to 13,800
students. At first, school officials were fairly complacent
about these developments. “The prevailing thinking was
that the high levels of name recognition and legacy
predisposition would shield the university from continued
enrollment declines,” Bontrager wrote in an essay on
the subject for the American Association of Collegiate
Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO).83
But by the mid-1990s, university officials realized that
“significant action was needed to address the ‘enrollment
problem’ ” and to “enhance net revenue” at a time when
state appropriations were falling. Among other things, the
university began to use its institutional aid dollars more
strategically – creating merit scholarship programs to
attract students to the school.84
The new approach worked. Enrollments not only began
to grow again but started to break previous records. “We
now find ourselves in a completely different posture with
regard to enrollment,” Bontrager wrote in 2003. “We have
gone from enrolling as many qualified students as possible
to facing the full range of enrollment issues, including
consideration of the physical and program capacity of
the campus as well as of the desired composition of the
student body based on residency, ethnicity, academic
credentials, and other characteristics. In short, we put
ourselves in a position of truly managing our enrollment
rather than just seeking to increase aggregate numbers.”85
Although Bontrager left Oregon State in 2006, the
university has continued its aggressive enrollment
management approach. In fact, it has doubled-down on
its recruiting efforts as it pursues a goal that its president,
Edward J. Ray, has set for the institution: to become a top
10 land-grant institution, a set of schools, including many
public flagship universities, that have a mission to provide
a broad and accessible education to the citizens of their
states. As part of this effort, Ray has vowed that by 2025,
at least half of the incoming class will be made up of top
students.86
According to Oregon State officials, the population of highachieving students (those who have a GPA of at least 3.75)
has grown in recent years to represent more than a third
of entering students each year.87 To achieve the president’s
goal, university administrators have drawn up an
“Executive Engagement Plan” that calls on the enrollment
management office to “fully engage all OSU deans and
college administrators and faculty as active participants
and on-going partners in the high-touch recruitment and
enrollment of high achieving students.”88 It also calls on
the university to “provide sufficient on-going scholarships
and financial assistance to successfully and robustly recruit
and admit high-achieving students.”89 The university has,
in fact, made financing merit scholarships a top goal of
the final phase of the $1 billion capital campaign that it is
carrying out now.90
Currently, Oregon students with a GPA of at least 3.85 or
SAT scores of 1900 and above are eligible for scholarships
worth up to $8,000 a year, renewable for four years. Out-of
state students with a GPA of at least 3.75 can receive up
to $7,000 per year for four years. Both Oregon and out-ofstate students with slightly lower grades and test scores
are eligible for lesser awards.91
Overall, in 2012-13, 19 percent of freshmen at Oregon
State had no financial need and received merit aid,
averaging about $4,000 a year.92
With all the money Oregon State spends recruiting the
best and the brightest, the university appears to have little
left over for those with the greatest financial need. While
Pell Grant recipients make up 34 percent of the school’s
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
student body, the lowest-income Oregon students pay an
average net price of $13,506, 70th highest among public
universities.
Still, with the university’s ambitions rising, it’s unlikely to
change its focus anytime soon. “The growth among highachieving students has helped OSU become known more
publicly and accurately as the leading ‘university of choice’
for Oregon’s best and brightest high school graduates,” the
university’s Enrollment Management Task Force boasted in
2012.93
Forgive University of Oregon officials if they don’t agree
with that assessment. And don’t think for a minute that
they have been sitting idly by as Oregon State advances.
In 2010, the University of Oregon hired one of the leading
enrollment management officials in the country – Roger
J. Thompson, who previously managed enrollments at the
University of Alabama and Indiana University, two schools
that have been heavily involved in the arms race.94 Under
his leadership of the University of Oregon’s enrollment
management office, the school has become much more
aggressive in trying to reel in top students from Oregon
and beyond (the school enrolls so many students from
California that some jokingly refer to it as the University of
California-Eugene).95
The university takes a high-touch approach to recruiting
high-achieving students, contacting them four, five, or six
times during the application season.96 Every January, the
school invites a select group of students it has admitted –
all with GPAs of at least 3.65 and high SAT or ACT scores
– to Eugene so they can get familiar with the campus, meet
with top faculty members, and attend sporting events at
the college for free. “It’s an opportunity for us to look at
the crème de la crème of our applicant pool for the next
fall and to really roll out the red carpet – and to look that
student and that parent in the eye and say, ‘We think you
can get a fantastic undergraduate education here at the
University of Oregon,’ ” David Van Der Haeghen, the school’s
assistant director of admissions for top scholar recruitment,
told The Register Guard, the local newspaper.97
Since arriving at the university, Thompson has streamlined
the university’s merit scholarship programs and made
them more generous. He has, for example, introduced the
Summit Scholarship, which offers Oregon top scholars
(those with a 3.80 GPA and SAT scores of 1200 or above
in the math and critical reading portions of the exam)
$20,000 and out-of state students who meet these
standards $32,000 over four years.98 Students with a GPA
of 3.65 are eligible for the new Apex Scholarship, which is
worth $12,000 for in-state students and $16,000 for outof-state students over four years.99
“At the OU,” Thompson wrote in a column for the The
Register Guard, “we clearly want Oregon’s best and
brightest, and we do not want financial need to stand in
the way.”100
In total, 8 percent of University of Oregon freshmen had
no need and received scholarships, worth $3,589 each.101
Meanwhile, in-state students from families making $30,000
or less must pay an average net price of $10,901.
Just like at Oregon State, the University of Oregon is driven
to move up the pecking order, and it has found that the
most expedient way to achieve this goal is to chase after
top students.
“We want to continue to change and enhance the image
the people have of the UO,” Van Der Haeghen said. “The
UO doesn’t have the same name recognition that you
get when you hear the name Stanford or Harvard or Yale,
right? But at the same time, we would put our faculty and
our undergrads up against faculty and undergrads from
any other university of our shape and size and feel very
confident.”102
The use of strategic enrollment management by public
colleges is not just being driven by the quest for prestige.
Schools are also using these techniques to try to increase
their revenue in the face of large-scale state budget cuts.
Such is the case at Wichita State University in Kansas, a
state that has cut spending on higher education by about
23 percent since 2008.103 To make up for lost revenue
the university plans to boost its enrollment by more than
7,000 students.104 This effort will require Wichita State to
engage in “much more aggressive recruiting of freshmen
both in-state and out-of-state,” according to John Bardo, the
school’s president.105
As a first step, the university spent $700,000 in 2013 to
hire the enrollment management firm Royall & Company
to help expand its reach outside Kansas. With the help of
the company, the university is purchasing lists of names of
hundreds of thousands of high school sophomores, juniors,
and seniors that it can recruit nationwide. “The plan is to
spend hundreds of thousands,” Bardo said. “The payoff will
be millions.”106
The school has also restructured its scholarship program
to make it more appealing to “academically talented
students.”107 For the first time, students are automatically
considered for merit scholarships upon admission to the
university (instead of having to apply for them separately,
as they’ve done in the past). And the scholarships are
available for up to four years of school. Previously, students
had to reapply for them each year.108
“Our interest is in making sure we keep the best and
brightest people in Wichita so that they become part of
our long-term workforce,” Bardo stated. “The new plan also
allows us to recruit bright new people from out of state
who we can help become part of the community.”109
Even before the changes took effect, Wichita State was
generous with merit aid, providing scholarships averaging
about $2,800 each to 36 percent of freshmen without
financial need in 2011-12.110 The fact that the university is
becoming even more strategic with its scholarships can’t
be good news for the lowest-income in-state students, who
already pay an average net price of $13,166.
29
30
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
High Net Price (Public Colleges)
Pell
Recipients
Wichita State University
Oregon State University
30%
Rowan University
15%
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
#undermining pell
edcentr.al/underminingpell
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Institution
Rowan University
University Of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh
Colorado School Of Mines
University Of Missouri Kansas City
Pennsylvania College Of
Technology
Miami University
Delaware State University
Pennsylvania State
University (The)
Temple University
University Of Baltimore
Penn State Altoona
Penn State Erie-Behrend
College
South Carolina State
University
University Of New
Hampshire
University Of The District
Of Columbia
University Of Cincinnati
Texas Southern University
Montclair State University
University Of Southern
Maine
Wright State University
West Chester University Of
Pennsylvania
Northern Illinois University
Kent State University
Massachusetts College Of
Art And Design
University Of Alabama
Ohio University
Pennsylvania State
University-Berks
Lamar University
Northeastern Illinois
University
Maine Maritime Academy
Western Connecticut State
University
Stephen F Austin State
University
Cleveland State University
State % Pell
NJ
30
Net Price
$20,577
PA
18
$19,107
CO
19
$19,089
MO
34
$18,111
PA
42
$18,099
OH
DE
17
55
$17,944
$17,872
PA
19
$17,847
PA
MD
PA
34
47
35
$17,796
$17,629
$17,140
PA
34
$17,042
SC
73
$16,942
NH
22
$16,702
DC
45
$16,555
OH
TX
NJ
27
74
37
$16,451
$16,302
$16,097
ME
36
$15,924
OH
43
$15,877
PA
24
$15,858
IL
OH
42
37
$15,775
$15,736
MA
25
$15,662
AL
OH
23
24
$15,605
$15,593
PA
35
$15,579
TX
43
$15,553
IL
48
$15,539
ME
32
$15,475
CT
28
$15,407
TX
46
$15,308
OH
51
$15,135
University Of Akron (The)
Penn State Harrisburg
University Of Maine Farmington
Penn State Mont Alto
Penn State Hazleton
California University Of
Pennsylvania
Christopher Newport
University
OH
PA
43
35
$15,097
$14,762
ME
46
$14,682
PA
PA
41
47
$14,653
$14,593
PA
39
$14,444
VA
18
$14,317
Institution
Indiana University - Purdue
University - Fort Wayne
Penn State Greater
Allegheny
Richard Stockton College
Of New Jersey
Sinte Gleska University
Bowling Green State
University
Ohio State UniversityMansfield Campus
Metropolitan State
University
University Of Alabama In
Huntsville
University Of Colorado At
Boulder
Vermont Technical College
Colorado Mesa University
Mesa State College
Shawnee State University
Keene State College
Georgia Southern
University
Ohio State UniversityNewark Campus
Dixie State University
Virginia Commonwealth
University
Bloomsburg University Of
Pennsylvania
University Of New
Hampshire At Manchester
Francis Marion University
University Of Northern
Colorado
Jacksonville State
University
University Of PittsburghBradford
Western Illinois University
Frostburg State University
Oregon State University
University Of PittsburghJohnstown
Eastern Connecticut State
University
Ohio State University
University Of PittsburghGreensburg
Austin Peay State
University
Cheyney University Of
Pennsylvania
Wichita State University
State % Pell
Net Price
IN
27
$14,123
PA
52
$14,057
NJ
35
$13,990
SD
50
$13,986
OH
37
$13,966
OH
48
$13,959
MN
41
$13,946
AL
33
$13,937
CO
18
$13,934
VT
CO
CO
OH
NH
37
42
42
59
23
$13,906
$13,895
$13,895
$13,885
$13,865
GA
38
$13,791
OH
44
$13,755
UT
51
$13,744
VA
29
$13,672
PA
29
$13,668
NH
29
$13,637
SC
55
$13,607
CO
34
$13,601
AL
47
$13,592
PA
46
$13,583
IL
MD
OR
41
36
34
$13,569
$13,511
$13,506
PA
31
$13,408
CT
26
$13,282
OH
24
$13,273
PA
37
$13,257
TN
53
$13,238
PA
79
$13,174
MS
36
$13,166
The list above shows the 75 public colleges with the highest net
prices for low-income students. The remaining colleges with net
prices above $10,000 are listed at edcentral.org/underminingpell
31
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
,,
32
We will risk losing top
scholars unless we begin
to rethink the relationship
between admission and
financial aid
GREG W. ROBERTS
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA DEAN OF ADMISSIONS
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
MOVING IN THE WRONG
DIRECTION: THE CASE OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA
The more public colleges compete nationally for the best (and in many
cases, the wealthiest) students, the greater the pressure on the schools
to use their financial aid strategically – both for offensive and defensive
purposes.
As described by Roberts, when it comes to admitting
students and offering them financial aid, UVa mostly
follows a “traditional model.” Under this model,
“individual application decisions on admission and
need-based financial aid are made independently of one
another,” he wrote.112 At the same time, the university
itself offers very few merit scholarships. [The Jefferson
Scholars Foundation, a nonprofit organization that is
affiliated with the school’s alumni association, offers
scholarships to 25 to 30 prospective students a year that
cover the full cost of attendance at the institution over
their college careers.]113
Despite the university’s longtime success, its approach
has become “antiquated” at a time when the “admissions
landscape is rapidly changing,” Roberts stated:
Vice Presidents of Enrollment, multimillion-dollar
operating budgets, and the use of high-priced
consultants hired to develop admissionsmarketing campaigns and communication
strategies have become the norm. It’s now
common for colleges to establish admission and
aid policies designed exclusively to improve
selectivity and yield, two statistics that influence
prestige, institutional position, and rank.114
Roberts argues that the school needs to make changes
to its admissions and financial aid policies “that will
enhance our ability to recruit, evaluate, and enroll top
students in a rapidly changing and highly competitive
marketplace.” As a start, he proposes adopting at least a
“modified version of the Enrollment Management model”
in which the admissions, financial aid, and institutional
research offices work more closely together to develop
“the most strategic and institutionally advantageous
admissions policies.”115
,,
The University of Virginia has been feeling the heat. In
recent years, the university has seen its “yield rate” – the
proportion of students who enroll in college after being
admitted – “gradually decline in some demographic
groups,” according to Greg W. Roberts, UVa’s dean of
admissions. “Nationally peers are pursuing admission
and aid policies that target our best applicants,” Roberts
warned in a presentation that he delivered to the
university’s board in August 2012, adding, “We will
risk losing top scholars unless we begin to rethink the
relationship between admission and financial aid at
UVa.”111
As more and more public
universities engage in
the merit aid arms race,
others feel compelled to
follow – potentially leaving
low-income students out
in the cold
Expanding UVa’s merit-aid offerings would be a key part
of this effort. The university should, he said, consider
offering full-tuition or half-tuition scholarships “to a
small number of our best applicants.” Alternatively, UVa
could offer smaller scholarships – of $2,500 to $5,000 –
to the hundreds of students who are admitted each year
into the university’s honors program. Another possibility
would be to offer aid to the best applicant “from each
high school in lower enrollment areas” of Virginia.116
Roberts recognizes that moving in this direction would
be controversial. “If we reduce need-based aid and offer
additional merit aid, however, we could open ourselves up
to criticism,” he said. “We could be seen as backing off on
our commitment to socioeconomic diversity.”117
Low-income students would undoubtedly suffer from
such a trade-off. Currently, the most financially needy
students from Virginia pay an average net price of just
$4,755.
UVa’s board hasn’t approved Roberts’ recommendations
– at least not yet. But Roberts’ memo to the board shows
that as more and more public universities engage in the
merit aid arms race, others feel compelled to follow –
potentially leaving low- and moderate-income students
out in the cold.
33
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
SIDEBAR:
PUBLIC COLLEGE TRENDS
Sixty-four public four-year colleges that were low-net price schools in
last year’s Undermining Pell report are now charging their lowest-income
in-state students an average net price above $10,000. At the same time,
14 public colleges that were high-net price schools in last year’s report
are now charging the most financially needy students from their home
states an average net price under $10,000.
When looking at only the 478 public colleges that were
included in Undermining Pell, many of the trends are
discouraging:
• The number of four-year public colleges that
charged in-state students with family incomes of
$30,000 or less an average net price over $10,000
has grown to 214, or 45 percent of the schools
examined, from 164, or 34 percent.
• The number of four-year public colleges that
charged the most financially needy students from
their home states an average net price over $15,000
has increased to 33, or 7 percent, from 22, or 5
percent.
The list of schools that are now high-net price
institutions contains a number of public flagship
universities that aggressively use merit aid to recruit
large numbers of affluent out-of-state students. At the
University of Vermont, for example, about 27 percent
of freshmen have no financial need and receive
scholarships, averaging nearly $7,000 each.118 Meanwhile,
the lowest-income in-state students at Vermont paid an
average net price of $10,643 in 2011-12, up from $6,832
the year earlier.
,,
34
The number of four-year
public colleges that
charged financially needy
students over $10,000 has
increased from 34 to 45
percent in one year.
The list also includes smaller regional state universities
that are trying to raise the academic profile of
their students. Take East Stroudsburg University of
Pennsylvania, which has been on a mission in recent
years to become a “first-choice institution” for “highability students.”119
The university’s enrollment management office laid out
this goal in its strategic plan for the 2010-15 academic
years.120 The plan calls on the institution to raise its
admissions standards each year to make the university
more exclusive. It also calls on the university to use its
institutional aid dollars more strategically to support its
recruitment goals.121
Several years into the plan, the university has certainly
become a generous provider of merit aid. According
to data that it provided to the College Board, 16
percent of its freshmen have no financial need and
receive scholarships, averaging about $10,000 for each
student.122
When asked by ProPublica about the effects its merit
aid policies are having on low-income students, a
spokeswoman for the university said “high achieving and
access are not mutually exclusive…There are funding
possibilities available for both groups of students.”123
Unfortunately, the lowest-income students appear to be
getting the short end of the stick. The average net price
that East Stroudsburg charges the most financially needy
in-state students rose to $11,682 in 2011-12 from $9,556
in 2010-11.
The first table on page 35 shows a selection of the 63
newly high-net-price colleges; the second table shows all
14 newly low-net-price public colleges.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
Selected Institution
(15 of 63)
Lamar University
Albany State Univ.*
Florida State University
Univ. of North Dakota
Georgia College & State
University
Univ. New Hampshire
at Manchester
University of Vermont
Southern University
A&M Colg At Baton R*
Grambling State Univ.*
California Polytechnic
State University
Alabama A & M Univ.*
Georgia State Univ.*
Virginia Polytechnic
Institute & State Univ.
Armstrong Atlantic
State University*
George Mason Univ.
State
TX
GA
FL
ND
Net Price
(2011)
$9,938
$8,457
$6,125
$8,218
Net Price
(2012)
$15,553
$13,070
$10,676
$12,580
GA
$7,998
$12,125
NH
$9,705
$13,637
VT
$6,832
$10,643
LA
$8,752
$12,517
LA
$9,022
$12,672
CA
$6,624
$10,169
AL
GA
$7,466
$9,203
$10,931
$12,556
VA
$8,492
$11,775
GA
$8,895
$12,029
VA
$9,105
$12,120
Public Institutions with
Net Prices Rising Above $10,000
Pell
Recip.
Florida State University
30%
George Mason University
15%
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
The list shows 15 of 63 public colleges with net prices rising above
$10,000; the colleges selected are those with the largest price rises.
* Colleges with Pell percentages above 45% are not illustrated.
Institution
University of Colorado
at Denver
Fort Lewis College
Univ. Maryland Eastern Shore*
Univ. Maine - Fort Kent
Univ. Maine - Presque I.
Univ. Maine - Machias
Central Michigan Univ.
Montana Tech
University at Buffalo
University of
Cincinnati-Blue Ash
Kent State U
Ashtabula*
Langston University*
Penn State York
Prairie View A&M*
State
Net Price
(2011)
Net Price
(2012)
CO
$10,187
$9,965
CO
$11,972
$9,777
MD
$10,315
$9,782
ME
ME
ME
MI
MT
NY
$10,681
$10,382
$10,940
$11,249
$10,289
$10,096
$9,154
$8,228
$6,376
$9,965
$8,357
$8,745
OH
$10,399
$9,880
OH
$10,078
$9,880
OK
PA
TX
$10,142
$10,306
$11,529
$9,017
$9,551
$7,788
* Colleges with Pell percentages above 45% are not illustrated.
Many of the colleges on the newly low-net-price list
above such as the University of Colorado at Denver, saw
only a slight dip in the average net prices they charge the
lowest-income students. So it’s possible that the oneyear dip is the result of the normal fluctuations in the
population of students they are serving, rather than due
to any specific policy change at the institutions.
Public Institutions with
Net Prices Falling Below $10,000
Pell
Recip.
University of Maine at Machias
30%
University of Colorado at Denver
15%
0%
$0
$10k
$20k
Net Price
(Low Income)
However, officials at two of the colleges – the University
of Maine at Machias and Prairie View A & M University
– report that they have increased the amount of
scholarship aid they provide low-income students in
recent years. This helps explain why the two institutions
have seen significant reductions in the average net prices
they charged these students over this period of time.
35
36
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
CONCLUSION
In January, President Obama invited more than 100 college presidents to
a White House summit that focused on ways that colleges could improve
access for low-income students. The campus leaders each made
pledges about what their schools could do to help financially needy
students enroll in and complete college.124
The event made for good political theater and could
lead to some positive developments. But the truth is
that instead of helping the federal government achieve
its college-access mission, many four-year colleges,
with their relentless pursuit of prestige and revenue,
are adding hurdles that are hampering the educational
progress of low-income students or leaving them with
mountains of debt after they graduate.
Besides the very richest colleges and some exceptional
schools, nearly all private nonprofit colleges provide
merit aid, often to the detriment of the low-income
students they enroll. Many poorer schools provide deep
discounts to affluent students because they believe they
must do so to survive, while other fairly wealthy colleges
use their aid as a competitive weapon to try to rise up
the ranks and break into the top echelon of schools, as
defined by publications such as U.S. News.
While the situation is better in the public college
sector, it is deteriorating fast. As public institutions deal
with decreasing state funding and fierce competition,
particularly for out-of-state students, they are
increasingly using their institutional aid dollars to buy
the best and the brightest students and those who can
otherwise afford to pay full freight.
“The whole system is constantly moving up, going
upstream to get better and better students, and get
students who can pay,” Anthony Carnevale, director of
Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the
Workforce, recently told ProPublica. “It all looks great
for the press release. But you’re systematically leaving
people behind.”125
Many college leaders recognize the futility of being
engaged in an arms race in which they feel compelled
to offer more and more of their financial aid to precisely
those students who need it the least. But few are willing
to disarm on their own for fear of putting their schools at
a competitive disadvantage.
Change is going to have to come from outside academe.
A federal solution is needed – one that takes a carrotand-stick approach.126
The carrot is to help schools that simply don’t have the
resources to keep down the net prices of the low-income
students they serve. The plan would offer Pell bonuses
to financially strapped public and private four-year
colleges that serve a substantial share of Pell Grant
recipients (more than 25 percent of the student body)
and graduate at least half their students school-wide
– with the aim of having these schools use this money
to boost their institutional aid budgets and therefore
reduce the net prices they charge the neediest students.
Colleges could also use this additional money to create
support programs to further increase the retention
and graduation rates of low-income students on their
campuses.
The stick is for wealthier colleges that have chosen
to divert their aid to try to buy students so that they
can rise up the U.S. News rankings and increase their
net revenues. These schools, which generally enroll a
relatively small share of low-income students (25 percent
or less of Pell Grant recipients) but charge them high net
prices, would be required to match at least a share of the
Pell dollars they receive.
Together, the Pell matching and Pell bonus proposals
are aimed at ensuring that colleges live up to their
commitments to serve as engines of opportunity, rather
than as perpetuators of inequality.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
NOTES
1 Elizabeth F. Farrell and Martin Van Der Werf, “Playing
the Rankings Game,” The Chronicle of Higher Education,
May 25, 2007: www.chronicle.com/article/Playing-theRankings-Game/4451.
2 “Baylor University (Texas) Case Study,” Noel-Levitz’s
website: www.noellevitz.com/case-studies/bayloruniversity-texas.
3 “A Decade of Remarkable Progress: Baylor Annual
Report 2012,” Baylor University, “Imperative IV, Goal 3,”
p. 4.4: www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.
php/179639.pdf.
4 J.B. Smith, “Baylor 2012 Still a Work in Progress
10 Years Later,” Waco Tribune-Herald, May 7, 2012:
www.baylor.edu/mediacommunications/news.
php?action=story&story=114981.
5 “Pro Futuris: A Strategic Vision for Baylor University,”
Baylor University, May 2012, p. 10: www.baylor.edu/
profuturis/.
6 Information about the proportion of financial need that
the university covers comes from the College Board’s
Annual Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on
collegedata.com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/
college_pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=1074.
7 Stephen Burd, “Undermining Pell: How Colleges
Compete for Wealthy Students and Leave the LowIncome Behind,” the New America Foundation, May 2013:
education.newamerica.net/sites/newamerica.net/files/
policydocs/Merit_Aid%20Final.pdf.
8 Paul Fain, “Why Deep Tuition Discounts May Not Spell
Financial Doom,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, May
2, 2010: www.chronicle.com/article/Why-Deep-TuitionDiscounts-May/65331/.
9 Marian Wang, “Public Universities Ramp Up Aid for the
Wealthy, Leaving the Poor Behind,” ProPublica, September
11, 2013: www.propublica.org/article/how-state-schoolsramp-up-aid-for-the-wealthy-leaving-the-poor-behind.
10 The College Board, “Trends in Student Aid 2013,”
October 2013, p. 24: trends.collegeboard.org/sites/
default/files/student-aid-2013-full-report.pdf.
11 Jerome Lucido and Lloyd Thacker, “A Call for
Individual and Collective Leadership: The Case for
Change in College Admissions,” University of Southern
California Center for Enrollment Research, Policy, and
Practice and the Education Conservancy, 2011: www.
thecollegesolution.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/
USC-report.pdf.
12 Lesley J. Turner, “The Incidence of Student Financial
Aid,” Columbia University Dissertation, April 29, 2012:
econweb.umd.edu/~turner/LTurner_FedAid_Apr2012.pdf;
and Jon H. Oberg, “A Natural Experiment of the 1990s:
Responses to Changes in Pell Grants and Stafford Loans,”
the National Institute on Postsecondary Education,
Libraries, and Lifelong Learning at the U.S. Department
of Education’s Office of Educational Research and
Improvement, October 2002.
13 Ben Miller, “Pell Grant Increases Mean Little if
Washington Acts Alone,” The Chronicle of Higher Education,
June 9, 2014: chronicle.com/article/Pell-Grant-IncreasesMean/146933?cid=megamenu.
14 Higher Education Opportunity Act, Public Law 110-315,
GPO, August 14, 2008: www2.ed.gov/policy/highered/leg/
hea08/index.html.
15 Mamie Lynch, Jennifer Engle, and Jose L. Cruz, “Priced
Out: How the Wrong Financial-Aid Policies Hurt LowIncome Students,” The Education Trust, p. 2: www.edtrust.
org/node/2369.
16 Beckie Supiano, “Why It’s So Hard to Tell What LowIncome Students Pay at Elite Colleges,” The Chronicle of
Higher Education, August 15, 2014.
17 Catharine Hill, “Become Need-Blind? For Colleges,
That’s the Wrong Question,” The Chronicle of Higher
Education, December 10, 2012: chronicle.com/article/
Become-Need-Blind-For/136191/.
18 For example, with Williams University economist
Gordon Winston, Hill co-wrote “Low-Income Students
and Highly Selective Private Colleges: Geography,
Searching, and Recruiting,” Economics of Education Review,
2010, and “Affordability: Family Incomes and Net Prices
at Highly Selective Private Colleges and Universities,”
Journal of Human Resources, 2005: sites.williams.edu/
wpehe/files/2011/06/DP-721.pdf and www.jstor.org/
discover/10.2307/4129540?uid=3739584&uid=2129&ui
d=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21104453053
297.
19 Catharine Hill, “President’s Page: Need-Blind and
Open to All,” Vassar: The Alumnae/i Quarterly, Fall 2007:
vq.vassar.edu/issues/2007/04/vassar-today/presidentspage.html.
20 “Vassar Increases Affordability with New No-Loans
Policy,” this is Vassar, the eNewsletter for Alumnae/i
&Families, April 2008: alums.vassar.edu/publications/
newsletter/issues/2008/04/affordability.html.
21 Tamar Lewin, “Tough Times Strain Colleges Rich
37
38
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
and Poor,” The New York Times, November 8, 2008:
www.nytimes.com/2008/11/08/education/08college.
html?pagewanted=all.
22 Catharine B. Hill, “Colleges Are Already Struggling with
Diversity,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, July 9, 2013: articles.
philly.com/2013-07-09/news/40446027_1_highereducation-universities-lower-income-students.
23 Greg Winter, “Secret of One College’s Success Is Aid for
Academic Achievers,” The New York Times, December 22,
2003: news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/605.aspx.
24 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=1720.
25 Scott Jaschik, “A Push for Need-Based Aid,” Inside
Higher Ed, March 16, 2007: www.insidehighered.com/
news/2007/03/16/hamilton.
26 Ibid.
27 “Hamilton College,” Commitments to Action on College
Opportunity, the Executive Office of the President, January
2014, p. 25: www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/
college_opportunity_commitments_1-16-2014_final.pdf.
39 Marcella Bombardieri, “Northeastern, Other Colleges
No Longer Bound by Region,” The Boston Globe, March 22,
2014: www.northeastern.edu/seattle/northeastern-othercolleges-no-longer-bound-by-region/.
40 “Northeastern Rises to #49 in National Ranking,”
Northeastern University News Service, September 11,
2013: www.cps.neu.edu/news/northeastern-nationalranking.php.
41 Joe O’Connell, “Top Students Continue to Choose
Northeastern,” [email protected], November 7, 2013:
www.northeastern.edu/news/2013/11/northeasternenrollment/.
42 Schworm, “Fast-rising NU Reexamines Its Identity.”
43 Kara Shemin, “Northeastern to Invest More Than
$220 Million in Financial Aid,” Northeastern University
News Service, April 16, 2014: www.northeastern.edu/
news/2014/04/northeastern-to-invest-more-than-220million-in-financial-aid/.
44 Jon Marcus and Holly K. Hacker, “Poorer Families Are
Bearing the Brunt of College Price Hikes, Data Show,”
Hechinger Report, March 9, 2014: hechingerreport.org/
content/data-show-poorer-families-bearing-bruntcollege-price-hikes_14999/.
28 Scott Jaschik, “Going Need Blind,” Inside Higher
Ed, March 8, 2010: www.insidehighered.com/
news/2010/03/08/hamilton.
45 Ibid.
29 Peg Tyre, “Improving Economic Diversity at the
Better Colleges,” The New York Times, February 5, 2014:
opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/02/05/improvingeconomic-diversity-at-the-better-colleges/.
47 Beckie Supiano and Eric Hoover, “Baylor U. Offered
Financial Incentives to Freshmen Who Retook the
SAT,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, October
15, 2008: chronicle.com/article/Baylor-U-OfferedFinancial/114719/.
30 Ibid.
31 “Franklin & Marshall College,” Commitments to Action
on College Opportunity, the Executive Office of the
President, January 2014, pgs. 22-23.
32 Kevin Kiley, “Franklin & Marshall Targets Charter
Schools Like KIPP for New Source of Students,” Inside
Higher Ed, December 14, 2012: www.insidehighered.com/
news/2012/12/14/franklin-marshall-targets-charterschools-kipp-new-source-students.
33 Tyre, “Improving Economic Diversity at the Better
Colleges.”
34 Ibid.
35 Peter Schworm, “Fast-rising NU Reexamines Its
Identity,” The Boston Globe, April 6, 2009: www.boston.
com/news/education/higher/articles/2009/04/06/fast_
rising_nu_reexamines_its_identity/.
36 Ibid.
37 “Editorial: Commuting Days Nearing End,” The
Huntington News, January 17, 2013: huntnewsnu.
com/2013/01/editorial-commuting-days-nearing-end/.
38 Information about Northeastern University’s merit
scholarships can be found on the university’s website at
www.northeastern.edu/admissions/costs/scholarships.
html.
46 Ibid.
48 Ibid.
49 Information about Baylor’s merit scholarships can be
found on the university’s website at www.baylor.edu/
admissions/index.php?id=91415.
50 Information about merit aid comes from the College
Board’s Annual Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on
collegedata.com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/
college_pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=1074.
51 Cindy V. Culp, “Baylor Officials Defend Building
Campaign that Critics Say Raised Tuition Too
Much,” Waco Tribune-Herald, May 8, 2012: www.
baylor.edu/mediacommunications/news.
php?action=story&story=115092.
52 “Pro Futuris,” p. 22.
53 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=1074.
54 Fain, “Why Deep Tuition Discounts May Not Spell
Financial Doom.”
55 Kenneth E. Redd, “Discounting Toward Disaster:
Tuition Discounting, College Finances, and Enrollments
of Low-Income Undergraduates,” USA Group Foundation,
December 2000: www.nyu.edu/classes/jepsen/
tuitiondiscountingDec00.pdf.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
56 Kaitlin Mulhere, “Franklin Pierce University Students
Share Disappointment Over Program Cuts,” The Keene
Sentinel, January 31, 2014: www.sentinelsource.com/
news/local/franklin-pierce-university-students-sharedisappointment-over-program-cuts/article_f14c494fde46-58b3-90c0-957127a91a7b.html.
57 Ibid.
58 Ibid.
59 Michael McDonald, “Small U.S. Colleges Battle Death
Spiral as Enrollment Drops,” Bloomberg News, April 14,
2014: www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-14/small-u-scolleges-battle-death-spiral-as-enrollment-drops.html.
60 Kaitlin Mulhere, “Franklin Pierce University President
Explains Cuts, Outlines More Changes,” The Keene Sentinel,
February 5, 2014: www.sentinelsource.com/news/local/
franklin-pierce-university-president-explains-cutsoutlines-more-changes/article_230489cc-6b56-56698a7b-db3ec5a27f39.html.
61 Ibid.
62 Tamar Lewin, “Getting Out of the Discount Game, Small
Colleges Lower the Price,” The New York Times, December
25, 2013.
63 Ibid.
64 Ibid.
65 Ibid.
66 Stephen Burd, “Merit Aid Madness.” Washington
Monthly, September/October 2013: www.
washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/september_
october_2013/features/merit_aid_madness046453.
php?page=all.
67 Lili Martinez, “College Seeks to Attract Students With
New Scholarships,” The Kenyon Collegian, November 8,
2012.
68 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=301.
69 This is from a PowerPoint presentation that Scott
Bierman, the president of Beloit College, delivered at a
meeting of the Associated Colleges of the Midwest on
June 20, 2013: www.acm.edu/uploads/cms/documents/
tuitiondrivenfinal.pdf.
Higher Ed, April 30, 2013: www.insidehighered.com/
news/2013/04/30/out-state-enrollment-decreasesminority-low-income-student-enrollment.
76 Scott Jaschik, “Out-of-State Dreams,” Inside Higher
Ed, October 16, 2009: www.insidehighered.com/
news/2009/10/16/outofstate.
77 Kellie Woodhouse, “Enrollment Trends: Out-of-State
Students Form 42.6 percent of University of Michigan’s
Freshman Class,” The Ann Arbor News, October 25, 2012:
http://www.annarbor.com/news/university-of-michigansees-increase-in-out-of-state-students/.
78 Kellie Woodhouse, “5 Things to Know About University
of Michigan’s Record Enrollment This Fall,” The Ann Arbor
News, October 16, 2013: www.mlive.com/news/ann-arbor/
index.ssf/2013/10/university_of_michigan_enrolls.html.
79 The breakdown between in-state and out-of state
students at the University of Michigan in 2008 are from
The Chronicle of Higher Education’s interactive Webpage,
titled “Where Does Your Freshman Class Come From?”:
chronicle.com/article/Where-Does-Your-FreshmanClass/129547/#id=170976.
80 Scott Kurashige, “In Diversity Gap at Michigan
Flagship, Signs of a Lost Public Mission,” The Chronicle of
Higher Education, March 3, 2014: chronicle.com/article/InDiversity-Gap-at-Michigan/145057/.
81 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=379.
82 Matthew Quirk, “The Best Class Money Can Buy,” The
Atlantic Monthly, November 2005: www.theatlantic.com/
magazine/archive/2005/11/the-best-class-money-canbuy/304307/.
83 Bob Bontrager, “Developing an Enrollment
Management Organization: A Case Study,” SEM Source,
the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and
Admissions Officers, October 2003: www4.aacrao.org/
semsource/sem/index9d5e.html?fa=view&id=2207.
84 Ibid.
85 Ibid.
86 Information about President Ray’s goal comes from
the minutes of a December 2011 meeting of the Faculty
Senate’s Academic Advising Council: oregonstate.edu/
senate/committees/aac/min/2011/20111214.html.
70 Ibid.
87 Ibid.
71 Supiano, “Why It’s So Hard to Tell What Low-Income
Students Pay at Elite Colleges.”
88 The “Executive Engagement Plan” is available at
oregonstate.edu/senate/committees/aac/min/2011/
Plan111214.pdf.
72 Tyre, “Improving Economic Diversity at the Better
Colleges.”
73 Ibid.
74 Burd, “Merit Aid Madness.”
75 Kevin Kiley, “Out-of-State Enrollment Decreases
Minority, Low-Income Student Enrollment,” Inside
89 Ibid.
90 Information about Oregon State’s capital campaign
can be found here: campaignforosu.org/thecampaign/.
91 Information about Oregon State’s merit scholarships
can be found on the university’s website at financialaid.
oregonstate.edu/explore_osuscholarships.
39
40
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
92 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=926.
108 Roy Wenzl, “New Wichita State Scholarship Program
Aims to Boost Enrollment,” The Wichita Eagle, October
14, 2013: www.kansas.com/2013/10/14/3058434/newwichita-state-scholarship.html.
93 OSU Enrollment Management Task Force,
“Final Report,” February 2012: oregonstate.edu/
enrollmentmanagement/sites/default/files/content/
EMTF_report_final_web.pdf.
109 Ibid.
94 “UO Enrollment Management Job Draws Top
Indiana Official,” University of Oregon Media Relations,
April 30, 2010: uonews.uoregon.edu/archive/newsrelease/2010/5/uo-enrollment-management-job-drawstop-indiana-official.
95 Bill Graves, “California Students Flood University of
Oregon,” The Oregonian, August 15, 2010: www.oregonlive.
com/education/index.ssf/2010/08/california_students_
flood_univ.html
110 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=1152.
111 Greg W. Roberts, Memo to the Board of Visitors,
University of Virginia, August 15, 2012: www.
documentcloud.org/documents/902476-public-retreatpackage-need-to-rethink-need.html#document/p14/
a141607 (see p. 14).
112 Ibid.
96 Diane Dietz, “UO Steps Up Recruitment Efforts for Top
Scholars,” The Register Guard, January 13, 2014: www.opb.
org/news/article/uo-steps-up-recruitment-efforts-fortop-scholars/.
113 Information about the Jefferson Scholars Foundation
can be found here: www.jeffersonscholars.org.
97 Ibid.
115 Ibid.
98 Information about the University of Oregon’s Summit
Scholarship can be found here: financialaid.uoregon.edu/
summit.
116 Ibid.
99 Information about UO’s Apex Scholarship can be found
here: financialaid.uoregon.edu/apex
118 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=183.
100 Roger J. Thompson, “UO Focusing on
Making Education Affordable,” The Register
Guard, June 21, 2013: www.thefreelibrary.com/
UO+focusing+on+making+education+
affordable.-a0334861347.
101 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=755.
102 Dietz, “UO Steps Up Recruitment Efforts for Top
Scholars.”
103 Andy Marso, “Report: Kansas Higher Education Cuts
Among Longest Lasting,” The Topeka Capital-Journal, May
1, 2014: http://cjonline.com/news/2014-05-01/reportkansas-higher-education-cuts-among-longest-lasting.
104 Roy Wenzl, “Wichita State Hires Recruiting Firm to
Boost Enrollment,” The Wichita Eagle, September 17, 2013:
www.kansas.com/2013/09/17/3005771/bardos-plan-forwichita-state.html
105 John Bardo, “Overview and Next Steps in Strategic
Planning,” Wichita State University, September 2013:
webs.wichita.edu/depttools/depttoolsmemberfiles/
wsustrategy/Stage2_docs/Strategic_Planning_Retreat_
powerpoint_9.17.13.pdf.
106 Wenzl, “Wichita State Hires Recruiting Firm to Boost
Enrollment.”
107 John Bardo, “Overview and Next Steps in Strategic
Planning.”
114 Greg W. Roberts, Memo to the Board of Visitors.
117 Ibid.
119 The 2010-15 strategic plan from East Stroudsburg’s
Enrollment Management Division can be found at www4.
esu.edu/about/administration/president/documents/pdf/
enrollment_management.pdf.
120 Ibid.
121 Ibid.
122 Merit aid figures are from the College Board’s Annual
Survey of Colleges 2013 as reproduced on collegedata.
com: www.collegedata.com/cs/data/college/college_
pg03_tmpl.jhtml?schoolId=792.
123 Wang, “Public Universities Ramp Up Aid for the
Wealthy, Leaving the Poor Behind.”
124 The Executive Office of the President, Commitments
to Action on College Opportunity, January 2014: www.
whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/college_
opportunity_commitments_1-16-2014_final.pdf
125 Wang, “Public Universities Ramp Up Aid for the
Wealthy, Leaving the Poor Behind.”
126 Stephen Burd, Kevin Carey, Jason Delisle, Rachel
Fishman, Alex Holt, Amy Laitinen, and Clare McCann,
Rebalancing Resources and Incentives in Federal Student
Aid, New America’s Education Policy Program, January
2013: newamerica.net/publications/policy/rebalancing_
resources_and_incentives_in_federal_student_aid.
UNDERMINING PELL: VOLUME II
41
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