Regional Development Profile Central Karoo District 2011

Regional Development Profile Central Karoo District  2011
Western Cape Government
Provincial Treasury
Regional Development Profile
Central Karoo District
2011
Working paper
To obtain additional information of this document, please contact:
Western Cape Provincial Treasury
Budget Management: Local Government
Private Bag X9165
7 Wale Street
Cape Town
tel: +27 21 483 3386 fax: +27 21 483 4680
This publication is available online at www.westerncape.gov.za
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Contents
Introduction
3
1.
Demographics
4
1.1
Population Size
4
1.2
Age and Gender Distribution
6
1.2.1
Age Distribution
8
1.2.2
Gender Distribution
8
1.3
Population Groups
8
2.
Social Development and Well-being
10
2.1
Education and Human Development
10
2.1.1
Literacy
10
2.1.2
Access to training facilities
10
2.1.3
No fee schools
12
2.2
Healthcare Services
12
2.2.1
Health Care Facilities
12
2.2.2
HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care
13
2.2.3
Child Health
15
2.2.4
Maternal Health
16
2.2.5
Community Based Services
17
2.3
Safety and Security
18
2.4
Poverty and Inequality
19
2.4.1
Human Development Index
20
2.4.2
People Living in Poverty
21
2.4.3
Indigent Households
22
2.4.4
Gini coefficient
23
2.5
Access to Housing
24
2.5.1
Access to Housing: Central Karoo
24
2.6
Access to Municipal Services
26
2.6.1
Water
26
2.6.2
Energy
28
2.6.3
Sanitation
29
2.6.4
Refuse Removal
31
2.7
Roads
33
i
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
3.
4.
Economically Active Population
33
3.1
Labour Force
33
3.2
Unemployment
35
3.2.1
The Unemployment Rate
35
3.2.2
Characteristics of the Unemployed
36
3.3
Employment
38
3.3.1
Employment by Sector
38
Economic Structure and Performance
41
4.1
Value and Growth of the Economy
41
4.2
Central Karoo District Economy Sector Composition
42
4.3
Sectoral Growth
43
5.
Finance and Resource Mobilisation
44
6.
Environmental Management
48
6.1
Waste Management
49
6.2
Air Quality
49
6.3
Water Quality
49
6.4
Waste Water Treatment
50
Cautionary Note
51
Tables
Table 1
Western Cape Population Numbers and 2011 Projections
4
Table 2
Central Karoo Population by Population Group, 2001 and 2007
9
Table 3
Public Further Education and Training Facilities available to the
Central Karoo, 2011
11
Table 4
No fee Schools in the Western Cape
12
Table 5
Number of Western Cape Healthcare Facilities, 2011
13
Table 6
Central Karoo District Health Care Facilities, 2011
13
Table 7
HIV/AIDS Prevalence and Care
14
Table 8
Child Health in the Western Cape: Full Immunisation and
Malnutrition, 2010/11
15
Table 9
Child Health in the Central Karoo: Full Immunisation and
Malnutrition, 2010/11
16
Table 10
Maternal Health in the Western Cape: Mortality, Delivery to
women under 18 years and Termination of pregnancy, 2010/11
16
ii
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 11
Maternal Health: Mortality in the Central Karoo, Delivery to
women under 18 years and Termination of pregnancy, 2010/11
17
Table 12
Community Based Services: Non-Profit Organisation (NPO)
Care
17
Table 13
Community Based Services by NPOs, 2010/11
18
Table 14
Crime in the Central Karoo: April to March 2003/04 – 2010/11
19
Table 15
HDI 2001, 2007 and 2010 per City/District
20
Table 16
HDI, 2001, 2007 and 2010 per municipality
20
Table 17
Poverty Rate – Percentage of People Living in Poverty, 2001,
2007 and 2010 per City/District
22
Table 18
Poverty Rate – Percentage of People Living in Poverty, 2001,
2007 and 2010 per municipality
22
Table 19
Indigent Households within the Central Karoo Municipality
23
Table 20
Gini coefficient 2001, 2007, 2010 per City/District
23
Table 21
Gini coefficient 2001, 2007, 2010 per municipality
23
Table 22
Access to housing in the Western Cape
24
Table 23
Access to Housing in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
25
Table 24
Access to Water in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
27
Table 25
Energy Sources used for Lighting in the Central Karoo, 2001 and
2007
29
Table 26
Access to Sanitation in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
30
Table 27
Access to Refuse Removal Services in the Central Karoo, 2001
and 2007
32
Table 28
Central Karoo, at 15 July 2011
33
Table 29
Comparison of Labour Force Information across Western Cape
Municipal Areas, 2007
34
Table 30
Working Age Population and Labour Force details, 2001 and
2007
34
Table 31
Comparison of Labour Force Information across Western Cape
Municipal Areas, 2007
35
Table 32
Comparison of Labour Force Information across the Central
Karoo Municipal Areas, 2007
36
Table 33
Characteristics of the Unemployed, 2007
37
Table 34
Central Karoo, Sector value 2009 (Constant 2005 prices)
41
Table 35
Annual Growth rate for the Central Karoo – 1999 - 2009
43
Table 36
Average Annual Growth 1999 – 2009 (GDP-R Constant 2005
Prices, R‟000s)
44
iii
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Table 37
Provincial Transfers to the Central Karoo
45
Table 38
National Transfers to the Central Karoo Municipal Area,
2011/12 - 2013/14
47
Table 39
Provincial Payments and Estimates in comparison with Transfers
48
Figures
Figure 1
Western Cape Population Numbers and Projections
5
Figure 2
City/District Percentage of Western Cape Population – 2001,
2007 and 2011
6
Figure 3
Central Karoo Population Pyramid, 2001
7
Figure 4
Central Karoo Population Pyramid, 2007
7
Figure 5
Central Karoo population groups
9
Figure 6
Poverty Overview – Central Karoo, 1996 – 2010
21
Figure 7
Formal dwellings
24
Figure 8
Accessing to housing in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
Percentage Share Comparison
25
Figure 9
Household access to dwellings in the Central Karoo, 2001 and
2007 - Percentage share of households
26
Figure 10
Access to Water per District 2007
27
Figure 11
Access to piped water in the Central Karoo District
28
Figure 12
Energy sources for the Western Cape
29
Figure 13
Access to flush toilets in the Western Cape – District
Comparison (2007)
30
Figure 14
Access to Sanitation per municipality in the Central Karoo
District
31
Figure 15
Access to refuse removal by local authority/private company
in the Western Cape
31
Figure 16
Access to refuse removal in the Central Karoo District
32
Figure 17
Employment by Sector – A Comparison across Western Cape
Districts, 2007
38
Figure 18
Employment by Sector – Central Karoo, 2007
39
Figure 19
Employment by Skill Level – A Comparison across Western
Cape Districts/Central Karoo District, 2007
40
Figure 20
Skilled Level of the Employed – Central Karoo, 2007
40
Figure 21
GDP-R Growth, 1999 to 2009 (Constant 2005 prices)
42
Figure 22
Sector Contribution to the Economy, 1999 to 2009 (Constant
2005 prices)
43
iv
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Central Karoo District
List of towns
Beaufort West
Murraysburg
Laingsburg
Prince Albert
1
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Central Karoo at a glance
Population
Total number
Percentage share
African
Coloured
Indian/Asian
White
2001
2007
60 482
56 227
2001
12.0
76.8
0.1
11.0
2007
9.5
80.4
0.1
9.9
Socio-economic indicators
Education
2007
Literacy rate
63.6%
Health
Number of Primary Health Care Facilities 2010 -0 Community Health Centres,
1 Community Day Centres, 8 Clinics, 3 Satellite clinics, 8 mobile clinics and
4 district hospitals.
Immunisation rate
Anti-retroviral patient load (HIV/AIDS)
Crime (numbers)
2008/09
Jun-10
Jun-11
99.2%
84.4%
559
674
2009/10
2010/11
Murder
22
37
29
Total sexual crimes
86
134
164
Drug related crimes
823
898
1 076
Poverty levels
Poverty rate (percentage of people living in poverty)
2001
2007
2010
38.7%
30.4%
32.5%
Number of indigent households – 2011
Unemployment rate
5 903
2001
2007
37.6.%
30.8%
Labour concentration (2007):
Community; social and personal services (16.9%), Agriculture; hunting; forestry
and fishing (15.7%), Wholesale and retail trade (14.0%)
Access to housing and municipal services (Percentage share of
households with access)
2001
2007
94.0%
96.9%
2.0%
1.6%
Electricity for lighting
83.5%
93.1%
Flush toilets
85.2%
93.9%
Piped water inside dwelling
57.1%
78.0%
Refuse removal (by local authority at least once a week)
78.0%
86.9%
1999
2009
Formal dwellings
Informal dwellings
Economy
GDP-R
Average annual growth, 1999 - 2009
Largest sector contributions to GDP-R in 2009
-
Finance, insurance, real estate and business services - 27.7%
-
Manufacturing - 10.5%
-
Wholesale and retail trade, catering and accommodation 13.9%
-
Transport, storage and communication - 12.3%
2
R959.3 m
R1 431.7 m
4.1%
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Introduction
Regional profiles provide Western Cape municipalities with data and information
which may assist in planning, budgeting and the prioritisation of municipal services. It
is acknowledged that municipalities across the Western Cape have different
capacities and therefore will use the information own needs.
The areas covered in this profile include information on: demographics, education,
health, crime, poverty, housing, municipal services, labour force, economy, finance
and resource mobilisation and environmental management. The indicators reflect the
socio-economic reality of municipalities. As such valuable insight can be gained as to
the developmental challenges faced by communities residing within a specific
geographical area.
This profile uses data1, primarily sourced from Statistics South Africa, administrative
data from sector departments, the Bureau of Economic Research and Global Insight.
The data sourced from sector departments are the most recent that is available. The
latest survey data available at municipal level from Statistics South Africa 2007
Community Survey; comparisons are also made with the 2001 Census. The results from
the 2011 Census will be eagerly awaited.
The format of the profile allows for easy readability with data being displayed in table
or graph, followed by the relevant trend analysis.
The information contained in this profile highlights information for the Central Karoo
District in relation to the Western Cape.
1
A caveat to the data used to inform the analysis contained in this profile has been attached in the form
of a cautionary note at the back of the profile.
3
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
1.
Demographics
The demographics of a population refer to selected population characteristics such
as age, gender, race and income level. Demographic characteristics in a municipal
service delivery environment, determines the extent and quantum of services to be
delivered. Population characteristics inform key policy decisions, e.g. household
income for example determines a household‟s inclusion or exclusion from certain. If a
family‟s income is less than R3 500 per months, it qualifies for state provided housing
opportunities. Furthermore income levels also qualify household to classify as indigent
and therefore access to free basic services (water, electricity) benefits as stipulated
by the Indigent Policy of municipalities.
A thorough understanding of population changes is necessary to ensure adequate
planning based on available information.
This section outlines the gender, age and racial (population group) distribution of the
pollution of the Central Karoo District. It provides a gauge of anticipated population
growth trends since 2001, the gender and age distribution of the population and the
racial distribution of the population.
1.1
Population Size
According to the 2011 mid-year population estimates the Western Cape is estimated
to experience an inflow of migrants. The Western Cape also appears to have the
highest average life expectancy for males and females in 2011 increasing from
57.6 years between 2001 and 2006 to 59.9 years on average between 2006 and 2011.
Table 1 shows that, compared to other districts in the Western Cape (2007
comparison), with a total of approximately 56 227 people, the Central Karoo is the
smallest district in the Western Cape.
Table 1
Western Cape Population Numbers and 2011 Projections
Population num bers
and Projections*
StatSA 2001
Census
StatsSA 2007
Com m unity Survey
2011
Population Projection
based on 2011 Western Cape
StatsSA M id-year estimate
2 893 247
3 497 102
3 584 315
West Coast
282 673
286 746
258 974
Cape Winelands
629 490
712 409
697 128
Overberg
203 520
212 782
197 307
Eden
454 919
513 306
501 908
Central Karoo
60 482
56 227
48 230
Western Cape
4 524 331
5 278 572
5 287 863
City of Cape Tow n
* Western Cape Department of Social Development population projection for 2011 based Western Cape
Mid-year population estimate from Statistics South Africa.
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007; and Western Cape Department
of Social Development Population Projection for 2011 based on Provincial Mid-year population
estimates from Statistics South Africa
4
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
The 2001 Census and 2007 Community Survey figures estimated the Western Cape
population at 4 524 331 and 5 278 572 respectively. Based on the 2011 Western Cape
mid-year estimate, the Population Research and Development unit within the
Western Cape Department of Social Development provided an inter-district/city
breakdown of the population for 2011.
It is projected that the Western Cape Population will marginally increase from
5.278 million people in 2007 to 5.287 million people by 2011. It is projected that the
Central Karoo‟s population will decrease from 56 227 to 48 230. The population of the
City of Cape Town is the only place where an increase is projected.
Figure 1
Western Cape Population Numbers and Projections
80.0%
% Western Cape Population
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%
6.2%
Cape
Winelands
13.9%
4.5%
10.1%
1.3%
StatSA 2007 Community Survey
66.3%
5.4%
13.5%
4.0%
9.7%
1.1%
2011 Population Projection based on 2011
Western Cape StatSA Mid-year estimate
67.8%
4.9%
13.2%
3.7%
9.5%
0.9%
StatSA 2001 Census
Source:
City of Cape
Town
63.9%
West Coast
Overberg
Eden
Central Karoo
Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007; and Western Cape Department
of Social Development Population Projection for 2011 based on Provincial Mid-year population
estimates from Statistics South Africa.
The table highlights the Central Karoo District‟s population, and the population of the
other districts‟ has shown a decrease in its proportion of the Western Cape
population. In the case of the Central Karoo, its relative share of the Western Cape
population, decreased from 1.3 per cent in 2001 to 1.1 per cent in 2007; the
projected 2011 (based on the mid-year estimate) figure projects a further decrease in
the District‟s proportion to 0.9 per cent in 2011. It is projected that the City‟s
proportional share of the population is poised to decrease to 0.9 per cent in 2011.
Figure 2 shows the population distribution in 2011 is projected as follows; City of Cape
Town (67.8 per cent), Cape Winelands (13.2 per cent), Eden (9.5 per cent), West
Coast (4.9 per cent) and Central Karoo (0.9 per cent).
5
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Population of Central Karoo District – 2001 and 2007
Figure 2
70 000
60 000
60 484
56 232
population
50 000
40 000
37 110
37 089
30 000
20 000
10 518 8 376
6 679
10 000
6 189 5 609
5 151
0
Central Karoo
District
Laingsburg
Prince Albert
2001
Beaufort West
Central Karoo DMA
2007
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007; and Western Cape Department
of Social Development Population Projection for 2011 based on Provincial Mid-year population
estimates from Statistics South Africa.
According to these population estimates and projections, the smaller local
municipalities all showed a decline in the number of people within their municipal
boundaries while the population of Beaufort West has been consistent. The DMA has
also showed a decline in the number of people.
1.2
Age and Gender Distribution
The different age cohorts can typically be broken into three main categories: children
(0 - 14 years); economically active population (15 - 64 years); and persons aged
65 years and older. These statistics provides important insights into the age groups,
where the bulk of the population is located.
The 2011 mid-year population estimates that 52 per cent of the population is female
and 48 per cent male. Life expectancy nationally is estimated to have increased to
54.9 years for males and 59.1 years for females.
Age and Gender Distribution of the Central Karoo District
The population pyramid for the different districts in the Western Cape tend to have
wide base that gradually narrows in the upper age cohorts. The wide base at the
bottom pyramid indicates high fertility rates. The pyramid narrows toward the top
which indicates a higher death rate amongst the older generations than among the
younger people.
6
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Figure 3
Central Karoo Population Pyramid, 2001
age groups
Central Karoo District
2001
85 +
80 - 84
75 - 79
70 - 74
65 - 69
60 - 64
55 - 59
50 - 54
45 - 49
40 - 44
35 - 39
30 - 34
25 - 29
20 - 24
15 - 19
10 - 14
5-9
0-4
-4000
-3000
-2000
-1000
0
Male
Female
1000
2000
3000
4000
2000
3000
4000
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001
Figure 4
Central Karoo Population Pyramid, 2007
age groups
Central Karoo District
2007
85 +
80 - 84
75 - 79
70 - 74
65 - 69
60 - 64
55 - 59
50 - 54
45 - 49
40 - 44
35 - 39
30 - 34
25 - 29
20 - 24
15 - 19
10 - 14
5-9
0-4
-4000
-3000
-2000
-1000
Male
0
1000
Female
Source: Statistics South Africa Community Survey 2007
7
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
1.2.1
Age Distribution
The population can be classified into three main groups namely the children
(0 - 14 years); the working age population (15 - 64 years) and persons aged 65 years
and older.
In 2001, The Central Karoo‟s population composition was as follows: children at
32.7 per cent, the economically active population at 61.4 per cent and the elderly at
6 per cent. In 2007, The Central Karoo‟s population composition was as follows:
children at 31.2 per cent, the economically active population at 62 per cent and the
elderly at 6.8 per cent.
When comparing the shape of the 2001 and 2007 population pyramids, population
increases are particularly noticeable at very young ages, from 0 to 9 years, as well as
in the working age population between 15 and 49 years. This will have particular
implications for the provision of facilities and services related to children and child
care; the growth in the labour force will also have a direct impact in a greater need
for employment opportunities.
1.2.2
Gender Distribution
Figures 2 and 3 also illustrate changes in the District‟s population with respect to the
gender distribution. The gender ration changed slightly in 2007 compared with 2001;
for every 100 females there were 99 males in 2001, this ratio decreasing to 90 in 2007.
Central Karoo‟s population had more females than males in both 2001 and 2007. The
gender ratio widened from 93.8 males per 100 females in 2001 to 90.9 males per
100 females in 2007. In 2007, the population comprised of 47.6 per cent males and
52.4 per cent females compared to 48.4 per cent males and 51.6 per cent females in
2001. According to the Community Survey 2007, the age cohort 0 to 14 and 25 to
29 proportionally indicates a larger female population in Central Karoo. This changes
in the age cohorts 15 to 24 and 30 to 34 where there appears to be an increase in the
male population. Within the elderly groups, the gap between men as compared to
women widens to a ratio of 40 per cent men as opposed to 60 per cent women on
average. This decline in the number of men could be attributed to economic
migratory factors or mortality amongst men.
1.3
Population Groups
The historical and emerging South African context has particular relevance for how
municipal services are packaged in order to prevent perpetuation of previous policy
considerations. Migration patterns, in turn have implications for current and future
demand for municipal services. In addition, population disaggregation provides
insights into the service levels of the various racial groups to the employment
opportunities and government services. These dynamics hold implications for
government planning, including the delivery of education, health, housing and basic
services.
8
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 2
Central Karoo Population by Population Group, 2001 and 2007
Population Group
2001
African
Coloured
Indian or Asian
Percentage of
Population 2001
2007
Percentage of
Population 2007
7 280
12.0
5 351
9.5
46 474
76.8
45 220
80.4
72
0.1
67
0.1
White
6 658
11.0
5 594
9.9
Total
60 484
100.0
56 232
100.0
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
In the Central Karoo, decreases in population numbers across all population groups
between 2001 and 2007 are noted. The biggest changes in the proportions of the
groups between 2001 and 2007 was the increase in the proportion of the Coloured
population group from 76.8 to 80.4 per cent, while the African group‟s proportion
declined from 12.0 per cent in 2001 to 9.5 per cent in 2007.
The Indian/Asian population group‟s share remained constant at 0.1 per cent, whilst
the White population group showed a decreasing trend in its proportional size of the
District‟s population from 11.1 to 9.9 per cent.
Figure 5
Central Karoo population groups
100%
90%
80%
percentage (%)
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
White
Indian or Asian
Coloured
Black
Laingsburg
Prince Albert
Beaufort West
15.0%
0.3%
83.5%
1.2%
11.4%
0.0%
87.1%
1.5%
8.9%
0.2%
79.0%
12.0%
Black
Coloured
Indian or Asian
Central Karoo
DMA
10.1%
0.0%
77.2%
12.8%
White
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
Prince Albert has the highest proportional representation of Coloureds at 87.1 per
cent. The White racial groups proportional share ranges as follows; Beaufort West
(8.9%), Prince Albert (11.4%) and Laingsburg (15.0%). Africans on the other hand
ranges from as low as 1.2 per cent in Laingsburg to 12 per cent in Beaufort West.
9
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
2.
Social Development and Well-being
2.1
Education and Human Development
Education and training improves access to employment opportunities and helps to
sustain and accelerate overall development. It expands the range of options from
which a person may choose to create opportunities for a fulfilling life. The level of
education of the population in a region influences amongst others its welfare through
indirect positive effects on health and life expectancy.
Selected indicators affecting the education and skill levels in communities, to be
discussed here are the literacy rate and access to training facilities in the municipal
area. An indication of the number of no fee schools in the District is also included; this
gives a sense of the extent to which the Department of Education has identified and
prioritised support to households who are unable to make a contribution towards the
cost of education.
2.1.1
Literacy
Literacy is used as a concept to indicate a minimum education level attained; a
simple definition of literacy is the ability to read and write, which has been translated
into the successful completion of a minimum of 7 years of formal education. Since
most learners start school at the age of 7 years, the literacy rate is calculated as the
proportion of those 14 years and older who have successfully completed a minimum
of 7 years of formal education.
The literacy rate for the Central Karoo (2009) is 63.6 per cent compared with an
overall provincial rate of 82.4 per cent; this was the second lowest of all Municipalities
in the Western Cape, only after West Coast 85.3 per cent literacy. The lowest
recorded literacy rate of 70.5 per cent was recorded in Bergrivier Municipality.
2.1.2
Access to training facilities
Access to higher education and further education and training institutions is essential
to equip individuals to access employment opportunities. The Central Karoo
population doesn‟t have many options when it comes to higher education and
further education facilities. Only one institution serves the District and people are
compelled to further their studies elsewhere outside of the District.
10
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 3
Public Further Education and Training Facilities available to the Central
Karoo, 2011
College Nam e
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
College of Cape Tow n
False Bay College
False Bay College
False Bay College
False Bay College
False Bay College
False Bay College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Northlink College
Total
Eden District
South Cape College
South Cape College
South Cape College
South Cape College
South Cape College
South Cape College
Institution Nam e/Cam pus
Athlone
City Campus
College of Cape Tow n Central
Craw ford
Gardens
Gugulethu
Pinelands
Thornton
Wynberg
False Bay College Central Office
Fish Hoek Campus
Good Hope Campus
Mitchells Plain
Muizenberg Campus
Westlake Campus
Belhar Campus
Bellville
Goodw ood
Northlink Central Office
Parow
Protea
Table Bay Campus
Tygerberg
Wingfield
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
City
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
Cape Tow n
24
Bitou Campus
George Campus
Hessequa
Mossel Bay Campus
Oudtshoorn Campus
South Cape College Central Office
Total
Knysna
George
Hessequa
Mossel Bay
Oudtshoorn
George
6
West Coast
West Coast College
West Coast College
West Coast College
West Coast College
West Coast College
West Coast College
Citrusdal Campus
Malmesbury
Vredenburg Campus
Vredendal Campus
West Coast College Central Office
Atlantis Campus
Total
Central Karoo
Beaufort West Campus
Total
Cape Winelands
Boland College
Boland College
Boland College
Boland College
Boland College
Boland College
Municipality
Cederberg
Sw artland
Saldana Bay
Matzikama
Sw artland
6
Beaufort West
1
Boland College Central Office
Caledon
Paarl
Stellenbosch Campus
Strand
Worcester
Total
Stellenbosch
Theew aterskloof
Drakenstein
Stellenbosch
Breede Valley
6
Source: Western Cape Education Department, 2011
11
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
2.1.3
No fee schools
Out of a total of 28 schools in the District, 22 or 78.6 per cent of all schools are no-fee
schools; this includes primary, intermediate and secondary schools. These schools
make provision for learners who live in low income households and low income
communities where most of the learners may not be able to make a financial
contribution towards education. This ensures extra state support to schools where
contributions in the form of schools fees are not possible.
The 22 no fee schools within the District are spread as follows: Beaufort West (13),
Prince Albert (4), Laingsburg (3) and Murraysburg (2). Outside the Metro the CKD
district (78.6 per cent) has the highest number of no fee schools followed by
Overberg (75.6 per cent) and Eden District (71.1 per cent). This may serve as further
indication possibly of the link between the variables „No Fee‟ and Literacy Rate being
underpinned by the ability of households to spend on primary/secondary education.
Table 4
No fee Schools in the Western Cape
City/Districts
Yes
No
Cape Winelands
Central Karoo
City of Cape Tow n
Eden
Overberg
West Coast
191
22
178
140
62
80
85
6
558
57
20
50
Total
672
776
Missing
Total num ber
inform ation/Blank
of schools
2
2
276
28
738
197
82
130
1 450
Source: Department of Education, 2011
2.2
Healthcare Services
Good health is vital to achieving and maintaining a high quality of life. A diverse
range of factors play a role in ensuring the good health of communities and diseases,
especially preventable and communicable ones, are kept at bay. Some of the
factors include lifestyle features that also depend on the provision of high quality
municipal services, such as clean water and sanitation. It is the function of healthcare
services not only to restore bad health, but also to ensure that communities do not
contract preventable diseases.
This section on healthcare services focuses on particular health outcomes and speaks
to the ability of the healthcare system to deal with these pertinent issues.
Although healthcare is provided by both public and private institutions, it is noted that
the information from the Department of Health pertains only to public sector
healthcare institutions. Any privately provided facilities or services are not reflected in
the information from the Department of Health.
12
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
2.2.1
Health Care Facilities
Access to healthcare facilities is directly dependent on the number and spread of
healthcare facilities and health care staff within a geographic space. South Africa‟s
healthcare system is geared in such a way that people have to move from primary,
to secondary and tertiary levels of healthcare. The first point of contact would be at
the primary healthcare level. Primary healthcare facilities include Community Health
Centres (CHCs), Community Day Centres (CDCs) and Clinics, including satellite and
mobile clinics.
Table 5
Number of Western Cape Healthcare Facilities, 2011
List of facilities at
February 2010
West Coast District
Cape Winelands District
Overberg District
Eden District
Central Karoo District
City of Cape Tow n
Western Cape
Com m unity Com m unity
Satelite Mobile District Regional
Health
Day
Clinics
Clinics Clinics Hospitals Hospitals
Centres
Centres
0
0
0
0
0
9
9
0
5
1
5
1
37
49
26
44
23
35
8
87
223
24
8
9
13
3
21
78
19
20
14
23
8
5
89
7
4
4
6
4
9
34
0
2
0
1
0
5
8
Source: Western Cape Department of Health Annual Performance Plan 2011/12
The District has 1 Community Day Centre, 8 clinics with 3 satellite and 8 mobile clinics.
In addition hereto it also has 4 district hospitals. The Central Karoo District has the
lowest number of Healthcare facilities of all the districts in the Western Cape.
Table 6
Central Karoo District Health Care Facilities, 2011
List of facilities at
February 2010
Com m unity Com m unity
Satelite Mobile District Regional
Health
Day
Clinics
Clinics Clinics Hospitals Hospitals
Centres
Centres
Central Karoo District
0
1
8
3
8
4
0
Laingsburg Local Municipality
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
Prince Albert Local Municipality
0
0
2
1
2
1
0
Beaufort West Local Municipality
0
1
4
1
4
1
0
Central Karoo DMA
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
Source: West ern Cape Depart ment of Healt h Annual Performance Plan 2011/12
Within the District there appears to be an equitable spread of facilities given the
capacity of individual municipalities. Beaufort West has the majority of
fixed/permanent structures accounting for four clinics and four mobile clinics
respectively.
2.2.2
HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care
According to the 2009 National HIV Survey the estimated HIV prevalence for the
Western Cape was 16.9 per cent (CI 95%: 13.8 – 20.5%). The weighted Provincial
Survey estimate from the larger sub-district survey was 16.8 per cent (95% CI:
16.0 - 17.7%). The highest HIV prevalence estimates remain amongst the age groups
13
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
of 25 - 29 and 30 - 34 years. (Department of Health, Annual Performance Plan
2011/12: 18)
The information presented here shows how different health districts in the Western
Cape have responded to the healthcare need with respect to HIV/AIDS treatment
and care. Although treatment and care is essential in managing the disease, in the
case of HIV/AIDS the need and importance of preventative care must be
emphasised, especially since to date, there is still no known cure. In preventative
care, the department is planning to distribute 122 million male and 1 million female
condoms and deliver on-going campaigns to encourage the practice of safe sex.
(Department of Health, Annual Performance Plan 2011/12: 8)
Concurrent HIV infection is the biggest risk factor for TB.
Table 7
HIV/AIDS Prevalence and Care
City/District
ART
ART
Patient Patient
Load
Load
June
June
2010
2011
West Coast District
Cape Winelands District
Overberg District
Eden District
Central Karoo District
City of Cape Tow n
2 149
8 477
2 386
6 777
559
59 734
3 205
9 750
3 259
7 847
674
75 652
Western Cape
80 082
100 387
Num ber of Num ber of
AntiAntiHIV
PCR test
Retroviral Retroviral
Accept transm ission
result Treatm ent Treatm ent
PCR test
rate of
positive
(ART)
(ART)
2010/11
infants
2010/11
Sites;
Sites;
2010/11
June 2010 June 2011
4
17
22
507
4.3
13
23
41
1 204
3.4
4
6
13
522
2.5
9
23
34
1 005
3.4
2
3
3
56
5.4
49
61
275
8 855
3.1
81
133
388
12 149
3.2
Source: West ern Cape Depart ment of Healt h, 2010 and 2011
At the end of June 2011, the Province highlighted that it provides anti-retroviral
treatment (ART) to over 100 000 persons. Although this may appear to be a relatively
high number, when compared to the Province‟s estimated total population aged
15 years and older, it only represents approximately 2.3 per cent2. Comparing this to
the estimated Western Cape prevalence rate of 16.9 per cent as indicated above, it
is apparent that there is still a lot of work to be done in ensuring that an even greater
proportion of the population get tested and receive treatment. The Department has
set HIV screening target of 1.2 million for the year (Department of Health, Annual
Performance Plan 2011/12: 8).
Only 0.7 per cent of the total ART patient load is in the Central Karoo District. The
increase in patient load between June 2010 and 2011 has been supported by an
increase in the number of ART sites from 2 to 3.
In addition to improving the quality of life of the patient, anti-retroviral treatment to
mothers both before and at birth, also decreases the chances that infants will
contract HIV from their mothers. In the Western Cape, the Polymerase Chain
Reaction (PCR) test to check for HIV infection showed a 3.2 per cent mother-to-child
2
Based on 2011 population projection totals from the Demographics section above.
14
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
transmission rate. A 3 per cent target in the mother-to-child transmission rate has
been set for the current year (Department of Health, Annual Performance Plan
2011/12: 47). The achievement of this target or any reduction in the mother-to-child
transmission rate is directly dependent on the number of women who are aware of
their HIV positive status and receive treatment. This again emphasises the importance
of knowing your HIV status by encouraging the HIV screening process.
2.2.3
Child Health
Children, infants and especially new-born babies are particularly vulnerable to
malnutrition and the contraction of infectious diseases, many of which are
preventable or can be treated. The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission
has already been discussed above.
Two other indicators of child health will be discussed here, namely, immunisation and
malnutrition. Immunisation protects both adults and children against preventable
infectious diseases; the administration of a vaccine stimulates the body‟s own
immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease.
Malnutrition (either under- or over nutrition) refers to the condition whereby an
individual does not receive adequate amounts or receives excessive amounts of
nutrients; however, the indicator looked at here is for underweight children.
Immunisation3
The National Department of Health has set an immunisation target of 90 per cent
against which the results from the Western Cape can be benchmarked.
Table 8
Child Health in the Western Cape: Full Immunisation and Malnutrition,
2010/11
Population < 1 year
fully im m unised
2010/11
Western Cape Province
Cape Tow n
West Coast DM
Cape Winelands DM
Overberg DM
Eden DM
Central Karoo DM
85.9%
84.1%
101.2%
86.8%
80.5%
91.8%
84.4%
Severe
m alnutrition
< 5 years
2010/11
1 386
814
54
206
98
155
59
Child < 5 years
w eighed
2010/11
1 717 505
979 834
117 821
291 459
117 074
184 529
26 788
Severely
underw eight for
age < 5 years,
rate 2010/11
0.08
0.08
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.22
Source: West ern Cape Depart ment of Healt h, 2011
In the 2010/11 financial year full immunisation levels for the Western Cape was
85.9 per cent, significantly lower compared with the 100.2 per cent in the 2009/10
year. At 84.4 per cent, the full immunisation rate for the Central Karoo District was
slightly lower than that of the Province also well down from the 104.8 per cent in the
3
The immunisation rate is calculated as the number of children immunised as a percentage of the total
number of children less than one year of age. If children who are one year or older are immunised, the
immunisation rate for that year could be greater than 100 per cent because more than 100 per cent of
children aged less than one year would have been immunised in that particular year.
15
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
previous financial year. This drop in the immunisation rate speaks to the need for
parents to understand the critical importance of immunisation as well as the need to
encourage parents to have their young children immunised.
When looking at the breakdown of immunisation across the District, it is apparent that
certain areas, particularly Beaufort West (87.7 per cent) and Laingsburg (85.4 per
cent), are slightly above the District‟s average. This clearly indicates a need for
greater attention where rates are particularly low. The Western Cape‟s 2011/12
immunisation target is set at 95 per cent, above the national target as well as
significantly above current Western Cape attainment in this area.
Table 9
Child Health in the Central Karoo: Full Immunisation and Malnutrition,
2010/11
Population < 1 year
Fully im m unised
2010/11
84.4%
85.4%
82.6%
87.7%
65.3%
Central Karoo DM
Laingsburg M
Prince Albert M
Beaufort West M
Central Karoo DMA
Severe
m alnutr
< 5 years
2010/11
59
5
10
6
38
Child < 5 years
w eighed
2010/11
26 788
2 858
5 175
16 941
1 814
Severely
underw eight for
age < 5 years rate
2010/11
0.22
0.17
0.19
0.04
2.09
Source: West ern Cape Depart ment of Healt h, 2011
The number of malnourished children under five years is less than 1 per cent in the
Western Cape; the District have recorded rates lower than 1 per cent, except for
Murraysburg, where 2 per cent have been recorded. Murraysburg has been
incorporated into Beaufort West with effect from 1 July 2011 and this will have an
impact on Beaufort West going forward.
2.2.4
Maternal Health
Maternal health refers to the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the
postpartum period. Even though it may not strictly fit the definition, information on
births to teenage mothers and termination of pregnancies are also included here.
Table 10
Maternal Health in the Western Cape: Mortality, Delivery to women under
18 years and Termination of pregnancy, 2010/11
Maternal mortality;
Delivery to women
Total
Total
number number of
under 18 years;
of live
maternal
Termination of
births in
deaths in
pregnancy (TOP)
facilities
facilities
Western Cape
Cape Tow n
West Coast DM
Cape Winelands DM
Ov erberg DM
Eden DM
Central Karoo DM
92 462
59 786
5 124
13 856
3 150
9 507
1 039
40
33
0
4
0
2
1
Maternal
Mortality
Ratio
2010/11
0.04
0.06
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.02
0.10
Delivery
to
women
under 18
Teenage
Total
delivery
deliveries
rate
2010/11
years
6 484
3 911
416
1 136
279
650
92
93 192
63 082
4 921
12 156
2 948
9 042
1 043
6.96
6.20
8.45
9.35
9.46
7.19
8.82
Total TOPs
performed
2010/11
14 359
10 233
847
1 378
282
1 262
357
Female
population
15 - 44
years
1 572 401
923 847
63 600
186 405
126 487
72 561
199 501
TOP as
percentage
of female
population
15 - 44
0.91
1.11
1.33
0.74
0.22
1.74
0.18
In the 2010/11 year in the Central Karoo, there has only been 1 maternal death at a
public health facility in Beaufort West. The District teenage delivery rate (8.82 per
cent) is higher than the average teenage delivery rate of the Western Cape.
16
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Overberg District has the highest teenage delivery rate (9.46 per cent) followed by
Cape Winelands (9.35 per cent).
Table 11
Maternal Health: Mortality in the Central Karoo, Delivery to women under
18 years and Termination of pregnancy, 2010/11
Maternal mortality;
Total
Total
TOP as
Delivery to
number of
Maternal
maternal
Mortality
deaths in
Ratio
facilities
2010/11
1 039
2010/11
1
0.10
92
1 043
Beaufort West
727
1
0.14
59
Central Karoo DMA
104
0
0.00
12
Laingsburg
80
0
0.00
Prince Albert
128
0
0.00
Delivery to women number of
under 18 years;
live births
Termination of
in facilities
pregnancy (TOP)
2010/11
Central Karoo DM
women
under 18
years
Teenage
Total
delivery
deliveries
rate
2010/11
2010/11
Total TOPs
performed
Female
percentage
population
of female
15 - 44
population
years
15 - 44
2010/11
8.82
357
199 501
years
0.18
722
8.17
31
8 722
0.36
107
11.21
61
1 132
5.39
9
87
10.34
170
1 378
12.34
12
127
9.45
95
1 865
5.09
Source: Western Cape Department of Health, 2011
Across the Central Karoo District, Maternal Mortality is 0.10 with the only maternal
death in Beaufort West. Teenage delivery rates appear largest in the DMA (11.21) and
Laingsburg (10.34 per cent).
2.2.5
Community Based Services
Community Based Services (CBS) in the Western Cape are provided by non-profit
organisations (NPOs), subsidised by the Provincial Government. Patients who require
on-going care upon discharge from hospital are referred to a primary healthcare
facility in the area in which they live. The Home Community-Based Services (HCBS)
Coordinator at the primary healthcare facility refers the patient to the NPO partner
responsible for services HCBS in the area. The caregiver will render the service
according to the instruction on the care plan and the sister will visit the individual to
make sure the plan is being carried through.
Home Community Based Services does not replace the family as the primary
caregiver; it is meant to be a complementary and supportive service to the family to
prevent „burn-out‟ for family caregivers who care for sick relatives.
Table 12
Community Based Services: Non-Profit Organisation (NPO) Care
Number of
Number of
Number of
Average number Average number
Community Based Services
Active NPOs,
carers, fourth
fourth
of visits by carer of monthly visits
- NPO homebased care
end of fourth
quarter
quarter visits,
in fourth
by carer in fourth
quarter, 2010/11
2010/11
2010/11
quarter, 2010/11
quarter, 2010/11
Western Cape
90
2 584
1 130 885
438
146
City of Cape Tow n Metropolitan
39
1 494
540 641
362
121
West Coast District Municipality
17
262
174 593
666
222
Cape Winelands District Municipality
10
247
132 192
535
178
8
193
112 065
581
194
12
311
137 043
441
147
4
77
34 351
446
149
Municipality
Ov erberg District Municipality
Eden District Municipality
Central Karoo District Municipality
Source: West ern Cape Depart ment of Healt h, 2011
17
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
At June 2011, there were 77 carers in 4 active NPOs providing home-based care to
patients in the Central Karoo District. The average number of visits in the Western
Cape was 146. The West Coast District had the highest number of visits followed by
Overberg District (194), Cape Winelands (178), Central Karoo District (149), Eden
District (147) and the City of Cape Town (121). The average number of visits in the
Central Karoo was 149 compared to the average of 146 for the Western Cape.
Table 13
Community Based Services by NPOs, 2010/11
Number of
Community Based Services
- NPO homebased care
Central Karoo District Municipality
Laingsburg Local Municipality
Prince Albert Municipality
Beaufort West Local Municipality
Central Karoo District Managed Area
Active NPOs,
end of fourth
quarter,
2010/11
4
1
1
1
1
Number of
carers, fourth
quarter
2010/11
77
12
22
33
10
Number of
fourth quarter
visits, 2010/11
34 351
5 075
8 076
17 879
3 321
Average number
of visits by carer
in fourth
quarter, 2010/11
446
423
367
542
332
Average number
of monthly visits
by carer in
fourth quarter,
2010/11
149
141
122
181
111
Source: West ern Cape Depart ment of Healt h, 2011
Within the Central Karoo District there were 12 carers in Laingsburg in the fourth
quarter, 22 in Prince Albert and 33 in Beaufort West.
2.3
Safety and Security
The safety of persons and property is vitally important to the physical and emotional
well-being of people and business. Without the respect of person and property, it
would be impossible for people to live peacefully, without fear of attack and for
businesses to flourish.
Crime has a significant impact on the economy. It can hamper growth and
discourage investment and capital accumulation. If it is not tackled with seriousness,
it has the potential to derail both social and economic prosperity.
Peoples‟ general impressions, as well as the official statistics on safety and crime issues
mould perceptions of areas as living spaces or place in which to establish businesses.
The discussion in this section that follows is limited to contact and property related
crime such as murder and sexual crimes, as well as crime heavily dependent on
police action for detection such as drug related crimes and driving under the
influence of alcohol/drugs; these are detailed in the table below.
18
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 14
Crime in the Central Karoo: April to March 2003/04 – 2010/11
April 2003 April 2004 April 2005 April 2006 April 2007 April 2008 April 2009 April 2010
to March
to March
to March
to March
to March
to March
to March
to March
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
CONTACT CRIME (CRIMES
AGAINST THE PERSON)
Murder
Total sex ual crimes
49
46
34
29
36
22
37
29
989
142
96
75
66
86
134
164
634
538
391
412
472
500
566
142
322
609
568
650
743
823
898
1 076
107
130
243
287
263
258
234
256
PROPERTY RELATED CRIME
Burglary at residential premises
CRIME HEAVILY DEPENDENT
ON POLICE ACTION FOR
DETECTION
Drug related crime
Driv ing under the influence of
alcohol/drugs
Source: West ern Cape Depart ment of
2010/2011
Communit y Safet y, 2010
It is positive to note a generally declining trend over the 2003/04 to 2010/11 financial
years in the total number of contact crimes (murders) and property related crime
(burglary at residential premises).
Of great concern however, is the sharp increase in the total number of sexual crimes
as well as the increase in drug related crime. Research has indicated a strong
relationship between alcohol abuse, crime and injury. Approximately 46 per cent of
reported cases of drug-related crime in South Africa occur in the Western Cape and
25 per cent of reported cases of people driving under the influence of alcohol or
drugs nationally were reported in the Western Cape. Drug related crimes increased
from 322 in 2003/04 to 1 076 cases in 2010/11. It should be noted that the recording of
these crimes are heavily dependent on police for detection and increases in these
recorded crimes are likely to be from a combination of an increase in the level of
crime and an increase in level of policing in the area.
2.4
Poverty and Inequality4
The section on poverty and inequality speaks to the level of human development as
well as the levels of poverty and inequality within different areas within the Western
Cape. The level of development and income level of the population also serves as an
indication to the level of need within communities, which also indicates the need for
assistance required. Inequality levels highlight how the experience of different
members of the same broader community may be grossly dissimilar. The province
contains 131 towns outside the Cape Town metropolitan area. Some of these
settlements have solid developmental bases and experience dynamic growth, whilst
others are stagnant or declining. Settlements with declining populations, economic
activities, services and infrastructure leads to decreasing and social and economic
service levels in the surrounding hinterland, which consequently impacts negatively
on rural quality of life.
4
This section draws on Global Insight data.
19
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
2.4.1
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite, relative index that attempts to
quantify the extent of human development of a community. It is based on measures
of life expectancy, literacy and income. It is thus seen as a measure of people‟s
ability to live a long and healthy life, to communicate, to participate in the life of the
community and to have sufficient resources to obtain a decent living. The HDI can
assume a maximum level of 1, indicating a high level of human development, and a
minimum value of 0.
Table 15
HDI 2001, 2007 and 2010 per City/District
Municipality
City of Cape Tow n Metropolitan Municipality
2001
0.71
2007
0.73
2010
0.74
West Coast District Municipality
0.63
0.64
0.65
Cape Winelands District Municipality
0.63
0.65
0.65
Overberg District Municipality
0.63
0.65
0.66
Eden District Municipality
0.64
0.68
0.69
Central Karoo District Municipality
0.57
0.59
0.60
Central Karoo District has the lowest HDI of all the Districts, followed by the West Coast
(0.66) and Cape Winelands (0.66). The City of Cape Town has the highest HDI
followed by the Eden District Municipality.
Table 16
HDI, 2001, 2007 and 2010 per municipality
HDI 2001
HDI 2007
WC051: Laingsburg Local Municipality
Municipality
0.56
0.59
HDI 2010
0.59
WC052: Prince Albert Local Municipality
0.55
0.57
0.58
WC053: Beaufort West Local Municipality
(including Central Karoo DMA)
WC - DC5 Central Karoo District Municipality
0.58
0.60
0.60
0.57
0.59
0.60
Source: Global Insight Regional Explorer, 2011
The levels of human development differ across the broad geographic areas in the
Western Cape, with the level of human development as captured by the HDI in the
Central Karoo well below all other Western Cape districts.
The HDI indicates that the level of development within the Central Karoo District has
improved over the past decade; the HDI increasing from 0.57 in 2001 to 0.60 in 2010.
Prince Albert Municipality has the lowest HDI in the district followed by Laingsburg
Municipality. This poses a huge challenge to the district to create more employment
opportunities to improve the standard of living in the area. Life expectancy is shown
to be low due to high mortality stemming from the mixture of diseases of affluence
and of poverty.
20
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
2.4.2
People Living in Poverty
The poverty rate represents the percentage of people living in households with an
income less than the poverty income. The poverty income is defined as the minimum
monthly income needed to sustain a household and varies according to household
size, the larger the household the larger the income required to keep its members out
of poverty.
The poverty income used is based on the Bureau of Market Research‟s Minimum
Living Level (BMR report no. 235 and later editions, Minimum and Supplemented
Living Levels in the main and other selected urban areas of the RSA, August 1996). For
example, the monthly income needed to keep a 1 person household out of poverty
in 2010 is estimated5 to be R1 315, while for a two person household it is R1 626; a four
person household requires an estimated income of R2 544 to stay out of poverty while
a household with eight or more person requires an estimated R4 729.
Figure 6
Poverty Overview – Central Karoo, 1996 – 2010
23 500
40.0%
23 000
39.0%
22 500
38.0%
22 000
37.0%
36.0%
21 500
35.0%
21 000
34.0%
20 500
33.0%
20 000
32.0%
19 500
31.0%
19 000
30.0%
18 500
% in Poverty
Nr of people in poverty
Poverty Overview
WC - DC5 Central Karoo District Municipality, Total
29.0%
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Nr of people in poverty
% in Poverty
Source: Global Insight Regional Explorer, 2011
Global Insight estimates on the number of people living in poverty in the Central
Karoo shows a sharp increase from 21 1000 to 23 000 between 1996 and 1999, with a
decline in 2000, but since then showing some decline. In 2010, the estimated number
of people living in poverty in the District was approximately 20 200 people, down from
the 2001 high of approximately 23 250. The number of people living in poverty came
down by 3 050.
5
Global Insight estimates.
21
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Table 17
Poverty Rate – Percentage of People Living in Poverty, 2001, 2007 and 2010
per City/District
Municipality
2001
2007
2010
City of Cape Tow n Metropolitan Municipality
23.9%
20.2%
19.7%
West Coast District Municipality
32.0%
30.5%
30.4%
Cape Winelands District Municipality
30.9%
26.4%
25.7%
Overberg District Municipality
31.0%
30.3%
29.6%
Eden District Municipality
31.6%
23.4%
21.7%
Central Karoo District Municipality
38.7%
34.0%
32.5%
The Central Karoo District (32.5 per cent) has the highest number of people living in
poverty in the Western Cape followed by the West Coast (30.4 per cent) and
Overberg (29.6 per cent). The poverty rate in the Central Karoo District is a cause for
concern in general.
Table 18
Poverty Rate – Percentage of People Living in Poverty, 2001, 2007 and 2010
per municipality
Municipality
2001
2007
2010
WC051: Laingsburg Local Municipality
37.6%
35.7%
36.1%
WC052: Prince Albert Local Municipality
44.1%
42.7%
43.3%
WC053: Beaufort West Local Municipality (including
Central Karoo DMA)
37.5%
31.5%
29.1%
WC - DC5 Central Karoo District Municipality
38.7%
34.0%
32.5%
Source: Global Insight Regional Explorer, 2011
The percentage of people living in poverty followed a similar trend to that of the
number, with the percentage declining from 38.7 per cent in 2001 to just fewer than
33 per cent by 2010. Prince Albert has the highest proportion of poor people and it is
rising compared to the rest of the district. The poverty levels across the district are a
cause of concern in general.
2.4.3
Indigent Households
In response to the poverty levels of its communities, municipalities offer households
support through their indigent policy. The indigent policy provides for free or
discounted rates on municipal services such as water, electricity, sanitation, refuse
removal as well as property rates.
According to the Western Cape Department of Local Government information,
August 2011, the number of households in the Central Karoo District totalled 14 945 of
which 5 903 (39.5 per cent) were classified as indigent. From the Department‟s
information, of the total number of households, 43.1 per cent received free basic
access to water, 40.2 per cent to electricity, 39.4 per cent to sanitation services.
22
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 19
Indigent Households within the Central Karoo Municipality
Municipality
Households
Prince Albert
2 850
889
10 135
4 351
Beaufort West
1 960
663
14 945
5 903
Laingsburg
TOTAL
Indigent Households
Beaufort West has the highest number of indigent households (4 351) followed by
Prince Albert (889) and Laingsburg (663).
Indigent policies differ across the
municipalities.
2.4.4
Gini coefficient
The Gini coefficient is a summary statistic of income inequality, which varies from 0, in
the case of perfect equality where all households earn equal income, to 1 in the case
where one household earns all the income and other households earn nothing. In
practice the coefficient is likely to vary from approximately 0.25 to 0.70.
Table 20
Gini coefficient 2001, 2007, 2010 per City/District
Municipality
2001
2007
2010
City of Cape Tow n Metropolitan Municipality
0.60
0.59
0.57
West Coast District Municipality
0.59
0.61
0.60
Cape Winelands District Municipality
0.60
0.60
0.59
Overberg District Municipality
0.58
0.59
0.58
Eden District Municipality
0.59
0.59
0.56
Central Karoo District Municipality
0.59
0.60
0.58
Source: Global Insight Regional Explorer, 2011
According to Gini calculations, there has been a marginal change in the level of
income inequality experience in the District; the Gini co-efficient increased from 0.59
in 2001 to 0.60 in 2007 and declining to 0.58 in 2010. The Gini co-efficient for the City
of Cape Town came down from 0.60 in 2001 to 0.57 in 2010.
Table 21
Gini coefficient 2001, 2007, 2010 per municipality
HDI 2001
HDI 2007
HDI 2010
WC051: Laingsburg Local Municipality
Municipality
0.59
0.61
0.59
WC052: Prince Albert Local Municipality
0.61
0.62
0.61
WC053: Beaufort West Local Municipality (including
Central Karoo DMA)
0.59
0.59
0.57
WC - DC5 Central Karoo District Municipality
0.59
0.60
0.58
Source: Global Insight Regional Explorer, 2011
A comparison across the Western Cape shows that inequality across all districts and
the Central Karoo has been relatively high, but has over the past decade showed
some decline, according to the Gini coefficient. Prince Albert Municipality (0.61) had
the highest Gini coefficient in 2010 in the Central Karoo District followed by Laingsburg
23
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Municipality (0.59). The Central Karoo District has more poverty to contend with than
most of the other districts as a result of the high unemployment rate of the area.
2.5
Access to Housing
The South African Constitution states that every citizen has the right to access to
adequate housing and that the state must take reasonable legislation and other
measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of his
right. Still, there are many South Africans who lack this basic right.
Information from the 2001 Census and 2007 Community Survey is used to provide
estimates of the extent of the backlog6 in housing within the Central Karoo District.
2.5.1
Access to Housing: Central Karoo
Section 26 of the Constitution of South Africa, 1996, states that every citizen has the
right to have access to adequate housing. The three spheres of government
(national, provincial and local) share the responsibility for delivery of adequate
housing.
Table 22
Access to housing in the Western Cape
2007
West Coast
Cape
Winelands
Overberg
Eden
Central
Karoo
City of Cape
Tow n
Formal dw ellings
93.0%
82.7%
87.9%
77.9%
96.9%
83.0%
Informal dw ellings
5.2%
10.5%
10.1%
17.8%
1.6%
15.6%
Housing is an important determinant of the living conditions of any population. It has
an effect on health and therefore on worker productivity, but is in turn affected by
economic conditions and in particular by income and housing costs. The Central
Karoo District has the highest proportion of households who have access to formal
housing (96.9 per cent) and the lowest proportion (1.6 per cent) of households
housed in informal housing.
Figure 7
Formal dwellings
percentage formal dw elleings
120.0%
100.0%
96.9%
93.0%
82.7%
87.9%
Cape Winelands
Overberg
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%
0.0%
West Coast
Formal dwellings
6
24
83.0%
77.9%
Eden
Central Karoo
City of Cape
Town
These surveys present the most recent comparative municipal level information across the Western
Cape.
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
After Central Karoo, West Coast (93 per cent) and Overberg (87.9 per cent) had the
highest proportion of households living in formal dwellings. Eden District (77.9 per cent)
had the lowest proportion of households living in formal dwellings followed by the
Cape Winelands District (82.7 per cent) and the City of Cape Town (83 per cent).
Table 23
Access to Housing in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
Dwelling Type
2001
Formal
Informal
Traditional dwelling
Other
14 335
311
337
190
Total
15 173
Percentage
share 2001
94%
2%
2%
1%
Percentage
share 2007
97%
2%
1%
1%
2007
15 209
260
94
138
100%
15 701
Average annual
growth 2001-2007
1%
-3%
-19%
-5%
100%
1%
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
In the period between 2001 and 2007, the number of households in the Central Karoo
increased by an estimated 528, while the number of households residing in formal
dwellings increased by 874. Over the same period the District was able to reduce the
backlog in informal housing by 51 dwelling units.
Figure 8
Accessing to housing in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007 - Percentage
share comparison
120.0%
percentage share (%)
100.0%
96.7%
99.5%
97.3%
94.0%
96.9%
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%
0.0%
1.4%
Laingsburg
Municipality
2.2%
Prince Albert
Municipality
Formal 2007
1.9%
0.0%
Beaufort West Central Karoo
Municipality
1.7%
Total
Informal 2007
Prince Albert has the highest number of households with access to formal housing
followed by Beaufort West and Laingsburg Municipalities respectively.
25
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Figure 9
Household access to dwellings in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007 Percentage share of households
Household access to dwellings
percentage share of households
120%
100%
94%
97%
80%
60%
40%
20%
2%
2%
2%
1%
1%
1%
0%
Formal
Informal
Percentage share 2001
Traditional dwelling
Other
Percentage share 2007
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
When looking at the percentage changes between these years, the proportion of
households with access to formal households increased from 94 to 97 per cent while
the proportion of people in informal, traditional and other households declined; the
proportion of households who live in informal households remain constant.
Although the number of households with access to formal housing has increased
considerably between the survey years, a significant need still remains.
2.6
Access to Municipal Services
Access to services such as potable water, basic sanitation, safe energy sources and
refuse removal services ensures that households enjoy a decent standard of living.
This section looks at household access to services as drawn from the 2001 Census and
2007 Community Survey7. The information provides a breakdown of the types of
access for each service area; changes in the relative proportions indicate either
improvements or worsening in the in overall access levels.
2.6.1
Water
Access to potable water is essential to maintaining a healthy life. It is accepted that
piped water in South Africa, and in the Central Karoo is potable8. Access to improved
water sources is a key element in improved quality of life. The Water supplied should
be safe and should be made available to communities to prevent the use of unsafe
supplies that can lead to diseases. Unsafe water supplies will in turn have an impact
on public health.
7
These surveys present the latest comparative municipal level information across the Western Cape.
8
See Environmental section below for further information on water quality in the Central Karoo.
26
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 24
Access to Water in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
Water source
% share of
households
2001
2001
Piped water inside the dwelling
57.1%
12 243
78.0%
5.9%
5 427
35.8%
2 532
16.1%
-11.9%
897
5.9%
102
0.6%
-30.4%
5.2%
28.8%
100.0%
0.6%
8 667
Piped water inside the yard
Piped water from outside the yard
% share of
Average annual
households
growth 2001-2007
2007
2001
Other
180
1.2%
823
Total
15 171
100.0%
15 701
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
The overwhelming majority of households in the Central Karoo in 2001 already had
access to piped water, either inside the dwelling, inside the yard or outside of the
yard. A positive development between 2001 and 2007 has been the substantial
increase in the number of households with piped water on site, either in the dwelling
or inside the yard.
Figure 10 Access to Water per District 2007
100
percentage share (%)
99
99.4
98.7
98.5
97.8
98
97.7
97
96
94.8
95
94
93
92
West Coast
Cape Winelands
Overberg
Eden
Central Karoo
City of Cape
Town
The Community Survey of 2007 indicated that the City of Cape Town (99.4 per cent)
has the highest number of households with access to potable water followed by the
West Coast (98.7 per cent), Overberg (98.5 per cent) and Cape Winelands (97.8 per
cent). Central Karoo has the lowest number of households with access to potable
water (94.8 per cent).
27
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Figure 11 Access to piped water in the Central Karoo District
percentage share of households
90.0%
78.0%
80.0%
70.0%
57.1%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
35.8%
30.0%
16.1%
20.0%
10.0%
5.9%
0.0%
Piped water inside the
dwelling
0.6%
Piped water inside the Piped water from outside
yard
the yard
% share of households 2001
1.2% 5.2%
Other
% share of households 2007
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
When comparing the percentage changes in access to different types of water
sources between 2001 and 2007, the large increase in the number of households with
on-site water translates into an 11.2 percentage point increase in households with
access to piped water inside the dwelling with the proportion of households with
piped water in or outside the yard declining.
In 2001 the proportion of households with access to piped water in the yard or
accessing water using other sources was 35.8 per cent; by 2007 this proportion
decreased to 16.1 per cent, still totalling a significant 80 833 households.
2.6.2
Energy
Energy is essential for human life; commonly identified uses include energy for
cooking, heating and lighting. Given the harmful environmental impacts of certain
identifiable energy sources, as well as growing energy demand and needs, the use of
clean and sustainable energy is becoming increasingly important. Different energy
sources also have other usage risks; e.g. health and safety risks especially in the use of
paraffin and open flame usage.
The information below speaks to the sources of energy used for lighting for households
in the Central Karoo.
28
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Figure 12 Energy sources for the Western Cape
Access to Electricity
percentage share (%)
100.0%
95.7%
93.6%
94.1%
90.1%
Cape Winelands
Overberg
Eden
93.1%
94.4%
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%
0.0%
West Coast
Central Karoo City of Cape Town
The West Coast (95.7 per cent) has the highest number of households using electricity
as energy, followed by the City of Cape Town (94.4 per cent) and Overberg (94.1 per
cent).
Table 25
Energy Sources used for Lighting in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
Census
2001
% share of
households
2001
Electricity
Gas
Paraffin
Candles
Solar
Other
12 665
24
120
1 839
346
178
83.5%
0.2%
0.8%
12.1%
2.3%
1.2%
14 620
28
125
695
117
116
93.1%
0.2%
0.8%
4.4%
0.7%
0.7%
Total
15 173
100.0%
15 701
100.0%
Energy sources for
lighting
Community survey
2007 estimates
% share of
households 2007
Average annual
growth 2001 2007
%
2.4%
2.6%
0.7%
-15.0%
-16.5%
-6.9%
0.6%
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
Between 2001 and 2007, the number of households using electricity in the district as a
source of energy for lighting has increased by 1 995 households or by 2.4 percentage
points to 93.1 per cent; the number and proportion of households that make use of
energy sources which pose fire and health risks, such as candles, has significantly
decreased by 1 144 households respectively over this period.
Across the District, Beaufort West Municipality has the highest percentage of
households having access to electricity followed by Prince Albert and the DMA.
Laingsburg has the lowest number (72.9 per cent) of households having access to
electricity.
2.6.3
Sanitation
Sanitation is a means of promoting health through the provision of safe disposal and
treatment of human waste. Access to a toilet advances physical health as well as
providing the user with sense of human dignity. The state of sanitation reflects the
state of human development in any community. Access to adequate sanitation has
29
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
many advantages for public health, dignity and the advantages extend beyond
households to the entire communities. However, when sanitation systems are
inadequate the health impacts can be extremely serious.
Figure 13 Access to flush toilets in the Western Cape – District Comparison (2007)
Access to flush toilets
100.0%
93.5%
93.5%
93.6%
93.9%
92.8%
Central Karoo
City of Cape
Town
percentage share (%)
86.0%
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%
West Coast
Cape Winelands
Overberg
Eden
Central Karoo (93.9 per cent) has the highest number of households with access to
flush toilets followed by Overberg (93.6), West Coast and Cape Winelands (93.5 per
cent). The Central Karoo has done well in providing sanitation to its population
compared to the rest of the Province.
Table 26
Access to Sanitation in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
Toilet facilities
Flush toilet (connected to
sewerage system)
Flush toilet (with septic tank)
Dry toilet facility
Pit toilet with ventilation
Pit toilet with out ventilation
Chemical toilet
Bucket toilet system
None
Total
% share of
households
2001
11 361
74.9%
2001
2007
% share of
households 2007
14 400
91.7%
Average annual
growth
2001 - 2007
4.0%
1 568
0
413
227
27
1 262
315
10.3%
0.0%
2.7%
1.5%
0.2%
8.3%
2.1%
355
193
116
144
0
222
271
2.3%
1.2%
0.7%
0.9%
0.0%
1.4%
1.7%
-21.9%
-19.1%
-7.3%
-100.0%
-25.1%
-2.5%
15 173
100.0%
15 701
100.0%
0.6%
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
Although the District has provided 3 039 additional households with access to a flush
toilet connected to the sewerage system between 2001 and 2007 222 households still
made use of bucket latrines and 271 households had no access to sanitation facilities
in 2007.
30
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Figure 14 Access to Sanitation per municipality in the Central Karoo District
Access to sanitation 2007
120.0%
95.4%
100.0%
91.8%
percentaage share (%)
85.4%
91.7%
83.8%
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%
3.4%
2.0%
1.2%
Laingsburg
Municipality
Prince Albert
Municipality
Beaufort
West Local
Municipality
1.9%
0.0%
Access to a flush toilet
Central Karoo
1.7%
Total
None
Across the district Beaufort West has the highest number (95.4 per cent) of households
having access to flush toilets followed by Prince Albert (91.8 per cent) and the DMA
(91.7 per cent).
2.6.4
Refuse Removal
Figure 15 Access to refuse removal by local authority/private company in the Western
Cape
Access to refuse removal services
95.2%
1
percentage share (%)
0.9
84.2%
92.9%
90.5%
87.3%
Overberg
Eden
Central Karoo
72.9%
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
West Coast
Cape Winelands
City of Cape
Town
The City of Cape Town (95.2 per cent) has the highest proportion of households with
access to refuse removal followed by Overberg (92.9 per cent) and Eden District
(90.5 per cent). Central Karoo has (87.3 per cent) households with access to refuse
removal. Only Cape Winelands (72.9 per cent) and West Coast (84.2 per cent) has a
lower rate. The District‟s performance is low compared to the rest of the Province.
31
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Table 27
Access to Refuse Removal Services in the Central Karoo, 2001 and 2007
Census
2001
Refuse Removal
% share of
households
2001
Community
survey 2007
estimates
% share of
households
2007
Average annual
growth 2001 2007
%
Removed by local authority at
least once a week
Removed by local authority less
often
Communal refuse dump
Own refuse dump
No rubbish disposal
Other
11 788
78%
13 639
86.9%
2%
51
0%
73
0.5%
6%
186
3 064
84
0
1%
20%
1%
0%
61
1 785
142
0
0.4%
11.4%
0.9%
0.0%
-17%
-9%
9%
Total
15 173
100%
15 701
100.0%
0.6%
Source: Statistics South Africa Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
Figure 16 Access to refuse removal in the Central Karoo District
Access to refuse removal
100.0%
percentage share (%)
80.0%
93.0%
87.3%
82.5%
76.4%
78.3%
60.0%
40.0%
20.0%
3.9%
1.2%
Laingsburg
Municipality
Prince Albert
Municipality
0.3%
0.0%
Beaufort West
Municipality
Access to refuse removal 2007
0.0%
Central Karoo
0.9%
Total
No access to refuse removal 2007
According to survey information from the 2001 Census and 2007 Community Survey,
there has been a significant change between the proportions of households in the
different categories of access to refuse removal services. Between the two survey
years, the total number of households with access to refuse services once a week
increased by 1 851 while households using communal refuse dumps decreased by
125 and households with own refuse dump decreased by 1 279; the number of
households indicating that no provision was made for rubbish disposal totalled 142 in
2007.
32
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
2.7
Roads
Roads facilitate the movement of both persons and materials anywhere within a
country. The better connectivity brought about through road development improves
the socio-economic conditions of the people living in those areas by making social
and economic opportunities more easily accessible.
Good communication and transport networks including roads networks, opens up the
economy for better utilisation of its potential resources and facilities and may
stimulate and support the growth of e.g. industry, agriculture or trade. Roads also
provide linkages to other modes of transport such as rail, air and water.
An efficient and well established network of roads is desired for promoting trade and
commerce in the country and also fulfils the need for a sound transportation system
for sustained economic development.
Table 28
Central Karoo, at 15 July 2011
District (km)
Metro
National
Trunk
Main
Divisional
Surfaced Gravel Surfaced Gravel Surfaced Gravel Surfaced
Minor
Totals
Gravel Surfaced Gravel
Surfaced Gravel
79.4
-
146.8
-
84.1
-
17.0
9.7
1.4
15.3
328.7
25.0
Cape Winelands
169.4
-
387.5
-
731.0
237.7
489.1
922.2
121.1
1 804.0
1 898.1
2 963.9
Ov erberg District
176.1
-
350.3
-
374.0
128.9
151.8
1 237.7
53.4
1 521.9
1 105.6
2 888.5
Eden District
305.7
-
765.5
63.2
468.0
455.5
259.3
2 498.8
43.2
2 341.2
1 841.6
5 358.6
West Coast
367.6
-
430.7
-
832.2
434.1
251.3
1 636.1
74.5
5 924.6
1 956.3
7 994.9
Central Karoo
364.0
-
553.7
68.1
46.8
635.1
14.8
1 679.2
0.0
3 925.6
979.4
6 307.9
Source: Department of Transport and Public Works, 2011
The total roads surface in the Central Karoo at July 2011 is 7 287.3 km of which
979.4 km of the roads are surfaced and 6 307.9 km is gravel. West Coast District has
the highest surfaced (1 956.3 km) and 7 994.9 km gravel road.
3.
Economically Active Population
3.1
Labour Force
Economically active people (those in the labour force) are those between the ages
of 15 and 65 years who chose to participate in the labour market, by being willing to
supply their labour in exchange for an income. Being defined as being economically
active does not depend on being employed; as long as there is a desire, willingness
and availability to work, even if that desire does not translate into employment, then
you are seen as part of the labour force.
Participation in the labour market is influenced by many factors which includes
disability, early retirement choices, long-term illness which includes AIDS, study
choices or even feelings of discouragement from participating. Participation levels
have a direct impact on the labour force statistics e.g. high levels of labour force
participation with few employment opportunities is easily evident in a high
unemployment rate, while low levels of participation with few employment
opportunities results in a lower unemployment rate. The differences in participation
33
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
levels as a result of discouragement, people who want to work but have given up
hope in finding employment and therefore are not taking active steps to look for
work is what is typically captured difference between South Africa‟s official versus the
broad/expanded unemployment definition.
Table 29
Comparison of Labour Force Information across Western Cape Municipal
Areas, 2007
City/District
City of Cape Town
West Coast District*
Cape Winelands District *
Overberg District*
Eden District*
Central Karoo District*
Western Cape
Labour
force
1 656 109
129 979
320 726
96 562
229 057
20 649
2 453 083
Percentage of
Western
Employed
Cape's labour
force
67.5
5.3
13.1
3.9
9.3
0.8
100.0
1 250 732
109 769
268 807
79 423
186 698
14 299
1 909 725
Percentage
of Western
Cape's
employed
65.5
5.7
14.1
4.2
9.8
0.7
100.0
Unemployed
405 377
20 210
51 919
17 139
42 359
6 350
543 358
Percentage of
Western
Unemployment
Cape's
rate (Percentage)
unemployed
74.6
3.7
9.6
3.2
7.8
1.2
100.0
24.5
15.5
16.2
17.7
18.5
30.8
22.2
* Weighting of data leads to the introduction of decimal fractions. These fractions have been rounded to
whole numbers. The sum of the separate numbers may therefore differ slightly from the totals given. A
similar effect can be seen with the percentages, which are rounded to one decimal place, and
therefore might not always total 100.
Source: Statistics South Africa, Community Survey 2007
The Community survey of 2007 indicated that the City of Cape Town (67.5 per cent)
has the highest percentage of the Western Cape‟s labour force. The Central Karoo
has the lowest percentage of the Western Cape‟s labour force with 0.8 per cent. The
Central Karoo (30.8 per cent) has the highest unemployment rate. The Central Karoo
District unemployment is (8.6 percentage points) higher than the Western Cape‟s
unemployment (22.2 per cent). The West Coast district has the lowest unemployment
rate of 15.5 per cent.
Table 30
Working Age Population and Labour Force details, 2001 and 2007
Municipality
Labour
force
Percentage of
district labour
force
Employed
Percentage
of district
employed
Unemployed
Percentage of
Unemployment
district
rate (Percentage)
unemployed
Laingsburg
2 221
10.8
1 669
11.7
552
8.7
24.9
Prince Albert
3 284
15.9
2 419
16.9
865
13.6
26.3
Beaufort West
13 037
63.1
8 859
61.9
4 178
65.8
32.0
Central Karoo DMA
Central Karoo District*
2 117
10.2
1 364
9.5
753
11.9
35.6
20 649
100.0
14 299
99.9
6 350
100.0
30.8
* Weighting of data leads to the introduction of decimal fractions. These fractions have been rounded to
whole numbers. The sum of the separate numbers may therefore differ slightly from the totals given. A
similar effect can be seen with the percentages, which are rounded to one decimal place, and
therefore might not always total 100.
Source: Statistics South Africa, Community Survey 2007
Figures for the 2001 to 2007 period indicates that the Central Karoo was able to
accommodate all new labour market entrants, albeit not significantly reducing the
number of unemployed. This is evident in spite of a slight increase in the District‟s
labour force participation rate.
34
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
3.2
Unemployment
3.2.1
The Unemployment Rate
Information on unemployment represents official unemployment statistics and does
not make provision for discouraged workers (workers not actively looking for work).
Table 31 compares the unemployment rate of municipalities within the Province and
tests whether unemployment is proportionally spread across the municipalities.
Table 31
Comparison of Labour Force Information across Western Cape Municipal
Areas, 2007
City/District
City of Cape Town
West Coast District*
Cape Winelands District *
Overberg District*
Eden District*
Central Karoo District*
Western Cape
Labour
force
1 656 109
129 979
320 726
96 562
229 057
20 649
2 453 083
Percentage of
Percentage
Western
of Western
Employed
Cape's labour
Cape's
force
employed
67.5
5.3
13.1
3.9
9.3
0.8
100.0
1 250 732
109 769
268 807
79 423
186 698
14 299
1 909 725
65.5
5.7
14.1
4.2
9.8
0.7
100.0
Unemployed
405 377
20 210
51 919
17 139
42 359
6 350
543 358
Percentage of
Western
Unemployment
Cape's
rate (Percentage)
unemployed
74.6
3.7
9.6
3.2
7.8
1.2
100.0
24.5
15.5
16.2
17.7
18.5
30.8
22.2
* Weighting of data leads to the introduction of decimal fractions. These fractions have been rounded to
whole numbers. The sum of the separate numbers may therefore differ slightly from the totals given. A
similar effect can be seen with the percentages, which are rounded to one decimal place, and
therefore might not always total 100.
Source: Statistics South Africa, Community Survey 2007
The Central Karoo had a labour force of 20 649 in 2007. The unemployment rate for
the district was 30.8 per cent in 2007.
The Central Karoo represents 0.8 per cent of the province‟s labour force. While the
district share of province‟s employed (0.7 per cent) roughly corresponds with this
figure, the district share 1.2 per cent in the proportion of unemployed. Central Karoo
has the highest unemployment rate (30.8 per cent) in the province followed by the
City of Cape Town (24.5 per cent). The unemployment rate of the District is higher
than the province‟s unemployment rate (22.2). The reason for the high
unemployment rate in the Central Karoo district is the low skills base. Those with no
formal education thus find it hard to find work in the formal sector.
35
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Table 32 compares the unemployment rate of municipalities within the District and
tests whether unemployment is proportionally spread across the municipalities. The
table can be used as follows: if a local municipality‟s share of the labour force is for
e.g. 10 per cent, then it means that if employment and unemployment is evenly
spread across the District, then the municipality‟s share of employment and
unemployment should also be 10 per cent.
Table 32
Comparison of Labour Force Information across the Central Karoo
Municipal Areas, 2007
Municipality
Percentage of
Labour force district labour Employed
force
Percentage
of district
employed
Unemployed
Percentage of
Unemployment
district
rate (Percentage)
unemployed
Laingsburg
2 221
10.8
1 669
11.7
552
8.7
24.9
Prince Albert
3 284
15.9
2 419
16.9
865
13.6
26.3
Beaufort West
13 037
63.1
8 859
61.9
4 178
65.8
32.0
2 117
10.2
1 364
9.5
753
11.9
35.6
20 649
100.0
14 299
99.9
6 350
100.0
30.8
Central Karoo DMA
Central Karoo District*
* Weighting of data leads to the introduction of decimal fractions. These fractions have been rounded to
whole numbers. The sum of the separate numbers may therefore differ slightly from the totals given. A
similar effect can be seen with the percentages, which are rounded to one decimal place, and
therefore might not always total 100.
Source: Statistics South Africa, Community Survey 2007
The picture for the district also looks very bleak with the highest unemployment in
Murraysburg DMA (35.6 per cent) followed by Beaufort West (32 per cent). The
overwhelming majority of employment in the Central Karoo is within the agriculture
sector. However, the agriculture sector is very dependent on exports markets and
due to the economic troubles facing the Euro area the agriculture sector has seen a
decline in exports and consequently job losses within the sector.
3.2.2
Characteristics of the Unemployed
Although unemployment impacts across gender, race, age and other social divides
its effects within certain groups are more pronounced. This could be as a result of a
number of factors which could include past or current discrimination or differences in
skill or education levels of individuals.
Some of the differential impacts of unemployment can be found within the
breakdown of gender, population group and age. This is highlighted in the table
below.
36
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 33
Characteristics of the Unemployed, 2007
Central Karoo District
Num ber of
Unem ploym ent Percentage share Percentage share
2007
unem ployed rate w ithin group of the labour force
of unem ployed
Gender
2 620
24.0
52.9
41.3
Male
3 730
38.3
47.1
58.7
Female
Population Group
679
45.0
7.3
10.7
Black
5 610
33.4
81.5
88.3
Coloured
0
0.0
0.1
0.0
Indian or Asian
61
2.6
11.2
1.0
White
Age
663
66.7
4.8
10.4
15 - 19
1 578
52.1
14.7
24.9
20 - 24
2
170
34.8
30.2
34.2
25 - 34
1 346
25.5
25.5
21.2
35 - 44
557
14.4
18.7
8.8
45 - 54
36
2.9
6.1
0.6
55 - 65
Source: St at ist ics Sout h Africa, Communit y Survey 2007
Unemployment by Gender
The gender split of Central Karoo‟s labour force shows males to be slightly better
represented than females, with males making up 52.9 per cent of the district‟s total
labour force. Although males represent more than half of the labour force, they
represent only 41.3 per cent of the district‟s total unemployed population. The high
representation of females within the unemployed translates into a significantly higher
unemployment rate for females compared with males – 38.3 compared with 24.0 per
cent.
Unemployment by Population Group
Between the different population groups, the 45.0 per cent unemployment rates for
Blacks is far greater than for any other group; followed by a 33.4 per cent
unemployment rate for Coloureds, 2.6 per cent for the White population. Similar
disparities are also noticeable when comparing the groups‟ percentage share of the
labour force with their share of the unemployed – the Black group is significantly overrepresented in their share of the unemployed compared to their share of labour
force, 10.7 per cent of unemployed compared with 7.3 per cent of labour force,
while Whites are significantly under-represented in their share of the unemployed,
representing on 1.0 per cent of unemployed compared to a 11.2 per cent share of
the labour force.
Unemployment by Age
Disparities are also found within different age groups, with those at younger age
groups experiencing higher levels of unemployment and representing significantly
higher shares of the unemployed in comparison with their share of the labour force.
The unemployment rate for those in younger age groups is significantly higher than
the older age groups; a comparison of the youngest and oldest represented groups,
15 to 19 years and 55 to 65 years differs greatly, with 66.7 per cent compared with
37
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
2.9 per cent. A general decline in the unemployment rate is noticeable when moving
from younger to older age groups is noted. The vast differences in unemployment
rates between age groups may in part be accounted for in the higher education, skill
and experience levels of relatively older workers – these characteristics make workseekers more attractive to prospective employers and improve their chances of
finding employment.
3.3
Employment
Employment opportunities or the lack thereof tells a story of whether or not the
economy is able to create work opportunities for all those seeking employment.
Sector employment and the skill level of those employed provides further information
on the possible types of employment available as well as the skill level required to do
the work. Although this provides a good indication of opportunities in the current
labour market, it may but does not necessarily provide an indication of the sector
growth potential and its associated employment creating potential and future skills
need.
3.3.1
Employment by Sector
Percentage Share of Employment
Figure 17 Employment by Sector – A Comparison across Western Cape Districts, 2007
100 %
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Western
Cape
City of
Cape Town
West Coast
District
Cape
Winelands
District
Overberg
District
Eden
District
Central
Karoo
District
Wholesale and retail t rade
14 .0
14 .7
12 .0
11 .7
10 .9
15 .5
14 .0
Unspecifie d
18 .2
21 .3
6.3
15 .3
12 .4
12 .1
12 .1
Transport; storage and communication
3.5
3.9
3.4
2.4
2.2
2.7
4.0
Othe r a nd no t ade quat ely d efined
7.2
7.1
7.7
5.4
9.1
9.3
11 .6
Mining and quarrying
0.3
0.2
1.4
0.4
0.1
0.3
0.2
Ma nufa ctu ring
14 .2
14 .9
12 .3
14 .6
10 .2
11 .8
8.7
Financial; insurance; real estate and business services
11 .1
12 .9
8.9
6.7
9.2
7.8
7.6
Electricity; ga s a nd wate r sup ply
0.7
0.8
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.7
Construction
7.3
6.5
6.8
5.1
11 .8
13 .8
8.6
Community; social and perso nal services
14 .2
14 .3
12 .9
13 .8
12 .4
15 .0
16 .9
Agricult ure; hunting; forestry and fishing
9.2
3.3
27 .9
24 .2
21 .3
10 .8
15 .7
The Agriculture, Community, Social and personal services, Wholesale and retail trade
and Manufacturing are the largest sector contributors of the Western Cape Economy.
Agriculture plays a significant role in districts like West Coast (27.9 per cent), Cape
Winelands (24.2 per cent) and Central Karoo (15.7 per cent).
38
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Figure 18 Employment by Sector – Central Karoo, 2007
Percentage Share of the Employed
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Wholesale and retail trade
Central Karoo
District
14.0
Laingburg
Prince Albert
Beaufort West
11.3
9.9
16.7
Central Karoo
DMA
6.8
Unspecified
12.1
18.0
6.2
10.2
26.9
Transport; storage and communication
4.0
1.2
1.3
5.5
2.0
Other and not adequately defined
11.6
11.5
11.6
12.1
8.5
Mining and quarrying
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
Manufacturing
8.7
7.5
5.4
9.7
8.9
Financial; insurance; real estate and business services
7.6
4.9
6.7
8.6
5.6
Electricity; gas and water supply
0.7
2.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
Construction
8.6
5.3
20.2
7.4
0.0
Community; social and personal services
16.9
11.3
12.4
20.7
7.7
Agriculture; hunting; forestry and fishing
15.7
27.0
25.7
8.3
32.6
Source: Statistics South Africa, Community Survey 2007
The District‟s employment opportunities is concentrated in three sectors namely
Community; social and personal services (16.9 per cent), Agriculture; hunting; forestry
and fishing (15.7 per cent) and Wholesale and retail trade (14.0 per cent).
When roughly comparing percentage sector employment with the relative size
(percentage contribution) of the sector9, the Community, social and personal
services, Construction and Agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors are appear
relatively labour intensive. Further growth is likely to achieve a greater than
proportionate increase in employment.
Skill Level of the Employed10
The skill level of the employed indicates current availability of jobs skills necessary
within the labour market. It serves as an indication to what extent the labour market
would be able to accommodate workers at the different skill levels.
9
See values for percentage sector contribution in Section 4: Economic Structure and Performance,
below.
10
High skill occupations include legislators; senior officials and managers, professionals, technicians and
associate professionals; skilled occupations include clerks, service workers; shop and market sales
workers, skilled agricultural and fishery workers, craft and related trades workers and plant and machine
operators and assemblers; low skill occupations include elementary occupations (occupations requiring
low levels of knowledge and experience to perform simple and routine tasks, and limited personal
initiative and judgement).
39
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Figure 19 Employment by Skill Level – A Comparison across Western Cape
Districts/Central Karoo District, 2007
Percentage Share of Em ployed
by Skills Level
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Western
Cape
City of
Cape Town
West
Coast
District
Cape
Winelands
District
Overberg
District
Eden
District
Central
Karoo
District
Occupations unspecified and
not elsewhere classified
19.3
22.5
8.9
15.7
15.5
11.5
13.6
Low skilled
17.3
13.5
27.9
24.7
23.6
22.6
26.6
Skilled
37.7
35.5
41.9
40.6
40.5
44.7
38.6
High skilled
25.6
28.5
21.3
19.0
20.4
21.2
21.2
The highest number of skilled people is concentrated in the Eden District (44.7 per
cent) followed by the West Coast (41.9 per cent) and Cape Winelands (40.6 per
cent). Central Karoo District (38.6 per cent) has third lowest proportion of skilled
labour force. A comparison of the highest number of highly skilled people showed
that the City of Cape Town has the highest (28.5 per cent) followed by the West
Coast (21.3 per cent) and Central Karoo and Eden District (21.2 per cent). Central
Karoo has the second highest (26.6 per cent) of low skilled people in the Western
Cape. The low skill based in the Central Karoo is putting a strain on the economy of
the region and it poses a challenge to the region.
Figure 20 Skilled Level of the Employed – Central Karoo, 2007
Percentage Share of Em ployed
by Skills Level
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Central Karoo District
Laingburg
Prince Albert
Beaufort West
Central Karoo DMA
Occupations unspecified and
not elsewhere classified
13.6
19.3
7.4
11.4
31.1
Low skilled
26.6
29.4
34.6
24.5
23.2
Skilled
38.6
30.2
34.1
41.9
34.8
High skilled
21.2
21.2
23.9
22.2
10.9
Source: Statistics South Africa, Community Survey 2007
40
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
A large proportion of occupations in the District can be classified as either skilled
(39 per cent) or high skilled (21 per cent). The concentration of employment
opportunities in skilled work means that there are relatively few opportunities
available to those with low skill levels; the current proportion of low occupations
available in the District is 27 per cent.
The high proportion of the district‟s employed in skilled (39 per cent) or high skilled
(21 per cent) occupations indicates limited employment opportunities for low skilled
occupations and further emphasises the need for individuals to up-skill to improve
their chances of finding employment within the district.
4.
Economic Structure and Performance
Economic growth signifies an increase in the value of the total production of goods
and services from one period to the next. If the population increases, a greater level
of income is necessary to maintain the standard of living of the population; without
economic growth, increases in the population result in a deterioration of peoples
living standards.
Economic growth ensures that there is potential for an increase in employment
opportunities. Although economic growth does not guarantee increased
employment opportunities for a growing labour force, a lack of growth is a guarantee
of a lack of new employment opportunities.
For the purpose of this socio-economic profile, trend analysis is carried out using
1999 - 2009 GDP-R figures.
4.1
Value and Growth of the Economy
Table 34
Central Karoo, Sector value 2009 (Constant 2005 prices)
Beaufort
West
Central
Karoo
Laingsburg
Prince
Albert
PA: Agriculture, forestry and fishing
PB: Mining and quarrying
SC: Manufacturing
SD: Electricity, gas and w ater
SE: Construction
TF: Wholesale and retail trade, catering and
accommodation
TG:
Transport, storage and communication
TH: Finance, insurance, real estate and business
services
TI:
Community, social and personal services
TJ: General government
-4.13%
26.09%
10.12%
-4.76%
9.02%
3.74%
2.24%
7.53%
4.07%
2.80%
1.35%
-1.52%
-3.69%
20.69%
4.55%
1.59%
-0.71%
7.96%
14.12%
-3.11%
-4.30%
9.67%
8.23%
11.76%
0.41%
-7.97%
10.37%
1.92%
0.64%
15.18%
3.45%
-3.97%
14.35%
1.72%
0.62%
TOTAL
4.30%
5.12%
2.29%
3.95%
Average Annual Grow th 1999 - 2009:
Source: Bureau of Economic Research (BER), 2011
Year on year growth in the Central Karoo over the past decade has also been
relatively strong, averaging around 4.0 per cent and above for all years except for
1999 , 2000 and 2009, where the economy contracted by around -1 per cent.
41
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
When considering the consolidated performance for the 10 year period from 1999 to
2009, annual growth for the economy averaged around 4.3 per cent.
This was driven by the relatively high (above average) average annual growth
between in the Manufacturing (20.0 per cent), Finance and Insurance (14.12 per
cent), Transport, storage and communication (7.96 per cent), Agriculture (1.35 per
cent) and Construction (1.59 per cent) made a relatively small contribution. This
renders the relative impact of their growth on total economy relatively small.
The Manufacturing sector, whose sector contribution in 2009 was the highest
(20.69 per cent) of all sectors, grew at a modest average annual rate of 2.3 per cent
between 1999 and 2009. The Mining and quarrying sector registered, on average, a
9.0 percentage point per annum decrease over this period. Since the total value of
this sector relative to the total is negligible, the relative impact of this decline on the
economy is not significant.
Figure 21 GDP-R Growth, 1999 to 2009 (Constant 2005 prices)
10.00%
8.00%
percentage (%)
6.00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
-2.00%
-4.00%
Total Central Karoo District
Beaufort West
Laingsburg
Prince Albert
Source: Bureau of Economic Research (BER), 2011
In 2008, Central Karoo‟s economy growth increased to 6 per cent whilst the
Province‟s annual growth rate lowered to 4.3 per cent due to the effect of the global
recession. The effect of the global recession was more severe in 2009 when Central
Karoo economy was stagnant at 0.2 per cent and the Province‟s economy
contracted by 1.2 per cent. The decline in the growth from 2008 to 2009 can be
attributed to the impact of the 2008/09 global recession.
4.2
Central Karoo District Economy Sector Composition
The composition of the Central Karoo District Economy is of particular relevance to
District authorities and policy makers alike. Figure 22 displays for the period
1999 - 2009, the composition of the Central Karoo District Economy.
42
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Figure 22 Sector Contribution to the Economy, 1999 to 2009 (Constant 2005 prices)
100%
90%
TJ: General government [SIC: 91, 94]
80%
TI: Community, social and personal services [SI C: 92, 95-6, 99, 0]
70%
TH: Finance, insurance, real estate and business services [SIC: 8]
60%
TG: Transport , storage and communication [SIC: 7]
50%
TF: Wholesale and retail trade, catering and accommodation [SIC: 6]
SE: Construction [SIC: 5]
40%
SD: Electricity, gas and water [SIC: 4]
30%
SC: Manufacturing [ SIC: 3]
20%
PB: Mining and quarrying [SIC: 2]
PA: A griculture, forestry and fishing [SIC: 1]
10%
0%
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Source: Bureau of Economic Research (BER), 2011
Over the past decade, the proportional sector contribution of the economy has
changed, more for certain sectors than others. Comparing the 2009 percentage
sector contribution to that of 1999, the most significant changes were in the Finance,
insurance, real estate and business services sector and manufacturing, increasing by
8.9 and 4.4 percentage points while agriculture and transport, storage and
communication decreased by 7.0 and 3.8 percentage points respectively.
A review of the average annual growth rates enables municipalities to identify the
key drivers of economic growth between 1999 and 2009.
4.3
Sectoral Growth
An assessment of the average annual growth rates below enables the Municipality to
ascertain key drivers of economic growth as point estimates for the prolonged period
1999-2009. The selected sectors have been done so according to individual sic codes
and for consistency with previous and future economic publications according to the
parameters of the research as set out by the Provincial Treasury.
Table 35 Annual Growth rate for the Central Karoo – 1999 - 2009
Average Annual Grow th 1999 - 2009
Beaufort
West
Central
Karoo
Laingsburg
Prince
Albert
PA: Agriculture, forestry and fishing
PB: Mining and quarrying
SC: Manufacturing
SD: Electricity, gas and w ater
SE: Construction
TF: Wholesale and retail trade, catering and
accommodation
TG: Transport, storage and communication
TH: Finance, insurance, real estate and business
services
TI:
Community, social and personal services
TJ: General government
-4.13%
26.09%
10.12%
-4.76%
9.02%
3.74%
2.24%
7.53%
4.07%
2.80%
1.35%
-1.52%
-3.69%
20.69%
4.55%
1.59%
-0.71%
7.96%
14.12%
-3.11%
-4.30%
9.67%
8.23%
11.76%
0.41%
-7.97%
10.37%
1.92%
0.64%
15.18%
3.45%
-3.97%
14.35%
1.72%
0.62%
TOTAL
4.30%
5.12%
2.29%
3.95%
43
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
For the ten year period under review, Mining, Manufacturing, Construction and
Finance displayed a robust growth for the District‟s economies namely Beaufort West
and Prince Albert.
In Beaufort West, mining and quarrying displayed a growth rate of 26.9 per cent and
manufacturing recorded a growth rate of 10.12 per cent. In Prince Albert,
construction (15.2 per cent) and finance, insurance, real estate and business (14.4 per
cent) displayed strong growth. In Laingsburg, construction (11.8 per cent) and
manufacturing (9.7 per cent) recorded strong growth. For the entire Central Karoo,
manufacturing (20.7 per cent) and financial, insurance, real estate and business
(14.1 per cent) displayed a strong growth.
Table 36
Average Annual Growth 1999 – 2009 (GDP-R Constant 2005 Prices, R’000s)
City/District
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
City Of Cape Tow n
4.1%
4.6%
4.1%
3.6%
3.5%
5.9%
6.0%
6.0%
6.6%
3.9%
-1.2%
Eden District
5.8%
6.1%
5.4%
5.8%
4.5%
6.8%
7.5%
6.2%
6.2%
5.6%
-0.1%
West Coast District
3.4%
3.3%
3.5%
4.1%
2.4%
4.0%
5.1%
3.4%
4.2%
5.5%
-3.5%
Cape Winelands
2.4%
3.1%
4.2%
4.3%
2.3%
5.4%
5.6%
6.0%
6.0%
6.9%
-2.9%
Overberg District
6.7%
4.9%
5.0%
6.9%
3.4%
6.1%
7.4%
5.4%
6.1%
7.4%
-0.2%
2%
1%
4%
4%
3%
5%
5%
6%
6%
7%
-1%
Central Karoo District
Source: Bureau for Economic Research, 2011
Year on year growth in the Central Karoo over the past decade has also been
relatively strong, averaging around 4.0 per cent and above for all years except for
1999, 2000, 2003 and 2009, where the economy declined contracted by around 1 per
cent.
When considering the consolidated performance for the 10 year period from 1999 to
2009, average annual growth for the economy averaged 4.3 per cent.
5.
Finance and Resource Mobilisation
Unlike provinces, municipalities have the ability to raise revenue through property
rates, administration fees, penalties and tariffs on services rendered such as
electricity, water, sanitation and refuse removal. However, the South African Fiscal
Framework entitles municipalities to a share of nationally raised revenue through the
equitable share grant (unconditional) as well as other allocations from national and
provincial government in the form of either conditional or unconditional grants.
The value of transfers varies between municipalities. The objectives of the transfers are
to address historical imbalances between revenue and expenditure, to support
national priorities to improve the quality of life of people and to promote good
governance and strengthen administrative capacity.
The transfers from Provincial and National Government, as well as the value of
Provincial spending within the City, are set out in the tables below.
44
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 37
Provincial Transfers to the Central Karoo
Outcome
Department and Transfer
R'000
Audited
Audited
Audited
Main
Adjusted
Revised
approapproestimate
priation priation
2007/08
2008/09
2009/10
2010/11
2010/11
2010/11
Medium-term estimate
% Change from Revised
estimate
2011/12
2010/11
2012/13
2013/14
Department of the Premier
Izimbizo
Visitor Centre at Cape Town Stadium
Department of Health
1 622
587
529
1 438
1 438
1 468
2.09
1 571
1 681
1 232
587
529
1 438
1 438
1 468
2.09
1 571
1 681
Department of Social Development
3 000
4 000
Multi-purposes Centres
3 000
4 000
Personal Primary Health Care
Services
Integrated Nutrition
Global Fund
HIV and AIDS
390
Department of Human Settlements
19 095
31 366
24 874
9 231
9 231
5 784
10 114
74.86
9 668
10 191
Integrated Housing and Human
Settlement Development Grant
18 882
31 305
23 774
8 731
8 731
5 284
10 114
91.41
9 668
10 191
1 000
500
500
500
1 500
1 500
1 500
1 500
Settlement Assistance
Local Government Bulk Water and
Waste Water Infrastructure Planning
Grant
(100.00)
Accreditation Assistance
Local Government Master Planning
Grant
63
61
Provincial Contribution towards the
Accelerating of Housing Delivery
Disaster Relief Grant (2004 floods)
Integrated Housing and Human
Settlement Development Grant (Flood
Disaster 2006)
Housing Consumer Education Grant
150
Department of Environmental
Affairs and Development Planning
620
Spatial Planning
590
Cleanest Town Competition
Department of Transport and
Public Works
100
30
146
5 040
120
113
5 613
5 613
1 215
(78.35)
146
40
120
113
113
113
615
444.25
5 500
5 500
600
(89.09)
2010 FIFA World Cup: Green Point
Stadium Precinct
Cape Metropolitan Transport Fund
Maintenance of Proclaimed Roads
Mobility Strategies
Non-motorised Transport
Public Transport Infrastructure
5 000
Community Development Projects:
Sidewalks and pathways
Integrated Transport Plans
Athlone Stadium Phase 2 upgrade
Department of Agriculture
Vehicle Licences
Philippi Market
45
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Outcome
Department and Transfer
R'000
Audited
Audited
Audited
Main
Adjusted
Revised
approapproestimate
priation
priation
2007/08
2008/09
2009/10
2010/11
2010/11
2010/11
Medium-term estimate
% Change from Revised
estimate
2011/12
2010/11
2012/13
2013/14
Department of Economic
Development and Tourism
Signage
Empowerment
Department of Cultural Affairs and
Sport
540
436
708
520
520
520
739
42.12
Library Subsidies (Capital)
260
280
436
708
520
520
520
739
42.12
1 950
905
832
4 533
4 605
4 557
572
(87.45)
255
280
Development of Sport and Recreation
Facilities
Library Services (Conditional Grant)
2010 FIFA World Cup: Green Point
Stadium Construction
Department of Local Government
Fire Fighting Assistance
333
333
333
(100.00)
Provincial Management Support
Grant
1 600
1 600
1 600
(100.00)
Thusong Centres
2 000
2 000
2 000
(100.00)
Community Development Worker
Operational Support Grant
Disaster Management Centre Grant
Total Transfers
450
594
616
650
552
600
672
624
572
(8.33)
594
616
41 334
31 063
14 397
21 407
17 912
14 108
(21.24)
13 333
13 988
1 500
23 973
Source: Provincial Expenditure Estimates 2010, Western Cape Provincial Treasury
Provincial transfers for the 2011/12 MTREF to the Central Karoo totals R41.429 million.
The largest proportion of the 2011/12 MTREF is for housing and health; totalling
R29.973 million (72.4 per cent of total transfers) and R4.720 million (11.4 per cent)
respectively.
Other notable transfers originate from the Department of Transport and Public Works,
R4.215 million and the Department of Local Government R1.782 million over the
2011/12 MTREF.
National transfers to the Central Karoo is detailed in the table below.
46
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Table 38
National Transfers to the Central Karoo Municipal Area, 2011/12 - 2013/14
MUNICIPALITY
Type of Transfer
Central
Karoo
District
R'000
Laingsburg
R'000
Central
Prince Beaufort
Karoo Area
Albert
West
(TOTAL)
R'000
R'000
R'000
TOTAL
46 553
57 651
61 081
216 120
381 405
Equitable Share
36 746
27 027
30 158
95 233
189 164
Conditional Grants and Subsidies
9 807
30 624
30 923
120 887
192 241
Local Government Financial Management Grant
3 750
4 500
3 750
3 750
15 750
Municipal Systems Improvement Grant
2 790
2 490
2 490
2 490
10 260
Water Services Operating Subsidy Grant
-
-
-
-
Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG)
-
23 634
24 683
61 829
Municipal Infrastructure Grant (Cities)
-
-
-
-
-
Urban Settlement Development Grant
-
-
-
-
-
Neighbourhood Development Partnership Grant
(Capital Grant)
Public Transport Infrastructure and Systems Grant
-
-
-
3 500
3 500
-
-
-
-
-
Rural Transport Services and Infrastructure Grant
-
-
-
-
-
Integrated National Electrification Programme
(Municipal) Grant
Electricity Demand Side Management (Municipal)
Grant
-
-
-
49 318
49 318
-
-
-
-
-
3 267
-
-
-
3 267
Expanded Public Works Programme Incentive Grant
for Municipalities
110 146
Source: Division of Revenue Bill (4 of 2011)
A total of R381.405 million is anticipated to be transferred from national government
to municipalities in Central Karoo District over the 2011/12 MTREF. The largest share
flows to Beaufort West (R216.120 million) and Prince Albert (R61.081 million).
The equitable share and municipal infrastructure grant account for R189.164 million
and R110.146 million of the total transfers to the Central Karoo municipalities over the
2011 MTREF. The other significant grant is the Integrated National Electrification
Programme Grant of R49.318 million which solely flows to the Beaufort West
municipality.
In addition, to direct transfers from National and Provincial Government to
municipalities, Provincial Departments also spend in municipal space. The information
below reflects the total spend by Provincial Departments in the Central Karoo.
47
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Table 39
Provincial Payments and Estimates in comparison with Transfers
Outcome
Department
R'000
Audited
Audited
Audited
Main
appropriation
2007/08
2008/09
2009/10
2010/11
Adjusted
appropriation
Revised
estimate
2010/11
2010/11
Medium-term estimate
% Change from Revised
estimate
2011/12
2010/11
2012/13
2013/14
Department of the Premier
Provincial Parliament
Provincial Treasury
Department of Community
Safety
11 490
13 350
16 681
17 359
19 559
Department of Education
97 441
114 673
132 831
147 553
149 453
Department of Health
86 974
94 235
117 537
129 177
131 868
Department of Social
Development
58 604
69 062
76 893
81 941
81 941
81 941
89 299
8.98
96 219
96 219
Department of Human
Settlements
20 832
34 739
27 607
9 231
9 231
5 784
10 114
74.86
9 668
10 191
53 370
54 814
38 293
38 293
38 293
86 828
126.75 151 581
136 804
Department of
Environmental Affairs and
Development Planning
19 117
20 455
7.00
21 887
23 419
149 453 165 401
10.67 175 811
188 228
131 868 150 592
14.20 161 788
176 125
620
Department of Transport
and Public Works
Department of Agriculture
13 322
13 953
51 217
17 694
17 694
17 694
19 660
11.11
19 660
21 858
Department of Economic
Development and Tourism
4 049
4 631
5 513
4 803
4 726
4 726
728
(84.60)
950
1 150
540
436
708
520
520
520
739
42.12
832
4 533
4 557
4 557
572
(87.45)
594
616
19.92 638 158
654 610
Department of Cultural
Affairs and Sport
Department of Local
Government
Total
Total Transfers to Central
Karoo District
Transfers as a percentage
of Provincial Payment and
Estimates
293 872
398 449
484 633
451 104
457 842
23 973
41 334
31 063
14 397
21 407
453 953 544 388
17 912
14 108
(21.24)
13 333
13 988
8.16
10.37
6.41
3.19
4.68
3.95
2.59
(34.32)
2.09
2.14
Source: Provincial Expenditure Estimates 2011, Western Cape Provincial Treasury
For the 2011/12 financial year total Provincial Government spending in the Central
Karoo totals R544.388 million. The highest spending departments are Education
(30.4 per cent of total spent), Health (27.7 per cent of total Municipal spent),
Department of Social Services (16.4 per cent of total spent) and the Department of
Transport and Public Works (with 15.9 per cent of total Municipal spent). Together
these four departments represent spending of 90.0 per cent of Provincial Government
spending in the Central Karoo District.
6.
Environmental Management
As drivers of economic growth, development and innovation, municipalities need to
recognise the challenges posed by climate change as well as the limitations on
growth posed by its natural environment. This requires watchful management and
care in protecting our natural resources to ensure sufficient availability of resources for
both the current and future populations. Air pollution and Disaster Management are
prioritised for the purpose of this analysis. This section endeavours to identify key
challenges faced by municipalities as well as a review of its current strategies and
48
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
policies. This analysis aims to further assist municipalities to fully understand and
establish their specific climate change impact assessment that take into account
their specific conditions and circumstance.
6.1
Waste Management
Often given very little or no priority in most areas, waste management within the
Western Cape region is displaying distress signals. A concerted effort is being made
by Waste authorities (as per Provincial Strategic Objective 7) to develop 2nd
generation Integrated Waste Management Plan‟s (IWMP) aligned to National,
Provincial, District IWMP‟s and Municipal By laws. Also, licensing existing waste facilities
by 2015, implementation initiatives to meet provincial diversion targets and save
landfill airspace, and registering of waste facilities and reporting to Provincial Waste
Information System (IPWIS) are part of the action plan to address the current
shortcomings of waste management locally.
6.2
Air Quality
Exposure to ambient air pollutants can cause a range of significance effects such as
those on quality of life from offensive odour, irritation of eyes, the upper respiratory
system and skin, and acute and long-term toxic effects.
The National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act places a legislative
obligation on organs of state to monitoring and report on the implementation of air
quality management. This has brought about new challenges with regard to air
quality management for all spheres of government, but provides an important
opportunity for improving air quality for South Africans generally. Clean air is
important for good health and wellbeing.
6.3
Water Quality
The Department of Water Affairs initiated the Blue Drop Certification Programme on
11 September 2008 to intensify to focus on the manner tap water quality was being
managed and monitored in municipalities.
According to the Blue Drop results for 2011 the drinking water quality management in
municipalities of the Western Cape varies from excellent to satisfactory, with
17 systems needing urgent attention. Overall the Western Cape was the second best
performing province nationally in terms of the Provincial Blue Drop scores, scoring
94.1 per cent in 2010/11. Overall 29 Blue Drop Certificates were awarded to Western
Cape Province, resulting in the highest number of Blue Drop systems in the country.
Compared to other provinces, in the 2010/11 financial year, the Western Cape was
highly ranked in terms of its Blue Drop score; with a score of 94 per cent, the Western
Cape was second to Gauteng who realised a 95 per cent Blue drop score. The next
best score of 85 per cent was achieved by KwaZulu Natal followed by a 77 per cent
49
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
score by the Eastern Cape. The worst performing province was Mpumalanga with a
Blue Drop score of 57 per cent.
The 100 per cent assessment coverage for the Western Cape included a total of
123 water systems for the Western Cape, with 29 Blue Drop awards. The Central Karoo
was the best performing Western Cape municipality with a Blue Drop score of
97.6 per cent.
6.4
Waste Water Treatment
Wastewater service delivery is performed by 27 Water Services Authorities in the
Western Cape by way of 155 wastewater collector and treatment systems.
All of the municipalities were assessed during the 2010/11 Green Drop Certification
compared to 20 municipalities in 2009. The Green Drop results outline the quality of
waste water treatment in municipalities based on rigorous assessments done of each
water treatment facility. As compared to 107 waste water systems assessed in 2009,
all 155 were assessed in 2010/11. The average Green Drop Certification scores for the
Western Cape improved from 47 per cent in 2009 to 65 per cent in 2010/11 in the
context of more stringent Green Drop requirements than in 2009. The Provincial Green
Drop Score achieved was 83.1 per cent placing the Western Cape in the top position
nationally. The improvement in submission of performance reports for certification
and improvement in the Green Drop scores marks a positive trend and a
commitment on the part of municipalities in the Western Cape to raise their service
standards and levels.
The 100 per cent assessment coverage for the Western Cape included a total of 155
wastewater systems for the Western Cape. The Western Cape had an 83 per cent
Green Drop score in 2011, with 19 Green Drop awards for the 2010/11 financial year.
In relation to Green Drop status, the Western Cape was the best performing province
in the country, with KwaZulu-Natal at a close second with 82 per cent followed by
Gauteng at 79 per cent; worst performing provinces were the Northern Cape,
Limpopo and Free State provinces with scores of 23 per cent, 24 per cent and 32 per
cent respectively.
Central Karoo District Municipality took huge steps forward since the previous Green
Drop assessment cycle. Most impressive would be the good practice to verify
treatment efficacy by means of compliance monitoring and the fact that these
results proved relatively good results (even though this monitoring was limited). The
measurement of daily flows at the pump station is commendable since this instil
confidence in the manner wastewater services are being managed in Murraysburg.
There however remains much room for improvement as indicated by the Green Drop
score obtained and the fact that the municipality did not meet 100 per cent
compliance with any of the requirements. The site inspection confirmed neither this
taking, since the works certainly is not well kept nor being operated as per the desired
standard.
50
CENTRAL KAROO DISTRICT
Cautionary Note
The data used in this profile has been sourced from a number of data providers:
Statistics South Africa (Census 2001 data and Community Survey 2007 data),
Department of Economic Development (Global Insight Data), Department of Health,
Department of Community Safety, Department of Education, Department of Social
Services, Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning,
Department of Local Government, Western Cape Treasury, Department of Transport
and Public Works and the Department of Local Government.
The Statistics Council evaluated the Community Survey 2007 data, which is
accompanied by its own cautionary note. The Council cautions users of the 2007
Community Survey on the following:

Institutional population (merely an approximation to 2001 numbers and not new
data);

Unemployment in the Community Survey is higher and less reliable (because of
questions that were asked differently);

Grants do not match the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) data and
should be interpreted with great care; and

Distribution of households by province has very little congruence with the General
Household Survey or last census).
Systematic errors were observed in the population data, which include:

An underestimate of men relative to women;

An underestimate of children younger than 10 years;

An excess of those aged 85+, in particular among men;

Missing women aged 20 – 34 from the Coloured population;

Mal-distribution of the population by province; and

Excess of people aged 10 – 24 in Western Cape.
The Council also found that confidence intervals at some municipal and district levels
are very wide. Hence the data needs to be analysed further to ensure reliable data
at district and municipal level.
According to the Stats Council, these errors could be due to:
“In the absence of a comprehensive sampling frame, it is difficult to determine
whether the differences are due to sampling error, biases or the reality that has
changed beyond our expectations. There may be other variables that will require
similar warnings after further interrogation”, (Statistical release P0301: Community
Survey, 2007 [Revised version], 24 October 2008).
51
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE 2011
Labour Statistics quoted in the profile are based on Census 2001 and Community
Survey 2007 data. The Census and Community Survey is not the most appropriate tool
for collecting labour statistics as the survey questionnaire does not cover all the
questions as per the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS), which provides a much
more accurate reflection of the labour force status. The Census and Community
Survey provides a “rough” or broad indication of labour force trends for small
geographical units such as suburbs, towns and municipalities. The user of the profile
needs to be aware of these limitations when interpreting the labour data.
As with any data, users need to be cautious when interpreting and analysing data.
The population and household data may not be a realistic head count; however the
data does give an indication as to trends.
52
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