§128.A. Elementary (C) use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to spell syllables and...

§128.A. Elementary (C) use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to spell syllables and...
§128.A.
Elementary
(19)
(20)
(21)
(C)
use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to spell syllables and words in text
and independent of content (e.g., CV, ma; VC, un; VCV, oso; CVC, sol; CVCV, mesa);
(D)
use "y" to represent /i/ when used as a conjunction (e.g. mamá y papá); and
(E)
write one's own name.
Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for
answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:
(A)
ask questions about topics of class-wide interest; and
(B)
decide what sources or people in the classroom, school, library, or home can answer these
questions.
Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant
sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather.
Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:
(A)
gather evidence from provided text sources; and
(B)
use pictures in conjunction with writing when documenting research.
Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others
in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater
complexity. Students are expected to:
(A)
listen attentively by facing speakers and asking questions to clarify information; and
(B)
follow oral directions that involve a short related sequence of actions.
(22)
Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of
language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are
expected to share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of
language.
(23)
Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students
continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow
agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns and speaking one at a time.
Source: The provisions of this §128.11 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.
§128.12. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.
(a)
Introduction.
(1)
Page 6
The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect
language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere
translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the
following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and
informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear
controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are
expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present
ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of
others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written
Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish
language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of
the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish
literacy development. In first grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior
knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills.
Students should write, read, and be read to on a daily basis.
February 2010 Update
Elementary
§128.A.
(2)
Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates
learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition,
learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, &
Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to
transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and
Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the
conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently,
systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish
Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish
language and not mere translations from English.
(A)
Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined
syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological
awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence.
Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word
recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading
success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency
than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic
transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and
comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of
occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension.
However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such
as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of
comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading
methodology and development.
(B)
Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy
skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension
can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills
from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and
awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on
bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how
students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another
language.
(C)
The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills
and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages
(Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are
common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in
both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the
other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines
the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon,
2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules"
and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.
(D)
The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both
(Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language
systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn
about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of
bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).
(3)
To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The
students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and
writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and
student expectations in Grade 1 as described in subsection (b) of this section.
(4)
To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the
continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise
February 2010 Update
Page 7
§128.A.
Elementary
system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students
will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them
to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and
nation.
(b)
Knowledge and skills.
(1)
(2)
(3)
Page 8
Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how Spanish is written
and printed. Students are expected to:
(A)
recognize that spoken words are represented in written Spanish by specific sequences of
letters;
(B)
identify upper- and lower-case letters;
(C)
sequence the letters of the alphabet;
(D)
recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word,
beginning and ending punctuation, the em dash to indicate dialogue);
(E)
read texts by moving from top to bottom of the page and tracking words from left to right
with return sweep; and
(F)
identify the information that different parts of a book provide (e.g., title, author,
illustrator, table of contents).
Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological
awareness. Students are expected to:
(A)
orally generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety of endings (e.g., -ita, osa, -ión);
(B)
recognize the change in a spoken word when a specified syllable or phoneme is added,
changed, or removed (e.g., "ma-lo" to "ma-sa"; "to-mo" to "co-mo");
(C)
blend spoken phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., sol, pato);
(D)
distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;
(E)
identify syllables in spoken words, including diphthongs and hiatus (le-er, rí-o, quie-ro,
na-die, ra-dio, sa-po); and
(F)
separate spoken multi-syllabic words into two to four syllables (e.g., ra-na, má-qui-na, telé-fo-no).
Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and
sounds to decode written Spanish. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater
depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A)
decode the five vowel sounds;
(B)
decode syllables;
(C)
use phonological knowledge to match sounds to individual letters and syllables including
hard and soft consonants such as "r," "c," and "g";
(D)
decode the written "y" when used as a conjunction (e.g., "mamá y papá");
(E)
decode words in context and in isolation by applying the knowledge of letter-sound
relationships in different structures including:
(i)
open syllable (e.g., CV, la; VCV, ala; CVCV, toma);
(ii)
closed syllable (e.g., VC, un; CVC, mes);
(iii)
consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo; glo/glo-bo); and
February 2010 Update
Elementary
§128.A.
(iv)
(4)
consonant digraphs (e.g., ch/chi-le; ll/lla-ve; rr/pe-rro);
(F)
decode words with the silent "h";
(G)
decode words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso
and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;
(H)
decode words that have the same sounds represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and
"rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and
jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal,
semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy;
"b" and "v," as in burro and vela);
(I)
identify the stressed syllable (sílaba tónica);
(J)
decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., "papá," "mamá"); and
(K)
use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound
words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelata, salvavida).
Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful
strategies as needed. Students are expected to:
(A)
confirm predictions about what will happen next in text by "reading the part that tells";
(B)
ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and
other texts; and
(C)
establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making
corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues,
using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).
(5)
Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are
expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate
phrasing, and comprehension.
(6)
Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading
and writing. Students are expected to:
(7)
(8)
(A)
identify words that name actions (verbs) and words that name persons, places, or things
(nouns);
(B)
determine the meaning of compound words using knowledge of the meaning of their
individual component words (e.g., paraguas);
(C)
determine what words mean from how they are used in a sentence, either heard or read;
(D)
identify and sort words into conceptual categories (e.g., opposites, living things); and
(E)
alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find
words.
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences
and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary
contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected
to:
(A)
connect the meaning of a well-known story or fable to personal experiences; and
(B)
explain the function of recurring phrases (e.g., " Había una vez" or " Colorín Colorado,
este cuento se ha acabado") in traditional folk- and fairy tales.
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw
conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support
February 2010 Update
Page 9
§128.A.
Elementary
their understanding. Students are expected to respond to and use rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in
poetry.
(9)
(A)
describe the plot (problem and solution) and retell a story's beginning, middle, and end
with attention to the sequence of events; and
(B)
describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions and feelings.
(10)
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make
inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary
nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students
are expected to determine whether a story is true or a fantasy and explain why.
(11)
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make
inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in
literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected
to recognize sensory details in literary text.
(12)
Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained
periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently
for a sustained period of time.
(13)
Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make
inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and
contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students
are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.
(14)
Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make
inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support
their understanding. Students are expected to:
(15)
(16)
(17)
Page 10
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw
conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support
their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A)
restate the main idea, heard or read;
(B)
identify important facts or details in text, heard or read;
(C)
retell the order of events in a text by referring to the words and/or illustrations; and
(D)
use text features (e.g., title, tables of contents, illustrations) to locate specific information
in text.
Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to
glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:
(A)
follow written multi-step directions with picture cues to assist with understanding; and
(B)
explain the meaning of specific signs and symbols (e.g., map features).
Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images,
graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply
earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A)
recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment) (with adult
assistance); and
(B)
identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).
Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising,
editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
February 2010 Update
Elementary
(18)
(19)
(20)
§128.A.
(A)
plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key
ideas);
(B)
develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;
(C)
revise drafts by adding or deleting a word, phrase, or sentence;
(D)
edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and
(E)
publish and share writing with others.
Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or
imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
(A)
write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and
(B)
write short poems that convey sensory details.
Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or workrelated texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes.
Students are expected to:
(A)
write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;
(B)
write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use
appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and
(C)
write brief comments on literary or informational texts.
Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the
conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier
standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A)
(21)
understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and
speaking:
(i)
verbs in the past, present, and future in the indicative mode (canto, canté);
(ii)
nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);
(iii)
adjectives (e.g., descriptive: verde, alto);
(iv)
adverbs (e.g., time: before, next);
(v)
prepositions and prepositional phrases ("por la mañana");
(vi)
personal pronouns (e.g., yo, ellos); and
(vii)
time-order transition words (e.g., primero, luego, después);
(B)
speak in complete sentences with correct article-noun agreement (e.g., la pelota, el mapa,
el agua, la mano, el águila); and
(C)
identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Sra.).
Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly
and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are
expected to:
(A)
form upper- and lower-case letters legibly in text, using the basic conventions of print
(left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression), including spacing between words and
sentences;
(B)
recognize and use basic capitalization for:
February 2010 Update
(i)
the beginning of sentences; and
(ii)
names of people; and
Page 11
§128.A.
Elementary
(C)
(22)
(23)
(24)
Page 12
recognize and use punctuation marks at the beginning and end of exclamatory and
interrogative sentences and at the end of declarative sentences.
Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
(A)
use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters and syllables to construct words;
(B)
use syllable-sound patterns to generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety
of ending patterns (e.g., -ción, -illa, -ita, -ito);
(C)
blend phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., mismo, tarde);
(D)
become familiar with words using orthographic patterns including:
(i)
words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;
(ii)
words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two
vowels, as in pero and perro;
(iii)
words that use syllables with silent "h, " as in hora and ahora;
(iv)
words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso
and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;
(v)
words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and
"rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in
gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and
"z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and
"y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and
(vi)
words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitar), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and
"m" before "p" (e.g., importante);
(E)
become familiar with words with consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo-);
(F)
use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to
spell;
(G)
become familiar with words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last
syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., calor, ratón);
(H)
become familiar with the appropriate use of accents on words commonly used in
questions and exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);
(I)
become familiar with creating the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z"
with "c" before adding -es (e.g., lápiz, lápices, feliz, felices); and
(J)
use resources to find correct spellings.
Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for
answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:
(A)
generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about
one or two of the topics; and
(B)
decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.
Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant
sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather.
Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:
(A)
gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews
with local experts;
(B)
use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index) in age-appropriate reference
works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and
February 2010 Update
Elementary
§128.A.
(C)
record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs,
diagrams).
(25)
Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and
synthesize collected information. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to revise the topic
as a result of answers to initial research questions.
(26)
Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and
information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult
assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the
research.
(27)
Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others
in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater
complexity. Students are expected to:
(A)
listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and
(B)
follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.
(28)
Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of
language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are
expected to share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an
appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.
(29)
Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students
continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow
agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and
making appropriate contributions.
Source: The provisions of this §128.12 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.
§128.13. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.
(a)
Introduction.
(1)
The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect
language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere
translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the
following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and
informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear
controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are
expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present
ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of
others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written
Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish
language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of
the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish
literacy development. In second grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior
knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills.
Students should write, read, and be read to on a daily basis.
(2)
Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates
learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition,
learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, &
Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to
transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and
Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the
conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently,
systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish
February 2010 Update
Page 13
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