§128.A. Elementary (29) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point,...

§128.A. Elementary (29) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point,...
§128.A.
Elementary
(29)
Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of
language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are
expected to share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly
at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.
(30)
Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students
continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow
agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and
making appropriate contributions.
Source: The provisions of this §128.13 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.
§128.14. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.
(a)
Introduction.
(1)
The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect
language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere
translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the
following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and
informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear
controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are
expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present
ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of
others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written
Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish
language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address
earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In third grade, students
will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their
reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily
basis.
(2)
Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates
learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition,
learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, &
Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to
transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and
Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the
conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently,
systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish
Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish
language and not mere translations from English.
(A)
Page 20
Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined
syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological
awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence.
Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word
recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading
success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency
than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic
transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and
comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of
occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension.
However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such
as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of
comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading
methodology and development.
February 2010 Update
Elementary
(b)
§128.A.
(B)
Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy
skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension
can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills
from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and
awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on
bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how
students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another
language.
(C)
The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills
and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages
(Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are
common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in
both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the
other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines
the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon,
2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules"
and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.
(D)
The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both
(Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language
systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn
about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of
bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).
(3)
To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The
students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and
writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and
student expectations at Grade 3 as described in subsection (b) of this section.
(4)
To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the
continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise
system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students
will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them
to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and
nation.
Knowledge and skills.
(1)
Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and
sounds and spelling based on orthographic rules to decode written Spanish. Students will continue
to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are
expected to:
(A)
use orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables including diphthongs (e.g., nadie, ra-dio);
(B)
decode words with silent "h" with increasing accuracy;
(C)
decode words that use the syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in
guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;
(D)
develop automatic recognition of words that have the same sounds represented by
different letters with increased accuracy (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and
"y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa,
kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in
cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela);
(E)
read words with common prefixes (e.g., in-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -mente, -dad, -oso);
February 2010 Update
Page 21
§128.A.
Elementary
(2)
identify the syllable that is stressed (sílaba tónica);
(G)
decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., día, también, después);
(H)
use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound
words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelatas, salvavidas); and
(I)
monitor accuracy in decoding words that have same sound represented by different
letters.
Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful
strategies as needed. Students are expected to:
(A)
use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing clues)
to make and confirm predictions;
(B)
ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and
other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and
(C)
establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making
corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues,
using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).
(3)
Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are
expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate
phrasing, and comprehension.
(4)
Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading
and writing. Students are expected to:
(5)
Page 22
(F)
(A)
identify the meaning of common prefixes (e.g., ex-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -era, -oso),
and know how they change the meaning of roots;
(B)
use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or distinguish among
multiple meaning words and homographs (e.g., vino-la bebida; vino-del verbo venir);
(C)
identify and use antonyms, synonyms, and homophones (e.g., tubo, tuvo);
(D)
identify and apply playful uses of language (e.g., tongue twisters, palindromes, riddles);
and
(E)
alphabetize a series of words to the third letter and use a dictionary or a glossary to
determine the meanings and syllabication of unknown words.
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences
and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary
contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected
to:
(A)
paraphrase the themes and supporting details of fables, legends, myths, or stories; and
(B)
compare and contrast the settings in myths and traditional folktales.
(6)
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw
conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support
their understanding. Students are expected to describe the characteristics of various forms of
poetry and how they create imagery (e.g., narrative poetry, lyrical poetry, humorous poetry, free
verse).
(7)
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw
conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support
their understanding. Students are expected to explain the elements of plot and character as
presented through dialogue in scripts that are read, viewed, written, or performed.
February 2010 Update
Elementary
(8)
§128.A.
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw
conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support
their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A)
sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future
events;
(B)
describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they
undergo; and
(C)
identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.
(9)
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make
inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary
nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students
are expected to explain the difference in point of view between a biography and autobiography.
(10)
Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make
inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in
literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected
to identify language that creates a graphic visual experience and appeals to the senses.
(11)
Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained
periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently
for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning
and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).
(12)
Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make
inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and
contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students
are expected to identify the topic and locate the author's stated purposes in writing the text.
(13)
Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make
inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support
their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A)
identify the details or facts that support the main idea;
(B)
draw conclusions from the facts presented in text and support those assertions with textual
evidence;
(C)
identify explicit cause and effect relationships among ideas in texts; and
(D)
use text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics) to locate information and
make and verify predictions about contents of text.
(14)
Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences
and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their
analysis. Students are expected to identify what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think
or do.
(15)
Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to
glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:
(16)
(A)
follow and explain a set of written multi-step directions; and
(B)
locate and use specific information in graphic features of text.
Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images,
graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to
apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are
expected to:
February 2010 Update
Page 23
§128.A.
Elementary
(17)
(18)
(A)
understand how communication changes when moving from one genre of media to
another;
(B)
explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., shape,
color, sound); and
(C)
compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal
e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).
Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising,
editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
(A)
plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to
an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming,
graphic organizers, logs, journals);
(B)
develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;
(C)
revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and
audience;
(D)
edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and
(E)
publish written work for a specific audience.
Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or
imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
(A)
write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the
characters and setting; and
(B)
write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme,
meter, patterns of verse).
(19)
Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about
important personal experiences.
(20)
Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or workrelated texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes.
Students are expected to:
(A)
(i)
establish a central idea in a topic sentence;
(ii)
include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and
(iii)
contain a concluding statement;
(B)
write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you
note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and
(C)
write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate an understanding of the
text.
(21)
Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a
specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for
appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.
(22)
Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the
conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier
standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A)
Page 24
create brief compositions that:
use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading,
writing, and speaking:
February 2010 Update
Elementary
(23)
(24)
§128.A.
(i)
regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the
indicative mode);
(ii)
nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);
(iii)
adjectives (e.g., descriptive: dorado, rectangular; limiting: este, ese, aquel);
(iv)
articles (e.g., un, una, lo, la, el, los, las);
(v)
adverbs (e.g., time: luego, antes; manner: cuidadosamente);
(vi)
prepositions and prepositional phrases;
(vii)
possessive pronouns (e.g., su, sus, mi, mis, suyo);
(viii)
coordinating conjunctions (e.g., y, o, pero); and
(ix)
time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion (e.g.,
finalmente, por último);
(B)
use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence;
(C)
use complete simple and compound sentences; and
(D)
identify, read, and write abbreviations (e.g., Ave, Dra., Atte.).
Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly
and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are
expected to:
(A)
write legibly in cursive script with spacing between words in a sentence;
(B)
use capitalization for:
(i)
geographical names and places;
(ii)
historical periods; and
(iii)
official titles of people;
(C)
recognize and use punctuation marks including commas; and
(D)
use correct mechanics including paragraph indentations or "sangrías."
Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
(A)
February 2010 Update
spell words with increased accuracy using orthographic rules, including:
(i)
words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;
(ii)
words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two
vowels, as in pero and perro;
(iii)
words that use syllables with silent "h" (e.g., ahora, almohada);
(iv)
words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso
and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;
(v)
words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and
"rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in
gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and
"z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and
"y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and
(vi)
words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitación), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and
"m" before "p" (e.g., comprar);
Page 25
§128.A.
Elementary
(25)
(26)
(B)
spell words with consonant blends with increased accuracy (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo);
(C)
spell with increased accuracy the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z"
with "c" before adding -es (e.g., capaz, capaces; raíz, raices);
(D)
use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to
spell;
(E)
write with increased accuracy using accent marks, including:
words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras
agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción); and
(ii)
words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable
(palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);
(F)
become familiar with words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable
(palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico);
(G)
become familiar with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for
orthographic accents (e.g., le-er, rí-o; quie-ro, vio);
(H)
use with increased accuracy accents on words commonly used in questions and
exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);
(I)
differentiate the meaning or function of a word based on the diacritical accent (e.g., se/sé,
el/él, mas/más);
(J)
mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect,
conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá); and
(K)
use print and electronic resources to find and check correct spellings.
Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for
answering them. Students are expected to:
(A)
generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow
to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and
(B)
generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews,
encyclopedias) about the major research question.
Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant
sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather.
Students are expected to:
(A)
Page 26
(i)
follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information, both
oral and written, including:
(i)
student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;
(ii)
data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and
(iii)
visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;
(B)
use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g.,
bold print, captions, key words, italics);
(C)
take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;
(D)
identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and
(E)
differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing
valid and reliable sources.
February 2010 Update
Elementary
§128.A.
(27)
Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and
synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result
of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).
(28)
Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and
information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to
draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes,
including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.
(29)
Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others
in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater
complexity. Students are expected to:
(A)
listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and
(B)
follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of
action.
(30)
Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of
language Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are
expected to speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking
rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.
(31)
Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students
continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in
teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and
by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.
Source: The provisions of this §128.14 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.
§128.15. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.
(a)
Introduction.
(1)
The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect
language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere
translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the
following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and
informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear
controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are
expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present
ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of
others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written
Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish
language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address
earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fourth grade, students
will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their
reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily
basis.
(2)
Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates
learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition,
learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, &
Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to
transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and
Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the
conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently,
systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish
February 2010 Update
Page 27
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