# User manual | Rotations 4.3 Essential Question MAKING

```4.3
TEXAS ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
G.3.A
G.3.B
G.3.C
G.3.D
Rotations
Essential Question
How can you rotate a figure in a
coordinate plane?
Rotating a Triangle in a Coordinate Plane
Work with a partner.
a. Use dynamic geometry software to draw any triangle and label it △ABC.
b. Rotate the triangle 90° counterclockwise about the origin to form △A′B′C′.
c. What is the relationship between the coordinates of the vertices of △ABC and
those of △A′B′C′?
d. What do you observe about the side lengths
Sample
and angle measures of the two triangles?
B′
C′
Points
A(1, 3)
B(4, 3)
C(4, 1)
D(0, 0)
Segments
AB = 3
BC = 2
AC = 3.61
Angles
m∠A = 33.69°
m∠B = 90°
m∠C = 56.31°
4
A
3
B
2
1
A′
0
MAKING
MATHEMATICAL
ARGUMENTS
−3
y
B
A
−3
−1
−3
−5
D
0
1
2
3
4
Rotating a Triangle in a Coordinate Plane
Work with a partner.
a. The point (x, y) is rotated 90° counterclockwise about the origin. Write a rule to
determine the coordinates of the image of (x, y).
b. Use the rule you wrote in part (a) to rotate △ABC 90° counterclockwise about
the origin. What are the coordinates of the vertices of the image, △A′B′C′?
c. Draw △A′B′C′. Are its side lengths the same as those of △ABC? Justify
Rotating a Triangle in a Coordinate Plane
1
−5
−1
−1
To be proficient in math,
you need to use previously
established results in
constructing arguments.
5
−2
C
5x
1
C
Work with a partner.
a. The point (x, y) is rotated 180° counterclockwise about the origin. Write a rule to
determine the coordinates of the image of (x, y). Explain how you found the rule.
b. Use the rule you wrote in part (a) to rotate △ABC (from Exploration 2) 180°
counterclockwise about the origin. What are the coordinates of the vertices of the
image, △A′B′C′?
4. How can you rotate a figure in a coordinate plane?
5. In Exploration 3, rotate △A′B′C′ 180° counterclockwise about the origin.
What are the coordinates of the vertices of the image, △A″B″C″? How are
these coordinates related to the coordinates of the vertices of the original
triangle, △ABC?
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4.3 Lesson
What You Will Learn
Perform rotations.
Perform compositions with rotations.
Core Vocabul
Vocabulary
larry
Identify rotational symmetry.
rotation, p. 194
center of rotation, p. 194
angle of rotation, p. 194
rotational symmetry, p. 197
center of symmetry, p. 197
Performing Rotations
Core Concept
Rotations
A rotation is a transformation in which a figure is turned about a fixed point
called the center of rotation. Rays drawn from the center of rotation to a point
and its image form the angle of rotation.
Q
40°
Q′
• If Q is not the center of rotation P,
then QP = Q′P and m∠QPQ′ = x°, or
angle of
rotation
center of
rotation
• If Q is the center of rotation P, then
Q = Q′.
Direction of rotation
R
R′
A rotation about a point P through an angle
of x° maps every point Q in the plane to
a point Q′ so that one of the following
properties is true.
P
The figure above shows a 40° counterclockwise rotation. Rotations can be clockwise
or counterclockwise. In this chapter, all rotations are counterclockwise unless
otherwise noted.
Drawing a Rotation
clockwise
Draw a 120° rotation of △ABC about point P.
A
C
counterclockwise
B
P
SOLUTION
Step 1 Draw a segment from P to A.
Step 2 Draw a ray to form a 120° angle
—.
with PA
A
B
Step 3 Draw A′ so that PA′ = PA.
50 60
30 40
20 150 140 130 120 70
11
0
0 1 80
10 0 16
00
0 0 17
18
C
0
18 0
P
A
140 15
120 130
0
110 60 50 40 30 160
0
20 17
10 0 70
10 0
8
90 0
9
P
C
B
Step 4 Repeat Steps 1–3 for each vertex.
Draw △A′B′C′.
B′
A
A′
194
Chapter 4
HSTX_GEOM_PE_04.03.indd 194
120°
P
C
A
B
A′
C′
C
B
P
Transformations
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USING
ROTATIONS
You can rotate a figure
more than 360°. The
effect, however, is the
same as rotating the
figure by the angle
minus 360°.
y
You can rotate a figure more than 180°. The diagram
shows rotations of point A 130°, 220°, and 310°
about the origin. Notice that point A and its images
all lie on the same circle. A rotation of 360° maps
a figure onto itself.
A
A′
130°
You can use coordinate rules to find the coordinates
of a point after a rotation of 90°, 180°, or 270°
x
220°
A‴
310°
A″
Core Concept
Coordinate Rules for Rotations about the Origin
When a point (a, b) is rotated counterclockwise
about the origin, the following are true.
• For a rotation of 90°,
(a, b) → (−b, a).
y
(−b, a)
(a, b)
90°
180°
• For a rotation of 180°,
(a, b) → (−a, −b).
x
• For a rotation of 270°,
(a, b) → (b, −a).
(−a, −b)
270°
(b, −a)
Rotating a Figure in the Coordinate Plane
Graph quadrilateral RSTU with vertices R(3, 1), S(5, 1), T(5, −3), and U(2, −1) and
its image after a 270° rotation about the origin.
SOLUTION
Use the coordinate rule for a 270° rotation to
find the coordinates of the vertices of the image.
Then graph quadrilateral RSTU and its image.
2
−4
(a, b) → (b, −a)
−2
U′
R(3, 1) → R′(1, −3)
y
R
S(5, 1) → S′(1, −5)
T′
−6
U(2, −1) → U′(−1, −2)
Monitoring Progress
6 x
U
R′
T(5, −3) → T′(−3, −5)
S
T
S′
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
1. Trace △DEF and point P. Then draw a 50° rotation of △DEF about point P.
E
D
F
P
2. Graph △JKL with vertices J(3, 0), K(4, 3), and L(6, 0) and its image after
a 90° rotation about the origin.
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Performing Compositions with Rotations
Postulate
Postulate 4.3 Rotation Postulate
A rotation is a rigid motion.
D
E
F′
D′
E′
F
Because a rotation is a rigid motion, and a rigid motion preserves length and angle
measure, the following statements are true for the rotation shown.
• DE = D′E′, EF = E′F′, FD = F′D′
• m∠D = m∠D′, m∠E = m∠E′, m∠F = m∠F′
Because a rotation is a rigid motion, the Composition Theorem (Theorem 4.1)
guarantees that compositions of rotations and other rigid motions, such as translations
and reflections, are rigid motions.
Performing a Composition
— with endpoints R(1, −3) and S(2, −6) and its image after the composition.
Graph RS
Reflection: in the y-axis
COMMON ERROR
Unless you are told
otherwise, perform the
transformations in the order given.
SOLUTION
—.
Step 1 Graph RS
— in the y-axis.
Step 2 Reflect RS
—
R′S′ has endpoints
R′(−1, −3) and S′(−2, −6).
Step 3 Rotate R′S′
— has endpoints
origin. R″S″
R″(3, −1) and S″(6, −2).
Monitoring Progress
3.
y
−4
R″(3, −1)
−2
R′(−1, −3)
S′(−2, −6)
R(1, −3)
−6
8 x
S″(6, −2)
S(2, −6)
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
— from Example 3. Perform the rotation first, followed by the reflection.
Graph RS
Does the order of the transformations matter? Explain.
—
—
the origin. Graph RS and its image after the composition.
— with endpoints A(−4, 4) and B(−1, 7) and its image after
Graph AB
4. WHAT IF? In Example 3, RS is reflected in the x-axis and rotated 180° about
5.
the composition.
Translation: (x, y) → (x − 2, y − 1)
6. Graph △TUV with vertices T(1, 2), U(3, 5), and V(6, 3) and its image after
the composition.
Reflection: in the x-axis
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Transformations
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Identifying Rotational Symmetry
A figure in the plane has rotational symmetry when the figure can be mapped
onto itself by a rotation of 180° or less about the center of the figure. This point
is the center of symmetry. Note that the rotation can be either clockwise or
counterclockwise.
A regular octagon has
rotational symmetry.
For example, the regular octagon at the left has rotational symmetry. The center is the
intersection of the diagonals. Rotations of 45°, 90°, 135°, or 180° about the center all
map the octagon onto itself. The regular octagon also has point symmetry, which is
180° rotational symmetry.
Identifying Rotational Symmetry
Does the figure have rotational symmetry? If so, describe any rotations that map the
figure onto itself.
a. parallelogram
b. trapezoid
SOLUTION
a. The parallelogram has rotational symmetry. The center is the intersection of the
diagonals. A 180° rotation about the center maps the parallelogram onto itself.
b. The trapezoid does not have rotational symmetry because no rotation of 180° or
less maps the trapezoid onto itself.
A parallelogram has rotational
symmetry, but a trapezoid
does not.
Distinguishing Between Types of Symmetry
Identify the line symmetry and rotational symmetry of the equilateral triangle.
SOLUTION
The triangle has line symmetry. Three lines of symmetry
can be drawn for the figure.
For a figure with s lines of symmetry, the smallest
rotation that maps the figure onto itself has the
360°
360°
measure —. So, the equilateral triangle has —,
s
3
or 120° rotational symmetry.
Monitoring Progress
120°
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Determine whether the figure has rotational symmetry. If so, describe any
rotations that map the figure onto itself.
7. rhombus
8. octagon
9. right triangle
10. Identify the line symmetry and rotational symmetry of a non-equilateral
isosceles triangle.
Section 4.3
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Exercises
4.3
Dynamic Solutions available at BigIdeasMath.com
Vocabulary and Core Concept Check
1. COMPLETE THE SENTENCE When a point (a, b) is rotated counterclockwise about the origin,
(a, b) → (b, −a) is the result of a rotation of ______.
2. DIFFERENT WORDS, SAME QUESTION Which is different? Find “both” answers.
What are the coordinates of the vertices of the image after a
90° counterclockwise rotation about the origin?
y
4
2
What are the coordinates of the vertices of the image after a
270° clockwise rotation about the origin?
−4
B
A
C
−2
What are the coordinates of the vertices of the image after
turning the figure 90° to the left about the origin?
4 x
2
−2
−4
What are the coordinates of the vertices of the image after a
270° counterclockwise rotation about the origin?
Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics
In Exercises 3–6, trace the polygon and point P. Then
draw a rotation of the polygon about point P using the
given number of degrees. (See Example 1.)
3. 30°
E
4. 80°
B
D
E
−2
F
9. 180°
G
5. 150°
4x
D
P
C
A
P
F
10. 270°
y
y
K
J
4
−6
6. 130°
G
2
R
P
F
Q
In Exercises 7–10, graph the polygon and its image after
a rotation of the given number of degrees about the
origin. (See Example 2.)
7. 90°
B
6
S
x
−2
Q
T
x
— with endpoints X(−3, 1)
In Exercises 11–14, graph XY
and Y(4, −5) and its image after the composition.
(See Example 3.)
11. Translation: (x, y) → (x, y + 2)
12. Rotation: 180° about the origin
13. Rotation: 270° about the origin
Reflection: in the y-axis
A
−4
4
R
Translation: (x, y) → (x − 1, y + 1)
y
4
L
M
2
P
J
198
y
8. 180°
−2
Chapter 4
HSTX_GEOM_PE_04.03.indd 198
C
2
4x
14. Reflection: in the line y = x
Transformations
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In Exercises 15 and 16, graph △LMN with vertices
L(1, 6), M(−2, 4), and N(3, 2) and its image after the
composition. (See Example 3.)
27. CONSTRUCTION Follow these steps to construct a
rotation of △ABC by angle D around a point O. Use
a compass and straightedge.
15. Rotation: 90° about the origin
A′
Translation: (x, y) → (x − 3, y + 2)
B
A
16. Reflection: in the x-axis
C
D
O
In Exercises 17–20, determine whether the figure has
rotational symmetry. If so, describe any rotations that
map the figure onto itself. (See Example 4.)
17.
18.
Step 1 Draw △ABC, ∠D, and O, the center
of rotation.
—. Use the construction for copying
Step 2 Draw OA
an angle to copy ∠D at O, as shown. Then
use distance OA and center O to find A′.
Step 3 Repeat Step 2 to find points B′ and C′. Draw
△A′B′C′.
19.
20.
28. REASONING You enter the revolving door at a hotel.
a. You rotate the door 180°.
What does this mean in the
context of the situation?
Explain.
In Exercises 21–24, identify the line symmetry and
rotational symmetry of the figure. (See Example 5.)
21.
b. You rotate the door 360°.
What does this mean in the
context of the situation?
Explain.
22.
29. MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS Use the graph of
y = 2x − 3.
y
23.
24.
−2
2
x
−2
ERROR ANALYSIS In Exercises 25 and 26, the endpoints
— are C(−1, 1) and D(2, 3). Describe and correct
of CD
the error in finding the coordinates of the vertices of the
image after a rotation of 270° about the origin.
25.
26.
✗
C (−1, 1) → C ′ (−1, −1)
D (2, 3) → D ′ (2, −3)
✗
C (−1, 1) → C ′ (1, −1)
D (2, 3) → D ′ (3, 2)
a. Rotate the line 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360° about
the origin. Write the equation of the line for each
image. Describe the relationship between the
equation of the preimage and the equation of
each image.
b. Do you think that the relationships you
described in part (a) are true for any line?
30. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Your friend claims that
rotating a figure by 180° is the same as reflecting a
figure in the y-axis and then reflecting it in the x-axis.
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31. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS A figure only has point
38. HOW DO YOU SEE IT? You are finishing the puzzle.
symmetry. How many times can you rotate the figure
before it is back where it started?
The remaining two pieces both have rotational
symmetry.
32. ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS Is it possible for a
figure to have 90° rotational symmetry but not 180°
1
33. ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS Is it possible for a
2
figure to have 180° rotational symmetry but not 90°
34. THOUGHT PROVOKING Can rotations of 90°, 180°,
a. Describe the rotational symmetry of Piece 1 and
of Piece 2.
270°, and 360° be written as the composition of
b. You pick up Piece 1. How many different ways
can it fit in the puzzle?
35. USING AN EQUATION Inside a kaleidoscope, two
mirrors are placed next to each other to form a V. The
angle between the mirrors determines the number of
lines of symmetry in the
mirror
image. Use the formula
1
n(m∠1) = 180° to find the
measure of ∠1, the angle
black glass
between the mirrors, for the
number n of lines of symmetry.
c. Before putting Piece 1 into the puzzle, you
connect it to Piece 2. Now how many ways can
it fit in the puzzle? Explain.
39. USING STRUCTURE A polar coordinate system locates
a point in a plane by its distance from the origin O
and by the measure of an angle with its vertex at the
origin. For example, the point A(2, 30°) is 2 units
from the origin and m∠XOA = 30°. What are the
polar coordinates of the image of point A after a 90°
rotation? a 180° rotation? a 270° rotation? Explain.
b.
a.
90°
60°
120°
150°
30°
A
36. REASONING Use the coordinate rules for
180°
counterclockwise rotations about the origin to write
coordinate rules for clockwise rotations of 90°, 180°,
O
1
2
210°
37. USING STRUCTURE △XYZ has vertices X(2, 5),
330°
240°
Y(3, 1), and Z(0, 2). Rotate △XYZ 90° about the
point P(−2, −1).
Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency
X 0°
3
300°
270°
Reviewing what you learned in previous grades and lessons
The figures are congruent. Name the corresponding angles and the corresponding sides.
(Skills Review Handbook)
40. P
Q
W
V
41. A
B
J
X
T
S
200
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R
Z
Y
D
K
C
M
L
Transformations
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