9.1 The Pythagorean Theorem Essential Question

9.1 The Pythagorean Theorem Essential Question
9.1
TEXAS ESSENTIAL
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
G.6.D
G.9.B
The Pythagorean Theorem
Essential Question
How can you prove the Pythagorean Theorem?
Proving the Pythagorean Theorem
without Words
Work with a partner.
a
b
a. Draw and cut out a right triangle with
legs a and b, and hypotenuse c.
a
c
b
b. Make three copies of your right triangle.
Arrange all four triangles to form a large
square, as shown.
c
c
c. Find the area of the large square in terms of a,
b, and c by summing the areas of the triangles
and the small square.
b
d. Copy the large square. Divide it into two
smaller squares and two equally-sized
rectangles, as shown.
a
e. Find the area of the large square in terms of a
and b by summing the areas of the rectangles
and the smaller squares.
f. Compare your answers to parts (c) and (e).
Explain how this proves the Pythagorean
Theorem.
b
c
a
a
b
b
b
a
a
a
b
Proving the Pythagorean Theorem
Work with a partner.
a. Draw a right triangle with legs a and b, and hypotenuse c, as shown. Draw
—. Label the lengths, as shown.
the altitude from C to AB
C
REASONING
To be proficient in math,
you need to know and
flexibly use different
properties of operations
and objects.
b
h
c−d
A
a
d
c
D
B
b. Explain why △ABC, △ACD, and △CBD are similar.
c. Write a two-column proof using the similar triangles in part (b) to prove that
a2 + b2 = c2.
Communicate Your Answer
3. How can you prove the Pythagorean Theorem?
4. Use the Internet or some other resource to find a way to prove the Pythagorean
Theorem that is different from Explorations 1 and 2.
Section 9.1
The Pythagorean Theorem
467
9.1
Lesson
What You Will Learn
Use the Pythagorean Theorem.
Use the Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem.
Core Vocabul
Vocabulary
larry
Classify triangles.
Pythagorean triple, p. 468
Using the Pythagorean Theorem
Previous
right triangle
legs of a right triangle
hypotenuse
One of the most famous theorems in mathematics is the Pythagorean Theorem,
named for the ancient Greek mathematician Pythagoras. This theorem describes the
relationship between the side lengths of a right triangle.
Theorem
Theorem 9.1 Pythagorean Theorem
In a right triangle, the square of the length of the
hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of
the lengths of the legs.
c
a
b
c 2 = a2 + b2
Proof Explorations 1 and 2, p. 467; Ex. 39, p. 488
A Pythagorean triple is a set of three positive integers a, b, and c that satisfy the
equation c2 = a2 + b2.
STUDY TIP
You may find it helpful
to memorize the basic
Pythagorean triples,
shown in bold, for
standardized tests.
Core Concept
Common Pythagorean Triples and Some of Their Multiples
3, 4, 5
5, 12, 13
8, 15, 17
7, 24, 25
6, 8, 10
10, 24, 26
16, 30, 34
14, 48, 50
9, 12, 15
15, 36, 39
24, 45, 51
21, 72, 75
3x, 4x, 5x
5x, 12x, 13x
8x, 15x, 17x
7x, 24x, 25x
The most common Pythagorean triples are in bold. The other triples are the result
of multiplying each integer in a bold-faced triple by the same factor.
Using the Pythagorean Theorem
Find the value of x. Then tell whether the side lengths
form a Pythagorean triple.
5
SOLUTION
c2 = a2 + b2
Pythagorean Theorem
x2 = 52 + 122
Substitute.
x2 = 25 + 144
Multiply.
x2 = 169
Add.
x = 13
12
x
Find the positive square root.
The value of x is 13. Because the side lengths 5, 12, and 13 are integers that
satisfy the equation c2 = a2 + b2, they form a Pythagorean triple.
468
Chapter 9
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
Using the Pythagorean Theorem
Find the value of x. Then tell whether the side lengths
form a Pythagorean triple.
x
7
SOLUTION
c2
14
=
a2
+
b2
Pythagorean Theorem
142 = 72 + x2
Substitute.
196 = 49 + x2
Multiply.
147 = x2
Subtract 49 from each side.
—
√ 147 = x
—
Find the positive square root.
—
√49 • √3 = x
Product Property of Radicals
—
7√ 3 = x
Simplify.
—
—
The value of x is 7 √ 3 . Because 7 √3 is not an integer, the side lengths do not
form a Pythagorean triple.
Solving a Real-Life Problem
The skyscrapers shown are connected by
a skywalk with support beams. Use the
Pythagorean Theorem to approximate
the length of each support beam.
23.26 m
47.57 m
47.57 m
x
x
support
beams
SOLUTION
Each support beam forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle. The right triangles
are congruent, so the support beams are the same length.
x2 = (23.26)2 + (47.57)2
——
Pythagorean Theorem
x = √ (23.26)2 + (47.57)2
Find the positive square root.
x ≈ 52.95
Use a calculator to approximate.
The length of each support beam is about 52.95 meters.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Find the value of x. Then tell whether the side lengths form a Pythagorean triple.
1.
2.
x
4
x
3
5
6
3. An anemometer is a device used to measure wind speed.
The anemometer shown is attached to the top of a pole.
Support wires are attached to the pole 5 feet above the
ground. Each support wire is 6 feet long. How far from
the base of the pole is each wire attached to the ground?
6 ft
5 ft
d
Section 9.1
The Pythagorean Theorem
469
Using the Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem
The converse of the Pythagorean Theorem is also true. You can use it to determine
whether a triangle with given side lengths is a right triangle.
Theorem
Theorem 9.2 Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem
If the square of the length of the longest side of a
triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the
lengths of the other two sides, then the triangle is
a right triangle.
B
c
a
C
If c2 = a2 + b2, then △ABC is a right triangle.
b
A
Proof Ex. 39, p. 474
Verifying Right Triangles
Tell whether each triangle is a right triangle.
a.
8
4 95
15
36
113
SELECTING TOOLS
Use a calculator to
determine
that
—
√113 ≈ 10.630 is the
length of the longest
side in part (a).
b.
7
SOLUTION
Let c represent the length of the longest side of the triangle. Check to see whether
the side lengths satisfy the equation c2 = a2 + b2.
— 2
?
a. ( √ 113 ) = 72 + 82
?
113 = 49 + 64
113 = 113
✓
The triangle is a right triangle.
2 ?
( 4√—
95 ) = 152 + 362
b.
42
⋅ ( √95 ) = 15 + 36
?
16 ⋅ 95 = 225 + 1296
— 2
?
2
1520 ≠ 1521
2
✗
The triangle is not a right triangle.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
Tell whether the triangle is a right triangle.
4.
9
3 34
15
470
Chapter 9
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
5.
22
14
26
Classifying Triangles
The Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem is used to determine whether a triangle is a
right triangle. You can use the theorem below to determine whether a triangle is acute
or obtuse.
Theorem
Theorem 9.3 Pythagorean Inequalities Theorem
For any △ABC, where c is the length of the longest side, the following statements
are true.
If c2 < a2 + b2, then △ABC is acute.
If c2 > a2 + b2, then △ABC is obtuse.
A
A
c
b
a
C
c2
<
a2
c
b
+
a
C
B
c2
b2
>
a2
+
B
b2
Proof Exs. 42 and 43, p. 474
REMEMBER
The Triangle Inequality
Theorem (Theorem 6.11)
on page 343 states that the
sum of the lengths of any
two sides of a triangle is
greater than the length
of the third side.
Classifying Triangles
Verify that segments with lengths of 4.3 feet, 5.2 feet, and 6.1 feet form a triangle.
Is the triangle acute, right, or obtuse?
SOLUTION
Step 1 Use the Triangle Inequality Theorem (Theorem 6.11) to verify that the
segments form a triangle.
?
4.3 + 5.2 > 6.1
9.5 > 6.1
?
✓
4.3 + 6.1 > 5.2
10.4 > 5.2
?
✓
5.2 + 6.1 > 4.3
11.3 > 4.3
✓
The segments with lengths of 4.3 feet, 5.2 feet, and 6.1 feet form
a triangle.
Step 2 Classify the triangle by comparing the square of the length of the longest side
with the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.
c2
6.12
37.21
a2 + b2
Compare c2 with a2 + b2.
4.32 + 5.22
Substitute.
18.49 + 27.04
Simplify.
c 2 is less than a2 + b2.
37.21 < 45.53
The segments with lengths of 4.3 feet, 5.2 feet, and 6.1 feet form an
acute triangle.
Monitoring Progress
Help in English and Spanish at BigIdeasMath.com
6. Verify that segments with lengths of 3, 4, and 6 form a triangle. Is the triangle
acute, right, or obtuse?
7. Verify that segments with lengths of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.5 form a triangle. Is the
triangle acute, right, or obtuse?
Section 9.1
The Pythagorean Theorem
471
Exercises
9.1
Dynamic Solutions available at BigIdeasMath.com
Vocabulary and Core Concept Check
1. VOCABULARY What is a Pythagorean triple?
2. DIFFERENT WORDS, SAME QUESTION Which is different? Find “both” answers.
Find the length of the longest side.
Find the length of the hypotenuse.
3
Find the length of the longest leg.
4
Find the length of the side opposite the right angle.
Monitoring Progress and Modeling with Mathematics
In Exercises 3–6, find the value of x. Then tell
whether the side lengths form a Pythagorean triple.
(See Example 1.)
3.
30
16
x
10.
50
7
x
48
4.
7
9.
9
x
x
ERROR ANALYSIS In Exercises 11 and 12, describe and
11
5.
6.
correct the error in using the Pythagorean Theorem
(Theorem 9.1).
6
x
11.
40
4
x
✗
x
7
9
c2 = a2 + b2
x 2 = 72 + 242
x 2 = (7 + 24)2
x 2 = 312
x = 31
24
In Exercises 7–10, find the value of x. Then tell
whether the side lengths form a Pythagorean triple.
(See Example 2.)
7.
8
472
x
17
Chapter 9
8.
24
12.
9
x
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
✗
26
x
10
c2= a2 + b2
x 2 = 102 + 262
x 2 = 100 + 676
x 2 = 776
—
x = √776
x ≈ 27.9
13. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS The fire escape
In Exercises 21–28, verify that the segment lengths
form a triangle. Is the triangle acute, right, or obtuse?
(See Example 5.)
forms a right triangle, as shown. Use the Pythagorean
Theorem (Theorem 9.1) to approximate the distance
between the two platforms. (See Example 3.)
16.7 ft
x
21. 10, 11, and 14
22. 6, 8, and 10
23. 12, 16, and 20
24. 15, 20, and 36
25. 5.3, 6.7, and 7.8
26. 4.1, 8.2, and 12.2
—
27. 24, 30, and 6√ 43
—
28. 10, 15, and 5√ 13
29. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS In baseball, the
lengths of the paths between consecutive bases are
90 feet, and the paths form right angles. The player on
first base tries to steal second base. How far does the
ball need to travel from home plate to second base to
get the player out?
8.9 ft
14. MODELING WITH MATHEMATICS The backboard
of the basketball hoop forms a right triangle with
the supporting rods, as shown. Use the Pythagorean
Theorem (Theorem 9.1) to approximate the distance
between the rods where they meet the backboard.
x
30. REASONING You are making a canvas frame for a
painting using stretcher bars. The rectangular painting
will be 10 inches long and 8 inches wide. Using a
ruler, how can you be certain that the corners of the
frame are 90°?
13.4 in.
9.8 in.
In Exercises 15 –20, tell whether the triangle is a right
triangle. (See Example 4.)
15.
In Exercises 31–34, find the area of the isosceles
triangle.
16.
21.2
97
65
11.4
31.
32.
17 m
23
h
20 ft
19.
2
26
1
5
10
6
16 m
18.
4 19
14
20 ft
32 ft
72
17.
h
17 m
34.
33.
10 cm
10 cm
h
12 cm
20.
50 m
h
50 m
89
3 5
80
28 m
39
Section 9.1
The Pythagorean Theorem
473
35. ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS Justify the Distance
41. MAKING AN ARGUMENT Your friend claims 72 and
Formula using the Pythagorean Theorem (Thm. 9.1).
75 cannot be part of a Pythagorean triple because
722 + 752 does not equal a positive integer squared.
Is your friend correct? Explain your reasoning.
36. HOW DO YOU SEE IT? How do you know ∠C is a
right angle without using the Pythagorean Theorem
(Theorem 9.1)?
42. PROVING A THEOREM Copy and complete the
proof of the Pythagorean Inequalities Theorem
(Theorem 9.3) when c2 < a2 + b2.
C
Given In △ABC, c2 < a2 + b2, where c is the length
of the longest side.
△PQR has side lengths a, b, and x, where x
is the length of the hypotenuse, and ∠R is a
right angle.
8
6
A
B
10
Prove △ABC is an acute triangle.
37. PROBLEM SOLVING You are making
ng
a kite and need to figure out
how much binding to buy.
You need the binding for
12 in.
the perimeter of the kite.
The binding comes in
packages of two yards. How
many packages should you buy?
P
A
15 in.
c
12 in.
B
x
b
a
C
Q
b
a
R
20 in.
STATEMENTS
REASONS
1. In △ABC, c2 < a2 + b2, where
1. _______________
c is the length of the longest
side. △PQR has side lengths a,
b, and x, where x is the length
of the hypotenuse, and ∠R is a
right angle.
38. PROVING A THEOREM Use the Pythagorean Theorem
(Theorem 9.1) to prove the Hypotenuse-Leg (HL)
Congruence Theorem (Theorem 5.9).
2. a2 + b2 = x2
3. c2 < x2
2. _______________
4. c < x
4. Take the positive
3. _______________
square root of
each side.
39. PROVING A THEOREM Prove the Converse of the
Pythagorean Theorem (Theorem 9.2). (Hint: Draw
△ABC with side lengths a, b, and c, where c is the
length of the longest side. Then draw a right triangle
with side lengths a, b, and x, where x is the length of
the hypotenuse. Compare lengths c and x.)
and n, where m > n. Do the following expressions
produce a Pythagorean triple? If yes, prove your
answer. If no, give a counterexample.
2mn,
n2,
m2
+
5. _______________
6. m∠C < m∠R
6. Converse of the
Hinge Theorem
(Theorem 6.13)
40. THOUGHT PROVOKING Consider two integers m
m2 −
5. m∠R = 90°
7. m∠C < 90°
7. _______________
8. ∠C is an acute angle.
8. _______________
9. △ABC is an acute triangle.
9. _______________
43. PROVING A THEOREM Prove the Pythagorean
Inequalities Theorem (Theorem 9.3) when
c2 > a2 + b2. (Hint: Look back at Exercise 42.)
n2
Maintaining Mathematical Proficiency
Reviewing what you learned in previous grades and lessons
Simplify the expression by rationalizing the denominator. (Skills Review Handbook)
7
44. —
—
√2
474
Chapter 9
14
45. —
—
√3
8
46. —
—
√2
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
12
47. —
—
√3
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