Chapter 1: Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition Documentation Conventions In the body of this guidebook, TI-83 Plus (in silver) refers to the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition. Sometimes, as in Chapter 19, the full name TI-83 Plus Silver Edition is used to distinguish it from the TI-83 Plus. All the instructions and examples in this guidebook also work for the TI-83 Plus. All the functions of the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition and the TI-83 Plus are the same. The two calculators differ only in available RAM memory and Flash application ROM memory. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 1 TI-83 Plus Keyboard Generally, the keyboard is divided into these zones: graphing keys, editing keys, advanced function keys, and scientific calculator keys. Keyboard Zones Graphing — Graphing keys access the interactive graphing features. Editing — Editing keys allow you to edit expressions and values. Advanced — Advanced function keys display menus that access the advanced functions. Scientific — Scientific calculator keys access the capabilities of a standard scientific calculator. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 2 TI-83 Plus Graphing Keys Editing Keys Advanced Function Keys Scientific Calculator Keys Colors may vary in actual product. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 3 Using the Color.Coded Keyboard The keys on the TI-83 Plus are color-coded to help you easily locate the key you need. The light gray keys are the number keys. The blue keys along the right side of the keyboard are the common math functions. The blue keys across the top set up and display graphs. The blue Œ key provides access to applications such as the Finance application. The primary function of each key is printed on the keys. For example, when you press , the MATH menu is displayed. Using the y and ƒ Keys The secondary function of each key is printed in yellow above the key. When you press the yellow y key, the character, abbreviation, or word printed in yellow above the other keys becomes active for the next keystroke. For example, when you press y and then , the TEST menu is displayed. This guidebook describes this keystroke combination as y :. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 4 The alpha function of each key is printed in green above the key. When you press the green ƒ key, the alpha character printed in green above the other keys becomes active for the next keystroke. For example, when you press ƒ and then , the letter A is entered. This guidebook describes this keystroke combination as ƒ [A]. The y key accesses the second function printed in yellow above each key. The ƒ key accesses the alpha function printed in green above each key. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 5 Turning On and Turning Off the TI-83 Plus Turning On the Calculator To turn on the TI-83 Plus, press É. • If you previously had turned off the calculator by pressing y M, the TI-83 Plus displays the home screen as it was when you last used it and clears any error. • If Automatic Power Down™ (APDé) had previously turned off the calculator, the TI-83 Plus will return exactly as you left it, including the display, cursor, and any error. • If the TI-83 Plus is turned off and you connect it to another calculator or personal computer, the TI-83 Plus will “wake up” when you complete the connection. • If the TI-83 Plus is turned off and connected to another calculator or personal computer, any communication activity will “wake up” the TI-83 Plus. To prolong the life of the batteries, APD turns off the TI-83 Plus automatically after about five minutes without any activity. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 6 Turning Off the Calculator To turn off the TI-83 Plus manually, press y M. • All settings and memory contents are retained by Constant Memory TM. • Any error condition is cleared. Batteries The TI-83 Plus uses four AAA alkaline batteries and has a userreplaceable backup lithium battery (CR1616 or CR1620). To replace batteries without losing any information stored in memory, follow the steps in Appendix B. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 7 Setting the Display Contrast Adjusting the Display Contrast You can adjust the display contrast to suit your viewing angle and lighting conditions. As you change the contrast setting, a number from 0 (lightest) to 9 (darkest) in the top-right corner indicates the current level. You may not be able to see the number if contrast is too light or too dark. Note: The TI-83 Plus has 40 contrast settings, so each number 0 through 9 represents four settings. The TI-83 Plus retains the contrast setting in memory when it is turned off. To adjust the contrast, follow these steps. 1. Press and release the y key. 2. Press and hold † or }, which are below and above the contrast symbol (yellow, half-shaded circle). • † lightens the screen. • } darkens the screen. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 8 Note: If you adjust the contrast setting to 0, the display may become completely blank. To restore the screen, press and release y, and then press and hold } until the display reappears. When to Replace Batteries When the batteries are low, a low-battery message is displayed when you: • Turn on the calculator. • Download a new application. • Attempt to upgrade to new software. To replace the batteries without losing any information in memory, follow the steps in Appendix B. Generally, the calculator will continue to operate for one or two weeks after the low-battery message is first displayed. After this period, the TI-83 Plus will turn off automatically and the unit will not operate. Batteries must be replaced. All memory should be retained. Note: The operating period following the first low-battery message could be longer than two weeks if you use the calculator infrequently. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 9 The Display Types of Displays The TI-83 Plus displays both text and graphs. Chapter 3 describes graphs. Chapter 9 describes how the TI-83 Plus can display a horizontally or vertically split screen to show graphs and text simultaneously. Home Screen The home screen is the primary screen of the TI-83 Plus. On this screen, enter instructions to execute and expressions to evaluate. The answers are displayed on the same screen. Displaying Entries and Answers When text is displayed, the TI-83 Plus screen can display a maximum of 8 lines with a maximum of 16 characters per line. If all lines of the display are full, text scrolls off the top of the display. If an expression on the home screen, the Y= editor (Chapter 3), or the program editor (Chapter 16) is longer than one line, it wraps to the beginning of the next line. In numeric editors such as the window screen (Chapter 3), a long expression scrolls to the right and left. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 10 When an entry is executed on the home screen, the answer is displayed on the right side of the next line. Entry Answer The mode settings control the way the TI-83 Plus interprets expressions and displays answers. If an answer, such as a list or matrix, is too long to display entirely on one line, an ellipsis (...) is displayed to the right or left. Press ~ and | to display the answer. Entry Answer Returning to the Home Screen To return to the home screen from any other screen, press y 5. Busy Indicator When the TI-83 Plus is calculating or graphing, a vertical moving line is displayed as a busy indicator in the top-right corner of the screen. When you pause a graph or a program, the busy indicator becomes a vertical moving dotted line. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 11 Display Cursors In most cases, the appearance of the cursor indicates what will happen when you press the next key or select the next menu item to be pasted as a character. Cursor Appearance Effect of Next Keystroke Entry Solid rectangle $ A character is entered at the cursor; any existing character is overwritten Insert Underline __ A character is inserted in front of the cursor location Second Reverse arrow Þ A 2nd character (yellow on the keyboard) is entered or a 2nd operation is executed Alpha Reverse A Ø An alpha character (green on the keyboard) is entered or SOLVE is executed Full Checkerboard rectangle # No entry; the maximum characters are entered at a prompt or memory is full If you press ƒ during an insertion, the cursor becomes an underlined A (A). If you press y during an insertion, the underlined cursor becomes an underlined # (#). Graphs and editors sometimes display additional cursors, which are described in other chapters. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 12 Entering Expressions and Instructions What Is an Expression? An expression is a group of numbers, variables, functions and their arguments, or a combination of these elements. An expression evaluates to a single answer. On the TI-83 Plus, you enter an expression in the same order as you would write it on paper. For example, pR2 is an expression. You can use an expression on the home screen to calculate an answer. In most places where a value is required, you can use an expression to enter a value. Entering an Expression To create an expression, you enter numbers, variables, and functions from the keyboard and menus. An expression is completed when you press Í, regardless of the cursor location. The entire expression is evaluated according to Equation Operating System (EOSé) rules, and the answer is displayed. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 13 Most TI-83 Plus functions and operations are symbols comprising several characters. You must enter the symbol from the keyboard or a menu; do not spell it out. For example, to calculate the log of 45, you must press « 45. Do not enter the letters L, O, and G. If you enter LOG, the TI-83 Plus interprets the entry as implied multiplication of the variables L, O, and G. Calculate 3.76 ÷ (L7.9 + ‡5) + 2 log 45. 3 Ë 76 ¥ £ Ì 7 Ë 9 Ã y C 5 ¤ ¤ Ã 2 « 45 ¤ Í Multiple Entries on a Line To enter two or more expressions or instructions on a line, separate them with colons (ƒ [:]). All instructions are stored together in last entry (ENTRY) . Entering a Number in Scientific Notation To enter a number in scientific notation, follow these steps. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 14 1. Enter the part of the number that precedes the exponent. This value can be an expression. 2. Press y D. å is pasted to the cursor location. 3. If the exponent is negative, press Ì, and then enter the exponent, which can be one or two digits. When you enter a number in scientific notation, the TI-83 Plus does not automatically display answers in scientific or engineering notation. The mode settings and the size of the number determine the display format. Functions A function returns a value. For example, ÷, L, +, ‡(, and log( are the functions in the example on the previous page. In general, the first letter of each function is lowercase on the TI-83 Plus. Most functions take at least one argument, as indicated by an open parenthesis ( ( ) following the name. For example, sin( requires one argument, sin(value). TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 15 Instructions An instruction initiates an action. For example, ClrDraw is an instruction that clears any drawn elements from a graph. Instructions cannot be used in expressions. In general, the first letter of each instruction name is uppercase. Some instructions take more than one argument, as indicated by an open parenthesis ( ( ) at the end of the name. For example, Circle( requires three arguments, Circle(X,Y,radius). Interrupting a Calculation To interrupt a calculation or graph in progress, which is indicated by the busy indicator, press É. When you interrupt a calculation, a menu is displayed. • To return to the home screen, select 1:Quit. • To go to the location of the interruption, select 2:Goto. When you interrupt a graph, a partial graph is displayed. • To return to the home screen, press ‘ or any nongraphing key. • To restart graphing, press a graphing key or select a graphing instruction. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 16 TI-83 Plus Edit Keys Keystrokes Result ~ or | Moves the cursor within an expression; these keys repeat. } or † Moves the cursor from line to line within an expression that occupies more than one line; these keys repeat. On the top line of an expression on the home screen, } moves the cursor to the beginning of the expression. On the bottom line of an expression on the home screen, † moves the cursor to the end of the expression. y| Moves the cursor to the beginning of an expression. y~ Moves the cursor to the end of an expression. Í Evaluates an expression or executes an instruction. ‘ On a line with text on the home screen, clears the current line. On a blank line on the home screen, clears everything on the home screen. In an editor, clears the expression or value where the cursor is located; it does not store a zero. { Deletes a character at the cursor; this key repeats. y6 Changes the cursor to an underline (__); inserts characters in front of the underline cursor; to end insertion, press y 6 or press |, }, ~, or †. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 17 Keystrokes Result y Changes the cursor to Þ; the next keystroke performs a 2nd operation (an operation in yellow above a key and to the left); to cancel 2nd, press y again. ƒ Changes the cursor to Ø; the next keystroke pastes an alpha character (a character in green above a key and to the right) or executes SOLVE (Chapters 10 and 11); to cancel ƒ, press ƒ or press |, }, ~, or †. y7 Changes the cursor to Ø; sets alpha-lock; subsequent keystrokes (on an alpha key) paste alpha characters; to cancel alpha-lock, press ƒ. If you are prompted to enter a name such as for a group or a program, alpha-lock is set automatically. „ Pastes an X in Func mode, a T in Par mode, a q in Pol mode, or an n in Seq mode with one keystroke. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 18 Setting Modes Checking Mode Settings Mode settings control how the TI-83 Plus displays and interprets numbers and graphs. Mode settings are retained by the Constant Memory feature when the TI-83 Plus is turned off. All numbers, including elements of matrices and lists, are displayed according to the current mode settings. To display the mode settings, press z. The current settings are highlighted. Defaults are highlighted below. The following pages describe the mode settings in detail. Normal Sci Eng Numeric notation Number of decimal places Radian Degree Unit of angle measure Func Par Pol Seq Type of graphing Connected Dot Whether to connect graph points Sequential Simul Whether to plot simultaneously Real a+bi re^qi Real, rectangular complex, or polar complex Full Horiz G-T Full screen, two split-screen modes Float 0123456789 TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 19 Changing Mode Settings To change mode settings, follow these steps. 1. Press † or } to move the cursor to the line of the setting that you want to change. 2. Press ~ or | to move the cursor to the setting you want. 3. Press Í. Setting a Mode from a Program You can set a mode from a program by entering the name of the mode as an instruction; for example, Func or Float. From a blank program command line, select the mode setting from the mode screen; the instruction is pasted to the cursor location. Normal, Sci, Eng Notation modes only affect the way an answer is displayed on the home screen. Numeric answers can be displayed with up to 10 digits and a two-digit exponent. You can enter a number in any format. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 20 Normal notation mode is the usual way we express numbers, with digits to the left and right of the decimal, as in 12345.67. Sci (scientific) notation mode expresses numbers in two parts. The significant digits display with one digit to the left of the decimal. The appropriate power of 10 displays to the right of E, as in 1.234567E4. Eng (engineering) notation mode is similar to scientific notation. However, the number can have one, two, or three digits before the decimal; and the power-of-10 exponent is a multiple of three, as in 12.34567E3. Note: If you select Normal notation, but the answer cannot display in 10 digits (or the absolute value is less than .001), the TI-83 Plus expresses the answer in scientific notation. Float, 0123456789 Float (floating) decimal mode displays up to 10 digits, plus the sign and decimal. 0123456789 (fixed) decimal mode specifies the number of digits (0 through 9) to display to the right of the decimal. Place the cursor on the desired number of decimal digits, and then press Í. The decimal setting applies to Normal, Sci, and Eng notation modes. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 21 The decimal setting applies to these numbers: • An answer displayed on the home screen • Coordinates on a graph (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6) • The Tangent( DRAW instruction equation of the line, x, and dy/dx values (Chapter 8) • Results of CALCULATE operations (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6) • The regression equation stored after the execution of a regression model (Chapter 12) Radian, Degree Angle modes control how the TI-83 Plus interprets angle values in trigonometric functions and polar/rectangular conversions. Radian mode interprets angle values as radians. Answers display in radians. Degree mode interprets angle values as degrees. Answers display in degrees. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 22 Func, Par, Pol, Seq Graphing modes define the graphing parameters. Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 describe these modes in detail. Func (function) graphing mode plots functions, where Y is a function of X (Chapter 3). Par (parametric) graphing mode plots relations, where X and Y are functions of T (Chapter 4). Pol (polar) graphing mode plots functions, where r is a function of q (Chapter 5). Seq (sequence) graphing mode plots sequences (Chapter 6). Connected, Dot Connected plotting mode draws a line connecting each point calculated for the selected functions. Dot plotting mode plots only the calculated points of the selected functions. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 23 Sequential, Simul Sequential graphing-order mode evaluates and plots one function completely before the next function is evaluated and plotted. Simul (simultaneous) graphing-order mode evaluates and plots all selected functions for a single value of X and then evaluates and plots them for the next value of X. Note: Regardless of which graphing mode is selected, the TI-83 Plus will sequentially graph all stat plots before it graphs any functions. Real, a+bi, re^qi Real mode does not display complex results unless complex numbers are entered as input. Two complex modes display complex results. • a+bi (rectangular complex mode) displays complex numbers in the form a+bi. • re^qi (polar complex mode) displays complex numbers in the form re^qi. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 24 Full, Horiz, G.T Full screen mode uses the entire screen to display a graph or edit screen. Each split-screen mode displays two screens simultaneously. • Horiz (horizontal) mode displays the current graph on the top half of the screen; it displays the home screen or an editor on the bottom half (Chapter 9). • G.T (graph-table) mode displays the current graph on the left half of the screen; it displays the table screen on the right half (Chapter 9). TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 25 Using TI-83 Plus Variable Names Variables and Defined Items On the TI-83 Plus you can enter and use several types of data, including real and complex numbers, matrices, lists, functions, stat plots, graph databases, graph pictures, and strings. The TI-83 Plus uses assigned names for variables and other items saved in memory. For lists, you also can create your own five-character names. Variable Type Names Real numbers A, B, ... , Z Complex numbers A, B, ... , Z Matrices ãAä, ãBä, ãCä, ... , ãJä Lists L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, and user-defined names Functions Y1, Y2, . . . , Y9, Y0 Parametric equations X1T and Y1T, . . . , X6T and Y6T Polar functions r1, r2, r3, r4, r5, r6 Sequence functions u, v, w Stat plots Plot1, Plot2, Plot3 Graph databases GDB1, GDB2, . . . , GDB9, GDB0 TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 26 Variable Type Names Graph pictures Pic1, Pic2, ... , Pic9, Pic0 Strings Str1, Str2, ... , Str9, Str0 Apps Applications AppVars Application variables Groups Grouped variables System variables Xmin, Xmax, and others Notes about Variables • You can create as many list names as memory will allow (Chapter 11). • Programs have user-defined names and share memory with variables (Chapter 16). • From the home screen or from a program, you can store to matrices (Chapter 10), lists (Chapter 11), strings (Chapter 15), system variables such as Xmax (Chapter 1), TblStart (Chapter 7), and all Y= functions (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6). • From an editor, you can store to matrices, lists, and Y= functions (Chapter 3). • From the home screen, a program, or an editor, you can store a value to a matrix element or a list element. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 27 • You can use DRAW STO menu items to store and recall graph databases and pictures (Chapter 8). • Although most variables can be archived, system variables including r, t, x, y, and q cannot be archived (Chapter 18) • Apps are independent applications.which are stored in Flash ROM. AppVars is a variable holder used to store variables created by independent applications. You cannot edit or change variables in AppVars unless you do so through the application which created them. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 28 Storing Variable Values Storing Values in a Variable Values are stored to and recalled from memory using variable names. When an expression containing the name of a variable is evaluated, the value of the variable at that time is used. To store a value to a variable from the home screen or a program using the ¿ key, begin on a blank line and follow these steps. 1. Enter the value you want to store. The value can be an expression. 2. Press ¿. ! is copied to the cursor location. 3. Press ƒ and then the letter of the variable to which you want to store the value. 4. Press Í. If you entered an expression, it is evaluated. The value is stored to the variable. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 29 Displaying a Variable Value To display the value of a variable, enter the name on a blank line on the home screen, and then press Í. Archiving Variables (Archive, Unarchive) You can archive data, programs, or other variables in a section of memory called user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archived variables are indicated by asterisks (*) to the left of the variable names. Archived variables cannot be edited or executed. They can only be seen and unarchived. For example, if you archive list L1, you will see that L1 exists in memory but if you select it and paste the name L1 to the home screen, you won’t be able to see its contents or edit it until they are unarchived. . TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 30 Recalling Variable Values Using Recall (RCL) To recall and copy variable contents to the current cursor location, follow these steps. To leave RCL, press ‘. 1. Press y ãRCLä. RCL and the edit cursor are displayed on the bottom line of the screen. 2. Enter the name of the variable in any of five ways. • Press ƒ and then the letter of the variable. • Press y ãLISTä, and then select the name of the list, or press y [Ln]. • Press y >, and then select the name of the matrix. • Press to display the VARS menu or ~ to display the VARS Y.VARS menu; then select the type and then the name of the variable or function. • Press |, and then select the name of the program (in the program editor only). TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 31 The variable name you selected is displayed on the bottom line and the cursor disappears. 3. Press Í. The variable contents are inserted where the cursor was located before you began these steps. Note: You can edit the characters pasted to the expression without affecting the value in memory. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 32 ENTRY (Last Entry) Storage Area Using ENTRY (Last Entry) When you press Í on the home screen to evaluate an expression or execute an instruction, the expression or instruction is placed in a storage area called ENTRY (last entry). When you turn off the TI-83 Plus, ENTRY is retained in memory. To recall ENTRY, press y [. The last entry is pasted to the current cursor location, where you can edit and execute it. On the home screen or in an editor, the current line is cleared and the last entry is pasted to the line. Because the TI-83 Plus updates ENTRY only when you press Í, you can recall the previous entry even if you have begun to enter the next expression. 5Ã7 Í y[ TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 33 Accessing a Previous Entry The TI-83 Plus retains as many previous entries as possible in ENTRY, up to a capacity of 128 bytes. To scroll those entries, press y [ repeatedly. If a single entry is more than 128 bytes, it is retained for ENTRY, but it cannot be placed in the ENTRY storage area. 1¿ƒA Í 2¿ƒB Í y[ If you press y [ after displaying the oldest stored entry, the newest stored entry is displayed again, then the next-newest entry, and so on. y[ Reexecuting the Previous Entry After you have pasted the last entry to the home screen and edited it (if you chose to edit it), you can execute the entry. To execute the last entry, press Í. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 34 To reexecute the displayed entry, press Í again. Each reexecution displays an answer on the right side of the next line; the entry itself is not redisplayed. 0¿ƒN Í ƒNÃ1¿ƒNƒ ã:ä ƒ N ¡ Í Í Í Multiple Entry Values on a Line To store to ENTRY two or more expressions or instructions, separate each expression or instruction with a colon, then press Í. All expressions and instructions separated by colons are stored in ENTRY. When you press y [, all the expressions and instructions separated by colons are pasted to the current cursor location. You can edit any of the entries, and then execute all of them when you press Í. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 35 For the equation A=pr 2, use trial and error to find the radius of a circle that covers 200 square centimeters. Use 8 as your first guess. 8 ¿ ƒ R ƒ [:] y B ƒR¡Íy[ y | 7 y 6 Ë 95 Í Continue until the answer is as accurate as you want. Clearing ENTRY Clear Entries (Chapter 18) clears all data that the TI-83 Plus is holding in the ENTRY storage area. Using Ans in an Expression When an expression is evaluated successfully from the home screen or from a program, the TI-83 Plus stores the answer to a storage area called Ans (last answer). Ans may be a real or complex number, a list, a matrix, or a string. When you turn off the TI-83 Plus, the value in Ans is retained in memory. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 36 You can use the variable Ans to represent the last answer in most places. Press y Z to copy the variable name Ans to the cursor location. When the expression is evaluated, the TI-83 Plus uses the value of Ans in the calculation. Calculate the area of a garden plot 1.7 meters by 4.2 meters. Then calculate the yield per square meter if the plot produces a total of 147 tomatoes. 1Ë7¯4Ë2 Í 147 ¥ y Z Í Continuing an Expression You can use Ans as the first entry in the next expression without entering the value again or pressing y Z. On a blank line on the home screen, enter the function. The TI-83 Plus pastes the variable name Ans to the screen, then the function. 5¥2 Í ¯9Ë9 Í TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 37 Storing Answers To store an answer, store Ans to a variable before you evaluate another expression. Calculate the area of a circle of radius 5 meters. Next, calculate the volume of a cylinder of radius 5 meters and height 3.3 meters, and then store the result in the variable V. yB5 ¡ Í ¯3Ë3 Í ¿ƒV Í TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 38 TI-83 Plus Menus Using a TI-83 Plus Menu You can access most TI-83 Plus operations using menus. When you press a key or key combination to display a menu, one or more menu names appear on the top line of the screen. • The menu name on the left side of the top line is highlighted. Up to seven items in that menu are displayed, beginning with item 1, which also is highlighted. • A number or letter identifies each menu item’s place in the menu. The order is 1 through 9, then 0, then A, B, C, and so on. The LIST NAMES, PRGM EXEC, and PRGM EDIT menus only label items 1 through 9 and 0. • When the menu continues beyond the displayed items, a down arrow ($) replaces the colon next to the last displayed item. • When a menu item ends in an ellipsis (...), the item displays a secondary menu or editor when you select it. • When an asterisk (*) appears to the left of a menu item, that item is stored in user data archive (Chapter 18). TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 39 To display any other menu listed on the top line, press ~ or | until that menu name is highlighted. The cursor location within the initial menu is irrelevant. The menu is displayed with the cursor on the first item. Note: The Menu Map in Appendix A shows each menu, each operation under each menu, and the key or key combination you press to display each menu. Displaying a Menu While using your TI-83 Plus, you often will need to access items from its menus. When you press a key that displays a menu, that menu temporarily replaces the screen where you are working. For example, when you press , the MATH menu is displayed as a full screen. After you select an item from a menu, the screen where you are working usually is displayed again. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 40 Moving from One Menu to Another Some keys access more than one menu. When you press such a key, the names of all accessible menus are displayed on the top line. When you highlight a menu name, the items in that menu are displayed. Press ~ and | to highlight each menu name. Scrolling a Menu To scroll down the menu items, press †. To scroll up the menu items, press }. To page down six menu items at a time, press ƒ †. To page up six menu items at a time, press ƒ }. The green arrows on the calculator, between † and }, are the page-down and page-up symbols. To wrap to the last menu item directly from the first menu item, press }. To wrap to the first menu item directly from the last menu item, press †. Selecting an Item from a Menu You can select an item from a menu in either of two ways. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 41 • Press the number or letter of the item you want to select. The cursor can be anywhere on the menu, and the item you select need not be displayed on the screen. • Press † or } to move the cursor to the item you want, and then press Í. After you select an item from a menu, the TI-83 Plus typically displays the previous screen. Note: On the LIST NAMES, PRGM EXEC, and PRGM EDIT menus, only items 1 through 9 and 0 are labeled in such a way that you can select them by pressing the appropriate number key. To move the cursor to the first item beginning with any alpha character or q, press the key combination for that alpha character or q. If no items begin with that character, the cursor moves beyond it to the next item. Calculate 3‡27. †††Í 27 ¤ Í TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 42 Leaving a Menu without Making a Selection You can leave a menu without making a selection in any of four ways. • Press y 5 to return to the home screen. • Press ‘ to return to the previous screen. • Press a key or key combination for a different menu, such as or y 9. • Press a key or key combination for a different screen, such as o or y 0. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 43 VARS and VARS Y.VARS Menus VARS Menu You can enter the names of functions and system variables in an expression or store to them directly. To display the VARS menu, press . All VARS menu items display secondary menus, which show the names of the system variables. 1:Window, 2:Zoom, and 5:Statistics each access more than one secondary menu. VARS Y-VARS 1: Window... X/Y, T/q, 2: Zoom... 3: GDB... 4: Picture... 5: Statistics... 6: Table... 7: String... TI-83 Plus and U/V/W variables and ZU variables Graph database variables Picture variables XY, G, EQ, TEST, and PTS variables TABLE variables String variables ZX/ZY, ZT/Zq, Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 44 Selecting a Variable from the VARS Menu or VARS Y.VARS Menu To display the VARS Y.VARS menu, press ~. 1:Function, 2:Parametric, and 3:Polar display secondary menus of the Y= function variables. VARS Y-VARS 1: Function... 2: Parametric... 3: Polar... 4: On/Off... Yn functions XnT, YnT functions rn functions Lets you select/deselect functions Note: The sequence variables (u, v, w) are located on the keyboard as the second functions of ¬, −, and ®. To select a variable from the VARS or VARS Y.VARS menu, follow these steps. 1. Display the VARS or VARS Y.VARS menu. • Press to display the VARS menu. • Press ~ to display the VARS Y.VARS menu. 2. Select the type of variable, such as 2:Zoom from the VARS menu or 3:Polar from the VARS Y.VARS menu. A secondary menu is displayed. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 45 3. If you selected 1:Window, 2:Zoom, or 5:Statistics from the VARS menu, you can press ~ or | to display other secondary menus. 4. Select a variable name from the menu. It is pasted to the cursor location. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 46 Equation Operating System (EOS) Order of Evaluation The Equation Operating System (EOS) defines the order in which functions in expressions are entered and evaluated on the TI-83 Plus. EOS lets you enter numbers and functions in a simple, straightforward sequence. EOS evaluates the functions in an expression in this order. Order Number Function 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TI-83 Plus Functions that precede the argument, such as ‡(, sin(, or log( Functions that are entered after the argument, such as 2, M1, !, ¡, r, and conversions Powers and roots, such as 2^5 or 5x‡32 Permutations (nPr) and combinations (nCr) Multiplication, implied multiplication, and division Addition and subtraction Relational functions, such as > or Logic operator and Logic operators or and xor Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 47 Note: Within a priority level, EOS evaluates functions from left to right. Calculations within parentheses are evaluated first. Implied Multiplication The TI-83 Plus recognizes implied multiplication, so you need not press ¯ to express multiplication in all cases. For example, the TI-83 Plus interprets 2p, 4sin(46), 5(1+2), and (2ä5)7 as implied multiplication. Note: TI-83 Plus implied multiplication rules, although like theTI.83, differ from those of the TI.82. For example, the TI-83 Plus evaluates 1à2X as (1à2)äX, while the TI.82 evaluates 1à2X as 1/(2äX) (Chapter 2). Parentheses All calculations inside a pair of parentheses are completed first. For example, in the expression 4(1+2), EOS first evaluates the portion inside the parentheses, 1+2, and then multiplies the answer, 3, by 4. You can omit the close parenthesis ( ) ) at the end of an expression. All open parenthetical elements are closed automatically at the end of an expression. This is also true for open parenthetical elements that precede the store or display-conversion instructions. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 48 Note: An open parenthesis following a list name, matrix name, or Y= function name does not indicate implied multiplication. It specifies elements in the list (Chapter 11) or matrix (Chapter 10) and specifies a value for which to solve the Y= function. Negation To enter a negative number, use the negation key. Press Ì and then enter the number. On the TI-83 Plus, negation is in the third level in the EOS hierarchy. Functions in the first level, such as squaring, are evaluated before negation. For example, MX2, evaluates to a negative number (or 0). Use parentheses to square a negative number. Note: Use the ¹ key for subtraction and the Ì key for negation. If you press ¹ to enter a negative number, as in 9 ¯ ¹ 7, or if you press Ì to indicate subtraction, as in 9 Ì 7, an error occurs. If you press ƒ A Ì ƒ B, it is interpreted as implied multiplication (AäMB). TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 49 Special Features of the TI-83 Plus Flash – Electronic Upgradability The TI-83 Plus uses Flash technology, which lets you upgrade to future software versions without buying a new calculator. For details, refer to: Chapter 19 As new functionality becomes available, you can electronically upgrade your TI-83 Plus from the Internet. Future software versions include maintenance upgrades that will be released free of charge, as well as new applications and major software upgrades that will be available for purchase from the TI web site: education.ti.com 1.56 Megabytes (M) of Available Memory 1.56 M of available memory are built into the TI-83 Plus. About 24 kilobytes (K) of RAM (random access memory) are available for you to compute and store functions, programs, and data. For details, refer to: Chapter 18 About 1.54 M of user data archive allow you to store data, programs, applications, or any other variables to a safe location where they cannot TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 50 be edited or deleted inadvertently. You can also free up RAM by archiving variables to user data Applications Applications can be installed to customize the TI-83 Plus to your classroom needs. The big 1.54 M archive space lets you store up to 94 applications at one time. Applications can also be stored on a computer for later use or linked unit-to-unit. For details, refer to: Chapter 18 Archiving You can store variables in the TI-83 Plus user For details, refer to: Chapter 18 data archive, a protected area of memory separate from RAM. The user data archive lets you: • Store data, programs, applications or any other variables to a safe location where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. • Create additional free RAM by archiving variables. By archiving variables that do not need to be edited frequently, you can free up RAM for applications that may require additional memory. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 51 Calculator-Based Laboratoryé (CBL 2é, CBLé) and Calculator-Based Rangeré (CBRé) The TI-83 Plus comes with the CBL/CBR application already installed. When coupled with the (optional) CBL 2/CBL or CBR accessories, you can use the TI-83 Plus to analyze real world data. For details, refer to: Chapter 14 CBL 2/CBL and CBR let you explore mathematical and scientific relationships among distance, velocity, acceleration, and time using data collected from activities you perform. CBL 2/CBL and CBR differ in that CBL 2/CBL allows you to collect data using several different probes analyzing temperature, light, voltage, or sonic (motion) data. CBR collects data using a built-in Sonic probe. CBL 2/CBL and CBR accessories can be linked together to collect more than one type of data at the same time. You can find more information on CBL 2/CBL and CBR in their user manuals. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 52 Other TI-83 Plus Features Getting Started has introduced you to basic TI-83 Plus operations. This guidebook covers the other features and capabilities of the TI-83 Plus in greater detail. Graphing You can store, graph, and analyze up to 10 functions, up to six parametric functions, up to six polar functions, and up to three sequences. You can use DRAW instructions to annotate graphs. For graphing details, refer to: Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 The graphing chapters appear in this order: Function, Parametric, Polar, Sequence, and DRAW. Sequences You can generate sequences and graph them over time. Or, you can graph them as web plots or as phase plots. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition For details, refer to: Chapter 6 53 Tables You can create function evaluation tables to analyze many functions simultaneously. For details, refer to: Chapter 7 Split Screen You can split the screen horizontally to display both a graph and a related editor (such as the Y= editor), the table, the stat list editor, or the home screen. Also, you can split the screen vertically to display a graph and its table simultaneously. For details, refer to: Chapter 9 Matrices You can enter and save up to 10 matrices and perform standard matrix operations on them. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition For details, refer to: Chapter 10 54 Lists You can enter and save as many lists as memory allows for use in statistical analyses. You can attach formulas to lists for automatic computation. You can use lists to evaluate expressions at multiple values simultaneously and to graph a family of curves. For details, refer to: Chapter 11 Statistics You can perform one- and two-variable, listbased statistical analyses, including logistic and sine regression analysis. You can plot the data as a histogram, xyLine, scatter plot, modified or regular box-and-whisker plot, or normal probability plot. You can define and store up to three stat plot definitions. For details, refer to: Chapter 12 Inferential Statistics You can perform 16 hypothesis tests and confidence intervals and 15 distribution functions. You can display hypothesis test results graphically or numerically. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition For details, refer to: Chapter 13 55 Applications You can use such applications as Finance or For details, refer to: the CBL/CBR. With the Finance application you Chapter 14 can use time-value-of-money (TVM) functions to analyze financial instruments such as annuities, loans, mortgages, leases, and savings. You can analyze the value of money over equal time periods using cash flow functions. You can amortize loans with the amortization functions. With the CBL/CBR applications and CBL 2/CBL or CBR (optional) accessories, you can use a variety of probes to collect real world data. Your TI-83 Plus includes Flash applications in addition to the ones mentioned above. Press Œ to see the complete list of applications that came with your calculator. Documentation for TI Flash applications is on the TI Resource CD. Visit education.ti.com/calc/guides for additional Flash application guidebooks. CATALOG The CATALOG is a convenient, alphabetical list of For details, refer to: all functions and instructions on the TI-83 Plus. Chapter 15 You can paste any function or instruction from the CATALOG to the current cursor location. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 56 Programming You can enter and store programs that include extensive control and input/output instructions. For details, refer to: Chapter 16 Archiving Archiving allows you to store data, programs, or other variables to user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory. For details, refer to: Chapter 16 Archived variables are indicated by asterisks (*) to the left of the variable names. Communication Link The TI-83 Plus has a port to connect and communicate with another TI-83 Plus, a TI-83 Plus, a TI.83, a TI-82, a TI-73, CBL 2/CBL, or a CBR System. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition For details, refer to: Chapter 19 57 With the TI™ Connect or TI-GRAPH LINK™ software and a TI-GRAPH LINK cable, you can also link the TI-83 Plus to a personal computer. As future software upgrades become available on the TI web site, you can download the software to your PC and then use the TI Connect or TI-GRAPH LINK software and a TI-GRAPH LINK cable to upgrade your TI-83 Plus. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 58 Error Conditions Diagnosing an Error The TI-83 Plus detects errors while performing these tasks. • Evaluating an expression • Executing an instruction • Plotting a graph • Storing a value When the TI-83 Plus detects an error, it returns an error message as a menu title, such as ERR:SYNTAX or ERR:DOMAIN. Appendix B describes each error type and possible reasons for the error. • If you select 1:Quit (or press y 5 or ‘), then the home screen is displayed. • If you select 2:Goto, then the previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location. Note: If a syntax error occurs in the contents of a Y= function during program execution, then the Goto option returns to the Y= editor, not to the program. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 59 Correcting an Error To correct an error, follow these steps. 1. Note the error type (ERR:error type). 2. Select 2:Goto, if it is available. The previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location. 3. Determine the error. If you cannot recognize the error, refer to Appendix B. 4. Correct the expression. TI-83 Plus Operating the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition 60

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