Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis

Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
MEGA
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
VERSION 4
Koichiro Tamura, Joel Dudley
Masatoshi Nei, Sudhir Kumar
Center of Evolutionary Functional Genomics
Biodesign Institute
Arizona State University
1 Table of Contents
2
PREFACE.......................................................................................................1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3
Copyright ................................................................................................................. 1
Guide to Notations Used ......................................................................................... 2
Preface .................................................................................................................... 3
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................. 5
MEGA Software Development Team ...................................................................... 6
Citing MEGA in Publications ................................................................................... 7
PART I: GETTING STARTED ........................................................................9
3.1
Installing MEGA....................................................................................................... 9
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
Features & Support ............................................................................................... 10
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.3
Introduction to Walk through MEGA.............................................................................23
Creating Multiple Sequence Alignments ......................................................................24
Estimating Evolutionary Distances from Nucleotide Sequences .................................25
Constructing Trees and Selecting OTUs from Nucleotide Sequences ........................26
Tests of the Reliability of a Tree Obtained ...................................................................28
Working With Genes and Domains ..............................................................................29
Test of Positive Selection .............................................................................................30
Managing Taxa with Groups ........................................................................................31
Computing Statistical Quantities for Nucleotide Sequences ........................................31
Constructing Trees from Distance Data .......................................................................33
PART II: ASSEMBLING DATA FOR ANALYSIS......................................... 35
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Text File Editor and Format Converter .................................................................. 35
Trace Data File Viewer/Editor ............................................................................... 37
Web Browser & Data Miner................................................................................... 38
Some Text Editor Utilities ...................................................................................... 39
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.5
Open Saved Alignment Session...................................................................................39
Copy Screenshot to Clipboard .....................................................................................39
Format Selected Sequence ..........................................................................................40
Reverse Complement...................................................................................................40
Convert to Mega Format (in Text Editor)......................................................................40
Building Sequence Alignments.............................................................................. 40
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6
5
Feature List...................................................................................................................10
Using MEGA in the Classroom.....................................................................................22
Technical Support and Updates ...................................................................................22
Reporting Bugs.............................................................................................................22
Guide to Notations Used ..............................................................................................22
A Walk Through MEGA ......................................................................................... 23
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7
3.3.8
3.3.9
3.3.10
4
System Requirements ....................................................................................................9
Installing MEGA..............................................................................................................9
Uninstalling MEGA .........................................................................................................9
Alignment Explorer .......................................................................................................40
Creating Multiple Sequence Alignments ......................................................................41
Aligning coding sequences via protein sequences ......................................................42
CLUSTALW ..................................................................................................................43
BLAST ..........................................................................................................................45
Menu Items in the Alignment Explorer .........................................................................47
PART III: INPUT DATA TYPES AND FILE FORMAT................................. 55
i
Table of Contents
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.2
Importing Data from other Formats ....................................................................... 65
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.3
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog.............................................................................98
Groups of taxa ..............................................................................................................99
Data Subset Selection ..................................................................................................99
PART IV: EVOLUTIONARY ANALYSIS ................................................... 101
6.1
Computing Basic Statistical Quantities for Sequence Data................................. 101
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.2
6.3
Phylogenetic Inference ...............................................................................................138
NJ/UPGMA Methods ..................................................................................................139
Minimum Evolution Method ........................................................................................140
Maximum Parsimony (MP) Method ............................................................................142
Statistical Tests of a Tree Obtained ...........................................................................144
Molecular Clock Tests ................................................................................................146
Handling Missing Data and Alignment Gaps..............................................................147
Tests of Selection................................................................................................ 148
6.4.1
6.4.2
7
Distance Models .........................................................................................................102
Specifying Distance Estimation Options.....................................................................136
Constructing Phylogenetic Trees ........................................................................ 138
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.3.6
6.3.7
6.4
Basic Sequence Statistics ..........................................................................................101
Nucleotide and Amino Acid Compositions .................................................................101
Pattern Menu ..............................................................................................................101
Computing Evolutionary Distances ..................................................................... 102
6.2.1
6.2.2
Synonymous/Non-synonymous Tests........................................................................148
Other Tests.................................................................................................................152
PART V: VISUALIZING AND EXPLORING DATA AND RESULTS.......... 153
7.1
Distance Matrix Explorer ..................................................................................... 153
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.2
Distance Matrix Explorer ............................................................................................153
Average Menu (in Distance Matrix Explorer)..............................................................154
Display Menu (in Distance Matrix Explorer) ...............................................................154
File Menu (in Distance Matrix Explorer) .....................................................................155
Sequence Data Explorer ..................................................................................... 155
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
ii
Sequence Data Explorer ..............................................................................................81
Distance Data Explorer.................................................................................................90
Text File Editor and Format Converter .................................................................. 93
Visual Tools for Data Management ....................................................................... 98
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
6
Built-in Genetic Codes..................................................................................................77
Adding/Modifying Genetic Code Tables .......................................................................78
Computing Statistical Attributes (Genetic Code)..........................................................78
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog.............................................................................79
Select Genetic Code Table Dialog ...............................................................................80
Viewing and Exploring Input Data ......................................................................... 81
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.5
5.6
Importing Data from Other Formats .............................................................................65
Convert To MEGA Format (Main File Menu)................................................................66
Genetic Code Tables............................................................................................. 77
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.4
MEGA Format...............................................................................................................55
General Conventions....................................................................................................55
Sequence Input Data....................................................................................................57
Distance Input Data ......................................................................................................62
Tree Input Data.............................................................................................................65
Data Menu ..................................................................................................................157
Display Menu..............................................................................................................159
Highlight Menu............................................................................................................162
Statistics Menu ...........................................................................................................163
Table of Contents
7.3
Tree Explorer....................................................................................................... 164
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6
7.3.7
7.3.8
7.3.9
7.3.10
7.3.11
7.3.12
7.3.13
7.3.14
7.3.15
7.4
Alignment Explorer .............................................................................................. 169
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4
8
Tree Explorer..............................................................................................................164
Information Box ..........................................................................................................165
File Menu (in Tree Explorer).......................................................................................165
Image Menu (in Tree Explorer) ..................................................................................166
Subtree Menu (in Tree Explorer)................................................................................166
Subtree Drawing Options (in Tree Explorer) ..............................................................166
Cutoff Values Tab.......................................................................................................167
Divergence Time Dialog Box......................................................................................167
View Menu (in Tree Explorer).....................................................................................167
Options dialog box (in Tree Explorer).........................................................................168
Tree tab (in Options dialog box) .................................................................................168
Branch tab (in Options dialog box) .............................................................................168
Labels tab (in Options dialog box)..............................................................................169
Scale Bar tab (in Options dialog box).........................................................................169
Compute Menu (in Tree Explorer)..............................................................................169
Alignment Explorer .....................................................................................................169
Creating Multiple Sequence Alignments ....................................................................170
Aligning coding sequences via protein sequences ....................................................171
Menu Items.................................................................................................................174
APPENDIX..................................................................................................181
8.1
Appendix A: Frequently Asked Questions........................................................... 181
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.1.4
8.1.5
8.2
Appendix B: Main Menu Items and Dialogs Reference....................................... 183
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.3
Computing statistics on only highlighted sites in Data Explorer.................................181
Finding the number of sites in pair-wise comparisons ...............................................181
Get more information about the codon based Z-test for selection .............................181
Menus in MEGA are so short; where are all the options?..........................................181
Writing only 4-fold degenerate sites to an output file .................................................182
Main MEGA Menus ....................................................................................................183
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog...........................................................................188
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog...........................................................................190
MEGA Dialogs ............................................................................................................199
Appendix C: Error Messages .............................................................................. 204
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.3.7
8.3.8
8.3.9
8.3.10
8.3.11
8.3.12
8.3.13
8.3.14
8.3.15
8.3.16
8.3.17
8.3.18
8.3.19
8.3.20
Blank Names Are Not Permitted ................................................................................204
Data File Parsing Error ...............................................................................................204
Dayhoff/JTT Distance Could Not Be Computed.........................................................204
Domains Cannot Overlap ...........................................................................................204
Equal Input Correction Failed.....................................................................................204
Fisher's Exact Test Has Failed...................................................................................204
Gamma Distance Failed Because p > 0.99................................................................204
Gene Names Must Be Unique....................................................................................205
Inapplicable Computation Requested ........................................................................205
Incorrect Command Used...........................................................................................205
Invalid special symbol in molecular sequences .........................................................205
Jukes-Cantor Distance Failed ....................................................................................205
Kimura Distance Failed ..............................................................................................205
LogDet Distance Could Not Be Computed.................................................................205
Missing data or invalid distances in the matrix...........................................................206
No Common Sites ......................................................................................................206
Not Enough Groups Selected.....................................................................................206
Not Enough Taxa Selected ........................................................................................206
Not Yet Implemented..................................................................................................206
p distance is found to be > 1 ......................................................................................206
iii
Table of Contents
8.3.21
8.3.22
8.3.23
8.3.24
8.3.25
8.3.26
8.4
Appendix D: Glossary.......................................................................................... 208
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.4.5
8.4.6
8.4.7
8.4.8
8.4.9
8.4.10
8.4.11
8.4.12
8.4.13
8.4.14
8.4.15
8.4.16
8.4.17
8.4.18
8.4.19
8.4.20
8.4.21
8.4.22
8.4.23
8.4.24
8.4.25
8.4.26
8.4.27
8.4.28
8.4.29
8.4.30
8.4.31
8.4.32
8.4.33
8.4.34
8.4.35
8.4.36
8.4.37
8.4.38
8.4.39
8.4.40
8.4.41
8.4.42
8.4.43
8.4.44
8.4.45
8.4.46
8.4.47
8.4.48
8.4.49
iv
Poisson Correction Failed because p > 0.99 .............................................................206
Tajima-Nei Distance Could Not Be Computed ...........................................................207
Tamura (1992) Distance Could Not Be Computed ....................................................207
Tamura-Nei Distance Could Not Be Computed .........................................................207
Unexpected Error .......................................................................................................207
User Stopped Computation ........................................................................................207
ABI File Format...........................................................................................................208
Alignment Gaps ..........................................................................................................208
Alignment session ......................................................................................................208
Bifurcating Tree ..........................................................................................................208
Branch ........................................................................................................................208
ClustalW .....................................................................................................................209
Codon .........................................................................................................................209
Codon Usage..............................................................................................................209
Complete-Deletion Option ..........................................................................................209
Composition Distance.................................................................................................209
Compress/Uncompress ..............................................................................................210
Condensed Tree.........................................................................................................210
Constant Site ..............................................................................................................210
Degeneracy ................................................................................................................210
Disparity Index............................................................................................................210
Domains .....................................................................................................................211
Exon............................................................................................................................211
Extant Taxa ................................................................................................................211
Flip ..............................................................................................................................211
Format command .......................................................................................................211
Gamma parameter .....................................................................................................211
Gene ...........................................................................................................................212
Groups of taxa ............................................................................................................212
Indels ..........................................................................................................................212
Independent Sites.......................................................................................................212
Intron...........................................................................................................................212
Maximum Composite Likelihood ................................................................................213
Max-mini branch-and-bound search...........................................................................213
Maximum Parsimony Principle ...................................................................................213
Mid-point rooting.........................................................................................................213
Monophyletic ..............................................................................................................213
mRNA .........................................................................................................................213
NCBI ...........................................................................................................................214
Newick Format............................................................................................................214
Node ...........................................................................................................................214
Non-synonymous change...........................................................................................214
Nucleotide Pair Frequencies ......................................................................................215
OLS branch length estimates .....................................................................................215
Orthologous Genes ....................................................................................................215
Out-group ...................................................................................................................215
Pair-wise-deletion option ............................................................................................216
Parsimony-informative site .........................................................................................216
Polypeptide.................................................................................................................216
Positive selection........................................................................................................216
Protein parsimony.......................................................................................................216
Purifying selection ......................................................................................................216
Purines........................................................................................................................216
Pyrimidines .................................................................................................................216
Random addition trees ...............................................................................................216
Table of Contents
8.4.50
8.4.51
8.4.52
8.4.53
8.4.54
8.4.55
8.4.56
8.4.57
8.4.58
8.4.59
8.4.60
8.4.61
8.4.62
8.4.63
8.4.64
8.4.65
9
RSCU..........................................................................................................................217
Singleton Sites............................................................................................................217
Staden ........................................................................................................................218
Statements in input files .............................................................................................218
Swap...........................................................................................................................218
Synonymous change ..................................................................................................218
Taxa............................................................................................................................218
Topological distance...................................................................................................219
Topology.....................................................................................................................219
Transition....................................................................................................................219
Transition Matrix .........................................................................................................219
Transition/Transversion Ratio (R) ..............................................................................219
Translation..................................................................................................................219
Transversion...............................................................................................................219
Unrooted tree..............................................................................................................219
Variable site................................................................................................................220
INDEX .........................................................................................................221
v
2 Preface
2.1 Copyright
Copyright © 1993 - 2008.
This software is protected under the copyright law. No part of this manual or
program design may be reproduced without written permission from copyright
holders. Please e-mail all inquires to [email protected]
1
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
2.2 Guide to Notations Used
Item
Convention
Example
Directory & file
names
Small Cap +
Bold
INSTALL.TXT
File name
extensions
Small Cap +
Bold
.TXT, .DOC, .MEG
Email
address/URLs
Underlined
Pop-up help links Dotted
Underlined +
Green
www.megasoftware.net
statement
Help Jumps
Underlined +
Green
set of rules
Menu/Screen
Items
Italic
Data Menu
User-Entered
Text
Monospace
font
!Title
2
Preface
2.3 Preface
Genome sequencing is generating vast amounts of DNA sequence data from a
wide range of organisms. As a result, gene sequence databases are growing
rapidly. In order to conduct efficient analyses of these data, there is a need for
easy-to-use computer programs, containing fast computational algorithms and
useful statistical methods.
The objective of the MEGA software has been to provide tools for exploring,
discovering, and analyzing DNA and protein sequences from an evolutionary
perspective. The first version was developed for the limited computational
resources that were available on the average personal computer in early 1990s.
MEGA1 made many methods of evolutionary analysis easily accessible to the
scientific community for research and education. MEGA2 was designed to
harness the exponentially greater computing power and a graphical interface of
the late 1990’s, fulfilling the fast-growing need for more extensive biological
sequence analysis and exploration software. It expanded the scope of its
predecessor from single gene to genome wide analyses. Two versions were
developed (2.0 and 2.1), each supporting the analyses of molecular sequence
(DNA and protein sequences) and pair-wise distance data. Both could specify
domains and genes for multi-gene comparative sequence analysis and could
create groups of sequences that would facilitate the estimation of within- and
among- group diversities and infer the higher-level evolutionary relationships of
genes and species. MEGA2 implemented many methods for the estimation of
evolutionary distances, the calculation of molecular sequence and genetic
diversities within and among groups, and the inference of phylogenetic trees
under minimum evolution and maximum parsimony criteria. It included the
bootstrap and the confidence probability tests of reliability of the inferred
phylogenies, and the disparity index test for examining the heterogeneity of
substitution pattern between lineages.
MEGA 4 continues where MEGA2 left off, emphasizing the integration of
sequence acquisition with evolutionary analysis. It contains an array of input data
and multiple results explorers for visual representation; the handling and editing
of sequence data, sequence alignments, inferred phylogenetic trees; and
estimated evolutionary distances. The results explorers allow users to browse,
edit, summarize, export, and generate publication-quality captions for their
results. MEGA 4 also includes distance matrix and phylogeny explorers as well
as advanced graphical modules for the visual representation of input data and
output results. These features, which we discuss below, set MEGA apart from
other comparative sequence analysis programs
As with previous versions, MEGA 4 is specifically designed to reduce the time
needed for mundane tasks in data analysis and to provide statistical methods of
molecular evolutionary genetic analysis in an easy-to-use computing workbench.
While MEGA 4 is distinct from previous versions, we have made a special effort
to retain the user-friendly interface that researchers have come to identify with
MEGA. This interface is obtains information from the user only on a need-to3
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
know basis. Furthermore, the data subsets and output results are stored in files
for viewing only if the user specifically needs to do so.
4
Preface
2.4 Acknowledgements
Many friends and colleagues have provided encouragement and assistance in
the development of MEGA. Beta Test versions of MEGA have been used in the
research laboratories of the authors, in the classrooms of Sudhir Kumar at the
Arizona State University and Masatoshi Nei at the Pennsylvania State University,
and by the thousands of users that signed up for the MEGA Beta program. The
feedback and bug reports provided by these groups of users were invaluable to
the development team. Almost all facets of design and implementation benefited
from their comments and suggestions.
MEGA software development is currently supported by research grants from the
National Institutes of Health.
5
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
2.5 MEGA Software Development Team
Project Directors and Principal Programmers
Sudhir Kumar and Koichiro Tamura
Associate Programmers
Joel Dudley and Daniel Peterson
Website Manager and Designs
Linwei Wu and Wayne Parkhurst
Quality Assurance
Linwei Wu and the MEGA team
See also Acknowledgements.
6
Preface
2.6 Citing MEGA in Publications
If you wish to cite MEGA in your publications, we suggest the following:
(1) When referring to MEGA in the main text of your publication, you may choose a
format such as:
Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted using MEGA
version 4 (Tamura, Dudley, Nei, and Kumar 2007).
(2) When including a MEGA citation in the Literature Cited/Bibliography section, you may
use the following:
Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M & Kumar S (2007) MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary
Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution
24:1596-1599. (Publication PDF at http://www.kumarlab.net/publications)
7
3 Part I: Getting Started
3.1 Installing MEGA
3.1.1 System Requirements
MEGA was developed for use on Microsoft Windows® operating systems:
Windows 95/98, NT, ME, 2000, XP, or later. We recommend a computer with at
least 64 MB of RAM, 20 MB of available hard disk space, and an entry- level
Pentium® processor or equivalent. Our tests show that MEGA runs well on
computers with an entry-level Pentium® CPU. However, for quick computation
of large datasets, you should have a faster processor and larger amount of
physical memory (RAM). MEGA also can be run on other operating systems for
which Windows emulators are available.
Platform
Software
Macintosh
Windows using VirtualPC
Sun Workstation
SoftWindows95
Linux
Windows using VMWare
3.1.2 Installing MEGA
The preferred way to install MEGA is directly from the website
(www.megasoftware.net). A specially designed installation program
automatically downloads MEGA and installs it in the location (directory) you
specify.
If you are unable to install MEGA directly from the website, you can download it
as a single compressed ZIP file. Then you must use a program, such as WinZip,
to uncompress this ZIP file in a temporary directory. Click on the
MEGASETUP.EXE file to install MEGA on your computer automatically.
Finally, you may install MEGA from a CD obtained from the authors. In this case,
insert the media into the computer and then click on MEGASETUP.EXE.
We recommend that you install MEGA in one of the three ways described above.
Please do not simply copy MEGA-related files from one computer to another, as
MEGA may not work properly if installed in this manner.
3.1.3 Uninstalling MEGA
The preferred way to uninstall programs in Windows is to use Add/Remove
Programs option in the control panel, which is accessible from the Start button on
the lower left corner of your computer desktop. A dialog box (usually named
Add/Remove programs) will display a list of programs. To remove MEGA, scroll
9
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
down to MEGA so that it is highlighted, then click Add/Remove.
3.2 Features & Support
3.2.1 Feature List
MEGA Version
1.0
2.x
3.x
4.x
Platform
DOS
Win
Win
Win
•
•
•
•
Manual editing of DNA and
Protein sequences
•
•
Motif searching/highlighting
•
•
Synchronous alignment editing of
original and translated cDNA
•
•
Copy/Paste sequences To/From
Clipboard
•
•
Save alignment session for future
display
•
•
Ability to read sequencer, MEGA,
NEXUS, FASTA, and other formats
•
•
Apply color/highlight schemes to
sequence data
•
•
•
•
Input Data
DNA, Protein, Pair-wise distance
matrix
Sequence Alignment Construction
Alignment Editor
Write alignment to MEGA file for
10
Part I: Getting Started
direct analysis in MEGA
BLAST sequences from alignment
directly
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ability to align any user-selected
region
•
•
Ability to align translated cDNA
sequences and automatic adjustment
•
•
•
•
Edit trace file
•
•
Mask vector (or any other region)
•
•
Launch direct BLAST search for
whole or selected sequence
•
•
Send data directly to Alignment
Editor
•
•
Direct "usual" web and GenBank
browsing from MEGA
•
•
One-click sequence fetching from
databanks queries
•
•
Send sequence data from BLAST
•
•
Multiple Sequence Alignment
Complete native implementation
of ClustalW
Ability to select all options on the
fly
Sequencer (Trace) File editor/viewer
View ABI (*.abi, .ab1) and
Studfen (*.std?)
Integrated Web Browser and Sequence Fetching
11
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
search directly into alignment
Bookmark favorite sequence
databank sites
•
•
Data Handling
Handling ambiguous states (R,Y,T,
etc.)
•
•
•
Extended MEGA format to save all
data attributes
•
•
•
Importing Data from other formats
(Clustal/Nexus/etc.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Genes and Mixed Domain
attributes
•
•
•
Explicit labels for sites
•
•
•
Data Explorers
Sequence
•
Distance matrix
Attributes supported
Groups of Sequences/Taxa
Domains
12
•
Automatic codon translation
•
•
•
•
Selection of codon positions
•
•
•
•
Selection of different site
categories
•
•
•
Visual Specification of
Domains/Groups
•
•
•
Part I: Getting Started
Center Analysis Preferences Dialog
Unlimited Data size for Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Genetic Code Table Selection
Choose a desired table
Ability to add/edit user defined tables
•
Computation of statistical attributes of a code table
Degeneracy of codon positions
•
•
•
Numbers of potential synonymous
sites
•
•
•
Inclusion of all known code tables
•
•
•
Real-Time Caption Expert Engine
Generate Captions for Distance
Matrices
•
Generate Captions for Phylogenies
•
Generate Captions for Tests
•
Generate Captions for Alignments
•
Copy Captions to External Programs
•
Save/Print Captions
•
Integrated Text File Editor
Unlimited Text File Size
•
•
•
Multi-file Tabbed Display
•
•
•
Columnar Block selection/Editing
•
•
•
13
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Undo/Redo operations
•
•
•
Line numbers
•
•
•
Utilities to Format Sequences/Reverse
complement etc.
•
•
•
Copy Screenshots to
EMF/WMF/Bitmap for presentation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Display with identity symbol
•
•
•
Drag-drop sorting of sequences
•
•
•
Mixing coding and non-coding
sequence display
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sequence Data Viewer
Two dimensional display of molecular
sequences
One-click translation
•
•
Display with all or only selected taxa
Data Export
PAUP3, PHYLIP
•
PAUP4, PHYLIP Interleaved
Highlighting
0,2,4-fold degenerate sites
Variable, parsimony informative sites
Constant Sites
Statistical Quantities estimation
14
Part I: Getting Started
DNA and protein sequence
compositions
•
Estimation by genes/domains/groups
Codon Usage
•
Estimation by genes/domains/groups
Use only highlighted sites
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MCL-based Estimation of Nucleotide Substitution Patterns
4x4 Rate Matrix
•
•
Transition/Transversion Rate Ratios
(k1, k2)
•
•
Transition/Transversion Rate Bias (R)
•
•
Substitution Pattern Homogeneity Test
Composition Distance
•
•
•
Disparity Index
•
•
•
Monte-Carlo Test
•
•
•
Distance Estimation Methods
Nucleotide-by-Nucleotide
Models
No. of differences, pdistance, Jukes-Cantor, Kimura 2P
•
•
•
•
Tajima-Nei, Tamura 3parameter, Tamura-Nei distance
•
•
•
•
•
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LogDet (Tamura-Kumar)
15
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Maximum Composite Likelihood
•
Subcomponents
Transitions (ts),
tranversions (tv), ts/tv ratio
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•
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Modified Nei-Gojobori method
•
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Li-Wu-Lou, PBL, Kumar method
•
•
•
•
•
•
Numbers of synonymous
and non-synonymous sites
•
•
•
Differences and ratios (s-n,
n-s, s/n, n/s)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Number of common sites
Account for rate variation among
sites
•
Relaxation of the homogeneity
assumption
Synonymous/Non-synonymous (Codon-by-Codon)
Models
Nei-Gojobori (1986) method
•
Subcomponents
Synonymous (s), nonsynonymous (n) distances
4-fold degenerate site
distances
0-fold degenerate site
distances
16
•
Part I: Getting Started
Number of 0-fold and 4-fold
degenerate sites
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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•
Between Group Average
•
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Within Group Average
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Net between group Average
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Overall average
•
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Mean Diversity within
Subpopulations
•
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Mean Diversity for Entire
Population
•
•
•
Mean Interpopulational Diversity
•
•
•
Coefficient of Differentiation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Protein distance
Number of differences, p-distance,
Poisson
•
Dayhoff and JTT distances
Account for rate variation among
sites
•
Relaxation of the homogeneity
assumption
Distance Calculations
Pair-wise
•
Sequence Diversity Calculations
Variance Calculations
Analytical
•
17
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Bootstrap
•
•
•
Handling missing data
•
•
•
•
Automatic translation
•
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•
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Within groups
•
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Overall sequences
•
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Fisher's Exact Test
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Tajima's Test of Neutrality
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•
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Randomized tie-breaking in
bootstrapping
•
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Minimum Evolution method
•
•
•
Branch-swapping (CloseNeighbor-Interchange; CNI)
•
•
•
Automatic pasting of partial codons
between exons
Tests of Selection
Codon-based tests
Large sample Z-test
Between Sequences
Molecular Clock Test
Tajima's relative rate test
Tree-making Methods
Neighbor-Joining
18
•
Part I: Getting Started
Fast OLS computation method
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Branch-swapping (CNI)
•
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Average branch length estimation
•
•
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Minimum Evolution
•
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Maximum Parsimony
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
UPGMA
•
Randomized tie-breaking in
bootstrapping
Maximum Parsimony
Nucleotide sequences
•
Protein sequences
Max-mini branch-and-bound and
min-mini searches
•
Bootstrap Test of Phylogeny
Neighbor-joining/UPGMA
•
Confidence Probability Test
Neighbor-joining
•
Minimum Evolution
Consensus tree construction
•
•
•
•
Condensed tree construction
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Distance Matrix Viewer
View pair-wise distances
19
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
View between group distances
•
•
•
View within group distances
•
•
•
View distances and standard errors
simultaneously
•
•
•
Sort the distance matrix
•
•
•
Drag-and-drop
•
•
•
Group-wise
•
•
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By Sequence names
•
•
•
Control display precision
•
•
•
Export Data for printing or reimporting
•
•
•
•
•
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On-the-spot taxa name editing
•
•
•
Multiple phylogeny views
•
•
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Linearized Tree
•
•
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Estimation of divergence time by
calibrating molecular clock
•
•
•
Copy to Clipboard/save to file as an
EMF drawing
•
•
•
Save to Newick format
•
•
Read trees from Newick format
•
•
Tree Explorers
Phylogeny Display and Graphic
printing
20
•
Part I: Getting Started
User specified control for
Placement and precision of branch
length
•
•
•
Scale bar addition
•
•
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Collapsing branches or groups
•
•
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Display only a subtree
•
•
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•
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Flipping, re-rooting
•
•
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Add marker symbols to names
•
•
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Multi-color display and printing
•
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•
Vertical separation between taxa
•
•
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Horizontal size
•
•
•
Change Tree shape
•
•
•
Multiple tree display
•
•
•
Save tree session for future display
•
•
•
What you see is what you get printing
•
•
•
Multi- or single page printing
•
•
•
•
•
Ability to view multiple trees in
different viewers
Tree Editing
Change Tree Size
Display images on tree for groups and
taxa
21
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
3.2.2 Using MEGA in the Classroom
Because MEGA includes many statistical methods for the study of molecular
evolution in an interactive framework, it is instructive for classroom teaching. If
you are interested in using MEGA in the classroom, there are no restrictions.
Your students may download a copy from the website www.megasoftware.net or
you may install copies on multiple computers in a common computing area.
However, if you want to use MEGA in any other form, please contact the authors
by e-mail ([email protected]).
If you are using MEGA in classroom teaching, please send us the following
information by e-mail for our records ([email protected]). (1) Your name,
position and institution, (2) course number and title, (3) number of students, and
(4) course semester and year.
3.2.3 Technical Support and Updates
All minor (bug fix) and major updates of MEGA will be made available at the
website www.megasoftware.net. We will send e-mail to all registered MEGA
users whenever an updated version of the program or the online help manual is
made available.
3.2.4 Reporting Bugs
If you encounter technical problems such as unexplained errors, documentation
inconsistencies, or program crashes, please report them to us by e-mail at
[email protected] For further information on reporting problems, consult
the bug report page on the MEGA website (www.megasoftware.net). Please
note that telephone inquiries will not be accepted.
Please include the following information in your report: (1) your name and
address, (2) the version of MEGA you are working with, (3) the version of
Windows you are working in, (4) a copy of your data file (if possible), (5) a
description of the problem, and (6) the sequence of events that led to that
problem [this often is crucial to understanding and remedying the problem
quickly].
3.2.5 Guide to Notations Used
Item
Convention
Example
Directory & file
names
Small Cap +
Bold
INSTALL.TXT
File name
extensions
Small Cap +
Bold
.TXT, .DOC, .MEG
Email
address/URLs
Underlined
22
www.megasoftware.net
Part I: Getting Started
Pop-up help links Dotted
Underlined +
Green
statement
Help Jumps
Underlined +
Green
set of rules
Menu/Screen
Items
Italic
Data Menu
User-Entered
Text
Monospace
font
!Title
3.3 A Walk Through MEGA
3.3.1 Introduction to Walk through MEGA
This section provides a MEGA tutorial. The data files for these examples can be
found in the EXAMPLES folder, located in the MEGA installation directory
(example in C:\Program Files\MEGA\Examples). In these example files, data
are deliberately written in different input formats. We recommend that you study
the examples in the order presented because the techniques explained in the
initial examples are used again in the subsequent ones.
In the following write-up, highlighted words indicate the keys you must press on
the keyboard. If you must press two keys simultaneously, they are shown with a
+ sign between them (e.g., Alt + F3 means that the Alt and F3 keys should be
pressed simultaneously). Italicized letters are used to mark the commands found
in menus, submenus, and other locations as they appear on the computer
screen. In every example, we discuss many procedures introducing analytical
techniques. For ease of reference in later examples, these procedures are
numbered in the Ex u.v.w format, where u is the example number, v is the
procedure number, and w is the step number. For instance, Ex 1.3.2 refers to the
2nd step of the 3rd procedure in example 1.
A list of tutorials is as follows:
1. Aligning Sequences
2. Estimating Evolutionary Distances
3. Building Trees
4. Testing Tree Reliability
5. Marking Genes/Domains
6. Testing for Selection
7. Grouping Sequences
8. Computing Sequence Statistics
23
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
9. Trees from Distance Data
3.3.2 Creating Multiple Sequence Alignments
In this example, we will create an alignment from protein sequence data that will
be imported into the alignment editor using different methods.
Ex 1.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by using
the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the programs
folder.
Ex 1.0.2: Launch the Alignment Explorer by selecting the Alignment|Alignment
Explorer/CLUSTAL menu command.
In order to align sequences contained in a Sequence Data File, do the following:
Ex 1.1.1: Add unaligned sequences from the hsp20.fas example file into the
Alignment Explorer by clicking selecting the Data|Open|Retrieve Sequences
from File menu command.
Ex 1.1.2: Select the Edit|Select All menu command to select every site for all
sequences in the alignment.
Ex 1.1.3: Select the Alignment|Align by ClustalW menu command to align the
selected sequences data using the ClustalW algorithm.
Ex 1.1.4: Save the current alignment session by selecting the Data|Save
Session menu item. This will allow the current alignment session to be restored
for future editing.
Ex 1.1.5: Exit the Alignment Explorer by selecting the Data|Exit Alignment
Explorer menu item. A message will appear asking if you would like to save the
data to a MEGA file. Choose "YES," and then a "Save As" dialog box will
appear. Enter hsp20_aligned.meg as the file name, and click the "Save" button.
An input box will appear asking for a title for the data. Enter "HSP 20 Aligned by
MEGA" as the title, and click the "OK" button. Another dialog box will appear
asking you if the sequence data is protein coding. In this case, click "Yes." A
final dialog box will appear asking you if you would like to open the data file in
MEGA. Click "Yes."
Now, we will examine how to send sequence data from the Internet (Web
Explorer) to the Alignment Explorer.
Ex 1.2.1: If the Alignment Explorer already contains sequence data, select the
Data| Create new menu command to create a new alignment from Alignment
Explorer window. Choose "YES" on the dialog box that appears to indicate that
you are creating a DNA sequence.
Ex 1.2.2: Activate the Web Explorer tab by selecting Web|Query Gene Banks
from the menu.
Ex 1.2.3: When the NCBI Entrez site is loaded, select either the nucleotide or
protein database, enter a search term into the search box, and press the "GO"
button.
Ex 1.2.4: When the search results are displayed, select the specific search item
and choose "Sequence" from the menu bar. Press the "Add to Alignment" button
24
Part I: Getting Started
located to the left of the address box. This will display the Web Fetch dialog
window.
Ex 1.2.5: Click the box to the left of each accession number whose sequences’
information you would like to fetch from the web. When you are done, you can
select accessions by pressing the "Fetch" button.
Ex 1.2.6: When the status column indicates that all sequences are fetched,
press the "Send to Alignment" button to send the fetched sequence data to the
Alignment Explorer.
Ex 1.2.7: Align the fetched data using the steps detailed in Ex 1.1.2 – Ex 1.1.5.
You may also open a trace file in the Trace Data Viewer/Editor and send it
directly to the Alignment Explorer.
3.3.3 Estimating Evolutionary Distances from Nucleotide Sequences
In this example, we will compute various distances for the Adh sequences from
11 Drosophila species. We will use the data from the previous example to study
various sequence statistics. In addition, we will see how these distances can be
written in a file in various formats through options for page size, precision, and
relative placement of distances and their standard errors.
Ex 2.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by
using the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the
programs folder.
Activate the data file Drosophila_Adh.meg using the instructions given in Ex
2.2.1 – Ex 2.2.3.
We will begin by computing the proportion of nucleotide differences between
each pair of Adh sequences.
Ex 2.1.1: Select the Distance|Compute Pair-wise command (F7) to display the
distance analysis preferences dialog box.
Ex 2.1.2: In the Options Summary tab, click the Model preference pull-down
and then select the Nucleotide|p-distance option.
Ex 2.1.3: You may look around at the other options, but at this moment, we will
be using the defaults for the remaining options. Click "Compute" to begin the
computation.
Ex 2.1.4: A progress indicator will appear briefly, and then the distance
computation results will be displayed in grid form in a new window.
We will now compute distances and compare them using other methods.
Ex 2.2.1: Select the Distance|Compute Pair-wise command. Use the Models
pull-down to select the Nucleotide|Jukes-Cantor method. Now click "Compute"
to begin the computation.
Ex 2.2.2: Follow the steps in Ex. 2.1.1- Ex 2.1.3 and compute the Tamura-Nei
Distance.
Ex 2.2.3: You should now have open results windows containing the distances
estimated by three different methods, which you can now compare.
Ex 2.2.4: After you’ve compared the results, select the File|Quit Viewer option
for each result window.
25
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Summary: we have computed nucleotide distances from the nucleotide sequence
data in the file Drosophila_Adh.meg.
Let us now compute the proportion of amino acid differences. Note that MEGA
will automatically translate the nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences
using the selected genetic code table.
Ex 2.3.1: Select the Distance|Compute Pair-wise command (F7) to display the
distance analysis preferences dialog box.
Ex 2.3.2: In the Options Summary tab, click the Models pulldown and then
select the Amino Acid|p-distance option.
Ex 2.3.3: Click the "Compute" button to accept the default values for the rest of
the options and begin the computation.
Ex 2.3.4: A progress dialog box will appear briefly. As with the previous
nucleotide estimation, a results viewer window will be displayed, showing the
distances in a grid format.
Ex 2.3.5: After you have inspected the results, use the File|Quit Viewer
command to close the results viewer. To shut down MEGA, select the File|Exit
menu command from the main MEGA application window and indicate that you
would like to close the data file.
3.3.4 Constructing Trees and Selecting OTUs from Nucleotide Sequences
The Crab_rRNA.meg file contains nucleotide sequences for the large subunit
mitochondrial rRNA gene from different crab species (Cunningham et al. 1992).
Since the rRNA gene is transcribed, but not translated, it falls in the category of
non-coding genes. Let us use this data file to illustrate the procedures of building
trees and in-memory sequence data editing, using the commands present in the
Data and Phylogeny menus.
Ex 3.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by
using the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the
programs folder.
Ex 3.1.1: Activate the data file Crab_rRNA.meg using the instructions given in
Ex 2.1.1 - Ex 2.1.3.
Let us start by building a neighbor-joining tree.
Ex 3.2.1: Select the Phylogeny|Construct Phylogeny|Neighbor-Joining
command to display the analysis preferences dialog box.
Ex 3.2.2: In the Options Summary tab, click the Models pull-down (found in the
Substitution Model section), and then select the Nucleotide|p-distance option.
Ex 3.2.3: Click "Compute" to accept the defaults for the rest of the options and
begin the computations. A progress indicator will appear briefly before the tree
displays in the Tree Explorer.
Ex 3.2.4: To select a branch, click on it with the left mouse button. If you click
on a branch with the right mouse button, you will get a small options menu that
will let you flip the branch and perform various other operations on it. To edit the
26
Part I: Getting Started
OTU labels, double click on them.
Ex 3.2.5: Change the branch style by using the View|Tree/Branch Style
command from the Tree Explorer menu.
Ex 3.2.6: Press the Up arrow key (↑) just once to move the cursor upwards to
the next branch.
Ex 3.2.7: Select the View|Topology Only command from the Tree Explorer
menu to display the branching pattern (without actual branch lengths on the
screen.
Ex 3.2.8: Press F1 to examine the help for tree editor. Use this feature to
become familiar with the many operations that Tree Explorer is capable of
performing.
Ex 3.2.9: DO NOT remove the tree from the screen. We shall use it for
illustrating how a tree can be printed.
Now, you will print the NJ tree that you have on your screen in MEGA.
Ex 3.3.1: Select the File|Print command from the Tree Explorer menu to bring
up a standard Windows print dialog.
Ex 3.3.2: To restrict the size of the printed tree to a single sheet of paper,
choose the File|Print in a Sheet command from the Tree Explorer menu.
Ex 3.3.3: Select the File|Exit Tree Explorer (Ctrl-Q) command to exit the Tree
Explorer. A warning box will inform you that your tree data has not been saved.
Click the "OK" button to close Tree Explorer without saving the tree session.
In MEGA, you can also construct Maximum Parsimony (MP) trees. Let us
construct a Maximum Parsimony tree(s) by using the branch-&-bound
search option.
Ex 3.4.1: Select the Phylogeny |Construct Phylogeny | Maximum Parsimony
command. In the Analysis Preference window, choose the Max-Mini Branch-&Bound Search option in the MP Tree Search Options tab.
Ex 3.4.2: Click the "Compute" button to accept the defaults for the other options
and begin the calculation. A progress window will appear briefly, and the tree
will be displayed in Tree Explorer.
Ex 3.4.3: Now print this tree (See Ex 3.3.1 - 3.3.2). You do not have to specify
the printer name again, because MEGA remembers your selection.
Ex 3.4.4: Select the File|Exit Tree Explorer (Ctrl-Q) command to exit the Tree
Explorer. A warning box will inform you that your tree data has not been saved.
Click "OK" to close Tree Explorer without saving the tree session.
Ex 3.4.5: Compare the NJ and MP trees. For this data set, the branching
pattern of these two trees is identical.
As an exercise, use the Heuristic Search for finding the MP tree. In this example,
you will find the same tree as that obtained by the branch-and-bound method if
you use the default option (search factor equal to 2 for all steps of OTU addition).
However, the computational time will be much shorter. Actually, in this example,
even a search factor equal to 0 will recover the MP tree.
27
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
We will now examine how some data editing features work in MEGA. For
noncoding sequence data, OTUs as well as sites can be selected for analysis.
Let us remove the first OTU from the current data set.
Ex 3.5.1: Select the Data|Setup/Select Taxa & Groups command. A dialog box
is displayed.
Ex 3.5.2: All the OTU labels are checked ( ) in the left box. This indicates that
all OTUs are included in the current active data subset. To remove the first OTU
from the data, uncheck the checkbox next to the OTU name in the left pane.
Ex 3.5.3: Now, from this data set, construct a neighbor-joining tree (Ex 3.2.1)
that contains 12 OTUs instead of 13. To inactivate the operational data set and
end the current session of MEGA, press the hot-key Alt + X.
3.3.5 Tests of the Reliability of a Tree Obtained
In this example, we will conduct two different tests using protein-coding genes
from the chloroplast genomes of nine different species.
Ex 4.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by
using the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the
programs folder.
Ex 4.0.2: Activate the data in the Chloroplast_Martin.meg file by using the
File|Open command.
We will begin with the bootstrap test for the neighbor-joining tree.
Ex 4.1.1: Select the Phylogeny |Bootstrap Test of Phylogeny|Neighbor-Joining
Tree command from the main application menu.
Ex 4.1.2: An analysis preferences dialog box appears. Use the Models pulldown to ensure that the Amino Acid|p-distance model is selected. Note that only
the Amino Acid submenu is available.
Ex 4.1.3: Click "Compute" to accept the default values for the rest of the options.
A progress indicator provides the progress of the test as well as the details of
your analysis preferences.
Ex 4.1.4: Once the computation is complete, the Tree Explorer appears and
displays two tree tabs. The first tab is the original Neighbor-Joining tree, and the
second is the Bootstrap consensus tree.
Ex 4.1.5: To produce a condensed tree, use the Compute|Condensed Tree
menu command from the Tree Explorer menu. This tree shows all the branches
that are supported at the default cutoff value of BCL ≥ 50.
Ex 4.1.6: To change this value, select the View|Options menu command and
click the cutoff values tab. Select the Compute|Condensed Tree menu
command and the NJ tree will reappear.
Ex 4.1.7: Print this tree. (see Ex 3.3.1 - Ex 3.3.2)
Ex 4.1.8: Select the File|Exit Tree Explorer (Ctrl-Q) command to exit the Tree
Explorer. A warning box will inform you that your tree data has not been saved.
Click "OK" to close Tree Explorer without saving the tree session.
28
Part I: Getting Started
For neighbor-joining trees, you may conduct the standard error test for every
interior branch by using the Phylogeny|Neighbor-Joining command. In MEGA,
this test is available for the p-distance, Poisson Correction, and Gamma distance
for amino acid sequences. Since we did the above analysis for the p-distance,
we will use the same distance estimation method to compare the results from the
bootstrap and standard error tests.
Ex 4.2.1: Go to the Phylogeny menu and select the Construct
Phylogeny|Neighbor-Joining command to produce an analysis preferences
dialog box. In the Models preference pull-down, be sure that p-distance is the
model chosen. Click on the Test of Phylogeny tab to reveal the test options.
Under the Test of Inferred Phylogeny option group, check the Interior Branch
Test option.
Ex 4.2.2: Click "Compute" to begin the computation. A progress indicator will
appear briefly. The neighbor-joining tree with confidence probabilities (CP) from
the standard error test of branch lengths is displayed on the screen.
Ex 4.2.3: Compare the CP values on this tree with the BCL values of the tree
that you printed in the previous procedure.
Ex 4.2.4: Now exit MEGA using the Alt + X command.
3.3.6 Working With Genes and Domains
Ex 5.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by using
the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the programs
folder.
Ex 5.0.2: Activate the data present in the Contigs.meg file by using the
File|Open command.
We will now examine how to define and edit gene and domain definitions
Ex 5.1.1: Select the Data|Setup/Select Genes & Domains menu command.
Ex 5.1.2: Delete the Data domain by right clicking on it and selecting Delete
Gene/Domain from the popup menu.
Ex 5.1.3: Right-click on the Genes/Domains item in the Names column, and
select Add New Domain. Right-click on the new domain and select Edit Name
from the popup menu and set the name to "Exon1."
Ex 5.1.4: Select the ellipsis button next to the question mark in the From
column to set the first site of the domain. When the site selection window
appears, select site number 1 and push the "OK" button.
Ex 5.1.5: Select the ellipsis button in the To column to set the last site of the
domain. When the site selection window appears, select site number 3918 and
push the "OK" button.
Ex 5.1.6: Check the box in the Coding column to indicate that this domain is
protein coding.
Ex 5.1.7: Add two more domains to the Genes/Domains item. One of these
domains will be named "Intron1" and will begin at site 3919 and end at site
29
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
5191. The other will be named "Exon2" and will begin at site 5192 and end at
site 8421. Be sure to check the checkbox in the Coding column for "Exon2" to
indicate a protein-coding domain.
Ex 5.1.8: Right-click on the Genes/Domains item and select Insert New Gene
from the popup menu. Change the name of this gene to "Predicted Gene," and
click-and-drag all of the domains to this new gene such that they are displayed
as children of the "Predicted Gene" node in the display tree.
Ex 5.1.9: Press the "Close" button at the bottom of the window to exit the
Gene/Domain manager.
We will now use these domain definitions in computing pair-wise
distances.
Ex 5.2.1: Select the Distances|Compute Pair-wise menu item from the main
menu.
Ex 5.2.2: On the Include Sites tab, make sure that the "Noncoding sites" option
does not have a checkmark next to it. Go back to the main menu and press the
"Compute" button to begin the analysis.
Ex 5.2.3: When the computation is complete the Distance Explorer will display
the pair-wise distance computed using only the sequence data from exonic
domains of the "Predicted Gene."
3.3.7 Test of Positive Selection
In this example, we present various analyses of protein-coding nucleotide
sequences for five alleles from the human HLA-A locus (Nei and Hughes 1991).
Ex 6.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by using
the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the programs
folder.
Ex 6.1.1: Activate the data present in the HLA_3Seq.meg file by using the
File|Open command.
Ex 6.1.2: Now that the data file is active, note that various details about the data
file are displayed at the bottom of the main application window, and more menu
items have become available on the main menu.
Let us compute the synonymous and non-synonymous distances appropriate for
studying positive Darwinian selection in this set of antigen recognition codons.
Ex 6.2.1: Select the Selection|Codon-based Z-Tests from the menu command.
An analysis preferences dialog appears. Use the Models pull-down in the
Options Summary tab to select Syn-Nonsysnonymous|Nei-Gojobori Method|pdistance model. In the Test Hypothesis (HA: alternative) tab, select Positive
Selection (HA: dN > dS) from the pull-down, and select the Overall Average
from the Analysis Scope tab. Click the GAPS/Missing Data tab and make sure
that the Pair-wise Deletion option is selected.
Ex 6.2.2: Click on "Compute" to accept the default values for the remaining
options. A progress indicator appears briefly; the computation results are
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Part I: Getting Started
displayed in a results window in grid format.
Ex 6.2.3: The Prob column contains the probability computed (must be <0.05 for
hypothesis rejection at 5% level), and the Stat column contains the statistic used
to compute the probability. The difference in synonymous and non-synonymous
substitutions should be significant at the 5% level.
Ex 6.2.4: Exit MEGA and deactivate the active data file using the Alt + X
command.
3.3.8 Managing Taxa with Groups
Ex 7.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by using
the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the programs
folder.
Ex 7.0.2: Activate the data present in the Crab_rRNA.meg file by using the
File|Open command.
We will now examine how to define and edit groups of taxa.
Ex 7.1.2: Select the Data|Setup/Select Taxa & Groups menu command.
Ex 7.1.3: Press the "New Group" button found below the Taxa/Groups pane to
add a new group to the data. Name this new group "Pagurus."
Ex 7.1.4: While holding the Control button on the keyboard, click on all of the
Pagurus species in the Ungrouped Taxa pane to highlight them. When they are
all highlighted, press the left-facing arrow button found on the vertical toolbar
between the two windowpanes.
Ex 7.1.5: Select the "All" group in the Taxa/Groups pane and press the "New
Group" button to add a second group. Name this group "Non-Pagurus." Add the
remaining unassigned taxa to this group and press the "Close" button at the
bottom of the window to exit this view.
Ex 7.1.6: Now that groups have been defined, the Compute Within Group Mean,
Compute Between Group Means, and Compute Net Between Group Means
menu commands from the Distance menu item may be used to analyze the
data.
3.3.9 Computing Statistical Quantities for Nucleotide Sequences
In this exercise, we illustrate the use of the Data Explorer for computing various
statistical quantities of nucleotide sequences. In addition, we explain shortcuts for
obtaining frequently used commands, methods of accessing on-line help, and the
distinction between enabled and disabled commands.
Ex 8.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by
using the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the
programs folder.
We now will examine the contents of the file Drosophila_Adh.meg by using
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
the built-in Text Editor.
Ex 8.1.1: Click on the File menu item to expand the menu options. To activate
the text editor, either click File |Text Editor or press the F3 key on your
keyboard. In the text editor, use the File|Open command to open the
Drosophila_Adh.meg file.
Ex 8.1.2: Examine the Drosophila_Adh.meg file. Take note of the #mega
format specifier, title, OTU names, and the interleaved sequence data.
Ex 8.1.3: We advise that you exit the text editor before proceeding with data
analysis. Select the File menu item from the text editor's menu, and click the Exit
option from the expanded menu. If the editor asks you if you would like to save
the changes that you have made to the file, select No.
To study statistical quantities of the data in the file Drosophila_Adh.meg,
we must first activate it.
Ex 8.2.1: You can activate a data file using the link titled "Click me to activate a
data file" in the main application window, or select the File menu item from the
main menu and click the Open Data option from the expanded menu. You may
also press the F5 key on your keyboard. All of these methods will display a
standard Windows open file dialog box.
Ex 8.2.2: Open the Drosophila_Adh.meg data file under the Examples folder.
Ex 8.2.3: A progress dialog box will appear briefly. When the data file is active,
details about it are displayed at the bottom of the main application window. More
menu items now are available on the main menu.
Examine the main menu. Now that the data file is active, the menu items Data,
Distances, Pattern, and Selection have become available.
We now will use Data Explorer to compute some basic statistics for these
data.
Ex 8.3.1: Select the Data|Data Explorer command, or press the F4 key if the
Sequence Data Viewer is not available.
Ex 8.3.2: DNA sequences are displayed on the screen in a grid format. Use the
left and right arrow keys (←→) or the mouse to move from site to site; note a
change in the bottom-left corner of the display. Use the up and down (↑↓) arrow
keys or the mouse to move between OTUs. The Total Sites view on the bottomleft panel displays the sequence length under the current site position, and the
Highlighted Sites display "None" because no special site attributes are yet
highlighted.
Ex 8.3.3: To highlight variable sites, select the Highlight|Variable Sites option,
click the button labeled "V" from the shortcut bar below the menu, or press the V
key. All sites that are variable are highlighted, and the number in the Highlighted
Sites displays changes. When you press V again, the sites return to the normal
color, and Highlighted Sites displays "None."
Ex 8.3.4: Now to highlight the parsimony-informative, press the P key, click on
the button labeled "Pi" from the shortcut bar below the menu, or select the
Highlight/Parsim-info sites menu command. To highlight 0, 2, and 4-fold
degenerate sites, press the 0, 2, or 4 keys from the Sequence Data Explorer,
respectively, click on the corresponding button from the shortcut bar below the
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Part I: Getting Started
menu, or select the corresponding command from the highlight menu.
Ex 8.3.5: To compute the nucleotide base frequencies, select the
Statistics|Nucleotide Composition menu command. This will calculate the
composition and display the results of the calculation in a text file using the builtin text editor.
Ex 8.3.6: To compute codon usage, select the Statistics|Codon Usage menu
command. This will calculate the codon usage and display the results of the
calculation in a text file using the built-in text editor.
Ex 8.3.7: To compute nucleotide pair frequencies, select the
Statistics|Nucleotide Pair Frequencies|Directional, or the Statistics|Nucleotide
Pair Frequencies|Unidirectional menu command. This will calculate the pair
frequencies and display the results of the calculation in a text file using the builtin text editor.
Ex 8.3.8: To translate these protein-coding sequences into amino acid
sequences and back, press the T key, or select the Data|Translate/Untranslate
menu command from the Data Explorer menu.
Ex 8.3.9: Once the sequences are translated, calculate the amino acid
composition by selecting the Statistics|Amino Acid Composition menu command
from the Data Explorer Menu.
Ex 8.3.10: To shut down MEGA, select the File|Exit menu command from the
main MEGA application window and close the data file.
3.3.10 Constructing Trees from Distance Data
This example introduces procedures for selecting options from menus, opening
files in the read-only mode, activating a distance data file, and building trees from
the distance data.
Ex 9.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by
using the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the
programs folder.
Ex 9.0.2: A Splash screen appears which displays the current version of
MEGA.
Ex 9.0.3: The Splash screen automatically disappears, and the MEGA
application becomes available.
In this example, we use the data in the Hum_Dist.meg file. Although we will
not edit the file, we will use MEGA's built-in text editor to examine its
contents before we proceed further.
Ex 9.1.1: Click on File menu to expand the menu options. Click on the menu
item labeled Text Editor, or press the F3 key to activate the built-in text editor.
Ex 9.1.2: Use the Text Editor to view the contents of the Hum_Dist.meg file.
To open a file with the Text Editor, click on the folder icon below the main menu
or on the File menu item, then choose Open from the expanded menu. You may
also use the key combination Ctrl+O to open a file. All of these options will lead
you to a standard Windows open file dialog box. Use this dialog box to locate
the Examples folder found in the MEGA installation directory, and open the
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Hum_Dist.meg file. After you open the file with the dialog box, you will see the
file contents displayed in the Text Editor window.
Ex 9.1.3: Examine the contents of the data file and then exit the Text Editor
before proceeding with data analysis. Select the File menu item from the Text
Editor‘s menu, and click Exit from the expanded menu. If the editor asks you if
you would like to save your changes, select No. A data file must be activated
before an analysis can be performed. (Note that opening a file for browsing or
editing is different from activating it for analysis).
Now we will activate the Hum_Dist.meg data file.
Ex 9.2.1: You can activate a data file by using the link titled "Click me to
activate a data file" in the main application window, or by selecting the File menu
item from the main menu and clicking the Open Data option from the expanded
menu. You can also press the F5 key. All of these methods will display a
standard Windows open file dialog box.
Ex 9.2.2: Use the open file dialog box to locate and open the Hum_Dist.meg
file located in the Examples folder. After you have selected the file for opening,
a progress indicator will appear briefly.
Ex 9.2.3: When the data file is active, the Input Distance Data Viewer is
launched to display the contents of the data file.
We will now make a phylogenetic tree from the distance data.
Ex 9.3.1: Switch back to main MEGA application window. From the expanded
menu in the Phylogeny menu, select the Construct Phylogeny|Neighbor-Joining
command.
Ex 9.3.2: A confirmation Analysis Preferences window will appear, indicating
that MEGA is ready to conduct the requested analysis. Click on the button
labeled "Compute." A progress meter will appear briefly.
Ex 9.3.3: The Tree Explorer will display a neighbor-joining tree on the screen
when the analysis completes. To exit the Tree Explorer, select the File menu
item from the Tree Explorer menu and click the Exit Tree Explorer option from
the expanded menu. The Tree Explorer will ask you if you would like to save the
tree data. If you save the tree, you can use Tree Explorer to view and
manipulate it in the future.
With this, let us end this session of MEGA.
Ex 9.4.1: Go to the File menu and click on the Close Data command. The
program will inquire if you would like the active data to be closed. Select "Yes."
Ex 9.4.2: To exit MEGA, press Alt + X, or select the Exit command from the
expanded File menu.
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4 Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
4.1 Text File Editor and Format Converter
MEGA includes a Text File Editor, which is useful for creating and editing ASCII
text files. It is invoked automatically by MEGA if the input data file processing
modules detect errors in the data file format. In this case, you should make
appropriate changes and save the data file.
The text editor is straightforward if you are familiar with programs like Notepad.
Click on the section you wish to change, type in the new text, or select text to cut,
copy or paste. Only the display font can be used in a document. You can have as
many different text editor windows open at one time and you may close them
independently. However, if you have a file open in the Text Editor, you should
save it and close the Text Editor window before trying to use that data file for
analysis in MEGA. Otherwise, MEGA may not have the most up-to-date version
of the data.
The Text File Editor and Format converter is a sophisticated tool with numerous
special capabilities that include:
•
Large files –The ability to operate on files of virtually unlimited size and
line lengths.
•
General purpose –Used to view/edit any ASCII text file.
•
Undo/ReDo –The availability of an unlimited depth of undo/redo options
•
Search/Replace –Searches for and does block replacements for
arbitrary strings.
•
Clipboard – Supports familiar clipboard cut, copy, and paste operations.
•
Normal and Column blocks – Supports regular contiguous line blocks
and columnar blocks. This is quite useful while manually aligning
sequences in the Text Editor.
•
Drag/Drop – Moves text with the familiar cut and paste operations or you
can select the text and then move it with the mouse.
•
Screenshots –Creates screen snapshots for teaching and
documentation purposes directly from the edit window.
•
Printing –Prints the contents of the edit file.
The Text Editor contains a menu bar, a toolbar, and a status bar.
The Menu bar
Menu
Description
File menu
The File Menu contains the functions that are
most commonly used to open, save, rename,
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
print, and close files. (Although there is no
separate "rename" function available, you can
rename a file by choosing the Save As… menu
item and giving the file a different name before
you save it.)
Edit menu
The Edit Menu contains functions that are
commonly used to manipulate blocks of text.
Many of the edit menu items interact with the
Windows Clipboard, which is a hidden window
that allows various selections to be copied and
pasted across documents and applications.
Search
menu
The Search Menu has several functions that
allow you to perform searches and
replacements of text strings. You can also
jump directly to a specific line number in the
file.
Display
menu
The Display Menu contains functions that affect
the visual display of files in the edit windows.
Utilities
menu
The Utilities Menu contains several functions
that make this editor especially useful for
working with files containing molecular
sequence data (note that the MEGA editor
does not try to understand the contained data,
it simply operates on the text, assuming that
the user knows what (s)he is doing.
Toolbar
The Toolbar contains shortcuts to some frequently used menu commands.
Status Bar
The Status bar is positioned at the bottom of the editor window. It shows the
position of the cursor (line number and position in the line), whether the file has
been edited, and the status of some keyboard keys (CAPS, NUM, and SCROLL
lock).
Hotkeys and Shortcut keys
Many menu items have a hotkey and/or a shortcut key. These are special key
combinations that are helpful for people who are more comfortable using a
keyboard than the mouse. Hotkeys are identified by an underscore character in
the name of the menu item, e.g., "File", "New". These allow you to hold down the
Alt-key, which is usually found next to the space bar on the keyboard, then hit the
underlined letter to produce the same action as if you clicked that name with the
mouse. We show this using the notation <Alt>+key – e.g., the hotkey for the file
menu item is shown as <Alt>+F. Be sure that you depress both keys together,
holding the <Alt> key down a little bit longer than the letter key. (Some people try
hitting both keys simultaneously, as if they’re hitting two keys on a piano
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Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
keyboard. Quite often, this approach does not produce the desired results.)
For instance, you could create a new file by clicking the mouse on the "File"
menu item, then clicking on the "New" item beneath it. Using hotkeys, you could
type <Alt>+F followed by <Alt>+N. Or, more simply, while you’re holding down
the <Alt> key, hit the ‘F’ key followed by the ‘N’ key, then release the <Alt> key.
You might notice that several menu items, e.g., the New Item on the File
menu, show something to the right that looks like ‘Ctrl+N’. This is called a
Shortcut key sequence. Whereas executing a command with hotkeys often
requires several keystrokes, shortcut keys can do the same thing with just one
keystroke. Shortcut keys work the same as hotkeys, using the <Ctrl> key
instead of the <Alt> key. To create a new file, for example, you can hold down
the <Ctrl> key and hit the ‘N’ key, which is shown as <Ctrl>+N here. (In the
menus, this appears simply as ‘Ctrl+N’.)
Not all menu items have associated shortcut keys because there are only
26 shortcut keys, one for each letter of the alphabet. Hotkeys, in contrast, are
localized to each menu and submenu. For hotkeys to work, the menu item must
be visible whereas shortcut keys work at any time. For instance, if you are typing
data into a text file and want to create a note in a new window, you may simply
hit the shortcut key sequence, <Ctrl>+N to generate a new window. After you
type the note, you can hit <Ctrl>+S to save it, give it a file name, hit the enter key
[this part doesn’t make sense]; then you can hit the <Alt>+F+C hotkey sequence
to close the file (there is no shortcut key for closing a file).
4.2 Trace Data File Viewer/Editor
Using this function, you can view and edit trace data produced by an automated
DNA sequencer in ABI and Staden file formats. The sequences displayed can
be added directly into the Alignment Explorer or sent to the Web Browser for
conducting BLAST searches.
A brief description of various functions available in the Trace Data file
Viewer/Editor is as follows:
Data menu
Open File in New Window: Launches a new instance to view/edit another
file.
Open File: Allows you to select another file to view/edit in the current window.
Save File: Save the current data to a file in Staden format.
Print: Prints the current trace data, excluding all masked regions.
Add to Alignment Explorer: DNA sequence data, excluding all masked
regions, is sent to the Alignment Explorer and appears as a new sequence at
the end of the current alignment.
Exit: Closes the current window.
Edit menu
Undo: Use this command to undo one or more previous actions.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Copy: This menu provides options to (1) copy DNA sequences from FASTA
or plain text formats to the clipboard and (2) copy the exact portion you are
viewing of the currently displayed trace image to the clipboard in the Windows
Enhanced Meta File format. For FASTA format copying, both the sequence
name and the DNA data will be copied, excluding the masked regions. To
copy only the selected portion of the sequence, use the plain text copy
command (If nothing is selected, then the plain text command will copy the
entire sequence, except for the masked regions).
Mask Upstream: Mask or unmask region to the left (upstream) of the cursor.
Mask Downstream: Mask or unmask region to the right (downstream) of the
cursor.
Reverse Complement: Reverse complements the entire sequence.
Search menu
Find: Finds a specified query sequence.
Find Next: Finds the next occurrence of the query sequence. To specify the
query sequence, first use the Find menu command.
Find Previous: Finds the previous occurrence of a query sequence. To
specify the query sequence, first use the Find command.
Next N: Go to the next indeterminate (N) nucleotide.
Search in File: This command searches another file, which you specify, for
the selected sequence in the current window. It can be used when you are
assembling sequence subclones to build a contig.
Do BLAST Search: Launch web browser to BLAST the currently selected
sequence. If nothing is selected, the entire sequence, excluding the masked
regions, will be used.
4.3 Web Browser & Data Miner
MEGA contains a fully functional Web Browser to assist users in sequence data
retrieval and web exploration. The most important feature that differentiates this
web browser from other browsers (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer) is the
button. Pressing this button causes the MEGA web explorer to
extract sequence data from the currently displayed web page and send it to the
Alignment Explorer ’s alignment grid, where it will be inserted as new sequences.
At present, the MEGA web browser can interpret data displayed in FASTA format
or in the default format at the NCBI website. (You can ask the NCBI website to
display the data in the FASTA format by using the Display option on the web
page shown.) (We plan to enhance this functionality further in version 3.1.)
Furthermore, the MEGA web browser provides a genomics database, exploration
oriented interface for web searching. (In fact this is almost the same functionality
as in the most recent versions of the Internet Explorer.)
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Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
This causes the web browser window to navigate back to
the web location found before the current site in the
explorer location history.
This causes the web browser window to navigate forward
to the web location found after the current site in the
explorer location history.
This causes the web browser to terminate loading a web
location.
This causes the web browser to reload the current web
location.
This causes the web browser to extract sequence data
from the current web page and send it to Alignment
Builder’s alignment grid as new sequence rows. If the web
explorer is unable to find properly formatted sequence
data in the current web page a warning box will appear.
Address
The web location, or address field, is located in the second
Field
toolbar. This field contains the URL of the current web
location as well as a pull down list of previously visited
URLs. If a new URL is entered into the box and the Enter
key is pressed, the web explorer will attempt to navigate to
the entered URL.
Links
This toolbar provides shortcuts to a selection of websites.
There are number of menus in the web browser, including Data, Edit, View,
Links, Go, and Help. These menus provide access to routine functionalities,
which are self-explanatory in use.
4.4 Some Text Editor Utilities
4.4.1 Open Saved Alignment Session
Alignment | Open Saved Alignment Session…
Use this command to display a previously saved Alignment Explorer session (saved in a
filename with .MAS extension).
4.4.2 Copy Screenshot to Clipboard
Utilities | Copy Screenshot to Clipboard
This item presents three other options for selecting the format of an image that is
being copied to the clipboard. Once it is copied, it can be pasted in any other
graphic or word processing program.
Bitmap Format: This is the common Windows Bitmap (BMP) Format.
Windows Metafile Format: This selects the Windows Metafile Format (WMF)
39
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Enhanced Metafile Format: This selects the Windows Enhanced Metafile
Format.
4.4.3 Format Selected Sequence
Utilities | Convert to Mega Format
This submenu presents four other menu items that offer some common ways of
reformatting text.
Merge Multiple Lines: This is used to merge several separate lines into one
long (very wide) line
Remove Spaces/Digits: This is used to remove spaces and digits from a
genetic sequence.
Insert Spaces Every 3: This is used to break the selected text into threecharacter chunks (e.g., codons). Note that it does not remove any already
existing spaces.
Insert Spaces Every 10: This is used to break the selected text into tencharacter chunks.
4.4.4 Reverse Complement
Utilities | Reverse Complement
This item reverses the order of characters in the selected block and then
replaces each character by its complement. Only A, T, U, C, and G are
complemented; the rest of the characters are left as they are. Please use it
carefully as MEGA does not validate whether the characters in the selected block
are nucleotides.
4.4.5 Convert to Mega Format (in Text Editor)
Utilities | Convert to Mega Format
This item converts the sequence data in the current edit window, or in a selected
file, into a MEGA format file. It brings up a dialog box, which allows you to
choose the file and/or the format for this purpose. MEGA converts the data file
and displays the converted data in the editor.
Files written in a number of popular data formats can be converted into MEGA
format. MEGA supports the conversion of CLUSTAL, NEXUS (PAUP,
MacClade), PHYLIP, GCG, FASTA, PIR, NBRF, MSF, IG, and XML formats.
Details about how MEGA reads and converts these file formats are given in the
section Importing Data from Other Formats.
4.5 Building Sequence Alignments
4.5.1 Alignment Explorer
The Alignment Explorer provides options to (1) view and manually edit
alignments and (2) generate alignments using a built-in CLUSTALW
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Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
implementation (for the complete sequence or data in any rectangular region).
The Alignment Explorer also provides tools for exploring web-based databases
(e.g., NCBI Query and BLAST searches) and retrieving desired sequence data
directly into the current alignment.
The Alignment Explorer has the following menus in its main menu: Data, Edit,
Search, Alignment, Web, Sequencer, Display, and Help. In addition, there are
Toolbars that provide quick access to many Alignment Explorer functions. The
main Alignment Explorer window contains up to two alignment grids.
For amino acid input sequence data, the Alignment Explorer provides only
one view. However, it offers two views of DNA sequence data: the DNA
Sequences grid and the Translated Protein Sequences grid. These two views
are present in alignment grids in the two tabs with each grid displaying the
sequence data for the current alignment. Each row represents a single sequence
and each column represents a site. A "*" character is used to indicate site
columns, exhibiting consensus across all sequences. An entire sequence may be
selected by clicking on the gray sequence label cell found to the left of the
sequence data. An entire site may be selected by clicking on the gray cell found
above the site column. The alignment grid has the ability to assign a unique color
to each unique nucleotide or amino acid and it can display a background color for
each cell in the grid. This behavior can be controlled from the Display menu item
found in the main menu. Please note that when the ClustalW alignment algorithm
is initiated, it only will align the sites currently selected in the alignment grids.
Multiple sites may be selected by clicking and then dragging the mouse within
the grid. Note that all of the manual or automatic alignment procedures carried
out in the Protein Sequences grid will be imposed on the corresponding DNA
sequences as soon as you flip to the DNA sequence grid. Even more
importantly, the Alignment Explorer provides unlimited UNDO capabilities.
4.5.2 Creating Multiple Sequence Alignments
In this example, we will create an alignment from protein sequence data that will
be imported into the alignment editor using different methods.
Ex 1.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by using
the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the programs
folder.
Ex 1.0.2: Launch the Alignment Explorer by selecting the Alignment|Alignment
Explorer/CLUSTAL menu command.
In order to align sequences contained in a Sequence Data File, do the following:
Ex 1.1.1: Add unaligned sequences from the hsp20.fas example file into the
Alignment Explorer by clicking selecting the Data|Open|Retrieve Sequences
from File menu command.
Ex 1.1.2: Select the Edit|Select All menu command to select every site for all
sequences in the alignment.
Ex 1.1.3: Select the Alignment|Align by ClustalW menu command to align the
selected sequences data using the ClustalW algorithm.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Ex 1.1.4: Save the current alignment session by selecting the Data|Save
Session menu item. This will allow the current alignment session to be restored
for future editing.
Ex 1.1.5: Exit the Alignment Explorer by selecting the Data|Exit Alignment
Explorer menu item. A message will appear asking if you would like to save the
data to a MEGA file. Choose "YES," and then a "Save As" dialog box will
appear. Enter hsp20_aligned.meg as the file name, and click the "Save" button.
An input box will appear asking for a title for the data. Enter "HSP 20 Aligned by
MEGA" as the title, and click the "OK" button. Another dialog box will appear
asking you if the sequence data is protein coding. In this case, click "Yes." A
final dialog box will appear asking you if you would like to open the data file in
MEGA. Click "Yes."
Now, we will examine how to send sequence data from the Internet (Web
Explorer) to the Alignment Explorer.
Ex 1.2.1: If the Alignment Explorer already contains sequence data, select the
Data| Create new menu command to create a new alignment from Alignment
Explorer window. Choose "YES" on the dialog box that appears to indicate that
you are creating a DNA sequence.
Ex 1.2.2: Activate the Web Explorer tab by selecting Web|Query Gene Banks
from the menu.
Ex 1.2.3: When the NCBI Entrez site is loaded, select either the nucleotide or
protein database, enter a search term into the search box, and press the "GO"
button.
Ex 1.2.4: When the search results are displayed, select the specific search item
and choose "Sequence" from the menu bar. Press the "Add to Alignment" button
located to the left of the address box. This will display the Web Fetch dialog
window.
Ex 1.2.5: Click the box to the left of each accession number whose sequences’
information you would like to fetch from the web. When you are done, you can
select accessions by pressing the "Fetch" button.
Ex 1.2.6: When the status column indicates that all sequences are fetched,
press the "Send to Alignment" button to send the fetched sequence data to the
Alignment Explorer.
Ex 1.2.7: Align the fetched data using the steps detailed in Ex 1.1.2 – Ex 1.1.5.
You may also open a trace file in the Trace Data Viewer/Editor and send it
directly to the Alignment Explorer.
You may also open a trace file in the Trace Data Viewer/Editor and send it
directly to the Alignment Explorer.
4.5.3 Aligning coding sequences via protein sequences
MEGA provides a convenient method for aligning coding sequences based on
the alignment of protein sequences. In order to accomplish this you use the
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Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
Alignment Explorer to load a data file containing protein-coding sequences. If you
click on the Translated Protein Sequences tab you will see that the proteincoding sequences are automatically translated into their respective protein
sequence. With this tab active select the Alignment|Align by ClustalW menu item
or click on the "W" tool bar icon to begin the alignment of the translated protein
sequences. Once the alignment of the translated protein sequences completes,
click on the DNA Sequences tab and you’ll find that Alignment Explorer
automatically aligned the protein-coding sequences according to the aligned
translated protein sequences. Any manual adjustments made to the translated
protein sequence alignment will also be reflected in the protein-coding sequence
tab.
4.5.4 CLUSTALW
About CLUSTALW
ClustalW is a widely used system for aligning any number of homologous
nucleotide or protein sequences. For multi-sequence alignments, ClustalW uses
progressive alignment methods. In these, the most similar sequences, that is,
those with the best alignment score are aligned first. Then progressively more
distant groups of sequences are aligned until a global alignment is obtained.
This heuristic approach is necessary because finding the global optimal solution
is prohibitive in both memory and time requirements. ClustalW performs very
well in practice. The algorithm starts by computing a rough distance matrix
between each pair of sequences based on pair-wise sequence alignment scores.
These scores are computed using the pair-wise alignment parameters for DNA
and protein sequences. Next, the algorithm uses the neighbor-joining method
with midpoint rooting to create a guide tree, which is used to generate a global
alignment. The guide tree serves as a rough template for clades that tend to
share insertion and deletion features. This generally provides a close-to-optimal
result, especially when the data set contains sequences with varied degrees of
divergence, so the guide tree is less sensitive to noise.
See:
Higgins D., Thompson J., Gibson T. Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G., Gibson T. J.
CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence
alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and
weight matrix choice.
Nucleic Acids Res. 22:4673-4680. (1994)
CLUSTALW Options (DNA)
This dialog box displays a single tab containing a set of organized parameters
that are used by ClustalW to align the DNA sequences. If you are aligning
protein-coding sequences, please note that CLUSTALW will not respect the
codon positions and may insert alignment gaps within codons. For aligning
cDNA or sequence data containing codons, we recommend that you align the
43
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
translated protein sequences (see Aligning coding sequences via protein
sequences).
In this dialog box, you will see the following options:
Parameters for Pair-wise Sequence Alignment
Gap Opening Penalty: The penalty for opening a gap in the alignment.
Increasing this value makes the gaps less frequent.
Gap Extension Penalty: The penalty for extending a gap by one residue.
Increasing this value will make the gaps shorter. Terminal gaps are not
penalized.
Parameters for Multiple Sequence Alignment
Gap Opening Penalty: The penalty for opening a gap in the alignment.
Increasing this value makes the gaps less frequent.
Gap Extension Penalty: The penalty for extending a gap by one residue.
Increasing this value will make the gaps shorter. Terminal gaps are not
penalized.
Common Parameters
DNA Weight Matrix: The scores assigned to matches and mismatches
(including IUB ambiguity codes).
Transition Weight: Gives transitions a weight between 0 and 1. A weight of zero
means that the transitions are scored as mismatches, while a weight of 1 gives
the transitions the match score. For distantly-related DNA sequences, the weight
should be near zero; for closely-related sequences, it can be useful to assign a
higher score.
Use Negative Matrix: Enabled negative weight matrix values will be used if they
are found; otherwise the matrix will be automatically adjusted to all positive
values.
Delay Divergent Cutoff (%): Delays the alignment of the most distantly-related
sequences until after the most closely-related sequences have been aligned. The
setting shows the percent identity level required to delay the addition of a
sequence. Sequences that is less identical than this level will be aligned later.
Keep Predefined Gaps: When checked, alignment positions in which ANY of the
sequences have a gap will be ignored.
NOTE: All Definitions are derived from the CLUSTALW manual.
CLUSTALW Options (Protein)
This dialog box displays a single tab containing a set of organized parameters
that are used by ClustalW to align DNA sequences. If you are aligning proteincoding sequences, please note that CLUSTALW will not respect the codon
positions and may insert alignment gaps within codons. For aligning cDNA or
sequence data containing codons, we recommend that you align the translated
protein sequences (see Aligning coding sequences via protein sequences).
In this dialog box, you will see the following options:
44
Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
Parameters for Pair-wise Sequence Alignment
Gap Opening Penalty: The penalty for opening a gap in the alignment.
Increasing this value makes the gaps less frequent.
Gap Extension Penalty: The penalty for extending a gap by one residue.
Increasing this value will make the gaps shorter. Terminal gaps are not
penalized.
Parameters for Multiple Sequence Alignment
Gap Opening Penalty: The penalty for opening a gap in the alignment.
Increasing this value makes the gaps less frequent.
Gap Extension Penalty: The penalty for extending a gap by one residue.
Increasing this value will make the gaps shorter. Terminal gaps are not
penalized.
Common Parameters
DNA Weight Matrix: The scores assigned to matches and mismatches
(including IUB ambiguity codes).
Residue-specific Penalties: Amino acid specific gap penalties that reduce or
increase the gap opening penalties at each position or sequence in the
alignment. For example, positions that are rich in glycine are more likely to have
an adjacent gap than positions that are rich in valine. See the documentation for
details.
Hydrophilic Penalties: Used to increase the chances of a gap within a run (5 or
more residues) of hydrophilic amino acids; these are likely to be loop or random
coil regions in which gaps are more common.
Gap Separation Distance: Tries to decrease the chances of gaps being too
close to each other. Gaps that are less than this distance apart are penalized
more than other gaps. This does not prevent close gaps; it makes them less
frequent, promoting a block-like appearance of the alignment.
Use Negative Matrix: When enabled negative weight matrix values will be used
if they are found; otherwise the matrix will be automatically adjusted to all positive
values.
Delay Divergent Cutoff (%): Delays the alignment of the most distantly-related
sequences until after the alignment of the most closely-related sequences. The
setting shows the percent identity level required to delay the addition of a
sequence; sequences that are less identical than this level will be aligned later.
Keep Predefined Gaps: When checked, any alignment positions in which ANY
of the sequences have a gap will be ignored.
NOTE: All definitions are derived from CLUSTALW manual.
4.5.5 BLAST
Web Browser & Data Miner
45
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
MEGA contains a fully functional Web Browser to assist users in sequence data
retrieval and web exploration. The most important feature that differentiates this
web browser from other browsers (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer) is the
button. Pressing this button causes the MEGA web explorer to
extract sequence data from the currently displayed web page and send it to the
Alignment Explorer ’s alignment grid, where it will be inserted as new sequences.
At present, the MEGA web browser can interpret data displayed in FASTA format
or in the default format at the NCBI website. (You can ask the NCBI website to
display the data in the FASTA format by using the Display option on the web
page shown.) (We plan to enhance this functionality further in version 3.1.)
Furthermore, the MEGA web browser provides a genomics database, exploration
oriented interface for web searching. (In fact this is almost the same functionality
as in the most recent versions of the Internet Explorer.)
This causes the web browser window to navigate back to
the web location found before the current site in the
explorer location history.
This causes the web browser window to navigate forward
to the web location found after the current site in the
explorer location history.
This causes the web browser to terminate loading a web
location.
This causes the web browser to reload the current web
location.
This causes the web browser to extract sequence data
from the current web page and send it to Alignment
Builder’s alignment grid as new sequence rows. If the web
explorer is unable to find properly formatted sequence
data in the current web page a warning box will appear.
Address
The web location, or address field, is located in the second
Field
toolbar. This field contains the URL of the current web
location as well as a pull down list of previously visited
URLs. If a new URL is entered into the box and the Enter
key is pressed, the web explorer will attempt to navigate to
the entered URL.
Links
This toolbar provides shortcuts to a selection of websites.
There are number of menus in the web browser, including Data, Edit, View,
Links, Go, and Help. These menus provide access to routine functionalities,
which are self-explanatory in use.
Do BLAST Search
Alignment | Do BLAST Search
Use this to launch the BLAST search in the MEGA Web Browser. The web-browser is
displayed with the BLAST facility at the NCBI website.
46
Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
4.5.6 Menu Items in the Alignment Explorer
Toolbars in Alignment Explorer
Basic Functions
This prepares Alignment Builder for a new alignment. Any
sequence data currently loaded into Alignment Builder is
discarded.
This activates the Open File dialog window. It is used to send
sequence data from a properly formatted file into Alignment
Builder.
This activates the Save Alignment Session dialog window. It may
be used to save the current state of the Alignment Builder into a file
so that it may be restored in the future.
This causes nucleotide sequences currently loaded into Alignment
Builder to be translated into their respective amino acid sequences.
Web/Data Explorer Functions
This displays the NCBI BLAST web site in the Web Explorer tab
window. If a sequence in the sequence grid is selected prior to
clicking this button, the Web Explorer will auto-fill the BLAST query
window with the selected sequence data.
This displays the default database (GenBank) in the Web Explorer
tab window.
This activates the Open Trace File dialog window, which may be
used to open and view a sequencer file. The sequence data from
the sequencer file then can be sent into Alignment Explorer.
Alignment Functions
This displays the ClustalW parameters dialog window, which is
used to configure ClustalW and initiate the alignment of the
selected sequence data. If you do not select sequence data prior to
clicking this button, a message box will appear asking if you would
like to select all of the currently loaded sequences.
This marks or unmarks the currently selected single site in the
alignment grid. Each sequence in the alignment may have only one
site marked at a time. Modifications can be made to the alignment
by marking two or more sites and then aligning them using the
Align Marked Sites function.
This button aligns marked sites. Two or more sites must be marked
in order for this function to have an effect.
Search Functions
47
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
This activates the Find Motif search box. When this box appears, it
asks you to enter a motif sequence (a small subsequence of a
larger sequence) as the search term. After the search term is
entered, the Alignment Builder finds each occurrence of the search
term and indicates it with yellow highlighting. For example, if you
were to enter the motif "AGA" as the search term, then each
occurrence of "AGA" across all sequences in the sequence grid
would be highlighted in yellow.
This searches towards the beginning of the current sequence for
the first occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has
been performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search
box will appear.
This searches towards the end of the current sequence for the first
occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has been
performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will
appear.
This locates the marked site in the current sequence. If no site has
been marked, a warning box will appear.
Editing Functions
This undoes the last Alignment Builder action.
This copies the current selection to the clipboard. It may be used to
copy a single base, a block of bases, or entire sequences to the
clipboard.
This removes the current selection from the Alignment Builder and
sends it to the clipboard. This function can affect a single base, a
block of bases, or entire sequences.
This pastes the contents of the clipboard into the Alignment
Builder. If the clipboard contains a block of bases, it will be pasted
into the builder starting at the point of the current selection. If the
clipboard contains complete sequences they will be added to the
current alignment. For example, if the contents of a FASTA file
were copied to the clipboard from a web browser, it would be
pasted into Alignment Builder as a new sequence in the alignment.
This deletes a block of selected bases from the alignment grid.
This deletes gap-only sites (sites containing a gap across all
sequences in the alignment grid) from a selected block of bases.
Sequence Data Insertion Functions
This creates a new, empty sequence row in the alignment grid. A
label and sequence data must be provided for this new row.
This activates an Open File dialog box that allows for the selection
of a sequence data file. Once a suitable sequence data file is
selected, its contents will be imported into Alignment Builder as
new sequence rows in the alignment grid.
48
Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
Site Number display on the status bar
Site #
The Site # field indicates the site represented by the current
selection. If the w/o Gaps radio button is selected, then the
Alignment Builder will disregard the shifting affect of gaps when
determining gap sites. If a block of sites are selected, then this field
will contain the site # for the first site in the block. If an entire
sequence is selected this field will contain the site # for the last site
in the sequence.
Alignment Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands for editing the sequence data in the
alignment grid. The commands are:
Align by ClustalW: This option is used to align the DNA or protein sequence
included in the current selection on the alignment grid. You will be prompted for
the alignment parameters (DNA or Protein) to be used in ClustalW; to accept the
parameters, press "OK". This initiates the ClustalW alignment system. Alignment
Builder then aligns the current selection in the alignment grid using the accepted
parameters.
Mark/Unmark Site: This marks or unmarks a single site in the alignment grid.
Each sequence in the alignment may only have one site marked at a time.
Modifications can be made to the alignment by marking two or more sites and
then aligning them using the Align Marked Sites function.
Align Marked Sites: This aligns marked sites. Two or more sites in the
alignment must be marked for this function to have an effect.
Unmark All Sites: This item unmark all currently marked sites across all
sequences in the alignment grid.
Delete Gap-Only Sites: This item deletes gap-only sites (site columns
containing gaps across all sequences) from the alignment grid.
Auto-Fill Gaps: If this item is checked, then the Alignment Builder will ensure
that all sequences in the alignment grid are the same length by padding shorter
sequences with gaps at the end.
Display Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands that control the display of toolbars in
the alignment grid. The commands in this menu are:
Toolbars: This contains a submenu of the toolbars found in Alignment Explorer.
If an item is checked, then its toolbar will be visible within the Alignment Explorer
window.
Use Colors: If checked, Alignment Explorer displays each unique base using a
unique color indicating the base type.
49
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Background Color: If checked, then Alignment Explorer colors the background
of each base with a unique color that represents the base type.
Font: The Font dialog window can be used to select the font used by Alignment
Explorer for displaying the sequence data in the alignment grid.
Edit Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands for editing the sequence data in the
alignment grid. The commands in this menu are:
Undo: This undoes the last Alignment Explorer action.
Copy: This copies the current selection to the clipboard. It may be used to copy a
single base, a block of bases, or entire sequences.
Cut: This removes the current selection from the Alignment Explorer and sends it
to the clipboard. This function can affect a single base, a block of bases, or entire
sequences.
Paste: This pastes the contents of the clipboard into the Alignment Explorer. If
the clipboard contains a block of bases, they will be pasted into the builder,
starting at the point of the current selection. If the clipboard contains complete
sequences, they will be added to the current alignment. For example, if the
contents of a FASTA file are copied from a web browser to the clipboard, they
will be pasted into the Alignment Explorer as a new sequence in the alignment.
Delete: This deletes a block of selected bases from the alignment grid.
Delete Gaps: This deletes gaps from a selected block of bases.
Insert Blank Sequence: This creates a new, empty sequence row in the
alignment grid. A label and sequence data must be provided for this new row.
Insert Sequence From File: This activates an Open File dialog box that allows
for the selection of a sequence data file. Once a suitable sequence data file is
selected, its contents will be imported into Alignment Explorer as new sequence
rows in the alignment grid.
Select Site(s): This selects the entire site column for each site within the current
selection in the alignment grid.
Select Sequences: This selects the entire sequence for each site within the
current selection in the alignment grid.
Select all: This selects all of the sites in the alignment grid.
Allow Base Editing: If this item is checked, it changes the base values for all
cells in the alignment grid. If it is not checked, then all bases in the alignment grid
are treated as read-only.
Toolbars in Alignment Explorer
Basic Functions
This prepares Alignment Builder for a new alignment. Any
50
Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
sequence data currently loaded into Alignment Builder is
discarded.
This activates the Open File dialog window. It is used to send
sequence data from a properly formatted file into Alignment
Builder.
This activates the Save Alignment Session dialog window. It may
be used to save the current state of the Alignment Builder into a file
so that it may be restored in the future.
This causes nucleotide sequences currently loaded into Alignment
Builder to be translated into their respective amino acid sequences.
Web/Data Explorer Functions
This displays the NCBI BLAST web site in the Web Explorer tab
window. If a sequence in the sequence grid is selected prior to
clicking this button, the Web Explorer will auto-fill the BLAST query
window with the selected sequence data.
This displays the default database (GenBank) in the Web Explorer
tab window.
This activates the Open Trace File dialog window, which may be
used to open and view a sequencer file. The sequence data from
the sequencer file then can be sent into Alignment Explorer.
Alignment Functions
This displays the ClustalW parameters dialog window, which is
used to configure ClustalW and initiate the alignment of the
selected sequence data. If you do not select sequence data prior to
clicking this button, a message box will appear asking if you would
like to select all of the currently loaded sequences.
This marks or unmarks the currently selected single site in the
alignment grid. Each sequence in the alignment may have only one
site marked at a time. Modifications can be made to the alignment
by marking two or more sites and then aligning them using the
Align Marked Sites function.
This button aligns marked sites. Two or more sites must be marked
in order for this function to have an effect.
Search Functions
This activates the Find Motif search box. When this box appears, it
asks you to enter a motif sequence (a small subsequence of a
larger sequence) as the search term. After the search term is
entered, the Alignment Builder finds each occurrence of the search
term and indicates it with yellow highlighting. For example, if you
were to enter the motif "AGA" as the search term, then each
occurrence of "AGA" across all sequences in the sequence grid
would be highlighted in yellow.
This searches towards the beginning of the current sequence for
51
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
the first occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has
been performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search
box will appear.
This searches towards the end of the current sequence for the first
occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has been
performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will
appear.
This locates the marked site in the current sequence. If no site has
been marked, a warning box will appear.
Editing Functions
This undoes the last Alignment Builder action.
This copies the current selection to the clipboard. It may be used to
copy a single base, a block of bases, or entire sequences to the
clipboard.
This removes the current selection from the Alignment Builder and
sends it to the clipboard. This function can affect a single base, a
block of bases, or entire sequences.
This pastes the contents of the clipboard into the Alignment
Builder. If the clipboard contains a block of bases, it will be pasted
into the builder starting at the point of the current selection. If the
clipboard contains complete sequences they will be added to the
current alignment. For example, if the contents of a FASTA file
were copied to the clipboard from a web browser, it would be
pasted into Alignment Builder as a new sequence in the alignment.
This deletes a block of selected bases from the alignment grid.
This deletes gap-only sites (sites containing a gap across all
sequences in the alignment grid) from a selected block of bases.
Sequence Data Insertion Functions
This creates a new, empty sequence row in the alignment grid. A
label and sequence data must be provided for this new row.
This activates an Open File dialog box that allows for the selection
of a sequence data file. Once a suitable sequence data file is
selected, its contents will be imported into Alignment Builder as
new sequence rows in the alignment grid.
Site Number display on the status bar
Site #
52
The Site # field indicates the site represented by the current
selection. If the w/o Gaps radio button is selected, then the
Alignment Builder will disregard the shifting affect of gaps when
determining gap sites. If a block of sites are selected, then this field
will contain the site # for the first site in the block. If an entire
sequence is selected this field will contain the site # for the last site
in the sequence.
Part II: Assembling Data for Analysis
Search Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu allows searching for sequence motifs and marked sites. The
commands in this menu are:
Find Motif: This activates the Find Motif search box. When this box appears, it
asks you to enter a motif sequence (a small subsequence of a larger sequence)
as the search term. After you enter the search term, the Alignment Explorer finds
each occurrence of it and indicates it with yellow highlighting. For example, if you
enter the motif "AGA" as the search term, then each occurrence of "AGA" across
all sequences in the sequence grid would be highlighted in yellow.
Find Next: This searches for the first occurrence of the motif search term
towards the end of the current sequence. If no motif search has been performed
prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will appear.
Find Previous: this search towards the beginning of the current sequence for the
first occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has been performed
prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will appear.
Find Marked Site: This locates the marked site in the current sequence. If no
site has been marked for this sequence, a warning box will appear.
Highlight Motif: If this item is checked, then all occurrences of the text search
term (motif) are highlighted in the alignment grid.
Sequencer Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
Edit Sequencer File: This item displays the Open File dialog box used to open a
sequencer data file. Once opened, the sequencer data file is displayed in the
Trace Data File Viewer/Editor. This editor allows you to view and edit trace data
produced by the automated DNA sequencer. It reads and edits data in ABI and
Staden file formats and the sequences displayed can be added directly into the
Alignment Explorer or send to the Web Browser for conducting BLAST searches.
Web Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands for querying GenBank and doing a
BLAST search, as well as access to the MEGA web Browser. The commands in
this menu are:
Query Gene Banks: This item starts the Web Browser and accesses the NCBI
home page (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
Do BLAST Search: This item starts the Web Browser and accesses the NCBI
BLAST query page. If you select a sequence in the alignment grid prior to
selecting this item, the web browser will automatically copy the selected
sequence data into the search field.
Show Browser: This item will show the Web Browser.
53
5 Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
5.1.1 MEGA Format
For MEGA to read and interpret your data correctly, it should be formatted according to a
set of rules. All input data files are basic ASCII-text files, which may contain DNA
sequence, protein sequence, evolutionary distance, or phylogenetic tree data. Most
word processing packages (e.g., Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, Notepad, and WordPad)
allow you to edit and save ASCII text files, which are usually marked with a .TXT
extension. After creating the file, you should change this extension to .MEG, so that you
can distinguish between your data files and the other text files. Because the
organizational details vary for different types of data, we discuss the data formats for
molecular sequences, distances, and phylogenetic trees separately. However, there are
a number of features that are common to all MEGA data files.
5.1.2 General Conventions
Common Features
The first line must contain the keyword #MEGA to indicate that the data file is in MEGA
format. The data file may contain a succinct description of the data (called Title) included
in the file on the second line. The Title statement is written according to a set of
rules and is copied from MEGA to every output file. In the long run, an informative title
will allow you to easily recognize your past work.
The data file may also contain a more descriptive multi-line account of the data in the
Description statement, which is written after the Title statement. The
Description statement also is written according to a set of rules. Unlike the Title
statement, the Description statement is not copied from MEGA to every output file.
In addition, the data file may also contain a Format statement, which includes
information on the type of data present in the file and some of its attributes. The
Format statement should be generally written after the Title or the Description
statement. Writing a format statement requires knowledge of the keywords used to
identify different types of data and data attributes.
All taxa names must be written according to a set of rules.
Comments can be written anywhere in the data file and can span multiple lines. They
must always be enclosed in square brackets ([and]) brackets and can be nested.
Writing Comments
Comments can be placed anywhere in the data file as long as they are contained within
a pair of square brackets [like this]. Nested comments are allowed [[like] this].
Key Words
MEGA supports a number of keywords, in addition to MEGA and TITLE, for writing
instructions in the format and command statements. These key words can be written in
55
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
any combination of lower- and upper-case letters. For writing instructions, follow the
style given in the examples along with the keyword description for different types of data.
Rules for Taxa Names
Distance matrices as well as sequence data may come from species, populations, or
individuals. These evolutionary entities are designated as OTUs (Operational Taxonomic
Units) or taxa. Each taxon must have an identification tag, i.e., a taxon Iabel. In the input
files prepared for use in MEGA, these labels should be written according to the following
conventions:
‘#’ Sign
Every Iabel must be written on a new line, and a '#' sign must precede the label. There
are no restrictions on the length of the Iabels in the data file, but MEGA will truncate all
labels longer than 40 characters. These labels are not required to be unique, although
identical labels may result in ambiguities and should be avoided.
Characters to use in labels
Taxa labels must start with alphanumeric characters (0-9, a-z, and A-Z) or a special
character: dash (-), plus (+) or period (.). After the first character, taxa labels may
contain the following additional special characters: underscore (_), asterisk (*), colon (:),
round open and close brackets ( ), vertical line (|), back slash (\), and forward slash (/).
For multiple word labels, an underscore can be used to represent a blank space. All
underscores are converted into blank spaces, and subsequent displays of the labels
show this change. For example, E._coli becomes E. coli.
Rules for Title Statement
A Title statement must be written on the line following the #mega. It always begins with
!Title and ends with a semicolon.
#mega
!Title
This is an example title;
A title statement may not occupy more than one line of text. It must not contain a
semicolon inside the statement, although it must contain one at the end of the
statement.
Rules for Description Statement
A Description statement is written after the Title statement. It always begins with
!Description and ends with a semicolon.
#mega
!Title This is an example title;
!Description This is detailed information the data file;
A description statement may occupy multiple lines of text. It must not contain a
semicolon inside the statement, although it must contain one at the end of the statement.
Rules for the Format Statement
A format statement contains one or more command statements. A command statement
contains a command and a valid setting keyword (command=keyword format). For
example, the command statement DataType=Nucleotide tells MEGA that nucleotide
56
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
sequence data is contained in the file. Based on the DataType setting, different types of
keywords are valid.
Keywords for Sequence Data
Keywords for Distance Data
Keywords for Tree Data
5.1.3 Sequence Input Data
General Considerations (Sequence Data)
The sequence data must consist of two or more sequences of equal length. All
sequences must be aligned and you may use the in-built alignment system for this
purpose. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences should be written in IUPAC single-letter
codes. Sequences can be written in any combination of upper- and lower-case letters.
Special symbols for alignment gaps, missing data, and identical sites also can be
included in the sequences.
Special Symbols
Blank spaces and tabs are frequently used to format data files, so they are simply
ignored by MEGA. ASCII characters such as the period (.), dash (-), and question mark
(?), are generally used as special symbols to represent identity to the first sequence,
alignment gaps, and missing data, respectively.
IUPAC single letter codes
Nucleotide or amino acid sequences should be written in IUPAC single-letter codes. The
single-letter codes supported in MEGA are as follows.
Symbols
DNA/RNA
A
G
C
T
U
R
Y
M
K
S
W
H
B
V
D
N
Name
Remarks
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine
Uracil
Purine
Pyrimindine
Purine
Purine
Pyrimidine
Pyrimidine
Pyrimidine
A or G
C or T/U
A or C
G or T
C or G
A or T
A or C or T
C or G or T
A or C or G
A or G or T
A or C or G
or T
Strong
Weak
Not G
Not A
Not U/T
Not C
Ambiguous
57
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Protein
A
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
S
T
V
W
Y
*
Alanine
Cysteine
Aspartic Acid
Glutamic Acid
Phenylalanine
Glycine
Histidine
Isoleucine
Lysine
Leucine
Methionine
Asparagine
Proline
Glutamine
Arginine
Serine
Threonine
Valine
Tryptophan
Tyrosine
Termination
Ala
Cys
Asp
Glu
Phe
Gly
His
Ile
Lys
Leu
Met
Asn
Pro
Gln
Arg
Ser
Thr
Val
Trp
Tyr
*
Keywords for Format Statement (Sequence data)
Command
Setting
Remark
DataType
DNA, RNA,
nucleotide,
protein
Specifies the type
of data in the file
NSeqs
A count
Number of
sequences
NSeqs=85
NTaxa
A count
Synonymous with
NSeqs
NTaxa=85
NSites
A count
Number of
nucleotides or
amino acids
Nsites=4592
58
Example
DataType=DNA
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
Property
Exon, Intron,
Coding,
Noncoding,
and End.
Specifies whether a
domain is protein
coding. Exon and
Coding are
synonymous, as
are Intron and
Noncoding. End
specifies that the
domain with the
given name ends at
this point.
Indel
single
character
Use dash (-) to
identify
insertion/deletions
in sequence
alignments
Identical
single
character
Use period (.) to
show identify with
the first sequence.
MatchChar
single
character
Synonymous with
the identical
keyword.
Missing
single
character
Use a question
mark (?) to indicate
missing data.
CodeTable
A name
This instruction
gives the name of
the code table for
the protein coding
domains of the data
Property=cyt_b
Indel = -
Identical = .
MatchChar = .
Missing = ?
CodeTable =
Standard
Defining Genes and Domains
Writing Command Statements for Defining Genes and Domains
The MEGA format easily can designate genes and domains within the molecular
sequence data. In this format, attributes of different sites (and groups of sites, termed
domains) are specified within the data "on the spot" rather than in an attributes block
before or after the actual data, as is the case in some other data formats. An example of
a three-sequence dataset written in MEGA format is shown below. The sequences
consist of three genes named FirstGene, SecondGene, and ThirdGene for two groups of
organisms Setup/Select Genes/Domain (Mammals and Birds). (Note that the genes and
domains can also be defined interactively through a dialog box.)
59
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
!Gene=FirstGene
#Human_{Mammal}
#Mouse_{Mammal}
#Chicken_{Aves}
Domain=Exon1 Property=Coding;
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCCCAAT
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGCTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
!Gene=SecondGene Domain=Intron Property=Noncoding;
#Human
ATTCCCAGGGAATTCCCGGGGGGTTTAAGGCCCCTTTAAAGAAAGAT
#Mouse
GTAGCGCGCGTCGTCAGAGCTCCCAAGGGTAGCAGTCACAGAAAGAT
#Chicken
GTAAAAAAAAAAGTCAGAGCTCCCCCCAATATATATCACAGAAAGAT
!Gene=ThirdGene Domain=Exon2 Property=Coding;
#Human
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGATACAAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
#Mouse
ATCTGATCTCGTGTGCTGGTACGAATGATTTCTGCGTTCAACTGA
#Chicken
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGCTACCAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
Keywords for Command Statements (Genes/Domains)
Command
Setting
Remark
Domain
A name
This instruction defines a
domain with the given
name
Gene
A name
This instruction defines a
gene with the given name
Gene=cytb
Property
Exon, Intron,
This instruction specifies
the protein-coding
attribute for a domain.
Keywords Exon and
Coding are synonymous;
similarly Intron and
Noncoding are
synonymous. End
specifies the domain in
which the given name has
ended.
Property=
cytb
This instruction specifies
the site where the next
1st-codon position will be
found in a protein-coding
domain.
CodonStar
t=2
Coding,
Noncoding,
and End.
CodonStart
Defining Groups
60
A number
Example
Domain=first
_exon
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
Writing Command Statements for Defining Groups of Taxa
The MEGA format allows you to assign different taxa to groups in a sequence as well as
to distance data files. In this case, the name of the group is written in a set of curly
brackets following the taxa name. The group name can be attached to the taxa name
using an underscore or just can be appended. It is important to note that there should
be no spaces between the taxa name and group name. (Note that the groups of taxa
can also be defined interactively through a dialog box.) In the following, we show an
example in which human and mouse are designated as the members of the group
Mammal and chicken belongs to group Aves.
!Gene=FirstGene
#Human_{Mammal}
#Mouse_{Mammal}
#Chicken_{Aves}
Domain=Exon1 Property=Coding;
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCCCAAT
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGCTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
!Gene=SecondGene Domain=Intron Property=Noncoding;
#Human
ATTCCCAGGGAATTCCCGGGGGGTTTAAGGCCCCTTTAAAGAAAGAT
#Mouse
GTAGCGCGCGTCGTCAGAGCTCCCAAGGGTAGCAGTCACAGAAAGAT
#Chicken
GTAAAAAAAAAAGTCAGAGCTCCCCCCAATATATATCACAGAAAGAT
!Gene=ThirdGene Domain=Exon2 Property=Coding;
#Human
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGATACAAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
#Mouse
ATCTGATCTCGTGTGCTGGTACGAATGATTTCTGCGTTCAACTGA
#Chicken
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGCTACCAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
Data | Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
This invokes the Setup/Select Taxa & Groups dialog box for including or excluding taxa,
defining groups of taxa, and editing names of taxa and groups.
Labelling Individual Sites
Site Label
The individual sites in nucleotide or amino acid data can be labeled to construct
non-contiguous sets of sites. The Setup Genes and Domains dialog can be used
to assign or edit site labels, in addition to specifying them in the input data files.
This is shown in the following example of three-sequences in which the sites in
the Third Gene are labeled with a ‘+’ mark. An underscore marks an absence of
any labels.
!Gene=FirstGene Domain=Exon1 Property=Coding;
#Human_{Mammal} ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
#Mouse_{Mammal} ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCCCAAT
#Chicken_{Aves} ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGCTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
61
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
!Gene=SecondGene Domain=AnIntron Property=Noncoding;
#Human ATTCCCAGGGAATTCCCGGGGGGTTTAAGGCCCCTTTAAAGAAAGAT
#Mouse GTAGCGCGCGTCGTCAGAGCTCCCAAGGGTAGCAGTCACAGAAAGAT
#Chicken GTAAAAAAAAAAGTCAGAGCTCCCCCCAATATATATCACAGAAAGAT
!Gene=ThirdGene Domain=Exon2 Property=Coding;
#Human
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGATACAAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
#Mouse
ATCTGATCTCGTGTGCTGGTACGAATGATTTCTGCGTTCAACTGA
#Chicken ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGCTACCAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
!Label
+++__-+++-a-+++-L-+++-k-+++123+++-_-+++---+++;
Each site can be associated with only one label. A label can be a letter or a
number.
For analyses that require codons, MEGA includes only those codons in which all
three positions are given the same label. This site labeling system facilitates the
analysis of specific sites, as often is required for comparing sequences of
regulatory elements, intron-splice sites, and antigen recognition sites in the
genes of applications such as the Major Histocompatibility Complex.
Labeled Sites
Sites in a sequence alignment can be categorized and labeled with user-defined
symbols. Each category is represented by a letter or a number. Each site can be
assigned to only one category, although any combination of categories can be
selected for analysis.
Labeled sites work independently of and in addition to genes and domains, thus
allowing complex subsets of sites to be defined easily.
5.1.4 Distance Input Data
General Considerations (Distance Data Formats)
For a set of m sequences (or taxa), there are m(m-1)/2 pair-wise distances. These
distances can be arranged either in the lower-left or in the upper-right triangular matrix.
After writing the #mega,!Title,!Description, and !Format commands (some of
which are optional), you then need to write all the taxa names (see below). Taxa names
are followed by the distance matrix. An example of a matrix is:
#one
#two
#three
#four
#five
1.0
62
2.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
1.3
4.0
4.6
3.6
4.2
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
In the above example, pair-wise distances are written in the upper triangular matrix
(upper-right format). Two alternate distance matrix formats are:
Lower-left matrix
d12
d13
d23
d14
d24
d34
d15
d25
d35
Upper-right matrix
d12
d13
d14
d23
d24
d34
d45
d15
d25
d35
d45
Keywords for Format Statement (Sequence data)
Command
Setting
Remark
DataType
DNA, RNA,
nucleotide,
protein
Specifies the type
of data in the file
NSeqs
A count
Number of
sequences
NSeqs=85
NTaxa
A count
Synonymous with
NSeqs
NTaxa=85
NSites
A count
Number of
nucleotides or
amino acids
Nsites=4592
Property
Exon, Intron,
Specifies whether a
domain is protein
coding. Exon and
Coding are
synonymous, as
are Intron and
Noncoding. End
specifies that the
domain with the
given name ends at
this point.
Property=cyt_b
Coding,
Noncoding,
and End.
Indel
single
character
Use dash (-) to
identify
insertion/deletions
in sequence
alignments
Identical
single
character
Use period (.) to
show identify with
the first sequence.
Example
DataType=DNA
Indel = -
Identical = .
63
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
MatchChar
single
character
Synonymous with
the identical
keyword.
Missing
single
character
Use a question
mark (?) to indicate
missing data.
CodeTable
A name
This instruction
gives the name of
the code table for
the protein coding
domains of the data
MatchChar = .
Missing = ?
CodeTable = Standard
Defining Groups
Writing Command Statements for Defining Groups of Taxa
The MEGA format allows you to assign different taxa to groups in a sequence as well as
to distance data files. In this case, the name of the group is written in a set of curly
brackets following the taxa name. The group name can be attached to the taxa name
using an underscore or just can be appended. It is important to note that there should
be no spaces between the taxa name and group name. (Note that the groups of taxa
can also be defined interactively through a dialog box.) In the following, we show an
example in which human and mouse are designated as the members of the group
Mammal and chicken belongs to group Aves.
!Gene=FirstGene
#Human_{Mammal}
#Mouse_{Mammal}
#Chicken_{Aves}
Domain=Exon1 Property=Coding;
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCCCAAT
ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGCTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
!Gene=SecondGene Domain=Intron Property=Noncoding;
#Human
ATTCCCAGGGAATTCCCGGGGGGTTTAAGGCCCCTTTAAAGAAAGAT
#Mouse
GTAGCGCGCGTCGTCAGAGCTCCCAAGGGTAGCAGTCACAGAAAGAT
#Chicken
GTAAAAAAAAAAGTCAGAGCTCCCCCCAATATATATCACAGAAAGAT
!Gene=ThirdGene Domain=Exon2 Property=Coding;
#Human
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGATACAAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
#Mouse
ATCTGATCTCGTGTGCTGGTACGAATGATTTCTGCGTTCAACTGA
#Chicken
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGCTACCAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
Data | Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
This invokes the Setup/Select Taxa & Groups dialog box for including or
excluding taxa, defining groups of taxa, and editing names of taxa and groups.
64
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
5.1.5 Tree Input Data
Display Newick Trees from File
Phylogeny | Display Newick Trees from File…
Use this to retrieve and display one or more trees written in Newick format. Multiple
trees can be displayed, and their consensus built, in the Tree Explorer. MEGA supports
the display of Newick format trees containing branch lengths as well as bootstrap or
other counts (note that the Newick formats do not contain the total number of bootstrap
replications conducted).
5.2 Importing Data from other Formats
5.2.1 Importing Data from Other Formats
MEGA supports conversions from several different file formats into MEGA formats.
Each format is indicated by the file extension used. Supported formats include:
Extension
. an
. nexus
. phylip
. phylip2
. gcg
. fasta
. pir
. nbrf
. msf
. ig
. xml
File type
CLUSTAL
PAUP, MacClade
PHYLIP Interleaved
PHYLIP
Noninterleaved
GCG format
FASTA format
PIR format
NBRF format
MSF format
IG format
Internet (NCBI) XML
format
The following sections briefly describe each of these formats and how MEGA handles
their conversion.
COMMON FILE CONVERSION ATTRIBUTES
The default input formats are determined by a file’s extension (e.g., a file with the
extension of ".ig" is initially assumed to be in "IG" input format). However, you have the
option to specify any format for any file; the file extension is simply used as an initial
guide. Note that the specification of an incorrect file format most often results in an
erroneous conversion or other unexpected error.
Input file types can include any of the following characters in their sequence data:
•
The letters: a-z,A-Z for DNA and protein sequences
•
Peroid (.)
65
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
•
Hyphen (-)
•
The space character
•
Question mark (?).
Depending on their context, all other characters encountered in input files are either
ignored or are interpreted as specific non-sequence data, such as comments, headers,
etc.
The first line of all converted files is always: #Mega
The second line of all converted file is always: !Title: <filename>
where <filename> is the name of the input file.
The third line of all converted files is blank.
Many formats can specify the length of the sequences contained within them. The
MEGA conversion utility ignores these data and does not check to see if the sequences
are as long as they are purported to be.
5.2.2 Convert To MEGA Format (Main File Menu)
File | Convert to MEGA Format
This item allows you to choose the file and/or the format that you would like to use to
convert a given sequence data file into a MEGA format. It converts the data file and
displays the converted data in the editor.
Files written in a number of popular data formats can be converted into MEGA format.
MEGA 4 supports conversion of CLUSTAL, NEXUS (PAUP, MacClade), PHYLIP, GCG,
FASTA, PIR, NBRF, MSF, IG, and XML formats. Details about how MEGA reads and
converts these file formats are given in the section Importing Data from Other Formats.
Format Specific Notes
Converting CLUSTAL Format
Converting CLUSTAL Format
The sequence alignment outputs from CLUSTAL software often are given the default
extension .ALN. CLUSTAL is an interleaved format. In a page-wide arrangement the
sequence name is in the first column and a part of the sequence’s data is right justified.
An example of the CLUSTAL format follows:
CLUSTAL X (1.8) multiple sequence alignment
Q9Y2J0_Has
-----------MTDTVFSNSSNRWMYPSDRPLQSNDKEQLQAGWSVHPG
Q06846_RP3A_BOVIN
-----------MTDTVFSSSSSRWMCPSDRPLQSNDKEQLQTGWSVHPS
JX0338_rabphilin-3A-mouse ------------MTDTVVN---RWMYPGDGPLQSNDKEQLQAGWSVHPG
66
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
Q9Y2J0_Has
GQPDRQRKQEELTDEEKEIINRVIARAEKMEEMEQER-IGRLVDRLENM
Q06846_RP3A_BOVIN
GQPDRQRKQEELTDEEKEIINRVIARAEKMEEMEQER-IGRLVDRLENM
JX0338_rabphilin-3A-mouse AQTDRQRKQEELTDEEKEIINRVIARAEKMEAMEQER-IGRLVDRLETM
The CLUSTAL file above would be converted by MEGA into the following format:
#mega
Title: Bigrab2.aln
#Q9Y2J0_Hsa
------------MTDTVFSNSSNRWMYPSDRPLQSNDKEQLQAGWSVHPG
GQPDRQRKQEELTDEEKEIINRVIARAEKMEEMEQER--IGRLVDRLENM
RKNVAGDGVNRCILCGEQLGMLGSACVVCEDCKKNVCTKCGVET-NNRLH
#Q06846_RP3A_BOVIN
------------MTDTVFSSSSSRWMCPSDRPLQSNDKEQLQTGWSVHPS
GQPDRQRKQEELTDEEKEIINRVIARAEKMEEMEQER--IGRLVDRLENM
RKNVAGDGVNRCILCGEQLGMLGSACVVCEDCKKNVCTKCGVETSNNRPH
#JX0338_rabphilin-3A-mouse
------------MTDTVVN----RWMYPGDGPLQSNDKEQLQAGWSVHPG
AQTDRQRKQEELTDEEKEIINRVIARAEKMEAMEQER--IGRLVDRLETM
RKNVAGDGVNRCILCGEQLGMLGSACVVCEDCKKNVCTKCGVETSNNRPH
Converting FASTA format
The FASTA file format is very simple and is quite similar to the MEGA file format. This is
an example of a sample input file:
>G019uabh 400 bp
ATACATCATAACACTACTTCCTACCCATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAAGTCTTGCTTG
AATTAAAGACTTGTTTAAACACAAAAATTTAGAGTTTTACTCAACAAAAGTGATTGATTG
ATTGATTGATTGATTGATGGTTTACAGTAGGACTTCATTCTAGTCATTATAGCTGCTGGC
AGTATAACTGGCCAGCCTTTAATACATTGCTGCTTAGAGTCAAAGCATGTACTTAGAGTT
GGTATGATTTATCTTTTTGGTCTTCTATAGCCTCCTTCCCCATCCCCATCAGTCTTAATC
AGTCTTGTTACGTTATGACTAATCTTTGGGGATTGTGCAGAATGTTATTTTAGATAAGCA
AAACGAGCAAAATGGGGAGTTACTTATATTTCTTTAAAGC
>G028uaah 268 bp
CATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAAGTCTTGCTTGAATTAAAGACTTGTTTAAACACAAA
ATTTAGACTTTTACTCAACAAAAGTGATTGATTGATTGATTGATTGATTGATGGTTTACA
GTAGGACTTCATTCTAGTCATTATAGCTGCTGGCAGTATAACTGGCCAGCCTTTAATACA
TTGCTGCTTAGAGTCAAAGCATGTACTTAGAGTTGGTATGATTTATCTTTTTGGTCTTCT
ATAGCCTCCTTCCCCATCCCATCAGTCT
67
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
The MEGA file converter looks for a line that begin with a greater-than sign (‘>’),
replaces it with a pound sign (‘#’), takes the word following the pound sign as the
sequence name, deletes the rest of the line, and takes the following lines (up to the next
line beginning with a ‘>’) as the sequence data. The MEGA file above would convert as
follows:
#mega
Title: infile.fasta
#G019uabh
ATACATCATAACACTACTTCCTACCCATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAAGTCTTGCTTG
AATTAAAGACTTGTTTAAACACAAAAATTTAGAGTTTTACTCAACAAAAGTGATTGATTG
ATTGATTGATTGATTGATGGTTTACAGTAGGACTTCATTCTAGTCATTATAGCTGCTGGC
AGTATAACTGGCCAGCCTTTAATACATTGCTGCTTAGAGTCAAAGCATGTACTTAGAGTT
GGTATGATTTATCTTTTTGGTCTTCTATAGCCTCCTTCCCCATCCCCATCAGTCTTAATC
AGTCTTGTTACGTTATGACTAATCTTTGGGGATTGTGCAGAATGTTATTTTAGATAAGCA
AAACGAGCAAAATGGGGAGTTACTTATATTTCTTTAAAGC
#G028uaah
CATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAAGTCTTGCTTGAATTAAAGACTTGTTTAAACACAAA
ATTTAGACTTTTACTCAACAAAAGTGATTGATTGATTGATTGATTGATTGATGGTTTACA
GTAGGACTTCATTCTAGTCATTATAGCTGCTGGCAGTATAACTGGCCAGCCTTTAATACA
TTGCTGCTTAGAGTCAAAGCATGTACTTAGAGTTGGTATGATTTATCTTTTTGGTCTTCT
ATAGCCTCCTTCCCCATCCCATCAGTCT
Convert GCG Format
These files consist of one or more groups of non-blank lines separated by one or more
blank lines; the non-blank lines look similar to this:
Chloroflex
Chloroflex
0 ..
1 MSKEHVQTIA
51 NPTIGGVMVM
101 DQCRALEQQS
151 VQAFAPGLLA
201 VRHPARFVLV
251 REYDADPFAF
301 KLEVDGHRGE
351 PLETQD....
401 ..........
Length: 428
TDDVSKNGHT
GHRGTAKSTA
GKTKKPAVIN
RANRGFLYID
GSGNPEEGDL
VEKWAKETQK
LTLARA.ATA
...DAVRIER
..........
Mon Sep 25 17:34:20 MDT 2000
PPTNASTPPY
VRALAAMLPP
IPVPVVDLPL
EVNLLEDHLV
RPQLLDRFGL
LQRKIKQAQR
LAALEGRNEV
AVEEVLVP..
........
PFVAIVGQAE
IKAVAGCPYS
GATEDRVCGT
DVLLDVAASG
HARITTITDV
RLPEVILPDP
TVQDVRRIAV
..........
Check:
LKLALLLCVV
CAPDRTAGLC
LDIERALTQG
VNVVEREGVS
SERVEIVKRR
VLYKIAELCV
LALRHRLRKD
..........
The "Check" tag near the end of a line signifies the first line in a new sequence
expression. The name of the sequence is obtained from the preceding line; the following
lines, up to the next blank line, are accepted as the sequence. For each line in the
sequence, the leading digits are stripped off, and the rest of the line is used. The
following shows a conversion of the above sequence.
68
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
#mega
Title: infile.gcg
#Chloroflex
MSKEHVQTIA TDDVSKNGHT
NPTIGGVMVM GHRGTAKSTA
DQCRALEQQS GKTKKPAVIN
VQAFAPGLLA RANRGFLYID
VRHPARFVLV GSGNPEEGDL
REYDADPFAF VEKWAKETQK
KLEVDGHRGE LTLARA.ATA
PLETQD.... ...DAVRIER
.......... ..........
PPTNASTPPY
VRALAAMLPP
IPVPVVDLPL
EVNLLEDHLV
RPQLLDRFGL
LQRKIKQAQR
LAALEGRNEV
AVEEVLVP..
........
PFVAIVGQAE
IKAVAGCPYS
GATEDRVCGT
DVLLDVAASG
HARITTITDV
RLPEVILPDP
TVQDVRRIAV
..........
LKLALLLCVV
CAPDRTAGLC
LDIERALTQG
VNVVEREGVS
SERVEIVKRR
VLYKIAELCV
LALRHRLRKD
..........
Converting IG Format Files
These files consist of one or more groups of non-blank lines separated by one or more
blank lines. The following is an example of the non-blank lines:
;G028uaah 240 bases
G028uaah
CATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAAGTCTTGCTTGAATTAAAGACTTGTT
TAAACACAAAATTTAGACTTTTACTCAACAAAAGTGATTGATTGATTGAT
The first line in each group begins with a semicolon. This line is ignored by MEGA. The
following line (e.g., G028uaah above) is treated as the name of the sequence.
Subsequent lines, until the next semicolon, are taken as the sequence. MEGA
recognizes the letters a-z and A-Z for DNA and protein sequences and only a few
special characters, such as period [.], hyphen [-], space, and question mark [?].
Depending on their context, all other characters in the input files are either ignored or are
interpreted as specific non-sequence data, such as comments, headers, etc.
The example converts to MEGA file format as follows:
#mega
!Title: filename
#G019uabh
ATACATCATAACACTACTTCCTACCCATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAA
GTCTTGCTTGAATTAAAGACTTGTTTAAACACAAAAATTTAGAGTTTTAC
Converting MSF Format
The MSF format is an interleaved format that is designed to simplify the comparison of
sequences with similar lengths.
G006uaah MSF: 240
Check: 0 ..
Type: N
Wed Sep 20 12:57:06 MDT 2000
69
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Name: G019uabh
Len: 400 Check: 0 Weight: 1.00
Name: G028uaah
Len:
268 Check:
1.00
Name: G022uabh
Len:
257 Check:
1.00
Name: G023uabh
Len:
347 Check:
1.00
Name: G006uaah
Len:
240 Check:
1.00
//
G019uabh
ACTTGTTAAA
G028uaah
AAGACTTGTT
G022uabh
ATCAATCCTG
G023uabh
CATAAAATAA
G006uaah
ATATGCTTTG
G019uabh
AGAGTTTTAC
G028uaah
ATTGATTGAT
G022uabh
TTCACTATCC
G023uabh
CTTATGTTTA
G006uaah
TCAGCTTAAT
G019uabh
TTTACAGTAG
G028uaah
TTATAGCTGC
G022uabh
CTACCCATAA
G023uabh
AATCCTCTAC
G006uaah
GTAGAAAATG
G019uabh
GCCAGCCTTT
G028uaah
GAGTCAAAGC
G022uabh
TTGTTTAAAC
G023uabh
GAAATAAAAT
G006uaah
70
0
Weight:
0
Weight:
0
Weight:
0
Weight:
ATACATCATA ACACTACTTC CTACCCATAA GCTCCTTTTA
CATAAGCTCC TTTTAACTTG TTAAAGTCTT GCTTGAATTA
TATTTTAGAG ACCCAAGTTT TTGACCTTTT CCATGTTTAC
AATAAATACC AAAAAAATAG TATATCTACA TAGAATTTCA
ACATAAAATA AACTGTTTTC TATGTGAAAA TTAACCTANN
GTCTTGCTTG AATTAAAGAC TTGTTTAAAC ACAAAAATTT
TAAACACAAA ATTTAGACTT TTACTCAACA AAAGTGATTG
TAGGTGATTG GGCAGCCATT TAAGTATTAT TATAGACATT
ACTGTTTTCT ATGTGAAAAT TAACCTAAAA ATATGCTTTG
CTTATGTTTA AGATGTCATG CTTTTTATCA GTTGAGGAGT
TCAACAAAAG TGATTGATTG ATTGATTGAT TGATTGATGG
TGATTGATTG ATGGTTTACA GTAGGACTTC ATTCTAGTCA
CATTAAAACC CTTTATGCCC ATACATCATA ACACTACTTC
AGATGTCATG CTTTTTATCA GTTGAGGAGT TCAGCTTAAT
AATCCTCTAA GATCTTAAAC AAATAGGAAA AAAACTAAAA
GACTTCATTC TAGTCATTAT AGCTGCTGGC AGTATAACTG
TGGCAGTATA ACTGGCCAGC CTTTAATACA TTGCTGCTTA
GCTCCTTTTA ACTTGTTAAA GTCTTGCTTG AATTAAAGAC
GATCTTAAAC AAATAGGAAA AAAACTAAAA GTAGAAAATG
GAAATAAAAT GTCAAAGCAT TTCTACCACT CAGAATTGAT
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
CTTATAACAT
G019uabh
GGTATGATTT
G028uaah
ATAGCCTCCT
G022uabh
TTGATTGATT
G023uabh
GAAATGCTTT
G006uaah
G019uabh
AGTCTTAATC
G028uaah
G022uabh
G023uabh
GTTTTTGCTT
G019uabh
AATGTTATTT
G023uabh
ACGTTAC
G019uabh
TCTTTAAAGC
AATACATTGC TGCTTAGAGT CAAAGCATGT ACTTAGAGTT
ATGTACTTAG AGTTGGTATG ATTTATCTTT TTGGTCTTCT
ACAAAATTTA GACTTTTACT CAACAAAAGT GATTGATTGA
GTCAAAGCAT TTCTACCACT CAGAATTGAT CTTATAACAT
GAAATGCTTT TTAAAAGAAA ATATTAAAGT TAAACTCCCC
ATCTTTTTGG TCTTCTATAG CCTCCTTCCC CATCCCCATC
TCCCCATCCC ATCAGTCT
GATTGAT
TTAAAAGAAA ATATTAAAGT TAAACTCCCC TATTTTGCTC
AGTCTTGTTA CGTTATGACT AATCTTTGGG GATTGTGCAG
ATCTAAAATA CATTCTGCAC AATCCCCAAA GATTGATCAT
TAGATAAGCA AAACGAGCAA AATGGGGAGT TACTTATATT
The MEGA format converter "unravels" the interleaved data by extracting each line
beginning with the first name, then those beginning with the second name, and so on,
ultimately producing a corresponding file that looks like this:
#mega
Title: thisfile.msf
#G019uabh
ATACATCATA
GTCTTGCTTG
TCAACAAAAG
GACTTCATTC
AATACATTGC
ATCTTTTTGG
AGTCTTGTTA
TAGATAAGCA
ACACTACTTC
AATTAAAGAC
TGATTGATTG
TAGTCATTAT
TGCTTAGAGT
TCTTCTATAG
CGTTATGACT
AAACGAGCAA
CTACCCATAA
TTGTTTAAAC
ATTGATTGAT
AGCTGCTGGC
CAAAGCATGT
CCTCCTTCCC
AATCTTTGGG
AATGGGGAGT
GCTCCTTTTA
ACAAAAATTT
TGATTGATGG
AGTATAACTG
ACTTAGAGTT
CATCCCCATC
GATTGTGCAG
TACTTATATT
ACTTGTTAAA
AGAGTTTTAC
TTTACAGTAG
GCCAGCCTTT
GGTATGATTT
AGTCTTAATC
AATGTTATTT
TCTTTAAAGC
#G028uaah
CATAAGCTCC
TAAACACAAA
TGATTGATTG
TGGCAGTATA
ATGTACTTAG
TCCCCATCCC
TTTTAACTTG
ATTTAGACTT
ATGGTTTACA
ACTGGCCAGC
AGTTGGTATG
ATCAGTCT
TTAAAGTCTT
TTACTCAACA
GTAGGACTTC
CTTTAATACA
ATTTATCTTT
GCTTGAATTA
AAAGTGATTG
ATTCTAGTCA
TTGCTGCTTA
TTGGTCTTCT
AAGACTTGTT
ATTGATTGAT
TTATAGCTGC
GAGTCAAAGC
ATAGCCTCCT
#G022uabh
TATTTTAGAG ACCCAAGTTT TTGACCTTTT CCATGTTTAC ATCAATCCTG
TAGGTGATTG GGCAGCCATT TAAGTATTAT TATAGACATT TTCACTATCC
71
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
CATTAAAACC CTTTATGCCC ATACATCATA ACACTACTTC CTACCCATAA
GCTCCTTTTA ACTTGTTAAA GTCTTGCTTG AATTAAAGAC TTGTTTAAAC
ACAAAATTTA GACTTTTACT CAACAAAAGT GATTGATTGA TTGATTGATT
GATTGAT
#G023uabh
AATAAATACC
ACTGTTTTCT
AGATGTCATG
GATCTTAAAC
GTCAAAGCAT
TTAAAAGAAA
ATCTAAAATA
AAAAAAATAG
ATGTGAAAAT
CTTTTTATCA
AAATAGGAAA
TTCTACCACT
ATATTAAAGT
CATTCTGCAC
TATATCTACA
TAACCTAAAA
GTTGAGGAGT
AAAACTAAAA
CAGAATTGAT
TAAACTCCCC
AATCCCCAAA
TAGAATTTCA
ATATGCTTTG
TCAGCTTAAT
GTAGAAAATG
CTTATAACAT
TATTTTGCTC
GATTGATCAT
CATAAAATAA
CTTATGTTTA
AATCCTCTAC
GAAATAAAAT
GAAATGCTTT
GTTTTTGCTT
ACGTTAC
#G006uaah
ACATAAAATA
CTTATGTTTA
AATCCTCTAA
GAAATAAAAT
GAAATGCTTT
AACTGTTTTC
AGATGTCATG
GATCTTAAAC
GTCAAAGCAT
TTAAAAGAAA
TATGTGAAAA
CTTTTTATCA
AAATAGGAAA
TTCTACCACT
ATATTAAAGT
TTAACCTANN
GTTGAGGAGT
AAAACTAAAA
CAGAATTGAT
TAAACTCCCC
ATATGCTTTG
TCAGCTTAAT
GTAGAAAATG
CTTATAACAT
Converting NBRF Format
NBRF files consist of one or more groups of non-blank lines separated by one or more
blank lines; the non-blank lines look similar to this:
>P1;Chloroflex
Chloroflex 428 bases
MSKEHVQTIA TDDVSKNGHT
NPTIGGVMVM GHRGTAKSTA
DQCRALEQQS GKTKKPAVIN
VQAFAPGLLA RANRGFLYID
VRHPARFVLV GSGNPEEGDL
REYDADPFAF VEKWAKETQK
KLEVDGHRGE LTLARA-ATA
PLETQD---- ---DAVRIER
---------- ----------
PPTNASTPPY
VRALAAMLPP
IPVPVVDLPL
EVNLLEDHLV
RPQLLDRFGL
LQRKIKQAQR
LAALEGRNEV
AVEEVLVP---------*
PFVAIVGQAE
IKAVAGCPYS
GATEDRVCGT
DVLLDVAASG
HARITTITDV
RLPEVILPDP
TVQDVRRIAV
----------
LKLALLLCVV
CAPDRTAGLC
LDIERALTQG
VNVVEREGVS
SERVEIVKRR
VLYKIAELCV
LALRHRLRKD
----------
Each group begins with a line starting with a greater-than symbol (‘>’). This line is
ignored. The first word in the following line (e.g., Chloroflex above) is treated as the
name of the sequence; the rest of that line is ignored Subsequent lines are taken as the
sequence. This example would be converted to the MEGA file format as follows:
#mega
!Title: filename
#Chloroflex
MSKEHVQTIA TDDVSKNGHT PPTNASTPPY PFVAIVGQAE LKLALLLCVV
NPTIGGVMVM GHRGTAKSTA VRALAAMLPP IKAVAGCPYS CAPDRTAGLC
72
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
DQCRALEQQS
VQAFAPGLLA
VRHPARFVLV
REYDADPFAF
KLEVDGHRGE
PLETQD----
GKTKKPAVIN
RANRGFLYID
GSGNPEEGDL
VEKWAKETQK
LTLARA-ATA
---DAVRIER
IPVPVVDLPL
EVNLLEDHLV
RPQLLDRFGL
LQRKIKQAQR
LAALEGRNEV
AVEEVLVP--
GATEDRVCGT
DVLLDVAASG
HARITTITDV
RLPEVILPDP
TVQDVRRIAV
----------
LDIERALTQG
VNVVEREGVS
SERVEIVKRR
VLYKIAELCV
LALRHRLRKD
----------
---------- ---------- -------Converting Nexus Format
The NEXUS file format has a header with lines identifying the name of each of the
sequences in the file, followed by lines that begin with the sequence name and some
data. An example of part of an input file is:
#NEXUS
BEGIN DATA;
DIMENSIONS NTAX=17 NCHAR=428;
FORMAT DATATYPE=PROTEIN INTERLEAVE MISSING=-;
[Name: Chloroflex
Len:
428 Check:
0]
[Name: Rcapsulatu
Len:
428 Check:
0]
MATRIX
Chloroflex MSKEHVQTIATDDVSKNGHT PPTNASTPPYPFVAIVGQAE
Rcapsulatu ---------MTTAVARLQPS ASGAKTRPVFPFSAIVGQED
Chloroflex DQCRALEQQSGKTKKPAVIN IPVPVVDLPLGATEDRVCGT
Rcapsulatu DWATVLS-----TN---VIR KPTPVVDLPLGVSEDRVVGA
The MEGA conversion function looks for all the lines starting with the "[Name:" flag and
takes the following word as a sequence name. The conversion function then scans
through the data looking for all lines starting with each of the identified names and
places them on the output. This appears as follows:
#mega
Title: infile.nexus
#Chloroflex
MSKEHVQTIATDDVSKNGHT PPTNASTPPYPFVAIVGQAE
DQCRALEQQSGKTKKPAVIN IPVPVVDLPLGATEDRVCGT
#Rcapsulatu
---------MTTAVARLQPS ASGAKTRPVFPFSAIVGQED
DWATVLS-----TN---VIR KPTPVVDLPLGVSEDRVVGA
Converting PHYLIP (interleaved) Format
The PHYLIP format is interleaved, similar to the MSF format. It consists of a line of
numeric data, which is ignored by MEGA, followed by a group of one or more lines of
text. The text begins with a sequence name in the first column and is followed by the
initial part of each sequence; the group is terminated by a blank line. The number of
lines in subsequent groups of data is similar to the first group. Each line is a
73
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
continuation of the identified sequence and begins in the same position as in the first
group. The following might be observed at the beginning of a PHYLIP data file:
2 2000 I
G019uabh
ACTTGTTAAA
G028uaah
AAGACTTGTT
ATACATCATA ACACTACTTC CTACCCATAA GCTCCTTTTA
CATAAGCTCC TTTTAACTTG TTAAAGTCTT GCTTGAATTA
GTCTTGCTTG AATTAAAGAC TTGTTTAAAC ACAAAAATTT
AGAGTTTTAC
TAAACACAAA ATTTAGACTT TTACTCAACA AAAGTGATTG
ATTGATTGAT
TCAACAAAAG TGATTGATTG ATTGATTGAT TGATTGATGG
TTTACAGTAG
TGATTGATTG ATGGTTTACA GTAGGACTTC ATTCTAGTCA
TTATAGCTGC
MEGA would convert this data as follows:
#mega
Title: cap-data.phylip
#G019uabh
ATACATCATA
GTCTTGCTTG
TCAACAAAAG
#G028uaah
CATAAGCTCC
TAAACACAAA
TGATTGATTG
ACACTACTTC CTACCCATAA GCTCCTTTTA ACTTGTTAAA
AATTAAAGAC TTGTTTAAAC ACAAAAATTT AGAGTTTTAC
TGATTGATTG ATTGATTGAT TGATTGATGG TTTACAGTAG
TTTTAACTTG TTAAAGTCTT GCTTGAATTA AAGACTTGTT
ATTTAGACTT TTACTCAACA AAAGTGATTG ATTGATTGAT
ATGGTTTACA GTAGGACTTC ATTCTAGTCA TTATAGCTGC
Converting PHYLIP (Non-interleaved) Format
Converting PHYLIP non-interleaved format
While otherwise similar to the PHYLIP interleaved format, this format is not interleaved.
For example:
0 0 I
G019uabh
ACTTGTTAAA
ATACATCATA ACACTACTTC CTACCCATAA GCTCCTTTTA
GTCTTGCTTG AATTAAAGAC TTGTTTAAAC ACAAAAATTT
AGAGTTTTAC
TCAACAAAAG TGATTGATTG ATTGATTGAT TGATTGATGG
TTTACAGTAG
GACTTCATTC TAGTCATTAT AGCTGCTGGC AGTATAACTG
GCCAGCCTTT
AATACATTGC TGCTTAGAGT CAAAGCATGT ACTTAGAGTT
74
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
G028uaah
AAGACTTGTT
CATAAGCTCC TTTTAACTTG TTAAAGTCTT GCTTGAATTA
TAAACACAAA ATTTAGACTT TTACTCAACA AAAGTGATTG
ATTGATTGAT
TGATTGATTG ATGGTTTACA GTAGGACTTC ATTCTAGTCA
TTATAGCTGC
TGGCAGTATA ACTGGCCAGC CTTTAATACA TTGCTGCTTA
GAGTCAAAGC
ATGTACTTAG AGTTGGTATG ATTTATCTTT TTGGTCTTCT
This file would be converted to MEGA format as follows:
#mega
Title: infile.phylip2
#G019uabh
ATACATCATA
GTCTTGCTTG
TCAACAAAAG
GACTTCATTC
AATACATTGC
ACACTACTTC
AATTAAAGAC
TGATTGATTG
TAGTCATTAT
TGCTTAGAGT
CTACCCATAA
TTGTTTAAAC
ATTGATTGAT
AGCTGCTGGC
CAAAGCATGT
GCTCCTTTTA
ACAAAAATTT
TGATTGATGG
AGTATAACTG
ACTTAGAGTT
ACTTGTTAAA
AGAGTTTTAC
TTTACAGTAG
GCCAGCCTTT
#G028uaah
CATAAGCTCC
TAAACACAAA
TGATTGATTG
TGGCAGTATA
ATGTACTTAG
TTTTAACTTG
ATTTAGACTT
ATGGTTTACA
ACTGGCCAGC
AGTTGGTATG
TTAAAGTCTT
TTACTCAACA
GTAGGACTTC
CTTTAATACA
ATTTATCTTT
GCTTGAATTA
AAAGTGATTG
ATTCTAGTCA
TTGCTGCTTA
TTGGTCTTCT
AAGACTTGTT
ATTGATTGAT
TTATAGCTGC
GAGTCAAAGC
Converting PIR Format
These files consist of groups of non-blank lines that look similar to this:
ENTRY
TITLE
SEQUENCE
G006uaah
G019uabh 400 bp 240 bases
5
10
15
20
25
30
1 A C A T A A A A T A A A C T G T T T T C T A T G T G A A A
A
31 T T A A C C T A N N A T A T G C T T T G C T T A T G T T T
A
61 A G A T G T C A T G C T T T T T A T C A G T T G A G G A G
T
91 T C A G C T T A A T A A T C C T C T A A G A T C T T A A A
C
121 A A A T A G G A A A A A A A C T A A A A G T A G A A A A T
G
151 G A A A T A A A A T G T C A A A G C A T T T C T A C C A C
T
75
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
181 C A G A A T T G A T C T T A T A A C A T G A A A T G C T T
T
211 T T A A A A G A A A A T A T T A A A G T T A A A C T C C C
C
The MEGA format converter looks for the "ENTRY" tag and treats the following string as
the sequence name, e.g., G006uaah above. The remaining lines have their digits and
spaces removed; any non-sequence characters also are deleted. MEGA would convert
the above sequence as follows:
#mega
Title: filename.pir
#G006uaah
ACATAAAATAAACTGTTTTCTATGTGAAAA
TTAACCTANNATATGCTTTGCTTATGTTTA
AGATGTCATGCTTTTTATCAGTTGAGGAGT
TCAGCTTAATAATCCTCTAAGATCTTAAAC
AAATAGGAAAAAAACTAAAAGTAGAAAATG
GAAATAAAATGTCAAAGCATTTCTACCACT
CAGAATTGATCTTATAACATGAAATGCTTT
TTAAAAGAAAATATTAAAGTTAAACTCCCC
Converting XML format
These files consist of a group of XML tags and attribute values. A DOCTYPE header
may or may not be present. The MEGA input converter for XML file formats does not
implement a full parser; it only looks for a few specific tags that might be present. For
example, an XML file might contain the following data:
<Bioseq-set>
<Bioseq>
<name>G019uabh</name>
<length>240</length>
<mol>DNA</mol>
<cksum>302C447C</cksum>
<seqdata>ATACATCATAACACTACTTCCTACCCATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAAGTCTTGCTTG
AATT
AAAGACTTGTTTAAACACAAAAATTTAGAGTTTTACTCAACAAAAGTGATTGATTGATTGATTGA
TTGATTGATGGTT
TACAGTAGGACTTCATTCTAGTCATTATAGCTGCTGGCAGTATAACTGGCCAGCCTTTAATACAT
TGCTGCTTAGAGT
CAAAGCATGTACTTAGAGTT</seq-data>
</Bioseq>
</Bioseq-set>
The MEGA format converter looks for the following two tags:
76
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
<name>G019uabh</name>
<seq-data>ATACATCATAACACTAC. . .</seq-data>
If it finds these tags, it uses the text between the <name>. . .</name> tags as the
sequence name, and the text between the <seq-data>. . .</seq-data> tags as
the sequence data corresponding to that name. The conversion of the above XML block
into MEGA format would look like this:
#Mega
Title: filename.xml
#G019uabh
ATACATCATAACACTACTTCCTACCCATAAGCTCCTTTTAACTTGTTAAAGTCTTGCTTGAATT
AAAGACTTGTTTAAACACAAAAATTTAGAGTTTTACTCAACAAAAGTGATTGATTGATTGATTGA
TTGATTGATGGTT
TACAGTAGGACTTCATTCTAGTCATTATAGCTGCTGGCAGTATAACTGGCCAGCCTTTAATACAT
TGCTGCTTAGAGT
5.3 Genetic Code Tables
5.3.1 Built-in Genetic Codes
MEGA contains four commonly used genetic code tables: (1) Standard, (2) Vertebrate
mitochondrial, (3) Drosophila mitochondrial, and (4) Yeast mitochondrial. They can be
used as templates to create additional genetic code tables using the Genetic Code
Selector. Genetic codes for these four built-in tables in one letter code are given below.
Codon
UUU
UUC
UUA
UUG
UCU
UCC
UCA
UCG
UAU
UAC
UAA
UAG
UGU
UGC
UGA
UGG
CUU
CUC
1
F
F
L
L
S
S
S
S
Y
Y
*
*
C
C
*
W
L
L
Code Table
2
3
4
F
F
F
F
F
F
L
L
L
L
L
L
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
*
*
*
*
*
*
C
C
C
C
C
C
W
W
W
W
W
W
L
L
T
L
L
T
Codon
AUU
AUC
AUA
AUG
ACU
ACC
ACA
ACG
AAU
AAC
AAA
AAG
AGU
AGC
AGA
AGG
GUU
GUC
1
I
I
I
M
T
T
T
T
N
N
K
K
S
S
R
R
V
V
Code Table
2
3
I
I
I
I
M
M
M
M
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
N
N
N
N
K
K
K
K
S
S
S
S
*
S
*
S
V
V
V
V
4
I
I
I
M
T
T
T
T
N
N
K
K
S
S
R
R
V
V
77
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
CUA
CUG
CCU
CCC
CCA
CCG
CAU
CAC
CAA
CAG
CGU
CGC
CGA
CGG
L
L
P
P
P
P
H
H
Q
Q
R
R
R
R
L
L
P
P
P
P
H
H
Q
Q
R
R
R
R
L
L
P
P
P
P
H
H
Q
Q
R
R
R
R
T
T
P
P
P
P
H
H
Q
Q
R
R
R
R
GUA
GUG
GCU
GCC
GCA
GCG
GAU
GAC
GAA
GAG
GGU
GGC
GGA
GGG
V
V
A
A
A
A
D
D
E
E
G
G
G
G
V
V
A
A
A
A
D
D
E
E
G
G
G
G
V
V
A
A
A
A
D
D
E
E
G
G
G
G
V
V
A
A
A
A
D
D
E
E
G
G
G
G
5.3.2 Adding/Modifying Genetic Code Tables
You may add new genetic code tables and/or edit existing code tables in the Genetic
Code Selector. All changes made will be remembered by MEGA for all future analyses.
5.3.3 Computing Statistical Attributes (Genetic Code)
There is a significant amount of redundancy in the genetic code because most amino
acids are encoded by multiple codons. Therefore, it is interesting to know the
degeneracy of each codon position in all codons. In MEGA this information can be
computed for any code table in the Genetic Code Selector. In addition to the degeneracy
of the codon positions, MEGA writes the number of synonymous sites and the number of
non-synonymous sites for each codon using the Nei and Gojobori (1986) method. An
example of the results obtained for the standard genetic code is given below:
Code Table: Standard
Method: Nei-Gojobori (1986)
methodology
S = No. of synonymous
sites
N = No. of non-synonymous
sites
No. of Sites
Redundancy
Codon
for codon
Pos Pos Pos
S
N
1st 2nd 3rd
UUU (F) 0.333 2.667 0
0
2
UUC (F) 0.333 2.667 0
0
2
UUA (L) 0.667 2.333 2
0
2
UUG (L) 0.667 2.333 2
0
2
UCU (S)
1
2 0
0
4
UCC (S)
1
2 0
0
4
78
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
UCA (S)
1
2
UCG (S)
1
2
UAU (Y)
1
2
UAC (Y)
1
2
UAA (*)
0
3
UAG (*)
0
3
UGU (C)
0.5
2.5
UGC (C)
0.5
2.5
UGA (*)
0
3
UGG
0
3
(W)
CUU (L)
1
2
CUC (L)
1
2
CUA (L) 1.333 1.667
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
5.3.4 Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog
This dialog box has two sub-windows (Taxa/Groups and Ungrouped Taxa), a panel bar
between them containing a few buttons, and a command panel, with the lower part
containing the Add, Delete, Close, and Help buttons.
Taxa/Groups sub-window on the left: It shows all the currently defined taxa and group
names hierarchically. If a taxon has been assigned to a group, it will appear connected
to that group. Groups may be displayed in a collapsed format (indicated by a + mark
before their name). You can click '+' to expand the group to a listing of the taxa
contained in it, and click ‘–‘ to collapse the group to only view the group name. Groups
that do not contain any members do not have this box. Next is a checkbox indicating
whether a given group or taxon will be included in an analysis. Following that is an icon
indicating a taxon (single box) or a group (layer of boxes). Grayed out check boxes are
used to indicate that some of the taxa in a group are selected and others are unselected.
You can rearrange the order of taxa and groups using drag-and-drop. However, note
that this order is not automatically used in the Data Explorer. To enforce this order, use
the Sort command in the Data Explorer.
Ungrouped Taxa Sub-window on the right: This shows the names of all the taxa that do
not belong to any of the groups to facilitate your ability to move taxa into groups. If this
sub-window does not appear on your screen, then hold and drag the lower right corner
of the dialog box to expand its width to unhide it.
Middle Command Panel: This resides between the above-mentioned two sub-windows
and contains a splitter on its right edge. You can grab the splitter and move it to change
the proportion of the space taken by the two sub-windows. In this panel left and right
arrow buttons are used to add or remove taxa from the groups. Clicking the hand-witha-pencil icon with a highlighted taxon or group name will allow you to edit that name.
Lower Command Panel: In the lower part of the Select/Edit Taxa/Groups window are
buttons that are used to add and/or delete groups. The ‘+’ and ‘–‘ buttons are also
79
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
present on the middle command panel.
Buttons
Description
Add
Creates a new group.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected group. Any taxa that were assigned to
the group will become freestanding.
Ungroup
Makes all the taxa in the selected group freestanding, but does not
remove the group from the list.
Close
Closes the dialog box.
Help
Brings up help regarding the dialog box.
How to perform functions:
Function
Description
Creating a new
group
Click on the Add button. Click on the highlighted name of the
group and type in a new name.
Deleting a group
Select the group and click the Delete button. Any taxa that
were assigned to this group will become freestanding.
Adding taxa to a
group
Drag-and-drop the taxon on the desired group or select one or
more taxa in the Ungrouped Taxa window and click on the left
arrow button on the middle command panel.
Removing a taxon
from a group
Click on the taxon and drag-and-drop it into a group (or outside
all groups). Or, select the taxon and click on the right arrow
button on the middle command panel.
Include/Exclude
taxa or groups
Click the checkbox next to the group or taxa name.
5.3.5 Select Genetic Code Table Dialog
This dialog selects the desired genetic code, and edits and displays the properties of the
genetic codes. At present only one genetic code can be selected in MEGA at any given
time; it is used for all coding regions in all sequences in the data set.
To select a genetic code, click in the square box to its left.
You can also highlight any genetic code by clicking on the text.
You can then use the following buttons found along the top of the dialog box:
Button
Add
Delete
Edit
80
Description
Creates a new genetic code table. A code table editor will be shown with
the genetic code of the currently highlighted code table loaded.
Removes the highlighted genetic code from the list. Note that the
standard genetic code cannot be deleted.
Modifies the highlighted genetic code or its name. The code table editor
will be invoked for editing the genetic code.
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
Displays the highlighted genetic code in a printable format.
View
Statistics
Displays the number of synonymous and non-synonymous sites for the
codons of the highlighted genetic code following the Nei-Gojobori (1986)
method. The degeneracy values for the first, second, and third codon
positions are displayed following Li et al. (1985).
5.4 Viewing and Exploring Input Data
5.4.1 Sequence Data Explorer
The Sequence Data Explorer shows the aligned sequence data. You can scroll
along the alignment using the scrollbar at the bottom right hand side of the
explorer window. The Sequence Data Explorer provides a number of useful
functionalities for exploring the statistical attributes of the data and also for
selecting data subsets.
This explorer consists of a number of regions as follows:
Menu Bar
Data menu
Display menu
Highlight menu
Statistics menu
Help: This item brings up the help file for the Sequence Data Explorer.
Tool Bar
The tool bar provides quick access to the following menu items:
General Utilities
•
•
: This brings up the Exporting Sequence Data dialog box, which
contains options to control how MEGA writes the output data.
•
Color: This brings up a color palette selection box with which you can
choose the color to be displayed in the highlighted sites.
•
: This brings up the dialog box for setting up and selecting domains
and genes.
•
: This brings up the dialog box for setting up, editing, and selecting
taxa and groups of taxa.
•
: This toggle replaces the nucleotide (amino acid) at a site with the
identical symbol (e.g. a dot) if the site contains the same nucleotide
(amino acid).
•
Highlighting Sites
•
C: If this button is pressed, then all constant sites will be highlighted.
A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar.
•
V: If this button is pressed, then all variable sites will be highlighted.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar.
•
Pi: If this button is pressed, then all parsimony-informative sites will
be highlighted. A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on
the status bar.
•
S: If this button is pressed, then all singleton sites will be highlighted.
A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar.
•
0: If this button is pressed, then sites will be highlighted only if they
are zero-fold degenerate sites in all sequences displayed. A count of
highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar. (This button is
available only if the dataset contains protein coding DNA sequences).
•
2: If this button is pressed, then sites will be highlighted only if they
are two-fold degenerate sites in all sequences displayed. A count of
highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar. (This button is
available only if the dataset contains protein coding DNA sequences).
•
4: If this button is pressed, then sites will be highlighted only if they
are four-fold degenerate sites in all sequences displayed. A count of
highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar. (This button is
available only if the dataset contains protein coding DNA sequences).
: This button provides the facility to translate
codons in the sequence data into amino acid sequences and back. All
protein-coding regions will be automatically identified and translated for
display. When the translated sequence is already displayed, then
issuing this command displays the original nucleotide sequences
(including all coding and non-coding regions). Depending on the data
displayed (translated or nucleotide), relevant menu options in the
Sequence Data Explorer become enabled. Note that the translated/untranslated status in this data explorer does not have any impact on the
options for analysis available in MEGA (e.g., Distances or Phylogeny
menus), as MEGA provides all possible options for your dataset at all
times.
The 2-Dimensional Data Grid
Fixed Row: This is the first row in the data grid. It is used to display the
nucleotides (or amino acids) in the first sequence when you have chosen
to show their identity using a special character. For protein coding
regions, it also clearly marks the first, second, and the third codon
positions.
Fixed Column: This is the first and the leftmost column in the data grid. It
is always visible, even when you are scrolling through sites. The column
contains the sequence names and an associated check box. You can
check or uncheck this box to include or exclude a sequence from analysis.
Also in this column, you can drag-and-drop sequences to sort them.
Rest of the Grid: Cells to the right of and below the first row contain the
nucleotides or amino acids of the input data. Note that all cells are drawn
•
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in light color if they contain data corresponding to unselected sequences
or genes or domains.
Status Bar
This section displays the location of the focused site and the total
sequence length. It also shows the site label, if any, and a count of the
highlighted sites.
Data Menu
This allows you to explore the active data set, and establish various data attributes, and
data subset options.
Data Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
This menu provides commands for working with selected data in the Sequence
Data Explorer
The commands in this menu are:
Write Data to File
Brings up the Exporting Sequence Data dialog
box.
Translate/Untranslate
Translates protein-coding nucleotide sequences
into protein sequences, and back to nucleotide
sequences.
Select Genetic Code
Table
Brings up the Select Genetic Code dialog box, in
which you can select, edit or add a genetic code
table.
Setup/Select Genes and Brings up the Sequence Data Organizer, in which
Domains
you can define and edit genes and domains.
Setup/Select Taxa and
Brings up the Select/Edit Taxa and Groups
Groups
dialog, in which you can edit taxa and define
groups of taxa.
Quit Data Viewer
Takes the user back to the main interface.
Translate/Un-translate (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Translate/Un-translate
This command is available only if the data contain protein-coding nucleotide
sequences. It automatically extracts all protein-coding domains for translation
and displays the corresponding protein sequence. If the translated sequence is
already displayed, then issuing this command displays the original nucleotide
sequences, including all coding and non-coding regions. Depending on the data
displayed (translated or nucleotide), relevant menu options in the Sequence Data
Explorer are enabled. However, translated and un-translated status does not
have any impact on the analytical options available in MEGA (e.g., Distances or
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Phylogeny menus), as MEGA provides all possible options for your dataset at all
times.
Select Genetic Code Table (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Select Genetic Code Table
Select Genetic Code Table, can be invoked from within the Data menu in
Sequence Data Explorer, and is also available in the main interface directly in the
Data Menu.
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups, can be invoked from within the Data menu in
Sequence Data Explorer, and is also available in the main interface directly in the
Data Menu.
Setup/Select Genes & Domains (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Setup/Select Genes & Domains
Setup/Select Genes & Domains, can be invoked from within the Data menu in
Sequence Data Explorer, and is also available in the main interface directly in the
Data Menu.
Export Data (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Export Data
The Exporting Sequence Data dialog box first displays an edit box for entering a
title for the sequence data being exported. The default name is the original name
of the data set, if there was one. Below the title is a space for entering a brief
description of the data set being exported.
Next is the option for determining the format of the data set being exported;
MEGA currently allows the user to export the data in MEGA, PAUP 3.0 and
PAUP 4.0 (Nexus, Interleaved in both cases), and PHYLIP 3.0 (Interleaved). tA
the end of each line, is "Writing site numbers." The three options available are to
not write any number, to write one for each site, or to write the site number of the
last site.
Other options in this dialog box include the number of sites per line, which codon
position(s) is to be used and whether non-coding regions should be included, and
whether the output is to be interleaved. For missing or ambiguous data and
alignment gaps, there are four options: include all such data, exclude all such
data, exclude or include sites with missing or ambiguous data only, and exclude
sites with alignment gaps only.
Quit Data Viewer
Data | Quit Data Viewer
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This command closes the Sequence Data Explorer, and takes the user back to
main interface.
Display Menu
Data Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
This menu provides commands for working with selected data in the Sequence
Data Explorer
The commands in this menu are:
Write Data to File
Brings up the Exporting Sequence Data dialog
box.
Translate/Untranslate
Translates protein-coding nucleotide
sequences into protein sequences, and back to
nucleotide sequences.
Select Genetic Code
Table
Brings up the Select Genetic Code dialog box,
in which you can select, edit or add a genetic
code table.
Setup/Select Genes and Brings up the Sequence Data Organizer, in
Domains
which you can define and edit genes and
domains.
Setup/Select Taxa and
Brings up the Select/Edit Taxa and Groups
Groups
dialog, in which you can edit taxa and define
groups of taxa.
Quit Data Viewer
Takes the user back to the main interface.
Restore Input Order
Display | Restore Input Order
Choosing this restores the order in Sequence Data Explorer to that in the input
text file.
Show Only Selected Sequences
Display | Show only Selected Sequences
The check boxes in the left column of the display grid can be used to select or
deselect sequences for analysis. Subsequent use of the "Show Only Selected
Sequences" option in the Display menu of Sequence Data Explorer hides all the
deselected sequences and displays only the selected ones.
Color Cells
Display | Color cells
This command colors individual cells in the two-dimensional display grid
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
according to the nucleotide or amino acid it contains. A list of default colors,
based on the biochemical properties of the residues, is given below. In a future
version, these colors will be customizable by the user.
For DNA sequences:
Symbo
l
Color
A
Yellow
G
Fuchsia
C
Olive
T
Green
U
Green
For amino acid sequences:
Symbo
Symbo
l
Color
l
A
Yellow
M
C
Olive
N
D
Aqua
P
E
Aqua
Q
F
Yellow
R
G
Fuchsi
S
a
H
Teal
T
I
Yellow
V
K
Red
W
L
Yellow
Y
Color
Yellow
Green
Blue
Green
Red
Green
Green
Yellow
Green
Lime
Use Identical Symbol
Display | Use Identical Symbol
Data that contain multiple aligned sequences may be easier to view if, when the
nucleotide (amino acid) is the same as that in the corresponding site in the first
sequence, the nucleotide (amino acid) is replaced by a dot. Choosing this option
again brings back the nucleotide (amino acid) single-letter codes.
Show Sequence Names
Display | Show Sequence Names
This option displays the full sequence names in Sequence Data Explorer
Show Group Names
Display | Show Group Names
This option displays the full group names in Sequence Data Explorer if the
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Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
sequences have been grouped in Select/Edit Taxa Groups
Change Font...
Display | Change Font…
This command brings up the Change Font dialog box, which allows you to
change the display font, including font type, style and size. Options to strikeout
or underline selected parts of the sequences are also available. There is also an
option for using different scripts, although the only option currently available is
"Western". Finally the "Sample" window displays the effects of your choices
Sort Sequences
Display | Sort Sequences
The sequences in the data set can be sorted based on several options:
sequence name, group name, group and sequence names, or as per the order in
the Select/Edit Taxa Groups dialog box.
Sort Sequences by Group Name
Display | Sort Sequences | By Group Name
Sequences that have been grouped in Select/Edit Taxa Groups can be sorted by
the alphabetical order of group names or numerical order of group ID numbers.
If the group names contain both a name and a number, the numerical order will
be nested within the alphabetical order.
Sort Sequences by Group and Sequence Names
Display | Sort Sequences | By Group and Sequence Names
Sequences that have been grouped in Select/Edit Taxa Groups can be sorted by
the alphabetical order of group names or the numerical order of group ID
numbers. If the group names contain both a name and a number, the numerical
order is nested within the alphabetical order. The sequences can be further
arranged by sorting the sequence names within the group names.
Sort Sequences As per Taxa/Group Organizer
Display | Sort Sequences | As per Taxa/Group Organizer
The sequence/group order seen in Select/Edit Taxa Groups is initially the same
as the order in the input text file. However, this order can be changed by
dragging-and-dropping. Choose this option if you wish to see the data in the
same order in the Sequence Data Explorer as in Select/Edit Taxa Groups.
Sort Sequences By Sequence Name
Display | Sort Sequences | By Sequence Name
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
The sequences are sorted by the alphabetical order of sequence names or the
numerical order of sequence ID numbers. If the sequence names contain both a
name and a number, then the sorting is done with the numerical order nested
within the alphabetical order.
Highlight Menu
Highlight Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
This menu can be used to highlight certain types of sites. The options are
constant sites, variable sites, parsimony-informative sites, singleton sites, 0-fold,
2-fold and 4-fold degenerate sites.
Highlight Conserved Sites
Highlight | Conserved Sites
Use this command to highlight constant sites
Highlight Variable Sites
Highlight | Variable Sites
Use this command to highlight variable sites sites.
Highlight Singleton Sites
Highlight | Singleton Sites
Use this command to highlight singleton sites.
Highlight Parsimony Informative Sites
Highlight | Parsim-Info Sites
Use this command to highlight parsimony-informative sites.
Highlight 0-fold Degenerate Sites
Highlight | 0-fold Degenerate Sites
Use this command to highlight 0-fold degenerate sites.
Highlight 2-fold Degenerate Sites
Highlight | 2-fold Degenerate Sites
Use this command to highlight 2-fold degenerate sites. The command is visible
only if the data consists of nucleotide sequences.
Highlight 4-fold Degenerate Sites
Highlight | 4-fold Degenerate Sites
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Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
Use this command to highlight 4-fold degenerate sites. The command is visible
only if the data consists of nucleotide sequences.
Statistics Menu
Statistics Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Various summary statistics of the sequences can be computed and displayed
using this menu. The commands are:
Nucleotide Composition.
Nucleotide Pair Frequencies.
Codon Usage.
Amino Acid Composition.
Use All Selected Sites.
Use only Highlighted Sites. Sites can be selected according to various
criteria (see Highlight Sites), and analysis can be performed only on the
chosen subset of sites.
Nucleotide Composition
Statistics | Nucleotide Composition
This command is visible only if the data consist of nucleotide sequences. MEGA
computes the base frequencies for each sequence as well as an overall average.
These will be displayed by domain in a Text Editor domain (if the domains have
been defined in Setup/Select Genes & Domains).
Nucleotide Pair Frequencies
Statistics | Nucleotide Pair Frequencies
This command is visible only if the data consists of nucleotide sequences. There
are two options available: one in which the nucleotide acid pairs are counted
bidirectionally site-by-site for the two sequences (giving rise to 16 different
nucleotide pairs), the other, in which the pairs are counted unidirectionally (10
nucleotide pairs). MEGA will compute the frequencies of these quantities for
each sequence as well as an overall average. They will be displayed in a Text
Editor domain by domain (if domains have been defined in Setup/Select Genes &
Domains).
Codon Usage
Statistics | Codon Usage
This command is visible only if the data contains protein-coding nucleotide
sequences. MEGA 4 computes the percent codon usage and the RCSU values
for each codon for all sequences included in the dataset. Results will be
displayed in a Text Editor domain (if domains have been defined in Setup/Select
Genes & Domains).
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Amino Acid Composition
Statistics | Amino acid Composition
This command is visible only if the data consists of amino acid sequences or if
the translated protein coding nucleotide sequences are displayed. MEGA will
compute the amino acid frequencies for each sequence as well as an overall
average, which will be displayed in a Text Editor domain (if domains have been
defined in Setup/Select Genes & Domains).
Use All Selected Sites
Statistics | Use All Selected Sites
Analysis is conducted on all sites in the sequences, irrespective of whether any
sites have been labeled or highlighted.
Use only Highlighted Sites
Statistics | Use only Highlighted Sites
Sites can be selected according to various criteria (see Highlight Sites), and
analyses will be performed only on the chosen subset of sites. All statistical
attributes will be based on these sites.
5.4.2 Distance Data Explorer
Distance Data Explorer
The Distance Data Explorer shows the pair-wise distance data. This explorer is
flexible and it provides useful functionalities for computing within group, among
group, and overall averages, as well as facilities for selecting data subsets.
This explorer consists of a number of regions as follows:
Menu Bar
File menu
Display menu
Average menu.
Help: This item brings up the help file.
Tool Bar
The tool bar provides quick access to a number of menu items.
General Utilities
•
•
90
•
: This icon brings up the Options dialog box to export the
distance matrix as a text file with options to control how MEGA writes
the output data.
•
: This button brings up the dialog box for setting up, editing, and
selecting taxa and groups of taxa.
Distance Display Precision
Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
•
: With each click of this button, the precision of the distance display
is decreased by one decimal place.
•
: With each click of this button, the precision of the distance display
is decreased by one decimal place.
Column Sizer: This is a slider that can be used to increase or
decrease the width of the columns that show the pair-wise distances.
The 2-Dimensional Data Grid
This grid displays the pair-wise distances between all the sequences in the data
in the form of a lower or upper triangular matrix. The names of the sequences
and groups are the row-headers; the column headers are numbered from 1 to m,
m being the number of sequences. There is a column sizer button for the rowheaders, so you can increase or decrease the column size to accommodate the
full name of the sequences and groups.
•
•
Fixed Row: This is the first row in the data grid that displays the column
number.
•
Fixed Column: This is the first and the leftmost column in the data grid and
contains taxa names. Even if you scroll past the initial screen this column
will always be visible. To include a taxon in the data set for analysis, check
the associated box. In this column, you also can drag-and-drop taxa names
to sort them in the desired manner.
Rest of the Grid: The cells to the right of the first column and below the first
row contain the nucleotides or amino acids of the input data. Note that all
cells containing data corresponding to unselected sequences or
genes/domains are drawn in a light color.
Status bar
The status bar shows the sequence pair corresponding to the position of the
cursor when the cursor is on any distance value in the display.
•
File Menu (in Distance Data Explorer)
The File menu consists of three commands:
•
Select & Edit Taxa/Groups: This brings up a dialog box to categorize the
taxa into groups.
•
Export/Print Distances: This brings up a dialog box for writing pair-wise
distances as a text file, with a choice of several formats.
•
Quit Viewer: This closes the Distance Data Explorer.
Display Menu (in Distance Data Explorer)
The Display menu consists of four main commands:
•
Show Only Selected Taxa: This is a toggle, showing a matrix of all or only
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
selected taxa.
•
Sort Taxa: This provides a submenu for sorting the order of taxa in one of
three ways: by input order, by taxon name or by group name.
•
Show Group Names: This is a toggle for displaying or hiding the group
name next to the name of each taxon, when available.
•
Change Font: This brings up the dialog box, which allows you to choose the
type and size of the font used to display the distance values.
Average Menu (in Distance Data Explorer)
This menu is used for the computation of average values using the selected taxa.
The following averaging options are available:
Overall: This computes and displays the overall average.
Within groups: This is enabled only if at least one group is defined. For each
group, an arithmetic average is computed for all valid pair-wise comparisons and
results are displayed in the Distance Matrix Explorer. All incalculable withingroup averages are shown with a red "n/c".
Between groups: This is enabled only if at least two groups of taxa are defined.
For each between group averages, an arithmetic average is computed for all
valid inter-group pair-wise comparisons and results are displayed in the Distance
Matrix Explorer. All incalculable within group averages are shown with a red
"n/c".
Net Between Groups: This computes net average distances between groups of
taxa and is enabled only if at least two groups of taxa with at least two taxa each
are defined. The net average distance between two groups is given by
dA = dXY – (dX - dY)/2
where, dXY is the average distance between groups X and Y, and dX and dY are
the mean within-group distances. All incalculable within group averages are
shown with a red "n/c".
Options dialog box
At the top of the options dialog box is an option for the output format (Publication
and MEGA) with the type of information that is output (distances) mentioned
beneath. Below this is the option for outputting the distance data as a lower left
triangular matrix or an upper right triangular matrix. On the right are options for
specifying the number of decimal places for the pair-wise distances in the output,
and the maximum number of distances per line in the matrix.
In addition there are three buttons, one to print or save the output, one to quit the
Options dialog box without exporting the data (Cancel), and the third to bring up
the help file (this file). The Print/Save button brings up the Distances Display
Box, where the distances are displayed as specified, with various options to edit,
print and save the output.
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Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
5.5 Text File Editor and Format Converter
MEGA includes a Text File Editor, which is useful for creating and editing ASCII
text files. It is invoked automatically by MEGA if the input data file processing
modules detect errors in the data file format. In this case, you should make
appropriate changes and save the data file.
The text editor is straightforward if you are familiar with programs like Notepad.
Click on the section you wish to change, type in the new text, or select text to cut,
copy or paste. Only the display font can be used in a document. You can have as
many different text editor windows open at one time and you may close them
independently. However, if you have a file open in the Text Editor, you should
save it and close the Text Editor window before trying to use that data file for
analysis in MEGA. Otherwise, MEGA may not have the most up-to-date version
of the data.
The Text File Editor and Format converter is a sophisticated tool with numerous
special capabilities that include:
•
Large files –The ability to operate on files of virtually unlimited size and
line lengths.
•
General purpose –Used to view/edit any ASCII text file.
•
Undo/ReDo –The availability of an unlimited depth of undo/redo options
•
Search/Replace –Searches for and does block replacements for
arbitrary strings.
•
Clipboard – Supports familiar clipboard cut, copy, and paste operations.
•
Normal and Column blocks – Supports regular contiguous line blocks
and columnar blocks. This is quite useful while manually aligning
sequences in the Text Editor.
•
Drag/Drop – Moves text with the familiar cut and paste operations or you
can select the text and then move it with the mouse.
•
Screenshots –Creates screen snapshots for teaching and
documentation purposes directly from the edit window.
•
Printing –Prints the contents of the edit file.
The Text Editor contains a menu bar, a toolbar, and a status bar.
The Menu bar
Description
Menu
File menu
The File Menu contains the functions that are most
commonly used to open, save, rename, print, and close
files. (Although there is no separate "rename" function
available, you can rename a file by choosing the Save
As… menu item and giving the file a different name
before you save it.)
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Edit menu
The Edit Menu contains functions that are commonly
used to manipulate blocks of text. Many of the edit menu
items interact with the Windows Clipboard, which is a
hidden window that allows various selections to be copied
and pasted across documents and applications.
Search menu
The Search Menu has several functions that allow you to
perform searches and replacements of text strings. You
can also jump directly to a specific line number in the file.
Display menu
The Display Menu contains functions that affect the visual
display of files in the edit windows.
Utilities menu
The Utilities Menu contains several functions that make
this editor especially useful for working with files
containing molecular sequence data (note that the MEGA
editor does not try to understand the contained data, it
simply operates on the text, assuming that the user
knows what (s)he is doing.
Toolbar
The Toolbar contains shortcuts to some frequently used menu commands.
Status Bar
The Status bar is positioned at the bottom of the editor window. It shows the
position of the cursor (line number and position in the line), whether the file has
been edited, and the status of some keyboard keys (CAPS, NUM, and SCROLL
lock).
Hotkeys and Shortcut keys
Many menu items have a hotkey and/or a shortcut key. These are special key
combinations that are helpful for people who are more comfortable using a
keyboard than the mouse. Hotkeys are identified by an underscore character in
the name of the menu item, e.g., "File", "New". These allow you to hold down the
Alt-key, which is usually found next to the space bar on the keyboard, then hit the
underlined letter to produce the same action as if you clicked that name with the
mouse. We show this using the notation <Alt>+key – e.g., the hotkey for the file
menu item is shown as <Alt>+F. Be sure that you depress both keys together,
holding the <Alt> key down a little bit longer than the letter key. (Some people try
hitting both keys simultaneously, as if they’re hitting two keys on a piano
keyboard. Quite often, this approach does not produce the desired results.)
For instance, you could create a new file by clicking the mouse on the "File"
menu item, then clicking on the "New" item beneath it. Using hotkeys, you could
type <Alt>+F followed by <Alt>+N. Or, more simply, while you’re holding down
the <Alt> key, hit the ‘F’ key followed by the ‘N’ key, then release the <Alt> key.
You might notice that several menu items, e.g., the New Item on the File
menu, show something to the right that looks like ‘Ctrl+N’. This is called a
Shortcut key sequence. Whereas executing a command with hotkeys often
requires several keystrokes, shortcut keys can do the same thing with just one
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Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
keystroke. Shortcut keys work the same as hotkeys, using the <Ctrl> key
instead of the <Alt> key. To create a new file, for example, you can hold down
the <Ctrl> key and hit the ‘N’ key, which is shown as <Ctrl>+N here. (In the
menus, this appears simply as ‘Ctrl+N’.)
Not all menu items have associated shortcut keys because there are only
26 shortcut keys, one for each letter of the alphabet. Hotkeys, in contrast, are
localized to each menu and submenu. For hotkeys to work, the menu item must
be visible whereas shortcut keys work at any time. For instance, if you are typing
data into a text file and want to create a note in a new window, you may simply
hit the shortcut key sequence, <Ctrl>+N to generate a new window. After you
type the note, you can hit <Ctrl>+S to save it, give it a file name, hit the enter key
[this part doesn’t make sense]; then you can hit the <Alt>+F+C hotkey sequence
to close the file (there is no shortcut key for closing a file).
Using Text Editor
File Menu
New (in Text Editor)
File | New
Use this command to create a new file in the Text Editor.
Open (in Text Editor)
File | Open
Use this command to open an existing file in the Text Editor.
Reopen (in Text Editor)
File | Reopen
Choose this command to reopen a recently closed text file from the mostrecently-used-files list. When you close a text file in the Text Editor, it is added to
the Reopen list.
Select All (in Text Editor)
Edit | Select All
This is used to select (highlight) everything in the displayed file.
Go to Line (in Text Editor)
Edit | Go to Line #
This opens a small dialog box that allows you to enter a number indicating the
line to which you want to move.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Show Line Numbers (in Text Editor)
Display | Show Line Numbers
This item can be checked (on) or un-checked (off) to show whether line numbers
are displayed next to the lines.
Word Wrap (in Text Editor)
Display | Word Wrap
This item can be checked (on) or un-checked (off) to show whether lines in the
edit window are automatically wrapped around based on the current window’s
width.
Save (in Text Editor)
File | Save
This allows you to save the file currently being edited.
Save As (in Text Editor)
File | Save As
This command brings up the Save As dialog box, which allows you to choose the
directory, the filename and extension, and the type of file you wish to save. To
make a file suitable for loading as data in MEGA, you should save the file in
MEGA format (it is a plain ASCII text file). If there is already another file with the
same name, it will be overwritten
Print (in Text Editor)
File | Print
This command will print the currently displayed file to the selected printer.
Close File (in Text Editor)
File | Close File
This closes the current file.
Exit Editor (in Text Editor)
File | Exit Editor
This closes the currently open file. If the file was modified, but the modifications
have not been saved, MEGA will ask whether to discard the changes. Note that
this command exits the Text Editor only, not MEGA.
Delete (in Text Editor)
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Part III: Input Data Types and File Format
Edit | Delete
This deletes the selected (highlighted) text. It is NOT copied to the clipboard.
Edit Menu
Cut (in Text Editor)
Edit | Cut
This command places a copy of the selected text on the Windows clipboard,
removing the original string. To paste the contents on the clipboard, use the
Paste command.
Copy (in Text Editor)
Edit | Copy
This places a copy of the selected text on the Windows clipboard, leaving the
original string untouched. To paste the contents on the clipboard, use the Paste
command.
Paste (in Text Editor)
Edit | Paste
This inserts the most recently copied text present on the Windows clipboard.
Undo (in Text Editor)
Edit | Undo
Choose this command to undo your most recent action. Repeated use of this
command will undo each action, starting with the most recent and going to the
oldest. It has unlimited depth.
Font (in Text Editor)
Display | Set Font
Choose this command to activate a dialog box with which you can change the
display font used by the Text Editor. Since an ASCII text file does not have a font
attribute, it simply contains the text in the file. Therefore the change in the font
only affects the display. The new font is remembered by MEGA as your preferred
display font for the Text Editor.
Search Menu
Find (in Text Editor)
Search | Find
Choose this command to display the Find Text dialog box.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Find Again (in Text Editor)
Search | Find Again
Choose this to repeat the last Find command.
Replace (in Text Editor)
Search | Replace
This brings up a Search and Replace dialog box, which allows you to replace a
text string in the file currently being edited.
5.6 Visual Tools for Data Management
5.6.1 Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog
This dialog box has two sub-windows (Taxa/Groups and Ungrouped Taxa), a panel bar
between them containing a few buttons, and a command panel, with the lower part
containing the Add, Delete, Close, and Help buttons.
Taxa/Groups sub-window on the left: It shows all the currently defined taxa and group
names hierarchically. If a taxon has been assigned to a group, it will appear connected
to that group. Groups may be displayed in a collapsed format (indicated by a + mark
before their name). You can click '+' to expand the group to a listing of the taxa
contained in it, and click ‘–‘ to collapse the group to only view the group name. Groups
that do not contain any members do not have this box. Next is a checkbox indicating
whether a given group or taxon will be included in an analysis. Following that is an icon
indicating a taxon (single box) or a group (layer of boxes). Grayed out check boxes are
used to indicate that some of the taxa in a group are selected and others are unselected.
You can rearrange the order of taxa and groups using drag-and-drop. However, note
that this order is not automatically used in the Data Explorer. To enforce this order, use
the Sort command in the Data Explorer.
Ungrouped Taxa Sub-window on the right: This shows the names of all the taxa that do
not belong to any of the groups to facilitate your ability to move taxa into groups. If this
sub-window does not appear on your screen, then hold and drag the lower right corner
of the dialog box to expand its width to unhide it.
Middle Command Panel: This resides between the above-mentioned two sub-windows
and contains a splitter on its right edge. You can grab the splitter and move it to change
the proportion of the space taken by the two sub-windows. In this panel left and right
arrow buttons are used to add or remove taxa from the groups. Clicking the hand-witha-pencil icon with a highlighted taxon or group name will allow you to edit that name.
Lower Command Panel: In the lower part of the Select/Edit Taxa/Groups window are
buttons that are used to add and/or delete groups. The ‘+’ and ‘–‘ buttons are also
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present on the middle command panel.
Buttons
Description
Add
Creates a new group.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected group. Any taxa that were assigned
to the group will become freestanding.
Ungroup
Makes all the taxa in the selected group freestanding, but does not
remove the group from the list.
Close
Closes the dialog box.
Help
Brings up help regarding the dialog box.
How to perform functions:
Function
Description
Creating a new
group
Click on the Add button. Click on the highlighted name of the
group and type in a new name.
Deleting a group
Select the group and click the Delete button. Any taxa that
were assigned to this group will become freestanding.
Adding taxa to a
group
Drag-and-drop the taxon on the desired group or select one
or more taxa in the Ungrouped Taxa window and click on
the left arrow button on the middle command panel.
Removing a taxon
from a group
Click on the taxon and drag-and-drop it into a group (or
outside all groups). Or, select the taxon and click on the
right arrow button on the middle command panel.
Include/Exclude
taxa or groups
Click the checkbox next to the group or taxa name.
5.6.2 Groups of taxa
A group of taxa is a set of one or more taxa. Members of a group can be
specified in the input data file, and created and edited in the Setup Taxa and
Groups dialog.
Groups of taxa often are constructed based on their evolutionary relatedness.
For example, sequences may be grouped based on the geographic origin of the
source individual, or sequences from a multi-gene family may be arranged into
groups consisting of orthologous sequences.
5.6.3 Data Subset Selection
Sequence Data Subset Selection
Any subset of sequence data can be selected for analysis using the options in
the Data menu. You may:
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
1. Select Taxa (sequences) or Groups of taxa through the Setup/Select Taxa &
Groups dialog box,
2. Choose Domains and Genes through the Setup/Select Genes & Domains
dialog box,
Items 1 and 2 lead to the construction of a primary data subset, which is
maintained until it is modified in the two dialog boxes mentioned in the above
items or in the Sequence Data Explorer.
3. Select any combination of Codon Positions to use through the Analysis
Preferences/Options dialog box from the Data | Select Preferences menu
item in the main interface.
4. Choose to include only the Labeled Sites through the Data | Select
Preferences menu item.
5. Decide to enforce Complete-Deletion or Pair-wise-Deletion of the missing
data and alignment gaps.
Items 3, 4, and 5 provide the second level of data subset options. You are given
relevant choices immediately prior to the start of the analysis. Therefore, these
choices are secondary in nature and are specific to the currently requested
analysis. The Analysis Preferences dialog box remembers them for your
convenience and provides them as a default the next time you conduct an
analysis that utilizes those options.
Distance Data Subset Selection
You may select Select Taxa (sequences) or Groups of taxa through the Setup/Select
Taxa & Groups dialog box to construct a distance matrix. You also can select
sequences in the Distance Data Explorer by clicking on the check marks next to the taxa
names.
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6 Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
6.1 Computing Basic Statistical Quantities for Sequence
Data
6.1.1 Basic Sequence Statistics
In the study of molecular evolution, it often is necessary to know some basic statistical
quantities, such as nucleotide frequencies, codon frequencies, and
transition/transversion ratios. The statistical quantities that can be computed by MEGA
are discussed in this section.
6.1.2 Nucleotide and Amino Acid Compositions
The relative frequencies of the four nucleotides (nucleotide composition) or of the 20
amino acid residues (amino acid composition) can be computed for one specific
sequence or for all sequences. For the coding regions of DNA, additional columns are
presented for the nucleotide compositions at the first, second, and third codon positions.
All results are presented domain-by-domain, if the dataset contains multiple domains.
Results for the amino acid composition are presented in a similar tabular form.
Nucleotide Pair Frequencies
Statistics | Nucleotide Pair Frequencies
This command is visible only if the data consists of nucleotide sequences. There
are two options available: one in which the nucleotide acid pairs are counted
bidirectionally site-by-site for the two sequences (giving rise to 16 different
nucleotide pairs), the other, in which the pairs are counted unidirectionally (10
nucleotide pairs). MEGA will compute the frequencies of these quantities for
each sequence as well as an overall average. They will be displayed in a Text
Editor domain by domain (if domains have been defined in Setup/Select Genes &
Domains).
Codon Usage
Statistics | Codon Usage
This command is visible only if the data contains protein-coding nucleotide
sequences. MEGA 4 computes the percent codon usage and the RCSU values
for each codon for all sequences included in the dataset. Results will be
displayed in a Text Editor domain (if domains have been defined in Setup/Select
Genes & Domains).
6.1.3 Pattern Menu
This menu provides access to the test for examining the substitution pattern
homogeneity between sequences (Kumar and Gadagkar 2001) and computing the two
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
statistics related to this test (pair-wise sequence composition distance and the disparity
index) (Kumar and Gadagkar 2001).
6.2 Computing Evolutionary Distances
6.2.1 Distance Models
Models for estimating distances
The evolutionary distance between a pair of sequences usually is measured by the
number of nucleotide (or amino acid) substitutions occurring between them. Evolutionary
distances are fundamental for the study of molecular evolution and are useful for
phylogenetic reconstructions and the estimation of divergence times. Most of the widely
used methods for distance estimation for nucleotide and amino acid sequences are
included in MEGA. In the following three sections, we present a brief discussion of these
methods: nucleotide substitutions, synonymous-non-synonymous substitutions, and
amino acid substitutions. Further details of these methods and general guidelines for the
use of these methods are given in Nei and Kumar (2000). Note that in addition to the
distance estimates, MEGA 4 also computes the standard errors of the estimates using
the analytical formulas and the bootstrap method.
Distance methods included in MEGA in divided in three categories (Nucleotide,
Syn-non-synonymous, and Amino acid):
Nucleotide
Sequences are compared nucleotide-by-nucleotide. These distances can be
computed for protein coding and non-coding nucleotide sequences.
No. of differences
p-distance
Jukes-Cantor Model
with Rate Uniformity Among Sites
with Rate Variation Among Sites
Tajima-Nei Model
with Rate Uniformity and Pattern Homogeneity
with Rate Variation Among Sites
with Pattern Heterogeneity Between Lineages
with Rate Variation and Pattern Heterogeneity Heterogeneity
Kimura 2-Parameter Model
with Same Rate Among Sites
with Rate Variation Among Sites)
Tamura 3-Parameter Model
with Rate Uniformily and Pattern Homogeneity
with Rate Variation Among Sites
with Pattern Heterogeneity Between Lineages
with Rate Variation and Pattern Heterogeneity
Tamura-Nei Model
With Rate Uniformity and Pattern Homogeneity
with Rate Variation Among Sites
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with Pattern Heterogeneity Between Lineages
with Rate Variation and Pattern Heterogeneity
Log-Det Method
with Pattern Heterogeneity Between Lineages
Maximum Composite Likelihood Model
with Rate Uniformity and Pattern Homogeneity
with Rate Variation Among Sites
with Pattern Heterogeneity Between Lineages
with Rate Variation and Pattern Heterogeneity
Syn-Non-synonymous
Sequences are compared codon-by-codon. These distances can only be computed for
protein-coding sequences or domains.
Nei-Gojobori Method
Modified Nei-Gojobori Method
Li-Wu-Luo Method
Pamilo-Bianchi-Li Method
Kumar Method
Amino Acid
Amino acid sequences are compared residue-by-residue. These distances can be
computed for protein sequences and protein-coding nucleotide sequences. In the latter
case, protein-coding nucleotide sequences are automatically translated using the
selected genetic code table.
No. of differences
p-distance
Poisson Model
with Rate Uniformily Among Sites
with Rate Variation Among Sites
Equal Input Model
with Rate Uniformity and Pattern Homogeneity
with Rate Variation Among Sites
with Pattern Heterogeneity Between Lineages
with Rate Variation and Pattern Heterogeneity
Dayhoff and JTT Models
with Rate Uniformity Among Sites
with Rate Variation Among Sites
Nucleotide Substitution Models
No. of differences (Nucleotide)
This distance is the number of sites at which the two compared sequences differ. If you
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
are using the pair-wise deletion option for handling gaps and missing data, it is important
to realize that this count does not normalize the number of differences based on the
number of valid sites compared, if the sequences contain alignment gaps. Therefore,
we recommend that if you use this distance you use the complete-deletion option.
For this distance, MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
d: Transitions + Transversions: Number of different nucleotide sites.
s: Transitions only: Number of nucleotide sites with transitional differences.
v: Transversions only: Number of nucleotide sites with transversional differences.
R = s/v: Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of compared sites.
Formulas for computing these quantities and their variances are as follows.
Var(d) =
Var(s) =
Var(v) =
R=
Var(R) =
where
and
P and Q are the proportion of sites showing transitional and transversional differences,
respectively.
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 33.
p-distance (Nucleotide)
This distance is the proportion (p) of nucleotide sites at which two sequences being
compared are different. It is obtained by dividing the number of nucleotide differences by
the total number of nucleotides compared. It does not make any correction for multiple
substitutions at the same site, substitution rate biases (for example, differences in the
transitional and transversional rates), or differences in evolutionary rates among sites.
MEGA provides facilities for computing following p-distances and related quantities:
d: Transitions + Transversions : Proportion of nucleotide sites that are different.
s: Transitions only : Proportion of nucleotide sites with transitional differences.
v: Transversions only : Proportion of nucleotide sites with transversional differences.
R = s/v : Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Quantity
Formula
Variance
,
,
s,
,
v,
,
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
R,
,
where
and
P and Q are the proportion of sites showing transitional and transversional differences,
respectively.
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 33.
Jukes-Cantor distance
In the Jukes and Cantor (1969) model, the rate of nucleotide substitution is the same for
all pairs of the four nucleotides A, T, C, and G. As is shown below, the multiple hit
correction equation for this model produces a maximum likelihood estimate of the
number of nucleotide substitutions between two sequences. It assumes an equality of
substitution rates among sites (see the related gamma distance), equal nucleotide
frequencies, and it does not correct for higher rate of transitional substitutions as
compared to transversional substitutions.
The Jukes-Cantor model
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
d: Transitions + Transversions : Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distance
where p is the proportion of sites with different nucleotides.
Variance
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 36.
Tajima-Nei distance
In real data, nucleotide frequencies often deviate substantially from 0.25. In this case the
Tajima-Nei distance (Tajima and Nei 1984) gives a better estimate of the number of
nucleotide substitutions than the Jukes-Cantor distance. Note that this assumes an
equality of substitution rates among sites and between transitional and transversional
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
substitutions.
The Felsenstein-Tajima-Nei model
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
d: Transitions + Transversions : Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distance
where p is the proportion of sites with different nucleotides and
where xij is the relative frequency of the nucleotide pair i and j, gi’s are the nucleotide
frequencies.
Variance
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 38.
Kimura 2-parameter distance
Kimura’s two parameter model (1980) corrects for multiple hits, taking into account
transitional and transversional substitution rates, while assuming that the four nucleotide
frequencies are the same and that rates of substitution do not vary among sites (see
related Gamma distance).
The Kimura 2-parameter model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Quantity
Description
d: Transitions +
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions per site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P and Q are the frequencies of sites with transitional and transversional
differences respectively, and
Variances
where
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 37.
Tamura 3-parameter distance
Tamura’s 3-parameter model corrects for multiple hits, taking into account differences in
transitional and transversional rates and G+C-content bias (1992). It assumes an
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
equality of substitution rates among sites.
The Tamura 3-parameter model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Description
Quantity
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per
site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per
site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions per
site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P and Q are the proportion of sites with transitional and transversional differences
respectively, and
Variances
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
where
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 39.
Tamura-Nei distance
The Tamura-Nei model (1993) corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the
differences in substitution rate between nucleotides and the inequality of nucleotide
frequencies. It distinguishes between transitional substitution rates between purines and
transversional substitution rates between pyrimidines. It also assumes equality of
substitution rates among sites (see related gamma model).
The Tamura-Nei model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
Description
Quantity
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions per site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
where P1 and P2 are the proportions of transitional differences between nucleotides A
and G, and between T and C, respectively, Q is the proportion of transversional
differences, gA, gC, gG, gT, are the respective frequencies of A, C, G and T, gR = gA + gG,
gY, = gT + gC, and
Variances
where
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 40.
Maximum Composite Likelihood Method
A composite likelihood is defined as a sum of related log-likelihoods. Since all pair-wise
distances in a distance matrix have correlations due to the phylogenetic relationships
among the sequences, the sum of their log-likelihoods is a composite likelihood. Tamura
et al. (2004) showed that pair-wise distances and the related substitution parameters are
accurately estimated by maximizing the composite likelihood. They also found that,
unlike the cases of ordinary independent estimation of each pair-wise distance, a
complicated model had virtually no disadvantage in the composite likelihood method for
phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, only the Tamura-Nei (1993) model is available for this
method in MEGA4 (see related Tamura-Nei distance). It assumes equality of substitution
pattern among lineages and of substitution rates among sites (see related gamma model
and heterogeneous patterns).
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Gamma Distances
Computing the Gamma Parameter (a)
In the computation of gamma distances, it is necessary to know the gamma parameter
(a). This parameter may be estimated from the dataset under consideration or you may
use the value obtained from previous studies. For estimating a, a substantial number of
sequences is necessary; if the number of sequences used is small, the estimate has a
downward bias (Zhang and Gu 1998). The current release of MEGA 4 does not contain
any programs for estimating a; however we plan to make them available in the future.
Therefore you need to use another program for estimating the a value. Some of the
frequently used programs that include this facility are PAUP* (Swofford 1998) for DNA
sequences, PAML and PAMP programs for DNA and protein sequences (Yang 1999),
and GAMMA programs from Gu and Zhang (1997).
Equal Input Model (Gamma)
In real data, amino acid frequencies usually vary among the different kinds of amino
acids and substitution rates are not uniform among sites. In this case, the correction
based on the equal input model gives a better estimate of the number of amino acid
substitutions than the Poisson correction distance. The rate variation among sites is
modeled using the Gamma distribution; for computing this distance you will need to
provide a gamma parameter (a).
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
Formulas used are:
Distance
where p is the proportion of different amino acid sites, a is the gamma parameter, gi is
the frequency of amino acid i, and
Variance
Jukes-Cantor Gamma distance
In the Jukes and Cantor (1969) model, the rate of nucleotide substitution is the same for
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
all pairs of the four nucleotides A, T, C, and G. The multiple hit correction equation for
this model, which is given below, produces a maximum likelihood estimate of the
number of nucleotide substitutions between two sequences, while relaxing the
assumption that all sites are evolving at the same rate. However, it assumes equal
nucleotide frequencies and does not correct for higher rate of transitional substitutions
as compared to transversional substitutions. If the rate variation among sites is modeled
using the Gamma distribution, you will need to provide a gamma parameter (a) for
computing this distance.
The Jukes-Cantor model
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following p-distances and related quantities:
d: Transitions + Transversions : Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distance
where p is the proportion of sites with different nucleotides and a is the gamma
parameter.
Variance
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 36 and estimating gamma parameter.
Kimura gamma distance
Kimura’s two-parameter gamma model corrects for multiple hits, taking into account
transitional and transversional substitution rates and differences in substitution rates
among sites. Evolutionary rates among sites are modeled using the Gamma
distribution, and you will need to provide a gamma parameter for computing this
distance.
The Kimura 2-parameter model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Quantity
Description
d: Transitions +
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions
per site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions
per site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional
substitutions per site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P and Q are the respective total frequencies of transition type pairs and
transversion type pairs, a is the gamma parameter, and
Variances
where
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 44 and estimating gamma parameter.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Tajima Nei distance (Gamma rates)
In real data, nucleotide frequencies often deviate substantially from 0.25. In this case the
Tajima-Nei distance (Tajima and Nei 1984) gives a better estimate of the number of
nucleotide substitutions than the Jukes-Cantor distance. Note that this assumes an
equality of substitution rates among sites and between transitional and transversional
substitutions. The rate variation among sites is modeled using the gamma distribution,
and you will need to provide a gamma parameter (a) for computing this distance.
The Felsenstein-Tajima-Nei model
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
d: Transitions + Transversions : Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distance
where p is the proportion of sites with different nucleotides, a is the gamma parameter,
and
where xij is the relative frequency of the nucleotide pair i and j, gi’s are the nucleotide
frequencies.
Variance
Tamura-Nei gamma distance
The Tamura-Nei (1993) distance with the gamma model corrects for multiple hits, taking
into account the different rates of substitution between nucleotides and the inequality of
nucleotide frequencies. In this distance, evolutionary rates among sites are modeled
using the gamma distribution. You will need to provide a gamma parameter for
computing this distance.
The Tamura-Nei model
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
Description
Quantity
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per
site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per
site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions
per site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P1 and P2 are the proportions of transitional differences between nucleotides A
and G, and between T and C, respectively, Q is the proportion of transversional
differences, gA, gC, gG, gT, are the respective frequencies of A, C, G and T, gR = gA + gG,
gY, = gT + gC, a is the gamma parameter and
Variances
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
where
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 45 and estimating gamma parameter.
Tamura 3-parameter (Gamma)
Tamura’s 3-parameter model corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the
differences in transitional and transversional rates and the G+C-content bias (1992).
Evolutionary rates among sites are modeled using the gamma distribution, and you will
need to provide a gamma parameter for computing this distance.
The Tamura 3-parameter model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Description
Quantity
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per
site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per
site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions per
site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P and Q are the proportion of sites with transitional and transversional
differences, respectively, a is the gamma parameter, and
Variances
where
Maximum Composite Likelihood (Gamma Rates)
The Tamura-Nei (1993) distance with the gamma model estimated by the composite
likelihood method (Tamura et al. 2004) corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the
different rates of substitution between nucleotides and the inequality of nucleotide
frequencies. In this distance, evolutionary rates among sites are modeled using the
gamma distribution. You will need to provide a gamma parameter for computing this
distance. See related Tamura-Nei gamma distance.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Heterogeneous Patterns
Tajima Nei Distance (Heterogeneous patterns)
In real data, nucleotide frequencies often deviate substantially from 0.25. In this case the
Tajima-Nei distance (Tajima and Nei 1984) gives a better estimate of the number of
nucleotide substitutions than the Jukes-Cantor distance. Note that this assumes an
equality of substitution rates among sites and between transitional and transversional
substitutions. When the nucleotide frequencies are different between the sequences, the
modified formula (Tamura and Kumar 2002) relaxes the assumption of substitution
pattern homogeneity.
The Felsenstein-Tajima-Nei model
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
d: Transitions + Transversions : Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distance
where p is the proportion of sites with different nucleotides and
where xij is the relative frequency of the nucleotide pair i and j, gi’s are the nucleotide
frequencies.
Variance can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Tamura 3 parameter (Heterogeneous patterns)
Tamura’s 3-parameter model corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the
differences in transitional and transversional rates and the G+C-content bias (1992). It
assumes an equality of substitution rates among sites. When the G+C-contents are
different between the sequences, the modified formula (Tamura and Kumar 2002)
relaxes the assumption of substitution pattern homogeneity.
The Tamura 3-parameter model
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Description
Quantity
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per
site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per
site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions per
site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P and Q are the proportion of sites with transitional and transversional
differences, respectively, and
The variances can be estimated by the bootstrap method. .
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Tamura-Nei distance (Heterogeneous Patterns)
The Tamura-Nei model (1993) corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the
substitution rate differences between nucleotides and the inequality of nucleotide
frequencies. It distinguishes between transitional substitution rates between purines and
transversional substitution rates between pyrimidines. It assumes an equality of
substitution rates among sites (see related gamma model). When nucleotide frequencies
are different between the sequences, the modified formula (Tamura and Kumar 2002)
relaxes the assumption of substitution pattern homogeneity.
The Tamura-Nei model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
Description
Quantity
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per
site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per
site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions
per site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P1 and P2 are the proportions of transitional differences between nucleotides A
and G, and between T and C, respectively, Q is the proportion of transversional
differences, gXA, gXC, gXG, gXT, are the respective frequencies of A, C, G and T of
sequence X, gXR = gXA + gXG and gXY = gXT + gXC, gA, gC, gG, gT, gR, and gY are the
average frequencies of the pair of sequences, and
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The variances can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Maximum Composite Likelihood (Heterogeneous Patterns)
The Tamura-Nei distance (1993) estimated by the composite likelihood method (Tamura
et al. 2004) corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the substitution rate differences
between nucleotides and the inequality of nucleotide frequencies. When the nucleotide
frequencies between the sequences are different, the expected proportions of observed
differences (P1, P2, and Q) in the computation of the composite likelihood can be
obtained by the modified formulas according to Tamura and Kumar (2002) to relax the
assumption of the substitution pattern homogeneity. See related Tamura-Nei distance
(Heterogeneous Patterns).
Gamma Rates
Equal Input Model (Gamma rates and Heterogeneous Patterns)
In real data, amino acid frequencies usually vary among different kind of amino acids.
Therefore, the correction based on the equal input model gives a better estimate of the
number of amino acid substitutions than the Poisson correction distance. If you are
computing the rate variation among sites using the Gamma distribution, you will need to
provide a gamma parameter (a). When the amino acid frequencies are different between
the sequences, the modified formula (Tamura and Kumar 2002) relaxes the estimation
bias.
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
Formulas used are:
Distance
where p is the proportion of different amino acid sites, a is the gamma parameter, gXi is
the frequency of amino acid i for sequence X, gi is the average frequency for the pair of
the sequences, and
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
The variance of d can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Tajima Nei Distance (Gamma Rates and Heterogeneous patterns)
In real data, nucleotide frequencies often deviate substantially from 0.25. In this case the
Tajima-Nei distance (Tajima and Nei 1984) gives a better estimate of the number of
nucleotide substitutions than the Jukes-Cantor distance. Note that this assumes an
equality of substitution rates among sites and between transitional and transversional
substitutions. The rate variation among sites is modeled using the gamma distribution,
and you will need to provide a gamma parameter (a) for computing this distance. When
the nucleotide frequencies are different between the sequences, the modified formula
(Tamura and Kumar 2002) relaxes the assumption of substitution pattern homogeneity.
The Felsenstein-Tajima-Nei model
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
d: Transitions + Transversions : Number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
L: No of valid common sites: Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distance
where p is the proportion of sites with different nucleotides, a is the gamma parameter,
and
where xij is the relative frequency of the nucleotide pair i and j, gi’s are the nucleotide
frequencies.
Variance can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Tamura-Nei distance (Gamma rates and Heterogeneous patterns)
The Tamura-Nei (1993) distance with the gamma model corrects for multiple hits, taking
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
into account the rate substitution differences between nucleotides and the inequality of
nucleotide frequencies. In this distance, evolutionary rates among sites are modeled
using the gamma distribution. You will need to provide a gamma parameter for
computing this distance. When the nucleotide frequencies between the sequences are
different, the modified formula (Tamura and Kumar 2002) relaxes the assumption of the
substitution pattern homogeneity.
The Tamura-Nei model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities for this method:
Quantity
Description
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per
site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per
site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions
per site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversions ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
The formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
where P1 and P2 are the proportions of transitional differences between nucleotides A
and G, and between T and C, respectively, Q is the proportion of transversional
differences, gXA, gXC, gXG, gXT, are the respective frequencies of A, C, G and T of
sequence X, gXR = gXA + gXG and gXY = gXT + gXC, gA, gC, gG, gT, gR, and gY are the
average frequencies of the pair of sequences, a is the gamma parameter and
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
The variances can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Tamura 3 parameter (Gamma rates and Heterogeneous patterns)
Tamura’s 3-parameter model corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the
differences in transitional and transversional rates and the G+C-content bias (1992).
Evolutionary rates among sites are modeled using the gamma distribution, and you will
need to provide a gamma parameter for computing this distance. When the G+Ccontents between the sequences are different, the modified formula (Tamura and Kumar
2002) relaxes the assumption of substitution pattern homogeneity.
The Tamura 3-parameter model
MEGA 4 provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Description
Quantity
d: Transitions &
Transversions
Number of nucleotide substitutions per
site.
s: Transitions only
Number of transitional substitutions per
site.
v: Transversions only
Number of transversional substitutions per
site.
R = s/v
Transition/transversion ratio.
L: No of valid common
sites
Number of sites compared.
Formulas for computing these quantities are as follows:
Distances
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
where P and Q are the proportion of sites with transitional and transversional
differences, respectively, a is the gamma parameter, and
The variances can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Maximum Composite Likelihood (Gamma Rates and Heterogeneous Patterns)
The Tamura-Nei (1993) distance estimated by the composite likelihood method (Tamura
et al. 2004) with the gamma model corrects for multiple hits, taking into account the rate
substitution differences between nucleotides and the inequality of nucleotide
frequencies. In this distance, evolutionary rates among sites are modeled using the
gamma distribution. You will need to provide a gamma parameter for computing this
distance. When the nucleotide frequencies between the sequences are different, the
expected proportions of observed differences (P1, P2, and Q) in the computation of the
composite likelihood can be obtained by the modified formulas according to Tamura and
Kumar (2002) to relax the assumption of the substitution pattern homogeneity.
Amino Acid Substitution Models
No. of differences (Amino acids)
This distance is the number of sites at which two sequences being compared are
different. If the sequences contain alignment gaps or missing data and you are using
the pair-wise deletion option, you must realize that this count does not normalize the
number of differences based on the number of valid sites compared. Therefore, if you
use this distance, we recommend that you use the complete-deletion option.
MEGA computes the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of sites
different.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites
sites
compared.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
The formulas used are:
Quantity Formula
None
Variance
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 18.
p-distance (Amino acids)
This distance is the proportion (p) of amino acid sites at which the two sequences to be
compared are different. It is obtained by dividing the number of amino acid differences
by the total number of sites compared. It does not make any correction for multiple
substitutions at the same site or differences in evolutionary rates among sites.
MEGA provides facilities to compute the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Proportion of amino acid sites
different.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
The formulas used are:
Quantity Formula
Variance
is the number of amino acids that are different between two aligned
where
sequences.
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 18.
Equal Input Model (Amino acids)
In real data, frequencies usually vary among different kind of amino acids. In this case,
the correction based on the equal input model gives a better estimate of the number of
amino acid substitutions than the Poisson correction distance. Note that this assumes an
equality of substitution rates among sites and the homogeneity of substitution patterns
between lineages.
MEGA provides facilities to compute the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
The formulas used are:
Distance
where p is the proportion of different amino acid sites, gi is the frequency of amino acid i,
and
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Variance
Poisson Correction (PC) distance
The Poisson correction distance assumes equality of substitution rates among sites and
equal amino acid frequencies while correcting for multiple substitutions at the same site.
MEGA provides facilities to compute the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
Number of sites compared.
L: No of valid common
sites
Formulas used are:
Quantity Formula
Variance
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 20.
Dayhoff and JTT Models
The PAM and JTT distances correct for multiple substitutions based on the model of
amino acid substitution described as substitution-rate matrices. The PAM distance uses
the PAM 001 matrix (p. 348 in Dayhoff 1979) and the JTT distance uses the JTT matrix
(Jones et al. 1992). Using a substitution-rate matrix (Q), the matrix (F), which consists of
the observed proportions of amino acid pairs between a pair of sequences with their
divergence time t, is given by the following equation
where A denotes the diagonal matrix of the equilibrium amino acid frequencies for Q.
From this equation, the evolutionary distance d = 2tQ can be iteratively computed by a
maximum-likelihood method. The eigen values for the PAM and JTT matrices required in
this computation were obtained from the program source code of PHYLIP version 3.6
(Felsenstein et al. 1993-2001).
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
The variance of d can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Gamma Distances
Computing the Gamma Parameter (a)
In the computation of gamma distances, it is necessary to know the gamma parameter
(a). This parameter may be estimated from the dataset under consideration or you may
use the value obtained from previous studies. For estimating a, a substantial number of
sequences is necessary; if the number of sequences used is small, the estimate has a
downward bias (Zhang and Gu 1998). The current release of MEGA 4 does not contain
any programs for estimating a; however we plan to make them available in the future.
Therefore you need to use another program for estimating the a value. Some of the
frequently used programs that include this facility are PAUP* (Swofford 1998) for DNA
sequences, PAML and PAMP programs for DNA and protein sequences (Yang 1999),
and GAMMA programs from Gu and Zhang (1997).
Dayhoff and JTT distances (Gamma rates)
The PAM and JTT distances correct for multiple substitutions based on a model of
amino acid substitution described as substitution-rate matrices. The PAM distance uses
PAM 001 matrix (p. 348 in Dayhoff 1979) and the JTT distance uses JTT matrix (Jones
et al. 1992). The matrix (F) uses a substitution-rate matrix (Q) and the gamma
distribution with parameter a for the rate variation among sites. It consists of the
observed proportions of amino acid pairs with their divergence time t, given by the
following equation
where A denotes the diagonal matrix of the equilibrium amino acid frequencies for Q.
From this equation, the evolutionary distance d = 2tQ can be computed iteratively by a
maximum-likelihood method. The eigen values for the PAM and JTT matrices required in
this computation were obtained from the program source code of PHYLIP version 3.6
(Felsenstein et al. 1993-2001).
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
The variance of d can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
Gamma distance (Amino acids)
The Gamma distance improves upon the Poisson correction distance by taking care of
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
the inequality of the substitution rates among sites. For this purpose, you will need to
provide the gamma shape parameter (a).
For estimating the Dayhoff distance, use a = 2.25 (see Nei and Kumar [2000], page 21
for details).
For computing Grishin’s distance, use a = 0.65. 23 (see Nei and Kumar [2000], page 23
for details)
MEGA provides facilities to compute the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
Formulas used are:
Quantity Formula
Variance
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 23 and estimating gamma parameter.
Heterogeneous Patterns
Equal Input Model (Heterogeneous Patterns)
In real data, amino acid frequencies usually vary among different kinds of amino acids.
In this case, a correction based on the equal input model gives a better estimate of the
number of amino acid substitutions than does the Poisson correction distance. Note that
this assumes an equality of substitution rates among sites. When the amino acid
frequencies are different between the sequences, the modified formula (Tamura and
Kumar 2002) relaxes the estimation bias.
MEGA provides facilities for computing the following quantities:
Quantity
Description
d: distance
Number of amino acid substitutions
per site.
L: No of valid common
Number of sites compared.
sites
Formulas used are:
Distance
where p is the proportion of different amino acid sites, gXi is the frequency of amino acid i
for sequence X, gi is the average frequency for the pair of the sequences, and
The variance of d can be estimated by the bootstrap method.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Synonymouse and Non-synonymous Substitution Models
Nei-Gojobori Method
This method computes the numbers of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions
and the numbers of potentially synonymous and potentially non-synonymous sites (Nei
and Gojobori 1986). Based on these estimates, MEGA can be asked to produce the
following quantities:
Number of differences (Sd or Nd)
These are simple counts of the number of synonymous (Sd) and nonsynonymous (Nd) differences. To compare these two numbers, you must use the
p-distance because the number of potential synonymous sites is much smaller
than the number of non-synonymous sites.
p-distance (pS or pN)
The count of the number of synonymous differences (Sd) is normalized using the
possible number of synonymous sites (S). A similar computation can be made
for non-synonymous differences.
Jukes-Cantor correction (dS or dN)
The p-distances computed above can be corrected to account for multiple
substitutions at the same site.
Difference between synonymous and non-synonymous distances
MEGA 4 can compute differences between the synonymous and nonsynonymous distances. These statistics are useful in conducting tests for
selection.
Number of Sites (S or N)
The numbers of potential synonymous and non-synonymous sites can be
computed using this option. For each pair of sequences, the average number of
synonymous or non-synonymous sites is reported.
The formulas for computing these quantities are:
Quantity
Formula
Variance
Dp
Dd
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 52
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Nei-Gojobori Method
This method computes the numbers of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions
and the numbers of potentially synonymous and potentially non-synonymous sites (Nei
and Gojobori 1986). Based on these estimates, MEGA can be asked to produce the
following quantities:
Number of differences (Sd or Nd)
These are simple counts of the number of synonymous (Sd) and nonsynonymous (Nd) differences. To compare these two numbers, you must use the
p-distance because the number of potential synonymous sites is much smaller
than the number of non-synonymous sites.
p-distance (pS or pN)
The count of the number of synonymous differences (Sd) is normalized using the
possible number of synonymous sites (S). A similar computation can be made
for non-synonymous differences.
Jukes-Cantor correction (dS or dN)
The p-distances computed above can be corrected to account for multiple
substitutions at the same site.
Difference between synonymous and non-synonymous distances
MEGA 4 can compute differences between the synonymous and nonsynonymous distances. These statistics are useful in conducting tests for
selection.
Number of Sites (S or N)
The numbers of potential synonymous and non-synonymous sites can be
computed using this option. For each pair of sequences, the average number of
synonymous or non-synonymous sites is reported.
The formulas for computing these quantities are:
Quantity
Formula
Variance
Dp
Dd
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 52
Modified Nei-Gojobori Method
The modified Nei-Gojobori distance differs from the original Nei-Gojobori formulation in
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
one way: transitional and transversional substitutions are no longer assumed to occur
with the same frequency. Thus the user is requested to provide the
Transition/Transversion (R) ratio. When R = 0.5, this method becomes identical to the
Nei-Gojobori method. When R > 0.5, the number of synonymous sites is less than
estimated using Nei-Gojobori method and consequently, the number of non-synonymous
sites will be larger than estimated with the original Nei-Gojobori (Nei and Gojobori 1986)
approach.
Number of differences (Sd or Nd)
These are counts of the numbers of synonymous (Sd) and non-synonymous (Nd)
differences. To compare these two numbers you must use the p-distance
because the number of potential synonymous sites is much smaller than the
number of non-synonymous sites.
p-distance (pS or pN)
The count of the number of synonymous differences (Sd) is normalized using the
number of potential synonymous sites (S). A similar computation can be made
for non-synonymous differences.
Jukes-Cantor correction (dS or dN)
The p-distances computed above can be corrected to account for multiple
substitutions at the same site.
Difference between synonymous and non-synonymous distances
MEGA 4 can compute differences between synonymous and non-synonymous
distances. These statistics are useful when conducting tests for selection.
Number of Sites (S or N)
Numbers of potentially synonymous and non-synonymous sites can be computed
using this option. For each pair of sequences, the average number of
synonymous or non-synonymous sites is reported.
The formulas for computing these quantities are:
Quantit
y
Formula
D
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 52.
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Variance
Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Pamilo-Bianchi-Li Method
This method (Pamilo and Bianchi 1993; Li 1993) is a modification of Li, Wu and Luo's
method. The only difference concerns the allocation of 2-fold sites to synonymous and
non-synonymous categories. Rather than assuming an equal transition and transversion
rate, the rate is inferred from the observed number of transitions and transversions at the
4-fold degenerate sites. Based on this information, the following quantities can be
estimated:
Synonymous distance
This is the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site.
Non-synonymous distance
This is the number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site.
Substitutions at the 4-fold degenerate sites (d4)
This is the number of substitutions per 4-fold degenerate site; it is useful for
measuring the rate of neutral evolution.
Substitutions at the 0-fold degenerate sites (d0)
This is the number of substitutions per 0-fold degenerate site; it is useful for
measuring the rate of amino acid sequence evolution.
Number of 4-fold degenerate sites(L4)
The estimate of the number of 4-fold degenerate sites, computed by averaging
the number of 4-fold degenerate sites in the two sequences, compared.
Number of 0-fold degenerate sites (L0)
The estimate of the number of 0-fold degenerate sites, computed by averaging
the number of 0-fold degenerate sites in the two sequences, compared.
Difference between synonymous and non-synonymous distances (D)
This computes the differences between the synonymous and non-synonymous
distances. These statistics are useful for conducting tests of selection.
The formulas for computing these quantities are:
Quantity
Formula
Variance
d4
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
d0
D
Ai
Bi
Here,
are the number of 0-fold, 2-fold and 4-fold degenerate sites, respectively.
, and
, where
,
,
,
Pi and Qi are the proportions of i-fold degenerate sites that show transitional and
transversional differences, respectively.
,
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 64.
Kumar Method
This method is a modification of the Pamilo-Bianchi-Li and Comeron (1995) methods
and is able to handle some problematic degeneracy class assignments (see a detailed
description below). It computes the following quantities:
Synonymous distance
This is the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site.
Non-synonymous distance
This is the number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site.
Substitutions at the 4-fold degenerate sites
This is the number of substitutions per 4-fold degenerate site. It is useful for
measuring the rate of neutral evolution.
Substitutions at the 0-fold degenerate sites
This is the number of substitutions per 0-fold degenerate site. It is useful for
measuring the rate of amino acid sequence evolution.
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Number of 4-fold degenerate sites
This is the estimate of the number of 4-fold degenerate sites, computed by
averaging the number of 4-fold degenerate sites in the two sequences,
compared.
Number of 0-fold degenerate sites
This is the estimate of the number of 0-fold degenerate sites, computed by
averaging the number of 0-fold degenerate sites in the two sequences,
compared.
Difference between synonymous and non-synonymous distances
This computes the differences between the synonymous and non-synonymous
distances. These statistics are useful for conducting tests of selection.
Kumar’s modification of the PBL method:
The treatment of arginine and isoleucine codons in the Li-Wu-Luo and the PamiloBianchi-Li methods is arbitrary, which sometimes creates a problem because the
arginine codons occur quite frequently. Comeron (1995) addressed this problem by
dividing the 2-fold degenerate sites into two groups: 2S-fold and 2V-fold. The 2S-fold
refers to sites in which the transitional change is synonymous and the two transversional
changes are non-synonymous, whereas the 2V-fold represents sites in which the
transitional change is non-synonymous and the transversional changes are
synonymous. Although these definitions help in correcting some of the inaccurate
classifications of synonymous and non-synonymous sites (e.g., methionine codons),
they do not solve the problem completely. For example, consider mutations in the first
nucleotide position of the arginine codon: CGG produces TGG (Trp), AGG (Arg), or
GGG (Gly). The transitional change (C to T) results in a non-synonymous change. Of
the two transversional substitutions, one (C to A) results in a synonymous change, while
the other (C to G) results in a non-synonymous change. Therefore, this nucleotide site
is neither a 2S-fold nor a 2V-fold site. Thus, the first position of three arginine codons
(CGU, CGC, and CGA) and the third position of two isoleucine codons (ATT and ATC)
cannot be assigned to any of the Comeron (1995) categories. For this reason, Comeron
(personal communication) used a more complicated classification of codons when he
wrote his computer program. For example, the first position of arginine codon CGG was
assigned to a 2V-fold site with a probability of one-third and to a 0-fold site with a
probability of two-thirds. Similar assignments are used by W.-H. Li (personal
communication) in his computer program.
Since the nucleotide site assignments discussed above are quite arbitrary and may not
apply to all known genetic code tables, Kumar developed another method that uses the
PBL method for any genetic code table. In this version, nucleotide sites are first
classified into 0-fold, 2-fold, and 4-fold degenerate sites. The 2-fold degenerate sites are
further subdivided into simple 2-fold and complex 2-fold degenerate sites. Simple 2-fold
sites are those at which the transitional change results in a synonymous substitution and
the two transversional changes result in non-synonymous substitutions. All other 2-fold
sites, including those for the three isoleucine codons, belong to the complex 2-fold site
category. If we use this definition, all nucleotide sites can be classified into the five
groups shown in the following table.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Degeneracy ->
0-fold
Simple 2-fold
Complex 2-fold
4-fold
No. of sites ->
L0
L2S
L2C
L4
Syn
Nonsyn
Transition (s)
s0
s2
s2S
s2N
s4
Transversion (v)
v0
V2
v2S
v2N
v4
Here, L0, L2S, L2C, and L4 are the numbers of 0-fold, simple 2-fold, complex 2-fold, and 4fold degenerate sites, respectively.
Once this table is filled using the observed counts for a given pair of sequences, we
compute the proportions of transitional (Pi) and transversional (Qi) differences for the ifold degenerate site in the following way:
From these quantities, we compute the Ai and Bi as in the PBL method. Then using L2
= L2C + L2S, we apply the formulas for the PBL method.
See also Nei and Kumar (2000), page 64.
6.2.2 Specifying Distance Estimation Options
Analysis Preferences (Distance Computation)
In this dialog box you can select and view the desired options in the Options Summary.
Options are organized in logical sections. A lime square in the right-most cell in a row
indicates that you have a choice regarding the attribute in that row The three primary
sets of options available in this dialog box are:
Analysis
Compute
Use this to specify whether to compute Distances only or Distances and
Standard Errors. If you select the latter, then you are given a choice as to how to
compute it in the Standard Error Computation box.
Standard Error Computation By
This row is visible only if you have chosen Distances and Std. Err in the Compute
row. You may choose to use analytical formulas or the bootstrap method to
calculate standard errors depending on the type of distance computed.
Whenever the standard errors are estimated by the bootstrap method, you will be
prompted for the number of bootstrap replicates and a random number seed.
When you compute average distance or diversity, only the bootstrap method is
available for computing standard errors.
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Include Sites
These are options for handling gaps or missing data, including or excluding
codon positions, and restricting the analysis to labeled sites, if applicable.
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missing
information before the calculation begins (Complete-deletion option).
Alternatively, you may choose to retain all such sites initially, excluding them as
necessary in the pair-wise distance estimation (Pair-wise-deletion option).
Codon Positions
Click on the ellipses or the lime square, for the option of selecting any
combination of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and non-coding positions for analysis. This option is
available only if the nucleotide sequences contain protein-coding regions and you
have selected a nucleotide-by-nucleotide analysis.
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if some or all of the sites have associated labels. By
clicking on the ellipses, you will be provided with the option of including sites with
selected labels. If you choose to include only labeled sites, then these sites will
be the first extracted from the data. Then all other options mentioned above will
be enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the codon
must be included for a full codon to be incorporated in the analysis.
Substitution Model
In this set of options, you choose the various attributes of the substitution
models.
Model
Here you select a stochastic model for estimating evolutionary distance by
clicking on the ellipses to the right of the currently selected model (click on the
lime square to select this row first). This will reveal a menu containing many
different distance methods and models.
Substitutions to Include
Depending on the distance model or method selected, the evolutionary distance
can be teased into two or more components. By clicking on the drop-down
button (first click on the lime square to select this row), you will be provided with
a list of components relevant to the chosen model.
Transition/Transversion Ratio
This option will be visible if the chosen model requires you to provide a value for
the Transition/Transversion ratio (R).
Pattern among Lineages
This option becomes available if the selected model has formulas that allow the
relaxation of the assumption of homogeneity of substitution patterns among
lineages.
Rates among Sites
This option becomes available if the selected distance model has formulas that
allow rate variation among sites. If you choose gamma-distributed rates, then
the Gamma parameter option becomes visible.
Distance Model Options
With this option, you can choose the general attributes of the substitution models for
DNA and protein sequence evolution.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Model
You can select a stochastic model for estimating evolutionary distances by clicking on
the ellipses to the right of the currently selected model (click on the lime square to select
this row first). This will reveal a menu containing many different distance
methods/models.
Transition/Transversion Ratio
This option will be visible if the chosen model requires you to provide a value for the
Transition/Transversion ratio (R).
Pattern among Lineages
This option becomes available if the distance model you have selected has formulas that
allow the relaxation of the assumption of homogeneity of substitution patterns among
lineages.
Rates among Sites
This option becomes available if the distance model you have selected has formulas that
allow rate variation among sites. If you choose gamma distributed rates, then the
Gamma parameter option becomes visible.
Bootstrap method to compute standard error of distance estimates
When you choose the bootstrap method for estimating the standard error, you must
specify the number of replicates and the seed for the pseudorandom number generator.
In each bootstrap replicate, the desired quantity is estimated and the standard deviation
of the original values is computed (see Nei and Kumar [2000], page 25 for details).
It is possible that in some bootstrap replicates the quantity you desire is not calculable
for statistical or technical reasons. In these cases, MEGA will discard the results of the
bootstrap replicates and its final estimate will be the results of all valid replicates. This
means that the number of bootstrap replicates used can be smaller than the number
specified by the user. However, if the number of valid bootstrap replicates is < 25, then
MEGA will report that the standard error cannot be computed (an "n/c" swill appear in
the result window).
6.3 Constructing Phylogenetic Trees
6.3.1 Phylogenetic Inference
Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of genes and species is currently one
of the most important subjects in molecular evolution. If reliable phylogenies are
produced, they will shed light on the sequence of evolutionary events that
generated the present day diversity of genes and species and help us to
understand the mechanisms of evolution as well as the history of organisms.
Phylogenetic relationships of genes or organisms usually are presented in a
treelike form with a root, which is called a rooted tree. It also is possible to draw a
tree without a root, which is called an unrooted tree. The branching pattern of a
tree is called a topology.
There are numerous methods for constructing phylogenetic trees from molecular
data (Nei and Kumar 2000). They can be classified into Distance methods,
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Part IV: Evolutionary Analysis
Parsimony methods, and Likelihood methods. These methods are explained in
Swofford et al. 1996, Li (1997), Page and Holmes (1998), and Nei and Kumar
(2000).
6.3.2 NJ/UPGMA Methods
Analysis Preferences (NJ/UPGMA)
In this dialog box, you can view and select desired options in the Options Summary.
Options are organized in logical sections. A lime square in the right cell of a row
indicates that you have a choice for that attribute. The three primary sets of options
available in this dialog box are:
Phylogeny Test and Options
To assess the reliability of a phylogenetic tree, MEGA provides two different
types of tests: the Bootstrap test and the Interior branch test. Both of these tests
use the bootstrap re-sampling strategy, so you need to enter the number of
replicates and a starting random seed. For a given data set applicable tests and
the phylogeny inference method are enabled.
Include Sites
These are options for handling gaps and missing data, including or excluding
codon positions, and restricting the analysis to labeled sites, if applicable.
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missinginformation before the calculation begins using the Complete-deletion option.
Alternatively, you may choose to retain all such sites initially, excluding them as
necessary using the Pair-wise-deletion option.
Codon Positions
By clicking on the ellipses or the lime square, you may select any combination of
1st, 2nd, 3rd, and non-coding positions for analysis. This option is available only if
the nucleotide sequences contain protein-coding regions and you have selected
a nucleotide-by-nucleotide analysis.
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if there are labels associated with some or all of the
sites in the data. By clicking on the ellipses, you will have the option of including
sites with selected labels. If you chose to include only labeled sites, then these
sites will be first extracted from the data and all other options mentioned above
will be enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the codon
must be included for a full codon in the analysis.
Substitution Model
In this set of options, you can choose various attributes of the substitution models
for DNA and protein sequences.
Model
By clicking on the ellipses to the right of the currently selected model, you may
select a stochastic model (method) for estimating evolutionary distance (click on
the lime square to select this row first). This will reveal a menu containing many
different distance methods and models.
Substitutions to Include
Depending on the distance model or method selected, the evolutionary distance
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can be teased into two or more components. By clicking on the drop-down
button (first click on the lime square to select this row), you will be provided with
a list of components relevant to the chosen model.
Transition/Transversion Ratio
This option will be visible if the chosen model requires you to provide a value for
the Transition/Transversion ratio (R).
Pattern among Lineages
This option becomes available if the selected model has formulas that allow the
relaxation of the assumption of homogeneity of substitution patterns among
lineages.
Rates among Sites
This option becomes available if the selected distance model has formulas that
allow rate variation among sites. If you choose gamma-distributed rates, then
the Gamma parameter option becomes visible.
6.3.3 Minimum Evolution Method
Minimum Evolution
In the ME method, distance measures that correct for multiple hits at the same
sites are used, and a topology showing the smallest value of the sum of all
branches (S) is chosen as an estimate of the correct tree. However, the
construction of a minimum evolution tree is time-consuming because, in principle,
the S values for all topologies must be evaluated. The number of possible
topologies (unrooted trees) rapidly increases with the number of taxa so it
becomes very difficult to examine all topologies. In this case, one may use the
neighbor-joining method. While the NJ tree is usually the same as the ME tree,
when the number of taxa is small the difference between the NJ and ME trees
can be substantial (reviewed in Nei and Kumar 2000). In this case if a long DNA
or amino acid sequence is used, the ME tree is preferable. When the number of
nucleotides or amino acids used is relatively small, the NJ method generates the
correct topology more often than does the ME method (Nei et al. 1998,
Takahashi and Nei 2000). In MEGA, we have provided the close-neighborinterchange search to examine the neighborhood of the NJ tree to find the
potential ME tree.
Analysis Preferences (Minimum Evolution)
In this dialog box you can select and view desired options in the Options Summary.
Options are organized in logical sections. A lime square in the right cell of a row
indicates that you have a choice for that particular attribute. The primary sets of options
available in this dialog box are:
Tree Inference
Phylogeny Test and Options
To assess the reliability of a phylogenetic tree, MEGA provides two different
types of tests: the Bootstrap test and the Interior branch test. Both of these tests
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use the bootstrap re-sampling strategy, so you need to enter the number of
replicates and a starting random seed. For a given data set, applicable tests and
the phylogeny inference method are enabled.
Search Options
This sets the extensiveness of the heuristic search for the Minimum Evolution
(ME) tree. MEGA employs the Close-Neighbor-Interchange (CNI) algorithm for
finding the ME tree. It is a branch swapping method, which begins with an initial
NJ tree.
Include Sites
These are options for handling gaps and missing data, including or excluding
codon positions, and restricting the analysis to labeled sites, if applicable.
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missing
information before the calculation begins using Complete-deletion option.
Alternatively, you may choose to retain all such sites initially, excluding them as
necessary using the (Pair-wise-deletion option).
Codon Positions
By clicking on the ellipses or the lime square, you may select any combination of
1st, 2nd, 3rd, and non-coding positions for analysis. This option is available only if
the nucleotide sequences contain protein-coding regions and you have selected
a nucleotide-by-nucleotide analysis.
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if there are labels associated with some or all of the
sites in the data. By clicking on the ellipses, you will have the option of including
sites with selected labels. If you chose to include only labeled sites, then these
sites will be first extracted from the data and all other options mentioned above
will be enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the codon
must be included for a full codon in the analysis.
Substitution Model
In this set of options, you can choose various attributes of the substitution models
for DNA and protein sequences.
Model
By clicking on the ellipses to the right of the currently selected model, you may
select a stochastic model for estimating evolutionary distance (click on the lime
square to select this row first). This will reveal a menu containing many different
distance methods and models.
Substitutions to Include
Depending on the distance model or method selected, the evolutionary distance
can be teased into two or more components. By clicking on the drop-down
button (first click on the lime square to select this row), you will be provided with
a list of components relevant to the chosen model.
Transition/Transversion Ratio
This option will be visible if the chosen model requires you to provide a value for
the Transition/Transversion ratio (R).
Pattern among Lineages
This option becomes available if the selected model has formulas that allow the
relaxation of the assumption of homogeneity of substitution patterns among
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lineages.
Rates among Sites
This option becomes available if the selected distance model has formulas that
allow rate variation among sites. If you choose gamma-distributed rates, then
the Gamma parameter option becomes visible.
6.3.4 Maximum Parsimony (MP) Method
Branch-and-Bound algorithm
The branch-and-bound algorithm is used to find all the MP trees. It guarantees
to find all the MP trees without conducting an exhaustive search. MEGA also
employs the Max-mini branch-and-bound search, which is described in detail in
Kumar et al. (1993) and Nei and Kumar (2000, page 123).
Alignment Gaps and Sites with Missing Information
In MEGA, gap sites are ignored in the MP analysis, but there are two different
ways to treat these sites. One is to delete all of these sites from data analysis.
This option, called the Complete-Deletion option, is generally desirable because
different regions of DNA or amino acid sequences often evolve under different
evolutionary forces. However, if the number of nucleotides (or amino acids)
involved in a gap is small and gaps are distributed more or less randomly, you
may include all such sites and treat them as missing data. Therefore, gaps and
missing data are never used in computing tree lengths in MEGA 4.
Consensus Tree
The MP method produces many equally parsimonious trees. Choosing this
command produces a composite tree that is a consensus among all such trees,
for example, either as a strict consensus, in which all conflicting branching
patterns among the trees are resolved by making those nodes multifurcating or
as a Majority-Rule consensus, in which conflicting branching patterns are
resolved by selecting the pattern seen in more than 50% of the trees.
(Details are given in Nei and Kumar [2000], page 130).
Analysis Preferences (Maximum Parsimony)
This dialog box contains four overlapping pages, with each page marked by Tabs
running across the top. You can go to any page by simply clicking on the Tab. Each tab
page organizes a set of logically related options. Information from all the pages is used
in the requested analysis, so it is important that you examine the options selected in
each tab before pressing OK to proceed with analysis.
Phylogeny Test and Options
To assess the reliability of the MP trees, MEGA provides the bootstrap test. You
need to enter the number of replicates and a starting random seed for this test.
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Search Options
Use this to select between the branch-and-bound and the heuristic (closeneighbor interchange) searches. For the branch-and-bound search, an
optimized Max-mini branch-and-bound algorithm is used. While this algorithm is
guaranteed to find all the MP trees, a branch-and-bound search often is too time
consuming for more than 15 sequences, although this number varies from data
set to data set. Alternatively, you may use the heuristic search (Close-NeighborInterchange)., a branch swapping method that begins with a given initial tree.
You may automatically obtain a set of initial trees by using the Min-mini algorithm
with a given search factor. Alternatively, you can use the random addition option
to produce the initial trees.
Include Sites
This provides options for handling gaps and missing data in the analysis,
specifying inclusion and exclusion of codon positions, and restricting the analysis
to only some types of labeled sites (if applicable).
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missinginformation before the parsimony analysis begins using the Complete-deletion
option. Alternatively, you may choose to retain all such sites. In this case, all
missing-information and alignment gap sites are treated as missing data in the
calculation of tree length.
Codon Positions
By clicking on the ellipses (or the lime square), you may select any combination
of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and non-coding positions for analysis. This option is available only
if the nucleotide sequences contain protein-coding regions. If they do, you can
choose between the analysis of nucleotide sequences or translated protein
sequences. If you choose the latter, MEGA will translate all protein-coding
regions into amino acid sequences and conduct the protein sequence parsimony
analysis.
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if there are labels associated with some or all of the
sites in the data. By clicking on the ellipses, you will have the option of including
sites with selected labels. If you choose to include only labeled sites, then these
sites will be the first extracted from the data and all other options mentioned
above will be enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the
codon must be included for a full codon to be incorporated in the analysis.
Heuristic Search
Min-mini algorithm
This is a heuristic search algorithm for finding the MP tree, and is somewhat
similar to the branch-and bound search method. However, in this algorithm,
many trees that are unlikely to have a small local tree length are eliminated from
the computation of their L values. Thus while the algorithm speeds up the search
for the MP tree, as compared to the branch-and-bound search, the final tree or
trees may not be the true MP tree(s). The user can specify a search factor to
control the extensiveness of the search and MEGA adds the user specified
search factor to the current local upper bound. Of course, the larger the search
factor, the slower the search, since many more trees will be examined.
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(See also Nei & Kumar (2000), pages 122, 125)
Close-Neighbor-Interchange (CNI)
In any method, examining all possible topologies is very time consuming. This
algorithm reduces the time spent searching by first producing a temporary tree,
(e.g., an NJ tree when an ME tree is being sought), and then examining all of the
topologies that are different from this temporary tree by a topological distance of
dT = 2 and 4. If this is repeated many times, and all the topologies previously
examined are avoided, one can usually obtain the tree being sought.
For the MP method, the CNI search can start with a tree generated by the
random addition of sequences. This process can be repeated multiple times to
find the MP tree.
See Nei & Kumar (2000) for details.
6.3.5 Statistical Tests of a Tree Obtained
General Comments on Statistical Tests
There are two different types of methods for testing the reliability of an obtained
tree. One is to test the topological difference between the tree and its closely
related tree by using a certain quantity, for example, the sum of all branch
lengths in the minimum evolution method. This type of test examines the
reliability of every interior branch of the tree, and is generally a conservative test
as compared to other tests included in MEGA.
The other type of test examines the reliability of each interior branch whether or
not it is significantly different from 0. If a particular interior branch is not
significantly different from 0, we cannot exclude the possibility of a trifurcation of
the associated branches or that the other types of bifurcating trees can be
generated by changing the splitting order of the three branches involved.
Therefore, in MEGA we implement the bootstrap procedure for estimating the
standard error of the interior branch and test the deviation of the branch length
from 0 (Dopazo 1994).
The third type of test is the bootstrap test, in which the reliability of a given
branch pattern is ascertained by examining the frequency of its occurrence in a
large number of trees, each based on the re-sampled dataset.
Details of these procedures are given in Nei and Kumar (2000, chapter 9).
Condensed Trees
When several interior branches of a phylogenetic tree have low statistical support
(PC or PB) values, it often is useful to produce a multi-furcating tree by assuming
that all interior branches have a branch length equal to 0. We call this multifurcating tree a condensed tree. In MEGA, condensed trees can be produced for
any level of PC or PB value. For example, if there are several branches with PC or
PB values of less than 50%, a condensed tree with the 50% PC or PB level will
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have a multi-furcating tree with all its branch lengths reduced to 0.
Since branches of low significance are eliminated to form a condensed tree, this
tree emphasizes the reliable portions of branching patterns. However, this tree
has one drawback. Since some branches are reduced to 0, it is difficult to draw a
tree with proper branch lengths for the remaining portion. Therefore we give our
attention only to the topology so the branch lengths of a condensed tree in
MEGA are not proportional to the number of nucleotide or amino acid
substitutions.
Note that, although they may look similar, condensed trees are different from the
consensus trees mentioned earlier. A consensus tree is produced from many
equally parsimonious trees, whereas a condensed tree is merely a simplified
version of a tree. A condensed tree can be produced for any type of tree (NJ,
ME, UPGMA, MP, or maximum-likelihood tree).
See also Nei and Kumar (2000) page 175.
Interior Branch Tests
Interior Branch Test of Phylogeny
Phylogeny | Interior Branch Test of Phylogeny
A t-test, which is computed using the bootstrap procedure, is constructed based on the
interior branch length and its standard error and is available only for the NJ and
Minimum Evolution trees. MEGA shows the confidence probability in the Tree Explorer;
if this value is greater than 95% for a given branch, then the inferred length for that
branch is considered significantly positive.
See Nei and Kumar (2000) (chapter 9) for further details.
Neighbor Joining (Construct Phylogeny)
Phylogeny | Construct Phylogeny | Neighbor-Joining…
This command is used to construct a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree (Saitou & Nei 1987).
The NJ method is a simplified version of the minimum evolution (ME) method, which
uses distance measures to correct for multiple hits at the same sites, and chooses a
topology showing the smallest value of the sum of all branches as an estimate of the
correct tree. However, the construction of an ME tree is time-consuming because, in
principle, the S values for all topologies have to be evaluated and the number of possible
topologies (un-rooted trees) rapidly increases with the number of taxa.
With the NJ method, the S value is not computed for all or many topologies. The
examination of different topologies is imbedded in the algorithm, so that only one final
tree is produced. This method does not require the assumption of a constant rate of
evolution so it produces an un-rooted tree. However, for ease of inspection, MEGA
displays NJ trees in a manner similar to rooted trees. The algorithm of the NJ method is
somewhat complicated and is explained in detail in Nei and Kumar (2000).
For constructing the NJ tree, MEGA may request that you specify the distance
estimation method, subset of sites to include, and whether to conduct a test of the
inferred tree through an Analysis Preferences dialog box.
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Bootstrap Tests
Bootstrap Test of Phylogeny
Phylogeny | Bootstrap Test of Phylogeny
One of the most commonly used tests of the reliability of an inferred tree is Felsenstein's
(1985) bootstrap test, which is evaluated using Efron's (1982) bootstrap re-sampling
technique. If there are m sequences, each with n nucleotides (or codons or amino
acids), a phylogenetic tree can be reconstructed using some tree building method. From
each sequence, n nucleotides are randomly chosen with replacements, giving rise to m
rows of n columns each. These now constitute a new set of sequences. A tree is then
reconstructed with these new sequences using the same tree building method as before.
Next the topology of this tree is compared to that of the original tree. Each interior
branch of the original tree that is different from the bootstrap tree the sequence it
partitions is given a score of 0; all other interior branches are given the value 1. This
procedure of re-sampling the sites and the subsequent tree reconstruction is repeated
several hundred times, and the percentage of times each interior branch is given a value
of 1 is noted. This is known as the bootstrap value. As a general rule, if the bootstrap
value for a given interior branch is 95% or higher, then the topology at that branch is
considered "correct". See Nei and Kumar (2000) (chapter 9) for further details.
This test is available for four different methods: Neighbor Joining, Minimum Evolution,
Maximum Parsimony, and UPGMA.
Bootstrap method to compute standard error of distance estimates
When you choose the bootstrap method for estimating the standard error, you must
specify the number of replicates and the seed for the pseudorandom number generator.
In each bootstrap replicate, the desired quantity is estimated and the standard deviation
of the original values is computed (see Nei and Kumar [2000], page 25 for details).
It is possible that in some bootstrap replicates the quantity you desire is not calculable
for statistical or technical reasons. In these cases, MEGA will discard the results of the
bootstrap replicates and its final estimate will be the results of all valid replicates. This
means that the number of bootstrap replicates used can be smaller than the number
specified by the user. However, if the number of valid bootstrap replicates is < 25, then
MEGA will report that the standard error cannot be computed (an "n/c" swill appear in
the result window).
6.3.6 Molecular Clock Tests
Tajima's Test (Relative Rate)
Phylogeny | Relative Rate Tests | Tajima’s Test
Use this to conduct Tajima’s relative rate test (Tajima 1993), which works in the following
way. Consider three sequences, 1, 2 and 3, and let 3 be the out-group. Let nijk be the
observed number of sites in which sequences 1, 2 and 3 have nucleotides i, j and k.
Under the molecular clock hypothesis, E(nijk) = E(njik) irrespective of the substitution
model and whether or not the substitution rate varies with the site. If this hypothesis is
rejected, then the molecular clock hypothesis can be rejected for this set of sequences.
In response to this command, you can select the three sequences for conducting
Tajima’s test. For nucleotide sequences, this test offers the flexibility of using only
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transitions, only transversions, or both. If the data is protein coding, then you can
choose to analyze translated sequences or any combination of codon positions by
clicking on the ‘Data for Analysis’ button.
See Nei and Kumar (2000) (page 193-196) for further description and an example.
6.3.7 Handling Missing Data and Alignment Gaps
Alignment Gaps and Sites with Missing Information
Gaps often are inserted during the alignment of homologous regions of sequences and
represent deletions or insertions (indels). They introduce some complications in distance
estimation. Furthermore, sites with missing information sometimes result from
experimental difficulties; they present the same alignment problems as gaps. In the
following discussion, both of these situations are treated in the same way.
In MEGA, there are two ways to treat gaps. One is to delete all of these sites from the
data analysis. This option, called the Complete-Deletion, is generally desirable because
different regions of DNA or amino acid sequences evolve under different evolutionary
forces. The second method is relevant if the number of nucleotides involved in a gap is
small and if the gaps are distributed more or less randomly. In that case it may be
possible to compute a distance for each pair of sequences, ignoring only those gaps that
are involved in the comparison; this option is called Pair-wise-Deletion. The following
table illustrates the effect of these options on distance estimation with the following three
sequences:
1
10
20
seq1
A-AC-GGAT-AGGA-ATAAA
seq2
AT-CC?GATAA?GAAAAC-A
seq3
ATTCC-GA?TACGATA-AGA
Total sites = 20.
Here, the alignment gaps are indicated with a hyphen (-) and the missing information
sites are denoted by a question mark (?).
Complete-Deletion and Pair-wise-Deletion options
Differences/Compariso
ns
Sequence Data
(1,2)
(1,3)
(2,3)
Option
1/10
0/10
1/10
Complete 1. A C GA A GA A A A
deletion
2. A C GA A GA A C A
Pair-wise
Deletion
3.
A
C
GA
A GA A A A
1.
A-AC-GGAT-AGGA-ATAAA
2.
AT-CC?GATAA?GAAAAC-A
2/12
3/13
3/14
3. ATTCC-GA?TACGATA-AGA
In the above table, the number of compared sites varies with pair-wise comparisons in
the Pair-wise-Deletion option, but remains the same for pair-wise comparisons in the
Complete-Deletion option. In this data set, more information can be obtained by using
the Pair-wise-Deletion option. In practice, however, different regions of nucleotide or
amino acid sequences often evolve differently, in which case, the Complete-Deletion
option is preferable.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Alignment Gaps and Sites with Missing Information
In MEGA, gap sites are ignored in the MP analysis, but there are two different
ways to treat these sites. One is to delete all of these sites from data analysis.
This option, called the Complete-Deletion option, is generally desirable because
different regions of DNA or amino acid sequences often evolve under different
evolutionary forces. However, if the number of nucleotides (or amino acids)
involved in a gap is small and gaps are distributed more or less randomly, you
may include all such sites and treat them as missing data. Therefore, gaps and
missing data are never used in computing tree lengths in MEGA 4.
Include Sites Option
With this command you can set the options for handling gaps and missing data in the
analysis, such as including or excluding codon positions, and restricting the analysis to
only some types of labeled sites, if applicable.
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missing information
before the parsimony analysis begins (Complete-deletion option). Alternatively, you may
choose to retain all such sites. In this case, all missing-information and alignment gap
sites are treated as missing data in the calculation of tree length.
Codon Positions
By clicking on the ellipses (revealed by clicking on the lime-colored square), you will be
provided with the option of selecting any combination of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and non-coding
positions for analysis. This option is available only if the nucleotide sequences contain
protein-coding regions. If it does, you can choose between the analysis of nucleotide
sequences or translated protein sequences. If the latter is chosen, MEGA will translate
all protein-coding regions into amino acid sequences and conduct the protein sequence
parsimony analysis.
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if you have labels associated with some or all of the sites in
the data. By clicking on the ellipses, you will be provided with the option of including
sites with selected labels. If you choose to include only labeled sites, then these sites
will be the first extracted from the data. Then all other options mentioned above will be
enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the codon must be
included for a full codon to be incorporated in the analysis.
6.4 Tests of Selection
6.4.1 Synonymous/Non-synonymous Tests
Large Sample Tests of Selection
One way to test whether positive selection is operating on a gene is to compare the
relative abundance of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions that have
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occurred in the gene sequences. For a pair of sequences, this is done by first estimating
the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and the number of
non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN), and their variances:
Var(dS) and Var(dN), respectively. With this information, we can test the null hypothesis
that H0: dN = dS using a Z-test:
Z = (dN - dS) / SQRT(Var(dS) + Var(dN))
The level of significance at which the null hypothesis is rejected depends on the
alternative hypothesis (HA).
H0:
dN = dS
HA:
(a)
dN ≠ dS
(test of neutrality).
(b)
dN > d S
(positive selection).
(c)
dN < dS
(purifying selection).
For alternative hypotheses (b) and (c), we use a one-tailed test and for (a) we use a twotailed test. These three tests can be conducted directly for pairs of sequences, overall
sequences, or within groups of sequences. For testing for selection in a pair-wise
manner, you can compute the variance of (dN - dS) by using either the analytical formulas
or the bootstrap re-sampling method.
For data sets containing more than two sequences, you can compute the average
number of synonymous substitutions and the average number of non-synonymous
substitutions to conduct a Z-test in manner similar to the one mentioned above. The
variance of the difference between these two quantities is estimated by the bootstrap
method (Nei and Kumar [2000], page 56).
Analysis Preferences (Z-test of Selection)
In this dialog box, you can view and select options in the Options Summary. Options are
organized in logical sections. A lime square in the right cell of a row indicates that you
have a choice for that particular attribute. The three primary sets of options available in
this dialog box are:
Analysis
Test Hypothesis
One way to test whether positive selection is operating on a gene is to compare
the relative abundance of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions within
the gene sequences. For a pair of sequences, this is done by first estimating the
number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and the number of
non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN), and their
variances: Var(dS) and Var(dN), respectively. With this information, we can test
the null hypothesis that H0: dN = dS using a Z-test:
Z = (dN - dS) / SQRT(Var(dS) + Var(dN))
The level of significance at which the null hypothesis is rejected depends on the
alternative hypothesis (HA):
H0:
dN = dS
HA:
(a)
dN ≠ dS
(test of neutrality).
(b)
dN > dS
(positive selection).
(c )
dN < dS
(purifying selection).
For alternative hypotheses (b) and (c), we use a one-tailed test and for (a) we
use a two-tailed test. These three tests can be conducted directly for pairs of
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
sequences, overall sequences, or within groups of sequences. For testing for
selection in a pair-wise manner, you can compute the variance of (dN - dS) by
using either the analytical formulas or the bootstrap resampling method.
For data sets containing more than two sequences, you can compute the
average number of synonymous substitutions and the average number of nonsynonymous substitutions to conduct a Z-test in a manner similar to the one
mentioned above. The variance of the difference between these two quantities
can be estimated by the bootstrap method (Nei and Kumar [2000], page 56).
Analysis Scope
Use this option to specify whether to conduct an analysis for sequence pairs, an
overall average, or within sequence groups (if sequence groups are specified).
Std. Err. Computation by
Depending on the scope of the analysis (pair-wise versus other), you may
compute standard errors using analytical formulas or the bootstrap method.
Whenever standard errors are estimated by the bootstrap method, you will be
prompted for the number of bootstrap replicates and a random number seed.
When the selected test involves the computation of average distance, only the
bootstrap method is available for computing standard errors.
Include Sites
These are options for handling gaps and missing data and restricting the analysis
to labeled sites, if applicable.
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missing
information before the calculation begins (Complete-deletion option).
Alternatively, you may choose to retain all such sites initially, excluding them as
necessary in the pair-wise distance estimation (Pair-wise-deletion option).
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if there are labels associated with some or all of the
sites in the data. By clicking on the ellipses, you will have the option of including
sites with selected labels. If you chose to include only labeled sites, they will be
first extracted from the data and all of the other options mentioned above will be
enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the codon must
be included for a full codon in the analysis.
Substitution Model
In this set of options, you can choose various attributes of the substitution models
for DNA and protein sequences.
Model
By clicking on the ellipses to the right of the currently selected model, you may
select a stochastic model for estimating evolutionary distance (click on the lime
square to select this row first). This will reveal a menu containing many different
distance methods and models.
Transition/Transversion Ratio
This option will be visible if the chosen model requires you to provide a value for
the Transition/Transversion ratio (R).
Analysis Preferences (Fisher's Exact Test)
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When the numbers of codons or the total numbers of synonymous and/or nonsynonymous substitutions are small, the large sample Z-test is too liberal in rejecting the
null hypothesis. In these cases, tests of selection can be conducted to examine the null
hypothesis of the neutral evolution. Only the Nei-Gojobori and Modified Nei-Gojobori
methods can be used for this test because it requires the direct computation of the
numbers of synonymous and non-synonymous differences, and the number of
synonymous and non-synonymous sites. It should be used only when sequences show
a small number of differences. To conduct Fisher’s Exact Test, you need to specify two
specific options:
Analysis
Test Hypothesis
This tests for positive selection (dN > dS) and can only be computed for sequence
pairs.
Include Sites
These options handle gaps and missing data and restrict the analysis to labeled
sites, if applicable.
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missing
information before the calculation begins by using the Complete-deletion option.
Alternatively, you may choose to retain all such sites initially, excluding them as
necessary using the Pair-wise-deletion option.
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if there are labels associated with some or all of the
sites in the data. By clicking on the ellipses, you will have the option of including
sites with selected labels. If you chose to include only labeled sites, then these
sites first will be extracted from the data then all other options mentioned above
will be enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the codon
must be included for a full codon in the analysis.
Substitution Model
In this set of options, you choose various attributes of the substitution models for
DNA and protein sequences.
Model
By clicking on the ellipses to the right of the currently selected model, you may
select a stochastic model for estimating evolutionary distance (click on the lime
square to select this row first). This will reveal a menu containing two different
options: the original or modified Nei & Gojobori methods.
Transition/Transversion Ratio
This option will be visible if the chosen model requires you to provide a value for
the Transition/Transversion ratio (R).
Analysis Preferences (Pattern Homogeneity Analysis)
In this dialog box, you can select and view options in the Options Summary. Options
are organized in logical sections and a lime square on the right cell in a row indicates
that you have a choice for that particular attribute. The two primary sets of options
available in this dialog box are to compute the composition distance, disparity index, or
to test the homogeneity of substitution pattern (Kumar and Gadagkar 2001).
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Calculate
Use this to specify whether to compute Composition Distance , Disparity Index,
or to test the homogeneity of evolutionary patterns. If the test is selected, MEGA
will conduct the Monte-Carlo analysis, for which you need to provide the number
of replicates and a starting random seed.
Include Sites
These are options for handling gaps and missing data, including or excluding
codon positions, and restricting the analysis to labeled sites (if applicable).
Gaps and Missing Data
You may choose to remove all sites containing alignment gaps and missing
information before the calculation begins by using the Complete-deletion option.
Alternatively, you may choose to retain all such sites initially, excluding them as
necessary by using the Pair-wise-deletion option.
Codon Positions
By clicking on the ellipses or the lime square, you may select any combination of
1st, 2nd, 3rd, and non-coding positions for analysis. This option is available only if
the nucleotide sequences contain protein-coding regions and you have selected
a nucleotide-by-nucleotide analysis. If they do, you also can choose between the
analysis of nucleotide sequences or translated protein sequences. If the latter is
chosen, MEGA will translate all protein-coding regions into amino acid
sequences and conduct the protein sequence analysis.
Labeled Sites
This option is available only if there are labels associated with some or all of the
sites in the data. By clicking on the ellipses, you will have the option of including
sites with selected labels. If you chose to include only labeled sites, then these
sites first will be extracted from the data and all other options mentioned above
will be enforced. Note that labels associated with all three positions in the codon
must be included for a full codon in the analysis.
6.4.2 Other Tests
Tajima's Test of Neutrality
Selection | Tajima’s Test of Neutrality
This conducts Tajima’s test of neutrality (Tajima 1989), which compares the number of
segregating sites per site with the nucleotide diversity. (A site is considered segregating
if, in a comparison of m sequences, there are two or more nucleotides at that site;
nucleotide diversity is defined as the average number of nucleotide differences per site
between two sequences). If all the alleles are selectively neutral, then the product 4Nv
(where N is the effective population size and v is the mutation rate per site) can be
estimated in two ways, and the difference in the estimate obtained provides an indication
of non-neutral evolution. Please see Nei and Kumar (2000) (page 260-261) for further
description.
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7.1 Distance Matrix Explorer
7.1.1 Distance Matrix Explorer
The Distance Matrix Explorer is used to display results from the pair-wise distance
calculations. It is an intelligent viewer with the flexibility of altering display modes and
functionalities and for computing within groups, among groups, and overall averages.
This explorer consists of a number of regions as follows:
Menu Bar
File Menu
Display Menu
Average Menu
Help: This button brings up the help file.
Tool Bar
The tool bar provides quick access to a number of menu items.
•
General Utilities
•
Lower-left Triangle button: Click this icon to display pair-wise distances in
the lower-left matrix. If standard errors (or other statistics) are shown, they
will be displayed in the upper-right.
•
Upper-right Triangle button: Click this icon to display pair-wise distances in
the upper-right matrix. If standard errors (or other statistics) also are shown,
they will be displayed in the lower-left.
•
(A, B): This button is an on-off switch to write or hide the name of the
highlighted taxa pair. The taxa pair is displayed in the status bar below.
•
Distance Display Precision
•
: This decreases the precision of the distance display by one decimal
place with each click of the button.
•
: This increases the precision of the distance display by one decimal
place with each click of the button.
Column Sizer: This is a slider that increases or decreases the width of the
columns showing the pair-wise distances.
The 2-Dimensional Data Grid
This grid displays the pair-wise distances between taxa (or within groups etc.) in the
form of a lower or upper triangular matrix. The taxa names are the row-headers; the
column headers are numbered from 1 to m, with m being the number of taxa. There is a
column sizer for the row-headers, so that you can increase or decrease the column size
to accommodate the full name of the sequences or groups.
•
•
Fixed Row: This is the first row in the data grid and displays the column number.
•
Fixed Column: This is the first and leftmost column in the data grid. This column is
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always visible even if you scroll past the initial screen. It contains taxa names and
an associated check box. To include or exclude taxa from analysis, you can check
or uncheck this box. In this column, you can drag-and-drop taxa names to sort
them.
Rest of the Grid: Cells to the right of the first column and below the first row contain
the nucleotides or amino acids of the input data. Note that all cells are drawn in
light color if they contain data corresponding to unselected sequences or genes and
domains.
Status bar
The left sub-panel shows the name of the statistic for the currently selected value. In the
next panel, the status bar shows the taxa-pair name for the selected value.
•
7.1.2 Average Menu (in Distance Matrix Explorer)
With this menu, you can compute the following average values:
Overall: Computes and displays the overall average.
Within groups: This item is enabled only if at least one group is defined. For each
group, an arithmetic average is computed for all valid pair-wise comparisons and the
results are displayed in the Distance Matrix Explorer. All incalculable within-group
averages are shown with an "n/c" in red.
Between Groups: This item is enabled only if at least two groups of taxa are defined.
For each between-group average, an arithmetic average is computed for all valid intergroup pair-wise comparisons and results are displayed in the Distance Matrix Explorer.
All incalculable within-group averages are shown with an "n/c" in red.
Net Between Groups: This item is enabled only if at least two groups of taxa are
defined. It computes net average distances between groups of taxa. This value is given
by
dA = dXY – (dX - dY)/2
where dXY is the average distance between groups X and Y, and dX and dY are the mean
within-group distances. You must have at least two groups of taxa with a minimum of
two taxa each for this option to work. All incalculable within-group averages are shown
with a red "n/c".
7.1.3 Display Menu (in Distance Matrix Explorer)
The display menu consists of four main commands:
•
Show Pair Name: This is a toggle to write or hide the name of the taxa pair
highlighted, which is displayed in the status bar below.
•
Sort Taxa: This provides a submenu for sorting the order of taxa in one of three
ways: by input order, by taxon name or by group name.
•
Show Names: This is a toggle for displaying or hiding the taxa name.
•
Show Group Names: This is a toggle for displaying or hiding the group name next
to the name of each taxon, when available.
•
Change Font: This brings up the dialog box that allows you to choose the type
and size of the font for displaying the distance values.
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7.1.4 File Menu (in Distance Matrix Explorer)
The file menu consists of three commands:
•
Show Input Data Title: This displays the title of the input data.
•
Show Analysis Description: This displays various options used to calculate the
quantities displayed in the Matrix Explorer.
•
Export/Print Distances: This brings up a dialog box for writing pair-wise distances
as a text file, with a choice of several formats.
•
Quit Viewer: This exits the Distance Data Explorer.
7.2 Sequence Data Explorer
Sequence Data Explorer
The Sequence Data Explorer shows the aligned sequence data. You can scroll
along the alignment using the scrollbar at the bottom right hand side of the
explorer window. The Sequence Data Explorer provides a number of useful
functionalities for exploring the statistical attributes of the data and also for
selecting data subsets.
This explorer consists of a number of regions as follows:
Menu Bar
Data menu
Display menu
Highlight menu
Statistics menu
Help: This item brings up the help file for the Sequence Data Explorer.
Tool Bar
The tool bar provides quick access to the following menu items:
General Utilities
•
•
•
: This brings up the Exporting Sequence Data dialog box, which
contains options to control how MEGA writes the output data.
•
Color: This brings up a color palette selection box with which you can
choose the color to be displayed in the highlighted sites.
•
: This brings up the dialog box for setting up and selecting domains
and genes.
•
: This brings up the dialog box for setting up, editing, and selecting
taxa and groups of taxa.
: This toggle replaces the nucleotide (amino acid) at a site with the
identical symbol (e.g. a dot) if the site contains the same nucleotide
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(amino acid).
Highlighting Sites
•
•
C: If this button is pressed, then all constant sites will be highlighted.
A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar.
•
V: If this button is pressed, then all variable sites will be highlighted.
A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar.
•
Pi: If this button is pressed, then all parsimony-informative sites will
be highlighted. A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on
the status bar.
•
S: If this button is pressed, then all singleton sites will be highlighted.
A count of the highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar.
•
0: If this button is pressed, then sites will be highlighted only if they
are zero-fold degenerate sites in all sequences displayed. A count of
highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar. (This button is
available only if the dataset contains protein coding DNA sequences).
•
2: If this button is pressed, then sites will be highlighted only if they
are two-fold degenerate sites in all sequences displayed. A count of
highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar. (This button is
available only if the dataset contains protein coding DNA sequences).
•
4: If this button is pressed, then sites will be highlighted only if they
are four-fold degenerate sites in all sequences displayed. A count of
highlighted sites will be displayed on the status bar. (This button is
available only if the dataset contains protein coding DNA sequences).
: This button provides the facility to translate
codons in the sequence data into amino acid sequences and back. All
protein-coding regions will be automatically identified and translated for
display. When the translated sequence is already displayed, then
issuing this command displays the original nucleotide sequences
(including all coding and non-coding regions). Depending on the data
displayed (translated or nucleotide), relevant menu options in the
Sequence Data Explorer become enabled. Note that the translated/untranslated status in this data explorer does not have any impact on the
options for analysis available in MEGA (e.g., Distances or Phylogeny
menus), as MEGA provides all possible options for your dataset at all
times.
The 2-Dimensional Data Grid
Fixed Row: This is the first row in the data grid. It is used to display the
nucleotides (or amino acids) in the first sequence when you have chosen
to show their identity using a special character. For protein coding
regions, it also clearly marks the first, second, and the third codon
positions.
Fixed Column: This is the first and the leftmost column in the data grid. It
•
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is always visible, even when you are scrolling through sites. The column
contains the sequence names and an associated check box. You can
check or uncheck this box to include or exclude a sequence from analysis.
Also in this column, you can drag-and-drop sequences to sort them.
Rest of the Grid: Cells to the right of and below the first row contain the
nucleotides or amino acids of the input data. Note that all cells are drawn
in light color if they contain data corresponding to unselected sequences
or genes or domains.
Status Bar
This section displays the location of the focused site and the total
sequence length. It also shows the site label, if any, and a count of the
highlighted sites.
7.2.1 Data Menu
Data Menu
This allows you to explore the active data set, and establish various data attributes, and
data subset options.
Data Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
This menu provides commands for working with selected data in the Sequence
Data Explorer
The commands in this menu are:
Write Data to File
Brings up the Exporting Sequence Data dialog
box.
Translate/Untranslate
Translates protein-coding nucleotide
sequences into protein sequences, and back
to nucleotide sequences.
Select Genetic Code
Table
Brings up the Select Genetic Code dialog box,
in which you can select, edit or add a genetic
code table.
Setup/Select Genes
and Domains
Brings up the Sequence Data Organizer, in
which you can define and edit genes and
domains.
Setup/Select Taxa and
Groups
Brings up the Select/Edit Taxa and Groups
dialog, in which you can edit taxa and define
groups of taxa.
Quit Data Viewer
Takes the user back to the main interface.
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Translate/Untranslate (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Translate/Untranslate
This command is available only if the data contain protein-coding nucleotide
sequences. It automatically extracts all protein-coding domains for translation
and displays the corresponding protein sequence. If the translated sequence is
already displayed, then issuing this command displays the original nucleotide
sequences, including all coding and non-coding regions. Depending on the data
displayed (translated or nucleotide), relevant menu options in the Sequence Data
Explorer are enabled. However, translated and un-translated status does not
have any impact on the analytical options available in MEGA (e.g., Distances or
Phylogeny menus), as MEGA provides all possible options for your dataset at all
times.
Select Genetic Code Table (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Select Genetic Code Table
Select Genetic Code Table, can be invoked from within the Data menu in
Sequence Data Explorer, and is also available in the main interface directly in the
Data Menu.
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups, can be invoked from within the Data menu in
Sequence Data Explorer, and is also available in the main interface directly in the
Data Menu.
Setup/Select Genes & Domains (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Setup/Select Genes & Domains
Setup/Select Genes & Domains, can be invoked from within the Data menu in
Sequence Data Explorer, and is also available in the main interface directly in the
Data Menu.
Export Data (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Data | Export Data
The Exporting Sequence Data dialog box first displays an edit box for entering a
title for the sequence data being exported. The default name is the original name
of the data set, if there was one. Below the title is a space for entering a brief
description of the data set being exported.
Next is the option for determining the format of the data set being exported;
MEGA currently allows the user to export the data in MEGA, PAUP 3.0 and
PAUP 4.0 (Nexus, Interleaved in both cases), and PHYLIP 3.0 (Interleaved). tA
the end of each line, is "Writing site numbers." The three options available are to
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not write any number, to write one for each site, or to write the site number of the
last site.
Other options in this dialog box include the number of sites per line, which codon
position(s) is to be used and whether non-coding regions should be included, and
whether the output is to be interleaved. For missing or ambiguous data and
alignment gaps, there are four options: include all such data, exclude all such
data, exclude or include sites with missing or ambiguous data only, and exclude
sites with alignment gaps only.
Quit Data Viewer
Data | Quit Data Viewer
This command closes the Sequence Data Explorer, and takes the user back to
main interface.
7.2.2 Display Menu
Data Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
This menu provides commands for working with selected data in the Sequence
Data Explorer
The commands in this menu are:
Write Data to File
Brings up the Exporting Sequence Data dialog
box.
Translate/Untranslate
Translates protein-coding nucleotide sequences
into protein sequences, and back to nucleotide
sequences.
Select Genetic Code
Table
Brings up the Select Genetic Code dialog box, in
which you can select, edit or add a genetic code
table.
Setup/Select Genes
and Domains
Brings up the Sequence Data Organizer, in which
you can define and edit genes and domains.
Setup/Select Taxa and
Groups
Brings up the Select/Edit Taxa and Groups
dialog, in which you can edit taxa and define
groups of taxa.
Quit Data Viewer
Takes the user back to the main interface.
Restore Input Order
Display | Restore Input Order
Choosing this restores the order in Sequence Data Explorer to that in the input
text file.
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Show Only Selected Sequences
Display | Show only Selected Sequences
The check boxes in the left column of the display grid can be used to select or
deselect sequences for analysis. Subsequent use of the "Show Only Selected
Sequences" option in the Display menu of Sequence Data Explorer hides all the
deselected sequences and displays only the selected ones.
Color Cells
Display | Color cells
This command colors individual cells in the two-dimensional display grid
according to the nucleotide or amino acid it contains. A list of default colors,
based on the biochemical properties of the residues, is given below. In a future
version, these colors will be customizable by the user.
For DNA sequences:
Symbo
l
Color
A
Yellow
G
Fuchsia
C
Olive
T
Green
U
Green
For amino acid sequences:
Symbo
Symbo
l
Color
l
A
Yellow
M
C
Olive
N
D
Aqua
P
E
Aqua
Q
F
Yellow
R
G
Fuchsi
S
a
H
Teal
T
I
Yellow
V
K
Red
W
L
Yellow
Y
Color
Yellow
Green
Blue
Green
Red
Green
Green
Yellow
Green
Lime
Use Identical Symbol
Display | Use Identical Symbol
Data that contain multiple aligned sequences may be easier to view if, when the
nucleotide (amino acid) is the same as that in the corresponding site in the first
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sequence, the nucleotide (amino acid) is replaced by a dot. Choosing this option
again brings back the nucleotide (amino acid) single-letter codes.
Show Sequence Names
Display | Show Sequence Names
This option displays the full sequence names in Sequence Data Explorer
Show Group Names
Display | Show Group Names
This option displays the full group names in Sequence Data Explorer if the
sequences have been grouped in Select/Edit Taxa Groups
Change Font...
Display | Change Font…
This command brings up the Change Font dialog box, which allows you to
change the display font, including font type, style and size. Options to strikeout
or underline selected parts of the sequences are also available. There is also an
option for using different scripts, although the only option currently available is
"Western". Finally the "Sample" window displays the effects of your choices
Sort Sequences
Display | Sort Sequences
The sequences in the data set can be sorted based on several options:
sequence name, group name, group and sequence names, or as per the order in
the Select/Edit Taxa Groups dialog box.
Sort Sequences by Group Name
Display | Sort Sequences | By Group Name
Sequences that have been grouped in Select/Edit Taxa Groups can be sorted by
the alphabetical order of group names or numerical order of group ID numbers.
If the group names contain both a name and a number, the numerical order will
be nested within the alphabetical order.
Sort Sequences by Group and Sequence Names
Display | Sort Sequences | By Group and Sequence Names
Sequences that have been grouped in Select/Edit Taxa Groups can be sorted by
the alphabetical order of group names or the numerical order of group ID
numbers. If the group names contain both a name and a number, the numerical
order is nested within the alphabetical order. The sequences can be further
arranged by sorting the sequence names within the group names.
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Sort Sequences As per Taxa/Group Organizer
Display | Sort Sequences | As per Taxa/Group Organizer
The sequence/group order seen in Select/Edit Taxa Groups is initially the same
as the order in the input text file. However, this order can be changed by
dragging-and-dropping. Choose this option if you wish to see the data in the
same order in the Sequence Data Explorer as in Select/Edit Taxa Groups.
Sort Sequences By Sequence Name
Display | Sort Sequences | By Sequence Name
The sequences are sorted by the alphabetical order of sequence names or the
numerical order of sequence ID numbers. If the sequence names contain both a
name and a number, then the sorting is done with the numerical order nested
within the alphabetical order.
7.2.3 Highlight Menu
Highlight Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
This menu can be used to highlight certain types of sites. The options are
constant sites, variable sites, parsimony-informative sites, singleton sites, 0-fold,
2-fold and 4-fold degenerate sites.
Highlight Conserved Sites
Highlight | Conserved Sites
Use this command to highlight constant sites
Highlight Variable Sites
Highlight | Variable Sites
Use this command to highlight variable sites sites.
Highlight Singleton Sites
Highlight | Singleton Sites
Use this command to highlight singleton sites.
Highlight Parsimony Informative Sites
Highlight | Parsim-Info Sites
Use this command to highlight parsimony-informative sites.
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Highlight 0-fold Degenerate Sites
Highlight | 0-fold Degenerate Sites
Use this command to highlight 0-fold degenerate sites.
Highlight 2-fold Degenerate Sites
Highlight | 2-fold Degenerate Sites
Use this command to highlight 2-fold degenerate sites. The command is visible
only if the data consists of nucleotide sequences.
Highlight 4-fold Degenerate Sites
Highlight | 4-fold Degenerate Sites
Use this command to highlight 4-fold degenerate sites. The command is visible
only if the data consists of nucleotide sequences.
7.2.4 Statistics Menu
Statistics Menu (in Sequence Data Explorer)
Various summary statistics of the sequences can be computed and displayed
using this menu. The commands are:
Nucleotide Composition.
Nucleotide Pair Frequencies.
Codon Usage.
Amino Acid Composition.
Use All Selected Sites.
Use only Highlighted Sites. Sites can be selected according to various
criteria (see Highlight Sites), and analysis can be performed only on the
chosen subset of sites.
Nucleotide Composition
Statistics | Nucleotide Composition
This command is visible only if the data consist of nucleotide sequences. MEGA
computes the base frequencies for each sequence as well as an overall average.
These will be displayed by domain in a Text Editor domain (if the domains have
been defined in Setup/Select Genes & Domains).
Nucleotide Pair Frequencies
Statistics | Nucleotide Pair Frequencies
This command is visible only if the data consists of nucleotide sequences. There
are two options available: one in which the nucleotide acid pairs are counted bidirectionally site-by-site for the two sequences (giving rise to 16 different
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nucleotide pairs), the other, in which the pairs are counted unidirectionally (10
nucleotide pairs). MEGA will compute the frequencies of these quantities for
each sequence as well as an overall average. They will be displayed in a Text
Editor domain by domain (if domains have been defined in Setup/Select Genes &
Domains).
Codon Usage
Statistics | Codon Usage
This command is visible only if the data contains protein-coding nucleotide
sequences. MEGA 4 computes the percent codon usage and the RCSU values
for each codon for all sequences included in the dataset. Results will be
displayed in a Text Editor domain (if domains have been defined in Setup/Select
Genes & Domains).
Amino Acid Composition
Statistics | Amino acid Composition
This command is visible only if the data consists of amino acid sequences or if
the translated protein coding nucleotide sequences are displayed. MEGA will
compute the amino acid frequencies for each sequence as well as an overall
average, which will be displayed in a Text Editor domain (if domains have been
defined in Setup/Select Genes & Domains).
Use All Selected Sites
Statistics | Use All Selected Sites
Analysis is conducted on all sites in the sequences, irrespective of whether any
sites have been labeled or highlighted.
Use only Highlighted Sites
Statistics | Use only Highlighted Sites
Sites can be selected according to various criteria (see Highlight Sites), and
analyses will be performed only on the chosen subset of sites. All statistical
attributes will be based on these sites.
7.3 Tree Explorer
7.3.1 Tree Explorer
Phylogeny | Any tree-building option
The Tree Explorer displays the evolutionary tree based on the options used to
compute or display the phylogeny. The main menu of the Tree Explorer has the
following items:
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File Menu
Image Menu
Sub-tree Menu
View Menu
Compute Menu
7.3.2 Information Box
The information box in the Tree Explorer lists the various statistical attributes of
the displayed tree with the branch or node highlighted. It usually contains
multiple tabs.
General: This reminds the user of the number of taxa (and groups, if any) and of
the strategy used to deal with gaps and missing data.
Tree: This contains information about the type of tree –rooted/unrooted, and the
sum of branch lengths, SBL, or the tree-length. In addition, information about the
total number of trees and the tree number of the current tree is displayed.
Branch: In the Tree Explorer window you may click on a branch or on a node of
the tree. If you click on a branch, this tab displays its location in terms of the two
nodes it connects. (Leaf taxa are numbered in the order in which they appear in
the input data file.) This window also displays the length of the selected branch.
If you click on a node, the internal identification number of that node is displayed.
7.3.3 File Menu (in Tree Explorer)
This menu has the following options:
Save Current Session: This brings up the Save As dialog box and saves all the
information currently held by the Tree Explorer to a file in a binary format. This
feature allows you to retrieve the current Tree Explorer session for tree
manipulation and printing.
Export Current Tree (Newick): This writes the topology of the current tree in the
MEGA tree format to a specified file. Note that only the branching pattern is
stored.
Export All Trees (Newick): This writes the topologies of all trees in the MEGA
tree format to a specified file. Note that only the branching pattern is stored.
Show Information: This brings up the Information dialog box.
Print: This brings up the Print dialog box and prints the current tree in the
displayed size; if the displayed tree is larger than the page size, it will be printed
on multiple pages.
Print in a sheet: This brings up the Print dialog box and prints the current tree,
after restricting the size of the printed tree to one sheet. The current tree also can
be printed using the button on the toolbar.
Printer Setup: This allows the user to setup the printer.
Exit Tree Explorer: This exits the Tree Explorer.
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7.3.4 Image Menu (in Tree Explorer)
The image menu contains three options:
Copy to Clipboard: This copies the tree image to the clipboard, which can also
be done by simultaneously pressing Ctrl and ‘C’ keys. You then can paste the
copied image into any other Windows application (e.g., PowerPoint and Word).
Save as Enhanced metafile: This option saves the image as an enhanced
windows metafile (.EMF). It brings up the Save As dialog box to specify the
filename.
Save as TIFF: This option saves the tree image as Tagged Image File Format
(TIFF) with 400dpi resolution and without LZW compression. TIFF is a popular
raster graphics format widely supported by image-manipulation software such as
Adobe Photoshop. Note that one cannot edit each tree part in this format as in
the cases of EMF and PDF, while the graphics quality and cross-platform
compatibility are better. Also, users should notice that the file size is much larger
than EMF and PDF and it usually becomes tens or hundreds of mega bytes. It
brings up the Save As dialog box to specify the filename.
Loan Taxon Images: This option automatically associates images to each
taxon. To use it, you will be prompted for the directory where the bitmap images
(in BMP format) reside. For each taxon, the image file must have a BMP
extension and the filename must be identical to the taxon name displayed in the
Tree Explorer. All of the valid images that are found will be retrieved and
displayed.
7.3.5 Subtree Menu (in Tree Explorer)
This menu contains the tree manipulation options Swap, Flip and
Compress/Expand. In addition, by clicking on the corresponding items in the
menu (for which there are tool buttons on the left), you can specify the root of the
tree, and display a subtree (a portion of the tree defined by a given internal
branch) in a separate window.
Choosing ‘Divergence Time’ transforms the cursor to an arrow below which is the
icon associated with the divergence time option. To obtain the evolutionary rate
of a specific lineage, you should point the cursor to that branch and click. On the
other hand, if you are interested in the average evolutionary rate of a cluster of
two or more taxa, then you should click at the node at the common ancestor of
the cluster. Either way, MEGA brings up the Divergence Time dialog box, which
displays the evolutionary rate information for a given divergence time.
Many of these functionalities are also available through tools in the toolbar on the
left side of the displayed tree.
7.3.6 Subtree Drawing Options (in Tree Explorer)
This dialog box provides choices options for changing various visual attributes for the
selected subtree. If the Overwrite Downstream option is checked, any subtree drawing
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options that have been applied to downstream nodes within the current subtree will be
overwritten.
Property Tab:
Name/Caption: This section allows you to provide an alphanumeric caption for
the selected node.
Node/Subtree Marker: This section provides elements for changing the shape
and color of the selected subtree node marker. If the Apply to Taxon Markers
option is checked, the selected shape and color options will be applied to all
taxon markers contained within the subtree.
Branch Line: This section provides various drawing options that will be applied to
the branch lines of the selected subtree.
Display Tab:
Display Caption: If checked, the node caption, if set within the Property Tab, will
be displayed.
Display Bracket: If checked, this item will display a bracket that encompasses the
selected subtree using the configured bracket drawing options.
Display Taxon Names: If checked, the taxon names attributed to the leaf nodes
will be displayed.
Display Node Markers: If checked, any node markers that were configured within
the Property Tab will be displayed.
Display Taxon Markers: If checked, any taxon markers that were configured
within the Property Tab will be displayed.
Compress Subtree: If checked, the selected subtree will be compressed and
rendered as a graphical vector according to the configured drawing options.
Image Tab:
Display Image: If checked, the Tree Explorer will display an image, if loaded, at
the configured position relative to the subtree node caption text.
7.3.7 Cutoff Values Tab
In this tab, you can specify a cut-off level for the condensed or consensus trees.
Appropriate options become available depending on the trees displayed.
7.3.8 Divergence Time Dialog Box
This dialog box allows the user to specify the evolutionary rate for constructing
linearized trees. This can be done by providing the evolutionary rate directly or
by providing the divergence time for the given node.
7.3.9 View Menu (in Tree Explorer)
This menu brings up several viewing options:
Topology only: This displays the tree in the form of relationships among the
taxa, ignoring the branch lengths.
Root on Midpoint: This roots the tree on the midpoint of the longest path
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between two taxa.
Arrange Taxa: This allows you to arrange the taxa in the tree based on the order
of taxa in the input data file or to produce a tree that looks "balanced."
Tree/Branch Style: This allows you to select the display of the tree in one of
three styles: Traditional, Radiation, or Circle. For Traditional, there are three
additional options: Rectangular, Straight or Curved.
Show/Hide: This allows you to display or hide the following information: taxon
label, taxon marker, statistics (e.g., bootstrap values), branch lengths, or scale
bar.
Fonts: This allows you to choose features such as font type and size for
information, including the taxon label, statistics, and scale bar.
Options: This brings up the Option dialog box, which provides control over
various aspects of the tree drawing, including individual branches, the taxon
names, and the scale bar.
7.3.10 Options dialog box (in Tree Explorer)
Through this dialog box, you can specify various drawing attributes for the tree.
All options are organized in five tabs.
Tree
Branch
Labels
Scale
Cutoff
7.3.11 Tree tab (in Options dialog box)
This allows you to manipulate aspects of the tree, depending on the style you
used to draw the tree. For instance, if you used the traditional rectangular style,
then you can manipulate the taxon separation distance, branch length, or tree
width, in the number of pixels. This tab also contains a schematic of a tree
illustrating these features.
7.3.12 Branch tab (in Options dialog box)
This tab has options for the following aspects of the tree:
Line Width: This allows the user to choose the width of the lines.
Display Statistics/Frequency: This presents the options to Hide or Show the
statistics and frequency, to choose the font, or to alter the placement of the
numbers by manipulating the horizontal and vertical positions.
Display Branch Length: This presents the option to Show the branch length or
Hide it if it is shorter than a specified length, to alter the placement of the written
branch lengths, and to choose the number of decimal places for writing the
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branch lengths.
7.3.13 Labels tab (in Options dialog box)
This tab has options for the following:
Display Taxon Names: Presents the option to show (checked) or hide
(unchecked) the label and to choose the font.
Display Markers: Allows you to draw small symbols along with or instead of
taxa names in the tree. Two combo boxes and a list allow you to select the
marker graphics and its color.
7.3.14 Scale Bar tab (in Options dialog box)
This tab has options:
Line Width: This drop-down menu allows you to choose the width of the line and
the font size used in the scale bar. Show Distance Scale. This allows you to
show or hide the scale bar distance, to enter the unit used and to choose its
length and the interval between tick marks.
Show Time Scale: This presents the option of showing or hiding the divergence
time in the scale bar, and to enter the units used. You also can determine the
interval between two major ticks and two minor ticks. To activate this option the
divergence time for a node or the evolutionary rate must be given.
7.3.15 Compute Menu (in Tree Explorer)
This performs various tree computations, including Condensed tree, Linearized
tree, and Consensus tree, and allows you to estimate the divergence time for
each node using the molecular clock.
7.4 Alignment Explorer
7.4.1 Alignment Explorer
The Alignment Explorer provides options to (1) view and manually edit
alignments and (2) generate alignments using a built-in CLUSTALW
implementation (for the complete sequence or data in any rectangular region).
The Alignment Explorer also provides tools for exploring web-based databases
(e.g., NCBI Query and BLAST searches) and retrieving desired sequence data
directly into the current alignment.
The Alignment Explorer has the following menus in its main menu: Data, Edit,
Search, Alignment, Web, Sequencer, Display, and Help. In addition, there are
Toolbars that provide quick access to many Alignment Explorer functions. The
main Alignment Explorer window contains up to two alignment grids.
For amino acid input sequence data, the Alignment Explorer provides only
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one view. However, it offers two views of DNA sequence data: the DNA
Sequences grid and the Translated Protein Sequences grid. These two views
are present in alignment grids in the two tabs with each grid displaying the
sequence data for the current alignment. Each row represents a single sequence
and each column represents a site. A "*" character is used to indicate site
columns, exhibiting consensus across all sequences. An entire sequence may be
selected by clicking on the gray sequence label cell found to the left of the
sequence data. An entire site may be selected by clicking on the gray cell found
above the site column. The alignment grid has the ability to assign a unique color
to each unique nucleotide or amino acid and it can display a background color for
each cell in the grid. This behavior can be controlled from the Display menu item
found in the main menu. Please note that when the ClustalW alignment algorithm
is initiated, it only will align the sites currently selected in the alignment grids.
Multiple sites may be selected by clicking and then dragging the mouse within
the grid. Note that all of the manual or automatic alignment procedures carried
out in the Protein Sequences grid will be imposed on the corresponding DNA
sequences as soon as you flip to the DNA sequence grid. Even more
importantly, the Alignment Explorer provides unlimited UNDO capabilities.
7.4.2 Creating Multiple Sequence Alignments
In this example, we will create an alignment from protein sequence data that will
be imported into the alignment editor using different methods.
Ex 1.0.1: Start MEGA by double-clicking on the MEGA desktop icon, or by using
the Windows start-menu to click on the MEGA icon located in the programs
folder.
Ex 1.0.2: Launch the Alignment Explorer by selecting the Alignment|Alignment
Explorer/CLUSTAL menu command.
In order to align sequences contained in a Sequence Data File, do the following:
Ex 1.1.1: Add unaligned sequences from the hsp20.fas example file into the
Alignment Explorer by clicking selecting the Data|Open|Retrieve Sequences from
File menu command.
Ex 1.1.2: Select the Edit|Select All menu command to select every site for all
sequences in the alignment.
Ex 1.1.3: Select the Alignment|Align by ClustalW menu command to align the
selected sequences data using the ClustalW algorithm.
Ex 1.1.4: Save the current alignment session by selecting the Data|Save Session
menu item. This will allow the current alignment session to be restored for future
editing.
Ex 1.1.5: Exit the Alignment Explorer by selecting the Data|Exit Alignment
Explorer menu item. A message will appear asking if you would like to save the
data to a MEGA file. Choose "YES," and then a "Save As" dialog box will appear.
Enter hsp20_aligned.meg as the file name, and click the "Save" button. An input
box will appear asking for a title for the data. Enter "HSP 20 Aligned by MEGA"
as the title, and click the "OK" button. Another dialog box will appear asking you if
the sequence data is protein coding. In this case, click "Yes." A final dialog box
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will appear asking you if you would like to open the data file in MEGA. Click
"Yes."
Now, we will examine how to send sequence data from the Internet (Web
Explorer) to the Alignment Explorer.
Ex 1.2.1: If the Alignment Explorer already contains sequence data, select the
Data| Create new menu command to create a new alignment from Alignment
Explorer window. Choose "YES" on the dialog box that appears to indicate that
you are creating a DNA sequence.
Ex 1.2.2: Activate the Web Explorer tab by selecting Web|Query Gene Banks
from the menu.
Ex 1.2.3: When the NCBI Entrez site is loaded, select either the nucleotide or
protein database, enter a search term into the search box, and press the "GO"
button.
Ex 1.2.4: When the search results are displayed, select the specific search item
and choose "Sequence" from the menu bar. Press the "Add to Alignment" button
located to the left of the address box. This will display the Web Fetch dialog
window.
Ex 1.2.5: Click the box to the left of each accession number whose sequences’
information you would like to fetch from the web. When you are done, you can
select accessions by pressing the "Fetch" button.
Ex 1.2.6: When the status column indicates that all sequences are fetched, press
the "Send to Alignment" button to send the fetched sequence data to the
Alignment Explorer.
Ex 1.2.7: Align the fetched data using the steps detailed in Ex 1.1.2 – Ex 1.1.5.
You may also open a trace file in the Trace Data Viewer/Editor and send it
directly to the Alignment Explorer.
7.4.3 Aligning coding sequences via protein sequences
MEGA provides a convenient method for aligning coding sequences based on
the alignment of protein sequences. In order to accomplish this you use the
Alignment Explorer to load a data file containing protein-coding sequences. If you
click on the Translated Protein Sequences tab you will see that the proteincoding sequences are automatically translated into their respective protein
sequence. With this tab active select the Alignment|Align by ClustalW menu item
or click on the "W" tool bar icon to begin the alignment of the translated protein
sequences. Once the alignment of the translated protein sequences completes,
click on the DNA Sequences tab and you’ll find that Alignment Explorer
automatically aligned the protein-coding sequences according to the aligned
translated protein sequences. Any manual adjustments made to the translated
protein sequence alignment will also be reflected in the protein-coding sequence
tab.
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Toolbars in Alignment Explorer
Basic Functions
This prepares Alignment Builder for a new alignment. Any
sequence data currently loaded into Alignment Builder is
discarded.
This activates the Open File dialog window. It is used to send
sequence data from a properly formatted file into Alignment
Builder.
This activates the Save Alignment Session dialog window. It may
be used to save the current state of the Alignment Builder into a file
so that it may be restored in the future.
This causes nucleotide sequences currently loaded into Alignment
Builder to be translated into their respective amino acid sequences.
Web/Data Explorer Functions
This displays the NCBI BLAST web site in the Web Explorer tab
window. If a sequence in the sequence grid is selected prior to
clicking this button, the Web Explorer will auto-fill the BLAST query
window with the selected sequence data.
This displays the default database (GenBank) in the Web Explorer
tab window.
This activates the Open Trace File dialog window, which may be
used to open and view a sequencer file. The sequence data from
the sequencer file then can be sent into Alignment Explorer.
Alignment Functions
This displays the ClustalW parameters dialog window, which is
used to configure ClustalW and initiate the alignment of the
selected sequence data. If you do not select sequence data prior to
clicking this button, a message box will appear asking if you would
like to select all of the currently loaded sequences.
This marks or unmarks the currently selected single site in the
alignment grid. Each sequence in the alignment may have only one
site marked at a time. Modifications can be made to the alignment
by marking two or more sites and then aligning them using the
Align Marked Sites function.
This button aligns marked sites. Two or more sites must be marked
in order for this function to have an effect.
Search Functions
This activates the Find Motif search box. When this box appears, it
asks you to enter a motif sequence (a small subsequence of a
larger sequence) as the search term. After the search term is
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entered, the Alignment Builder finds each occurrence of the search
term and indicates it with yellow highlighting. For example, if you
were to enter the motif "AGA" as the search term, then each
occurrence of "AGA" across all sequences in the sequence grid
would be highlighted in yellow.
This searches towards the beginning of the current sequence for
the first occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has
been performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search
box will appear.
This searches towards the end of the current sequence for the first
occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has been
performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will
appear.
This locates the marked site in the current sequence. If no site has
been marked, a warning box will appear.
Editing Functions
This undoes the last Alignment Builder action.
This copies the current selection to the clipboard. It may be used to
copy a single base, a block of bases, or entire sequences to the
clipboard.
This removes the current selection from the Alignment Builder and
sends it to the clipboard. This function can affect a single base, a
block of bases, or entire sequences.
This pastes the contents of the clipboard into the Alignment
Builder. If the clipboard contains a block of bases, it will be pasted
into the builder starting at the point of the current selection. If the
clipboard contains complete sequences they will be added to the
current alignment. For example, if the contents of a FASTA file
were copied to the clipboard from a web browser, it would be
pasted into Alignment Builder as a new sequence in the alignment.
This deletes a block of selected bases from the alignment grid.
This deletes gap-only sites (sites containing a gap across all
sequences in the alignment grid) from a selected block of bases.
Sequence Data Insertion Functions
This creates a new, empty sequence row in the alignment grid. A
label and sequence data must be provided for this new row.
This activates an Open File dialog box that allows for the selection
of a sequence data file. Once a suitable sequence data file is
selected, its contents will be imported into Alignment Builder as
new sequence rows in the alignment grid.
Site Number display on the status bar
Site #
The Site # field indicates the site represented by the current
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selection. If the w/o Gaps radio button is selected, then the
Alignment Builder will disregard the shifting affect of gaps when
determining gap sites. If a block of sites are selected, then this field
will contain the site # for the first site in the block. If an entire
sequence is selected this field will contain the site # for the last site
in the sequence.
7.4.4 Menu Items
Alignment Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands for editing the sequence data in the
alignment grid. The commands are:
Align by ClustalW: This option is used to align the DNA or protein sequence
included in the current selection on the alignment grid. You will be prompted for
the alignment parameters (DNA or Protein) to be used in ClustalW; to accept the
parameters, press "OK". This initiates the ClustalW alignment system. Alignment
Builder then aligns the current selection in the alignment grid using the accepted
parameters.
Mark/Unmark Site: This marks or unmarks a single site in the alignment grid.
Each sequence in the alignment may only have one site marked at a time.
Modifications can be made to the alignment by marking two or more sites and
then aligning them using the Align Marked Sites function.
Align Marked Sites: This aligns marked sites. Two or more sites in the
alignment must be marked for this function to have an effect.
Unmark All Sites: This item unmark all currently marked sites across all
sequences in the alignment grid.
Delete Gap-Only Sites: This item deletes gap-only sites (site columns
containing gaps across all sequences) from the alignment grid.
Auto-Fill Gaps: If this item is checked, then the Alignment Builder will ensure
that all sequences in the alignment grid are the same length by padding shorter
sequences with gaps at the end.
Display Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands that control the display of toolbars in
the alignment grid. The commands in this menu are:
Toolbars: This contains a submenu of the toolbars found in Alignment Explorer.
If an item is checked, then its toolbar will be visible within the Alignment Explorer
window.
Use Colors: If checked, Alignment Explorer displays each unique base using a
unique color indicating the base type.
Background Color: If checked, then Alignment Explorer colors the background
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of each base with a unique color that represents the base type.
Font: The Font dialog window can be used to select the font used by Alignment
Explorer for displaying the sequence data in the alignment grid.
Edit Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands for editing the sequence data in the
alignment grid. The commands in this menu are:
Undo: This undoes the last Alignment Explorer action.
Copy: This copies the current selection to the clipboard. It may be used to copy a
single base, a block of bases, or entire sequences.
Cut: This removes the current selection from the Alignment Explorer and sends it
to the clipboard. This function can affect a single base, a block of bases, or entire
sequences.
Paste: This pastes the contents of the clipboard into the Alignment Explorer. If
the clipboard contains a block of bases, they will be pasted into the builder,
starting at the point of the current selection. If the clipboard contains complete
sequences, they will be added to the current alignment. For example, if the
contents of a FASTA file are copied from a web browser to the clipboard, they
will be pasted into the Alignment Explorer as a new sequence in the alignment.
Delete: This deletes a block of selected bases from the alignment grid.
Delete Gaps: This deletes gaps from a selected block of bases.
Insert Blank Sequence: This creates a new, empty sequence row in the
alignment grid. A label and sequence data must be provided for this new row.
Insert Sequence From File: This activates an Open File dialog box that allows
for the selection of a sequence data file. Once a suitable sequence data file is
selected, its contents will be imported into Alignment Explorer as new sequence
rows in the alignment grid.
Select Site(s): This selects the entire site column for each site within the current
selection in the alignment grid.
Select Sequences: This selects the entire sequence for each site within the
current selection in the alignment grid.
Select all: This selects all of the sites in the alignment grid.
Allow Base Editing: If this item is checked, it changes the base values for all
cells in the alignment grid. If it is not checked, then all bases in the alignment grid
are treated as read-only.
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Toolbars in Alignment Explorer
Basic Functions
This prepares Alignment Builder for a new alignment. Any
sequence data currently loaded into Alignment Builder is
discarded.
This activates the Open File dialog window. It is used to send
sequence data from a properly formatted file into Alignment
Builder.
This activates the Save Alignment Session dialog window. It may
be used to save the current state of the Alignment Builder into a file
so that it may be restored in the future.
This causes nucleotide sequences currently loaded into Alignment
Builder to be translated into their respective amino acid sequences.
Web/Data Explorer Functions
This displays the NCBI BLAST web site in the Web Explorer tab
window. If a sequence in the sequence grid is selected prior to
clicking this button, the Web Explorer will auto-fill the BLAST query
window with the selected sequence data.
This displays the default database (GenBank) in the Web Explorer
tab window.
This activates the Open Trace File dialog window, which may be
used to open and view a sequencer file. The sequence data from
the sequencer file then can be sent into Alignment Explorer.
Alignment Functions
This displays the ClustalW parameters dialog window, which is
used to configure ClustalW and initiate the alignment of the
selected sequence data. If you do not select sequence data prior to
clicking this button, a message box will appear asking if you would
like to select all of the currently loaded sequences.
This marks or unmarks the currently selected single site in the
alignment grid. Each sequence in the alignment may have only one
site marked at a time. Modifications can be made to the alignment
by marking two or more sites and then aligning them using the
Align Marked Sites function.
This button aligns marked sites. Two or more sites must be marked
in order for this function to have an effect.
Search Functions
This activates the Find Motif search box. When this box appears, it
asks you to enter a motif sequence (a small subsequence of a
larger sequence) as the search term. After the search term is
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entered, the Alignment Builder finds each occurrence of the search
term and indicates it with yellow highlighting. For example, if you
were to enter the motif "AGA" as the search term, then each
occurrence of "AGA" across all sequences in the sequence grid
would be highlighted in yellow.
This searches towards the beginning of the current sequence for
the first occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has
been performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search
box will appear.
This searches towards the end of the current sequence for the first
occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has been
performed prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will
appear.
This locates the marked site in the current sequence. If no site has
been marked, a warning box will appear.
Editing Functions
This undoes the last Alignment Builder action.
This copies the current selection to the clipboard. It may be used to
copy a single base, a block of bases, or entire sequences to the
clipboard.
This removes the current selection from the Alignment Builder and
sends it to the clipboard. This function can affect a single base, a
block of bases, or entire sequences.
This pastes the contents of the clipboard into the Alignment
Builder. If the clipboard contains a block of bases, it will be pasted
into the builder starting at the point of the current selection. If the
clipboard contains complete sequences they will be added to the
current alignment. For example, if the contents of a FASTA file
were copied to the clipboard from a web browser, it would be
pasted into Alignment Builder as a new sequence in the alignment.
This deletes a block of selected bases from the alignment grid.
This deletes gap-only sites (sites containing a gap across all
sequences in the alignment grid) from a selected block of bases.
Sequence Data Insertion Functions
This creates a new, empty sequence row in the alignment grid. A
label and sequence data must be provided for this new row.
This activates an Open File dialog box that allows for the selection
of a sequence data file. Once a suitable sequence data file is
selected, its contents will be imported into Alignment Builder as
new sequence rows in the alignment grid.
Site Number display on the status bar
Site #
The Site # field indicates the site represented by the current
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selection. If the w/o Gaps radio button is selected, then the
Alignment Builder will disregard the shifting affect of gaps when
determining gap sites. If a block of sites are selected, then this field
will contain the site # for the first site in the block. If an entire
sequence is selected this field will contain the site # for the last site
in the sequence.
Search Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu allows searching for sequence motifs and marked sites. The
commands in this menu are:
Find Motif: This activates the Find Motif search box. When this box appears, it
asks you to enter a motif sequence (a small subsequence of a larger sequence)
as the search term. After you enter the search term, the Alignment Explorer finds
each occurrence of it and indicates it with yellow highlighting. For example, if you
enter the motif "AGA" as the search term, then each occurrence of "AGA" across
all sequences in the sequence grid would be highlighted in yellow.
Find Next: This searches for the first occurrence of the motif search term
towards the end of the current sequence. If no motif search has been performed
prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will appear.
Find Previous: this search towards the beginning of the current sequence for the
first occurrence of the motif search term. If no motif search has been performed
prior to clicking this button, the Find Motif search box will appear.
Find Marked Site: This locates the marked site in the current sequence. If no
site has been marked for this sequence, a warning box will appear.
Highlight Motif: If this item is checked, then all occurrences of the text search
term (motif) are highlighted in the alignment grid.
Sequencer Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
Edit Sequencer File: This item displays the Open File dialog box used to open a
sequencer data file. Once opened, the sequencer data file is displayed in the
Trace Data File Viewer/Editor. This editor allows you to view and edit trace data
produced by the automated DNA sequencer. It reads and edits data in ABI and
Staden file formats and the sequences displayed can be added directly into the
Alignment Explorer or send to the Web Browser for conducting BLAST searches.
Web Menu (in Alignment Explorer)
This menu provides access to commands for querying GenBank and doing a
BLAST search, as well as access to the MEGA web Browser. The commands in
this menu are:
Query Gene Banks: This item starts the Web Browser and accesses the NCBI
home page (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
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Do BLAST Search: This item starts the Web Browser and accesses the NCBI
BLAST query page. If you select a sequence in the alignment grid prior to
selecting this item, the web browser will automatically copy the selected
sequence data into the search field.
Show Browser: This item will show the Web Browser.
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8 Appendix
8.1 Appendix A: Frequently Asked Questions
8.1.1 Computing statistics on only highlighted sites in Data Explorer
Go to the Statistics menu in the Sequence Data Explorer, and click on Use highlighted
sites only. Now all statistical quantities computed using the Statistics menu will be
based only on the highlighted sites.
8.1.2 Finding the number of sites in pair-wise comparisons
If you want to find the number of sites between pairs of sequences or the average
number of sites, then go to the Distance menu and select the desired distance type.
Then in Substitutions to Include, select an option regarding the number of sites.
8.1.3 Get more information about the codon based Z-test for selection
The codon based Z-test for selection can be done in two places. First, you can use the
Tests | Codon Based tests of selection | Z-test (large sample) option to find the
probability that the null hypothesis will be rejected, in addition to the actual value of the
Z-statistic. Alternatively, if you want to know the difference between s and n
(synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions and their variance, you can go to the
Distances | Pair-wise menu option and in the distance computation dialog, select an
appropriate method (e.g., Nei-Gojobori method) and then choose s-n (or n-s depending
on your need) from the Substitutions to include menu. Also, you can choose to compute
standard error.
8.1.4 Menus in MEGA are so short; where are all the options?
Our aim in developing the objectively driven user-interface of MEGA has been a clutterfree work environment that asks the user for information on a need-to-know basis
Although this modular analytical tool looks simple, behind each menu item is a wide
range of useful options and tools that come with enhancements that are designed to
reduce the amount of time needed for mundane non-technical tasks. Consider, for
example, the Sequence Data Explorer. This unique module is hidden away when you
don't want it but is always working behind the scenes. It allows you to view the data in
various ways, export data subsets, and compute many important basic statistical
quantities. Another interesting module is the Genetic Code selector, which allows you to
choose the depth at which you wish to work with a code table. With it you can select a
desired code table, add new data to and edit the existing code table, view the selected
code table in a conventional format, compute the degeneracy for each site in every
codon, and compute the number of potentially synonymous and non-synonymous sites
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
for each codon. In addition, you can always find help by checking the help index.
8.1.5 Writing only 4-fold degenerate sites to an output file
All sequence data subset facilities are accessible through the Export Data command in
the Sequence Data Explorer. To write 4-fold degenerate sites to a file, highlight the 4fold degenerate sites on the screen and then select Export Data. In that command,
choose to write only the highlighted sites. For example, if you select to write only the
third codon positions, all 4-fold degenerate sites found in the third codon positions will be
written to the file.
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Appendix
8.2 Appendix B: Main Menu Items and Dialogs
Reference
8.2.1 Main MEGA Menus
Main MEGA Window
The main window in MEGA contains a menu bar, a toolbar, and a data description
window (DDW). The menu bar may contain two or more menu items depending on
whether a data file is active and on the type of data being analyzed.
Menu Bar
Menus: Description
File menu
Use the File menu commands to open, save, close
data for analysis and for editing text files
Data menu
Use the View menu commands to display the active
data, edit different data attributes, and compute basic
statistical properties.
Distances
menu
Use the Distance menu commands to calculate
evolutionary distances and diversity.
Pattern menu
Use this menu to conduct tests and compute statistics
regarding the substitution pattern homogeneity among
lineages.
Selection
menu
Use this menu to conduct tests of selection.
Phylogeny
menu
Use the Phylogeny menu commands to calculate
evolutionary trees, test their reliability, and view saved
trees.
Alignment
menu
Use this menu to construct sequence alignments and
explore the world-wide-web.
Help menu
Use the Help menu to access the online help system,
which is displayed in a special help window.
Toolbar
This contains shortcuts to some frequently used menu commands, such as those in the
Data menu.
Data Description window
This displays a summary of the currently active data set.
File Data
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Open Data
File | Open Data
Choose this command to load a data file for analysis. A dialog box will appear to allow
you to give the data file name. MEGA will first read the data file to check if it contains the
Format command (see MEGA format), which specifies certain attributes of the input data
(e.g., type of data). If MEGA does not find sufficient information in the format command,
it will request the necessary information through an Input Data Format dialog.
If you attempt to open a dataset from a file and MEGA detects inconsistencies or errors
in the format, it will open the file in the text editor, allowing you to make changes in the
text file so that it conforms to the MEGA format.
Once a data file is opened successfully, the Open Data command will be disabled, some
of the file’s basic attributes will be displayed the bottom of the main window. To enable
the Open Data command, close the currently active data using the File | Close Data
command.
Open dialog box
Use the open dialog box to load new data into MEGA for analysis.
Property
Description
Look In
Lists the current directory. Use the drop-down list to select a
different drive or directory.
Files
Displays all files in the current directory matching the wildcards
given in File Name or the file type in Files Of Type. You can display
a list of files (default) or you can show details for each file.
File Name
Enter the data file name you want to load or type in the wildcards to
use as filters.
Files of Type
Choose the type of data file you want to open. At present MEGA
allows you to load in MEGA format files only, which should usually
have the .MEG extension.
Up One Level
Click this button to move you directory level up from the current
directory.
Create New
Folder
Click this button to create a new subdirectory in the current
directory.
List
Click this button to view a list of files and directories in the current
directory.
Details
Click this button to view a list of files and directories along with time
stamp, size, and attribute information.
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Open Data
File | Open Data
Choose this command to load a data file for analysis. A dialog box will appear to allow
you to give the data file name. MEGA will first read the data file to check if it contains the
Format command (see MEGA format), which specifies certain attributes of the input data
(e.g., type of data). If MEGA does not find sufficient information in the format command,
it will request the necessary information through an Input Data Format dialog.
If you attempt to open a dataset from a file and MEGA detects inconsistencies or errors
in the format, it will open the file in the text editor, allowing you to make changes in the
text file so that it conforms to the MEGA format.
Once a data file is opened successfully, the Open Data command will be disabled, some
of the file’s basic attributes will be displayed the bottom of the main window. To enable
the Open Data command, close the currently active data using the File | Close Data
command.
Open dialog box
Use the open dialog box to load new data into MEGA for analysis.
Property
Description
Look In
Lists the current directory. Use the drop-down list to select a
different drive or directory.
Files
Displays all files in the current directory matching the wildcards
given in File Name or the file type in Files Of Type. You can display
a list of files (default) or you can show details for each file.
File Name
Enter the data file name you want to load or type in the wildcards to
use as filters.
Files of Type
Choose the type of data file you want to open. At present MEGA
allows you to load in MEGA format files only, which should usually
have the .MEG extension.
Up One Level
Click this button to move you directory level up from the current
directory.
Create New
Folder
Click this button to create a new subdirectory in the current
directory.
List
Click this button to view a list of files and directories in the current
directory.
Details
Click this button to view a list of files and directories along with time
stamp, size, and attribute information.
Reopen Data
File | Reopen Data
This reopens a recently closed data file from the submenu, which shows the names of
the five most recently used data files.
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Open Data
File | Open Data
Choose this command to load a data file for analysis. A dialog box will appear to allow
you to give the data file name. MEGA will first read the data file to check if it contains the
Format command (see MEGA format), which specifies certain attributes of the input data
(e.g., type of data). If MEGA does not find sufficient information in the format command,
it will request the necessary information through an Input Data Format dialog.
If you attempt to open a dataset from a file and MEGA detects inconsistencies or errors
in the format, it will open the file in the text editor, allowing you to make changes in the
text file so that it conforms to the MEGA format.
Once a data file is opened successfully, the Open Data command will be disabled, some
of the file’s basic attributes will be displayed the bottom of the main window. To enable
the Open Data command, close the currently active data using the File | Close Data
command.
Open dialog box
Use the open dialog box to load new data into MEGA for analysis.
Property
Description
Look In
Lists the current directory. Use the drop-down list to select a
different drive or directory.
Files
Displays all files in the current directory matching the wildcards
given in File Name or the file type in Files Of Type. You can display
a list of files (default) or you can show details for each file.
File Name
Enter the data file name you want to load or type in the wildcards to
use as filters.
Files of Type
Choose the type of data file you want to open. At present MEGA
allows you to load in MEGA format files only, which should usually
have the .MEG extension.
Up One Level
Click this button to move you directory level up from the current
directory.
Create New
Folder
Click this button to create a new subdirectory in the current
directory.
List
Click this button to view a list of files and directories in the current
directory.
Details
Click this button to view a list of files and directories along with time
stamp, size, and attribute information.
Exit
File | Exit
This command closes the currently active data file and all other windows. If you want to
save changes to the data set displayed on the screen, before issuing this command you
must choose File | Export Data and Print or Save. Note that MEGA does not
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automatically save changes made to active data to the original data file.
Printer Setup
File | Printer Setup
Choose this command to change the properties of your printer.
Main MEGA Window
The main window in MEGA contains a menu bar, a toolbar, and a data description
window (DDW). The menu bar may contain two or more menu items depending on
whether a data file is active and on the type of data being analyzed.
Menu Bar
Menus: Description
File menu
Use the File menu commands to open, save, close
data for analysis and for editing text files
Data menu
Use the View menu commands to display the active
data, edit different data attributes, and compute basic
statistical properties.
Distances
menu
Use the Distance menu commands to calculate
evolutionary distances and diversity.
Pattern menu
Use this menu to conduct tests and compute statistics
regarding the substitution pattern homogeneity among
lineages.
Selection
menu
Use this menu to conduct tests of selection.
Phylogeny
menu
Use the Phylogeny menu commands to calculate
evolutionary trees, test their reliability, and view saved
trees.
Alignment
menu
Use this menu to construct sequence alignments and
explore the world-wide-web.
Help menu
Use the Help menu to access the online help system,
which is displayed in a special help window.
Toolbar
This contains shortcuts to some frequently used menu commands, such as those in the
Data menu.
Data Description window
This displays a summary of the currently active data set.
Data Menu
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Data Menu
This allows you to explore the active data set, and establish various data attributes, and
data subset options.
Data Explorer
Data | Data Explorer
Data Explorers used to view the currently active data set, calculate its basic statistical
attributes, export it in formats compatible with other programs, and define subsets for
analysis. Depending on the currently active data type, one of the following explorers will
be available:
Data Type
DNA, RNA, Protein
sequences
Evolutionary divergence
Explorer
Sequence Data Explorer
Distance Data Explorer
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
Data | Setup/Select Taxa & Groups
This invokes the Setup/Select Taxa & Groups dialog box for including or excluding taxa,
defining groups of taxa, and editing names of taxa and groups.
8.2.2 Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog
This dialog box has two sub-windows (Taxa/Groups and Ungrouped Taxa), a panel bar
between them containing a few buttons, and a command panel, with the lower part
containing the Add, Delete, Close, and Help buttons.
Taxa/Groups sub-window on the left: It shows all the currently defined taxa and group
names hierarchically. If a taxon has been assigned to a group, it will appear connected
to that group. Groups may be displayed in a collapsed format (indicated by a + mark
before their name). You can click '+' to expand the group to a listing of the taxa
contained in it, and click ‘–‘ to collapse the group to only view the group name. Groups
that do not contain any members do not have this box. Next is a checkbox indicating
whether a given group or taxon will be included in an analysis. Following that is an icon
indicating a taxon (single box) or a group (layer of boxes). Grayed out check boxes are
used to indicate that some of the taxa in a group are selected and others are unselected.
You can rearrange the order of taxa and groups using drag-and-drop. However, note
that this order is not automatically used in the Data Explorer. To enforce this order, use
the Sort command in the Data Explorer.
Ungrouped Taxa Sub-window on the right: This shows the names of all the taxa that do
not belong to any of the groups to facilitate your ability to move taxa into groups. If this
sub-window does not appear on your screen, then hold and drag the lower right corner
of the dialog box to expand its width to unhide it.
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Middle Command Panel: This resides between the above-mentioned two sub-windows
and contains a splitter on its right edge. You can grab the splitter and move it to change
the proportion of the space taken by the two sub-windows. In this panel left and right
arrow buttons are used to add or remove taxa from the groups. Clicking the hand-witha-pencil icon with a highlighted taxon or group name will allow you to edit that name.
Lower Command Panel: In the lower part of the Select/Edit Taxa/Groups window are
buttons that are used to add and/or delete groups. The ‘+’ and ‘–‘ buttons are also
present on the middle command panel.
Buttons
Description
Add
Creates a new group.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected group. Any
taxa that were assigned to the group will
become freestanding.
Ungroup
Makes all the taxa in the selected group
freestanding, but does not remove the
group from the list.
Close
Closes the dialog box.
Help
Brings up help regarding the dialog box.
How to perform functions:
Function
Description
Creating a new
group
Click on the Add button. Click on the
highlighted name of the group and type in a
new name.
Deleting a group
Select the group and click the Delete button.
Any taxa that were assigned to this group will
become freestanding.
Adding taxa to a
group
Drag-and-drop the taxon on the desired group
or select one or more taxa in the Ungrouped
Taxa window and click on the left arrow button
on the middle command panel.
Removing a taxon
from a group
Click on the taxon and drag-and-drop it into a
group (or outside all groups). Or, select the
taxon and click on the right arrow button on
the middle command panel.
Include/Exclude
taxa or groups
Click the checkbox next to the group or taxa
name.
Include Codon Positions
Data | Select Preferences | Include Codon Positions
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Use this menu item to specify the codon positions you would like to include in the
nucleotide sequence analysis. You can include any combination of 1st, 2nd, 3rd positions
and non-coding sites. The specified options are used only if you conduct a nucleotideby-nucleotide site analysis. If relevant, you will be given this choice in the dialog box
that appears in response to a requested analysis (e.g., distance computation or
phylogenetic reconstruction). Thus, you have the flexibility to select or change
appropriate options at the time of the analysis.
Include Labeled Sites
Data | Select Preferences | Include Labeled Sites
Use this to specify whether to include only the labeled sites in the analysis and, if so,
which ones. This option is available only if you have some sites labeled. If relevant, you
also will be given this choice in the dialog box that appears in response to a requested
analysis (e.g., a distance computation or phylogenetic reconstruction). Thus, you have
the flexibility to select or change appropriate options at the time of the analysis.
8.2.3 Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog
This dialog box has two sub-windows (Taxa/Groups and Ungrouped Taxa), a panel bar
between them containing a few buttons, and a command panel, with the lower part
containing the Add, Delete, Close, and Help buttons.
Taxa/Groups sub-window on the left: It shows all the currently defined taxa and group
names hierarchically. If a taxon has been assigned to a group, it will appear connected
to that group. Groups may be displayed in a collapsed format (indicated by a + mark
before their name). You can click '+' to expand the group to a listing of the taxa
contained in it, and click ‘–‘ to collapse the group to only view the group name. Groups
that do not contain any members do not have this box. Next is a checkbox indicating
whether a given group or taxon will be included in an analysis. Following that is an icon
indicating a taxon (single box) or a group (layer of boxes). Grayed out check boxes are
used to indicate that some of the taxa in a group are selected and others are unselected.
You can rearrange the order of taxa and groups using drag-and-drop. However, note
that this order is not automatically used in the Data Explorer. To enforce this order, use
the Sort command in the Data Explorer.
Ungrouped Taxa Sub-window on the right: This shows the names of all the taxa that do
not belong to any of the groups to facilitate your ability to move taxa into groups. If this
sub-window does not appear on your screen, then hold and drag the lower right corner
of the dialog box to expand its width to unhide it.
Middle Command Panel: This resides between the above-mentioned two sub-windows
and contains a splitter on its right edge. You can grab the splitter and move it to change
the proportion of the space taken by the two sub-windows. In this panel left and right
arrow buttons are used to add or remove taxa from the groups. Clicking the hand-witha-pencil icon with a highlighted taxon or group name will allow you to edit that name.
Lower Command Panel: In the lower part of the Select/Edit Taxa/Groups window are
buttons that are used to add and/or delete groups. The ‘+’ and ‘–‘ buttons are also
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Appendix
present on the middle command panel.
Buttons
Description
Add
Creates a new group.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected group. Any taxa that were assigned to
the group will become freestanding.
Ungroup
Makes all the taxa in the selected group freestanding, but does not
remove the group from the list.
Close
Closes the dialog box.
Help
Brings up help regarding the dialog box.
How to perform functions:
Function
Description
Creating a new
group
Click on the Add button. Click on the highlighted name of the
group and type in a new name.
Deleting a group
Select the group and click the Delete button. Any taxa that
were assigned to this group will become freestanding.
Adding taxa to a
group
Drag-and-drop the taxon on the desired group or select one or
more taxa in the Ungrouped Taxa window and click on the left
arrow button on the middle command panel.
Removing a taxon
from a group
Click on the taxon and drag-and-drop it into a group (or outside
all groups). Or, select the taxon and click on the right arrow
button on the middle command panel.
Include/Exclude
taxa or groups
Click the checkbox next to the group or taxa name.
Handling Gaps and Missing Data
Data | Select Preferences | Handling Gaps and Missing Data
Use this to specify whether to use the Pair-wise-Deletion or the Complete- Deletion
option for handling alignment gaps and missing data. You also can specify these
options in the dialog box that appears in response to a requested analysis (e.g., distance
computation or phylogenetic reconstruction). Therefore, you have the flexibility to select
or change appropriate options at the time of the analysis.
Select Preferences
Data | Select Preferences
This submenu specifies (1) how the alignment gaps and missing data will be handled,
(2) which codon positions will be used, and (3) whether to restrict the analysis to the
sites with selected labels. One or more of these options may be disabled depending on
the attributes of the data set. For instance, the selection of codon positions is not valid
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
when amino acid sequence data is being analyzed.
These options also are available in the Options dialog box that appears in response to a
requested analysis (e.g., distance computation or phylogenetic reconstruction). Thus,
you have the flexibility to select and change appropriate options at the time of the
analysis.
Distances Menu
Use this menu to compute: pair-wise and average distances between sequences; within,
between, and net average distances among groups; and sequence diversity statistics for
data from multiple populations.
Choose Model
Distances | Choose Model…
Choose this to select a specific model of change for computing distances. The model
also can be chosen or changed in the dialog box that appears when you request an
analysis, such as distance computation or phylogenetic reconstruction.
Compute Pair-wise
Distances | Compute Pair-wise…
Choose this to compute the distances and standard errors between pairs of taxa. A
Select Distance Options dialog, in which you can choose the desired distance estimation
method and other relevant options, will appear.
Compute Overall Mean
Distances | Compute Overall Mean…
This calculates the mean pair-wise distance and standard error for the set of sequences
under study. The overall mean is the arithmetic mean of all individual pair-wise distances
between taxa. A Select Distance Options dialog, in which you can choose the desired
distance estimation method and other relevant options, will appear. Before using the
bootstrap method to compute standard error, please read how MEGA implements the
bootstrap method for this purpose.
Compute Within Groups Mean
Distances | Compute Within Groups Means…
This computes the mean pair-wise distances within groups of taxa. The within group
means are arithmetic means of all individual pair-wise distances between taxa within a
group. A Select Distance Options dialog, in which you can choose the desired distance
estimation method and other relevant options, appears. You must have at least one
group of taxa, with a minimum of two taxa defined, to utilize this option.
Compute Sequence Diversity
Distances | Compute Sequence Diversity
The Sequence Diversity submenu provides four commands for computing the population
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Appendix
and subpopulation diversities that are useful in molecular population genetics studies.
First, you define a group, using a population of sequences. Unlike the generic averages
of within group, between group, and net between group distances calculated using other
commands in the Distances menu, formulas used in the following commands are those
used specifically in population genetics analyses.
The commands are:
Mean Diversity within Subpopulations
In a subpopulation, the mean diversity is defined as
where is the frequency of i-th sequence in the sample
from subpopulation i, and q is the number of different sequences in this
subpopulation.
Mean Diversity for Entire Population
For the entire population, the mean diversity is defined as
, where is the estimate of average frequency of the i-th
allele in the entire population, and q is the number of different sequences in the
entire sample.
Mean Interpopulational Diversity
The estimate of inter-populational diversity is given by
.
Coefficient of Differentiation
The estimate of the proportion of interpopulational diversity is given by
.
Compute Net Between Groups Means
Distances | Compute Net Between Groups Means…
This command computes the net average distances between groups of taxa. The net
average distance between two groups is given by
dA = dXY – ((dX + dY)/2)
Where, dXY is the average distance between groups X and Y, and dX and dY are the
mean within-group distances. A Select Distance Options dialog, in which you can
choose the desired distance estimation method and other relevant options, will appear.
You must have at least two groups of taxa with a minimum of two taxa each for this
option to work.
Compute Between Groups Means
Distances | Compute Between Groups Means…
This computes the average distances between groups of taxa. The average distance is
the arithmetic mean of all pair-wise distances between two groups in the inter-group
comparisons. A Select Distance Options dialog, in which you can choose the desired
distance estimation method and other relevant options, will appear. You must have at
least two groups of taxa for this option to work.
Phylogeny Menu
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Phylogeny Menu
Use the Phylogeny menu to construct phylogenetic trees, infer their reliability using the
bootstrap and interior branch tests, conduct molecular clock tests, and view previously
constructed trees.
Bootstrap Test of Phylogeny
Phylogeny | Bootstrap Test of Phylogeny
One of the most commonly used tests of the reliability of an inferred tree is Felsenstein's
(1985) bootstrap test, which is evaluated using Efron's (1982) bootstrap resampling
technique. If there are m sequences, each with n nucleotides (or codons or amino
acids), a phylogenetic tree can be reconstructed using some tree building method. From
each sequence, n nucleotides are randomly chosen with replacements, giving rise to m
rows of n columns each. These now constitute a new set of sequences. A tree is then
reconstructed with these new sequences using the same tree building method as before.
Next the topology of this tree is compared to that of the original tree. Each interior
branch of the original tree that is different from the bootstrap tree the sequence it
partitions is given a score of 0; all other interior branches are given the value 1. This
procedure of resampling the sites and the subsequent tree reconstruction is repeated
several hundred times, and the percentage of times each interior branch is given a value
of 1 is noted. This is known as the bootstrap value. As a general rule, if the bootstrap
value for a given interior branch is 95% or higher, then the topology at that branch is
considered "correct". See Nei and Kumar (2000) (chapter 9) for further details.
This test is available for four different methods: Neighbor Joining, Minimum Evolution,
Maximum Parsimony, and UPGMA.
Interior Branch Test of Phylogeny
Phylogeny | Interior Branch Test of Phylogeny
A t-test, which is computed using the bootstrap procedure, is constructed based on the
interior branch length and its standard error and is available only for the NJ and
Minimum Evolution trees. MEGA shows the confidence probability in the Tree Explorer;
if this value is greater than 95% for a given branch, then the inferred length for that
branch is considered significantly positive.
See Nei and Kumar (2000) (chapter 9) for further details.
Display Saved Tree Session
Phylogeny | Display Saved Tree Session…
Use this command to display a previously saved Tree Explorer session (saved in a
filename with .MTS extension).
Display Newick Trees from File
Phylogeny | Display Newick Trees from File…
Use this to retrieve and display one or more trees written in Newick format. Multiple
trees can be displayed, and their consensus built, in the Tree Explorer. MEGA supports
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Appendix
the display of Newick format trees containing branch lengths as well as bootstrap or
other counts (note that the Newick formats do not contain the total number of bootstrap
replications conducted).
Relative Rate Tests
Phylogeny | Relative Rate Tests
This submenu provides access to a test of the constancy of evolutionary rates between
two sequences or clusters of sequences, using an out-group sequence.
Tajima's Test (Relative Rate)
Phylogeny | Relative Rate Tests | Tajima’s Test
Use this to conduct Tajima’s relative rate test (Tajima 1993), which works in the following
way. Consider three sequences, 1, 2 and 3, and let 3 be the out-group. Let nijk be the
observed number of sites in which sequences 1, 2 and 3 have nucleotides i, j and k.
Under the molecular clock hypothesis, E(nijk) = E(njik) irrespective of the substitution
model and whether or not the substitution rate varies with the site. If this hypothesis is
rejected, then the molecular clock hypothesis can be rejected for this set of sequences.
In response to this command, you can select the three sequences for conducting
Tajima’s test. For nucleotide sequences, this test offers the flexibility of using only
transitions, only transversions, or both. If the data is protein coding, then you can
choose to analyze translated sequences or any combination of codon positions by
clicking on the ‘Data for Analysis’ button.
See Nei and Kumar (2000) (page 193-196) for further description and an example.
Construct Phylogeny
Neighbor-Joining (NJ) Method
This method (Saitou and Nei 1987) is a simplified version of the minimum
evolution (ME) method (Rzhetsky and Nei 1992). The ME method uses distance
measures that correct for multiple hits at the same sites; it chooses a topology
showing the smallest value of the sum of all branches (S) as an estimate of the
correct tree. However, construction of an ME tree is time-consuming because, in
principle, the S values for all topologies must be evaluated. Because the number
of possible topologies (unrooted trees) rapidly increases with the number of taxa,
it becomes very difficult to examine all topologies.
In the case of the NJ method, the S value is not computed for all or many
topologies, but the examination of different topologies is embedded in the
algorithm, so that only one final tree is produced. The algorithm of the NJ method
is somewhat complicated and is explained in detail in Nei and Kumar (2000,
page 103).
The NJ method produces an unrooted tree because it does not require the
assumption of a constant rate of evolution. Finding the root requires an
outgroup taxon. In the absence of outgroup taxa, the root is sometimes given at
the midpoint of the longest distance connecting two taxa in the tree, which is
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
referred to as mid-point rooting.
Minimum Evolution (Construct Phylogeny)
Phylogeny | Construct Phylogeny | Minimum Evolution…
This command is used to construct a phylogenetic tree under the minimum evolution
criterion. In this method the sum, S, of all branch length estimates, i.e.
S = ∑bi,
is computed for all plausible topologies, and the topology that has the smallest S value is
chosen as the best tree: the ME tree. This criterion does not require the assumption of
evolutionary rate constancy as needed in the UPGMA analysis. Therefore the inferred
phylogenetic tree is an unrooted tree, even though, for ease of inspection, it is often
displayed in a manner similar to rooted trees.
MEGA employs the Close-Neighbor-Interchange (CNI) algorithm to find the ME tree.
This is a branch swapping method, which begins with a given initial tree. You can ask
MEGA to automatically construct a Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and use that as the
starting tree. Alternatively, you can provide your own topology. Note that the final tree
produced after this search is not guaranteed to be the ME tree. These options are
available in the ME Tree Tab of the Analysis Preferences dialog box, which is displayed
before the phylogenetic analysis begins. This dialog box also allows you to specify the
distance estimation method, subset of sites to include, and whether to conduct a test of
the inferred tree.
Maximum Parsimony (MP) Method
Maximum parsimony (MP) methods originally were developed for morphological
characters, and there are many different versions (see Nei and Kumar [2000] for
a review). In MEGA, we consider both of these methods for nucleotide and
amino acid sequence data (Eck and Dayhoff 1966; Fitch 1971).
For constructing an MP tree, only sites at which there are at least two different kinds of
nucleotides or amino acids, each represented at least twice, are used (parsimonyinformative sites). Other variable sites are not used for constructing an MP tree,
although they are informative for distance and maximum-likelihood methods.
MEGA estimates MP tree branch lengths by using the average pathway method
for unrooted trees (see Nei and Kumar [2000], page 132).
To search for MP Trees, MEGA provides three different types of searches: the
max-mini branch-and-bound search, min-mini heuristic search, and closeneighbor-interchange heuristic search. Only the branch-and-bound search is
guaranteed to find all the MP trees, but it takes prohibitive amount of time if the
number of sequences is large (>15). For details, please see chapter 7 in Nei and
Kumar (2000)
UPGMA
This method assumes that the rate of nucleotide or amino acid substitution is the
same for all evolutionary lineages. An interesting aspect of this method is that it
produces a tree that mimics a species tree, with the branch lengths for two OTUs
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being the same after their separation. Because of the assumption of a constant
rate of evolution, this method produces a rooted tree, though it is possible to
remove the root for certain purposes. The algorithm for UPGMA is discussed in
detail in Nei and Kumar (2000, page 87).
Selection Menu
Tajima's Test of Neutrality
Selection | Tajima’s Test of Neutrality
This conducts Tajima’s test of neutrality (Tajima 1989), which compares the number of
segregating sites per site with the nucleotide diversity. (A site is considered segregating
if, in a comparison of m sequences, there are two or more nucleotides at that site;
nucleotide diversity is defined as the average number of nucleotide differences per site
between two sequences). If all the alleles are selectively neutral, then the product 4Nv
(where N is the effective population size and v is the mutation rate per site) can be
estimated in two ways, and the difference in the estimate obtained provides an indication
of non-neutral evolution. Please see Nei and Kumar (2000) (page 260-261) for further
description.
Codon Based Z-Test (large sample)
Selection | Codon Based Z-test (large sample)
One way to test whether positive selection is operating on a gene is to compare the
relative abundance of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions that have
occurred in the gene sequences. For a pair of sequences, this is done by first estimating
the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and the number of
non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN), and their variances:
Var(dS) and Var(dN), respectively. With this information, we can test the null hypothesis
that H0: dN = dS using a Z-test:
Z = (dN - dS) / SQRT(Var(dS) + Var(dN))
The level of significance at which the null hypothesis is rejected depends on the
alternative hypothesis (HA)
H0:
dN = dS
HA:
(a)
dN ≠ dS
(test of neutrality).
(b)
dN > d S
(positive selection).
(c)
dN < dS
(purifying selection).
For alternative hypotheses (b) and (c), we use a one-tailed test and for (a) we use a twotailed test. These three tests can be conducted directly for pairs of sequences, overall
sequences, or within groups of sequences. For testing for selection in a pair-wise
manner, you can compute the variance of (dN - dS) by using either the analytical formulas
or the bootstrap resampling method.
For data sets containing more than two sequences, you can compute the average number
of synonymous substitutions and the average number of non-synonymous substitutions to
conduct a Z-test in a manner similar to the one mentioned above. The variance of the
difference between these two quantities is estimated by the bootstrap method (See Nei
and Kumar (2000) page 55).
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Codon Based Fisher's Exact Test
Selection | Codon Based Fisher’s Exact Test
This provides a test of selection based on the comparison of the numbers of
synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions between sequences. Use this
command to conduct a small sample test of positive selection (Zhang et al. 1997): a onetailed Fisher’s Exact test. If the resulting P -value is less than 0.05, then the null
hypothesis of neutral evolution (strictly neutral and purifying selection) is rejected. If the
observed number of synonymous differences per synonymous site (pS) exceeds the
number of non-synonymous differences per non-synonymous site (pN) then MEGA sets
P = 1 to indicate purifying selection, rather than positive selection.
See Nei and Kumar (2000) (page 56) for further description and an example.
Alignment Menu
Alignment Menu
This menu provides access to options for viewing and building DNA and protein
sequence alignments and for exploring the web based databases (e.g., NCBI Query and
BLAST searches) in the MEGA environment.
Alignment Explorer/CLUSTAL
Alignment | Alignment Explorer/CLUSTAL
This option displays the Alignment Explorer, which can be used to view and build DNA
and protein sequence alignments and to explore the web based databases (e.g., NCBI
Query and BLAST searches) in the MEGA environment.
Query Databanks
Alignment | Query Databanks
Use this to open the MEGA web-browser to search the NCBI and other web sites for
sequence data.
Show Web Browser
Alignment | Show Web Browser
Use this option to launch the MEGA Web Browser.
View/Edit Sequencer Files
Alignment | View/Edit Sequencer Files
Use this option to view/edit the sequence data in ABI (*.abi and .ab1) and Staden (.scf)
files. The Alignment Explorer provides this option directly.
Help Menu
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Help Menu
This menu provides access to the help index as well as the About dialog box, which
provides version information for MEGA.
Index
Help | Index
This command provides access to the help file index and keyword searching facilities.
About
Help | About…
This command will display the About dialog box showing the copyright, authors, and
version information for MEGA.
8.2.4 MEGA Dialogs
Input Data Format Dialog
The Input Data Format dialog is displayed if MEGA does not find enough information
about the type of data included in the input file.
Data Type
This displays the list of data types that MEGA is able to analyze. Highlight the current
data type by clicking on it. Depending on the type of data selected, you may need to
provide information about the following additional items.
For Sequence Data
•
Missing Data
Character used to show missing data in the data file; it should be set to a question
mark (?).
•
Alignment Gap
Character used to represent gaps inserted in the multiple sequence alignment; it is
set to a dash (-) by default.
•
Identical Symbol
Character used to represent identity with the first sequence in the data files; it is set
to a dot (.) by default.
For Pair-wise Distance Data
•
Missing Data
Character used to show missing data in the data file; it should be set to a question
mark (?).
•
Matrix Format
Choose the lower-left or upper-right distance matrix for the pair-wise distance data
type.
Note: To avoid having to answer these questions every time you read your data file,
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save the data by exporting it in MEGA format.
Setup/Select Taxa & Groups Dialog
This dialog box has two sub-windows (Taxa/Groups and Ungrouped Taxa), a panel bar
between them containing a few buttons, and a command panel, with the lower part
containing the Add, Delete, Close, and Help buttons.
Taxa/Groups sub-window on the left: It shows all the currently defined taxa and group
names hierarchically. If a taxon has been assigned to a group, it will appear connected
to that group. Groups may be displayed in a collapsed format (indicated by a + mark
before their name). You can click '+' to expand the group to a listing of the taxa
contained in it, and click ‘–‘ to collapse the group to only view the group name. Groups
that do not contain any members do not have this box. Next is a checkbox indicating
whether a given group or taxon will be included in an analysis. Following that is an icon
indicating a taxon (single box) or a group (layer of boxes). Grayed out check boxes are
used to indicate that some of the taxa in a group are selected and others are unselected.
You can rearrange the order of taxa and groups using drag-and-drop. However, note
that this order is not automatically used in the Data Explorer. To enforce this order, use
the Sort command in the Data Explorer.
Ungrouped Taxa Sub-window on the right: This shows the names of all the taxa that do
not belong to any of the groups to facilitate your ability to move taxa into groups. If this
sub-window does not appear on your screen, then hold and drag the lower right corner
of the dialog box to expand its width to unhide it.
Middle Command Panel: This resides between the above-mentioned two sub-windows
and contains a splitter on its right edge. You can grab the splitter and move it to change
the proportion of the space taken by the two sub-windows. In this panel left and right
arrow buttons are used to add or remove taxa from the groups. Clicking the hand-witha-pencil icon with a highlighted taxon or group name will allow you to edit that name.
Lower Command Panel: In the lower part of the Select/Edit Taxa/Groups window are
buttons that are used to add and/or delete groups. The ‘+’ and ‘–‘ buttons are also
present on the middle command panel.
Buttons
Description
Add
Creates a new group.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected group. Any taxa that were
assigned to the group will become freestanding.
Ungroup
Makes all the taxa in the selected group freestanding, but does
not remove the group from the list.
Close
Closes the dialog box.
Help
Brings up help regarding the dialog box.
How to perform functions:
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Function
Description
Creating a new
group
Click on the Add button. Click on the
highlighted name of the group and type in a
new name.
Deleting a group
Select the group and click the Delete button.
Any taxa that were assigned to this group will
become freestanding.
Adding taxa to a
group
Drag-and-drop the taxon on the desired group
or select one or more taxa in the Ungrouped
Taxa window and click on the left arrow button
on the middle command panel.
Removing a taxon
from a group
Click on the taxon and drag-and-drop it into a
group (or outside all groups). Or, select the
taxon and click on the right arrow button on
the middle command panel.
Include/Exclude
taxa or groups
Click the checkbox next to the group or taxa
name.
Setup/Select Genes & Domains Dialog
Use the Gene & Domain Editor to inspect, define, and select domains, and genes, and
labels for individual sites.
The Genes & Domains dialog consists of two tabs: Define/Edit/Select and Site Labels.
Define/Edit/Select tab
This tab contains a hierarchical listing of gene and domain names with the
corresponding information organized into four columns for amino acid sequences and six
columns for nucleotide sequences.
Gene and domain name listing
Each line in this display contains a small 'expand/contract' box, a checkbox, a
gene/domain icon, and the name of the gene or domain. The 'expand/contract' box
allows you to display or hide the information below a given gene. The checkbox shows if
the gene or domain is currently selected for analysis. All defined genes and domains
appear below the Genes\Domain node in the hierarchy. All domain names are shown
with a yellow background. The Independent node shows the number of Independent
sites, which are not assigned to any domains or genes.
If your input data file does not contain any domains, then MEGA automatically creates a
domain called Data. If you wish to create new domains, you should delete the Data
domain to make all sites independent. Remember that only independent sites can be
assigned to domains, and sites cannot be assigned to multiple domains. Genes are
simply collections of domains, and thus gene boundaries are decided based on the
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domains contained in them. The MEGA gene and domain organizer is flexible and is
designed to enable you to specify genes and domains as they appear in a genome. For
instance, a sequence may contain one or more genes, each of which may contain one or
more domains. In between genes, there may be inter-genetic domains. In addition,
within or between genes or domains, there may be sites that are not members of any
domain.
At the bottom of this tab, you will find a toolbar with many drop-down menu buttons,
which can be used to Add/Insert new genes or domains. The add and insert operations
differ in the following way. If you add a gene or domain, then the new gene or domain
will be added at the end of the list to which the currently focused gene or domain
belongs. If you insert a gene (or domain), it will be inserted by shifting all the following
genes or domains down. Add and Insert commands are context sensitive.
You can rearrange the relative position of genes and domains by drag-and-drop
operations.
Inspecting/modifying attributes of genes and domains
When you start, all genes and domains are shown. Click on the ‘+’ in the
expand/contract box to expand the listing for each gene to its domains. Click on the ‘-‘ to
collapse to the gene. To select and deselect genes or domains from analysis, click in the
corresponding checkbox. When a gene is selected but some domains within the gene
are not, the checkbox for the gene will be grayed. If you deselect a gene, all domains
within that gene are automatically deselected.
On the right side of the gene and domain hierarchy, you will find at least four columns of
information for each domain and gene. All information shown for genes is computed
based on the domains contained.
The first two columns show the site number in the sequence where the domain begins
(From column) and where it ends (To column). The total number of sites shown next to
the To column indicates the total number of sites automatically computed, based on the
range of information given in the previous two columns. A question mark (?) shows that
the domain exists but that the range of sites is not yet specified.
To specify or change sites that belong to a given domain, click on the domain name.
The corresponding rows in the From and the To columns contain a button with three
dots (ellipses). To change the start site, click on the ellipses in the From column. This
will bring up a small Site Picker dialog box with which you can highlight the desired site
and click OK. In this viewer, you will see that sites have different background colors. A
white background marks independent sites, a red background indicates that the site is
used by another domain, and a yellow background shows that the current site belongs to
the domain being edited. To cancel any changes, click on Cancel in the Site Picker
dialog box.
For nucleotide sequences, two additional columns are found in the Define/Edit/Select
tab: the Coding column and the Codon Start column. A check-mark in the Coding
column shows that a given domain is protein coding. If it is checked, then the next
column allows you to specify whether the first site in the domain is in the first, second, or
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the third codon position.
Site Labels Tab
This tab displays sequences and allows you to label individual sites. To do this, change
the default underscore (_) in the topmost line to the label of choice and give it a light
green background. The site number will be displayed below in a window, next to which
is shown the name of the domain, along with gene, name. Labeled sites can be
selected or deselected for analysis.
To change or give a label to a site, click on the site and type in the character you wish to
mark it with. You can use the left and right arrow buttons on the keyboard to move to
and then label adjacent sites. To change a label, simply overtype it. To remove a label,
use the spacebar to type a space.
Example
Imagine an alignment consisting of a genomic sequence, including a gene and its
upstream and downstream regions. You can define each intron and exon as a domain,
and then define the overall gene, assigning the exons and introns to that gene. The
upstream and downstream regions also can be defined as domains, or possibly multiple
domains, depending on the analysis you wish to perform. These domains do not have to
be assigned to any gene. Furthermore, some sites may be left unassigned, as
independent sites. These can be scattered throughout the sequence and can be
included or excluded from analysis as a group. If you have a complicated patterns of
sites you wish to analyze as groups, and the domain gene approach is unsuitable, you
should assign a category to these sites, which can be specified in addition to the groups
and domains.
Select Genetic Code Table Dialog
This dialog selects the desired genetic code, and edits and displays the properties of the
genetic codes. At present only one genetic code can be selected in MEGA at any given
time; it is used for all coding regions in all sequences in the data set.
To select a genetic code, click in the square box to its left.
You can also highlight any genetic code by clicking on the text.
You can then use the following buttons found along the top of the dialog box:
Button
Add
Delete
Edit
View
Statistics
Description
Creates a new genetic code table. A code table editor will be shown with
the genetic code of the currently highlighted code table loaded.
Removes the highlighted genetic code from the list. Note that the
standard genetic code cannot be deleted.
Modifies the highlighted genetic code or its name. The code table editor
will be invoked for editing the genetic code.
Displays the highlighted genetic code in a printable format.
Displays the number of synonymous and non-synonymous sites for the
codons of the highlighted genetic code following the Nei-Gojobori (1986)
method. The degeneracy values for the first, second, and third codon
positions are displayed following Li et al. (1985).
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8.3 Appendix C: Error Messages
8.3.1 Blank Names Are Not Permitted
As this error message suggests, you cannot leave the name of a sequence, taxa,
domain, or gene blank.
8.3.2 Data File Parsing Error
An error occurred while parsing the input data file. Pay close attention to the message
provided, then look for the error that occurred just prior to the event indicated in the file.
8.3.3 Dayhoff/JTT Distance Could Not Be Computed
The Dayhoff/JTT matrix-based correction could not be applied for one or more pairs of
sequences. If you wish to know which pair(s), use the Distances|Pair-wise option. They
will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog with a red n/c (not computable).
8.3.4 Domains Cannot Overlap
Any given site can belong to only one domain, at most. If you would like to assign a site
or range of sites belonging to one domain to a second domain, you must first change or
delete the definition of the first domain.
8.3.5 Equal Input Correction Failed
This error message means that, the Equal Input Model-based correction could not be
applied for the amino acid distances estimation. If you wish to know which pair(s) of
sequences has this problem, use the Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be
shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog with a red n/c (not computable).
8.3.6 Fisher's Exact Test Has Failed
Fisher's exact test uses estimates of the number of synonymous sites (S), the number of
non-synonymous sites (N), the number of synonymous differences (Sd), and the number
of non-synonymous differences (Nd). It fails for a number of reasons. If the numbers are
very large, some mathematical functions may not be able to handle them, although we
have tried to avoid this by using logarithms of factorials. To diagnose the problem,
compute S, N, Sd, and Nd using the Distances|Pair-wise option four times. If you still
cannot find the problem, please contact us
8.3.7 Gamma Distance Failed Because p > 0.99
For amino acid distance estimation, if the proportion of amino acids between two
sequences that are different has exceeded 99%, the gamma distance cannot be
calculated. To know which pair(s) of sequences has this problem, use the
Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog
with a red n/c.
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8.3.8 Gene Names Must Be Unique
MEGA requires that all gene names in a genome be unique, although, for convenience,
many domains can have the same name. For example, you may want to give the name
Exon-1 to the first exon in all genes.
8.3.9 Inapplicable Computation Requested
You have requested a computation that is not allowed or is unavailable for the currently
active dataset. If you think that this is in error, then please report this potential software
bug to us.
8.3.10 Incorrect Command Used
The selected command or option is not valid here. Please look at the brief description
provided in the error message window to determine the nature of the problem.
8.3.11 Invalid special symbol in molecular sequences
Unique ASCII characters, except letters and '*', can be used as special symbols for
alignment gaps, missing data, and identical sites. Frequently used symbols for identical
sites, alignment gaps, and missing data are '.', '-', and '?', respectively. This error
message means that you have attempted to use the same symbols for two or more of
these types of sites, or a chosen symbol is not appropriate. For example, do not use N
(the ambiguous site symbol for DNA/RNA sequences), or X (the ambiguous site symbol
for protein sequences) because they are already available as the IUPAC symbols for
molecular sequences.
8.3.12 Jukes-Cantor Distance Failed
The Jukes-Cantor correction is used to calculate nucleotide distances and synonymous
and non-synonymous substitution distances. If the proportion of sites that are different
(nucleotides, synonymous, or non-synonymous) is greater than or equal to 75%, the
Jukes-Cantor correction cannot be applied. If you see this error message, then this has
happened for one or more pairs in your data. If you wish to know which pair(s), use the
Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog
with a red n/c.
8.3.13 Kimura Distance Failed
The Kimura (1980) distance correction is used in a number of operations, including
calculating nucleotide distances and synonymous and non-synonymous substitution
distances. These formulas cannot be applied if the argument in the logarithm
approaches zero or becomes negative. If you see this error message, then this has
happened for one or more pairs in your data. If you wish to know which pair(s), use the
Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog
with a red n/c.
8.3.14 LogDet Distance Could Not Be Computed
The formula used for calculating distances contains many log terms. If some of their
arguments approach zero too closely or become negative the LogDet correction cannot
be applied. If you wish to know which pair(s) of sequences has this problem, use the
Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog
with a red n/c (not computable).
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
8.3.15 Missing data or invalid distances in the matrix
The selected set of taxa contains one or more pairs for which the evolutionary distance
is either invalid or not available. Please inspect the distance data in the Data Explorer to
identify those pairs and remove one or more taxa, as needed.
8.3.16 No Common Sites
For the sequences and data subset options selected, MEGA found zero common sites.
If you selected the complete deletion option then you might achieve better results using
the pair-wise deletion option, as complete deletion removes all sites containing a gap
in any part of the alignment. If you selected the pair-wise deletion option then MEGA
was unable to calculate the distance between one and several of the sequence pairs in
the alignment. To identify such pairs compute a pair-wise distance matrix using the pdistance method and look for the word "n/c" in place of the pair-wise distance value.
8.3.17 Not Enough Groups Selected
The currently active dataset or subset does not contain enough groups to conduct the
desired analysis. Please define or select more groups using the Setup Taxa and Groups
Dialog.
8.3.18 Not Enough Taxa Selected
The currently active dataset or subset does not contain enough sequences or taxa to
conduct the desired analysis. Please add or select more sequences.
8.3.19 Not Yet Implemented
The task you requested was not activated. This function either was not being available
in your release of MEGA or needs to be activated by us. Please contact the authors and
report this software bug at your earliest convenience.
8.3.20 p distance is found to be > 1
This peculiar situation can occur in the computation of the proportion of synonymous (or
non-synonymous) substitutions per site, especially when the number of included codons
is small. If you wish to know which pair(s) of sequences has this problem, please use
the Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix
Dialog with a red n/c.
The Kimura (1980) distance correction is used in a number of operations, including
calculating nucleotide distances and synonymous and non-synonymous substitution
distances. These formulas cannot be applied if the argument in the logarithm
approaches zero or becomes negative. If you see this error message, then this has
happened for one or more pairs in your data. If you wish to know which pair(s), use the
Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog
with a red n/c.
8.3.21 Poisson Correction Failed because p > 0.99
For an amino acid estimation of distances, the proportion of amino acids that differ
between two sequences has exceeded 99% and the Poisson correction distance formula
cannot be applied. If you wish to know which pair(s) of sequences has this problem, use
the Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix
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Appendix
Dialog with a red n/c (not computable).
8.3.22 Tajima-Nei Distance Could Not Be Computed
For one or more pairs of sequences, the Tajima-Nei correction could not be applied,
which usually occurs if the argument in the log term of the formula becomes too close to
zero. If you wish to know which pair(s) of sequences has this problem, use the
Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog
with a red n/c (not computable).
8.3.23 Tamura (1992) Distance Could Not Be Computed
For one or more pairs of sequences, the Tajima-Nei correction could not be applied. This
usually occurs if the argument in the log term of the formula becomes too close to zero
or if it is negative, or if the G+C-content is 0% or 100%. If you wish to know which
pair(s) of sequences has this problem, use the Distances|Pair-wise option. All such
pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog with a red n/c (not computable).
8.3.24 Tamura-Nei Distance Could Not Be Computed
The Tamura-Nei distance formula contains many log terms. If some of their arguments
approach zero too closely or become negative, the Tamura-Nei model correction cannot
be applied. If you wish to know which pair(s) of sequences has this problem, use the
Distances|Pair-wise option. All such pairs will be shown in the Distance Matrix Dialog
with a red n/c (not computable).
8.3.25 Unexpected Error
While carrying out the requested task, an unexpected error has occurred in MEGA.
Please contact the authors and report this software bug as soon as possible. We will try
to solve the problem at the earliest possible time.
8.3.26 User Stopped Computation
You have aborted the current process by pressing the Stop process button on the
progress indicator.
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8.4 Appendix D: Glossary
8.4.1 ABI File Format
The ABI File Format is a binary file that is produced by ABI sequencer software.
This data file, referred to as a "trace file" is viewable in MEGA’s Trace File Editor,
which is part of the Alignment Explorer.
8.4.2 Alignment Gaps
Phylogenetic analysis on two or more DNA or amino acid sequences requires
that the sequences be aligned so that the substitutions can be accurately
enumerated. During alignment, gaps must be introduced in sequences that have
undergone deletions or insertions. These gaps are known as alignment gaps or
indels.
8.4.3 Alignment session
When working in MEGA’s Alignment Explorer you can choose to save the current
state of all data and settings in the alignment explorer to a file so you can archive
your work, or save it to resume editing in the future. An alignment session is a
binary file format that is saved with the .MAS file extension.
8.4.4 Bifurcating Tree
A bifurcating tree is one in which each ancestral lineage gives rise to exactly two
descendent lineages. A tree with only bifurcating nodes is called a bifurcating
tree.
8.4.5 Branch
A branch is a line connecting either two internal nodes to each other or an
external node to an internal node in a phylogenetic tree. The length of a branch
denotes the genetic distance (e.g., number of substitutions per unit time)
between the two taxa it connects.
Branch-and-Bound algorithm
The branch-and-bound algorithm is used to find all the MP trees. It guarantees
to find all the MP trees without conducting an exhaustive search. MEGA also
employs the Max-mini branch-and-bound search, which is described in detail in
Kumar et al. (1993) and Nei and Kumar (2000, page 123).
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Close-Neighbor-Interchange (CNI)
In any method, examining all possible topologies is very time consuming. This
algorithm reduces the time spent searching by first producing a temporary tree,
(e.g., an NJ tree when an ME tree is being sought), and then examining all of the
topologies that are different from this temporary tree by a topological distance of
dT = 2 and 4. If this is repeated many times, and all the topologies previously
examined are avoided, one can usually obtain the tree being sought.
For the MP method, the CNI search can start with a tree generated by the
random addition of sequences. This process can be repeated multiple times to
find the MP tree.
See Nei & Kumar (2000) for details.
8.4.6 ClustalW
ClustalW is a general purpose multiple sequence alignment program for DNA or
proteins. You can learn more about ClustalW by visiting its website
(http://www.ebi.ac.uk/clustalw/).
8.4.7 Codon
A codon is triplet of nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid.
8.4.8 Codon Usage
3
There are 64 (4 ) possible codons that code for 20 amino acids (and stop signals) so
one amino acid may be encoded by several codons (e.g., serine is encoded by six
codons in nuclear genes). It is therefore interesting to know the codon usage for each
amino acid. In MEGA, the numbers of the 64 codons used in a gene can be computed
either for one specific sequence or for all examined sequences. In addition to the codon
frequencies, MEGA also writes the Sharp et al. (1986) relative synonymous codon
usage (RSCU) statistic (see Nei and Kumar 2000, page 11).
8.4.9 Complete-Deletion Option
In the complete-deletion option, sites containing missing data or alignment gaps
are removed before the analysis begins. This is in contrast to the pair-wisedeletion option in which sites are removed during the analysis as the need arises
(e.g., pair-wise distance computation).
8.4.10 Composition Distance
Composition distance is a measure of the difference in nucleotide (or amino acid)
composition for a given pair of sequences. It is one half the sum of squared
difference in counts of bases (or residues). MEGA 4 computes and presents the
Composition Distance per site, which is given by the total composition distance
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
between two sequences divided by the number of positions compared, excluding
gaps and missing data.
8.4.11 Compress/Uncompress
This command changes the cursor to the 'Compress/Uncompress' icon. If you
click on an interior branch, MEGA will prompt you to give a name to the group
that will be formed. It then will compress all the lineages defined by this branch
into a solid elongated triangle whose thickness is proportional to the number of
taxa condensed. Clicking on the branch again will uncompress it.
The cursor may be reverted to the arrow by clicking on the arrow icon on the left
hand side of the Tree Explorer.
8.4.12 Condensed Tree
When interior branches in a phylogenetic tree do not have statistically significant
lengths, choosing this command condenses the tree into a topology in which
each branch with less than the desired statistical significance is collapsed.
Consensus Tree
The MP method produces many equally parsimonious trees. Choosing this
command produces a composite tree that is a consensus among all such trees,
for example, either as a strict consensus, in which all conflicting branching
patterns among the trees are resolved by making those nodes multifurcating or
as a Majority-Rule consensus, in which conflicting branching patterns are
resolved by selecting the pattern seen in more than 50% of the trees.
(Details are given in Nei and Kumar [2000], page 130).
8.4.13 Constant Site
A site containing the same nucleotide or amino acid in all sequences is referred
to as a constant site. MEGA identifies a site as a constant site only if at least two
sequences contain unambiguous nucleotides or amino acids.
8.4.14 Degeneracy
0-fold degenerate sites are those at which all changes are non-synonymous.
2-fold degenerate sites are those at which one out of three changes is
synonymous. (All sites at which two out of three changes are synonymous also
are included in this category.)
4-fold degenerate sites are those at which all changes are synonymous.
8.4.15 Disparity Index
Disparity Index measures the observed difference in substitution patterns for a
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pair of sequences. It works by comparing the nucleotide (or amino acid)
frequencies in given pair of sequences and using the number of observed
differences between sequences. MEGA 4 computes and presents the Disparity
Index per site, which is given by the total disparity index between two sequences
divided by the number of positions compared, excluding gaps and missing data.
It is more powerful than a chi-square test of the equality of base frequencies
between sequences.
8.4.16 Domains
A domain is a continuous block of sites in a sequence alignment. A domain can
be free-standing or assigned to genes and protein-coding (e.g., exons) or noncoding (e.g., introns). Domains can be defined in the input data, and can be
defined and edited in the Setup Genes Domains dialog.
8.4.17 Exon
A protein-coding gene typically consists of multiple coding regions, known as
exons, interspersed with non-coding DNA (introns)
8.4.18 Extant Taxa
The taxa whose sequences, other genetic information or morphological
characters, etc. are being used for a phylogenetic analysis are known as extant
taxa, irrespective of whether the individuals or species to which the sequences
and other information belong are extant or extinct.
8.4.19 Flip
This command changes the cursor to the 'Flip' icon. Then, if you click on an
interior branch, MEGA reverses the order of the lineages defined by this branch.
The cursor will revert to the arrow if you click on the arrow icon on the left hand
side of the Tree Explorer.
8.4.20 Format command
A format command in a data file begins with! Format and contains at least the
data type included in the file.
8.4.21 Gamma parameter
According to the gamma distribution, the substitution rate often varies from site to
site within a sequence. The shape of this distribution is determined by a value
known as the gamma parameter, which is also known as the shape parameter.
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Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
8.4.22 Gene
A gene is a collection of domains. The domains included in a gene need not be
consecutive or of the same type. Genes and domains can be defined in the input
data, and can be defined and edited in the Setup Genes and Domains dialog.
Genes can be selected or unselected from an analysis. When a gene is
unselected, all its domains are automatically unselected. However, a gene can
be selected, with some of its domains unselected.
8.4.23 Groups of taxa
A group of taxa is a set of one or more taxa. Members of a group can be
specified in the input data file, and created and edited in the Setup Taxa and
Groups dialog.
Groups of taxa often are constructed based on their evolutionary relatedness.
For example, sequences may be grouped based on the geographic origin of the
source individual, or sequences from a multi-gene family may be arranged into
groups consisting of orthologous sequences.
8.4.24 Indels
Phylogenetic analysis on two or more DNA or amino acid sequences requires
that the sequences be aligned so that the substitutions can be accurately
enumerated. During the alignment, gaps must be introduced in sequences that
have undergone deletions or insertions. These gaps are known as alignment
gaps, or indels.
8.4.25 Independent Sites
In a sequence alignment, all sites that have not been assigned to any gene or
domain are classified as independent.
8.4.26 Intron
Introns are the non-coding segments of DNA in a gene that are interspersed
among the exons.
Labeled Sites
Sites in a sequence alignment can be categorized and labeled with user-defined
symbols. Each category is represented by a letter or a number. Each site can be
assigned to only one category, although any combination of categories can be
selected for analysis.
Labeled sites work independently of and in addition to genes and domains, thus
allowing complex subsets of sites to be defined easily.
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Appendix
8.4.27 Maximum Composite Likelihood
In general, a composite likelihood is defined as a sum of log-likelihoods for
related estimates. In MEGA4, the maximum composite likelihood is used for
describing the sum of log-likelihoods for all pair-wise distances in a distance
matrix (Tamura et al. 2004) estimated by using the Tamura-Nei (1993) model
(see related Tamura-Nei distance). Further information is in the Maximum
Composite Likelihood Method.
8.4.28 Max-mini branch-and-bound search
This is an algorithm for searching for the MP tree using the branch-and bound
search method. See Nei & Kumar (2000) for details.
8.4.29 Maximum Parsimony Principle
For any given topology, the sum of the minimum possible substitutions over all
sites is known as the tree length for that topology. The topology with the
minimum tree length is known as the Maximum Parsimony tree.
8.4.30 Mid-point rooting
In the mid-point rooting method, the root of an unrooted tree is placed at the midpoint of the longest distance between two taxa in a tree.
Min-mini algorithm
This is a heuristic search algorithm for finding the MP tree, and is somewhat
similar to the branch-and bound search method. However, in this algorithm,
many trees that are unlikely to have a small local tree length are eliminated from
the computation of their L values. Thus while the algorithm speeds up the search
for the MP tree, as compared to the branch-and-bound search, the final tree or
trees may not be the true MP tree(s). The user can specify a search factor to
control the extensiveness of the search and MEGA adds the user specified
search factor to the current local upper bound. Of course, the larger the search
factor, the slower the search, since many more trees will be examined.
(See also Nei & Kumar (2000), pages 122, 125)
8.4.31 Monophyletic
A cluster of taxa that shared a common ancestor comparatively recently in the
evolutionary history of a phylogenetic tree is monophyletic. The term reflects the
close relationship of the taxa with each other.
8.4.32 mRNA
Protein-coding genes are first transcribed into messenger RNAs (mRNA), which
213
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
are, in turn, translated into amino acid sequences to make proteins.
8.4.33 NCBI
An acronym that stands for "National Center for Biotechnology Information".
NCBI is a federally funded resource for molecular biology information. NCBI
creates databases, conducts research in computational biology, develops
software and tools for analyzing genome data, and disseminates biomedical
information. You can find out more about NCBI by visiting the NCBI website
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
8.4.34 Newick Format
NEWICK is a simple format used to write out trees in a text file. While this is a
hard-to-read format for humans, it is very useful for exchanging trees between
different types of software. An example of the contents of a NEWICK format tree
file is given below (note that semi-colon is needed to end the tree). Further
information on this format can be found at Joe Felsenstein’s website.
((raccoon, bear),((sea_lion,seal),((monkey,cat), weasel)),dog);
The above tree with branch lengths will look as follows:
((raccoon:19.19959,bear:6.80041):0.84600,((sea_lion:11.99700,
seal:12.00300):7.52973,((monkey:100.85930,cat:47.14069):20.59201,
weasel:18.87953):2.09460):3.87382,dog:25.46154);
If you wish to specify bootstrap values then they could appear before
the branch lengths (e.g., in .DND files produced by CLUSTAL) or after
the branch lengths (e.g., in .PHB files produced by CLUSTAL). In these
cases, the format might look like:
((raccoon:19.19959,bear:6.80041)50:0.84600,((sea_lion:11.99700,
seal:12.00300)100:7.52973,((monkey:100.85930,cat:47.14069)80:20.59201,
weasel:18.87953)75:2.09460)50:3.87382,dog:25.46154);
or
((raccoon:19.19959,bear:6.80041):0.84600[50],((sea_lion:11.99700,
seal:12.00300):7.52973[100],((monkey:100.85930,cat:47.14069):20.59201[8
0], weasel:18.87953):2.09460[75]):3.87382[50],dog:25.46154);
8.4.35 Node
A node in a phylogenetic tree represents a taxon, the external or terminal nodes
represent the extant taxa and the internal nodes represent the ancestral taxa.
8.4.36 Non-synonymous change
A nucleotide change is non-synonymous if it changes the amino acid encoded by
the original codon. A nucleotide site in which one or more changes are nonsynonymous is referred to as a non-synonymous site. If only one of three
possible nucleotide changes at that site is non-synonymous, then the site is 1/3
214
Appendix
non-synonymous. If two of three nucleotide changes are non-synonymous, then
the site is 2/3 non-synonymous. And, if all three possible nucleotide changes are
non-synonymous, then the site is completely non-synonymous.
8.4.37 Nucleotide Pair Frequencies
When two nucleotide sequences are compared, the frequencies of 10 or 16 different
types of nucleotide pairs can be computed. In MEGA, these frequencies are presented
in a text file.
8.4.38 OLS branch length estimates
The ordinary least squares estimate of a branch length (b) is given by
where dij is the pair-wise distance between sequences i and j. The coefficients
wij’s depend on whether the branch under consideration is internal or external.
Coefficients wij’s for an internal branch
where, mA, mB, mC, and mC are the numbers of sequences in clusters A, B, C,
and D, respectively.
Coefficients wij’s for an external branch
where, mA and mB are the numbers of sequences in clusters A and B.
8.4.39 Orthologous Genes
Two genes are said to be orthologous if they are the result of a speciation event.
8.4.40 Out-group
An out-group is a sequence (or set of sequences) that is known to be a sister
taxa to all other sequences in the dataset.
215
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
8.4.41 Pair-wise-deletion option
In the pair-wise-deletion option, sites containing missing data or alignment gaps
are removed from the analysis as the need arises (e.g., pair-wise distance
computation). This is in contrast to the complete-deletion option in which all such
sites are removed prior to the analysis.
8.4.42 Parsimony-informative site
A site is parsimony-informative if it contains at least two types of nucleotides (or
amino acids), and at least two of them occur with a minimum frequency of two.
8.4.43 Polypeptide
A polypeptide is a chain of many amino acids.
8.4.44 Positive selection
At the DNA sequence level, positive selection refers to selection in favor of nonsynonymous substitutions. In this case, the evolutionary distance based on nonsynonymous substitutions is expected to be greater than synonymous
substitutions.
8.4.45 Protein parsimony
A Maximum Parsimony analysis on protein sequences is known as protein
parsimony.
8.4.46 Purifying selection
Purifying selection refers to selection against non-synonymous substitutions at
the DNA level. In this case, the evolutionary distance based on synonymous
substitutions is expected to be greater than the distance based on nonsynonymous substitutions.
8.4.47 Purines
The nucleotides adenine (A) and guanine (G) are known as purines.
8.4.48 Pyrimidines
The nucleotides cytosine (C) and thymine (T) are known as pyrimidines.
8.4.49 Random addition trees
This refers to the generation of random initial trees for a heuristic search to find
MP trees. In this case, a tree is generated by randomly selecting a sequence
216
Appendix
and adding it to the growing tree on a randomly-selected branch.
8.4.50 RSCU
Many amino acids are coded by more than one codon; thus multiple codons for a
given amino acid are synonymous. However, many genes display a non-random
usage of synonymous codons for specific amino acids. A measure of the extent
of this non-randomness is given by the Relative Synonymous Codon Usage
(RSCU) (Sharp et al. 1986).
The RSCU for a particular codon (i) is given by
RSCUi = Xi / ∑∑ XI /n
where Xi is the number of times the ith codon has been used for a given amino
acid, and n is the number of synonymous codons for that amino acid.
8.4.51 Singleton Sites
A singleton site contains at least two types of nucleotides (or amino acids) with,
at most, one occurring multiple times. MEGA identifies a site as a singleton site
if at least three sequences contain unambiguous nucleotides or amino acids.
Site Label
The individual sites in nucleotide or amino acid data can be labeled to construct
non-contiguous sets of sites. The Setup Genes and Domains dialog can be used
to assign or edit site labels, in addition to specifying them in the input data files.
This is shown in the following example of three-sequences in which the sites in
the Third Gene are labeled with a ‘+’ mark. An underscore marks an absence of
any labels.
!Gene=FirstGene Domain=Exon1 Property=Coding;
#Human_{Mammal} ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
#Mouse_{Mammal} ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGGTCACCATGATAGGTCCCAAT
#Chicken_{Aves} ATGGTTTCTAGTCAGCTCACCATGATAGGTCTCAAT
!Gene=SecondGene Domain=AnIntron Property=Noncoding;
#Human ATTCCCAGGGAATTCCCGGGGGGTTTAAGGCCCCTTTAAAGAAAGAT
#Mouse GTAGCGCGCGTCGTCAGAGCTCCCAAGGGTAGCAGTCACAGAAAGAT
#Chicken GTAAAAAAAAAAGTCAGAGCTCCCCCCAATATATATCACAGAAAGAT
!Gene=ThirdGene Domain=Exon2 Property=Coding;
#Human
ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGATACAAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
#Mouse
ATCTGATCTCGTGTGCTGGTACGAATGATTTCTGCGTTCAACTGA
#Chicken ATCTGCTCTCGAGTACTGCTACCAATGACTTCTGCGTACAACTGA
!Label
+++__-+++-a-+++-L-+++-k-+++123+++-_-+++---+++;
Each site can be associated with only one label. A label can be a letter or a
number.
For analyses that require codons, MEGA includes only those codons in which all
three positions are given the same label. This site labeling system facilitates the
217
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
analysis of specific sites, as often is required for comparing sequences of
regulatory elements, intron-splice sites, and antigen recognition sites in the
genes of applications such as the Major Histocompatibility Complex.
8.4.52 Staden
The Staden file format is used to store data from DNA sequencing instruments.
Each file contains the data for a single reading and includes the called sequence
as well as additional data obtained from the reading. This file format was first
described in
Dear, S and Staden, R. "A Standard file format for data from DNA
sequencing instruments", DNA Sequence 3, 107-110, (1992)
MEGA is able to display the contents of a Staden-formatted trace file using
MEGA’s Trace File Editor, which is part of the Alignment Explorer.
8.4.53 Statements in input files
All statements in MEGA files start with an exclamation mark (!) and end with a
semicolon (;). They are useful in specifying various attributes of the data and the
data file. There are three common statements for all types of data: Title,
Format, and Description. There also are other statements that can be used
in MEGA files, depending on the type of data being analyzed.
8.4.54 Swap
This command changes the cursor to the 'Flip' icon. Then, you click on an
interior branch, MEGA swaps the two subtrees defined by this branch. If each of
the subtrees is an individual taxon, then Swap is the same as Flip.
The cursor will revert to the arrow if you click on the arrow icon on the left-hand
side of the Tree Explorer.
8.4.55 Synonymous change
A nucleotide change is synonymous if it does not cause the codon to code for a
different amino acid. A nucleotide site in which one or more changes is
synonymous is referred to as a synonymous site. If only one of three possible
nucleotide changes at that site is synonymous, then the site is 1/3 synonymous.
If two of three nucleotide changes are synonymous, then the site is 2/3
synonymous and 1/3 non-synonymous. And, if all three possible nucleotide
changes are synonymous, then the site is completely synonymous.
8.4.56 Taxa
A taxon is the individual unit whose evolutionary relationship is being
investigated. Depending on the study, "taxa" may refer to species, populations,
individuals, or sequences within an individual.
218
Appendix
8.4.57 Topological distance
The topological distance quantifies the extent of topological differences between
two given trees. For unrooted, bifurcating trees, this distance is twice the number
of interior branches at which the taxa are partitioned differently.
8.4.58 Topology
The branching pattern of a tree is its topology.
8.4.59 Transition
A transition occurs when a purine is substituted by a purine, or a pyrimidine by a
pyrimidine.
8.4.60 Transition Matrix
A transition matrix specifies the probability of every possible substitution among
the nucleotides or amino acids.
8.4.61 Transition/Transversion Ratio (R)
This is the ratio of the number of transitions to the number of transversions for a
pair of sequences. R becomes 0.5 when there is no bias towards either
transitional or transversional substitution because, when the two kinds of
substitution are equally probable, there are twice as many possible transversions
as transitions. MEGA allows you to conduct an analysis of your data with a
specified value of R.
Note that R should not be confused with the ratio of the transition and
transversion rates (k = α/β).
8.4.62 Translation
Translation is the process whereby each codon in the mRNA is translated into a
particular amino acid, according to the genetic code specific to the species and
its DNA, and added to the growing polypeptide chain.
8.4.63 Transversion
A change from a purine to a pyrimidine, or vice versa, is a transversion.
8.4.64 Unrooted tree
An unrooted tree is one in which no assumption is made regarding the ancestor
of all the taxa in the tree.
219
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
8.4.65 Variable site
A variable site contains at least two types of nucleotides or amino acids. Some
variable sites can be singleton or parsimony-informative. A site that is not
variable is referred to as a constant site.
220
9 Index
0
0-fold site .................................................228
2
2-Dimensional Data Grid 115, 149, 255, 259
2-fold site .................................................228
2S-fold site...............................................228
2V-fold site...............................................228
4
4-fold site ........................ 225, 226, 228, 327
A
ABI File Format........................................397
About BLAST .............................................63
About CLUSTALW.....................................60
About dialog.....................................365, 367
Acknowledgements .....................................4
Add button ...............................................368
Add taxa...........................................368, 370
Add/Insert ................................................370
Add/Remove Programs ...............................9
Adding/Modifying Genetic Code Tables ..111
Alanine.......................................................84
Aligning coding sequences via protein
sequences .........................................60, 310
Alignment Builder...............................57, 307
Alignment Explorer/CLUSTAL .................362
Alignment Gap ................ 238, 245, 247, 367
Alignment Menu.......................................361
Alignment Menu in Alignment Explorer ....67,
313
Alignment session....................................399
Amino Acid Compositions........147, 180, 291
Analysis Preferences..... 229, 233, 236, 240,
250, 252
Analysis Preferences dialog ....................177
Analysis Preferences/Options dialog.......177
Arrange Taxa ...........................................301
ASCII .................... 49, 77, 83, 154, 165, 173
editing ................................................49, 154
ASCII-text ..................................................77
Asparagine.................................................84
Aspartic Acid..............................................84
Assigning .................................................370
exons .......................................................370
Average Menu .................................153, 257
B
Basic Sequence Statistics .......................179
BCL ......................................................... 243
Between Groups ..................................... 257
Bidirectionally.......................... 145, 181, 289
Bifurcating Tree....................................... 400
Blank Names Are Not Permitted............. 372
BLAST Search .......................................... 64
Bootstrap method............................ 233, 245
compute standard error .................. 233, 245
Bootstrap Test................................. 244, 352
Bootstrap Test of Phylogeny........... 244, 352
Branch Length......................................... 304
Branch Line............................................. 304
Branch tab............................................... 304
Branch-and-bound .......................... 240, 358
Browse Databanks.................................. 363
Bugs.......................................................... 31
Reporting .................................................. 31
Built-in Genetic Codes ............................ 109
C
Categorize............................................... 151
taxa ......................................................... 151
Change Font ................................... 152, 258
Change Font dialog box.................. 131, 275
Change Font.Display ...................... 131, 275
Choose Model......................................... 345
Circle....................................................... 301
Citing MEGA in Publications....................... 6
Classroom................................................. 29
Clipboard......................................... 169, 170
Close Data .............................................. 331
Close-Neighbor-Interchange........... 242, 403
CLUSTAL.................................................. 94
ClustalW.................................................. 404
CLUSTALW Options DNA ........................ 61
CLUSTALW Options Protein .................... 62
CNI.................................................. 242, 403
Code Table ............................................. 112
Code Table Editor ................................... 115
Coding......................... 85, 87, 115, 259, 370
DNA ................................................ 115, 259
Codon .... 109, 112, 115, 123, 146, 179, 180,
182, 225, 229, 233, 236, 240, 250, 252, 259,
267, 290, 326, 327, 344, 370, 372, 406
find .......................................................... 115
inclusion/exclusion . 229, 233, 236, 240, 250,
252
position.................................................... 115
Codon based Z-test ................................ 325
Codon Usage .................. 146, 182, 290, 406
Color Cells ...................................... 127, 271
Column Sizer .................................. 149, 255
221
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Command Statements...................86, 87, 92
Keywords ...................................................87
Writing............................................86, 87, 92
Common Features.....................................77
Common Sites .........................................387
Complete-Deletion ...................................245
Complex 2-fold sites ................................228
Composition Distance..............................408
Compute Between Groups Means ..........351
Compute Menu ........................................307
Compute Net Between Groups Means....350
Compute Overall Mean............................347
Compute Pair-wise ..................................346
Compute Sequence Diversity ..................349
Compute standard error ..................233, 245
Bootstrap method ............................233, 245
Compute Within Groups Mean ................348
Computing ...................... 112, 222, 228, 323
Statistical Attributes .................................112
statistics ...................................................323
Computing Statistical Quantities for
Nucleotide Sequences...............................45
Computing the Gamma Parameter (a) ...195,
220
Condensed Trees ....................................243
Construct ........................ 233, 244, 357, 358
Constructing Trees and Selecting OTUs
from Nucleotide Sequences ......................38
Constructing Trees from Distance Data ....47
Convert To MEGA Format Main File Menu
...................................................................96
Copy ........................................................170
Copyright .....................................................1
CPU .............................................................7
Create New Folder...................................328
Creating Multiple Sequence Alignments ..34,
58, 308
Curved .....................................................301
Cut ...........................................................169
Cutoff Values Tab ....................................299
Cysteine.....................................................84
D
Data .........................................367, 370, 386
Missing.............................................367, 386
Data | Data Explorer ................329, 331, 335
Data | Quit Data Viewer ...................124, 268
Data | Select Genetic Code Table ..113, 120,
264, 341
Data | Select Preferences339, 340, 343, 344
Data | Setup/Select Genes .....122, 175, 266,
337
Data | Setup/Select Taxa... 89, 93, 121, 265,
336
Data | Translate/Untranslate............119, 263
Data | Write Data .............................123, 267
222
Data Description Window ....................... 327
Data Explorer . 118, 262, 323, 329, 335, 368,
387
Data File Parsing Error ........................... 373
Data menu 32, 113, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122,
261, 262, 264, 265, 266, 329, 334, 341
Data Menu in Alignment Explorer ..... 70, 316
Data Type ....................................... 335, 367
Datafile...................................................... 80
DataFormat ............................................... 91
Dataset..... 91, 115, 119, 146, 180, 182, 259,
263, 290, 331, 380, 388, 389
DataType ...................................... 83, 85, 91
Dayhoff and JTT distances Gamma rates
................................................................ 221
Dayhoff distance ..................................... 222
Dayhoff Distance Could Not Be Computed
................................................................ 374
Dayhoff Model......................................... 220
Define/Edit/Select ................................... 370
Defining Genes ......................................... 86
Defining Groups .................................. 87, 92
DefiningTaxa............................... 89, 93, 336
Description Statement Rules .................... 82
Disclaimer ................................................... 2
Discrete-character................................... 233
Disparity Index ........................................ 414
Display | Color................................. 127, 271
Display | Restore Input Order ......... 125, 269
Display | Show ................................ 126, 270
Display | Show Group Names......... 130, 274
Display | Show Sequence Names .. 129, 273
Display | Sort Sequences....... 132, 133, 134,
135, 136, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280
Display | Use Identical Symbol ....... 128, 272
Display font ..................................... 131, 275
Display Menu .................. 124, 152, 258, 268
Display Menu in Alignment Explorer. 68, 314
Display Newick Trees from File ........ 94, 355
Display Saved Tree Session................... 354
Distance Computation ............................ 229
Distance Correction Failed ..................... 384
Distance Data Explorer.. 149, 151, 152, 153,
178, 255, 259
Distance Data Formats ............................. 90
Distance Data Subset Selection ............. 178
Distance Display Precision ............. 149, 255
Distance estimates.......................... 233, 245
Distance Matrix Dialog... 378, 383, 384, 391,
392, 393, 394, 395
Distance Matrix Explorer 153, 255, 257, 258,
259
Distance menu ................ 324, 327, 344, 349
Distance Model Options.......................... 232
Distance Options............................. 250, 252
Distances ........ 115, 119, 183, 259, 263, 325
Index
Distances | Choose Model.......................345
Distances | Compute Between Groups
Means.Choose.........................................351
Distances | Compute Net Between Groups
Means.Choose.........................................350
Distances | Compute Overall Mean.........347
Distances | Compute Pair-wise ...............346
Distances | Compute Sequence Diversity
.................................................................349
Distances | Compute Within Groups
Means.Choose.........................................348
Distances Display Box.............................154
Distances Menu .......................................344
Divergence Time..............................297, 306
Divergence Time Dialog Box ...................300
DNA ..... 77, 85, 94, 115, 124, 127, 180, 233,
245, 259, 268, 271, 335
coding ..............................................115, 259
reading data from other formats ................94
DNA/RNA...........................................84, 382
Do BLAST Search .....................................64
Domain Editor ..........................................370
Domains... 86, 122, 144, 145, 146, 147, 175,
181, 182, 266, 288, 289, 290, 291, 337
Domains Cannot Overlap ........................375
Domains Dialog .......................................370
Drag-and-drop .........................................370
Drosophila mitochondrial genetic code table
.................................................................109
E
Edit | Copy ...............................................170
Edit | Cut ..................................................169
Edit | Font ................................................173
Edit | Paste ..............................................171
Edit | Undo ...............................................172
Edit menu...........................................49, 154
Edit Menu in Alignment Explorer .......69, 315
Edit Sequencer Files ...............................365
Edits...................................................49, 154
ASCII .................................................49, 154
EMF .........................................................296
End ......................................................85, 87
Entire Population .....................................349
Mean Diversity .........................................349
Equal Input Correction Failed ..................376
Equal Input Model....................................218
Equal Input Model Gamma......................196
Equal Input Model Gamma rates and
Heterogeneous Patterns..........................210
Equal Input Model Heterogeneous Patterns
.................................................................222
Estimate...........................................222, 349
Dayhoff distance ......................................222
interpopulational diversity ........................349
Estimating Evolutionary Distances from
Nucleotide Sequences.............................. 36
Exclude/include sites ...................... 123, 267
Exit .................................. 168, 259, 332, 334
Distance Data Explorer........................... 259
MEGA ..................................................... 334
Exit Tree Explorer ................................... 295
Exon............................................ 85, 87, 370
Expand/contract box ............................... 370
Export All Trees ...................................... 295
Export Current Tree ................................ 295
Export Data ............................. 123, 267, 329
Export/Print Distances .................... 151, 259
Exporting Sequence Data............... 123, 267
Exporting Sequence Data dialog .... 118, 262
F
Feature List ............................................... 19
File menu .................. 49, 151, 154, 259, 327
File Menu ................................................ 334
File Name................................................ 328
Files ................................ 123, 267, 295, 328
Data | Write Data ............................ 123, 267
Tree Explorer .......................................... 295
Type ........................................................ 328
Files Of Type........................................... 328
Find ......... 115, 173, 174, 242, 324, 357, 403
codon ...................................................... 115
ME........................................................... 357
MP................................................... 242, 403
number.................................................... 324
Find Again............................................... 174
Find Text dialog ...................................... 173
Fisher's Exact Test ......................... 252, 361
Selection ................................................. 361
Fisher's Exact Test Has Failed ............... 377
Fixed Column.................. 115, 149, 255, 259
Fixed Row ....................... 115, 149, 255, 259
Font......................................................... 173
Font dialog .............................. 124, 268, 305
Format dialog .......................................... 367
Format Statement ......................... 83, 85, 91
Keywords ............................................ 85, 91
Rules......................................................... 83
Formats....................................... 77, 90, 328
G
G+C-content ................................... 191, 394
Gamma ................... 197, 198, 201, 222, 378
Gamma Correction Failed Because p..... 378
Gamma distance..................................... 222
Gamma model ........................................ 201
Gaps ....................................................... 343
Handling.................................................. 343
Gene Names Must Be Unique ................ 379
General Comments on Statistical Tests . 242
223
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
General Considerations.......................83, 90
Genes ................................................86, 370
Genes/Domains .........................................87
Genes\Domain.........................................370
Genetic Code...........................................112
Glutamic Acid.............................................84
Glycine.......................................................84
Gojobori ...................................................252
Grid ................................. 115, 149, 255, 259
Grishin's distance ....................................222
Group Name ....................................133, 277
Groups ... 87, 89, 92, 93, 115, 118, 121, 134,
149, 153, 257, 259, 262, 265, 278, 336, 348,
350, 351
taxa .... 87, 92, 115, 118, 149, 153, 257, 259,
262, 348, 350, 351
Groups Dialog..........................................368
H
Hand-with-a-pencil icon ...........................368
Help .............................................6, 327, 368
Help | About .............................................367
Help Index........................................365, 366
Help menu ...................................6, 327, 365
Hiding taxa...............................................258
Highlight | Parsim-Info Sites ............140, 284
Highlight 0-fold Degenerate Sites....141, 285
Highlight 2-fold Degenerate Sites....142, 286
Highlight 4-fold Degenerate Sites....143, 287
Highlight Conserved Sites ...............137, 281
Highlight Menu.................................136, 280
Highlight Singleton Sites..................139, 283
Highlight Variable Sites ...................138, 282
Highlighted Sites..............................149, 293
Highlighting ......................................115, 259
Sites.................................................115, 259
Histidine .....................................................84
I
ID .................... 133, 134, 136, 277, 278, 280
Identical .....................................................85
Identical Symbol ......................................367
Image Menu.............................................296
Importing Data From Other Formats .........94
Inapplicable Computation Requested .....380
Include Codon Positions..........................339
Include Labeled Sites ..............................340
Include Sites Option ................................248
Include/exclude................................115, 259
Include/Exclude taxa ...............149, 255, 368
Including ........................................6, 94, 301
CLUSTAL...................................................94
MEGA ..........................................................6
taxon ........................................................301
Inclusion/exclusion of codon
224
positions/labeled sites.... 229, 233, 236, 240,
250, 252
Inconsistencies ................................. 31, 328
Incorrect Command Used....................... 381
Increase/decrease .......................... 149, 255
Indel .......................................... 85, 238, 247
Independents node ................................. 370
Index ....................................................... 366
Information Box....................................... 294
Input Data Format Dialog........................ 367
Insert genes or domains ......................... 370
Insertions/deletions ......................... 238, 247
Installing MEGA .......................................... 8
Intergenic domains ................................. 370
Interior Branch Test ........................ 243, 353
Interpopulational diversity ....................... 349
estimate .................................................. 349
Introduction to Walk Through MEGA ........ 32
Intron........................................... 85, 87, 370
Intron Property .............................. 86, 87, 92
Invalid distances ..................................... 386
Invalid special symbol............................. 382
Isoleucine.................................................. 84
IUPAC single letter codes......................... 84
J
Jukes-Cantor................... 188, 223, 224, 383
Jukes-Cantor Correction Failed .............. 383
Jukes-Cantor distance ............................ 187
Jukes-Cantor Gamma distance .............. 197
K
Keywords ...................................... 85, 87, 91
Command Statements .............................. 87
Format Statement ............................... 85, 91
Kimura 2-parameter distance ................. 189
Kimura gamma distance ......................... 198
Kimura-2-parameter-Gamma distance ... 198
Kumar Method ........................................ 228
[email protected] ................... 1, 29
L
Labels Tab .............................................. 370
Large Sample Tests of Selection............ 248
Leaf taxa ................................................. 294
Leucine ..................................................... 84
Level of CP ............................................. 243
Linux ........................................................... 7
Listing...................................................... 368
taxa ......................................................... 368
Li-Wu-Luo ............................................... 228
Li-Wu-Luo Method .................................. 225
LogDet Distance Could Not Be Computed
................................................................ 385
Look In .................................................... 328
Index
M
Multifurcating tree ................................... 243
Main MEGA Window ...............................327
Managing Taxa With Groups.....................44
Manipulating tree aspects........................303
Marker Graphics ......................................305
MatchChar .................................................85
Matrix .......................................................386
Matrix Explorer.........................................259
Matrix Format...........................................367
Maximum Composite Likelihood......195, 429
Maximum Composite Likelihood Gamma
Rates and Heterogeneous Patterns ........216
Maximum Composite Likelihood
Heterogeneous Patterns..........................210
Maximum Composite Likelihood Method 195
Maximum Composite_Likelihood Gamma
.................................................................205
Maximum Parsimony .......................240, 358
Maximum-likelihood .........................243, 358
Max-mini branch-and-bound search........430
ME .......................... 234, 243, 244, 356, 357
ME Tree Tab............................................357
Mean Diversity .........................................349
Entire Population .....................................349
Interpopulational Diversity .......................349
MEG.........................................................328
MEGA
citing ............................................................6
classroom use............................................29
exiting ......................................................334
Installing.......................................................8
MEGA Format............................................77
MEGA Software Development Team ..........5
Menu bar............................................49, 154
Menus ......................................................326
Methionine .................................................84
Microsoft Word...........................................77
Midpoint ...................................................301
Minimum Evolution ..................234, 236, 357
Minimum Evolution Construct Phylogeny 357
Missing.............................................367, 386
data..........................................................386
Data .........................................................367
Missing Data ............................................343
Missing Information .................238, 245, 247
Models .............................................183, 188
Nei ...........................................................188
Modified Nei-Gojobori..............................252
Modified Nei-Gojobori Method.................224
Molecular sequences...............................382
Monophyletic............................................434
MP .................. 238, 242, 243, 247, 358, 403
constructing .............................................358
find ...................................................242, 403
MP Trees .................................................358
N
Name ...................... 115, 149, 255, 258, 328
sequences/groups........................... 149, 255
taxa ......................................................... 258
NCBI ....................................................... 436
Neighbor Joining ..................................... 244
Neighbor Joining Construct Phylogeny .. 244
Neighbor-Joining..................................... 356
Nei-Gojobori.................................... 112, 224
Nei-Gojobori Method............................... 223
Net Between Groups ...................... 153, 257
Neutrality......................................... 253, 359
Tajima's Test................................... 253, 359
Tests | Tajima's Test....................... 253, 359
New......................................................... 157
Newick Format ........................................ 437
Nex............................................................ 94
Nexus/PAUP ............................................. 94
NJ............................ 234, 243, 244, 356, 357
NJ/UPGMA ............................................. 233
Noncoding............... 85, 86, 87, 92, 123, 267
Non-synonymous ... 112, 223, 224, 225, 226,
228, 248, 250, 252, 360, 377, 383
Non-synonymous site .... 225, 226, 228, 248,
360, 361
Notations Used ......................................... 32
Notepad ............................................ 49, 154
NSeqs ................................................. 85, 91
NSites ....................................................... 85
NT ............................................................... 7
NTaxa ................................................. 85, 91
Nucleotide ............................................... 180
Nucleotide Composition.................. 144, 288
Nucleotide Pair Frequencies.. 145, 181, 289,
440
Nucleotide-by-nucleotide ........................ 183
Nucleotide-by-nucleotide site.................. 339
Number .. 112, 189, 191, 193, 198, 201, 223,
224, 225, 226, 228, 234, 244, 248, 252, 255,
324, 356, 360, 377
0-fold ....................................... 225, 226, 228
4-fold ....................................... 225, 226, 228
codons .................................................... 252
Finding .................................................... 324
non-synonymous.... 112, 223, 224, 225, 226,
228, 248, 360, 377
Sites ................................................ 223, 224
taxa ................................. 234, 244, 255, 356
transversional.......... 189, 191, 193, 198, 201
O
OLS branch length estimates ................. 441
Only 4-fold degenerate sites................... 327
225
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Writing......................................................327
Only highlighted sites ..............................323
Only Nei-Gojobori ....................................252
Open ........................................................158
Open Data ...............................................328
Open Saved Alignment Session................53
Operational Taxonomic Units ....................80
Options dialog 154, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306,
344
quit ...........................................................154
Order................................................301, 368
taxa ..................................................301, 368
OTUs .........................................80, 233, 359
Outgroup..........................................245, 356
Outgroup taxa ..........................................356
Output file ................................................327
P
Pair-wise comparisons ............................324
Pair-wise Deletion....................................245
Pair-wise Distance Data ..........................367
Pair-wise menu ........................................325
Pair-wise-Deletion....................................245
Pamilo-Bianchi-Li.............................226, 228
Pamilo-Bianchi-Li Method........................226
Parsimony-informative.............................358
Paste........................................................171
Pattern Menu ...........................................183
PAUP 3.0 .........................................123, 267
PAUP 4.0 .........................................123, 267
P-distance................................186, 217, 391
Phenylalanine ............................................84
Phy.............................................................94
PHYLIP ......................................................94
PHYLIP 3.0 ......................................123, 267
Phylogenetic 6, 77, 183, 233, 236, 238, 240,
243, 244, 247, 339, 340, 343, 344, 345, 351,
352, 357, 434
construct ..........................................233, 357
Phylogenetic Inference ............................233
Phylogenies ............ 115, 119, 233, 259, 263
Phylogeny | Any.......................................293
Phylogeny | Bootstrap Test .............244, 352
Phylogeny | Display Saved Tree
Session.Use.............................................354
Phylogeny | Minimum Evolution ..............357
Phylogeny | Neighbor-Joining..................244
Phylogeny menu ..............................327, 351
Poisson ....................................219, 222, 392
Poisson Correction distance....................219
Poisson Correction Failed .......................392
Polypeptide ..............................................446
Position ............................................115, 177
codon .......................................................115
Preface ........................................................3
Print .................................................166, 332
226
Print dialog .............................................. 295
Printer Setup ................................... 295, 333
Program ...................................................... 8
uncompress ................................................ 8
Proline....................................................... 84
Protein parsimony ................................... 448
Pyrimindine ............................................... 84
Q
Query Databanks .................................... 363
Quit Data Viewer............. 118, 124, 262, 268
Quit Options dialog ................................. 154
Quit Viewer ..................................... 151, 259
R
RAM ............................................................ 7
Rate ........................................................ 187
Read ......................................................... 94
DNA .......................................................... 94
Relative Rate .................................. 245, 356
Relative Rate Tests................................. 355
Removing................................................ 368
taxon ....................................................... 368
Reopen Data........................................... 330
Replace................................................... 175
Reporting Bugs ......................................... 31
Resampled dataset................................. 242
Resampling ..................... 244, 248, 352, 360
Residue-by-residue................................. 183
Restore Input Order ........................ 125, 269
RNA .................................................. 85, 335
RSCU...................................................... 406
Rules....................................... 80, 81, 82, 83
Description Statement .............................. 82
Format Statement ..................................... 83
Taxa Names.............................................. 80
Title Statement.......................................... 81
S
Save................................................ 164, 332
Save As................................................... 165
Save As dialog ........................ 165, 295, 296
SBL ......................................................... 294
Scale Bar tab .......................................... 306
Scrollbar.......................................... 115, 259
Search | Find........................................... 173
Search | Find Again ................................ 174
Search | Replace .................................... 175
Search menu..................................... 49, 154
Search Menu in Alignment Explorer . 73, 319
Select ...................... 115, 149, 178, 259, 368
taxa ......................................... 115, 149, 259
taxon ....................................................... 368
Select & Edit Taxa/Groups ..................... 151
Select Genetic Code dialog ............ 118, 262
Index
Select Genetic Code Table.....113, 120, 264,
341
Select Genetic Code Table Dialog ..........372
Select Preferences ..................................344
Select/Edit Taxa Groups..................135, 279
Select/Edit Taxa/Groups window.............368
Selected Sequences........................126, 270
Selection ................. 248, 250, 325, 360, 361
Fisher's Exact Test ..................................361
Large Sample Tests ................................248
Tests | Codon-based Tests .............360, 361
Z-Test ......................................................360
Sequence Data ..........................83, 245, 367
Sequence Data Explorer 115, 119, 120, 121,
122, 123, 124, 136, 143, 259, 263, 264, 265,
266, 267, 268, 280, 287, 323, 327
Sequence Data Organizer ...............118, 262
Sequence Data Subset Selection............177
Sequence Diversity submenu..................349
Sequence Names ............................134, 278
Sequencer Menu in Alignment Explorer...74,
320
Sequences/groups...........................149, 255
Setup/Select Genes122, 144, 145, 146, 147,
175, 181, 182, 266, 288, 289, 290, 291, 337,
370
Setup/Select Genes/Domain .....................86
Setup/Select Taxa ..... 89, 93, 121, 265, 336,
368
Show........................................149, 255, 304
pair-wise ..........................................149, 255
statistics/frequency ..................................304
Show Analysis Description ......................259
Show Group Names ....... 130, 152, 258, 274
Show Information.....................................295
Show Input Data Title ..............................259
Show Names ...........................................258
Show Only Selected Sequences .....126, 270
Show Only Selected Taxa .......................152
Show Pair Name......................................258
Show Sequence Names ..................129, 273
Show Web Browser .................................364
Show/Hide ...............................................301
Simple 2-fold............................................228
Site Labels ...............................................370
Site Picker dialog .....................................370
Sites 115, 223, 224, 238, 245, 247, 259, 324
Highlighting ......................................115, 259
Number ............................................223, 224
Sites Redundancy .................................112
Sizer button......................................149, 255
SoftWindows95............................................7
SoftWindows98............................................7
Sort ..........................................................368
Sort Sequences ..... 132, 133, 134, 276, 277,
278
Sort Sequences As per Taxa/Group
Organizer ........................................ 135, 279
Sort Sequences By Sequence Name .... 136,
280
Sort Taxa ........................................ 152, 258
Special Symbols ....................................... 83
SQRT .............................................. 248, 360
Staden..................................................... 457
Statistical Attributes ................................ 112
Computing............................................... 112
Statistics.................................................. 323
Computing............................................... 323
Statistics | Amino ............................ 147, 291
Statistics | Codon Usage......... 146, 182, 290
Statistics | Nucleotide Composition 144, 288
Statistics | Nucleotide Pair Frequencies 145,
181, 289
Statistics | Use ................................ 149, 293
Statistics | Use All Selected Sites ... 148, 292
Statistics Menu........................ 143, 287, 323
Statistics/frequency................................. 304
Status Bar ................. 49, 115, 149, 154, 259
Subpopulations ....................................... 349
Substitution ..................................... 324, 325
Subtree Drawing Options (in Tree Explorer)
................................................................ 298
Subtree Menu ......................................... 297
Subtree Option........................................ 305
Sun Workstation.......................................... 7
Synonymous-non-synonymous .............. 183
Syonymous ..................................... 248, 360
System Requirements ................................ 7
T
Tajima ..................... 188, 245, 253, 356, 359
Tajima Nei distance Gamma rates ......... 200
Tajima Nei Distance Gamma Rates and
Heterogeneous patterns ......................... 211
Tajima Nei Distance Heterogeneous
patterns ................................................... 205
Tajima-Nei....................................... 188, 394
Tajima-Nei distance ................................ 188
Tajima-Nei Distance Could Not Be
Computed ............................................... 393
Tajima's Test................... 245, 253, 356, 359
Neutrality......................................... 253, 359
Tamura.................................................... 394
Tamura 3 parameter Gamma rates and
Heterogeneous patterns ......................... 214
Tamura 3 parameter Heterogeneous
patterns ................................................... 206
Tamura 3-parameter distance ................ 191
Tamura 3-parameter Gamma ................. 203
Tamura-Nei ............................. 193, 201, 395
Tamura-Nei distance ...................... 193, 201
Tamura-Nei Distance Could Not Be
227
Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Computed ................................................395
Tamura-Nei distance Gamma rates and
Heterogeneous patterns ..........................212
Tamura-Nei distance Heterogeneous
Patterns ...................................................208
Tamura-Nei gamma distance ..................201
Taxa... 80, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 115, 118, 149,
151, 152, 153, 177, 178, 234, 244, 255, 257,
258, 259, 262, 301, 336, 348, 350, 351, 356,
368, 386, 434
Adding......................................................368
categorize ................................................151
defining ........................................89, 93, 336
Defining Groups...................................87, 92
following...............................................87, 92
Groups87, 92, 115, 118, 149, 153, 257, 259,
262, 348, 350, 351
hiding .......................................................258
listing........................................................368
name........................................................258
number............................ 234, 244, 255, 356
order ................................................301, 368
selecting...................................115, 149, 259
Taxa Names ..............................................80
Rules..........................................................80
Taxa/Group Organizer.....................135, 279
Taxa/Groups ............................................368
Taxon 80, 149, 152, 255, 258, 301, 303, 368
including...................................................301
indicate ....................................................368
manipulate ...............................................303
Removing.................................................368
select .......................................................368
Taxon Iabel ................................................80
Taxon Name tab ......................................305
Technical Support......................................30
Test of Positive Selection ..........................43
Tests | Codon-based Tests .............360, 361
Selection ..........................................360, 361
Tests | Interior Branch Test .............243, 353
Tests | Relative Rate Tests .....245, 355, 356
Tests | Tajima's Test........................253, 359
Neutrality..........................................253, 359
Tests menu ..............................................327
Tests of the Reliability of a Tree Obtained 40
Text Editor ..... 157, 158, 164, 165, 166, 168,
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175
Text File Editor...................................49, 154
Text Label ................................................305
Threonine...................................................84
Title ..........................................77, 79, 81, 82
Title Statement...........................................81
Rules..........................................................81
Toolbars in Alignment Explorer .........64, 311
Topological distance................................462
Trace Data File Viewer/Editor....................52
228
Transition/transversion .. 179, 184, 186, 189,
191, 193, 198, 201, 224, 252
Transitions + Transversions... 184, 186, 187,
189, 191, 193, 197, 198, 201
Translate/Untranslate ..................... 119, 263
Transversional 184, 186, 189, 191, 193, 198,
201, 225, 226, 228
Transversions 184, 186, 189, 191, 193, 198,
201
Tree......................................................... 400
Bifurcating ............................................... 400
Tree Data ............................................ 83, 93
Tree Explorer . 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 301,
302, 307
Tree Explorer window ............................. 294
Tree tab................................................... 303
Tree/Branch Style ................................... 301
Treelength............................................... 294
Tryptophan................................................ 84
Txt ....................................................... 32, 77
U
Uncompress................................................ 8
program....................................................... 8
Undo ....................................................... 172
Unexpected Error.................................... 396
Ungrouped Taxa ..................................... 368
Ungrouped Taxa window ........................ 368
Unhide..................................................... 368
Uninstall MEGA........................................... 9
Unique ASCII .......................................... 382
Unrooted . 233, 234, 244, 356, 357, 358, 462
Updates..................................................... 30
UPGMA........................................... 243, 359
Use All Selected Sites .................... 148, 292
Use Identical Symbol ...................... 128, 272
Use only Highlighted Sites.............. 149, 293
User Stopped Computation .................... 397
User-Entered Text..................................... 32
Using MEGA in the classroom.................. 29
V
Valine ........................................................ 84
Vertebrate mitochondrial......................... 109
View ........................................................ 115
View menu ...................................... 301, 327
View/Edit Sequencer Files...................... 365
VirtualPC..................................................... 7
W
Web Browser ............................................ 53
Web Explorer Tab Alignment Explorer ..... 53
Web Menu in Alignment Explorer ..... 75, 321
Website ................................................. 8, 30
What s New in Version 3.0 ......................... 9
Index
Windows ..............................................2, 7, 9
Windows Clipboard..................169, 170, 171
WinZip..........................................................8
WordPad....................................................77
WordPerfect...............................................77
Words ........................................................79
Working With Genes and Domains ...........42
Write Data................................................329
Writing............................. 78, 86, 87, 92, 327
Command Statements...................86, 87, 92
only 4-fold degenerate sites ....................327
Writing site .......................................123, 267
Y
Yeast mitochondrial ................................ 109
Z
ZIP file......................................................... 8
Z-statistic................................................. 325
Z-Test.............................. 248, 252, 325, 360
conduct ........................................... 248, 360
Selection ................................................. 360
229
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