TI-84 Plus and TI-84 Plus Silver Edition Guidebook

TI-84 Plus and TI-84 Plus Silver Edition Guidebook

TI-84 Plus and

TI-84 Plus Silver Edition

Guidebook

Note

: This guidebook for the TI-84 Plus or TI-84 Plus Silver Edition with operating system (OS) version 2.53MP. If your calculator has a previous OS version, your screens may look different and some features may not be available. You can download the latest OS at education.ti.com

.

Important Information

Texas Instruments makes no warranty, either express or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, regarding any programs or book materials and makes such materials available solely on an "as-is" basis. In no event shall Texas Instruments be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials, and the sole and exclusive liability of Texas Instruments, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of this product. Moreover, Texas Instruments shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever against the use of these materials by any other party.

© 2010 Texas Instruments Incorporated

Vernier EasyData, Vernier LabPro, and Vernier Go! Motion are a trademarks of Vernier

Software & Technology.

ii

Contents

Important Information .................................................................................................................... ii

Chapter 1:

Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition .................................................................... 1

Documentation Conventions .......................................................................................................... 1

TI-84 Plus Keyboard ......................................................................................................................... 1

Turning On and Turning Off the TI-84 Plus .................................................................................... 3

Setting the Display Contrast ........................................................................................................... 4

The Display ....................................................................................................................................... 5

Interchangeable Faceplates ............................................................................................................ 8

Using the Clock ................................................................................................................................ 9

Entering Expressions and Instructions .......................................................................................... 11

Setting Modes ................................................................................................................................ 14

Using TI-84 Plus Variable Names ................................................................................................... 19

Storing Variable Values ................................................................................................................. 20

Recalling Variable Values .............................................................................................................. 21

Scrolling Through Previous Entries on the Home Screen ............................................................ 21

ENTRY (Last Entry) Storage Area .................................................................................................. 22

TI-84 Plus Menus ............................................................................................................................ 24

VARS and VARS Y-VARS Menus ..................................................................................................... 27

Equation Operating System (EOS™) ............................................................................................. 28

Special Features of the TI-84 Plus ................................................................................................. 29

Other TI-84 Plus Features .............................................................................................................. 30

Error Conditions ............................................................................................................................. 32

Chapter 2:

Math, Angle, and Test Operations ......................................................................... 34

Getting Started: Coin Flip ............................................................................................................. 34

Keyboard Math Operations .......................................................................................................... 35

MATH Operations .......................................................................................................................... 37

Using the Equation Solver ............................................................................................................. 41

MATH NUM (Number) Operations ................................................................................................ 44

Entering and Using Complex Numbers ....................................................................... 49

MATH CPX (Complex) Operations ................................................................................................ 53

MATH PRB (Probability) Operations ............................................................................................. 55

ANGLE Operations ......................................................................................................................... 58

TEST (Relational) Operations ........................................................................................................ 61

TEST LOGIC (Boolean) Operations ................................................................................................ 62

Chapter 3:

Function Graphing .................................................................................................. 64

Getting Started: Graphing a Circle ............................................................................................... 64

Defining Graphs ............................................................................................................................. 65

Setting the Graph Modes .............................................................................................................. 66

Defining Functions ........................................................................................................................ 67

Selecting and Deselecting Functions ............................................................................................ 68

Setting Graph Styles for Functions ............................................................................................... 70

Setting the Viewing Window Variables ....................................................................................... 72

Setting the Graph Format ............................................................................................................. 73

Displaying Graphs .......................................................................................................................... 75

Exploring Graphs with the Free-Moving Cursor .......................................................................... 77

Exploring Graphs with TRACE ....................................................................................................... 77

Exploring Graphs with the ZOOM Instructions ............................................................................ 79

Using ZOOM MEMORY .................................................................................................................. 84

Using the CALC (Calculate) Operations ........................................................................................ 86

iii

Chapter 4:

Parametric Graphing .............................................................................................. 90

Getting Started: Path of a Ball ...................................................................................................... 90

Defining and Displaying Parametric Graphs ................................................................................ 92

Exploring Parametric Graphs ........................................................................................................ 94

Chapter 5:

Polar Graphing ........................................................................................................ 96

Getting Started: Polar Rose ........................................................................................................... 96

Defining and Displaying Polar Graphs ......................................................................................... 97

Exploring Polar Graphs .................................................................................................................. 99

Chapter 6:

Sequence Graphing ............................................................................................... 101

Getting Started: Forest and Trees ............................................................................................... 101

Defining and Displaying Sequence Graphs ................................................................................ 102

Selecting Axes Combinations ...................................................................................................... 106

Exploring Sequence Graphs ........................................................................................................ 107

Graphing Web Plots ..................................................................................................................... 108

Using Web Plots to Illustrate Convergence ................................................................................ 109

Graphing Phase Plots ................................................................................................................... 110

Comparing TI-84 Plus and TI-82 Sequence Variables ................................................................. 112

Keystroke Differences Between TI-84 Plus and TI-82 ................................................................................................................................. 113

Chapter 7:

Tables ..................................................................................................................... 114

Getting Started: Roots of a Function .......................................................................................... 114

Setting Up the Table .................................................................................................................... 115

Defining the Dependent Variables ............................................................................................. 116

Displaying the Table .................................................................................................................... 117

Chapter 8:

Draw Instructions ................................................................................................. 120

Getting Started: Drawing a Tangent Line .................................................................................. 120

Using the DRAW Menu ............................................................................................................... 121

Clearing Drawings ....................................................................................................................... 122

Drawing Line Segments .............................................................................................................. 123

Drawing Horizontal and Vertical Lines ...................................................................................... 124

Drawing Tangent Lines ................................................................................................................ 125

Drawing Functions and Inverses ................................................................................................. 126

Shading Areas on a Graph .......................................................................................................... 127

Drawing Circles ............................................................................................................................ 127

Placing Text on a Graph .............................................................................................................. 128

Using Pen to Draw on a Graph ................................................................................................... 129

Drawing Points on a Graph ......................................................................................................... 130

Drawing Pixels ............................................................................................................................. 131

Storing Graph Pictures (Pic) ......................................................................................................... 133

Recalling Graph Pictures (Pic) ...................................................................................................... 134

Storing Graph Databases (GDB) .................................................................................................. 134

Recalling Graph Databases (GDB) ............................................................................................... 135

Chapter 9:

Split Screen ........................................................................................................... 136

Getting Started: Exploring the Unit Circle ................................................................................. 136

Using Split Screen ........................................................................................................................ 137

Contents iv

Horiz (Horizontal) Split Screen .................................................................................................... 138

G-T (Graph-Table) Split Screen .................................................................................................... 139

TI-84 Plus Pixels in Horiz and G-T Modes .................................................................................... 140

Chapter 10:

Matrices ................................................................................................................. 142

Getting Started: Using the MTRX Shortcut Menu ..................................................................... 142

Getting Started: Systems of Linear Equations ............................................................................ 143

Defining a Matrix ........................................................................................................................ 144

Viewing and Editing Matrix Elements ........................................................................................ 145

Using Matrices with Expressions ................................................................................................. 147

Displaying and Copying Matrices ............................................................................................... 148

Using Math Functions with Matrices .......................................................................................... 150

Using the MATRX MATH Operations .......................................................................................... 153

Chapter 11:

Lists ........................................................................................................................ 160

Getting Started: Generating a Sequence ................................................................................... 160

Naming Lists ................................................................................................................................. 161

Storing and Displaying Lists ........................................................................................................ 162

Entering List Names ..................................................................................................................... 163

Attaching Formulas to List Names .............................................................................................. 164

Using Lists in Expressions ............................................................................................................ 166

LIST OPS Menu ............................................................................................................................. 167

LIST MATH Menu ......................................................................................................................... 174

Chapter 12:

Statistics ................................................................................................................ 177

Getting Started: Pendulum Lengths and Periods ...................................................................... 177

Setting Up Statistical Analyses .................................................................................................... 183

Using the Stat List Editor ............................................................................................................. 184

Attaching Formulas to List Names .............................................................................................. 187

Detaching Formulas from List Names ......................................................................................... 189

Switching Stat List Editor Contexts ............................................................................................. 189

Stat List Editor Contexts .............................................................................................................. 191

STAT EDIT Menu ........................................................................................................................... 192

Regression Model Features ......................................................................................................... 194

STAT CALC Menu .......................................................................................................................... 197

Statistical Variables ...................................................................................................................... 202

Statistical Analysis in a Program ................................................................................................. 204

Statistical Plotting ........................................................................................................................ 204

Statistical Plotting in a Program ................................................................................................. 209

Chapter 13:

Inferential Statistics and Distributions ............................................................... 211

Getting Started: Mean Height of a Population ......................................................................... 211

Inferential Stat Editors ................................................................................................................ 214

STAT TESTS Menu ......................................................................................................................... 216

Inferential Statistics Input Descriptions ...................................................................................... 232

Test and Interval Output Variables ............................................................................................. 234

Distribution Functions ................................................................................................................. 235

Distribution Shading ................................................................................................................... 241

Chapter 14:

Applications .......................................................................................................... 244

The Applications Menu ............................................................................................................... 244

Contents v

Getting Started: Financing a Car ................................................................................................ 245

Getting Started: Computing Compound Interest ...................................................................... 246

Using the TVM Solver ................................................................................................................. 246

Using the Financial Functions ..................................................................................................... 247

Calculating Time Value of Money (TVM) ................................................................................... 248

Calculating Cash Flows ................................................................................................................ 250

Calculating Amortization ............................................................................................................ 251

Calculating Interest Conversion .................................................................................................. 254

Finding Days between Dates/Defining Payment Method ......................................................... 254

Using the TVM Variables ............................................................................................................. 255

The EasyData™ Application ........................................................................................................ 256

Chapter 15:

CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions ............................................................ 259

Browsing the TI-84 Plus CATALOG .............................................................................................. 259

Entering and Using Strings ......................................................................................................... 260

Storing Strings to String Variables .............................................................................................. 261

String Functions and Instructions in the CATALOG ................................................................... 262

Hyperbolic Functions in the CATALOG ....................................................................................... 266

Chapter 16:

Programming ........................................................................................................ 268

Getting Started: Volume of a Cylinder ....................................................................................... 268

Creating and Deleting Programs ................................................................................................ 269

Entering Command Lines and Executing Programs ................................................................... 271

Editing Programs ......................................................................................................................... 272

Copying and Renaming Programs .............................................................................................. 273

PRGM CTL (Control) Instructions ................................................................................................. 274

PRGM I/O (Input/Output) Instructions ........................................................................................ 281

Calling Other Programs as Subroutines ...................................................................................... 286

Running an Assembly Language Program ................................................................................. 287

Chapter 17:

Activities ............................................................................................................... 289

The Quadratic Formula ............................................................................................................... 289

Box with Lid ................................................................................................................................. 293

Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots ..................................................................................... 300

Graphing Piecewise Functions .................................................................................................... 302

Graphing Inequalities .................................................................................................................. 304

Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations ................................................................................... 306

Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle ................................................................... 307

Graphing Cobweb Attractors ...................................................................................................... 309

Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients ................................................................................ 310

Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves ................................................................. 312

Finding the Area between Curves .............................................................................................. 314

Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem .................................................................. 315

Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus ............................................................ 317

Computing Areas of Regular N-Sided Polygons ........................................................................ 320

Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments ........................................................................ 323

Chapter 18:

Memory and Variable Management .................................................................... 325

Checking Available Memory ....................................................................................................... 325

Deleting Items from Memory ..................................................................................................... 328

Clearing Entries and List Elements ............................................................................................. 329

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables ......................................................................................... 330

Contents vi

Resetting the TI-84 Plus ............................................................................................................... 334

Grouping and Ungrouping Variables ......................................................................................... 337

Garbage Collection ...................................................................................................................... 341

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message ....................................................................................................... 344

Chapter 19:

Communication Link ............................................................................................. 345

Getting Started: Sending Variables ............................................................................................ 345

TI-84 Plus LINK ............................................................................................................................. 347

Selecting Items to Send ............................................................................................................... 349

Receiving Items ............................................................................................................................ 353

Backing Up RAM Memory ........................................................................................................... 355

Error Conditions ........................................................................................................................... 356

Appendix A:

Functions and Instructions ................................................................................... 357

Appendix B:

Reference Information ......................................................................................... 386

Variables ....................................................................................................................................... 386

Statistics Formulas ....................................................................................................................... 388

Financial Formulas ....................................................................................................................... 392

Important Things You Need to Know About Your TI-84 Plus ................................................... 396

Error Conditions ........................................................................................................................... 399

Accuracy Information .................................................................................................................. 405

Appendix C:

Service and Warranty Information ...................................................................... 407

Texas Instruments Support and Service ...................................................................................... 407

Battery Information ..................................................................................................................... 407

In Case of Difficulty ..................................................................................................................... 410

Contents vii

Chapter 1:

Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition

Documentation Conventions

In the body of this guidebook, TI-84 Plus refers to the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. Sometimes, as in

Chapter 19, the full name TI-84 Plus Silver Edition is used to distinguish it from the TI-84 Plus.

All the instructions and examples in this guidebook also work for the TI-84 Plus. All the functions of the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition and the TI-84 Plus are the same. The two graphing calculators differ only in available RAM memory, interchangeable faceplates, and Flash application ROM memory.

Screen shots were taken using OS version 2.53MP in either MathPrint™ or Classic mode. All features are available in both modes; however, screens make look slightly different depending on the mode setting. Many examples highlight features that are not available in previous OS versions.

If your calculator does not have the latest OS, features may not be available and your screens may look different. You can download the latest OS from education.ti.com

.

TI-84 Plus Keyboard

Generally, the keyboard is divided into these zones: graphing keys, editing keys, advanced function keys, and scientific calculator keys.

Keyboard Zones

Graphing

— Graphing keys access the interactive graphing features. The third function of these keys ( t ^

a

) displays the shortcut menus, which include templates for fractions, n/d, quick matrix entry, and some of the functions found on the MATH and VARS menus.

Editing

— Editing keys allow you to edit expressions and values.

Advanced

— Advanced function keys display menus that access the advanced functions.

Scientific

— Scientific calculator keys access the capabilities of a standard scientific calculator.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 1

TI-84 Plus Silver Edition

Graphing Keys

Editing Keys

Advanced

Function Keys

Scientific

Calculator Keys

Using the Color

.Coded Keyboard

The keys on the TI-84 Plus are color-coded to help you easily locate the key you need.

The light colored keys are the number keys. The keys along the right side of the keyboard are the common math functions. The keys across the top set up and display graphs. The

Πkey provides access to applications such as the Inequality Graphing, Transformation Graphing, Conic Graphing,

Polynomial Root Finder and Simultaneous Equation Solver, and Catalog Help.

The primary function of each key is printed on the keys. For example, when you press

, the

MATH

menu is displayed.

Using the

y and ƒ Keys

The secondary function of each key is printed above the key. When you press the y key, the character, abbreviation, or word printed above the other keys becomes active for the next keystroke. For example, when you press y and then , the

TEST

menu is displayed. This guidebook describes this keystroke combination as y :.

Many keys also have a third function. These functions are printed above the keys in the same color as the

ƒ key. The third functions enter alphabetic characters and special symbols as well as access SOLVE and shortcut menus. For example, when you press

ƒ and then , the letter

A

is entered. This guidebook describes this keystroke combination as

ƒ [

A

].

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 2

If you want to enter several alphabetic characters in a row, you can press y 7 to lock the alpha key in the On position and avoid having to press

ƒ multiple times. Press ƒ a second time to unlock it.

Note

: The flashing cursor changes to

Ø

when you press

ƒ, even if you are accessing a function or a menu.

y

Accesses the second function printed above each key.

ƒ

Accesses the third function printed above each key.

ƒ

^

- a

Access shortcut menus for functionality including templates for fractions, n/d, and other functions.

Turning On and Turning Off the TI-84 Plus

Turning On the Graphing Calculator

To turn on the TI-84 Plus, press

É. An information screen displays reminding you that you can press t ^ - a to display the shortcut menus. This message also displays when you reset

RAM.

 To continue but not see this information screen again, press

1

.

 To continue and see this information screen again the next time you turn on the TI-84 Plus

,

press

2.

• If you previously had turned off the graphing calculator by pressing y M, the TI-84 Plus displays the home screen as it was when you last used it and clears any error. (The information screen displays first, unless you chose not to see it again.) If the home screen is blank, press

} to scroll through the history of previous calculations.

• If Automatic Power Down™ (APD™) had previously turned off the graphing calculator, the

TI-84 Plus will return exactly as you left it, including the display, cursor, and any error.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 3

• If the TI-84 Plus is turned off and connected to another graphing calculator or personal computer, any communication activity will “wake up” the TI-84 Plus.

To prolong the life of the batteries, APD™ turns off the TI-84 Plus automatically after about five minutes without any activity.

Turning Off the Graphing Calculator

To turn off the TI-84 Plus manually, press

y M.

• All settings and memory contents are retained by the Constant Memory™ function.

• Any error condition is cleared.

Batteries

The TI-84 Plus uses five batteries: four AAA alkaline batteries and one button cell backup battery.

The backup battery provides auxiliary power to retain memory while you replace the AAA batteries. To replace batteries without losing any information stored in memory, follow the steps in

Appendix C.

Setting the Display Contrast

Adjusting the Display Contrast

You can adjust the display contrast to suit your viewing angle and lighting conditions. As you change the contrast setting, a number from 0 (lightest) to 9 (darkest) in the top-right corner indicates the current level. You may not be able to see the number if contrast is too light or too dark.

Note:

The TI-84 Plus has 40 contrast settings, so each number 0 through 9 represents four settings.

The TI-84 Plus retains the contrast setting in memory when it is turned off.

To adjust the contrast, follow these steps.

 Press y } to darken the screen one level at a time.

 Press y † to lighten the screen one level at a time.

Note:

If you adjust the contrast setting to 0, the display may become completely blank. To restore the screen, press y } until the display reappears.

When to Replace Batteries

When the batteries are low, a low-battery message is displayed when you turn on the graphing calculator.

To replace the batteries without losing any information in memory, follow the steps in Appendix C.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 4

Generally, the graphing calculator will continue to operate for one or two weeks after the lowbattery message is first displayed. After this period, the TI-84 Plus will turn off automatically and the unit will not operate. Batteries must be replaced. All memory should be retained.

Note:

• The operating period following the first low-battery message could be longer than two weeks if you use the graphing calculator infrequently.

• Always replace batteries before attempting to install a new operating system.

The Display

Types of Displays

The TI-84 Plus displays both text and graphs. Chapter 3 describes graphs. Chapter 9 describes how the TI-84 Plus can display a horizontally or vertically split screen to show graphs and text simultaneously.

Home Screen

The home screen is the primary screen of the TI-84 Plus. On this screen, enter instructions to execute and expressions to evaluate. The answers are displayed on the same screen. Most calculations are stored in the history on the home screen. You can press

} and † to scroll through the history of entries on the home screen and you can paste the entries or answers to the current entry line.

Displaying Entries and Answers

• When text is displayed, the TI-84 Plus screen can display a maximum of 8 lines with a maximum of 16 characters per line in Classic mode. In MathPrint™ mode, fewer lines and fewer characters per line may be displayed.

• If all lines of the display are full, text scrolls off the top of the display.

To view previous entries and answers, press

}.

To copy a previous entry or answer and paste it to the current entry line, move the cursor to the entry or answer you want to copy and press

Í.

Note

: List and matrix outputs cannot be copied. If you try to copy and paste a list or matrix output, the cursor returns to the input line.

• If an expression on the home screen, the Y= editor (Chapter 3), or the program editor

(Chapter 16) is longer than one line, it wraps to the beginning of the next line in Classic mode.

In MathPrint™ mode, an expression on the home screen or Y= editor that is longer than one line scrolls off the screen to the right. An arrow on the right side of the screen indicates that you can scroll right to see more of the expression. In numeric editors such as the window screen (Chapter 3), a long expression scrolls to the right and left in both Classic and

MathPrint™ modes. Press y ~ to move the cursor to the end of the line. Press y | to move the cursor to the beginning of the line.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 5

When an entry is executed on the home screen, the answer is displayed on the right side of the next line.

Entry

Answer

The mode settings control the way the TI-84 Plus interprets expressions and displays answers.

If an answer, such as a list or matrix, is too long to display entirely on one line, an arrow

(MathPrint™) or an ellipsis (Classic) is displayed to the right or left. Press

~ and | to display the answer.

MathPrint™

Classic

Entry

Answer

Entry

Answer

Entry

Answer

Entry

Answer

Using Shortcut Menus

t ^

Opens FRAC menu.

t _

Opens FUNC menu.

t `

Opens MTRX menu.

t a

Opens YVAR menu.

Shortcut menus allow quick access to the following:

• Templates to enter fractions and selected functions from the MATH MATH and MATH NUM menus as you would see them in a textbook. Functions include absolute value, summation, numeric differentiation, numeric integration, and log base n.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 6

• Matrix entry.

• Names of function variables from the VARS Y-VARS menu.

Initially, the menus are hidden. To open a menu, press t plus the F-key that corresponds to the menu, that is,

^ for FRAC, _ for FUNC, ` for MTRX, or a for YVAR. To select a menu item, either press the number corresponding to the item, or use the arrow keys to move the cursor to the appropriate line and then press

Í.

All shortcut menu items except matrix templates can also be selected using standard menus. For example, you can choose the summation template from three places:

FUNC shortcut menu

MATH MATH menu

Catalog

The shortcut menus are available to use where input is allowed. If the calculator is in Classic mode, or if a screen is displayed that does not support MathPrint™ display, entries will be displayed in Classic display. The MTRX menu is only available in MathPrint™ mode on the home screen and in the Y= editor.

Note

: Shortcut menus may not be available if t plus F-key combinations are used by an application that is running, such as Inequality Graphing or Transformation Graphing.

Returning to the Home Screen

To return to the home screen from any other screen, press y 5.

Busy Indicator

When the TI-84 Plus is calculating or graphing, a vertical moving line is displayed as a busy indicator in the top-right corner of the screen. When you pause a graph or a program, the busy indicator becomes a vertical moving dotted line.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 7

Display Cursors

In most cases, the appearance of the cursor indicates what will happen when you press the next key or select the next menu item to be pasted as a character.

Cursor Appearance Effect of Next Keystroke

Entry

Insert

Second

Alpha

Solid rectangle

$

Underline

__

Reverse arrow

Þ

Reverse A

Ø

A character is entered at the cursor; any existing character is overwritten

A character is inserted in front of the cursor location

A 2nd character is entered or a 2nd operation is executed

An alpha character is entered, SOLVE is executed, or shortcut menus are displayed.

Full Checkerboard rectangle

#

No entry; the maximum characters are entered at a prompt or memory is full

MathPrint™ Right arrow The cursor moves to either the next part of the template or out of the template.

If you press

ƒ during an insertion, the cursor becomes an underlined

A

(

A

). If you press y during an insertion, the underlined cursoSr becomes an underlined

# (#).

Note

: If you highlight a small character such as a colon or a comma and then press

ƒ or y, the cursor does not change because the cursor width is too narrow.

Graphs and editors sometimes display additional cursors, which are described in other chapters.

Interchangeable Faceplates

The TI-84 Plus Silver Edition has interchangeable faceplates that let you customize the appearance of your unit. To purchase additional faceplates, refer to the TI Online Store at education.ti.com.

Removing a Faceplate

1.

Lift the tab at the bottom edge of the faceplate away from the TI-84

Plus Silver Edition case.

2.

Carefully lift the faceplate away from the unit until it releases. Be careful not to damage the faceplate or the keyboard.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 8

Installing New Faceplates

1.

Align the top of the faceplate in the corresponding grooves of the TI-84

Plus Silver Edition case.

2.

Gently click the faceplate into place. Do not force.

3.

Make sure you gently press each of the grooves to ensure the faceplate is installed properly. See the diagram for proper groove placement.

Using the Clock

Use the clock to set the time and date, select the clock display format, and turn the clock on and off. The clock is turned on by default and is accessed from the mode screen.

Displaying the Clock Settings

1.

Press z.

2.

Press the

† to move the cursor to

SET CLOCK

.

3.

Press

Í.

Changing the Clock Settings

1.

Press the

~ or | to highlight the date format you want. Press

Í.

2.

Press

† to highlight

YEAR

. Press

‘ and type the year.

3.

Press

† to highlight

MONTH

. Press

‘ and type the number of the month (1-12).

4.

Press

† to highlight

DAY

. Press

‘ and type the date.

5.

Press

† to highlight

TIME

. Press

~ or | to highlight the time format you want. Press

Í.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 9

6.

Press

† to highlight

HOUR

. Press

‘ and type the hour (a number from 1-12 or 0-23).

7.

Press

† to highlight

MINUTE

. Press

‘ and type the minutes (a number from 0-59).

8.

Press

† to highlight

AM/PM

. Press

~ or | to highlight the format. Press

Í.

9.

To save changes, press

† to highlight

SAVE

.

Press

Í.

Error Messages

If you type the wrong date for the month, for example,

June 31 (June does not have 31 days), you will receive an error message with two choices:

• To quit the clock application and return to the home screen, select

1: Quit

.

— or —

• To return to the clock application and correct the error, select

2: Goto

.

Turning the Clock On

There are two options to turn the clock on. One option is through the

MODE

screen, the other is through the Catalog.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 10

Using the Mode Screen to turn the clock on

1.

If the clock is turned off, Press

† to highlight

TURN

CLOCK ON

.

2.

Press

Í Í.

Using the Catalog to turn the clock on

1.

If the clock is turned off, Press y N

2.

Press

† or } to scroll the

CATALOG

until the selection cursor points to

ClockOn.

3.

Press

Í Í.

Turning the Clock Off

1.

Press y N.

2.

Press

† or } to scroll the

CATALOG

until the selection cursor points to

ClockOff

.

3.

Press

Í Í.

Entering Expressions and Instructions

What Is an Expression?

An expression is a group of numbers, variables, functions and their arguments, or a combination of these elements. An expression evaluates to a single answer. On the TI-84 Plus, you enter an expression in the same order as you would write it on paper. For example, pR

2

is an expression.

You can use an expression on the home screen to calculate an answer. In most places where a value is required, you can use an expression to enter a value.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 11

Entering an Expression

To create an expression, you enter numbers, variables, and functions using the keyboard and menus. An expression is completed when you press

Í, regardless of the cursor location. The entire expression is evaluated according to Equation Operating System (EOS™) rules, and the answer is displayed according to the mode setting for

Answer

.

Most TI-84 Plus functions and operations are symbols comprising several characters. You must enter the symbol from the keyboard or a menu; do not spell it out. For example, to calculate the log of 45, you must press

«

45

. Do not enter the letters

L

,

O

, and

G

. If you enter

LOG

, the TI-84 Plus interprets the entry as implied multiplication of the variables

L

,

O

, and

G

.

Calculate 3.76

P (L7.9 + ‡5) + 2 log 45.

3

Ë

76

¥ £ Ì

7

Ë

9

à y C

5

¤ ¤ Ã

2

«

45

¤

Í

MathPrint™ Classic

Multiple Entries on a Line

To enter two or more expressions or instructions on a line, separate them with colons (

ƒ [

:

]).

All instructions are stored together in last entry (ENTRY).

Entering a Number in Scientific Notation

1.

Enter the part of the number that precedes the exponent. This value can be an expression.

2.

Press y D. â is pasted to the cursor location.

3.

Enter the exponent, which can be one or two digits.

Note

: If the exponent is negative, press

Ì, and then enter the exponent.

When you enter a number in scientific notation, the TI-84 Plus does not automatically display answers in scientific or engineering notation. The mode settings and the size of the number determine the display format.

Functions

A function returns a value. For example,

÷

,

L,

+

,

‡, and

log(

are the functions in the example on the previous page. In general, the first letter of each function is lowercase on the TI-84 Plus. Most functions take at least one argument, as indicated by an open parenthesis following the name. For example,

sin(

requires one argument,

sin(value)

.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 12

Note

: The Catalog Help App contains syntax information for most of the functions in the catalog.

Instructions

An instruction initiates an action. For example,

ClrDraw

is an instruction that clears any drawn elements from a graph. Instructions cannot be used in expressions. In general, the first letter of each instruction name is uppercase. Some instructions take more than one argument, as indicated by an open parenthesis at the end of the name. For example,

Circle(

requires three arguments,

Circle(X,Y,radius)

.

Interrupting a Calculation

To interrupt a calculation or graph in progress, which is indicated by the busy indicator, press

É.

When you interrupt a calculation, a menu is displayed.

• To return to the home screen, select

1:Quit

.

• To go to the location of the interruption, select

2:Goto

.

When you interrupt a graph, a partial graph is displayed.

• To return to the home screen, press

‘ or any nongraphing key.

• To restart graphing, press a graphing key or select a graphing instruction.

TI-84 Plus Edit Keys

Keystrokes

~

or

|

}

or

† y | y ~ y } y †

Í

Result

Moves the cursor within an expression; these keys repeat.

Moves the cursor from line to line within an expression that occupies more than one line; these keys repeat.

Moves the cursor from term to term within an expression in MathPrint™ mode; these keys repeat.

On the home screen, scrolls through the history of entries and answers.

Moves the cursor to the beginning of an expression.

Moves the cursor to the end of an expression.

On the home screen, moves the cursor out of a MathPrint™ expression.

In the Y=editor, moves the cursor from a MathPrint™ expression to the previous Y-var.

In the Y=editor, moves the cursor from a MathPrint ™ expression to the next Y-var.

Evaluates an expression or executes an instruction.

On a line with text on the home screen, clears the current line.

On a blank line on the home screen, clears everything on the home screen.

In an editor, clears the expression or value where the cursor is located; it does not store a zero.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 13

Keystrokes

{ y 6 y

ƒ y 7

Result

Deletes a character at the cursor; this key repeats.

Changes the cursor to an underline (__); inserts characters in front of the underline cursor; to end insertion, press y 6

or press

|

,

}

,

~

, or

.

Changes the cursor to

Þ

; the next keystroke performs a 2nd function

(displayed above a key and to the left); to cancel 2nd, press y

again.

Changes the cursor to

Ø

; the next keystroke performs a third function of that key (displayed above a key and to the right), executes SOLVE

(Chapters 10 and 11), or accesses a shortcut menu; to cancel press

ƒ

or press

|

,

}

,

~

, or

.

ƒ

,

Changes the cursor to

Ø

; sets alpha-lock; subsequent keystrokes access the third functions of the keys pressed; to cancel alpha-lock, press

ƒ

. If you are prompted to enter a name such as for a group or a program, alpha-lock is set automatically.

Pastes an X in Func mode, a T in Par mode, a q

in Pol mode, or an n in

Seq mode with one keystroke.

Setting Modes

Checking Mode Settings

Mode settings control how the TI-84 Plus displays and interprets numbers and graphs. Mode settings are retained by the Constant ‘Memory™ feature when the TI-84 Plus is turned off. All numbers, including elements of matrices and lists, are displayed according to the current mode settings.

To display the mode settings, press z. The current settings are highlighted. Defaults are highlighted below. The following pages describe the mode settings in detail.

Normal Sci Eng

Float 0123456789

Radian Degree

Func Par Pol Seq

Connected Dot

Sequential Simul

Real a+b

i

re^ q

i

Full Horiz G-T

MathPrint Classic

n/d Un/d

Answers: Auto Dec Frac

Numeric notation

Number of decimal places in answers

Unit of angle measure

Type of graphing

Whether to connect graph points

Whether to plot simultaneously

Real, rectangular complex, or polar complex

Full screen, two split-screen modes

Controls whether inputs and outputs on the home screen and in the Y= editor are displayed as they are in textbooks

Displays results as simple fractions or mixed fractions

Controls the format of the answers

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 14

GoTo Format Graph: No Yes

Shortcut to the Format Graph screen ( y .

)

StatDiagnostics: Off On

Set Clock

Determines which information is displayed in a statistical regression calculation

Sets the time and date

Changing Mode Settings

To change mode settings, follow these steps.

1.

Press

†  or } to move the cursor to the line of the setting that you want to change.

2.

Press

~ or | to move the cursor to the setting you want.

3.

Press

Í.

Setting a Mode from a Program

You can set a mode from a program by entering the name of the mode as an instruction; for example,

Func

or

Float

. From a blank program command line, select the mode setting from the mode screen; the instruction is pasted to the cursor location.

Normal, Sci, Eng

Notation modes only affect the way an answer is displayed on the home screen. Numeric answers can be displayed with up to 10 digits and a two-digit exponent and as fractions. You can enter a number in any format.

Normal

notation mode is the usual way we express numbers, with digits to the left and right of the decimal, as in

12345.67

.

Sci

(scientific) notation mode expresses numbers in two parts. The significant digits display with one digit to the left of the decimal. The appropriate power of 10 displays to the right of

å, as in

1.234567

â

4

.

Eng

(engineering) notation mode is similar to scientific notation. However, the number can have one, two, or three digits before the decimal; and the power-of-10 exponent is a multiple of three, as in

12.34567

â

3

.

Note:

If you select

Normal

notation, but the answer cannot display in 10 digits (or the absolute value is less than .001), the TI-84 Plus expresses the answer in scientific notation.

Float, 0123456789

Float

(floating) decimal mode displays up to 10 digits, plus the sign and decimal.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 15

0123456789

(fixed) decimal mode specifies the number of digits (0 through 9) to display to the right of the decimal for decimal answers.

The decimal setting applies to

Normal

,

Sci

, and

Eng

notation modes.

The decimal setting applies to these numbers, with respect to the

Answer

mode setting:

• An answer displayed on the home screen

• Coordinates on a graph (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6)

• The

Tangent(

DRAW instruction equation of the line, x, and

dy/dx

values (Chapter 8)

• Results of CALCULATE operations (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6)

• The regression equation stored after the execution of a regression model (Chapter 12)

Radian, Degree

Angle modes control how the TI-84 Plus interprets angle values in trigonometric functions and polar/rectangular conversions.

Radian

mode interprets angle values as radians. Answers display in radians.

Degree

mode interprets angle values as degrees. Answers display in degrees.

Func, Par, Pol, Seq

Graphing modes define the graphing parameters. Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 describe these modes in detail.

Func

(function) graphing mode plots functions, where Y is a function of X (Chapter 3).

Par

(parametric) graphing mode plots relations, where X and Y are functions of T (Chapter 4).

Pol

(polar) graphing mode plots functions, where

r

is a function of q (Chapter 5).

Seq

(sequence) graphing mode plots sequences (Chapter 6).

Connected, Dot

Connected

plotting mode draws a line connecting each point calculated for the selected functions.

Dot

plotting mode plots only the calculated points of the selected functions.

Sequential, Simul

Sequential

graphing-order mode evaluates and plots one function completely before the next function is evaluated and plotted.

Simul

(simultaneous) graphing-order mode evaluates and plots all selected functions for a single value of X and then evaluates and plots them for the next value of X.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 16

Note:

Regardless of which graphing mode is selected, the TI-84 Plus will sequentially graph all stat plots before it graphs any functions.

Real, a+b

i

, re^

q

i

Real

mode does not display complex results unless complex numbers are entered as input.

Two complex modes display complex results.

a+bi

(rectangular complex mode) displays complex numbers in the form a+b

i

.

re^

q

i

(polar complex mode) displays complex numbers in the form re^ q

i

.

Note

: When you use the n/d template, both n and d must be real numbers. For example, you can enter (the answer is displayed as a decimal value) but if you enter , a data type error displays. To perform division with a complex number in the numerator or denominator, use regular division instead of the n/d template.

Full, Horiz, G-T

Full

screen mode uses the entire screen to display a graph or edit screen.

Each split-screen mode displays two screens simultaneously.

Horiz

(horizontal) mode displays the current graph on the top half of the screen; it displays the home screen or an editor on the bottom half (Chapter 9).

G-T

(graph-table) mode displays the current graph on the left half of the screen; it displays the table screen on the right half (Chapter 9).

MathPrint™, Classic

MathPrint™

mode displays most inputs and outputs the way they are shown in textbooks, such as

2

+

4

2

and

x

2

d x

.

1

Classic

mode displays expressions and answers as if written on one line, such as 1/2 + 3/4.

Note

: If you switch between these modes, most entries will be preserved; however matrix calculations will not be preserved.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 17

n/d, Un/d n/d

displays results as a simple fraction. Fractions may contain a maximum of six digits in the numerator; the value of the denominator may not exceed 9999.

Un/d

displays results as a mixed number, if applicable.

U, n,

and

d

must be all be integers. If

U

is a non-integer, the result may be converted

U

n/d

. If n or d is a non-integer, a syntax error is displayed. The whole number, numerator, and denominator may each contain a maximum of three digits.

Answers: Auto, Dec, Frac

Auto

displays answers in a similar format as the input. For example, if a fraction is entered in an expression, the answer will be in fraction form, if possible. If a decimal appears in the expression, the output will be a decimal number.

Dec

displays answers as integers or decimal numbers.

Frac

displays answers as fractions, if possible.

Note

: The

Answers

mode setting also affects how values in sequences, lists, and tables are displayed. Choose

Dec

or

Frac

to ensure that values are displayed in either decimal or fraction form. You can also convert values from decimal to fraction or fraction to decimal using the

FRAC

shortcut menu or the

MATH

menu.

GoTo Format Graph: No, Yes

No

does not display the FORMAT graph screen, but can always be accessed by pressing y .

.

Yes

leaves the mode screen and displays the FORMAT graph screen when you press that you can change the graph format settings. To return to the mode screen, press

Í

so z

.

Stat Diagnostics: Off, On

Off

displays a statistical regression calculation without the correlation coefficient (r) or the coefficient of determination (r

2

).

On

displays a statistical regression calculation with the correlation coefficient (r), and the coefficient of determination (r

2

), as appropriate.

Set Clock

Use the clock to set the time, date, and clock display formats.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 18

Using TI-84 Plus Variable Names

Variables and Defined Items

On the TI-84 Plus you can enter and use several types of data, including real and complex numbers, matrices, lists, functions, stat plots, graph databases, graph pictures, and strings.

The TI-84 Plus uses assigned names for variables and other items saved in memory. For lists, you also can create your own five-character names.

Variable Type

Real numbers (including fractions)

Complex numbers

Matrices

Lists

Functions

Parametric equations

Polar functions

Sequence functions

Stat plots

Graph databases

Graph pictures

Strings

Apps

AppVars

Groups

System variables

Names

A, B, ... , Z, q

A, B, ... , Z, q

ã

A

ä

,

ã

B

ä

,

ã

C

ä

, ... ,

ã

J

ä

L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, and user-defined names

Y1, Y2, ... , Y9, Y0

X1T and Y1T, ... , X6T and Y6T

r1, r2, r3, r4, r5, r6

u, v, w

Plot1, Plot2, Plot3

GDB1, GDB2, ... , GDB9, GDB0

Pic1, Pic2, ... , Pic9, Pic0

Str1, Str2, ... , Str9, Str0

Applications

Application variables

Grouped variables

Xmin, Xmax, and others

Notes about Variables

• You can create as many list names as memory will allow (Chapter 11).

• Programs have user-defined names and share memory with variables (Chapter 16).

• From the home screen or from a program, you can store to matrices (Chapter 10), lists

(Chapter 11), strings (Chapter 15), system variables such as

Xmax

(Chapter 1),

TblStart

(Chapter 7), and all

Y=

functions (Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6).

• From an editor, you can store to matrices, lists, and

Y=

functions (Chapter 3).

• From the home screen, a program, or an editor, you can store a value to a matrix element or a list element.

• You can use

DRAW STO

menu items to store and recall graph databases and pictures

(Chapter 8).

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 19

• Although most variables can be archived, system variables including r, T, X, Y, and q cannot be archived (Chapter 18)

Apps

are independent applications.which are stored in Flash ROM.

AppVars

is a variable holder used to store variables created by independent applications. You cannot edit or change variables in

AppVars

unless you do so through the application which created them.

Storing Variable Values

Storing Values in a Variable

Values are stored to and recalled from memory using variable names. When an expression containing the name of a variable is evaluated, the value of the variable at that time is used.

To store a value to a variable from the home screen or a program using the

¿ key, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

1.

Enter the value you want to store. The value can be an expression.

2.

Press

¿. ! is copied to the cursor location.

3.

Press

ƒ and then the letter of the variable to which you want to store the value.

4.

Press

Í. If you entered an expression, it is evaluated. The value is stored to the variable.

Displaying a Variable Value

To display the value of a variable, enter the name on a blank line on the home screen, and then press

Í.

Archiving Variables (Archive, Unarchive)

You can archive data, programs, or other variables in a section of memory called user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archived variables are indicated by asterisks

(

ä) to the left of the variable names. Archived variables cannot be edited or executed. They can only be seen and unarchived. For example, if you archive list L1, you will see that L1 exists in memory but if you select it and paste the name L1 to the home screen, you won’t be able to see its contents or edit it until it is unarchived.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 20

Recalling Variable Values

Using Recall (RCL)

To recall and copy variable contents to the current cursor location, follow these steps. To leave

RCL

, press

‘.

1.

Press y K.

RCL

and the edit cursor are displayed on the bottom line of the screen.

2.

Enter the name of the variable in one of five ways.

• Press

ƒ and then the letter of the variable.

• Press y 9, and then select the name of the list, or press y [

Ln

].

• Press y >, and then select the name of the matrix.

• Press

 to display the

VARS

menu or

 ~ to display the

VARS Y-VARS

menu; then select the type and then the name of the variable or function.

• Press t a to display the YVAR shortcut menu, then select the name of the function.

• Press

 |, and then select the name of the program (in the program editor only).

The variable name you selected is displayed on the bottom line and the cursor disappears.

3.

Press

Í. The variable contents are inserted where the cursor was located before you began these steps.

Note:

You can edit the characters pasted to the expression without affecting the value in memory.

Scrolling Through Previous Entries on the Home Screen

You can scroll up through previous entries and answers on the home screen, even if you have cleared the screen. When you find an entry or answer that you want to use, you can select it and paste it on the current entry line.

Note

: List and matrix answers cannot be copied and pasted to the new entry line. However, you can copy the list or matrix command to the new entry line and execute the command again to display the answer.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 21

 Press

} or

to move the cursor to the entry or answer you want to copy and then press

Í

.

T

The entry or answer that you copied is automatically pasted on the current input line at the cursor location.

Note

: If the cursor is in a MathPrint™ expression, press y } to move the cursor out of the expression and then move the cursor to the entry or answer you want to copy.

 Press u or

{ to delete an entry/answer pair. After an entry/answer pair has been deleted, it cannot be displayed or recalled again.

ENTRY (Last Entry) Storage Area

Using ENTRY (Last Entry)

When you press

Í on the home screen to evaluate an expression or execute an instruction, the expression or instruction is placed in a storage area called ENTRY (last entry). When you turn off the TI-84 Plus, ENTRY is retained in memory.

To recall ENTRY, press y [. The last entry is pasted to the current cursor location, where you can edit and execute it. On the home screen or in an editor, the current line is cleared and the last entry is pasted to the line.

Because the TI-84 Plus updates ENTRY only when you press

Í, you can recall the previous entry even if you have begun to enter the next expression.

5

Ã

7

Í y [

Accessing a Previous Entry

The TI-84 Plus retains as many previous entries as possible in ENTRY, up to a capacity of 128 bytes. To scroll those entries, press y [ repeatedly. If a single entry is more than 128 bytes, it is retained for ENTRY, but it cannot be placed in the ENTRY storage area.

1

¿ ƒ

A

Í

2

¿ ƒ

B

Í y [

If you press y [ after displaying the oldest stored entry, the newest stored entry is displayed again, then the next-newest entry, and so on.

y [

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 22

Executing the Previous Entry Again

After you have pasted the last entry to the home screen and edited it (if you chose to edit it), you can execute the entry. To execute the last entry, press

Í.

To execute the displayed entry again, press

Í again. Each subsequent execution displays the entry and the new answer.

0

¿ ƒ

N

Í

ƒ

N

Ã

1

¿ ƒ

N

ƒ ã

:

䊃Ä

N

¡ Í

Í

Í

Multiple Entry Values on a Line

To store to ENTRY two or more expressions or instructions, separate each expression or instruction with a colon, then press

Í. All expressions and instructions separated by colons are stored in ENTRY.

When you press y [, all the expressions and instructions separated by colons are pasted to the current cursor location. You can edit any of the entries, and then execute all of them when you press

Í.

Example: For the equation A= pr

2

, use trial and error to find the radius of a circle that covers 200 square centimeters. Use 8 as your first guess.

8

¿ ƒ

R

ƒ ã

:

ä y B ƒ

R

¡ Í y [ y |

7

y 6 Ë

95

Í

Continue until the answer is as accurate as you want.

Clearing ENTRY

Clear Entries

(Chapter 18) clears all data that the TI-84 Plus is holding in the

ENTRY

storage area.

Using Ans in an Expression

When an expression is evaluated successfully from the home screen or from a program, the TI-84

Plus stores the answer to a storage area called

Ans

(last answer).

Ans

may be a real or complex number, a list, a matrix, or a string. When you turn off the TI-84 Plus, the value in

Ans

is retained in memory.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 23

You can use the variable

Ans

to represent the last answer in most places. Press y Z to copy the variable name

Ans

to the cursor location. When the expression is evaluated, the TI-84 Plus uses the value of

Ans

in the calculation.

Calculate the area of a garden plot 1.7 meters by 4.2 meters. Then calculate the yield per square meter if the plot produces a total of 147 tomatoes.

1

Ë

7

¯

4

Ë

2

Í

147

¥ y Z

Í

Continuing an Expression

You can use

Ans

as the first entry in the next expression without entering the value again or pressing y Z. On a blank line on the home screen, enter the function. The TI-84 Plus pastes the variable name

Ans

to the screen, then the function.

5

¥

2

Í

¯

9

Ë

9

Í

Storing Answers

To store an answer, store

Ans

to a variable before you evaluate another expression.

Calculate the area of a circle of radius 5 meters. Next, calculate the volume of a cylinder of radius

5 meters and height 3.3 meters, and then store the result in the variable V.

y B

5

¡

Í

¯

3

Ë

3

Í

¿ ƒ

V

Í

TI-84 Plus Menus

Using a TI-84 Plus Menu

You can access most TI-84 Plus operations using menus. When you press a key or key combination to display a menu, one or more menu names appear on the top line of the screen.

• The menu name on the left side of the top line is highlighted. Up to seven items in that menu are displayed, beginning with item 1, which also is highlighted.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 24

• A number or letter identifies each menu item’s place in the menu. The order is 1 through 9, then 0, then A, B, C, and so on. The

LIST NAMES

,

PRGM EXEC

, and

PRGM EDIT

menus only label items 1 through 9 and 0.

• When the menu continues beyond the displayed items, a down arrow (

$) replaces the colon next to the last displayed item.

• When a menu item ends in an ellipsis (

...

), the item displays a secondary menu or editor when you select it.

• When an asterisk (

ä) appears to the left of a menu item, that item is stored in user data archive

(Chapter 18).

Displaying a Menu

While using your TI-84 Plus, you often will need to access items from its menus.

When you press a key that displays a menu, that menu temporarily replaces the screen where you are working. For example, when you press

, the

MATH

menu is displayed as a full screen.

After you select an item from a menu, the screen where you are working usually is displayed again.

Moving from One Menu to Another

Some keys access more than one menu. When you press such a key, the names of all accessible menus are displayed on the top line. When you highlight a menu name, the items in that menu are displayed.

Press

~ and | to highlight each menu name.

Note

: FRAC shortcut menu items are also found on the

MATH NUM menu. FUNC shortcut menu items are also found on the MATH MATH menu.

Scrolling a Menu

To scroll down the menu items, press

†. To scroll up the menu items, press }.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 25

To page down six menu items at a time, press

ƒ †. To page up six menu items at a time, press

ƒ }.

To go to the last menu item directly from the first menu item, press

}. To go to the first menu item directly from the last menu item, press

†.

Selecting an Item from a Menu

You can select an item from a menu in either of two ways.

• Press the number or letter of the item you want to select. The cursor can be anywhere on the menu, and the item you select need not be displayed on the screen.

• Press

† or } to move the cursor to the item you want, and then press

Í.

After you select an item from a menu, the TI-84 Plus typically displays the previous screen.

Note:

On the

LIST NAMES

,

PRGM EXEC

, and

PRGM EDIT

menus, only items 1 through 9 and 0 are labeled in such a way that you can select them by pressing the appropriate number key. To move the cursor to the first item beginning with any alpha character or q, press the key combination for that alpha character or q. If no items begin with that character, the cursor moves beyond it to the next item.

Example: Calculate

3

‡27.

 † † † Í

27

Í

Leaving a Menu without Making a Selection

You can leave a menu without making a selection in any of four ways.

• Press y 5 to return to the home screen.

• Press

‘ to return to the previous screen.

• Press a key or key combination for a different menu, such as

 or y 9.

• Press a key or key combination for a different screen, such as o or y 0.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 26

VARS and VARS Y-VARS Menus

VARS Menu

You can enter the names of functions and system variables in an expression or store to them directly.

To display the

VARS

menu, press

. All

VARS

menu items display secondary menus, which show the names of the system variables.

1:Window

,

2:Zoom

, and

5:Statistics

each access more than one secondary menu.

VARS Y-VARS

1: Window

...

2: Zoom

...

3: GDB

...

4: Picture

...

5: Statistics

...

6: Table

...

7: String

...

X/Y, T/ q

, and U/V/W variables

ZX/ZY, ZT/Z q

, and ZU variables

Graph database variables

Picture variables

XY,

G

, EQ, TEST, and PTS variables

TABLE variables

String variables

Selecting a Variable from the VARS Menu or VARS Y-VARS Menu

To display the

VARS Y-VARS

menu, press

 ~.

1:Function

,

2:Parametric

, and

3:Polar

display secondary menus of the Y= function variables.

VARS Y-VARS

1: Function

...

2: Parametric

...

3: Polar

...

4: On/Off

...

Yn functions

XnT, YnT functions, also found on the YVARS shortcut menu

rn functions, also found on the YVARS shortcut menu

Lets you select/deselect functions

Note:

• The sequence variables (

u

,

v

,

w

) are located on the keyboard as the second functions of

¬,

−, and ®.

• These Y= function variables are also on the

YVAR

shortcut menu.

To select a variable from the

VARS

or

VARS Y-VARS

menu, follow these steps.

1.

Display the

VARS

or

VARS Y-VARS

menu.

• Press

 to display the

VARS

menu.

• Press

 ~ to display the

VARS Y-VARS

menu.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 27

2.

Select the type of variable, such as

2:Zoom

from the

VARS

menu or

3:Polar

from the

VARS Y-VARS

menu. A secondary menu is displayed.

3.

If you selected

1:Window

,

2:Zoom

, or

5:Statistics

from the

VARS

menu, you can press

~ or | to display other secondary menus.

4.

Select a variable name from the menu. It is pasted to the cursor location.

Equation Operating System (EOS™)

Order of Evaluation

The Equation Operating System (EOS™) defines the order in which functions in expressions are entered and evaluated on the TI-84 Plus. EOS™ lets you enter numbers and functions in a simple, straightforward sequence.

EOS evaluates the functions in an expression in this order.

Order Number Function

1

2

Functions that precede the argument, such as

, sin(, or log(

Functions that are entered after the argument, such as

2

,

M1

, !,

¡

, r

, and conversions

3

Powers and roots, such as 2

5

or 5

x

32

4

5

6

7

8

9

Permutations (nPr) and combinations (nCr)

Multiplication, implied multiplication, and division

Addition and subtraction

Relational functions, such as > or

Logic operator and

Logic operators or and xor

Note:

Within a priority level, EOS™ evaluates functions from left to right. Calculations within parentheses are evaluated first.

Implied Multiplication

The TI-84 Plus recognizes implied multiplication, so you need not press

¯ to express multiplication in all cases. For example, the TI-84 Plus interprets

2

p,

4sin(46)

,

5(1+2)

, and

(2

5)7

as implied multiplication.

Note:

TI-84 Plus implied multiplication rules, although like the TI-83, differ from those of the TI-82.

For example, the TI-84 Plus evaluates

1

à

2X

as

(1

à

2)

X

, while the TI-82 evaluates

1

à

2X

as

1

à

(2

X)

(Chapter 2).

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 28

Parentheses

All calculations inside a pair of parentheses are completed first. For example, in the expression

4(1+2)

, EOS first evaluates the portion inside the parentheses, 1+2, and then multiplies the answer,

3, by 4.

Negation

To enter a negative number, use the negation key. Press

Ì and then enter the number. On the

TI-84 Plus, negation is in the third level in the EOS™ hierarchy. Functions in the first level, such as squaring, are evaluated before negation.

Example:

M

X

2

, evaluates to a negative number (or 0). Use parentheses to square a negative number.

Note:

Use the

¹ key for subtraction and the Ì key for negation. If you press ¹ to enter a negative number, as in

9

¯ ¹

7

, or if you press

Ì to indicate subtraction, as in

9

Ì

7

, an error occurs. If you press

ƒ

A

Ì ƒ

B

, it is interpreted as implied multiplication (

A

…M

B

).

Special Features of the TI-84 Plus

Flash – Electronic Upgradability

The TI-84 Plus uses Flash technology, which lets you upgrade to future software versions without buying a new graphing calculator.

As new functionality becomes available, you can electronically upgrade your TI-84 Plus from the

Internet. Future software versions include maintenance upgrades that will be released free of charge, as well as new applications and major software upgrades that will be available for purchase from the TI Web site: education.ti.com

. For details, refer to Chapter 19.

1.5 Megabytes of Available Memory

1.5 MB of available memory are built into the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition, and 0.5 MB for the

TI-84 Plus. About 24 kilobytes (K) of RAM (random access memory) are available for you to compute and store functions, programs, and data.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 29

About 1.5 M of user data archive allow you to store data, programs, applications, or any other variables to a safe location where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. You can also free up RAM by archiving variables to user data. For details, refer to Chapter 18.

Applications

Many applications are preloaded on your TI-84 Plus and others can be installed to customize the

TI-84 Plus to your needs. The 1.5 MB archive space lets you store up to 94 applications at one time on the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. Applications can also be stored on a computer for later use or linked unit-to-unit. There are 30 App slots for the TI-84 Plus. For details, refer to Chapter 18.

Archiving

You can store variables in the TI-84 Plus user data archive, a protected area of memory separate from RAM. The user data archive lets you:

• Store data, programs, applications or any other variables to a safe location where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently.

• Create additional free RAM by archiving variables.

By archiving variables that do not need to be edited frequently, you can free up RAM for applications that may require additional memory. For details, refer to:Chapter 18.

Other TI-84 Plus Features

The TI-84 Plus guidebook that is included with your graphing calculator has introduced you to basic TI-84 Plus operations. This guidebook covers the other features and capabilities of the TI-84

Plus in greater detail.

Graphing

You can store, graph, and analyze up to 10 functions, up to six parametric functions, up to six polar functions, and up to three sequences. You can use DRAW instructions to annotate graphs.

The graphing chapters appear in this order: Function, Parametric, Polar, Sequence, and DRAW.

For graphing details, refer to Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 8.

Sequences

You can generate sequences and graph them over time. Or, you can graph them as web plots or as phase plots. For details, refer to Chapter 6.

Tables

You can create function evaluation tables to analyze many functions simultaneously. For details, refer to Chapter 7.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 30

Split Screen

You can split the screen horizontally to display both a graph and a related editor (such as the Y= editor), the table, the stat list editor, or the home screen. Also, you can split the screen vertically to display a graph and its table simultaneously. For details, refer to Chapter 9.

Matrices

You can enter and save up to 10 matrices and perform standard matrix operations on them. For details, refer to Chapter 10.

Lists

You can enter and save as many lists as memory allows for use in statistical analyses. You can attach formulas to lists for automatic computation. You can use lists to evaluate expressions at multiple values simultaneously and to graph a family of curves. For details, refer to:Chapter 11.

Statistics

You can perform one- and two-variable, list-based statistical analyses, including logistic and sine regression analysis. You can plot the data as a histogram, xyLine, scatter plot, modified or regular box-and-whisker plot, or normal probability plot. You can define and store up to three stat plot definitions. For details, refer to Chapter 12.

Inferential Statistics

You can perform 16 hypothesis tests and confidence intervals and 15 distribution functions. You can display hypothesis test results graphically or numerically. For details, refer to Chapter 13.

Applications

Press

Πto see the complete list of applications that came with your graphing calculator.

Documentation for TI Flash applications are on the product CD. Visit education.ti.com/guides for additional Flash application guidebooks. For details, refer to Chapter 14.

CATALOG

The CATALOG is a convenient, alphabetical list of all functions and instructions on the TI-84 Plus.

You can paste any function or instruction from the CATALOG to the current cursor location. For details, refer to Chapter 15.

Programming

You can enter and store programs that include extensive control and input/output instructions. For details, refer to Chapter 16.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 31

Archiving

Archiving allows you to store data, programs, or other variables to user data archive where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory.

Archived variables are indicated by asterisks (

ä) to the left of the variable names.

For details, refer to Chapter 16.

Communication Link

The TI-84 Plus has a USB port using a USB unit-to-unit cable to connect and communicate with another TI-84 Plus or TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. The TI-84 Plus also has an I/O port using an I/O unit-to-unit cable to communicate with a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition, a TI-84 Plus, a TI-83 Plus Silver

Edition, a TI-83 Plus, a TI-83, a TI-82, a TI-73, CBL 2™, or a CBR™ System.

With TI Connect™ software and a USB computer cable, you can also link the TI-84 Plus to a personal computer.

As future software upgrades become available on the TI Web site, you can download the software to your PC and then use the TI Connect™ software and a USB computer cable to upgrade your

TI-84 Plus.

For details, refer to: Chapter 19

Error Conditions

Diagnosing an Error

The TI-84 Plus detects errors while performing these tasks.

• Evaluating an expression

• Executing an instruction

• Plotting a graph

• Storing a value

When the TI-84 Plus detects an error, it returns an error message as a menu title, such as

ERR:SYNTAX

or

ERR:DOMAIN

. Appendix B describes each error type and possible reasons for the error.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 32

• If you select

1:Quit

(or press y 5 or ‘), then the home screen is displayed.

• If you select

2:Goto

, then the previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location.

Note:

If a syntax error occurs in the contents of a Y= function during program execution, then the

Goto

option returns to the Y= editor, not to the program.

Correcting an Error

To correct an error, follow these steps.

1.

Note the error type (

ERR:error type

).

2.

Select

2:Goto

, if it is available. The previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location.

3.

Determine the error. If you cannot recognize the error, refer to Appendix B.

4.

Correct the expression.

Chapter 1: Operating the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition 33

Chapter 2:

Math, Angle, and Test Operations

Getting Started: Coin Flip

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details. For more probability simulations, try the Probability Simulations App for the TI-84 Plus. You can download this App from education.ti.com

.

Suppose you want to model flipping a fair coin 10 times. You want to track how many of those 10 coin flips result in heads. You want to perform this simulation 40 times. With a fair coin, the probability of a coin flip resulting in heads is 0.5 and the probability of a coin flip resulting in tails is

0.5.

1.

Begin on the home screen. Press

 | to display the

MATH PRB

menu. Press

7

to select

7:randBin(

(random Binomial).

randBin(

is pasted to the home screen. Press

10

to enter the number of coin flips. Press

¢. Press Ë

5

to enter the probability of heads. Press

¢. Press

40

to enter the number of simulations. Press

¤.

2.

Press

Í to evaluate the expression.

A list of 40 elements is generated with the first 7 displayed. The list contains the count of heads resulting from each set of 10 coin flips. The list has

40 elements because this simulation was performed 40 times. In this example, the coin came up heads five times in the first set of 10 coin flips, five times in the second set of 10 coin flips, and so on.

3.

Press

~ or | to view the additional counts in the list. An arrow (MathPrint™ mode) or an ellipses

(Classic mode) indicate that the list continues beyond the screen.

4.

Press

¿ y d Í to store the data to the list name

L1

. You then can use the data for another activity, such as plotting a histogram

(Chapter 12).

MathPrint™

Note:

Since

randBin(

generates random numbers, your list elements may differ from those in the example.

Classic

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 34

Keyboard Math Operations

Using Lists with Math Operations

Math operations that are valid for lists return a list calculated element by element. If you use two lists in the same expression, they must be the same length.

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division

You can use + (addition,

Ã), N (subtraction, ¹), … (multiplication, ¯), and à (division, ¥) with real and complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. You cannot use

à with matrices. If you need to input A/2, enter this as A

1/2 or A

.5.

valueA

+

valueB valueA

valueB valueA

N

valueB

valueA

à

valueB

Trigonometric Functions

You can use the trigonometric (trig) functions (sine,

˜; cosine, ™; and tangent, š) with real numbers, expressions, and lists. The current angle mode setting affects interpretation. For example,

sin(30)

in radian mode returns

L.9880316241; in degree mode it returns .5.

sin(value) cos(value) tan(value)

You can use the inverse trig functions (arcsine, y ?; arccosine, y @; and arctangent, y A) with real numbers, expressions, and lists. The current angle mode setting affects interpretation.

sin

L1

(value)

cos

L1

(value)

tan

L1

(value)

Note:

The trig functions do not operate on complex numbers.

Power, Square, Square Root

You can use

^

(power,

›),

2

(square,

¡), and ‡

(

(square root, y C) with real and complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. You cannot use

(

with matrices.

MathPrint™: value

power

Classic: value^power

È

value

2

(value)

È

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 35

Inverse

You can use

L1

(inverse,

œ) with real and complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. The multiplicative inverse is equivalent to the reciprocal, 1

à

x

.

value

-1

log(, 10^(, ln(

You can use

log(

(logarithm,

«),

10^(

(power of 10, y G), and

ln(

(natural log,

μ) with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

log(value)

MathPrint™: 10

power

Classic: 10^(power)

ln(value)

Exponential e^(

(exponential, y J) returns the constant

e

raised to a power. You can use

e^(

with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

MathPrint™: e

power

Classic: e^(power)

Constant e

(constant, y

[e]

) is stored as a constant on the TI-84 Plus. Press y

[e]

to copy

e

to the cursor location. In calculations, the TI-84 Plus uses 2.718281828459 for

e

.

Negation

M (negation, Ì) returns the negative of

value

. You can use

M with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 36

M

value

EOS™ rules (Chapter 1) determine when negation is evaluated. For example,

L

4

2

returns a negative number, because squaring is evaluated before negation. Use parentheses to square a negated number, as in

(

L

4)

2

.

Note:

On the TI-84 Plus, the negation symbol (

M) is shorter and higher than the subtraction sign (N), which is displayed when you press

¹.

Pi

p (Pi, y B) is stored as a constant in the TI-84 Plus. In calculations, the TI-84 Plus uses

3.1415926535898 for p.

MATH Operations

MATH Menu

To display the

MATH

menu, press

.

MATH NUM CPX PRB

1:

4Frac

Displays the answer as a fraction.

2:

4Dec

Displays the answer as a decimal.

3: 3

Calculates the cube.

4: 3

‡(

Calculates the cube root.

5:

6: x

‡ fMin(

Calculates the x th

root.

Finds the minimum of a function.

7: fMax(

Finds the maximum of a function.

8: nDeriv(

Computes the numerical derivative.

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 37

MATH NUM CPX PRB

9: fnInt(

Computes the function integral.

0: summation

)

(

Returns the sum of elements of list from start to end, where

start <= end

.

A: logBASE(

Returns the logarithm of a specifed value determined from a specified base: logBASE(value, base).

B: Solver...

Displays the equation solver.

4Frac, 4Dec

4

Frac

(display as a fraction) displays an answer as its rational equivalent. You can use

4

Frac

with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. If the answer cannot be simplified or the resulting denominator is more than three digits, the decimal equivalent is returned. You can only use

4

Frac

following

value

.

value

4

Frac

4

Dec

(display as a decimal) displays an answer in decimal form. You can use

4

Dec

with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices. You can only use

4

Dec

following

value

.

value

4

Dec

Note

: You can quickly convert from one number type to the other by using the

FRAC

shortcut menu. Press t ^

4:

4

F

3 4

D

to convert a value.

Cube, Cube Root

3

(cube) returns the cube of

value

. You can use

3

with real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and square matrices.

value

3

3

(

(cube root) returns the cube root of

value

. You can use

3

(

with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

3

(value)

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 38

x

(Root) x

‡ (

x

th

root) returns the

x

th

root

of

value

. You can use x

‡ with real or complex numbers, expressions, and lists.

x

th

root

x

value

fMin(, fMax( fMin(

(function minimum) and

fMax(

(function maximum) return the value at which the local minimum or local maximum value of

expression

with respect to

variable

occurs, between

lower

and

upper

values for

variable

.

fMin(

and

fMax(

are not valid in

expression

. The accuracy is controlled by

tolerance

(if not specified, the default is 1

âL5).

fMin(expression,variable,lower,upper

[

,tolerance

]

)

fMax(expression,variable,lower,upper

[

,tolerance

]

)

Note:

In this guidebook, optional arguments and the commas that accompany them are enclosed in brackets ([ ]).

MathPrint™

Classic

nDeriv( nDeriv(

(numerical derivative) returns an approximate derivative of

expression

with respect to

variable

, given the

value

at which to calculate the derivative and

H (if not specified, the default is 1âL3).

nDeriv(

is valid only for real numbers.

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 39

MathPrint™:

Classic:

nDeriv(expression,variable,value

[

,

H]

) nDeriv(

uses the symmetric difference quotient method, which approximates the numerical derivative value as the slope of the secant line through these points.

f

x

=

+

2

As

H becomes smaller, the approximation usually becomes more accurate. In MathPrint™ mode, the default

H is 1

E M

3. You can switch to Classic mode to change

H for investigations.

MathPrint™

Classic

You can use

nDeriv(

once in

expression

. Because of the method used to calculate

nDeriv(

, the TI-84

Plus can return a false derivative value at a nondifferentiable point.

fnInt( fnInt(

(function integral) returns the numerical integral (Gauss-Kronrod method) of

expression

with respect to

variable

, given

lower

limit,

upper

limit, and a

tolerance

(if not specified, the default is 1

âL5).

fnInt(

is valid only for real numbers.

MathPrint™:

Classic:

fnInt(expression,variable,lower,upper

[

,tolerance

]

)

In MathPrint™ mode, the default

H is 1

E

M

3. You can switch to Classic mode to change

H for investigations.

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 40

Note:

To speed the drawing of integration graphs (when

fnInt(

is used in a Y= equation), increase the value of the

Xres

window variable before you press s.

Using the Equation Solver

Solver

Solver

displays the equation solver, in which you can solve for any variable in an equation. The equation is assumed to be equal to zero.

Solver

is valid only for real numbers.

When you select

Solver

, one of two screens is displayed.

• The equation editor (see step 1 picture below) is displayed when the equation variable

eqn

is empty.

• The interactive solver editor is displayed when an equation is stored in

eqn

.

Entering an Expression in the Equation Solver

To enter an expression in the equation solver, assuming that the variable

eqn

is empty, follow these steps.

1.

Select

B:Solver

from the

MATH

menu to display the equation editor.

2.

Enter the expression in any of three ways.

• Enter the expression directly into the equation solver.

• Paste a Y= variable name from the

YVARS

shortcut menu ( t a

) to the equation solver.

• Press y K, paste a Y= variable name from the

YVARS

shortcut menu, and press

Í. The expression is pasted to the equation solver.

The expression is stored to the variable

eqn

as you enter it.

3.

Press

Í or †. The interactive solver editor is displayed.

• The equation stored in

eqn

is set equal to zero and displayed on the top line.

• Variables in the equation are listed in the order in which they appear in the equation. Any values stored to the listed variables also are displayed.

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 41

• The default lower and upper bounds appear in the last line of the editor

(

bound={

L

1

â

99,1

â

99}

).

• A

$ is displayed in the first column of the bottom line if the editor continues beyond the screen.

Note:

To use the solver to solve an equation such as

K=.5MV

2

, enter

eqn:0=K

N

.5MV

2

in the equation editor.

Entering and Editing Variable Values

When you enter or edit a value for a variable in the interactive solver editor, the new value is stored in memory to that variable.

You can enter an expression for a variable value. It is evaluated when you move to the next variable. Expressions must resolve to real numbers at each step during the iteration.

You can store equations to any

VARS Y-VARS

variables, such as Y1 or r6, and then reference the variables in the equation. The interactive solver editor displays all variables of all Y= functions recalled in the equation.

Solving for a Variable in the Equation Solver

To solve for a variable using the equation solver after an equation has been stored to

eqn

, follow these steps.

1.

Select

B:Solver

from the

MATH

menu to display the interactive solver editor, if not already displayed.

2.

Enter or edit the value of each known variable. All variables, except the unknown variable, must contain a value. To move the cursor to the next variable, press

Í or †.

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 42

3.

Enter an initial guess for the variable for which you are solving. This is optional, but it may help find the solution more quickly. Also, for equations with multiple roots, the TI-84 Plus will attempt to display the solution that is closest to your guess.

The default guess is calculated as

.

2

4.

Edit

bound={lower,upper}

.

lower

and

upper

are the bounds between which the TI-84 Plus searches for a solution. This is optional, but it may help find the solution more quickly. The default is

bound={

L

1

â

99,1

â

99}

.

5.

Move the cursor to the variable for which you want to solve and press

ƒ \.

• The solution is displayed next to the variable for which you solved. A solid square in the first column marks the variable for which you solved and indicates that the equation is balanced. An ellipsis shows that the value continues beyond the screen.

Note:

When a number continues beyond the screen, be sure to press

~ to scroll to the end of the number to see whether it ends with a negative or positive exponent. A very small number may appear to be a large number until you scroll right to see the exponent.

• The values of the variables are updated in memory.

left

N

rt=diff

is displayed in the last line of the editor.

diff

is the difference between the left and right sides of the equation when evaluated at the calculated solution. A solid square in the first column next to

left

N

rt

indicates that the equation has been evaluated at the new value of the variable for which you solved.

Editing an Equation Stored to eqn

To edit or replace an equation stored to

eqn

when the interactive equation solver is displayed, press

} until the equation editor is displayed. Then edit the equation.

Equations with Multiple Roots

Some equations have more than one solution. You can enter a new initial guess or new bounds to look for additional solutions.

Further Solutions

After you solve for a variable, you can continue to explore solutions from the interactive solver editor. Edit the values of one or more variables. When you edit any variable value, the solid

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 43

squares next to the previous solution and

left

N

rt=diff

disappear. Move the cursor to the variable for which you now want to solve and press

ƒ \.

Controlling the Solution for Solver or solve(

The TI-84 Plus solves equations through an iterative process. To control that process, enter bounds that are relatively close to the solution and enter an initial guess within those bounds. This will help to find a solution more quickly. Also, it will define which solution you want for equations with multiple solutions.

Using solve( on the Home Screen or from a Program

The function

solve(

is available only from

CATALOG

or from within a program. It returns a solution

(root) of

expression

for

variable

, given an initial

guess

, and

lower

and

upper

bounds within which the solution is sought. The default for

lower

is

L1â99. The default for

upper

is

L1â99.

solve(

is valid only for real numbers.

solve(expression,variable,guess

[

,{lower,upper}

]

)

expression

is assumed equal to zero. The value of

variable

will not be updated in memory.

guess

may be a value or a list of two values. Values must be stored for every variable in

expression

, except

variable

, before

expression

is evaluated.

lower

and

upper

must be entered in list format.

MathPrint™

Classic

MATH NUM (Number) Operations

MATH NUM Menu

To display the

MATH NUM

menu, press

 ~.

MATH NUM CPX PRB

1: abs(

Absolute value

2: round(

Round

3: iPart(

Integer part

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 44

MATH NUM CPX PRB

4: fPart(

Fractional part

5: int(

Greatest integer

6: min(

Minimum value

7: max(

Maximum value

8: lcm(

Least common multiple

9: gcd(

Greatest common divisor

0: remainder(

Reports the remainder as a whole number from a division of two whole numbers where the divisor is not zero.

A:

B:

4 n/d

3 4

Un/d

Converts an improper fraction to a mixed number or a mixed number to an improper fraction.

4

F

3 4

D

Converts a decimal to a fraction or a fraction to a decimal.

C: Un/d

Displays the mixed number template in MathPrint™ mode. In Classic mode, displays a small u between the whole number and fraction.

D: n/d

Displays the fraction template in MathPrint™ mode. In Classic mode, displays a thick fraction bar between the numerator and the denominator.

abs( abs(

(absolute value) returns the absolute value of real or complex (modulus) numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

Note:

abs(

is also found on the FUNC shortcut menu ( t _

1

).

abs(value)

MathPrint™

Classic

Note: abs(

is also available on the

MATH CPX

menu.

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 45

round( round(

returns a number, expression, list, or matrix rounded to

#decimals

(

9). If

#decimals

is omitted,

value

is rounded to the digits that are displayed, up to 10 digits.

round(value[,#decimals])

iPart(, fPart( iPart(

(integer part) returns the integer part or parts of real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

iPart(value)

fPart(

(fractional part) returns the fractional part or parts of real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

fPart(value)

Note: The way the fractional result is displayed depends on the Answers mode setting. To convert from one format to another, use

4

F

3 4

D on the FRAC shortcut menu ( t ^

4).

int( int(

(greatest integer) returns the largest integer

 real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, and matrices.

int(value)

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 46

Note:

For a given

value

, the result of

int(

is the same as the result of

iPart(

for nonnegative numbers and negative integers, but one integer less than the result of

iPart(

for negative noninteger numbers.

min(, max( min(

(minimum value) returns the smaller of

valueA

and

valueB

or the smallest element in

list

. If

listA

and

listB

are compared,

min(

returns a list of the smaller of each pair of elements. If

list

and

value

are compared,

min(

compares each element in

list

with

value

.

max(

(maximum value) returns the larger of

valueA

and

valueB

or the largest element in

list

. If

listA

and

listB

are compared,

max(

returns a list of the larger of each pair of elements. If

list

and

value

are compared,

max(

compares each element in

list

with

value

.

min(valueA,valueB)

min(list)

min(listA,listB)

min(list,value)

max(valueA,valueB)

max(list)

max(listA,listB)

max(list,value)

Note: min(

and

max(

also are available on the

LIST MATH

menu.

lcm(, gcd( lcm(

returns the least common multiple of

valueA

and

valueB

, both of which must be nonnegative integers. When

listA

and

listB

are specified,

lcm(

returns a list of the least common multiple of each pair of elements. If

list

and

value

are specified,

lcm(

finds the least common multiple of each element in

list

and

value

.

gcd(

returns the greatest common divisor of

valueA

and

valueB

, both of which must be nonnegative integers. When

listA

and

listB

are specified,

gcd(

returns a list of the greatest common divisor of each pair of elements. If

list

and

value

are specified,

gcd(

finds the greatest common divisor of each element in

list

and

value

.

lcm(valueA,valueB)

lcm(listA,listB)

lcm(list,value)

gcd(valueA,valueB)

gcd(listA,listB)

gcd(list,value)

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 47

remainder( remainder(

returns the remainder resulting from the division of two positive whole numbers,

dividend

and

divisor

, each of which can be a list. The divisor cannot be zero. If both arguments are lists, they must have the same number of elements. If one argument is a list and the other a non-list, the nonlist is paired with each element of the list, and a list is returned.

remainder(dividend, divisor)

remainder(list, divisor)

remainder(dividend, list)

remainder(list, list)

4

n/d

3 4

Un/d

4

n/d

3 4

Un/d

converts an improper fraction to a mixed number or a mixed number to an improper fraction. You can also access

4

n/d

3 4

Un/d

from the

FRAC

shortcut menu ( t ^

3

).

Chapter 2: Math, Angle, and Test Operations 48

4

F

3 4

D

4

F

3 4

D

converts a fraction to a decimal or a decimal to a fraction. You can also access

4

F

3 4

D

from the

FRAC

shortcut menu ( t ^

4

).

Un/d

Un/d

displays the mixed number template. You can also access Un/d from the

FRAC

shortcut menu ( t ^

2

). In the fraction, n and d must be non-negative integers.

MathPrint™

"

Classic

n/d n/d

displays the mixed number template. You can also access n/d from the

FRAC

shortcut menu

( t ^

1

). n and d can be real numbers or expressions but may not contain complex numbers.

MathPrint™

"

Classic

Entering and Using Complex Numbers

Complex-Number Modes

The TI-84 Plus displays complex numbers in rectangular form and polar form. To select a complexnumber mode, press z, and then select either of the two modes.

a+bi

(rectangular-complex mode)

re^

q

i

(polar-complex mode)

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 49

On the TI-84 Plus, complex numbers can be stored to variables. Also, complex numbers are valid list elements.

In Real mode, complex-number results return an error, unless you entered a complex number as input. For example, in Real mode

ln(

L

1)

returns an error; in

a+bi

mode

ln(

L

1)

returns an answer.

Real mode

a+bi

mode

$ $

Entering Complex Numbers

Complex numbers are stored in rectangular form, but you can enter a complex number in rectangular form or polar form, regardless of the mode setting. The components of complex numbers can be real numbers or expressions that evaluate to real numbers; expressions are evaluated when the command is executed.

You can enter fractions in complex numbers, but the output will always be a decimal value.

When you use the n/d template, a fraction cannot contain a complex number.

"

You can use division to compute the answer:

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 50

Note about Radian Versus Degree Mode

Radian mode is recommended for complex number calculations. Internally, the TI-84 Plus converts all entered trigonometric values to radians, but it does not convert values for exponential, logarithmic, or hyperbolic functions.

In degree mode, complex identities such as

e

^(

i

q) = cos(q) +

i

sin( q) are not generally true because the values for cos and sin are converted to radians, while those for e^() are not. For example,

e

^(

i

45) = cos(45) +

i

sin(45) is treated internally as

e

^(

i

45) = cos( p/4) +

i

sin( p/4).

Complex identities are always true in radian mode.

Interpreting Complex Results

Complex numbers in results, including list elements, are displayed in either rectangular or polar form, as specified by the mode setting or by a display conversion instruction. In the example below, polar-complex (

re^

q

i

) and Radian modes are set.

MathPrint™:

Classic:

Rectangular-Complex Mode

Rectangular-complex mode recognizes and displays a complex number in the form

a+bi

, where

a

is the real component,

b

is the imaginary component, and

i

is a constant equal to

– 1

.

To enter a complex number in rectangular form, enter the value of

a

(

real component

), press

à or ¹, enter the value of

b

(

imaginary component

), and press y V (constant).

real component(+ or

N

)imaginary component i

Polar-Complex Mode

Polar-complex mode recognizes and displays a complex number in the form

re^

q

i

, where

r

is the magnitude,

e

is the base of the natural log, q is the angle, and

i

is a constant equal to – 1 .

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 51

To enter a complex number in polar form, enter the value of

r

(

magnitude

), press y J

(exponential function), enter the value of q (

angle

), press y V (constant), and then press ¤.

magnitudee^(anglei)

MathPrint™

Classic

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 52

MATH CPX (Complex) Operations

MATH CPX Menu

To display the

MATH CPX

menu, press

 ~ ~.

MATH NUM CPX PRB

1: conj(

Returns the complex conjugate.

2: real(

Returns the real part.

3: imag(

Returns the imaginary part.

4: angle(

Returns the polar angle.

Returns the magnitude (modulus).

5: abs(

6:

4Rect

7:

4Polar

Displays the result in rectangular form.

Displays the result in polar form.

conj( conj(

(conjugate) returns the complex conjugate of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

conj(a+bi) returns a

N

bi in a+bi mode.

conj(re^( q

i)) returns re^(

Lq

i) in re^ q

i mode.

MathPrint™ Classic

real( real(

(real part) returns the real part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

real(a+bi) returns a.

real(re^( q

i)) returns r

cos( q

).

MathPrint™ Classic

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 53

imag( imag(

(imaginary part) returns the imaginary (nonreal) part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

imag(a+bi) returns b.

imag(re^( q

i)) returns r

sin(

q

).

MathPrint™ Classic

angle( angle(

returns the polar angle of a complex number or list of complex numbers, calculated as tan

L1

(b/a), where b is the imaginary part and a is the real part. The calculation is adjusted by + p in the second quadrant or

Np in the third quadrant.

angle(a+bi) returns tan

L1

(b/a).

angle(re^( q

i)) returns q

, where

Lp

< q

< p

.

MathPrint™ Classic

abs( abs(

(absolute value) returns the magnitude (modulus), of complex numbers. You can also access abs( from the

FUNC

, of a complex number or list

shortcut menu ( t _

1

).

abs(a+bi) returns

.

abs(re^( q

i)) returns r (magnitude).

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 54

4Rect

4

Rect

(display as rectangular) displays a complex result in rectangular form. It is valid only at the end of an expression. It is not valid if the result is real.

complex result

8

Rect returns a+bi.

4Polar

4

Polar

(display as polar) displays a complex result in polar form. It is valid only at the end of an expression. It is not valid if the result is real.

complex result

8

Polar returns re^( q

i).

MATH PRB (Probability) Operations

MATH PRB Menu

To display the

MATH PRB

menu, press

 |.

MATH NUM CPX PRB

1: rand

2: nPr

3: nCr

4: !

Random-number generator

Number of permutations

Number of combinations

Factorial

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 55

MATH NUM CPX PRB

5: randInt(

Random-integer generator

6: randNorm(

Random # from Normal distribution

7: randBin(

Random # from Binomial distribution

8: randIntNoRep(

Random ordered list of integers in a range

rand rand

(random number) generates and returns one or more random numbers > 0 and < 1. To generate a list of random-numbers, specify an integer > 1 for

numtrials

(number of trials). The default for

numtrials

is 1.

rand

[

(numtrials)

]

Note:

To generate random numbers beyond the range of 0 to 1, you can include

rand

in an expression. For example,

rand5

generates a random number > 0 and < 5.

With each

rand

execution, the TI-84 Plus generates the same random-number sequence for a given seed value. The TI-84 Plus factory-set seed value for

rand

is 0. To generate a different random-number sequence, store any nonzero seed value to

rand

. To restore the factory-set seed value, store 0 to

rand

or reset the defaults (Chapter 18).

Note:

The seed value also affects

randInt(

,

randNorm(

, and

randBin(

instructions.

nPr, nCr nPr

(number of permutations) returns the number of permutations of

items

taken

number

at a time.

items

and

number

must be nonnegative integers. Both

items

and

number

can be lists.

items

nPr

number

nCr

(number of combinations) returns the number of combinations of

items

taken

number

at a time.

items

and

number

must be nonnegative integers. Both

items

and

number

can be lists.

items nCr number

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 56

Factorial

!

(factorial) returns the factorial of either an integer or a multiple of .5. For a list, it returns factorials for each integer or multiple of .5.

value

must be

‚ L.5 and  69.

value!

Note:

The factorial is computed recursively using the relationship (n+1)! = n

…n!, until n is reduced to either 0 or

L1/2. At that point, the definition 0!=1 or the definition (L1à2)!=‡p is used to complete the calculation. Hence: n!=n

…(nN1)…(nN2)… ... …2…1, if n is an integer ‚ 0 n!= n

…(nN1)…(nN2)… ... …1à2…‡p, if n+1à2 is an integer ‚ 0 n! is an error, if neither n nor n+1

à2 is an integer ‚ 0.

(The variable n equals

value

in the syntax description above.)

randInt( randInt(

(random integer) generates and displays a random integer within a range specified by

lower

and

upper

integer bounds. To generate a list of random numbers, specify an integer > 1 for

numtrials

(number of trials); if not specified, the default is 1.

randInt(lower,upper[,numtrials])

randNorm( randNorm(

(random Normal) generates and displays a random real number from a specified

Normal distribution. Each generated value could be any real number, but most will be within the interval [ mN3(s), m+3(s)]. To generate a list of random numbers, specify an integer > 1 for

numtrials

(number of trials); if not specified, the default is 1.

randNorm(

m

,

s

[,numtrials])

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 57

randBin( randBin(

(random Binomial) generates and displays a random integer from a specified Binomial distribution.

numtrials

(number of trials) must be

‚ 1.

prob

(probability of success) must be

‚ 0 and

 1. To generate a list of random numbers, specify an integer > 1 for

numsimulations

(number of simulations); if not specified, the default is 1.

randBin(numtrials,prob[,numsimulations])

Note:

The seed value stored to

rand

also affects

randInt(

,

randNorm(

, and

randBin(

instructions.

randIntNoRep( randIntNoRep(

returns a random ordered list of integers from a lower integer to an upper integer.

The list of integers may include the lower integer and the upper integer.

randIntNoRep(lowerint, upperint)

MathPrint™

Classic

ANGLE Operations

ANGLE Menu

To display the

ANGLE

menu, press y ;. The

ANGLE

menu displays angle indicators and instructions. The Radian/Degree mode setting affects the TI-84 Plus’s interpretation of

ANGLE

menu entries.

ANGLE

1:

¡

2: '

Degree notation

DMS minute notation

3: r

Radian notation

4:

8DMS

Displays as degree/minute/second

5: R

8Pr(

Returns r, given X and Y

6: R

8Pq(

Returns q

, given X and Y

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 58

ANGLE

7: P

8Rx(

Returns x, given R and q

8: P

8Ry(

Returns y, given R and q

Entry Notation

DMS (degrees/minutes/seconds) entry notation comprises the degree symbol (

¡), the minute symbol (

'

), and the second symbol (

"

).

degrees

must be a real number;

minutes

and

seconds

must be real numbers

‚ 0.

Note

: DMS entry notation does not support fractions in minutes or seconds.

degrees

¡

minutes'seconds"

For example, we know that 30 degrees is the same as p

/6 radians, and we can verify that by looking at the values in degree and radian modes. If the angle mode is not set to Degree, you must use

¡ so that the TI-84 Plus can interpret the argument as degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Degree mode Radian mode

Degree

¡ (degree) designates an angle or list of angles as degrees, regardless of the current angle mode setting. In Radian mode, you can use

¡ to convert degrees to radians.

value

¡

{value1,value2,value3,value4,

...

,value n}

¡

¡ also designates

degrees

(D) in DMS format.

'

(minutes) designates

minutes

(M) in DMS format.

"

(seconds) designates

seconds

(S) in DMS format.

Note: "

is not on the

ANGLE

menu. To enter

"

, press

ƒ

[

ã

]

.

Radians

r

(radians) designates an angle or list of angles as radians, regardless of the current angle mode setting. In Degree mode, you can use r

to convert radians to degrees.

value

r

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 59

Degree mode

8DMS

8

DMS

(degree/minute/second) displays

answer

in DMS format. The mode setting must be Degree for

answer

to be interpreted as degrees, minutes, and seconds.

8

DMS

is valid only at the end of a line.

answer

8

DMS

R

8Pr (, R8Pq(, P8Rx(, P8Ry(

R

8

Pr(

converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates and returns

r

.

R

8

P

q

(

converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates and returns q.

x

and

y

can be lists.

R

8

Pr(x,y), R

8

P

q

(x,y)

Note:

Radian mode is set.

P

8

Rx(

converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates and returns

x

.

P

8

Ry(

converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates and returns

y

.

r

and q can be lists.

P

8

Rx(r, q

), P

8

Ry(r, q

)

Note:

Radian mode is set.

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 60

TEST (Relational) Operations

TEST Menu

To display the

TEST

menu, press y :.

Returns 1 (true) if...

This operator...

TEST LOGIC

1: =

2:

ƒ

3: >

4:

5: <

6:

Equal

Not equal to

Greater than

Greater than or equal to

Less than

Less than or equal to

Ä=, ƒ, >, , <,

Relational operators compare

valueA

and

valueB

and return 1 if the test is true or 0 if the test is false.

valueA

and

valueB

can be real numbers, expressions, or lists. For

=

and

ƒ only,

valueA

and

valueB

also can be matrices or complex numbers. If

valueA

and

valueB

are matrices, both must have the same dimensions.

Relational operators are often used in programs to control program flow and in graphing to control the graph of a function over specific values.

valueA=valueB

valueA>valueB

valueA<valueB

valueA

ƒ

valueB valueA

valueB valueA

valueB

Using Tests

Relational operators are evaluated after mathematical functions according to EOS rules

(Chapter 1).

• The expression

2+2=2+3

returns

0

. The TI-84 Plus performs the addition first because of EOS rules, and then it compares 4 to 5.

• The expression

2+(2=2)+3

returns

6

. The TI-84 Plus performs the relational test first because it is in parentheses, and then it adds 2, 1, and 3.

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 61

TEST LOGIC (Boolean) Operations

TEST LOGIC Menu

To display the

TEST LOGIC

menu, press y : ~.

This operator...

TEST LOGIC

1: and

2: or

3: xor

4: not(

Returns a 1 (true) if...

Both values are nonzero (true).

At least one value is nonzero (true).

Only one value is zero (false).

The value is zero (false).

Boolean Operators

Boolean operators are often used in programs to control program flow and in graphing to control the graph of the function over specific values. Values are interpreted as zero (false) or nonzero

(true).

and, or, xor and

,

or

, and

xor

(exclusive or) return a value of 1 if an expression is true or 0 if an expression is false, according to the table below.

valueA

and

valueB

can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

valueA and valueB

valueA or valueB

valueA xor valueB

valueA

ƒ

0

ƒ

0

0

0

valueB

ƒ

0

0

ƒ

0

0 returns returns returns returns

and

1

0

0

0

1

1

or

1

0

xor

0

1

1

0

not( not(

returns 1 if

value

(which can be an expression) is 0.

not(value)

Using Boolean Operations

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 62

Boolean logic is often used with relational tests. In the following program, the instructions store 4 into C.

Entering and Using Complex Numbers 63

Chapter 3:

Function Graphing

Getting Started: Graphing a Circle

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Graph a circle of radius 10, centered on the origin in the standard viewing window. To graph this circle, you must enter separate formulas for the upper and lower portions of the circle. Then use

ZSquare (zoom square) to adjust the display and make the functions appear as a circle.

1.

In

Func

mode, press o to display the Y= editor.

Press y C £

100

¹ „ ¡ ¤ Í to enter the expression Y=

‡(100NX

2

), which defines the top half of the circle.

The expression Y=

L‡(100NX

2

) defines the bottom half of the circle. On the TI-84 Plus, you can define one function in terms of another. To define

Y2=

L

Y1

, press

Ì to enter the negation sign. Press t a to display the

Y-VARS

shortcut menu, and then press

Í to select

Y1

.

2.

Press q

6

to select

6:ZStandard

. This is a quick way to reset the window variables to the standard values. It also graphs the functions; you do not need to press s.

Notice that the functions appear as an ellipse in the standard viewing window. This is due to the range of values that ZStandard defines for the

X-axis and Y-axis.

3.

To adjust the display so that each pixel represents an equal width and height, press q

5

to select

5:ZSquare

. The functions are replotted and now appear as a circle on the display.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 64

4.

To see the

ZSquare

window variables, press p and notice the new values for

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

.

Defining Graphs

TI-84 Plus—Graphing Mode Similarities

Chapter 3 specifically describes function graphing, but the steps shown here are similar for each

TI-84 Plus graphing mode. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 describe aspects that are unique to parametric graphing, polar graphing, and sequence graphing.

Defining a Graph

To define a graph in any graphing mode, follow these steps. Some steps are not always necessary.

1.

Press z and set the appropriate graph mode.

2.

Press o and enter, edit, or select one or more functions in the Y= editor.

3.

Deselect stat plots, if necessary.

4.

Set the graph style for each function.

5.

Press p and define the viewing window variables.

6.

Press y . and select the graph format settings.

Displaying and Exploring a Graph

After you have defined a graph, press s to display it. Explore the behavior of the function or functions using the TI-84 Plus tools described in this chapter.

Saving a Graph for Later Use

You can store the elements that define the current graph to any of 10 graph database variables

(

GDB1

through

GDB9

, and

GDB0

; Chapter 8). To recreate the current graph later, simply recall the graph database to which you stored the original graph.

These types of information are stored in a

GDB

.

• Y= functions

• Graph style settings

• Window settings

• Format settings

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 65

You can store a picture of the current graph display to any of 10 graph picture variables (

Pic1

through

Pic9

, and

Pic0

; Chapter 8). Then you can superimpose one or more stored pictures onto the current graph.

Setting the Graph Modes

Checking and Changing the Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. The default settings are highlighted below. To graph functions, you must select

Func

mode before you enter values for the window variables and before you enter the functions.

The TI-84 Plus has four graphing modes.

Func

(function graphing)

Par

(parametric graphing; Chapter 4)

Pol

(polar graphing; Chapter 5)

Seq

(sequence graphing; Chapter 6)

Other mode settings affect graphing results. Chapter 1 describes each mode setting.

Float

or

0123456789

(fixed) decimal mode affects displayed graph coordinates.

Radian

or

Degree

angle mode affects interpretation of some functions.

Connected

or

Dot

plotting mode affects plotting of selected functions.

Sequential

or

Simul

graphing-order mode affects function plotting when more than one function is selected.

Setting Modes from a Program

To set the graphing mode and other modes from a program, begin on a blank line in the program editor and follow these steps.

1.

Press z to display the mode settings.

2.

Press

†, ~, |, and } to place the cursor on the mode that you want to select.

3.

Press

Í to paste the mode name to the cursor location.

The mode is changed when the program is executed.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 66

Defining Functions

Displaying Functions in the Y= Editor

To display the Y= editor, press o. You can store up to 10 functions to the function variables Y1 through Y9, and Y0. You can graph one or more defined functions at once. In this example, functions Y1 and Y2 are defined and selected.

Defining or Editing a Function

To define or edit a function, follow these steps.

1.

Press o to display the Y= editor.

2.

Press

† to move the cursor to the function you want to define or edit. To erase a function, press

‘.

3.

Enter or edit the expression to define the function.

• You may use functions and variables (including matrices and lists) in the expression.

When the expression evaluates to a nonreal number, the value is not plotted; no error is returned.

• You can access the shortcut menus by pressing

ƒ ^

a.

• The independent variable in the function is X.

Func

mode defines

„ as X. To enter X, press

„ or press ƒ

[X]

.

• When you enter the first character, the

=

is highlighted, indicating that the function is selected.

As you enter the expression, it is stored to the variable

Yn

as a user-defined function in the

Y= editor.

4.

Press

Í or † to move the cursor to the next function.

Defining a Function from the Home Screen or a Program

To define a function from the home screen or a program, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

1.

Press

ƒ

[

ã

]

, enter the expression, and then press

ƒ

[

ã

]

again.

2.

Press

¿.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 67

3.

Press

ƒ a to display the

YVAR

shortcut menu, move the cursor to the function name, and then press

Í.

"expression"

!

Yn

When the instruction is executed, the TI-84 Plus stores the expression to the designated variable

Yn

, selects the function, and displays the message

Done

.

Evaluating Y= Functions in Expressions

You can calculate the value of a Y= function

Yn

at a specified

value

of X. A list of

values

returns a list.

Yn(value)

Yn({value1,value2,value3, . . .,value n})

Selecting and Deselecting Functions

Selecting and Deselecting a Function

You can select and deselect (turn on and turn off) a function in the Y= editor. A function is selected when the

=

sign is highlighted. The TI-84 Plus graphs only the selected functions. You can select any or all functions Y1 through Y9, and Y0.

To select or deselect a function in the Y= editor, follow these steps.

1.

Press o to display the Y= editor.

2.

Move the cursor to the function you want to select or deselect.

3.

Press

| to place the cursor on the function’s

=

sign.

4.

Press

Í to change the selection status.

When you enter or edit a function, it is selected automatically. When you clear a function, it is deselected.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 68

Turning On or Turning Off a Stat Plot in the Y= Editor

To view and change the on/off status of a stat plot in the Y= editor, use

Plot1 Plot2 Plot3

(the top line of the Y= editor). When a plot is on, its name is highlighted on this line.

To change the on/off status of a stat plot from the Y= editor, press

} and ~ to place the cursor on

Plot1

,

Plot2

, or

Plot3

, and then press

Í.

Plot1 is turned on.

Plot2 and Plot3 are turned off.

Selecting and Deselecting Functions from the Home Screen or a Program

To select or deselect a function from the home screen or a program, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

1.

Press

 ~ to display the

VARS Y-VARS

menu.

2.

Select

4:On/Off

to display the

ON/OFF

secondary menu.

3.

Select

1:FnOn

to turn on one or more functions or

2:FnOff

to turn off one or more functions.

The instruction you select is copied to the cursor location.

4.

Enter the number (1 through 9, or 0; not the variable

Yn

) of each function you want to turn on or turn off.

• If you enter two or more numbers, separate them with commas.

• To turn on or turn off all functions, do not enter a number after

FnOn

or

FnOff

.

FnOn

[

function#,function#, . . .,function n

]

FnOff

[

function#,function#, . . .,function n

]

5.

Press

Í. When the instruction is executed, the status of each function in the current mode is set and

Done

is displayed.

For example, in

Func

mode,

FnOff :FnOn 1,3

turns off all functions in the Y= editor, and then turns on Y1 and Y3.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 69

Setting Graph Styles for Functions

MATH Graph Style Icons in the Y= Editor

This table describes the graph styles available for function graphing. Use the styles to visually differentiate functions to be graphed together. For example, you can set Y1 as a solid line, Y2 as a dotted line, and Y3 as a thick line.

Icon Style

ç

Line

è

Thick

é

Above

ê

Below

ë

Path

ì

Animate

í

Dot

Description

A solid line connects plotted points; this is the default in

Connected mode

A thick solid line connects plotted points

Shading covers the area above the graph

Shading covers the area below the graph

A circular cursor traces the leading edge of the graph and draws a path

A circular cursor traces the leading edge of the graph without drawing a path

A small dot represents each plotted point; this is the default in Dot mode

Note:

Some graph styles are not available in all graphing modes. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 list the styles for Par, Pol, and Seq modes.

Setting the Graph Style

To set the graph style for a function, follow these steps.

1.

Press o to display the Y= editor.

2.

Press

† and } to move the cursor to the function.

3.

Press

| | to move the cursor left, past the

=

sign, to the graph style icon in the first column.

The insert cursor is displayed. (Steps 2 and 3 are interchangeable.)

4.

Press

Í repeatedly to rotate through the graph styles. The seven styles rotate in the same order in which they are listed in the table above.

5.

Press

~, }, or † when you have selected a style.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 70

Shading Above and Below

When you select

é or ê for two or more functions, the TI-84 Plus rotates through four shading patterns.

• Vertical lines shade the first function with a

é or ê graph style.

• Horizontal lines shade the second.

• Negatively sloping diagonal lines shade the third.

• Positively sloping diagonal lines shade the fourth.

• The rotation returns to vertical lines for the fifth

é or ê function, repeating the order described above.

When shaded areas intersect, the patterns overlap.

Note:

When

é or ê is selected for a Y= function that graphs a family of curves, such as

Y1={1,2,3}X

, the four shading patterns rotate for each member of the family of curves.

Setting a Graph Style from a Program

To set the graph style from a program, select

H:GraphStyle(

from the

PRGM CTL

menu. To display this menu, press

 while in the program editor.

function#

is the number of the Y= function name in the current graphing mode.

graphstyle#

is an integer from 1 to 7 that corresponds to the graph style, as shown below.

1 =

ç (line)

2 =

è (thick)

3 =

é (above)

4 =

ê (below)

5 =

ë (path)

6 =

ì (animate)

7 =

í (dot)

GraphStyle(function#,graphstyle#)

For example, when this program is executed in Func mode,

GraphStyle(1,3)

sets Y1 to

é (above).

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 71

Setting the Viewing Window Variables

The TI-84 Plus Viewing Window

The viewing window is the portion of the coordinate plane defined by

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

.

Xscl

(X scale) defines the distance between tick marks on the x-axis.

Yscl

(Y scale) defines the distance between tick marks on the y-axis. To turn off tick marks, set

Xscl=0

and

Yscl=0

.

Displaying the Window Variables

To display the current window variable values, press p. The window editor above and to the right shows the default values in Func graphing mode and Radian angle mode. The window variables differ from one graphing mode to another.

Xres

sets pixel resolution (1 through 8) for function graphs only. The default is 1.

• At

Xres=1

, functions are evaluated and graphed at each pixel on the x-axis.

• At

Xres=8

, functions are evaluated and graphed at every eighth pixel along the x-axis.

Note:

Small

Xres

values improve graph resolution but may cause the TI-84 Plus to draw graphs more slowly.

Changing a Window Variable Value

To change a window variable value from the window editor, follow these steps.

1.

Press

† or } to move the cursor to the window variable you want to change.

2.

Edit the value, which can be an expression.

• Enter a new value, which clears the original value.

• Move the cursor to a specific digit, and then edit it.

3.

Press

Í, †, or }. If you entered an expression, the TI-84 Plus evaluates it. The new value is stored.

Note: Xmin<Xmax

and

Ymin<Ymax

must be true in order to graph.

Storing to a Window Variable from the Home Screen or a Program

To store a value, which can be an expression, to a window variable, begin on a blank line and follow these steps.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 72

1.

Enter the value you want to store.

2.

Press

¿.

3.

Press

 to display the

VARS

menu.

4.

Select

1:Window

to display the

Func

window variables (

X/Y

secondary menu).

• Press

~ to display the

Par

and

Pol

window variables (

T/

q secondary menu).

• Press

~ ~ to display the

Seq

window variables (

U/V/W

secondary menu).

5.

Select the window variable to which you want to store a value. The name of the variable is pasted to the current cursor location.

6.

Press

Í to complete the instruction.

When the instruction is executed, the TI-84 Plus stores the value to the window variable and displays the value.

@X and @Y

The variables

@

X

and

@

Y

(items 8 and 9 on the VARS (

1:Window

) X/Y secondary menu;

@

X

is also on the Window screen) define the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of any adjacent pixel on a graph (graphing accuracy).

@

X

and

@

Y

are calculated from

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

when you display a graph.

X

=

Xmax – Xmin

94

Y

=

Ymax – Ymin

62

You can store values to

@

X

and

@

Y

. If you do,

Xmax

and

Ymax

are calculated from

@

X

,

Xmin

,

@

Y

, and

Ymin

.

Note

: The

ZFrac ZOOM

settings (Zfrac1/2, ZFrac1/3, ZFrac1/4, ZFrac1/5, ZFrac1/8, ZFrac1/10) change

@

X

and

@

Y

to fractional values. If fractions are not needed for your problem, you can adjust

@

X

and

@

Y

to suit your needs.

Setting the Graph Format

Displaying the Format Settings

To display the format settings, press y .. The default settings are highlighted below.

Note

: You can also go to the Format Graph screen from the Mode screen by selecting YES at the

GoTo Format Graph prompt. After you make changes, press zto return to the Mode screen.

RectGC PolarGC

Sets cursor coordinates.

CoordOn CoordOff

Sets coordinates display on or off.

GridOff GridOn

Sets grid off or on.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 73

AxesOn AxesOff

Sets axes on or off.

LabelOff LabelOn

Sets axes label off or on.

ExprOn ExprOff

Sets expression display on or off.

Format settings define a graph’s appearance on the display. Format settings apply to all graphing modes. Seq graphing mode has an additional mode setting (Chapter 6).

Changing a Format Setting

To change a format setting, follow these steps.

1.

Press

†, ~, }, and | as necessary to move the cursor to the setting you want to select.

2.

Press

Í to select the highlighted setting.

RectGC, PolarGC

RectGC

(rectangular graphing coordinates) displays the cursor location as rectangular coordinates

X and Y.

PolarGC

(polar graphing coordinates) displays the cursor location as polar coordinates R and q.

The

RectGC

/

PolarGC

setting determines which variables are updated when you plot the graph, move the free-moving cursor, or trace.

RectGC

updates X and Y; if

CoordOn

format is selected, X and Y are displayed.

PolarGC

updates X, Y, R, and q; if

CoordOn

format is selected, R and q are displayed.

CoordOn, CoordOff

CoordOn

(coordinates on) displays the cursor coordinates at the bottom of the graph. If

ExprOff

format is selected, the function number is displayed in the top-right corner.

CoordOff

(coordinates off) does not display the function number or coordinates.

GridOff, GridOn

Grid points cover the viewing window in rows that correspond to the tick marks on each axis.

GridOff

does not display grid points.

GridOn

displays grid points.

AxesOn, AxesOff

AxesOn

displays the axes.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 74

AxesOff

does not display the axes.

This overrides the

LabelOff

/

LabelOn

format setting.

LabelOff, LabelOn

LabelOff

and

LabelOn

determine whether to display labels for the axes (X and Y), if

AxesOn

format is also selected.

ExprOn, ExprOff

ExprOn

and

ExprOff

determine whether to display the Y= expression when the trace cursor is active. This format setting also applies to stat plots.

When

ExprOn

is selected, the expression is displayed in the top-left corner of the graph screen.

When

ExprOff

and

CoordOn

both are selected, the number in the top-right corner specifies which function is being traced.

Displaying Graphs

Displaying a New Graph

To display the graph of the selected function or functions, press s. TRACE, ZOOM instructions, and CALC operations display the graph automatically. As the TI-84 Plus plots the graph, the busy indicator is on. As the graph is plotted, X and Y are updated.

Pausing or Stopping a Graph

While plotting a graph, you can pause or stop graphing.

• Press

Í to pause; then press Í to resume.

• Press

É to stop; then press s to redraw.

Smart Graph

Smart Graph is a TI-84 Plus feature that redisplays the last graph immediately when you press s, but only if all graphing factors that would cause replotting have remained the same since the graph was last displayed.

If you performed any of the following actions since the graph was last displayed, the TI-84 Plus will replot the graph based on new values when you press s.

• Changed a mode setting that affects graphs

• Changed a function in the current picture

• Selected or deselected a function or stat plot

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 75

• Changed the value of a variable in a selected function

• Changed a window variable or graph format setting

• Cleared drawings by selecting

ClrDraw

• Changed a stat plot definition

Overlaying Functions on a Graph

On the TI-84 Plus, you can graph one or more new functions without replotting existing functions.

For example, store

sin(X)

to Y1 in the Y= editor and press s. Then store

cos(X)

to Y2 and press s again. The function Y2 is graphed on top of Y1, the original function.

Graphing a Family of Curves

If you enter a list (Chapter 11) as an element in an expression, the TI-84 Plus plots the function for each value in the list, thereby graphing a family of curves. In Simul graphing-order mode, it graphs all functions sequentially for the first element in each list, and then for the second, and so on.

{2,4,6}sin(X)

graphs three functions:

2 sin(X)

,

4 sin(X)

, and

6 sin(X)

.

{2,4,6}sin({1,2,3}X)

graphs

2 sin(X)

,

4 sin(2X)

, and

6 sin(3X)

.

Note:

When using more than one list, the lists must have the same dimensions.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 76

Exploring Graphs with the Free-Moving Cursor

Free-Moving Cursor

When a graph is displayed, press

|, ~, }, or † to move the cursor around the graph. When you first display the graph, no cursor is visible. When you press

|, ~, }, or †, the cursor moves from the center of the viewing window.

As you move the cursor around the graph, the coordinate values of the cursor location are displayed at the bottom of the screen if

CoordOn

format is selected. The

Float

/

Fix

decimal mode setting determines the number of decimal digits displayed for the coordinate values.

To display the graph with no cursor and no coordinate values, press

‘ or Í. When you press

|, ~, }, or †, the cursor moves from the same position.

Graphing Accuracy

The free-moving cursor moves from pixel to pixel on the screen. When you move the cursor to a pixel that appears to be on the function, the cursor may be near, but not actually on, the function.

The coordinate value displayed at the bottom of the screen actually may not be a point on the function. To move the cursor along a function, use r.

The coordinate values displayed as you move the cursor approximate actual math coordinates, accurate to within the width and height of the pixel. As

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

get closer together (as in a

Zoom In

) graphing accuracy increases, and the coordinate values more closely approximate the math coordinates.

Free- moving cursor appears to be on the curve

Exploring Graphs with TRACE

Beginning a Trace

Use TRACE to move the cursor from one plotted point to the next along a function. To begin a trace, press r. If the graph is not displayed already, press r to display it. The trace cursor is on the first selected function in the Y= editor, at the middle X value on the screen. The cursor coordinates are displayed at the bottom of the screen if

CoordOn

format is selected. The

Y= expression is displayed in the top-left corner of the screen, if

ExprOn

format is selected.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 77

Moving the Trace Cursor

To move the TRACE cursor

To the previous or next plotted point,

Five plotted points on a function (Xres affects this),

To any valid X value on a function,

From one function to another,

do this:

press

|

or

~

.

press y |

or y ~

.

enter a value, and then press

Í

.

press

}

or

.

When the trace cursor moves along a function, the Y value is calculated from the X value; that is,

Y=Yn(X)

. If the function is undefined at an X value, the Y value is blank.

Trace cursor on the curve

If you move the trace cursor beyond the top or bottom of the screen, the coordinate values at the bottom of the screen continue to change appropriately.

Moving the Trace Cursor from Function to Function

To move the trace cursor from function to function, press

† and }. The cursor follows the order of the selected functions in the Y= editor. The trace cursor moves to each function at the same X value. If

ExprOn

format is selected, the expression is updated.

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid X Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid X value on the current function, enter the value. When you enter the first digit, an

X=

prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the

X=

prompt. The value must be valid for the current viewing window. When you have completed the entry, press

Í to move the cursor.

Note:

This feature does not apply to stat plots.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 78

Panning to the Left or Right

If you trace a function beyond the left or right side of the screen, the viewing window automatically pans to the left or right.

Xmin

and

Xmax

are updated to correspond to the new viewing window.

Quick Zoom

While tracing, you can press

Í to adjust the viewing window so that the cursor location becomes the center of the new viewing window, even if the cursor is above or below the display.

This allows panning up and down. After Quick Zoom, the cursor remains in TRACE.

Leaving and Returning to TRACE

When you leave and return to TRACE, the trace cursor is displayed in the same location it was in when you left TRACE, unless Smart Graph has replotted the graph.

Using TRACE in a Program

On a blank line in the program editor, press r. The instruction

Trace

is pasted to the cursor location. When the instruction is encountered during program execution, the graph is displayed with the trace cursor on the first selected function. As you trace, the cursor coordinate values are updated. When you finish tracing the functions, press

Í to resume program execution.

Exploring Graphs with the ZOOM Instructions

ZOOM Menu

To display the

ZOOM

menu, press q. You can adjust the viewing window of the graph quickly in several ways. All ZOOM instructions are accessible from programs.

ZOOM MEMORY

1: ZBox

2: Zoom In

3: Zoom Out

4: ZDecimal

5: ZSquare

6: ZStandard

7: ZTrig

8: ZInteger

9: ZoomStat

0: ZoomFit

A: ZQuadrant1

Draws a box to define the viewing window.

Magnifies the graph around the cursor.

Views more of a graph around the cursor.

Sets

@

X and

@

Y to 0.1.

Sets equal-size pixels on the X and Y axes.

Sets the standard window variables.

Sets the built-in trig window variables.

Sets integer values on the X and Y axes.

Sets the values for current stat lists.

Fits YMin and YMax between XMin and XMax.

Displays the portion of the graph that is in quadrant 1

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 79

ZOOM MEMORY

B:

C:

D:

E:

F:

G:

ZFrac1/2

ZFrac1/3

ZFrac1/4

ZFrac1/5

ZFrac1/8

ZFrac1/10

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of

, if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to

.

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of

, if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to

.

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of

, if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to

.

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of

, if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to .

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of

, if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to

.

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of

, if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to

.

Note

: You can adjust all window variables from the

VARS

menu by pressing

1:Window

and then selecting the variable from the

X/Y

,

T/

q, or

U/V/W

menu.

Zoom Cursor

When you select

1:ZBox

,

2:Zoom In

, or

3:Zoom Out

, the cursor on the graph becomes the zoom cursor (

+

), a smaller version of the free-moving cursor (

+

).

ZBox

To define a new viewing window using

ZBox

, follow these steps.

1.

Select

1:ZBox

from the

ZOOM

menu. The zoom cursor is displayed at the center of the screen.

2.

Move the zoom cursor to any spot you want to define as a corner of the box, and then press

Í. When you move the cursor away from the first defined corner, a small, square dot indicates the spot.

3.

Press

|, }, ~, or †. As you move the cursor, the sides of the box lengthen or shorten proportionately on the screen.

Note:

To cancel

ZBox

before you press

Í, press ‘.

4.

When you have defined the box, press

Í to replot the graph.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 80

To use

ZBox

to define another box within the new graph, repeat steps 2 through 4. To cancel

ZBox

, press

‘.

Zoom In, Zoom Out

Zoom In

magnifies the part of the graph that surrounds the cursor location.

Zoom Out

displays a greater portion of the graph, centered on the cursor location. The

XFact

and

YFact

settings determine the extent of the zoom.

To zoom in on a graph, follow these steps.

1.

Check

XFact

and

YFact

; change as needed.

2.

Select

2:Zoom In

from the

ZOOM

menu. The zoom cursor is displayed.

3.

Move the zoom cursor to the point that is to be the center of the new viewing window.

4.

Press

Í. The TI-83 Plus adjusts the viewing window by

XFact

and

YFact

; updates the window variables; and replots the selected functions, centered on the cursor location.

5.

Zoom in on the graph again in either of two ways.

• To zoom in at the same point, press

Í.

• To zoom in at a new point, move the cursor to the point that you want as the center of the new viewing window, and then press

Í.

To zoom out on a graph, select

3:Zoom Out

and repeat steps 3 through 5.

To cancel

Zoom In

or

Zoom Out

, press

‘.

ZDecimal

ZDecimal

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set

@

X

and

@

Y

equal to 0.1 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=

L

4.7

Xmax=4.7

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

3.1

Ymax=3.1

Yscl=1

ZSquare

ZSquare

replots the functions immediately. It redefines the viewing window based on the current values of the window variables. It adjusts in only one direction so that

@

X=

@

Y

, which makes the graph of a circle look like a circle.

Xscl

and

Yscl

remain unchanged. The midpoint of the current graph (not the intersection of the axes) becomes the midpoint of the new graph.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 81

ZStandard

ZStandard

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to the standard values shown below.

Xmin=

L

10

Xmax=10

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

10

Ymax=10

Yscl=1

Xres=1

ZTrig

ZTrig

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values that are appropriate for plotting trig functions. Those preset values in Radian mode are shown below.

Xmin=

L

(47

à

24)

p (decimal equivalent)

Xmax=(47

à

24)

p (decimal equivalent)

Xscl=

p

/2

(decimal equivalent)

Ymin=

L

4

Ymax=4

Yscl=1

ZInteger

ZInteger

redefines the viewing window to the dimensions shown below. To use

ZInteger

, move the cursor to the point that you want to be the center of the new window, and then press

Í;

ZInteger

replots the functions.

@

X=1

@

Y=1

Xscl=10

Yscl=10

ZoomStat

ZoomStat

redefines the viewing window so that all statistical data points are displayed. For regular and modified box plots, only

Xmin

and

Xmax

are adjusted.

ZoomFit

ZoomFit

replots the functions immediately.

ZoomFit

recalculates

YMin

and

YMax

to include the minimum and maximum Y values of the selected functions between the current

XMin

and

XMax

.

XMin

and

XMax

are not changed.

ZQuadrant1

ZQuandrant1

replots the function immediately. It redefines the window settings so that only quadrant 1 is displayed.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 82

ZFrac1/2

ZFrac1/2

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set

@

X

and

@

Y

equal to 1/2 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=

L

47/2

Xmax=47/2

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

31/2

Ymax=31/2

Yscl=1

ZFrac1/3

ZFrac1/3

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set

@

X

and

@

Y

equal to 1/3 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=

L

47/3

Xmax=47/3

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

31/3

Ymax=31/3

Yscl=1

ZFrac1/4

ZFrac1/4

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set

@

X

and

@

Y

equal to 1/4 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=

L

47/4

Xmax=47/4

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

31/4

Ymax=31/4

Yscl=1

ZFrac1/5

ZFrac1/5

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set

@

X

and

@

Y

equal to 1/5 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=

L

47/5

Xmax=47/5

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

31/5

Ymax=31/5

Yscl=1

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 83

ZFrac1/8

ZDecimal

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set

@

X

and

@

Y

equal to 1/8 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=

L

47/8

Xmax=47/8

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

31/8

Ymax=31/8

Yscl=1

ZFrac1/10

ZFrac1/10

replots the functions immediately. It updates the window variables to preset values, as shown below. These values set

@

X

and

@

Y

equal to 1/10 and set the X and Y value of each pixel to one decimal place.

Xmin=

L

47/10

Xmax=47/10

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

31/10

Ymax=31/10

Yscl=1

Using ZOOM MEMORY

ZOOM MEMORY Menu

To display the

ZOOM MEMORY

menu, press q ~.

ZOOM MEMORY

1: ZPrevious

2: ZoomSto

3: ZoomRcl

4: SetFactors

...

Uses the previous viewing window.

Stores the user-defined window.

Recalls the user-defined window.

Changes Zoom In and Zoom Out factors.

ZPrevious

ZPrevious

replots the graph using the window variables of the graph that was displayed before you executed the last ZOOM instruction.

ZoomSto

ZoomSto

immediately stores the current viewing window. The graph is displayed, and the values of the current window variables are stored in the user-defined

ZOOM

variables

ZXmin

,

ZXmax

,

ZXscl

,

ZYmin

,

ZYmax

,

ZYscl

, and

ZXres

.

These variables apply to all graphing modes. For example, changing the value of

ZXmin

in Func mode also changes it in Par mode.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 84

ZoomRcl

ZoomRcl

graphs the selected functions in a user-defined viewing window. The user-defined viewing window is determined by the values stored with the

ZoomSto

instruction. The window variables are updated with the user-defined values, and the graph is plotted.

ZOOM FACTORS

The zoom factors,

XFact

and

YFact

, are positive numbers (not necessarily integers) greater than or equal to 1. They define the magnification or reduction factor used to

Zoom In

or

Zoom Out

around a point.

Checking XFact and YFact

To display the ZOOM FACTORS screen, where you can review the current values for

XFact

and

YFact

, select

4:SetFactors

from the

ZOOM MEMORY

menu. The values shown are the defaults.

Changing XFact and YFact

You can change

XFact

and

YFact

in either of two ways.

• Enter a new value. The original value is cleared automatically when you enter the first digit.

• Place the cursor on the digit you want to change, and then enter a value or press

{ to delete it.

Using ZOOM MEMORY Menu Items from the Home Screen or a Program

From the home screen or a program, you can store directly to any of the user-defined ZOOM variables.

From a program, you can select the

ZoomSto

and

ZoomRcl

instructions from the

ZOOM MEMORY

menu.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 85

Using the CALC (Calculate) Operations

CALCULATE Menu

To display the

CALCULATE

menu, press y /. Use the items on this menu to analyze the current graph functions.

CALCULATE

1: value

2: zero

3: minimum

4: maximum

5: intersect

6: dy/dx

7:

‰f(x)dx

Calculates a function Y value for a given X.

Finds a zero (x-intercept) of a function.

Finds a minimum of a function.

Finds a maximum of a function.

Finds an intersection of two functions.

Finds a numeric derivative of a function.

Finds a numeric integral of a function.

value value

evaluates one or more currently selected functions for a specified value of X.

Note:

When a value is displayed for X, press

‘ to clear the value. When no value is displayed, press

‘ to cancel the

value

operation.

To evaluate a selected function at X, follow these steps.

1.

Select

1:value

from the

CALCULATE

menu. The graph is displayed with

X=

in the bottom-left corner.

2.

Enter a real value, which can be an expression, for

X

between

Xmin

and

Xmax

.

3.

Press

Í.

The cursor is on the first selected function in the Y= editor at the

X

value you entered, and the coordinates are displayed, even if

CoordOff

format is selected.

To move the cursor from function to function at the entered

X

value, press

} or †. To restore the free-moving cursor, press

| or ~.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 86

zero zero

finds a zero (x-intercept or root) of a function using

solve(

. Functions can have more than one x-intercept value;

zero

finds the zero closest to your guess.

The time

zero

spends to find the correct zero value depends on the accuracy of the values you specify for the left and right bounds and the accuracy of your guess.

To find a zero of a function, follow these steps.

1.

Select

2:zero

from the

CALCULATE

menu. The current graph is displayed with

Left Bound?

in the bottom-left corner.

2.

Press

} or † to move the cursor onto the function for which you want to find a zero.

3.

Press

| or ~ (or enter a value) to select the x-value for the left bound of the interval, and then press

Í. A 4 indicator on the graph screen shows the left bound.

Right Bound?

is displayed in the bottom-left corner. Press

| or ~ (or enter a value) to select the x-value for the right bound, and then press

Í. A 3 indicator on the graph screen shows the right bound.

Guess?

is then displayed in the bottom-left corner.

4.

Press

| or ~ (or enter a value) to select a point near the zero of the function, between the bounds, and then press

Í.

The cursor is on the solution and the coordinates are displayed, even if

CoordOff

format is selected. To move to the same x-value for other selected functions, press

} or †. To restore the free-moving cursor, press

| or ~.

minimum, maximum minimum

and

maximum

find a minimum or maximum of a function within a specified interval to a tolerance of 1

âL5.

To find a minimum or maximum, follow these steps.

1.

Select

3:minimum

or

4:maximum

from the

CALCULATE

menu. The current graph is displayed.

2.

Select the function and set left bound, right bound, and guess as described for

zero

.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 87

The cursor is on the solution, and the coordinates are displayed, even if you have selected

CoordOff

format;

Minimum

or

Maximum

is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

To move to the same x-value for other selected functions, press

} or †. To restore the freemoving cursor, press

| or ~.

intersect intersect

finds the coordinates of a point at which two or more functions intersect using

solve(

. The intersection must appear on the display to use

intersect

.

To find an intersection, follow these steps.

1.

Select

5:intersect

from the

CALCULATE

menu. The current graph is displayed with

First curve?

in the bottom-left corner.

2.

Press

† or }, if necessary, to move the cursor to the first function, and then press Í.

Second curve?

is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

3.

Press

† or }, if necessary, to move the cursor to the second function, and then press Í.

4.

Press

~ or | to move the cursor to the point that is your guess as to location of the intersection, and then press

Í.

The cursor is on the solution and the coordinates are displayed, even if

CoordOff

format is selected.

Intersection

is displayed in the bottom-left corner. To restore the free-moving cursor, press

|, }, ~, or †.

dy/dx dy/dx

(numerical derivative) finds the numerical derivative (slope) of a function at a point, with

H=1âL3.

To find a function’s slope at a point, follow these steps.

1.

Select

6:dy/dx

from the

CALCULATE

menu. The current graph is displayed.

2.

Press

} or † to select the function for which you want to find the numerical derivative.

3.

Press

| or ~ (or enter a value) to select the X value at which to calculate the derivative, and then press

Í.

The cursor is on the solution and the numerical derivative is displayed.

To move to the same x-value for other selected functions, press

} or †. To restore the freemoving cursor, press

| or ~.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 88

f(x)dx

f(x)dx

(numerical integral) finds the numerical integral of a function in a specified interval. It uses the

fnInt(

function, with a tolerance of

H=1âL3.

To find the numerical integral of a function, follow these steps.

1.

Select

7:

f(x)dx

from the

CALCULATE

menu. The current graph is displayed with

Lower Limit?

in the bottom-left corner.

2.

Press

} or † to move the cursor to the function for which you want to calculate the integral.

3.

Set lower and upper limits as you would set left and right bounds for

zero

. The integral value is displayed, and the integrated area is shaded.

Note:

The shaded area is a drawing. Use

ClrDraw

(Chapter 8) or any action that invokes Smart

Graph to clear the shaded area.

Chapter 3: Function Graphing 89

Chapter 4:

Parametric Graphing

Getting Started: Path of a Ball

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Graph the parametric equation that describes the path of a ball hit at an initial speed of 30 meters per second, at an initial angle of 25 degrees with the horizontal from ground level. How far does the ball travel? When does it hit the ground? How high does it go? Ignore all forces except gravity.

For initial velocity v o

and angle q, the position of the ball as a function of time has horizontal and vertical components.

Horizontal: X1(t)=tv

0 cos( q)

Vertical: Y1(t)=tv

0 sin( q)N

2 gt

2

The vertical and horizontal vectors of the ball’s motion also will be graphed.

Vertical vector:

Horizontal vector:

Gravity constant:

X2(t)=0

X3(t)=X1(t) g=9.8 m/sec

2

Y2(t)=Y1(t)

Y3(t)=0

1.

Press z. Press † † † ~ Í to select

Par

mode. Press

† † ~ Í to select

Simul

for simultaneous graphing of all three parametric equations in this example.

2.

Press

} } } ~ Í to go to the Format Graph screen. Press

† † † ~ Í to select

AxesOff

, which turns off the axes.

Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing 90

3.

Press o. Press

30

„ ™

25

y ;

1

(to select

¡) ¤ Í to define

X1T

in terms of

T

.

4.

Press

30

„ ˜

25

y ;

1

¤ ¹ t

^

1

(to select

n/d

)

9.8

~

2

~ „ ¡ Í to define

Y1T

.

The vertical component vector is defined by

X2T

and

Y2T

.

5.

Press

0

Í to define

X2T

.

6.

Press t a † Í Í to define

Y2T

.

The horizontal component vector is defined by

X3T

and

Y3T

.

7.

Press t a Í Í to define

X3T

.

8.

Press

0

Í to define

Y3T

.

9.

Press

| | } Í to change the graph style to

è for

X3T

and

Y3T

. Press

} Í Í to change the graph style to

ë for

X2T

and

Y2T

. Press

} Í Í to change the graph style to ë for

X1T

and

Y1T

. (These keystrokes assume that all graph styles were set to

ç originally.)

10. Press p. Enter these values for the window variables.

Tmin=0

Tmax=5

Tstep=.1

Xmin=

L

10

Xmax=100

Xscl=50

Ymin=

L

5

Ymax=15

Yscl=10

Note

: You can check all

WINDOW

variables, including

@

X and

@

Y by pressing

1:Window

.

11. Press s. The plotting action simultaneously shows the ball in flight and the vertical and horizontal component vectors of the motion.

Note:

To simulate the ball flying through the air, set graph style to

ì (animate) for

X1T

and

Y1T

.

Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing 91

12. Press r to obtain numerical results and answer the questions at the beginning of this section.

Tracing begins at

Tmin

on the first parametric equation (

X1T

and

Y1T

). As you press

~ to trace the curve, the cursor follows the path of the ball over time. The values for

X

(distance),

Y

(height), and

T

(time) are displayed at the bottom of the screen.

Defining and Displaying Parametric Graphs

TI-84 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities

The steps for defining a parametric graph are similar to the steps for defining a function graph.

Chapter 4 assumes that you are familiar with Chapter 3: Function Graphing. Chapter 4 details aspects of parametric graphing that differ from function graphing.

Setting Parametric Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. To graph parametric equations, you must select parametric graphing mode before you enter window variables and before you enter the components of parametric equations.

Displaying the Parametric Y= Editor

After selecting parametric graphing mode, press o to display the parametric Y= editor.

In this editor, you can display and enter both the X and Y components of up to six equations,

X1T

and

Y1T

through

X6T

and

Y6T

. Each is defined in terms of the independent variable

T

. A common application of parametric graphs is graphing equations over time.

Selecting a Graph Style

The icons to the left of

X1T

through

X6T

represent the graph style of each parametric equation. The default in parametric mode is

ç (line), which connects plotted points. Line, è (thick), ë (path),

ì (animate), and í (dot) styles are available for parametric graphing.

Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing 92

Defining and Editing Parametric Equations

To define or edit a parametric equation, follow the steps in Chapter 3 for defining a function or editing a function. The independent variable in a parametric equation is T. In parametric graphing mode, you can enter the parametric variable T in either of two ways.

• Press

„.

• Press

ƒ [

T

].

Two components, X and Y, define a single parametric equation. You must define both of them.

Selecting and Deselecting Parametric Equations

The TI-84 Plus graphs only the selected parametric equations. In the Y= editor, a parametric equation is selected when the

=

signs of both the X and Y components are highlighted. You may select any or all of the equations

X1T

and

Y1T

through

X6T

and

Y6T

.

To change the selection status, move the cursor onto the

=

sign of either the X or Y component and press

Í. The status of both the X and Y components is changed.

Setting Window Variables

To display the window variable values, press p. These variables define the viewing window.

The values below are defaults for parametric graphing in Radian angle mode.

Tmin=0

Tmax=6.2831853

...

Tstep=.1308996

...

Xmin=

L10

Xmax=10

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L10

Ymax=10

Yscl=1

Smallest T value to evaluate

Largest T value to evaluate (2 p

)

T value increment ( pà

24)

Smallest X value to be displayed

Largest X value to be displayed

Spacing between the X tick marks

Smallest Y value to be displayed

Largest Y value to be displayed

Spacing between the Y tick marks

Note:

To ensure that sufficient points are plotted, you may want to change the

T

window variables.

Setting the Graph Format

To display the current graph format settings, press y .. Chapter 3 describes the format settings in detail. The other graphing modes share these format settings; Seq graphing mode has an additional axes format setting.

Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing 93

Displaying a Graph

When you press s, the TI-84 Plus plots the selected parametric equations. It evaluates the X and Y components for each value of

T

(from

Tmin

to

Tmax

in intervals of

Tstep

), and then plots each point defined by X and Y. The window variables define the viewing window.

As the graph is plotted, X, Y, and T are updated.

Smart Graph applies to parametric graphs.

Window Variables and Y

.VARS Menus

You can perform these actions from the home screen or a program.

• Access functions by using the name of the X or Y component of the equation as a variable.

• Store parametric equations.

• Select or deselect parametric equations.

• Store values directly to window variables.

Exploring Parametric Graphs

Free-Moving Cursor

The free-moving cursor in parametric graphing works the same as in Func graphing.

In

RectGC

format, moving the cursor updates the values of X and Y; if

CoordOn

format is selected,

X and Y are displayed.

In

PolarGC

format, X, Y, R, and q are updated; if

CoordOn

format is selected, R and q are displayed.

Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing 94

TRACE

To activate TRACE, press r. When TRACE is active, you can move the trace cursor along the graph of the equation one

Tstep

at a time. When you begin a trace, the trace cursor is on the first selected function at

Tmin

. If

ExprOn

is selected, then the function is displayed.

In

RectGC

format, TRACE updates and displays the values of X, Y, and T if

CoordOn

format is on.

In

PolarGC

format, X, Y, R, q and T are updated; if

CoordOn

format is selected, R, q, and T are displayed. The X and Y (or R and q) values are calculated from T.

To move five plotted points at a time on a function, press y | or y ~. If you move the cursor beyond the top or bottom of the screen, the coordinate values at the bottom of the screen continue to change appropriately.

Quick Zoom is available in parametric graphing; panning is not.

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid T Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid

T

value on the current function, enter the number. When you enter the first digit, a

T=

prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the

T=

prompt. The value must be valid for the current viewing window. When you have completed the entry, press

Í to move the cursor.

ZOOM

ZOOM

operations in parametric graphing work the same as in Func graphing. Only the

X

(

Xmin

,

Xmax

, and

Xscl

) and

Y

(

Ymin

,

Ymax

, and

Yscl

) window variables are affected.

The

T

window variables (

Tmin

,

Tmax

, and

Tstep

) are only affected when you select

ZStandard

. The

VARS ZOOM

secondary menu ZT/Z q items

1:ZTmin

,

2:ZTmax

, and

3:ZTstep

are the zoom memory variables for parametric graphing.

CALC

CALC

operations in parametric graphing work the same as in Func graphing. The

CALCULATE

menu items available in parametric graphing are

1:value

,

2:dy/dx

,

3:dy/dt

, and

4:dx/dt

.

Chapter 4: Parametric Graphing 95

Chapter 5:

Polar Graphing

Getting Started: Polar Rose

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

The polar equation R=Asin(B q) graphs a rose. Graph the rose for A=8 and B=2.5, and then explore the appearance of the rose for other values of A and B.

1.

Press z to display the

MODE

screen. Press

† † ~ ~ Í to select

Pol

graphing mode.

Select the defaults (the options on the left) for the other mode settings.

2.

Press o to display the polar Y= editor. Press

8

˜

2.5

„ ¤ Í to define

r1

.

3.

Press q

6

to select

6:ZStandard

and graph the equation in the standard viewing window. The graph shows only five petals of the rose, and the rose does not appear to be symmetrical. This is because the standard window sets q

max=2

p and defines the window, rather than the pixels, as square.

4.

Press p to display the window variables.

Press

4

y B to increase the value of q

max

to

4 p.

5.

Press q

5

to select

5:ZSquare

and plot the graph.

6.

Repeat steps 2 through 5 with new values for the variables

A

and

B

in the polar equation

r1=Asin(B

q

)

. Observe how the new values affect the graph.

Chapter 5: Polar Graphing 96

Defining and Displaying Polar Graphs

TI-84 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities

The steps for defining a polar graph are similar to the steps for defining a function graph. Chapter

5 assumes that you are familiar with Chapter 3: Function Graphing. Chapter 5 details aspects of polar graphing that differ from function graphing.

Setting Polar Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. To graph polar equations, you must select Pol graphing mode before you enter values for the window variables and before you enter polar equations.

Displaying the Polar Y= Editor

After selecting Pol graphing mode, press o to display the polar Y= editor.

In this editor, you can enter and display up to six polar equations,

r1

through

r6

. Each is defined in terms of the independent variable q.

Selecting Graph Styles

The icons to the left of

r1

through

r6

represent the graph style of each polar equation. The default in Pol graphing mode is

ç (line), which connects plotted points. Line, è (thick), ë (path), ì (animate), and

í (dot) styles are available for polar graphing.

Defining and Editing Polar Equations

To define or edit a polar equation, follow the steps in Chapter 3 for defining a function or editing a function. The independent variable in a polar equation is q. In Pol graphing mode, you can enter the polar variable q in either of two ways.

• Press

„.

• Press

ƒ

[

q

]

.

Selecting and Deselecting Polar Equations

The TI-84 Plus graphs only the selected polar equations. In the Y= editor, a polar equation is selected when the

=

sign is highlighted. You may select any or all of the equations.

Chapter 5: Polar Graphing 97

To change the selection status, move the cursor onto the

=

sign, and then press

Í.

Setting Window Variables

To display the window variable values, press p. These variables define the viewing window.

The values below are defaults for Pol graphing in Radian angle mode.

qmin=0 qmax=6.2831853...

qstep=.1308996...

Xmin=

L10

Xmax=10

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L10

Ymax=10

Yscl=1

Smallest q

value to evaluate

Largest q

value to evaluate (2 p

)

Increment between q

values ( pà

24)

Smallest X value to be displayed

Largest X value to be displayed

Spacing between the X tick marks

Smallest Y value to be displayed

Largest Y value to be displayed

Spacing between the Y tick marks

Note:

To ensure that sufficient points are plotted, you may want to change the q window variables.

Setting the Graph Format

To display the current graph format settings, press

y .. Chapter 3 describes the format settings in detail. The other graphing modes share these format settings.

Displaying a Graph

When you press s, the TI-84 Plus plots the selected polar equations. It evaluates R for each value of q (from q

min

to q

max

in intervals of q

step

) and then plots each point. The window variables define the viewing window.

As the graph is plotted, X, Y, R, and q are updated.

Smart Graph applies to polar graphs.

Window Variables and Y

.VARS Menus

You can perform these actions from the home screen or a program.

• Access functions by using the name of the equation as a variable. These function names are available on the YVARS shortcut menu ( t a).

Chapter 5: Polar Graphing 98

• Store polar equations.

• Select or deselect polar equations.

• Store values directly to window variables.

Exploring Polar Graphs

Free-Moving Cursor

The free-moving cursor in Pol graphing works the same as in Func graphing. In

RectGC

format, moving the cursor updates the values of X and Y; if

CoordOn

format is selected, X and Y are displayed. In

PolarGC

format, X, Y, R, and q are updated; if

CoordOn

format is selected, R and q are displayed.

TRACE

To activate TRACE, press r. When TRACE is active, you can move the trace cursor along the graph of the equation one q

step

at a time. When you begin a trace, the trace cursor is on the first selected function at q

min

. If

ExprOn

format is selected, then the equation is displayed.

In

RectGC

format, TRACE updates the values of X, Y, and q; if

CoordOn

format is selected, X, Y, and q are displayed. In

PolarGC

format, TRACE updates X, Y, R, and q; if

CoordOn

format is selected, R and q are displayed.

To move five plotted points at a time on a function, press y | or y ~. If you move the trace cursor beyond the top or bottom of the screen, the coordinate values at the bottom of the screen continue to change appropriately.

Quick Zoom is available in Pol graphing mode; panning is not.

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid Theta Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid q value on the current function, enter the number. When you enter the first digit, a q

=

prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the q

=

prompt. The value must be valid for the current viewing window. When you complete the entry, press

Í to move the cursor.

Chapter 5: Polar Graphing 99

ZOOM

ZOOM

operations in Pol graphing work the same as in Func graphing. Only the

X

(

Xmin

,

Xmax

, and

Xscl

) and

Y

(

Ymin

,

Ymax

, and

Yscl

) window variables are affected.

The q window variables ( q

min

, q

max

, and q

step

) are not affected, except when you select

ZStandard

. The VARS ZOOM secondary menu ZT/Z q items

4:Z

q

min

,

5:Z

q

max

, and

6:Z

q

step

are zoom memory variables for Pol graphing.

CALC

CALC

operations in Pol graphing work the same as in Func graphing. The

CALCULATE

menu items available in Pol graphing are

1:value

,

2:dy/dx

, and

3:dr/d

q.

Chapter 5: Polar Graphing 100

Chapter 6:

Sequence Graphing

Getting Started: Forest and Trees

Note:

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

A small forest of 4,000 trees is under a new forestry plan. Each year 20 percent of the trees will be harvested and 1,000 new trees will be planted. Will the forest eventually disappear? Will the forest size stabilize? If so, in how many years and with how many trees?

1.

Press z. Press  † † † ~ ~ ~ Í to select

Seq

graphing mode.

2.

Press y . and select

Time

axes format and

ExprOn

format if necessary.

3.

Press o. If the graph-style icon is not ç (dot), press

| |, press Í until ç is displayed, and then press

~ ~.

4.

Press

 ~

3

to select

iPart(

(integer part) because only whole trees are harvested. After each annual harvest, 80 percent (.80) of the trees remain.

Press

Ë

8

y

[u]

£ „ ¹

1

¤ to define the number of trees after each harvest. Press

Ã

1000

¤ to define the new trees. Press †

4000

to define the number of trees at the beginning of the program.

Note

: Be sure to press y

[u]

, not t

[U]

.

[u]

is the second function of the

¬ key.

5.

Press p

0

to set

nMin=0

. Press

50

to set

nMax=50

.

nMin

and

nMax

evaluate forest size over

50 years. Set the other window variables.

PlotStart=1 Xmin=0 Ymin=0

PlotStep=1 Xmax=50 Ymax=6000

Xscl=10 Yscl=1000

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 101

6.

Press r. Tracing begins at

nMin

(the start of the forestry plan). Press

~ to trace the sequence year by year. The sequence is displayed at the top of the screen. The values for

n

(number of years),

X

(

X=n

, because

n

is plotted on the x-axis), and

Y

(tree count) are displayed at the bottom. When will the forest stabilize? With how many trees?

Defining and Displaying Sequence Graphs

TI-84 Plus Graphing Mode Similarities

The steps for defining a sequence graph are similar to the steps for defining a function graph.

Chapter 6 assumes that you are familiar with Chapter 3: Function Graphing. Chapter 6 details aspects of sequence graphing that differ from function graphing.

Setting Sequence Graphing Mode

To display the mode screen, press z. To graph sequence functions, you must select Seq graphing mode before you enter window variables and before you enter sequence functions.

Sequence graphs automatically plot in Simul mode, regardless of the current plotting-order mode setting.

TI-84 Plus Sequence Functions u, v, and w

The TI-84 Plus has three sequence functions that you can enter from the keyboard: u, v, and w.

They are second functions of the

¬, −, and ® keys. Press y

[u] to enter

u

, for example.

You can define sequence functions in terms of:

• The independent variable

n

• The previous term in the sequence function, such as

u(n

N

1)

• The term that precedes the previous term in the sequence function, such as

u(n

N

2)

• The previous term or the term that precedes the previous term in another sequence function, such as

u(n

N

1)

or

u(n

N

2)

referenced in the sequence

v(n)

.

Note:

Statements in this chapter about

u(n)

are also true for

v(n)

and

w(n)

; statements about

u(n

N

1)

are also true for

v(n

N

1)

and

w(n

N

1)

; statements about

u(n

N

2)

are also true for

v(n

N

2)

and

w(n

N

2)

.

Displaying the Sequence Y= Editor

After selecting Seq mode, press o to display the sequence Y= editor.

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 102

In this editor, you can display and enter sequences for

u(n)

,

v(n)

, and

w(n)

. Also, you can edit the value for

nMin

, which is the sequence window variable that defines the minimum

n

value to evaluate.

The sequence Y= editor displays the

nMin value because of its relevance to

u(nMin)

,

v(nMin)

, and

w(nMin)

, which are the initial values for the sequence equations

u(n)

,

v(n)

, and

w(n)

, respectively.

nMin

in the Y= editor is the same as

nMin

in the window editor. If you enter a new value for

nMin

in one editor, the new value for

nMin

is updated in both editors.

Note:

Use

u(nMin)

,

v(nMin)

, or

w(nMin)

only with a recursive sequence, which requires an initial value.

Selecting Graph Styles

The icons to the left of

u(n)

,

v(n)

, and

w(n)

represent the graph style of each sequence (Chapter 3).

The default in Seq mode is

í (dot), which shows discrete values. Dot, ç (line), and è (thick) styles are available for sequence graphing. Graph styles are ignored in Web format.

Selecting and Deselecting Sequence Functions

The TI-84 Plus graphs only the selected sequence functions. In the Y= editor, a sequence function is selected when the

=

signs of both

u(n)=

and

u(nMin)=

are highlighted.

To change the selection status of a sequence function, move the cursor onto the

=

sign of the function name, and then press

Í. The status is changed for both the sequence function

u(n) and its initial value

u(nMin)

.

Defining and Editing a Sequence Function

To define or edit a sequence function, follow the steps in Chapter 3 for defining a function. The independent variable in a sequence is

n

.

In Seq graphing mode, you can enter the sequence variable in either of two ways.

• Press

„.

• Press y N

[N]

.

You can enter the function name from the keyboard ( y

[u], y

[v], y

[w]).

• To enter the function name

u

, press y

[u]

(above

¬).

• To enter the function name

v

, press y

[v]

(above

−).

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 103

• To enter the function name

w

, press y

[w]

(above

®).

Generally, sequences are either nonrecursive or recursive. Sequences are evaluated only at consecutive integer values.

n

is always a series of consecutive integers, starting at zero or any positive integer.

Nonrecursive Sequences

In a nonrecursive sequence, the

n

th term is a function of the independent variable

n

. Each term is independent of all other terms.

For example, in the nonrecursive sequence below, you can calculate

u(5)

directly, without first calculating

u(1)

or any previous term.

The sequence equation above returns the sequence 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, … for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, … .

Note:

You may leave blank the initial value

u(nMin)

when calculating nonrecursive sequences.

Recursive Sequences

In a recursive sequence, the

n

th term in the sequence is defined in relation to the previous term or the term that precedes the previous term, represented by

u(n

N

1)

and

u(n

N

2)

. A recursive sequence may also be defined in relation to

n

, as in

u(n)=u(n

N

1)+n.

For example, in the sequence below you cannot calculate

u(5)

without first calculating

u(1)

,

u(2)

,

u(3)

, and

u(4)

.

Using an initial value

u(nMin) = 1

, the sequence above returns 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, ... .

Note:

On the TI-84 Plus, you must type each character of the terms. For example, to enter

u(n

N

1)

, press y

[u]

£ „ ¹ À ¤.

Recursive sequences require an initial value or values, since they reference undefined terms.

• If each term in the sequence is defined in relation to the previous term, as in

u(n

N

1)

, you must specify an initial value for the first term.

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 104

• If each term in the sequence is defined in relation to the term that precedes the previous term, as in

u(n

N

2)

, you must specify initial values for the first two terms. Enter the initial values as a list enclosed in brackets ({ }) { } with commas separating the values.

The value of the first term is 0 and the value of the second term is 1 for the sequence

u(n)

.

Setting Window Variables

To display the window variables, press p. These variables define the viewing window. The values below are defaults for Seq graphing in both Radian and Degree angle modes.

nMin=1

nMax

=10

PlotStart

=1

PlotStep

=1

Xmin

=L10

Xmax

=10

Xscl

=1

Ymin

=L10

Ymax

=10

Yscl

=1

Smallest n value to evaluate

Largest n value to evaluate

First term number to be plotted

Incremental n value (for graphing only)

Smallest X value to be displayed

Largest X value to be displayed

Spacing between the X tick marks

Smallest Y value to be displayed

Largest Y value to be displayed

Spacing between the Y tick marks

nMin

must be an integer

| 0.

nMax

,

PlotStart

, and

PlotStep

must be integers

| 1.

nMin

is the smallest

n

value to evaluate.

nMin

also is displayed in the sequence

Y=

editor.

nMax

is the largest

n

value to evaluate. Sequences are evaluated at

u(nMin)

,

u(nMin+1)

,

u(nMin+2)

, ... ,

u(nMax)

.

PlotStart

is the first term to be plotted.

PlotStart=1

begins plotting on the first term in the sequence.

If you want plotting to begin with the fifth term in a sequence, for example, set

PlotStart=5

. The first four terms are evaluated but are not plotted on the graph.

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 105

PlotStep

is the incremental

n

value for graphing only.

PlotStep

does not affect sequence evaluation; it only designates which points are plotted on the graph. If you specify

PlotStep=2

, the sequence is evaluated at each consecutive integer, but it is plotted on the graph only at every other integer.

Selecting Axes Combinations

Setting the Graph Format

To display the current graph format settings, press y .. Chapter 3 describes the format settings in detail. The other graphing modes share these format settings. The axes setting on the top line of the screen is available only in Seq mode.

Time Web uv

RectGC

CoordOn

GridOff

AxesOn

LableOff

ExprOn vw uw

Polar GC

CoordOff

GridOn

AxesOff

LabelOn

ExprOff

Type of sequence plot (axes)

Rectangular or polar output

Cursor coordinate display on/off

Grid display off or on

Axes display on or off

Axes label display off or on

Expression display on or off

Setting Axes Format

For sequence graphing, you can select from five axes formats. The table below shows the values that are plotted on the x-axis and y-axis for each axes setting.

Axes Setting

Time

Web uv vw uw x-axis

n

u(n

N

1), v(n

N

1), w(n

N

1)

u(n)

v(n)

u(n)

y-axis

u(n), v(n), w(n)

u(n), v(n), w(n)

v(n)

w(n)

w(n)

Displaying a Sequence Graph

To plot the selected sequence functions, press s. As a graph is plotted, the TI-84 Plus updates X, Y, and

n

.

Smart Graph applies to sequence graphs (Chapter 3).

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 106

Exploring Sequence Graphs

Free-Moving Cursor

The free-moving cursor in Seq graphing works the same as in Func graphing. In

RectGC

format, moving the cursor updates the values of X and Y; if

CoordOn

format is selected, X and Y are displayed. In

PolarGC

format, X, Y, R, and q are updated; if

CoordOn

format is selected, R and q are displayed.

TRACE

The axes format setting affects TRACE.

When

Time

,

uv

,

vw

, or

uw

axes format is selected, TRACE moves the cursor along the sequence one

PlotStep

increment at a time. To move five plotted points at once, press y ~ or y |.

• When you begin a trace, the trace cursor is on the first selected sequence at the term number specified by

PlotStart

, even if it is outside the viewing window.

• Quick Zoom applies to all directions. To center the viewing window on the current cursor location after you have moved the trace cursor, press

ÍÍ. The trace cursor returns to

nMin

.

In Web format, the trail of the cursor helps identify points with attracting and repelling behavior in the sequence. When you begin a trace, the cursor is on the x-axis at the initial value of the first selected function.

Note:

To move the cursor to a specified

n

during a trace, enter a value for

n

, and press

Í. For example, to quickly return the cursor to the beginning of the sequence, paste

nMin

to the

n=

prompt and press

Í.

Moving the Trace Cursor to Any Valid n Value

To move the trace cursor to any valid

n

value on the current function, enter the number. When you enter the first digit, an

n=

prompt and the number you entered are displayed in the bottom-left corner of the screen. You can enter an expression at the

n=

prompt. The value must be valid for the current viewing window. When you have completed the entry, press

Í to move the cursor.

ZOOM

ZOOM

operations in Seq graphing work the same as in Func graphing. Only the

X

(

Xmin

,

Xmax

, and

Xscl

) and

Y

(

Ymin

,

Ymax

, and

Yscl

) window variables are affected.

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 107

PlotStart

,

PlotStep

,

nMin

, and

nMax

are only affected when you select

ZStandard

. The

VARS Zoom

secondary menu ZU items 1 through 7 are the

ZOOM MEMORY

variables for Seq graphing.

CALC

The only

CALC

operation available in Seq graphing is

value

.

• When Time axes format is selected,

value

displays Y (the

u(n)

value) for a specified

n

value.

• When Web axes format is selected,

value

draws the web and displays Y (the

u(n)

value) for a specified

n

value.

• When

uv

,

vw

, or

uw

axes format is selected,

value

displays X and Y according to the axes format setting. For example, for

uv

axes format, X represents

u(n)

and Y represents

v(n)

.

Evaluating u, v, and w

To enter the sequence names

u

,

v,

or

w

, press y

[u]

, y

[v]

, or y

[w]

. You can evaluate these names in any of three ways.

• Calculate the

n

th value in a sequence.

• Calculate a list of values in a sequence.

• Generate a sequence with

u(nstart,nstop[,nstep])

.

nstep

is optional; default is 1.

Graphing Web Plots

Graphing a Web Plot

To select Web axes format, press y . ~ Í. A web plot graphs

u(n)

versus

u(n

N

1)

, which you can use to study long-term behavior (convergence, divergence, or oscillation) of a recursive sequence. You can see how the sequence may change behavior as its initial value changes.

Valid Functions for Web Plots

When Web axes format is selected, a sequence will not graph properly or will generate an error.

• It must be recursive with only one recursion level (

u(n

N

1)

but not

u(n

N

2)

).

• It cannot reference

n

directly.

• It cannot reference any defined sequence except itself.

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 108

Displaying the Graph Screen

In Web format, press s to display the graph screen. The TI-84 Plus:

• Draws a

y=x

reference line in

AxesOn

format.

• Plots the selected sequences with

u(n

N

1)

as the independent variable.

Note:

A potential convergence point occurs whenever a sequence intersects the

y=x

reference line. However, the sequence may or may not actually converge at that point, depending on the sequence’s initial value.

Drawing the Web

To activate the trace cursor, press r. The screen displays the sequence and the current

n

, X, and Y values (X represents

u(n

N

1)

and Y represents

u(n)

). Press

~ repeatedly to draw the web step by step, starting at

nMin

. In Web format, the trace cursor follows this course.

1.

It starts on the x-axis at the initial value

u(nMin)

(when

PlotStart=1

).

2.

It moves vertically (up or down) to the sequence.

3.

It moves horizontally to the

y=x

reference line.

4.

It repeats this vertical and horizontal movement as you continue to press

~.

Using Web Plots to Illustrate Convergence

Example: Convergence

1.

Press o in

Seq

mode to display the sequence Y= editor. Make sure the graph style is set to

í (dot), and then define

nMin

,

u(n)

and

u(nMin)

as shown below u(n) = -.8u(n-1) + 3.6.

2.

Press y . Í to set

Time

axes format.

3.

Press p and set the variables as shown below.

nMin=1 nMax=25

PlotStart=1

PlotStep=1

Xmin=0

Xmax=25

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

10

Ymax=10

Yscl=1

4.

Press s to graph the sequence.

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 109

5.

Press y . and select the

Web

axes setting.

6.

Press p and change the variables below.

Xmin=

L

10

Xmax=10

7.

Press s to graph the sequence.

8.

Press r, and then press ~ to draw the web. The displayed cursor coordinates

n

,

X

(

u(n

N

1)

), and

Y

(

u(n)

) change accordingly. When you press

~, a new

n

cursor is on the sequence. When you press

~ again, the

n

value is displayed, and the trace

value remains the same, and the cursor moves to the

y=x

reference line. This pattern repeats as you trace the web.

Graphing Phase Plots

Graphing with uv, vw, and uw

The phase-plot axes settings

uv

,

vw

, and

uw

show relationships between two sequences. To select a phase-plot axes setting, press y ., press ~ until the cursor is on

uv

,

vw

, or

uw

, and then press

Í.

Axes Setting uv vw uw x-axis

u(n)

v(n)

u(n)

y-axis

v(n)

w(n)

w(n)

Example: Predator-Prey Model

Use the predator-prey model to determine the regional populations of a predator and its prey that would maintain population equilibrium for the two species.

This example uses the model to determine the equilibrium populations of foxes and rabbits, with initial populations of 200 rabbits (

u(nMin)

) and 50 foxes (

v(nMin)

).

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 110

These are the variables (given values are in parentheses):

W

G

D

R

M

K

n

Rn

Wn

= number of rabbits

= rabbit population growth rate without foxes

= rabbit population death rate with foxes

= number of foxes

= fox population growth rate with rabbits

= fox population death rate without rabbits

= time (in months)

=

R n

N1

(1+M

N

KW n

N1

)

=

W n

N1

(1+GR n

N1

N

D)

(.05)

(.001)

(.0002)

(.03)

1.

Press o in

Seq

mode to display the sequence Y= editor. Define the sequences and initial values for R n

and W n

as shown below. Enter the sequence R n

as

u(n)

and enter the sequence

W n

as

v(n)

.

2.

Press y . Í to select

Time

axes format.

3.

Press p and set the variables as shown below.

nMin=0

nMax=400

PlotStart=1

PlotStep=1

Xmin=0

Xmax=400

Xscl=100

4.

Press s to graph the sequence.

Ymin=0

Ymax=300

Yscl=100

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 111

5.

Press r ~ to individually trace the number of rabbits (

u(n)

) and foxes (

v(n)

) over time (

n

).

Note:

Press a number, and then press

Í to jump to a specific

n

value (month) while in

TRACE.

6.

Press y . ~ ~ Í to select

uv

axes format.

7.

Press p and change these variables as shown below.

Xmin=84

Xmax=237

Xscl=50

Ymin=25

Ymax=75

Yscl=10

8.

Press r. Trace both the number of rabbits (

X

) and the number of foxes (

Y

) through 400 generations.

Note:

When you press r, the equation for

u

is displayed in the top-left corner. Press

} or † to see the equation for

v

.

Comparing TI-84 Plus and TI-82 Sequence Variables

Sequences and Window Variables

Refer to the table if you are familiar with the TI-82. It shows TI-84 Plus sequences and sequence window variables, as well as their TI-82 counterparts.

TI-84 Plus

In the Y= editor:

u(n)

u(nMin)

v(n)

v(nMin)

w(n)

w(nMin)

In the window editor:

nMin

TI-82

Un

UnStart (window variable)

Vn

VnStart (window variable) not available not available

nStart

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 112

TI-84 Plus

nMax

PlotStart

PlotStep

TI-82

nMax

nMin not available

Keystroke Differences Between TI-84 Plus and TI-82

Sequence Keystroke Changes

Refer to the table if you are familiar with the TI-82. It compares TI-84 Plus sequence-name syntax and variable syntax with TI-82 sequence-name syntax and variable syntax.

TI-84 Plus / TI-82

n / n

u(n) / Un

v(n) / Vn

w(n)

u(n

v(n

w(n

N

1) / Un

N

1

N

1) / Vn

N

1

N

1)

On TI-84 Plus, press:

„ y

[u]

£ „ ¤ y

[v]

£ „ ¤ y

[w]

£ „ ¤ y

[u]

£ „ ¹ À ¤ y

[v]

£ „ ¹ À ¤ y

[w]

£ „ ¹ À ¤

On TI-82, press:

y ô y ó ¶¦À y ó ¶¦Á not available y õ y ö not available

Chapter 6: Sequence Graphing 113

Chapter 7:

Tables

Getting Started: Roots of a Function

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Evaluate the function Y = X

3

N 2X at each integer between L10 and 10. How many sign changes occur, and at what X values?

1.

Press z † † † Í to set

Func

graphing mode.

2.

Press o. Press „ 

3

to select

3

. Then press

¹

2

„ to enter the function

Y1=X

3

N

2X

.

3.

Press y - to display the

TABLE SETUP

screen. Press

Ì

10

Í to set

TblStart=

L

10

.

Press

1

Í to set @

Tbl=1

.

Press

Í to select

Indpnt: Auto

(automatically generated independent values). Press

† Í to select

Depend: Auto

(automatically generated dependent values).

4.

Press y 0 to display the table screen.

Note

: The message on the entry line, “Press + for

@

Tbl” is a reminder that you can change

@

Tbl from this table view. The entry line is cleared when you press any key.

5.

Press

† until you see the sign changes in the value of

Y1

. How many sign changes occur, and at what X values?

In this case, you can also see the roots of the function by finding when Y1=0. You can explore changes in X by pressing

à to display the

@T

Tbl prompt, entering a new value, and searching for your answer.

Chapter 7: Tables 114

Setting Up the Table

TABLE SETUP Screen

To display the TABLE SETUP screen, press y -.

TblStart,

@Tbl

TblStart

(table start) defines the initial value for the independent variable.

TblStart

applies only when the independent variable is generated automatically (when

Indpnt: Auto

is selected).

@

Tbl

(table step) defines the increment for the independent variable.

Indpnt: Auto, Indpnt: Ask, Depend: Auto, Depend: Ask

Selections

Indpnt: Auto

Depend: Auto

Indpnt: Ask

Depend: Auto

Indpnt: Auto

Depend: Ask

Indpnt: Ask

Depend: Ask

Table Characteristics

Values are displayed automatically in both the independentvariable column and in all dependent-variable columns.

The table is empty. When you enter a value for the independent variable, all corresponding dependent-variable values are calculated and displayed automatically.

Values are displayed automatically for the independent variable.

To generate a value for a dependent variable, move the cursor to that cell and press

Í

.

The table is empty; enter values for the independent variable. To generate a value for a dependent variable, move the cursor to that cell and press

Í

.

Setting Up the Table from the Home Screen or a Program

To store a value to

TblStart

,

@

Tbl

, or

Tbl

[

nput

from the home screen or a program, select the variable name from the

VARS TABLE

secondary menu.

Tbl

Z

nput

is a list of independent-variable values in the current table.

When you press y - in the program editor, you can select

IndpntAuto

,

IndpntAsk

,

DependAuto

, and

DependAsk

.

Chapter 7: Tables 115

Defining the Dependent Variables

Defining Dependent Variables from the Y= Editor

In the Y= editor, enter the functions that define the dependent variables. Only functions that are selected in the Y= editor are displayed in the table. The current graphing mode is used. In parametric mode, you must define both components of each parametric equation (Chapter 4).

Editing Dependent Variables from the Table Editor

To edit a selected Y= function from the table editor, follow these steps.

1.

Press y 0 to display the table, then press ~ or | to move the cursor to a dependentvariable column.

2.

Press

} until the cursor is on the function name at the top of the column. The function is displayed on the bottom line.

3.

Press

Í. The cursor moves to the bottom line. Edit the function.

4.

Press

Í or †. The new values are calculated. The table and the Y= function are updated automatically.

Note:

You also can use this feature to view the function that defines a dependent variable without having to leave the table.

Chapter 7: Tables 116

Displaying the Table

The Table

To display the table, press y 0.

Note:

The table abbreviates the values, if necessary.

Current cell

Independent-variable values in the first column

Dependent-variable values in the second and third columns

Current cell’s full value

Note

: When the table first displays, the message “Press + for

@

Tbl” is on the entry line. This message reminds you that you can press

à to change

@

Tbl at any time. When you press any key, the message disappears.

Independent and Dependent Variables

The current graphing mode determines which independent and dependent variables are displayed in the table (Chapter 1). In the table above, for example, the independent variable X and the dependent variables

Y1

and

Y2

are displayed because Func graphing mode is set.

Graphing Mode

Func (function)

Par (parametric)

Pol (polar)

Seq (sequence)

Independent Variable

X

T q

n

Dependent Variable

Y1 through Y9, and Y0

X1T/Y1T through X6T/Y6T

r1 through r6

u(n), v(n), and w(n)

Clearing the Table from the Home Screen or a Program

From the home screen, select the

ClrTable

instruction from the CATALOG. To clear the table, press

Í.

From a program, select

9:ClrTable

from the

PRGM I/O

menu or from the CATALOG. The table is cleared upon execution. If

IndpntAsk

is selected, all independent and dependent variable values on the table are cleared. If

DependAsk

is selected, all dependent variable values on the table are cleared.

Chapter 7: Tables 117

Scrolling Independent-Variable Values

If

Indpnt: Auto

is selected, you can press

} and † in the independent-variable column to display more values. As you scroll the column, the corresponding dependent-variable values also are displayed. All dependent-variable values may not be displayed if

Depend: Ask

is selected.

Note:

You can scroll back from the value entered for

TblStart

. As you scroll,

TblStart

is updated automatically to the value shown on the top line of the table. In the example above,

TblStart=0

and

@

Tbl=1

generates and displays values of

X=0

,

,

6

; but you can press

} to scroll back and display the table for

X=

M

1

,

,

5

.

Changing Table Settings from the Table View

You can change table settings from the table view by highlighting a value in the table, pressing

Ã, and entering a new

@ value.

1.

Press o and then press

1

t ^

1 2

~ „ to enter the function

Y1=1/2x

.

2.

Press y 0.

3.

Press

† † † to move the cursor to highlight 3, and then press

Ã.

4.

Press

1

t ^

1 2

to change the table settings to view changes in X in increments of 1/2.

Chapter 7: Tables 118

5.

Press

Í.

Displaying Other Dependent Variables

If you have defined more than two dependent variables, the first two selected Y= functions are displayed initially. Press

~ or | to display dependent variables defined by other selected Y= functions. The independent variable always remains in the left column, except during a trace with parametric graphing mode and G-T split-screen mode set.

Note:

To simultaneously display two dependent variables on the table that are not defined as consecutive Y= functions, go to the Y= editor and deselect the Y= functions between the two you want to display. For example, to simultaneously display Y4 and Y7 on the table, go to the Y= editor and deselect Y5 and Y6.

Chapter 7: Tables 119

Chapter 8:

Draw Instructions

Getting Started: Drawing a Tangent Line

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Suppose you want to find the equation of the tangent line at X =

-------

2

2

for the function Y=sin(X).

1.

Before you begin, press z and select

4

,

Radian

and

Func

, if necessary.

2.

Press o to display the Y= editor. Press

˜ „ ¤ to store

sin(X)

in

Y1

.

3.

Press q

7

to select

7:ZTrig

, which graphs the equation in the

Zoom Trig

window.

4.

Press y <

5

to select

5:Tangent(

. The tangent instruction is initiated.

5.

Press y C

2

¤ ¥

2

.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 120

6.

Press

Í. The tangent line is drawn; the X value and the tangent-line equation are displayed on the graph.

Consider repeating this activity with the mode set to the number of decimal places desired. The first screen shows four decimal places. The second screen shows the decimal setting at Float.

Using the DRAW Menu

DRAW Menu

To display the

DRAW

menu, press y <. The TI-84 Plus’s interpretation of these instructions depends on whether you accessed the menu from the home screen or the program editor or directly from a graph.

DRAW POINTS STO

1: ClrDraw

2:

3:

4:

5:

6:

7:

8:

9:

0:

A:

Line(

Horizontal

Vertical

Tangent(

DrawF

Shade(

DrawInv

Circle(

Text(

Pen

Clears all drawn elements.

Draws a line segment between 2 points.

Draws a horizontal line.

Draws a vertical line.

Draws a line segment tangent to a function.

Draws a function.

Shades an area between two functions.

Draws the inverse of a function.

Draws a circle.

Draws text on a graph screen.

Activates the free-form drawing tool.

Before Drawing on a Graph

The DRAW instructions draw on top of graphs. Therefore, before you use the DRAW instructions, consider whether you want to perform one or more of the following actions.

• Change the mode settings on the mode screen.

• Change the format settings on the format screen. You can press y . or use the shortcut on the mode screen to go to the format graph screen.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 121

• Enter or edit functions in the Y= editor.

• Select or deselect functions in the Y= editor.

• Change the window variable values.

• Turn stat plots on or off.

• Clear existing drawings with

ClrDraw

.

Note:

If you draw on a graph and then perform any of the actions listed above, the graph is replotted without the drawings when you display the graph again. Before you clear drawings, you can store them with

StorePic

.

Drawing on a Graph

You can use any

DRAW

menu instructions except

DrawInv

to draw on Func, Par, Pol, and Seq graphs.

DrawInv

is valid only in Func graphing. The coordinates for all DRAW instructions are the display’s x-coordinate and y-coordinate values.

You can use most

DRAW

menu and

DRAW POINTS

menu instructions to draw directly on a graph, using the cursor to identify the coordinates. You also can execute these instructions from the home screen or from within a program. If a graph is not displayed when you select a

DRAW

menu instruction, the home screen is displayed.

Clearing Drawings

Clearing Drawings When a Graph Is Displayed

All points, lines, and shading drawn on a graph with DRAW instructions are temporary.

To clear drawings from the currently displayed graph, select

1:ClrDraw

from the

DRAW

menu. The current graph is replotted and displayed with no drawn elements.

Clearing Drawings from the Home Screen or a Program

To clear drawings on a graph from the home screen or a program, begin on a blank line on the home screen or in the program editor. Select

1:ClrDraw

from the

DRAW

menu. The instruction is copied to the cursor location. Press

Í.

When

ClrDraw

is executed, it clears all drawings from the current graph and displays the message

Done

. When you display the graph again, all drawn points, lines, circles, and shaded areas will be gone.

Note:

Before you clear drawings, you can store them with

StorePic

.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 122

Drawing Line Segments

Drawing a Line Segment Directly on a Graph

To draw a line segment when a graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1.

Select

2:Line(

from the

DRAW

menu.

2.

Place the cursor on the point where you want the line segment to begin, and then press

Í.

3.

Move the cursor to the point where you want the line segment to end. The line is displayed as you move the cursor. Press

Í.

To continue drawing line segments, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel

Line(

, press

‘.

Drawing a Line Segment from the Home Screen or a Program

Line(

also draws a line segment between the coordinates (

X1,Y1

) and (

X2,Y2

). The values may be entered as expressions.

Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2)

To erase a line segment, enter

Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2,0)

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 123

Drawing Horizontal and Vertical Lines

Drawing a Line Directly on a Graph

To draw a horizontal or vertical line when a graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1.

Select

3:Horizontal

or

4:Vertical

from the

DRAW

menu. A line is displayed that moves as you move the cursor.

2.

Place the cursor on the y-coordinate (for horizontal lines) or x-coordinate (for vertical lines) through which you want the drawn line to pass.

3.

Press

Í to draw the line on the graph.

To continue drawing lines, repeat steps 2 and 3.

To cancel

Horizontal

or

Vertical

, press

‘.

Drawing a Line from the Home Screen or a Program

Horizontal

(horizontal line) draws a horizontal line at

Y=y

.

y,

which can be an expression but not a list.

Horizontal

y

Vertical

(vertical line) draws a vertical line at

X=x

.

x,

which can be an expression but not a list.

Vertical

x

To instruct the TI-84 Plus to draw more than one horizontal or vertical line, separate each instruction with a colon (

:

).

MathPrint™ Classic

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 124

Drawing Tangent Lines

Drawing a Tangent Line Directly on a Graph

To draw a tangent line when a graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1.

Select

5:Tangent(

from the

DRAW

menu.

2.

Press

† and } to move the cursor to the function for which you want to draw the tangent line.

The current graph’s Y= function is displayed in the top-left corner, if

ExprOn

is selected.

3.

Press

~ and | or enter a number to select the point on the function at which you want to draw the tangent line.

4.

Press

Í. In

Func

mode, the X value at which the tangent line was drawn is displayed on the bottom of the screen, along with the equation of the tangent line. In all other modes, the

dy/dx

value is displayed.

5.

Change the fixed decimal setting on the mode screen if you want to see fewer digits displayed for X and the equation for Y.

Drawing a Tangent Line from the Home Screen or a Program

Tangent(

(tangent line) draws a line tangent to

expression

in terms of X, such as Y1 or X

2

, at point

X=value

.

X can be an expression.

expression

is interpreted as being in Func mode.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 125

Tangent(expression,value)

Drawing Functions and Inverses

Drawing a Function

DrawF

(draw function) draws

expression

as a function in terms of X on the current graph. When you select

6:DrawF

from the

DRAW

menu, the TI-84 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor.

DrawF

is not interactive.

DrawF

expression

Note:

You cannot use a list in

expression

to draw a family of curves.

Drawing an Inverse of a Function

DrawInv

(draw inverse) draws the inverse of

expression

by plotting X values on the y-axis and Y values on the x-axis. When you select

8:DrawInv

from the

DRAW

menu, the TI-84 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor.

DrawInv

is not interactive.

DrawInv

works in Func mode only.

DrawInv

expression

Note:

You cannot use a list of

expressions

with

DrawInv

.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 126

Shading Areas on a Graph

Shading a Graph

To shade an area on a graph, select

7:Shade(

from the

DRAW

menu. The instruction is pasted to the home screen or to the program editor.

Shade(lowerfunc,upperfunc[,Xleft,Xright,pattern,patres])

MathPrint™ Classic

Shade(

draws

lowerfunc

and

upperfunc

in terms of X on the current graph and shades the area that is specifically above

lowerfunc

and below

upperfunc

. Only the areas where

lowerfunc

<

upperfunc

are shaded.

Xleft

and

Xright

, if included, specify left and right boundaries for the shading.

Xleft

and

Xright

must be numbers between

Xmin

and

Xmax

, which are the defaults.

pattern

specifies one of four shading patterns.

pattern=1

pattern=2

pattern=3

pattern=4 vertical (default) horizontal negative—slope 45

¡ positive—slope 45

¡

patres

specifies one of eight shading resolutions.

patres=1

patres=2

patres=3

patres=4

patres=5

patres=6

patres=7

patres=8 shades every pixel (default) shades every second pixel shades every third pixel shades every fourth pixel shades every fifth pixel shades every sixth pixel shades every seventh pixel shades every eighth pixel

Drawing Circles

Drawing a Circle Directly on a Graph

To draw a circle directly on a displayed graph using the cursor, follow these steps.

1.

Select

9:Circle(

from the

DRAW

menu.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 127

2.

Place the cursor at the center of the circle you want to draw. Press

Í.

3.

Move the cursor to a point on the circumference. Press

Í to draw the circle on the graph.

Note:

This circle is displayed as circular, regardless of the window variable values, because you drew it directly on the display. When you use the

Circle(

instruction from the home screen or a program, the current window variables may distort the shape.

To continue drawing circles, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel

Circle(

, press

‘.

Drawing a Circle from the Home Screen or a Program

Circle(

draws a circle with center (

X,Y

) and

radius.

These values can be expressions.

Circle(X,Y,radius)

Note:

When you use

Circle(

on the home screen or from a program, the current window values may distort the drawn circle. Use

ZSquare

(Chapter 3) before drawing the circle to adjust the window variables and make the circle circular.

Placing Text on a Graph

Placing Text Directly on a Graph

To place text on a graph when the graph is displayed, follow these steps.

1.

Select

0:Text(

from the

DRAW

menu.

2.

Place the cursor where you want the text to begin.

3.

Enter the characters. Press

ƒ or y 7 to enter letters and q. You may enter TI-84

Plus functions, variables, and instructions. The font is proportional, so the exact number of characters you can place on the graph varies. As you type, the characters are placed on top of the graph.

To cancel

Text(

, press

‘.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 128

Placing Text on a Graph from the Home Screen or a Program

Text(

places on the current graph the characters comprising

value

, which can include TI-84 Plus functions and instructions. The top-left corner of the first character is at pixel (

row,column

), where

row

is an integer between 0 and 57 and

column

is an integer between 0 and 94. Both

row

and

column

can be expressions.

Text(row,column,value,value…)

value

can be text enclosed in quotation marks ( " ), or it can be an expression. The TI-84 Plus will evaluate an expression and display the result with up to 10 characters.

Classic

Split Screen

On a

Horiz

split screen, the maximum value for

row

is 25. On a

G-T

split screen, the maximum value for

row

is 45, and the maximum value for

column

is 46.

Using Pen to Draw on a Graph

Using Pen to Draw on a Graph

Pen

draws directly on a graph only. You cannot execute

Pen

from the home screen or a program.

You can capture the image you created using TI-Connect™ software and save it to your computer for homework or teaching material or store it as a picture file on your TI-84 Plus (see Storing Graph

Pictures below).

To draw on a displayed graph, follow these steps.

1.

Select

A:Pen

from the

DRAW

menu.

2.

Place the cursor on the point where you want to begin drawing. Press

Í to turn on the pen.

3.

Move the cursor. As you move the cursor, you draw on the graph, shading one pixel at a time.

4.

Press

Í to turn off the pen.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 129

For example,

Pen

was used to create the arrow pointing to the local minimum of the selected function.

Note:

To continue drawing on the graph, move the cursor to a new position where you want to begin drawing again, and then repeat steps 2, 3, and 4. To cancel

Pen

, press

‘.

Drawing Points on a Graph

DRAW POINTS Menu

To display the

DRAW POINTS

menu, press y < ~. The TI-84 Plus’s interpretation of these instructions depends on whether you accessed this menu from the home screen or the program editor or directly from a graph.

DRAW POINTS

1: Pt-On(

2: Pt-Off(

3: Pt-Change(

4: Pxl-On(

5: Pxl-Off(

6: Pxl-Change(

7: pxl-Test(

STO

Turns on a point.

Turns off a point.

Toggles a point on or off.

Turns on a pixel.

Turns off a pixel.

Toggles a pixel on or off.

Returns 1 if pixel on, 0 if pixel off.

Drawing Points Directly on a Graph with Pt

-

On(

To draw a point on a graph, follow these steps.

1.

Select

1:Pt-On(

from the

DRAW POINTS

menu.

2.

Move the cursor to the position where you want to draw the point.

3.

Press

Í to draw the point.

To continue drawing points, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel

Pt-On(

, press

‘.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 130

Erasing Points with Pt-Off(

To erase (turn off) a drawn point on a graph, follow these steps.

1.

Select

2:Pt-Off(

(point off) from the

DRAW POINTS

menu.

2.

Move the cursor to the point you want to erase.

3.

Press

Í to erase the point.

To continue erasing points, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel

Pt-Off(

, press

‘.

Changing Points with Pt-Change(

To change (toggle on or off) a point on a graph, follow these steps.

1.

Select

3:Pt-Change(

(point change) from the

DRAW POINTS

menu.

2.

Move the cursor to the point you want to change.

3.

Press

Í to change the point’s on/off status.

To continue changing points, repeat steps 2 and 3. To cancel

Pt-Change(

, press

‘.

Drawing Points from the Home Screen or a Program

Pt-On(

(point on) turns on the point at (

X=x

,

Y=y

).

Pt-Off(

turns the point off.

Pt-Change(

toggles the point on or off.

mark

is optional; it determines the point’s appearance; specify

1

,

2

, or

3

, where:

1

=

¦ (dot; default)

2

=

› (box)

3

=

+

(cross)

Pt-On(x,y[,mark])

Pt-Off(x,y[,mark])

Pt-Change(x,y)

Note:

If you specified

mark

to turn on a point with

Pt-On(

, you must specify

mark

when you turn off the point with

Pt-Off(

.

Pt-Change(

does not have the

mark

option.

Drawing Pixels

TI-84 Plus Pixels

A pixel is a square dot on the TI-84 Plus display. The

Pxl-

(pixel) instructions let you turn on, turn off, or reverse a pixel (dot) on the graph using the cursor. When you select a pixel instruction from

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 131

the

DRAW POINTS

menu, the TI-84 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor. The pixel instructions are not interactive.

Turning On and Off Pixels with Pxl-On( and Pxl-Off(

Pxl-On(

(pixel on) turns on the pixel at (

row

,

column

), where

row

is an integer between 0 and 62 and

column

is an integer between 0 and 94.

Pxl-Off(

turns the pixel off.

Pxl-Change(

toggles the pixel on and off.

Pxl-On(row,column)

Pxl-Off(row,column)

Pxl-Change(row,column)

Using pxl-Test( pxl-Test(

(pixel test) returns 1 if the pixel at (

row,column

) is turned on or 0 if the pixel is turned off on the current graph.

row

must be an integer between 0 and 62.

column

must be an integer between 0 and 94.

pxl-Test(row,column)

Split Screen

On a

Horiz

split screen, the maximum value for

row

is 30 for

Pxl-On(

,

Pxl-Off(

,

Pxl-Change(

, and

pxl-Test(

.

On a

G-T

split screen, the maximum value for

row

is 50 and the maximum value for

column

is 46 for

Pxl-On(

,

Pxl-Off(

,

Pxl-Change(

, and

pxl-Test(

.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 132

Storing Graph Pictures (Pic)

DRAW STO Menu

To display the

DRAW STO

menu, press y < |. When you select an instruction from the

DRAW STO

menu, the TI-84 Plus returns to the home screen or the program editor. The picture and graph database instructions are not interactive.

DRAW POINTS

1: StorePic

2: RecallPic

3: StoreGDB

4: RecallGDB

STO

Stores the current picture.

Recalls a saved picture.

Stores the current graph database.

Recalls a saved graph database.

Storing a Graph Picture

You can store up to 10 graph pictures, each of which is an image of the current graph display, in picture variables

Pic1

through

Pic9

, or

Pic0

. Later, you can superimpose the stored picture onto a displayed graph from the home screen or a program.

A picture includes drawn elements, plotted functions, axes, and tick marks. The picture does not include axes labels, lower and upper bound indicators, prompts, or cursor coordinates. Any parts of the display hidden by these items are stored with the picture.

To store a graph picture, follow these steps.

1.

Select

1:StorePic

from the

DRAW STO

menu.

StorePic

is pasted to the current cursor location.

2.

Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the picture variable to which you want to store the picture. For example, if you enter 3, the TI-84 Plus will store the picture to

Pic3

.

Note:

You also can select a variable from the

PICTURE

secondary menu (

4

). The variable is pasted next to

StorePic

.

3.

Press

Í to display the current graph and store the picture.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 133

Recalling Graph Pictures (Pic)

Recalling a Graph Picture

To recall a graph picture, follow these steps.

1.

Select

2:RecallPic

from the

DRAW STO

menu.

RecallPic

is pasted to the current cursor location.

2.

Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the picture variable from which you want to recall a picture. For example, if you enter 3, the TI-84 Plus will recall the picture stored to

Pic3

.

Note:

You also can select a variable from the

PICTURE

secondary menu (

4

). The variable is pasted next to

RecallPic

.

3.

Press

Í to display the current graph with the picture superimposed on it.

Note:

Pictures are drawings. You cannot trace a curve that is part of a picture.

Deleting a Graph Picture

To delete graph pictures from memory, use the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

secondary menu

(Chapter 18).

Storing Graph Databases (GDB)

What Is a Graph Database?

A graph database (GDB) contains the set of elements that defines a particular graph. You can recreate the graph from these elements. You can store up to 10 GDBs in variables GDB1 through

GDB9, or GDB0 and recall them to recreate graphs.

A GDB stores five elements of a graph.

• Graphing mode

• Window variables

• Format settings

• All functions in the Y= editor and the selection status of each

• Graph style for each Y= function

GDBs do not contain drawn items or stat plot definitions.

Storing a Graph Database

To store a graph database, follow these steps.

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 134

1.

Select

3:StoreGDB

from the

DRAW STO

menu.

StoreGDB

is pasted to the current cursor location.

2.

Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the

GDB

variable to which you want to store the graph database. For example, if you enter 7, the TI-84 Plus will store the

GDB

to

GDB7

.

Note:

You also can select a variable from the

GDB

secondary menu (

3

). The variable is pasted next to

StoreGDB

.

3.

Press

Í to store the current database to the specified

GDB

variable.

Recalling Graph Databases (GDB)

Recalling a Graph Database

CAUTION:

When you recall a GDB, it replaces all existing Y= functions. Consider storing the current Y= functions to another database before recalling a stored GDB.

To recall a graph database, follow these steps.

1.

Select

4:RecallGDB

from the

DRAW STO

menu.

RecallGDB

is pasted to the current cursor location.

2.

Enter the number (from 1 to 9, or 0) of the

GDB

variable from which you want to recall a

GDB

.

For example, if you enter 7, the TI-84 Plus will recall the

GDB

stored to

GDB7

.

Note:

You also can select a variable from the

GDB

secondary menu (

3

). The variable is pasted next to

RecallGDB

.

3.

Press

Í to replace the current

GDB

with the recalled

GDB

. The new graph is not plotted.

The TI-84 Plus changes the graphing mode automatically, if necessary.

Deleting a Graph Database

To delete a GDB from memory, use the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

secondary menu

(Chapter 18).

Chapter 8: Draw Instructions 135

Chapter 9:

Split Screen

Getting Started: Exploring the Unit Circle

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Use

G-T

(graph-table) split-screen mode to explore the unit circle and its relationship to the numeric values for the commonly used trigonometric angles of 0

¡ 30¡, 45¡, 60¡, 90¡, and so on.

1.

Press z to display the mode screen. Press †

† ~ Í to select

Degree

mode. Press

† ~

Í to select

Par

(parametric) graphing mode.

Press

† † † † ~ ~ Í to select

G-T

(graphtable) split-screen mode.

2.

Press

† † † † ~ Í to display the format screen. Press

† † † † † ~ Í to select

ExprOff

.

3.

Press o to display the Y= editor for

Par

graphing mode. Press

™ „ ¤ Í to store

cos(T)

to

X1T

. Press

÷ ˜ „ ¤ Í to store

sin(T)

to

Y1T

.

4.

Press p to display the window editor. Enter these values for the window variables.

Tmin=0 Xmin=

L

2.3

Ymin=

L

2.5

Tmax=360 Xmax=2.3

Ymax=2.5

Tstep=15 Xscl=1 Yscl=1

5.

Press r. On the left, the unit circle is graphed parametrically in

Degree

mode and the trace cursor is activated. When

T=0

(from the graph trace coordinates), you can see from the table on the right that the value of

X1T

(

cos(T)

) is

1

and

Y1T

(

sin(T)

) is 0. Press

~ to move the cursor to the next 15

¡ angle increment. As you trace around the circle in steps of 15

¡, an approximation of the standard value for each angle is highlighted in the table.

6.

Press y - and change

Indpnt

to

Ask

.

Chapter 9: Split Screen 136

7.

Press y 0 to make the table portion of the split screen active.

Using Split Screen

Setting a Split-Screen Mode

To set a split-screen mode, press z, and then move the cursor to

Horiz

or

G-T

and press

Í.

• Select

Horiz

(horizontal) to display the graph screen and another screen split horizontally.

• Select

G-T

(graph-table) to display the graph screen and table screen split vertically.

$ $

The split screen is activated when you press any key that applies to either half of the split screen.

If stat plots are turned on, the plots are shown along with the x-y plots in graphs. Press y 0 to make the table portion of the split screen active and to display the list data. Press

† or } to highlight a value you want to edit, and then enter a new value directly in the table to overwrite the previous value. Press

~ repeatedly to display each column of data (both table and list data).

Chapter 9: Split Screen 137

Split-screen display with both x-y plots and stat plots

Some screens are never displayed as split screens. For example, if you press z in

Horiz

or

G-T

mode, the mode screen is displayed as a full screen. If you then press a key that displays either half of a split screen, such as r, the split screen returns.

When you press a key or key combination in either

Horiz

or

G-T

mode, the cursor is placed in the half of the display to which that key applies. For example, if you press r, the cursor is placed in the half where the graph is displayed. If you press y 0, the cursor is placed in the half where the table is displayed.

The TI-84 Plus will remain in split-screen mode until you change back to

Full

screen mode.

Horiz (Horizontal) Split Screen

Horiz Mode

In

Horiz

(horizontal) split-screen mode, a horizontal line splits the screen into top and bottom halves.

The top half displays the graph.

The bottom half displays any of these screens.

• Home screen (four lines)

• Y= editor (four lines)

• Stat list editor (two rows)

• Window editor (three settings)

• Table editor (two rows)

Moving from Half to Half in Horiz Mode

To use the top half of the split screen:

Chapter 9: Split Screen 138

• Press s or r.

• Select a ZOOM or CALC operation.

To use the bottom half of the split screen:

• Press any key or key combination that displays the home screen.

• Press o (Y= editor).

• Press

… Í (stat list editor).

• Press p (window editor).

• Press y 0 (table editor).

Full Screens in Horiz Mode

All other screens are displayed as full screens in

Horiz

split-screen mode.

To return to the

Horiz

split screen from a full screen when in

Horiz

mode, press any key or key combination that displays the graph, home screen, Y= editor, stat list editor, window editor, or table editor.

G-T (Graph-Table) Split Screen

G-T Mode

In

G-T

(graph-table) split-screen mode, a vertical line splits the screen into left and right halves.

The left half displays all active graphs and plots.

The right half displays either table data corresponding to the graph at the left or list data corresponding to the plot at the left.

Moving from Half to Half in G-T Mode

To use the left half of the split screen:

• Press s or r.

• Select a ZOOM or CALC operation.

To use the right half of the split screen, press y 0. If the values on the right are list data, these values can be edited similarly to using the Stat List Editor.

Chapter 9: Split Screen 139

Using TRACE in G-T Mode

As you press

| or ~ to move the trace cursor along a graph in the split screen’s left half in

G-T

mode, the table on the right half automatically scrolls to match the current cursor values. If more than one graph or plot is active, you can press

} or † to select a different graph or plot.

Note:

When you trace in

Par

graphing mode, both components of an equation (

XnT

and

YnT

) are displayed in the two columns of the table. As you trace, the current value of the independent variable

T

is displayed on the graph.

Full Screens in G-T Mode

All screens other than the graph and the table are displayed as full screens in

G-T

split-screen mode.

To return to the

G-T

split screen from a full screen when in

G-T

mode, press any key or key combination that displays the graph or the table.

TI-84 Plus Pixels in Horiz and G-T Modes

TI-84 Plus Pixels in Horiz and G-T Modes

Note:

Each set of numbers in parentheses above represents the row and column of a corner pixel, which is turned on.

DRAW POINTS Menu Pixel Instructions

For

Pxl-On(

,

Pxl-Off(

,

Pxl-Change(

, and

pxl-Test(

:

• In

Horiz

mode,

row

must be

{30;

column

must be

{94.

• In

G-T

mode,

row

must be

{50;

column

must be

{46.

Pxl-On(row,column)

Chapter 9: Split Screen 140

DRAW Menu Text( Instruction

For the

Text(

instruction:

• In

Horiz

mode,

row

must be

{25;

column

must be

{94.

• In

G-T

mode,

row

must be

{45;

column

must be

{46.

Text(row,column,"text")

PRGM I/O Menu Output( Instruction

For the

Output(

instruction:

• In

Horiz

mode,

row

must be

{4;

column

must be

{16.

• In

G-T

mode,

row

must be

{8;

column

must be

{16.

Output(row,column,"text")

Note:

The

Output(

instruction can only be used within a program.

Setting a Split-Screen Mode from the Home Screen or a Program

To set

Horiz

or

G-T

from a program, follow these steps.

1.

Press z while the cursor is on a blank line in the program editor.

2.

Select

Horiz

or

G-T

.

The instruction is pasted to the cursor location. The mode is set when the instruction is encountered during program execution. It remains in effect after execution.

Note:

You also can paste

Horiz

or

G-T

to the home screen or program editor from the CATALOG

(Chapter 15).

Chapter 9: Split Screen 141

Chapter 10:

Matrices

Getting Started: Using the MTRX Shortcut Menu

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

You can use the MTRX shortcut menu ( t `) to enter a quick matrix calculation on the home screen or in the Y= editor.

Note

: To input a fraction in a matrix, delete the pre-populated zero first.

Example: Add the following matrices: and store the result to matrix C.

1.

Press t ` to display the quick matrix editor.

The default size of the matrix is two rows by two columns.

2.

Press

† † to highlight

OK

and then press

Í.

3.

Press

2

~ k

3

~

5

~

8

~ to create the first matrix.

4.

Press

à t ` † † Í

4

~

3

~

2

~

1

~

Í to create the second matrix and perform the calculation.

5.

Press v y Q and select

3:[C]

.

Chapter 10: Matrices 142

6.

Press

Í to store the matrix to

[C]

.

In the matrix editor ( y Q), you can see that matrix

[C]

has dimension 2x2.

You can press

~ ~ to display the

EDIT

screen and then select

[C]

to edit it.

Getting Started: Systems of Linear Equations

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Find the solution of X + 2Y + 3Z = 3 and 2X + 3Y + 4Z = 3. On the TI-84 Plus, you can solve a system of linear equations by entering the coefficients as elements in a matrix, and then using

rref(

to obtain the reduced row-echelon form.

1.

Press y . Press ~ ~ to display the

MATRX EDIT

menu. Press

1

to select

1: [A]

.

2.

Press

2

Í

4

Í to define a 2×4 matrix. The rectangular cursor indicates the current element.

Ellipses (

...

) indicate additional columns beyond the screen.

3.

Press

1

Í to enter the first element. The rectangular cursor moves to the second column of the first row.

Chapter 10: Matrices 143

4.

Press

2

Í

3

Í

3

Í to complete the first row for X + 2Y + 3Z = 3.

5.

Press

2

Í

3

Í

4

Í

3

Í to enter the second row for 2X + 3Y + 4Z = 3.

6.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen. If necessary, press

‘ to clear the home screen.

Press y  ~ to display the

MATRX MATH

menu. Press

} to wrap to the end of the menu.

Select

B:rref(

to copy

rref(

to the home screen.

7.

Press y 

1

to select

1: [A]

from the

MATRX NAMES

menu. Press

¤ Í. The reduced row-echelon form of the matrix is displayed and stored in

Ans

.

1X

N 1Z = L3

1Y + 2Z = 3 therefore

X =

L3 + Z

Y = 3

N 2Z

Defining a Matrix

What Is a Matrix?

A matrix is a two-dimensional array. You can display, define, or edit a matrix in the matrix editor.

You can also define a matrix using the MTRX shortcut menu ( t `).The TI-84 Plus has 10 matrix variables,

[A]

through

[J]

. You can define a matrix directly in an expression. A matrix, depending on available memory, may have up to 99 rows or columns. You can store only real numbers in TI-84 Plus matrices. Fractions are stored as real numbers and can be used in matrices.

Selecting a Matrix

Before you can define or display a matrix in the editor, you first must select the matrix name. To do so, follow these steps.

1.

Press y  | to display the

MATRX EDIT

menu. The dimensions of any previously defined matrices are displayed.

2.

Select the matrix you want to define. The

MATRX EDIT

screen is displayed.

Chapter 10: Matrices 144

Accepting or Changing Matrix Dimensions

The dimensions of the matrix (

row × column

) are displayed on the top line. The dimensions of a new matrix are

1 × 1

. You must accept or change the dimensions each time you edit a matrix. When you select a matrix to define, the cursor highlights the row dimension.

• To accept the row dimension, press

Í.

• To change the row dimension, enter the number of rows (up to 99), and then press

Í.

The cursor moves to the column dimension, which you must accept or change the same way you accepted or changed the row dimension. When you press

Í, the rectangular cursor moves to the first matrix element.

Viewing and Editing Matrix Elements

Displaying Matrix Elements

After you have set the dimensions of the matrix, you can view the matrix and enter values for the matrix elements. In a new matrix, all values are zero.

Select the matrix from the

MATRX EDIT

menu and enter or accept the dimensions. The center portion of the matrix editor displays up to seven rows and three columns of a matrix, showing the values of the elements in abbreviated form if necessary. The full value of the current element, which is indicated by the rectangular cursor, is displayed on the bottom line.

This is an 8 × 4 matrix. Ellipses in the left or right column indicate additional columns.

# or $ in the right column indicate additional rows.

Deleting a Matrix

To delete matrices from memory, use the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

secondary menu

(Chapter 18).

Viewing a Matrix

The matrix editor has two contexts, viewing and editing. In viewing context, you can use the cursor keys to move quickly from one matrix element to the next. The full value of the highlighted element is displayed on the edit line.

Chapter 10: Matrices 145

Select the matrix from the

MATRX EDIT

menu, and then enter or accept the dimensions.

Using Viewing-Context Keys

Key

|

or

~

or

}

Í

Any entry character y 6

{

Function

Moves the cursor within the current row

Moves the cursor within the current column; on the top row,

} moves the cursor to the column dimension; on the column dimension,

}

moves the cursor to the row dimension

Switches to editing context; activates the edit cursor on the bottom line

Switches to editing context; clears the value on the bottom line

Switches to editing context; clears the value on the bottom line; copies the character to the bottom line

Nothing

Nothing

Editing a Matrix Element

In editing context, an edit cursor is active on the bottom line. To edit a matrix element value, follow these steps.

1.

Select the matrix from the

MATRX EDIT

menu, and then enter or accept the dimensions.

2.

Press

|, }, ~, and † to move the cursor to the matrix element you want to change.

3.

Switch to editing context by pressing

Í, ‘, or an entry key.

4.

Change the value of the matrix element using the editing-context keys described below. You may enter an expression, which is evaluated when you leave editing context.

Note:

You can press

‘ Í to restore the value at the cursor if you make a mistake.

5.

Press

Í, }, or † to move to another element.

Chapter 10: Matrices 146

Using Editing-Context Keys

Key

|

or

~

† or

}

Í

Any entry character y 6

{

Function

Moves the edit cursor within the value

Stores the value displayed on the edit line to the matrix element; switches to viewing context and moves the cursor within the column

Stores the value displayed on the edit line to the matrix element; switches to viewing context and moves the cursor to the next row element

Clears the value on the bottom line

Copies the character to the location of the edit cursor on the bottom line

Activates the insert cursor

Deletes the character under the edit cursor on the bottom line

Using Matrices with Expressions

To use a matrix in an expression, you can do any of the following.

• Copy the name from the

MATRX NAMES

menu.

• Recall the contents of the matrix into the expression with y K (Chapter 1).

• Enter the matrix directly (see below).

Entering a Matrix in an Expression

You can enter, edit, and store a matrix in the matrix editor. You also can enter a matrix directly in an expression.

To enter a matrix in an expression, follow these steps.

1.

Press y [

[

] to indicate the beginning of the matrix.

2.

Press y [

[

] to indicate the beginning of a row.

3.

Enter a value, which can be an expression, for each element in the row. Separate the values with commas.

4.

Press y [

]

] to indicate the end of a row.

5.

Repeat steps 2 through 4 to enter all of the rows.

6.

Press y [

]

] to indicate the end of the matrix.

The resulting matrix is displayed in the form:

[[element1,1,

...

,element1,n],

...

,[elementm,1,

...

,elementm,n]]

Any expressions are evaluated when the entry is executed.

Chapter 10: Matrices 147

Note:

• The commas that you must enter to separate elements are not displayed on output.

• Closing brackets are required when you enter a matrix directly on the home screen or in an expression.

• When you define a matrix using the matrix editor, it is automatically stored. However, when you enter a matrix directly on the home screen or in an expression, it is not automatically stored, but you can store it.

In MathPrint™ mode, you could also use the

MTRX

shortcut menu to enter this kind of matrix:

1.

Press t ` † ~ ~ Í † Í to define the matrix dimension.

2.

Press

1

~

2

~

2

~

4

~

5

~

6

~ to define the matrix.

3.

Press

Í to perform the calculation.

Displaying and Copying Matrices

Displaying a Matrix

To display the contents of a matrix on the home screen, select the matrix from the

MATRX NAMES

menu, and then press

Í.

In MathPrint™ mode:

• An arrow at the left or right indicates additional columns.

• An arrow at the top or bottom indicates additional rows.

In Classic mode:

• Ellipses in the left or right column indicate additional columns.

Chapter 10: Matrices 148

# or $ in the right column indicate additional rows.

In either mode, press

~, |, †, and } to scroll the matrix. You can scroll the matrix after you press

Í to calculate the matrix. If you cannot scroll the matrix, press } Í Í to repeat the calculation.

MathPrint™ Classic

Note

:

• You cannot copy a matrix output from the history.

• Matrix calculations are not saved when you change from MathPrint™ mode to Classic mode or vice-versa.

Copying One Matrix to Another

To copy a matrix, follow these steps.

1.

Press y > to display the

MATRX NAMES

menu.

2.

Select the name of the matrix you want to copy.

3.

Press

¿.

4.

Press y > again and select the name of the new matrix to which you want to copy the existing matrix.

5.

Press

Í to copy the matrix to the new matrix name.

Accessing a Matrix Element

On the home screen or from within a program, you can store a value to, or recall a value from, a matrix element. The element must be within the currently defined matrix dimensions. Select

matrix

from the

MATRX NAMES

menu.

[matrix](row,column)

Chapter 10: Matrices 149

Using Math Functions with Matrices

Using Math Functions with Matrices

You can use many of the math functions on the TI-84 Plus keypad, the

MATH

menu, the

MATH NUM

menu, and the

MATH TEST

menu with matrices. However, the dimensions must be appropriate.

Each of the functions below creates a new matrix; the original matrix remains the same.

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication

To add or subtract matrices, the dimensions must be the same. The answer is a matrix in which the elements are the sum or difference of the individual corresponding elements.

matrixA+matrixB

matrixA

N

matrixB

To multiply two matrices together, the column dimension of

matrixA

must match the row dimension of

matrixB

.

matrixA

matrixB

Multiplying a

matrix

by a

value

or a

value

by a

matrix

returns a matrix in which each element of

matrix

is multiplied by

value

.

matrix

value value

matrix

Chapter 10: Matrices 150

Negation

Negating a matrix returns a matrix in which the sign of every element is changed.

L

matrix

abs( abs(

(absolute value,

MATH NUM

menu) returns a matrix containing the absolute value of each element of

matrix

.

abs(matrix)

round( round(

(

MATH NUM

menu) returns a matrix. It rounds every element in

matrix

to #

decimals

(

 9). If

#decimals

is omitted, the elements are rounded to 10 digits.

round(matrix

[,

#decimals

]

)

Inverse

Use the

L1

function (

œ) or ›

L

1

to invert a matrix.

matrix

must be square. The determinant cannot equal zero.

Chapter 10: Matrices 151

matrix

L1

Powers

To raise a matrix to a power,

matrix

must be square. You can use

(

›) for integer

power

between 0 and 255.

2

(

¡),

3

(

MATH

menu), or

^power

matrix

2

matrix

3

matrix^power

MathPrint™

Classic

Relational Operations

To compare two matrices using the relational operations

=

and

ƒ (

TEST

menu), they must have the same dimensions.

=

and

ƒ compare

matrixA

and

matrixB

on an element-by-element basis. The other relational operations are not valid with matrices.

matrixA=matrixB

returns 1 if every comparison is true; it returns 0 if any comparison is false.

matrixA

ƒ

matrixB

returns

1

if at least one comparison is false; it returns

0

if no comparison is false.

Chapter 10: Matrices 152

iPart(, fPart(, int( iPart(

(integer part),

fPart(

(fractional part), and

int(

(greatest integer) are on the

MATH NUM

menu.

iPart(

returns a matrix containing the integer part of each element of

matrix

.

fPart(

returns a matrix containing the fractional part of each element of

matrix

.

int(

returns a matrix containing the greatest integer of each element of

matrix

.

iPart(matrix)

fPart(matrix)

int(matrix)

Using the MATRX MATH Operations

MATRX MATH Menu

To display the

MATRX MATH

menu, press y  ~.

NAMES MATH EDIT

1: det(

Calculates the determinant.

2: T

Transposes the matrix.

3: dim(

Returns the matrix dimensions.

4: Fill(

Fills all elements with a constant.

5: identity(

Returns the identity matrix.

6: randM(

Returns a random matrix.

Appends two matrices.

7: augment(

8: Matr

4list(

Stores a matrix to a list.

Chapter 10: Matrices 153

NAMES MATH EDIT

9: List

4matr(

Stores a list to a matrix.

0: cumSum(

Returns the cumulative sums of a matrix.

A: ref(

Returns the row-echelon form of a matrix.

B: rref(

Returns the reduced row-echelon form.

C: rowSwap(

Swaps two rows of a matrix.

Adds two rows; stores in the second row.

D: row+(

E:

…row(

F:

…row+(

Multiplies the row by a number.

Multiplies the row, adds to the second row.

det( det(

(determinant) returns the determinant (a real number) of a square

matrix

.

det(matrix)

Transpose

T

(transpose) returns a matrix in which each element (row, column) is swapped with the corresponding element (column, row) of

matrix

.

matrix

T

Accessing Matrix Dimensions with dim( dim(

(dimension) returns a list containing the dimensions (

{rows columns}

) of

matrix

.

dim(matrix)

Chapter 10: Matrices 154

Note:

dim(matrix)

"

Ln:Ln(1)

returns the number of rows.

dim(matrix)

"

Ln:Ln(2)

returns the number of columns.

Creating a Matrix with dim(

Use

dim(

with

¿ to create a new

matrixname

of dimensions

rows

×

columns

with 0 as each element.

{rows,columns}

"

dim(matrixname)

Redimensioning a Matrix with dim(

Use

dim(

with

¿ to redimension an existing

matrixname

to dimensions

rows

×

columns

. The elements in the old

matrixname

that are within the new dimensions are not changed. Additional created elements are zeros. Matrix elements that are outside the new dimensions are deleted.

{rows,columns}

"

dim(matrixname)

Fill(

Fill(

stores

value

to every element in

matrixname

.

Fill(value,matrixname)

identity( identity(

returns the identity matrix of

dimension

rows ×

dimension

columns.

identity(dimension)

Chapter 10: Matrices 155

randM( randM(

(create random matrix) returns a

rows

×

columns

random matrix of integers

‚ L9 and  9. The seed value stored to the

rand

function controls the values (Chapter 2).

randM(rows,columns)

augment( augment(

appends

matrixA

to

matrixB

as new columns.

matrixA

and

matrixB

both must have the same number of rows.

augment(matrixA,matrixB)

Matr

4list(

Matr

4

list(

(matrix stored to list) fills each

listname

with elements from each column in

matrix

.

Matr

4

list(

ignores extra

listname

arguments. Likewise,

Matr

4

list(

ignores extra

matrix

columns.

Matr

4

list(matrix,listnameA,

...

,listname n)

Chapter 10: Matrices 156

Matr

4

list(

also fills a

listname

with elements from a specified

column#

in

matrix

. To fill a list with a specific column from

matrix

, you must enter

column#

after

matrix

.

Matr

4

list(matrix,column#,listname)

List

4matr(

List

4

matr(

(lists stored to matrix) fills

matrixname

column by column with the elements from each

list

. If dimensions of all

lists

are not equal,

List

4

matr(

fills each extra

matrixname

row with 0. Complex lists are not valid.

List

4

matr(listA,

...

,list n,matrixname)

cumSum( cumSum(

returns cumulative sums of the elements in

matrix

, starting with the first element. Each element is the cumulative sum of the column from top to bottom.

cumSum(matrix)

Row Operations

MATRX MATH

menu items

A

through

F

are row operations. You can use a row operation in an expression. Row operations do not change

matrix

in memory. You can enter all row numbers and values as expressions. You can select the matrix from the

MATRX NAMES

menu.

Chapter 10: Matrices 157

ref(, rref( ref(

(row-echelon form) returns the row-echelon form of a real

matrix

. The number of columns must be greater than or equal to the number of rows.

ref(matrix)

rref(

(reduced row-echelon form) returns the reduced row-echelon form of a real

matrix

. The number of columns must be greater than or equal to the number of rows.

rref(matrix)

rowSwap( rowSwap(

returns a matrix. It swaps

rowA

and

rowB

of

matrix

.

rowSwap(matrix,rowA,rowB)

row+( row+(

(row addition) returns a matrix. It adds

rowA

and

rowB

of

matrix

and stores the results in

rowB

.

row+(matrix,rowA,rowB)

Chapter 10: Matrices 158

row(

row(

(row multiplication) returns a matrix. It multiplies

row

of

matrix

by

value

and stores the results in

row

.

row(value,matrix,row)

row+(

row+(

(row multiplication and addition) returns a matrix. It multiplies

rowA

of

matrix

by

value

, adds it to

rowB

, and stores the results in

rowB

.

row+(value,matrix,rowA,rowB)

Chapter 10: Matrices 159

Chapter 11:

Lists

Getting Started: Generating a Sequence

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Calculate the first eight terms of the sequence 1/A

2

. Store the results to a user-created list. Then display the results in fraction form. Begin this example on a blank line on the home screen.

1.

Press y 9 ~ to display the

LIST OPS

menu.

2.

Press

5

to select

5:seq(

, which pastes

seq(

to the current cursor location.

3.

Press t ^ Í

1

~ ƒ

[A]

¡ ~ ¢

ƒ

[A]

¢

1

¢

8

¢

1

¤ to enter the sequence.

4.

Press

¿, and then press y 7 to turn on alpha-lock. Press

[S] [E] [Q]

, and then press

ƒ to turn off alpha-lock. Press

1

to complete the list name.

Note

: Since the

seq(

command creates a list, you can name give the list a name up to five characters long.

5.

Press

Í to generate the list and store it in

SEQ1

. The list is displayed on the home screen.

An ellipsis (

...

) indicates that the list continues beyond the viewing window. Press

~ repeatedly

(or press and hold

~) to scroll the list and view all the list elements.

6.

Press y 9 to display the

LIST NAMES

menu.

Press

7

to select

7:SEQ1

to paste

Ù

SEQ1

to the current cursor location. (If

SEQ1

is not item

7

on your

LIST NAMES

menu, move the cursor to

SEQ1

before you press

Í.)

Chapter 11: Lists 160

7.

Press

 to display the

MATH

menu. Press

2

to select

2:

4

Dec

, which pastes

4

Dec

to the current cursor location.

8.

Press

Í to show the sequence in decimal form. Press

~ repeatedly (or press and hold ~) to scroll the list and view all the list elements.

Naming Lists

Using TI-84 Plus List Names L1 through L6

The TI-84 Plus has six list names in memory:

L1

,

L2

,

L3

,

L4

,

L5

, and

L6

. The list names

L1

through

L6

are the second functions of

À through ¸. To paste one of these names to a valid screen, press y, and then press the appropriate key.

L1

through

L6

are stored in stat list editor columns

1

through

6

when you reset memory.

Creating a List Name on the Home Screen

To create a list name on the home screen, follow these steps.

1.

Press y E, enter one or more list elements, and then press y F. Separate list elements with commas. List elements can be real numbers, complex numbers, or expressions.

2.

Press

¿.

3.

Press

ƒ [letter from A to Z or q] to enter the first letter of the name.

4.

Enter zero to four letters, q, or numbers to complete the name.

5.

Press

Í. The list is displayed on the next line. The list name and its elements are stored in memory. The list name becomes an item on the

LIST NAMES

menu.

Note:

If you want to view a user-created list in the stat list editor, you must retrieve the list in the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

You also can create a list name in these four places.

• At the

Name=

prompt in the stat list editor

• At an

Xlist:

,

Ylist:

, or

Data List:

prompt in the stat plot editor

Chapter 11: Lists 161

• At a

List:

,

List1:, List2:

,

Freq:

,

Freq1:

,

Freq2:

,

XList:

, or

YList:

prompt in the inferential stat editors

• On the home screen using

SetUpEditor

You can create as many list names as your TI-84 Plus memory has space to store.

Storing and Displaying Lists

Storing Elements to a List

You can store list elements in either of two ways.

• Use brackets and

¿ on the home screen.

• Use the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

The maximum dimension of a list is 999 elements.

Note:

When you store a complex number to a list, the entire list is converted to a list of complex numbers. To convert the list to a list of real numbers, display the home screen, and then enter

real(listname)

!

listname

.

Displaying a List on the Home Screen

To display the elements of a list on the home screen, enter the name of the list (preceded by

Ù, if necessary), and then press

Í. An ellipsis indicates that the list continues beyond the viewing window. Press

~ repeatedly (or press and hold ~) to scroll the list and view all the list elements.

Copying One List to Another

To copy a list, store it to another list.

Accessing a List Element

You can store a value to or recall a value from a specific list

element

. You can store to any element within the current list dimension or one element beyond.

Chapter 11: Lists 162

listname(element)

Deleting a List from Memory

To delete lists from memory, including

L1

through

L6

, use the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

secondary menu (Chapter 18). Resetting memory restores

L1

through

L6

. Removing a list from the stat list editor does not delete it from memory.

Using Lists in Graphing

To graph a family of curves, you can use lists (Chapter 3) or the Transformation Graphing App.

Entering List Names

Using the LIST NAMES Menu

To display the

LIST NAMES

menu, press y 9. Each item is a user-created list name except for

L1

through

L6

.

LIST NAMES

menu items are sorted automatically in alphanumerical order. Only the first 10 items are labeled, using 1 through 9, then 0. To jump to the first list name that begins with a particular alpha character or q, press ƒ [letter from A to Z or q].

Note:

From the top of a menu, press

} to move to the bottom. From the bottom, press † to move to the top.

When you select a list name from the

LIST NAMES

menu, the list name is pasted to the current cursor location.

• The list name symbol

Ù precedes a list name when the name is pasted where non-list name data also is valid, such as the home screen.

• The

Ù symbol does not precede a list name when the name is pasted where a list name is the only valid input, such as the stat list editor’s

Name=

prompt or the stat plot editor’s

XList:

and

YList:

prompts.

Chapter 11: Lists 163

Entering a User-Created List Name Directly

To enter an existing list name directly, follow these steps.

1.

Press y 9 ~ to display the

LIST OPS

menu.

2.

Select

B:

Ù, which pastes Ù to the current cursor location. Ù is not always necessary.

Note:

You also can paste

Ù to the current cursor location from the

CATALOG

.

3.

Enter the characters that comprise the list name.

Attaching Formulas to List Names

Attaching a Formula to a List Name

You can attach a formula to a list name so that each list element is a result of the formula. When executed, the attached formula must resolve to a list.

When anything in the attached formula changes, the list to which the formula is attached is updated automatically.

• When you edit an element of a list that is referenced in the formula, the corresponding element in the list to which the formula is attached is updated.

• When you edit the formula itself, all elements in the list to which the formula is attached are updated.

For example, the first screen below shows that elements are stored to

L3

, and the formula

L3+10

is attached to the list name

Ù

ADD10

. The quotation marks designate the formula to be attached to

Ù

ADD10

. Each element of

Ù

ADD10

is the sum of an element in

L3

and 10.

The next screen shows another list,

L4

. The elements of

L4

are the sum of the same formula that is attached to

L3

. However, quotation marks are not entered, so the formula is not attached to

L4

.

On the next line,

L

6

!

L3(1):L3

changes the first element in

L3

to

L

6

, and then redisplays

L3

.

Chapter 11: Lists 164

The last screen shows that editing

L3

updated

Ù

ADD10

, but did not change

L4

. This is because the formula

L3+10

is attached to

Ù

ADD10

, but it is not attached to

L4

.

Note:

To view a formula that is attached to a list name, use the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

Attaching a Formula to a List on the Home Screen or in a Program

To attach a formula to a list name from a blank line on the home screen or from a program, follow these steps.

1.

Press

ƒ

[

ã

]

, enter the formula (which must resolve to a list), and press

ƒ

[

ã

]

again.

Note:

When you include more than one list name in a formula, each list must have the same dimension.

2.

Press

¿.

3.

Enter the name of the list to which you want to attach the formula.

• Press y, and then enter a TI-84 Plus list name

L1

through

L6

.

• Press y 9 and select a user.created list name from the

LIST NAMES

menu.

• Enter a user

.created list name directly using Ù.

4.

Press

Í.

Note:

The stat list editor displays a formula-lock symbol next to each list name that has an attached formula. Chapter 12 describes how to use the stat list editor to attach formulas to lists, edit attached formulas, and detach formulas from lists.

Detaching a Formula from a List

You can detach (clear) an attached formula from a list in several ways.

For example:

• Enter

ã ã !

listname

on the home screen.

• Edit any element of a list to which a formula is attached.

• Use the stat list editor (Chapter 12).

Chapter 11: Lists 165

• Use

ClrList

or

ClrAllList

to detach a formula from a list (Chapter 18).

Using Lists in Expressions

Using Lists in an Expression

You can use lists in an expression in any of three ways. When you press

Í, any expression is evaluated for each list element, and a list is displayed.

• Use

L1–L6

or any user-created list name in an expression.

• Enter the list elements directly.

• Use y K to recall the contents of the list into an expression at the cursor location

(Chapter 1).

Note:

You must paste user-created list names to the

Rcl

prompt by selecting them from the

LIST NAMES

menu. You cannot enter them directly using

Ù.

Using Lists with Math Functions

You can use a list to input several values for some math functions. See Appendix A specify for information about where a list is valid. The function is evaluated for each list element, and a list is displayed.

• When you use a list with a function, the function must be valid for every element in the list. In graphing, an invalid element, such as

L

1

in

({1,0,

L

1})

, is ignored.

This returns an error.

This graphs

X

…‡

(1)

and

X

…‡

(0)

, but skips

X

…‡

(

L

1)

.

• When you use two lists with a two-argument function, the dimension of each list must be the same. The function is evaluated for corresponding elements.

Chapter 11: Lists 166

• When you use a list and a value with a two-argument function, the value is used with each element in the list.

LIST OPS Menu

LIST OPS Menu

To display the

LIST OPS

menu, press y 9 ~.

NAMES OPS MATH

1: SortA(

Sorts lists in ascending order.

2: SortD(

Sorts lists in descending order.

3: dim(

Sets the list dimension.

4: Fill(

Fills all elements with a constant.

5: seq(

Creates a sequence.

6: cumSum(

7:

@List(

8: Select(

Returns a list of cumulative sums.

Returns difference of successive elements.

Selects specific data points.

9: augment(

Concatenates two lists.

0: List

4matr(

Stores a list to a matrix.

A: Matr

4list(

Stores a matrix to a list.

B:

Ù

Designates the list-name data type.

SortA(, SortD(

SortA(

(sort ascending) sorts list elements from low to high values.

SortD(

(sort descending) sorts list elements from high to low values. Complex lists are sorted based on magnitude (modulus).

With one list,

SortA(

and

SortD(

sort the elements of

listname

and update the list in memory.

SortA(listname) SortD(listname)

Chapter 11: Lists 167

With two or more lists,

SortA(

and

SortD(

sort

keylistname

, and then sort each

dependlist

by placing its elements in the same order as the corresponding elements in

keylistname

. All lists must have the same dimension.

SortA(keylistname,dependlist1[,dependlist2,...,dependlist n])

SortD(keylistname,dependlist1[,dependlist2,...,dependlist n])

Note:

• In the example, 5 is the first element in

L4

, and 1 is the first element in

L5

. After

SortA(L4,L5)

, 5 becomes the second element of

L4

, and likewise, 1 becomes the second element of

L5

.

SortA(

and

SortD(

are the same as

SortA(

and

SortD(

on the

STAT EDIT

menu (Chapter 12).

• You cannot sort a locked list.

Using dim( to Find List Dimensions dim(

(dimension) returns the length (number of elements) of

list

.

dim(list)

Using dim( to Create a List

You can use

dim(

with

¿ to create a new

listname

with dimension

length

from 1 to 999. The elements are zeros.

length

!

dim(listname)

Using dim( to Redimension a List

You can use

dim

with

¿ to redimension an existing

listname

to dimension

length

from 1 to 999.

• The elements in the old

listname

that are within the new dimension are not changed.

• Extra list elements are filled by 0.

• Elements in the old list that are outside the new dimension are deleted.

Chapter 11: Lists 168

length

!

dim(listname)

Fill(

Fill(

replaces each element in

listname

with

value

.

Fill(value,listname)

Note: dim(

and

Fill(

are the same as

dim(

and

Fill(

on the

MATRX MATH

menu (Chapter 10).

seq( seq(

(sequence) returns a list in which each element is the result of the evaluation of

expression

with regard to

variable

for the values ranging from

begin

to

end

at steps of

increment

.

variable

need not be defined in memory.

increment

can be negative; the default value for

increment

is 1.

seq(

is not valid within

expression

. Complex lists are not valid.

seq(expression,variable,begin,end[,increment])

cumSum( cumSum(

(cumulative sum) returns the cumulative sums of the elements in

list

, starting with the first element.

list

elements can be real or complex numbers.

cumSum(list)

@List(

@

List(

returns a list containing the differences between consecutive elements in

list

.

@

List

subtracts the first element in

list

from the second element, subtracts the second element from the third, and

Chapter 11: Lists 169

so on. The list of differences is always one element shorter than the original

list

.

list

elements can be a real or complex numbers.

@

List(list)

Select(

Select(

selects one or more specific data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot (only), and then stores the selected data points to two new lists,

xlistname

and

ylistname

. For example, you can use

Select(

to select and then analyze a portion of plotted CBL 2™/CBL™ or CBR™ data.

Select(xlistname,ylistname)

Note:

Before you use

Select(

, you must have selected (turned on) a scatter plot or xyLine plot.

Also, the plot must be displayed in the current viewing window.

Before Using Select(

Before using

Select(

, follow these steps.

1.

Create two list names and enter the data.

2.

Turn on a stat plot, select

" (scatter plot) or Ó (xyLine), and enter the two list names for

Xlist:

and

Ylist:

(Chapter 12).

3.

Use

ZoomStat

to plot the data (Chapter 3).

MathPrint™

Classic

Using Select( to Select Data Points from a Plot

To select data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot, follow these steps.

1.

Press y 9 ~

8

to select

8:Select(

from the

LIST OPS

menu.

Select(

is pasted to the home screen.

Chapter 11: Lists 170

2.

Enter

xlistname

, press

¢, enter

ylistname

, and then press

¤ to designate list names into which you want the selected data to be stored.

3.

Press

Í. The graph screen is displayed with

Left Bound?

in the bottom-left corner.

4.

Press

} or † (if more than one stat plot is selected) to move the cursor onto the stat plot from which you want to select data points.

5.

Press

| and ~ to move the cursor to the stat plot data point that you want as the left bound.

6.

Press

Í. A 4 indicator on the graph screen shows the left bound.

Right Bound?

is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

Chapter 11: Lists 171

7.

Press

| or ~ to move the cursor to the stat plot point that you want for the right bound, and then press

Í.

The x-values and y-values of the selected points are stored in

xlistname

and

ylistname

. A new stat plot of

xlistname

and

ylistname

replaces the stat plot from which you selected data points. The list names are updated in the stat plot editor.

Note:

The two new lists (

xlistname

and

ylistname

) will include the points you select as left bound and right bound. Also,

left-bound x-value

{

right-bound x-value

must be true.

augment( augment(

concatenates the elements of

listA

and

listB

. The list elements can be real or complex numbers.

augment(listA,listB)

List

4matr(

List

4

matr(

(lists stored to matrix) fills

matrixname

column by column with the elements from each list.

If the dimensions of all lists are not equal, then

List

4

matr(

fills each extra

matrixname

row with 0.

Complex lists are not valid.

Chapter 11: Lists 172

List

4

matr(list1,list2, ... ,list n,matrixname)

Matr

4list(

Matr

4

list(

(matrix stored to lists) fills each

listname

with elements from each column in

matrix

. If the number of

listname

arguments exceeds the number of columns in

matrix

, then

Matr

4

list(

ignores extra

listname

arguments. Likewise, if the number of columns in

matrix

exceeds the number of

listname

arguments, then

Matr

4

list(

ignores extra

matrix

columns.

Matr

4

list(matrix,listname1,listname2, . . . ,listname n)

Matr

4

list(

also fills a

listname

with elements from a specified

column#

in

matrix

. To fill a list with a specific column from

matrix

, you must enter a

column#

after

matrix

.

Matr

4

list(matrix,column#,listname)

Ù preceding one to five characters identifies those characters as a user-created

listname

.

listname

may comprise letters, q, and numbers, but it must begin with a letter from A to Z or q.

Ù

listname

Generally,

Ù must precede a user-created list name when you enter a user-created list name where other input is valid, for example, on the home screen. Without the

Ù, the TI-84 Plus may misinterpret a user-created list name as implied multiplication of two or more characters.

Ù need not precede a user-created list name where a list name is the only valid input, for example, at the

Name=

prompt in the stat list editor or the

Xlist:

and

Ylist:

prompts in the stat plot editor. If you enter

Ù where it is not necessary, the TI-84 Plus will ignore the entry.

Chapter 11: Lists 173

LIST MATH Menu

LIST MATH Menu

To display the

LIST MATH

menu, press y 9 |.

NAMES OPS MATH

1: min(

Returns minimum element of a list.

2: max(

Returns maximum element of a list.

3: mean(

Returns mean of a list.

4: median(

Returns median of a list.

5: sum(

Returns sum of elements in a list.

6: prod(

Returns product of elements in list.

7: stdDev(

Returns standard deviation of a list.

8: variance(

Returns the variance of a list.

min(, max( min(

(minimum) and

max(

(maximum) return the smallest or largest element of

listA

. If two lists are compared, it returns a list of the smaller or larger of each pair of elements in

listA

and

listB

. For a complex list, the element with smallest or largest magnitude (modulus) is returned.

min(listA[,listB])

max(listA[,listB])

MathPrint™

Classic

Note: min(

and

max(

are the same as

min(

and

max(

on the

MATH NUM

menu.

mean(, median( mean(

returns the mean value of

list

.

median(

returns the median value of

list

. The default value for

freqlist

is 1. Each

freqlist

element counts the number of consecutive occurrences of the corresponding element in

list

. Complex lists are not valid.

Chapter 11: Lists 174

mean(list[,freqlist])

median(list[,freqlist])

MathPrint™

Classic

sum(, prod( sum(

(summation) returns the sum of the elements in

list

.

start

and

end

are optional; they specify a range of elements.

list

elements can be real or complex numbers.

prod(

returns the product of all elements of

list

.

start

and

end

elements are optional; they specify a range of list elements.

list

elements can be real or complex numbers.

sum(list[,start,end]) prod(list[,start,end])

Sums and Products of Numeric Sequences

You can combine

sum(

or

prod(

with

seq(

to obtain:

upper

G

expression(x) x=lower upper

expression(x) x=lower

To evaluate

G 2

(N–1)

from N=1 to 4:

stdDev(, variance( stdDev(

returns the standard deviation of the elements in

list

. The default value for

freqlist

is 1. Each

freqlist

element counts the number of consecutive occurrences of the corresponding element in

list

.

Complex lists are not valid.

Chapter 11: Lists 175

stdDev(list[,freqlist])

MathPrint™

Classic

variance(

returns the variance of the elements in

list

. The default value for

freqlist

is 1. Each

freqlist

element counts the number of consecutive occurrences of the corresponding element in

list

.

Complex lists are not valid.

variance(list[,freqlist])

MathPrint™

Classic

Chapter 11: Lists 176

Chapter 12:

Statistics

Getting Started: Pendulum Lengths and Periods

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

A group of students is attempting to determine the mathematical relationship between the length of a pendulum and its period (one complete swing of a pendulum). The group makes a simple pendulum from string and washers and then suspends it from the ceiling. They record the pendulum’s period for each of 12 string lengths.*

Length (cm)

6.5

11.0

13.2

15.0

18.0

23.1

Time (sec)

0.51

0.68

0.73

0.79

0.88

0.99

Length (cm)

24.4

26.6

30.5

34.3

37.6

41.5

Time (sec)

1.01

1.08

1.13

1.26

1.28

1.32

*This example is quoted and adapted from Contemporary Precalculus Through Applications, by the North

Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, by permission of Janson Publications, Inc., Dedham, MA. 1-

800-322-MATH. © 1992. All rights reserved.

1.

Press z † † † Í to set

Func

graphing mode.

2.

Press

5

to select

5:SetUpEditor

.

SetUpEditor

is pasted to the home screen.

Press

Í. This removes lists from stat list editor columns 1 through 20, and then stores lists

L1

through

L6

in columns 1 through 6.

Note:

Removing lists from the stat list editor does not delete them from memory.

3.

Press

1

to select

1:Edit

from the

STAT EDIT

menu. The stat list editor is displayed. If elements are stored in

L1

and

L2

, press

} to move the cursor onto

L1

, and then press

‘ Í ~ }

‘ Í to clear both lists. Press | to move the rectangular cursor back to the first row in

L1

.

Chapter 12: Statistics 177

4.

Press

6

Ë

5

Í to store the first pendulum string length (6.5 cm) in

L1

. The rectangular cursor moves to the next row. Repeat this step to enter each of the 12 string length values in the table.

5.

Press

~ to move the rectangular cursor to the first row in

L2

.

Press

Ë

51

Í to store the first time measurement (.51 sec) in

L2

. The rectangular cursor moves to the next row. Repeat this step to enter each of the 12 time values in the table.

6.

Press o to display the Y= editor.

If necessary, press

‘ to clear the function

Y1

.

As necessary, press

}, Í, and ~ to turn off

Plot1

,

Plot2

, and

Plot3

from the top line of the

Y= editor (Chapter 3). As necessary, press

†, |, and

Í to deselect functions.

7.

Press y ,

1

to select

1:Plot1

from the

STAT PLOTS

menu. The stat plot editor is displayed for plot 1.

8.

Press

Í to select

On

, which turns on plot 1.

Press

† Í to select " (scatter plot). Press

† y d to specify

Xlist:L1

for plot 1. Press

† y e to specify

Ylist:L2

for plot 1. Press

† ~ Í to select

+

as the

Mark

for each data point on the scatter plot.

9.

Press q

9

to select

9:ZoomStat

from the

ZOOM

menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and plot 1 is displayed. This is a scatter plot of the time-versus-length data.

Since the scatter plot of time-versus-length data appears to be approximately linear, fit a line to the data.

10. Press

… ~

4

to select

4:LinReg(ax+b)

(linear regression model) from the

STAT CALC

menu.

LinReg(ax+b)

is pasted to the home screen.

Chapter 12: Statistics 178

11. Press y d ¢ y e ¢. Press  ~

1

to display the

VARS Y-VARS FUNCTION

secondary menu, and then press

1

to select

1:Y1

.

L1

,

L2

, and

Y1

are pasted to the home screen as arguments to

LinReg(ax+b)

.

Note

: You can also use the

YVARS

( t a)shortcut menu to select

Y1

.

12. Press

Í to execute

LinReg(ax+b)

. The linear regression for the data in

L1

and

L2

is calculated.

Values for

a

and

b

are displayed on the home screen. The linear regression equation is stored in

Y1

. Residuals are calculated and stored automatically in the list name

RESID

, which becomes an item on the

LIST NAMES

menu.

Note

:

-

You can control the number of decimal places displayed by changing the decimal mode setting.

The statistics reported are not stored in the history on the home screen.

13. Press s. The regression line and the scatter plot are displayed.

The regression line appears to fit the central portion of the scatter plot well. However, a residual plot may provide more information about this fit.

14. Press

1

to select

1:Edit

. The stat list editor is displayed.

Press

~ and } to move the cursor onto

L3

.

Press y 6. An unnamed column is displayed in column 3;

L3

,

L4

,

L5

, and

L6

shift right one column. The

Name=

prompt is displayed in the entry line, and alpha-lock is on.

15. Press y 9 to display the

LIST NAMES

menu.

If necessary, press

† to move the cursor onto the list name

RESID

.

16. Press

Í to select

RESID

and paste it to the stat list editor’s

Name=

prompt.

Chapter 12: Statistics 179

17. Press

Í.

RESID

is stored in column 3 of the stat list editor.

Press

† repeatedly to examine the residuals.

Notice that the first three residuals are negative. They correspond to the shortest pendulum string lengths in

L1

. The next five residuals are positive, and three of the last four are negative. The latter correspond to the longer string lengths in

L1

. Plotting the residuals will show this pattern more clearly.

18. Press y ,

2

to select

2:Plot2

from the

STAT PLOTS

menu. The stat plot editor is displayed for plot 2.

19. Press

Í to select

On

, which turns on plot 2.

Press

† Í to select " (scatter plot). Press

† y d to specify

Xlist:L1

for plot 2. Press

† ã

R

ä

ã

E

ä ã

S

ä ã

I

ä ã

D

ä (alpha-lock is on) to specify

Ylist:RESID

for plot 2. Press

† Í to select › as the mark for each data point on the scatter plot.

20. Press o to display the Y= editor.

Press

| to move the cursor onto the

=

sign, and then press

Í to deselect

Y1

. Press

} Í to turn off plot 1.

21. Press q

9

to select

9:ZoomStat

from the

ZOOM

menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and plot 2 is displayed. This is a scatter plot of the residuals.

Notice the pattern of the residuals: a group of negative residuals, then a group of positive residuals, and then another group of negative residuals.

The residual pattern indicates a curvature associated with this data set for which the linear model did not account. The residual plot emphasizes a downward curvature, so a model that curves

Chapter 12: Statistics 180

down with the data would be more accurate. Perhaps a function such as square root would fit. Try a power regression to fit a function of the form y = a

… x b

.

22. Press o to display the Y= editor.

Press

‘ to clear the linear regression equation from

Y1

. Press

} Í to turn on plot 1.

Press

~ Í to turn off plot 2.

23. Press q

9

to select

9:ZoomStat

from the

ZOOM

menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and the original scatter plot of timeversus-length data (plot 1) is displayed.

24. Press

… ~ ƒ ã

A

ä to select

A:PwrReg

from the

STAT CALC

menu.

PwrReg

is pasted to the home screen.

Press y d ¢ y e ¢. Press  ~

1

to display the

VARS Y-VARS FUNCTION

secondary menu, and then press

1

to select

1:Y1

.

L1

,

L2

, and

Y1

are pasted to the home screen as arguments to

PwrReg

.

Note

: You can also use the

YVARS

( t a)shortcut menu to select

Y1

.

25. Press

Í to calculate the power regression.

Values for

a

and

b

are displayed on the home screen. The power regression equation is stored in

Y1

. Residuals are calculated and stored automatically in the list name

RESID

.

26. Press s. The regression line and the scatter plot are displayed.

The new function y=.192x

.522

appears to fit the data well. To get more information, examine a residual plot.

27. Press o to display the Y= editor.

Press

| Í to deselect

Y1

.

Press

} Í to turn off plot 1. Press ~ Í to turn on plot 2.

Note:

Step 19 defined plot 2 to plot residuals

(

RESID

) versus string length (

L1

).

Chapter 12: Statistics 181

28. Press q

9

to select

9:ZoomStat

from the

ZOOM

menu. The window variables are adjusted automatically, and plot 2 is displayed. This is a scatter plot of the residuals.

The new residual plot shows that the residuals are random in sign, with the residuals increasing in magnitude as the string length increases.

To see the magnitudes of the residuals, continue with these steps.

29. Press r.

Press

~ and | to trace the data. Observe the values for Y at each point.

With this model, the largest positive residual is about 0.041 and the smallest negative residual is about

L0.027. All other residuals are less than 0.02 in magnitude.

Now that you have a good model for the relationship between length and period, you can use the model to predict the period for a given string length. To predict the periods for a pendulum with string lengths of 20 cm and 50 cm, continue with these steps.

30. Press

 ~

1

to display the

VARS Y-VARS

FUNCTION

secondary menu, and then press

1

to select

1:Y1

.

Y1

is pasted to the home screen.

Note

: You can also use the

YVARS

( t a)shortcut menu to select

Y1

.

31. Press

£

20

¤ to enter a string length of 20 cm.

Press

Í to calculate the predicted time of about 0.92 seconds.

Based on the residual analysis, we would expect the prediction of about 0.92 seconds to be within about 0.02 seconds of the actual value.

Chapter 12: Statistics 182

32. Press y [ to recall the Last Entry.

Press

| | |

5

to change the string length to 50 cm.

33. Press

Í to calculate the predicted time of about 1.48 seconds.

Since a string length of 50 cm exceeds the lengths in the data set, and since residuals appear to be increasing as string length increases, we would expect more error with this estimate.

Note:

You also can make predictions using the table with the

TABLE SETUP

settings

Indpnt:Ask

and

Depend:Auto

(Chapter 7).

Setting Up Statistical Analyses

Using Lists to Store Data

Data for statistical analyses is stored in lists, which you can create and edit using the stat list editor. The TI-84 Plus has six list variables in memory,

L1

through

L6

, to which you can store data for statistical calculations. Also, you can store data to list names that you create (Chapter 11).

Setting Up a Statistical Analysis

To set up a statistical analysis, follow these steps. Read the chapter for details.

1.

Enter the statistical data into one or more lists.

2.

Plot the data.

3.

Calculate the statistical variables or fit a model to the data.

4.

Graph the regression equation for the plotted data.

5.

Graph the residuals list for the given regression model.

Displaying the Stat List Editor

The stat list editor is a table where you can store, edit, and view up to 20 lists that are in memory.

Also, you can create list names from the stat list editor.

To display the stat list editor, press

…, and then select

1:Edit

from the

STAT EDIT

menu.

Chapter 12: Statistics 183

The top line displays list names.

L1

through

L6

are stored in columns 1 through 6 after a memory reset. The number of the current column is displayed in the top-right corner.

The bottom line is the entry line. All data entry occurs on this line. The characteristics of this line change according to the current context.

The center area displays up to seven elements of up to three lists; it abbreviates values when necessary. The entry line displays the full value of the current element.

Using the Stat List Editor

Entering a List Name in the Stat List Editor

To enter a list name in the stat list editor, follow these steps.

1.

Display the

Name=

prompt in the entry line in either of two ways.

• Move the cursor onto the list name in the column where you want to insert a list, and then press y 6. An unnamed column is displayed and the remaining lists shift right one column.

• Press

} until the cursor is on the top line, and then press ~ until you reach the unnamed column.

Note:

If list names are stored to all 20 columns, you must remove a list name to make room for an unnamed column.

The

Name=

prompt is displayed and alpha-lock is on.

2.

Enter a valid list name in any of four ways.

• Select a name from the

LIST NAMES

menu (Chapter 11).

• Enter

L1

,

L2

,

L3

,

L4

,

L5

, or

L6

from the keyboard.

• Enter an existing user-created list name directly from the keyboard.

• Enter a new user-created list name.

3.

Press

Í or † to store the list name and its elements, if any, in the current column of the stat list editor.

Chapter 12: Statistics 184

To begin entering, scrolling, or editing list elements, press

†. The rectangular cursor is displayed.

Note:

If the list name you entered in step 2 already was stored in another stat list editor column, then the list and its elements, if any, move to the current column from the previous column. Remaining list names shift accordingly.

Creating a Name in the Stat List Editor

To create a name in the stat list editor, follow these steps.

1.

Display the

Name=

prompt.

2.

Press [

letter from A to Z or

q] to enter the first letter of the name. The first character cannot be a number.

3.

Enter zero to four letters, q, or numbers to complete the new user-created list name. List names can be one to five characters long.

4.

Press

Í or † to store the list name in the current column of the stat list editor. The list name becomes an item on the

LIST NAMES

menu (Chapter 11).

Removing a List from the Stat List Editor

To remove a list from the stat list editor, move the cursor onto the list name and then press

{. The list is not deleted from memory; it is only removed from the stat list editor.

Notes:

• To delete a list name from memory, use the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

secondary menu

(Chapter 18).

• If you archive a list, it will be removed from the stat list editor.

Removing All Lists and Restoring L1 through L6

You can remove all user-created lists from the stat list editor and restore list names

L1

through

L6

to columns 1 through 6 in either of two ways.

• Use

SetUpEditor

with no arguments.

• Reset all memory (Chapter 18).

Chapter 12: Statistics 185

Clearing All Elements from a List

You can clear all elements from a list in any of five ways.

• Use

ClrList

to clear specified lists.

• In the stat list editor, press

} to move the cursor onto a list name, and then press

‘ Í.

• In the stat list editor, move the cursor onto each element, and then press

{ one by one.

• On the home screen or in the program editor, enter

0

!

dim(listname)

to set the dimension of

listname

to 0 (Chapter 11).

• Use

ClrAllLists

to clear all lists in memory (Chapter 18).

Editing a List Element

To edit a list element, follow these steps.

1.

Move the cursor onto the element you want to edit.

2.

Press

Í to move the cursor to the entry line.

Note:

If you want to replace the current value, you can enter a new value without first pressing

Í. When you enter the first character, the current value is cleared automatically.

3.

Edit the element in the entry line.

• Press one or more keys to enter the new value. When you enter the first character, the current value is cleared automatically.

You can use the shortcut menus to enter values. When you use

n/d

to enter a fraction, it is not displayed as a stacked fraction in the list. Instead, the fraction has a thick bar separating the numerator and denominator.

Thick-bar fraction on the list editor entry line:

Thin-bar fraction on the home screen (regular division):

Note

: Order of operations applies to fractions. For example, evaluates to because the order of operations dictates that division is performed before addition. To evaluate , enter with parentheses around the numerator.

• Press

~ to move the cursor to the character before which you want to insert, press y 6, and then enter one or more characters.

• Press

~ to move the cursor to a character you want to delete, and then press { to delete the character.

To cancel any editing and restore the original element at the rectangular cursor, press

‘ Í.

Chapter 12: Statistics 186

Note:

You can enter expressions and variables for elements.

4.

Press

Í, }, or † to update the list. If you entered an expression, it is evaluated. If you entered only a variable, the stored value is displayed as a list element.

When you edit a list element in the stat list editor, the list is updated in memory immediately.

Attaching Formulas to List Names

Attaching a Formula to a List Name in Stat List Editor

You can attach a formula to a list name in the stat list editor, and then display and edit the calculated list elements. When executed, the attached formula must resolve to a list. Chapter 11 describes in detail the concept of attaching formulas to list names.

To attach a formula to a list name that is stored in the stat list editor, follow these steps.

1.

Press

… Í to display the stat list editor.

2.

Press

} to move the cursor to the top line.

3.

Press

| or ~, if necessary, to move the cursor onto the list name to which you want to attach the formula.

Note:

If a formula in quotation marks is displayed on the entry line, then a formula is already attached to the list name. To edit the formula, press

Í, and then edit the formula.

4.

Press

ƒ ããä, enter the formula, and press ƒ ããä.

Note:

If you do not use quotation marks, the TI-84 Plus calculates and displays the same initial list of answers, but does not attach the formula for future calculations.

Note:

Any user-created list name referenced in a formula must be preceded by an

Ù symbol

(Chapter 11).

Chapter 12: Statistics 187

5.

Press

Í. The TI-84 Plus calculates each list element and stores it to the list name to which the formula is attached. A lock symbol is displayed in the stat list editor, next to the list name to which the formula is attached.

lock symbol

Using the Stat List Editor When Formula-Generated Lists Are Displayed

When you edit an element of a list referenced in an attached formula, the TI-84 Plus updates the corresponding element in the list to which the formula is attached (Chapter 11).

When a list with a formula attached is displayed in the stat list editor and you edit or enter elements of another displayed list, then the TI-84 Plus takes slightly longer to accept each edit or entry than when no lists with formulas attached are in view.

Note:

To speed editing time, scroll horizontally until no lists with formulas are displayed, or rearrange the stat list editor so that no lists with formulas are displayed.

Handling Errors Resulting from Attached Formulas

On the home screen, you can attach to a list a formula that references another list with dimension

0 (Chapter 11). However, you cannot display the formula-generated list in the stat list editor or on the home screen until you enter at least one element to the list that the formula references.

All elements of a list referenced by an attached formula must be valid for the attached formula. For example, if

Real

number mode is set and the attached formula is

log(L1)

, then each element of

L1

must be greater than 0, since the logarithm of a negative number returns a complex result.

When you use the shortcut menus, all values must be valid for use in the templates. For example, if you use the

n/d

template, both the numerator and demoninator must be integers.

Notes:

• If an error menu is returned when you attempt to display a formula-generated list in the stat list editor, you can select

2:Goto

, write down the formula that is attached to the list, and then press

‘ Í to detach (clear) the formula. You then can use the stat list editor to find the

Chapter 12: Statistics 188

source of the error. After making the appropriate changes, you can reattach the formula to a list.

• If you do not want to clear the formula, you can select

1:Quit

, display the referenced list on the home screen, and find and edit the source of the error. To edit an element of a list on the home screen, store the new value to

listname(element#)

(Chapter 11).

Detaching Formulas from List Names

Detaching a Formula from a List Name

You can detach (clear) a formula from a list name in several ways.

For example:

• In the stat list editor, move the cursor onto the name of the list to which a formula is attached.

Press

Í ‘ Í. All list elements remain, but the formula is detached and the lock symbol disappears.

• In the stat list editor, move the cursor onto an element of the list to which a formula is attached.

Press

Í, edit the element, and then press Í. The element changes, the formula is detached, and the lock symbol disappears. All other list elements remain.

• Use

ClrList

. All elements of one or more specified lists are cleared, each formula is detached, and each lock symbol disappears. All list names remain.

• Use

ClrAllLists

(Chapter 18). All elements of all lists in memory are cleared, all formulas are detached from all list names, and all lock symbols disappear. All list names remain.

Editing an Element of a Formula-Generated List

As described above, one way to detach a formula from a list name is to edit an element of the list to which the formula is attached. The TI-84 Plus protects against inadvertently detaching the formula from the list name by editing an element of the formula-generated list.

Because of the protection feature, you must press

Í before you can edit an element of a formula-generated list.

The protection feature does not allow you to delete an element of a list to which a formula is attached. To delete an element of a list to which a formula is attached, you must first detach the formula in any of the ways described above.

Switching Stat List Editor Contexts

Stat List Editor Contexts

The stat list editor has four contexts.

• View-elements context

• View-names context

Chapter 12: Statistics 189

• Edit-elements context

• Enter-name context

The stat list editor is first displayed in view-elements context. To switch through the four contexts, select

1:Edit

from the

STAT EDIT

menu and follow these steps.

1.

Press

} to move the cursor onto a list name and switch to view-names context. Press

~ and | to view list names stored in other stat list editor columns.

2.

Press

Í to switch to edit-elements context.

You may edit any element in a list. All elements of the current list are displayed in braces (

{ }

) in the entry line. Press

~ and | to view more list elements.

3.

Press

Í again to switch to view-elements context. Press

~, |, †, and } to view other list elements. The current element’s full value is displayed in the entry line.

4.

Press

Í again to switch back to edit-elements context. You may edit the current element in the entry line.

5.

Press

} until the cursor is on a list name, then press y 6 to switch to enter-name context.

6.

Press

‘ to switch to view-names context.

7.

Press

† to switch back to view-elements context.

Chapter 12: Statistics 190

Stat List Editor Contexts

View-Elements Context

In view-elements context, the entry line displays the list name, the current element’s place in that list, and the full value of the current element, up to 12 characters at a time. An ellipsis (

...

) indicates that the element continues beyond 12 characters.

To page down the list six elements, press

ƒ †. To page up six elements, press ƒ }. To delete a list element, press

{. Remaining elements shift up one row. To insert a new element, press y 6.

0

is the default value for a new element.

Edit-Elements Context

In edit-elements context, the data displayed in the entry line depends on the previous context.

• When you switch to edit-elements context from view-elements context, the full value of the current element is displayed. You can edit the value of this element, and then press

† and } to edit other list elements.

• When you switch to edit-elements context from view-names context, the full values of all elements in the list are displayed. An ellipsis indicates that list elements continue beyond the screen. You can press

~ and | to edit any element in the list.

Note:

In edit-elements context, you can attach a formula to a list name only if you switched to it from view-names context.

Chapter 12: Statistics 191

View-Names Context

In view-names context, the entry line displays the list name and the list elements.

To remove a list from the stat list editor, press

{. Remaining lists shift to the left one column. The list is not deleted from memory.

To insert a name in the current column, press y 6. Remaining columns shift to the right one column.

Enter-Name Context

In enter-name context, the

Name=

prompt is displayed in the entry line, and alpha-lock is on.

At the

Name=

prompt, you can create a new list name, paste a list name from

L1

to

L6

from the keyboard, or paste an existing list name from the

LIST NAMES

menu (Chapter 11). The

Ù symbol is not required at the

Name=

prompt.

To leave enter-name context without entering a list name, press

‘. The stat list editor switches to view-names context.

STAT EDIT Menu

STAT EDIT Menu

To display the

STAT EDIT

menu, press

….

EDIT CALC TESTS

1: Edit

...

2: SortA(

3: SortD(

4: ClrList

5: SetUpEditor

Displays the stat list editor.

Sorts a list in ascending order.

Sorts a list in descending order.

Deletes all elements of a list.

Stores specified lists in the stat list editor.

Chapter 12: Statistics 192

SortA(, SortD(

SortA(

(sort ascending) sorts list elements from low to high values.

SortD(

(sort descending) sorts list elements from high to low values. Complex lists are sorted based on magnitude (modulus).

SortA(

and

SortD(

each can sort in either of two ways.

• With one

listname

,

SortA(

and

SortD(

sort the elements in

listname

and update the list in memory.

• With two or more lists,

SortA(

and

SortD(

sort

keylistname

, and then sort each

dependlist

by placing its elements in the same order as the corresponding elements in

keylistname

. This lets you sort two-variable data on X and keep the data pairs together. All lists must have the same dimension.

The sorted lists are updated in memory.

SortA(listname)

SortD(listname)

SortA(keylistname,dependlist1

[

,dependlist2,

...

,dependlist n

]

)

SortD(keylistname,dependlist1

[

,dependlist2,

...

,dependlist n

]

)

Note: SortA(

and

SortD(

are the same as

SortA(

and

SortD(

on the

LIST OPS

menu.

ClrList

ClrList

clears (deletes) from memory the elements of one or more

listnames

.

ClrList

also detaches any formula attached to a

listname

.

ClrList

listname1,listname2,

...

,listname n

Note:

To clear from memory all elements of all list names, use

ClrAllLists

(Chapter 18).

SetUpEditor

With

SetUpEditor

you can set up the stat list editor to display one or more

listnames

in the order that you specify. You can specify zero to 20

listnames

.

Additionally, if you want to use

listnames

which happen to be archived, the SetUp Editor will automatically unarchive the

listnames

and place them in the stat list editor at the same time.

SetUpEditor

[

listname1,listname2,

...

,listname n

]

Chapter 12: Statistics 193

SetUpEditor

with one to 20

listnames

removes all list names from the stat list editor and then stores

listnames

in the stat list editor columns in the specified order, beginning in column 1.

MathPrint™

Classic

If you enter a

listname

that is not stored in memory already, then

listname

is created and stored in memory; it becomes an item on the

LIST NAMES

menu.

Restoring L1 through L6 to the Stat List Editor

SetUpEditor

with no

listnames

removes all list names from the stat list editor and restores list names

L1

through

L6

in the stat list editor columns 1 through 6.

Regression Model Features

Regression Model Features

STAT CALC

menu items

3

through

C

are regression models. The automatic residual list and automatic regression equation features apply to all regression models. Diagnostics display mode applies to some regression models.

Automatic Residual List

When you execute a regression model, the automatic residual list feature computes and stores the residuals to the list name RESID. RESID becomes an item on the

LIST NAMES

menu (Chapter 11).

Chapter 12: Statistics 194

The TI-84 Plus uses the formula below to compute RESID list elements. The next section describes the variable

RegEQ

.

RESID = Ylistname

N

RegEQ(Xlistname)

Automatic Regression Equation

Each regression model has an optional argument,

regequ

, for which you can specify a Y= variable such as

Y1

. Upon execution, the regression equation is stored automatically to the specified Y= variable and the Y= function is selected.

MathPrint™

MathPrint™

Classic

Classic

Regardless of whether you specify a Y= variable for

regequ

, the regression equation always is stored to the TI-84 Plus variable

RegEQ

, which is item

1

on the

VARS Statistics EQ

secondary menu.

Note:

For the regression equation, you can use the fixed-decimal mode setting to control the number of digits stored after the decimal point (Chapter 1). However, limiting the number of digits to a small number could affect the accuracy of the fit.

Diagnostics Display Mode

When you execute some regression models, the TI-84 Plus computes and stores diagnostics values for

r

(correlation coefficient) and

r

2

(coefficient of determination) or for

R

2

(coefficient of determination). You can control whether these values are displayed by turning

StatDiagnostics

on or off on the mode screen.

r

and

r

2

are computed and stored for these regression models.

LinReg(ax+b)

LinReg(a+bx)

LnReg

ExpReg

PwrReg

Chapter 12: Statistics 195

R

2

is computed and stored for these regression models.

QuadReg CubicReg QuartReg

The

r

and

r

2

that are computed for

LnReg

,

ExpReg

, and

PwrReg

are based on the linearly transformed data. For example, for

ExpReg

(y=ab^x),

r

and

r

2

are computed on ln y=ln a+x(ln b).

By default, these values are not displayed with the results of a regression model when you execute it. However, you can set the diagnostics display mode by executing the

DiagnosticOn

or

DiagnosticOff

instruction. Each instruction is in the CATALOG (Chapter 15).

• To turn diagnostics on or off from the mode screen, select

On

or

Off

for

StatDiagnostics

. The default is

Off

.

• To set

DiagnosticOn

or

DiagnosticOff

from the home screen, press y N, and then select the instruction for the mode you want. The instruction is pasted to the home screen.

Press

Í to set the mode.

When

DiagnosticOn

is set, diagnostics are displayed with the results when you execute a regression model.

MathPrint™

Classic

When

DiagnosticOff

is set, diagnostics are not displayed with the results when you execute a regression model.

MathPrint™

Classic

Chapter 12: Statistics 196

STAT CALC Menu

STAT CALC Menu

To display the

STAT CALC

menu, press

… ~.

EDIT CALC TESTS

1: 1-Var Stats

2:

3:

4:

5:

6:

7:

8:

9:

0:

A:

B:

C:

D:

2-Var Stats

Med-Med

LinReg(ax+b)

QuadReg

CubicReg

QuartReg

LinReg(a+bx)

LnReg

ExpReg

PwrReg

Logistic

SinReg

Manual Linear Fit

Calculates 1-variable statistics.

Calculates 2-variable statistics.

Calculates a median-median line.

Fits a linear model to data.

Fits a quadratic model to data.

Fits a cubic model to data.

Fits a quartic model to data.

Fits a linear model to data.

Fits a logarithmic model to data.

Fits an exponential model to data.

Fits a power model to data.

Fits a logistic model to data.

Fits a sinusoidal model to data.

Fits a linear equation interactively to a scatter plot.

For each

STAT CALC

menu item, if neither

Xlistname

nor

Ylistname

is specified, then the default list names are

L1

and

L2

. If you do not specify

freqlist

, then the default is 1 occurrence of each list element.

Frequency of Occurrence for Data Points

For most

STAT CALC

menu items, you can specify a list of data occurrences, or frequencies

(

freqlist

).

Each element in

freqlist

indicates how many times the corresponding data point or data pair occurs in the data set you are analyzing.

For example, if

L1={15,12,9,14}

and

Ù

FREQ={1,4,1,3}

, then the TI-84 Plus interprets the instruction

1-Var Stats L1

,

Ù

FREQ

to mean that 15 occurs once, 12 occurs four times, 9 occurs once, and 14 occurs three times.

Each element in

freqlist

must be

‚ 0, and at least one element must be > 0.

Noninteger

freqlist

elements are valid. This is useful when entering frequencies expressed as percentages or parts that add up to 1. However, if

freqlist

contains noninteger frequencies,

Sx

and

Sy

are undefined; values are not displayed for

Sx

and

Sy

in the statistical results.

Chapter 12: Statistics 197

1-Var Stats

1-Var Stats

(one-variable statistics) analyzes data with one measured variable. Each element in

freqlist

is the frequency of occurrence for each corresponding data point in

Xlistname

.

freqlist

elements must be real numbers > 0.

1-Var Stats

[

Xlistname,freqlist

]

2-Var Stats

2-Var Stats

(two-variable statistics) analyzes paired data.

Xlistname

is the independent variable.

Ylistname

is the dependent variable. Each element in

freqlist

is the frequency of occurrence for each data pair (

Xlistname,Ylistname

).

2-Var Stats

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist

]

Med-Med (ax+b)

Med-Med

(median-median) fits the model equation y=ax+b to the data using the median-median line (resistant line) technique, calculating the summary points x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, and y3.

Med-Med

displays values for

a

(slope) and

b

(y-intercept).

Med-Med

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

LinReg (ax+b)

LinReg(ax+b)

(linear regression) fits the model equation y=ax+b to the data using a least-squares fit.

It displays values for

a

(slope) and

b

(y-intercept); when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays values for

r

2

and

r

.

LinReg(ax+b)

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

QuadReg (ax

2

+bx+c)

QuadReg

(quadratic regression) fits the second-degree polynomial y=ax

2

+bx+c to the data. It displays values for

a

,

b

, and

c

; when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays a value for

R

2

. For three data points, the equation is a polynomial fit; for four or more, it is a polynomial regression. At least three data points are required.

QuadReg

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

Chapter 12: Statistics 198

CubicReg—(ax

3

+bx

2

+cx+d)

CubicReg

(cubic regression) fits the third-degree polynomial y=ax

3

+bx

2

+cx+d to the data. It displays values for

a

,

b

,

c

, and

d

; when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays a value for

R

2

. For four points, the equation is a polynomial fit; for five or more, it is a polynomial regression. At least four points are required.

CubicReg

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

QuartReg—(ax

4

+bx

3

+cx

2

+ dx+e)

QuartReg

(quartic regression) fits the fourth-degree polynomial y=ax

4

+bx

3

+cx

2

+dx+e to the data. It displays values for

a

,

b

,

c

,

d

, and

e

; when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays a value for

R

2

. For five points, the equation is a polynomial fit; for six or more, it is a polynomial regression. At least five points are required.

QuartReg

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

LinReg—(a+bx)

LinReg(a+bx)

(linear regression) fits the model equation y=a+bx to the data using a least-squares fit.

It displays values for

a

(y-intercept) and

b

(slope); when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays values for

r

2

and

r

.

LinReg(a+bx)

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

LnReg—(a+b ln(x))

LnReg

(logarithmic regression) fits the model equation y=a+b ln(x) to the data using a leastsquares fit and transformed values ln(x) and y. It displays values for

a

and

b

; when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays values for

r

2

and

r

.

LnReg

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

ExpReg—(ab

x

)

ExpReg

(exponential regression) fits the model equation y=ab x

to the data using a least-squares fit and transformed values x and ln(y). It displays values for

a

and

b

; when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays values for

r

2

and

r

.

ExpReg

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

Chapter 12: Statistics 199

PwrReg—(ax

b

)

PwrReg

(power regression) fits the model equation y=ax b

to the data using a least-squares fit and transformed values ln(x) and ln(y). It displays values for

a

and

b

; when

DiagnosticOn

is set, it also displays values for

r

2

and

r

.

PwrReg

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

Logistic—c/(1+a

e

-bx

)

Logistic

fits the model equation y=c/(1+a

…e

L bx

) to the data using an iterative least-squares fit. It displays values for

a

,

b

, and

c

.

Logistic

[

Xlistname,Ylistname,freqlist,regequ

]

SinReg—a sin(bx+c)+d

SinReg

(sinusoidal regression) fits the model equation y=a sin(bx+c)+d to the data using an iterative least-squares fit. It displays values for

a

,

b

,

c

, and

d

. At least four data points are required.

At least two data points per cycle are required in order to avoid aliased frequency estimates.

SinReg

[

iterations

,

Xlistname

,

Ylistname

,

period

,

regequ

]

iterations

is the maximum number of times the algorithm will iterate to find a solution. The value for

iterations

can be an integer

‚ 1 and  16; if not specified, the default is 3. The algorithm may find a solution before

iterations

is reached. Typically, larger values for

iterations

result in longer execution times and better accuracy for

SinReg

, and vice versa.

A

period

guess is optional. If you do not specify

period

, the difference between time values in

Xlistname

must be equal and the time values must be ordered in ascending sequential order. If you specify

period

, the algorithm may find a solution more quickly, or it may find a solution when it would not have found one if you had omitted a value for

period

. If you specify

period

, the differences between time values in

Xlistname

can be unequal.

Note:

The output of

SinReg

is always in radians, regardless of the Radian/Degree mode setting.

Chapter 12: Statistics 200

SinReg Example: Daylight Hours in Alaska for One Year

Compute the regression model for the number of hours of daylight in Alaska during one year.

MathPrint™

Classic

1 period

With noisy data, you will achieve better convergence results when you specify an accurate estimate for

period

. You can obtain a

period

guess in either of two ways.

• Plot the data and trace to determine the x-distance between the beginning and end of one complete period, or cycle. The illustration above and to the right graphically depicts a complete period, or cycle.

• Plot the data and trace to determine the x-distance between the beginning and end of N complete periods, or cycles. Then divide the total distance by N.

After your first attempt to use

SinReg

and the default value for

iterations

to fit the data, you may find the fit to be approximately correct, but not optimal. For an optimal fit, execute

SinReg 16,Xlistname,Ylistname,2 p

/b

where

b

is the value obtained from the previous

SinReg

execution.

Manual Linear Fit

Manual Linear Fit allows you to visually fit a linear function to a scatter plot. Manual Linear Fit is an option in the

… / menu.

Chapter 12: Statistics 201

After entering List data and viewing the StatPlot, select the Manual-Fit function.

1.

Press

… to display the Stat menu. Press ~ to select

CALC

. Press

† several times to scroll down to select

D:Manual-Fit.

Press

Í. This displays a free-floating cursor at the center of the display screen

2.

Press the cursor navigation keys (

} † | ~ ) to move the cursor to the desired location. Press

Í to select the first point.

3.

Press the cursor navigation keys (

} † | ~ ) to move the cursor to the second location. Press

Í. This displays a line containing the two points selected.

The linear function is displayed. The Manual-Fit Line equation displays in the form of Y=mX+b.

The current value of the first parameter (m) is highlighted in the symbolic expression.

Modify parameter values

Press the cursor navigation keys (

| ~ ) to move from the first parameter (m) or (b) the second parameter. You can press

Í and type a new parameter value. Press Í to display the new parameter value. When you edit the value of the selected parameter, the edit can include insert, delete, type over, or mathematical expression.

The screen dynamically displays the revised parameter value. Press

Í to complete the modification of the selected parameter, save the value, and refresh the displayed graph. The system displays the revised parameter value in the symbolic expression Y=mX+B, and refreshes the graph with the updated Manual-Fit Line.

Select y 5 to finish the Manual Fit function. The calculator stores the current mX+b expression into Y1 and makes that function active for graphing. You can also select Manual-Fit while on the

Home

screen. You can then enter a different

Y-Var

such as

Y4

and then press

Í.

This takes you to the Graph screen and then pastes the Manual-Fit equation in the specified

Y-Var

.

In this example,

Y4

.

Statistical Variables

The statistical variables are calculated and stored as indicated below. To access these variables for use in expressions, press

, and select

5:Statistics

. Then select the

VARS

menu shown in

Chapter 12: Statistics 202

the column below under

VARS

menu. If you edit a list or change the type of analysis, all statistical variables are cleared.

Variables

mean of x values sum of x values sum of x

2

values sample standard deviation of x population standard deviation of x number of data points mean of y values sum of y values sum of y

2

values sample standard deviation of y population standard deviation of y sum of x

y minimum of x values maximum of x values minimum of y values maximum of y values

1st quartile median

3rd quartile regression/fit coefficients polynomial, Logistic, and SinReg coefficients correlation coefficient coefficient of determination regression equation summary points (Med-Med only)

1-Var

Stats

v

G x

G x

2

Sx s x n minX maxX

Q1

Med

Q3 n w

G y

G y

2

Sy s y

G xy

2-Var

Stats

v

G x

G x

2

Sx s x minX maxX minY maxY

Other

a, b a, b, c, d, e r r

2

, R

2

RegEQ x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3

XY

XY

XY

XY

G

G

VARS menu

XY

G

G

XY

XY

G

XY

XY

XY

XY

PTS

PTS

PTS

EQ

EQ

EQ

EQ

EQ

PTS

Q

1

and Q

3

The first quartile (

Q1

) is the median of points between

minX

and

Med

(median). The third quartile

(

Q3

) is the median of points between

Med

and

maxX

.

Chapter 12: Statistics 203

Statistical Analysis in a Program

Entering Stat Data

You can enter statistical data, calculate statistical results, and fit models to data from a program.

You can enter statistical data into lists directly within the program (Chapter 11).

Statistical Calculations

To perform a statistical calculation from a program, follow these steps.

1.

On a blank line in the program editor, select the type of calculation from the

STAT CALC

menu.

2.

Enter the names of the lists to use in the calculation. Separate the list names with a comma.

3.

Enter a comma and then the name of a Y= variable, if you want to store the regression equation to a Y= variable.

Statistical Plotting

Steps for Plotting Statistical Data in Lists

You can plot statistical data that is stored in lists. The six types of plots available are scatter plot, xyLine, histogram, modified box plot, regular box plot, and normal probability plot. You can define up to three plots.

To plot statistical data in lists, follow these steps.

1.

Store the stat data in one or more lists.

2.

Select or deselect Y= functions as appropriate.

3.

Define the stat plot.

4.

Turn on the plots you want to display.

5.

Define the viewing window.

6.

Display and explore the graph.

Chapter 12: Statistics 204

Scatter

Scatter

(

")plots plot the data points from

Xlist

and

Ylist

as coordinate pairs, showing each point as a box (

› ), cross (

+

), or dot (

¦ ).

Xlist

and

Ylist

must be the same length. You can use the same list for

Xlist

and

Ylist

.

xyLine xyLine

(

Ó)is a scatter plot in which the data points are plotted and connected in order of appearance in

Xlist

and

Ylist

. You may want to use

SortA(

or

SortD(

to sort the lists before you plot them.

Histogram

Histogram

(

Ò) plots one-variable data. The

Xscl

window variable value determines the width of each bar, beginning at

Xmin

.

ZoomStat

adjusts

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

to include all values, and also adjusts

Xscl

. The inequality (

Xmax

N

Xmin

)

à

Xscl

 47 must be true. A value that occurs on the edge of a bar is counted in the bar to the right.

ModBoxplot

ModBoxplot

(

Õ) (modified box plot) plots one-variable data, like the regular box plot, except points that are 1.5

… Interquartile Range beyond the quartiles. (The Interquartile Range is defined as the difference between the third quartile

Q3

and the first quartile

Q1

.) These points are plotted individually beyond the whisker, using the

Mark

(

› or

+

or

¦) you select. You can trace these points, which are called outliers.

Chapter 12: Statistics 205

The prompt for outlier points is

x=

, except when the outlier is the maximum point (

maxX

) or the minimum point (

minX

). When outliers exist, the end of each whisker will display

x=

. When no outliers exist,

minX

and

maxX

are the prompts for the end of each whisker.

Q1

,

Med

(median), and

Q3

define the box.

Box plots are plotted with respect to

Xmin

and

Xmax

, but ignore

Ymin

and

Ymax

. When two box plots are plotted, the first one plots at the top of the screen and the second plots in the middle.

When three are plotted, the first one plots at the top, the second in the middle, and the third at the bottom.

Boxplot

Boxplot

(

Ö)(regular box plot) plots one-variable data. The whiskers on the plot extend from the minimum data point in the set (

minX

) to the first quartile (

Q1

) and from the third quartile (

Q3

) to the maximum point (

maxX

). The box is defined by

Q1

,

Med

(median), and

Q3

.

Box plots are plotted with respect to

Xmin

and

Xmax

, but ignore

Ymin

and

Ymax

. When two box plots are plotted, the first one plots at the top of the screen and the second plots in the middle.

When three are plotted, the first one plots at the top, the second in the middle, and the third at the bottom.

NormProbPlot

NormProbPlot

(

Ô) (normal probability plot) plots each observation X in

Data List

versus the corresponding quantile z of the standard normal distribution. If the plotted points lie close to a straight line, then the plot indicates that the data are normal.

Enter a valid list name in the

Data List

field. Select X or Y for the

Data Axis

setting.

• If you select X, the TI-84 Plus plots the data on the x-axis and the z-values on the y-axis.

Chapter 12: Statistics 206

• If you select Y, the TI-84 Plus plots the data on the y-axis and the z-values on the x-axis.

Defining the Plots

To define a plot, follow these steps.

1.

Press y ,. The

STAT PLOTS

menu is displayed with the current plot definitions.

2.

Select the plot you want to use. The stat plot editor is displayed for the plot you selected.

3.

Press

Í to select

On

if you want to plot the statistical data immediately. The definition is stored whether you select

On

or

Off

.

4.

Select the type of plot. Each type prompts for the options checked in this table.

Plot Type

"

Scatter

Ó

xyLine

Ò

Histogram

Õ

ModBoxplot

Ö

Boxplot

XList

_

_

_

_

_

YList

_

_

œ

œ

œ

Mark

_

_

œ

_

œ

Freq

œ

œ

_

_

_

œ

œ

œ

Data

List

œ

œ

Data

Axis

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

Chapter 12: Statistics 207

Plot Type

Ô

NormProbPlot

XList

œ

YList

œ

Mark

_

5.

Enter list names or select options for the plot type.

Xlist

(list name containing independent data)

Ylist

(list name containing dependent data)

Mark

(

› or

+

or

¦)

Freq

(frequency list for

Xlist

elements; default is

1

)

Data List

(list name for

NormProbPlot

)

Data Axis

(axis on which to plot

Data List

)

Freq

œ

Data

List

_

Data

Axis

_

Displaying Other Stat Plot Editors

Each stat plot has a unique stat plot editor. The name of the current stat plot (

Plot1

,

Plot2

, or

Plot3

) is highlighted in the top line of the stat plot editor. To display the stat plot editor for a different plot, press

} and ~ to move the cursor onto the name in the top line, and then press Í. The stat plot editor for the selected plot is displayed, and the selected name remains highlighted.

Turning On and Turning Off Stat Plots

PlotsOn

and

PlotsOff

allow you to turn on or turn off stat plots from the home screen or a program.

With no plot number,

PlotsOn

turns on all plots and

PlotsOff

turns off all plots. With one or more plot numbers (1, 2, and 3),

PlotsOn

turns on specified plots, and

PlotsOff

turns off specified plots.

PlotsOff

[

1,2,3

]

PlotsOn

[

1,2,3

]

Note:

You also can turn on and turn off stat plots in the top line of the Y= editor (Chapter 3).

Chapter 12: Statistics 208

Defining the Viewing Window

Stat plots are displayed on the current graph. To define the viewing window, press p and enter values for the window variables.

ZoomStat

redefines the viewing window to display all statistical data points.

Tracing a Stat Plot

When you trace a scatter plot or xyLine, tracing begins at the first element in the lists.

When you trace a histogram, the cursor moves from the top center of one column to the top center of the next, starting at the first column.

When you trace a box plot, tracing begins at

Med

(the median). Press

| to trace to

Q1

and

minX

.

Press

~ to trace to

Q3

and

maxX

.

When you press

} or † to move to another plot or to another Y= function, tracing moves to the current or beginning point on that plot (not the nearest pixel).

The

ExprOn

/

ExprOff

format setting applies to stat plots (Chapter 3). When

ExprOn

is selected, the plot number and plotted data lists are displayed in the top-left corner.

Statistical Plotting in a Program

Defining a Stat Plot in a Program

To display a stat plot from a program, define the plot, and then display the graph.

To define a stat plot from a program, begin on a blank line in the program editor and enter data into one or more lists; then, follow these steps.

1.

Press y , to display the

STAT PLOTS

menu.

2.

Select the plot to define, which pastes

Plot1(

,

Plot2(

, or

Plot3(

to the cursor location.

3.

Press y , ~ to display the

STAT TYPE

menu.

Chapter 12: Statistics 209

4.

Select the type of plot, which pastes the name of the plot type to the cursor location.

5.

Press

¢. Enter the list names, separated by commas.

6.

Press

¢ y , | to display the

STAT PLOT MARK

menu. (This step is not necessary if you selected

3:Histogram

or

5:Boxplot

in step 4.)

Select the type of mark (

› or

+

or

¦) for each data point. The selected mark symbol is pasted to the cursor location.

7.

Press

¤ Í to complete the command line.

Displaying a Stat Plot from a Program

To display a plot from a program, use the

DispGraph

instruction (Chapter 16) or any of the ZOOM instructions (Chapter 3).

Chapter 12: Statistics 210

Chapter 13:

Inferential Statistics and Distributions

Getting Started: Mean Height of a Population

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Suppose you want to estimate the mean height of a population of women given the random sample below. Because heights among a biological population tend to be normally distributed, a t distribution confidence interval can be used when estimating the mean. The 10 height values below are the first 10 of 90 values, randomly generated from a normally distributed population with an assumed mean of 165.1 centimeters and a standard deviation of 6.35 centimeters

(

randNorm(165.1,6.35,90)

with a seed of 789).

Height (in centimeters) of Each of 10 Women

169.43 168.33 159.55 169.97 159.79 181.42 171.17 162.04 167.15 159.53

1.

Press

… Í to display the stat list editor.

Press

} to move the cursor onto

L1

, and then press y 6 to insert a new list. The

Name=

prompt is displayed on the bottom line. The

Ø cursor indicates that alpha-lock is on. The existing list name columns shift to the right.

Note:

Your stat editor may not look like the one pictured here, depending on the lists you have already stored.

2.

Enter

[H] [G] [H] [T]

at the

Name=

prompt, and then press

Í to create the list to store the women’s height data.

Press

† to move the cursor into the first row of the list.

HGHT(1)=

is displayed on the bottom line.

Press

Í.

3.

Press

169

Ë

43

to enter the first height value. As you enter it, it is displayed on the bottom line.

Press

Í. The value is displayed in the first row, and the rectangular cursor moves to the next row.

Enter the other nine height values the same way.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 211

4.

Press

… | to display the

STAT TESTS

menu, and then press

† until

8:TInterval

is highlighted.

5.

Press

Í to select

8:TInterval

. The inferential stat editor for

TInterval

is displayed. If

Data

is not selected for

Inpt:

, press

| Í to select

Data

.

Press

† y 9 and press † until

HGHT

is highlighted and then press

Í.

Press

† † Ë

99

to enter a 99 percent confidence level at the

C-Level:

prompt.

6.

Press

† to move the cursor onto

Calculate

, and then press

Í. The confidence interval is calculated, and the

TInterval

results are displayed on the home screen.

Interpreting the results

The first line, (

159.74,173.94

), shows that the 99 percent confidence interval for the population mean is between about 159.74 centimeters and 173.94 centimeters. This is about a 14.2 centimeters spread.

The .99 confidence level indicates that in a very large number of samples, we expect 99 percent of the intervals calculated to contain the population mean. The actual mean of the population sampled is 165.1 centimeters, which is in the calculated interval.

The second line gives the mean height of the sample v used to compute this interval. The third line gives the sample standard deviation

Sx

. The bottom line gives the sample size

n

.

To obtain a more precise bound on the population mean m of women’s heights, increase the sample size to 90. Use a sample mean v of 163.8 and sample standard deviation

Sx

of 7.1 calculated from the larger random sample. This time, use the

Stats

(summary statistics) input option.

1.

Press

… |

8

to display the inferential stat editor for

TInterval

.

Press

~ Í to select

Inpt:Stats

. The editor changes so that you can enter summary statistics as input.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 212

2.

Press

 †

163

Ë

8

Í to store 163.8 to v.

Press

7

Ë

1

Í to store 7.1 to

Sx

.

Press

90

Í to store 90 to

n

.

3.

Press

† to move the cursor onto

Calculate

, and then press

Í to calculate the new 99 percent confidence interval. The results are displayed on the home screen.

If the height distribution among a population of women is normally distributed with a mean m of

165.1 centimeters and a standard deviation s of 6.35 centimeters, what height is exceeded by only

5 percent of the women (the 95th percentile)?

4.

Press

‘ to clear the home screen.

Press y = to display the

DISTR

(distributions) menu.

5.

Press

3

to paste

invNorm(

to the home screen.

Press

Ë

95

¢

165

Ë

1

¢

6

Ë

35

¤ Í.

.95 is the area, 165.1 is m, and 6.35 is s.

The result is displayed on the home screen; it shows that five percent of the women are taller than

175.5 centimeters.

Now graph and shade the top 5 percent of the population.

6.

Press p and set the window variables to these values.

Xmin=145 Ymin=

L

.02

Xres=1

Xmax=185 Ymax=.08

Xscl=5 Yscl=0

7.

Press y = ~ to display the

DISTR DRAW

menu.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 213

8.

Press

Í to paste

ShadeNorm(

to the home screen.

Press y Z ¢

1

y D

99

¢

165

Ë

1

¢

6

Ë

35

¤.

Ans

(175.5448205 from step 11) is the lower bound. 1

â99 is the upper bound. The normal curve is defined by a mean m of 165.1 and a standard deviation s of 6.35.

9.

Press

Í to plot and shade the normal curve.

Area

is the area above the 95th percentile.

low

is the lower bound.

up

is the upper bound.

Inferential Stat Editors

Displaying the Inferential Stat Editors

When you select a hypothesis test or confidence interval instruction from the home screen, the appropriate inferential statistics editor is displayed. The editors vary according to each test or interval’s input requirements. Below is the inferential stat editor for

T-Test

.

Note:

When you select the

ANOVA(

instruction, it is pasted to the home screen.

ANOVA(

does not have an editor screen.

Using an Inferential Stat Editor

To use an inferential stat editor, follow these steps.

1.

Select a hypothesis test or confidence interval from the

STAT TESTS

menu. The appropriate editor is displayed.

2.

Select

Data

or

Stats

input, if the selection is available. The appropriate editor is displayed.

3.

Enter real numbers, list names, or expressions for each argument in the editor.

4.

Select the alternative hypothesis (

Ā,

<

, or

>

) against which to test, if the selection is available.

5.

Select

No

or

Yes

for the

Pooled

option, if the selection is available.

6.

Select

Calculate

or

Draw

(when

Draw

is available) to execute the instruction.

• When you select

Calculate

, the results are displayed on the home screen.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 214

• When you select

Draw

, the results are displayed in a graph.

This chapter describes the selections in the above steps for each hypothesis test and confidence interval instruction.

Select Data or

Stats input

Enter values for arguments

Select an alternative hypothesis

Select

Calculate or

Draw output

Selecting Data or Stats

Most inferential stat editors prompt you to select one of two types of input. (

1-PropZInt

and

2-PropZTest

,

1-PropZInt

and

2-PropZInt

, c

2

-Test

, c

2

GOF-Test

,

LinRegTInt

, and

LinRegTTest

do not.)

• Select

Data

to enter the data lists as input.

• Select

Stats

to enter summary statistics, such as v,

Sx

, and

n

, as input.

To select

Data

or

Stats

, move the cursor to either

Data

or

Stats

, and then press

Í.

Entering the Values for Arguments

Inferential stat editors require a value for every argument. If you do not know what a particular

argument symbol represents, see the Inferential Statistics Input Descriptions tables .

When you enter values in any inferential stat editor, the TI-84 Plus stores them in memory so that you can run many tests or intervals without having to reenter every value.

Selecting an Alternative Hypothesis (

ă < >)

Most of the inferential stat editors for the hypothesis tests prompt you to select one of three alternative hypotheses.

• The first is a

ƒ alternative hypothesis, such as mƒm0 for the

Z-Test

.

• The second is a

<

alternative hypothesis, such as m1<m2 for the

2-SampTTest

.

• The third is a

>

alternative hypothesis, such as p1>p2 for the

2-PropZTest

.

To select an alternative hypothesis, move the cursor to the appropriate alternative, and then press

Í.

Selecting the Pooled Option

Pooled

(

2-SampTTest

and

2-SampTInt

only) specifies whether the variances are to be pooled for the calculation.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 215

• Select

No

if you do not want the variances pooled. Population variances can be unequal.

• Select

Yes

if you want the variances pooled. Population variances are assumed to be equal.

To select the

Pooled

option, move the cursor to

Yes

, and then press

Í.

Selecting Calculate or Draw for a Hypothesis Test

After you have entered all arguments in an inferential stat editor for a hypothesis test, you must select whether you want to see the calculated results on the home screen (

Calculate

) or on the graph screen (

Draw

).

Calculate

calculates the test results and displays the outputs on the home screen.

Draw

draws a graph of the test results and displays the test statistic and p-value with the graph. The window variables are adjusted automatically to fit the graph.

To select

Calculate

or

Draw

, move the cursor to either

Calculate

or

Draw

, and then press

Í. The instruction is immediately executed.

Selecting Calculate for a Confidence Interval

After you have entered all arguments in an inferential stat editor for a confidence interval, select

Calculate

to display the results. The

Draw

option is not available.

When you press

Í,

Calculate

calculates the confidence interval results and displays the outputs on the home screen.

Bypassing the Inferential Stat Editors

To paste a hypothesis test or confidence interval instruction to the home screen without displaying the corresponding inferential stat editor, select the instruction you want from the

CATALOG

menu.

Appendix A describes the input syntax for each hypothesis test and confidence interval instruction.

Note:

You can paste a hypothesis test or confidence interval instruction to a command line in a program. From within the program editor, select the instruction from either the

CATALOG

(Chapter 15) or the

STAT TESTS

menu.

STAT TESTS Menu

STAT TESTS Menu

To display the

STAT TESTS

menu, press

… |. When you select an inferential statistics instruction, the appropriate inferential stat editor is displayed.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 216

Most

STAT TESTS

instructions store some output variables to memory. For a list of these variables, see the Test and Interval Output Variables table.

EDIT CALC TESTS

1: Z-Test...

2: T-Test...

3: 2-SampZTest...

4: 2-SampTTest...

5: 1-PropZTest...

6: 2-PropZTest...

7: ZInterval...

8: TInterval...

9: 2-SampZInt...

0: 2-SampTInt...

A: 1-PropZInt...

B: 2-PropZInt...

C: c

2

-Test...

D: c

2

-GOF Test...

E: 2-Samp

ÛTest...

F: LinRegTTest...

G: LinRegTInt...

H: ANOVA(

Test for 1 m

, known s

Test for 1 m

, unknown s

Test comparing 2 m

’s, known s

’s

Test comparing 2 m

’s, unknown s

’s

Test for 1 proportion

Test comparing 2 proportions

Confidence interval for 1 m

, known s

Confidence interval for 1 m

, unknown s

Confidence interval for difference of 2 m

’s, known s

’s

Confidence interval for difference of 2 m

’s, unknown s

’s

Confidence interval for 1 proportion

Confidence interval for difference of 2 proportions

Chi-square test for 2-way tables

Chi-square Goodness of Fit test

Test comparing 2 s

’s

t test for regression slope and r

Confidence interval for linear regression slope coefficient b

One-way analysis of variance

Note:

When a new test or interval is computed, all previous output variables are invalidated.

Inferential Stat Editors for the STAT TESTS Instructions

In this chapter, the description of each

STAT TESTS

instruction shows the unique inferential stat editor for that instruction with example arguments.

• Descriptions of instructions that offer the

Data/Stats

input choice show both types of input screens.

• Descriptions of instructions that do not offer the

Data/Stats

input choice show only one input screen.

The description then shows the unique output screen for that instruction with the example results.

• Descriptions of instructions that offer the

Calculate/Draw

output choice show both types of screens: calculated and graphic results.

• Descriptions of instructions that offer only the

Calculate

output choice show the calculated results on the home screen.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 217

Z-Test

Z-Test

(one-sample

z

test; item

1

) performs a hypothesis test for a single unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is known. It tests the null hypothesis H

0

: m=m

0

against one of the alternatives below.

• H a

: mƒm

0

( m

:

ƒm

0

)

• H a

: m<m

0

( m

:<

m

0

)

• H a

: m>m

0

( m

:>

m

0

)

In the example:

L1={299.4, 297.7, 301, 298.9, 300.2, 297}

Stats

Input:

Data

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

Note:

All

STAT TESTS

examples assume a fixed-decimal mode setting of 4 (Chapter 1). If you set the decimal mode to

Float

or a different fixed-decimal setting, your output may differ from the output in the examples.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 218

T-Test

T-Test

(one-sample

t

test; item

2

) performs a hypothesis test for a single unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is unknown. It tests the null hypothesis H

0

: m=m

0 against one of the alternatives below.

• H a

: mƒm

0

( m

:

ƒm

0

)

• H a

: m<m

0

( m

:<

m

0

)

• H a

: m>m

0

( m

:>

m

0

)

In the example:

TEST={91.9, 97.8, 111.4, 122.3, 105.4, 95}

Stats

Input:

Data

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

2-SampZTest

2-SampZTest

(two-sample

z

test; item

3)

tests the equality of the means of two populations ( m

1

and m

2

) based on independent samples when both population standard deviations ( s

1

and s

2

) are known. The null hypothesis H

0

: m

1

= m

2

is tested against one of the alternatives below.

• H a

: m

1

ƒm

2

( m

1:

ƒm

2

)

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 219

• H a

: m

1

< m

2

( m

1:<

m

2

)

• H a

: m

1

> m

2

( m

1:>

m

2

)

In the example:

LISTA={154, 109, 137, 115, 140}

LISTB={108, 115, 126, 92, 146}

Input:

Data Stats

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

2-SampTTest

2-SampTTest

(two-sample

t

test; item

4

) tests the equality of the means of two populations ( m

1

and m

2

) based on independent samples when neither population standard deviation ( s

1

or s

2

) is known. The null hypothesis H

0

: m

1

= m

2

is tested against one of the alternatives below.

• H a

: m

1

ƒm

2

( m

1:

ƒm

2

)

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 220

• H a

: m

1

< m

2

( m

1:<

m

2

)

• H a

: m

1

> m

2

( m

1:>

m

2

)

In the example:

SAMP1={12.207, 16.869, 25.05, 22.429, 8.456, 10.589}

SAMP2={11.074, 9.686, 12.064, 9.351, 8.182, 6.642}

Input:

Data Stats

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

1-PropZTest

1-PropZTest

(one-proportion

z

test; item

5

) computes a test for an unknown proportion of successes (prop). It takes as input the count of successes in the sample

x

and the count of observations in the sample

n

.

1-PropZTest

tests the null hypothesis H

0

: prop=p

0

against one of the alternatives below.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 221

• H a

: prop

ƒp

0

(

prop:

ƒ

p0

)

• H a

: prop<p

0

(

prop:<p0

)

• H a

: prop>p

0

(

prop:>p0

)

Input:

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

2-PropZTest

2-PropZTest

(two-proportion

z

test; item

6

) computes a test to compare the proportion of successes

(p

1

and p

2

) from two populations. It takes as input the count of successes in each sample (

x

1 and

x

2

H

) and the count of observations in each sample (

n

1

0

: p

1

=p

2

and

n

2

).

2-PropZTest

tests the null hypothesis

(using the pooled sample proportion

Ç) against one of the alternatives below.

• H a

: p

1

ƒp

2

(

p1:

ƒ

p2

)

• H a

: p

1

<p

2

(

p1:<p2

)

• H a

: p

1

>p

2

(

p1:>p2

)

Input:

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 222

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

ZInterval

ZInterval

(one-sample

z

confidence interval; item

7

) computes a confidence interval for an unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is known. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

In the example:

L1={299.4, 297.7, 301, 298.9, 300.2, 297}

Stats

Input:

Data

Calculated results:

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 223

TInterval

TInterval

(one-sample

t

confidence interval; item

8

) computes a confidence interval for an unknown population mean m when the population standard deviation s is unknown. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

In the example:

L6={1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9}

Stats

Input:

Data

Calculated results:

2-SampZInt

2-SampZInt

(two-sample

z

confidence interval; item

9

) computes a confidence interval for the difference between two population means ( m

1

Nm

2

) when both population standard deviations ( s

1 and s

2

) are known. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

In the example:

LISTC={154, 109, 137, 115, 140}

LISTD={108, 115, 126, 92, 146}

Stats

Input:

Data

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 224

Calculated results:

Data Stats

2-SampTInt

2-SampTInt

(two-sample

t

confidence interval; item

0

) computes a confidence interval for the difference between two population means ( m

1

Nm

2

) when both population standard deviations ( s

1 and s

2

) are unknown. The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

In the example:

SAMP1={12.207, 16.869, 25.05, 22.429, 8.456, 10.589}

SAMP2={11.074, 9.686, 12.064, 9.351, 8.182, 6.642}

Stats

Input:

Data

Calculated results:

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 225

1-PropZInt

1-PropZInt

(one-proportion

z

confidence interval; item

A

) computes a confidence interval for an unknown proportion of successes. It takes as input the count of successes in the sample

x

and the count of observations in the sample

n

. The computed confidence interval depends on the userspecified confidence level.

Input:

Calculated results:

2-PropZInt

2-PropZInt

(two-proportion

z

confidence interval; item

B

) computes a confidence interval for the difference between the proportion of successes in two populations (p

1

Np

2

). It takes as input the count of successes in each sample (

x

1 and

x

2

) and the count of observations in each sample

(

n

1 and

n

2

). The computed confidence interval depends on the user-specified confidence level.

Input:

Calculated results:

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 226

c

2

-Test

c

2

-Test

(chi-square test; item

C

) computes a chi-square test for association on the two-way table of counts in the specified

Observed

matrix. The null hypothesis H

0

for a two-way table is: no association exists between row variables and column variables. The alternative hypothesis is: the variables are related.

Before computing a c

2

-Test, enter the observed counts in a matrix. Enter that matrix variable name at the

Observed:

prompt in the c

2

.Test editor; default=

[A]

. At the

Expected:

prompt, enter the matrix variable name to which you want the computed expected counts to be stored; default=

[B]

.

Matrix editor:

Note: Press y ú ~ ~

1 to select 1:[A] from the MATRX EDIT menu.

Input:

Note: Press y ú †] Í

to display matrix [B].

Calculated results:

Drawn results: c

2

GOF-Test

c

2

GOF

-Test

(Chi Square Goodness of Fit; item D) performs a test to confirm that sample data is from a population that conforms to a specified distribution. For example, c

2

GOF can confirm that the sample data came from a normal distribution.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 227

In the example:

list 1={16, 25, 22, 8, 10} list 2={16.2, 21.6, 16.2, 14.4, 12.6}

The Chi-square

Goodness of Fit input screen:

Note: Press

… ~ ~ to select TESTS. Press

† several times to select

D:X

2

GOF-Test... Press

Í

.

To enter data for df (degree of freedom), press

† † †. Type 4.

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

2-SampFTest

2-Samp

Ü

Test

(two-sample

Ü-test; item

E

) computes an

Ü-test to compare two normal population standard deviations ( s

1

and s

2

). The population means and standard deviations are all unknown.

2-Samp

Ü

Test

, which uses the ratio of sample variances Sx1

2

/Sx2

2

, tests the null hypothesis

H

0

: s

1

= s

2

against one of the alternatives below.

• H a

: s

1

ƒs

2

( s

1:

ƒs

2

)

• H a

: s

1

< s

2

( s

1:<

s

2

)

• H a

: s

1

> s

2

( s

1:>

s

2

)

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 228

In the example:

SAMP4=

{7,

L

4, 18, 17,

L

3,

L

5, 1, 10, 11,

L

2}

SAMP5={

L

1, 12,

L

1,

L

3, 3,

L

5, 5, 2,

L

11,

L

1,

L

3}

Data

Input:

Stats

Calculated results:

Drawn results:

LinRegTTest

LinRegTTest

(linear regression

t

test; item

F)

computes a linear regression on the given data and a

t

test on the value of slope b and the correlation coefficient r for the equation

y

= a+bx. It tests the null hypothesis H

0

: b=0 (equivalently, r=0) against one of the alternatives below.

• H a

: bƒ0 and rƒ0 (b

&

r

:

ă

0

)

• H a

: b<0 and r<0 (b

&

r

:<0

)

• H a

: b>0 and r>0 (b

&

r

:>0

)

The regression equation is automatically stored to

RegEQ

(

VARS Statistics EQ

secondary menu). If you enter a Y= variable name at the

RegEQ:

prompt, the calculated regression equation is

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 229

automatically stored to the specified Y= equation. In the example below, the regression equation is stored to

Y1

, which is then selected (turned on).

In the example:

L3={38, 56, 59, 64, 74}

L4={41, 63, 70, 72, 84}

Input:

Calculated results:

When

LinRegTTest

is executed, the list of residuals is created and stored to the list name

RESID

automatically.

RESID

is placed on the

LIST NAMES

menu.

Note:

For the regression equation, you can use the fix-decimal mode setting to control the number of digits stored after the decimal point (Chapter 1). However, limiting the number of digits to a small number could affect the accuracy of the fit.

LinRegTInt

LinRegTInt computes a linear regression T confidence interval for the slope coefficient b. If the confidence interval contains 0, this is insufficient evidence to indicate that the data exhibits a linear relationship.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 230

In the example:

list 1={4, 5, 6, 7, 8} list 2={1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4.5}

LinRegTInt input screen:

Calculated results:

Note: Press

… ~ ~ to select TESTS. Press

† several times to select

G:LinRegTint... Press

Í

.

Press

† several times to select Calculate.

Press

Í

.

Xlist, Ylist is the list of independent and dependent variables. The list containing the

Freq

(frequency) values for the data is stored in

List

. The default is 1. All elements must be real numbers. Each element in the

Freq

list is the frequency of occurence for each corresponding data point in the input list specified in the

List

fields. RegEQ (optional) is the designated Yn variable for storing the regression equation. StoreRegEqn (optional) is the designated variable for storing the regression equation. The C level is the Confidence level probability with default = .95.

ANOVA(

ANOVA(

(one-way analysis of variance; item

H

) computes a one-way analysis of variance for comparing the means of two to 20 populations. The

ANOVA

procedure for comparing these means involves analysis of the variation in the sample data. The null hypothesis H

0

: m

1

= m

2

=

...

= m k

is tested against the alternative H a

: not all m

1

...

m k are equal.

ANOVA(list1,list2

[

,...,list20

]

)

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 231

In the example:

L1={7 4 6 6 5}

L2={6 5 5 8 7}

L3={4 7 6 7 6}

Input:

Calculated results:

Note: SS

is sum of squares and

MS

is mean square.

Inferential Statistics Input Descriptions

The tables in this section describe the inferential statistics inputs discussed in this chapter. You enter values for these inputs in the inferential stat editors. The tables present the inputs in the same order that they appear in this chapter.

Input

m

0 s

List

Freq

Calculate/Draw v

, Sx, n

Description

Hypothesized value of the population mean that you are testing.

The known population standard deviation; must be a real number

> 0.

The name of the list containing the data you are testing.

The name of the list containing the frequency values for the data in List. Default=1. All elements must be integers

|

0.

Determines the type of output to generate for tests and intervals.

Calculate displays the output on the home screen. In tests, Draw draws a graph of the results.

Summary statistics (mean, standard deviation, and sample size) for the one-sample tests and intervals.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 232

Input

s

1

s

2

List1, List2

Freq1, Freq2 The names of the lists containing the frequencies for the data in

List1 and List2 for the two-sample tests and intervals.

Defaults=1. All elements must be integers

|

0.

v

1, Sx1, n1, v

2, Sx2, n2 Summary statistics (mean, standard deviation, and sample size) for sample one and sample two in the two-sample tests and intervals.

Pooled

Specifies whether variances are to be pooled for 2-SampTTest and 2-SampTInt. No instructs the TI-84 Plus not to pool the variances. Yes instructs the TI-84 Plus to pool the variances.

p

0

x

The expected sample proportion for 1-PropZTest. Must be a real number, such that 0 < p

0

< 1.

The count of successes in the sample for the 1-PropZTest and

1-PropZInt. Must be an integer

|

0.

n

Description

The known population standard deviation from the first population for the two-sample tests and intervals. Must be a real number > 0.

The known population standard deviation from the second population for the two-sample tests and intervals. Must be a real number > 0.

The names of the lists containing the data you are testing for the two-sample tests and intervals. Defaults are L1 and L2, respectively.

x1 x2 n1 n2

C-Level

Observed (Matrix)

Expected (Matrix) df

The count of observations in the sample for the 1-PropZTest and

1-PropZInt. Must be an integer > 0.

The count of successes from sample one for the 2-PropZTest and 2-PropZInt. Must be an integer

|

0.

The count of successes from sample two for the 2-PropZTest and 2-PropZInt. Must be an integer

|

0.

The count of observations in sample one for the 2-PropZTest and

2-PropZInt. Must be an integer > 0.

The count of observations in sample two for the 2-PropZTest and

2-PropZInt. Must be an integer > 0.

The confidence level for the interval instructions. Must be

0 and

< 100. If it is

1, it is assumed to be given as a percent and is divided by 100. Default=0.95.

The matrix name that represents the columns and rows for the observed values of a two-way table of counts for the c

2

-Test and c

2

GOF-Test. Observed must contain all integers

|

0. Matrix dimensions must be at least 2×2.

The matrix name that specifies where the expected values should be stored. Expected is created upon successful completion of the c

2

-Test and c

2

GOF-Test.

df (degree of freedom) represents (number of sample categories)

- (number of estimated parameters for the selected distribution +

1).

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 233

Input

Xlist, Ylist

RegEQ

Description

The names of the lists containing the data for LinRegTTest and

LinRegTInt. Defaults are L1 and L2, respectively. The dimensions of Xlist and Ylist must be the same.

The prompt for the name of the Y= variable where the calculated regression equation is to be stored. If a Y= variable is specified, that equation is automatically selected (turned on). The default is to store the regression equation to the RegEQ variable only.

Test and Interval Output Variables

The inferential statistics variables are calculated as indicated below. To access these variables for use in expressions, press

5

(

5:Statistics

), and then select the

VARS

menu listed in the last column below.

Variables

p-value test statistics degrees of freedom sample mean of x values for sample 1 and sample 2 sample standard deviation of x for sample 1 and sample 2 number of data points for sample 1 and sample 2 pooled standard deviation estimated sample proportion estimated sample proportion for population 1 estimated sample proportion for population 2 confidence interval pair mean of x values sample standard deviation of x number of data points standard error about the line regression/fit coefficients correlation coefficient coefficient of determination regression equation

Tests p z, t,

c

2

,

Ü

df

v

1,

v

2

Sx1,

Sx2 n1, n2

SxP

‚Ç

‚Ç

‚Ç v

Sx n

1

2

Intervals df

v

1,

v

2

Sx1,

Sx2 n1, n2

SxP

‚Ç

‚Ç

‚Ç

1

2 lower, upper

v

Sx n

LinRegTTest,

ANOVA p t,

Ü

df

VARS

Menu

TEST

TEST

TEST

TEST

SxP s a, b r r2

RegEQ

TEST

TEST

TEST

TEST

TEST

TEST

TEST

XY

XY

XY

TEST

EQ

EQ

EQ

EQ

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 234

Note:

The variables listed above cannot be archived.

Distribution Functions

DISTR menu

To display the DISTR menu, press y =.

DISTR DRAW

1: normalpdf(

2: normalcdf(

3: invNorm(

4: invT(

5: tpdf(

6: tcdf(

7: c

2 pdf(

8: c

2 cdf

9:

Üpdf(

0:

Ücdf(

A: binompdf(

B: binomcdf(

C: poissonpdf(

D: poissoncdf(

E: geometpdf(

F: geometcdf(

nn probability density function

nn cumulative distribution function

Inverse cumulative normal distribution

Inverse cumulative Student-t distribution

Student-t probability density

Student-t distribution probability

Chi-square probability density

Chi-square distribution probability wÜ probability density wÜ distribution probability

Binomial probability

Binomial cumulative density

Poisson probability

Poisson cumulative density

Geometric probability

Geometric cumulative density

Note:

L1â99 and 1â99 specify infinity. If you want to view the area left of

upperbound

, for example, specify

lowerbound

=

L1â99.

normalpdf( normalpdf(

computes the probability density function (

pdf

) for the normal distribution at a specified

x

value. The defaults are mean m=0 and standard deviation s=1. To plot the normal distribution, paste

normalpdf(

to the Y= editor. The probability density function (pdf) is:

=

2



x

 

2

2

2

,

 0

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 235

normalpdf(x

[

,

m

,

s]

)

Note: For this example,

Xmin = 28

Xmax = 42

Xscl = 1

Ymin = 0

Ymax = .2

Yscl = .1

Note:

For plotting the normal distribution, you can set window variables

Xmin

and

Xmax

so that the mean m falls between them, and then select

0:ZoomFit

from the

ZOOM

menu.

normalcdf( normalcdf(

computes the normal distribution probability between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

for the specified mean m and standard deviation s. The defaults are m=0 and s=1.

normalcdf(lowerbound,upperbound[, m

,

s

])

invNorm( invNorm(

computes the inverse cumulative normal distribution function for a given

area

under the normal distribution curve specified by mean m and standard deviation s. It calculates the

x

value associated with an

area

to the left of the

x

value. 0

area

 1 must be true. The defaults are m=0 and s=1.

invNorm(area[, m

,

s

])

invT( invT(

computes the inverse cumulative Student-t probability function specified by Degree of

Freedom, df for a given Area under the curve.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 236

invT(area,df)

tpdf( tpdf(

computes the probability density function (

pdf

) for the Student-

t

distribution at a specified

x

value.

df

(degrees of freedom) must be > 0. To plot the Student-

t

distribution, paste

tpdf(

to the Y= editor. The probability density function (

pdf

) is:

=

 

/2

1 +

x

2

df

+ 1

/2

df

tpdf(x,df)

Note: For this example,

Xmin =

L

4.5

Xmax = 4.5

Ymin = 0

Ymax = .4

tcdf( tcdf(

computes the Student-

t

distribution probability between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

for the specified

df

(degrees of freedom), which must be > 0.

tcdf(lowerbound,upperbound,df) c

2

pdf(

c

2

pdf(

computes the probability density function (

pdf

) for the c

2

(chi-square) distribution at a specified

x

value.

df

(degrees of freedom) must be an integer > 0. To plot the c

2

distribution, paste c

2

pdf(

to the Y= editor. The probability density function (

pdf

) is:

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 237

= c

2

pdf(x,df)

df/2

x

– 1

e

x/2

,

x

0

Note: For this example,

Xmin = 0

Xmax = 30

Ymin =

L

.02

Ymax = .132

c

2

cdf(

c

2

cdf(

computes the c

2

(chi-square) distribution probability between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

for the specified

df

(degrees of freedom), which must be an integer > 0.

c

2

cdf(lowerbound,upperbound,df)

Fpdf(

Ü

pdf(

computes the probability density function (

numerator df

pdf

) for the

Ü distribution at a specified paste

Ü

pdf(

to the Y= editor. The probability density function (

pdf

) is:

x

value.

(degrees of freedom) and

denominator df

must be integers > 0. To plot the

Ü distribution,

=

n/2  

 

d

n/2

x

n/2 – 1

1 + nx/d

n

+

d

/2

,

x

0 where

n

= numerator degrees of freedom

d

= denominator degrees of freedom

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 238

Ü

pdf(x,numerator df,denominator df)

Note: For this example,

Xmin = 0

Xmax = 5

Ymin = 0

Ymax = 1

Fcdf(

Ü

cdf(

computes the

Ü distribution probability between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

for the specified

numerator df

(degrees of freedom) and

denominator df

.

numerator df

and

denominator df

must be integers

> 0.

Ü

cdf(lowerbound,upperbound,numerator df,denominator df)

binompdf binompdf(

computes a probability at

x

for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified

numtrials

and probability of success (

p

) on each trial.

x

can be an integer or a list of integers. 0

p

1 must be true.

numtrials

must be an integer > 0. If you do not specify

x

, a list of probabilities from 0 to

numtrials

is returned. The probability density function (

pdf

) is:

=

 

x p x

1 –

p

n

x

,

x

= 0,1,...,n where

n = numtrials

binompdf(numtrials,p[,x])

binomcdf( binomcdf(

computes a cumulative probability at

x

for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified

numtrials

and probability of success (

p

) on each trial.

x

can be a real number or a list of real numbers. 0

p

1 must be true.

numtrials

must be an integer > 0. If you do not specify

x

, a list of cumulative probabilities is returned.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 239

binomcdf(numtrials,p[,x])

poissonpdf( poissonpdf(

computes a probability at

x

for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m, which must be a real number > 0.

x

can be an integer or a list of integers. The probability density function (

pdf

) is:

f x

=

e

x

x!

,

x

= 0,1,2,...

poissonpdf(

m

,x)

poissoncdf( poissoncdf(

computes a cumulative probability at

x

for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m, which must be a real number > 0.

x

can be a real number or a list of real numbers.

poissoncdf(

m

,x)

geometpdf( geometpdf(

computes a probability at

x

, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success

p

. 0

p

1 must be true.

x

can be an integer or a list of integers. The probability density function (pdf) is:

f x

=

p

x

– 1

,

x

= 1,2,...

geometpdf(p,x)

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 240

geometcdf( geometcdf(

computes a cumulative probability at

x

, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success

p

.

0

p

1 must be true.

x

can be a real number or a list of real numbers.

geometcdf(p,x)

MathPrint™

Classic

Distribution Shading

DISTR DRAW Menu

To display the

DISTR DRAW

menu, press y = ~.

DISTR DRAW

instructions draw various types of density functions, shade the area specified by

lowerbound

and

upperbound

, and display the computed area value.

To clear the drawings, select

1:ClrDraw

from the

DRAW

menu (Chapter 8).

Note:

Before you execute a

DISTR DRAW

instruction, you must set the window variables so that the desired distribution fits the screen.

DISTR DRAW

1: ShadeNorm(

2: Shade_t(

3:

Shade c

2

(

4: Shade

Ü(

Shades normal distribution.

Shades Student-t distribution.

Shades c

2

distribution.

Shades

Ü distribution.

Note:

L1â99 and 1â99 specify infinity. If you want to view the area left of

upperbound

, for example, specify

lowerbound

=

L1â99.

ShadeNorm(

ShadeNorm(

draws the normal density function specified by mean m and standard deviation s and shades the area between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

. The defaults are m=0 and s=1.

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 241

ShadeNorm(lowerbound,upperbound[, m

,

s

])

Classic

Note: For this example,

Xmin = 55

Xmax = 72

Ymin =

L

.05

Ymax = .2

Shade_t(

Shade_t(

draws the density function for the Student-

t

distribution specified by

df

(degrees of freedom) and shades the area between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

.

Shade_t(lowerbound,upperbound,df)

Classic

Note: For this example,

Xmin =

L

3

Xmax = 3

Ymin =

L

.15

Ymax = .5

Shade

c

2

(

Shade

c

2

(

draws the density function for the c

2

(chi-square) distribution specified by

df

(degrees of freedom) and shades the area between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

.

Shade

c

2

(lowerbound,upperbound,df)

Classic

Note: For this example,

Xmin = 0

Xmax = 35

Ymin =

L

.025

Ymax = .1

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 242

ShadeF(

Shade

Ü

(

draws the density function for the

Ü distribution specified by

numerator df

(degrees of freedom) and

denominator df

and shades the area between

lowerbound

and

upperbound

.

Shade

Ü

(lowerbound,upperbound,numerator df,denominator df)

Classic

Note: For this example,

Xmin = 0

Xmax = 5

Ymin =

L

.25

Ymax = .9

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics and Distributions 243

Chapter 14:

Applications

The Applications Menu

The TI-84 Plus comes with several applications already installed and listed on the

APPLICATIONS

menu. These applications include the following:

Finance

Topics in Algebra 1

Science Tools

Catalog Help 1.1

CellSheet™

Conic Graphing

Inequality Graphing

Transformation Graphing

Vernier EasyData™

DataMate

Polynomial Root Finder and Simultaneous Equation Solver

StudyCards™

LearningCheck™

Except for the

Finance

application, you can add and remove applications as space permits. The

Finance

application is built into the TI-84 Plus code and cannot be deleted.

Many other applications in addition to the ones mentioned above, including language localization applications, are included on your TI-84 Plus. Press

ŒÎ to see the complete list of applications that came with your calculator.

You can download additional TI-84 Plus software applications from education.ti.com that allow you to customize your calculator’s functionality even further. The calculator reserves 1.54 M of space within ROM memory specifically for applications.

Guidebooks for applications are on the Texas Instruments Web site at: education.ti.com/guides .

Steps for Running the Finance Application

Follow these basic steps when using the Finance application.

1.

Press

Œ Í to select the

Finance application

.

Chapter 14: Applications 244

2.

Select from list of functions.

Getting Started: Financing a Car

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

You have found a car you would like to buy. You can afford payments of 250 per month for four years. The car costs 9,000. Your bank offers an interest rate of 5%. What will your payments be?

Can you afford it?

1.

Press z † ~ ~ ~ Í to set the fixed-decimal mode setting to

2

. (The TI-84 Plus will display all numbers with two decimal places.)

2.

Press

Œ Í to select

1:Finance

from the

APPLICATIONS

menu.

3.

Press

Í to select

1:TVM Solver

from the

CALC VARS

menu. The TVM Solver is displayed.

4.

Enter the data:

N (number of payments)=

48

I% (interest rate)=

5

PV (present value)=

9000

FV (future value)=

0

P/Y (payments per year)=

12

C/Y (compounding periods per year)=

12

5.

Select

PMT:END

, which indicates that payments are due at the end of each period.

6.

Move the cursor to PMT and press

ƒ \. Can you afford the payment?

Chapter 14: Applications 245

Getting Started: Computing Compound Interest

At what annual interest rate, compounded monthly, will 1,250 accumulate to 2,000 in 7 years?

Note:

Because there are no payments when you solve compound interest problems,

PMT

must be set to

0

and

P/Y

must be set to

1

.

1.

Press

Œ Í to select

1:Finance

from the

APPLICATIONS

menu.

2.

Press

Í to select

1:TVM Solver

from the

CALC

VARS

menu. The TVM Solver is displayed.

3.

Enter the data:

N=

7

PV=

M

1250

PMT=

0

FV=

2000

P/Y=

1

C/Y=

12

4.

Move the curstor to

æ and press ƒ \.

YYou need to look for an interest rate of 6.73% to grow

1250 to 2000 in 7 years.

Using the TVM Solver

Using the TVM Solver

The TVM Solver displays the time-value-of-money (TVM) variables. Given four variable values, the TVM Solver solves for the fifth variable.

The

FINANCE VARS

menu section describes the five TVM variables (

Ú, æ,

PV

,

PMT

, and

FV

) and

P/Y

and

C/Y

.

PMT: END BEGIN

in the TVM Solver corresponds to the

FINANCE CALC

menu items

Pmt_End

(payment at the end of each period) and

Pmt_Bgn

(payment at the beginning of each period).

To solve for an unknown

TVM

variable, follow these steps.

1.

Press

Œ Í Í to display the TVM Solver. The screen below shows the default values with the fixed-decimal mode set to two decimal places.

Chapter 14: Applications 246

2.

Enter the known values for four

TVM

variables.

Note:

Enter cash inflows as positive numbers and cash outflows as negative numbers.

3.

Enter a value for

P/Y

, which automatically enters the same value for

C/Y

; if

P/Y

ƒ

C/Y

, enter a unique value for

C/Y

.

4.

Select

END

or

BEGIN

to specify the payment method.

5.

Place the cursor on the

TVM

variable for which you want to solve.

6.

Press

ƒ \. The answer is computed, displayed in the TVM Solver, and stored to the appropriate

TVM

variable. An indicator square in the left column designates the solution variable.

Using the Financial Functions

Entering Cash Inflows and Cash Outflows

When using the TI-84 Plus financial functions, you must enter cash inflows (cash received) as positive numbers and cash outflows (cash paid) as negative numbers. The TI-84 Plus follows this convention when computing and displaying answers.

FINANCE CALC Menu

To display the

FINANCE CALC

menu, press

ÎŒ Í.

CALC VARS

1: TVM Solver

...

Displays the TVM Solver.

Computes the amount of each payment.

2: tvm_Pmt

3: tvm_

¾æ

Computes the interest rate per year.

Computes the present value.

4: tvm_PV

5: tvm_

òÚ

Computes the number of payment periods.

6: tvm_FV

Computes the future value.

7: npv(

Computes the net present value.

Chapter 14: Applications 247

CALC VARS

8: irr(

9: bal(

0:

GPrn(

A:

GInt(

B:

4Nom(

C:

4Eff(

D: dbd(

E: Pmt_End

F: Pmt_Bgn

Computes the internal rate of return.

Computes the amortization sched. balance.

Computes the amort. sched. princ. sum.

Computes the amort. sched. interest sum.

Computes the nominal interest rate.

Computes the effective interest rate.

Calculates the days between two dates.

Selects ordinary annuity (end of period).

Selects annuity due (beginning of period).

Use these functions to set up and perform financial calculations on the home screen.

TVM Solver

TVM Solver displays the TVM Solver.

Calculating Time Value of Money (TVM)

Calculating Time Value of Money

Use time-value-of-money (

TVM

) functions (menu items

2

through

6)

to analyze financial instruments such as annuities, loans, mortgages, leases, and savings.

Each

TVM

function takes zero to six arguments, which must be real numbers. The values that you specify as arguments for

TVM

functions are not stored to the

TVM

variables.

Note:

To store a value to a

TVM

variable, use the TVM Solver or use

¿ and any

TVM

variable on the

FINANCE VARS

menu.

If you enter less than six arguments, the TI-84 Plus substitutes a previously stored

TVM

variable value for each unspecified argument.

If you enter any arguments with a

TVM

function, you must place the argument or arguments in parentheses.

Chapter 14: Applications 248

tvm_Pmt tvm_Pmt

computes the amount of each payment.

tvm_Pmt

[

(

òÚ

,

¾æ

,PV,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

]

Note:

In the example above, the values are stored to the

TVM

variables in the TVM Solver. The payment (

tvm_Pmt

) is computed on the home screen using the values in the TVM Solver. Next, the interest rate is changed to 9.5 to illustrate the effect on the payment amount.

tvm_I% tvm_

æ computes the annual interest rate.

tvm_

¾æ [

(

Ú

,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

]

Classic

MathPrint™

tvm_PV tvm_PV

computes the present value.

tvm_PV

[

(

Ú

,

¾æ

,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

]

MathPrint™ Classic

tvm_N tvm_

Ú computes the number of payment periods.

Chapter 14: Applications 249

tvm_

Ú[

(

æ¾

,PV,PMT,FV,P/Y,C/Y)

]

MathPrint™ Classic

tvm_FV tvm_FV

computes the future value.

tvm_FV

[

(

Ú

,

¾æ

,PV,PMT,P/Y,C/Y)

]

MathPrint™ Classic

Calculating Cash Flows

Calculating a Cash Flow

Use the cash flow functions (menu items

7

and

8

) to analyze the value of money over equal time periods. You can enter unequal cash flows, which can be cash inflows or outflows. The syntax descriptions for

npv(

and

irr(

use these arguments.

interest rate

is the rate by which to discount the cash flows (the cost of money) over one period.

CF0

is the initial cash flow at time 0; it must be a real number.

CFList

is a list of cash flow amounts after the initial cash flow

CF0

.

CFFreq

is a list in which each element specifies the frequency of occurrence for a grouped

(consecutive) cash flow amount, which is the corresponding element of

CFList

. The default is 1; if you enter values, they must be positive integers < 10,000.

For example, express this uneven cash flow in lists.

2000

2000 2000 4000 4000

-3000

Chapter 14: Applications 250

CF0

= 2000

CFList

= {2000,

L3000,4000}

CFFreq

= {2,1,2}

npv(, irr( npv(

(net present value) is the sum of the present values for the cash inflows and outflows. A positive result for

npv

indicates a profitable investment.

npv(interest rate,CF0,CFList

[

,CFFreq

]

) irr(

(internal rate of return) is the interest rate at which the net present value of the cash flows is equal to zero.

irr(CF0,CFList

[

,CFFreq

]

)

1000 0 5000 3000

-2000

-2500

Calculating Amortization

Calculating an Amortization Schedule

Use the amortization functions (menu items

9

,

0

, and

A

) to calculate balance, sum of principal, and sum of interest for an amortization schedule.

bal( bal(

computes the balance for an amortization schedule using stored values for

æ,

PV

, and

PMT

.

npmt

is the number of the payment at which you want to calculate a balance. It must be a positive integer < 10,000.

roundvalue

specifies the internal precision the calculator uses to calculate the balance; if you do not specify

roundvalue

, then the TI-84 Plus uses the current

Float/Fix

decimalmode setting.

Chapter 14: Applications 251

bal(npmt

[

,roundvalue

]

)

GPrn(, GInt(

G

Prn(

computes the sum of the principal during a specified period for an amortization schedule using stored values for

¾æ,

PV

, and

PMT

.

pmt1

is the starting payment.

pmt2

is the ending payment in the range.

pmt1

and

pmt2

must be positive integers < 10,000.

roundvalue

specifies the internal precision the calculator uses to calculate the principal; if you do not specify

roundvalue

, the TI-84 Plus uses the current

Float/Fix

decimal-mode setting.

Note:

You must enter values for

æ,

PV

,

PMT

, and before computing the principal.

G

Prn(pmt1,pmt2

[

,roundvalue

]

)

G

Int(

computes the sum of the interest during a specified period for an amortization schedule using stored values for

¾æ,

PV

, and

PMT

.

pmt1

is the starting payment.

pmt2

is the ending payment in the range.

pmt1

and

pmt2

must be positive integers < 10,000.

roundvalue

specifies the internal precision the calculator uses to calculate the interest; if you do not specify

roundvalue

, the TI-84 Plus uses the current

Float/Fix

decimal-mode setting.

G

Int(pmt1,pmt2

[

,roundvalue

]

)

Amortization Example: Calculating an Outstanding Loan Balance

You want to buy a home with a 30-year mortgage at 8 percent APR. Monthly payments are 800.

Calculate the outstanding loan balance after each payment and display the results in a graph and in the table.

1.

Press z. Press  † ~ ~ ~ Í to set the fixed-decimal mode setting to

2

. Press

† † ~ Í to select

Par

graphing mode.

2.

Press

Î Œ Í Í to display the TVM Solver.

Chapter 14: Applications 252

3.

Press

360

to enter number of payments. Press

† 8 to enter the interest rate. Press

† † Ì

800

to enter the payment amount. Press

0

to enter the future value of the mortgage. Press

12

to enter the payments per year, which also sets the compounding periods per year to 12. Press

† † Í to select

PMT:END

.

4.

Move the cursor to the

PV

prompt and then press

ƒ

\ to solve for the present value.

5.

Press o to display the parametric Y= editor. Turn off all stat plots. Press

„ to define

X1T

as

T

. Press

Œ Í

9

„ ¤ to define

Y1T

as

bal(T)

.

6.

Press p to display the window variables. Enter the values below.

Tmin=0 Xmin=0 Ymin=0

Tmax=360 Xmax=360 Ymax=125000

Tstep=12 Xscl=50 Yscl=10000

7.

Press r to draw the graph and activate the trace cursor. Press

~ and | to explore the graph of the outstanding balance over time. Press a number and then press

Í to view the balance at a specific time T.

8.

Press y - and enter the values below.

TblStart=0

@

Tbl=12

9.

Press y 0 to display the table of outstanding balances (

Y1T

).

10. Press z and select

G-T

split-screen mode, so that the graph and table are displayed simultaneously.

Press r to display

X1T

(time) and

Y1T

(balance) in the table.

Chapter 14: Applications 253

Calculating Interest Conversion

Calculating an Interest Conversion

Use the interest conversion functions (menu items

B

and

C

) to convert interest rates from an annual effective rate to a nominal rate (

4

Nom(

) or from a nominal rate to an annual effective rate

(

4

Eff(

).

4Nom(

4

Nom(

computes the nominal interest rate.

effective rate

and

compounding periods

must be real numbers.

compounding periods

must be >0.

4

Nom(effective rate,compounding periods)

4Eff(

4

Eff(

computes the effective interest rate.

nominal rate

and

compounding periods

must be real numbers.

compounding periods

must be >0.

4

Eff(nominal rate,compounding periods)

Finding Days between Dates/Defining Payment Method

dbd(

Use the date function

dbd(

(menu item

D

) to calculate the number of days between two dates using the actual-day-count method.

date1

and

date2

can be numbers or lists of numbers within the range of the dates on the standard calendar.

Note:

Dates must be between the years 1950 through 2049.

dbd(date1,date2)

You can enter

date1

and

date2

in either of two formats.

• MM.DDYY (United States)

• DDMM.YY (Europe)

Chapter 14: Applications 254

The decimal placement differentiates the date formats.

MathPrint™

Classic

Defining the Payment Method

Pmt_End

and

Pmt_Bgn

(menu items

E

and

F

) specify a transaction as an ordinary annuity or an annuity due. When you execute either command, the TVM Solver is updated.

Pmt_End

Pmt_End

(payment end) specifies an ordinary annuity, where payments occur at the end of each payment period. Most loans are in this category.

Pmt_End

is the default.

Pmt_End

On the TVM Solver’s

PMT:END BEGIN

line, select

END

to set

PMT

to ordinary annuity.

Pmt_Bgn

Pmt_Bgn

(payment beginning) specifies an annuity due, where payments occur at the beginning of each payment period. Most leases are in this category.

Pmt_Bgn

On the TVM Solver’s

PMT:END BEGIN

line, select

BEGIN

to set PMT to annuity due.

Using the TVM Variables

FINANCE VARS Menu

To display the

FINANCE VARS

menu, press

Œ Í ~. You can use

TVM

variables in

TVM

functions and store values to them on the home screen.

CALC VARS

1:

Ú

2:

æ

3: PV

4: PMT

5: FV

6: P/Y

Total number of payment periods

Annual interest rate

Present value

Payment amount

Future value

Number of payment periods per year

Chapter 14: Applications 255

CALC VARS

7: C/Y

Number of compounding periods/year

N, I%, PV, PMT, FV

Ú, æ,

PV

,

PMT

, and

FV

are the five

TVM

variables. They represent the elements of common financial transactions, as described in the table above.

æ is an annual interest rate that is converted to a per-period rate based on the values of

P/Y

and

C/Y

.

P/Y and C/Y

P/Y

is the number of payment periods per year in a financial transaction.

C/Y

is the number of compounding periods per year in the same transaction.

When you store a value to

P/Y

, the value for

C/Y

automatically changes to the same value. To store a unique value to

C/Y

, you must store the value to

C/Y

after you have stored a value to

P/Y

.

The EasyData™ Application

The Vernier EasyData™ application by Vernier Software & Technology allows you to view and analyze real-world data when the TI-84 Plus is connected to data collection devices such as Texas

Instruments CBR 2

é, CBL 2é, Vernier LabProê, Vernier USB sensors, Vernier Go!éMotion, or

Vernier Motion Detector Unit. The TI-84 Plus comes with the EasyData™ App already installed.

Note:

The application will only work with Vernier auto-ID sensors when using CBL 2

é and

Vernier LabPro

ê.

The EasyData™ App will autolaunch on your TI-84 Plus if you plug in a USB sensor such as the

CBR 2

é or Vernier USB Temperature sensor.

Steps for Running the EasyData App

Follow these basic steps when using the EasyData™ App.

Chapter 14: Applications 256

Starting the EasyData

App

1.

Attach your data collection device to your TI-84 Plus.

Make sure the cables are firmly connected.

2.

If the EasyData™ App has not auto-launched, press

Œ and the } or † to select the EasyData™ App.

3.

Press

Í. The EasyData™ information screen is displayed for about three seconds followed by the main screen.

Quitting the EasyData

App

1.

To quit the EasyData™ App, select

Quit

(press s

)

.

The

Ready to quit?

screen is displayed, which indicates that the collected data has been transferred to lists

L1

through

L4

on the TI-84 Plus.

2.

Press

OK

(press s) to quit.

EasyData Settings

Changing EasyData

settings

The EasyData™ App displays the most commonly used settings before data collection begins.

To change a predefined setting:

1.

From the main screen in the EasyData™ App, choose

Setup

and select

2: Time Graph

. The current settings are displayed on the calculator.

Note

: If using a motion detector, settings for

3: Distance Match

and

4: Ball Bounce

in the

Setup

menu are preset and cannot be changed.

2.

Select

Next

(press q) to move to the setting you want to change. Press ‘ to clear a setting.

3.

Repeat to cycle through the available options. When the option is correct, select

Next

to move to the next option.

4.

To change a setting, enter 1 or 2 digits, and then select

Next

(press q).

5.

When all the settings are correct, select

OK

(press s) to return to the main menu.

6.

Select

Start

(press q) to begin collecting data.

Restoring the EasyData

App to the default settings

The default settings are appropriate for a wide variety of sampling situations. If you are unsure of the best settings, begin with the default settings, and then adjust the settings for your specific activity.

To restore the default settings in the EasyData™ App while a data collection device is connected to the TI-84 Plus, choose

File

and select

1:New

.

Chapter 14: Applications 257

Starting and Stopping Data Collection

Starting Data Collection

To start sampling, select

Start

(press q). Sampling will automatically stop when the number of samples set in the

Time Graph Settings

menu is reached. The TI-84 Plus will then display a graph of the sampled data.

Stopping Data Collection

To stop sampling before it automatically stops, select

Stop

(press and hold q) at any time during the sampling process. When sampling stops, a graph of the sampled data is displayed.

Saving Collected Data

Collected data is automatically transferred to the TI-84 Plus and stored in lists

L1

through

L4

when data collection is complete. When you exit the EasyData™ App, a prompt reminds you of the lists in which time, distance, velocity, and acceleration are stored.

This manual describes basic operation for the EasyData2™ application. For more information about the EasyData2™ App, visit www.vernier.com

.

Chapter 14: Applications 258

Chapter 15:

CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions

Browsing the TI-84 Plus CATALOG

What Is the CATALOG?

The CATALOG is an alphabetical list of all functions and instructions on the TI-84 Plus. You also can access each CATALOG item from a menu or the keyboard, except:

• The six string functions

• The six hyperbolic functions

• The

solve(

instruction without the equation solver editor (Chapter 2)

• The inferential stat functions without the inferential stat editors (Chapter 13)

Note:

The only CATALOG programming commands you can execute from the home screen are

GetCalc(

,

Get(

, and

Send(

.

Selecting an Item from the CATALOG

To select a

CATALOG

item, follow these steps.

1.

Press y N to display the

CATALOG

.

The

4 in the first column is the selection cursor.

2.

Press

† or } to scroll the

CATALOG

until the selection cursor points to the item you want.

• To jump to the first item beginning with a particular letter, press that letter; alpha-lock is on.

• Items that begin with a number are in alphabetical order according to the first letter after the number. For example,

2-PropZTest(

is among the items that begin with the letter

P

.

• Functions that appear as symbols, such as

+

,

L1

,

<

, and

(

, follow the last item that begins with

Z

. To jump to the first symbol,

!

, press [ q].

3.

Press

Í to paste the item to the current screen.

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 259

Note:

• From the top of the

CATALOG

menu, press

} to move to the bottom. From the bottom, press

† to move to the top.

• When your TI-84 Plus is in MathPrint™ mode, many functions will paste the MathPrint™ template on the home screen. For example,

abs(

pastes the absolute value template on the home screen instead of

abs(

.

MathPrint™

Classic

Entering and Using Strings

What Is a String?

A string is a sequence of characters that you enclose within quotation marks. On the TI-84 Plus, a string has two primary applications.

• It defines text to be displayed in a program.

• It accepts input from the keyboard in a program.

Characters are the units that you combine to form a string.

• Each number, letter, and space counts as one character.

• Each instruction or function name, such as

sin(

or

cos(

, counts as one character; the TI-84

Plus interprets each instruction or function name as one character.

Entering a String

To enter a string on a blank line on the home screen or in a program, follow these steps.

1.

Press

ƒ

[

ã

]

to indicate the beginning of the string.

2.

Enter the characters that comprise the string.

• Use any combination of numbers, letters, function names, or instruction names to create the string.

• To enter a blank space, press

ƒ O.

• To enter several alpha characters in a row, press y 7 to activate alpha-lock.

3.

Press

ƒ

[

ã

]

to indicate the end of the string.

ã

string

ã

4.

Press

Í. On the home screen, the string is displayed on the next line without quotations. An ellipsis (

...

) indicates that the string continues beyond the screen. To scroll to see the entire string, press

~ and |.

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 260

Note:

A string must be enclosed in quotation marks. The quotation marks do not count as string characters.

Storing Strings to String Variables

String Variables

The TI-84 Plus has 10 variables to which you can store strings. You can use string variables with string functions and instructions.

To display the

VARS STRING

menu, follow these steps.

1.

Press

 to display the

VARS

menu. Move the cursor to

7:String

.

2.

Press

Í to display the

STRING

secondary menu.

Storing a String to a String Variable

To store a string to a string variable, follow these steps.

1.

Press

ƒ

[

ã

]

, enter the string, and press

ƒ

[

ã

]

.

2.

Press

¿.

3.

Press

7

to display the

VARS STRING

menu.

4.

Select the string variable (from

Str1

to

Str9

, or

Str0

) to which you want to store the string.

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 261

The string variable is pasted to the current cursor location, next to the store symbol (

!).

5.

Press

Í to store the string to the string variable. On the home screen, the stored string is displayed on the next line without quotation marks.

Displaying the Contents of a String Variable

To display the contents of a string variable on the home screen, select the string variable from the

VARS STRING

menu, and then press

Í. The string is displayed.

String Functions and Instructions in the CATALOG

Displaying String Functions and Instructions in the CATALOG

String functions and instructions are available only from the CATALOG. The table below lists the string functions and instructions in the order in which they appear among the other

CATALOG

menu items. The ellipses in the table indicate the presence of additional CATALOG items.

CATALOG

...

Equ

4String(

...

expr(

...

inString(

...

length(

...

String

4Equ( sub(

...

Converts an equation to a string.

Converts a string to an expression.

Returns a character’s place number.

Returns a string’s character length.

Converts a string to an equation.

Returns a string subset as a string.

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 262

Concatenation

To concatenate two or more strings, follow these steps.

1.

Enter

string1

, which can be a string or string name.

2.

Press

Ã.

3.

Enter

string2

, which can be a string or string name. If necessary, press

à and enter

string3

, and so on.

string1+string2+string3...

4.

Press

Í to display the strings as a single string.

Selecting a String Function from the CATALOG

To select a string function or instruction and paste it to the current screen, follow the steps for selecting an item from the CATALOG.

Equ

4String(

Equ

4

String(

converts an equation to a string. The equation must be store in a VARS Y-VARS variable.

Yn

contains the equation.

Strn

(from

Str1

to

Str9

, or

Str0

) is the string variable to which you want the equation to be stored.

Equ

4

String(Yn,Strn)

expr( expr(

converts the character string contained in

string

to an expression and executes it.

string

can be a string or a string variable.

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 263

expr(string)

inString( inString(

returns the character position in

string

of the first character of

substring

.

string

can be a string or a string variable.

start

is an optional character position at which to start the search; the default is 1.

inString(string,substring[,start])

Note:

If

string

does not contain

substring

, or

start

is greater than the length of

string

,

inString(

returns

0

.

length( length(

returns the number of characters in

string

.

string

can be a string or string variable.

Note:

An instruction or function name, such as

sin(

or

cos(

, counts as one character.

length(string)

String

4Equ(

String

4

Equ(

converts

string

into an equation and stores the equation to

Y

n.

string

can be a string or string variable.

String

4

Equ(

is the inverse of

Equ

4

String(

.

String

4

Equ(string,Yn)

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 264

sub( sub(

returns a string that is a subset of an existing

string

.

string

can be a string or a string variable.

begin

is the position number of the first character of the subset.

length

is the number of characters in the subset.

sub(string,begin,length)

Entering a Function to Graph during Program Execution

In a program, you can enter a function to graph during program execution using these commands.

Note:

When you execute this program, enter a function to store to

Y3

at the

ENTRY=

prompt.

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 265

Hyperbolic Functions in the CATALOG

Hyperbolic Functions

The hyperbolic functions are available only from the CATALOG. The table below lists the hyperbolic functions in the order in which they appear among the other

CATALOG

menu items. The ellipses in the table indicate the presence of additional CATALOG items.

CATALOG

...

cosh( cosh

-1

(

...

sinh( sinh

-1

(

...

tanh( tanh

-1

(

...

Hyperbolic cosine

Hyperbolic arccosine

Hyperbolic sine

Hyperbolic arcsine

Hyperbolic tangent

Hyperbolic arctangent

sinh(, cosh(, tanh( sinh(

,

cosh(

, and

tanh(

are the hyperbolic functions. Each is valid for real numbers, expressions, and lists.

sinh(value)

cosh(value)

tanh(value)

sinh

-1

(, cosh

-1

(, tanh

-1

( sinh

-1

(

is the hyperbolic arcsine function.

cosh

-1

(

is the hyperbolic arccosine function.

tanh

-1

(

is the hyperbolic arctangent function. Each is valid for real numbers, expressions, and lists.

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 266

sinh

-1

(value)

cosh

-1

(value)

tanh

-1

(value)

Chapter 15: CATALOG, Strings, Hyperbolic Functions 267

Chapter 16:

Programming

Getting Started: Volume of a Cylinder

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

A program is a set of commands that the TI-84 Plus executes sequentially, as if you had entered them from the keyboard. Create a program that prompts for the radius R and the height H of a cylinder and then computes its volume.

1.

Press

 ~ ~ to display the

PRGM NEW

menu.

2.

Press

Í to select

1:Create New

. The

Name= prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on. Press

C

Y L I N D E R

, and then press

Í to name the program

CYLINDER

.

You are now in the program editor. The colon (

:

) in the first column of the second line indicates the beginning of a command line.

3.

Press

 ~

2

to select

2:Prompt

from the

PRGM I/O

menu.

Prompt

is copied to the command line. Press

ƒ

R

¢ ƒ

H

to enter the variable names for radius and height. Press

Í.

4.

Press y B ƒ

R

¡ ƒ

H

¿ ƒ

V

Í to enter the expression pR

2

H and store it to the variable

V

.

5.

Press

 ~

3

to select

3:Disp

from the

PRGM I/O

menu.

Disp

is pasted to the command line. Press y 7

[

ã

] V O L U M E

O

I S [

ã

]

ƒ ¢ ƒ

V

Í to set up the program to display the text

VOLUME IS

on one line and the calculated value of

V

on the next.

6.

Press y 5 to display the home screen.

Chapter 16: Programming 268

7.

Press

 to display the

PRGM EXEC

menu. The items on this menu are the names of stored programs.

8.

Press

Í to paste prgmCYLINDER

to the current cursor location. (If

CYLINDER

is not item

1

on your

PRGM EXEC

menu, move the cursor to

CYLINDER

before you press

Í.)

9.

Press

Í to execute the program. Enter

1.5

the radius, and then press

Í. Enter height, and then press

Í. The text

3

for

for the

VOLUME IS

, the value of

V

, and

Done

are displayed.

Repeat steps 7 through 9 and enter different values for

R

and

H

.

Creating and Deleting Programs

What Is a Program?

A program is a set of one or more command lines. Each line contains one or more instructions.

When you execute a program, the TI-84 Plus performs each instruction on each command line in the same order in which you entered them. The number and size of programs that the TI-84 Plus can store is limited only by available memory.

What Is New with Operating System 2.53MP?

• Programs created with OS 2.43 and earlier should run correctly but may give unexpected results when you run them using OS 2.53MP. You should test programs created with earlier

OS versions to make sure you get the desired results.

• Programs can run in Classic or MathPrint™ mode.

• Shortcut menus are available wherever the MATH menu can be accessed.

• MathPrint™ templates are not available for programs. All input and output is in Classic format.

• You can use fractions in programs, but you should test the program to make sure that you get the desired results.

• The spacing of the display may be slightly different in MathPrint™ mode than in Classic mode.

If you prefer the spacing in Classic mode, set the mode using a command in your program.

Screen shots for the examples in this chapter were taken in Classic mode.

Chapter 16: Programming 269

Creating a New Program

To create a new program, follow these steps.

1.

Press

 | to display the

PRGM NEW

menu.

2.

Press

Í to select

1:Create New

. The

Name=

prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on.

3.

Press a letter from A to Z or q to enter the first character of the new program name.

Note:

A program name can be one to eight characters long. The first character must be a letter from A to Z or q. The second through eighth characters can be letters, numbers, or q.

4.

Enter zero to seven letters, numbers, or q to complete the new program name.

5.

Press

Í. The program editor is displayed.

6.

Enter one or more program commands.

7.

Press y 5 to leave the program editor and return to the home screen.

Managing Memory and Deleting a Program

To check whether adequate memory is available for a program you want to enter:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu (Chapter 18).

3.

Select

7:Prgm

to display the

PRGM

editor.

The TI-84 Plus expresses memory quantities in bytes.

You can increase available memory in one of two ways. You can delete one or more programs or you can archive some programs.

To increase available memory by deleting a specific program:

1.

Press y L and then select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

from the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

7:Prgm

to display the

PRGM

editor (Chapter 18).

Chapter 16: Programming 270

3.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the program you want to delete, and then press

{. The program is deleted from memory.

Note:

You will receive a message asking you to confirm this delete action. Select

2:yes

to continue.

To leave the

PRGM

editor screen without deleting anything, press y 5, which displays the home screen.

To increase available memory by archiving a program:

4.

Press y L and then select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

from the

MEMORY

menu.

5.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEM MGMT/DEL

menu.

6.

Select

7:Prgm...

to display the

PRGM

menu.

7.

Press

Í to archive the program. An asterisk will appear to the left of the program to indicate it is an archived program.

To unarchive a program in this screen, put the cursor next to the archived program and press

Í. The asterisk will disappear.

Note:

Archive programs cannot be edited or executed. In order to edit or execute an archived program, you must first unarchive it.

Entering Command Lines and Executing Programs

Entering a Program Command Line

You can enter on a command line any instruction or expression that you could execute from the home screen. In the program editor, each new command line begins with a colon. To enter more than one instruction or expression on a single command line, separate each with a colon.

Note:

A command line can be longer than the screen is wide.

While in the program editor, you can display and select from menus. You can return to the program editor from a menu in either of two ways.

• Select a menu item, which pastes the item to the current command line.

— or —

• Press

‘.

When you complete a command line, press

Í. The cursor moves to the next command line.

Chapter 16: Programming 271

Programs can access variables, lists, matrices, and strings saved in memory. If a program stores a new value to a variable, list, matrix, or string, the program changes the value in memory during execution.

You can call another program as a subroutine.

Executing a Program

To execute a program, begin on a blank line on the home screen and follow these steps.

1.

Press

 to display the

PRGM EXEC

menu.

2.

Select a program name from the

PRGM EXEC

menu.

prgmname

is pasted to the home screen

(for example,

prgmCYLINDER

).

3.

Press

Í to execute the program. While the program is executing, the busy indicator is on.

Last Answer (

Ans

) is updated during program execution. Last Entry is not updated as each command is executed (Chapter 1).

The TI-84 Plus checks for errors during program execution. It does not check for errors as you enter a program.

Breaking a Program

To stop program execution, press

É. The

ERR:BREAK

menu is displayed.

• To return to the home screen, select

1:Quit

.

• To go where the interruption occurred, select

2:Goto

.

Editing Programs

Editing a Program

To edit a stored program, follow these steps.

1.

Press

 ~ to display the

PRGM EDIT

menu.

2.

Select a program name from the

PRGM EDIT

menu. Up to the first seven lines of the program are displayed.

Note:

The program editor does not display a

$ to indicate that a program continues beyond the screen.

3.

Edit the program command lines.

• Move the cursor to the appropriate location, and then delete, overwrite, or insert.

• Press

‘ to clear all program commands on the command line (the leading colon remains), and then enter a new program command.

Chapter 16: Programming 272

Note:

To move the cursor to the beginning of a command line, press y |; to move to the end, press y ~. To scroll the cursor down seven command lines, press ƒ †. To scroll the cursor up seven command lines, press

ƒ }.

Inserting and Deleting Command Lines

To insert a new command line anywhere in the program, place the cursor where you want the new line, press y 6, and then press Í. A colon indicates a new line.

To delete a command line, place the cursor on the line, press

‘ to clear all instructions and expressions on the line, and then press

{ to delete the command line, including the colon.

Copying and Renaming Programs

Copying and Renaming a Program

To copy all command lines from one program into a new program, follow steps 1 through 5 for

Creating a New Program, and then follow these steps.

1.

Press y K.

Rcl

is displayed on the bottom line of the program editor in the new program

(Chapter 1).

2.

Press

 | to display the

PRGM EXEC

menu.

3.

Select a name from the menu.

prgmname

is pasted to the bottom line of the program editor.

4.

Press

Í. All command lines from the selected program are copied into the new program.

Copying programs has at least two convenient applications.

• You can create a template for groups of instructions that you use frequently.

• You can rename a program by copying its contents into a new program.

Note:

You also can copy all the command lines from one existing program to another existing program using

RCL

.

Scrolling the PRGM EXEC and PRGM EDIT Menus

The TI-84 Plus sorts

PRGM EXEC

and

PRGM EDIT

menu items automatically into alphanumerical order. Each menu only labels the first 10 items using 1 through 9, then 0.

To jump to the first program name that begins with a particular alpha character or q, press ƒ

[letter from A to Z or q].

Note:

From the top of either the

PRGM EXEC

or

PRGM EDIT

menu, press

} to move to the bottom.

From the bottom, press

† to move to the top. To scroll the cursor down the menu seven items, press

ƒ †. To scroll the cursor up the menu seven items, press ƒ }.

Chapter 16: Programming 273

PRGM CTL (Control) Instructions

PRGM CTL Menu

To display the

PRGM CTL

(program control) menu, press

 from the program editor only.

CTL

1: If

I/O EXEC

2: Then

3: Else

4: For(

5: While

6: Repeat

7: End

8: Pause

9: Lbl

0: Goto

A: IS>(

B: DS<(

C: Menu(

D: prgm

E: Return

F: Stop

G: DelVar

H: GraphStyle(

I: OpenLib(

J: ExecLib(

Creates a conditional test.

Executes commands when If is true.

Executes commands when If is false.

Creates an incrementing loop.

Creates a conditional loop.

Creates a conditional loop.

Signifies the end of a block.

Pauses program execution.

Defines a label.

Goes to a label.

Increments and skips if greater than.

Decrements and skips if less than.

Defines menu items and branches.

Executes a program as a subroutine.

Returns from a subroutine.

Stops execution.

Deletes a variable from within program.

Designates the graph style to be drawn.

No longer used.

No longer used.

These menu items direct the flow of an executing program. They make it easy to repeat or skip a group of commands during program execution. When you select an item from the menu, the name is pasted to the cursor location on a command line in the program.

To return to the program editor without selecting an item, press

‘.

Controlling Program Flow

Program control instructions tell the TI-84 Plus which command to execute next in a program.

If

,

While

, and

Repeat

check a defined condition to determine which command to execute next.

Conditions frequently use relational or Boolean tests (Chapter 2), as in:

Chapter 16: Programming 274

If A<7:A+1

!

A

or

If N=1 and M=1:Goto Z

If

Use

If

for testing and branching. If

condition

is false (zero), then the

command

immediately following

If

is skipped. If

condition

is true (nonzero), then the next

command

is executed.

If

instructions can be nested.

:If condition

:command (if true)

:command

Program Output

If-Then

Then

following an

If

executes a group of

commands

if

condition

is true (nonzero).

End

identifies the end of the group of

commands

.

:If condition

:Then

:command (if true)

:command (if true)

:End

:command

Program Output

If-Then-Else

Else

following

If-Then

executes a group of

commands

if

condition

is false (zero).

End

identifies the end of the group of

commands

.

:If condition

:Then

:command (if true)

Chapter 16: Programming 275

:command (if true)

:Else

:command (if false)

:command (if false)

:End

:command

Program Output

Note

: In OS 2.53MP, the program name displays again when you press

Í to repeat the program.

For(

For(

loops and increments. It increments

variable

from

begin

to

end

by

increment

.

increment

is optional

(default is 1) and can be negative (

end

<

begin

).

end

is a maximum or minimum value not to be exceeded.

End

identifies the end of the loop.

For(

loops can be nested.

:For(variable,begin,end[,increment])

:command (while end not exceeded)

:command (while end not exceeded)

:End

:command

Program Output

While

While

performs a group of

commands

while

condition

is true.

condition

is frequently a relational test

(Chapter 2).

condition

is tested when

While

is encountered. If

condition

is true (nonzero), the program executes a group of

commands

.

End

signifies the end of the group. When

condition

is false (zero), the program executes each

command

following

End

.

While

instructions can be nested.

:While condition

:command (while condition is true)

:command (while condition is true)

Chapter 16: Programming 276

:End

:command

Program Output

Repeat

Repeat

repeats a group of

commands

until

condition

is true (nonzero). It is similar to

While

, but

condition

is tested when

End

is encountered; therefore, the group of

commands

is always executed at least once.

Repeat

instructions can be nested.

:Repeat condition

:command (until condition is true)

:command (until condition is true)

:End

:command

Program Output

End

End

identifies the end of a group of

commands

. You must include an

End

instruction at the end of each

For(

,

While

, or

Repeat

loop. Also, you must paste an

End

instruction at the end of each

If-Then

group and each

If-Then-Else

group.

Pause

Pause

suspends execution of the program so that you can see answers or graphs. During the pause, the pause indicator is on in the top-right corner. Press

Í to resume execution.

Pause

without a

value

temporarily pauses the program. If the

DispGraph

or

Disp

instruction has been executed, the appropriate screen is displayed.

Pause

with

value

displays

value

on the current home screen.

value

can be scrolled.

Chapter 16: Programming 277

Pause [value]

Program Output

Lbl, Goto

Lbl

(label) and

Goto

(go to) are used together for branching.

Lbl

specifies the

label

for a command.

label

can be one or two characters (A through Z, 0 through

99, or q).

Lbl

label

Goto

causes the program to branch to

label

when

Goto

is encountered.

Goto label

Program Output

Chapter 16: Programming 278

IS>(

IS>(

(increment and skip) adds 1 to

variable.

If the answer is >

value

(which can be an expression), the next

command

is skipped; if the answer is

{

value

, the next

command

is executed.

variable

cannot be a system variable.

:IS>(variable,value)

:command (if answer

value)

:command (if answer > value)

Program Output

Note: IS>(

is not a looping instruction.

DS<(

DS<(

(decrement and skip) subtracts 1 from

variable

. If the answer is <

value

(which can be an expression), the next

command

is skipped; if the answer is

|

value

, the next

command

is executed.

variable

cannot be a system variable.

:DS<(variable,value)

:command (if answer

value)

:command (if answer < value)

Program Output

Note: DS<(

is not a looping instruction.

Menu(

Menu(

sets up branching within a program. If

Menu(

is encountered during program execution, the menu screen is displayed with the specified menu items, the pause indicator is on, and execution pauses until you select a menu item.

The menu

title

is enclosed in quotation marks (

"

). Up to seven pairs of menu items follow. Each pair comprises a

text

item (also enclosed in quotation marks) to be displayed as a menu selection, and a

label

item to which to branch if you select the corresponding menu selection.

Menu("title","text1",label1,"text2",label2, . . .)

Program Output

Chapter 16: Programming 279

The program above pauses until you select

1

or

2

. If you select

2

, for example, the menu disappears and the program continues execution at

Lbl B

.

prgm

Use

prgm

to execute other programs as subroutines. When you select

prgm

, it is pasted to the cursor location. Enter characters to spell a program

name

. Using

prgm

is equivalent to selecting existing programs from the

PRGM EXEC

menu; however, it allows you to enter the name of a program that you have not yet created.

prgmname

Note:

You cannot directly enter the subroutine name when using

RCL

. You must paste the name from the

PRGM EXEC

menu.

Return

Return

quits the subroutine and returns execution to the calling program, even if encountered within nested loops. Any loops are ended. An implied

Return

exists at the end of any program that is called as a subroutine. Within the main program,

Return

stops execution and returns to the home screen.

Stop

Stop

stops execution of a program and returns to the home screen.

Stop

is optional at the end of a program.

DelVar

DelVar

deletes from memory the contents of

variable

.

DelVar variable

Chapter 16: Programming 280

GraphStyle(

GraphStyle(

designates the style of the graph to be drawn.

function#

is the number of the Y= function name in the current graphing mode.

graphstyle

is a number from 1 to 7 that corresponds to the graph style, as shown below.

1

=

ç (line)

2

=

è (thick)

3

=

é (shade above)

4

=

ê (shade below)

5

=

ë (path)

6

=

ì (animate)

7

=

í (dot)

GraphStyle(function#,graphstyle)

For example,

GraphStyle(1,5)

in

Func

mode sets the graph style for Y1 to

ë (path; 5).

Not all graph styles are available in all graphing modes. For a detailed description of each graph style, see the Graph Styles table in Chapter 3.

PRGM I/O (Input/Output) Instructions

PRGM I/O Menu

To display the

PRGM I/O

(program input/output) menu, press

 ~ from within the program editor only.

CTL I/O EXEC

1: Input

Enters a value or uses the cursor.

2: Prompt

Prompts for entry of variable values.

3: Disp

Displays text, value, or the home screen.

4: DispGraph

Displays the current graph.

5: DispTable

Displays the current table.

6: Output(

Displays text at a specified position.

7: getKey

Checks the keyboard for a keystroke.

8: ClrHome

Clears the display.

9: ClrTable

Clears the current table.

0: GetCalc(

Gets a variable from another TI-84 Plus.

A: Get(

Gets a variable from CBL 2™ or CBR™.

B: Send(

Sends a variable to CBL 2 or CBR.

These instructions control input to and output from a program during execution. They allow you to enter values and display answers during program execution.

To return to the program editor without selecting an item, press

‘.

Chapter 16: Programming 281

Displaying a Graph with Input

Input

without a variable displays the current graph. You can move the free-moving cursor, which updates X and Y (and R and q for

PolarGC

format). The pause indicator is on. Press

Í to resume program execution.

Input

Program Output

Storing a Variable Value with Input

Input

with

variable

displays a

?

(question mark) prompt during execution.

variable

may be a real number, complex number, list, matrix, string, or Y= function. During program execution, enter a value, which can be an expression, and then press

Í. The value is evaluated and stored to

variable

, and the program resumes execution.

Input [variable]

You can display

text

or the contents of

Strn

(a string variable) of up to 16 characters as a prompt.

During program execution, enter a value after the prompt and then press

Í. The value is stored to

variable

, and the program resumes execution.

Input ["text",variable]

Input [Strn,variable]

Program Output

Chapter 16: Programming 282

Note:

When a program prompts for input of lists and

Yn

functions during execution, you must include the braces (

{ }

) around the list elements and quotation marks (

"

) around the expressions.

Prompt

During program execution,

Prompt

displays each

variable

, one at a time, followed by

=?

. At each prompt, enter a value or expression for each

variable

, and then press

Í. The values are stored, and the program resumes execution.

Prompt variableA[,variableB,...,variable n]

Program Output

Note:

Y= functions are not valid with

Prompt

.

Displaying the Home Screen

Disp

(display) without a value displays the home screen. To view the home screen during program execution, follow the

Disp

instruction with a

Pause

instruction.

Disp

Displaying Values and Messages

Disp

with one or more

values

displays the value of each.

Disp [valueA,valueB,valueC,...,value n]

• If

value

is a variable, the current value is displayed.

• If

value

is an expression, it is evaluated and the result is displayed on the right side of the next line.

• If

value

is text within quotation marks, it is displayed on the left side of the current display line.

! is not valid as text.

Program Output

If

Pause

is encountered after

Disp

, the program halts temporarily so you can examine the screen.

To resume execution, press

Í.

Chapter 16: Programming 283

Note:

If a matrix or list is too large to display in its entirety, ellipses (

...

) are displayed in the last column, but the matrix or list cannot be scrolled. To scroll, use

Pause

value

.

DispGraph

DispGraph

(display graph) displays the current graph. If

Pause

is encountered after

DispGraph

, the program halts temporarily so you can examine the screen. Press

Í to resume execution.

DispTable

DispTable

(display table) displays the current table. The program halts temporarily so you can examine the screen. Press

Í to resume execution.

Output(

Output(

displays

text

or

value

on the current home screen beginning at

row

(1 through 8) and

column

(1 through 16), overwriting any existing characters.

Note:

You may want to precede

Output(

with

ClrHome

.

Expressions are evaluated and values are displayed according to the current mode settings.

Matrices are displayed in entry format and wrap to the next line.

! is not valid as text.

Output(row,column,"text")

Output(row,column,value)

Program Output

For

Output(

on a

Horiz

split screen, the maximum value for

row

is 4.

Chapter 16: Programming 284

getKey getKey

returns a number corresponding to the last key pressed, according to the key code diagram below. If no key has been pressed,

getKey

returns 0. Use

getKey

inside loops to transfer control, for example, when creating video games.

Program Output

Note:

,

Œ

,

, and

Í

were pressed during program execution.

Note:

You can press

É at any time during execution to break the program.

TI-84 Plus Key Code Diagram

ClrHome, ClrTable

ClrHome

(clear home screen) clears the home screen during program execution.

ClrTable

(clear table) clears the values in the table during program execution.

GetCalc(

GetCalc(

gets the contents of

variable

on another TI-84 Plus and stores it to

variable

on the receiving

TI-84 Plus.

variable

can be a real or complex number, list element, list name, matrix element, matrix name, string, Y= variable, graph database, or picture.

Chapter 16: Programming 285

GetCalc(variable

[,

portflag

]

)

By default, the TI-84 Plus uses the USB port if it is connected. If the USB cable is not connected, it uses the I/O port. If you want to specify either the USB or I/O port, use the following portflag numbers:

portflag

=0 use USB port if connected;

portflag

=1 use USB port;

portflag

=2 use I/O port

Note: GetCalc(

does not work between TI

.82 and TI-83 Plus or a TI.82 and TI-84 Plus calculators.

Get(, Send(

Get(

gets data from the CBL 2™ or CBR™ and stores it to

variable

on the receiving TI-84 Plus.

variable

can be a real number, list element, list name, matrix element, matrix name, string,

Y= variable, graph database, or picture.

Get(variable)

Note:

If you transfer a program that references the

Get(

command to the TI-84 Plus from a TI

.82, the TI-84 Plus will interpret it as the

Get(

described above. Use

GetCalc(

to get data from another

TI-84 Plus.

Send(

sends the contents of

variable

to the CBL 2™ or CBR™. You cannot use it to send to another

TI-84 Plus.

variable

can be a real number, list element, list name, matrix element, matrix name, string, Y= variable, graph database, or picture.

variable

can be a list of elements.

Send(variable)

Note: This program gets sound data and time in seconds from CBL 2™.

Note:

You can access

Get(

,

Send(

, and

GetCalc(

from the CATALOG to execute them from the home screen (Chapter 15).

Calling Other Programs as Subroutines

Calling a Program from Another Program

On the TI-84 Plus, any stored program can be called from another program as a subroutine. Enter the name of the program to use as a subroutine on a line by itself.

You can enter a program name on a command line in either of two ways.

• Press

 | to display the

PRGM EXEC

menu and select the name of the program

prgmname is pasted to the current cursor location on a command line.

Chapter 16: Programming 286

• Select

prgm

from the

PRGM CTL

menu, and then enter the program name.

prgmname

When

prgmname

is encountered during execution, the next command that the program executes is the first command in the second program. It returns to the subsequent command in the first program when it encounters either

Return

or the implied

Return

at the end of the second program.

Program Output

Subroutine

( '

Notes about Calling Programs

Variables are global.

label

used with

Goto

and

Lbl

is local to the program where it is located.

label

in one program is not recognized by another program. You cannot use

Goto

to branch to a

label

in another program.

Return

exits a subroutine and returns to the calling program, even if it is encountered within nested loops.

Running an Assembly Language Program

You can run programs written for the TI-84 Plus in assembly language. Typically, assembly language programs run much faster and provide greater control than than the keystroke programs that you write with the built-in program editor.

Note:

Because an assembly langauge program has greater control over the calculator, if your assembly language program has error(s), it may cause your calculator to reset and lose all data, programs, and applications stored in memory.

When you download an assembly language program, it is stored among the other programs as a

PRGM

menu item. You can:

• Transmit it using the TI-84 Plus communication link (Chapter 19).

• Delete it using the MEM MGMT DEL screen (Chapter 18).

To run an assembly Program, the syntax is:

Asm(assemblyprgmname)

Chapter 16: Programming 287

If you write an assembly language program, use the two instructions below from the CATALOG to identify and compile the program.

Instructions

AsmComp(prgmASM1,

prgmASM2)

AsmPrgm

Comments

Compiles an assembly language program written in

ASCII and stores the hex version

Identifies an assembly language program; must be entered as the first line of an assembly language program

To compile an assembly program that you have written:

1.

Follow the steps for writing a program (16-4) but be sure to include

AsmPrgm

as the first line of your program.

2.

From the home screen, press y N and then select

AsmComp(

to paste it to the screen.

3.

Press

 to display the

PRGM EXEC

menu.

4.

Select the program you want to compile. It will be pasted to the home screen.

5.

Press

¢ and then select

prgm

from the

CATALOG

.

6.

Key in the name you have chosen for the output program.

Note:

This name must be unique — not a copy of an existing program name.

7.

Press

¤ to complete the sequence.

The sequence of the arguments should be as follows:

AsmComp(prgmASM1, prgmASM2

)

8.

Press

Í to compile your program and generate the output program.

Chapter 16: Programming 288

Chapter 17:

Activities

The Quadratic Formula

Note

: This example uses MathPrint™ mode for real answers and Classic mode for non-real

(complex) results. You can also use the Polynomial Root Finder/Simultaneous Equation Solver application to solve these types of problems with a quick set-up. This application comes preloaded on your TI-84 Plus and can be downloaded from education.ti.com

.

Use the quadratic formula to solve the quadratic equations 2x

2

N 11x + 14 = 0 and

2x

2

N 6x + 5 = 0.

Graphing the Functions

Before you begin, look at the graphs of the functions to see the approximate locations of the solutions.

1.

Press o to display the Y= editor.

2.

Press

2

„ ¡ ¹

11

„ Ã

14

for

Y1, and then press

Í.

3.

Press

2

„ ¡ ¹

6

„ Ã

5

for Y2.

4.

Press q and select

4:ZDecimal

. The graph of the functions displays.

You can see that the graph of the first function, 2x

2

N 11x + 14 = 0, crosses the x-axis, so it has a real solution. The graph of the second function does not cross the x-axis, so it has a complex solution.

Chapter 17: Activities 289

Entering a Calculation

Begin with the equation 2x

2

N 11x + 14 = 0.

1.

Press

2

¿ ƒ

A

to store the coefficient of the x

2

term.

2.

Press

ƒ [:]. The colon allows you to enter more than one instruction on a line.

3.

Press

Ì

11

¿ ƒ

B

to store the coefficient of the X term. Press

ƒ [:] to enter a new instruction on the same line. Press

14

¿ ƒ

C

to store the constant.

4.

Press

Í to store the values to the variables A, B, and C.

5.

The last value you stored is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for your next entry.

6.

Press

ƒ ^

1

Ì ƒ

B

à y C

ƒ

B

¡ ¹

4

ƒ

A

ƒ

C

~ ~

2

ƒ

A

to enter the expression for one of the solutions for the quadratic formula,

b

2

– 4ac

2a

7.

Press

Í to find one solution for the equation 2x

2

N 11x + 14 = 0.

The answer is shown on the right side of the display. The cursor moves to the next line, ready for you to enter the next expression.

Converting to a Decimal

You can show the solution as a fraction.

1.

Press

ƒ ^

4

to select

4

F

3 4

D

from the

FRAC

shortcut menu.

Chapter 17: Activities 290

2.

Press

Í to convert the result to a decimal.

To save keystrokes, you can scroll up to find an expression you entered, copy it, and then edit it for a new calculation.

3.

Press

} to highlight and then press

Í to paste it to the entry line.

4.

Press

| until the cursor is on the

+

sign in the formula. Press

¹ to edit the quadratic-formula expression to become

.

5.

Press

Í to find the other solution for the quadratic equation

2x

2

N 11x + 14 = 0.

Displaying Complex Results

Now solve the equation 2x

2

N 6x + 5 = 0. When you set

a+bi

complex number mode, the TI-84

Plus displays complex results.

1.

Press z † † † † † † (6 times), and then press

~ to highlight

a+bi

. Press

Í to select

a+bi

complex-number mode.

2.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen, and then press

‘ to clear it.

Chapter 17: Activities 291

3.

Press

2

¿ ƒ

A

ƒ [:] Ì

6

¿ ƒ

B

ƒ [:]

5

¿ ƒ

C

Í.

The coefficient of the x

2

term, the coefficient of the X term, and the constant for the new equation are stored to A, B, and C, respectively.

4.

Enter the quadratic formula using Classic entry:

£ Ì ƒ

B

à y C ƒ

B

¡ ¹

4

ƒ

A

ƒ

C

~ ¤ ¥ £

2

ƒ

A

¤.

Because the solution is a complex number, you have to enter the formula using the division operation instead of using the

n/d

shortcut template. Complex numbers are not valid in the

n/d

template in input or output and will cause

Error: Data Type

to display.

5.

Press

Í to find one solution for the equation 2x

2

N 6x + 5 = 0.

6.

Press

} to highlight the quadraticformula expression, and then press

Í to paste it to the entry line.

7.

Press

| until the cursor is on the

+

sign in the formula. Press

¹ to edit the quadratic-formula expression to become

.

8.

Press

Í to find the other solution for the quadratic equation: 2x

2

N 6x + 5 = 0.

Chapter 17: Activities 292

Box with Lid

Defining a Function

Take a 20 cm × 25 cm. sheet of paper and cut X × X squares from two corners. Cut X × 12½ cm rectangles from the other two corners as shown in the diagram below. Fold the paper into a box with a lid. What value of X would give your box the maximum volume V? Use the table and graphs to determine the solution.

Begin by defining a function that describes the volume of the box.

From the diagram:

2X + A = 20

2X + 2B = 25

V = A

…B…X

Substituting:

V = (20

N 2X) (25à2 N X) X

X

20 A

X B

1.

Press o to display the

Y=

editor, which is where you define functions for tables and graphing.

25

X B

2.

Press

£

20

¹

2

„ ¤ £

25

t

^

1 2

~ ¹ „ ¤ „ Í to define the volume function as

Y1

in terms of

X

.

„ lets you enter

X

quickly, without having to press

ƒ. The highlighted

=

sign indicates that

Y1

is selected.

Defining a Table of Values

The table feature of the TI-84 Plus displays numeric information about a function. You can use a table of values from the function you just defined to estimate an answer to the problem.

1.

Press y - to display the

TABLE

SETUP

menu.

2.

Press

Í to accept

TblStart=0

.

3.

Press

1

Í to define the table increment

@

Tbl=1

. Leave

Indpnt: Auto

and

Depend: Auto

so that the table will be generated automatically.

Chapter 17: Activities 293

4.

Press y 0 to display the table.

Notice that the maximum value for

Y1

(box’s volume) occurs when

X

is about

4

, between

3

and

5

.

5.

Press and hold

† to scroll the table until a negative result for

Y1

is displayed.

Notice that the maximum length of

X

for this problem occurs where the sign of

Y1

(box’s volume) changes from positive to negative, between

10

and

11

.

6.

Press y -.

Notice that

TblStart

has changed to

5

to reflect the first line of the table as it was last displayed. (In step 5, the first value of

X

displayed in the table is

5

.)

Zooming In on the Table

You can adjust the way a table is displayed to get more information about a defined function. With smaller values for

@

Tbl

, you can zoom in on the table. You can change the values on the TBLSET screen by pressing y - or by pressing à on the TABLE screen

1.

Press y 0.

2.

Press

} to move the cursor to highlight

3

.

3.

Press

Ã. The @

Tbl

displays on the entry line.

4.

Enter

Ë

1

Í. The table updates, showing the changes in X in increments of 0.1.

Notice that the maximum value for

Y1

in this table view is

410.26

, which occurs at

X=3.7

. Therefore, the maximum occurs where

3.6<X<3.8

.

5.

With X=3.6 highlighted, press

Ã

Í to set @

Tbl

=0.01.

Ë

01

Chapter 17: Activities 294

6.

Press

† and } to scroll the table.

Four equivalent maximum values are shown,

410.26

at

X=3.67

,

3.68

,

3.69

, and

3.70

.

7.

Press

† or } to move the cursor to

3.67

.

Press

~ to move the cursor into the

Y1

column.

The value of

Y1

at

X=3.67

is displayed on the bottom line in full precision as

410.261226

.

8.

Press

† to display the other maximum.

The value of

Y1

at

X=3.68

in full precision is

410.264064

, at

X=3.69

is

410.262318

and at

X=3.7

is

410.256

.

The maximum volume of the box would occur at

3.68

if you could measure and cut the paper at .01-centimeter increments.

Setting the Viewing Window

You also can use the graphing features of the TI-84 Plus to find the maximum value of a previously defined function. When the graph is activated, the viewing window defines the displayed portion of the coordinate plane. The values of the window variables determine the size of the viewing window.

1.

Press p to display the window editor, where you can view and edit the values of the window variables.

The standard window variables define the viewing window as shown.

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Ymin

, and

Ymax

define the boundaries of the display.

Xscl

and

Yscl

define the distance between tick marks on the

X

and

Y

axes.

Xres

controls resolution.

Chapter 17: Activities 295

2.

Press

0

Í to define

Xmin

.

3.

Press

20

¥

2

to define

Xmax

using an expression.

Note

: For this example, the division sign is used for the calculation. However, you can use n/d entry format where fraction output can be experienced, depending on mode settings.

4.

Press

Í. The expression is evaluated, and

10

is stored in

Xmax

.

Press

Í to accept

Xscl

as

1

.

5.

Press

0

Í

500

Í

100

Í

1

Í to define the remaining window variables.

Displaying and Tracing the Graph

Now that you have defined the function to be graphed and the window in which to graph it, you can display and explore the graph. You can trace along a function using the

TRACE

feature.

1.

Press s to graph the selected function in the viewing window.

The graph of

Y1=(20

N

2X)(25

à

2

N

X)X

is displayed.

2.

Press

~ to activate the free-moving graph cursor.

The

X

and

Y

coordinate values for the position of the graph cursor are displayed on the bottom line.

3.

Press

|, ~, }, and † to move the freemoving cursor to the apparent maximum of the function.

As you move the cursor, the

X

and

Y

coordinate values are updated continually.

4.

Press r. The trace cursor is displayed on the

Y1

function.

The function that you are tracing is displayed in the top-left corner.

5.

Press

| and ~ to trace along

Y1

, one

X

dot at a time, evaluating

Y1

at each

X

.

Chapter 17: Activities 296

You also can enter your estimate for the maximum value of

X

.

6.

Press

3

Ë

8

. When you press a number key while in

TRACE

, the

X=

prompt is displayed in the bottom-left corner.

7.

Press

Í.

The trace cursor jumps to the point on the

Y1

function evaluated at

X=3.8

.

8.

Press

| and ~ until you are on the maximum

Y

value.

This is the maximum of

Y1(X)

for the

X

pixel values. The actual, precise maximum may lie between pixel values.

Zooming In on the Graph

To help identify maximums, minimums, roots, and intersections of functions, you can magnify the viewing window at a specific location using the

ZOOM

instructions.

1.

Press q to display the

ZOOM

menu.

This menu is a typical TI-84 Plus menu.

To select an item, you can either press the number or letter next to the item, or you can press

† until the item number or letter is highlighted, and then press

Í.

2.

Press

2

to select

2:Zoom In

.

The graph is displayed again. The cursor has changed to indicate that you are using a

ZOOM

instruction.

3.

With the cursor near the maximum value of the function, press

Í.

The new viewing window is displayed.

Both

Xmax

N

Xmin

and

Ymax

N

Ymin

have been adjusted by factors of 4, the default values for the zoom factors.

4.

Press

| and

~ to search for the maximum value.

Chapter 17: Activities 297

5.

Press p to display the new window settings.

Note

: To return to the previous graph, press q ~

1:ZPrevious

.

Finding the Calculated Maximum

You can use a

CALCULATE

menu operation to calculate a local maximum of a function. To do this, pick a point to the left of where you think the maximum is on the graph. This is called the left bound. Next, pick a point to the right of the maximum. This is called the right bound. Finally, guess the maximum by moving the cursor to a point between the left and right bounds. With this information, the maximum can be calculated by the methods programmed in the TI-84 Plus.

1.

Press y / to display the

CALCULATE

menu. Press

4

to select

4:maximum

.

The graph is displayed again with a

Left Bound?

prompt.

2.

Press

| to trace along the curve to a point to the left of the maximum, and then press

Í.

A

4 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.

A

Right Bound?

prompt is displayed.

3.

Press

~ to trace along the curve to a point to the right of the maximum, and then press

Í.

A

3 at the top of the screen indicates the selected bound.

A

Guess?

prompt is displayed.

4.

Press

| to trace to a point near the maximum, and then press

Í.

Chapter 17: Activities 298

Or, press

3

Ë

8

, and then press

Í to enter a guess for the maximum.

When you press a number key in

TRACE

, the

X=

prompt is displayed in the bottomleft corner.

Notice how the values for the calculated maximum compare with the maximums found with the free-moving cursor, the trace cursor, and the table.

Note:

In steps 2 and 3 above, you can enter values directly for Left Bound and

Right Bound, in the same way as described in step 4.

Chapter 17: Activities 299

Comparing Test Results Using Box Plots

Problem

An experiment found a significant difference between boys and girls pertaining to their ability to identify objects held in their left hands, which are controlled by the right side of their brains, versus their right hands, which are controlled by the left side of their brains. The TI Graphics team conducted a similar test for adult men and women.

The test involved 30 small objects, which participants were not allowed to see. First, they held 15 of the objects one by one in their left hands and guessed what they were. Then they held the other

15 objects one by one in their right hands and guessed what they were. Use box plots to compare visually the correct-guess data from this table.

Each row in the table represents the results observed for one subject. Note that 10 women and 12 men were tested.

Women

Left

8

9

12

11

10

8

12

7

9

11

11

13

12

11

12

4

Correct Guesses

Women

Right

Men

Left

7

12

11

1

8

5

7

8

7

14

13

5

8

11

4

10

11

9

9

11

12

8

12

Men

Right

12

6

12

12

7

Procedure

1.

Press

5

to select

5:SetUpEditor

. Enter list names

WLEFT

,

WRGHT

,

MLEFT

, and

MRGHT

, separated by commas. Press

Í. The stat list editor now contains only these four lists. (See

Chapter 11: Lists for detailed instructions for using the

SetUpEditor

.)

2.

Press

1

to select

1:Edit

.

3.

Enter into

WLEFT

the number of correct guesses each woman made using her left hand

(

Women Left

). Press

~ to move to

WRGHT

and enter the number of correct guesses each woman made using her right hand (

Women Right

).

4.

Likewise, enter each man’s correct guesses in

MLEFT

(

Men Left

) and

MRGHT

(

Men Right

).

Chapter 17: Activities 300

5.

Press y ,. Select

1:Plot1

. Turn on plot 1; define it as a modified box plot

Õ that uses

Xlist as

WLEFT

. Move the cursor to the top line and select

Plot2

. Turn on plot 2; define it as a modified box plot that uses Xlist as

WRGHT

. (See Chapter 12: Statistics for detailed information on using Stat Plots.)

6.

Press o. Turn off all functions.

7.

Press p. Set

Xscl=1

and

Yscl=0

. Press q

9

to select

9:ZoomStat

. This adjusts the viewing window and displays the box plots for the women’s results.

8.

Press r.

Women’s left-hand data

Women’s right-hand data

Use

| and ~ to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. Notice the outlier to the women’s right-hand data. What is the median for the left hand? For the right hand? With which hand were the women more accurate guessers, according to the box plots?

9.

Examine the men’s results. Redefine plot 1 to use

MLEFT

, redefine plot 2 to use

MRGHT

. Press r.

Men’s left-hand data

Men’s right-hand data

Press

| and ~ to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. What difference do you see between the plots?

10. Compare the left-hand results. Redefine plot 1 to use

WLEFT

, redefine plot 2 to use

MLEFT

, and then press r to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. Who were the better left-hand guessers, men or women?

11. Compare the right-hand results. Define plot 1 to use

WRGHT

, define plot 2 to use

MRGHT

, and then press r to examine

minX

,

Q1

,

Med

,

Q3

, and

maxX

for each plot. Who were the better right-hand guessers?

In the original experiment boys did not guess as well with right hands, while girls guessed equally well with either hand. This is not what our box plots show for adults. Do you think that this is because adults have learned to adapt or because our sample was not large enough?

Chapter 17: Activities 301

Graphing Piecewise Functions

Problem

The fine for speeding on a road with a speed limit of 45 kilometers per hour (kph) is 50; plus 5 for each kph from 46 to 55 kph; plus 10 for each kph from 56 to 65 kph; plus 20 for each kph from 66 kph and above. Graph the piecewise function that describes the cost of the ticket.

The fine (Y) as a function of kilometers per hour (X) is:

, which simplifies to:

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Func

and

Classic

.

2.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the

Y=

function to describe the fine. Use the

TEST

menu operations to define the piecewise function. Set the graph style for

Y1

to

í (dot).

3.

Press p and set

Xmin=

L

2

,

Xscl=10

,

Ymin=

L

5

,

Yscl=10 and

@

X=1

. Ignore

Xmax

and

Ymax

; they are set in step 4.

Chapter 17: Activities 302

4.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Store

5

to

@

Y

.

@

X

and

@

Y

are on the

VARS Window X/Y

secondary menu.

@

X

and

@

Y

specify the horizontal and vertical distance between the centers of adjacent pixels. Integer values for

@

X

and

@

Y

produce nice values for tracing.

5.

Press r to plot the function. At what speed does the ticket exceed 250?

Chapter 17: Activities 303

Graphing Inequalities

Problem

Graph the inequality 0.4x

3 N 3x + 5 < 0.2x + 4. Use the

TEST

menu operations to explore the values of X where the inequality is true and where it is false.

Note: You can also investigate graphing inequalities using the Inequality Graphing application. The application is pre-loaded on your TI-84 Plus and can be downloaded from education.ti.com

.

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Dot

,

Simul

, and the default settings. Setting

Dot

mode changes all graph style icons to

í (dot) in the

Y=

editor.

2.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the left side of the inequality as

Y4

and the right side as

Y5

.

3.

Enter the statement of the inequality as

Y6

. This function evaluates to

1

if true or

0

if false.

Note

: You can use the YVARS shortcut menu to paste Y4 and Y5 in the Y= editor.

4.

Press q

6

to graph the inequality in the standard window.

5.

Press r † † to move to

Y6

. Then press

| and ~ to trace the inequality, observing the value of

Y

.

When you trace, you can see that Y=1 indicates that Y4<Y5 is true and that Y=0 indicates that

Y4<Y5 is false.

6.

Press o. Turn off

Y4

,

Y5

, and

Y6

. Enter equations to graph only the inequality.

Chapter 17: Activities 304

7.

Press r.

Notice that the values of

Y7

and

Y8

are zero where the inequality is false. You only see the intervals of the graph where Y4<Y5 because intervals that are false are multiplied by 0

(Y6

Y4 and Y6

Y5)

Chapter 17: Activities 305

Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations

Problem

Using a graph, solve the equation x

3

N2x=2cos(x). Stated another way, solve the system of two equations and two unknowns: y = x

3

N2x and y = 2cos(x). Use

ZOOM

factors to control the decimal places displayed on the graph and use y /

5:intersect

to find an approximate solution.

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select the default mode settings. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots.

Enter the functions.

2.

Press q

4

to select

4:ZDecimal

. The display shows that two solutions may exist (points where the two functions appear to intersect).

3.

Press q ~

4

to select

4:SetFactors

from the

ZOOM MEMORY

menu. Set

XFact=10

and

YFact=10

.

4.

Press q

2

to select

2:Zoom In

. Use

|, ~, }, and † to move the free-moving cursor onto the apparent intersection of the functions on the right side of the display. As you move the cursor, notice that the

X

and

Y

values have one decimal place.

5.

Press

Í to zoom in. Move the cursor over the intersection. As you move the cursor, notice that now the

X

and

Y

values have two decimal places.

6.

Press

Í to zoom in again. Move the free-moving cursor onto a point exactly on the intersection. Notice the number of decimal places.

7.

Press y /

5

to select

5:intersect

. Press

Í to select the first curve and Í to select the second curve. To guess, move the trace cursor near the intersection. Press

Í. What are the coordinates of the intersection point?

8.

Press q

4

to select

4:ZDecimal

to redisplay the original graph.

9.

Press q. Select

2:Zoom In

and repeat steps 4 through 8 to explore the apparent function intersection on the left side of the display.

Chapter 17: Activities 306

Using a Program to Create the Sierpinski Triangle

Setting up the Program

This program creates a drawing of a famous fractal, the Sierpinski Triangle, and stores the drawing to a picture. To begin, press

 ~ ~

1

. Name the program

SIERPINS

, and then press

Í.

The program editor is displayed.

Note

: After you run this program, press y . † † † Í to turn on the axes in the graph screen.

Program

PROGRAM:SIERPINS

:FnOff :ClrDraw

:PlotsOff

:AxesOff

:0

!Xmin:1!Xmax

:0

!Ymin:1!Ymax

:rand

!X:rand!Y

:For(K,1,3000)

:rand

!N

:If N

1 à3

:Then

:.5X

!X

:.5Y

!Y

:End

:If 1

à3 <N and N2 à3

:Then

:.5(.5+X)

!X

:.5(1+Y)

!Y

:End

:If 2

à3 <N

:Then

:.5(1+X)

!X

:.5Y

!Y

:End

:Pt-On(X,Y)

:End

:StorePic 6

Set viewing window.

Beginning of For group.

If/Then group

If/Then group.

If/Then group.

Draw point.

End of For group.

Store picture.

After you execute the program above, you can recall and display the picture with the instruction

RecallPic 6

.

Chapter 17: Activities 307

Chapter 17: Activities 308

Graphing Cobweb Attractors

Problem

Using

Web

format, you can identify points with attracting and repelling behavior in sequence graphing.

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Seq

and the default mode settings. Press y .. Select

Web

format and the default format settings.

2.

Press o. Clear all functions and turn off all stat plots. Enter the sequence that corresponds to the expression Y = K X(1

NX).

u(n)=Ku(n

N

1)(1

N

u(n

N

1))

u(nMin)=.01

3.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen, and then store

2.9

to

K

.

4.

Press p. Set the window variables.

nMin=0

nMax=10

PlotStart=1

PlotStep=1

Xmin=0

Xmax=1

Xscl=1

Ymin=

M

.26

Ymax=1.1

Yscl=1

5.

Press r to display the graph, and then press ~ to trace the cobweb. This is a cobweb with one attractor.

6.

Change

K

to

3.44

and trace the graph to show a cobweb with two attractors.

7.

Change

K

to

3.54

and trace the graph to show a cobweb with four attractors.

Chapter 17: Activities 309

Using a Program to Guess the Coefficients

Setting Up the Program

This program graphs the function A sin(BX) with random integer coefficients between 1 and 10.

Try to guess the coefficients and graph your guess as C sin(DX). The program continues until your guess is correct.

Note

: This program changes the graph window and graph styles. After you run the program, you can change individual settings as needed or you can press y L

7 2 2

to return to default settings.

Programs typically do not restore your settings in MODE, Y=, WINDOW and other locations that were used by the program. This is dependent on who created the program.

Program

PROGRAM:GUESS

:PlotsOff :Func

:FnOff :Radian

:ClrHome

:"Asin(BX)"

!Y1

:"Csin(DX)"

!Y2

:GraphStyle(1,1)

:GraphStyle(2,5)

:FnOff 2

:randInt(1,10)

!A

:randInt(1,10)

!B

:0

!C:0!D

:

L2p!Xmin

:2 p!Xmax

: pà2!Xscl

:

L10!Ymin

:10

!Ymax

:1

!Yscl

:DispGraph

:Pause

:FnOn 2

:Lbl Z

:Prompt C,D

:DispGraph

:Pause

Define equations.

Set line and path graph styles.

Initialize coefficients.

Set viewing window.

Display graph.

Prompt for guess.

Display graph.

Chapter 17: Activities 310

:If C=A

:Text(1,1,"C IS OK")

:If C

ƒA

:Text(1,1,"C IS

WRONG")

:If D=B

:Text(1,50,"D IS OK")

:If D

ƒB

:Text(1,50,"D IS

WRONG")

:DispGraph

:Pause

:If C=A and D=B

:Stop

:Goto Z

Display results.

Display graph.

Quit if guesses are correct.

Note

: The Guess My Coefficients App is an educational game that challenges you to enter the correct coeffiecients for graphs of linear, quadratic and absolute value functions. This app is available at education.ti.com

.

Chapter 17: Activities 311

Graphing the Unit Circle and Trigonometric Curves

Problem

Using parametric graphing mode, graph the unit circle and the sine curve to show the relationship between them.

Any function that can be plotted in

Func

mode can be plotted in

Par

mode by defining the

X

component as

T

and the

Y

component as

F(T)

.

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Par

,

Simul

, and the default settings.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Tmin=0

Tmax=2

p

Tstep=.1

Xmin=

L

2

Xmax=7.4

Xscl=

2

Ymin=

L

3

Ymax=3

Yscl=1

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the unit circle centered on (0,0).

4.

Enter the expressions to define the sine curve.

5.

Press r. As the graph is plotting, you may press Í to pause and Í again to resume graphing as you watch the sine function “unwrap” from the unit circle.

Note:

• You can generalize the unwrapping. Replace

sin(T)

in

Y2T

with any other trig function to unwrap that function.

Chapter 17: Activities 312

• You can graph the functions again by turning the functions off and then turning them back on on the Y= editor or by using the FuncOFF and FuncON commands on the home screen.

Chapter 17: Activities 313

Finding the Area between Curves

Problem

Find the area of the region bounded by: f(x) g(x) x

=

=

=

300x / (x

2

+ 625)

3cos(.1x)

75

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select the default mode settings.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Xmin=0

Xmax=100

Xscl=10

Ymin=

L

5

Ymax=10

Yscl=1

Xres=1

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the upper and lower functions.

Y1=300X

à

(X

2

+625)

Y2=3cos(.1X)

4.

Press y /

5

to select

5:Intersect

. The graph is displayed. Select a first curve, second curve, and guess for the intersection toward the left side of the display. The solution is displayed, and the value of

X

at the intersection, which is the lower limit of the integral, is stored in

Ans

and

X

.

5.

Press y 5 to go to the home screen. Press y <

7

and use

Shade(

to see the area graphically.

Shade(Y2,Y1,Ans,75)

6.

Press y 5 to return to the home screen. Enter the expression to evaluate the integral for the shaded region.

fnInt(Y1

N

Y2,X,Ans,75)

The area is

325.839962

.

Chapter 17: Activities 314

Using Parametric Equations: Ferris Wheel Problem

Problem

Using two pairs of parametric equations, determine when two objects in motion are closest to each other in the same plane.

A ferris wheel has a diameter (d) of 20 meters and is rotating counterclockwise at a rate (s) of one revolution every 12 seconds. The parametric equations below describe the location of a ferris wheel passenger at time T, where a is the angle of rotation, (0,0) is the bottom center of the ferris wheel, and (10,10) is the passenger’s location at the rightmost point, when T=0.

X(T) = r cos a

Y(T) = r + r sin

a where a = 2pTs and r = dà2

A person standing on the ground throws a ball to the ferris wheel passenger. The thrower’s arm is at the same height as the bottom of the ferris wheel, but 25 meters (b) to the right of the ferris wheel’s lowest point (25,0). The person throws the ball with velocity (v

0

) of 22 meters per second at an angle

( q) of 66¡ from the horizontal. The parametric equations below describe the location of the ball at time T.

X(T) = b

N Tv

0

cos q

Y(T) = Tv

0

sin q N (gà2) T

2 where g = 9.8 m/sec

2

Procedure

1.

Press z. Select

Par

,

Simul

, and the default settings.

Simul

(simultaneous) mode simulates the two objects in motion over time.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Tmin=0

Tmax=12

Tstep=.1

Xmin=

L

13

Xmax=34

Xscl=10

Ymin=0

Ymax=31

Yscl=10

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the expressions to define the path of the ferris wheel and the path of the ball. Set the graph style for

X2T

to

ë (path).

Note:

Try setting the graph styles to

ë

X1T

and

ì

X2T

, which simulates a chair on the ferris wheel and the ball flying through the air when you press s.

Chapter 17: Activities 315

4.

Press s to graph the equations. Watch closely as they are plotted. Notice that the ball and the ferris wheel passenger appear to be closest where the paths cross in the top-right quadrant of the ferris wheel.

5.

Press p. Change the viewing window to concentrate on this portion of the graph.

Tmin=1

Tmax=3

Tstep=.03

Xmin=0

Xmax=23.5

Xscl=10

Ymin=10

Ymax=25.5

Yscl=10

6.

Press r. After the graph is plotted, press ~ to move near the point on the ferris wheel where the paths cross. Notice the values of

X

,

Y

, and

T

.

7.

Press

† to move to the path of the ball. Notice the values of

X

and

Y

(

T

is unchanged). Notice where the cursor is located. This is the position of the ball when the ferris wheel passenger passes the intersection. Did the ball or the passenger reach the intersection first?

You can use r to, in effect, take snapshots in time and explore the relative behavior of two objects in motion.

Chapter 17: Activities 316

Demonstrating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Problem 1

Using the functions

fnInt(

and

nDeriv(

from the

FUNC

shortcut menu or the

MATH

menu to graph functions defined by integrals and derivatives demonstrates graphically that:

and that

Procedure 1

1.

Press z. Select the default settings.

2.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Xmin=.01

Xmax=10

Xscl=1

Ymin=

L

1.5

Ymax=2.5

Yscl=1

Xres=3

3.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the numerical integral of 1àT from 1 to X and the function ln(X). Set the graph style for

Y1

to

ç (line) and

Y2

to

ë (path).

4.

Press r. Press |, }, ~, and † to compare the values of

Y1

and

Y2

.

5.

Press o. Turn off

Y1

and

Y2

, and then enter the numerical derivative of the integral of 1

àX and the function 1

àX. Set the graph style for

Y3

to

ç (line) and

Y4

to

è (thick).

Chapter 17: Activities 317

6.

Press r. Again, use the cursor keys to compare the values of the two graphed functions,

Y3

and

Y4

.

Problem 2

Explore the functions defined by

y

=

x

2

t

2

d t

,

0

x t

2

d t

, and

2

x t

2

d t

Procedure 2

1.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Use a list to define these three functions simultaneously. Store the function in

Y5

.

2.

Press q

6

to select

6:ZStandard

. The graphs are displayed as each calculation of the integral and derivative occurs at the pixel point, which may take some time.

3.

Press r. Notice that the functions appear identical, only shifted vertically by a constant.

4.

Press o. Enter the numerical derivative of

Y5

in

Y6

.

Chapter 17: Activities 318

5.

Press r. Notice that although the three graphs defined by

Y5

are different, they share the same derivative.

Chapter 17: Activities 319

Computing Areas of Regular N-Sided Polygons

Problem

Use the equation solver to store a formula for the area of a regular N-sided polygon, and then solve for each variable, given the other variables. Explore the fact that the limiting case is the area of a circle, pr

2

.

Consider the formula A = NB

2

sin( pàN) cos(pàN) for the area of a regular polygon with N sides of equal length and B distance from the center to a vertex.

N = 4 sides N = 8 sides N = 12 sides

Procedure

1.

Press

 t

B

to select

B:Solver

from the

MATH

menu. Either the equation editor or the interactive solver editor is displayed. If the interactive solver editor is displayed, press

} to display the equation editor.

2.

Enter the formula as

0=A

N

NB

2

sin(

p

/ N)cos(

p

/ N)

, and then press

Í. The interactive solver editor is displayed.

3.

Enter

N=4

and

B=6

to find the area (

A

) of a square with a distance (

B

) from center to vertex of

6 centimeters.

4.

Press

} } to move the cursor onto

A

, and then press

ă \. The solution for

A

is displayed on the interactive solver editor.

5.

Now solve for

B

for a given area with various number of sides. Enter

A=200

and

N=6

. To find the distance

B

, move the cursor onto

B

, and then press

ƒ \.

Chapter 17: Activities 320

6.

Enter

N=8

. To find the distance

B

, move the cursor onto

B

, and then press

ƒ \. Find

B

for

N=9

, and then for

N=10

.

Find the area given

B=6

, and

N=10

,

100

,

150

,

1000

, and

10000

. Compare your results with p6

2

(the area of a circle with radius 6), which is approximately 113.097.

7.

Enter

B=6

. To find the area

A

, move the cursor onto

A

, and then press

ƒ \. Find

A

for

N=10

, then

N=100

, then

N=150

, then

N=1000

, and finally

N=10000

. Notice that as

N

gets large, the area

A

approaches p

B

2

.

Now graph the equation to see visually how the area changes as the number of sides gets large.

8.

Press z. Select the default mode settings.

9.

Press p. Set the viewing window.

Xmin=0

Xmax=200

Xscl=10

Ymin=0

Ymax=150

Yscl=10

Xres=1

10. Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter the equation for the area. Use

X

in place of

N

. Set the graph styles as shown.

Chapter 17: Activities 321

11. Press r. After the graph is plotted, press

100

Í to trace to

X=100

. Press

150

Í.

Press

188

Í. Notice that as

X

increases, the value of

Y

converges to p6

2

, which is approximately 113.097.

Y2=

p

B

2

(the area of the circle) is a horizontal asymptote to

Y1

. The area of an N-sided regular polygon, with r as the distance from the center to a vertex, approaches the area of a circle with radius r ( pr

2

) as N gets large.

Chapter 17: Activities 322

Computing and Graphing Mortgage Payments

Problem

You are a loan officer at a mortgage company, and you recently closed on a 30-year home mortgage at 8 percent interest with monthly payments of 800. The new home owners want to know how much will be applied to the interest and how much will be applied to the principal when they make the 240th payment 20 years from now.

Procedure

1.

Press z and set the fixed-decimal mode to

2

decimal places. Set the other mode settings to the defaults.

2.

Press

Œ Í Í to display the

TVM Solver

. Enter these values.

Note:

Enter a positive number (

800

) to show

PMT

as a cash inflow. Payment values will be displayed as positive numbers on the graph. Enter

0

for

FV

, since the future value of a loan is 0 once it is paid in full. Enter

PMT: END

, since payment is due at the end of a period.

3.

Move the cursor onto the

PV=

prompt, and then press

ƒ \. The present value, or mortgage amount, of the house is displayed at the

PV=

prompt.

Now compare the graph of the amount of interest with the graph of the amount of principal for each payment.

4.

Press z. Set

Par

and

Simul

.

5.

Press o. Turn off all functions and stat plots. Enter these equations and set the graph styles as shown.

Chapter 17: Activities 323

Note:

G

Prn(

and

G

Int(

are located on the

FINANCE

menu (

APPS 1:FINANCE

).

6.

Press p. Set these window variables.

Tmin=1

Tmax=360

Tstep=12

Xmin=0

Xmax=360

Xscl=10

Ymin=0

Ymax=1000

Yscl=100

Note:

To increase the graph speed, change

Tstep

to

24

.

7.

Press r. After the graph is drawn, press

240

Í to move the trace cursor to

T=240

, which is equivalent to 20 years of payments.

The graph shows that for the 240th payment (

X=240

), 358.03 of the 800 payment is applied to principal (

Y=358.03

).

Note:

The sum of the payments (

Y3T=Y1T+Y2T

) is always 800.

8.

Press

† to move the cursor onto the function for interest defined by

X2T

and

Y2T

. Enter

240

.

The graph shows that for the 240th payment (

X=240

), 441.97 of the 800 payment is interest

(

Y=441.97

).

9.

Press y 5 Œ Í

9

to paste

9:bal(

to the home screen. Check the figures from the graph.

At which monthly payment will the principal allocation surpass the interest allocation?

Chapter 17: Activities 324

Chapter 18:

Memory and Variable Management

Checking Available Memory

MEMORY Menu

At any time you can check available memory or manage existing memory by selecting items from the

MEMORY

menu. To access this menu, press y L.

MEMORY

1: About

...

Displays information about the graphing calculator including current OS version number.

2: Mem Mgmt/Del

...

Reports memory availability and variable usage.

3: Clear Entries

Clears ENTRY (last-entry storage).

Clears all lists in memory.

4: ClrAllLists

5: Archive

...

6: UnArchive

...

7: Reset

...

8: Group

...

Archives a selected variable.

UnArchives a selected variable.

Displays the RAM, ARCHIVE, and ALL menus

Displays GROUP and UNGROUP menus.

To check memory availability, first press y L and then select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

.

RAM FREE displays the amount of available RAM.

ARC FREE displays the amount of available Archive.

Available RAM, Archive, and App Slots

The TI-84 Plus / TI-84 Plus Silver Edition has Archive, RAM, and Application (App) slot memory for you to use and manage. The available RAM stores computations, lists, variables, and data. The available Archive lets you store programs, Apps, groups, and other variables. The App slots are actually individual sectors of Flash ROM where Apps are stored.

Graphing calculator

TI-84 Plus

TI-84 Plus Silver

Edition

Available RAM

24 Kilobytes

24 Kilobytes

Available

Archive

491 Kilobytes

1.5 Megabytes

App

Slots

30

94

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 325

Note:

Some Apps take up several App slots.

Displaying the About Screen

About

displays information about the TI-84 Plus Operating System (OS) Version, Product Number,

Product Identification (ID), and Flash Application (App) Certificate Revision Number. To display the

About screen, press y L and then select

1:About

.

Displays the type of graphing calculator.

Displays the OS version. As new software upgrades become available, you can electronically upgrade your unit.

Displays the Product

ID. Each Flash-based graphing calculator has a unique product ID, which you may need if you contact technical support. You can also use this 14 digit ID to register your calculator at education.ti.com, or identify your calculator in the event that it is lost or stolen.

Displaying the MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE Menu

Mem Mgmt/Del

displays the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu. The two lines at the top report the total amount of available RAM (

RAM FREE

) and Archive (

ARC FREE

) memory. By selecting menu items on this screen, you can see the amount of memory each variable type is using. This information can help you determine if you need to delete variables from memory to make room for new data, such as programs or Apps.

To check memory usage, follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

Note: The

#

and

$

in the top or bottom of the left column indicate that you can scroll up or down to view more variable types.

2.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu. The TI-84 Plus expresses memory quantities in bytes.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 326

3.

Select variable types from the list to display memory usage.

Notes: Real

,

List

,

Y-Vars

, and

Prgm

variable types never reset to zero, even after memory is cleared.

Apps

are independent applications which are stored in Flash ROM.

AppVars

is a variable holder used to store variables created by Apps. You cannot edit or change variables in

AppVars

unless you do so through the application which created them.

To leave the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu, press either y 5 or ‘. Both options display the home screen.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 327

Deleting Items from Memory

Deleting an Item

To increase available memory by deleting the contents of any variable (real or complex number, list, matrix,

Y=

variable, program, Apps, AppVars, picture, graph database, or string), follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu.

3.

Select the type of data you want to delete, or select

1:All

for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.

For example, if you select

4:List

, the

LIST

editor screen is displayed.

4.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press

{. The variable is deleted from memory. You can delete individual variables one by one from this screen. No warning will be given to verify the deletion.

Note:

If you are deleting programs or Apps, you will receive a message asking you to confirm this delete action. Select

2:Yes

to continue.

To leave any variable screen without deleting anything, press y 5, which displays the home screen.

You cannot delete some system variables, such as the last-answer variable

Ans

and the statistical variable

RegEQ

.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 328

Clearing Entries and List Elements

Clear Entries

Clear Entries

clears the contents of the

ENTRY

(last entry on home screen) storage area. To clear the

ENTRY

storage area, follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

3:Clear Entries

to paste the instruction to the home screen.

3.

Press

Í to clear the

ENTRY

storage area.

To cancel

Clear Entries

, press

‘.

Note:

If you select

3:Clear Entries

from within a program, the

Clear Entries

instruction is pasted to the program editor, and the

Entry

(last entry) is cleared when the program is executed.

ClrAllLists

ClrAllLists

sets the dimension of each list in RAM to

0

.

To clear all elements from all lists, follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

4:ClrAllLists

to paste the instruction to the home screen.

3.

Press

Í to set the dimension of each list in memory to

0

.

To cancel

ClrAllLists

, press

‘.

ClrAllLists

does not delete list names from memory, from the

LIST NAMES

menu, or from the stat list editor.

Note:

If you select

4:ClrAllLists

from within a program, the

ClrAllLists

instruction is pasted to the program editor. The lists are cleared when the program is executed.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 329

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables

Archiving and UnArchiving Variables

Archiving lets you store data, programs, or other variables to the user data archive (ARC) where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertently. Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory.

Archived variables cannot be edited or executed. They can only be seen and unarchived. For example, if you archive list

L1

, you will see that

L1

exists in memory but if you select it and paste the name

L1

to the home screen, you won’t be able to see its contents or edit it.

Note:

Not all variables may be archived. Not all archived variables may be unarchived. For example, system variables including r, t, x, y, and q cannot be archived. Apps and Groups always exist in Flash ROM so there is no need to archive them. Groups cannot be unarchived. However, you can ungroup or delete them.

Variable Type

Real numbers

Complex numbers

Matrices

Lists

Names

A, B, ... , Z

A, B, ... , Z

Archive?

(yes/no)

yes yes

UnArchive?

(yes/no)

yes yes

Programs

Functions

Parametric equations

Polar functions

Sequence functions

Stat plots

[A], [B], [C], ... , [J]

L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, and user-defined names yes yes

Y1, Y2, . . . , Y9, Y0 yes no

X1T and Y1T, ... , X6T and Y6T

r1, r2, r3, r4, r5, r6

u, v, w

Plot1, Plot2, Plot3

no no no no yes yes

Graph databases

GDB1, GDB2,...

Graph pictures Pic1, Pic2, ... , Pic9,

Pic0

Strings

Tables yes yes

Str1, Str2, . . . Str9, Str0 yes

TblStart,

@

Tbl,

TblInput

no

Apps

AppVars

Applications

Application variables see Note above yes yes yes not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable yes yes yes not applicable no

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 330

Variable Type

Groups

Names

Archive?

(yes/no)

Variables with reserved names

minX, maxX, RegEQ, and others

System variables Xmin, Xmax, and others no see Note above no

UnArchive?

(yes/no)

no not applicable not applicable

Archiving and unarchiving can be done in two ways:

• Use the

5:Archive

or

6:UnArchive

commands from the

MEMORY

menu or

CATALOG

.

• Use a Memory Management editor screen.

Before archiving or unarchiving variables, particularly those with a large byte size (such as large programs) use the

MEMORY

menu to:

• Find the size of the variable.

• See if there is enough free space.

For:

Archive

UnArchive

Sizes must be such that:

Archive free size > variable size

RAM free size > variable size

Note:

If there is not enough space, unarchive or delete variables as necessary. Be aware that when you unarchive a variable, not all the memory associated with that variable in user data archive will be released since the system keeps track of where the variable has been and where it is now in RAM.

Even if there appears to be enough free space, you may see a Garbage Collection message when you attempt to archive a variable. Depending on the usability of empty blocks in the user data archive, you may need to unarchive existing variables to create more free space.

To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using the Archive/UnArchive options from the

MEMORY

menu:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

5:Archive

or

6:UnArchive

to place the command in the

Home

screen.

3.

Press y d to place the

L1

variable in the

Home

screen.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 331

4.

Press

Í to complete the archive process.

Note:

An asterisk will be displayed to the left of the Archived variable name to indicate it is archived.

To archive or unarchive a list variable (L1) using a Memory Management editor:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT/DELETE

menu.

3.

Select

4:List

to display the

LIST

menu.

4.

Press

Í to archive

L1

. An asterisk will appear to the left of

L1

to indicate it is an archived variable. To unarchive a variable in this screen, put the cursor next to the archived variable and press

Í. The asterisk will disappear.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 332

5.

Press y 5 to leave the

LIST

menu.

Note:

You can access an archived variable for the purpose of linking, deleting, or unarchiving it, but you cannot edit it.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 333

Resetting the TI-84 Plus

RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu

Reset

displays the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu. This menu gives you the option of resetting all memory (including default settings) or resetting selected portions of memory while preserving other data stored in memory, such as programs and

Y=

functions. For instance, you can choose to reset all of RAM or just restore the default settings. Be aware that if you choose to reset RAM, all data and programs in RAM will be erased. For archive memory, you can reset variables (Vars), applications (Apps), or both of these. Be aware that if you choose to reset Vars, all data and programs in archive memory will be erased. If you choose to reset Apps, all applications in archive memory will be erased.

When you reset defaults on the TI-84 Plus, all defaults in RAM are restored to the factory settings.

Stored data and programs are not changed.

These are some examples of TI-84 Plus defaults that are restored by resetting the defaults.

• Mode settings such as

Normal

(notation);

Func

(graphing);

Real

(numbers); and

Full

(screen)

Y=

functions off

• Window variable values such as

Xmin=

L

10

,

Xmax=10

,

Xscl=1

,

Yscl=1

, and

Xres=1

STAT PLOTS

off

• Format settings such as

CoordOn

(graphing coordinates on);

AxesOn

; and

ExprOn

(expression on)

rand

seed value to 0

Displaying the RAM ARCHIVE ALL Menu

To display the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu on the TI-84 Plus, follow these steps.

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

7:Reset

to display the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu.

Resetting RAM Memory

Resetting all RAM restores RAM system variables to factory settings and deletes all nonsystem variables and all programs. Resetting RAM defaults restores all system variables to default settings without deleting variables and programs in RAM. Resetting all RAM or resetting defaults does not affect variables and applications in user data archive.

Note:

Before you reset all RAM memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 334

To reset all

RAM

memory or

RAM

defaults on the TI-84 Plus, follow these steps.

1.

From the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu, select

1:All RAM

to display the

RESET RAM

menu or

2:Defaults

to display the

RESET DEFAULTS

menu

.

2.

If you are resetting RAM, read the message below the

RESET RAM

menu.

• To cancel the reset and return to the

HOME

screen, press

Í.

• To erase RAM memory or reset defaults, select

2:Reset

. Depending on your choice, the message

RAM cleared

or

Defaults set

is displayed on the home screen.

Resetting Archive Memory

When resetting archive memory on the TI-84 Plus, you can choose to delete from user data archive all variables, all applications, or both variables and applications.

To reset all or part of user data archive memory, follow these steps.

1.

From the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu, press

~ to display the

ARCHIVE

menu.

2.

Select one of the following:

1:Vars

to display the

RESET ARC VARS

menu.

2:Apps

to display the

RESET ARC APPS

menu.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 335

3:Both

to display the

RESET ARC BOTH

menu.

3.

Read the message below the menu.

• To cancel the reset and return to the

HOME

screen, press

Í.

• To continue with the reset, select

2:Reset

. A message indicating the type of archive memory cleared will be displayed on the

HOME

screen.

Resetting All Memory

When resetting all memory on the TI-84 Plus, RAM and user data archive memory is restored to factory settings. All nonsystem variables, applications, and programs are deleted. All system variables are reset to default settings.

Before you reset all memory, consider restoring sufficient available memory by deleting only selected data.

To reset all memory on the TI-84 Plus, follow these steps.

1.

From the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu, press

~ ~ to display the

ALL

menu.

2.

Select

1:All Memory

to display the

RESET MEMORY

menu.

3.

Read the message below the

RESET MEMORY

menu.

• To cancel the reset and return to the

HOME

screen, press

Í.

• To continue with the reset, select

2:Reset

. The message

MEM cleared

is displayed on the

HOME

screen.

When you clear memory, the contrast sometimes changes. If the screen is faded or blank, adjust the contrast by pressing y } or †.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 336

Grouping and Ungrouping Variables

Grouping Variables

Grouping allows you to make a copy of two or more variables residing in RAM and then store them as a group in user data archive. The variables in RAM are not erased. The variables must exist in

RAM before they can be grouped. In other words, archived data cannot be included in a group.

Once grouped, the variables can be deleted from RAM to open memory. When the variables are needed later, they can be ungrouped for use.

To create a group of variables:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

8:Group

to display

GROUP UNGROUP

menu.

3.

Press

Í to display the

GROUP

menu.

4.

Enter a name for the new group and press

Í.

Note:

A group name can be one to eight characters long. The first character must be a letter from A to Z or q. The second through eighth characters can be letters, numbers, or q.

5.

Select the type of data you want to group. You can select

1:All+

which shows all variables of all types available and selected. You can also select

2:All-

which shows all variables of all types available but not selected. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 337

For example, suppose some variables have been created in RAM, and selecting

2:All-

displays the following screen.

6.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the first item you want to copy into a group, and then press

Í. A small square will remain to the left of all variables selected for grouping.

Repeat the selection process until all variables for the new group are selected and then press

~ to display the

DONE

menu.

7.

Press

Í to complete the grouping process.

Note:

You can only group variables in RAM. You cannot group some system variables, such as the last-answer variable

Ans

and the statistical variable

RegEQ

.

Ungrouping Variables

Ungrouping allows you to make a copy of variables in a group stored in user data archive and place them ungrouped in

RAM

.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 338

DuplicateName Menu

During the ungrouping action, if a duplicate variable name is detected in

RAM

, the

DUPLICATE

NAME

menu is displayed.

DuplicateName

1: Rename

5: Quit

Prompts to rename receiving variable.

2: Overwrite

4: Omit

Overwrites data in receiving duplicate variable.

3: Overwrite All

Overwrites data in all receiving duplicate variables.

Skips ungrouping of sending variable.

Stops ungrouping at duplicate variable.

Notes about Menu Items:

• When you select

1:Rename

, the

Name=

prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press

Í. Ungrouping resumes.

• When you select

2:Overwrite

, the unit overwrites the data of the duplicate variable name found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.

• When you select

3: Overwrite All

, the unit overwrites the data of all duplicate variable names found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes.

• When you select

4:Omit

, the unit does not ungroup the variable in conflict with the duplicated variable name found in RAM. Ungrouping resumes with the next item.

• When you select

5:Quit

, ungrouping stops, and no further changes are made.

To ungroup a group of variables:

1.

Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

2.

Select

8:Group

to display the

GROUP UNGROUP

menu.

3.

Press

~ to display the

UNGROUP

menu.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 339

4.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the group variable you want to ungroup, and then press

Í.

The ungroup action is completed.

Note:

Ungrouping does not remove the group from user data archive. You must delete the group in user data archive to remove it.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 340

Garbage Collection

Garbage Collection Message

If you use the user data archive extensively, you may see a

Garbage Collect?

message. This occurs if you try to archive a variable when there is not enough free contiguous archive memory.

The

Garbage Collect?

message lets you know an archive will take longer than usual. It also alerts you that the archive will fail if there is not enough memory.

The message can also alert you when a program is caught in a loop that repetitively fills the user data archive. Select

No

to cancel the garbage collection process, and then find and correct the errors in your program.

When YES is selected, the TI-84 Plus will attempt to rearrange the archived variables to make additional room.

Responding to the Garbage Collection Message

• To cancel, select

1:No

.

• If you select

1:No

, the message

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL

will be displayed.

• To continue archiving, select

2:Yes

.

• If you select

2:Yes

, the process message

Garbage Collecting...

or

Defragmenting...

will be displayed.

Note:

The process message

Defragmenting...

is displayed whenever an application marked for deletion is encountered. Garbage collection may take up to 20 minutes, depending on how much of archive memory has been used to store variables.

After garbage collection, depending on how much additional space is freed, the variable may or may not be archived. If not, you can unarchive some variables and try again.

Why Is Garbage Collection Necessary?

The user data archive is divided into sectors. When you first begin archiving, variables are stored consecutively in sector 1. This continues to the end of the sector.

An archived variable is stored in a continuous block within a single sector. Unlike an application stored in user data archive, an archived variable cannot cross a sector boundary. If there is not enough space left in the sector, the next variable is stored at the beginning of the next sector.

Typically, this leaves an empty block at the end of the previous sector.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 341

variable A variable B

Sector 1

Empty block variable D

Depending on its size, variable D is stored in one of these locations.

variable C

Sector 2

Sector 3

Each variable that you archive is stored in the first empty block large enough to hold it.

This process continues to the end of the last sector. Depending on the size of individual variables, the empty blocks may account for a significant amount of space. Garbage collection occurs when the variable you are archiving is larger than any empty block.

How Unarchiving a Variable Affects the Process

When you unarchive a variable, it is copied to RAM but it is not actually deleted from user data archive memory. Unarchived variables are “marked for deletion,” meaning they will be deleted during the next garbage collection.

Sector 1 variable A

After you unarchive variables B and C, they continue to take up space.

Sector 2 variable D

Sector 3

If the MEMORY Screen Shows Enough Free Space

Even if the

MEMORY

screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get a

Garbage Collect?

message or an

ERR: ARCHIVE FULL

message.

When you unarchive a variable, the

Archive free

amount increases immediately, but the space is not actually available until after the next garbage collection.

If the

Archive free

amount shows enough available space for your variable, there probably will be enough space to archive it after garbage collection (depending on the usability of any empty blocks).

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 342

The Garbage Collection Process

The garbage collection process:

• Deletes unarchived variables from the user data archive.

• Rearranges the remaining variables into consecutive blocks.

variable A variable D

Sector 1

Sector 2

Note:

Power loss during garbage collection may cause all memory (RAM and Archive) to be deleted.

Using the GarbageCollect Command

You can reduce the number of automatic garbage collections by periodically optimizing memory.

This is done by using the

GarbageCollect

command.

To use the

GarbageCollect

command, follow these steps.

1.

From the

HOME

screen, press y N to display the

CATALOG

.

2.

Press

† or } to scroll the

CATALOG

until the selection cursor points to the

GarbageCollect

command or press G to skip to the commands starting with the letter G.

3.

Press

Í to paste the command to the

HOME

screen.

4.

Press

Í to display the

Garbage Collect?

message.

5.

Select

2:Yes

to begin garbage collection.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 343

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL Message

Even if the

MEMORY

screen shows enough free space to archive a variable or store an application, you may still get an

ERR:

ARCHIVE FULL

message.

An

ERR:ARCHIVE FULL

message may be displayed:

• When there is insufficient space to archive a variable within a continuous block and within a single sector.

• When there is insufficient space to store an application within a continuous block of memory.

When the message is displayed, it will indicate the largest single space of memory available for storing a variable and an application.

To resolve the problem, use the

GarbageCollect

command to optimize memory. If memory is still insufficient, you must delete variables or applications to increase space.

Chapter 18: Memory and Variable Management 344

Chapter 19:

Communication Link

Getting Started: Sending Variables

Getting Started is a fast-paced introduction. Read the chapter for details.

Create and store a variable and a matrix, and then transfer them to another TI-84 Plus.

1.

On the home screen of the sending unit, press

5

Ë

5

¿ ƒ

Q

. Press

Í to store 5.5 to

Q

.

2.

Press t ` † † Í to display the 2x2 matrix template. Press

1

~

2

~

3

~

4

~ to enter the values. Press ¿ y >

1

Í to store the matrix to

[A].

3.

On the sending unit, press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

4.

On the sending unit, press

2

to select

2:Mem Mgmt/Del

. The

MEMORY

MANAGEMENT

menu is displayed.

5.

On the sending unit, press

5

to select

5:Matrix

. The

MATRIX

editor screen is displayed.

6.

On the sending unit, press

Í to archive [A]. An asterisk (

ä) will appear, signifying that [A] is now archived.

7.

Connect the graphing calculators with the USB unit-to-unit cable. Push both ends in firmly.

8.

On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu. Press

1

to select

1:Receive

. The message

Waiting

...

is displayed and the busy indicator is on.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 345

9.

On the sending unit, press y 8 to display the

SEND

menu.

10. Press

2

to select

2:All

N. The

All

N

SELECT

screen is displayed.

11. Press

† until the selection cursor ( 4 ) is next to [A]

MATRX

. Press

Í.

12. Press

† until the selection cursor is next to

Q REAL

. Press

Í. A square dot next to [A] and

Q

indicates that each is selected to send.

13. On the sending unit, press

~ to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

14. On the sending unit, press

1

to select

1:Transmit

and begin transmission. The receiving unit displays the message

Receiving...

.When the items are transmitted, both units display the name and type of each transmitted variable.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 346

TI-84 Plus LINK

This chapter describes how to communicate with compatible TI units. The TI-84 Plus has a USB port to connect and communicate with another TI-84 Plus or TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. A USB unit-to-unit cable is included with the TI-84 Plus.

The TI-84 Plus also has an I/O port using a I/O unit-to-unit cable to communicate with:

• TI-83 Plus Silver Edition

• TI-83 Plus

• TI-83

TI-82

TI-73

CBL 2™ or a CBR™

You can send items from a calculator with an older OS to a calculator with OS 2.53MP. However, you may receive a version error if you send items from a calculator with OS 2.53MP to a calculator with an older OS. Transferring files between calculators works best if both calculators have the latest operating system software installed. For example, if you send a list that contains fractions

(OS 2.53MP) to a calculator with OS 2.43, a version error displays because OS 2.43 does not support fractions.

Connecting Two Graphing Calculators with a USB Unit-to-Unit Cable or an I/O Unit-to-Unit

Cable

USB Unit-to-Unit Cable

The TI-84 Plus USB link port is located at the top right edge of the graphing calculator.

1.

Firmly insert either end of the USB unit-to-unit cable into the USB port.

2.

Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing calculator’s USB port.

I/O Unit-to-Unit Cable

The TI-84 Plus I/O link port is located at the top left edge of the graphing calculator.

1.

Firmly insert either end of the I/O unit-to-unit cable into the port.

2.

Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing calculator’s I/O port.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 347

TI-84 Plus to a TI-83 Plus using I/O Unit-to-Unit Cable

The TI-84 Plus I/O link port is located at the top left edge of the graphing calculator. The

TI-83 Plus I/O link port is located at the bottom edge of the graphing calculator.

3.

Firmly insert either end of the I/O unit-to-unit cable into the port.

4.

Insert the other end of the cable into the other graphing calculator’s I/O port.

Linking to the CBL/CBR System

The CBL 2™ system and the CBR™ system are optional accessories that also connect to a TI-84

Plus with the I/O unit-to-unit cable. With a CBL 2™ system or CBR™ system and a TI-84 Plus, you can collect and analyze real-world data.

Linking to a Computer

With TI Connect™ software and the USB computer cable that is included with your TI-84 Plus, you can link the graphing calculator to a personal computer.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 348

Selecting Items to Send

LINK SEND Menu

To display the

LINK SEND

menu, press y 8.

SEND RECEIVE

1: All+

...

2: All

N...

3: Prgm

4: List

...

...

5: Lists to

TI82

...

6: GDB

...

7: Pic

...

8: Matrix

...

9: Real

...

0: Complex

...

A: Y-Vars

...

B: String

...

C: Apps

...

D: AppVars

...

E: Group

...

F: SendId

G: SendOS

H: Back Up

...

Displays all items as selected, including RAM and Flash applications.

Displays all items as deselected.

Displays all program names.

Displays all list names.

Displays list names L1 through L6.

Displays all graph databases.

Displays all picture data types.

Displays all matrix data types.

Displays all real variables.

Displays all complex variables.

Displays all Y= variables.

Displays all string variables.

Displays all software applications.

Displays all software application variables.

Displays all grouped variables.

Sends the Calculator ID number immediately.

(You do not need to select SEND.)

Sends operating system updates to another

TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus. You can not send the operating system to the TI-83 Plus product family.

Selects all RAM and mode settings (no Flash applications or archived items) for backup to another TI-84 Plus, TI-84 Plus Silver Edition,

TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, or to a TI-83 Plus.

When you select an item on the

LINK SEND

menu, the corresponding

SELECT

screen is displayed.

Note:

Each

SELECT

screen, except

All+…

, is initially displayed with nothing pre-selected.

All+…

is displayed with everything pre-selected.

To select items to send:

1.

Press y 8 on the sending unit to display the

LINK SEND

menu.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 349

2.

Select the menu item that describes the data type to send. The corresponding

SELECT

screen is displayed.

3.

Press

} and † to move the selection cursor ( 4 ) to an item you want to select or deselect.

4.

Press

Í to select or deselect the item. Selected names are marked with a 0.

Note:

An asterisk (

ä) to the left of an item indicates the item is archived.

5.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 to select or deselect additional items.

Sending the Selected Items

After you have selected items to send on the sending unit and set the receiving unit to receive, follow these steps to transmit the items. To set the receiving unit, see Receiving Items.

1.

Press

~ on the sending unit to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

2.

Confirm that

Waiting...

is displayed on the receiving unit, which indicates it is set to receive.

3.

Press

Í to select

1:Transmit

. The name and type of each item are displayed line-by-line on the sending unit as the item is queued for transmission, and then on the receiving unit as each item is accepted.

Note:

Items sent from the RAM of the sending unit are transmitted to the RAM of the receiving unit. Items sent from user data archive (flash) of the sending unit are transmitted to user data archive (flash) of the receiving unit.

After all selected items have been transmitted, the message

Done

is displayed on both calculators.

Press

} and † to scroll through the names.

Sending to a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus

You can transfer variables (all types), programs, and Flash applications to another TI-84 Plus

Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus. You can also backup the RAM memory of one unit to another.

Note:

Keep in mind that the TI-84 Plus has less Flash memory than the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 350

• Variables stored in RAM on the sending TI-84 Plus Silver Edition will be sent to the RAM of the receiving TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus.

• Variables and applications stored in the user data archive of the sending TI-84 Plus Silver

Edition will be sent to the user data archive of the receiving TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84

Plus.

After sending or receiving data, you can repeat the same transmission to additional TI-84 Plus

Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus units—from either the sending unit or the receiving unit—without having to reselect data to send. The current items remain selected. However, you cannot repeat transmission if you selected

All+

or

All

..

To send data to an additional TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or a TI-84 Plus:

1.

Use a USB unit-to-unit cable to link two units together.

2.

On the sending unit press y 8 and select a data type and items to

SEND

.

3.

Press

~ on the sending unit to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

4.

On the other unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu.

5.

Press

Í on the receiving unit.

6.

Press

Í on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.

7.

Disconnect the link cable only from the receiving unit and connect it to another unit.

8.

Press y 8 on the sending unit.

9.

Select only the data type. For example, if the unit just sent a list, select

4:LIST

.

Note:

The item(s) you want to send are pre-selected from the last transmission. Do not select or deselect any items. If you select or deselect an item, all selections or deselections from the last transmission are cleared.

10. Press

~ on the sending unit to display the

TRANSMIT

menu.

11. On the new receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu.

12. Press

Í on the receiving unit.

13. Press

Í on the sending unit. A copy of the selected item(s) is sent to the receiving unit.

14. Repeat steps 7 through 13 until the items are sent to all additional units.

Sending to a TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition

You can send all variables from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition except

Flash applications with new features, or programs with new features in them.

If archived variables on the TI-84 Plus are variable types recognized and used on the TI-83 Plus or

TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, you can send these variables to the TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver

Edition. They will be automatically sent to the RAM of the TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition during the transfer process. It will send to archive if the item is from archive.

To send data to a TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition:

1.

Use an I/O unit-to-unit cable to link the two units together.

2.

Set the TI-83 Plus or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition to receive.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 351

3.

Press y 8 on the sending TI-84 Plus to display the

LINK SEND

menu.

4.

Select the menu of the items you want to transmit.

5.

Press

~ on the sending TI-84 Plus to display the

LINK TRANSMIT

menu.

6.

Confirm that the receiving unit is set to receive.

7.

Press

Í on the sending TI-84 Plus to select

1:Transmit

and begin transmitting.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 352

Receiving Items

LINK RECEIVE Menu

To display the

LINK RECEIVE

menu, press y 8 ~.

SEND RECEIVE

1: Receive

Sets unit to receive data transmission.

Receiving Unit

When you select

1:Receive

from the

LINK RECEIVE

menu on the receiving unit, the message

Waiting...

and the busy indicator are displayed. The receiving unit is ready to receive transmitted items. To exit the receive mode without receiving items, press

É, and then select

1:Quit

from the

Error in Xmit

menu.

When transmission is complete, the unit exits the receive mode. You can select

1:Receive

again to receive more items. The receiving unit then displays a list of items received. Press y 5 to exit the receive mode.

DuplicateName Menu

During transmission, if a variable name is duplicated, the

DuplicateName

menu is displayed on the receiving unit.

DuplicateName

1: Rename

Prompts to rename receiving variable.

2: Overwrite

Overwrites data in receiving variable.

3: Omit

Skips transmission of sending variable.

4: Quit

Stops transmission at duplicate variable.

When you select

1:Rename

, the

Name=

prompt is displayed, and alpha-lock is on. Enter a new variable name, and then press

Í. Transmission resumes.

When you select

2:Overwrite

, the sending unit’s data overwrites the existing data stored on the receiving unit. Transmission resumes.

When you select

3:Omit

, the sending unit does not send the data in the duplicated variable name.

Transmission resumes with the next item.

When you select

4:Quit

, transmission stops, and the receiving unit exits receive mode.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 353

Receiving from a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus

The TI-84 Plus Silver Edition and the TI-84 Plus are totally compatible. Keep in mind, however that the TI-84 Plus has less Flash memory than a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

You cannot send memory backups between the TI-84 Plus product family and the TI-83 Plus product family.

Receiving from a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus

The TI-84 Plus product family and the TI-83 Plus product family are compatible with a few exceptions.

Receiving from a TI-83

You can transfer all variables and programs from a TI-83 to a TI-84 Plus if they fit in the RAM of the

TI-84 Plus. The RAM of the TI-84 Plus is slightly less than the RAM of the TI-83.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 354

Backing Up RAM Memory

Warning: H:Back Up

overwrites the RAM memory and mode settings in the receiving unit. All information in the RAM memory of the receiving unit is lost.

Note:

Archived items on the receiving unit are not overwritten.

You can backup the contents of RAM memory and mode settings (no Flash applications or archived items) to another TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. You can also backup RAM memory and mode settings to a TI-84 Plus. The backup calculator must also have OS 2.53MP installed.

To perform a RAM memory backup:

1.

Use a USB unit-to-unit cable to link two TI-84 Plus units, or a TI-84 Plus and a TI-84 Plus

Silver Edition together.

2.

On the sending unit press y 8 and select

H:Back Up

. The

MEMORYBACKUP

screen displays.

3.

On the receiving unit, press y 8 ~ to display the

RECEIVE

menu.

4.

Press

Í on the receiving unit.

5.

Press

Í on the sending unit. A

WARNING — Backup

message displays on the receiving unit.

6.

Press

Í on the receiving unit to continue the backup.

— or —

Press

2:Quit

on the receiving unit to cancel the backup and return to the

LINK SEND

menu

Note:

If a transmission error is returned during a backup, the receiving unit is reset.

Memory Backup Complete

When the backup is complete, both the sending graphing calculator and receiving graphing calculator display a confirmation screen.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 355

Error Conditions

A transmission error occurs after one or two seconds if:

• A cable is not attached to the sending unit.

• A cable is not attached to the receiving unit.

Note:

If the cable is attached, push it in firmly and try again.

• The receiving unit is not set to receive transmission.

• You attempt a backup between a TI-73, TI-82, TI-83, TI-83 Plus, or TI-83 Plus Silver Edition.

• You attempt a data transfer from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-83 Plus, TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, TI-83,

TI-82, or TI-73 with variables or features not recognized by the TI-83 Plus, TI-83 Plus Silver

Edition, TI-83, TI-82, or TI-73.

New variable types and features not recognized by the TI-83, TI-83 Plus, TI-82, or TI-73 include applications, application variables, grouped variables, new variable types, or programs with new features in them such as

Archive

,

UnArchive

,

SendID

,

SendOS

,

Asm(

,

AsmComp(

,

AsmPrgm

,

checkTmr(

,

ClockOff

,

ClockOn

,

dayOfWk(

,

getDate

,

getDtFmt

,

getDtStr(

,

getTime

,

getTmFmt

,

getTmStr

,

isClockOn

,

randIntNoRep(

,

setDate(

,

setDtFmt(

,

setTime(

,

setTmFmt(

,

startTmr

,

summation(

,

timeCnv

and fractions.

• You attempt a data transfer from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-82 with data other than real lists

L1

through

L6

or without using menu item

5:Lists to TI82

.

• You attempt a data transfer from a TI-84 Plus to a TI-73 with data other than real numbers, pics, real lists

L1

through

L6

or named lists with q as part of the name.

Although a transmission error does not occur, these two conditions may prevent successful transmission.

• You try to use

Get(

with a graphing calculator instead of a CBL 2™ system or CBR™ system.

• You try to use

GetCalc(

with a TI-83 instead of a TI-84 Plus or TI-84 Plus Silver Edition.

Insufficient Memory in Receiving Unit

• During transmission, if the receiving unit does not have sufficient memory to receive an item, the

Memory Full

menu is displayed on the receiving unit.

• To skip this item for the current transmission, select

1:Omit

. Transmission resumes with the next item.

• To cancel the transmission and exit receive mode, select

2:Quit

.

Chapter 19: Communication Link 356

Appendix A:

Functions and Instructions

Functions return a value, list, or matrix. You can use functions in an expression. Instructions initiate an action. Some functions and instructions have arguments. Optional arguments and accompanying commas are enclosed in brackets ( [ ] ). For details about an item, including argument descriptions and restrictions, turn to the page listed on the right side of the table.

From the

CATALOG

, you can paste any function or instruction to the home screen or to a command line in the program editor. However, some functions and instructions are not valid on the home screen. The items in this table appear in the same order as they appear in the

CATALOG

.

indicates either keystrokes that are valid in the program editor only or ones that paste certain instructions when you are in the program editor. Some keystrokes display menus that are available only in the program editor. Others paste mode, format, or table-set instructions only when you are in the program editor.

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

abs(value)

abs(complex value)

AsmComp(prgmASM1,

prgmASM2)

AsmPrgm

augment(matrixA,

matrixB)

Returns the absolute value of a real number, expression, list, or matrix.

Returns the magnitude of a complex number or list.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

NUM

1:abs(

CPX

5:abs(

valueA and valueB

angle(value)

ANOVA(list1,list2

[,list3,...,list20])

Ans

Archive

Returns 1 if both valueA and valueB are

ƒ

0. valueA and

valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

Returns the polar angle of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

Returns the last answer.

Moves the specified variables from RAM to the user data archive memory.

Asm(assemblyprgmname) Executes an assembly language program.

y :

LOGIC

1:and

CPX

4:angle(

Performs a one-way analysis of variance for comparing the means of two to 20 populations.

TESTS

H:ANOVA(

y Z y L

5:Archive

y N

Asm(

Compiles an assembly language program written in ASCII and stores the hex version.

Must be used as the first line of an assembly language program.

Returns a matrix, which is matrixB appended to matrixA as new columns.

y N

AsmComp(

y N

AsmPrgm

y >

MATH

7:augment(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 357

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

augment(listA,listB)

AUTO Answer

AxesOff

AxesOn

a+bi

bal(npmt[,roundvalue])

binomcdf(numtrials,p

[,x])

binompdf(numtrials,p

[,x])

checkTmr(starttime) c c

2

cdf(lowerbound,

upperbound,df) c

2

L

Test(observedmatrix,

expectedmatrix

[,drawflag]) c

2

pdf(x,df)

2

GOF-Test(observedlist,

expectedlist,df)

Circle(X,Y,radius)

CLASSIC

Returns a list, which is listB concatenated to the end of

listA.

Displays answers in a similar format as the input.

Turns off the graph axes.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y 9

OPS

9:augment(

z

Answers: AUTO

† y .

AxesOff

Turns on the graph axes.

Sets the mode to rectangular complex number mode

(a+bi).

Computes the balance at npmt for an amortization schedule using stored values for PV,

æ

, and PMT and rounds the computation to roundvalue.

† y .

AxesOn

† z

a+bi

Œ

CALC

9:bal(

1:Finance

Computes a cumulative probability at x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified numtrials and probability p of success on each trial.

y =

DISTR

B:binomcdf(

Computes a probability at x for the discrete binomial distribution with the specified numtrials and probability p of success on each trial.

y =

DISTR

A:binompdf(

Returns the number of seconds since you used startTmr to start the timer. The starttime is the value displayed by

startTmr.

Displays inputs and outputs on a single line, such as

1/2+3/4.

y N

checkTmr(

Computes the c

2 distribution probability between

lowerbound and upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom df.

Performs a chi-square test. drawflag=1 draws results;

drawflag=0 calculates results.

y =

DISTR

8:

c

2

cdf(

Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the c

2 distribution at a specified x value for the specified degrees of freedom df.

y =

DISTR

7:

c

2

pdf(

TESTS

C:

c

2

L

Test(

Performs a test to confirm that sample data is from a population that conforms to a specified distribution.

Draws a circle with center (X,Y) and radius.

TESTS

D:

c

2

GOF

L

Test(

y <

DRAW

9:Circle(

z

CLASSIC

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 358

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

Clear Entries

ClockOff

ClockOn

ClrAllLists

ClrDraw

ClrHome

ClrList listname1

[,listname2, ...,

listname n]

ClrTable

conj(value)

Connected

CoordOff

CoordOn

cos(value)

cos

L1

(value)

Clears the contents of the Last Entry storage area.

Turns off the clock display in the mode screen.

Turns on the clock display in the mode screen.

Sets to 0 the dimension of all lists in memory.

Clears all drawn elements from a graph or drawing.

Clears the home screen.

Sets to 0 the dimension of one or more listnames.

I/O

8:ClrHome

EDIT

4:ClrList

Clears all values from the table.

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

I/O

9:ClrTable

CPX

1:conj(

Sets connected plotting mode; resets all Y= editor graphstyle settings to

ç

.

Turns off cursor coordinate value display.

Turns on cursor coordinate value display.

Returns cosine of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.

† z

Connected

† y .

CoordOff

† y .

CoordOn

™ y @

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y L

MEMORY

3:Clear Entries

y N

ClockOff

y N

ClockOn

y L

MEMORY

4:ClrAllLists

y <

DRAW

1:ClrDraw

cosh(value)

cosh

L1

(value)

CubicReg [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

Returns hyperbolic cosine of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns hyperbolic arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.

Fits a cubic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

y N

cosh(

y N

cosh

L1

(

CALC

6:CubicReg

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 359

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

cumSum(list)

cumSum(matrix)

dayOfWk(year,month,

day)

dbd(date1,date2)

DEC Answers

value

4

Dec

Degree

DelVar variable

DependAsk

DependAuto

det(matrix)

DiagnosticOff

Returns a list of the cumulative sums of the elements in

list, starting with the first element.

Returns a matrix of the cumulative sums of matrix elements. Each element in the returned matrix is a cumulative sum of a matrix column from top to bottom.

Returns an integer from 1 to 7, with each integer representing a day of the week. Use dayOfWk( to determine on which day of the week a particular date would occur. The year must be 4 digits; month and day can be 1 or 2 digit.

Calculates the number of days between date1 and date2 using the actual-day-count method.

Displays answers as integers or decimal numbers.

Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix in decimal format.

Sets degree angle mode.

Deletes from memory the contents of variable.

Sets table to ask for dependent-variable values.

Sets table to generate dependent-variable values automatically.

Returns determinant of matrix.

Sets diagnostics-off mode; r, r

2

, and R

2

are not displayed as regression model results.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y 9

OPS

6:cumSum(

y >

MATH

0:cumSum(

y N

dayOfWk(

1:Sunday

2:Monday

3:Tuesday...

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

D:dbd(

z

Answers: DEC

MATH

2:

4

Dec

† z

Degree

CTL

G:DelVar

† y -

Depend: Ask

† y -

Depend: Auto

y >

MATH

1:det(

y N

DiagnosticOff

DiagnosticOn

Sets diagnostics-on mode; r, r

2

, and R

2

are displayed as regression model results.

y N

DiagnosticOn

dim(listname)

dim(matrixname)

Returns the dimension of listname.

Returns the dimension of matrixname as a list.

y 9

OPS

3:dim(

y >

MATH

3:dim(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 360

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

length

{rows,columns}

!

dim(matrixname)

Disp

Disp [valueA,valueB,

valueC,...,value n]

value

Dot

:DS<(variable,value)

:commandA

:commands

e

!

e^(list)

dim(listname)

DispGraph

DispTable

4

DMS

DrawF expression

DrawInv expression

e^(power)

Exponent:

value

â

exponent

Assigns a new dimension (length) to a new or existing

listname.

Assigns new dimensions to a new or existing matrixname.

Displays the home screen.

Displays each value.

Displays the graph.

Displays the table.

Displays value in DMS format.

Sets dot plotting mode; resets all Y= editor graph-style settings to

í

.

Draws expression (in terms of X) on the graph.

Returns e.

Returns e raised to power.

Returns a list of e raised to a list of powers.

Returns value times 10 to the exponent.

y ;

ANGLE

4:

4

DMS

† z

Dot

y <

DRAW

6:DrawF

Draws the inverse of expression by plotting X values on the y-axis and Y values on the x-axis.

y <

DRAW

8:DrawInv

Decrements variable by 1; skips commandA if variable <

value.

CTL

B:DS<(

y

[e]

y J y J y D

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y 9

OPS

3:dim(

y >

MATH

3:dim(

I/O

3:Disp

I/O

3:Disp

I/O

4:DispGraph

I/O

5:DispTable

Exponent:

list

â

exponent

Returns list elements times 10 to the exponent.

y D

Exponent:

matrix

â

exponent

Returns matrix elements times 10 to the exponent.

y D

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 361

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

4

Eff(nominal rate,

compounding periods)

Computes the effective interest rate.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

C:

4

Eff(

Else

See If:Then:Else

End

Eng

ExprOn

Ü

cdf(lowerbound,

upperbound,

numerator df,

denominator df)

Identifies end of For(, If-Then-Else, Repeat, or While loop.

Sets engineering display mode.

Turns on the expression display during TRACE.

Computes the

Û

distribution probability between

lowerbound and upperbound for the specified numerator df

(degrees of freedom) and denominator df.

CTL

7:End

† z

Eng

Equ

4

String(Y= var,Strn)

Converts the contents of a Y= var to a string and stores it in

expr(string)

ExpReg [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,regequ]

ExprOff

Strn.

Converts string to an expression and executes it.

y N

Equ

4

String(

y N

expr(

Fits an exponential regression model to Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

Turns off the expression display during TRACE.

CALC

0:ExpReg

† y .

ExprOff

† y .

ExprOn

y =

DISTR

0:

Ü

cdf(

4

F

3 4

D

Fill(value,matrixname)

Converts an answer from a fraction to a decimal or from a decimal to a fraction.

Stores value to each element in matrixname.

t ^

4:

4

F

3 4

D

or

NUM

8:

4

F

3 4

D

y >

MATH

4:Fill(

Fill(value,listname)

Fix #

Float

Stores value to each element in listname.

Sets fixed-decimal mode for # of decimal places.

Sets floating decimal mode.

y 9

OPS

4:Fill(

† z

0123456789

(select one)

† z

Float

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 362

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

fMax(expression,

variable,lower,upper

[,tolerance])

fMin(expression,variable,

lower,upper[,tolerance])

fnInt(expression,variable,

lower,upper[,tolerance])

FnOff [function#,

function#,...,function n]

FnOn [function#,

function#,...,function n]

:For(variable,begin,end

[,increment])

:commands

:End

:commands

Returns the value of variable where the local maximum of

expression occurs, between lower and upper, with specified

tolerance.

Returns the value of variable where the local minimum of

expression occurs, between lower and upper, with specified

tolerance.

Returns the function integral of expression with respect to

variable, between lower and upper, with specified tolerance.

Deselects all Y= functions or specified Y= functions.

Selects all Y= functions or specified Y= functions.

Executes commands through End, incrementing variable from begin by increment until variable>end.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

MATH

7:fMax(

MATH

6:fMin(

MATH

9:fnInt(

Y-VARS

4:On/Off

2:FnOff

Y-VARS

4:On/Off

1:FnOn

CTL

4:For(

fPart(value)

Ü

pdf(x,numerator df,

denominator df)

FRAC Answers

value

Full

Func

4

Frac

GarbageCollect

gcd(valueA,valueB)

Returns the fractional part or parts of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

Computes the

Û

distribution probability between

lowerbound and upperbound for the specified numerator df

(degrees of freedom) and denominator df.

Displays answers as fractions, if possible.

Displays a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix as a fraction simplified to its simplest terms.

Sets full screen mode.

Sets function graphing mode.

NUM

4:fPart(

y =

DISTR

9:

Ü

pdf(

z

Answers: FRAC

MATH

1:

4

Frac

† z

Full

† z

Func

Displays the garbage collection menu to allow cleanup of unused archive memory.

Returns the greatest common divisor of valueA and valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.

y N

GarbageCollect

NUM

9:gcd(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 363

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

geometcdf(p,x)

geometpdf(p,x)

Get(variable)

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Computes a cumulative probability at x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success p. y =

DISTR

F:geometcdf(

Computes a probability at x, the number of the trial on which the first success occurs, for the discrete geometric distribution with the specified probability of success p. y =

DISTR

E:geometpdf(

Gets data from the CBL 2™ or CBR™ System and stores it in variable.

I/O

A:Get(

GetCalc(variable

[,portflag])

getDate getDtFmt

getDtStr(integer)

getTime

Gets contents of variable on another TI-84 Plus and stores it to variable on the receiving TI-84 Plus. By default, the TI-84

Plus uses the USB port if it is connected. If the USB cable is not connected, it uses the I/O port.

portflag=0 use USB port if connected;

portflag=1 use USB port;

portflag=2 use I/O port.

I/O

0:GetCalc(

Returns a list giving the date according to the current value of the clock. The list is in {year,month,day} format.

y N

getDate

Returns an integer representing the date format that is currently set on the device.

1 = M/D/Y

2 = D/M/Y

3 = Y/M/D y N

getDtFmt

Returns a string of the current date in the format specified by integer, where:

1 = M/D/Y

2 = D/M/Y

3 = Y/M/D y N

getDtStr(

Returns a list giving the time according to the current value of the clock. The list is in {hour,minute,second} format. The time is returned in the 24 hour format.

y N

getTime getTmFmt

getTmStr(integer)

getKey

Goto label

Returns an integer representing the clock time format that is currently set on the device.

12 = 12 hour format

24 = 24 hour format y N

getTmFmt

Returns a string of the current clock time in the format specified by integer, where:

12 = 12 hour format

24 = 24 hour format y N

getTmStr(

Returns the key code for the current keystroke, or 0, if no key is pressed.

Transfers control to label.

I/O

7:getKey

CTL

0:Goto

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 364

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

GraphStyle(function#,

graphstyle#)

GridOff

GridOn

G-T

Horiz

Horizontal y

i

identity(dimension)

:If condition

:commandA

:commands

:If condition

:Then

:commands

:End

:commands

:If condition

:Then

:commands

:Else

:commands

:End

:commands

imag(value)

Sets a graphstyle for function#.

Turns off grid format.

Turns on grid format.

Sets graph-table vertical split-screen mode.

Sets horizontal split-screen mode.

Draws a horizontal line at y.

Returns a complex number.

Returns the identity matrix of dimension rows x dimension columns.

If condition = 0 (false), skips commandA.

Executes commands from Then to End if condition = 1

(true).

Executes commands from Then to Else if condition = 1

(true); from Else to End if condition = 0 (false). y <

DRAW

3:Horizontal

y V y >

MATH

5:identity(

CTL

1:If

CTL

2:Then

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

CTL

H:GraphStyle(

† y .

GridOff

† y .

GridOn

† z

G-T

† z

Horiz

CTL

3:Else

IndpntAsk

IndpntAuto

Input

Returns the imaginary (nonreal) part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

CPX

3:imag(

Sets table to ask for independent-variable values.

Sets table to generate independent-variable values automatically.

Displays graph.

† y -

Indpnt: Ask

† y -

Indpnt: Auto

I/O

1:Input

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 365

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

Input [variable]

Input ["text",variable]

Input [Strn,variable]

inString(string,substring

[,start])

int(value)

G

Int(pmt1,pmt2

[,roundvalue])

invNorm(area[,

invT(area,df) m

,

s

])

Prompts for value to store to variable.

Displays Strn and stores entered value to variable.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

I/O

1:Input

I/O

1:Input

Returns the character position in string of the first character of substring beginning at start.

Returns the largest integer expression, list, or matrix.

a real or complex number,

Computes the sum, rounded to roundvalue, of the interest amount between pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.

Computes the inverse cumulative normal distribution function for a given area under the normal distribution curve specified by m

and s

.

y N

inString(

NUM

5:int(

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

A:

G

Int(

y =

DISTR

3:invNorm(

Computes the inverse cumulative student-t probability function specified by degree of freedom, df for a given area under the curve.

y =

DISTR

4:invT(

iPart(value)

isClockOn

:IS>(variable,value)

:commandA

:commands

Ù

listname

LabelOff

LabelOn

Lbl label

Returns the integer part of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

irr(CF0,CFList[,CFFreq]) Returns the interest rate at which the net present value of the cash flow is equal to zero.

Identifies if clock is ON or OFF. Returns 1 if the clock is

ON. Returns 0 if the clock is OFF.

Turns on axes labels.

Creates a label of one or two characters.

NUM

3:iPart(

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

8:irr(

y N

isClockOn

Increments variable by 1; skips commandA if variable>value. †

CTL

A:IS>(

Identifies the next one to five characters as a user-created list name.

Turns off axes labels.

y 9

OPS

B:

Ù

† y .

LabelOff

† y .

LabelOn

CTL

9:Lbl

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 366

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

lcm(valueA,valueB)

length(string)

Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2)

Line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2,0)

LinReg(a+bx) [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

LinReg(ax+b) [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

LinRegTInt [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

confidence level, regequ]

Returns the least common multiple of valueA and valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.

Returns the number of characters in string.

Draws a line from (X1,Y1) to (X2,Y2).

Erases a line from (X1,Y1) to (X2,Y2).

Fits a linear regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

Fits a linear regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

Performs a linear regression and computes the t confidence interval for the slope coefficient b.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

NUM

8:lcm(

y N

length(

y <

DRAW

2:Line(

y <

DRAW

2:Line(

CALC

8:LinReg(a+bx)

CALC

4:LinReg(ax+b)

TESTS

G:LinRegTInt

LinRegTTest [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

alternative,regequ]

@

List(list)

List

4

matr(listname1,...,

listname n,matrixname)

ln(value)

LnReg [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

log(value) logBASE(value, base)

Logistic [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

Performs a linear regression and a t-test. alternative=

<; alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >.

L

1 is †

TESTS

F:LinRegTTest

Returns a list containing the differences between consecutive elements in list.

Fills matrixname column by column with the elements from each specified listname.

y 9

OPS

7:

@

List(

y 9

OPS

0:List

4

matr(

μ

Returns the natural logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

Fits a logarithmic regression model to Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC

9:LnReg

Returns logarithm of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

«

Returns the logarithm of a specifed value determined from a specified base: logBASE(value, base).

Fits a logistic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

A: logBASE

CALC

B:Logistic

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 367

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

Manual-Fit equname Fits a linear equation to a scatter plot.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

CALC

D:Manual-Fit

MATHPRINT

Matr

listnameA,...,listname n)

Matr

4

list(matrix,

4

list(matrix,

column#,listname)

max(valueA,valueB)

max(list)

max(listA,listB)

max(value,list)

mean(list[,freqlist])

median(list[,freqlist])

Med-Med [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

Menu("title","text1",

label1[,...,"text7",label7])

min(valueA,valueB)

min(list)

Displays most entries and answers the way they are displayed in textbooks, such as .

z

MATHPRINT

Fills each listname with elements from each column in

matrix.

Fills a listname with elements from a specified column# in

matrix.

Returns the larger of valueA and valueB.

Returns largest real or complex element in list.

Returns a real or complex list of the larger of each pair of elements in listA and listB.

Returns a real or complex list of the larger of value or each

list element.

Returns the mean of list with frequency freqlist.

Returns the median of list with frequency freqlist.

Fits a median-median model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

Generates a menu of up to seven items during program execution.

Returns smaller of valueA and valueB.

Returns smallest real or complex element in list. y 9

MATH

2:max(

y 9

MATH

2:max(

y 9

MATH

3:mean(

y 9

MATH

4:median(

CALC

3:Med-Med

CTL

C:Menu(

NUM

6:min(

y 9

MATH

1:min(

y 9

OPS

A:Matr

4

list(

y 9

OPS

A:Matr

4

list(

NUM

7:max(

y 9

MATH

2:max(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 368

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

min(listA,listB)

min(value,list)

valueA nCr valueB

Returns real or complex list of the smaller of each pair of elements in listA and listB.

Returns a real or complex list of the smaller of value or each list element.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y 9

MATH

1:min(

y 9

MATH

1:min(

Returns the number of combinations of valueA taken valueB at a time.

PRB

3:nCr

value nCr list

list nCr value

listA nCr listB

n/d

Returns a list of the combinations of value taken each element in list at a time.

Returns a list of the combinations of each element in list taken value at a time.

Returns a list of the combinations of each element in listA taken each element in listB at a time.

Displays results as a simple fraction.

PRB

3:nCr

PRB

3:nCr

PRB

3:nCr

t ^

1: n/d or

NUM

D: n/d

nDeriv(expression,

variable,value[,

H

])

4

n/d

3 4

4

Nom(effective rate,

compounding periods)

Normal

Un/d

Returns approximate numerical derivative of expression with respect to variable at value, with specified

H

.

Converts the results from a fraction to mixed number or from a mixed number to a fraction, if applicable.

Computes the nominal interest rate.

Sets normal display mode.

normalcdf(lowerbound,

upperbound[, m

,

s

])

Computes the normal distribution probability between

lowerbound and upperbound for the specified m

and s

.

MATH

8:nDeriv(

t ^

3:

4

n/d

3 4

Un/d

or

NUM

A:

4

n/d

3 4

Un/d

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

B:

4

Nom(

† z

Normal

y =

DISTR

2:normalcdf(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 369

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

normalpdf(x[, m

,

s

])

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Computes the probability density function for the normal distribution at a specified x value for the specified m

and s

.

y =

DISTR

1:normalpdf(

not(value)

valueA nPr valueB

Returns 0 if value is expression, or list.

ƒ

0. value can be a real number, y :

LOGIC

4:not(

Returns the number of permutations of valueA taken valueB at a time.

PRB

2:nPr

value nPr list

list nPr value

listA nPr listB

npv(interest rate,CF0,

CFList[,CFFreq])

valueA or valueB

Output(row,column,

"text")

Output(row,column,

value)

Param

Pause

Pause [value]

Plot#(type,Xlistname,

Ylistname,mark)

Returns a list of the permutations of value taken each element in list at a time.

Returns a list of the permutations of each element in list taken value at a time.

Returns a list of the permutations of each element in listA taken each element in listB at a time.

Computes the sum of the present values for cash inflows and outflows.

PRB

2:nPr

PRB

2:nPr

PRB

2:nPr

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

7:npv(

Returns 1 if valueA or valueB is

ƒ

0. valueA and valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

Displays text beginning at specified row and column. y :

LOGIC

2:or

I/O

6:Output(

Displays value beginning at specified row and column.

I/O

6:Output(

Sets parametric graphing mode.

† z

Par

Suspends program execution until you press

Í 

CTL

8:Pause

Displays value; suspends program execution until you press

Í

.

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type Scatter or xyLine for

Xlistname and Ylistname using mark.

CTL

8:Pause

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 370

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

Plot#(type,Xlistname,

freqlist)

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type Histogram or Boxplot for

Xlistname with frequency freqlist.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

Plot#(type,Xlistname,

freqlist,mark)

Plot#(type,datalistname,

data axis,mark)

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type ModBoxplot for Xlistname with frequency freqlist using mark.

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

Defines Plot# (1, 2, or 3) of type NormProbPlot for

datalistname on data axis using mark. data axis can be X or Y.

† y ,

STAT PLOTS

1:Plot1-

2:Plot2-

3:Plot3-

PlotsOff [1,2,3]

PlotsOn [1,2,3]

Pmt_Bgn

Pmt_End poissoncdf( poissonpdf(

Polar

m

,x)

complex value

PolarGC

prgmname m

,x)

4

Polar

Deselects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots

(1, 2, or 3).

Selects all stat plots or one or more specified stat plots (1,

2, or 3).

y ,

STAT PLOTS

4:PlotsOff

y ,

STAT PLOTS

5:PlotsOn

Specifies an annuity due, where payments occur at the beginning of each payment period.

Specifies an ordinary annuity, where payments occur at the end of each payment period.

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

F:Pmt_Bgn

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

E:Pmt_End

Computes a cumulative probability at x for the discrete

Poisson distribution with specified mean m

.

Computes a probability at x for the discrete Poisson distribution with the specified mean m

.

Sets polar graphing mode.

Displays complex value in polar format.

Sets polar graphing coordinates format.

Executes the program name. y =

DISTR

D:poissoncdf(

y =

DISTR

C:poissonpdf(

† z

Pol

CPX

7:

4

Polar

† y .

PolarGC

CTRL

D:prgm

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 371

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

G

Prn(pmt1,pmt2

[,roundvalue])

prod(list[,start,end])

Prompt variableA

[,variableB,...,variable n]

1-PropZInt(x,n

[,confidence level])

2-PropZInt(x1,n1,x2,n2

[,confidence level])

1-PropZTest(p0,x,n

[,alternative,drawflag])

2-PropZTest(x1,n1,x2,n2

[,alternative,drawflag])

Pt-Change(x,y)

Pt-Off(x,y[,mark])

Pt-On(x,y[,mark])

PwrReg [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

Pxl-Change(row,column)

Reverses pixel at (row,column); 0

Pxl-Off(row,column)

Pxl-On(row,column)

Computes the sum, rounded to roundvalue, of the principal amount between pmt1 and pmt2 for an amortization schedule.

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

0:

G

Prn(

Returns product of list elements between start and end. y 9

MATH

6:prod(

Prompts for value for variableA, then variableB, and so on. †

I/O

2:Prompt

Computes a one-proportion z confidence interval.

Computes a two-proportion z confidence interval.

Computes a one-proportion z test. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS

A:1-PropZInt(

TESTS

B:2-PropZInt(

TESTS

5:1-PropZTest(

Computes a two-proportion z test. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS

6:2-PropZTest(

Reverses a point at (x,y).

Erases a point at (x,y) using mark.

Draws a point at (x,y) using mark.

Fits a power regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

0

column

94.

Erases pixel at (row,column); 0

0

Draws pixel at (row,column); 0

0

column

94.

column

94.

row row

62 and

62 and

row

62 and y <

POINTS

3:Pt-Change(

y <

POINTS

2:Pt-Off(

y <

POINTS

1:Pt-On(

CALC

A:PwrReg

y <

POINTS

6:Pxl-Change(

y <

POINTS

5:Pxl-Off(

y <

POINTS

4:Pxl-On(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 372

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

pxl-Test(row,column)

P

P

4

Rx(r, q

)

4

Ry(r, q

)

QuadReg [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

Returns 1 if pixel (row, column) is on, 0 if it is off;

0

row

62 and 0

column

94.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y <

POINTS

7:pxl-Test(

Returns X, given polar coordinates r and q

or a list of polar coordinates. y ;

ANGLE

7:P

4

Rx(

Returns Y, given polar coordinates r and coordinates.

q

or a list of polar y ;

ANGLE

8:P

4

Ry(

Fits a quadratic regression model to Xlistname and

Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC

5:QuadReg

QuartReg [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist,

regequ]

Radian

rand[(numtrials)]

randBin(numtrials,prob

[,numsimulations])

randInt( lower,upper

[,numtrials])

randIntNoRep(lowerint,

upperint)

Fits a quartic regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC

7:QuartReg

Sets radian angle mode.

Returns a random number between 0 and 1 for a specified number of trials numtrials.

Returns a random ordered list of integers from a lower integer to an upper integer which may include the lower integer and upper integer.

† z

Radian

PRB

1:rand

Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Binomial distribution.

Generates and displays a random integer within a range specified by lower and upper integer bounds for a specified number of trials numtrials.

PRB

7:randBin(

PRB

5:randInt(

PRB

8:randIntNoRep(

randM(rows,columns)

randNorm(

[,numtrials])

re^ q

i

Real

real(value) m

,

s

Returns a random matrix of rows (1-99) × columns (1-99).

Generates and displays a random real number from a specified Normal distribution specified by m

and s

for a specified number of trials numtrials.

Sets the mode to polar complex number mode (re^

Returns the real part of a complex number or list of complex numbers.

q

i).

Sets mode to display complex results only when you enter complex numbers.

y >

MATH

6:randM(

PRB

6:randNorm(

† z

re^ q

i

† z

Real

CPX

2:real(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 373

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

RecallGDB n

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Restores all settings stored in the graph database variable

GDBn. y <

STO

4:RecallGDB

RecallPic n

complex value

RectGC

ref(matrix)

4

Rect

remainder(dividend,

divisor)

Displays the graph and adds the picture stored in Picn.

Displays complex value or list in rectangular format.

Sets rectangular graphing coordinates format.

Returns the row-echelon form of a matrix.

Reports the remainder as a whole number from a division of two whole numbers where the divisor is not zero.

y <

STO

2:RecallPic

CPX

6:

4

Rect

† y .

RectGC

y >

MATH

A:ref(

NUM

0:remainder(

remainder(list, divisor)

remainder(dividend, list) Reports the remainder as a whole number from a division of two whole numbers where the divisor is a list.

remainder(list, list)

:Repeat condition

:commands

:End

:commands

Reports the remainder as a whole number from a division of two lists where the divisor is not zero.

Reports the remainder as a whole number from a division of two lists.

Executes commands until condition is true.

NUM

0:remainder(

NUM

0:remainder(

NUM

0:remainder(

CTL

6:Repeat

Return

ä

row(value,matrix,row)

Returns to the calling program.

round(value[,#decimals]) Returns a number, expression, list, or matrix rounded to

#decimals (

9).

Returns a matrix with row of matrix multiplied by value and stored in row.

row+(matrix,rowA,rowB) Returns a matrix with rowA of matrix added to rowB and stored in rowB.

CTL

E:Return

NUM

2:round(

y >

MATH

E:

ä

row(

y >

MATH

D:row+(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 374

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

ä

row+(value,matrix,

rowA,rowB)

rowSwap(matrix,rowA,

rowB)

rref(matrix)

R

R

4

Pr(x,y)

4

P

q

(x,y)

2-Samp

Ü

Test [listname1,

listname2,freqlist1,

freqlist2,alternative,

drawflag]

(Data list input)

2-Samp

Ü

Test Sx1,n1,

Sx2,n2[,alternative,

drawflag]

(Summary stats input)

Returns a matrix with rowA of matrix multiplied by value, added to rowB, and stored in rowB.

Returns a matrix with rowA of matrix swapped with rowB.

Returns the reduced row-echelon form of a matrix.

Returns R, given rectangular coordinates x and y or a list of rectangular coordinates.

Returns q

, given rectangular coordinates x and y or a list of rectangular coordinates.

Performs a two-sample

Û

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

Performs a two-sample

Û test. alternative=

L

1 is <; test. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y >

MATH

F:

ä

row+(

y >

MATH

C:rowSwap(

y >

MATH

B:rref(

y ;

ANGLE

5:R

4

Pr(

y ;

ANGLE

6:R

4

P

q

(

TESTS

E:2-Samp

Ü

Test

TESTS

E:2-Samp

Ü

Test

2-SampTInt [listname1,

listname2,

freqlist1,freqlist2,

confidence level,pooled]

(Data list input)

Computes a two-sample t confidence interval. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances.

TESTS

0:2-SampTInt

2-SampTInt v

1,Sx1,n1, v

2,Sx2,n2

[,confidence level,pooled]

(Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample t confidence interval. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances.

TESTS

0:2-SampTInt

2-SampTTest [listname1,

listname2,freqlist1,

freqlist2,alternative,

pooled,drawflag]

(Data list input)

Computes a two-sample t test. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS

4:2-SampTTest

2-SampTTest

v

1,Sx1,n1,

v2,Sx2,n2[,alternative,

pooled,drawflag]

(Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample t test. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. pooled=1 pools variances; pooled=0 does not pool variances. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS

4:2-SampTTest

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 375

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

2-SampZInt(

s

1

,

s

2

[,listname1,listname2,

freqlist1,freqlist2,

confidence level])

(Data list input)

Computes a two-sample z confidence interval.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

TESTS

9:2-SampZInt(

2-SampZInt(

s

1

,

s

2

,

v

1,n1, v

2,n2

[,confidence level])

(Summary stats input)

Computes a two-sample z confidence interval.

TESTS

9:2-SampZInt(

2-SampZTest(

s

1

, s

2

[,listname1,listname2,

freqlist1,freqlist2,

alternative,drawflag])

(Data list input)

Computes a two-sample z test. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

TESTS

3:2-SampZTest(

2-SampZTest(

s

1

, s

2

, v

1,n1, v

2,n2

[,alternative,drawflag])

(Summary stats input)

TESTS

3:2-SampZTest(

Sci

Select(Xlistname,

Ylistname)

Send(variable)

seq(expression,variable,

begin,end[,increment])

Seq

Sequential

setDate(year,month,day) Sets the date using a year, month, day format. The year must be 4 digits; month and day can be 1 or 2 digit.

setDtFmt(integer)

Sets scientific notation display mode.

Selects one or more specific data points from a scatter plot or xyLine plot (only), and then store•s the selected data points to two new lists, Xlistname and Ylistname.

Sends contents of variable to the CBL 2™ or CBR™

System.

Returns list created by evaluating expression with regard to

variable, from begin to end by increment.

Sets sequence graphing mode.

† z

Sci

y 9

OPS

8:Select(

I/O

B:Send(

y 9

OPS

5:seq(

† z

Seq

Sets mode to graph functions sequentially.

Sets the date format.

1 = M/D/Y

2 = D/M/Y

3 = Y/M/D

† z

Sequential

y N

setDate(

y N

setDtFmt(

setTime(hour,minute,

second)

setTmFmt(integer)

Computes a two-sample z test. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

Sets the time using an hour, minute, second format. The

hour must be in 24 hour format, in which 13 = 1 p.m.

Sets the time format.

12 = 12 hour format

24 = 24 hour format y N

setTime(

y N

setTmFmt(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 376

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

SetUpEditor

SetUpEditor listname1

[,listname2,...,

listname20]

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Removes all list names from the stat list editor, and then restores list names L1 through L6 to columns 1 through 6.

Removes all list names from the stat list editor, then sets it up to display one or more listnames in the specified order, starting with column 1.

EDIT

5:SetUpEditor

EDIT

5:SetUpEditor

Shade(lowerfunc,

upperfunc[,Xleft,Xright,

pattern,patres])

Shade

c

upperbound,df)

Shade

Ü

2

(lowerbound,

(lowerbound,

upperbound,

numerator df,

denominator df)

Draws lowerfunc and upperfunc in terms of X on the current graph and uses pattern and patres to shade the area bounded by lowerfunc, upperfunc, Xleft, and Xright. y <

DRAW

7:Shade(

Draws the density function for the c

2

distribution specified by degrees of freedom df and shades the area between

lowerbound and upperbound.

Draws the density function for the

Û

distribution specified by numerator df and denominator df and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

y =

DRAW

3:Shade

c

2

(

y =

DRAW

4:Shade

Ü

(

ShadeNorm(lowerbound,

upperbound[, m

,

s

])

Shade_t(lowerbound,

upperbound,df)

Simul

sin(value)

sin

L1

(value)

Draws the normal density function specified by m

and s and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

Draws the density function for the Student-t distribution specified by degrees of freedom df, and shades the area between lowerbound and upperbound.

Sets mode to graph functions simultaneously.

Returns the sine of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns the arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.

y =

DRAW

1:ShadeNorm(

y =

DRAW

2:Shade_t(

† z

Simul

˜ y ?

sinh(value)

sinh

L1

(value)

SinReg [iterations,

Xlistname,Ylistname,

period,regequ]

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of a real number, expression, or list.

y N

sinh(

y N

sinh

L1

(

Attempts iterations times to fit a sinusoidal regression model to Xlistname and Ylistname using a period guess, and stores the regression equation to regequ.

CALC

C:SinReg

solve(expression,

variable,guess,

{lower,upper})

SortA(listname)

SortA(keylistname,

dependlist1[,dependlist2,

...,dependlist n])

Solves expression for variable, given an initial guess and

lower and upper bounds within which the solution is sought.

MATH

0:solve(

Sorts elements of listname in ascending order.

Sorts elements of keylistname in ascending order, then sorts each dependlist as a dependent list.

y 9

OPS

1:SortA(

y 9

OPS

1:SortA(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 377

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

SortD(listname)

SortD(keylistname,dependl

ist1[,dependlist2,

..., dependlist n])

Sorts elements of listname in descending order.

Sorts elements of keylistname in descending order, then sorts each dependlist as a dependent list.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

y 9

OPS

2:SortD(

y 9

OPS

2:SortD(

y N

startTmr startTmr

Starts the clock timer. Store or note the displayed value, and use it as the argument for checkTmr( ) to check the elapsed time.

stdDev(list[,freqlist])

Stop

Store: value

!

variable

StoreGDB n

StorePic n

summation

G

(expression

[,start,end])

Returns the standard deviation of the elements in list with frequency freqlist.

Ends program execution; returns to home screen.

Stores value in variable.

Stores current graph in database GDBn.

Stores current picture in picture Picn.

String

4

Equ(string,Y= var) Converts string into an equation and stores it in Y= var.

sub(string,begin,length)

sum(list[,start,end])

tan(value)

tan

L1

(value)

Tangent(expression,

value)

tanh(value)

tanh

L1

(value)

Returns a string that is a subset of another string, from

begin to length.

Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y 9

MATH

7:stdDev(

CTL

F:Stop

¿ y <

STO

3:StoreGDB

y <

STO

1:StorePic

y N

String

4

Equ(

y N

sub(

Returns the sum of elements of list from start to end.

Displays the MathPrint™ summation entry template and returns the sum of elements of list from start to end, where

start <= end

.

y 9

MATH

5:sum(

NUM

0: summation

G

(

Returns the tangent of a real number, expression, or list.

Returns the arctangent of a real number, expression, or list.

š y A

Draws a line tangent to expression at X=value.

y <

DRAW

5:Tangent(

Returns hyperbolic tangent of a real number, expression, or list.

y N

tanh(

y N

tanh

L1

(

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 378

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

tcdf(lowerbound,

upperbound,df)

Text(row,column,text1,

text2,...,text n)

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Computes the Student-t distribution probability between

lowerbound and upperbound for the specified degrees of freedom df.

Writes text on graph beginning at pixel (row,column), where

0

row

57 and 0

column

94.

y =

DISTR

6:tcdf(

y <

DRAW

0:Text(

Then

See If:Then

Time

timeCnv(seconds)

TInterval [listname,

freqlist,confidence level]

(Data list input)

TInterval v

,Sx,n

[,confidence level]

(Summary stats input)

tpdf(x,df)

Trace

T-Test m

0[,listname,

freqlist,alternative,

drawflag]

(Data list input)

T-Test m

0, v

,Sx,n

[,alternative,drawflag]

(Summary stats input)

tvm_FV[(

Ú

,

æ

,PV,PMT,

P/Y,C/Y)]

tvm_

æ

[(

Ú

P/Y,C/Y)]

tvm_

Ú

[(

æ

P/Y,C/Y)]

,PV,PMT,FV,

,PV,PMT,FV,

tvm_Pmt[(

Ú

,

æ

P/Y,C/Y)]

,PV,FV,

Sets sequence graphs to plot with respect to time.

Converts seconds to units of time that can be more easily understood for evaluation. The list is in

{days,hours,minutes,seconds} format.

† y .

Time

y N

timeCnv

Computes a t confidence interval.

Computes a t confidence interval.

TESTS

8:TInterval

TESTS

8:TInterval

Computes the probability density function (pdf) for the

Student-t distribution at a specified x value with specified degrees of freedom df.

y =

DISTR

5:tpdf(

Displays the graph and enters TRACE mode.

Performs a t test with frequency freqlist. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results. r

TESTS

2:T-Test

Performs a t test with frequency freqlist. alternative=

L

1 is < ;

alternative=0 is

ă

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

Computes the future value.

Computes the annual interest rate.

Computes the number of payment periods.

Computes the amount of each payment.

TESTS

2:T-Test

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

6:tvm_FV

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

3:tvm_

æ

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

5:tvm_

Ú

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

2:tvm_Pmt

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 379

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

tvm_PV[(

Ú

,

æ

,PMT,FV,

P/Y,C/Y)]

UnArchive

Un/d uvAxes uwAxes

1-Var Stats [Xlistname,

freqlist]

2-Var Stats [Xlistname,

Ylistname,freqlist]

variance(list[,freqlist])

Vertical x

vwAxes

Web

:While condition

:commands

:End

:command

Computes the present value.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Œ

1:Finance

CALC

4:tvm_PV

y L

6:UnArchive

Moves the specified variables from the user data archive memory to RAM.

To archive variables, use Archive.

Displays results as a mixed number, if applicable.

Sets sequence graphs to plot u(n) on the x-axis and v(n) on the y-axis.

NUM

C: Un/d

† y .

uv

Sets sequence graphs to plot u(n) on the x-axis and w(n) on the y-axis.

Performs one-variable analysis on the data in Xlistname with frequency freqlist.

Performs two-variable analysis on the data in Xlistname and Ylistname with frequency freqlist.

Returns the variance of the elements in list with frequency

freqlist.

Draws a vertical line at x.

Sets sequence graphs to plot v(n) on the x-axis and w(n) on the y-axis.

Sets sequence graphs to trace as webs.

Executes commands while condition is true.

† y .

uw

CALC

1:1-Var Stats

CALC

2:2-Var Stats

y 9

MATH

8:variance(

y <

DRAW

4:Vertical

† y .

vw

† y .

Web

CTL

5:While

valueA xor valueB

ZBox

ZDecimal

Returns 1 if only valueA or valueB = 0. valueA and valueB can be real numbers, expressions, or lists.

Displays a graph, lets you draw a box that defines a new viewing window, and updates the window.

Adjusts the viewing window so that

@

X=0.1 and

@

Y=0.1, and displays the graph screen with the origin centered on the screen.

y :

LOGIC

3:xor

† q

ZOOM

1:ZBox

† q

ZOOM

4:ZDecimal

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 380

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

ZFrac 1/2

ZFrac 1/3

ZFrac 1/4

ZFrac 1/5

ZFrac 1/8

ZFrac 1/10

ZInteger

ZInterval s

[,listname,

freqlist,confidence level]

(Data list input)

ZInterval s

,

v

,n

[,confidence level]

(Summary stats input)

Zoom In

Zoom Out

ZoomFit

ZoomRcl

ZoomStat

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of , if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to .

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

q

ZOOM

B:ZFrac1/2

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of , if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to .

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of , if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to .

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of , if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to .

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of , if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to .

Sets the window variables so that you can trace in increments of , if possible. Sets

@

X and

@

Y to .

Redefines the viewing window using these dimensions:

@

X=1

@

Y=1

Xscl=10

Yscl=10

Computes a z confidence interval.

Computes a z confidence interval.

Magnifies the part of the graph that surrounds the cursor location.

Graphs the selected functions in a user-defined viewing window.

Redefines the viewing window so that all statistical data points are displayed.

TESTS

7:ZInterval

TESTS

7:ZInterval

† q

ZOOM

2:Zoom In

Displays a greater portion of the graph, centered on the cursor location.

† q

ZOOM

3:Zoom Out

Recalculates Ymin and Ymax to include the minimum and maximum Y values, between Xmin and Xmax, of the selected functions and replots the functions.

† q

ZOOM

0:ZoomFit

† q

MEMORY

3:ZoomRcl

† q

ZOOM

9:ZoomStat

q

ZOOM

C:ZFrac1/3

q

ZOOM

D:ZFrac1/4

q

ZOOM

E:ZFrac1/5

q

ZOOM

F:ZFrac1/8

q

ZOOM

G:ZFrac1/10

† q

ZOOM

8:ZInteger

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 381

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

ZoomSto

ZPrevious

ZQuadrant1

Immediately stores the current viewing window.

Replots the graph using the window variables of the graph that was displayed before you executed the last ZOOM instruction.

Displays the portion of the graph that is in quadrant 1.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

† q

MEMORY

2:ZoomSto

† q

MEMORY

1:ZPrevious

q

ZOOM

A:ZQuadrant1

ZSquare

ZStandard

Adjusts the X or Y window settings so that each pixel represents an equal width and height in the coordinate system, and updates the viewing window.

Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to the default values.

Performs a z test with frequency freqlist. alternative=

L

1 is <;

alternative=0 is

ƒ

; alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

† q

ZOOM

5:ZSquare

† q

ZOOM

6:ZStandard

TESTS

1:Z-Test(

Z-Test(

m

0, s

[,listname,

freqlist,alternative,

drawflag])

(Data list input)

Z-Test(

m

0, s

,

v

,n

[,alternative,drawflag])

(Summary stats input)

ZTrig

Factorial: value!

Factorial: list!

Degrees notation: value

Radian: angle r

Transpose: matrix

T

x

th

root

x

value

Performs a z test. alternative=

L

1 is <; alternative=0 is

ƒ

;

alternative=1 is >. drawflag=1 draws results; drawflag=0 calculates results.

Replots the functions immediately, updating the window variables to preset values for plotting trig functions.

Returns factorial of value.

Returns factorial of list elements.

¡

Interprets value as degrees; designates degrees in DMS format.

Interprets angle as radians.

Returns a matrix in which each element (row, column) is swapped with the corresponding element (column, row) of

matrix.

Returns x th

root of value.

TESTS

1:Z-Test(

† q

ZOOM

7:ZTrig

PRB

4:!

PRB

4:!

y ;

ANGLE

1:

¡ y ;

ANGLE

3:

r y >

MATH

2:

T

MATH

5:

x

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 382

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

x

th

root

x

list

x

value listA

x

list

listB

Cube: value

3

Cube root:

3

(value)

Equal: valueA=valueB

Returns x th

root of list elements.

Returns list roots of value.

Returns listA roots of listB.

Returns the cube of a real or complex number, expression, list, or square matrix.

Returns the cube root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

Returns 1 if valueA = valueB. Returns 0 if valueA

ƒ

valueB.

valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

MATH

5:

x

MATH

5:

x

MATH

5:

x

MATH

3:

3

MATH

4:

3

(

y :

TEST

1:=

Not equal:

valueA

ƒ

valueB

Less than:

valueA<valueB

Greater than:

valueA>valueB

Less than or equal:

valueA

valueB

Greater than or equal:

valueA

valueB

Inverse: value

L1

Returns 1 if valueA

valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, lists, or matrices.

Returns 1 if valueA < valueB. Returns 0 if valueA

valueB.

valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

Returns 1 if valueA > valueB. Returns 0 if valueA

valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

Returns 1 if valueA

ƒ

valueB. Returns 0 if valueA = valueB.

valueB.

valueB. Returns 0 if valueA > valueB.

valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

Returns 1 if valueA

valueB. Returns 0 if valueA < valueB.

valueA and valueB can be real or complex numbers, expressions, or lists.

Returns 1 divided by a real or complex number or expression. y :

TEST

2:

ƒ y :

TEST

5:<

y :

TEST

3:>

y :

TEST

6:

 y :

TEST

4:

Inverse: list

L1

Returns 1 divided by list elements.

Inverse: matrix

L1

Returns matrix inverted.

Square: value

2 Returns value multiplied by itself. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

¡

Square: list

2 Returns list elements squared.

¡

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 383

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

Square: matrix

2 Returns matrix multiplied by itself.

¡

Powers: value^power

Multiplication:

valueA

ä

valueB

Returns value raised to power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

Returns valueA times valueB.

Powers: list^power

Powers: value^list

Powers: matrix^power

Returns list elements raised to power.

Returns value raised to list elements.

Returns matrix elements raised to power.

Ì

Negation:

L

value

Returns the negative of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

Power of ten: 10^(value) Returns 10 raised to the value power. value can be a real or complex number or expression.

y G

Power of ten: 10^(list)

Square root:

(value)

Returns a list of 10 raised to the list power.

Returns square root of a real or complex number, expression, or list.

y G y C

¯

Multiplication:

value

ä

list

Returns value times each list element.

¯

Multiplication:

list

ä

value

Returns each list element times value.

¯

Multiplication:

listA

ä

listB

Returns listA elements times listB elements.

¯

Multiplication:

value

ä

matrix

Returns value times matrix elements.

¯

Multiplication:

matrixA

ä

matrixB

Returns matrixA times matrixB.

¯

Division: valueA

Division: list

Addition:

matrixA+matrixB

à

valueB

Returns valueA divided by valueB.

à

value

Division: value

Division: listA

à

list

à

listB

Addition: list+value

Addition: listA+listB

Returns list elements divided by value.

Returns value divided by list elements.

Returns listA elements divided by listB elements.

Addition: valueA+valueB Returns valueA plus valueB.

Returns list in which value is added to each list element.

Returns listA elements plus listB elements.

Returns matrixA elements plus matrixB elements.

Ã

Ã

Ã

Ã

¥

¥

¥

¥

Concatenation:

string1+string2

Concatenates two or more strings.

Ã

Subtraction:

valueA

N

valueB

Subtracts valueB from valueA.

¹

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 384

Function or

Instruction/Arguments Result

Subtraction:

value

N

list

Subtraction:

list

N

value

Subtraction:

listA

N

listB

Subtracts list elements from value.

Subtracts value from list elements.

Subtracts listB elements from listA elements.

Subtraction:

matrixA

N

matrixB

Minutes notation:degrees

¡

minutes's

econds"

Seconds notation:

degrees

¡

minutes'seconds"

Subtracts matrixB elements from matrixA elements.

Interprets minutes angle measurement as minutes.

Interprets seconds angle measurement as seconds.

Key or

Keys/Menu or

Screen/Item

¹

¹

¹

¹ y ;

ANGLE

2:'

ƒ

[

ã

]

Appendix A: Functions and Instructions 385

Appendix B:

Reference Information

Variables

User Variables

The TI-84 Plus uses the variables listed below in various ways. Some variables are restricted to specific data types.

The variables

A

through

Z

and q are defined as real or complex numbers. You may store to them.

The TI-84 Plus can update

X

,

Y

,

R

, q, and

T

during graphing, so you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.

The variables (list names)

L1

through

L6

are restricted to lists; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables (matrix names)

[A]

through

[J]

are restricted to matrices; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables

Pic1

through

Pic9

and

Pic0

are restricted to pictures; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables

GDB1

through

GDB9

and

GDB0

are restricted to graph databases; you cannot store another type of data to them.

The variables

Str1

through

Str9

and

Str0

are restricted to strings; you cannot store another type of data to them.

Except for system variables, you can store any string of characters, functions, instructions, or variables to the functions

Yn

, (

1

through

9

, and

0

),

XnT

/

YnT

(

1

through

6

),

rn

(

1

through

6

),

u(n)

,

v(n)

, and

w(n)

directly or through the

Y=

editor. The validity of the string is determined when the function is evaluated.

Archive Variables

You can store data, programs or any variable from RAM to user data archive memory where they cannot be edited or deleted inadvertantly. Archiving also allows you to free up RAM for variables that may require additional memory. The names of archived variables are preceded by an asterisk (*) indicating they are in user data archive.

System Variables

The variables below must be real numbers. You may store to them. Since the TI-84 Plus can update some of them, as the result of a

ZOOM

, for example, you may want to avoid using these variables to store nongraphing data.

Xmin

,

Xmax

,

Xscl

,

@

X

,

XFact

,

Tstep

,

PlotStart

,

nMin

, and other window variables.

Appendix B: Reference Information 386

ZXmin

,

ZXmax

,

ZXscl

,

ZTstep

,

ZPlotStart

,

Zu(nMin)

, and other

ZOOM

variables.

The variables below are reserved for use by the TI-84 Plus. You cannot store to them.

n

, v,

Sx

, s

x

,

minX

,

maxX

,

Gy

,

G

y

2

,

G

xy

,

a

,

b

,

c

,

RegEQ

,

x1

,

x2

,

y1

,

z

,

t

,

F

, c

2

,

Ç, v

1

,

Sx1

,

n1

,

lower

,

upper

,

r

2

,

R

2

and other statistical variables.

Appendix B: Reference Information 387

Statistics Formulas

This section contains statistics formulas for the

Logistic

and

SinReg

regressions,

ANOVA

,

2-Samp

Ü

Test

, and

2-SampTTest

.

Logistic

The logistic regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive least-squares techniques to optimize the following cost function:

J

=

N

i

= 1

c

y

bx i

1 +

ae i

2

 which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors, where:

x y

N

=

=

= the independent variable list the dependent variable list the dimension of the lists

This technique attempts to estimate the constants

a

,

b

, and

c

recursively to make

J

as small as possible.

SinReg

The sine regression algorithm applies nonlinear recursive least-squares techniques to optimize the following cost function:

J

=

N

i

= 1

i

+

c

+ –

i

2 which is the sum of the squares of the residual errors, where:

x y

N

=

=

= the independent variable list the dependent variable list the dimension of the lists

This technique attempts to recursively estimate the constants

a

,

b

,

c

, and

d

to make

J

as small as possible.

ANOVA(

The

ANOVA

Ü statistic is:

Ü =

ErrorMS

Appendix B: Reference Information 388

The mean squares (

MS

) that make up

Ü are:

FactorMS

=

Factordf

ErrorMS

=

Errordf

The sum of squares (

SS

) that make up the mean squares are:

FactorSS

=

I

i

= 1

n i

x i

x

2

ErrorSS

=

I

i

= 1

n i

– 1

Sx

i

2

The degrees of freedom

df

that make up the mean squares are:

Factordf

=

I

– 1 = numeratordf for

Ü

Errordf

=

I

i

= 1

n i

– 1

= denominatordf for

Ü where:

I x i

Sxi ni x

=

=

=

=

= number of populations the mean of each list the standard deviation of each list the length of each list the mean of all lists

2-SampFTest

Below is the definition for the

2

-

Samp

Ü

Test

.

Sx

1,

Sx

2 = Sample standard deviations having

n

1

– 1 and

n

2

– 1

degrees of freedom

df

, respectively.

Ü

= Û-statistic =

Sx1

Sx2

2

df

(

n

1

– 1

n

2

– 1

)

=

Û

pdf

( ) with degrees of freedom

df n

1

– 1 and

n

2

– 1

p

= reported

p

value

Appendix B: Reference Information 389

2

-

Samp

Ü

Test

for the alternative hypothesis

1

 

2

.

p

=

F f

x n

1

– ,

2

– 1

dx

2

-

Samp

Ü

Test

for the alternative hypothesis

1

 

2

.

p

=

0

F f

x n

1

– ,

2

– 1

dx

2

-

Samp

Ü

Test

for the alternative hypothesis s

1

ƒ s

2

. Limits must satisfy the following:

2

=

L bnd

0

1

– ,

2

– 1 =

U bnd

,

1

2

– 1 where: [

Lbnd,Ubnd

] = lower and upper limits

The

Ü-statistic is used as the bound producing the smallest integral. The remaining bound is selected to achieve the preceding integral’s equality relationship.

2-SampTTest

The following is the definition for the

2-SampTTest

. The two-sample

t

statistic with degrees of freedom

df

is:

t

=

x

x

----------------

S

where the computation of

S

and

df

are dependent on whether the variances are pooled. If the variances are not pooled:

S

=

Sx

2

-----------

n

1

1

+

Sx

-----------

n

2

2

2

df

=

Sx

2

-----------

n

1

+

Sx

-----------

n

2

2

2

2

n

1

– 1

Sx

-----------

n

1

2 

2

+

n

2

– 1

Sx

-----------

n

2

2 

2

Appendix B: Reference Information 390

otherwise:

Sx p

=

n

– 1

Sx

1

2

+

--------------------------------------------------------------------

df

n

– 1

Sx

2

2

S

=

n

1

+

n

2

df

=

n

1

+

n

2

– 2

p

and

Sxp

is the pooled variance.

Appendix B: Reference Information 391

Financial Formulas

This section contains financial formulas for computing time value of money, amortization, cash flow, interest-rate conversions, and days between dates.

Time Value of Money

i

=

e

y

 ln

x

+ 1

 

: where

PMT y x

C/Y

P/Y

I%

=

=

ƒ

=

=

=

0

C/Y

(.01

P/Y

I%

)

C/Y

compounding periods per year payment periods per year interest rate per year

i

=

FV PV

1

N

– 1 where:

PMT

= 0

The iteration used to compute

i

:

0 =

PV

+

PMT

G i

1 –

1

i

+

i

N

+

FV

 

1 +

i

N

I% = 100

   

e

y

 ln

x

+ 1

 

– 1

 where:

x

=

i y

=

P/Y

C/Y

G i

= 1 +

i

k

where:

k

= 0 for end-of-period payments

k

= 1 for beginning-of-period payments

N

= ln

PMT

G

PMT G

ln

1

i

+

+

i

FV

i

PV

i

 where:

i

ƒ 0

N

=

Appendix B: Reference Information 392

where:

i =

0

PMT

=

i

PV

G i

+

----------------------------

1 +

i

+

FV

N

– 1 where:

i

ƒ 0

PMT

=

 where:

i =

0

PV

=

PMT

------------------------

i

G i

FV

1 +

i

N

PMT i

G

------------------------

i

where:

i

ƒ 0

PV

=

+

 where:

i =

0

FV

=

PMT

G

------------------------

i i

1 +

i

N

PV

+

PMT

G

------------------------

i i

 where:

i

ƒ 0

FV

=

+ where:

i

= 0

Amortization

If computing

bal

(),

pmt2

=

npmt

Let

bal

(0) =

RND

(

PV

)

Iterate from

m

= 1 to

pmt2

I

m

=

bal m

=

– 1

  

– 1

  

m

+

Appendix B: Reference Information 393

then:

bal( ) = bal pmt2

Prn( )

= bal pmt2

Int( )

=

pmt2 – pmt1 + 1

Prn( ) where:

RND

RND12

= round the display to the number of decimal places selected

= round to 12 decimal places

Balance, principal, and interest are dependent on the values of

PMT

,

PV

,

æ, and

pmt

1 and

pmt

2.

Cash Flow

npv( ) =

CF

0

+

N

j

= 1

CF j

1 +

i

-S

j

– 1

1 –

1 +

i

-n

j

-----------------------------------

i

where:

S j

=

j

i

= 1

0

n i j

1

j

= 0

Net present value is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow (

CF

0

), subsequent cash flows

(

CFj

), frequency of each cash flow (

nj

), and the specified interest rate (

i

).

irr

() = 100

i

, where

i

satisfies

npv

() = 0

Internal rate of return is dependent on the values of the initial cash flow (

CF

0) and subsequent cash flows (

CFj

).

i

=

I

%

 100

Interest Rate Conversions

4

Eff

=

100

(e

CP

 ln

x

+ 1

– 1) where:

x

= .01

NomCP

4

Nom

=

100

CP

[

e

1

CP

 ln

x

+ 1

– 1

 where:

x

Eff

= .01

Eff

=

effective rate

Appendix B: Reference Information 394

CP

Nom

=

compounding periods

=

nominal rate

Days between Dates

With the

dbd(

function, you can enter or compute a date within the range Jan. 1, 1950, through

Dec. 31, 2049.

Actual/actual day-count method (assumes actual number of days per month and actual number of days per year):

dbd

( (days between dates) = Number of Days II

- Number of Days I

Number of Days I = (

Y1

-

YB

)

 365

+ (number of days

MB

to

M

1)

+

DT1

+

Y1 –

YB

4

Number of Days II = (

Y

2

-

YB

)

 365

+ (number of days

MB

to

M

2)

+

DT

2

+

4

 where:

M

1

DT

1

Y

1

M

2

DT

2

Y

2

MB

DB

YB

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

= month of first date day of first date year of first date month of second date day of second date year of second date base month (January) base day (1) base year (first year after leap year)

Appendix B: Reference Information 395

Important Things You Need to Know About Your TI-84 Plus

TI-84 Plus Results

There may be a number of reasons that your TI-84 Plus is not displaying the expected results; however, the most common solutions involve order of operations or mode settings. Your calculator uses an Equation Operating System™ (EOS™) which evaluates the functions in an expression in the following order:

1.

Functions that precede the argument, such as square root, sin(, or log(

2.

Functions that are entered after the argument, such as exponents, factorial, r,

¡, and conversions

3.

Powers and roots, such as 2^5, or 5*square root(32)

4.

Permutations (nPr) and combinations (nCr)

5.

Multiplication, implied multiplication, and division

6.

Addition and subtraction

7.

Relational functions, such as > or <

8.

Logic operator and

9.

Logic operators or and xor

Remember that EOS™ evaluates from left to right and calculations within parentheses are evaluated first. You should use parentheses where the rules of algebra may not be clear. In OS

2.53 MP, parentheses may be pasted in an expression to indicate how the input is interpreted.

If you are using trigonometric functions or performing polar and rectangular conversions, the unexpected results may be caused by an angle mode setting. The Radian and Degree angle mode settings control how the TI-84 Plus interprets angle values.

To change the angle mode settings, follow these steps:

1.

Press z to display the Mode settings.

2.

Select

Degree

or

Radian

.

3.

Press

Í to save the angle mode setting.

ERR:DIM MISMATCH Error

Your TI-84 Plus displays the

ERR:DIM MISMATCH

error if you are trying to perform an operation that references one or more lists or matrices whose dimensions do not match. For example, multiplying L1*L2, where L1={1,2,3,4,5} and L2={1,2} produces an

ERR:DIM MISMATCH

error because the number of elements in L1 and L2 do not match.

Appendix B: Reference Information 396

ERR:INVALID DIM Error

The

ERR:INVALID DIM

error message may occur if you are trying to graph a function that does not involve the stat plot features. The error can be corrected by turning off the stat plots. To turn the stat plots off, press y , and then select

4:PlotsOff

.

Link-Receive L1 (or any file) to Restore Message

Your TI-84 Plus displays the

Link-Receive L1 (or any file) to Restore message

if it has been disabled for testing, and not re-enabled. To restore your calculator to full functionality after testing, link to another TI-84 Plus and transfer any file to the disabled calculator, or use TI Connect™ software to download a file from your computer to your TI-84 Plus.

To transfer a file from another TI-84 Plus:

1.

On the receiving unit, press y 8 and then select

RECEIVE

.

2.

On the sending calculator, Press y 8.

3.

Select a file to send by selecting a category, and then selecting a file to send.

4.

Select

TRANSMIT

to send the file.

Contrast Feature

If the contrast setting is too dark (set to 9) or too dim (set to 0) the unit may appear as if it is malfunctioning or turned off. To adjust the contrast, press

and

release y, and then press and hold

} or †.

TI-84 Plus Identification Code

Your graphing calculator has a unique identification (ID) code that you should record and keep.

You can use this 14 digit ID to register your calculator at education.ti.com or identify your calculator in the event that it is lost or stolen. A valid ID includes numbers 0 through 9 and the letters A through F.

Appendix B: Reference Information 397

You can view the calculator’s Operating System, Product Number, ID, and Certificate Revision

Number from the

About

screen. To display the

About

screen, press y L and then select

1:About

.

Your unique product ID code: _____________________________

Backups

Your TI-84 Plus is similar to a computer, in that it stores files and Apps that are important to you. It is always a good idea to back up your graphing calculator device files and Apps using the

TI Connect™ software and a USB computer cable. You can find the specific procedures for backing up your calculator’s device files and Apps in the TI Connect™ Help file.

Apps

TI-84 Plus Software Applications (Apps) is software that you can add to your calculator in the same way you would add software to your computer. Apps let you customize your calculator for peak performance in specific areas of study. You can find apps for the TI-84 Plus at education.ti.com

.

TI-Cares KnowledgeBase

The TI-Cares KnowledgeBase provides 24-hour access through the Web to find answers to frequently asked questions. The TI-Cares KnowledgeBase searches its repository of known solutions and presents you with the solutions that are most likely to solve your problem. You can search the TI-Cares KnowledgeBase at education.ti.com/support.

Appendix B: Reference Information 398

Error Conditions

When the TI-84 Plus detects an error, it returns an error message as a menu title, such as

ERR:SYNTAX

or

ERR:DOMAIN

. This table contains each error type, possible causes, and suggestions for correction. The error types listed in this table are each preceded by

ERR:

on your graphing calculator display. For example, you will see

ERR:ARCHIVED

as a menu title when your graphing calculator detects an

ARCHIVED

error type.

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

ARCHIVED

You have attempted to use, edit, or delete an archived variable. For example, the expression dim(L1) produces an error if L1 is archived.

ARCHIVE FULL

You have attempted to archive a variable and there is not enough space in archive to receive it.

ARGUMENT

A function or instruction does not have the correct number of arguments. See Appendix A for function and instruction syntax.

Appendix A displays the arguments and punctuation needed to execute the function or instruction. For example, stdDev(list[,freqlist]) is a function of the

TI-84 Plus. The arguments are shown in italics. The arguments in brackets are optional and you need not type them. You must also be sure to separate multiple arguments with a comma (,). For example,

stdDev(list[,freqlist]) might be entered as stdDev(L1) or stdDev(L1,L2) since the frequency list or freqlist is optional.

BAD ADDRESS

You have attempted to send or receive an application and an error (e.g. electrical interference) has occurred in the transmission.

BAD GUESS

• In a

CALC

operation, you specified a

Guess

that is not between

Left Bound

and

Right Bound

.

• For the

solve(

function or the equation solver, you specified a

guess

that is not between

lower

and

upper

.

• Your guess and several points around it are undefined.

Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds and/or the initial guess.

BOUND

BREAK

• In a

CALC

operation or with

Select(

, you defined

Left Bound > Right Bound

.

• In

fMin(

,

fMax(

,

solve(

, or the equation solver, you entered

lower

upper

.

You pressed the

É

key to break execution of a program, to halt a DRAW instruction, or to stop evaluation of an expression.

Appendix B: Reference Information 399

Error Type

DATA TYPE

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

You entered a value or variable that is the wrong data type.

• For a function (including implied multiplication) or an instruction, you entered an argument that is an invalid data type, such as a complex number where a real number is required. See Appendix A and the appropriate chapter.

In an editor, you entered a type that is not allowed, such as a matrix entered as an element in the stat list editor. See the appropriate chapter.

You attempted to store an incorrect data type, such as a matrix, to a list.

DIM MISMATCH

Your calculator displays the ERR:DIM MISMATCH error if you are trying to perform an operation that references one or more lists or matrices whose dimensions do not match. For example, multiplying L1*L2, where

L1={1,2,3,4,5} and L2={1,2} produces an ERR:DIM

MISMATCH error because the number of elements in

L1 and L2 do not match.

DIVIDE BY 0

DOMAIN

• You attempted to divide by zero. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

You attempted a linear regression with a vertical line.

You specified an argument to a function or instruction outside the valid range. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph. See Appendix A.

You attempted a logarithmic or power regression with a

L

X

or an exponential or power regression with a

L

Y

.

You attempted to compute

G

Prn(

or

G

Int(

with

pmt2

<

pmt1

.

DUPLICATE

You attempted to create a duplicate group name.

Duplicate Name

A variable you attempted to transmit cannot be transmitted because a variable with that name already exists in the receiving unit.

EXPIRED

Error in Xmit

You have attempted to run an application with a limited trial period which has expired.

The TI-84 Plus was unable to transmit an item. Check to see that the cable is firmly connected to both units and that the receiving unit is in receive mode.

You pressed

É to break during transmission.

You attempted to perform a backup from a TI

.82 to a

TI-84 Plus.

You attempted to transfer data (other than

L1

through

L6

) from a TI-84 Plus to a TI

.82.

You attempted to transfer

L1

through

L6

from a TI-84

Plus to a TI

.82 without using

5:Lists to TI82

on the

LINK SEND

menu.

Appendix B: Reference Information 400

Error Type Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

ID NOT FOUND

This error occurs when the SendID command is executed but the proper graphing calculator ID cannot be found.

ILLEGAL NEST

• You attempted to use an invalid function in an argument to a function, such as

seq(

within

expression

for

seq(

.

INCREMENT

INVALID

The increment in

seq(

is 0 or has the wrong sign. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

The increment in a

For(

loop is 0.

You attempted to reference a variable or use a function where it is not valid. For example, Yn cannot reference

Y

,

Xmin

,

@

X

, or

TblStart

.

You attempted to reference a variable or function that was transferred from the TI

.82 and is not valid for the

TI-84 Plus For example, you may have transferred

Un

N

1

to the TI-84 Plus from the TI

.82 and then tried to reference it.

In

Seq

mode, you attempted to graph a phase plot without defining both equations of the phase plot.

In

Seq

mode, you attempted to graph a recursive sequence without having input the correct number of initial conditions.

In

Seq

mode, you attempted to reference terms other than

(n

N

1)

or

(n

N

2)

.

You attempted to designate a graph style that is invalid within the current graph mode.

You attempted to use

Select(

without having selected

(turned on) at least one xyLine or scatter plot.

INVALID DIM

ITERATIONS

The

ERR:INVALID DIM

error message may occur if you are trying to graph a function that does not involve the stat plot features. The error can be corrected by turning off the stat plots. To turn the stat plots off, press y ,

and then select

4:PlotsOff

.

You specified a list dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 999.

You specified a matrix dimension as something other than an integer between 1 and 99.

You attempted to invert a matrix that is not square.

The

solve(

function or the equation solver has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations. Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds, or the initial guess, or both.

irr(

has exceeded the maximum number of permitted iterations.

When computing

æ

, the maximum number of iterations was exceeded.

Appendix B: Reference Information 401

Error Type

LABEL

LINK L1 (or any other file) to

Restore

MEMORY

MemoryFull

MODE

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

The label in the Goto instruction is not defined with a

Lbl instruction in the program.

The calculator has been disabled for testing. To restore full functionality, use

TI Connect™

software to download a file to your calculator from your computer, or transfer any file to your calculator from another

TI-84 Plus. (See the instructions under Important

Things to Know about your TI-84 Plus, earlier in this chapter.)

Memory is insufficient to perform the instruction or function. You must delete items from memory before executing the instruction or function.

Recursive problems return this error; for example, graphing the equation Y1=Y1.

Branching out of an If/Then, For(, While, or Repeat loop with a Goto also can return this error because the

End statement that terminates the loop is never reached.

You are unable to transmit an item because the receiving unit’s available memory is insufficient. You may skip the item or exit receive mode.

During a memory backup, the receiving unit’s available memory is insufficient to receive all items in the sending unit’s memory. A message indicates the number of bytes the sending unit must delete to do the memory backup. Delete items and try again.

You attempted to store to a window variable in another graphing mode or to perform an instruction while in the wrong mode; for example, DrawInv in a graphing mode other than Func.

NO SIGN CHNG

• The

solve(

function or the equation solver did not detect a sign change.

• You attempted to compute

æ when

FV

, (

Ú…

PMT

), and

PV

are all

0, or when

FV

, (

Ú…

PMT

), and

PV

are all

_

0.

• You attempted to compute

irr(

when neither

CFList

nor

CFO

is > 0, or when neither

CFList

nor

CFO

is

< 0.

NONREAL ANS

In Real mode, the result of a calculation yielded a complex result. This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

OVERFLOW

RESERVED

You attempted to enter, or you have calculated, a number that is beyond the range of the graphing calculator. This error is not returned during graphing.

The TI-84 Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

You attempted to use a system variable inappropriately.

See Appendix A.

Appendix B: Reference Information 402

Error Type

SINGULAR MAT

• A singular matrix (determinant = 0) is not valid as the argument for

L

1

.

• The

SinReg

instruction or a polynomial regression generated a singular matrix (determinant = 0) because it could not find a solution, or a solution does not exist.

This error is not returned during graphing. The TI-84

Plus allows for undefined values on a graph.

SINGULARITY

expression in the solve( function or the equation solver contains a singularity (a point at which the function is not defined). Examine a graph of the function. If the equation has a solution, change the bounds or the initial guess or both.

STAT

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

STAT PLOT

SYNTAX

You attempted a stat calculation with lists that are not appropriate.

Statistical analyses must have at least two data points.

Med-Med

must have at least three points in each partition.

When you use a frequency list, its elements must be

0.

(

Xmax

N

Xmin

)

à

Xscl

must be

‚

47 for a histogram.

You attempted to display a graph when a stat plot that uses an undefined list is turned on.

The command contains a syntax error. Look for misplaced functions, arguments, parentheses, or commas. Appendix A displays the arguments and punctuation needed to execute the function or instruction.

For example, stdDev(list[,freqlist]) is a function of the

TI-84 Plus. The arguments are shown in italics. The arguments in brackets are optional and you need not type them. You must also be sure to separate multiple arguments with a comma (,). For example

stdDev(list[,freqlist]) might be entered as stdDev(L1) or stdDev(L1,L2) since the frequency list or freqlist is optional.

TOL NOT MET

UNDEFINED

VALIDATION

You requested a tolerance to which the algorithm cannot return an accurate result.

You referenced a variable that is not currently defined.

For example, you referenced a stat variable when there is no current calculation because a list has been edited, or you referenced a variable when the variable is not valid for the current calculation, such as a after

Med-Med.

Electrical interference caused a link to fail or this graphing calculator is not authorized to run the application.

Appendix B: Reference Information 403

Error Type

VARIABLE

VERSION

WINDOW

RANGE

ZOOM

Possible Causes and Suggested Remedies

You have tried to archive a variable that cannot be archived or you have tried to unarchive an application or group.

Examples of variables that cannot be archived include:

Real numbers

LRESID, R, T, X, Y

,

Theta

, Statistic variables under

Vars

,

STATISTICS

menu,

Yvars

, and the

AppIdList

.

You have attempted to receive an incompatible variable version from another graphing calculator.

A problem exists with the window variables.

You defined

Xmax

Xmin

or

Ymax

Ymin

.

You defined q

max

 q

min

and q

step

>

0

(or vice versa).

You attempted to define

Tstep=0

.

You defined

Tmax

Tmin

and

Tstep

>

0

(or vice versa).

Window variables are too small or too large to graph correctly. You may have attempted to zoom in or zoom out to a point that exceeds the TI-84 Plus’s numerical range.

A point or a line, instead of a box, is defined in

ZBox.

A

ZOOM

operation returned a math error.

Appendix B: Reference Information 404

Accuracy Information

Computational Accuracy

To maximize accuracy, the TI-84 Plus carries more digits internally than it displays. Values are stored in memory using up to 14 digits with a two-digit exponent.

• You can store a value in the window variables using up to 10 digits (12 for

Xscl

,

Yscl

,

Tstep

, and q

step

).

• Displayed values are rounded as specified by the mode setting with a maximum of 10 digits and a two-digit exponent.

RegEQ

displays up to 14 digits in

Float

mode. Using a fixed-decimal setting other than

Float

causes

RegEQ

results to be rounded and stored with the specified number of decimal places.

Xmin

is the center of the leftmost pixel,

Xmax

is the center of the next-to-the-rightmost pixel. (The rightmost pixel is reserved for the busy indicator.)

@

X

is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.

• In

Full

screen mode,

@

X

is calculated as (

Xmax

N

Xmin

)

à 94. In

G-T

split-screen mode,

@

X

is calculated as (

Xmax

N

Xmin

)

à 46.

• If you enter a value for

@

X

from the home screen or a program in

Full

screen mode,

Xmax

is calculated as

Xmin

+

@

X

É… 94. In

G-T

split-screen mode,

Xmax

is calculated as

Xmin

+

@

X

É… 46.

Ymin

is the center of the next-to-the-bottom pixel;

Ymax

is the center of the top pixel.

@

Y

is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.

• In

Full

screen mode,

@

Y

is calculated as (

Ymax

N

Ymin

)

à 62. In

Horiz

split-screen mode,

@

Y

is calculated as (

Ymax

N

Ymin

)

à 30. In

G-T

split-screen mode,

@

Y

is calculated as

(

Ymax

N

Ymin

)

à 50.

• If you enter a value for

@

Y

from the home screen or a program in

Full

screen mode,

Ymax

is calculated as

Ymin

+

@

Y

É… 62. In

Horiz

split-screen mode,

Ymax

is calculated as

Ymin

+

@

Y

… 30. In

G-T

split-screen mode,

Ymax

is calculated as

Ymin

+

@

Y

É … 50.

Cursor coordinates are displayed as eight-character numbers (which may include a negative sign, decimal point, and exponent) when

Float

mode is selected.

X

and

Y

are updated with a maximum accuracy of eight digits.

minimum

and

maximum

on the

CALCULATE

menu are calculated with a tolerance of 1

âL5; ‰

f(x)dx

is calculated at 1

âL3. Therefore, the result displayed may not be accurate to all eight displayed digits.

For most functions, at least five accurate digits exist. For

fMin(

,

fMax(

, and

fnInt(

on the

MATH

menu and

solve(

in the

CATALOG

, the tolerance can be specified.

Function Limits

Function

sin x, cos x, tan x

Range of Input Values

0

 |

x

| < 10

12

(radian or degree)

Appendix B: Reference Information 405

Function sin

L1

x, cos

L1

x

ln x, log x

ex

10x

sinh x, cosh x

tanh x

sinh

L1

x

cosh

L1

x

tanh

L1

x

x (real mode)

x (complex mode)

x!

Range of Input Values

L

1

x

1

10

L

100

< x < 10

100

L

10

100

< x

230.25850929940

L

10

100

< x< 100

|x|

230.25850929940

|x| < 10

100

|x| < 5 × 10

99

1

x < 5 × 10

99

L

1 < x < 1

0

x < 10

100

|x| < 10

100

L

.5

_

x

69, where x is a multiple of .5

Function Results

Function sin

L1

x, tan

L1

x

cos

L1

x

Range of Result

L

90

¡ to 90

¡

0

¡

to 180

¡ or

Lp à

2 to p à

2 (radians) or 0 to p

(radians)

Appendix B: Reference Information 406

Appendix C:

Service and Warranty Information

Texas Instruments Support and Service

For general information

Home Page:

KnowledgeBase and e-mail inquiries:

Phone:

International information:

education.ti.com

education.ti.com/support

(800) TI-CARES / (800) 842-2737

For U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and

Virgin Islands only education.ti.com/international

For product (hardware) service

Customers in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands:

Always contact Texas

Instruments Customer Support before returning a product for service.

All other customers:

Refer to the leaflet enclosed with this product (hardware) or contact your local

Texas Instruments retailer/distributor.

Battery Information

When to Replace the Batteries

The TI-84 Plus uses five batteries: four AAA alkaline batteries and one button cell backup battery.

The backup battery provides auxiliary power to retain memory while you replace the AAA batteries.

When the battery voltage level drops below a usable level, the TI-84 Plus:

Displays this message when you turn on the unit.

Displays this message when you attempt to download an application.

Message A Message B

Appendix C: Service and Warranty Information 407

After

Message A

is first displayed, you can expect the batteries to function for about one or two weeks, depending on usage. (This one-week to two-week period is based on tests with alkaline batteries; the performance of other types of batteries may vary.)

If

Message B

is displayed, you must replace the batteries immediately to successfully download an application.

Effects of Replacing the Batteries

Do not

remove both types of batteries (AAA and backup ) at the same time.

Do not

allow the batteries to lose power completely. If you follow these guidelines and the steps for replacing batteries, you can replace either type of battery without losing any information in memory.

Battery Precautions

Take these precautions when replacing batteries.

• Do not leave batteries within reach of children

• Do not mix new and used batteries. Do not mix brands (or types within brands) of batteries.

• Do not mix rechargeable and nonrechargeable batteries.

• Install batteries according to polarity (+ and

N) diagrams.

• Do not place nonrechargeable batteries in a battery recharger.

• Properly dispose of used batteries immediately. Do not leave them within the reach of children.

• Do not incinerate or dismantle batteries.

Disposing of used batteries safely and properly

Do not mutilate, puncture, or dispose of batteries in fire. The batteries can burst or explode, releasing hazardous chemicals. Discard used batteries according to local regulations.

Replacing the Batteries

To replace the batteries, follow these steps.

1.

Turn off the graphing calculator. Replace the slide cover over the keyboard to avoid inadvertently turning on the graphing calculator. Turn the back of the unit toward you.

2.

Hold the graphing calculator upright, push downward on the latch on the top of the battery cover, and then pull the cover toward you.

Note:

To avoid loss of information stored in memory, you must turn off the graphing calculator.

Do not remove the AAA batteries and the backup battery simultaneously.

3.

Replace all four AAA alkaline batteries simultaneously. Or, replace the backup battery.

• To replace the AAA alkaline batteries, remove all four discharged AAA batteries and install new ones according to the polarity (+ and

N) diagram in the battery compartment.

Appendix C: Service and Warranty Information 408

• To replace the backup battery, remove the screw from the backup battery cover, and then remove the cover. Install the new battery, + side up. Replace the cover and secure it with the screw.

4.

Replace the battery compartment cover. Turn the graphing calculator on and adjust the display contrast, if necessary, by pressing y } or †.

Appendix C: Service and Warranty Information 409

In Case of Difficulty

Handling a Difficulty

To handle a difficulty, follow these steps.

1.

If you cannot see anything on the screen, you may need to adjust the graphing calculator contrast.

To darken the screen, press

and

release y, and then press and hold } until the display is sufficiently dark.

To lighten the screen, press

and

release y, and then press and hold † until the display is sufficiently light.

2.

If an error menu is displayed, follow these steps:

• Note the error type (

ERR:error type

).

• Select

2:GOTO

, if it is available. The previous screen is displayed with the cursor at or near the error location.

• Deteremine the error.

• Correct the expression.

Refer to the Error Conditions table for details about specific errors, if necessary.

3.

If the busy indicator (dotted line) is displayed, a graph or program has been paused; the TI-84

Plus is waiting for input. Press

Í to continue or press É to break.

4.

If a checkerboard cursor (

# ) is displayed, then either you have entered the maximum number of characters in a prompt, or memory is full. If memory is full:

• Press y L

2

to display the

MEMORY MANAGEMENT / DELETE

menu.

• Select the type of data you want to delete, or select

1:All

for a list of all variables of all types. A screen is displayed listing each variable of the type you selected and the number of bytes each variable is using.

• Press

} and † to move the selection cursor (4) next to the item you want to delete, and then press

{.

5.

If the graphing calculator does not seem to work at all, be sure the alkaline batteries are fresh and that they are installed properly.

6.

If the TI-84 Plus does not function even though you are sure that the batteries are fresh, you can try manually resetting it.

• Remove all of the AAA batteries from the graphing calculator.

• Press and hold the

É key for ten seconds.

• Replace the batteries.

• Turn on the unit.

When you reset your graphing calculator, the contrast sometimes changes. If the screen is faded or blank, adjust the contrast by pressing y and releasing } or †.

7.

If the above solutions do not work you can reset all of the memory. The RAM, user data archive memory, and system variables are restored to factory settings when you reset all memory. All nonsystem variables, applications (Apps), and programs are deleted.

Appendix C: Service and Warranty Information 410

• Press y L to display the

MEMORY

menu.

• Select

7:Reset

to display the

RAM ARCHIVE ALL

menu.

• Press

~ ~ to display the

ALL

menu.

• Select

1:All Memory

to display the

RESET MEMORY

menu.

• To continue with the reset, select

2:Reset

. The message

Mem cleared

is displayed on the home screen.

Appendix C: Service and Warranty Information 411

Index

Symbols

!

dim( (assign dimension)

168

-

(degrees notation)

382

(- (negation)

29 ,

36

, 384

(– (subtraction)

35

,

384

(! (factorial)

382

!

Store

20

,

378

!

dim( (assign dimension)

154

,

361

#

(not equal to)

383

$

( (square root)

35

,

384

%

,

(

, + (pixel mark)

131

,

207

&

(plot type, histogram)

205

(' (minutes notation)

59 ,

385

(( ) (parentheses)

29

)

(plot type, normal probability)

206

)

Int( (sum of interest)

366

)

Prn( (sum of principal)

372

(* (multiplication)

35

,

384

*

(plot type, modified box)

205

* f(x)dx operation on a graph

89

(*row(

159

,

374

(*row+(

375

(+ (addition)

35

,

384

(+ (concatenation)

263

,

384

(+ (pixel mark)

131 ,

207

+

(plot type, box)

206

(/ (division)

35

,

384

/

(inverse)

383

(: (colon)

271

(< (less than)

61

,

383

(= (equal-to relational test)

61

,

383

(> (greater than)

61

,

383

([ ] (matrix indicator)

147

(^ (power)

35

,

384

({ (less than or equal to)

383

(| (greater than or equal to)

61

,

383

(² (square)

35 ,

383

(³ (cube)

38

,

383

$

( (cube root)

38

,

383

(“ ” (string indicator)

260

(4Dec (to decimal conversion)

38 ,

360

(4DMS (to degrees/minutes/seconds)

60 ,

361

(4Eff( (to effective interest rate)

254

(4Frac (to fraction)

38

,

363

(4Nom( (to nominal interest rate)

254 ,

369

(4Polar (to polar)

55

,

371

(4Rect (to rectangular)

55

,

374

²pdf( (chi-square pdf)

237

²-Test (chi-square test)

227

, 238

Tbl (table step variable)

115

X window variable

73

Y window variable

73

F cdf(

238

F pdf(

238

/

(inverse)

36

{ } (list indicator)

162

Numerics

10^( (power of ten)

384

1-PropZInt (one-proportion z confidence interval)

226

,

372

1-PropZTest (one-proportion z test)

221

,

372

1-Var Stats (one-variable statistics)

198

,

380

2-PropZInt (two-proportion z confidence interval)

226

,

372

2-PropZTest (two-proportion z test)

222

,

372

2-Samp

F

Test (two-sample

F

-Test)

228

,

375

2-SampTInt (two-sample t confidence interval)

225 ,

375

2-SampTTest (two-sample t test)

220

,

376

2-SampZInt (two-sample z confidence interval)

224

,

376

2-SampZTest (two-sample z test)

219 ,

375

2-Var Stats (two-variable statistics)

198

,

380

A

a+bi (rectangular complex mode)

17

,

49

,

358

about

325

above graph style

70

abs( (absolute value)

45 ,

54

, 151

,

357

accuracy information computational and graphing

405

function limits and results

405

graphing

77

addition (+)

35

,

384

alpha cursor

8

alpha-lock

14

alternative hypothesis

215

amortization

)

Int( (sum of interest)

366

)

Prn( (sum of principal)

372

bal( (amortization balance)

251

,

358

calculating schedules

251

formula

393

and (Boolean operator)

62 ,

357

ANGLE menu

58

angle modes

16

angle(

54

,

357

animate graph style

70

ANOVA( (one-way variance analysis)

231

, 357

,

388

Ans (last answer)

23

,

328

,

357

APD (Automatic Power Down)

3

applications

See

examples, applications

35

Apps

19 ,

327

AppVars

19

,

327

arccosine (cos

/

( )

35

Archive

20 ,

330 ,

357

archive full error

344 ,

399

garbage collection

341

memory error

341

archived variables

386

arcsine (sin

/

( )

35

arctangent (tan

/

( )

35

Asm(

287

,

357

AsmComp(

287 ,

357

AsmPrgm(

287

,

357

assembly language programs

287

augment(

156

,

172

,

357

Automatic Power Down (APD)

3

412

automatic regression equation

195

automatic residual list (RESID)

194

axes format, sequence graphing

106

axes, displaying (AxesOn, AxesOff)

74

,

358

AxesOff

74 ,

358

AxesOn

74 ,

358

B

backing up calculator memory

350

, 355

bal( (amortization balance)

251

,

358

batteries

4

,

407

below graph style

70

binomcdf(

239 ,

358

binompdf(

239

,

358

block

341

Boolean logic

62

box pixel mark (

%

)

131 ,

207

Boxplot plot type (

+

)

206

busy indicator

7

C

C/Y (compounding-periods-per-year variable)

246

,

256

²cdf( (chi-square cdf)

358

²pdf( (chi-square pdf)

358

²-Test (chi-square test)

358

CALCULATE menu

86

Calculate output option

214

,

216

cash flow calculating

250

formula

394

irr( (internal rate of return)

251

,

366

npv( (net present value)

251

,

370

CATALOG

259

CBL 2™

286

,

348

,

364

CBR™

286

,

348

,

364

check memory

325

checkTmr( (check timer)

358

Chi

227

chi-square cdf ( c²cdf( )

238

,

358

chi-square goodness of fit test

227

chi-square pdf ( c²pdf( )

237 ,

358

chi-square test ( c²-Test)

227

,

358

Circle( (draw circle)

127

,

358

Clear Entries

325

,

359

clearing all lists (ClrAllLists)

325

,

359

drawing (ClrDraw)

122

,

359

entries (Clear Entries)

325

,

359

home screen (ClrHome)

285

,

359

list (ClrList)

193

,

359

table (ClrTable)

285

,

359

Clock

9

Clock Off

11

Clock On

10

ClockOff, turn clock off

359

ClockOn, turn clock on

359

ClrAllLists (clear all lists)

325 ,

359

ClrDraw (clear drawing)

122

,

359

ClrHome (clear home screen)

285

,

359

ClrList (clear list)

193

,

359

ClrTable (clear table)

285

, 359

coefficients of determination (r2, R2)

195

colon separator (:)

271

combinations (nCr)

56 ,

369

compiling an assembly program

287

,

357

complex modes (a+bi, re^ qi)

17

,

49

,

358

,

373

numbers

17

,

49

,

373

compounding-periods-per-year variable (C/Y)

246 ,

256

concatenation (+)

263

,

384

confidence intervals

35

,

216

conj( (conjugate)

53 ,

359

Connected (plotting mode)

16

,

359

connecting two calculators

347

,

348

,

351

contrast (display)

4

convergence, sequence graphing

109

conversions

4Dec (to decimal)

38

,

360

4DMS (to degrees/minutes/ seconds)

60

,

361

4Eff (to effective interest rate)

254

4F3 4D

49

4Frac (to fraction conversion)

38

,

363

4n/d3 4Un/d

48

4Nom (to nominal interest rate conversion)

254 ,

369

4Polar (to polar conversion)

55

,

371

4Rect (to rectangular conversion)

55

,

374

Equ

4String( (equation-to-string conversion)

263

,

362

List 4matr( (list-to-matrix conversion)

157

,

172

,

367

Matr

4list( (matrix-to-list conversion)

156

, 173 ,

368

P 4Rx(, P4Ry( (polar-to-rectangular conversion)

60

,

373

R

4Pr(, R4Pq( (rectangular-to-polar conversion)

375

R

4Pr(, R4P

( (rectangular-to-polar conversion)

60

String 4Equ( (string-to-equation conversion)

264

,

378

convert time, timeCnv( )

379

CoordOff

74 ,

359

CoordOn

74 ,

359

correlation coefficient (r)

195

cos( (cosine)

35

,

359

cos

/

( (arccosine)

35

,

359

cosh( (hyperbolic cosine)

266

,

359

cosh

/

( (hyperbolic arccosine)

266

,

359

cosine (cos( )

35

cosine (cos( )

359

cross pixel mark (+)

131

,

207

cube (³)

38

,

383

cube root (³

$

( )

38

cube root (³

$

( )

383

cubic regression (CubicReg)

199

, 359

CubicReg (cubic regression)

199

,

359

cumSum( (cumulative sum)

157

,

169

,

360

cumulative sum (cumSum( )

157 ,

169

cumulative sum (cumSum( )

360

cursors

8

,

14

Index 413

D

Data input option

214

,

215

dayOfWk( (day of week)

360

days between dates (dbd( )

254

days between dates (dbd( )

360

, 395

dbd( (days between dates)

254

,

360

,

395

decimal mode (float or fixed)

15

decrement and skip (DS<( )

279

decrement and skip (DS<( )

361

definite integral

39

,

88

,

95

defragmenting

341

Degree angle mode

16

,

59 ,

360

degrees notation (

-

)

59 ,

382

delete variable contents (DelVar)

280

,

360

deleting items from memory

328

DependAsk

115 ,

117 ,

360

DependAuto

115

,

117

,

360

derivative

See

numerical derivative

35

det( (determinant)

154

,

360

determinant (det( )

154

determinant (det( )

360

DiagnosticOff

195

,

360

DiagnosticOn

195

,

360

diagnostics display mode(r, r2, R2)

195

differentiation

41

, 88

,

95

,

100

dim( (dimension)

154

,

168

,

360

dimensioning a list or matrix

154

,

168

,

360

Disp (display)

283

,

361

DispGraph (display graph)

284

,

361

display contrast

4

display cursors

8

Displaying the Clock Settings

9

DispTable (display table)

284 ,

361

DISTR (distributions menu)

235

DISTR DRAW (distributions drawing menu)

241

distribution functions binomcdf(

239

,

358

binompdf(

239

,

358

²cdf(

358

²pdf(

358

F cdf(

237

,

379

F pdf(

237

,

379

geometcdf(

241

,

364

geometpdf(

240

,

364

invNorm(

236

, 366

normalcdf(

236

,

369

normalpdf(

235

,

370

poissoncdf(

240

,

371

poissonpdf(

240 ,

371

distribution shading instructions

Shade_t(

242

,

377

Shade

²(

242

,

377

Shade

F

(

243 ,

377

ShadeNorm(

241 ,

377

division (/)

35

,

384

List(

169

,

367

DMS (degrees/minutes/seconds entry notation)

59

,

385

Dot (plotting mode)

16

,

361

dot graph style

70

dot pixel mark (

(

)

131

,

207

dr/d q operation on a graph

100

DRAW menu

121

Draw output option

214

,

216

DRAW POINTS menu

130

DRAW STO (draw store menu)

133

DrawF (draw a function)

126

,

361

drawing on a graph circles (Circle( )

127

functions and inverses (DrawF, DrawInv)

126

line segments (Line( )

123

lines (Horizontal, Line(, Vertical)

124

points (Pt-Change, Pt-Off, Pt-On)

130

tangents (Tangent)

125

text (Text)

128

using Pen

129

DrawInv (draw inverse)

126 ,

361

DS<( (decrement and skip)

279

, 361

DuplicateName menu

353

dx/dt operation on a graph

88

,

95

dy/dx operation on a graph

88 ,

95 ,

100

E

E

(exponent)

12 ,

15 ,

361

e^( (exponential)

36 ,

361

edit keys table

13

Else

275

End

276 ,

362

Eng (engineering notation mode)

15 ,

362

ENTRY (last entry key)

22

entry cursor

8

EOS (Equation Operating System)

28

eqn (equation variable)

41

Equ 4String( (equation-to-string conversion)

263

,

362

equal-to relational test (=)

61

,

383

Equation Operating System (EOS)

28

Equation Solver

41

equations with multiple roots

43

errors diagnosing and correcting

32

messages

399

examples—applications area between curves

314

areas of regular n-sided polygons

320

box plots

300

box with lid

293

defining a

293

defining a table of values

293

setting the viewing window

295

tracing the graph

296

zooming in on the graph

297

zooming in on the table

294

cobweb attractors

309

fundamental theorem of calculus

317

guess the coefficients

310

inequalities

304

mortgage payments

323

parametric equations, ferris wheel problem

315

piecewise functions

302

quadratic formula

Index 414

converting to a fraction

290

displaying complex results

291

entering a calculation

290

Sierpinski triangle

307

solving a system of nonlinear equations

306

unit circle and trig curves

312

examples—Getting Started coin flip

34

compound interest

246

drawing a tangent line

120

financing a car

245

forest and trees

101

generating a sequence

160

mean height of a population

211

path of a ball

90

pendulum lengths and periods

177

polar rose

96

roots of a function

114

sending variables

345

solving a system of linear equations

143

unit circle

136

volume of a cylinder

268

examples—miscellaneous calculating outstanding loan balances

252

convergence

109

daylight hours in Alaska

201

predator-prey model

110

examplesóGetting Started graphing a circle

64

exponential regression (ExpReg)

199 ,

362

expr( (string-to-expression conversion)

263

,

362

ExpReg (exponential regression)

199

,

362

expression

11

converting from string (expr( )

263

converting from string (expr( )

362

turning on and off (ExprOn

75

,

362

ExprOff (expression off)

75

,

362

ExprOn (expression on)

75 ,

362

F

Faceplates

8

factorial (!)

382

family of curves

76

Fill(

155 ,

362

FINANCE CALC menu

247

FINANCE VARS menu

255

financial functions amortization schedules

251

cash flows

250

days between dates

254

interest rate conversions

254

payment method

255

time value of money (TVM)

248

Fix (fixed-decimal mode)

15

,

362

fixed-decimal mode (Fix)

15

,

362

Float (floating-decimal mode)

15 ,

362

floating-decimal mode (Float)

15 ,

362

fMax( (function maximum)

363

fMin( (function minimum)

39

,

363

fnInt( (function integral)

40

, 363

FnOff (function off)

69 ,

363

FnOn (function on)

69

, 363

For(

276

,

363

format settings

73

,

106

formulas amortization

393

ANOVA

388

cash flow

394

days between dates

395

interest rate conversions

394

logistic regression

388

sine regression

388

time value of money

392

two-sample

F

-Test

389

two-sample t test

390

fPart( (fractional part)

46

,

153

,

363

fractions n/d

18 ,

49

Un/d

18

,

49

free-moving cursor

77

frequency

197

Full (full-screen mode)

17

, 363

full-screen mode (Full)

17

,

363

Func (function graphing mode)

16

,

363

function graphing accuracy

77

CALC (calculate menu)

86

defining and displaying

65

defining in the Y= editor

67

defining on the home screen, in a program

67

deselecting

68

displaying

65

,

72

,

75

X and

Y window variables

73

evaluating

68

family of curves

76

format settings

73

free-moving cursor

77

graph styles

70

maximum of (fMax( )

39

maximum of (fMax( )

363

minimum of (fMin( )

363

modes

16 ,

66

, 363

moving the cursor to a value

78

overlaying functions on a graph

76

panning

79

pausing or stopping a graph

75

Quick Zoom

79

selecting

68

,

69

,

363

shading

71

Smart Graph

75

tracing

77

viewing window

72

window variables

72

Y= editor

67

ZOOM MEMORY menu

84

ZOOM menu

79

function integral (fnInt( )

40

function integral (fnInt( )

363

function, definition of

12

functions and instructions table

357

future value

246

,

250

Index 415

FV (future-value variable)

246

,

256

G

garbage collecting

341

GarbageCollect

342

,

363

gcd( (greatest common divisor)

47

,

363

GDB (graph database)

134

geometcdf(

241

,

364

geometpdf(

240

, 364

Get( (get data from CBL 2™ or CBR™)

286

,

364

GetCalc( (get data from TI-84 Plus)

285

,

364

getDate, get current date

364

getDtFmt, get date format

364

getDtStr( (get date string)

364

getKey

285

,

364

getTime, get current time

364

Getting Started

See

examples, Getting Started

35

getTmFmt, get time format

364

getTmStr( (get time string)

364

Goto

278

, 364

graph database (GDB)

134

graph style above

70

animate

70

below

70

dot

70

line

70

path

70

shade above

70

shade below

70

thick

70

graph styles

70

graphing modes

16

graphing-order modes

16

GraphStyle(

281

,

365

graph-table split-screen mode (G-T)

17 ,

139 ,

365

greater than (>)

61

,

383

greater than or equal to ( |)

61

,

383

greatest common divisor (gcd( )

47

greatest common divisor (gcd( )

363

greatest integer (int( )

46

,

153

greatest integer (int( )

366

GridOff

74

,

365

GridOn

74 ,

365

grouping

337

G-T (graph-table split-screen mode)

17

,

139

,

365

H

Histogram plot type (

&

)

205

home screen

5

scrolling

5

,

21

Horiz (horizontal split-screen mode)

17

,

138

,

365

Horizontal (draw line)

124

,

365

hyperbolic functions

266

hypothesis tests

218

I

i (complex number constant)

51

I

% (annual interest rate variable)

246

,

256

identity(

155

, 365

If instructions

If

275

,

365

If-Then

275

,

365

If-Then-Else

275

,

365

imag( (imaginary part)

54 ,

365

imaginary part (imag( )

54

imaginary part (imag( )

365

implied multiplication

28

increment and skip (IS>( )

279

increment and skip (IS>( )

366

independent variable

115

,

117

,

365

IndpntAsk

115

,

117 ,

365

IndpntAuto

115 ,

117

, 365

inferential stat editors

214

inferential statistics alternative hypotheses

215

bypassing editors

216

calculating test results (Calculate)

216

confidence interval calculations

216

data input or stats input

215

entering argument values

215

graphing test results (Draw)

216

input descriptions table

232

pooled option

215

STAT TESTS menu

216

test and interval output variables

234

inferential statistics

See

stat tests

35

Input

282 ,

365

insert cursor

8

Installing New Faceplates

9

Installing new faceplates

9

inString( (in string)

264

,

366

instruction, definition of

13

int( (greatest integer)

46

,

153

,

366

integer part (iPart( )

46

,

153

integer part (iPart( )

366

integral

See

numerical integral

35

interest rate conversions

4Eff( (compute effective interest rate)

254

4Nom( (compute nominal interest rate)

254

calculating

254

formula

394

internal rate of return (irr( )

251

internal rate of return (irr( )

366

intersect operation on a graph

88

inverse (

/

)

36 ,

383

inverse cumulative normal distribution (invNorm( )

236

inverse cumulative normal distribution (invNorm( )

366

inverse trig functions

35

invNorm( (inverse cumulative normal distribution)

236

,

366

invT (inverse Student T distribution)

236

iPart( (integer part)

46

,

153

,

366

irr( (internal rate of return)

251

,

366

IS>( (increment and skip)

279

,

366

isClockOn, is clock on

366

Index 416

K

keyboard layout

1

math operations

35

key-code diagram

285

L

L

(user-created list name symbol)

173

LabelOff

75

,

366

LabelOn

75

,

366

labels graph

75 ,

366

program

278

,

366

Last Entry

22

Lbl (label)

278

, 366

lcm( (least common multiple)

47

, 367

least common multiple (lcm( )

47

least common multiple (lcm( )

367

length( of string

264 ,

367

less than (<)

61 ,

383

less than or equal to ( {)

61

,

383

line graph style

70

line segments, drawing

123

Line( (draw line)

124 ,

367

lines, drawing

124

LINK RECEIVE menu

353

LINK SEND menu

349

linking receiving items

353

to a CBL 2™ or CBR™

348

to a PC or Macintosh

348

to a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus

355

transmitting items

345

two TI-84 Plus units

350

Link-Receive L1 (or any file) to Restore message

397

LinReg(a+bx) (linear regression)

199 ,

367

LinReg(ax+b) (linear regression)

198

,

367

LinRegTTest (linear regression t test)

229

,

367

LinReqTInt (confidence interval for slope)

230

LIST MATH menu

174

LIST NAMES menu

163

LIST OPS menu

167

List

4matr( (lists-to-matrix conversion)

157 ,

172 ,

367

lists accessing an element

162

attaching formulas

164

,

165

,

187

clearing all elements

186

copying

162

creating

161

,

185

deleting from memory

163

,

328

detaching formulas

165 ,

189

dimension

162

entering list names

164

,

184

indicator ({ })

162

naming lists

161

storing and displaying

162

using to graph a family of curves

76

,

163

using with math operations

35

,

166

ln(

36

,

367

LnReg (logarithmic regression)

199 ,

367

log(

36

, 367

Logistic (regression)

200 ,

367

logistic regression formula

388

M

Manual

201

Manual Linear Fit

197

,

201

marked for deletion

341

MATH CPX (complex menu)

53

MATH menu

37

MATH NUM (number menu)

44

math operations

35

MATH PRB (probability menu)

55

Matr 4list( (matrix-to-list conversion)

156

,

173

,

368

matrices accessing elements

149

copying

149

defined

144

deleting from memory

145

dimensions

145

,

154

,

155

displaying a matrix

148

displaying matrix elements

145

editing matrix elements

146

indicator ([ ])

147

math functions

150

matrix math functions (det(,

T

, dim(, Fill(, identity(, randM(, augment(, Matr

4list(,

List

4matr(, cumSum( )

153

quick matrix

142

relational operations

152

row operations (ref(, rref(, rowSwap(, row+(,

*row(, *row+( )

157

selecting

144

viewing

145

MATRX EDIT menu

144

MATRX MATH menu

153

max( (maximum)

47 ,

174 ,

368

maximum of a function (fMax( )

39

maximum of a function (fMax( )

363

maximum operation on a graph

87

mean(

174 ,

368

Med(Med (median-median)

198

median(

174

,

368

Med-Med (median-median)

368

Mem Mgmt/Del menu

326

memory backing up

355

checking available

325

clearing all list elements from

329

clearing entries from

329

deleting items from

328

error

342

insufficient during transmission

356

resetting defaults

334

resetting memory

334

MEMORY menu

325

Menu( (define menu)

279 ,

368

menus

24

,

25

defining (Menu( )

279

defining (Menu( )

368

Index 417

scrolling

25

shortcut

1 ,

6

min( (minimum)

47

,

174

,

368

minimum of a function (fMin( )

39

minimum of a function (fMin( )

363

minimum operation on a graph

87

minutes notation (')

59

,

385

ModBoxplot plot type (

*

)

205

mode

Answers

18

Classic

5

,

17

MathPrint

5

,

17

mode settings

14

a+bi (complex rectangular)

17

,

49 ,

358

Connected (plotting)

16

,

359

Degree (angle)

16

,

59

,

360

Dot (plotting)

16

,

361

Eng (notation)

15 ,

362

Fix (decimal)

15

,

362

Float (decimal)

15

,

362

Full (screen)

17 ,

363

Func (graphing)

16

,

363

G-T (screen)

17

,

365

Horiz (screen)

17

,

365

Normal (notation)

15 ,

369

Par/Param (graphing)

16 ,

370

Pol/Polar (graphing)

16

,

371

Radian (angle)

16

,

59

,

373

re^ qi (complex polar)

373

re^

 i (complex polar)

17 ,

49

Real

17

,

373

Sci (notation)

15

,

376

Seq (graphing)

16 ,

376

Sequential (graphing order)

16 ,

376

Simul (graphing order)

16

,

377

modified box plot type (

*

)

205

multiple entries on a line

12

multiplication (*)

35 ,

384

multiplicative inverse

36

N

N

(number of payment periods variable)

246

,

256

n/d

18

,

49

nCr (number of combinations)

56 ,

369

nDeriv( (numerical derivative)

39 ,

369

negation (-)

29

,

36

,

384

nonrecursive sequences

104

normal distribution probability (normalcdf( )

236 ,

369

Normal notation mode

15

,

369

normal probability plot type (

)

)

206

normalcdf( (normal distribution probability)

236

normalpdf( (probability density function)

235 ,

370

NormProbPlot plot type (

)

)

206

not equal to (

#

)

61

,

383

not( (Boolean operator)

62

,

370

nPr (permutations)

56

, 370

npv( (net present value)

251

,

370

numerical derivative

39

,

88

,

95

,

100

numerical integral

39 ,

89

O

Omit

339

,

353

one-proportion z confidence interval (1-PropZInt)

226

,

372

one-proportion z test (1-PropZTest)

221

,

372

one-sample t confidence interval (TInterval)

224

,

379

one-variable statistics (1-Var Stats)

198

,

380

or (Boolean) operator

62 ,

370

order of evaluating equations

28

Output(

141

,

284

,

370

Overwrite

339

,

353

Overwrite All

339

P

P/Y (number-of-payment-periods-per-year variable)

246

,

256

P 4Rx(, P4Ry( (polar-to-rectangular conversions)

60

,

373

panning

79

Par/Param (parametric graphing mode)

16

, 370

parametric equations

93

parametric graphing

CALC (calculate operations on a graph)

95

defining and editing

93

free-moving cursor

94

graph format

93

graph styles

92

moving the cursor to a value

95

selecting and deselecting

93

setting parametric mode

92

tracing

95

window variables

93

Y= editor

92

zoom operations

95

parentheses

29

path graph style

70

Pause

277

,

370

pausing a graph

75

Pen

129

permutations (nPr)

56 ,

370

phase plots

110

Pic (pictures)

133

pictures (Pic)

133

pixels in Horiz/G-T modes

132

,

140

Plot1(

207

,

370

Plot2(

207

,

370

Plot3(

207 ,

370

PlotsOff

208

,

371

PlotsOn

208

,

371

plotting modes

16

plotting stat data

204

PMT (payment amount variable)

246

,

256

Pmt_Bgn (payment beginning variable)

255

,

371

Pmt_End (payment end variable)

255

,

371

poissoncdf(

240

, 371

poissonpdf(

240 ,

371

Pol/Polar (polar graphing mode)

16

,

97

,

371

polar equations

97

polar form, complex numbers

51

polar graphing

Index 418

CALC (calculate operations on a graph)

100

defining and displaying

97

equations

97

free-moving cursor

99

graph format

98

graph styles

97

mode (Pol/Polar)

16

,

97

,

371

moving the cursor to a value

99

selecting and deselecting

97

tracing

99

window variables

98

Y= editor

97

ZOOM operations

100

PolarGC (polar graphing coordinates)

74

,

371

pooled option

214

,

215

power (^)

35

,

384

power of ten (10^( )

36

power of ten (10^( )

384

present value

246

,

249

previous entry (Last Entry)

22

prgm (program name)

280

,

371

PRGM CTL (program control menu)

274

PRGM EDIT menu

273

PRGM EXEC menu

273

PRGM NEW menu

270

probability

55

probability density function (normalpdf( )

235

probability density function (normalpdf( )

370

prod( (product)

175 ,

372

programming copying and renaming

273

creating new

270

defined

269

deleting

270

deleting command lines

273

editing

272

entering command lines

271

executing

272

inserting command lines

273

instructions

274

name (prgm)

280

,

371

renaming

273

running assembly language program

287

stopping

272

subroutines

286

Prompt

283

, 372

Pt-Change(

131

, 372

Pt-Off(

131

,

372

Pt-On(

130

,

372

PV (present value variable)

246

,

256

p-value

234

PwrReg (power regression)

200

,

372

Pxl-Change(

132

,

372

Pxl-Off(

132 ,

372

Pxl-On(

132 ,

372

pxl-Test(

132

,

373

Q

QuadReg (quadratic regression)

198

,

373

QuartReg (quartic regression)

199

,

373

Quick Zoom

79

Quit

339

, 353

R

r (correlation coefficient)

195

R

(radian notation)

59

,

382

r2, R2 (coefficients of determination)

195

R

4Pr(, R4Pq( (rectangular-to-polar conversions)

375

R

4Pr(, R4P

( (rectangular-to-polar conversions)

60

Radian angle mode

16

,

59

,

373

radian notation (

R

)

59

,

382

RAM ARCHIVE ALL menu

334

rand (random number)

56 ,

373

randBin( (random binomial)

58

,

373

randInt( (random integer)

57

,

373

randIntNoRep(

58

randM( (random matrix)

156 ,

373

randNorm( (random Normal)

57

,

373

random seed

56

RCL (recall)

21

re^ qi (polar complex mode)

373

re^

 i (polar complex mode)

17

,

49

Real mode

17

,

373

real( (real part)

53 ,

373

RecallGDB

135

,

374

RecallPic

134

,

374

rectangular form, complex numbers

51

RectGC (rectangular graphing coordinates)

74

,

374

recursive sequences

104

re-enabling a disabled calculator

397

ref( (row-echelon form)

158

,

374

RegEQ (regression equation variable)

195

,

328

regression model automatic regression equation

195

automatic residual list feature

194

diagnostics display mode

195

models

198

relational operations

61

,

152

remainder(

48

Removing a Faceplate

8

Repeat

277 ,

374

RESET MEMORY menu

336

resetting all memory

336

archive memory

335

defaults

334

memory

334

RAM memory

334

residual list (RESID)

194

Return

280

,

374

root ( x$

)

39

,

382

root of a function

87

round(

46

, 151

,

374

row+(

374

rowSwap(

158

,

375

rref( (reduced-row-echelon form)

158 ,

375

S

Sci (scientific notation mode)

15

,

376

scientific notation

12

Index 419

screen modes

17

second cursor (2nd)

8

second key (2nd)

2

seconds DMS notation (”)

59

sector

341

Select(

170 ,

376

selecting data points from a plot

170

functions from the home screen or a program

69

functions in the Y= editor

69

stat plots from the Y= editor

69

Send( (send to CBL 2™ or CBR™)

286

,

376

SendID

349

sending

See

transmitting

35

SendSW

349

Seq (sequence graphing mode)

16

,

376

seq( (sequence)

169 ,

376

sequence graphing axes format

106

CALC (calculate menu)

108

evaluating

108

free-moving cursor

107

graph format

106

graph styles

103

moving the cursor to a value

107

nonrecursive sequences

104

recursive sequences

104

selecting and deselecting

103

TI-84 Plus versus TI-82 table

113

tracing

107

web plots

108

window variables

105

Y= editor

102

ZOOM (zoom menu)

107

Sequential (graphing order mode)

16

,

376

setDate( (set date)

376

setDtFmt( (set date format)

376

setTime( (set time)

376

setting display contrast

4

graph styles

70

graph styles from a program

71

modes

15

modes from a program

15

split-screen modes

137

split-screen modes from a program

141

tables from a program

115

setTmFmt( (set time format)

376

SetUpEditor

193

,

377

shade above graph style

70

shade below graph style

70

Shade(

127

,

377

Shade_t(

242

,

377

Shade

²(

242 ,

377

Shade

F

(

243

,

377

ShadeNorm(

241

,

377

shading graph areas

71

,

127

Simul (simultaneous graphing order mode)

16 ,

377

sin( (sine)

35

, 377

sin

/

( (arcsine)

35

,

377

sine (sin( )

35

sine (sin( )

377

sinh( (hyperbolic sine)

266 ,

377

sinh

/

( (hyperbolic arcsine)

266

,

377

SinReg (sinusoidal regression)

200

,

377

Smart Graph

75

solve(

43 ,

377

Solver

41

solving for variables in the equation solver

42

SortA( (sort ascending)

167

,

193

,

377

SortD( (sort descending)

167

,

193

,

378

split-screen modes

G-T (graph-table) mode

139

Horiz (horizontal) mode

138

setting

137 ,

141

split-screen values

129

,

132

,

140

square (²)

35

,

383

square root (

$

( )

35

square root (

$

( )

384

startTmr, start timer

378

STAT CALC menu

197

STAT EDIT menu

192

stat list editor attaching formulas to list names

187

clearing elements from lists

186

creating list names

185

detaching formulas from list names

189

displaying

183

edit-elements context

191

editing elements of formula-generated lists

189

editing list elements

186

entering list names

184

enter-names context

192

formula-generated list names

188

removing lists

185

restoring list names L1–L6

185

switching contexts

189

view-elements context

191

view-names context

192

STAT PLOTS menu

207

stat tests and confidence intervals

1-PropZInt (one-proportion z confidence interval)

226

1-PropZTest (one-proportion z test)

221

2-PropZInt (two-proportion z confidence interval)

226

2-PropZTest (two-proportion z test)

222

2-Samp

F

Test (two-sample

F

-Test)

228

2-SampTInt (two-sample t confidence interval)

225

2-SampTTest (two-sample t test)

220

2-SampZInt (two-sample z confidence interval)

224

2-SampZTest (two-sample z test)

219

ANOVA( (one-way analysis of variance)

229

²-Test (chi-square test)

227

²-Test (chi-square test)

227

LinRegTTest (linear regression t test)

229

TInterval (one-sample t confidence interval)

224

T-Test (one-sample t test)

219

ZInterval (one-sample z confidence interval)

223

Z-Test (one-sample z test)

218

Index 420

STAT TESTS menu

216

statistical distribution functions

See

distribution functions

35

statistical plotting

204

Boxplot (regular box plot)

206

defining

207

from a program

209

Histogram

205

ModBoxplot (modified box plot)

205

NormProbPlot (normal probability plot)

206

tracing

209

turning on/off stat plots

69

,

208

viewing window

209

xyLine

205

statistical variables table

202

Stats input option

214

,

215

stdDev( (standard deviation)

175

,

378

Stop

280

, 378

Store (

!

)

20

,

378

StoreGDB

134

,

378

StorePic

133

,

378

storing graph databases (GDBs)

134

graph pictures

133

variable values

20

String

4Equ( (string-to-equation conversions)

264

, 378

strings concatenation (+)

263

,

384

converting

263

defined

260

displaying contents

262

entering

260

functions in CATALOG

262

indicator (”)

260

length (length( )

264

length (length( )

367

storing

261

variables

261

student-t distribution probability (tcdf( )

237

probability (tcdf( )

379

student-t distribution probability density function (tpdf( )

237

probability density function (tpdf( )

379

sub( (substring)

265

,

378

subroutines

280

subtraction (–)

35

,

384

sum( (summation)

175

,

378

system variables

386

T

T

(transpose matrix)

154 ,

382

TABLE SETUP screen

115

tables description

117

variables

115 ,

116

tan( (tangent)

35

,

378

tan

/

( (arctangent)

35

,

378

tangent (tan( )

35

tangent (tan( )

378

tangent lines, drawing

125

Tangent( (draw line)

125 ,

378

tanh( (hyperbolic tangent)

266

,

378

tanh

/

( (hyperbolic arctangent)

266

,

378

TblStart (table start variable)

115

tcdf( (student-t distribution probability)

237 ,

379

TEST (relational menu)

61

TEST LOGIC (Boolean menu)

62

Text( instruction

128

, 141

, 379

placing on a graph

128

,

141

Then

275

,

365

thick graph style

70

TI Connect™

348

TI-84 Plus key code diagram

285

keyboard

1

Time axes format

106 ,

379

time value of money (TVM)

C/Y variable (number of compounding periods per year)

256

calculating

248

formulas

392

FV variable (future value)

256

I

% variable (annual interest rate)

256

N

variable (number of payment periods)

256

P/Y variable (number of payment periods per year)

256

PMT variable (payment amount)

256

PV variable (present value)

256

TVM Solver

246

tvm_FV (future value)

250

,

379

tvm_I% (interest rate)

379

tvm_

I

% (interest rate)

249

tvm_

N

(# payment periods)

249

,

379

tvm_Pmt (payment amount)

249

,

379

tvm_PV (present value)

249

, 380

variables

255

timeCnv( ), convert time

379

TInterval (one-sample t confidence interval)

379

TInterval (one-sample t confidence interval)

224

tpdf( (student-t distribution probability density function)

237

,

379

TRACE cursor

78

entering numbers during

78

,

95 ,

99 ,

107

expression display

75 ,

78

Trace instruction in a program

79

,

379

transmitting error conditions

356

from a TI-83

355

from a TI-83 Plus Silver Edition or TI-83 Plus

355

from a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus

355

stopping

350

to a TI-84 Plus Silver Edition or TI-84 Plus

350

transpose matrix (

T

)

154

,

382

trigonometric functions

35

T-Test (one-sample t test)

219 ,

379

turn clock off, ClockOff

359

turn clock on, ClockOn

359

turning on and off

Index 421

axes

74

calculator

3

coordinates

74

expressions

75

functions

69

grid

74

labels

75

points

130

stat plots

69 ,

208

tvm_FV (future value)

250 ,

379

tvm_I% (interest rate)

379

tvm_

I

% (interest rate)

249

tvm_

N

(# payment periods)

249

, 379

tvm_Pmt (payment amount)

249 ,

379

tvm_PV (present value)

249

,

380

two-proportion z confidence interval (2-PropZInt)

226 ,

372

two-proportion z test (2-PropZTest)

222 ,

372

two-sample

F

-Test formula

389

two-sample t test formula

390

two-variable statistics (2-Var Stats)

198 ,

380

U

u sequence function

102

Un/d

18 ,

49

UnArchive

20

,

330

,

380

ungrouping

337

user variables

386

uv/uvAxes (axes format)

106

,

380

uw/uwAxes (axes format)

106

,

380

V

v sequence function

102

value operation on a graph

86

variables complex

19

displaying and storing values

20

equation solver

42

graph databases

19

graph pictures

19

independent/dependent

117

list

19

,

161

matrix

19

,

144

real

19

recalling values

21

solver editor

42

statistical

202

string

261

test and interval output

234

types

19

user and system

19

,

386

VARS and Y-VARS menus

27

variance of a list (variance( )

175

variance of a list (variance( )

380

variance( (variance of a list)

175

,

380

VARS menu

GDB

27

Picture

27

Statistics

27

String

27

Table

27

Window

27

Zoom

27

Vertical (draw line)

124

,

380

viewing window

72

vw/uvAxes (axes format)

106 ,

380

W

w sequence function

102

Web (axes format)

106

,

380

web plots

108

While

276 ,

380

window variables function graphing

72

parametric graphing

94

polar graphing

98

X

x$

(root)

382

XFact zoom factor

85

x-intercept of a root

87

xor (Boolean) exclusive or operator

62

,

380

xth root ( x$

)

39

xyLine (

(

) plot type

205

Y

Y= editor function graphing

67

parametric graphing

92

polar graphing

97

sequence graphing

102

YFact zoom factor

85

Y-VARS menu

Function

27

On/Off

27

Parametric

27

Polar

27

Z

ZBox

80

,

380

ZDecimal

81

,

380

zero operation on a graph

87

ZInteger

82

, 381

ZInterval (one-sample z confidence interval)

223

,

381

zoom

79

,

80

,

81

,

82

,

84

,

85

cursor

80

factors

85

function graphing

79

parametric graphing

95

polar graphing

100

sequence graphing

107

Zoom In (zoom in)

81

,

381

ZOOM MEMORY menu

84

ZOOM menu

79

Zoom Out (zoom out)

81 ,

381

ZoomFit (zoom to fit function)

82

,

381

ZoomRcl (recall stored window)

85

,

381

ZoomStat (statistics zoom)

82 ,

381

ZoomSto (store zoom window)

84

, 382

Index 422

ZPrevious (use previous window)

382

ZSquare (set square pixels)

81 ,

382

ZStandard (use standard window)

82

,

382

Z-Test (one-sample z test)

218

,

382

ZTrig (trigonometric window)

82

, 382

Index 423

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