feature - Battery Power Magazine

feature - Battery Power Magazine
May/June 2011
Volume 15, Issue 3
Inside this issue of
May/June 2011
Volume 15, Issue 3
Editor’s Choice
Continental Enhances Electric Vehicle Safety. . p 4
System Architecture
Rapid Prototyping
ECU Autocoding
HIL Testing
ECU Calibration
System Architecture
Rapid Prototyping
ECU Autocoding
HIL Testing
ECU Calibration
System Architecture
Rapid Prototyping
ECU Autocoding
HIL Testing
ECU Calibration
System Architecture
Rapid Prototyping
ECU Autocoding
HIL Testing
ECU Calibration
System Architecture
Rapid Prototyping
ECU Autocoding
HIL Testing
ECU Calibration
System Architecture
Rapid Prototyping
ECU Autocoding
HIL Testing
ECU Calibration
SAE International Committee Develops Safety
Standards for Rechargeable Cells. . . . . . . . . . . p 6
HaloIPT to Wirelessly
Charge Luxury Car, page 6
The Future of Battery Technologies:
Environmental Considerations for Lithium
Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p 7
Green Backup Power Solutions Growing Fuel Cells
Help Telecom Operators Reduce Carbon
Footprint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p 9
Large-Format Lithium Ion Batteries Provide
Enhanced Energy Storage for Solar Generated
Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p 12
Fuel Cell Backup Power
Solution, page 9
Opportunities in the Stationary Lead Acid
Batteries Market. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p 14
Any new technology has to be sound and fail-safe . . . like the electronic control units (ECUs)
for battery management in hybrid and electric vehicles. This is where dSPACE comes into
play. As the experts in hardware-in-the-loop simulation, dSPACE offers special simulation
Wind Turbine Makers Adopt Ultracapacitors to
Generate Reliable, Clean Energy. . . . . . . . . . .p 28
New Products
models and real-time hardware to put the ECUs through the ultimate tests. Reality enters
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 20
the laboratory -- with models for lithium-ion batteries and nickel metal hydride batteries
ICs and Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 21
for realistic battery management tests, and real-time hardware for high voltage accuracy
Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p 22
and galvanic separation -- precise, quick and safe.
Charging & Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 23
The battery alone does not make up a car. This is why dSPACE offers HIL hardware and the
Power Supplies & Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 24
right real-time models for the complete vehicle, with electric motors, internal-combustion
engines, transmission, vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, and much more.
Even with the newest technology, you will be in the lead.
New Lithium-Ion Battery
Modules, page 20
Lithium Battery Upgrade
Kit For Polaris Ranger EV,
page 22
Industry News. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p 25
Marketplace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 29
Calendar of Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 30
Batteries for Traffic Light
Backups, page 25
May/June • Battery Power
Editor’s Choice
Continental Enhances Electric Vehicle Safety
Continental, an international automotive supplier, has developed a sensor for electric
and plug-in hybrid vehicles that will immediately shut off the high-voltage battery in the
event of a collision. This means that emergency service personnel can come to the aid of
accident victims without the risk of suffering an electric shock.
“The evSAT acceleration sensor is active in
charge mode. It detects an accident and passes this
information on to the battery management system,
which then shuts off the high-voltage battery,”
said Dr. Axel Gesell, senior manager, Platform
Development Sensors & Satellites, in the Passive
Safety and ADAS business unit of Continental’s
Chassis & Safety Division. “The major
benefit of our product is that it prevents
fire and rescue service personnel sustaining high-voltage injuries when coming
into contact with vehicle metal parts or
if they have to cut through the vehicle to
recover accident victims.”
evSAT stands for Satellite for Electric
Vehicles and essentially consists of an
independent, triaxial sensor with a CAN
(controller area network) interface. During
the charge phase, the other vehicle electronics, including the airbag system are not operational. So to avoid the expense of adapting the airbag system to meet new requirements,
Continental has developed evSAT for the vehicle’s charge mode. The accelerator sensor
employs an algorithm to detect a frontal, rear or side collision with another vehicle and immediately transmits a signal via the CAN interface to the battery management system that
switches off the battery within half a second. evSAT reacts in the same way if it detects a
rollover in driving mode. In this case, the battery is deactivated within four seconds. In the
event of other types of driving accident, evSAT remains inactive. In such cases, the airbag
system assumes the task of cutting off the battery. If the electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle
has been switched off and is not being charged, the evSAT moves to a standby mode to
prevent the battery discharging. As such, evSAT represents an additional passive safety
system function for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.
Most high-voltage batteries in electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles generate a voltage of
400 volts, twice as great as the standard domestic plug socket and potentially fatal. In the
US, there is a legal requirement for the vehicle power supply voltage to fall to below 60
volts within five seconds of an accident occurring.
Saft Lithium-Ion Battery Technology Selected for Solar Energy Storage
Project in California
Saft will supply renewable energy storage for 2500 R Street, California’s first microgrid, distributed energy community housing project. These advanced homes will use the
latest in smart grid, solar generation and energy storage to ensure each home generates as
much clean energy as it uses, thus maximizing homeowner utility bill savings.
Pacific Housing, Inc., a California nonprofit public benefit corporation, is developing
the 2500 R Street project as an affordable, progressive, sustainable and efficient 34-home
community in Sacramento. The homes are designed to meet stringent energy-efficient
guidelines as well as offer an expedited construction schedule with emphasis on reducing
construction waste. Additional advantages include reduction of resources, cost reduction
and minimizing green house gas emissions. Each home utilizes Sunverge Energy’s Solar
Integration System (SIS), with energy storage from Saft, to shift electrical loads, flatten
peak electricity demand and maximize return on renewable energy investments.
Battery Power • May/June
Editor & Publisher • David Webster
Director of Content • Shannon Given
Associate Editors
Nick Depperschmidt,
Heather Krier
Top quality battery
materials & equipment
for lab & factory
News Editors • Jeremy Fleming,
Jessi Albers, Sue Hannebrink,
Laura Mayo, Scott Webster
Manager of Administration
Marsha Grillo
Advertising, Sales and Marketing
Jessi Albers, Director of Sales
Jeremy Fleming, Account Executive
Jennifer Graham, Marketing Assistant
Julie Hammond, Production Manager
Director of Support Services
Marc Vang
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Editor’s Choice
Saft’s Synerion E Li-Ion battery will be integrated into Sunverge’s Solar Integration System to capture solar energy and
store it for use when needed most by the homeowner. Li-Ion is
the only technology that meets the project’s need for 20-year
battery life in a range of demanding environmental conditions.
HaloIPT to Wirelessly Charge Luxury Car
HaloIPT will supply its induction charging technology for
102EX, the Phantom Experimental Electric vehicle. RollsRoyce Motor Cars has developed the test vehicle to explore
alternatives to traditional internal combustion for the first time
in the company’s 107 year history. HaloIPT is part of a group of
companies whose systems have been integrated into the experimental vehicle.
HaloIPT is the
first company to
bring to market
wireless charging
technology, which
allows cars fitted
with an integrated
receiver to charge
when parked over transmitter pads buried in the ground.
HaloIPT’s wireless charging systems use inductive power
transfer (IPT) to transfer power over large gaps and are tolerant to parking misalignment with power transfer efficiencies
that can match a plug-and-cable. The technology is designed to
function beneath asphalt, and even works under water or covered in ice and snow. IPT systems can be configured to work
with all road-based vehicles from small city cars to heavygoods vehicles and buses.
In the future, infrastructure providers will be able to embed
IPT technology into roads, so HaloIPT cars can be charged on
the move. This in-motion charging represents a way of solving
the range issues faced by electric vehicles today and will significantly reduce battery size requirements as well as providing
charging convenience.
SAE International Committee Develops Safety
Standards for Rechargeable Cells
SAE International’s Battery Standards Committee has
created safety performance standards for lithium ion battery
systems. These are the first minimum base standards for safety
performance expectations (pass-fail criteria) for lithium ion
battery systems.
The document, “J2929 - Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard - Lithium-Based Rechargeable Cells,” provides a common foundation from which all battery and vehicle manufacturers can create safe battery systems.
The standards will build consumer confidence in the safety of
lithium ion battery systems.
SAE International battery committees are working to limit
the potential for danger by developing standards that cover
all aspects, from battery design, testing, storage, shipping and
Battery Power • May/June
recycling of large advanced-technology batteries used in electric
vehicles (EVs) and hybrid-electrics. Battery standards are useful
for several reasons, but safety is paramount.
SAE International also is working with other organizations
such as the National Fire Protection Association to recognize
opportunities for improving EV battery safety knowledge, training, communications and vehicle designs for the First Responder
community. In addition, the committees are supporting ISO12405
(electrically propelled road vehicles, test specification for lithiumion traction battery packs and systems) standards development.
Lithium ion batteries are used in hybrid and electric vehicles.
Their usage is expected to grow as more of the vehicles are introduced. Market size estimates for electric and hybrid vehicle batteries range widely from $2.3 billion to $10 billion by 2015. The
US will have the capacity to produce 20 percent of the world’s
advanced batteries by 2012 and up to 40 percent by 2015.
Ford and DTE Energy Soak Up the Rays with One of
Michigan’s Largest Solar Power Projects
The primary part of one of Michigan’s largest solar power
generation systems at Ford’s Michigan Assembly Plant is now
up and running, delivering renewable energy to help power the
production of fuel-efficient small cars. The system is the result
of collaboration between Ford, DTE Energy, Xtreme Power, the
city of Wayne and the state of Michigan.
The renewable energy captured by the energy system will
help power the production of Ford’s all-new Focus. The plant
will also produce Focus Electric, Ford’s first zero-emission
battery electric passenger vehicle and the C-MAX Hybrid and
C-MAX Energi plug-in hybrid.
The solar energy system will serve as a pilot alternative
energy project to be evaluated for possible use at other Ford
manufacturing facilities in the future. A secondary, smaller
solar energy system will be integrated at Michigan Assembly to
power lighting systems at the plant.
Ford collaborated with DTE Energy to install the 500-kilowatt solar photovoltaic panel system at Michigan Assembly.
The system will be integrated with a 750-kilowatt energy storage facility that can store 2 million watt-hours of energy using
batteries, enough to power 100 average Michigan homes for a
year. The project will also include a 50-kilowatt-hour facility
to demonstrate the potential reuse of vehicle electric batteries
for stationary energy storage. Xtreme Power is supplying its
Dynamic Power Resource on-site energy storage and power
management system.
The solar energy installation is part of DTE Energy’s pilot
SolarCurrents program that calls for photovoltaic systems to
be installed on customer rooftops or property over the next five
years to generate 15 megawatts of electricity throughout southeast Michigan.
The Future of Battery Technologies
Environmental Considerations for Lithium Batteries
There is a growing awareness of and interest in environmental issues across all sectors of society in recent years. Many
people argue that our long-term survival depends upon reducing our impact on nature and that we must stop releasing toxic
materials into the environment. Batteries are not yet covered by
legislation on chemicals, but the “Regulation on
Batteries,” which is based on the EU Battery Directive, governs the use of certain heavy metals
in batteries. Unfortunately, this legislation has
not kept pace with technological developments
in the battery field. This is also the case when it
comes to environmental labeling requirements
on batteries, such as the Swan Label.
There are at least three key factors that can
be used when determining how environment
friendly a battery is:
• Battery lifespan and the number of cells
required to achieve the desired battery function
in the equipment or apparatus
• Recyclability
• Chemical content
cells in lithium batteries and therefore, there is no reason for
manufacturers to deliberately include them. Where they are
found is in the form of contamination of raw materials used. It is
extremely unusual for lithium-based cells or batteries to contain
problematic high levels of these elements. This has persuaded
some manufacturers of these batteries to claim their products
are “green” and environment friendly. The basis for such claims
Upper Limits and Labeling
The EU Battery Directive is currently the
most far-reaching directive on the regulation of
hazardous elements that are used in batteries.
The directive includes both fixed upper limits
by weight for how much cadmium (20 ppm)
and mercury (5 ppm) batteries can contain, with
the exception of military and certain industrial
batteries, plus batteries for emergency and alarm
systems, cordless power tools and a number of
medical equipment products. The Battery Directive and all related national legislation within the
EU also covers labeling requirements for batteries with mercury, cadmium and lead (40 ppm)
content along with requirements on the collection and treatment of spent batteries, irrespective
of the particular type of battery.
Several countries in Asia (China, Japan and
Singapore) have introduced regulation on heavy
metals and batteries. Parts of the US and Canada
have also come a long way on the collection and
treatment of batteries.
No Mercury, Cadmium or Lead
None of the listed elements (mercury, cadmium and lead) play a part in electrochemical
May/June • Battery Power
is debatable as lithium batteries, and rechargeable lithium-ion
batteries in particular, are extremely complex and can contain
a large number of different elements in varying degrees. This
relationship is also reflected in the environment labeling requirements specified by Swan, which currently regulates these three
heavy metals and, in the case of rechargeable batteries, arsenic.
Rechargeable Batteries are Preferable
Generally speaking, rechargeable batteries are more environment friendly than single-use batteries when used in the same
application. This is because the total amount of battery waste
will be lower as the same battery can be recharged numerous
times, hundreds of times as a rule. Within the group of primary
batteries (single use batteries), lithium cells offer an advantage
in the form of higher energy density compared to alkaline batteries, which enable a longer operating time. Most primary lithium
cells also have a higher cell voltage, which means they need
fewer cells to achieved the desired operating voltage in the apparatus. Both of these characteristics help make primary lithium
cells appear more advantageous than other primary cells from an
environment perspective, as fewer cells are required to achieve
the same performance and lifespan. These same arguments can
be used in favor of lithium-ion cells, as these have a higher cell
voltage than other rechargeable cell types.
Nickel from the Toyota Prius can be Recycled
Recyclability is completely dependent on the availability of
efficient collection systems that ensure batteries do not end up in
landfill sites and that there are financial incentives to recover the
materials found in batteries. Here, traditional chemical batteries
(lead, nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride batteries) are
actually at an advantage compared to lithium-ion batteries, as
traditional batteries have a higher content of metals that have
a second-hand value on the commodities markets. Exhausted
lead batteries can be used directly in the manufacture of new
lead batteries. Nickel from nickel cadmium and nickel metal
hydride batteries is used by the steel industry in the manufacture
of stainless steel. However, recycled nickel is not yet of sufficiently high quality to be used in new batteries. Cadmium can
also be recovered and recycled in the production of new nickel
cadmium batteries.
Toyota has developed a method that enables them to recover
nickel from old Prius batteries that can be used in new ones. It
will be interesting to follow this development and whether this
method can be used for nickel metal hydride batteries of the
consumer type.
Spent Cell Content Used in the
Construction Industry
Lithium-ion batteries contain relatively small quantities of
elements that are financially viable to recover. The large variety
of cell chemistries available on the market also makes recycling
more difficult. There are recycling processes currently available
for lithium-ion batteries that recover cobalt, nickel and cop-
Battery Power • May/June
per from battery waste. The residual cell content is combusted
and the ash can be used in the construction industry. The trend
within lithium-ion technology is moving towards a development
characterized by an increased use of materials that are not of
interest to recover, such as manganese dioxide, iron phosphate
and mixed oxide materials with little or no cobalt in the mix. As
a consequence, the cost of collection and recycling of lithiumion batteries can largely fall on users when the manufacturers
attempt to recoup their manufacturer product liabilities.
Heavy Metals in Lithium-Ion Batteries
Although lithium-ion batteries do not contain mercury, cadmium or lead, the content of these batteries does include other
heavy metals that can be problematical for the environment.
Cobalt, copper and nickel are examples of metals that occur in
significant quantities in many cases. There are also a large number of trace element metals that can reach toxic levels if batteries
are discarded in sufficiently large quantities in a limited area. To
which can be added electrolytes in the form of organic solvents
with various different ingredients, such as flame-retardants that
can damage the environment if the batteries are not collected
and disposed of in a professional way. In this respect, one can
also include the original environmental impact of mining the
minerals that are used in the cell manufacturing raw materials. Cobalt production in Congo-Kinshasa has been named as
a potential problematical process from both an environmental
and ethical perspective. It is not out of the question that the fast
growing demand for lithium-ion batteries globally within the
car industry can lead to the focus falling on other elements and
manufacturing processes.
Green Backup Power Solutions Growing
Fuel Cells Help Telecom Operators Reduce Carbon Footprint
Kathy Fosberg, Marketing Communications Manager
IdaTech LLC
As companies around the world are increasingly focused on
reducing their carbon footprints, fuel cell technology is helping
mobile network operators meet both sustainability and business
goals. Driven by high energy costs, limited access to electricity
in many developing countries, increased legislation and market pressure, network operators are more frequently choosing
clean technology solutions for their backup power needs over
traditional options. Clean and energy efficient fuel cells can
help reduce CO2 emissions by 50 percent as well as decrease
other toxic emissions and deliver additional environmental and
efficiency benefits, making them more often the first choice for
telecom carriers today.
A Clean Alternative
With society’s reliance on mobile networks to power smart
communications devices, having backup power at base station
sites is critical in the event of power loss from severe weather,
natural disasters or limited grid capacity.
Traditional telecom backup power solutions include VRLA
Equipment & Automation Solutions
for Battery Manufacturing
Product Life Cycle Must be Considered
The environmental impacts of batteries is a very complex
issue. In order to be able to evaluate and compare different
batteries against each other, it is desirable to take the entire life
cycle of the product into account: the extraction and refining of
the raw materials, cell and battery manufacturing, product lifespan in operation plus waste disposal and recycling processes.
Both manufacturers and consumers of battery-powered products
should do their utmost to minimize the total number of batteries
required during the lifetime of the product in order to minimize
its environmental impact. It is also important to persuade users
to take batteries to recycling points and to continue work on
developing technology that enables as much recycled material as
possible to be used.
Intertek’s expertise in battery testing and energy storage services ensures products meet performance, reliability and safety
criteria. Throughout design, manufacturing and system deployment cycles, Intertek provides evaluations for performance,
electrical safety, interoperability, fit for use, component selection
and more.
For more information, please visit
www.intertek.com/energy-storage or call 800-967-5352.
battery strings for short duration backup, and diesel and propane
generators for longer duration backup. Batteries are relatively
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May/June • Battery Power
loads. Fuel cell systems can provide multiple days of backup
power since run time is limited only by the amount of hydrogen
or methanol-water fuel stored on site.
Eliminating Emissions
Fuel cells can virtually eliminate the two most highly toxic
emissions of diesel generators: nitrogen oxides (NOx) and
sulphur oxides (SOx), which together are the main causes of
acid rain and also contribute to the ozone formation in the air
and ground.
Network operators who choose a methanol-water fuel cell
system over a traditional diesel generator can realize significant
exhaust emissions savings of a 50 percent reduction in CO2 emissions and more than a 95 percent reduction in CO, nitrogen oxide
and sulphur oxide emissions. Unlike methanol, diesel generators
also produce particles and un-reacted heavy hydrocarbons.
around 22°C (± 2°C), in order to avoid rapid degradation.
However, most telecom transmission equipment can operate
at temperatures up to 35°C to 40°C without any deterioration or
performance degradation. By removing batteries from the shelter, a more efficient cabinet cooling method can be used such as
DC air-cooling systems.
New-generation DC air-cooling systems offer improved
efficiency and performance for telecom sites. Backup power
fuel cell systems operate at temperatures up to 46°C and do not
require air conditioning. Reducing batteries at a telecom site
Photo Courtesy of IdaTech, LLC
inexpensive for one to two hours of backup power. However,
batteries are not ideal for longer duration backup power applications because they can be expensive to maintain, unreliable after
aging, temperature sensitive and hazardous to the environment
after disposal.
Diesel and propane generators are capable of longer duration backup power. While diesel generators are popular primarily due to their relatively low initial cost; unreliable operation
for diesel generators is common, and operating costs are high
due to poor efficiency and high service costs. Their environmental impact is significant due to their high emissions, low
efficiency and loud operation.
Fuel cells offer improved system reliability, more predictable
performance in a broad range of climates and a reliable service
life when compared to battery strings and diesel generators.
Lower fuel cell operating costs are the result of only one
maintenance visit per year and significantly higher system efficiency. Fuel cells also offer environmental and economical
advantages to end users because disposal costs and liability risks
related to lead acid batteries are an increasing concern. In California, for example, telecom sites with more than 500 pounds of
lead acid batteries or one gallon of acid face fees from the state.
How Fuel Cells Work
A fuel cell is a solid-state DC power generator that converts
chemical energy into electricity. Hydrogen and oxygen (air) are
the two fuels of that reaction. One great appeal of fuel cells is
that they generate electricity with zero pollution; hydrogen and
oxygen are combined to generate electricity, with water and heat
as the only by-products.
The system continuously senses the direct current (DC)
bus voltage and seamlessly takes over critical loads if the DC
bus falls below a customer-determined set point. The system
is fueled by hydrogen, which is delivered to the fuel cell stack
in one of two ways: either from a commercial-grade hydrogen
supply or a methanol and water liquid fuel, using an integrated
reformer system.
Electricity is generated by the fuel cell stack as direct current. The DC energy is passed to a DC/DC converter, which
converts the unregulated DC electricity from the fuel cell stack
into high-quality regulated DC electricity to serve the required
Fuel cell systems can be more than twice as efficient at
producing electricity than internal combustion engines such as
diesel and LPG generators. Increased efficiency reduces fuel
consumption and lowers operating costs. Furthermore, a more
efficient system produces fewer exhaust emissions, lowering the
impact on the environment
Fuel cell systems are quieter and have significantly less vibration than diesel generators. Quiet operation is highly valued
in areas where people live and sleep and can result in a lower
incidence of vandalism.
Fuel cell systems that run on methanol-water can also use a
renewable fuel, a combination of bio-methanol and water. Biomethanol can be produced from synthesis gas, derived from biomass feedstocks, such as wood waste. A fuel cell system powered
by a renewable fuel has a very low impact on the environment.
Government rebate programs are available for telecom carriers to buy fuel cell systems at a substantially discounted price.
In California, federal and state incentives for implementing a
system that uses bio-methanol renewable fuel can potentially
offset the entire system purchase price. New Jersey, Oregon
and Tennessee also offer state rebate incentives. In addition, all
states are eligible for 30 percent federal cash rebate for installing
fuel cell systems.
As our society continues to increase its reliance on wireless
technologies and also its commitment to protecting the planet,
backup power fuel cell systems will present clean technology
solutions that lower operating costs, improve network reliability
and benefit the environment.
Kathy Fosberg is marketing communications manager at
IdaTech, LLC. For more information, please e-mail
[email protected] or visit www.idatech.com.
Module and pack level testing
CAN, I2C SMBus capable
Drive cycle simulation
Import drive cycle from table of values
Battery power is recycled to AC grid in discharge
A fuel cell stack consists of graphite plates and polymers,
whereas VRLA batteries include materials harmful to the environment and are difficult to dispose. Fuel cell stacks are recyclable, and refurbished (replacement) fuel cell stacks are available.
Another benefit is that fuel cells require less air conditioning.
In tropical environments, telecom cabinets and shelters are typically cooled using traditional AC air-conditioning units. Typical
VRLA batteries are required to be maintained at temperatures
Battery Power • May/June
Renewable Fuel Possibilities
Increased Efficiency
Other Green Benefits
and adding a fuel cell system will relax the temperature cooling
requirements and will lower operating costs.
Utilizes Maccor’s standard battery test software suite
No system power limit, up to 900KW
May/June • Battery Power
Large-Format Lithium Ion Batteries Provide Enhanced
Energy Storage for Solar Generated Power
John Battaglini, Vice President
International Battery, Inc.
President Obama’s “Clean Energy Standard for America”
seeks to achieve 80 percent of electricity to come from renewables and other clean energy sources by 2035. It’s an ambitious
goal, however one that can be met through the help of new innovations in grid technologies. Certainly, the quest for more reliable, cleaner alternatives to fossil fuels is driving technological
advancement in the smart grid. According Greentech Media research, “6.5 gigawatts of solar demand will be reached by 2015,
with a 2009 to 2015 CAGR of 109 percent and a total market
value of $13.0 billion. In 2009, the entire US photovoltaic (PV)
market received an estimated $2.4 billion in total project investment, a number that will be exceeded as early as 2011 in the
utility market alone.” Managing and storing solar energy is the
Holy Grail of success for not only utilities, but for consumers as
well. Secretary John Hanger of the Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Protection said, “Renewable energy is booming,
gaining an ever larger share of our electricity generation mix. To
take it to the next level, though, we must improve our ability to
store energy in large amounts.”
The integration of intermittent renewable energy sources into
the smart grid has presented challenges due to the inconsistent
nature of the energy source. While solar power can provide a
clean alternative to fossil fuels, the energy produced is difficult
to store and utilize during the off-peak hours, which include
cloud cover and night time. Difficulties in load leveling, back-up
power, grid regulation and line efficiencies have created the
need for enhanced energy storage systems. The ability to have
energy stored and prepared to return to the grid during peak
demand has inspired developments in both lead-acid and lithium
ion batteries to satisfy growing energy storage needs. Just as
smaller, longer-lasting lithium batteries became the standard
energy storage format utilized by laptops and cell phones, solar
integrators are applying battery systems with advanced chemistries and larger formats to fill the needs of the growing renewable energy storage requirements.
Energy Storage System Formats
Solar integrators are employing several different battery
technologies including: lead-acid, lithium ion, ultracapictors,
sodium sulfur, vanadium redox, flywheels, compressed air, fuel
cells and pumped hydro. With so many choices, system designers and integrators need to consider the following:
• Weight- effecting mounting, installation, maintenance and
mobility issues
• Footprint/Location- volume reduction, when space matters
• Modularity/Scalability/Mobility- ease of system expansion
and relocation
Battery Power • May/June
• Dramatically longer cycle-life
• Use 100 percent of capacity of lithium battery without
shortening rated cycle life, verses 40 to 60 percent of capacity
for lead acid
• No service for the lifetime of the battery
• Shorter charge times (1.5 to two hours verses five to eight for
• Lithium has lower effective capacity loss at high rates
of discharge
International Battery, Inc. is one such company manufacturing these new types of large-format lithium cells. The company’s current generation of large-format
cells is up to 70 times the capacity of the
prior generation of cylindrical lithium
cells. Large-format cells offer much
lower system integration costs when aggregated into large battery packs. Having an order of magnitude reduction in
the number of cells also enables reduced
number of battery interconnections,
further improving the reliability of the
battery pack and providing for a much
higher value proposition. Individual cell
monitoring with the use of a battery management system is a
key to success with these systems.
electricity is at its highest. The Navy Yard project showcases the
next-generation zero-energy home and the importance of managing, distributing and storing energy within the smart grid.
Large-format lithium ion cells have also been adapted by
Princeton Power, who is developing a $1.5 million solar generation system with a 200-kilowatt solar array and energy storage
system that will be connected to the grid. The project funded
in part by the State of New Jersey’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Fund, will demonstrate advanced smart grid functionality
including micro grid operation, demand response, time shifting,
frequency regulation and power dispatch. Princeton Power’s
inverter and International Battery’s energy storage system will
be housed in a mobile shipping container that is expandable to
include one mega-watt-hour of storage.
As the Smart Grid continues to develop and integrates more
renewable energy sources, energy storage will represent a key
value proposition for the electricity grid of the future. Solar and
wind will certainly pose challenges to the grid as more of these
intermittent energy sources come online. Moreover, with the
future adoption of plug-in vehicles, smart energy management
will be needed to assure the quality and reliability of the grid. To
this end, energy storage systems will serve as a key foundation
technology that will advance the grid to its full potential.
Contact International Battery, Inc. at
Energy Storage at Work
• Cycle Life- evaluate length of life and capacity, e.g. high C rates
• Service/Maintenance- projected life for specific
operating temperatures
• Charge Times- will be different for various battery chemistries
• Capacity loss at high rates of discharge- evaluate and compare
Premium Performance Provided by Large-Format
Lithium Ion Batteries
Due to lack of options in the past, the lead-acid battery has
been one of the earliest formats to be applied to solar energy
storage applications. Though lead-acid has a loyal following due
to the initial purchase price, their limits are being recognized
and replaced by lithium ion for demanding solar and other high
energy density storage systems. The lithium ion battery as a
supplement to the lead-acid type of battery offers many advantages as they are better at moving large amounts of energy into
the battery without overheating and offer much higher round trip
efficiency top-off charging of the fully depleted batteries by stationary charges can be accomplished in just two or three hours
with lithium, versus a six-to eight hour charge time required by
lead-acid batteries. The advantages of lithium over lead-acid
also include:
• Dramatic weight reduction, up to 80 percent in high
C-Rate applications
• Footprint/volume reduction, up to 65 percent in high
C-Rate applications
To further revolutionize the integration of renewable energy
into the smart grid in the US, several pilot demonstration programs have been launched to prove the practicality of energy
storage and its potential to impact the grid. Besides grid stabilization and load leveling, the inclusion of storage systems can
potentially provide back-up power to thousands of residential
and commercial customers, especially when renewable energy is
not available.
Large-format lithium ion cells are being utilized by Sunverge
Energy. Sunverge’s turnkey Solar Integration System (SIS) is
currently being demonstrated as part of a micro grid project
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard’s Energy Innovation Hub. The
Hub is a national center for research, education and the commercialization of energy-related technologies, combining efforts
of researchers from academia, the private sector and national
research laboratories to save energy, reduce carbon emissions
and position the US as a leader in renewable energy resources.
The Navy Yard Campus in Philadelphia encompasses 1,200
acres, more than seven miles of waterfront, a workforce of 8,000
in more than 100 companies, 5.5 million square feet of facilities
and more than $500 million of private investment. Within the
Energy Innovation Hub includes a live demonstration of a micro
grid with a 2,700 square foot net-zero energy home. Sunverge’s
efficiently designed, integrated system includes an inverter, gateway interoperability and lithium ion energy storage technology,
making it a unique and comprehensive solution. The Sunverge
SIS captures solar energy at its most plentiful and stores it for
use during peak demand hours, when cost to produce and deliver
May/June • Battery Power
Opportunities in the Stationary Lead Acid Batteries Market
Vishal Sapru, Research Manager - Energy & Power Systems
Frost & Sullivan
Critical power applications demand a highly reliable and costeffective energy storage technology. A stationary lead acid (SLA)
battery offer these benefits and continues to be the battery chemistry of choice for backup power, emergency lighting, utilities,
security systems, railway backup systems, oil and gas explorations, renewable energy systems and other applications. A lead
acid battery is an energy storage device that has been used for
more than a century to protect critical power appliances. Power
quality has emerged as a highly discussed topic over the last 10
to 15 years, and is anticipated to remain so going forward, as
more applications continue to become increasingly microprocessor-based. With this strong dependency on electronics, the need
for power quality is not expected to cease. This has a cyclical
effect on the demand for batteries, as they are the powerhouses
designed to provide electrical power to the systems.
Competitive Analysis
Competition in this market is extremely fierce, with a mix of
global participants and an increasing number of niche regional
vendors. Price pressures have intensified since 2005, due to the
escalating and volatile price of lead. This has affected profit
margins for most tier one vendors. The major end-user segments
such as telecommunication and UPS/data communication focus
on having the required power for their facilities. Therefore,
brand equity plays a key role in this competitive marketplace.
Vendors that offer an increased value proposition and a complete
suite of support services that is geared toward the
critical end-user segments are sure to succeed.
Market participants aggressively try to maintain existing clients as well as venture into new
markets to increase revenue profits and maintain
company growth. The major competitive challenges include the vendor’s capability to meet
production capacities or control inventory supply
impacted by fluctuating demand in several application markets.
In addition, the ability to keep pace with the
capabilities of newer applications will decide
the overall revenue growth for lead acid batteries. The lack of product originality has created a
more competitive environment for vendors struggling to differentiate their commodity products
from those of others. Revenue growth becomes a
challenge due to the increased competition from
Asia Pacific vendors that can manufacture lowend, low-priced batteries for various applications. The competitive structure of the market is
highly diverse due to the varying market stages
of each end-user application market.
continue to increase steadily.
The key factors that are likely to drive the growth of the SLA
battery market include:
• Proven technology earns end-user loyalty and encourages growth
• Lowest comparable prices driving continued reliance
on batteries
• Recovery of telecommunication and data communication
industries instills growth
• Next-generation wireless technology expected to prod demand
• Environmental concerns provoke renewed interest in lead acid
battery power sources
• Increased requirement for protection of facilities raises demand
for lead acid batteries
The key factors that are likely to restrain the growth of the
SLA battery market include:
• Price increase in components minimizes profitability
• Extremely competitive industry subject to continual price pressure
• Limited product differentiation
• Alternative energy chemistries pose growth challenge in the
long term
• More stringent standards and regulations shrink profit margins
• Decrease in capital spending influences growth
As market maturity intensifies, it can be seen that profit margins tend to decrease, despite consistent sales. Factors attributed
to this include depleting resources and increasing lead prices,
price volatility due to high competition, increased competitive
pressure mounting from niche regional vendors and increased
investments in marketing campaigns to promote individual
product brands.
The strong economic growth in the Asian economies has resulted in strong demand in the SLA battery end-user industries.
The growth of the data center and telecommunication industries
is expected to drive the demand for SLA batteries. The increased
foreign direct investment into Asia is expected to facilitate the
development of infrastructure and capital equipment. This is expected to increase the demand for power reliability and backup
power. This in turn is likely to maintain the demand for SLA
batteries going forward.
As pollution levels continue to increase globally, government
and local authorities are realizing the impact of these issues and
are emphasizing environment preservation. The green technology or green energy movement has impacted battery markets
in a positive manner. This movement constitutes a more environmentally-friendly and sustainable technology, and is one of
the key strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of pollution.
It is desirable that lead acid battery manufacturers practice the
recycling of old lead acid batteries because it has an immediate
impact on production and operational cost when obtaining manufacturing material. Lead acid batteries utilize 60 to 80 percent
of the recycled lead, as the energy used to process recycled lead
is lesser than that of primary ore. This protects the environment
from the toxic effects of lead and plastics, and satisfies end-user
requirements as they are price-sensitive. By being reliant on
metals and chemicals, battery manufacturers are constantly pressured by market prices and raw material availability challenges.
Distribution Channel Analysis
The original equipment (OE) market contributed 64 percent
of the SLA battery market revenues for 2010. Stationary lead
acid batteries are used in coordination with a backup power
device such as an inverter or a UPS to provide the necessary
backup to the equipment being powered. Lower capacity SLA
batteries are used with devices such as emergency lighting and
security equipment. The life of a stationary lead acid battery var-
Market Opportunities
The stationary lead acid battery market has
shown steady growth, and is estimated at $4
billion to $4.3 billion in 2010. The two major
segments that contribute to its growth (telecom
and UPS/data communication) show a steady
performance. A steady increase in unit shipments
is also expected. Simultaneously, there has also
been an increase in price due to lead price volatility, which has been responsible for the revenue
growth. The stationary lead acid battery technology is widely used despite several advances in
the alternative energy sectors. Hence, the opportunities for lead acid batteries are expected to
Battery Power • May/June
Figure 1 illustrates percentage of revenues by end user application.
May/June • Battery Power
ies based on the application in which it is used and the environment that it is exposed to. This varies from anywhere between
two years to a maximum of seven or eight years. Therefore, the
battery cells are replaced at least once during the equipment
lifetime, and this is done by the equipment provider. Thus, it
becomes an original equipment sale for the battery vendor.
The aftermarket contributed 36 percent of the SLA battery
market revenues in 2010. Aftermarket SLA battery sales are lucrative in comparison to the OE sales that are currently predominant
in the industry. Batteries form the most critical part of the backup
power system of any network, and its importance is also very well
understood. As the backup power system is incomplete without
the battery, backup equipment manufacturers also realize the importance of the
batteries used in the system. Moreover,
during the life of the backup energy
device, batteries tend to be replaced at
least once, and this is a lucrative proposition for equipment vendors.
Battery Construction
Type Analysis
The two different types of lead
acid batteries available are flooded
and sealed or valve-regulated lead
acid (VRLA). The difference is in the
Battery Power • May/June
construction of the battery and the form in which the electrolyte
is available in the battery. Equipment that uses lead acid batteries is generally designed around the battery itself. This includes
factors such as mounting, connectors, charging circuits and load
components. The necessity for ventilation systems, handling and
other maintenance issues is also responsible for the difficulties
faced in changing from VRLA to a less expensive but more rugged flooded battery, and this prevents the possibility of switching between VRLA and flooded.
Flooded lead acid batteries are the oldest battery type and
are less expensive when compared to the sealed type. A key
advantage of using flooded versus sealed/VRLA is battery life.
A flooded battery is expected to last
between seven and 20 years, depending
on maintenance. On the contrary, VRLAs have a shorter life span of three to
five years depending on maintenance.
Flooded lead acid batteries are expected
to decrease their implementation in
stationary applications. The inability
to store as much energy as VRLA batteries and the tendency to sulfate make
this battery unattractive for stationary
applications. Similarly, this battery sufFigure 2 shows percentage of revenues by distrifers in terms of hydrogen gas leakage
bution channel.
and corrosion.
Sealed lead
acid batteries
are the preferred choice
due to their
safe handling
This capability
is necessary to
ensure product
during power
outages. Lead
Figure 3 shows percentage of revenues by
battery construction type.
acid batteries
have seen little
technological advancement in the market. Nevertheless, vendors
have introduced new products that offer enhancements in the
form of longer life and durability.
Some of the advantages that VRLA or sealed batteries offer
for stationary applications are as follows:
• Monitoring can be reduced to a large extent, and is limited to
charging parameters
• Performance is not affected at lower temperatures
• There is no electrolyte leakage, resulting in safe batteries,
which can be operated in any orientation
• The fear of explosion is reduced, as gases are not released in
normal operating conditions
• Batteries can be used immediately after charging; no cooldown time is needed
• Very low self-discharge rates
• High resistance to vibration
With the competition among battery vendors becoming
global, and the ever-increasing threat to the dominance of SLA
batteries by competing chemistries and alternative energy sources, the demands on the vendors are multiple. The SLA battery
market has witnessed a series of consolidations since 2000. With
increasing competition in the marketplace and the commoditization of batteries, differentiating factors either in the product, the
marketing activities, or the support functions are likely to help
sustain a profitable, value-driven venture in the SLA battery
market. One of the key strategies would be to employ a local
strategy toward the manufacture and use of lead acid batteries,
and minimize the cost of the batteries by employing lessexpensive manufacturing facilities in Asia Pacific countries. In
addition, effective marketing strategies to uphold brand equity
and brand loyalty should be sustained and increased.
Contact Frost & Sullivan at www.frost.com.
May/June • Battery Power
Battery Power 2011, an international conference
highlighting the latest developments and technologies in the battery industry, will be held September
20-21 in Nashville, Tennessee.
This ninth annual event will feature more than 30
presentations designed for OEM design engineers,
system engineers, integrators, end-users, technical
and management professionals involved in battery
powered products and systems, battery manufacturing, battery technology research and development
and power management technology.
Battery Power 2011 will provide you with the most
up-to-date developments and technologies in the
battery and power management market. If you are involved in the battery industry or if your products and
systems run on batteries, this is a must attend event.
The conference will be held September 20-21 in
Nashville, Tennessee at the Gaylord Opryland. Use
these two days to network with peers, professionals
and potential business partners involved in technology solutions serving a variety of applications. Learn
about the latest products, services and technologies
available and discover what is on the horizon.
Battery Power 2011 will be co-located with other
industry-leading conferences: Advancements in
Thermal Management, Remote Monitoring and Control 2011, Antenna Systems and Technology 2011,
Energy Efficiency Expo and EMCW. The events will
share a combined exhibit hall floor, which is open to
all attendees.
Register by July 28th for Only $695 - a Savings of $600!
Pre-Conference Workshops
Lithium-Ion Battery Design Tutorial
Presented by Robert Spotnitz with Battery Design LLC,
this full day course surveys all aspects of lithium-ion battery design ranging from materials and processes, to cells
to packs. A thorough overview of the issues involved in
life estimation, thermal behavior and abuse tolerance is
How to design lithium-ion cells is discussed in detail with
an emphasis on comparing different chemistries. The
Battery Design Studio software is used to illustrate design
techniques for cells and packs.
Battery Power Management Challenges and Solutions:
Safety, Charging, Fuel Gauging, and Cell Balancing
Presented by Jirong Qian with Texas Instruments, this
half day workshop addresses the issues surrounding battery power management for safely charging the battery,
smartly monitoring the battery for improving protection
and accurately estimating battery remaining capacity, cell
balancing from handheld, power tools, e-Bike, electric
vehicle, to medical applications.
Preliminary Program
Ageing Effects to the Safety Behavior of Li-Ion
Batteries • Underwriters Laboratories Taiwan Co.
How to Uniformly Disperse Nanoparticles for
Batteries • NETZSCH Fine Particle Technology, LLC
Advanced Li-Ion Fuel Gauging Using Magnetic
Susceptibility • Cadex Electronics, Inc.
NiMH Batteries for Stationary Power • Ovonic
Battery Company
Zinc Air: A Low Cost, Long Life and Near Term
Technology • Grid Storage Technologies
Electric Vehicle Battery Pack Considerations
Boston-Power, Inc.
What if Peak Power was Available in a Structural
Element? • Paper Battery Company
Battery Charger System Energy Efficiency
Regulation and Voluntary Labeling • Ecos
The Benefits of Active Battery Management Verses
Passive Monitoring • All Points Consulting, LLC
Encell Technology, Inc.
Online State of Health Estimation of Automotive LiIon Batteries in HEV/EV Applications • KPIT
Cummins Infosystems Limited
IEEE 1725 and IEEE 1625 Certification Programs
Simulating the Usage and Lifetime of Batteries
Grid Energy Storage Applications: Market
Opportunities and Policy • New York Battery and
Energy Storage Technology Consortium, Inc.
Analytical Methods for Monitoring Raw Materials
For Battery Manufacturing Production Control
Evans Analytical Group
Battery Management for Tablet Applications
Texas Instruments, Inc.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)
Certification • Intertek
The Importance of Binder Selection on Li-Ion Cell
Performance • Zeon Chemicals, L.P.
Battery Charging Technology in Niche Markets
Charles Marine & Industrial Group
Manufacturing Safer and More Efficient Li-Ion
Rechargeable Cells and Battery Systems
International Battery, Inc.
A Balancing Act: Safely & Reliably Powering
Medical and Other Devices • Palladium Energy
Additional Sessions and Descriptions are Available Online at www.BatteryPowerOnline.com
Platinum Sponsor
Gold Sponsor
Silver Sponsor
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New Products •
GS Yuasa Lithium Power Releases LIM50E Series of
Lithium-Ion Battery Modules
GS Yuasa Lithium Power, Inc. has released two new lithium
ion battery modules, the LIM50E-7G and the LIM50E-8G.
This new line of battery modules provides a new level of
value to customers in need of energy storage solutions that offer high energy density and long service life. LIM50E module
applications include utility grid ancillary support, community
energy storage, industrial electric vehicles, telecommunications
back-up power and others. The LIM50E modules features high
energy density and integrated battery management electronics.
Saft Nife’s Maintenance-Free Uptimax Battery for
Stationary Power Backup Applications
Saft Nife ME Ltd. has launched its new generation maintenance-free Uptimax battery optimized for stationary power
backup applications in the oil and gas, utility and electricity industries. The main advantage of the nickel-based Uptimax is that
it doesn’t need topping off with water throughout service life.
Advantages of the new generation Uptimax include better chargeability at elevated temperatures, so that well over 90
percent capacity is available after a single 15-hour charge at
40°C. Performance has also been improved by up to 10 percent,
according to the relevant discharge time. This enables customers
to benefit from using a size of battery more closely optimized to
suit their specific application, reducing the initial purchase cost
in addition to the savings resulting from the reduced maintenance requirements throughout the life of the battery.
Renata Batteries Develops Zero Percent Mercury
Button Cells in Advance of New Regulations
To help OEMs of portable medical and consumer electronic
devices remain compliant with new laws banning the use of
mercury in button cell batteries, the Renata Batteries division of
The Swatch Group has developed a line of 0 percent mercury
silver oxide batteries. These batteries are used to power a wide
range of devices, such as watches, medical devices including
insulin pumps, glucose
meters, surgical tools,
heart rate monitors,
computer battery backup, RFID tags, keyless
remotes, flashlights, laser pointers, children’s
toys and talking books.
On July 1, 2011,
Battery Power • May/June
ICs & Semiconductors
laws enacted by the states of Connecticut, Rhode Island and
Maine will become effective, making it illegal to sell devices
powered by battery button cells that contain mercury, including
all 1.4 V zinc-air and 1.5 V alkaline batteries, as well as 1.55 V
silver-oxide batteries. However, the Maine law initially limits
the ban to five silver-oxide battery types until January 2015,
when all button cell batteries must be mercury-free. NEMA has
identified these five types as representing 80 percent of the mercury used in silver-oxide batteries. Some 30 other states have
also enacted or are proposing regulations addressing the use of
mercury in batteries, meaning that OEMs must use 0 percent
mercury button cells in their products if they are to be sold in
the regulated states.
NexSys Battery and Charger System Provides
Enhanced Cycling Performance and Rapid Recharging
The EnerSys NexSys battery and charger system provides
a flexible, virtually maintenance-free energy solution for small
traction applications. Unlike conventional lead-acid batteries,
NexSys batteries offer increased cycling performance and high
rate recharging capability, contributing to longer service life and
increased machine availability.
NexSys batteries feature positive and negative plates with
low impedance, high
corrosion resistant
thin-plate grids manufactured from pure lead
in a unique process. The
NexSys battery offers
high energy throughput
up to three times the
battery capacity per 24
hours, as well as an increased maintenance-free
life cycle of up to 1,200
cycles at 60 percent depth of discharge (DOD). Additionally,
the batteries feature a microporous glass mat separator with high
electrolyte absorption and stability to enhance cyclic capability.
Complementing its virtually maintenance-free characteristics, the EnerSys NexSys battery withstands shock and vibration while providing eco-friendly performance. Its minimum
gassing makes it well suited for use in shops, public areas and
sensitive manufacturing areas. Additionally, NexSys batteries
typically occupy up to 30 percent less space than the equivalent lead calcium batteries due to the thin plate design’s high
energy density properties. NexSys batteries have a long shelf
life, up to two years at 77°F.
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National Semiconductor Introduces SolarMagic ICs
For Microinverter, Power Optimizer and Charge
Controller Systems
National Semiconductor Corp. has introduced ten new
SolarMagic integrated circuits (ICs), the first in a series developed to reduce
cost, improve
reliability and
simplify design of
photovoltaic (PV)
systems. Ranging
from the industry’s
first full-bridge
gate driver to a micropower voltage
regulator, the ICs
are well-suited for
a variety of photovoltaic electronic applications including those
found in microinverters, power optimizers, charge controllers
and panel safety systems.
The SolarMagic ICs are developed to meet photovoltaic
renewable energy-grade qualification requirements. Each IC
is engineered specifically for demanding rooftop environments
that range from extreme cold to severe heat, and each passes
rigorous testing with enhanced reliability specific to solar
requirements. In addition, the ICs ensure long-term operation,
developed to meet and exceed the 25-year life expectancy of
photovoltaic modules.
Texas Instruments Step-Down Regulators Deliver High
Power Density and Efficiency in a Small Package
Texas Instruments, Inc. (TI) has introduced efficient stepdown regulators with integrated FETs to support up to 25 A for
telecommunications, networking and other applications. The
easy-to-use, 25 A, 14 V, TPS56221 synchronous Swift switcher
with integrated NexFET MOSFETs achieves a power density
greater than 200 W/in3 with greater than 90 percent efficiency at
high loads from a 12 V input to a 1.3 V output, delivering up to
25 A of continuous output current at 500 kHz switching frequency. The TPS56121 15 A, 14 V synchronous switcher is three
percent more efficient at 5 V input to 1.2 V output and switches
twice as fast as similar 15 A products in the market.
The TPS56221 and TPS56121 come in a thermally enhanced
5 mm by 6 mm QFN package, and achieve a total solution size
of 315 mm2. Both devices are the first switchers to integrate TI’s
NexFET technology, providing increased thermal performance,
protection, efficiency and reliability. The switchers offer three
selectable frequencies of 300 kHz, 500 kHz and 1 MHz for design flexibility and support input voltages of 4.5 V to 14 V.
The TPS56221 and TPS56121 come in an easy-to-solder,
22-pin, 5 mm by 6 mm QFN package with a single PowerPad
thermal pad. Suggested resale pricing for the TPS56221 is $5.25
and the TPS56121 is $4.35 in 1,000-unit quantities.
Complete Energy Measurement SoC Provides More
Management and Control of AC/DC Power Supplies in
Servers and Data Communication Equipment
Maxim Integrated Products has launched a new Teridian/Maxim energy-measurement system on chip (SoC), the
78M6613. The 78M6613 is a SoC
energy-measurement solution
for AC/DC power supplies that
brings a higher level of management and control to servers and
other equipment in data centers.
The 78M6613 is a highly
integrated, single-phase, fully
self-contained AC power-measurement and monitoring SoC
integrated circuit with embedded
AC load monitoring and control
firmware. The 32-pin QFN package is well suited for real-estatelimited designs such as power supplies, where power density
and space are a premium. The 78M6613 features the full range
of AC power diagnostics including power, power factor, voltage
current, voltage sag and dip. On-chip flash and a microcontroller
(MCU) enable the storage of calibration coefficients and eliminate the need for external components.
Second Generation High Voltage Battery Stack
Monitor Advances Hybrid/Electric Vehicle Battery
Management Systems
Linear Technology has introduced the LTC6803, a second
generation high voltage battery monitor for hybrid/electric vehicle (HEVs), electric vehicles (EVs) and other high voltage, high
performance battery systems. The LTC6803 is a complete battery measuring IC that
includes a 12-bit ADC,
a precision voltage reference, a high voltage
input multiplexer and
a serial interface. Each
LTC6803 can measure
up to 12 individual battery cells in series. The
device’s proprietary
design enables multiple
LTC6803s to be stacked in series without optocouplers or isolators, permitting precision voltage monitoring of every cell in
long strings of series-connected batteries.
The maximum total measurement error of the LTC6803 is
guaranteed to be less than 0.25 percent from -40°C to 125°C.
The LTC6803 offers an extended cell measurement range from
-300 mV to 5 V, enabling the LTC6803 to monitor a wide range
of battery chemistries, as well as supercapacitors. Each cell is
monitored for undervoltage and overvoltage conditions, and an
associated MOSFET is available to discharge overcharged cells.
Added functionality is provided by an onboard 5 V regulator,
temperature sensor, GPIO lines and thermistor inputs.
May/June • Battery Power
New Products • Components
Flux Power Introduces Lithium Battery Upgrade Kit
For Polaris Ranger EV
Flux Power has introduced a
lithium battery upgrade kit for
the EV ATV market that lasts
up to 10 years or up to 3,000
cycles. This Flux Power kit is
targeted at customers wanting
better performance from their
existing Polaris Ranger EV
ATVs. The kit fits in the existing space while saving weight,
improving performance and safety. The 48 V kit comes in 8, 9.6,
16, and 19.2 KWh versions.
The kit comes with all necessary hardware while remaining compatible with the Polaris on-board charger. Included are
batteries with integrated BMS (battery management system),
communication cables, CAN current sensor, state of charge indicator, and all mechanical hardware for battery hold down. Each
12 V module is monitored by Flux Power’s BMS and charging
is regulated by an advanced CAN current sensor to assure a
maintenance free long-life.
EnerSys Wi-iQ Battery Monitoring System Collects
Performance Data for Peak Battery Performance
The EnerSys Wi-iQ battery monitoring system collects
a range of battery operating data including amp hours (AH)
charged and discharged, temperature
voltage and electrolyte level. This data
can be uploaded via
wireless communication to a computer
containing the Wi-iQ
Reporting Suite
analytical software, which provides quick-glance exception
reporting as well as easy to use battery operation and condition
reports. Ensuring proper charging and discharging of the battery
fleet will increase available battery capacity and reduce battery
replacement costs.
Among the Wi-iQ battery monitoring system’s features are
universal DC cable sizing, for all battery types with up to 4/0
cable sizes; a temperature warning, which enables the monitoring of high-temperature risks; and voltage imbalance notification, which indicates possible trouble with cells before battery
failure occurs. The device captures and records up to 2,555
cycles of battery data and provides wireless data downloading to
a personal computer within a range of 100 feet.
BASF Introduces High Purity HED Cathode Materials
BASF has released its high purity HED cathode materials,
plastic solutions and novel materials as components for electrolytes for the lithium-ion battery market.
Due to a high degree of purity and product characteristics,
Battery Power • May/June
Charging & Testing
BASF’s HED cathode materials are well-suited for the evolving
requirements of batteries in automotive drivetrains. For example, recent testing showed HED NCM-111 cathode material
had less chromium and iron impurities than comparable products. Lower metal impurity levels can result in longer cycle and
calendar lifetimes.
BASF is one of only two licensed cathode suppliers of the
US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory-patented NCM (Nickel Cobalt Manganese) cathode materials,
which employ a unique combination of lithium and manganeserich mixed metal oxides. The license covers the broadest scope
of NCM chemistry, which can be used in lithium-ion batteries.
Cole Hersee Introduces the FlexMod Voltage Sensing
Relay and Timer
Cole Hersee has introduced the voltage sensing relay and
timer (VSRT). The FlexMod VSRT conserves the starting power
of a vehicle battery by shutting off auxiliary loads when either
starting voltage drops to a
low level, or a pre-set timer
times out.
Excessive battery discharge is a problem that is
sometimes unavoidable,
particularly for law enforcement and emergency vehicles.
When a vehicle is left idling
with active warning lights
and other onboard loads, a battery deficit can still arise and the
emergency vehicle cannot be re-started.
Cole Hersee utilizes solid state technology in the creation of
the FlexMod VSRT, providing long life and zero maintenance
or replacement. Its service life exceeds 1,000,000 on/off cycles,
operating for the entire lifetime of the vehicle. This device has
a rating of 10 A, and can handle many loads directly or drive a
relay or solenoid for higher amperages. Overvoltage and overcurrent protective measures are also included, providing extra
levels of assurance.
Battery Pack and Five-Bay Battery Charger System
For Mobile Handheld Equipment
GlobTek’s five-bay lithium-ion battery chargers and cradles
meet IEC 60950 (ITE), UL 1310 (Class 2), IEC 60601-1
(medical) international EMC standards. The charger charges
battery in three phases: conditioning, constant current and
constant voltage.
Charge is terminated based on minimum current level and a
programmable charge timer provides a safety backup for charge
termination. The design also incorporates an MCU for battery
identification, charge status display and battery temperature
monitoring using HDQ communication protocol from BQ27000
battery fuel gauge IC embedded inside the battery pack.
Each bay can provide bulk charge current up to 750 mA
at 4.2 V maximum voltage for off-the-shelf GlobTek 2GL523450-G or customer designed battery packs. Modified, custom
and higher wattage designs adaptable to customer battery packs
or alternate specifications are also available.
Portable Fuel Cell Charger Provides Instant
Power Anywhere
PowerTrekk, from myFC, is a pocket size, lightweight
charger for users who spend time away from the electricity
grid. Providing instant power anywhere, PowerTrekk uses fuel
cell technology that cleanly and efficiently converts hydrogen
into electricity.
PowerTrekk is a
two-in-one solution that
is both a portable battery
pack and fuel cell. The
portable battery pack can
be operated on its own as
a ready source of power
or storage buffer for the
fuel cell. The fuel cell
enables instant charging
from a depleted battery state without ever needing a wall charge.
Users insert a fuel pack and add water. To charge portable devices, users connect a device to Power Trekk via a USB port.
LG Mobile Phones Introduces Wireless
Charging Solution
LG Mobile Phones has released the LG Wireless Charging
Pad (WCP-700). With inductive coils built into the battery doors
and internal contacts, advanced wireless charging technology
allows for a cord-free power source, alleviating the need for
external connections that limit the phones usability.
The LG Wireless Charging Pad features audible and tactile
feedback when a phone is placed on the pad, as well as multicolored LED lights to indicate charging status.
Low Profile PCB Holders for 18650 Li-Ion Batteries
A new series of low profile, SMT and THM lithium-ion holders for 18650 batteries has been released by Keystone Electronics Corp. to meet increased
demands for higher energy, light
weight, rechargeable batteries
for new generations of electronic products.
These compact holders feature low profile, heat resistant
Nylon housings and Gold-plated Phosphor Bronze contacts.
They are well suited for use with many consumer and industrial
electronic products. The design accommodates lead free solder
and traditional reflow processes and accepts all major manufacturers’ of 18650 batteries.
May/June • Battery Power
Industry News
New Products • Power Supplies & Conversion
650 Watt AC-DC Single Output 1U Low Profile Power
Supply, Active PFC, 90 to 264 VAC
Power Sources Unlimited, Inc. has released the Cotek AK650 series of single output 650 W low profile AC-DC power
supplies. The AK-650 series is a family of high performance 1U
profile fan cooled AC-DC power supplies.
Measuring 9.80 inches by 5.00 inches by 1.61 inches, the
single output AK-650 series has a universal active PFC 90 to 264
VAC input, and output voltages of 5.0, 12, 15, 24, 24, 27 or 48
VDC. Units feature programmable output voltage and current.
Additional features include intelligent LED indicators, forced
current sharing at parallel operation, power OK signal, remote
on-off, remote sense. Protections include OVP, OLP, OTP, SCP
and fan failure. CE, TUV, UL approved and comes with a three
year warranty.
TMH Series 40 Watt DC/DC Converters
ConTech, a Division of Calex, has released the TMH series
of DC/DC converters. The TMH series offers up to 40 watts of
fully regulated output power with an industry standard 2 inch by
1 inch footprint. The series offers a 2:1 input range with nominal
input voltages of 12 VDC, 24 VDC, and 48 VDC. Single outputs
offered are 3.3, 5, 12 and 15 VDC. Dual outputs are +/-12 and
+/-15 VDC.
The TMH series operates with efficiencies as high as 92 percent. Features include remote on/off, output trim and short circuit
Battery Power • May/June
protection. The operating ambient temperature
range of the TMH is
-40°C to 55°C with no
de-rating. The non derated temperature range
can be extended to 65°C
ambient with an optional
heat sink. The unit is
encapsulated with a thermally conductive potting compound in a
six-sided metal case for improved thermal performance in still air
environments. The TMH series is RoHS compliant.
FBW Series Wide Input Range 400 Watt
DC/DC Converter
Calex Mfg. Co., Inc. has released the 400 watt FBW DC/
DC converter series. The FBW series offers an industry first, a
9 to 36 VDC and 18 to 75 VDC input range in a 4.6 inch by 2.4
inch by 0.55 inch high package. The wide input range provides a
solution for industrial and military COTS applications that have
a wide input voltage requirement. Examples include mobile 12
and 24 V battery applications. The FBW is housed in a metal
case and encapsulated with a thermally conductive potting compound for improved thermal characteristics as well as protection
against the environment. Efficiencies run as high as 93 percent reducing the need for heatsinking or forced air. Threaded
through holes are provided in the case for the attachment of a
heatsink for extended temperature applications. The
case operating temperature
of the FBW is -40°C to
The output voltages
available are 5, 12, 24, 28
and 48 VDC. The FBW offers output voltage remote
sense and trim. The output
voltage trim range is -25
to 10 percent. All models are isolated input to output and from
the case. The input to output isolation voltage is 1,544 VDC.
The case can be grounded to either the input or output ground,
depending on system requirements. The FBW also offers on/
off for minimal current drain during system down-time. Options include positive on/off logic and negative on/off logic. All
models include input undervoltage lockout and input reverse
voltage protection. On the output, protection is provided through
overvoltage protection, pulse-by-pulse current limiting and
overcurrent protection. Thermal protection is provide through
thermal overtemperature shutdown with auto restart. Units are
available with both RoHS and non-RoHS construction.
Wildcat Discovery Technologies Discloses Advances
In Rechargeable Battery Materials Technology
Fundamental advances in rechargeable battery technology
disclosed by Wildcat Discovery Technologies could result in
battery performance improvements of 25 to 65 percent or more
in electric cars, portable electronics, military, medical devices
and other demanding applications.
Wildcat has developed a pair of new materials that set new
standards for the rechargeable battery industry, by providing
energy density of more than 675 Wh/kg while operating in full
cells at 5 volts.
Wildcat’s EM1, a novel 5 V electrolyte formulation, and
CM1, a new high voltage cathode material, have been shown to
deliver a 25 percent improvement in gravimetric energy density,
and a 61 percent improvement in volumetric energy density in
the electrode, compared with existing battery materials with
comparable attributes. Thus far, batteries made with EM1 and
CM1 have expected power and safety performance comparable
to lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), while also handling more
than 100 charge/discharge cycles in full-cell testing.
The EM1 electrolyte’s high-voltage capability is of special
interest for the automotive sector, where cell development has
been restricted by the inability of existing electrolyte formulas
to cycle at high voltages. Current EV systems based on low
voltage cells require complex and expensive pack designs and
battery management systems. EM1 enables high voltage systems
that are expected to reduce required cell quantities 30 percent to
40 percent versus competing materials such as LFP and NMC.
Fewer cells and simpler pack designs translate into substantially
lower costs for auto makers.
Wildcat is actively seeking licensees and partners for further
development and commercialization of EM1 and CM1 and successor materials.
PowerGenix and PSI Team Up to Supply Batteries for
Traffic Light Backups
PowerGenix has announced an exclusive agreement with
PSI Acquisition, LLC to supply battery cells for UP-Stealth,
an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for the traffic industry.
Starting in April,
PowerGenix NiZn
battery packs were
deployed in traffic
installations in
metropolitan areas
in the US, Canada
and Mexico.
and PSI teamed up
to bring innovation
to the battery backup traffic market. UP-Stealth can be installed
in previously unutilized space in existing traffic control cabinets,
replacing traditional lead-acid based UPS systems and eliminating the bulky, heavy external battery cabinet attached to the
primary traffic cabinet.
“PowerGenix’s NiZn rechargeable chemistry enabled us to
create a lighter, higher-performing, hazard-free and more reliable product that will make intersections safer,” said PSI Acquisition CEO Tim Hysell. “UP-Stealth allows budget challenged
traffic agencies to reduce maintenance and installation costs
while enhancing traffic safety. Since the United States alone has
over 300,000 intersections with traffic lights, we’re addressing a
sizable market opportunity. We look forward to developing additional intelligent battery backup products for the traffic industry
with PowerGenix.”
Compared to the current lead-acid standard, the PowerGenixPSI solution is about 70 percent lighter, with a much longer
service life and requires no maintenance. NiZn batteries are also
recyclable and RoHS compliant, with no toxic heavy metals,
providing an environmentally friendly alternative to lead-acid
and other battery chemistries.
European Commission Backs First Project for
Battery Switch
A consortium coordinated by Better Place and including Renault SA, Continental, Ernst & Young, TÜV Rheinland, KEMA
and five leading European institutions have announced formal
approval from the European Commission for an R&D program
to make it easier for European automobile and battery manufacturers to build electric cars with switchable batteries.
The project calls for the EASYBAT Consortium to develop
off-the-shelf automotive grade components and interfaces that
enable the auto industry to easily integrate battery switching
technology into their electric car platforms. The first large scale
application of battery switching technology will be shown by
Better Place and Renault with the commercial launch of the
Renault Fluence Z.E. in Israel and Denmark by year end.
The EASYBAT solution will consist of interfaces for switching a battery in and out of an electric car quickly and safely; the
connector interfaces between the car, the battery, the communications network and the battery cooling system; and design
specifications that meet European industry and safety standards.
The solution will be integrated and tested on fully electric vehicles to ensure it meets production-grade manufacturing criteria
and European safety standards.
Upon conclusion, EASYBAT will have a next generation,
commercially available solution for battery switch integration
components and design plans that allow for different types of
batteries, not just a single standardized battery. Car manufacturers that want to focus on proprietary battery technology can do
so and still be able to integrate their technology into a switchable battery electric car platform as envisioned by EASYBAT.
Part of the Seventh EU Framework Program (FP7), EASYBAT is a two and half year project, which is expected to run
until June 2013. The European Commission will contribute $3.1
million to fund the project.
May/June • Battery Power
Industry News
Nissan Begins Construction of Portuguese
Battery Plant
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., has begun construction of an advanced lithium-ion battery plant in Cacia, Portugal to support
the rollout of electric vehicles from the Renault-Nissan Alliance
in Europe.
The battery plant is being built on a 30,450-square meter plot
of land belonging to the Renault CACIA gearbox assembly plant
following an investment of $221 million. The facility will start
operations in December 2012 and will have a total capacity of
50,000 units a year. About 200 jobs are expected to be created
by the new plant.
“The Cacia plant will be one of three facilities in Europe
supplying batteries to electric vehicles produced by the Alliance,
starting with the 100 percent electric Nissan LEAF. Together,
the three plants will enable the Alliance to rollout electric vehicles in Europe on an unprecedented scale, bringing the world
one step closer to a zero-emission future,” said Nissan’s COO
Toshiyuki Shiga.
Last April, Nissan began construction of a battery plant in
Sunderland, United Kingdom, which will start operations in
early 2012 with an annual capacity of 60,000 units. Renault’s
battery plant in Flins, France will have a total production capacity of 100,000 units a year.
The Alliance is taking a comprehensive approach towards
the mass-marketing of electric vehicles which encompasses both
the product and the infrastructure. To date, Renault and Nissan
have entered into more than 90 partnerships with governments,
municipal authorities and companies around the world to put in
place the necessary incentives and infrastructure for the successful adoption of such vehicles.
Battery Power • May/June
Electric Vehicle Traction Batteries 2011 to 2021
International Battery and Hydro-Québec to
Collaborate on Water-Based Manufacturing
Processes for Lithium-ion Batteries
International Battery, a US manufacturer, designer and developer of large-format lithium-ion rechargeable cells, batteries and
energy storage systems (ESS), has entered into a collaboration
and license agreement with Hydro-Québec with the purpose to
further develop water-based manufacturing processes of lithiumion batteries.
Both companies believe that there are significant environmental advantages by using a water-based process in the manufacture of lithium-ion cells as well as a reduction in manufacturing costs. As part of the joint collaboration, the companies plan
to expand water-based manufacturing processes for additional
lithium chemistries.
Abstract Deadline • June 21, 2011
Research and Markets has announced the addition of the
“Electric Vehicle Traction Batteries 2011-2021” report to their
offering. This report has detailed assessments and forecasts for
all the sectors using and likely to use traction batteries. There
are chapters on heavy industrial, light industrial/commercial,
mobility for the disabled, two wheel and allied, pure electric cars,
hybrid cars, golf cars, military, marine and other.
With vehicle traction batteries it is important to look at the
whole picture. The rapidly growing market for traction batteries will exceed $55 billion in only ten years. However that
spans battery sets up to $500,000 each with great sophistication
needed for military, marine and solar aircraft use. Huge numbers
of low cost batteries are being used for e-bikes but even here
several new technologies are appearing. The largest replacement
market is for e-bikes today and the value market for replacement
batteries will not be dominated by cars when these batteries last
the life of the car, something likely to happen within ten years.
Vehicle manufacturers are often employing new battery technology first in their forklifts or e-bikes, not cars, yet there is huge
progress with car batteries as well - indeed oversupply is probable in this sector at some stage. The mix is changing too. The
second largest volume of electric vehicles being made in 2010 is
mobility aids for the disabled but in ten years time it will be hybrid cars. The market for car traction batteries will be larger than
the others but there will only be room for six or so winners in car
batteries and other suppliers and users will need to dominate their
own niches to achieve enduring growth and profits.
Advancing materials. Improving the quality of life.
Maxwell Technologies, Inc. has been awarded a $7.01 million cost-shared technology development contract by the US
Advanced Battery Consortium LLC (USABC) to develop an
advanced energy storage system for power-assist hybrid electric
vehicles (PAHEVs). USABC will provide more than $2.8 million directly to Maxwell and approximately $3.5 million in total,
including payments to technology development partners, over
the course of the 24-month program.
Maxwell will lead a team that is tasked with the development
and integration of advanced capacitor technologies to produce
an energy storage system that meets performance requirements
outlined in the USABC Lower Energy-Energy Storage System
specification for PHEVs while managing cost to the lowest
possible level. This will require technology advances in energy
and power density compared with existing capacitor systems.
Maxwell will be responsible for capacitor technology development, module technology and design, electrode formulation and
system integration. Development partners will provide low-cost,
high performance separator membrane and electrolyte specifically developed for this program.
In 2008, Portugal became the first country in Europe to partner with the Alliance for zero-emission mobility. The country
is building an extensive network of charging stations and this
summer expects to have installed 1,350 units across the nation,
including 50 quick chargers.
Materials research society
Maxwell Technologies Awarded $7.01 Million
Contract from US Advanced Battery Consortium for
Hybrid Auto Energy Storage System
Functional Metal-Oxide Nanostructures
Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Related
Material Challenges in Current
and Future Nuclear Technologies
Advanced Materials for Fuel Cells
In Situ Studies of Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Materials
Functional Nanowires and Nanotubes
Sustainable Synthesis of Nanomaterials
Advanced Materials for Solar-Fuel Generation
Functional Semiconductor Nanocrystals
and Metal-Hybrid Structures
Mobile Energy
Transport Properties in Polymer Nanocomposites II
Applications of Hierarchical 3D Structures
Self Organization and Nanoscale Pattern Formation
Organic Photovoltaic Devices and Processing
Fundamental Processes of Solar Harvesting
in Excitonic Solar Cells
Mechanical Nanofabrication, Nanopatterning,
and Nanoassembly
Safety and Toxicity Control of Nanomaterials
Photonic and Plasmonic Materials for Enhanced
Photovoltaic Performance
Materials for High-Performance Photonics
Bioelectronics—Materials, Properties,
and Applications
BioMEMS—Materials and Devices
Nanofunctional Materials, Nanostructures,
and Nanodevices for Cancer Applications
Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration
Synthetic and Biological Gels
Topological Insulator Materials
Oxide Semiconductors—
Defects, Growth, and Device Fabrication
Diamond Electronics and Biotechnology—
Fundamentals to Applications V
Compound Semiconductors for Generating,
Emitting, and Manipulating Energy
Ferroelectric and Multiferroic Materials
Magnetoelectric Composites
Compliant Electronics and Photonics
Solution Processing of Inorganic and Hybrid
Materials for Electronics and Photonics
Large-Area Processing and Patterning
for Active Optical and Electronic Devices III
Charge Generation/Transport in Organic
Semiconductor Materials
Multifunctional Polymer-based Materials
Phonons in Nanomaterials—
Theory, Experiments, and Applications
Advances in Energetic Materials Research
Cammy R. Abernathy
University of Florida
[email protected]
Paul V. Braun
University of Illinois-Urbana
[email protected]
MM Micro- and Nanoscale Processing
of Biomedical Materials
Nucleation and Growth of Biological
and Biomimetic Materials
Multiscale Mechanics of Hierarchical Materials
Three-Dimensional Tomography of Materials
Functional Imaging of Materials—
Advances in Multifrequency and Multispectral
Scanning Probe Microscopy and Analysis
Dynamics in Confined Systems
and Functional Interfaces
Properties and Processes at the Nanoscale—
Nanomechanics of Material Behavior
Microelectromechanical Systems—
Materials and Devices V
Combinatorial and High-throughput Methods
in Materials Science
Masashi Kawasaki
Tohoku University
[email protected]
Kathryn J. Wahl
Naval Research Laboratory
[email protected]
Index of Advertisers
Wind Turbine Makers Adopt Ultracapacitors to Generate Reliable,
Clean Energy
Arbin Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Hioki. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Miyachi Unitek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Brendan Andrews, Vice President of Sales and Marketing
Ioxus, Inc.
Battery Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
House of Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Pred Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Dexmet Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
International Rolling Mills. . . . . . . . . . . . 15
UL International Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
dSpace North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Maccor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Cleantech energy is attractive for numerous reasons. Environmental considerations, compounded by the volatility of the
oil markets, have spurred recent
innovation and investment in
solar and wind power generation.
In both areas, however, manufacturers have struggled to create an
energy source that remains reliable, regardless of meteorological
happenings. If cleantech energy is
to become viable in wide deployment, it must solve the problem of
efficient energy storage to bridge
any gaps in production caused by
shifts in the weather. The wind
turbine market is poised to do just
that by swapping its reliance on
batteries for smarter components:
Ultracapacitors Versus Batteries
Ultracapacitors offer high energy density and power. When
used in conjunction with traditional batteries, ultracaps increase
the overall power density of an energy source and relieve the
typical strains on batteries that can limit their life cycles. Unlike
batteries, this component has no
plating or chemical reactions to
introduce wear. Therefore, ultracapacitors can complete millions
of charge and discharge cycles
with limited degradation. Any
performance fade in the devices
are predictable and easily monitored so that the end of application life is predicted. While the
replacement period for batteries
is between two and four years,
the expectation for ultracapacitor
lifespan is more than a decade.
This difference in lifespan is
Ioxus article continued on page 30
Precision Expanded
Metals & Polymers
9th International Energy Conversion
Engineering Conference (IECEC)
Expanded Metals and Polymers
Engineered To Help You Build Superior Batteries
From The Inside Out
Government, Academia, and Industry
working together toward clean energy.
Visit the Conference Web site for the
Full Agenda, Updates, and Special
Events, or to Register!
Battery Power • May/June
31 July–3 August 2011
San Diego Convention Center
San Diego, California
(203) 294-4440
May/June • Battery Power
Power Quality Analyzer
no small matter when
it comes to wind
turbines. Beyond
the cost of replacing
batteries, swapping
out components can
be a dangerous task
depending on the
location and status of
individual turbines.
The less often operators need to perform
these tasks, the better.
With batteries, temperature extremes can significantly affect
lifespan. Whereas ultracapacitors operate optimally at a temperature range between -40°C and 65°C, batteries function best
on a modest spectrum of -20°C to 40°C. When batteries have to
operate at the extremes of this spectrum or beyond, they need
to be replaced even more often. There is a staggering difference
between these two components in terms of cycling capability, as
well. The battery can offer 10,000 to 50,000 cycles in comparison to an ultracapacitors’s million-plus cycles.
Perhaps most importantly, batteries do a poor job of delivering the frequent, short power boosts wind turbines need to
make rapid rotor blade adjustments and create electricity. The
pitch of a wind turbine’s three rotor blades can be adjusted to
respond to current conditions and maximize the elements to
create clean energy. However, these adjustments create waste,
since the energy storage systems frequently used are sized to
meet the highest possible power demands, even if those rates
only occur briefly and sporadically. Ultracapacitors solve that
problem, since they are specifically designed to deliver high
power bursts and energy recapture.
On price, too, ultracapacitors beat batteries. During the past
10 years, the price of these components has dropped by 99
percent, from $5,000 for a 3,000 Farad ultracapacitor to $50. In
comparison, the cost of a battery during the same time period
has fallen 30 to 40 percent.
For many of the same reasons why the wind turbine market
is picking up after several flat years, the manufacturers who supply this space are making changes to their energy storage strategies. Estimates for new installed capacity through 2015 suggest
a rebound in growth. If this new generation of wind turbines is
to fulfill the promises of cleantech power generation, their makers must solve the problem of efficient, reliable energy storage.
Ultracapacitors deliver that solution.
Today’s wind turbines offer pitch control for each of three
blades, ensuring optimum positioning for efficient use of wind
speed for both performance and safety. That pitch control is
derived either mechanically or electrically, but electrical control
systems replace mechanical movements with more reliable
electrical systems. However, when electrical control systems
rely on battery-based backup systems, the potential maintenance
advantage over hydraulic systems is not necessarily realized.
For this reason, designs for backup in the past few years have
included ultracapacitors rather than batteries.
Electrical pitch controlled systems have certainly won the
favor of the market; current estimates show that 60 percent of
newly installed turbine systems are electrical pitch controlled
systems. This share should continue to expand as more new
turbine developments focus on electrical-based systems enabled
by ultracapacitors.
Ultracapacitors are in use in 14,000 turbine installations,
where they are solving the peak-power and storage problems that
once limited the market. Ultracapacitor’s offer advantages over
batteries, including lifecycle length, temperature tolerance, reliability, cost and operational safety. By solving many of the problems battery-powered energy storage represented to the market,
ultracapacitors are helping wind turbine manufacturers harness
the elements to create clean, green, cost-effective energy.
Brendan Andrews is the vice president of sales and marketing
at Ioxus, Inc. He is responsible for the leadership and coordination of Ioxus’ sales and marketing functions and for educating
the global market regarding existing and future ultracapacitor
technologies. For more information, please contact Ioxus, Inc.
at www.ioxus.com.
6-10 - Advanced Automotive Battery Conference Europe,
Mainz, Germany
20-21 - Battery Power 2011, Nashville, Tenn.
Battery Power • May/June
• Demand kWh
• Load Changes (graph display)
• Transient voltage/Inrush current
Digital MΩ HiTester
Efficient Insulation Measurement
• 125 V/40 M, 250 V/2000 M,
500 V/2000 M, 1000 V/4000 M
• Backlit Digital Display
• Built-in memory
• Auto discharge
Digital MΩ HiTester
Insulation Resistance Tester
• 250 V DC/500 V DC/1000 V DC
• Comparator function
• AC Voltage up to 750V
• Built-in safety cover
• Auto discharge
High Voltage HiTester
9-13- INTELEC 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Battery HiTester
• 5KV Compact Performance
• Test Voltage 250V to 5kV
• Measure insulation of high voltage
equipment up to 5T Ω
• Auto Calculate & Display PI and DAR
• Data Storage & USB Interface
starting at
60 VDC
Betwee m
Termina n
Designed for
Send Calendar of Event listings to Shannon Given at [email protected]
• Active/Reactive Energy
Calendar of Events
7-10 - LABT’2011: 8th International Conference on LeadAcid Batteries, Albena, Bulgaria
• Power & Power Factor
Expanding Wind Turbine Market Calls for Better
Energy Storage
6 C O R P O R AT E D R I V E • C R A N B U R Y, N E W J E R S E Y
P H O N E : 6 0 9 . 4 0 9 . 9 1 0 9 • FA X : 6 0 9 . 4 0 9 . 9 1 0 8
w w w. h i o k i u s a . c o m
Simultaneous high-speed testing of the internal
resistance and voltage of small secondary batteries
The perfect battery tester for the production line
High speed and reliable battery inspection
High precision accuracy
Choice of PC interfaces for full remote operation
your first choice
for battery test
and certification
assuring safety and conformity
for global market access
When it comes to world-class and reliable battery certification services, it has to be
UL. Our dedicated R&D team has decades of experience in identifying hazards,
developing test methods and setting widely recognized standards for the industry.
UL is accredited by IECEE as CBTL and by CTIA as CATL and can make access to
global markets straightforward and seamless. With UL’s Global Market Access
Services, your battery products only need to go through one comprehensive set of
tests to obtain all relevant national certifications, including the UL Mark for the North
American market, as well as the newly introduced UL-EU Mark for the European
market. Reduce your testing efforts and sample costs by combining various UL
services including UL / IEC requirements and UN transportation testing.
To learn more about our services and offers for you, please contact:
T:: 877.854.3577
E:: [email protected]
Copyright 2011 Underwriters Laboratories Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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