CHAPTER 0 Introduction to the TI-83 Plus and TI

CHAPTER 0 Introduction to the TI-83 Plus and TI
CHAPTER
0
Introduction to the TI-83 Plus
and TI-84 Plus
Calculator Note 0A: Basics
Keyboard
Each key on the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus accesses up to three objects,
operations, or menus. The primary object, operation, or menu is written
on the key. Above each key are other objects, operations, and menus,
written in yellow or blue (yellow on the TI-83 Plus, blue on the TI-84 Plus)
or green.
Press the yellow or blue 2ND key before any other key to access the object,
operation, or menu that is written in yellow or blue above the respective key.
For example, to access the List menu, press 2ND followed by Ö. Because the
2nd command for the Ö key is LIST, these Calculator Notes will refer to
these keystrokes as 2ND LIST. That is, the command above the key will be set
in brackets, [ ].
Press the green É key before any other key to access the object or operation
that is written in green above the respective key. In general, É is used to type
letters, double quotation marks, spaces, question marks, and colons. For example,
to type the letter E, press É followed by ò, which will be denoted as É
E in these Calculator Notes.
Menus
Objects and operations that are not written on the keyboard can usually be found
within menus. Many menus, such as the List menu, have multiple submenus.
Use the left and right arrow keys to move among submenus. Use the up and
down arrow keys to select an item from the menu, or press the number or letter
associated with the item. For example, to select the median( function, press 2ND
LIST; arrow right to the MATH submenu; and arrow down to 4:median( and press
Õ, or simply press ∂.
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
1
Calculator Note 0A (continued)
Home Screen
2ND [QUIT]
The Home screen is where you’ll do most of your calculations. You access the
Home screen from any other screen by pressing 2ND QUIT. This screen shows a
calculation on the Home screen.
Mode Screen
z
The Mode screen is where you set operating modes for the calculator. You
access the Mode screen by pressing z. Among the settings you can change
are the numeric notation, the number of decimal places displayed, the unit
of angle measurements, and several graphing modes. These Calculator Notes
generally refer to these settings as “modes.” For example, the next screen shows
the calculator in Normal mode, Radian mode, Function mode, Connected
mode, Sequential mode, Real mode, and Full mode. It also shows the number
of decimal places as floating. For a statistics course, it will be most beneficial
for the calculator to be set in Function mode (FUNC) and Connected mode
(CONNECTED). Alternate settings will be discussed when necessary. The TI-84
Plus includes the time and date, which can be set from the Mode screen.
Calculator Note 0B: Lists
The TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus use lists to store and manipulate sets of data. The
calculators have six default lists, L1 through L 6. Other lists can be named and
created. To use lists L1 through L 6 on the Home screen, press 2ND L1 through 2ND
L 6. To see and use all lists, including user-created lists, press 2ND LIST and look
at the NAMES submenu.
Creating Other Lists
Lists other than lists L1 through L 6 can be named and created by following
these steps.
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Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Calculator Note 0B (continued)
a. Press Ö and select 1:Edit from the EDIT menu to enter the List Editor screen.
b. Arrow up and highlight the name of a list.
c. To insert the new list before any preexisting list, press insert, 2ND INS. To
place the new list after all preexisting lists, arrow right past the last list.
d. Enter the name of your list, for example, TIME . Press Õ to accept the new
list name.
e. Arrow down and begin entering data.
The new list, TIME , is now listed under the NAMES submenu when you
press 2ND LIST.
Manipulating the List Editor Screen
The default List Editor screen displays lists L1 through L 6. To change it to any
combination of lists, press Ö and select 5:SetUpEditor from the EDIT menu.
Enter the names of the desired lists, separated by commas. (Press 2ND LIST and
use the NAMES submenu to select user-defined lists.) Then press Õ. The List
Editor screen will now contain only the lists specified.
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
3
Calculator Note 0B (continued)
To return to the default, lists L1 through L 6, execute the SetUpEditor command
with no lists specified.
Entering Data into Lists
There are two ways to enter data into lists.
1. Enter the elements into the Home screen, separated by commas and enclosed in
braces. Then press the store key ( ø), enter the name of the list, and press Õ.
2. Alternatively, press Ö and select 1:Edit from the EDIT menu, and enter the
elements directly into the List Editor screen. Place the cursor in the desired
cell, type the value, and press Õ.
Clearing a List of Its Elements
There are three ways to clear lists.
1. Press Ö, select 4:ClrList from the EDIT menu, enter the names of the lists,
separated by commas, and press Õ. For example, to clear list L1, enter
ClrList L1 into the Home screen.
2. Alternatively, enter the List Editor screen, arrow up and left or right to
highlight the name of the list, and press ë Õ.
3. To clear all lists, press
Õ Õ.
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Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
2ND
CATALOG, scroll down to ClrAllLists, and press
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Calculator Note 0B (continued)
List Submenus
2ND [LIST]
When you press 2ND LIST, there are three major menus used for manipulating
lists: list names (NAMES), list operations (OPS), and mathematical functions
(MATH).
While you will use several of these functions for a statistics course, you do not
need all of them. Pertinent functions will be discussed in more detail when
appropriate.
Calculator Note 0C: Graphing
Here are some of the basic commands that apply to all graphing. In later
Calculator Notes, you’ll learn much more about your calculator’s graphing
capabilities.
Window Settings
p
The Window screen controls the section of the rectangular coordinate system
that is viewed when a function plot or a statistical plot is graphed. Press p
and enter these values:
Xmin the minimum x-value you want to display
Xmax the maximum x-value you want to display
Xscl the number of units between tick marks on the x-axis
Ymin the minimum y-value you want to display
Ymax the maximum y-value you want to display
Yscl the number of units between tick marks on the y-axis
Xres 1
In this book, window settings for a graph are listed in the form [Xmin, Xmax, Xscl,
Ymin, Ymax, Yscl]. For example, the window settings shown in the previous screen
would be listed as [9.4, 9.4, 1, 6.2, 6.2, 1].
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
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Calculator Note 0C (continued)
Zoom Commands
q
Zoom commands allow you to zoom in or out or to set the Window screen to
preset settings. You access the Zoom menu by pressing q.
There are three zoom commands that allow you to zoom in and out: 1:ZBox,
2:Zoom In, and 3:Zoom Out.
1:ZBox lets you draw a box around the region of interest. When you press Õ,
this region fills the screen.
[10, 10, 1, 10, 10, 1]
[10, 10, 1, 10, 10, 1]
[2.77, 2.55, 1, 3.87, 1.61, 1]
2:Zoom In lets you position the cursor at a center point for the zoom. When you
press Õ, the graph will be magnified about the center by factors defined by
XFact and YFact. To change the factors, press q, arrow to Memory, and select
4:SetFactors.
[10, 10, 1, 10, 10, 1]
[2.5, 2.5, 1, 2.5, 2.5, 1]
3:Zoom Out behaves similarly to Zoom In, but the graph reduces about the center
by factors defined by XFact and YFact.
There are three preset window settings: 4:ZDecimal, 6:ZStandard, and 7:ZTrig.
4:ZDecimal uses the settings [4.7, 4.7, 1, 3.1, 3.1, 1]. In this setting, every
pixel is 0.1 unit. Windows that have convenient pixel coordinates are often
called “friendly” windows.
6:ZStandard uses [10, 10, 1, 10, 10, 1].
7:ZTrig uses a window that is approximately [2␲, 2␲, ␲/2, 4, 4, 1].
Lastly, there are four zoom commands that reformat the window settings to
match specific criteria: 5:ZSquare, 8:ZInteger, 9:ZoomStat, and 0:ZoomFit.
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Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Calculator Note 0C (continued)
5:ZSquare adjusts either Xmin and Xmax or Ymin and Ymax such that the
coordinate axes are square—that is, units in the horizontal and vertical
direction are the same size.
[10, 10, 1, 10, 10, 1]
[15.16, 15.16, 1, 10, 10, 1]
8:ZInteger adjusts the window settings such that the cursor moves in integer
increments.
[10, 10, 1, 10, 10, 1]
[47, 47, 10, 31, 31, 10]
9:ZoomStat is of particular interest for a statistics course. It adjusts the window
settings to contain the data used for all active statistical plots. (Calculator Note
0E will provide more information about defining statistical plots.)
0:ZoomFit adjusts Ymin and Ymax to include the minimum and maximum within
the current domain of all active function plots. It does not change Xmin or Xmax.
Tracing
r
Pressing r takes you to the Graph screen and gives you a trace cursor on the
function plot or statistical plot. The plot being traced is shown in the upper-left
corner, and the approximate coordinates of the trace point are shown at the
bottom of the screen. Pressing the right or left arrow keys moves the trace cursor
along the plot. If multiple plots are turned on, pressing the up or down arrow
keys moves the trace cursor to another plot.
[9.4, 9.4, 1, 6.2, 6.2, 1]
Calculator Note 0D: Function Plots
o
In Function mode, the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus can graph up to ten
rectangular functions, Y1 through Y0. To enter a function, press o and enter the
equation in y form. When you enter a new function, the symbol becomes
highlighted, which means it will graph when you press s. You can turn
off the graph of a function without clearing it from the Y= screen by arrowing
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
7
Calculator Note 0D (continued)
left to its symbol and pressing Õ. When the symbol is not highlighted,
the equation is turned off and will not graph. In this screen, only Y1 is
turned on.
Graph Styles
The calculator provides seven graphing styles: thin line, thick line, shade above,
shade below, ball with path, ball without path, and dotted line. These styles are
selected by arrowing left to the segment beside each Y and pressing Õ to
cycle through the styles. The previous screen shows all seven styles selected for
functions Y1 through Y7, respectively.
In Connected mode, the default style is the thin line. In Dot mode, the default is
the dotted line. You can change this mode setting by pressing z and changing
the fifth line. It is recommended, however, that you leave the calculator in
Connected mode.
Calculator Note 0E: Statistical Plots
2ND [STAT PLOT]
In any mode, the calculator allows you to graph up to three statistical plots, or
stat plots. Press 2ND STAT PLOT and select the number of the plot to define.
Follow these steps:
a. Select On.
b. Select one of the six plot forms: scatterplot, xyline plot, histogram, modified
boxplot with outliers, boxplot, or normal probability plot.
c. Enter the lists and frequencies to be used. The information required depends
on the type of plot. Scatterplots and xyline plots require two lists; histograms,
modified boxplots, and boxplots require one list and a number or list for
frequencies. Normal probability plots require one list and a data axis. (Note:
For plots that require frequencies, the frequencies can be entered into one of
the lists.)
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Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Calculator Note 0E (continued)
Scatterplot
Modified Boxplot
xyline Plot
Boxplot
Histogram
Normal
Probability Plot
d. For scatterplots, xyline plots, and modified boxplots, select the mark to use in
the plot. If you graph several plots at once, it is wise to use a different mark for
each plot.
e. Set a window and press s, or press q and select 9:ZoomStat from the
ZOOM menu to see the plot.
After you have a stat plot defined, you can turn it on or off from the Y= menu.
Press o and arrow up to the line of plot names; arrow left or right to select the
plot and press Õ to turn it on or off. When the plot name is highlighted, it is
turned on.
Calculator Note 0F: Statistical Menus
Ö
When you press Ö, there are three menus used for critical statistical
capabilities: EDIT, CALC , and TESTS.
The EDIT menu allows you to enter the List Editor screen in order to edit lists,
sort a list (or lists) in ascending or descending order, clear the contents of lists, or
set up the List Editor screen.
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
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Calculator Note 0F (continued)
Pertinent functions in the CALC and TESTS menus will be discussed in more
detail when appropriate.
Calculator Note 0G: Variables Menus
ê
The Variables menus allow you to reference all of the variables that the calculator
uses. For example, if you wish to reference Xmax for a graph, you can access
its current value by pressing ê , selecting 1:Window, then 2:Xmax. There are
two menus: VARS (generally single-value variables) and YVARS (equation and
function definitions that would be entered into the Y screen).
For a statistics course, the variables accessed by pressing ê and selecting
5:Statistics from the VARS menu are of particular importance and will be discussed
in more detail when appropriate. The variables are stored under five submenus.
Shown on the next page are the summary statistic variables (XY), the regression
variables (EQ), and the test variables (TEST) submenus.
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Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Calculator Note 0G (continued)
The rectangular function variables, found by pressing ê, arrowing over to
YVARS, and selecting 1:Function, are also valuable to any course. For example, to
evaluate the function stored in Y1 when x 3, enter Y1(3) into the Home screen.
Calculator Note 0H: Distribution Menus
2ND [DISTR]
When you press 2ND DISTR, there are two menus that contain a wealth of
functions regarding important statistical distributions. The distribution menu,
DISTR , contains probability density functions (pdf) and cumulative distribution
functions (cdf) for the following distributions: normal, t, chi-square, F, binomial,
Poisson, and geometric. (Note: F and Poisson distributions are not covered in
Statistics in Action.)
For discrete random variables, the pdf functions return either the probability of
X c or the distribution for all X. The cdf functions return the cumulative sum
of the probabilities between a lower bound and an upper bound.
For continuous random variables, the pdf functions provide the distribution
curve (for graphing purposes). The cdf functions return the area under the pdf
curve between a lower bound and an upper bound.
These functions will be discussed in more detail when appropriate.
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
11
Calculator Note 0H (continued)
The DRAW menu provides commands to draw distributions with shaded areas.
For example, ShadeNorm10,20,18,5 graphs a normal curve with mean 18 and
standard deviation 5 and shades the area under the curve between x-values 10
and 20. (Note: These commands do not adjust the window settings. You must
manually set the window before using these commands.)
[0, 35, 5, –0.1, 0.2, 0.1]
Calculator Note 0I: Math Menus
ç
Pressing ç gives you four menus of mathematical functions, such as cube
roots, the absolute value function, and converting rectangular coordinates to
polar coordinates. For statistics, the probability menu, PRB, contains frequently
used counting commands and random number generators. The counting
commands include permutations (nPr), combinations (nCr), and factorial (!).
The random number generators include rand, which generates random numbers
between 0 and 1; randInt, which generates a random integer within a specified
interval; randNorm, which generates a random number from a specified normal
distribution; and randBin, which generates a random integer from a specified
binomial distribution.
Calculator Note 0J: Programs
è
The TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus are programmable calculators. To run a
program, press è and choose the program name from the execute menu,
EXEC . You edit a program by choosing its name from the EDIT menu. You
can also enter a new program by arrowing over to NEW and selecting
1:Create New. Once a program exists on one calculator, it can be shared by
linking two calculators or by using Texas Instruments TI Connect computer
software.
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Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Calculator Note 0J (continued)
Deleting a Program
To delete a program, press 2ND MEM and select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del. Then select
7:Prgm. Arrow down to the name of the program and press {. The calculator
will ask you to confirm your deletion—choose 1:No or 2:Yes.
You can use 2ND [MEM] and select 2:Mem Mgmt/Del to delete other items, such as
lists, functions, and applications.
Programs in These Calculator Notes
The CD that comes with the Statistics in Action Instructor’s Resource Book
contains several prewritten programs for this course. (These programs are also
available for download at www.keypress.com/keyonline or www.keymath.com.)
One such program is FREQTABL , which organizes the data in list L into a
frequency table, with values in list L2 and frequencies in list L3. Before running
the program, enter your data into list L1. Run the program by pressing è,
selecting FREQTABL from the EXEC menu, and pressing Õ.
A print version of the code is provided for each program in this book.
You can manually enter the code into the calculator, or you can use the
TI Connect software to transfer the program from the CD to the calculator.
To manually enter the program, press è, arrow over to NEW, select
1:Create New, type the program’s name, press Õ, and then enter the code.
Note that control and input/output commands, such as If, Then, Input, and
Disp, are found by pressing è while entering a new program. For more
information about the programming capabilities of the TI-83 Plus and
TI-84 Plus, including the programming code, refer to the calculator’s
Graphing Calculator Guidebook.
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
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Calculator Note 0J (continued)
Other programs are available through many sources, including the Texas
Instruments website, education.ti.com. You may want to search the Internet for
programs that could be worthwhile to your statistics course. (Note: Students
planning to take the AP Statistics Exam should not become dependent on
programs. Some programs that surpass the standard commands on the
calculator may be considered “unacceptable enhancements” and may not
be allowed during the examination.)
PROGRAM:FREQTABL
ClrHome:FnOff :PlotsOff
Disp "FREQUENCY TABLE"
Disp ""
Disp "DATA MUST BE
Disp "ENTERED INTO L1"
Disp "PRESS ENTER"
Pause
Disp ""
Disp "PROCESSING..."
ClrList L2,L3
SortA(L1)
1 N
L1(1) L2(1)
sum(L1=L2(1)) L3(1)
For(I,2,dim(L1),1)
If L1(I)=L1(I-1)
Goto A
N+1 N
L1(I) L2(N)
sum(L1=L2(N)) L3(N)
Lbl A
End
Disp ""
Disp "TABLE IN L2, L3"
Calculator Note 0K: Applications
APPS
The TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus allow you to add handheld software applications
(Apps) that increase the calculator’s functionality, in much the same way that
you add software to a computer. An App is different from a program because
you can neither edit nor modify an App. Also, an App is sometimes registered
to a specific calculator, so that you cannot share it by linking calculators.
New TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus calculators come with some Apps preinstalled.
You can view the calculator’s list of applications by pressing APPS .
A variety of sources provide Apps. Some Apps are free, whereas others require
that you purchase them. You may find a few Apps that are beneficial to your
statistics course. The Texas Instruments website, education.ti.com, is a good
place to begin searching.
Data Set App
An App that contains all the data in the Statistics in Action student book is
provided on the Instructor’s Resource CD.
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Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Calculator Note 0K (continued)
Catalog Help Application
Catalog Help (CtlgHelp) is an App that provides the necessary syntax for every
calculator command. Catalog Help is preloaded on most TI-83 Plus and TI-84
Plus calculators, and it is available free of charge through the Texas Instruments
website. This App is helpful for a statistics course because it provides the
parameters required for statistical functions.
To begin running Catalog Help, press APPS and select it from the APPLICATIONS
menu. Now, from any menu or the catalog, you can press √ to see the syntax
of any command. For example, pressing ç, arrowing to NUM, arrowing to
2:round(, and pressing √ shows that the round command requires a value and the
number of decimal places. The number of decimal places is optional, however,
because this parameter is in square brackets.
Once you know the syntax, you can press s to escape, or you can enter the
parameters on the Catalog Help screen and press r to paste. To quit using
Catalog Help, press APPS , choose CtlgHelp, and select 2:Quit CtlgHelp.
© 2008 Key Curriculum Press
Statistics in Action Calculator Notes for the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Plus
15
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