CPS Beyond the Pond? CPS: A Global

CPS Beyond the Pond? CPS: A Global
Child Passenger Safety: Across
the Pond and Beyond
Dr. Marilyn J. Bull
2012 Indiana Injury Prevention Conference
May 3, 2012
Experience with International CSS
• Adapted German car bed in
1980’s
• Served as basis for new
generations of large car beds
Experience with International CSS
Britax child restraint from Australia
Britax child restraint from Sweden
Experience with international CSS
• Presented at the 9th
annual Protection of
Children in Cars
Conference, Munich,
Germany, December
2011
• Piqued curiosity about
conventional CSS
Experience with International CSS
Experience with International CSS
Questions
• Are MVC an issue?
• How do international safety standards and
CSP practices compare to U.S.?
• Are there CPS laws?
• Is misuse an issue?
• Are there consumer resources, such as CPST,
similar to ours?
• What issues arise when traveling to other
countries?
Why International CPS Relevant to
U.S.
• Some U.S. recommendations based on
international CPS
– Top tethers
– Rear-facing longer
– Isofix
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Many CSS originated in international markets
World shrinking, markets now global
Social media
Questions about importing CSS
Canada and
U.S.
Europe
Australia
Do any of these manufacturers
sound familiar?
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Britax
Graco
Evenflo
Clek
Cybek
Recaro
Chicco
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Klippan
Maxi Cosi-Dorel
Kiddy
Peg Perego
Baby Love
Jane
Duologic
European Union
• Formed after WWII
in an effort to
secure peace
• 27 member states
• Each sovereign
nation
• Metric system
– 1 kg = 2.2. lbs
– 1cm = .39 inches
• Many different
cultures, languages
European Traffic Safety Facts
• RTIs leading cause of death and serve injuries
children 0-14 years
• RTIs cause 34% of child injury deaths annually
http://www.childsafetyeurope.org/publications/info/factsheets/childhood-road-safety.pdf
ECE R44.04
• The standard amendment number four of
United Nations (Economic Commission for
Europe) ECE R44.04, was introduced at the
end of June 2005, and all new child car seats
had to meet this standard from the end of
June 2006.
ECE R44.04 vs. FMVSS 213
ECE R44.04
FMVSS 213
Dynamic tests
Frontal 22 G force
~30 mph
Rear 14-21 G force
~18 mph
Frontal 20-25 G force
30 mph
N/A
Seat belts
Two or three point for all
product groups
Three point for
booster; two point for
all else
Chest acceleration
Max. 55 G, excl 3ms
peak
Max. 60 g. excl 3ms
peak
Head acceleration
N/A
1000 HIC
Excursion
Head: 550 mm
Head: 32 or 28 inches
Knee: 36 inches
Rear-angle deflection
N/A
70 degrees
ECE R44.04 vs. FMVSS 213
ECE R44.04
FMVSS 213
Harness
One click motion to
buckle or unbuckle
N/A
Buckle design
No partial latch;
ejector required
FMVSS 209
Flammability
250 mm/min
FMVSS 302
104 mm/min
L.A.T.C.H./ISOFIX
N/A
Required
ECE Label
1. Category of approval.
2. CSS Group by weight
3. "Y" = 5-point harness
4. European Approval
indicator
5. Country in which approval
obtained (1=Germany,
2=France, 3=Italy, etc.)
6. Approval #. First two
numbers = version ECE R 44
7. ‘control’ number for a
specific seat
www.incarsafetycentre.co.uk
Categories of Approval
• Universal
– Approved for use in all vehicles
that meet ECE R14 and R16
• Semi-universal
– Features on a CSS such as
kickstands require additional
testing to make sure they are
compatible with certain vehicle
features (e.g. storage bins); list
of vehicles in which they can be
used
• Vehicle specific
– CSS only approved for use in
specific vehicles
Categories of Approval
Legislation
• Varies by country
• Examples:
– France: car seat through 55 lbs (new laws in 2012)
– Germany and Italy: Mandatory, size appropriate
CR until age 12 or 4’9”
– Spain: Mandatory, size appropriate CR until 4’5,”
illegal to ride in the front seat under age 12
– Sweden: Mandatory, size appropriate CR until 4’5”
– UK: Mandatory, size appropriate CR until 4’5” or
age 12
“Mother found negligent for child's
injuries after using wrong car seat”
“A mother who put her three-year-old daughter in a car booster
seat has been found partly responsible for her crippling car crash
injuries by the High Court because it was the wrong seat for her
age.
She had carefully strapped Emma Hughes into the back seat to drive
home when they were involved in a head on collision.
But Mr Justice Blair ruled that, had she used the child seat with a
five-point harness which was also available in the back of the family
car, Emma's devastating head and spinal injuries would "largely
have been avoided". ..he found her negligent and 25 per cent
responsible for her daughter's injuries. “
By Victoria Ward
The Telegraph, UK
7:27PM BST 26 Apr 2012
Types of Restraints
www.britax.com
Group 0
• Birth – 10 kg ( - 22 lbs)
• About birth - 6 mo.
• Carrycots/car beds
– Not limited to children with
special health care needs
Group 0+
• Birth – 13 kg (- 28.60 lbs)
• About birth to 12 - 15
months
• Rear-facing only
• Detachable bases less
common
Pebble car seat
www.maxi-cosi.com
Group 1
• 9-18 kg (~20-40 lbs)
• About 9 months – 4
years
• Forward facing only
Group 0+ & 1
• Birth - 18 kg ( - 40 lbs)
• About birth to 4 years
• Rear and forward facing
• “Combination seat”
(similar to U.S.
convertible CSS)
Britax First Class Plus
http://www.preciouslittleone.com
Group 2-3
• 15 - 36 kg (33 – ~80 lbs)
• About 4-12 years
• Belt-positioning booster
seats/booster cushions
http://clekinc.com
• Some attach by ISOFIX
Group 1-2-3
• 9 - 36 kg (~20 - 80 lbs)
• About 9 months – 12
years
• “Combination seat”
• Converts from forward
facing harness to booster
Cosatto-zoomi-car-seat---Little Monster
www.cosatto.com
Notable Differences
• Earlier transitions
• 3-point harnesses on
some rear facing only
CSS
• Buckle release with one
action
• No chest clip
Romer Britax Trifix
www.britax.com
Notable Differences
Harness threaded differently through buckle prongs
U.S. harness routing:
European harness routing:
shoulder portion of harness hip portion of harness on top
(Please note: this is a U.S. CSS with Euro. routing)
on top
Notable differences
• Less emphasis on back
seat installation
• Front seat ok if no
active airbag
• Color coded belt paths
for rear to forward
facing CSS
www.carseat.se
Installation
2007 VW Golf
Notable Differences
• Shoulder portion of
lap/shoulder belt around
back of rear-facing CSS
• Some CSS can only be
installed with 3-point belts
• ISOFIX not mandatory yet
(will be rigid system)
Notable Differences
• Anti-rotation systems:
– 3 point-belt RF
– Foot prop rear-facing
• Foot props assist with
limiting forward motion
and tilting on FF CSS
• Foot props or top
tethers with FF ISOFix
• Issues with foot props
and some vehicle floor
storage areas
www.britax.com
www.britax.com
Rear-facing Installation with ISOFIX
and Seat Belt
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=64GKBGz2z4A&feature=fvwrel
Notable Differences
• One instruction manual
for multiple languages
• Pictorial instructions
may be in front
• Text in different
languages follows
pictogram
Sweden
• Synonymous with rearfacing longer
• Up to 55 lbs and ~4 years
Sweden
• Isaksson-Hellman I, Jakobsson L, GustafssonC, Norin
HA. Trends and effects of child restraint systems
based on Volvo’s Swedish accident database. In:
Proceedings of Child Occupant Protection 2nd
Symposium. Warrendale,PA: Society of Automotive
Engineers Inc; 1997:316
• Jakobsson L, Isaksson-Hellman I, Lundell B. Safety for
the growing child: experiences from Swedish
accident data [Abstr 05-0330]. In: Proceedings: 19th
International Technical Conference on the Enhanced
Safety of Vehicles. Washington,DC: National Highway
Traffic SafetyAdministration; 2005
Misuse
• “Fit and use” checking
clinics throughout UK
• Only 53% child restraints
installed correctly
– Common mistakes: slack
in seat belt, incorrect
seat belt routing
• Only 60% of children
buckled in child
restraints correctly
– Common mistake: loose
harnesses
Source: National Database for Child Restraint
Use, Mark Pitcher, Marianne Hynd and James
Onyekwere, TRL Limited UK
“Fit and Use” Collection Form
Misuse
• Study conducted in 2011 with the Road
Safety Authority “Check it Fits” campaign
• Total misuse 83%
– Installation: most frequent was incorrect belt
routing (32%) and slack in seat belt (21%)
– Harness: twisted straps (26%), loose harness
(22%), and wrong shoulder height (21%)
Source: Misuse: Recent Evaluations in Ireland
Mark Bennett, Britax Europe and Farid Bendjellal, Britax Group Limited
Consumer Resources
Consumer Resources
• Safe Kids Worldwide
– Italy
– Germany
– Austria
Australia
Australian Traffic Safety Facts
• Estimated 28 children < 10 years fatally injured
in car crashes; 2773 injured
Source: National Transport Commission, Australian Road Rules, 7th Amendment Package
2007, Regulatory Impact Statement
AS/NZS 1754
• Most extensive dynamic tests
– Frontal 28 G force
– Rear 14-21 G force
– Side impact 14-21 G
– Inverted impact 8-15 G
– Genital Injury Test
• Similar to ECE R44
AS/NZS 1754
• Emphasis on age not
weight (2010)
• One click release
• Booster cushions
(backless) removed
from 2010 revisions
• Shoulder height
markings in 2010
revisions
http://www.hipod.com.au
AS/NZS 1754 Label
• Referred to as “five ticks”
Legislation
• Subnational
• Generally 0-6 months rear-facing
• 6 months – 4 years rear or forward facing
harness
• 4-7 harness or booster
Type
Description
A
Rearward-facing or transversely installed
restraint with a harness
B
Forward-facing chair with harness
C
Forward-facing harness without chair
D
Rearward-facing chair with harness
E
A booster seat used with type C and a seat belt,
or with a lap/sash seat belt
F
A booster seat used in conjunction with a type C
child restraint and a seatbelt, or with a lap-sash
seatbelt, suitable for children approximately 4
to 10 years of age
Can have combinations of types, A-B etc.
Source: www.productsafety.gov.au
Types of restraints
• Types of restraints in
standard (A, B, C etc.)
• Types in instructions and
consumer information
terminology similar to U.S.
– Capsule systems/infant
carriers
– Convertible
– Forward facing
– Boosters
– Harnesses
www.igcdorel.com.au
Capsules/Infant Carriers
• Rear-facing only birth to
6 months or 12 months
• RF tether
• Anti-rebound bar
Convertible
• Rear-face birth to at least
6 months
• Forward-face to 4 years
• Rear and forward facing
tethers
• Anti-rebound bar RF
www.britax.com.au
SAFEKEEPER convertible car seat
Forward Facing
• Forward Facing only
with harness
• 6 months to 4 years
• Top tether
www.igcdorel.com.au
Harnesses
• Can use with boosters
with lap sash or lap only
belt ~ 4 yrs. until max.
wt. for booster
• Can use with vehicle lap
only seat belt ~7-10
years
• Some similarities to Yharness
• Must be tethered
• Some have antisubmarine clips
Protecta Child Safety Harness
www.britax.com
Booster Seats
• 4 years to at least 7
years
• Some are tethered
Britax Hi-Liner SG
4 years to 6-8 years
www.britax.com
• Anti-submarine clip
“Slideguard clip” a
feature by Britax
Notable Differences
• No chest clip
• Shoulder markers
• 6 point harnesses
• One click buckle like Europe
• Anti-submarining features
with some boosters and
harnesses
Illustration from Britax instructions
Notable Differences
• Anti-rebound/stabilizing bars rear-facing
• Rear-facing tethers “Australian method”
www.childrestraints.co.nz
Misuse
• ~60% of children incorrectly restrained
• Loose harness high rate of misuse 100%
• Children of parents who used an RTA (Roads &
Traffic Authority) Authorized Restraint Fitting
Station ~2 times more likely to be correctly
restrained**
Source: 2010 research funded by RTA, www.crep.com.au/incorrectuse.html
Consumer resources
• Accredited car seat
fitters
Canada
CMVSS 213
• Long-standing
requirement for top
tethers on FF seats
• Revisions effective
January 1, 2012
• Adopted most of U.S.
testing parameters,
including acceleration
corridor and performance
criteria
• Dynamic test
requirements for boosters
CMVSS 213
• Minimum weight limit for boosters 40 lbs
• Definition of infant up to 10 kg from 9 kg
• Car seat materials in contact with head meet
energy absorption standards
• Lap/shoulder belt crash tests for infant and
forward facing CSS, in addition to 2 point belt
and LATCH
Canadian Traffic Safety Facts
Fatalities and Injuries by Age Group 2009
Age Group
(Years)
Fatalities
Serious
Injuries
Injuries
(Total)
0–4
19
87
2,142
5–14
35
392
7,445
15–19
240
1,400
20,632
http://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/roadsa
fety/tp3322-2009_eng.pdf
Legislation
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Subnational
0-1 rear-facing
1-5 front facing harness
5-8 booster seat
Types of CSS
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Very similar to U.S.
Rear-facing
Forward-facing
3-in-1
Boosters
Foonf convertible seat, available Summer 2012
http://clekinc.ca/foonf
Notable Differences
• Long-standing
mandatory use of top
tethers
• Labels, information and
instructions in English
and French
Misuse
• Across Canada, misuse rates range from 44% 81% for car seats
• 30% 50% for boosters
• Over 54% of Canadian parents believe
children ready to use seat belts at age 6
Source: Injury Prevention Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society,
Transportation of infants and children in motor vehicles, Paediatric Child
Health, 2008; 13 (4):313-8
Consumer Resources
Consumer Resources
Travelling with Car Seats
• Standards are not interchangeable
• Prior to trip, carefully research CPS laws and possible
car seat resources for other countries
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Other countries versions of NHTSA
Safe Kids Worldwide
Websites
Travel agents
Rental car companies
Embassies and consulates
• Tough choice for parents: do they take their car seats
or not?
• Check with airlines if flying
Travelling with Car Seats
• Canada
– Illegal to use CSS from other countries
– CSS could be confiscated
– Fines and/or demerit points
– Reduced or voided insurance coverage
– Possible criminal charges and/or civil litigations
Source: www.tc.gc.ca
Travelling with Car Seats
Make sure
source has
reliable
information
Importing Car Seats to U.S.
• Request special permission from NHTSA
• Call Auto Safety Hotline 888-327-4236
• Will be directed to appropriate office
Conclusion
• What we share as an international community
of injury prevention advocates is greater than
our differences
• Exchange of ideas improves safety of all child
passengers
• Countries with developed child passenger
safety efforts can serve as examples for
developing countries
Conclusions
• Differences in standards and practice do not
eliminate human error
Acknowledgements
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Judith Talty
Jerry Bougher, Dorel
Shayne Merritt, Merritt Manufacturing
Francois Renaudin, Dorel EU
Don Boyle, Hope Special Needs Products
Lorrie Walker, Safe Kids U.S.A.
Kerry Chausmer, Safe Kids U.S.A.
Sandy Sinclair, NHTSA
Denise Donaldson, SRN
Websites
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www.incarsafetycentre.co.uk
www.britax.com
www.childcarseats.org.uk
www.tc.gc.ca
www.safekidscanada.ca
www.rta.nsw.gov.au
www.carseat.se
www.productsafety.gov.au
http://www.kidsafe.org.au/
http://www.crep.com.au/
www.igcdorel.com.au
http://www.childrestraints.co.nz/
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Questions?
Fragen?
Domande?
Vragen?
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