CPS Beyond the Pond? CPS: A Global
Child Passenger Safety: Across the Pond and Beyond Dr. Marilyn J. Bull 2012 Indiana Injury Prevention Conference May 3, 2012 Experience with International CSS • Adapted German car bed in 1980’s • Served as basis for new generations of large car beds Experience with International CSS Britax child restraint from Australia Britax child restraint from Sweden Experience with international CSS • Presented at the 9th annual Protection of Children in Cars Conference, Munich, Germany, December 2011 • Piqued curiosity about conventional CSS Experience with International CSS Experience with International CSS Questions • Are MVC an issue? • How do international safety standards and CSP practices compare to U.S.? • Are there CPS laws? • Is misuse an issue? • Are there consumer resources, such as CPST, similar to ours? • What issues arise when traveling to other countries? Why International CPS Relevant to U.S. • Some U.S. recommendations based on international CPS – Top tethers – Rear-facing longer – Isofix • • • • Many CSS originated in international markets World shrinking, markets now global Social media Questions about importing CSS Canada and U.S. Europe Australia Do any of these manufacturers sound familiar? • • • • • • • Britax Graco Evenflo Clek Cybek Recaro Chicco • • • • • • • Klippan Maxi Cosi-Dorel Kiddy Peg Perego Baby Love Jane Duologic European Union • Formed after WWII in an effort to secure peace • 27 member states • Each sovereign nation • Metric system – 1 kg = 2.2. lbs – 1cm = .39 inches • Many different cultures, languages European Traffic Safety Facts • RTIs leading cause of death and serve injuries children 0-14 years • RTIs cause 34% of child injury deaths annually http://www.childsafetyeurope.org/publications/info/factsheets/childhood-road-safety.pdf ECE R44.04 • The standard amendment number four of United Nations (Economic Commission for Europe) ECE R44.04, was introduced at the end of June 2005, and all new child car seats had to meet this standard from the end of June 2006. ECE R44.04 vs. FMVSS 213 ECE R44.04 FMVSS 213 Dynamic tests Frontal 22 G force ~30 mph Rear 14-21 G force ~18 mph Frontal 20-25 G force 30 mph N/A Seat belts Two or three point for all product groups Three point for booster; two point for all else Chest acceleration Max. 55 G, excl 3ms peak Max. 60 g. excl 3ms peak Head acceleration N/A 1000 HIC Excursion Head: 550 mm Head: 32 or 28 inches Knee: 36 inches Rear-angle deflection N/A 70 degrees ECE R44.04 vs. FMVSS 213 ECE R44.04 FMVSS 213 Harness One click motion to buckle or unbuckle N/A Buckle design No partial latch; ejector required FMVSS 209 Flammability 250 mm/min FMVSS 302 104 mm/min L.A.T.C.H./ISOFIX N/A Required ECE Label 1. Category of approval. 2. CSS Group by weight 3. "Y" = 5-point harness 4. European Approval indicator 5. Country in which approval obtained (1=Germany, 2=France, 3=Italy, etc.) 6. Approval #. First two numbers = version ECE R 44 7. ‘control’ number for a specific seat www.incarsafetycentre.co.uk Categories of Approval • Universal – Approved for use in all vehicles that meet ECE R14 and R16 • Semi-universal – Features on a CSS such as kickstands require additional testing to make sure they are compatible with certain vehicle features (e.g. storage bins); list of vehicles in which they can be used • Vehicle specific – CSS only approved for use in specific vehicles Categories of Approval Legislation • Varies by country • Examples: – France: car seat through 55 lbs (new laws in 2012) – Germany and Italy: Mandatory, size appropriate CR until age 12 or 4’9” – Spain: Mandatory, size appropriate CR until 4’5,” illegal to ride in the front seat under age 12 – Sweden: Mandatory, size appropriate CR until 4’5” – UK: Mandatory, size appropriate CR until 4’5” or age 12 “Mother found negligent for child's injuries after using wrong car seat” “A mother who put her three-year-old daughter in a car booster seat has been found partly responsible for her crippling car crash injuries by the High Court because it was the wrong seat for her age. She had carefully strapped Emma Hughes into the back seat to drive home when they were involved in a head on collision. But Mr Justice Blair ruled that, had she used the child seat with a five-point harness which was also available in the back of the family car, Emma's devastating head and spinal injuries would "largely have been avoided". ..he found her negligent and 25 per cent responsible for her daughter's injuries. “ By Victoria Ward The Telegraph, UK 7:27PM BST 26 Apr 2012 Types of Restraints www.britax.com Group 0 • Birth – 10 kg ( - 22 lbs) • About birth - 6 mo. • Carrycots/car beds – Not limited to children with special health care needs Group 0+ • Birth – 13 kg (- 28.60 lbs) • About birth to 12 - 15 months • Rear-facing only • Detachable bases less common Pebble car seat www.maxi-cosi.com Group 1 • 9-18 kg (~20-40 lbs) • About 9 months – 4 years • Forward facing only Group 0+ & 1 • Birth - 18 kg ( - 40 lbs) • About birth to 4 years • Rear and forward facing • “Combination seat” (similar to U.S. convertible CSS) Britax First Class Plus http://www.preciouslittleone.com Group 2-3 • 15 - 36 kg (33 – ~80 lbs) • About 4-12 years • Belt-positioning booster seats/booster cushions http://clekinc.com • Some attach by ISOFIX Group 1-2-3 • 9 - 36 kg (~20 - 80 lbs) • About 9 months – 12 years • “Combination seat” • Converts from forward facing harness to booster Cosatto-zoomi-car-seat---Little Monster www.cosatto.com Notable Differences • Earlier transitions • 3-point harnesses on some rear facing only CSS • Buckle release with one action • No chest clip Romer Britax Trifix www.britax.com Notable Differences Harness threaded differently through buckle prongs U.S. harness routing: European harness routing: shoulder portion of harness hip portion of harness on top (Please note: this is a U.S. CSS with Euro. routing) on top Notable differences • Less emphasis on back seat installation • Front seat ok if no active airbag • Color coded belt paths for rear to forward facing CSS www.carseat.se Installation 2007 VW Golf Notable Differences • Shoulder portion of lap/shoulder belt around back of rear-facing CSS • Some CSS can only be installed with 3-point belts • ISOFIX not mandatory yet (will be rigid system) Notable Differences • Anti-rotation systems: – 3 point-belt RF – Foot prop rear-facing • Foot props assist with limiting forward motion and tilting on FF CSS • Foot props or top tethers with FF ISOFix • Issues with foot props and some vehicle floor storage areas www.britax.com www.britax.com Rear-facing Installation with ISOFIX and Seat Belt http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=64GKBGz2z4A&feature=fvwrel Notable Differences • One instruction manual for multiple languages • Pictorial instructions may be in front • Text in different languages follows pictogram Sweden • Synonymous with rearfacing longer • Up to 55 lbs and ~4 years Sweden • Isaksson-Hellman I, Jakobsson L, GustafssonC, Norin HA. Trends and effects of child restraint systems based on Volvo’s Swedish accident database. In: Proceedings of Child Occupant Protection 2nd Symposium. Warrendale,PA: Society of Automotive Engineers Inc; 1997:316 • Jakobsson L, Isaksson-Hellman I, Lundell B. Safety for the growing child: experiences from Swedish accident data [Abstr 05-0330]. In: Proceedings: 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Washington,DC: National Highway Traffic SafetyAdministration; 2005 Misuse • “Fit and use” checking clinics throughout UK • Only 53% child restraints installed correctly – Common mistakes: slack in seat belt, incorrect seat belt routing • Only 60% of children buckled in child restraints correctly – Common mistake: loose harnesses Source: National Database for Child Restraint Use, Mark Pitcher, Marianne Hynd and James Onyekwere, TRL Limited UK “Fit and Use” Collection Form Misuse • Study conducted in 2011 with the Road Safety Authority “Check it Fits” campaign • Total misuse 83% – Installation: most frequent was incorrect belt routing (32%) and slack in seat belt (21%) – Harness: twisted straps (26%), loose harness (22%), and wrong shoulder height (21%) Source: Misuse: Recent Evaluations in Ireland Mark Bennett, Britax Europe and Farid Bendjellal, Britax Group Limited Consumer Resources Consumer Resources • Safe Kids Worldwide – Italy – Germany – Austria Australia Australian Traffic Safety Facts • Estimated 28 children < 10 years fatally injured in car crashes; 2773 injured Source: National Transport Commission, Australian Road Rules, 7th Amendment Package 2007, Regulatory Impact Statement AS/NZS 1754 • Most extensive dynamic tests – Frontal 28 G force – Rear 14-21 G force – Side impact 14-21 G – Inverted impact 8-15 G – Genital Injury Test • Similar to ECE R44 AS/NZS 1754 • Emphasis on age not weight (2010) • One click release • Booster cushions (backless) removed from 2010 revisions • Shoulder height markings in 2010 revisions http://www.hipod.com.au AS/NZS 1754 Label • Referred to as “five ticks” Legislation • Subnational • Generally 0-6 months rear-facing • 6 months – 4 years rear or forward facing harness • 4-7 harness or booster Type Description A Rearward-facing or transversely installed restraint with a harness B Forward-facing chair with harness C Forward-facing harness without chair D Rearward-facing chair with harness E A booster seat used with type C and a seat belt, or with a lap/sash seat belt F A booster seat used in conjunction with a type C child restraint and a seatbelt, or with a lap-sash seatbelt, suitable for children approximately 4 to 10 years of age Can have combinations of types, A-B etc. Source: www.productsafety.gov.au Types of restraints • Types of restraints in standard (A, B, C etc.) • Types in instructions and consumer information terminology similar to U.S. – Capsule systems/infant carriers – Convertible – Forward facing – Boosters – Harnesses www.igcdorel.com.au Capsules/Infant Carriers • Rear-facing only birth to 6 months or 12 months • RF tether • Anti-rebound bar Convertible • Rear-face birth to at least 6 months • Forward-face to 4 years • Rear and forward facing tethers • Anti-rebound bar RF www.britax.com.au SAFEKEEPER convertible car seat Forward Facing • Forward Facing only with harness • 6 months to 4 years • Top tether www.igcdorel.com.au Harnesses • Can use with boosters with lap sash or lap only belt ~ 4 yrs. until max. wt. for booster • Can use with vehicle lap only seat belt ~7-10 years • Some similarities to Yharness • Must be tethered • Some have antisubmarine clips Protecta Child Safety Harness www.britax.com Booster Seats • 4 years to at least 7 years • Some are tethered Britax Hi-Liner SG 4 years to 6-8 years www.britax.com • Anti-submarine clip “Slideguard clip” a feature by Britax Notable Differences • No chest clip • Shoulder markers • 6 point harnesses • One click buckle like Europe • Anti-submarining features with some boosters and harnesses Illustration from Britax instructions Notable Differences • Anti-rebound/stabilizing bars rear-facing • Rear-facing tethers “Australian method” www.childrestraints.co.nz Misuse • ~60% of children incorrectly restrained • Loose harness high rate of misuse 100% • Children of parents who used an RTA (Roads & Traffic Authority) Authorized Restraint Fitting Station ~2 times more likely to be correctly restrained** Source: 2010 research funded by RTA, www.crep.com.au/incorrectuse.html Consumer resources • Accredited car seat fitters Canada CMVSS 213 • Long-standing requirement for top tethers on FF seats • Revisions effective January 1, 2012 • Adopted most of U.S. testing parameters, including acceleration corridor and performance criteria • Dynamic test requirements for boosters CMVSS 213 • Minimum weight limit for boosters 40 lbs • Definition of infant up to 10 kg from 9 kg • Car seat materials in contact with head meet energy absorption standards • Lap/shoulder belt crash tests for infant and forward facing CSS, in addition to 2 point belt and LATCH Canadian Traffic Safety Facts Fatalities and Injuries by Age Group 2009 Age Group (Years) Fatalities Serious Injuries Injuries (Total) 0–4 19 87 2,142 5–14 35 392 7,445 15–19 240 1,400 20,632 http://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/roadsa fety/tp3322-2009_eng.pdf Legislation • • • • Subnational 0-1 rear-facing 1-5 front facing harness 5-8 booster seat Types of CSS • • • • • Very similar to U.S. Rear-facing Forward-facing 3-in-1 Boosters Foonf convertible seat, available Summer 2012 http://clekinc.ca/foonf Notable Differences • Long-standing mandatory use of top tethers • Labels, information and instructions in English and French Misuse • Across Canada, misuse rates range from 44% 81% for car seats • 30% 50% for boosters • Over 54% of Canadian parents believe children ready to use seat belts at age 6 Source: Injury Prevention Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society, Transportation of infants and children in motor vehicles, Paediatric Child Health, 2008; 13 (4):313-8 Consumer Resources Consumer Resources Travelling with Car Seats • Standards are not interchangeable • Prior to trip, carefully research CPS laws and possible car seat resources for other countries • • • • • • Other countries versions of NHTSA Safe Kids Worldwide Websites Travel agents Rental car companies Embassies and consulates • Tough choice for parents: do they take their car seats or not? • Check with airlines if flying Travelling with Car Seats • Canada – Illegal to use CSS from other countries – CSS could be confiscated – Fines and/or demerit points – Reduced or voided insurance coverage – Possible criminal charges and/or civil litigations Source: www.tc.gc.ca Travelling with Car Seats Make sure source has reliable information Importing Car Seats to U.S. • Request special permission from NHTSA • Call Auto Safety Hotline 888-327-4236 • Will be directed to appropriate office Conclusion • What we share as an international community of injury prevention advocates is greater than our differences • Exchange of ideas improves safety of all child passengers • Countries with developed child passenger safety efforts can serve as examples for developing countries Conclusions • Differences in standards and practice do not eliminate human error Acknowledgements • • • • • • • • • Judith Talty Jerry Bougher, Dorel Shayne Merritt, Merritt Manufacturing Francois Renaudin, Dorel EU Don Boyle, Hope Special Needs Products Lorrie Walker, Safe Kids U.S.A. Kerry Chausmer, Safe Kids U.S.A. Sandy Sinclair, NHTSA Denise Donaldson, SRN Websites • • • • • • • • • • • • www.incarsafetycentre.co.uk www.britax.com www.childcarseats.org.uk www.tc.gc.ca www.safekidscanada.ca www.rta.nsw.gov.au www.carseat.se www.productsafety.gov.au http://www.kidsafe.org.au/ http://www.crep.com.au/ www.igcdorel.com.au http://www.childrestraints.co.nz/ Preguntas? Questions? Fragen? Domande? Vragen?
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