the English Airbus Series Vol.1 User

the English Airbus Series Vol.1 User
Airbus Series Vol.1
CREDITS
PRODUCERS
Victor Racz & Fred Goldman
REPAINTS
Peter Balogh, Kittisak Rukkaew
Stéphane OBER
PROGRAMMER
Eric Marciano
FLIGHT DYNAMICS
Rob Young
3D ARTISTS
Den Okan, Tamas Szabo
& Victor Racz
SOUND
Mike Hambly,
Eric Marciano
& Victor Racz
2D ARTISTS
Peter Balogh, Tamas Szabo
& Victor Racz
MANUAL
Eric Marciano
World map on the Corporate Jetliner plasma
screens is provided by www.absolutezero.de
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2
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WELCOME ABOARD ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.
Installation
B.
Extra
C.
Quick Start
D.
2D & 3D Cockpits
E.
Cabin & Doors
4
TUTORIAL FLIGHT
.........................................................
5
............................................................
10
.....................................................................
10
INTRODUCTION
SETUP
FLY-BY-WIRE
..............................................................
14
AUTOFLIGHT
..............................................................
17
........................................................................
32
EFIS
SYSTEMS
FMGC
..................................................................
48
......................................................................
66
APPENDICES
..............................................................
96
Order your upgrade to the DELUXE version !
Complete your Airbus Series Volume 1 with the following elements :
- Airbus A319
- Airbus Corporate Jetliner
- 60 minutes of videos (Just Planes) featuring breathtaking
take-offs & landings .
For more information, please visit www.wilcopub.com
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
3
Airbus Series Vol.1
WELCOME ABOARD !
A. INSTALLATION
Installation is automatic. Insert the CD (or
double-click on the downloaded file) and
Autorun will take you to the start-up screen. If
Autorun is disabled on your system, open
Windows Explorer or My Computer, browse to
your CD Rom drive and double click
“Wilco_Airbus1_x.exe” (where x is your
version).
Once setup is running, follow the on-screen
prompts and ensure that the installation
points directly to the Microsoft Flight
Simulator
folder (usually C:\Program Files\Microsoft
Games\FlightSimulator...).
3. Choose feelThere/Wilco Airbus Series
Vol.1
4. Select the Aircraft Model of your choice.
5. Select the livery of your choice
The liveries are installed on your CD-Rom or
available from Wilco Publishing website if you
bought the download version.
2. Engines Start Up
Use CTRL+E to start the engines.
To start up engines from a 'Cold & Dark
Cockpit', please refer to the next pages for
complete procedures.
D. 2D & 3D COCKPITS
2D Panel Views
The following 2D panel views are available
using the following key combinations :
CHECK OUT
WILCO PUBLISHING WEBSITE :
http://www.wilcopub.com
YOU WILL FIND INFORMATION, NEWS, AND
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS.
SHIFT+1 = Main Panel Background
SHIFT+2 = Main Panel
SHIFT+3 = Pedestal
SHIFT+4 = Overhead
SHIFT+5 = MCDU
SHIFT+6 = PFD
SHIFT+7 = ND
SHIFT+8 = EWD
SHIFT+9 = SD
B. EXTRA (for CD-Rom version only)
We have included a full set of files and videos
on your CD-Rom. Use your Windows Explorer
to locate them into the EXTRA WILCO
directory.
To fully enjoy the 3D Virtual Cockpit, the Track
IR lets you control your field of view in flight
simulators by simply looking around by few
degrees.
Track IR is available from Wilco Publishing
http://www.wilcopub.com.
3D Virtual Cockpit Views
Display the different Cockpit views using the
normal Flight Simulator keystroke, “S” under
FS 2004 and “A” under FS X. All controls found
on the main 2D panels are functional within
the virtual cockpit. Mouse clicking on the FMC
opens the 2D FMC in a separate window.
Mouse clicking on some specific screens open
a 2D window : FMS, EADI...
E. CABIN & DOORS
C. QUICK START
1. To Pilot one of the Airbus
1. Start Flight Simulator
2. From the menus, select AIRCRAFT
4
The Cabin
Under Flight Simulator 2004, to move and
walk inside the cabin, we have included a
utility on the CD-Rom (directory : EXTRA /
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
TUTORIAL FLIGHT
F1View), also available from our website. This
utility is kindly offered by Flight 1.
This module requires a wheel-mouse (a
center wheel that also acts as a center
mouse button).
Note that this utility is not needed under Flight
Simulator X as you can access cabin view
through a right-click sub-menu option.
Virtual Cockpit
• Wheel forward moves you forward and
wheel backward moves you back.
• CTRL+forward moves right and CTRL
+ backward moves left.
• SHIFT+forward moves up and SHIFT
+ backward moves down.
• CTRL+SHIFT+forward zooms out
and CTRL+SHIFT+backward zooms in.
While in Pan Mode (mouse wheel pressed and
held down) inside the Virtual Cockpit :
• Moving the mouse to the left rotates the
view to the left.
• Moving the mouse to the right rotates the
view to the right.
• Moving the mouse forward, away from the
user, rotates the view up.
• Moving the mouse backward, towards the
user, rotates the view down.
Please refer to the manual for other features
list. Under Flight Simulator X, press SPACE to
switch to pan mode. Wheel mouse serve as
zoom in/out while in pan mode.
The Doors
To open the external doors :
SHIFT + E for the passengers door.
SHIFT + E + 2 for the cargo door
(from external view).
TUTORIAL FLIGHT
This tutorial describes all the phases of a flight
from Toulouse Blagnac (home of the Airbus
aircrafts) to Paris Orly, from the cold & dark
situation to the landing at destination.
FLIGHT SETUP
Cold & Dark
This tutorial is supposed to begin with a cold &
dark aircraft. In order to be in this situation, you
can press the "Cold & Dark" button on the
configuration window and place your aircraft at
LFBO (Toulouse Blagnac) on a parking place.
Batteries ON
On the overhead panel press both battery
switches to turn on the batteries.
All Generators ON
Even if engines are not running yet, turn the
generators on (they are in fault mode because
the engines are not running).
NAV Lights ON
As soon as the aircraft is energized, NAV light
should be turned on.
Radio Management Panels ON
On the pedestal, turn the Radios on using the
RMP master switch.
External Power
Check the overhead panel. If an external
power source (GPU) is available, press the EXT
PWR switch.
FMGC Initialization
If the MENU page is displayed, press the FMGC
1L key or press the INIT key on the MCDU to
display the INIT A page.
• FROM/TO : Enter the departure and arrival
airports in the scratchpad and press
1R LFBO/LFPO > 1R
• The route selection page appears. A route
exists between LFBO and LFPO, named
LFBOLFPO1.
Let’s use it by pressing INSERT (6R)
• Align the IRS by pressing 3R
• Enter the flight number in the scratchpad
and press 3L
• Enter the cruise altitude in the scratchpad
and press 6L
33000 > 6L or 330 > 6L or FL330 > 6L
Press NEXT PAGE to jump to the INIT B page.
• ZFWCG/ZFW : Enter the ZFWCG and ZFW
in the scratchpad and press 1R
25/59.1 > 1R or use assistance for this (in
Beginner and Intermediate modes only) :
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
5
Airbus Series Vol.1
TUTORIAL FLIGHT
•
press 1R with empty scratchpad, the 1R
again to enter it in the FMGC.
When ZFW is entered, the Block line
appears. Enter the block fuel and press 2R
(assistance is also available).
Press the F-PLAN key on the MCDU to display
the F-PLN page.
• On the first line, the departure airport
(LFBO) is shown. Press 1L to display the
Lateral Revision page for this airport.
• On the LAT REV page, press 1L to display
the DEPARTURE page.
• Select the departure runway and the SID
(or NO SID).
• Press INSERT (6R) to validate, the F-PLN
page appears again.
• Resolve the discontinuity.
• Scroll down to the arrival airport (LFPO) or
press the AIRPORT key on the MCDU to
jump directly to the arrival airport.
• Press the left button adjacent to the arrival
airport to display its Lateral Revision page.
• Press 1R to display the ARRIVAL page.
• Select arrival runway and STAR (or NO
STAR).
If the arrival runway changes because of
the weather (especially because of wind
direction or IFR conditions), you will be
able to update it during the flight.
• Press INSERT (6R) to validate, the F-PLN
page appears again.
• Resolve the discontinuity.
At this time, with all the data entered in the
FMGC and no discontinuity in the flight plan,
the predictions are computed and displayed
with the flight plan.
If you wish, you can enter the Estimated Time
of Departure (ETD) by pressing the right key
adjacent to the departure airport. The Vertical
Revision page appears and you can enter the
UTC CSTR by pressing 2R.
Now it is time to set the performance data.
Press the PERF key on the MCDU and the
PERF TO appears to set the takeoff
performance.
• Enter the takeoff flap configuration (1, 2 or
6
3) and press 3R. In the real aircraft, this
information is used as a reminder only for
the crew. If you are in Beginner or
Intermediate mode, the information is also
used by the system if you request
assistance for the reference speeds.
Suggestion : Use Flap 1 configuration.
• Enter the FLEX TEMP and press 4R. This
temperature will be used by the FADEC if
you takeoff using FLEX thrust.
Suggestion : A value of 50° is an average
value that should work fine.
• Enter V1, VR and V2 in the 1L, 2L and 3L
fields. These speeds are important for the
SRS mode during takeoff. As soon as these
speeds are entered, the red message ‘SPD
SEL’ disappears from the PFD and the
reference speeds appear on the speed
tape.
Remember you can use the assistance if
you are not in Expert mode.
• Thrust reduction altitude and acceleration
altitude can be entered. By default, both
altitudes are set to 1500 feet above the
departure airport altitude. You can leave
this value for the thrust reduction altitude,
but the acceleration should be 1500 feet
higher than the thrust reduction altitude.
To leave the thrust reduction altitude
unchanged and update the acceleration
altitude to 3200 feet ; /3200 > 5L
Press NEXT PHASE to display the other PERF
pages for climb, cruise, descent and approach
(PERF CLB, CRZ, DES, APPR). Make sure all
parameters are OK for you. You should
especially check the Cost Index, which
determines the speed used for climb, cruise
and descent if you use managed speed.
ENGINE START
APU Start
Before being able to start the engines, the APU
must be started. On the overhead, press the
APU Master Switch ON.
Then press the START button.
Monitor the APU start sequence of the SD and
wait for the APU to be available.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
TUTORIAL FLIGHT
External Power
If external power was used, turn it off now by
pressing the EXT PWR switch.
APU Bleed ON
Turn on the APU bleed by pressing the APU
BLEED switch on the overhead.
Beacon Lights ON
As the engines will soon be started, the
beacon lights must be turned on now using the
switch on the overhead panel.
Strobes AUTO or ON
Strobe lights should be turned on as soon as
the aircraft is moving. If you select AUTO, they
will automatically turn on as soon as the
aircraft is airborne.
Signs
Turn Seat Belts and No Smoking signs on, or
set the auto position to have them automatically managed.
Engine Start
The APU is available and APU bleed is
engaged. The engines are now ready to start.
• On the pedestal, set the ENG Mode switch
to the IGN/START position.
You can check on the E/WD that the FADEC
have turned on because the amber
information is replaced by active displays.
• ENG 2 Master Switch ON.
Check the engine is correctly starting on
the E/WD and SD. Wait for the engine 2 to
be started completely.
• ENG 1 Master Switch ON.
Monitor the E/WD and SD.
• When all engines are running, set the ENG
mode switch back to the NORM position.
• 2 minutes after engine start, the takeoff
memo will appear on the E/WD.
APU Stop
As both engines are started, check the
generators are turned on. The APU is not
necessary any more.
Press the APU BLEED switch to turn air bleed
off, and press the APU Master Switch to turn
the APU off.
FCU
Check the “dash-ball-dash-ball-ball-dash” on
the FCU to make sure all the settings are OK :
speed managed, heading managed, and
altitude managed with a target altitude higher
than the acceleration altitude.
Check the FMA and make sure the CLB and
NAV modes are armed. If not, reset the FCU by
turning the FD off then on again. CLB and NAV
should appear in blue on the FMA.
PUSHBACK
Flaps
Set the flap configuration according to what
you have entered in the PERF TO page.
Spoilers ARMED
Arm the ground spoilers in case of a rejected
takeoff.
Autobrake MAX
The autobrake should be set to MAX in case of
a rejected takeoff only (never use MAX for
landing).
Parking Brake RELEASED
Release the parking brake to get ready for
pushback.
Taxi Lights ON
Turn on the taxi light before taxiing.
Cleared for pushback
Ask the ATC for pushback clearance and press
the corresponding key (Shift-P by default) to
start the pushback.
If you have selected a PPU (option available in
FS2004 only), you have to steer the aircraft
during the pushback.
Note : You can also change this sequence by
starting the engines during the pushback, as it
is often done on the real aircraft.
TAXI
Cleared to Taxi
When pushback is finished and the aircraft is
properly positioned, you can ask the ATC for
taxi clearance to the departure runway.
Thrust
During taxi, move the thrust lever in the
manual range. Around 40 % N1 should be
enough to move the aircraft. Taxiing should be
operated at 20 knots, with 10 knots during the
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
7
Airbus Series Vol.1
TUTORIAL FLIGHT
turns. As soon as the aircraft moves, idle
thrust should be enough to keep it going.
Flight Controls CHECKED
Move all the flight controls in all possible
directions and check their movement on the
F/CTL SD page, which appears automatically
when a flight control moves on the ground.
Takeoff Configuration TEST
On the ECAM control panel (located on the
pedestal), press the TO CONFIG key (or press
Shift-Control-T on your keyboard). This action
simulates takeoff thrust power and checks all
the important settings for takeoff.
Landing Lights ON
Turn the landing lights on to get ready for
takeoff.
Parking Brakes SET
Before entering the runway for takeoff, set the
parking brakes.
Takeoff Memo GREEN
On the takeoff memo displayed on the E/WD,
make sure all the items are green and no blue
item remains.
Cleared for takeoff
Ask the ATC for a takeoff clearance.
ALIGN AND TAKEOFF
Parking Brakes RELEASED
As soon as the takeoff clearance is received,
release the parking brakes to enter the
runway.
Thrust
Like for taxiing, use around 40% N1 to taxi to
line up on the runway.
TCAS Mode ABV
On the pedestal, set the TCAS mode to ABV
(above) to get ready for climb and watch for
potential intruders 8000 feet above the
aircraft.
Takeoff Thrust
If you are cleared for takeoff, push the thrust
levers to 60-70 % N1 and monitor the E/WD to
make sure thrust is available. If everything is
OK, you can push to the FLEX detent. You can
use the TOGA detent for takeoff, but in this
flight we decide to save some fuel and use
FLEX thrust takeoff.
8
IRS
For your information, the IRS are
automatically aligned with the GPS position at
this time. If the IRS were not perfectly aligned
before, you may see the alignment on the ND.
FMA
As soon as the thrust levers are in the FLEX
detent, check that the FMA displays :
• MAN FLEX 50 in the 1st column
• SRS in green in the 2nd column, in addition
to the blue CLB (armed mode) that was
already displayed.
• RWY in green in addition to the NAV
message already displayed in blue in the
3rd column.
• A/THR in blue in the 4th column to indicate
the autothrust is armed.
Stick Position
During the takeoff roll, the stick should be
pushed half way forward until the speed
reaches 80 knots. This stick position can be
monitored on the PFD.
Yaw Bar
As soon as the takeoff thrust is applied, and if
the runway has an ILS, the yaw bar appears on
the PFD to help you in guiding the aircraft
along the runway centerline.
Stick Position
When the speed is over 80 knots, the stick can
be released to come back to the neutral
position.
Rotation
When VR is reached (indicated with a blue
circle on the PFD speed tape), pull the stick for
the rotation. If the FD is not perfectly stable at
this time, take a 15° pitch angle.
Landing Gear UP
As soon as positive climb is achieved, the
landing gear can be retracted.
The autobrake will automatically turn off 10
seconds later.
Landing Light OFF
Even if the landing light is automatically
turned off when the gear is retracted, it should
be turned off using the overhead switch.
Ground Spoilers DISARMED
The takeoff can not be rejected so the ground
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
TUTORIAL FLIGHT
spoilers can be disarmed.
CLIMB
Thrust Reduction Altitude
When the THR RED altitude is reached
(1.800 feet in this example), a flashing ‘LVR
CLB’ message appears on the FMA (1st
column). Move the thrust lever back to the CL
detent.
Note : As the thrust reduces when the levers
are moved back to the CL detent, the pilot
should anticipate the pitch reduction caused
by this thrust reduction.
Acceleration Altitude
Check the CLB mode becomes active on the
FMA (2nd column).
The aircraft will now accelerate to the target
speed of 250 knots.
S Speed
As the aircraft accelerates, you must retract
the flaps and slats when the S speed is
reached and let the aircraft accelerate to 250
knots.
10.000 feet
At 10.000 feet, the 250 knots speed limit
disappears, so the aircraft accelerates to the
target climb speed. If you did not change the
default cost index of 50, the target speed is 300
knots.
Barometric Setting PULL
When the transition altitude is reached (18.000
feet by default in Flight Simulator), the
barometric setting flashes. Pull the
barometric knob to set the STD value.
Cruise Altitude
As soon as the cruise altitude is reached,
check the FMA displays ‘ALT CRZ’ in the 2nd
column.
DESCENT & APPROACH
TCAS
Before engaging the descent, set the TCAS
mode to BLW (below) to monitor potential
intruders below the aircraft during the
descent.
Engage Managed Descent
When the top of descent point (T/D) is reached,
select a lower altitude (you can select 3.000 feet)
on the FCU and push the ALT knob (left mouse
click).
Deceleration
As the aircraft descends, it will reach the
deceleration point, shown as a big D on the ND.
At this time, the approach phase automatically
engages and the target speed is changed to
the Vapp speed, which should be around 140
knots in this case.
Note that even if Vapp is shown as the target
speed, the actual target speed will be the
maneuvering speed before flaps are fully
deployed in landing configuration.
If you decide to be guided by the Flight
Simulator ATC, it is highly probable that your
aircraft will never cross the D point. In this
case, you have to manually set the approach
phase by pressing the ACTIVATE APPROACH
PHASE (6L) in one of the PERF pages.
ILS ON
As the approach phase is engaged, the ILS is
automatically tuned to the arrival runway ILS.
You can press the ILS button at this time to
have the ILS information displayed on the PFD.
Flaps Extension
As the aircraft descends, you can extend the
flaps to help it decelerating and to keep good
lift while the airspeed is decreasing.
Suggestion : Extend Flaps 1 at around 5.000 feet.
As the aircraft keeps decelerating, you can
extend flaps as soon as the VFE NEXT speed is
reached.
Suggestion : Extend Flaps 2 and 3 as the speed
decreases.
Landing Configuration
Keep following the flight plan (or the ATC
instructions if you are guided by ATC). It should
align you with the runway.
At around 2.000 feet, get ready for landing:
• Extend the landing gear
• Extend full flaps
• Set LOC mode on the FCU
• Set Autobrake MED
• Ground Spoilers ARMED
Note that the landing memo appears when the
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
9
Airbus Series Vol.1
TUTORIAL FLIGHT / INTRODUCTION / SETUP
aircraft reaches 1.500 feet in approach.
Glideslope capture
As soon as the localizer is captured (LOC* or
LOC displayed on the FMA), you can set the
approach mode (APPR) on the FCU.
If you want to make an autoland, you can
engage the second autopilot at this time.
Landing Memo GREEN
Make sure all the items on the landing memo
are green. If not, take the corrective actions.
Short Final
Follow the localizer and glideslope, or let the
autopilot do it in autoland if you wish.
As the aircraft gets closer to the ground, the
LAND mode engages, then the FLARE mode.
They are shown on the FMA. If you fly
manually, just follow the flight director and it
will be fine.
Thrust RETARD
At around 20 feet, an aural warning “Retard,
Retard” is heard. Pull the thrust levers back to
idle and let the aircraft gently touch the ground.
LANDING
Reverse Thrust & Braking
As soon as the wheels have touched the
ground, you can engage the thrust reversers if
you wish.
The autobrake makes the aircraft decelerate
on the ground. You can take the control at any
time by using the brakes. Any action on the
brakes automatically disconnects the
autobrake system.
Exit Runway
Exit runway when able.
As soon as it is done, retract the flaps and
disarm the ground spoilers to retract them.
Taxi to the Gate
As you taxi to the arrival gate, you may notice
the FMGC resets 1 minute after the aircraft
has touched the ground. Its memory is cleared
to make it ready for the next flight. The FMA is
also cleared.
Last Turn
Just before arriving at the gate, you should
start the APU to get ready to stop the engines.
• APU Master Switch ON
10
• APU START
At the Gate
When the aircraft is stopped at the gate, shut it
down :
• Parking Brakes SET
• ENG 1 Master Switch OFF
• ENG 2 Master Switch OFF
(Remember that the right mouse button must
be used to shut down the engines)
External Power
One minute after the aircraft has stopped and
the engines are shut down, the GPU becomes
available. Press the EXT PWR switch on the
overhead to use it.
APU Shut Down
As soon as the external power source is
available, you can save fuel and turn off the
APU by pressing the APU Master Switch.
INTRODUCTION
HOW TO READ THIS MANUAL ?
This manual describes the panels and the
aircraft systems. Reading this manual is very
important to understand how the panels and
the systems work, in order to use them
efficiently.
Within this manual, you will find some notes
about the usage of these aircrafts in Flight
Simulator. They are written in italics. Each
time you read a section in italics, remember it
is something related to the implementation of
a system in the Flight Simulator context.
You will also find some advice provided by real
life pilots who fly real Airbus aircraft. This is
very useful and aids understanding about how
some systems are used. For example, it will
help you to answer the question: “Why should I
use the TRK/FPA guidance mode instead of the
HDG/VS mode?” It may also let you know when
a system should be used, and when it
shouldn’t.
SETUP
FS SETUP
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
SETUP
Key Assignments
Some key assignments are suggested for
optimal use of the panel. Some of them are not
defined by default in Flight Simulator, so their
definition is recommended if it has not been
done already.
The key assignment is available in FS2004
through the pull-down menu Options >
Controls > Assignments... and in FSX through
Options > Settings > Controls...
This command is mapped to the “Shift-R”
key by default.
It simulates the thrust lever instinctive
pushbuttons located on the throttle levers
in the real aircraft. For this reason, it
should be assigned to a button on your
throttle device, if possible.
Control Sensitivities and Null Zones
The sensitivities and null zones of the stick
controller (PC joystick or yoke) must be
adjusted to have the fly-by-wire working as
efficiently as possible. These settings are
described in detail in the section dedicated to
the fly-by-wire system.
Throttle Setup
In the real aircraft, the throttle levers have
detents that correspond to specific throttle
settings. This is detailed in the Autoflight
section (“thrust levers” paragraph).
If you have a single or multiple throttle device,
no specific setup is required. The throttle
device is acquired to determine if the throttle
lever is in a specific detent or not.
If you don’t have any throttle device and use
the keyboard to control the engines,
everything works without needing any specific
setup, but the use of a throttle device is highly
recommended.
USER SETUP
The aircraft configuration window is
accessible through the Wilco Airbus
configuration software :
The suggested key assignments as follows :
• Standby frequency swap :
This commands swaps the active and
standby frequencies on the Radio
Management Panel (RMP). This device is
described later in this documentation.
• Autopilot arming switch :
This command is mapped to the ‘Z’ key by
default.
It simulates the autopilot disconnect
button located on the sidestick in the real
aircraft. This is why it should be assigned
to one of your joystick button, if possible.
• Autothrottle arming switch :
The configuration window is accessible by
pressing the top button labeled “Configuration”.
The Load Manager and Fuel Planner will be
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
11
Airbus Series Vol.1
SETUP
described in other sections.
In FSX, the configuration window is accessible only
through the Wilco Airbus configuration software.
Note : Than when you configure the aircraft
through this configuration tool, any change is
taken into account the next time the aircraft is
loaded into FS2004 or FSX.
In FS2004
In FS2004 only, the configuration window is
also accessible when the aircraft is loaded in
FS through a new menu that appears in the
“Aircraft” pull-down menu.
This cascade menu lets you configure the
aircraft with several options, described in the
following paragraphs.
In FSX
Weight Unit
You can select the unit used to display weights
(aircraft weight, fuel weight...) The possible
choices are kilograms (KG) and pounds (LB).
European pilots may prefer the metric system
(KG), while US pilots may prefer to use
Imperial measures.
Beginner
Intermediate
Expert
Engine Start
FS shortcut allowed
(Ctrl-E key operative)
Full startup sequence
must be executed
Full startup sequence
must be executed
RWY Mode
(runway lateral
mode)
Available on any runway,
as long as the aircraft
is aligned.
Available only if the runway
has a localizer and the
departing runway has been
entered in the MCDU
Available only if the runway
has a localizer and the
departing runway has been
entered in the MCDU
Inertial Information
Always available
(aircraft heading/track
and position)
Available only when the IRS
are aligned
Available only when the IRS
are aligned
Ref Speeds
(V1, VR, V2)
Automatically computed
with average values
no warning on the PFD
Automatically computed on
Not automatically computed,
request. A warning on the PFD the pilot has to enter them
if they are not entered
in the MCDU. Otherwise,
a warning appears on the PFD
Gross Weight (GW)
Automatically computed
according to FS settings
Must be entered in the MCDU Must be entered in the MCDU
to compute the F, S, and Green to compute the F, S, and Green
Dot speed (available on request) Dot speed (available on request)
Default IRS Alignment 10 seconds
duration
1 minute
Wind indication on
Always visible
the Navigation Display
Not visible if speed is too low Not visible if speed is too low
(unreliable inertial information) (unreliable inertial information)
MCDU Assistance
Available
12
Available
10 minutes
Not available
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
SETUP
Panel Sound Volume
The panel has its own sounds: warning
sounds, GPWS altitude callouts, etc. This
slider lets you adjust the panel sound volume
independently from the other FS sound
settings, such as engine sound volume,
cockpit sound volume, etc.
User Experience (Realism)
This aircraft can be flown in different modes
depending on the level of realism you are
expecting. Three realism levels are available:
beginner, intermediate and expert. To make it
simple, beginner users will not have to read
quantities of documentation to start the
engines and fly the aircraft. Intermediate
users will have more realism while enjoying
some FS “shortcuts”. Expert users will have to
follow carefully all the required procedures to
fly this aircraft.
The table explains in detail the differences
between the various levels of realism.
In summary, if you set the realism to
beginner, you will be able to start the
engine, take off and land without reading a
single page of this manual. Otherwise, you
must read the documentation to set up the
aircraft properly for take off and flight.
IRS Alignment Duration
By default, the IRS alignment time depends on
the level of realism, as shown in the table
above.
In the real aircraft, the alignment time is
around 10 minutes. For easier use, you can
reduce this time and set the value you wish
using the slider.
Remember that if you change the level of
realism, the alignment time will be updated
accordingly.
MCDU Keyboard Input
You may want to use your PC keyboard to
enter data into the MCDU. You can do this by
selecting a key modifier or a key locker :
• A key modifier is supposed to be used in
•
combination with the keyboard keys. For
example, if you select Shift-Control as
the modifier, pressing Shift-Control-L
will enter an ‘L’ character in the MCDU.
Note : A key combination may be in conflict
with a FS command, such as Shift-ControlL for the aircraft landing lights.
The use of a key lock will intercept all
the keys to redirect them to the MCDU.
For example, if you select Scroll Lock as
the key lock and press the Scroll Lock
key, the scroll lock LED lights up on your
keyboard and any key typed on the
keyboard enters a new character into
the MCDU. For example, if you press the
‘L’ key, an ‘L’ character is entered in the
MCDU and the aircraft lights don’t
change. Pressing the Scroll Lock key
again turns the keyboard back in a
normal state.
Note 1 : Remember that when a locker
key (such as Scroll Lock) is used, EVERY
key stroke is redirected to the MCDU.
Don’t be amazed if the ALT key doesn’t
display the FS menu any more. This is
because this key is also intercepted.
Press the locker key again for normal
keyboard behavior.
Note 2 : In FS2004, the ‘Scroll Lock’ key is
defined as the default locker. In FSX, this
key is used to display/hide the ATC
window,
which
can
also
be
displayed/hidden using the ‘accent’ key.
For this reason, you should clear the
‘Scroll Lock’ assignment for the ATC
window and make this function
accessible through the ‘accent’ key only.
Startup
Press the “cold & dark” button to reset the
aircraft in a cold and dark situation, with all
the engines and devices turned off.
This feature is available only if the aircraft is
parked on the ground.
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
13
Airbus Series Vol.1
SETUP / FLY-BY-WIRE
Pushback Type
This aircraft allow you to choose the type of
pushback you want to use. The standard
pushback is the default pushback available in
Flight Simulator, triggered by the Shift-P key
(by default) with the 1 and 2 keys to steer the
aircraft.
The other pushback type simulates the use of
a Power Push Unit (PPU). Unlike the standard
pushback, this device is not a pushback vehicle
attached to the nose wheel with a tow bar. The
PPU is a small remote controlled vehicle
attached to a main gear wheel that pushes the
aircraft without steering it. When using a PPU,
the pilot has to steer the aircraft in the same
way as taxiing.
PPU Simulation in FS :
To control the PPU, use the keys or the device (such
as rudder pedals) that you usually use to turn the
nose wheel.
Note that the PPU pushback type is not available in
FSX.
Power Push Unit, designed to be attached on one of the
main landing gear.
Auto-Pause
Checking this option automatically pauses FS
when the next waypoint is the computed top of
descent point and the distance is less than 20
NM. This is especially useful for long flights
during which you might not be in front of your
computer when the aircraft is about to begin
its descent.
FLIGHT RESET
An option is available to let you reset the
current flight. This operation consists of the
following actions:
14
•
The flight phase is reset (the value is set
according to the current aircraft situation).
Refer to the FMGC section to know more
about the flight phase.
• The flight plan is reset, which means the
next waypoint is the first waypoint of the
flight plan.
• The recorded fuel used by each engine
(displayed on the SD) is reset to 0.
In FS2004
A flight reset can be triggered via the Aircraft
pull-down menu, or by pressing Ctrl-Shift-R (a
popup window confirms the reset operation).
In FSX
Pressing Ctrl-Shift-R resets the current flight.
A popup window confirms the operation.
FLY-BY-WIRE
OVERVIEW
This aircraft is equipped with a fly-by-wire
system managed by the Flight Augmentation
Computer (FAC) and the Elevator and Aileron
Computer (ELAC). It commands the flight
controls electrically from the input given by
the pilot through the sidestick. In normal law,
this system provides:
• Flight automation : bank angle and pitch is
maintained as soon as the stick is released
to the neutral position.
• Flight envelope protection : the system
prevents the aircraft from entering into
dangerous situations, such as high bank
angle or stall.
In direct law, the aircraft is controlled like any
standard aircraft : the elevator and aileron
deflections are proportional to the side stick
movements.
The aircraft automatically switches to direct
law when it is lower than 50 feet above the
ground (100 feet if autopilot is active).
The normal law protections are active only if at
least one FAC is operative.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
FLY-BY-WIRE
USAGE
The pilot uses the sidestick to control the
aircraft. The stick's side to side movements
command the bank angle. The stick's forward
and backward movements command the pitch,
just like on any aircraft.
Bank Angle
When the pilot wants to make the aircraft turn,
he uses the sidestick to command a bank
angle. He doesn’t have to use the rudder
pedals as the FAC manages the autocoordination automatically. In normal
conditions, the bank angle should never
exceed 33° (the autopilot always commands a
bank angle less or equal to 25°). When the
stick is returned to neutral position, the bank
angle is maintained until a new bank angle is
commanded through the stick.
If, for any reason (emergency situation for
example), if the pilot wants to exceed the 33°
limit, he must continue the stick input to
maintain bank angle. As soon as the stick is
returned to the lateral neutral position, the
aircraft comes back to a bank angle of 33°. In
any event, the aircraft cannot exceed a 67°
bank angle in clean confi-guration (45° with
flaps) to limit the structural acceleration of 2.5
g in (2.0 g with flaps).
The flight directors automatically disappear
when the bank angle reaches 45°.
The bank angle control is illustrated by the
figure below :
Why do these limits exist ?
The aircraft is limited in terms of acceleration,
because of structural and aerodynamic
reasons. These limits are 2.5 g in clean
configuration and 2.0 g with flaps.
If the aircraft wants to maintain a constant
altitude in turn, it has to increase the lift to
counter the bank angle, so it naturally
increases the load factor weight.
With the help of some mathematics, we can
understand that the load factor depends on the
bank angle: the more it banks, the more it has
to increase lift, which means increasing the
load factor. Increasing the load factor to 2.5 g
corresponds to a 67° bank angle, and 2.0 g
corresponds to 45°. This is the explanation...
Pitch Angle
When the pilot wants to command a climb or
descent, he pulls or pushes the stick. Instead
of commanding an elevator position, the pilot
commands a load factor change. As soon as
the stick is in vertical neutral position, the
current load factor is maintained in order to
maintain a constant pitch angle through the
auto-trim system.
The flight envelope protection system limits
the pitch angle to 30° in climb and 15° in
descent. The flight directors automatically
disappear when these limits are reached.
If the alpha protection triggers the alpha floor
mode (high incidence angle protection), the
alpha floor will automatically command a nose
down situation until the incidence angle
returns to a correct value.
Fly-by-Wire management in Flight Simulator :
The simulation of this system does not require any
additional module in Flight Simulator. It works with
the standard installation of FS. Nevertheless, it only
works if a joystick is used to fly the aircraft.
Keyboard contro is possible, but it is not totally
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
15
Airbus Series Vol.1
FLY-BY-WIRE
efficient. Any serious virtual pilot should not use the
keyboard to fly...
The joystick sensitivities and null zones must be
adjusted in order to make this system work
efficiently in FS. These settings are found in the
FS2004 pull-down menu Options > Controls >
Sensitivities... or in FSX through Options > Settings
> Controls...
Real pilots suggest pushing the sensitivity to the
maximum and reducing the null zone to the minimum.
If your hardware is good enough to support these
settings (especially regarding the accuracy), you should
apply these settings.
•
•
Null zone : The fly-by-wire system comes into
action when the joystick is in neutral position,
in order to maintain the bank/pitch angle
commanded by the pilot. If you find this feature
does not work properly, it may be because the
null zone defined for the aileron or elevator axis
is too small. In this case, increase the null zone
so that the fly-by-wire system can identify the
null zone more easily.
Sensitivity : The pitch control works better if the
elevator sensitivity is set to the maximum. It
provides a better reactivity to the system.
The following parameters provide good results :
16
Note : The flight control system modeled in Flight
Simulator is not designed for fly-by-wire systems. In the
real aircraft, there is no direct link between the sidestick
and the ailerons/elevators. The sidestick gives an order
to the computer, which computes an electronic order for
the ailerons and elevators. In FS, there is always a link
between the user joystick and the simulated aircraft
flight controls.
In order to get the best results from the fly-by-wire
system, move the joystick gently, and remember, this
aircraft is not designed for aerobatics, but for optimal
passenger comfort. If you feel uncomfortable with the
aircraft control, just release the stick and let the fly-bywire control the aircraft. Then you just have to adjust
the aircraft trajectory through small stick corrections.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
AUTOFLIGHT
AUTOFLIGHT COMPONENTS
The pilot interacts with the autoflight
management system through the following
components :
• The Flight Control Unit (FCU) located on
the glareshield
• The Multifunction Control and Display Unit
(MCDU) located on the pedestal
• The thrust levers
• The sidesticks
The autoflight status can be monitored on the
following components :
• The FCU
• The Primary Flight Display (PFD), especially
the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) and the
Flight Director.
Flight Control Unit
Selected and Managed functions
The Flight Control Unit (FCU) has four rotating
knobs. It is a feature of the FCU that these
knobs can also be pushed or pulled.
If a knob is pulled, it means the pilot takes the
decision to control the knob's function. In this
case, the function is selected.
If it is pushed, the pilot transfers functional
control to the flight management system. The
function is managed.
To remember this, think of the direction in
which the knob moves :
• If you push a knob, it moves in the direction
of the aircraft systems, which means you
give the control to the machine.
• If you pull a knob, it moves in your
direction, which means the control is given to
the pilot.
FCU knob usage in Flight Simulator :
The actions on the FCU knobs are simulated by
mouse click actions. Pushing a knob is simulated
by a left mouse button click, and pulling a knob
is simulated by a right mouse click.
The following table summarizes the FCU knob actions :
Real world action
Knob push
Knob pull
FS simulated action
Left-button mouse click
Right-button mouse click
Function
Managed
Selected
FCU Layout
The FCU is composed of four rotating knobs,
nine pushbuttons and four display windows.
The nine pushbuttons act as follows :
•
The SPD-MACH pushbutton lets the pilot
choose if the airspeed is displayed in knots
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
17
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
or in Mach.
The HDG-V/S / TRK-FPA pushbutton selects
the display mode. If HDG-VS mode is
selected, the heading and the vertical speed
(in feet per minute) are shown. If the TRKFPA mode is selected, the track and the
flight path angle (in degrees) are displayed.
• The METRIC ALT pushbutton triggers the
display of the altitude in meters on the
Primary Flight Display.
• The six engagement pushbuttons (AP1,
AP2, A/THR, EXPED, LOC, APPR) will be
described later in this chapter.
The four rotating knobs are the following :
•
•
The airspeed knob controls the airspeed,
in knots or in Mach depending on the mode
selected with the SPD/MACH pushbutton.
It can be pushed to have the speed
managed by the flight management
system.
• The heading knob allows the pilot to select
the heading or track, depending on the
mode selected with the HDG-V/S / TRKFPA pushbutton. It can be pushed to have
the lateral navigation managed by the
flight management system.
• The altitude knob controls the target
altitude. It can be pushed to have the
vertical navigation managed by the flight
management system.
• The vertical speed (V/S) knob controls the
vertical speed in feet per minute or the
flight path angle (FPA), depending on the
mode selected with the HDG-V/S / TRKFPA pushbutton. The vertical speed can
not be managed. If the knob is pushed, it
triggers a level off action.
The FCU has four windows, corresponding to
the four knobs:
• The speed window displays the target
speed, in knots or Mach. If the speed is
18
•
•
•
managed, it is dashed and the managed
speed light is on.
The heading window displays the target
heading or track. If the lateral navigation is
managed, it is dashed and the managed
heading light is on.
The altitude window shows the target
altitude. It is never dashed. The light is on as
soon as the altitude displayed is higher than
the acceleration altitude entered in the MCDU
(refer to the FMGC section for more details).
The vertical speed window shows the
vertical speed in feet per minute, or the
flight path angle in degrees.
Selected Functions
When airspeed, heading or vertical speed
value is selected, it can be adjusted by turning
the corresponding knob until the desired value
is displayed in the FCU window.
In the example shown below, the speed,
heading and vertical speed are selected, and
their values are 210 knots, 12° heading and a
2100 feet per minutes to climb to the altitude
of 25000 feet (FL250).
FCU knob rotation in Flight Simulator :
The knob rotation is simulated by clicking on the
left/right of the knob to decrease/increase the
corresponding value. For the vertical speed knob, you
have to click above/below the V/S knob to
increase/decrease the value.
As soon as you move the mouse in one of the sensitive
area used for rotation, the hand cursor appears with a
+ (plus) or a – (minus) to indicate the possible
variation. If you click the left mouse button, it
commands a normal value change. If you click the
right mouse button, it makes a bigger incremental
change.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
The value changes are summarized in the table
below :
Function
Airspeed (knots)
Button mouse click
Left
Right
Variation
+/- 1 knot
+/- 10 knots
Airspeed (MACH)
Left
Right
+/- .01
+/- .10
Heading/Track
Left
Right
+/- 1°
+/- 10°
Altitude
Left
Right
+/- 100 feet
+/- 1000 feet
Vertical Speed
Left
Right
+/- 100 ft/min
+/- 1000 ft/min
Mouse wheel usage :
When the mouse cursor is moved over a knob or over
a variation zone, you can use the mouse wheel to
adjust the value. Turning the mouse wheel normally
commands a normal variation. Turning the mouse
wheel while pressing one of the Shift keys
commands bigger variations.
If you want to change the altitude selection,
you must first turn the altitude knob to display
the desired target altitude. Then you can
initiate the climb or descent by one of the
following actions :
• Pull the altitude knob. This will make the
altitude ‘selected’ and it will result in an
open climb or open descent.
• Push the altitude knob. The altitude is now
‘managed’ and it will result in a managed
climb or descent.
• Pull the V/S knob, and select a vertical
speed.
• Press the EXPED pushbutton, which will
result in an expedited climb or descent.
Managed Functions
If a knob is pushed, the corresponding function
is managed by the Flight Management System.
The corresponding FCU display is then dashed
and the managed guidance light turns on.
In this example, the speed, heading and
vertical speeds are managed.
Notes :
• The vertical speed/flight path angle knob
can not be managed. Pushing this knob
results in a level off action.
• Even if the vertical navigation is managed,
the FCU altitude window is never dashed.
Reminder :
Before taking off, the speed, heading and
vertical speed are managed by default. To
make sure the FCU is correctly set for take off,
remember the words “dash, ball, dash, ball,
ball, dash”. It means speed display is dashed
and speed light (ball) is on, heading is dashed
and heading light is on, altitude light is on and
vertical speed is dashed (as shown on the
image above).
This is especially important for the altitude
light, which is illuminated only if the selected
altitude is higher than the acceleration
altitude. If it is lower, the initial climb will not
be correct.
Engagement Pushbuttons
Seven engagement buttons are located on the
FCU.
They
illuminate
when
their
corresponding mode is engaged.
1 - Flight Director pushbutton : FD
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
19
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
This button is used to engage the flight
director. This is absolutely necessary before
engaging the autopilot. Remember that the
flight director determines how the aircraft
should be flown, and the autopilot just
executes the orders coming from the flight
director (the FD is “the brain” and the AP is
“the muscle”).
2 - Localizer : LOC
This button is used to engage the localizer
mode. When it is engaged, it commands the
lateral navigation to follow the localizer which
frequency is tuned on NAV1 (ILS).
The LOC mode should be engaged before the
APPR mode.
3-4 - Autopilot pushbuttons : AP1 and AP2
The pilot uses these buttons to engage the
autopilots. Two autopilots are provided for
redundancy. You can engage either AP1 or
AP2. However, AP1 and AP2 can be engaged
simultaneously only in approach mode, to
increase the safety of an autoland.
These pushbuttons should not be used to
disengage the autopilots. If this is done, a
continuous alarm will sound due to this
abnormal procedure. The autopilot should be
disconnected using the sidestick red button
(or assigned key stroke, eg Z). When this is
done, the warning sound is temporary.
Sidestick button simulation in Flight Simulator :
In the FS Setup section (Key Assignments), the
assignment of the FS autopilot switch to a joystick
button is recommended. If you can do so, it allows
you to simulate the real aircraft procedure that
consists in disconnecting the autopilot only through
the joystick button, and not through the AP1/AP2
pushbuttons on the FCU.
5 - Autothtrust : A/THR
Pressing this button engages or disengages
the autothrust system. This system can also
be engaged or disengaged using the thrust
levers (discussed later in this chapter).
This button illuminates when the autothrust is
armed or engaged. The only way to know the
exact status of the autothrust is by looking at
the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA).
6 - Expedite : EXPED
20
Pressing this button initiates an expedited
climb or descent. An expedited climb
corresponds to an open climb at green dot
speed. An expedited descent is an open
descent at the speed of 340 kts/M.0.80,
regardless of any speed constraint.
7 - Approach : APPR
When the aircraft is on an ILS approach, press
this button to engage the ILS approach mode.
This will command the lateral and vertical
navigation to follow the localizer and glide
slope. This mode has to be engaged to effect
an autoland.
If the LOC mode was previously engaged,
engaging the APPR mode will turn the LOC
light off. Nevertheless, the APPR will guide the
aircraft on the localizer and the glide slope.
Some Advice
LOC/APPR mode usage
Real pilots say the LOC mode should ALWAYS
be engaged before the APPR mode. Even if
engaging the APPR mode before the LOC mode
is possible, it should never be done. This is
because the airport approach guides you on a
lateral and vertical path that avoids the
terrain. The terrain avoidance is totally
reliable only if you descnd on the glide slope
and when you are aligned with the runway, or
runway localizer.
Autoland
In case of lateral wind, the autopilot will have
difficulties to follow the localizer. Real life
pilots say the autoland is NEVER used in case
of lateral wind. The human pilot is much better
than the autopilot to make small and accurate
trajectory changes in order to fly a good ILS
approach. The autoland is perfect for low
visibility approaches, but not for windy ones.
Autothrust usage
Many pilots say you shouldn’t use the autothrust when flying the aircraft manually. This
is because it may amplify the trajectory
correction (especially in pitch) you make to fly
the aircraft along the glide slope. Other pilots
think the auto-thrust is reactive enough to be
used even when the aircraft is flown manually.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
You will make your own opinion.
In case of strong wind, you may see the autothrust is constantly updating the thrust. This
may sound weird, but if you look carefully, this
is the best way to have the aircraft speed
conform to the FCU required selected or
managed speed. In my opinion, the impact of
the wind on the airspeed in FS is not totally
realistic, it is too strong.
Flying the aircraft manually
If you disconnect the auto-pilot to fly the
aircraft manually, many pilots suggest the use
of TRK/FPA mode instead of HDG/V/S mode. In
TRK-FPA, the green flight path vector symbol,
called the "bird", shows the aircraft trajectory
in a way that is easier to understand by a
human pilot :
• on the lateral plan, you can observe the
impact of the lateral wind and see where
the aircraft is really heading,
• on the vertical plan, you see the angle of
descent that allows you to easily fly an
approach visually.
Sidesticks and Rudder Pedals
In the real aircraft, the sidesticks are firmly
held in their center position when an autopilot
is engaged. A strong manual movement of a
sidestick or a rudder pedal input indicates that
the pilot wants to take the control of the
aircraft. It disconnects the autopilot with an
aural warning. This warning indicates it is not
the right way to disconnect the autopilot. This
warning can be stopped by one of the following
actions:
• re-engaging the autopilot through the FCU
pushbutton,
• pressing the sidestick button to confirm
the Autopilot disconnection action.
In Flight Simulator, this feature is simulated by a
strong movement of the joystick or rudder pedal. If
you move the joystick or rudder pedal to an extreme
position, it disconnects the autopilot like in the real
aircraft.
Thrust Levers
The thrust system of this aircraft has four
detents in which the levers can enter. When
the pilot moves the levers, he can feel “hard
points” when they reach one of the detents.
The four detents correspond to four possible
thrust modes:
• IDLE
• CL for Climb
• FLX/MCT for Flex/Maximum Continuous
Thrust
• TOGA for Take off go-around
The thrust levers have two red buttons on the
side, called instinctive buttons. They are used
to disarm the autothrust system.
Simulation of the lever movement in Flight Simulator :
As your throttle control does not have detents, this
is simulated by a sound that is played each time a
lever enters or leaves a detent. When you move your
throttle, pay attention to this sound because it
indicates when the levers have reached a detent. You
can also see the thrust mode indication on the
Engine/Warning Display (E/WD).
The autothrust system works properly if you control
the throttle through the keyboard. Nevertheless, the
use of a throttle device is highly recommended.
Simulation of the instinctive pushbuttons in Flight
Simulator :
The instinctive pushbutton function is mapped on
the FS auto-throttle system. You can map any key or
button to the “Autothrottle arming switch”
command and it will simulate the instinctive
pushbuttons.
When the thrust levers are in the manual
range (not in a detent), the levers command
the engines like any other aircraft : the engine
power is relative to the lever angle.
The levers can be moved in :
• the IDLE detent : the autothrust system is
automatically disconnected and idle power
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
21
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
is always applied, unless TOGA LOCK mode
is engaged,
• the CL detent : the Full Authority Digital
Engine Control (FADEC) commands climb
power,
• the FLX/MCT detent : FLX (flex) is used for
reduced thrust take off, and MCT (max
continuous thrust) should be selected in
single engine operation,
• the TOGA detent : whatever happens, full
engine power is applied (for take off or goaround).
Standard Usage
The autothrust system should be used as often
as possible, even if some pilots say it shouldn’t
be used when the aircraft is flown manually. It
should be turned on just after take off and
should remain on until the aircraft has landed.
The standard usage of the throttle is the
following :
• The levers should be in the IDLE position
when the engines are turned on.
• They can be moved in the manual range for
taxi. Note that the aircraft can taxi with idle
thrust, you just need a little thrust to
initiate the roll.
• For take off, the pilot decides if flex or take
off power should be applied. Use flex
power as often as possible to save the
engines. Maximum TOGA power should be
used on short or wet runways or when the
weather conditions are bad (especially
windshears).
As soon as take off power (FLX or TOGA) is
applied,
the
autothrust
system
automatically arms : the FCU A/THR light
turns on and A/THR appears in blue on the
FMA (5th column).
• When airborne and the reduction altitude
is reached (usually 1.500 feet AGL), the
pilot is requested to engage the climb
mode by moving the levers into the CL
detent (flashing LVR CLB message on the
FMA).
As soon as the levers are retarded into the
CL detent, the autothrust system is automatically engaged : the A/THR message on
22
•
the FMA appears in white.
During the whole flight, the levers should
remain in the CL detent, unless max power
is needed in case of an emergency.
On this aircraft, the throttle levers don’t
move by themselves, even if thrust is
commanded by the FADEC. They are
supposed to stay in the CL detent when the
autothrust system is engaged. For this
reason, the pilots must be warned when idle
thrust is commanded. This is shown on the
Engine/Warning Display (E/WD) with an IDLE
message that flashes for a few seconds.
Monitoring
The autothrust system can be monitored
through several autoflight components:
• On the Engine/Warning Display (E/WD), the
engine power commanded by the
autothrust system is shown with a blue arc
on the N1 gauges.
• On the E/WD, messages can be displayed
to indicate specific autothrust status (IDLE
or A.FLOOR).
• On the Flight Control Unit (FCU), the A/THR
pushbutton light shows if the autothrust
system is off (light off) or armed or
engaged (light on).
• On the Primary Flight Display (PFD), the
first column shows the current autothrust
mode, and the 5th column shows the
autothrust status (off, armed or engaged).
Autothrust modes
The autothrust system has two kinds of
modes:
• The fixed thrust modes: a fixed thrust is
commanded and the airspeed is controlled
by adjusting the aircraft pitch.
• The variable thrust modes: the speed is
controlled by changing the thrust engine
power.
Alpha Floor - Flight envelope protection
If the alpha protection system detects high
incidence angles, it engages the alpha floor
mode that automatically applies full TOGA
engine power (even if the autothrust system is
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Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
not engaged and regardless of the thrust
levers' position). At the same time, the
aircraft's pitch is decreased to reduce the
incidence. A message A.FLOOR is displayed on
the FMA (1st column).
When the incidence angle is correct again, the
alpha floor stops and the autothrust system
locks the TOGA power. The TOGA LK message
is then displayed on the FMA (1st column).
To unlock the TOGA LK mode, the pilot must
follow the recommendations:
1. Move the trust levers to the TOGA detent to
avoid a thrust difference when the
autothrust system is disengaged.
2. Disengage the autothrust system by
pressing the A/THR button on the FCU or
by pressing an instinctive pushbutton.
3. Retard the levers to the CL detent.
4. Re-engage the autothrust system by
pressing the A/THR button on the FCU again.
FLIGHT GUIDANCE
The flight guidance section covers all the
automatic flight modes : speed guidance,
lateral guidance and vertical guidance.
Speed Guidance
It is mainly related to the autothrust system.
Autothrust arming
If the autothrust system is off, it is armed
when the throttle levers are moved to the
FLX/MCT or TOGA detent during take off, or
when the levers are moved in the TOGA detent
while the aircraft is in flight and the flaps are
extended (go around).
When the autothrust system is armed, the
A/THR light illuminates on the FCU panel, and
a blue A/THR message appears on the FMA.
Note that the A/THR button light also
illuminates when the autothrust is active. This
is why the pilot must look at the FMA (column
5) to determine if it is armed or active.
Typical FMA display when take off power is applied.
The first column shows FLEX power is selected,
and column 5 shows the autothrust system is armed.
When the autothrust system is armed, only the
fixed thrust modes (constant thrust provided)
are available :
• TOGA - Take off / Go around :
This mode provides the maximum thrust,
“MAN TOGA” is displayed on the FMA
(column 1).
• FLX – Flex :
It is used for reduced thrust take off. The
provided thrust depends on the
temperature that is entered in the MCDU
PERF page. If the aircraft is on the ground,
“MAN FLX” message is displayed on the
FMA (column 1) with the selected
temperature in blue.
If the flex mode is used for take off and no
temperature has been entered in the
MCDU, a message “FLX TEMP NOT SET”
appears on the E/WD. In this case, the take
off should continue in TOGA mode by
pushing the throttle levers into the TOGA
detent. This removes the caution message.
• MCT - Maximum continuous thrust :
It provides a fixed thrust that is the
maximum continuous thrust depending on
the current conditions. This is the normal
lever position if an engine fails.
• CL – Climb :
Climb thrust is provided based on the
current conditions. A message “THR CLB”
is displayed on the FMA when the fixed
climb thrust is provided. The aircraft speed
is then controlled by the pitch (used for
climb).
• IDLE :
This mode provides fixed idle thrust. A
message “THR IDLE” is displayed on the
FMA when the fixed idle thrust is provided,
and a flashing “IDLE” message is shown on
the E/WD when the engine power is idle.
The aircraft speed is then controlled by the
pitch (used for open descent).
The autothrust mode is displayed on the FMA,
column 1. When armed, the autothrust mode
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Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
is displayed in white inside a white bordered
box.
The autothrust is disarmed when the A/THR
button is depressed on the FCU, or when the
throttle levers are moved back to the IDLE
detent.
Autothrust Active
If the autothrust system is armed, it becomes
active when the throttle levers are moved into
the CL detent. If it is off, it can be made active
by pressing the A/THR button on the FCU.
When the autothrust system is active, the
A/THR light illuminates on the FCU panel, and
a white A/THR message appears on the FMA
(column 5). The thrust mode displayed in the
1st column of the FMA appears in green.
When the autothrust is active, the fixed and
variable thrust modes are available. In this
mode only, the autothrust fully controls the
thrust to maintain selected or managed speed
in level flight or when the aircraft is following
a specific vertical path (ILS approach for
example).
Variable thrust modes are :
• SPEED
This mode is available only when the
autothrust system is active. A “SPEED”
message is displayed in green on the FMA
(column 1) when this mode is engaged.
The autothrust automatically switches to
this mode when :
– the aircraft levels off from a climb or a
descent,
– a vertical guidance mode that commands
a specific vertical path (V/S or ILS mode)
is engaged,
– The flight directors are turned off.
• MACH
It is the same as the SPEED mode. It is only
available at high altitudes. The autothrust
system automatically switches from
SPEED to MACH and vice-versa at a
predetermined altitude.
The autothrust system can be changed to
armed mode by moving the throttle levers
24
forward into the FLX/MCT or TOGA detent.
The autothrust is de-activated if the A/THR
button is depressed on the FCU, or when the
throttle levers are moved back to the IDLE
detent. In this case, an “A/THR OFF” message
appears on the E/WD for a few seconds and a
warning sound is heard.
Thrust Limitation
During normal operations, the thrust levers
should remain in the CL detent during the
whole flight. If the autothrust system is
engaged and the levers are moved below the
CL detent (in the manual range), the thrust is
limited to the thrust lever position. If the
thrust lever position is limiting the autothrust
system, a master caution is generated and a
message is displayed on the E/WD to indicate
this. Repeated chime will sound until a
corrective action if taken.
Thrust Lock
When the autothrust system is armed with the
levers in the CL detent and the autothrust is
disengaged by pressing the FCU A/THR
pushbutton, the engine thrust remains
constant until the levers are moved out of the
CL detent. This status is shown by a flashing
THR LK message on the FMA (1st column) and
a message appears on the E/WD, asking the
pilot to move the thrust levers. Repeated
chime will sound until a corrective action if
taken.
Lateral Guidance
The lateral guidance modes provide guidance
along a lateral path according to the FCU
settings or to the flight plan stored in the
FMGC.
The pilot can control the lateral guidance
through the FCU, in which case it is a selected
lateral mode. Or he may let the FMGC manage
it, in which case it is a managed lateral mode.
Automatic Lateral Modes
During take off (as soon as the throttle levers
are in the FLEX or TOGA detent), the lateral
RWY (runway) mode automatically engages.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
This mode is designed to help the pilot in
following the runway heading. In fact, it
automatically sets the ILS frequency (if it
exists) and the yaw bar is displayed on the PFD
to help the runway tracking. If the runway has
no ILS, no yaw bar is shown.
Typical FMA display when take off power is applied.
Column 3 shows the runway mode is engaged (green
RWY), and the NAV mode is armed (blue NAV).
When the aircraft reaches the altitude of 30
feet above the ground, the NAV mode
automatically engages if a flight plan is
defined. If no flight plan is defined, or if the
flight plan leads to a discontinuity, the RWY
TRK (runway track) mode automatically
engages to help the pilot in following the
runway track after take off until another
lateral mode is selected.
Selected Lateral Mode
The pilot can control the lateral guidance
manually through the FCU by pulling the HDG
(or TRK) knob on the FCU to select the heading
(or track). Depending on the FCU mode, the
heading or the track is selected.
Managed Lateral Mode
The crew can push the HDG knob to set the
heading managed mode. The NAV mode then
becomes active (shown in green on the FMA)
and the aircraft follows the flight plan entered
in the FMGC.
If the heading is in managed mode on the
ground, the NAV mode is armed (shown in blue
on the FMA). It will automatically become
active shortly after take off.
Vertical Guidance
The vertical modes provide guidance along the
vertical flight plan, according to the FMGC
flight plan and pilot inputs via the FCU.
The pilot can control the vertical guidance
manually through the FCU (selected vertical
mode) or let the FMGC manage the vertical
guidance (managed vertical mode).
The vertical modes are always on the 2nd
column of the FMA. The active mode is
displayed in green on the first line, and the
armed mode is shown on the second line in
blue.
Automatic Vertical Modes
During take off (as soon as the throttle levers
are in the FLEX or TOGA detent), the lateral SRS
(speed reference system) mode automatically
engages if some conditions are fulfilled :
• The flaps are extended,
• V2 was entered in the MCDU Take off PERF
page.
This mode is designed to manage the initial
climb, from the ground to the acceleration
altitude. It will make the aircraft climb at the
highest possible rate of climb, keeping V2+10
knots if all engines are running, otherwise V2.
This mode is very helpful, you just have to follow
the flight director after take off to make a perfect
climb.
Typical FMA display when take off power is applied.
Column 2 shows the speed reference system mode is engaged
(green SRS),and the managed climb mode is armed (blue
CLB).
As soon as the acceleration altitude is
reached, the vertical mode automatically
switches to CLB mode.
Selected Vertical Modes
The pilot can control the vertical guidance
manually through the FCU by doing the
following actions :
• Select a new altitude on the FCU using the
altitude knob,
• Then select a vertical mode using the
altitude knob, the V/S knob or the EXPED
button. This action will determine the
vertical mode that will be used to fly the
aircraft : V/S, FPA, Open Climb or Open
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
25
Airbus Series Vol.1
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Descent.
Open Climb (OP CLB)
This mode is used to climb at a selected altitude
without taking care of any altitude constraint.
This mode is linked to the THR CLB autothrust
mode (fixed thrust mode with N1 set according to
the CLB thrust setting). When this mode is active,
the current selected or managed target speed is
held and the pitch is adjusted consequently. This
is why the V/S FCU display is dashed.
If the EXPED mode is engaged when the open
climb mode is active, the aircraft will climb as
quickly as possible, using the green dot speed
as the target speed.
The open climb mode can be engaged only
when the autopilot and autothrust systems are
active, by the following actions :
1. Select an altitude that is higher than the
current altitude on the FCU,
2. Pull the altitude knob.
Note : If the altitude change is less than 1.200
feet, the vertical speed will be set automatically to 1.000 feet/min and the FMA
indications don’t change.
In open climb, the FMA looks like this :
Open Descent (OP DES)
This mode is similar to the open climb mode,
used for the descent. It allows the descent at a
selected altitude without honoring any altitude
constraint. It is linked to the THR IDLE
autothrust mode, which means the engines
power will be set to IDLE.
If the EXPED mode is engaged when the open
descent mode is active, the aircraft will
descend as quickly as possible, using the
maximum speed of 340 kts/ Mach .80 as the
target speed (potentially limited by the VMAX
speed).
The open descent mode can be engaged only
when the autopilot and autothrust systems are
26
active, by the following actions :
3. Select an altitude that is lower than the
current altitude on the FCU,
4. Pull the altitude knob.
Note : The open descent should not be used at
low altitudes.
Vertical Speed / Flight Path Angle (VS or FPA)
These modes let the pilot control the climb or
descent through the vertical speed or the
flight path angle (depending on the FCU mode,
V/S – HDG or TRK – FPA). Consequently, the
FCU V/S or FPA display shows the selected
value.
These modes are linked to the Speed/Mach
autothrust mode (variable thrust mode that
adjusts the engine power according to the
speed target).
The FMA displays the selected mode (V/S or
FPA) with the current selected value in blue.
In V/S mode, the FMA and FCU may look like
this :
In FPA mode, they may look like this :
Managed Vertical Modes
In Managed vertical mode, the FMGC determines the best climb or descent profile.
By default, the CLB mode (climb mode) is
armed when the aircraft is on the ground. It is
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Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
shown in blue on the FMA. It means the climb
mode will be automatically activated as soon
as the aircraft reaches the acceleration
altitude set in the MCDU (refer to the FMGC
section to know more about the acceleration
altitude).
Managed Climb
The managed climb can be set at any time by
selecting a higher altitude on the FCU and
pushing the ALT knob. The managed climb can
be activated only if the NAV mode is active
(lateral mode managed).
The managed climb is very similar to the open
climb mode described earlier. The only
difference is that the managed climb mode
respects the altitude constraints. If there is no
constraint, the open climb and managed climb
modes are just the same.
If an altitude constraint is defined on the next
waypoint, the managed climb mode respects it by
limiting the target altitude to the altitude
constraint value. In other words, the target altitude
will be the altitude constraint, even if the altitude
displayed on the FCU is higher. In this situation, the
target altitude symbol appears in magenta on the
altitude tape, and the ALT message is shown in
magenta on the FMA to indicate the presence of a
constraint. As soon as the constrained waypoint is
passed, the target altitude becomes the FCU
altitude, unless another constraint is defined.
Managed Descent
The managed descent should be used only
when the aircraft is at cruise altitude. It can be
engaged only if the NAV mode is activated
(managed lateral mode). To engage the
managed descent, an altitude lower than the
current altitude must be selected on the FCU,
and the ALT knob must be pushed.
When the managed descent is initiated, the
aircraft will try to descend using idle thrust as
long as possible to save fuel. It will also respect
the constraints, especially the speed limitation
below the limitation altitude (usually, the speed
limit is 250 kt below 10,000 ft). In fact, the FMGC
computes a ideal descent path it will do
everything possible to maintain the aircraft on
this path.
As soon as you initiate the descent, the FMA
looks like this :
The thrust is reduced to idle, and a magenta
circle appears on the altitude tape. It
represents the vertical deviation between the
current altitude and the computed descent
path. In managed descent mode, the FMGC
will adjust the vertical speed to minimize the
vertical deviation. This will be done by
adjusting the descent speed by +/-20 knots
around the managed descent speed. This
interval is shown on the speed tape by 2 half
triangles showing the minimum and maximum
speed the aircraft can take to manage the
descent.
The best option is to initiate the descent when
you reach the Top of Descent point, displayed
on the Navigation Display, unless the ATC
commands you to descend at another time...
The top of descent point, computed by the FMGC,
is shown with a white down arrow (1)
For any reason, you may initiate the descent
before or after the computed top of descent point.
In this case, the FMGC will do its best to put the
aircraft back on the computed descent profile. If
you descend before, the FMGC will command a
slow descent (at 1.000 feet per minute) until it
intercepts the computed descent path. If you
descent after, the FMGC will initiate a idle descent
with a high rate of descent while keeping the
airspeed within the possible range (+/-20 knots
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
27
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
around the descent target speed). If the aircraft is
very high above the descent profile, the FMGC
may be unable to intercept the path because it
would need a descent speed higher than the
maximum authorized speed. If this happens, the
only solution is to extend the speed brakes so that
the angle of descent increases with the same
airspeed.
The example below shows a managed descent
where the aircraft is above the computed
descent path :
will result in a VERY high descent rate.
During the managed descent, additional
information is computed by the FMGC and
displayed on the ND with the pseudowaypoints. These waypoints are computed by
the FMGC and added in the flight plan when all
the necessary information is entered by the
crew.
The pseudo-waypoints are the following:
• Speed Limit :
It is displayed as a magenta filled circle. It
shows where the aircraft will accelerate or
decelerate to reach a new target speed. On
this example, this waypoint is positioned
where the aircraft crosses 10,000 feet and
it will accelerate from 250 to 300 knots.
During a managed descent, the PFD displays
speed and altitude information relative to the descent.
1. The descent target speed is shown with a
magenta = sign.
2. The FMGC can adjust the speed up to the
maximum managed descent speed, which
is the target speed + 20 knots.
3. If the aircraft has to slow down the aircraft,
it can adjust the speed down to the
minimum managed descent speed, which
is the target speed - 20 knots.
4. The descent path indicator (magenta
circle) shows the vertical deviation with the
computed descent profile.
On this example, the aircraft is above the
descent path (the magenta circle is below the
altitude yellow line), which is why the FMGC
commands a speed higher than the descent
target speed (300 knots) in order to increase
the angle of descent while keeping idle thrust.
The managed descent speed will not exceed
320 knots. If this speed is still too low to
intercept the descent path, you can extend the
speed brakes, but you should be aware that it
28
•
Top of Climb (1) and Top of Descent (2) :
They are shown with white arrows on the
flight plan. The top of climb is placed
where the aircraft is supposed to reach the
cruise altitude, and the top of descent is
positioned where the crew should initiate
the descent to follow the computed
descent path as closely as possible.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
AUTOFLIGHT
•
Deceleration point :
It is displayed with a big ‘D’. It shows
where
the
aircraft
will
start
decelerating for the approach. If the
aircraft is in managed descent and
managed heading, the FMGC will
automatically switch to the approach
phase. It means it will automatically
decelerate to green dot speed in clean
configuration, then to S, F and Vapp
speed according to the aircraft
configuration. In addition, the ILS
frequency of the arrival runway will be
tuned, if it is an ILS approach.
Managed Descent with the FS ATC :
If you fly with the FS virtual ATC, there is a
high probability that it asks you to initiate
your descent before the computed top of
descent point. This is not a problem, you can
engage a managed descent. In this case, your
aircraft will be below the computed descent
path for a certain time (descent at 1000 feet
per minute) and it will finally intercept the
correct descent path.
In addition, the ATC will probably ask you to
turn to a certain heading before you reach the
deceleration point (D point). In this case, you
will have to select a heading manually, and
this will force you to leave the NAV mode
(managed lateral mode). Consequently, the
FMGC will not automatically switch to the
approach phase, you will have to do it
manually through the PERF page. I suggest you
do this when switching to the tower frequency
to get the landing clearance.
Approach & Landing
If the speed is managed when the approach
phase is active, the target speed will be:
• Green dot speed if the aircraft is in clean
configuration
• S speed if the slats are extended
• F speed if the flaps are extended
• Vapp if the flaps are in configuration 3 or
FULL
These speeds are computed by the FMGC. The
Vapp speed is continuously updated to take the
current wind into account and make sure the
aircraft can land in safe conditions.
When the aircraft is close to the arrival airport
and the ILS signal is received, the pilot can
initiated an ILS approach by engaging the LOC
and APPR mode to follow the localizer and the
glide slope. Remember that the localizer
should always be captured before the APPR
mode is armed for the glide slope capture.
As soon as the APPR mode is engaged, you can
switch on both autopilots. This is the only time
you can turn them on simultaneously in order
to provide redundancy for an autoland. If both
autopilots are engaged and the ILS is
captured, you can just let the aircraft go and it
will proceed to an automatic landing.
When the aircraft reaches 400 feet AGL, the
LAND mode activates, as shown on the FMA :
As the aircraft comes closer to the ground, it
will automatically engage the flare, which is
also shown on the FMA :
During an autoland, the only action required of
the pilot is to pull the thrust levers back to the
idle position when the "Retard, Retard" callout is heard 20 feet AGL.
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
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Airbus Series Vol.1
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When the aircraft touches the ground, the
ROLL OUT mode engages to steer the aircraft
on the ground. If the auto-brake was engaged,
the aircraft automatically brakes to decelerate
on the ground. This action is shown through the
auto-brake pushbuttons with a “DECEL” signal:
Applying the brakes manually disengages the
auto-brakes.
The pilot is free to engage the reverse thrust if
necessary (this action will never be triggered
by the autopilot). If the pilot makes no action,
the aircraft will come to a complete stop.
If the pilot wants to take control of the aircraft,
he must disengage the autopilot. It looks
obvious, but pilots often forget this and don’t
understand why they can’t control the aircraft
to leave the runway...
30
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
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Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
EFIS
the overhead window.
PANEL GENERAL USAGE
The panel is composed of several windows
that can be popped-up using the auto-hidden
icon bar or the following keys:
• Shift-3 for the pedestal
• Shift-4 for the overhead panel
• Shift-5 for the MCDU
The icon bar is located in the bottom left area
of the main panel, as shown here :
Show/hide
the
pedestal
window
(equivalent to Shift-3). Just like the
overhead, the pedestal also has an auto-hidden
close icon that appears only when the mouse is
moved over it.
Show/hide the MCDU (similar to Shift-5).
The MCDU also has an auto-hidden close
icon.
The icons are invisible to avoid disturbing the
panel view. They become visible when the mouse
is moved over the icon bar, and the hovered icon
is highlighted in red. It is composed of 6 icons :
This icon lets you show/hide the
overhead panel (similar to Shift-4). When
the overhead panel is visible, you can click this icon
again to hide it. You can also move the mouse over
the top right corner of the overhead panel
where a close icon appears allowing you to close
32
This icon shows/hides the zoomed panel
view. This view displays the 3 main EFIS
(PFD, ND, E/WD) in a large view that takes all
the possible space and hides the standby
instruments. The glareshield remains visible
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
to provide the pilot with access to the FCU,
EFIS CP,...
Left/Right passenger views : these
icons let your passengers see
from the left/right of the aircraft. These views
are very useful during replays.
PFD – PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY
The PFD shows all the essential information
required to fly the aircraft.
EFIS USAGE
All the EFIS (PFD, ND, E/WD and SD) are
expandable (pop-up), detachable, resizable
and their brightness is adjustable.
When the mouse is over any EFIS central zone,
also called “active zone” (shown here in
magenta), you can :
• Pop-up the EFIS by clicking with the left
mouse button. When it is popped-up, you
can drag it by clicking in the outer zone
(shown in green) to move it around the
screen or on an additional monitor if you
have one. You can also resize it by dragging
a border or a corner.
• Adjust the brightness by turning the
mouse wheel.
• Reset the brightness by clicking the middle
button (on many mice, this corresponds to
clicking the wheel itself).
You can also use the number keys combined
with Shift to pop-up an EFIS, which is
especially useful when the EFIS is not visible
on the screen (i.e. when an outside view is
active):
• Shift-6 for the PFD
• Shift-7 for the ND
• Shift-8 for the E/WD
• Shift-9 for the SD.
PFD, aircraft stopped on the ground
PFD in flight
It is composed of several parts :
• Attitude indicator, also known as the
artificial horizon (center)
• Flight director
• Speed indicator (left)
• Altitude indicator (right)
• Heading/Track indicator (bottom part)
• Flight Mode Annunciator FMA (upper part)
• ILS guidance (localizer and glide slope)
• Radio-altitude
All these components will be described in this
chapter.
If IRS is not aligned, some information is
unavailable and can not be displayed on the
PFD, which shows as following :
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Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
Attitude Indicator
1. Horizon line : representation of the
horizon on the attitude indicator. Ticks are
drawn every 10° to visualize the heading
variation, especially useful during turns.
When the flight director is off, a vertical blue
line on the horizon shows the heading or track
selected on the FCU. This is very useful when
landing manually with cross wind.
2. Pitch indicator : the pitch indicator, also
called “pitch ladder”, shows the pitch angle, in
degrees, with a line every 2.5 degrees. The top
image shows a pitch of about 5°.
3. Bank angle reference : on the top of the
attitude indicator, ticks represent bank angles
of 10, 20, 30 and 45°.
4. Bank angle indicator : this yellow index
moves as the aircraft banks. It can be moved in
front of one of the tick to manage a turn with an
accurate bank angle. This is especially useful to
manage procedure turns when flying in manual
mode.
The image shows a right turn with a
maintained bank angle of 25°.
The yellow bank angle indicator is also a side
slip indicator. The bottom part slides on the
left or right when the turn is not coordinated.
This never happens in normal law because the
fly-by-wire system handles the autocoordination.
5. Reference bars : two bars represent the
aircraft wings. They are the pitch reference.
6. Fly-by-wire limitations : the green lines
show the limitations the fly-by-wire will respect.
On the left and right of the attitude indicator, the
green lines show the bank angle limitation (67°
or 45° in normal law). On the pitch ladder, green
lines show the +30°/-15° pitch angle limitation.
In normal law, the fly-by-wire system will
prevent the pilot from passing these limits.
The vertical and horizontal green lines are the
flight director. It will be described later in this
section.
34
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
When the aircraft is on the ground with
engines started, the sidestick position is
shown on the attitude indicator :
1. Maximum sidestick deviation box
2. Sidestick position indicator
Flight Director
The flight director shows the pilot what directions
must be taken to follow the aircraft guidance
calculated by the FMGC. When the aircraft is
flown manually, the pilot in command is in charge
of following the flight director in order to fly the
aircraft as required by the FCU settings. When
the autopilot is active, it will do exactly the same
byl commanding the aircraft to follow the flight
director. If you want to fly the aircraft manually
without taking the FCU settings into account, you
should disconnect the flight director.
The fly-by-wire system automatically hides
the flight director bars when the bank angle
reaches preset limits.
The flight director has 2 different shapes,
accor-ding to the guidance mode selected on
the FCU :
In HDG/VS (heading/vertical speed) mode, the flight
director shows a horizontal and a vertical trend bars to
guide the aircraft on the vertical and lateral path.
In TRK/FPA (track/flight path angle) mode, the flight
director is displayed as a line with 2 triangles (1) and the
flight path vector, also called “the bird”, is shown as an
aircraft symbol (2). To follow the flight director in this
mode, you should align the bird with the flight director
symbol.
Some Advice
Flight Director Usage
When the aircraft is flown by the autopilot,
remember that the flight director is “the
brain”, and the autopilot “the muscle”. The
FMGC and the flight director “think” and
calculate the right flight control movements to
guide the aircraft on the right trajectory. The
autopilot is in charge of moving the flight
controls according to the orders given by the
flight director.
This means you can replace the autopilot and
fly the aircraft manually, following the
directions provided by the flight director. Your
actions on the sidestick will merely replace
the actions taken by the autopilot.
Many pilots say the flight director should be
turned off when flying the aircraft manually.
For example, imagine you plan to land on
runway 25 at Paris Orly (LFPO). At the very last
moment, you change your mind (or ATC asks
you to do so) and you have to land on runway
26 instead. In this case, no time to re-program
the FMGC, you switch FD off and finish your
approach on runway 26 manually, helped by
the ILS.
Resetting the FCU
When you switch the flight director off, it
clears the FCU memory. This is why many
pilots switch the FD off and on at the very
beginning of the flight, in order to reset the
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
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FCU and make sure no mode remains engaged
because of the previous flight.
Choosing HDG/VS or TRK/FPA guidance mode
The choice between these two modes is a
matter of personal preference. Some pilots
say that TRK/FPA mode should be used when
flying the aircraft manually without using the
flight director.
My advice is that you should use your personal
experience. In my opinion, the TRK/FPA mode
is very useful when you land manually with
strong cross winds. You shouldn’t use the
auto-pilot and autoland is such situations.
Guiding the aircraft manually along its final
approach trajectory is made easy by the use of
the “bird” in TRK/FPA mode. First, set the
TRACK value to the runway orientation. Then
use the ILS indication to put the aircraft on the
localizer and glide slope. When the aircraft is
aligned with the ILS, you just have to keep the
bird aligned with the heading vertical blue
line (lateral guidance) and keep the bird at 3°
on the pitch ladder (vertical guidance).
Remember that the “bird” (flight path vector)
shows you where the aircraft is actually going.
This visual assistance helps you in following
the ILS indication very easily. Try it, and you
will appreciate it, even with strong cross
winds.
Speed Indicator
The current airspeed The current airspeed The current airspeed
is 276 knots
is 296 knots
is 298 knots
(Mach 0.56) and
(Mach 0.59) and
(Mach 0.6) and
the target speed is the target speed is the target speed is
290 knots (managed). 250 knots (selected) 310 knots (selected).
36
Standard Information
1. Scrolling speed tape. The minimum
airspeed registered here is 40 knots.
2. Target speed entered on the FCU (if
selected) or managed by the FMGC. The
triangle index showing the target speed is
magenta if the speed is managed and blue
if the speed is selected.
If the target speed value is not visible on
the speed tape, it is displayed above the
speed tape if higher than the highest
displayed speed, and below if it is lower
than the lowest displayed speed. Again, it
is displayed in magenta if managed and in
blue if selected.
3. Mach speed. It is shown only when mach
speed is greater or equal to 0.50.
4. Speed trend: shows the airspeed the
aircraft will achieve in 10 seconds.
Additional Information
The speed tape also shows additional
information:
• VFE NEXT (1)
This is the VFE (maximum speed
with
flaps
extended)
that
corresponds to the next flap/slat
position. You should make sure the
actual airspeed is below VFE NEXT
before extending more flaps.
It is shown with an amber = sign.
• Green dot speed (2)
It is shown with a green circle on the
speed tape. It is the best lift over drag
speed. In clean configuration, it is the
maneuvering speed.
It is used as the target speed during single
engine climb and during expedite climb.
• At low speeds, the minimum safe speeds
are displayed
VLS (1)
It is shown with an amber line next to the
speed tape. It is the lowest selectable
speed. If the pilot selects a
speed below VLS, the autothrust
system limits the speed to VLS.
Alpha Protection (2)
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Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
The alpha protection system will
trigger when the airspeed
reaches this value. It is
displayed as black and amber
rectangles next to the speed
tape.
•
•
•
Alpha max (3)
This speed corresponds to the maximum
angle of attack.
It is shown as a red ribbon.
At high speeds, the maximum speeds are
displayed
VMAX (1)
This is the maximum speed the aircraft
can take, depending on its configuration. It
is shown by a red scale on the speed tape :
• VMO/MMO in clean configuration
• VLE if landing gear is extended
• VFE is flaps/slats are extended (varies with the flap
configuration)
Max speed = VMO + 6 knots (2)
Speed at which the fly-by-wire
system will take corrective
actions to reduce speed.
During take off
V1 (1), speed at which takeoff
can not be aborted shown with
a ‘1’ and a blue line
VR (2), rotation speed shown as
a blue circle
V2 (3), speed at which the
aircraft can climb safely shown
as a magenta triangle (target
speed)
In flight
Maneuvering speed
This is the normal procedure speed that
depends on the aircraft configuration:
• Green Dot speed in clean configuration
• S speed (1) if slats are deployed (flap
handle in position 1)
• F speed if the flaps are
deployed (flaps in position 2,
3 or FULL)
The maneuvering speed is
not a minimal speed (you can
fly the aircraft below this
speed), but it is the
“standard” speed that should
be used for procedures such
as holding
patterns or final approach.
If the speed is managed during
approach, the maneuvering speed will
be used as the target speed.
Note : If you fly the aircraft below the
maneuvering speed, the autopilot
bank angle will be automatically
limited to 15°, instead of 25° in normal
conditions.
When the autopilot and autothrust are active,
the actual target speed will never be higher
than the current maximum speed, and it will
never be lower than VLS.
For example, if you select a speed of 250 knots
on the FCU when the landing gear is extended,
a target speed of 210 knots (VLE) will be taken
into account by the FCU.
Managed Descent Information
In the managed descent mode, the PFD displays
additional speed information. During a managed
descent, the FMGC is allowed to adjust the
target speed by +/-20 knots around the target
speed. This is shown on the speed tape as
follows :
1. The target speed (300 knots in this
example)
2,3.The minimum and maximum speed the
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Airbus Series Vol.1
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aircraft can take to stay on the computed
descent path.
4. Vertical path indicator (refer to the altitude
tape section for more information)
Refer to the Autoflight section for more
information about the managed descent.
Altitude Indicator
The altitude tape displays the altitude just like
the speed tape displays the speed.
Altitude tape
Altitude tape
when the aircraft
(in flight)
is on the
showing the FCU
ground.
target altitude.
Vertical Speed indicator
It is located on the right of the altitude
indicator. It shows the current vertical speed
with a needle and a numerical value (in
hundreds of feet per minute).
Altitude tape
during
descent.
1. Current altitude value shown in the
altitude window. The altitude is shown in
green in normal conditions, in amber when
the aircraft altitude is below the MDA
(Minimum Descent Altitude, entered in the
MCDU).
The yellow frame flashes when the aircraft
is near the target altitude. It is amber
when the aircraft is too high or too low
according to the FCU altitude mode.
2. Red ribbon showing the ground altitude.
3. FCU target altitude: this symbol is shown
in blue, except when the target altitude is
limited by an altitude constraint on the
next waypoint. In this case, it is magenta.
When the target altitude is higher than the
highest altitude displayed (or lower than
the lowest altitude displayed), the target
altitude is displayed numerically above (or
below) the altitude tape. It is displayed in
feet or as a flight level (FLxxx), depending
on the altimeter setting.
4. During the descent, the magenta circle
shows the deviation between the current
altitude and the computed descent path.
38
5. In this case, the target altitude is lower
than the lowest displayed altitude, so it is
displayed below the tape altitude. As the
aircraft is above the transition altitude, the
target altitude is displayed in flight level.
The vertical speed indicator turns amber when
the vertical speed is too critical. The maximum
vertical speed depends on the aircraft
configuration.
Heading Indicator
1. Heading reference line (yellow) shows the
current aircraft heading.
2. Track : the green diamond shows the
current track, which is the direction in
which the aircraft really flies. There is no
difference between heading and track
when the wind is null. On this example,
there is a light crosswind from the right.
3. Triangle showing the FCU target heading.
It is hidden if the heading is managed.
If the target heading is out of the heading
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Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
indicator range, it is displayed on the left
or on the right (6).
4. Magenta cross showing the ILS course.
5. If the ILS course is out of the current
heading range, it is displayed in magenta
in a window on the left or the right of the
heading tape.
The crew should always look at the FMA to
know the autothrust status. The A/THR
light on the glareshield turns on when the
autothrust is armed or engaged. Only the
FMA shows the true autothrust status.
ND – NAVIGATION DISPLAY
Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA)
It is located in the top part of the PFD. It is the
most important indicator showing in what
mode the aircraft is currently flying.
It is composed of 5 columns. The first column
shows the speed guidance mode. The second
and third columns show the vertical and
lateral guidance modes. Refer to the
Autoflight section to know more about speed
guidance, vertical and lateral guidance.
The fourth column shows the approach mode :
• Line 1 : Category of the current ILS
approach, if any. It is CAT 1 if the aircraft is
flown manually or CAT 3 if the autopilot is
engaged.
• Line 2 : SINGLE or DUAL depending on the
number of autopilots engaged during an
ILS approach.
• Line 3 : Decision height (DH) or the
minimum descent altitude (MDA) entered
in the MCDU. If a value has been entered in
the MCDU, it is displayed on the FMA when
the aircraft is within 200 NM of the
destination.
The ND is designed to show the aircraft's
position as it flies along the programmed
flight plan.
Typical ND in rose mode.
Tyypical ND in arc mode.
If no IRS is aligned, the ND looks like this :
The last column shows the automatic modes:
• Line 1 : Autopilot mode: AP1 for the first
autopilot, AP2, for the second autopilot,
AP1+2 for both.
• Line 2 : Flight Directors: 1FD for the
captain FD, FD2 for first officer FD, 1FD2
for both.
• Line 3 : Autothrust status: A/THR is
displayed in blue if autothrust is armed, in
white if autothrust is engaged.
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39
Airbus Series Vol.1
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Rose mode.
4. NDB pushbutton : Show/hide the NDB stations
(non-directional beacons), represented as
magenta circles.
5. Airport pushbutton (ARPT) : Show/hide the
airports, drawn with magenta stars. The
departure/arrival airport is drawn as a
white star, until the departure/arrival
runway is defined.
Only one pushbutton can be selected. When
the pilot presses one of them, the others are
deselected. If he presses a selected button,
the function is turned off.
Arc mode.
EFIS Control Panel
The ND can be used in different modes as
selected on the EFIS Control Panel located on
the glareshield.
This control panel is composed of 5 selection
pushbuttons that are used when the ND is in
NAV, ARC or PLAN mode to show/hide
elements in the aircraft’s vicinity :
The EFIS control panel also has 2 rotating
knobs :
6. Mode selector : ILS, VOR, NAV, ARC or PLAN.
It lets the crew select the ND mode,
explained later in this section.
7. Range selector (from 10 to 320 NM) : It lets
you select the ND range.
The EFIS control panel also selects the navaid
information displayed on the ND :
8. Left navaid selection: It can be set to ADF,
VOR or nothing. The left navaid information
is displayed on the ND bottom left corner.
9. Right navaid selection: It can be set to ADF,
VOR or nothing. The right navaid
information is displayed on the ND bottom
right corner.
ND Modes
1. Constraint pushbutton (CSTR) : This
button is used to show/hide constraints on
waypoints on the waypoints where a
constraint is defined. A waypoint that has a
constraint is drawn with a magenta circle.
Its altitude and/or speed constraints are
displayed with numbers.
2. Waypoint pushbutton (WPT) : Show/hide
the intersections on the ND. The
intersections are represented as magenta
triangles.
3. VOR/DME pushbutton (VOR.D) : Show/hide
the VOR, DME or VOR-DME.
40
ILS Mode : The ILS needle is displayed in
magenta with the course deviation indicator
and the glideslope indicator. The ILS name,
course and frequency are displayed in the top
right corner. TCAS information is visible.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
reference waypoint displayed in the center is
the waypoint selected on the second line of the
MCDU Flight Plan page. You can visualize the
entire flight plan by scrolling the waypoint on
the MCDU FPLN page.
VOR Mode : The VOR1 needle is displayed in
blue with the course deviation indicator. The
VOR1 name, course and frequency are
displayed in the top right corner.
TCAS information is visible.
NAV Mode : The flight plan entered in the FMGC
is displayed in ROSE mode. The next waypoint
name, bearing, distance and estimated time of
arrival (ETA) is displayed in the top right
corner. TCAS information is visible.
ARC Mode : The flight plan is displayed in ARC
mode. The next waypoint is displayed in the top
right corner like on NAV mode. In this example,
the surrounding waypoints are also displayed
(the WPT button is lit on the EFIS CP).
PLAN Mode : The flight plan is displayed. The
General Information
The ND also shows permanent information
that appears in all modes except PLAN mode.
1. Ground Speed (GS) : This is the aircraft’s
speed relative to the ground. This
information is visible only when at least
one of the IRS is aligned (if you are in
Beginner mode, the IRS are always
aligned).
2. True Air Speed (TAS) : This is the real aircraft
airspeed. It is different from the Indicated Air
Speed (IAS) because the IAS varies with
altitude (the air is thinner at high altitudes). If
there is no wind at all, the TAS is equal to the
GS. Just like for the GS, the TAS is not
accessible if no IRS is aligned, unless you are
in Beginner mode.
3. Wind Speed & Direction : This indicator
provides the wind speed (in knots) and the
heading from which it comes. It is
displayed with numbers and with a rotating
arrow that represents the wind direction.
4. Left Navaid : The left navaid symbol, type,
name/frequency and distance are shown. If
a navaid name is extracted from the signal
received on the corresponding frequency it
is displayed on the ND, otherwise the
frequency is displayed. The navaid type
(VOR, ADF or nothing) is selected on the
EFIS control panel.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
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5. Right Navaid : Same as above for the right
navaid.
6. TCAS : The ND also shows TCAS information. Refer to the TCAS section to know
more about this system.
7. Aircraft Symbol : It represents the current position of the aircraft. It is always used as the center
reference of the ND, except in PLAN mode.
8. Lateral Deviation : If the aircraft is not on
the programmed route, this number shows
the lateral deviation (in NM) between the
aircraft and the route.
Navigation Information
The ND displays some navigation specific
information.
1. The vertical yellow line shows the current
aircraft heading.
2. Autopilot heading : The blue triangle
shows the target heading selected on the
FCU. If the heading is managed, this
triangle does not appear.
3. The green diamond shows the current
track, which is the direction in which the
aircraft is actually flying. In this example,
as the wind comes from the right, the track
is on the left of the heading. If there is no
wind, the heading and the track are the
same.
If the heading is selected, a full green line
is drawn from the aircraft position to the
track diamond to visualize the aircraft
trajectory.
4. The flight plan entered in the FMGC is
drawn in green. If the heading is in
managed mode, it is a solid green line. If
42
the heading is selected, it is a dashed
green line.
The flight plan waypoints are represented
with green diamonds, except the next
waypoint, which is drawn in white.
5. Auto-tuned navaid: When the FMGC autotunes the VOR1 or VOR2 navaid, it is
displayed in blue on the ND. In this
example, AGN is the auto-tuned VOR2 and
it is the next waypoint. This is why AGN is
drawn both in white and in blue.
Flight Plan Information
Runways
If the crew has not defined the departure/
arrival runways, the departure/arrival
airports are displayed as white stars.
When the runway information is entered in the
MCDU, the runways are represented on the
flight plan display as a white rectangle. The
rectangle length and orientation represent the
actual runway length and orientation.
Waypoints
The flight plan waypoints are displayed as
green diamonds. The next waypoint of the
flight plan is shown in white and its
information (name, distance, ETA) is shown in
the top right corner.
Constraints
If a waypoint has a speed or altitude
constraint, it is represented with a magenta
circle (1). If the crew wants to have more
information about the constraints, the CSTR
button of the EFIS control panel can be
pressed to activate the constraint display for
each constrained waypoint. The altitude
and/or speed constraint is then displayed in
magenta (2).
Pseudo-Waypoints
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
The pseudo-waypoints are displayed with
specific symbols:
1,2.A white arrow shows the computed top of
climb (1) and top of descent (2).
3. A magenta point shows a speed limit
waypoint where the aircraft will have to
respect a speed limit. Usually, there is a
speed limit of 250 knots below 10.000 feet.
4. A magenta circled ‘D’ represents the
deceleration waypoint. This is the waypoint
where the aircraft will decelerate to the
green dot speed and the approach phase
will be activated.
E/WD – ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY
This EFIS shows the important engine
information. It also displays warning and alert
messages.
General Information
It can be presented with various layouts,
depending on the panel generation and on the
engine type. The following table shows the
interchange between engine type (on all the
Airbus Series aircrafts) and E/WD logic :
Aircraft
A318
Engine Type
CFM56-5
P&W 6000
E/WD logic
N1
EPR
A319/320/321
CFM56-5
IAE V2500
N1
EPR
A330-200/300
GE CF6-80C2
P&W 4000
RR Trent 700
N1
EPR
EPR
A340-300
CFM56-5
N1
A340-500/600
RR Trent 500
EPR
According to the E/WD logic and panel
generation, the E/WD screen looks like the
following images :
Typical E/WD layout on an old-generation panel with
N1 logic (such as an A320 equipped with CFM56
engines).
E/WD layout on an old-generation panel with EPR
logic (such as an A320 equipped with IAE engines).
E/WD layout on an new-generation panel with N1
logic (such as an A318 equipped with CFM56
engines).
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43
Airbus Series Vol.1
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E/WD layout on an new-generation panel with EPR
logic (such as an A330 equipped with Rolls-Royce
engines).
Whatever the layout, the E/WD shows the
important engine information and the
warning/alert messages.
1. This area is dedicated to the engine
information. It varies depending on the
panel generation and the engine type. In
every case, the information that is used to
command the engine is displayed first. It
can be N1 or EPR.
This example shows a CFM56 engine E/WD, managed
by N1 :
1. For each information, the current value is shown with
a needle and a numerical value. They are green if the
44
value is normal, amber if the value is too high. If
a value is not available, amber XX are displayed.
2. The red zone shows the maximum value that
should never be reached. If by any chance the
value overpasses the maximum, a red bar shows
the maximum value that was reached. It can be
cleared only by maintenance on the ground.
3. The yellow bar shows the maximum value you
can get if you push the thrust levers to the TOGA
detent. It is computed by the FADEC (Full
Authority Digital Engine Control).
4. The white ball shows the current position of the
thrust levers. When they are in the manual range,
their position determines the required thrust,
and the FADEC computes the corresponding N1
or EPR that corresponds to this request.
5,6.For each information, the name is indicated in white,
and the unit is in blue. On this example, N1 is displayed in % and EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature) in °C.
2. The current thrust mode is shown
underlined in blue. This display depends
on the position of the thrust levers. If they
are not in a detent, nothing is displayed
here, except if you set the FLEX
temperature when the aircraft is on the
ground. In this case, 'CL' is shown here to
indicate that climb thrust is set and aircraft
speed is controlled by pitch.
3. The thrust value that corresponds to the
thrust mode is displayed here. It is a N1
value (in %) for the N1 driven engines, or
an EPR value. It is regularly updated by the
FADEC because it depends on the aircraft
altitude and the external temperature. If
the autothrust system is active, the engine
thrust will be commanded to maintain this
value, according to the thrust mode.
4. The Fuel on Board (FOB) quantity is
displayed here, in kg or in lbs (depending
on the setup). It is the total quantity of fuel
available in the aircraft. If the total quantity
of fuel is not usable, an amber mark is
displayed below the FOB (this can happen
if a fuel pump fails).
5. The flaps (F) and slats (S) position is
displayed graphically here :
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Airbus Series Vol.1
EFIS
are inhibited during takeoff and landing to
avoid catching the attention of the crew
during these critical flight phases.
SD – SYSTEM DISPLAY
1. The current flap and slat position is displayed in
green.
2. The target flap and slat position is shown in blue
when the flaps or slats are moving. This depends
on the flap handle position.
3. The target position is displayed in blue when the
flaps or slats are moving, and in green when
they don’t move.
6. Warning/Alert area : It is dedicated to
warning and alert messages. Their color
depends on the severity: green messages
are for information, amber messages are
warnings and red messages are serious
alerts. Please refer to the system section
for more information about the messages
that can be displayed here.
This area is also used to display the take
off and landing check-lists. They show a
list of item that must be checked before
takeoff/ landing. Each item is shown in
blue until the corresponding action is
taken. They are shown in green if the item
status is correct.
The content of this EFIS depends on the ECAM
Control Panel located on the pedestal. If no
page is selected on the ECAM CP, the page
displayed on the SD is automatically selected
according to the flight phase and possible
alerts. The system automatically displays the
right page at the right time.
Whatever page is displayed, the SD also shows
common information in the bottom part of the
screen.
1.
2.
3.
4.
TAT : Total Air Temperature, in °C
SAT : Saturated Air Temperature, in °C
Clock (UTC time)
GW : Gross Weight, in kg or lbs (depending
on the unit system selected on the
configuration page). The gross weight is
computed by the FMGC according to the
data entered in the MCDU INIT pages. If no
data was entered, the FMGC is unable to
calculate the gross weight and amber XX is
shown.
For information, all the SD pages are shown here.
They are detailed in the aircraft system section.
The takeoff checklist shows the autobrakes, the signs
(seat belts/no smoking) and the flaps are correctly
set for takeoff, but the spoilers should be armed and
the takeoff config should be checked prior to takeoff.
7. Status message area : Like for the warning/
alert messages, their color depends on the
message severity. The only exceptions are
the takeoff and landing inhibit messages,
which are displayed in magenta. These
messages indicate that low severity alerts
Air Conditioning Page
APU Page
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Airbus Series Vol.1
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Air Bleed Page
Cabin Pressure Page
Door Page
Electricity Page
Engine Page
Flight Controls Page
Fuel Page
Hydraulics Page
Wheel Page
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For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
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SYSTEMS
This section describes the aircraft systems.
Most of them are controlled trough the
overhead panel and can be monitored on the
various SD pages.
You should always keep in mind that this
aircraft is based on the “dark cockpit”
philosophy. It means that when no light is on,
everything is all right.
ECAM CONTROL PANEL
The SD EFIS is here to provide information
about the aircraft systems. The SD page to
display is automatically selected when
needed. For example, when the crew starts
the APU, the APU page is automatically
displayed during the starting sequence.
If the crew wants to display a page at any time,
the ECAM control panel should be used. It is
located on the upper part of the pedestal. It
provides one key for each page. If the pilot
presses a key, the associated light turns on and
the corresponding page is displayed on the SD.
To give the control back to the system, the pilot
can press the same key again. The light then
turns off, which means the system will
automatically select the appropriate page
when necessary.
1. TO CONFIG : This button is used to check the
takeoff configuration prior to departure. It
checks some elements of the aircraft configuration to make sure everything is OK for
takeoff.
2. ENG : The engine page displays
information about the engines.
3. BLEED : This page shows information
about the air bleed system.
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4. PRESS : This page displays information
about the cabin pressurization system.
5. ELEC : The electricity page shows the
aircraft electric circuit.
6. HYD : This page displays the hydraulic
system.
7. FUEL : The fuel page shows the fuel
information and all the aircraft fuel tanks.
8. APU : This page shows information about
the APU.
9. COND : Shows information about air
conditioning.
10. DOOR : This page shows the aircraft door
status.
11. WHEEL : This page shows the wheel and
brake status.
12. F/CTL : The flight control page shows the
position of all the flight controls and the
flight control computer status.
13. STS : The status page shows the current
failure status.
ELECTRICITY
The electricity circuit can be controlled from
the overhead ELEC section.
1.2. Battery switches. They are dark when
batteries are on (default). The battery
voltage is displayed next to each switch.
3.4. Generator switches. They are dark when in
use. They are in fault when the corresponding
engine is not running. An ‘OFF’ white light is
visible if a generator is turned off.
5. APU Generator. This switch controls the
electric power that comes from the APU. It
is on by default.
6. When an external power is available, a
green ‘AVAIL’ light turns on. The crew can
then press this button to use this
electricity source and ‘ON’ appears in blue.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
Batteries
This aircraft is equipped with 2 batteries that
can provide electricity for a limited time. As
soon as an external source is provided, the
batteries are charged if necessary.
Each battery voltage is displayed on the
overhead panel. When the aircraft is cold and
dark, the batteries should be turned on first,
even if a ground power unit is available.
switch to use this energy source. A blue ‘ON’
light then appears on the EXT PWR switch.
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
The APU is capable of providing electricity for
the aircraft. A specific section is dedicated to
the APU later in this chapter.
When the aircraft is cold and dark and no ground
power unit is available, the APU should be
turned on as soon as possible because batteries
can only provide electricity for a limited time.
ELEC Page
The electric circuits can be monitored through
the ELEC page.
Generators
The generators provide electricity from the
engine rotation. As soon as an engine is
started, its generator can be used to provide
electricity to the aircraft and the APU and GPU
can be turned off.
When the engines are stopped, the generators
are in fault mode because no energy can be
provided. When the engines start, make sure
the generators are turned on.
Ground Power Unit (GPU)
When the aircraft is parked on the ground, a
ground power unit can be connected to the
aircraft to provide electricity without needing
to burn any fuel.
This is simulated in this aircraft. When you are
parked on the ground, with parking brakes set
and engines stopped, the ground power unit is
available 1 minute after the engines have
stopped. The external power (EXT PWR)
switch then shows the GPU is available.
As soon as the aircraft moves on the ground,
the external power becomes unavailable.
1. The white boxes show each battery status,
with voltage and current.
2. Generators associated to engines 1 and 2.
Each white box shows the generator load,
the voltage and the frequency (amber XX
are shown if the corresponding engine is
stopped).
3. APU GEN : This box is visible as soon as the
APU is running and the APU GEN switch is on.
4. EXT PWR : This box is visible as soon as a
GPU is available and provides electricity.
Possible Electric Configurations
The generators provide energy with the
highest priority. In flight, the standard
configuration is shown in the following image,
with batteries and generators on, APU and
GPU off:
At this time, the crew can press the EXT PWR
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In case of an engine failure, the associated
generator can not provide energy any more. The
other engine provides AC current to the whole
sytem:
Alerts & Warnings
Message
Color
Reason
ELEC BAT 1 OFF
Amber
Battery 1 has been turned off
ELEC BAT 2 OFF
ELEC GEN 1 OFF
Amber
Amber
ELEC GEN 2 OFF
Amber
Battery 2 has been turned off
Generator 1 is off
while engine 1 is running
Generator 2 is off
while engine 2 is running
HYDRAULICS
If the generators are off or the engines are
stopped (when parked on ground for example),
the external power source (GPU) has the
priority. If it is not available, it is assumed the
APU will provide energy, as shown here:
As soon as the external power becomes available
and is selected by the crew as the energy source,
it takes the priority over the APU. The APU source
is still available, but not used :
The hydraulic system is controlled through the
‘HYD’ section of the overhead panel.
This aircraft has 3 independent hydraulic
circuits for redundancy, designated Green, Blue
and Yellow. Green and Yellow circuits are
associated to engines 1 and 2 and the Blue
circuit is pressurized by an electric hydraulic
pump.
1.2. An hydraulic pump is associated with each
engine. These switches allow the crew to
switch an engine pump off. If an engine is
stopped, the corresponding hydraulic
pump is in fault mode.
3.4. In addition, 2 electric pumps can be run to
provide hydraulic pressure even if all
engines are stopped. In standard
configuration, the Blue electric pump is on
and the Yellow electric pump is off.
5. The Power Transfer Unit (PTU) can be
turned off through this switch. The PTU is
detailed later in this section.
When the engines are stopped, the hydraulic
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
overhead section looks like this :
Power Transfer Unit (PTU)
When only 1 engine is running, it can provide
hydraulic power to the whole system through
the Power Transfer Unit. For example, if engine
1 is stopped, the Green hydraulic circuit is not
pressurized any more and the hydraulic
pressure decreases. When it is lower than a
specific threshold, the PTU activates to transfer
hydraulic pressure from the Yellow circuit to the
Green circuit, allowing all the hydraulic
systems to keep working.
The PTU generates a very typical sound that
the passengers can hear in the cabin.
Note : The PTU does not activate if the parking
brakes are set. This is done to avoid having the
PTU running when the engines are started one
after the other.
HYD Page
The hydraulic system can be monitored on the
HYD SD page.
amber if the pressure is too low.
5. Yellow electric pump status. The white
triangle appears filled amber if this pump
is turned on through the overhead panel.
6. PTU status shows how the PTU is currently
used, displayed in amber if the PTU is off.
Possible Hydraulic Configurations
In standard configuration, with all engines
running, it appears like this :
If an engine fails and the corresponding
hydraulic circuit pressure drops, the PTU
comes in action to provide the missing
pressure. On this example, engine 1 is stopped
(shown with an amber ‘1’) :
The PTU arrows show that hydraulic pressure
is transferred from the Yellow to the Green
hydraulic circuit and the typical PTU motor
sound can be heard in the cabin.
1. The 3 hydraulic reservoirs, with an arrow
showing the level.
2. The 3 hydraulic pumps. Their status depends
on the pump switches located on the overhead
panel.
3. Engine references, which show the Green
circuit depends on engine 1, and Yellow
depends on engine 2. They are shown in
amber if the corresponding engine is off.
4. The 3 engine pressures, displayed in
pound per square inch (PSI). It turns
If the PTU is turned off through the overhead
panel switch, the PTU arrows appear amber
and the Green hydraulic pressure keeps decreasing. When it reaches a low level, it is
displayed in amber to indicate a potential
danger :
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altitudes. If the fuel is not pumped out of the
tanks, the altitude increases the risk of
creating an emulsion that will damage the
engines.
Alerts & Warnings
A green status message ‘HYD PTU’ appears on
the E/WD when the PTU is active.
FUEL
The fuel system can be controlled through the
FUEL overhead section.
The aircraft has fuel tanks in the wings and in
the center fuselage. For each tank section, 2
fuel pumps are available.
The fuel system manages the fuel
automatically. Fuel is pumped from the center
tank in priority, then from the wing tanks when
the center tank is empty.
1.
2.
3.
4.
2 switches are available for the 2 left fuel pumps.
Center fuel pump switches.
Right fuel pumps switches.
Cross feed switch.
Manipulating the fuel pumps may be useful to
reduce a fuel imbalance. If you have much more
fuel in one wing than in the other, you might
want to shut off the fuel pumps to the less filled
wing and pump fuel to the engines from the
other wing. On this aircraft, the maximum fuel
imbalance is around 400 kg.
If, for any reason, part of the fuel on board is
unusable, an amber mark appears below the
FOB indication on the E/WD, as shown here :
FUEL Page
The SD FUEL page shows the current fuel
configuration :
According to the dark cockpit philosophy, no
switch light is visible when everything is OK,
that is when all the fuel pumps are on.
Fuel Pump Usage
The fuel pumps should always be on. If a fuel tank
becomes empty, the corresponding fuel pump
automatically stops. This is a normal situation.
If the crew turns the center pumps off, the fuel
from the center tank can not feed the engines any
more. However, if the crew turns the left or right
pumps off, the engines can still get fuel by gravity
feed.
Warning : If the engines are fed by gravity,
there is a high risk of engine failure at high
52
1. Left fuel pump status.
2. Center fuel pump status. On this example,
they are closed but still green. This is
because the center tank is empty. The
center pumps are off, which is a normal
situation.
3. Right fuel pump status.
4. Wing outer tank fuel quantity.
5. Wing inner tank fuel quantity.
6. Center tank fuel quantity.
7. Fuel tank temperature.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
8. Total fuel quantity on board, as displayed
on the E/WD.
9. Fuel used by each engine since it was
started.
10. APU fuel valve. It automatically opens
when the APU is running to provide fuel to
the APU.
11. Cross feed fuel valve, controlled by the
cross feed switch on the overhead panel.
Note : The fuel used (9) is reset when the flight
is reset through the ‘Reset Flight’ menu
action.
On the A321, the FUEL page has a slightly
different layout because this aircraft does not
have inner and outer wing tanks, it has a single
fuel tank in each wing :
Alerts & Warnings
Message
Color
Reason
FUEL L WING TK LO LVL
Red
Left wing fuel tank level
is too low
FUEL R WING TK LO LVL
Red
Right wing fuel tank level
is too low
FUEL L+R WING TK LO LVL
Red
Total wing fuel tank level
is too low
FUEL CTR TK PUMPS OFF
Amber
Center tanks pumps are off
while center tank is not empty
FUEL GRVTY FUEL FEEDING
Red
Wing fuel pumps are off
so the engines are fed
with gravity only
CTR TK FEEDG
Green
Status message to indicate
the fuel is pumped
from the center tank only
AIR
The air system is controlled through the AIR
COND overhead section.
1. Pack Flow. It lets the crew select the low,
normal or high pack flow.
2.3.4. Temperature knobs that let the crew
adjust the temperature in the cockpit,
forward cabin and aft cabin.
5. Hot air valve can be closed using this switch.
6.7. Pack switches.
8. Engine bleed switches. The engine bleed
valves are opened in a standard configuration. Pressing these buttons close them.
9. APU bleed switch. By default, it is closed.
The crew must press this button to let the
APU provide bleed air (necessary for initial
engine start).
10. Cross bleed (useful for restarting an
engine in flight, refer to the power plant
section for more information).
The status of the air system can be monitored
on several SD pages.
COND Page
The COND page shows the temperature in
every part of the aircraft. If the hot air valve is
closed, no more hot air will be provided to heat
the aircraft cabin.
CAB PRESS Page
The cabin pressure page shows the status of
the pressurization system.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
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position.
7. APU bleed valve.
8. Engine high-pressure valves
9. Wing anti-ice air bleed (visible only if wing
anti-ice is turned on).
10. Engine bleed valves, controlled by the ENG
BLEED overhead switches.
ANTI-ICE
1. LDG ELEV : This is the elevation of the
arrival airport. It is dashed when the
arrival airport is not defined.
2. DeltaP : This is the pressure difference
between inside and outside the aircraft.
3. Cabin V/S : This shows the vertical speed
felt by the cabin (the internal cabin pressure
variation).
4. Cabin Altitude : This is the altitude that
corresponds to the current cabin pressure.
5. Pack valves, controlled by the pack switches
on the overhead panel.
6.7.8. Inlet, extract and outflow valves. They
are automatically controlled.
9. Safety valve. It automatically opens if the delta
P is too high, to prevent any aircraft damage.
BLEED Page
It shows the status of the air bleed system.
The anti-ice protection system is controlled
through the ANTI ICE overhead section.
1. Wing anti-ice. Its status can be monitored
on the BLEED page.
2. Engine anti-ice.
3. Probe and Window anti-ice. It is fully
automatic. It provides low heating when
the aircraft is on the ground (to avoid
having ground personnel burnt if they
touch the probe) and provides full heating
as soon as the aircraft is airborne.
You can initiate full heating by pressing this
button. An 'ON' light then appears.
Alerts & Warnings
Status messages appear on the E/WD when
engine and wing anti-ice are used.
Message
Color
Reason
ENG A. ICE
Green
Engine anti-ice is on
WING A. ICE
Green
Wing anti-ice is on
AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
54
Pack outlet temperature
Pack compressor outlet temperature
Pack flow pressure
Precooler inlet pressure
Precooler outlet temperature
Cross bleed valve. If the overhead is AUTO,
the cross bleed valve status is the same as
the APU bleed valve. Otherwise, it is open
or shut according to the XBLEED knob
It is managed through the APU section of the
overhead.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
The APU fuel consumption is around 100kg per
hour.
APU Start & Stop
To turn the APU on, first press the master
switch. The APU system is activated ('ON' blue
light appears on the master switch) and the
APU flap is opened to let the air enter into the
APU ('FLAP OPEN' message displayed on the
APU page). The APU page automatically
appears on the SD.
If fuel is available, the START button can then
be pressed, an 'ON' light appears on the
button. This launches the APU start sequence.
The start sequence can be monitored on the
APU page displayed on the SD.
When the APU is started, a green 'AVAIL' light
replaces the blue 'ON' light on the START
switch. An 'AVAIL' message appears on the
APU page and an ECAM message displays
'APU AVAIL'. The APU is now ready to provide
air and electricity.
The APU can be started at any altitude and at
any airspeed.
APU Bleed
As soon as the APU is running, its air can be
used to start the engines. To do this, the crew
must press the APU BLEED button in the AIR
COND overhead section (see the Air section for
more details).
Note : If you are in Beginner mode, the APU is
not necessary to start the engines.
APU Page
The APU page appears automatically on the SD
during the APU start sequence. The crew can
also access this page by pressing the APU
button on the ECAM control panel.
1. AVAIL message appears as soon as the
APU start sequence is finished and the
APU is available.
2. FLAP OPEN message is displayed as soon
as the APU system is turned on and the
APU flap is opened to let air in.
3. This white box displays the APU electric
information : load, voltage and frequency. The
box disappears if the APU is not available. The
green arrow on top of the box disappears if
the APU GEN is turned off on the overhead.
4. This box shows the APU bleed information,
with the air bleed pressure. Amber XX is
displayed if the air bleed is not available.
5. Bleed air valve; controlled by the APU
BLEED switch on the overhead.
6. APU rotation speed.
7. APU Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT).
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
Alerts & Warnings
Status messages appear on the E/WD when
the APU is used.
Message
Color
Reason
APU AVAIL
Green
The APU is up and running
APU BLEED
Green
The APU is available and
the bleed valve is open
POWER PLANTS
The engines are managed by the Full Authority
Digital Engine Control (FADEC). This device
controls the engine during the start sequence
and during the flight to provide optimal usage.
Engine Monitoring
Engine status is monitored through the
Engine/Warning Display (E/WD), which
displays essential engine and FADEC
information. Information is also available
through the Engine and Cruise page of the SD.
Depending on the engine type and EFIS
generation, the E/WD can have different
layouts. Refer to the EFIS section for more
details. Anyway, the most important engine
information is always displayed on the E/WD.
On this example, N1, EGT, N2 and Fuel Flow
are displayed. In addition, FADEC information
is displayed: the mode, which depends on the
thrust lever detent, and the max N1 that
depends on this mode.
In addition, engine information is displayed on
the ENG page :
56
1. Fuel used by each engine since last
startup.
2. Oil quantity, in quarts
3. Oil pressure, in Pound per Square Inch (PSI)
4. Oil temperature
5. Vibration on the first compressor stage
6. Vibration on the second compressor stage
The engine page is automatically displayed
during engine start sequence. It can be
displayed at any time by pressing the ENG key
on the ECAM control panel.
During the cruise, the CRUISE page is
automatically displayed on the SD. It shows
important information about the engines and
the cabin pressurization and temperature, as
shown on the ENG and PRESS pages :
1. Fuel Used by each engine, as shown on the
engine page
2. Oil quantity (in quarts), as shown on the
engine page
3. Vibrations
4.5.6. Cabin DeltaP, vertical speed and altitude,
as shown on the PRESS page
7. Cabin temperature, as shown on the COND
page.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
Note that this page can not be selected
manually. It appears automatically on the SD
as soon as the aircraft is above the transition
altitude.
Engine Start & Stop on Ground
When the aircraft is parked on the ground and
engines have to be started, the APU must be
started first in order to provide air bleed
necessary for the engine start sequence. Refer
to the APU section for more information about
APU start and APU bleed.
When the APU is started and APU bleed is on,
the engine start is managed through the ENG
section located on the pedestal, just below the
thrust levers :
emergency, having the Yellow circuit under
pressure is safer.
Start engine 2 by using the left mouse button to
move the ENG 2 master switch up. You can
monitor the start sequence via the E/WD and on
the SD ENG page that automatically appears. As
soon as engine 2 has started, you can start
engine 1 by moving the ENG 1 master switch up.
When engine 1 is started, you should return the
engine mode switch to the NORM position.
Note : If you are in Beginner mode, you can just
press Ctrl-E to start the engines, without
needing to start the APU. This function is
inhibited in Intermediate and Expert modes.
To stop the engines, the pilot just has to move
down each engine master switch. The crew
should make sure the APU is running before
stopping all engines because generators will
stop providing electric energy.
1.2. Engine Master Switch for engine 1 and 2
3. Engine mode switch.
To start the engine, the engine mode switch
must be placed on the IGN/START position.
This operation turns on the engine igniters
and the FADEC (the E/WD engine information
become active). This switch position can also
be used when the engines are running in case
of heavy rain. It provides continuous ignition,
and it reduces the risk of having an engine
stop.
The engine master switches can then be used
to initiate the engine start sequence. The crew
just has to move each engine master switch up
and the FADEC does the rest to start the
corresponding engine. On the twin-engine
aircrafts, both engines can not be started
simultaneously because the APU does not
provide enough air for 2 engines. Usually,
engine 2 is started first. This is because it
provides hydraulic pressure to the Yellow
circuit, the one used by the brakes. If for any
reason the pilot needs to use the brakes in an
Engine Master Switch Usage in FS :
To move the engine master switches down
(engine off), you must use the right mouse
button and click the lower part of the switch. This
was done to prevent an unintentional engine stop
with a mouse click.
Restarting Engine in Flight
If an engine must be restarted in flight, the
crew can take advantage of the air bleed from
the engine that is still running. To do this, the
cross bleed valve must be opened by setting
the XBLEED switch on the OPEN position
(overhead, AIR COND section).
Air bleed is then available and the pilot can use
the engine mode switch and engine master
switch to start the engine as explained in the
previous paragraph.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (IRS)
The Inertial Reference System (IRS) provides
the aircraft position. To work properly, the
system must be aligned. The IRS measures
the aircraft accelerations and updates the
aircraft position, based on the original position
used during alignment.
IRS Alignment
The IRS are aligned through the INIT A page of
the MCDU (refer to the FMGC section for more
information about this page). As soon as the
FROM/TO airports are entered in the MCDU,
the IRS can be aligned with the departure
airport as the original destination.
The IRS can detect if the departure airport
position is significantly different from the
actual aircraft location. This can happen if the
crew makes an error when entering the
FROM/TO airport information. In this case, an
error message is displayed on the MCDU.
The crew should remember that the IRS
alignment position taken into account when
aligning the IRS is the departure airport
reference location stored in the database. This
is different from the actual aircraft position. In
practice, you don't need to adjust the IRS
position before aligning. This is because this
aircraft is equipped with a GPS system that
will do this automatically when the takeoff
thrust is applied. It means the crew should not
use the navigation display when taxiing
because the IRS may not be perfectly aligned
at this time.
IRS Unit
This device is located on the upper part of the
overhead panel.
58
1. Display selector : This switch lets the pilot select
the information displayed on the LCD screen.
The modes will be described later in this section.
2. IRS selector : As this aircraft is equipped
with 3 Inertial Reference Systems, this
switch selects the one that is used to
display information on the LCD screen.
3. Mode selector : For each IRS, a switch lets
the crew select the mode used for each IRS :
• OFF : the IRS is turned off and requires a
new alignment before being used again.
• NAV : all the IRS and air data information
are used for navigation.
• ATT : only the air data information is used
for navigation.
Display modes
TEST : This mode is dedicated to the test of the
LCD screen. It shows characters that indicate
the digital display is working correctly.
TK/GS : This mode displays the current track
and ground speed computed by the IRS.
PPOS : The current plane position is displayed
on the LCD screen.
WIND : The wind direction and velocity
computed by the IRS are shown.
HDG : The current true heading is displayed.
STS : This mode displays a status message of
the MCD screen. It can be one on the following
:
• STS-ENTER PPOS : the IRS is not
aligned, so the aircraft’s position is not
known and should be entered.
• STS-EXCESS MOTION : The aircraft should
not move during the IRS alignment process.
This message is displayed if the aircraft is
currently moving during the alignment
process.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
• STS-ALIGN xxx : This message indicates
the remaining time for IRS alignment.
IRS usage with Flight Simulator :
1. The IRS position entry through the IRS keyboard
is not implemented. It can be done only through
the MCDU.
2. The IRS alignment time is configurable through
the aircraft configuration window (refer to the
setup section for more information). In the real
aircraft, a full IRS alignment takes 10 minutes.
3. The STS-ALIGN status message displays the
remaining alignment time in real seconds,
regardless of the time configured by the user in
the configuration window.
Alerts & Warning
While the IRS are aligning, a green information
message ‘IRS IN ALIGN’ appears on the E/WD,
indicating the remaining time for alignment.
This message turns amber if the engines are
started to indicate that the aircraft should not
move during the IRS alignment phase.
RADIO
Standard operation of the radio equipment
involves use of the MCDU for radio navigation
(in fact, the crew rarely interact with the radio
navigation settings because the FMGC is in
charge of auto-tuning the VOR and ILS). The
radio management panels are used for voice
radio. Nevertheless, the Radio Management
Panels can be used for radio-navigation
settings in case of an FMGC failure.
Radio Management Panels (RMP)
Two Radio Management Panels are located on
the pedestal. One is available for the captain and
one for the first officer. The Captain's RMP can be
used to set VOR1 and the FO's RMP for the VOR2.
1. Active frequency window shows the current
frequency used for the selected radio.
2. Standby/Course window shows the standby
frequency for the selected radio. In case of
a VOR/ILS setting, this window is also used
to set the VOR/ILS course.
3. Swap button is used to swap active and
standby frequencies.
4.5. Selection pushbuttons for the VHF radio
channels.
6. NAV pushbutton must be pressed if the
crew wants to use the RMP for radionavigation setting, which is not the
standard procedure. If this button is
depressed, the RAD NAV page of the MCDU
is blocked (see the FMGC section for more
information).
7.8. VOR and ILS selection pushbuttons.
Remember that the left RMP adjusts VOR1
and right RMP adjusts VOR2.
9. ADF selection pushbutton.
10. ADF frequency oscillator switch.
11. Radio master switch.
12. Frequency/Course knob : The outside
knob sets the integer part and the inner
knob sets the decimal part of the standby
frequency. In case of a course setting, the
outer knob changes the course value by 10
degrees and the inner knob by 1 degree.
In order to use an RMP to set a VOR or ILS, the
NAV pushbutton must be pressed first to
activate the NAV pushbuttons (7, 8, 9, 10). As
soon as this is done, the FMGC can not be used
to set the radio any more.
The crew can then set the VOR/ILS standby
frequency using the frequency/course knob
(12). When the swap button is pressed to
swap the frequencies, the standby window
(2) changes and displays the VOR/ILS
course, which can be changed at this time
using the frequency/course knob. After a
few seconds, the display turns back to
standby frequency.
RMP usage in Flight Simulator :
Remember that the VHF1 and VHF2 buttons of the
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RMP correspond to the COM1 and COM2 radio
channels of Flight Simulator.
Audio Management Panel (AMP)
The audio management panel lets the crew
select the radio channels heard on the cockpit
loud speakers.
• BLW : Intruders located within - 8.000 /
+ 2.700 ft are shown on the ND
6. TCAS Advisory mode
• STDBY : The intruders are shown on the ND
according to the TCAS mode, but no advisory.
• TA : When an intruder is close to the aircraft
with a potential collision trajectory, an
aural warning 'TRAFFIC' is triggered.
• TA/RA : When an intruder is very close to
the aircraft with a potential collision
trajectory, an aural warning and a
resolution advisory is provided.
Each pushbutton lets the crew activate/
deactivate the audio for each radio channel :
1.2. VHF1 and VHF2 channels (called COM1 and
COM2 in Flight Simulator)
3.4. OR1 and VOR2 channels
5. Marker channel (inner, middle and outer
markers)
6. ILS channel. Because of an FS limitation,
ILS channel is linked to the VOR1 channel.
7. ADF channel.
Transponder Usage
To enter a transponder code, the transponder
should obviously be turned on.
Then any action on the keypad clears the
existing code to enter a new one. Pressing the
CLR key erases the code being entered.
The code entry is validated as soon as the 4
digits have been entered.
TRANSPONDER & TCAS
The transponder & TCAS device is located on
the pedestal. It allows the crew to enter the
transponder code required by the ATC to
identify the aircraft and to configure the TCAS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
60
Transponder Mode
Transponder Channel
TCAS Master Switch
Keypad for the transponder code entry
TCAS Mode
• THRT : Only the dangerous intruders are
shown on the ND, within a +/- 2.700 ft
altitude range
• ALL : Intruders located within +/- 2.700 ft
are shown on the ND
• ABV : Intruders located within + 8.000 /
- 2.700 ft are shown on the ND
TCAS Usage
The only important thing to think about is to
change the TCAS mode according to the flight
phase :
• ABV mode should be set prior to takeoff
to monitor potential intruders above the
aircraft during the takeoff and climb
phases.
• BLW mode should be engaged just before
the descent is initiated to monitor the
potential intruders below the aircraft.
GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING
SYSTEM (GPWS)
The GPWS provides aural alerts to indicate
potential danger related to the ground
proximity, such as excessive descent rate or
bad aircraft configuration.
The GPWS is controlled through the switches
located in the GPWS section of the overhead
panel. These switches let you turn off all or
some of the GPWS warnings.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
1. TERR : The terrain proximity alerts are
inhibited.
2. SYS : The whole GPWS is turned off
3. G/S MODE : The glideslope alert is inhibited.
4. FLAP MODE : The landing aircraft configuration warning is inhibited.
5. LDG FLAP 3 : The flap 3 landing configuration is selected, no flap alert will be
generated
when
landing
in
this
configuration. If you choose to land with Flap
3 configuration (refer to the PERF APPR
page for more information), this switch must
be pressed to avoid having a flap alert in
short final.
Alerts & Warning
Message
Color
Reason
GPWS SYS MODE OFF
Green
The GPWS is totally off
GPWS FLAP MODE OFF
Green
The flap mode is off
GPWS G/S MODE OFF
Green
Glideslope mode is off
GPWS FLAP 3
Green
Flap 3 configuration
is selected for landing
FLIGHT CONTROLS
Sidesticks & Rudder Pedals
There is not much to say about flight controls
as they were described in detail in the Fly-byWire section. The only thing to keep in mind is
that a strong action on the stick or on the
rudder pedals disconnects the autopilot. As
this is not the standard procedure, it triggers
an alarm that can be stopped by pressing the
A/P disconnection button.
Flight Control Computers
Seven computers are in charge of the Fly-byWire system: 2 Elevator and Aileron Computers
(ELAC), 2 Spoiler and Elevator Computers (SEC)
and 2 Flight Augmentation Computers (FAC).
All these computers can be turned off using
the switches located in the 2 FLT CTL sections
of the overhead.
These switches are supposed to be used in
case of failure, to reset the flight control
computers by turning them off and back on.
They are not designed to turn these computers
off.
The FACs are in charge of the flight envelope
protection, the auto-trim system and the autocoordination. If they are turned off, amber
crosses appear on the PFD to indicate there is
no flight envelope protection: no bank angle
limit and no pitch angle limit.
Auto-coordination in Flight Simulator :
When you load this aircraft in Flight Simulator, the
FS auto-coordination is turned on according to the
FAC status. When the aircraft is unloaded from FS,
the previous auto-coordination status is restored.
Speed Brakes & Ground Spoilers
Speed brakes and ground spoilers are
different, even if they are controlled through
the same handle and use the same aircraft
parts. The speed brakes can be deployed in
flight, they use 4 of the 5 moving panels on the
top of the wings and their movement is limited
to approximately 50% of the maximum
deployment. The role of the speed brakes is to
reduce the lift and increase the drag to
decelerate the aircraft in flight. If they are
deployed, a green message 'SPPED BRK' is
displayed on the E/WD.
The ground spoilers can be deployed on the
ground only. They are used to reduce the
aircraft speed and to break the lift for optimal
break efficiency. When they are activated, all
the 5 panels deploy at their maximum angle.
The ground spoilers can be armed to deploy
automatically during takeoff in case of a
rejected takeoff or during approach to deploy
when the aircraft touches the ground upon
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landing. When they are armed, a green
message ‘GND SPOILERS ARMED’ is
displayed on the E/WD. When the ground
spoilers have automatically deployed, the
action of disarming them will make them
retract.
The table shows 2 flap/slat positions
correspond to the same handle position. If the
handle is moved to the 1 position, the flap/slat
position is set according to the following
diagram :
The upper and lower parts of the handle can
be clicked to move the handle up and down.
Moving the handle higher than the RET
position (retracted) arms the ground spoilers.
Moving the handle down deploys the speed
brakes progressively.
Speed Brake/Ground Spoiler control in Flight
Simulator :
The standard FS keys can be used to arm/disarm the
ground spoilers and extend/retract the speed brakes. By
default, the ‘/’ key is used to extend/retract the speed
brakes and Shift-/ is used to arm/disarm the spoilers.
Flaps
The flaps have specificity on this aircraft: the
flap handle has 4 positions while the flaps and
slats can have 6 positions, as shown in the
following table :
Flap/Handle Flap/Slat
Position Position
Flap
Angle
Slat
Angle
Usage
Max Speed
knots)
0
0
0°
0°
Flight
Vmo
1
1
or
0°
18°
230
10°
18°
Approach
Takeoff/
Landing
1+F
215
2
2
15°
22°
Takeoff/
Landing
200
3
3
20°
22°
Takeoff/
Landing
185
FULL
FULL
35°
27°
Landing
177
The flap/slat position can be monitored on the
E/WD. Refer to the EFIS section for more
information.
Trims
Elevator Trim
This aircraft is equipped with an auto-trim
system managed by the fly-by-wire system. It
means the crew is not supposed to interact
with the elevator trim wheels located on the
left and right of the thrust levers, except in
case of a failure.
Note that any manual action on the elevator
trim disconnects the AP with an alarm.
Rudder Trim
The rudder trim is mainly used in case of an
engine failure, to counteract the dissymmetric
thrust.
The table also shows how the different
flap/slat configurations are to be used, and the
maximum airspeed for each configuration.
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Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
1. LCD screen that displays the current
rudder trim position, preceded by L or R to
indicate the trim direction.
2. Reset button that triggers a rudder trim
centering action.
3. Rudder trim knob : Turning the knob to the
left/right moves the rudder trim accordingly.
GEAR, WHEELS & BRAKES
Landing Gear
The landing gear is controlled through the
gear lever located on the main panel.
If the aircraft gets close to the ground during
descent and the gear is still retract, a alert
'L/G Gear Not Down' appears on the E/WD with
an aural warning. In addition, a red arrow light
is illuminated adjacent to the gear lever.
The landing gear status can be monitored on
the SD (WHEEL page) and on the LDG GEAR
section of the main panel.
The lighted symbols indicate each landing
gear status :
• Green Triangle : The landing gear is
down and locked
• Red ‘UNLK’ : The landing gear is
currently unlocked (in transition)
• Nothing : The landing gear is retracted.
It has 3 positions :
• LOW / MED : Low/Medium braking
pressure, can be used for landing
• MAX : Maximum braking pressure, to be
used for takeoff only in case of RTO
(rejected takeoff).
The MAX position must be used for takeoff
only. For landing, MED should be used if the
runway is short or wet, otherwise LOW should
be used.
When the autobrake is actually active to
decelerate the aircraft, a green light ‘DECEL’
appears above the selected autobrake button.
If the autobrake is engaged, its status is
displayed on the E/WD.
Pressing the button of the currently selected
position disarms the autobrake. When
autobrake is switched off, a flashing message
‘AUTOBRK OFF’ appears for 10 seconds on the
WHEEL page.
Brakes and Parking Brakes
The brake status can be monitored on the
ECAM Wheel page, detailed later in this
section. The most important information is the
brake temperature. If the brake temperature
is too high when the takeoff check is operated,
an alert ‘HOT BRAKES’ is triggered. The crew
must be aware that heat in the brakes makes
them less efficient.
Parking brakes can be manipulated through
the handle located on the pedestal or by using
the FS key (CTRL-. by default).
Autobrake system
The autobrake system is dedicated to manage
aircraft brakes automatically when the takeoff
is rejected or when the aircraft lands.
The parking brake status appears on the E/WD :
• PARK BRK appears in green when
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SYSTEMS
parking brake is set.
• PARK BRK turns to amber if the parking
brakes are set while engine power is
greater than idle.
WHEEL Page
The WHEEL page is automatically displayed
on the SD when the aircraft is on the ground
with engines started. It can also be selected
by pressing the WHEEL key on the ECAM
control panel.
1. Nose wheel status
2. Left main gear status
3. Right main gear status
These 3 indicators show the gear status.
The lines represent the gear doors. They
are green when the gear doors are closed,
amber when the doors are open or moving.
The triangles represent the landing gears.
They are green if the landing gears are
down and locked and red if the gears are in
transition. No triangle is displayed if the
gears are retracted.
4.5.6. Gear tire pressure, in PSI
7.8. Left and right brake temperature :
The value is shown in green if the temperature
is normal. In turns amber over 300°C. A green
arc appears over the hottest wheel when the
brake temperature is between 100°C and
300°C. An amber arc appears over the hottest
wheel when its brake temperature is above
300°C.
9. Ground spoiler status : vertical arrows
appear when they are deployed.
64
LIGHTING & SIGNS
External Lights
The aircraft lights are controlled through the
EXT LT section of the overhead panel.
1. Strobe lights : They should be on when the
aircraft is in flight. They can be turned on,
off or set in AUTO mode. If set to AUTO,
they automatically turn on when the
aircraft is airborne, and turn off when the
aircraft is on the ground.
2. Beacon lights : Red lights located above
and below the aircraft. They should be
switched on as soon as the engines are
running or the aircraft moves.
3. Wing lights : These lights should be used
to taxi to the gate. They can be turned off
when the engines are stopped.
4. Nav lights should be turned on as soon as
the aircraft is energized.
5. Runway turn off lights are designed to be
used with the taxi lights during taxi.
6. Landing lights : These lights are big and can
be retracted into the aircraft belly. The
switches have 3 positions : RETRACT to
retract the lights, OFF to extend them
without switching them on and ON to turn
them on when the are extended. They
should be turned on as soon as the aircraft
is cleared to align on the runway for takeoff
and can be turned off when passing 10.000
feet.
7. Nose lights (or Taxi lights) must be turned
on just before the aircraft moves on the
ground. This is the best way for ground
personnel to see the aircraft is cleared for
taxi. It must be turned off when the landing
gear is retracted, even if it is automatically
turned off if the gear is up.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
SYSTEMS
When the landing lights are on, a green
With flood lighting, the main panel looks like this:
message ‘LDG LT’ appears on the E/WD.
If strobe lights are off when the aircraft is
airborne, a warning message ‘STROBE LT
OFF’ appears on the E/WD.
Panel Lighting
At night, the lighting equipment provides
panel lighting. The panel lighting is turned on
using the standard FS key for panel lights
(Shift-L by default). Turning the panel lighting
on during the day has no visible effect.
Keep in mind the EFIS brightness can be adjusted
using the mouse wheel when the mouse is in the
EFIS central zone. This is very useful at night.
Seat Belts & No Smoking
The Seat Belt & No Smoking signs are
controlled with the switches located on the
SIGNS section of the overhead panel.
At night, the panel lighting looks as shown here:
In addition, the panel lighting provides flood
lighting that can be activated using the FLOOD
LT MAIN PNL knob on the pedestal.
Each switch has 3 positions : ON, OFF and AUTO.
In AUTO mode, the seat belt sign turns on
when the aircraft moves and turns off when
the aircraft crosses 10.000 feet in climb. It
turns back on when the aircraft reaches
10.000 feet in descent, and turns off again
when the aircraft is landed and the engines
are stopped.
In AUTO mode, the “no smoking” signs always
turns on because all the flight today are nonsmoking flights.
The status of the seat belt and no smoking
signs is displayed in green on the E/WD.
The Ctrl-Shift-F key can also be used to turn
flood lighting on/off.
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
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Airbus Series Vol.1
FMGC
FMGC
DONE
When the flight is finished and
the aircraft has landed.
The Flight Management System is composed
of the Flight Management and Guidance
Computer (FMGC) and the Multifunction
Control and Display Unit (MCDU).
The MCDU is the device used by the pilot as an
interface between him and the FMGC. It
computes all kind of data to fly the aircraft
safely along its trajectory.
The FMGC also divides the flight into several
phases, used for the system internal use and
for the alert management:
PREAMBLE
During cockpit preparation, the MCDU is used
to insert a route, from departure to
destination. The FMGC computes vertical and
speed profiles according to the ATC
constraints and the aircraft performance. The
FMGC interacts with the flight directors, the
autopilots and the autothrust system to guide
the aircraft, taking account of any parameterf
the pilot decides to manually select (speed,
V/S, heading, …).
During the flight, the MCDU displays data
computed by the FMGC, such as Estimated
Time of Arrival (ETA), fuel predictions,
constraint management...
FMGC PHASES & FLIGHT PHASES
The FMGC manages several phases during the
flight. They are described in the following
table:
PREFLIGHT
When the aircraft is on the
ground, prior to take off power.
TAKE OFF
When take off power is applied
(FLEX or TOGA) and the aircraft is below 1500
feet AGL.
CLIMB
From 1500 feet to the cruise
altitude
CRUISE
All along the cruise
DESCENT
During the descent from the
cruise altitude
APPROACH
Final part of the descent, close
to the destination.
GO AROUND
If TOGA power is applied
before landing
66
MCDU USAGE
The MCDU is composed of
- 12 line select keys, 6 one the left (referenced
1L to 6L) and 6 on the right (1R to 6R).
- The page keys that give direct access to some
predefined pages,
- The alpha and numeric keypads to enter data
into the MCDU
- The brightness control knob to modify the
display brightness.
To enter any data into the MCDU, you can use
the keypads. All the characters typed in are
displayed on the bottom line of the screen,
called the scratchpad. When the data is typed,
you click the line select key to enter it where
you require.
Some lines contain two values, separated by a
‘/’ (slash). In this case, you can enter the 2
values by separating them with a slash. If you
want to enter the first value only, enter it
directly. If you want to enter the second value
only, precede it with a slash.
The time information is displayed using a XXYY
format, where XX are the hours and YY are the
minutes. For example, 0120 means 1 hour 20
minutes. Entering time information into the
MCDU must use the same convention, where
XX can be omitted if null.
Keypad simulation in FS:
You can use the keypad by clicking any key in
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
FMGC
the keypad with the mouse. It may be painful if
you have a lot of data to enter. This is why you
can also use your PC keyboard, using the keys
in combination with a modifier or a locker, to
enter data in the MCDU scratchpad. Refer to
the Setup section for more information about
the possible keyboard configuration.
You can also use the function keys (F1 to F12)
to simulate the 12 line select keys (F1 to F6 for
1L to 6L, F7 to F12 for 1R to 6R).
The Scroll Lock key is the default locker,
which means that if you press this key, any key
typed on your keyboard will be directed to the
MCDU. Refer to the Setup section for more
information.
When a locker key (such as Scroll Lock) is
used to enter data in the MCDU, the following
keys simulate the page keys:
PC keyboard key
Ctrl-D
Ctrl-O
Ctrl-P
Ctrl-A
Ctrl-N
Ctrl-R
Ctrl-U
Ctrl-M
Ctrl-Pg Down
Ctrl-Up Arrow
Ctrl-Down Arrow
page.
MCDU page key
DIR
PROG
PERF
DATA
F-PLAN
RAD NAV
FUEL PRED
MCDU MENU
NEXT PAGE
Up Arrow
Down Arrow
The MCDU displays information on pages.
When a page content can not be displayed on
single page, the pilot has to use specific keys
to display the rest of the information:
- If the page can not display the whole
information on the 6 select key lines, the pilot
can scroll the page using the 2 vertical arrow
keys. On the bottom right corner, vertical
arrow symbols show if the page can be
scrolled upward, downward, or both.
- If the information is displayed on several
different pages, a horizontal arrow on the top
left corner shows that another page exists.
Pressing the NEXT PAGE key shows the next
A vertical arrow in the bottom right corner
shows the page can be scrolled upward.
A left arrow in the top right corner shows a
next page exist. Press NEXT PAGE to display it.
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CHARACTERS AND COLORS
The colors and the type of characters used to
display information is important as they
respect a convention that helps the pilot in
understanding each information type.
DATA TYPE > COLOR & CHARACTERS
Page title, comments, sratchpad
> White, normal characters
Modifiable / Selectable data > Blue
Mandatory data entry > Amber boxes
Optional data entry
> Blue brackets
Non modifiable data > Green
Computed data
> Small characters
Constraints
> Magenta
Data that impacts the flight plan
> Followed by a ‘*’
Primary flight plan > Green
Next flight plan waypoint > White
Temporary flight plan > Yellow
Secondary flight plan > White
Features that don’t exist in the real aircraft
(used for simulation only) > Grey
ASSISTANCE
For some MCDU data, you may request
assistance. If you don’t know a value that
should be entered in an MCDU field, you can
ask FS to assist you, and if FS knows the value,
it will be provided to you. To request
assistance, just click on the select line with an
empty scratchpad, and FS will fill the
scratchpad with the value it has, if available.
MCDU MENU PAGE
The MENU page is accessed by pressing the
MAIN MENU page key. It shows the various
systems the pilot can access through the
MCDU.
The screen shows the name of the selected
system in green, all others in white.
System simulation in FS:
Only the FMGC option is valid in FS. The ACARS
and AIDS are not implemented at this time.
INIT A PAGE
This page can be accessed by pressing the INIT
page key or by clicking the 1L key of the MENU
page.
It is accessible only during the PREFLIGHT
phase.
Note that a right arrow is visible in the top
right corner because the INIT B page can be
accessed from this page by pressing the ‘NEXT
PAGE’ key of the MCDU.
For example, the pilot is supposed to enter the
aircraft “Zero Fuel Weight” (ZFW) in the 1R
line of the INIT B page. If you don’t know this
value, make sure the scratchpad is empty and
click the 1R button. The scratchpad is then
filled with the ZFW value provided by FS. You
just have to click on the 1R button again to
enter this value.
³ Note that the assistance is never available if
you are in Expert mode.
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FMGC
INIT A page when no information has been
entered.
INIT A page when all the
information has been entered.
necessary
CO RTE (1L)
At the MCDU initialization, this field is shown
with amber boxes, which means it is
mandatory. The pilot can enter a company
route name in this field. If the route exists in
the database, it is loaded in the FMGC.
Note that a route is composed of a departure
airport, an arrival airport and waypoints. It
does not define the departure and arrival
runways, or the departure and arrival
procedures (SID/STAR). When a route is
loaded, a discontinuity is created after the
departure airport and before the arrival
airport.
If the pilot enters a departure and arrival
airport in the FROM/TO field, the CO RTE
becomes optional (shown with blue brackets),
unless a company route has been selected in
the route selection page.
FROM/TO (1R)
When the MCDU is initialized, the field is
mandatory. If a company route is selected, this
field is automatically filled with the
departure/arrival airport of the route.
If you enter a departure/arrival airport in this
field,
the
ROUTE
SELECTION
page
automatically appears to let you select a route
between the departure and arrival points, if
indeed any route exists. If you select a route, it
automatically fills the CO RTE field (1L). If no
route exists, it just displays "NONE".
As soon as the FROM/TO field is filled, the 4L
and 4R select lines (LAT and LONG) are filled
with the departure airport coordinates. The 3R
line (ALIGN IRS) becomes active to establish
an IRS alignment, based on these coordinates.
ALTN RTE (2L)
This field is dedicated to the alternate route.
You can enter any data in this field. The
alternate route is not implemented in this
version.
ALTN (2R)
This field lets you enter the alternate
destination. It is not simulated in this version.
FLT NBR (3L)
The current flight number must be entered in
this mandatory field. Assistance is available
for this value.
ALIGN IRS (3R)
As soon as a Lat/Long position is defined (4L
and 4R), this field appears to let the crew align
the IRS (Inertial Reference System) according
to this position. If no position is defined, this
field is empty.
LAT and LONG (4L and 4R)
These fields show the position (in
latitude/longitude), as soon as the departure
airport is defined. When the crew fills the
FROM/TO field (1R), the lat/long fields are
automatically filled with the departure airport
position.
At this time, you can see vertical arrows (next
to LAT), which means you can adjust the
latitude by pressing the MCDU vertical arrow
keys. You can press the 4R select key to move
the arrows next to the longitude field, thus
letting you adjust the longitude with the MCDU
arrow keys.
When the LAT and LONG fields are defined or
modified, you can press the 3R select key to
align the IRS according to this position.
Note: When you enter the FROM/TO airports,
the position is initialized with the position of
the departure airport, which is not the exact
position of the aircraft. You don’t have to adjust
the aircraft position accurately because this
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aircraft is equipped with a GPS that will align
the IRS accurately when take off power will be
applied.
COST INDEX (5L)
This value is very important for the
performance and prediction calculations. It
determines how you want to use the aircraft.
You can decide to fly at low speed with low fuel
consumption, or to fly fast and burn more fuel.
Enter a cost index value of 0 corresponds to
the lowest possible fuel consumption at low
speed (long range), and a higher value
corresponds to higher speed, with higher fuel
consumption. The cost index can vary from 0 to
999.
WIND (5R)
This will bring the WIND page that lets the
crew define the winds along the flight plan. It
will be described later.
CRZ FL/TEMP (6L)
The crew can define the cruise altitude in this
field, and the temperature at the cruise
altitude if you wish.
The altitude can be entered in feet, or in flight
level. If you want to enter an altitue in flight
level, you can enter it directly or enter it by
preceding it with ‘FL’.
Value entered
8000
FL330
350
Cruise Altitude
8000 feet
FL330
(33000 feet AMSL)
FL350
(35000 feet AMSL)
You can also enter the cruise altitude
temperature. If you enter both cruise altitude
and temperature, you must use a ‘/’ as a
separator. If you don’t enter the temperature,
it is automatically calculated when the cruise
altitude is entered (in this case, it appears in
small characters).
Entering the cruise altitude is very important
for the performance calculations and for the
flight phase sequencing. If you forget to enter
this data, some features of the FMGC may not
work properly.
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TROPO (6R)
The crew can define the altitude of the
tropopause, which is 36090 feet by default.
INIT B PAGE
This page is only accessible from the INIT A
page by pressing the NEXT PAGE key. It is not
accessible if the engines are started. Pressing
the NEXT PAGE key again brings back the INIT
A page. If you start the engines while the INIT
B page is displayed, it jumps to the FUEL PRED
page.
Note that all the weights on this page are
shown in tonnes or in 1000 LBS, depending on
the unit system that has been selected in the
configuration window (metric or imperial
system).
TAXI (1L)
This field shows the fuel quantity for taxi. The
default value (shown in small characters) is
200 kg.
TRIP/TIME (2L)
This field shows the trip fuel and the trip time
that are calculated by the FMGC when the
predictions are available. It is not modifiable
by the crew (green).
RTE RSV/% (3L)
This field displays the route reserve and the
corresponding percentage of the trip fuel. By
default, it represents 5% of the trip fuel. The
crew can modify one of the values, and the
FMGC computes the other.
ALTN/TIME (4L)
This field shows the alternate trip fuel and
time that are calculated when the predictions
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are available. It is not modifiable by the crew.
FINAL/TIME (5L)
This field shows the fuel quantity and time to
fly to the alternate airport or to the destination
airport if no alternate is defined. The crew can
modify one of the values, and the FMGC
computes the other.
Note: The time is displayed and should be
inserted using a XXYY format, where XX are
the hours and YY are the minutes. For
example, 0120 means 1 hour 20 minutes.
EXTRA/TIME (6L)
This field shows the extra fuel quantity and the
available time for holding over the destination
or alternate airport. It is calculated by the
FMGC and is not modifiable by the crew.
ZFCG/ZFW (1R)
This field shows the Zero Fuel Center of
Gravity (ZFCG) and the Zero Fuel Weight
(ZFW). This entry is mandatory for the FMGC to
compute the Gross Weight (GW), which is
necessary to determine reference speeds.
i Assistance is available for this field.
BLOCK (2R)
This is the block fuel quantity (quantity of fuel
available on board when initializing the
FMGC). It is mandatory to compute the Gross
Weight (GW) and the fuel predictions.
i Assistance is available for this field.
This is the predicted Landing Weight. It is
calculated by the FMGC when predictions are
available and is not modifiable by the crew.
ROUTE SELECTION PAGE
This page is only accessible when the
FROM/TO field has been filled in the INIT A
page.
The route selection page displays all the
database routes that exist with the FROM/TO
airports that were defined in the INIT A page.
If several routes exist, you can see them by
pressing the ‘NEXT PAGE’ key of the MCDU.
If no route exists in the database for the
departure and arrival airports that were
defined, “NONE” is displayed on the route
selection page.
No route exists between LFRS and LFMN. The
route selection page displays “NONE”, and you
just have to press RETURN (6L) to continue.
> Entering the ZFW and the Block Fuel is
very important to let the FMGC calculate the
Gross Weight (GW). The GW is necessary to
determine many data items by the FMGC,
including the predictions. If you forget to
enter this data, predictions are not available
and some FMGC features may become
inoperative.
TOW (4R)
This field displays the Take Off Weight (TOW),
which is calculated by the FMGC when the ZFW
and Block fuel fields are filled. It is not
modifiable by the crew.
LW (5R)
A route exists between LFRS and LFPO. You
can use it by pressing INSERT (6R), or ignore it
by pressing RETURN (6L).
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If a route is defined, you can press INSERT (6R)
to use it.
Note that a database route is supposed to be
used as a base for the flight plan, is not a
complete flight plan itself.
It is composed of a departure and an arrival
airport, and waypoints that define the route
using airways or direct. A database route does
not contain the departure and arrival runway,
and does not contain the departure and arrival
procedures (SID and STAR).
When a route is inserted to create a flight plan,
a flight plan discontinuity exists between the
departure airport and the first waypoint, and
another one between the last waypoint and the
arrival airport. Managing these discontinuities
will be explained in the flight plan section.
The History Wind page shows the winds that
were recorded during the previous flight
(small characters). We can see that the
previous flight didn’t reach the FL330, which is
why the wind is not defined for the cruise
altitude.
WIND PAGE
The wind has been defined for the FL330 (big
characters). Consequently, the page became
the Wind page.
This page is accessible from the INIT A page by
pressing the 5R select key. It lets the crew
define the winds at different altitudes.
When it is displayed for the first time, it
displays the history winds. These are the
winds recorded by the FMGC during the
previous flight. This is very useful if you fly the
same route back and forth. For example, if you
fly from Paris Orly to Nice Cote d’Azur, there is
a very high probability that you have the same
winds if you fly back from Nice to Paris one
hour later.
As soon as you modify or enter wind
information, the HISTORY WIND page becomes
the WIND page.
Wind Information (1L to 4L)
You can enter wind information at any altitude
by entering the wind direction and the wind
velocity (in knots), separated by a ‘/’.
INSERT (6R)
Pressing the 6R select key validates the wind
information and enters it into the FMGC, which
will take this information into account for the
future predictions.
Note the ‘*’ characters, which means the wind
insertion may have an impact on the flight
plan.
FLIGHT PLAN PAGE
The flight plan page is accessible by pressing
the F-PLAN key on the MCDU. Basically, the
flight plan page displays the flight plan stored
in the FMGC memory. It also gives access to
the lateral and vertical revision pages.
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Example of a flight plan where the predictions
have not been computed.
Example of a flight plan with predictions.
The layout of the flight plan page is explained
here:
1 – The flight number is displayed in the top
right corner, if it was entered in the INIT A
page.
Left Column:
2 – The FROM waypoint is the waypoint from
where the aircraft comes. It is the origin
waypoint of the active leg.
3 – Name of the airway. In this example, the
airway name is automatically generated with
the course to fly from the departure airport to
the initial waypoint computed by the FMGC.
4 – NEXT Waypoint: This is the waypoint to
which the aircraft is currently flying. It is
written with white characters.
5 – Overfly symbol: When this symbol is drawn
near a waypoint, this waypoint will be
overflown. If you want to have a waypoint
overflown, press the OVFY key on the MCDU. A
white triangle then appears on the scratchpad
and you can select a waypoint to make it
overfly.
Center Column:
6 – TIME: This column indicates the time to fly
to each waypoint. On this example, no time is
displayed because the predictions are not
available yet. If an Estimated Time of
Departure (ETD) is entered, the UTC time is
displayed instead of the time.
7 – Bearing to fly from the FROM to the NEXT
waypoint.
8 – Track to fly from the NEXT waypoint to the
following waypoint.
If you scroll the flight plan, the BRG and TRK
are always displayed between the first and
second waypoint displayed on the page.
Right Column:
9 – Predicted speed (in knots or in Mach) or
speed constraint at each waypoint. In this
example, speed predictions are not available.
The speed prediction is displayed in green, the
constraints are in magenta.
10 – Altitude prediction/constraint.
The altitude prediction is displayed in green,
the constraints are in magenta.
11 – The distance between two consecutive
waypoints is displayed here.
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Bottom Line:
The bottom line shows all the information
about the destination.
12 – Name of the destination airport.
13 – Total flight time, if predictions are
available. If an ETD is defined, the predicted
arrival time (UTC) is displayed.
14 – Distance to destination.
15 – Estimated fuel on board (EFOB) at
destination.
LATERAL REVISION PAGE
It is accessible by pressing a MCDU button on
the left of any waypoint displayed in the flight
plan list. Depending on the type of the
waypoint, the LAT REV page has different
aspects.
LAT REV page at the departure airport.
LAT REV page at a normal waypoint.
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LAT REV page at the arrival airport.
DEPARTURE (1L)
This is available for the departure airport only.
It brings the Departure page, which allows the
definition of the departing runway and SID. It
is described later in this section.
ARRIVAL (1R)
This is available for the arrival airport only. It
brings the Arrival page, which allows the
definition of the arriving runway and STAR. It
is described later in this section.
HOLD (3L)
Available for the standard waypoints only. It
brings the HOLD page that lets the crew define
a holding pattern at this waypoint.
VIA/GO TO (2R)
Available for the standard waypoints only.
Using this key lets the pilot use an airway to
add waypoints in the flight plan. Refer to the
Flight Plan Management section for more
information about this.
NEXT WPT (3R)
This key lets the crew add a new waypoint
after the revised waypoint. The process of
adding a new waypoint in the flight plan is
detailed in the next section (Flight Plan
Management).
NEW DEST (4R)
It allows the crew to define a new destination
from the revised waypoint. An airport name
must be provided here.
If you define a new destination airport, do not
forget that you will have to define the arrival
runway also.
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DEPARTURE PAGE
This page is accessible from the LAT REV page
of the departure airport. It is dedicated to the
definition of the departure runway and SID.
All the available runways of the departure
airport are listed, with their length (in meters
or in feet, depending on the selected unit
system), their orientation, and the ILS
name/frequency, if any. You can select one of
the runways by pressing the left adjacent key.
As soon as a runway is selected, the SID
selection page is displayed.
If a runway has already been selected, it is
shown without the arrow on the left to indicate
the fact that it is already selected. In addition,
you can directly jump to the SID selection page
by pressing the NEXT PAGE key on the MCDU.
pressing its left adjacent key, and the
transition list is updated according to the SID
selection. You can then select a transition by
pressing its right adjacent key.
If you do not want to select a SID, you can
scroll the SID list to the end. The last SID
displayed is named “NO SID”. If you select this
one, the transition selection automatically
turns to “NO TRANS”, and a waypoint is
automatically created in the runway alignment
at 5 NM of the runway threshold.
After the SID and transition have been
selected, all the corresponding changes are
set out in a temporary flight plan drawn in
yellow on the Navigation Display. You must
press INSERT (6R) to validate it or ERASE (6L)
to abort.
ARRIVAL PAGE
This page is accessible from the LAT REV page
of the arrival airport. It is very similar to the
departure page. It lets the crew define the
arrival runway and the STAR if needed.
The “ELMAA7” SID has been selected, and
no transition has been selected yet.
The SID selection page shows the Standard
Instrument Departures on the left and the
transitions on the right. You can select a SID by
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Just like on the departure page, the crew must
first select the arrival runway. Then the STAR
page is displayed, allowing the selection of the
STAR and transition if needed. When the STAR
selection is validated, a course fix waypoint is
automatically added before the arrival runway,
in the runway alignment, at 10 NM of the
runway threshold for the final approach.
HOLD PAGE
This page is dedicated to the definition of a
holding pattern at the revised waypoint, which
is called the hold fix. When you select it, a
default holding pattern is automatically
computed and presented on the HOLD page,
and it is added to the temporary flight plan
(displayed in yellow on the ND).
1L, 2L or 3L. As soon as a change is done, the
title changes to “HOLD” and the option
“REVERT TO COMPUTED” appears on 3R.
INBOUND COURSE (1L)
The crew can change the heading of the
holding pattern, which is the heading to the
revised waypoint by default.
TURN DIR (2L)
This is the turning direction of the holding
pattern. It can be L for left or R for right.
TIME/DIST (3L)
The pilot can enter the time or distance in this
field. Entering one information computes the
other.
If you enter the time (in minutes), the distance
is computed according to the predicted speed
for the holding. The predicted speed is the
speed constraint at the revised waypoint if it is
defined, or green dot speed.
If you want to enter the distance (in NM), it
must be preceded by a ‘/’. The time is then
computed according to the predicted speed
also.
REVERT TO COMPUTED (3R)
Pressing this key brings back the default
holding pattern computed by the FMGC.
VERTICAL REVISION PAGE
It is accessible from the flight plan page by
pressing one of the right keys adjacent to a
listed waypoint. Depending on the revised
waypoint type, the VERT REV page consists of
different components.
The title of the page is “COMPUTED HOLD”.
The default holding pattern takes the heading
to the revised waypoint as the inbound course,
turns on the right and the holding duration is 1
minute below 14000 feet, 1.5 above.
You can change the holding pattern by using
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VERT REV page at the departure airport.
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VERT REV page at a standard waypoint.
at the revised waypoint, using the direction (in
magnetic degrees) and velocity (in knots).
UTC CSTR (2R)
This field appears on the departure airport
revision page only. It allows the pilot to define
the Estimated Time of Departure (ETD). As
soon as this information is entered, the time
predictions are shown in UTC time instead of
duration.
The time must be entered in UTC, using the
format XXYY, where XX are the hours and YY
are the minutes (i.e. 1050 for 10h50).
QNH (4R)
This field appears on the arrival airport
revision page only. It lets the crew define the
QNH at the arrival airport for better
predictions.
DATA PAGE
This page gives access to the FMGC navigation
database content.
VERT REV page at the arrival airport.
CLB SPD LIM or DES SPD LIM (2L)
This field defines the speed limit below a given
altitude. By default, it is a 250 knots speed
limit below 10,000 feet. The crew can change
these values. The climb speed limit is shown
only on the departure airport vertical revision
page.
SPD CSTR (3L)
This field appears on the standard waypoint
revision page only. It lets the pilot define a
speed constraint on the revised waypoint.
ALT CSTR (3R)
This field also appears only on the standard
waypoint revision page. It lets the pilot define
an altitude constraint on the revised waypoint.
It must be preceded by a – (minus) or a + (plus)
to indicate if it is a minimum or maximum
altitude constraint.
WIND (5L)
This field lets the crew enter the wind forecast
WAYPOINTS (1L)
Pressing this key gives access to the
waypoints stored in the database. The pilot is
asked to enter a waypoint name whereupon
the corresponding information is displayed:
identifier and lat/lon coordinates.
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NAVAIDS (2L)
It works exactly like for the waypoints. All the
navaid’s relative information is displayed on
the resulting page: identifier, class, position,
frequency, elevation, figure of merit (this is
fake information not supported by the current
database) and the magnetic variation at the
station location (station dec).
The runway identifier is displayed, followed by
its coordinates, the runway length (in meters
or in feet, depending on the selected unit
system), the runway course and the associated
ILS identifier, if any.
ROUTES (4L)
You can explore the routes stored in the
database through this function. Pressing the
4L key displays a page requesting the route
name (1L) or the from/to airports (1R).
If you enter a route name, the corresponding
route is immediately displayed. If you enter
the from/to airports, all the existing routes
that correspond to these airports are
displayed. The title indicates the number of
routes available and you can display them by
pressing the NEXT PAGE key on the MCDU.
RUNWAYS (3L)
This is a little different because the pilot is
requested to enter the airport ICAO name
followed by the runway name. For example,
for the runway 32L at Toulouse-Blagnac, enter
“LFBO32L”.
A/C STATUS (5L)
This page shows the current aircraft status.
The title is the aircraft type. The engine type
and navigation database version are also
shown.
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Note that the number displayed on 2R is the
AIRAC cycle number of the FeelThere
database. It may be useful for you if you plan to
update it regularly.
The performance factor shown in 6R is not
simulated in this version.
STORED WAYPOINTS, NAVAIDS, RUNWAYS
(1R, 2R, 3R)
These functions are not implemented in this
version. If you want to add waypoints, navaids
and runways, you can do it through the
FeelThere database modification tool.
STORED ROUTE (4R)
This function allows you to store the existing
route in the database. Pressing 4R brings a
page that shows the stored routes:
The only action you need take at this stage is to
press NEW ROUTE (6R) to store a new route in
the database. The NEW ROUTE page appears
and you are asked to enter information about
the route to save:
You can enter the name of the route in the
scratchpad and press CO RTE (1L). This name
will be used later to retrieve this route for a
future use.
You can press STORE ACTIVE F-PLN (2L) to
store the route that corresponds to the active
flight plan by giving it an automatic name. In
this case, the name is composed of the
departure and arrival airports, followed by a
number (i.e. LFBOLFPO1 for a route that goes
from Toulouse-Blagnac to Paris-Orly). If a
route with the same departure/arrival airports
already exists, the number is automatically
incremented to avoid erasing any existing
route.
Important Note:
When you save a route based on an existing
flight plan, only the route information is saved
including the departure/arrival airports and
all the waypoints and airways that composed
the flight plan. If you re-use a route later, you
will have to define the departure/arrival
runways and procedures (SID/STAR) to have a
complete flight plan.
IMPORT FS FPLN (6R)
You may notice this line is written in grey. It is
because it does not exist in the real aircraft. It
lets you create a route from the Flight
Simulator flight planner. You must open the FS
flight planner, create an FS flight plan or add
an existing one and press this key on the
MCDU to load it.
As soon as this key is pressed, a temporary
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flight plan is created with the loaded flight
plan. You just have to validate it. Refer to the
flight plan management section for more
information.
Enter FROM/TO in the INIT A page.
A route exists, select it by pressing INSERT
(6R).
FLIGHT PLAN MANAGEMENT
Now that you know the meaning of all the
pages involved in the flight plan creation and
update (F-PLN, LAT REV, VERT REV, …), it is
time to learn how to create and manage a
flight plan.
Flight Plan Creation
There are several ways of creating a flight
plan, they will be explained here.
Creating a flight plan from a route
When you enter the FROM/TO airports in the
INIT A page, the ROUTE SELECTION page
appears. If a route is available and you select
it, the contents appear as a basis for the
creation of the flight plan.
The route waypoints are added in the flight
plan with discontinuities after departure and
before arrival.
When a route is used to create a flight plan,
you just have to define the departure and
arrival runways, select the SID and STAR and
clear the discontinuities. Click the CLR key and
then the LSK adjacent to the discontinuity.
Creating a flight plan from scratch
As soon as the departure and arrival airports
have been defined in the FROM/TO field of the
INIT A page, the flight plan page appears with
the departure and arrival airports together
with their elevations displayed in magenta.
Pressing the 1L key brings the departure
lateral revision page.
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F-PLN page with only departure and arrival
airports.
Lateral revision page at departure LFRS.
On the lateral revision page, pressing 1L
brings up the DEPARTURE page. It shows the
airport's available runways. Selecting a
runway brings up the SID selection page.
Runway 03 has been selected, it has no SID.
It is now necessary to select a SID by clicking
one of the left buttons and a transition
(TRANS) by clicking one of the right buttons. If
you select NO SID, the TRANS selection is not
used. Whatever you select, a waypoint is
automatically created in the runway
alignment, at 5 NM of the runway threshold
with an altitude of 1500 feet above the ground,
named with the altitude value. This is done to
force the aircraft to follow the runway
direction after takeoff when the NAV mode
engages.
To validate the selection, press INSERT (6R) or
press ERASE (6L) to abort.
Validating makes the flight plan page appears
again, showing the waypoint created by the
FMGC with the overfly triangle icon. This is the
first waypoint of the flight plan.
You can repeat this procedure to select the
runway and STAR at the arrival airport. A
waypoint point (course fix) will be created by
the FMGC, on the arrival runway alignment at
10 NM from the runway with an altitude
constraint of 2000 feet AGL
It is now time to create the other waypoints of
the flight plan. There are 2 ways of adding a
waypoint: the immediate mode and the
temporary mode.
LFRS has 2 runways: 21 and 03 with ILS NT.
Temporary Mode:
This is the standard way to add a waypoint. It is
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called “temporary mode” because a
temporary flight plan is created.
Click the left button of the waypoint after
which you want to add a waypoint. The lateral
revision page appears for this waypoint.
ANG is entered in the scratchpad. Pressing 3R
defines it as the next waypoint.
Press 2L to add a new waypoint after the
waypoint ‘1573’.
A temporary flight plan is displayed with ANG
following ‘1573’.
Lateral Revision page allows you to add a new
waypoint.
Enter the name of the next waypoint and press
3R (NEXT WPT) to define it as the next
waypoint. A temporary flight plan is then
created and displayed in yellow.
At this stage, you can:
- abort the modification by pressing ERASE
(6L)
- confirm the modification and validate the
temporary flight plan by pressing INSERT (6R)
- continue modifying the temporary flight plan
by adding or removing waypoints before
validating it.
Immediate Mode:
To add a waypoint in immediate mode, enter
its name in the scratchpad and click the button
on the left of the waypoint before which your
waypoint will be inserted. This action
immediately inserts the new waypoint without
needing any confirmation, but a flight plan
discontinuity appears after this waypoint. If
you want to fly direct, you must clear the
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discontinuity.
NAMAR is entered in the scratchpad, pressing
3R inserts it in immediate mode before CHW.
NAMAR has been added before CHW without
the creation of a temporary flight plan. A
discontinuity is added between NAMAR and
CHW.
Using Airways
In the process of creating a flight plan, you
may want to use airways to avoid entering the
waypoints one by one. This can be done from
the lateral revision page by entering the name
of the airway and the name of the last
waypoint you want to fly to. All the waypoints
of the selected airway are then automatically
added to the flight plan.
To do this, use the VIA/GO TO (2R) key on the
LAT REV page:
From ARDOD, you want to fly airway UN873 to
SORAP. Enter UN873/SORAP in the scratchpad
and press 2R.
All the waypoints of the airway UN873 from
ARDOD to SORAP are added in the flight plan.
Importing a flight plan from Flight Simulator
This operation can be done from the DATA
page, which will be described later in this
section. It is accessible by pressing the DATA
key on the MCDU.
In this page, an option that does not exist in the
real aircraft has been added. This is why it is
written in grey. It is the IMPORT FS FPLN (6R)
function.
Pressing this button immediately imports the
FS flight plan loaded or created in the flight
planner. If no flight plan exists in the flight
planner, an error message “NO FS FPLN
LOADED” appears in the scratchpad.
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Then you can select any waypoint displayed by
pressing the button on its left and the waypoint
is deleted from the flight plan.
Note that the departure, arrival waypoints can
not be deleted. If you are flying in NAV mode,
the NEXT waypoint can not be deleted either.
You must first leave NAV mode (by selecting
HDG mode for example), then you can delete it.
After loading or creating an FS flight plan,
press DATA to display the data page and press
6R.
The FS flight plan is imported in a temporary
flight plan with discontinuities after departure
and before arrival.
Warning: The waypoint deletion is immediate
and is not subject to any confirmation.
Consequently, you should be careful when
using this function.
Clearing a Discontinuity
A discontinuity appears in the flight plan when
the FMGC does not know how you want to fly
from one waypoint to another. If you want to fly
direct, you have to clear the discontinuity in
the same way as you delete a waypoint: press
the CLR key, then press the button on the left
of the discontinuity to clear.
Managing holding patterns
The process of creating a hold pattern is
described earlier in the HOLD Page section. As
soon as a hold is defined, it is integrated in the
flight plan right after the hold fix (BELPA in
this example) with the predicted hold speed.
When the flight plan is imported, a temporary
flight plan is created (displayed in yellow) and
you can validate it (6R) or erase it (6L). All you
need do now is define the departure/arrival
runway, the SID/STAR and then clear the
discontinuities.
Flight Plan Modification
Deleting a Waypoint
A waypoint can be deleted when the flight plan
page is displayed, even if a temporary flight
plan is displayed. You just have to press the
CLR key on the MCDU keypad (or press the
Backspace key on your keyboard if a locker is
active) and a CLR message appears on the
scratchpad.
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If the holding pattern has to be modified, the
crew can press the left key adjacent to the hold
fix (2L in this example). The LAT REV page
appears and pressing HOLD (3L) brings the
hold page which allows modification of the
hold settings.
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To delete a holding pattern, the pilot can
delete the hold fix or the holding pattern itself
(2L or 3L in this example).
Saving a route
After the flight plan is created, you may want
to save it for future use. You can do this
through the DATA page, which allows you to
save a route (refer to the DATA page section for
more information). Remember that a route is
not a flight plan. If you save the route, the
departure/arrival airports and all the
waypoints/airways used in the flight plan are
saved. The departure/arrival runways,
procedures (SID/STAR) and flight plan related
information (cruise altitude, cost index, …) are
not saved.
The saved routes are accessible when the
FROM/TO airports have been entered in the
INIT A page (see the ROUTE SELECTION page).
DIR Page
This page is accessible by pressing the DIR key
on the MCDU. It allows the pilot to create a
DIRECT. This operation consists in flying
directly to a waypoint instead of going through
all the waypoints of the flight plan. This
operation is usually commanded by the air
traffic controller if traffic conditions allow the
aircraft to fly its route as directly as possible.
This saves time and fuel.
waypoint by pressing the left key adjacent to
this waypoint. Making a DIRECT to another
waypoint not listed in the flight plan is also
possible by entering its name in the
scratchpad and pressing 1L.
PERFORMANCE PAGES
The performance pages are accessible by
pressing the PERF key on the MCDU.
Depending on the current flight phase,
different pages can be displayed, according to
the following table:
Flight Phase
PREFLIGHT
TAKE OFF
CLIMB
CRUISE
DESCENT
APPROACH
GO AROUND
DONE
PERF Page
TAKE OFF
TAKE OFF
CLB
CRZ
DES
APPR
GO AROUND
APPR
When a PERF page is displayed, you have the
ability to display the page that corresponds to
the next phases, but you can not access the
previous phase pages.
When a PERF page is displayed, its title is
displayed in green if the corresponding phase
is active, otherwise in white.
When the flight is finished and the flight phase
is DONE, pressing the PERF key resets the
flight phase to PREFLIGHT.
PERF TAKE OFF PAGE
This page is displayed when the flight phase is
PREFLIGHT or TAKE OFF. It lets the pilot enter
all the necessary data for take off.
Pressing the DIR key brings up the DIR page,
which displays all the flight plan waypoints
from the NEXT to the arrival airport. The crew
can command a DIRECT to an existing
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- If you are in Intermediate mode, assistance is
available to provide you average values if you
wish.
- If you are in Expert mode, no help is
available.
> In Beginner or Intermediate mode, the
assistance is available only if you have filled
line 3R to let the FMGC know which flap
setting you want to use for takeoff.
The page appears like this when no data has
been entered. Some fields are filled with
default values, others are mandatory.
The same page with all the necessary data
entered.
V1, VR, V2 (1L, 2L, 3L)
The crew should enter the V1, VR and V2
speeds here. These speeds depend on the
aircraft gross weight, the flap configuration,
the weather (wind, rain on the runway,
pressure) and the runway length. In order to
enter these speeds, real pilots have sheets
that describe each airport runway and that
give these numbers in all the possible
conditions.
As you may not have all this information, the
simulated FMGC can help you:
- If you are in Beginner mode, these fields are
already filled with average speed values that
should work in all situations. Even if they are
filled, you can change the values in these
fields as you wish.
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TRANS ALT (4L)
This field displays the transition altitude, the
altitude at which you should change from
altitude in feet to flight level by altering the
barometric setting from QNH to STD (1013 hPa
or 29.92 inHg).
By default, this altitude is set to 18000 feet
(written is small characters) because this is
the value that is taken into account by FS. You
can change it as you wish, knowing that in real
life, each airport has its own transition
altitude.
If you enter a value here, it appears in big
characters (entered by the crew).
THR RED/ACC (5L)
This field shows the altitude for throttle
reduction and acceleration. By default, these
values are set 1500 feet above the departure
airport altitude. You can alter these values
(minimum value is 400 feet AGL), but
remember that acceleration altitude must be
equal or greater than the reduction altitude.
The reduction altitude is the altitude at which
the pilot in command should switch the
throttle levers from take off power (FLEX or
TOGA) to the climb power (CLB). When the
aircraft reaches this altitude, a flashing ‘LVR
CLB’ message appears on the FMA (column 1)
to remind the pilot to pull the throttle levers to
the CLB detent. The climb then continues in
SRS mode until the acceleration altitude is
reached.
On reaching the acceleration altitude the
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
FMGC
aircraft begins to accelerate. The vertical
mode switches to CLB (climb mode). The
autopilot manages the pitch to accelerate to
initial climb target speed until the target
altitude is reached.
Note: The FCU target altitude should always
be higher than the acceleration altitude. If it is
not the case, the FCU altitude LED is off. It
means you should always check this light is
illuminated prior to take off.
The FCU target altitude (2500) is lower than
the acceleration altitude (3000), the LVL/CH
light is off. This is a wrong situation because
the aircraft will tend to descend when the
acceleration altitude is reached.
The FCU altitude (5000) is higher than the
acceleration altitude. This is perfect and safe.
When the acceleration altitude (3000) will be
reached, the aircraft will accelerate to 5000
feet.
RWY (1R)
This field displays the runway that has been
selected for take off. It is dashed if the runway
has not yet been selected. It is not modifiable
by the crew.
TO SHIFT (2R)
This field contains the Take Off Shift, in meters
or in feet depending on the unit system. It is
supposed to be used when the aircraft does
not take off from the beginning of the runway.
The FMGC takes the shift value into account to
manage the take off and initial climb.
This function is unnecesary on this aircraft
because the GPS provides a perfect IRS
alignment as soon as the take off power is
applied. Consequently, the FMGC knows
exactly the aircraft position during take off
without needing the TO shift.
FLAPS/THS (3R)
This field is only a reminder for the crew, it is
not used by the FMGC. The pilot can enter here
the flap configuration and the Trimmable
Horizontal Stabilizer (THS) position chosen for
take off.
In the real aircraft, this field is used as a
reminder for the crew, the FMGC does not use
it. If you are in Beginner or Intermediate
mode, the flap setting you enter here is
important because it determines the V1, VR,
V2 values provided for you as an assistance.
FLEX TO TEMP (4R)
This field displays the temperature used for a
FLEX take off. It's used to determine the
temperature for a reduced-thrust take off,
when the aircraft is below the Maximum Take
Off Weight (MTOW).
In order to enter this temperature, real pilots
have sheets that describe each airport runway
and that give these numbers in all possible
conditions.
ENG OUT ACC (5R)
This is the altitude at which you should
accelerate if an engine is out.
NEXT PHASE (6R)
Pressing 6R select key displays the climb
performance page.
F, S, O Speeds
In the center of the page, the F, S and Green
Dot speeds are displayed. They can be
calculated only when the Gross Weight (GW) is
defined (INIT B page). They can not be
modified by the crew.
The F speed is the speed at which the flaps can
be retracted, displayed on the PFD when the
flap configuration is 2 or more.
The S speed is the speed at which the slats can
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be retracted, displayed when the flap
configuration is 1.
The Green Dot speed is the best drag-to-lift
speed, used for expedite climb or for holding
patterns. It is displayed when the aircraft is in
clean configuration.
PERF CLB PAGE
This page can be accessed by pressing the
PERF key when the climb phase is active, or by
pressing the 6R key in the PERF TO page.
The ECON speed/Mach computed by the FMGC
will be used as a speed target during the climb
phase.
The speed entered by the crew (290 kts) will be
used as the speed target during the climb
phase.
ACT MODE (1L)
The value in this field depends on the other
fields of the page.
This field displays the speed mode that is used
88
for the climb:
- ECON: the ECON speed/Mach combination
displayed in the ECON field (3L) will be used.
- SPEED xxx: the speed entered by the crew in
the SPD/MACH field (4L) will be used.
- MACH xxx: the Mach entered by the crew in
the SPD/MACH field (4L) will be used.
- EXPEDITE: the expedite climb mode has
been selected on the FCU. In this case, the
aircraft climbs as efficiently as possible, using
the green dot speed as the target speed.
CI (2L)
This is the Cost Index used for the climb
phase. As explained earlier (INIT A page), the
cost index determines if you want to fly slow
and far (CI near 0) or fast and not far (CI near
999).
On this page, the cost index value directly
impacts the ECON speed/Mach computed by
the FMGC. The higher it is, the higher the
speed will be, but the fuel consumption will
also be higher.
This field can be modified by the crew (blue)
only when the CLB phase is not active.
Otherwise it is displayed in blue.
ECON (3L)
This field displays the ECON speed/Mach
computed by the FMGC according to the cruise
altitude and the cost index. It is not modifiable
by the crew.
The aircraft will automatically switch from
airspeed to Mach when the crossover altitude
is reached.
If a ‘*’ character is displayed in this field, it
means this field is selectable. The pilot can
press the 3L select key to revert to the ECON
speed mode.
SPD/MACH (4L)
When the climb phase is not active, the crew
can enter a preselected speed, mach, or both
in this field to set the speed target the FMGC
will use during the climb. When a value is
entered in this field, the ACT MODE
automatically switches to SPEED xxx or MACH
xxx.
If a ‘*’ character is displayed in this field, the
pilot can press the 4L select key to revert to
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Airbus Series Vol.1
FMGC
the SPEED xxx or MACH xxx speed mode.
When the climb phase is active, this field is not
editable. The crew may select a new speed on
the FCU (by pulling the SPD/MACH knob). In
this case, the FCU selected speed is displayed
in this field.
PREV PHASE or ACTIVATE APPR PHASE (6L)
If the climb phase is active, the 6L select line
shows ‘ACTIVATE APPR PHASE’. If you press
6L, a confirmation is requested and the FMGC
switches directly to the approach phase.
Consequently, the PERF APPR page is
immediately displayed.
If the climb phase is not active, the 6L select
line lets you display the PERF TAKE OFF page.
DEST EFOB (1R)
This field displays the Estimated Fuel On
Board (EFOB) at the destination. It is not
modifiable by the crew.
PRED TO XXX (2R)
This field lets you define the altitude for which
the predictions will be computed on lines 3R,
4R and 5R. This altitude must be lower than
the cruise altitude.
Predictions (3R, 4R, 5R)
These fields show the predicted time and
distance to reach the altitude entered in 2R,
according respectively to the ECON
speed/Mach, the preselected speed/Mach and
the expedite mode.
NEXT PHASE (6R)
Pressing 6R select key displays the cruise
performance page.
TIME or UTC
On the center of the page, the time or the UTC
to the destination is displayed, depending on
the fact that the Estimated Departure Time
(ETT) has been defined or not.
PERF CRZ PAGE
This page can be accessed by pressing the
PERF key when the cruise phase is active, or
by pressing the 6R key in the PERF CLB page.
This page is very similar to the PERF CLB
page. The speed management works exactly
like for the climb, with select keys 1L to 4L.
DES FORECAST (2R)
Pressing the 2R select key brings the descent
forecast page. This page lets the crew enter
the wind information forecasted for the
descent.
DES FORECAST PAGE
This page can only be accessed from the PERF
CRZ page, by pressing the 2R select key.
WIND/ALT (1L to 4L)
The crew can enter the wind forecast for the
descent. Each information line is composed of
the wind direction (in degrees), the wind
velocity (in knots) and the wind altitude (in feet
or in flight level). Don’t forget that if you enter
an altitude in flight level, it should begin with
‘FL’.
The wind information lines entered here are
automatically sorted by altitude.
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CAB RATE (2R)
This field displays the default cabin rate used
for pressurization. It is modifiable by the crew.
Clearing this value reverts the default value of
-350 feet/minute.
PERF DES PAGE
ECON / AUTO SPD / AUTO MACH (3L)
If the descent phase is not active, this field title
is ECON until the crew enters a value in this
field. As soon as a value is entered, the title
switches to AUTO SPD xxx or to AUTO MACH
xxx, and the ACT MODE (1L) is modified
accordingly, as shown here.
This page can be accessed by pressing the
PERF key when the descent phase is active, or
by pressing the 6R key in the PERF CRZ page.
ACT MODE (1L)
The value in this field depends on the other
fields of the page.
This field displays the speed mode that is used
for the descent:
- ECON: the ECON speed/Mach combination
displayed in the ECON field (3L) will be used.
- AUTO SPEED xxx: the speed entered by the
crew in the speed field (3L) will be used.
- AUTO MACH xxx: the Mach entered by the
crew in the speed field (3L) will be used.
- SPEED xxx: if the descent phase is active and
the speed is selected on the FCU, the target
speed value is displayed here.
- MACH xxx: if the descent phase is active and
the Mach is selected on the FCU, the target
Mach value is displayed here.
- EXPEDITE: the expedite descent mode has
been selected on the FCU. In this case, the
aircraft descents as efficiently as possible,
using the green dot speed as the target speed.
CI (2L)
This is the Cost Index used for the descent
phase. It impacts the ECON speed/Mach
computed on line 3L.
90
A clearing action on this field reverts to the
ECON speed/Mach and updates the ACT MODE
accordingly.
If the descent phase is active, this field can not
be modified.
PERF APPR PAGE
This page is dedicated to the approach
settings. It can be accessed by pressing the
PERF key when the approach phase is active,
or by pressing the 6R key in the PERF DES
page.
QNH (1L)
You can enter the QNH here in hecto-Pascals
or in inches of mercury. It is mandatory
because it is used by the FMGC to perform the
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Airbus Series Vol.1
FMGC
approach calculation.
TEMP (2L)
Enter the temperature forecasted at the
arrival airport, in °C.
MAG WIND (3L)
Enter the forecasted wind (direction/velocity)
at the arrival airport. This entry is optional, but
if you have the information available, the
FMGC will perform better predictions.
TRANS ALT (4L)
This is the transition altitude used for the
approach, which can be different from the
transition altitude used at departure. By
default, it is set to 18000 feet because it is the
default transition altitude managed by Flight
Simulator (small characters).
Clearing this line brings back the default
value.
VAPP (5L)
This is the approach speed. If it is drawn with
small characters, the value displayed is the
value computed by the FMGC, according to the
aircraft gross weight and the current wind. You
can enter any other value in this field. Clearing
this line brings back the value computed by
the FMGC.
Vapp is the speed that will be used by the
FMGC if the FCU is in managed speed during
the final approach, with landing flap
configuration.
PREV PHASE (6L)
You can click 6L to come back to the PERF DES
page, unless the approach phase is active.
FINAL (1R)
This is a reminder of the arrival runway. It is
not modifiable.
MDA and DH (2R, 3R)
MDA is the minimum descent altitude, DH is
the decision height. Remember that MDA is an
altitude, which is measured from the seal level
altitude, and DH is a height which is measured
from the ground.
The MDA is the minimum altitude at which the
aircraft can descend safely, and the DH is the
height at which the captain decides if the
aircraft lands or go around (especially
important with low visibility).
The MDA and the DH can not be defined
together, you must choose one or the other. As
soon as one is filled, the other is erased. If DH
is entered, an aural warning “minimums,
minimums” is heard when the DH is reached.
If MDA is entered, the digits in the PFD altitude
window turn amber when the aircraft is below
this altitude.
LDG CONF (4R, 5R)
The pilot can choose the flap landing
configuration here. By default, FULL is
selected (written in big characters) and CONF
3 is selectable (shown with a *).
This choice determines the content of the
landing check-list that will display the
required flap configuration when the aircraft is
close to land.
Note that if you select the CONF 3, you will still
have a GPWS warning “too low, flaps” when
the aircraft gets close to the ground. To avoid
this, press the GPWS flap button on the
overhead (refer to the system section for more
information about the GPWS).
NEXT PHASE (6R)
Displays the PERF GO AROUND page.
F, S, O Speeds
In the center of the page, the F, S and Green
Dot speeds are displayed. They can be
calculated only when the Gross Weight (GW) is
defined (INIT B page). They can not be
modified by the crew.
PERF GO AROUND PAGE
This page lets the crew set the aircraft ready
for a possible go around.
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THR RED/ACC (5L)
Like on the PERF TAKE OFF page, this field
lets the crew select the thrust reduction
altitude and the acceleration altitude in case of
a go around. Remember that the acceleration
altitude must be equal or greater than the
thrust reduction altitude.
ENG OUT ACC (5R)
This is the altitude at which you should
accelerate if an engine is out.
F, S, O Speeds
In the center of the page, the F, S and Green
Dot speeds are displayed. They can be
calculated only when the Gross Weight (GW) is
defined (INIT B page). They can not be
modified by the crew.
FUEL PRED PAGE
This page is accessible by pressing the FUEL
PRED key on the MCDU. It allows you to enter
flight information like on the INIT B page. It is
especially useful if you forgot to enter data in
the INIT B page and the engines are started
(the INIT B page is accessible only when the
engines are stopped).
This field is exactly the same as the one shown
on the INIT B page.
FINAL / TIME (5L)
This field is exactly the same as the one shown
on the INIT B page.
EXTRA / TIME (6L)
This field is exactly the same as the one shown
on the INIT B page.
Refer to the INIT B page section for more
information about these fields.
EFOB (1R)
This is the fuel prediction at destination. It is
not modifiable by the crew.
FOB (3R)
This field allows the crew to enter a FOB (Fuel
On Board) quantity. You should be very
cautious when enter a value here because it
can make the fuel predictions wrong. It can be
used only when engines are stopped. As soon
as engines are started, the FOB information is
acquired from the fuel sensors again.
In addition, you have the ability to define how
the FOB quantity is computed:
- FF + FQ: the fuel flow and the fuel quantity
sensors are used
- FF: the fuel flow sensors are used only
- FQ: the fuel quantity sensors are used only
CRZ TEMP/TROPO (4R)
This field displays the temperature at the
cruise altitude and the tropopause altitude.
Both values can be modified by the crew.
PROG PAGE
The PROG page is a multifunction page.
AT (1L)
This is a reminder of the destination airport. It
is not modifiable by the crew.
GW / CG (3L)
This field contains the Gross Weight and the
center of gravity. The gross weight information
is mandatory, so amber boxes appear here if
this information is not available.
RTE RSV / % (4L)
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The title is composed of the current flight
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Airbus Series Vol.1
FMGC
phase (TO for takeoff, CLB, CRZ, DES or APPR)
and the flight number.
CRZ (1L)
This field displays the current cruise altitude.
The crew can modify this value to change the
cruise altitude during the flight (it is the only
way to do this as the INIT page is not
accessible during the flight).
This field is empty when the aircraft is in
descent or approach phase.
SEND POS (2L)
Pressing this key sends a position report.
UPDATE AT (3L)
This field allows the crew to update the IRS
position with a navaid position. This function is
not implemented in this aircraft because its
position is updated by the GPS.
BRG/DIST (4L)
As soon as a navaid name is entered in the
“TO” field (4R), the bearing and distance to this
navaid is displayed and updated in real time.
OPT (1 Center)
This value shows the optimal cruise flight
level computed by the FMGC, depending on the
gross weight and the cost index.
REC MAX (1R)
This is the maximum flight level, displayed in
magenta.
VDEV (2R)
This field is visible during the descent and
approach phases only. It shows the vertical
deviation between the current aircraft position
and the computed flight plan. This information
is also shown on the PFD altitude tape (refer to
the EFIS section for more information).
TO (4R)
This field lets the pilot enter a navaid name.
DIR DIST TO DEST (5R)
This information is visible during the descent
and approach phases only, if you are not in
NAV mode. It shows the direct distance to the
destination approach. It is very useful if the
ATC makes you leave your flight plan and
guides you with heading, in which case you use
the HDG mode.
RAD NAV PAGE
This page is dedicated to the management of
the radio equipment. Remember that any
information written with small characters is
generated by the FMGC, and big characters
correspond to information entered by the
crew.
VOR1/FREQ (1L) and FREQ/VOR2 (1R)
These two fields are dedicated to VOR1 and
VOR2. They display the current VOR names
and frequencies. If you see the identifier and
the frequency both written is small
characters, it means the FMGC has autotuned
this VOR.
The crew can enter a VOR identifier or
frequency in these fields.
If a name is entered, the VOR frequency is
fetched in the database, displayed here, and
set on the VOR receiver. In this case, the
identifier is written in big characters, and the
frequency is in small characters.
If a frequency is entered, the FMGC will fetch
the closest VOR that corresponds to this
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frequency. The found identifier is then written
is small characters (set by the FMGC) and the
frequency, entered by the crew, is in big
characters.
As soon as an identifier or a frequency has
been entered, the VOR can not be autotuned by
the FMGC until it is released. To do so, press
the CLR key on the MCDU and press 1L or 1R
to release the VOR1 or VOR2. As soon as the
VOR is released, the FMGC will take back
control and use it for autotune.
CRS (2L and 2R)
These fields let you enter the course for VOR1
and VOR2.
ILS/FREQ (3L)
Just like for VOR1 and VOR2, this field shows
the ILS identifier and frequency. You can set
the ILS identifier or frequency like for the
VORs. If the ILS is released, the FMGC will
automatically set the arrival runway ILS when
the approach phase becomes active.
> Because of a limitation in Flight Simulator,
the VOR1 and the ILS are linked and share the
same frequency. Consequently, if you set the
VOR1, the ILS setting is lost, and conversely.
This is why you should make sure VOR1 is
released if you want to have the ILS autotuned
on approach.
CRS (4R)
This field lets you set the ILS course. If the ILS
is autotuned on approach, the ILS course is
automatically set by the FMGC.
ADF1/FREQ (5R)
This field lets you set the ADF in the same way
as the VORs.
ADF BFO (6R)
This activates or stops the frequency
oscillator. This feature is not used by Flight
Simulator.
> The RAD NAV page is the standard way to
set radio equipment manually. You can also
use the left and right Radio Management
Panels (RMP) located on the pedestal to do
this. In this case, the RAD NAV page becomes
94
inactive as soon as you press the NAV page on
any RMP and it appears like this:
Refer to the Systems section for more
information about the RMP usage.
PAGE SEQUENCING
Now that you know the FMGC and all the
MCDU pages, you may still be lost as to their
use… There are so many pages and you may
not know in which order you should use them.
So here is some further advice:
1 - Initialization
If the menu page appears, press FMGC (1L) to
bring the INIT A page. Otherwise, press the
INIT button.
Enter the FROM/TO airports. If a route exists
and you select it, it brings up the flight plan
page with a temporary flight plan. Validate it
and come back to the INIT A page.
Align the IRS if they are not already aligned.
The alignment time will be useful to set the
flight plan and everything else.
Enter the flight number and the cruise
altitude. Edit the cost index if the default value
is not appropriate for your flight.
Then press NEXT PAGE to gain access to the
INIT B page and have the gross weight
computed. If the engines are started, you can
not access this page and you have to define the
gross weight on the FUEL PRED page.
If INIT B is accessible, set the taxi fuel, route
reserve, final etc, …
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
FMGC
2 – Flight Plan
Press F-PLAN to access the flight plan page
and create the flight plan as necessary (refer
to the flight plan management section for
more information).
Anyway, enter the DEPARTURE page through
the lateral revision page of the departure
airport and define the departing runway and
SID. Do the same at the arrival airport to
define arrival runway and STAR.
As soon as the gross weight is defined, the
flight plan is created and all the discontinuities
are cleared, the predictions are computed by
the FMGC and appear on the flight plan page.
3 – Performance Settings
Press the PERF button to access the
performance page. The PERF TO page
appears. Set the FLEX temperature and V1, VR
and V2 speeds for takeoff. Remember that if
you have entered the takeoff flap configuration
and you are in Beginner or Intermediate mode,
assistance is available for these values.
You can navigate to the climb, cruise, and
descent performance pages to make sure the
speeds and modes are correct, according to
the cost index.
4 – Done…
The FMGC is now set for takeoff. Do not forget
to turn the flight director on. All the FCU
modes will engage to help you during the
takeoff and climb phases.
During the flight, you may have to use some
MCDU pages, such as RAD NAV to manually
set radio, flight plan to watch the flight along
the plan and see the remaining distance to
destination, or the PROG page to monitor your
descent and your distance to destination if not
in NAV mode.
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
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Airbus Series Vol.1
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Windows Vista crashes to desktop when I
select one of the aircraft.
Select the directory where your FS is (default :
Program files\microsoft games\ ), right-click
and select the SECURITY tab. Click on your
username (not on Administrator) and then on
Edit. Allow full rights and click OK to exit.
When I push the ALT button to engage a
managed climb or descent, nothing happens.
The lateral and vertical modes are not fully
independent. The managed climb/descent is
accessible only when the FCU is in NAV mode.
For example, if you are in heading mode ("HDG"
displayed on the FMA), nothing happens when
you push the ALT button. Nevertheless, you can
pull the ALT button to engage an open
climb/descent.
I have engaged the V/S mode to climb, and the
FCU turns into Open Climb.
This is called "mode reversion". It is just
because you ask the aircraft to climb very
steep. In this situation, if the airspeed becomes
too low, the FCU automatically turns to Open
Climb (OP CLB displayed on the FMA) to
prevent a low speed situation. When in Open
Climb, the aircraft will adjust the pitch to
maintain a correct and safe airspeed.
When the aircraft was on the ground, I have
unintentionally pushed the thrust levers to
the FLEX or TOGA detent, so the SRS and RWY
modes have engaged. How can I clear them?
You just have to pull the thrust levers back to
IDLE and reset the FCU by switching the FD off
and on. Real pilots often do this operation in the
beginning of a flight to make sure no mode is
active.
All the systems are turned on, but the EFIS
are still black.
This is just because the EFIS brightness is set
to 0 (full dark) like when they are off. You just
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have to move the mouse in the central zone of
each EFIS and turn the mouse wheel to
increase the brightness, or press the mouse
middle button to reset the brightness.
I press the MCDU INIT button, and nothing
happens.
This is because the INIT A page is accessible
only when the engines are stopped. If you press
the INIT button with engines started, nothing
happens.
My flight plan is set up, all the associated data
are entered, but the flight plan predictions are
not available.
Make sure all the necessary data (cruise
altitude and gross weight) have been entered in
the MCDU. Also make sure the flight plan
contains no discontinuity. The predictions can
not be computed if any discontinuity is still in
the flight plan.
I have saved my flight in FS while the aircraft
was in flight. When I tried to reload it, the
FMGC status was inconsistent.
This is normal. The MCDU & FMGC data is
persisted in a file that is independent from the
file where the FS flight is saved. Consequently,
the FMGC data is retrieved correctly when the
flight is reloaded in the same conditions.
Suggestion:
In FS2004, a flight is automatically saved when
you exit from FS (it is called 'Previous Flight').
You can configure FS2004 with this flight as the
default flight. Doing this, FS2004 always
restarts where it has previously stopped. In this
case, the FMGC persistence works perfectly.
I can not import the FS flight plan into the
FMGC.
Make sure you have the FS flight plan loaded in
memory. If it still doesn't work, look into your
FS\Modules directory and check that
"gps_export.dll" (6144 bytes) is included. It is
supplied by FS 2004 or X but some add-ons
remove or replace it by an older one.
For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
APPENDICES
APPENDIX B
Acronyms
ABV
A/C
AGL
A.FLOOR
AMP
AMSL
A/THR
AC
ADIRU
AIRAC
ALT
APPR
APU
ATC
BLW
BRG
CL or CLB
CLR
DES
DH
DIR
DME
ECAM
Above (TCAS)
Aircraft
Above Ground Level
Alpha Floor
Audio Management Panel
Above Mean Sea Level
Autothrust
Air Conditioning
Air Data Inertial Reference Unit
Aeronautical Information Circular
Altitude
Approach (Key on FCU)
Auxiliary Power Unit
Air Traffic Control
Below (TCAS)
Bearing
Climb
CLEAR (Key on MCDU Keyboard)
Descent
Decision Height
Direct
Distance Measuring Equipment
Electronic Centralized Aircraft
Monitoring
EFIS
Electronic Flight Instrument
System
EFOB
Estimated Fuel On Board
ELAC
Elevator and Aileron Computer
ENG
Engine
ETD
Estimated Time of Departure
E/WD
Engine/Warning Display
EXPED
Expedite (FCU Key)
EXT PWR Enternal Power
FAC
Flight Augmentation Computer
FADEC
Full Authority Digital Engine
Control
FCU
Flight Control Unit
FD
Flight Director
FF
Fuel Flow
FL
Flight Level
FLX/MCT Flexible/Maximum Continuous
Thrust
FMA
Flight Mode Annunciator
FMGC
Flight Management and Guidance
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Computer
First Officer
Fuel On Board
Flight Path Angle
Flight Plan (MCDU Page)
Fuel Quantity
Ground Power Unit
Ground Proximity Warning System
Glide Slope
Gross Weight
Heading
Instrument Landing System
Initiation (MCDU Page)
Kilogram
Inertial Reference System
Landing Gear
Lock
ILS Localizer
Line Select Key
Multifunction Control and Display
Unit
MDA
Minimum Descent Altitude
MKR
Marker
N/W
Nose Wheel
ND
Navigation Display
NDB(ADF) Nondirectional Beacon
(Automatic Direction Finder)
NM
Nautical Miles
OVFY
Overfly (Key on MCDU Keypad)
PERF
Performance (MCDU Page)
PFD
Primary Flight Display
PPU
Power Push Unit
PROG
Progress (MCDU Page)
QNH
Barometric Pressure Reported By
A Station
PSI
Pounds Per Square Inch
PTU
Power Transfer Unit
RAD/NV
Radio/Navigation (MCDU Page)
RMP
Radio Management Panel
RTO
Rejected Takeoff
RWY
Runway
SD
System Display
SEC
Spoiler and Elevator Computer
SID
Standard Instrument Departure
SRS
System Reference System
STAR
Standard Terminal Arrival
FO
FOB
FPA
F-PLAN
FQ
GPU
GPWS
GS
GW
HDG
ILS
INIT
KG
IRS
L/G
LK
LOC
LSK
MCDU
Pour Flight Simulator uniquement. Ne peut être utilisé pour l'aviation réelle.
Airbus Series Vol.1
APPENDICES
STDBY
Standby (TCAS)
TA
Traffic Advisory (TCAS)
TA/RA
Traffic Advisory & Resolution
Advisory
TAS
True Airspeed
T/C
Top of Climb
TCAS
Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance System
T/D
Top of Descent
TERR
Terrain Proximity Alert (GPWS)
THR
Thrust
THRT
TCAS Threat
THS
Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer
TOGA
Takeoff Go-Around
TOW
Takeoff Weight
TRANS
Transition
TRK
Track
UTC
Universal Coordinated Time
V1
Speed at which takeoff cannot be
V2
Minimum Takeoff Safety Speed
V/S
Vertical Speed
aborted
Vfe
Maximum Flap Extended Speed
VHF
Very High Frequency
Vls
Minimum Safe Speed
Vmax
Maximum Operating Speed In
Current Conditions
Vmo/Mmo Maximum Operating Limit Speed
VOR
Very High Frequency Omnirange
Station
Vr
Rotation Speed
XFR
Transfer
ZFW
Zero Fuel Weight
ZFWCG
Zero Fuel Weight Centre of Gravity
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For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation.
Airbus Series Vol.1
(c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com
99
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