Handbook - Georgia Soccer

Handbook - Georgia Soccer

HANDBOOK

FOR

REFEREES

2015

I

NTRODUCTION

R efereeing is a much broader art than can be encompassed in the Laws of the Game. This book is designed to amplify and explain some aspects of the Laws as they relate to play within the State of Georgia. It is a supplement to the Laws that will give you a wider view of refereeing and will help you develop your skills and effectively manage the game in accordance with modifications and administrative policies of Georgia Soccer.

The chapters in this book serve two purposes: to explain some concepts in the Laws of the Game so that they may be understood in simple terms and to provide practical advice about how to conduct a match. What is expected of a referee at a match site? What are the modifications to field size, number of players, and substitutions for youth matches? Where do I send my reports? How do I find games? These are some questions not answered in the Laws.

This book is designed to help you with these and other questions you will meet in your refereeing career.

Georgia State Referee Committee

Some useful internet links: www.ussoccer.com

- website for United States Soccer Federation. Lots of good referee information including downloads, courses, and videos.

www.georgiasoccer.org

- news and information on the referee page.

www.gareferees.com

- registration site; also news, an FAQ, and information http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/footballdevelopment/technicalsupport/refereeing/laws-of-the-game/index.html. The complete Laws of the Game including the Interpretation of the Laws of the Game and Guidelines for Referees and

Notes on the Laws of the Game ask.gareferees.com

You can submit questions directly to the State Referee Committee online.

Table of Contents

I

NTRODUCTION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

A

MENDMENTS TO THE

L

AWS OF THE

G

AME

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

S

OCCER

O

RGANIZATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

A

PPLICATION OF THE

L

AWS OF THE

G

AME

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Law 3, Number of Players

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Law 5, The Referee

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Law 8, The Start and Restart of Play

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Law 9, Ball Out of Play

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Law 12, Fouls and Misconduct

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Report Codes for Cautionable and Sending-off Offenses

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Law 13, Free Kicks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Law 14, Penalty-kick

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Concept Chart -- Fouls and Misconduct

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

C

ONDUCT OF A

M

ATCH

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

G

AME AND

M

ISCONDUCT

R

EPORTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Game Reports

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

How to Write a Misconduct Report

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

A

SSAULT ON

R

EFEREES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

R

EFEREE

'

S

I

NSTRUCTIONS

T

O

A

SSISTANT

R

EFEREES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

G

EORGIA

S

OCCER

Y

OUTH

M

ODIFICATIONS TO THE

L

AWS OF THE

G

AME

AND

A

DMINISTRATIVE

R

ULES

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Under-6 and Under-8 Special Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

T

ABLE OF

G

EORGIA

Y

OUTH

M

ODIFICATIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

L

IST OF

G

EORGIA

S

OCCER

Y

OUTH

M

ODIFICATIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

C

ODE OF

E

THICS FOR

R

EFEREES

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

C

ODE OF

E

THICS FOR

R

EFEREES

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Some Practical Examples

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

C

ODE OF

E

THICS FOR

A

SSIGNORS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

C

HECK

L

ISTS FOR

R

EFEREES AND

A

SSISTANT

R

EFEREES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Self-evaluation Check List for Referees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Self-evaluation Check List for Assistant Referees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

A

DMINISTRATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Referee Certification

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Recertification Requirements

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Georgia SRC AdditionalRequirements to Participate in State, Regional, and

National Events

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Referee Assignment

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

A R

EFEREEING

B

IBLIOGRAPHY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Books

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Videos

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

A

MENDMENTS TO THE

L

AWS OF THE

G

AME

2014-2015

The following is NOT the official memorandum from the United States Soccer Federation. That will be published only after this document has gone to press.

Law 4 — The Players’ Equipment

Other equipment (Interpretations), p. 69.

Alterations highlighted in italics.

Modern protective equipment (....) Permitted.

Where head covers are worn, they must

be of the same main color as the jersey

be in keeping with the professional appearance of the players’ equipment

not be attached to the jersey

not pose any danger to the player wearing it or any other player (e.g., opening/closing mechanism around neck)

not have any part(s) extending out from the surface (protruding elements)

Reason

After a two-year pilot, there is no indication as to why the wearing of head covers should be prohibited, as long as their design restrictions are respected as defined in the pilot. Furthermore, the male football community has also raised the need for male players to be permitted to wear head cover, as it is considered discriminative.

Law 4 — The Players’ Equipment

Slogans or advertising on undergarments (Decision 1), p. 23

Basic compulsory equipment.

Players must not reveal undergarments showing slogans or advertising. The basic compulsory equipment must not have any political, religious or personal slogans, statements or images.

Handbook For Referees 1

A player removing his jersey or shirt to reveal slogans or advertising will be sanctioned by the competition

organiser. The team of a player whose basic compulsory equipment has political, religious or personal slogans, statements or images will be sanctioned by the competition organiser or by FIFA.

Undergarments

Players must not reveal undergarments that show political, religious, personal slogans, statements or images, or advertising other than the manufacturer logo.

A player/team of a player that reveals an undergarment that shows political, religious, personal slogans, statements or images, or advertising other than the manufacturers’ logo will be sanctioned by the competition organisers or by FIFA.

Reason

Currently what a player can reveal on any item of basic compulsory equipment is different to what he can on an undergarment, i.e. he can’t reveal a personal statement or image on his outer jersey but he can on his undershirt. This amendment seeks to outline a consistent approach to both the outer jersey and all types of undergarment.

2 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

S

OCCER

O

RGANIZATION

S occer is the world's most popular team sport. It is played by millions of players across almost every continent.

Administering the complex network of leagues, associations, teams, and players is a large task. Soccer as we know it today was first developed in Britain, and the first international competitions were held there. The unique place that the British nations have in the history of the game is reflected in the curious organization of world soccer.

The Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is the governing body of world soccer. Each soccerplaying country is a member of FIFA (England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are independent members as well). FIFA is responsible for administering the Laws promulgated by the International Football Association Board and organizing international competitions under its jurisdiction (World Cup, Women’s World Championship, Olympic

Games, various youth world championships, etc.). It also regulates the international movement of players, administers standards for referees, aids in soccer development, and disciplines persons and countries who violate its regulations.

A congress of member countries meets every other year. Alterations in statutes, new members, suspensions, and expulsions must be agreed to by three-fourths of the members present. FIFA, however, cannot alter the Laws of the

Game.

Making changes in the Laws of the Game is the responsibility of the International Football Association Board (IFAB).

It is composed of four members each from England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and FIFA. The International

Board is responsible for drafting the Laws, clarifications and interpretations of the Laws, instructions to governing bodies and referees, and approval of modifications of the Laws proposed by national associations for use in their own jurisdictions. The Board meets each year to consider proposals concerning these issues. A three-quarter majority is required to approve a change.

Another class of organizations is the continental confederations, which were established in 1953 to help coordinate international activities regionally. The confederation that administers international matters in North America, Central

America, and the Caribbean is CONCACAF (Confederacion Norte-Centroamericana y del Caribe de Futbol).

Finally, there is one recognized association in each member country of FIFA. In the United States, that is the United

States Soccer Federation (USSF) with headquarters in Chicago, IL. It is responsible for administering the national team programs and training and registering referees. The various state associations and independent organizations such as U.S. Club Soccer are members or affiliates of USSF. The vast majority of affiliated games played in Georgia are played under Georgia Soccer, and the rule modifications and procedures given in this document refer to Georgia

Soccer competitions. Competition rules may vary in tournaments and games played under the auspices of other member affiliates.

Handbook For Referees 3

A

PPLICATION OF THE

L

AWS OF THE

G

AME

T he following clarifies and amplifies some aspects of the Laws of the Game so there will be greater uniformity in their application.

Law 3, Number of Players

Players Sent Off for Misconduct

An International Board (IFAB) decision on Law 3 once stated, “A player who has been ordered off after play has started may not be replaced.” When the laws were re-written in 1997, this statement was omitted. The IFAB felt that this provision was implicit in other parts of the laws and was so well understood that it did not need to be mentioned in the laws. Nevertheless, the provisions of IFAB Decision 3 on Law 3 remain valid to this day. Law 3 (Interpretation and Guidelines) states that “A player who has been sent off before the kick-off may be replaced only by one of the named substitutes.” Implied in that statement is a reiteration of the principle that a player sent off after the match begins may not be replaced.

I.

Law 5, The Referee

Referee's Uniform

A sketch of the referee's uniform is shown below. The referee's neat appearance tells the players and spectators immediately that he takes their match seriously and has prepared for it carefully. The referee must make every effort to appear properly dressed, neat, and well groomed. The uniform must always be clean and unwrinkled, the shoes shined, and only a current USSF badge worn.

4 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

G

EORGIA

P

OLICY ON

R

EFEREE

U

NIFORMS

The proper referee uniform is the one shown in the current editions of the USSF Referee Administrative Handbook and the Georgia State Referee Committee’s Handbook for Referees. That uniform consists of predominantly black shoes (manufacturer’s logo is okay), black socks with three white rings at the top or with the USSF logo, solid black shorts, and one of the following shirts:

1.

Gold short- or long-sleeved shirt of approved USSF design (primary shirt).

2.

Black, blue, green or red short or long-sleeved shirt of approved USSF design (alternate shirts).

Manufacturer’s logos are acceptable on all articles of clothing, but additional designs, stripes, piping, and trim are not.

A current USSF badge of the referee’s current grade must be worn on the left pocket of the shirt. The referee will determine which shirts are appropriate, based on their contrast with the competing teams’ jerseys. Note that the officials must change shirts if there is a conflict with either team’s shirts.

The correct uniform should be worn by all officials for all matches. All three officials should be dressed alike.

Referees should not be subject to disciplinary measures when the following situations are observed:

1.

When officiating several matches per day in cold temperature or rain, or a combination of rain and cold, and where the level of competition will not require brisk physical activity, long black pants or warm-ups are worn over the shorts. In cold weather, black gloves or a black knit cap are worn.

2.

3.

Beginning or novice referees or assistant referees who do not own a long-sleeved shirt wearing a long-sleeved black, gold or white shirt or sweatshirt under their short-sleeved shirt. (Referees who continue to officiate after their first year should obtain at least one long-sleeved shirt.)

In rain, officials who wear prescription eyeglasses and who cannot officiate without them wearing a black, unmarked brimmed hat (e.g., a baseball hat) to protect the glasses from rain.

4.

Officials with skin conditions requiring avoidance of direct sunlight wearing black, unmarked brimmed hat (e.g., a baseball hat) to protect their skin from the sun.

All three officials should be dressed alike. When it is impossible for all three officials to dress alike, because they do not all have the same equipment with them, the following alternatives should be used, in order of preference:

1.

2.

All three officials dress alike.

All three officials wear the same color shirt, with a mixture of short and long sleeves.

3.

The referee wears one color shirt, and both of the assistant referees wear a different color.

The general appearance of all officials should be neat and professional. The officials’ uniforms must be neat and clean.

Shirts must be tucked in at all times. Shoes must be clean at the start of the match. Socks must be pulled up with the three stripes even.

The following are not allowed under any circumstances and will make the official subject to possible disciplinary action:

1.

2.

Socks rolled down to the ankles.

Short-sleeved shirts rolled up to the shoulder.

3.

4.

5.

Shirts rolled up or tied up from the waist.

Underwear showing either below or above the shorts.

Extra visible clothing of a color other than black or white worn over or under the referee uniform.

6.

Sunglasses, except prescription light-sensitive glass where the glasses are the normal ones used by the official.

Off the field, any warm-up or jacket that is neat and professional in appearance, hats, gloves, umbrellas, and any other articles of clothing or protection that enhance the referee’s comfort are acceptable. The professional appearance of the referee should be maintained during the half-time interval or between successive games at the same field.

Handbook For Referees 5

No tobacco products or alcohol may be used on or in the vicinity of the field.

Once referees leave the vicinity of the field, they may assume a more casual appearance, but in that case, all outward signs of the referee uniform should be removed. (A good rule of thumb is, if someone can tell by looking at you that you are a referee, then you should appear neatly and professionally dressed.)

It is the duty of the referee to strictly enforce the uniform regulations. Assistant referees who do not adhere to these requirements must be reported by the referee to the local referee coordinator or the State Referee Committee. Referees reported for uniform dress violations will be subject to discipline up to and including loss of their certification. The

State Referee Committee recommends that officials who do not meet these requirements should not be paid for their services.

It is the responsibility of senior officials not only to adhere to this uniform code but to make every effort to see to it that it is adhered to by junior officials.

TIP: Whenever you decide to allow play to continue for advantage or because an offense is trifling, a word or two to the players to let them know that you saw what happened but decided not to stop play may avoid bad feeling and resentment among the players.

2.

The Use of the Whistle

T he whistle is used as a signal to start and stop play. Within this simple function there lies a world of usefulness for the referee. The method of whistling implies much about the referee's authority. One recognizes with the first whistle whether or not the referee is a strong personality. Timid whistling is unconvincing at any time, and clear signals are necessary in all controversial decisions. The referee who can use the whistle effectively to communicate has a powerful tool for game control.

Keep in mind several principles in using the whistle.Vary the intensity and duration of the sound. Monotony has its effect: the players do not notice any difference between the recognition of technical infringements and foul play and soon believe that you view them the same way. Give a short, sharp whistle for technical infringements (when the ball has gone out, for instance). Give a louder, longer whistle for a foul. The manner of whistling for a foul should reflect the referee's opinion of the relative importance of the offense.

Too much whistling spoils the joy of playing, puts the referee in the foreground for no reason, and robs the whistle of its meaning.

The whistle is needed to:

• start play (1st, 2nd half), after a goal

• stop play:

– for a free kick or penalty kick

– if the match is suspended or abandoned

– when a period of play has ended due to the expiration of time

6 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

• restart play at:

– free kicks when the wall is ordered back the appropriate distance

– penalty kicks

• restart play after it has been stopped due to:

– the issuance of a yellow or red card for misconduct

– injury

– substitution

The whistle is NOT needed to:

• stop play for:

– a goal kick, corner kick or throw-in

– a goal

• restart play from:

– a free kick, goal kick, corner kick, throw-in

Aside from these times, use the whistle only in unclear situations (for example, when the ball just goes out of bounds and players continue to play) and when you need a clear signal for some other reason.

Use mechanics for carrying and blowing the whistle that best suit you. Most referees prefer to carry the whistle in their hands, not around their necks. Attach the whistle securely to your wrist, hand, or finger. Carry it in a relaxed position.

Carrying the whistle around the neck can be dangerous and distracting, and the whistle may be hardest to locate when you need it most. Perhaps the best argument for carrying the whistle in the hand is that the extra time required to raise it to your mouth can be used for judging whether to apply advantage and other considerations. Carrying the whistle in your mouth is strongly discouraged: it is dangerous, interferes with breathing, and can lead to accidental whistling.

The referee should carry two whistles: one to use and one as backup. A whistle can stop working for many reasons, including wet weather, cold, breakage, and loss.

TIP: Choose two whistles of different pitch. You can change whistles if a referee on a neighboring field has a similar-sounding whistle that confuses the players.

Dealing with Lightning

Lightning Occurrence

There are an estimated 25,000,000 cloud-to-ground flashes each year.

On average, 90+ people are killed, 300 injured annually.

Ninety percent of those struck survive; the majority suffer life-long severe injury.

Handbook For Referees 7

Minimize the Risk of Being Struck

Lightning can strike from as much as 8 miles away from the storm cell.

Six miles is about the distance you are able to hear the thunder.

If you can hear the thunder, you are within striking distance of the storm!

What the Referee Should Do (1)

The Interpretation of the Laws of the Game and Guidelines for Referees states that a referee is not held liable for a decision that weather conditions are such as to allow or not allow a match to take place.

What the Referee Should Do (2)

Refer to and follow the rules of the competition.

Follow the rules of the facility.

Within these rules, the referee may be more (but not less) restrictive.

Use common sense.

What the Referee Should Do (3)

A good deal of flexibility may be required during lightning suspensions. Here are some guidelines:

Suspend play for a reasonable and fixed amount of time

Announce the time to both teams

Establish a place to meet to review conditions after the announced time.

If the storm has not passed at the end of that time, terminate the game, but remain flexible and sensitive to changing weather conditions and the needs and desires of the teams, the competition authorities, and your crew of officials.

Include full details in the match report.

30-po

If you see lightning, use the "30-30 Rule":

When you see lightning, count the time until you hear the thunder (one hippopotamus, two hippopotamus, three hippopotamus...). If this time is 30 seconds (6 miles) or less, seek proper shelter.

If you cannot see the lightning, just hearing the thunder is a good back-up.

Wait at least 30 minutes after hearing the last thunder and seeing the last lightning before leaving shelter.

Proper Shelter

A house or large building is best.

If a house or building is not available, get to a vehicle with a sold metal roof and metal sides.

8 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

No Proper Shelter

Avoid the most dangerous locations, such as:

High elevations, wide-open areas (field);

Tall isolated objects (trees, poles, etc.);

Unprotected open buildings;

Metal fences.

If you are caught in the open, crouch down on the balls of your feet, head tucked into your chest, hands over your ears.

If Someone is Hit

All deaths from lightning are from cardiac arrest and stopped breathing.

CPR and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation are the recommended first aid measures, respectively.

Be Pessimistic

Every cloud has a silver lining, but lightning kills hundreds of people each year who are trying to find it.

Law 8, The Start and Restart of Play

After a Goal

Players are naturally excited after scoring a goal, especially in important or intensely played matches, and they should be free to demonstrate their joy. However, the celebrations must be kept reasonable and not waste excessive amounts of time. Referees should discourage exaggerated, choreographed celebrations.

Act in a preventative mode and exercise common sense. If a celebration continues for more than ten to fifteen seconds, move toward the group and remind them that they must begin play again. If a player does not respond to your reminder, caution the player for delaying the restart of play.

Players who leave the field briefly, even running behind the goal, and then immediately return to the field should not be punished. However, a player should be cautioned for unsporting behavior when he or she does such things as making gestures that are provocative, derisory, or inflammatory; removing a corner flag to wave; or running to or into the stands to celebrate with fans.

Law 9, Ball Out of Play

Sequential Fouls

Law 9 states that the ball is out of play when it leaves the field, across the touch-line or goal line, or when the referee stops play. The USSF Advice to Referees (9.1) explains that the referee has stopped play at the moment the decision is made, not when it is announced by a whistle.

Accordingly, the decision to stop play marks the beginning of the stoppage. Any infringement after that may be misconduct (caution or sending off), or may merit a warning to the player, but it plays no part in determining the correct restart. For example, when the referee sees a foul and decides to stop play, but before he has blown the whistle, the player who was fouled retaliates against the opponent, the referee may caution

Handbook For Referees 9

or send off the retaliating player. Nevertheless, the restart will be a free-kick (or penalty-kick) against the team of the player who committed the first foul. In these cases, it makes no difference that the violation after play was stopped was more serious than the original offense, because the ball was no longer in play at the time of the second offense.

Law 12, Fouls and Misconduct

1. Control of the Ball by Goalkeepers

Law 12 makes it clear that the goalkeeper may only control the ball with his hands or arms once before releasing it into play. The intent is to speed up play by preventing the goalkeeper from merely knocking the ball forward with his hands, slowly coming to the top of the penalty-area, and then finally picking up the ball to distribute it. The decision does not mean that every time the goalkeeper touches the ball twice he shall be penalized with an indirect free-kick. Consider the following examples:

!

The ball comes over from an in swinging corner-kick. The goalkeeper attempts to punch it away, but the ball drops to the ground nearby. The goalkeeper then dives on the ball. This is not an infringement.

!

A hard shot from a few yards away goes to the left of the goalkeeper, who sticks out his hand to stop it. The ball falls to the ground, and the goalkeeper quickly picks it up. This is not an infringement.

!

A shot from twenty yards out comes straight at the goalkeeper. It is clear that he could catch the ball, but instead he deliberately parries the ball with his hands or arms, and it goes a few yards in front of him. With his feet, he dribbles the ball forward to the top of the penalty-area where he picks it up.

This is a violation of the law and would be punished with an indirect free-kick to the opposing team.

!

The goalkeeper jumps up to try to deflect a high shot over the crossbar. The ball hits the bar and bounces into the field, where the goalkeeper catches it. This is not an infringement.

2. Goalkeeper handling the ball kicked to him by a teammate.

!

!

It is important to remember that all three parts of this provision of the law must be present for an offense to be committed:

!

The ball must be kicked by a field player to a place where the goalkeeper can play it;

The action must be deliberate by the field player; and

The goalkeeper must handle the ball.

A player may kick the ball to the goalkeeper, and if the goalkeeper plays it with his feet, head, chest, etc., there is no offense. Furthermore, the goalkeeper may use his hands to pick up a ball played to him by a teammate using the head, chest, knee, or other part of the body. A goalkeeper may also pick up a ball deflected to him accidentally by a teammate. Here are some examples:

!

A defender dribbles the ball out of the penalty area and then pushes it with his foot back into the penalty area for the goalkeeper, who moves to the ball and picks it up. This is a clear violation and is punished with an indirect free-kick for the opposing team.

!

A defender dribbles the ball out of the penalty area and leaves it for the goalkeeper, who goes outside the penalty area, dribbles it back into the area with his feet, and picks it up. This, too, is a violation of the law and would be punished with an indirect free-kick to the other team.

10 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

!

!

An opponent takes a shot on goal. A defender thrusts a foot in front of the shot, deflecting it but not stopping it, and the ball rolls to the goalkeeper, who picks it up with his hands. There is no offense, as the action was not deliberate.

A forward is dribbling the ball toward the goal, and a defender catches up to him and tackles the ball away. It rolls to the goalkeeper, who catches it with his hands. There is no offense if, in the opinion

of the referee, the tackle was made to take the ball away from the forward and not to deliberately pass the ball to the goalkeeper.

!

A defender kicks the ball sharply back toward his own goal. The goalkeeper, to avoid an own goal, stops the ball with his hands. The proper punishment is an indirect free-kick from the point where the goalkeeper touched the ball. No further action is required against the goalkeeper. The rule concerning players who deliberately handle the ball to prevent an obvious goal-scoring opportunity does not apply to a goalkeeper inside his penalty area, only to defending field players (or a goalkeeper outside his own penalty area).

The Laws of the Game makes it clear that attempts to get around this portion of the law by trickery must be considered unsporting behavior and punished with a caution. Although such attempts are rare, referees must be alert to detect and punish them. Referees must be able to tell the difference between a contrived attempt to play the ball to the goalkeeper and an action in normal play. Here are some examples:

!

At a free-kick by the defending team, a player "knees" the ball to the goalkeeper. An offense is committed by the player, who shall be cautioned. Play must be restarted with a free-kick to the same team, however, since the ball was never properly put into play.

!

At a free-kick by the defending team, a player flicks the ball with his foot to the head of a teammate a few yards away, who then heads it back to the goalkeeper. The player taking the free-kick must be cautioned for unsporting behavior. The original free kick is retaken. (A key element here is that the opposing players do not have a fair chance to compete for the ball, because they must be ten yards away.)

!

A defending player in normal play is under pressure by an opponent and kicks the ball to a teammate some distance away. This player then heads the ball back to the goalkeeper. No offense is committed and play should continue even if the goalkeeper plays the ball with his hands.

In the cases of trickery, it does not matter whether the goalkeeper subsequently plays the ball with his hands or not. The offense is committed against the spirit of the game by the player who starts the trickery, and it is he who must be cautioned.

3. Goalkeeper handling the ball thrown in to him by a teammate.

Many of the same considerations apply as with a ball deliberately kicked to the goalkeeper by a teammate. However, there are some other considerations. Specifically, confusion can arise in these situations because a goal may not be scored directly from a throw-in. Consider the following examples:

!

A thrown ball is apparently going toward goal, and the keeper reaches out to parry or punch the ball away. A violation of Law 12 has clearly occurred but, since a goal cannot be scored directly from a throw-in, there is no misconduct. Only the technical foul is punished with an indirect free kick.

!

Starting with the same scenario as above, suppose the handling by the goalkeeper is unsuccessful and the ball continues directly into the goal. First, a violation of Law 12 has occurred but, as with any other violation of Law 12, the referee would apply advantage and allow play to continue. Second, the goal would count since it was not scored directly from the throw-in.

Handbook For Referees 11

!

Suppose another teammate (not the goalkeeper) reaches up and touches the ball. If the handling is successful, the player has violated Law 12 (direct kick foul - deliberate handling), and a penalty kick must be awarded if the handling occurred in the penalty area. The foul has not prevented a goal (a sending off offense) since a goal could not be scored directly from the throw-in. If the handling was not successful and the ball entered the goal, again advantage would be applied and the goal would count. A caution might be considered for unsporting behavior (bringing the game into disrepute).

TIP: Never get within striking distance of a player who has committed violent conduct.

TIP: Carry your red and yellow cards in different pockets. That way you can reach for the card without taking your eyes from the player and still be sure you are displaying the correct card for the action you are taking.

TIP: Instead of going toward a player

(threatening) or calling him to you

(degrading), try asking him to join you in a neutral area of the field away from players where you can face the field.

12 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Report Codes for Cautionable and Sending-off Offenses

U.S. Soccer Federation Referee Program

September 2012

7 Cautionable Offenses

Cautionable offenses require that a player, substitute or substituted player be shown a yellow card.

A player is cautioned and shown the yellow card for committing any of the following seven offenses

1.

Unsporting behavior (UB)

(The following actions are examples only and are not a complete list.) a.

b.

c.

Commits a direct free kick foul in a reckless manner (for example, charging, pushing, tripping)

Commits a direct free kick foul in a reckless manner while tackling for the ball from any direction d.

e.

f.

g.

Commits a tactical foul designed to interfere with or impede an opposing team’s attacking play

(pushing an opponent, holding an opponent or an opponent's uniform, handling the ball deliberately)

Handles the ball deliberately to score a goal

Commits an act which, in the opinion of the referee, shows a lack of respect for the game

(aggressive attitude, inflammatory behavior, or taunting)

Fakes an injury or exaggerates the seriousness of an injury

Fakes a foul (dives) or exaggerates the severity of a foul h.

i.

j.

k.

Interferes with or prevents the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from the hands into play

Verbally distracts an opponent during play or at a restart

Unfairly distracts or impedes an opponent performing a throw-in

Changes jerseys with the goalkeeper during play or without the referee's permission (both players must be cautioned) l.

Engages in trickery to circumvent the goalkeeper's limitation on handling the ball played from a teammate's foot (the defender who initiates the "trickery" is cautioned, the decision does not require that the goalkeeper actually handles the ball, and the misconduct can occur during dynamic play or at a restart) m.

Makes unauthorized marks on the field. n.

Removes the jersey or covers the face with a mask or similar device after scoring a goal o.

Uses an artificial aid to unfairly assist play (leaning on the shoulders of a teammate, using an article of clothing to avoid direct contact with the ball, moving or removing a corner flag on a corner kick, hanging on the crossbar

Handbook For Referees 13

p.

q.

r.

Uses tobacco or tobacco products in any form in the area of the field

At a penalty kick, feints to kick the ball once the run-up to the ball has been completed

Participates in a pattern of fouls against a single player

2.

Dissent by word or action (DT) a.

Verbally or through action disputes or shows contempt for an official’s decision b.

If playing as a goalkeeper, leaves the penalty area (not beckoned by the referee) to engage an official in debate regarding a decision

3.

Persistent infringement of the Laws of the Game (PI) a.

b.

c.

Repeatedly commits fouls

Violates Law 14 again, having previously been warned

If playing as goalkeeper, wastes time, having previously been warned or penalized for this behavior

4.

5.

6.

Delaying the restart of play (DR) a.

Kicks or throws the ball away or holds the ball to prevent a free kick restart by an opponent b.

c.

d.

e.

Kicks or throws the ball away or holds the ball to prevent a throw-in or corner kick by an opponent

Fails to restart play after being instructed to do so by the referee or hinders the restart of play

Excessively celebrates a goal f.

Fails to return to the field upon conclusion of the midgame break, fails to perform a kick-off when signaled to do so by the referee, or fails to be in a correct position for a kick-off

Provokes a confrontation by deliberately taking possession of the ball which is to be put back into play by the opposing team

Failure to respect the required distance when play is restarted with a corner kick, free kick or throw-in (FRD) a.

Does not retire at least ten yards away from an opponent’s free kick b.

c.

Entering or re-entering the field of play without the referee’s permission (E) a.

After having previously been instructed to leave the field to correct equipment b.

Does not retire at least ten yards away from an opponent’s corner kick

Does not retire at least two yards away from an opponent's throw-in c.

After having previously been given permission by the referee to leave the field due to an injury

After having previously been instructed to leave the field due to bleeding or blood on the uniform

14 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

7.

Deliberately leaving the field of play without the referee’s permission (L) a.

To place an opponent in an apparent offside position b.

Other than through the normal course of play

A substitute or substituted player is cautioned for committing any of the following three offences:

1.

2.

3.

Unsporting behavior (UB)

Dissent by word or action (DT)

Delaying the restart of play (DR)

Only a player can be cautioned for illegally entering the field (E) so if a substitute or substituted player enters the field without the permission of the referee, the caution should be issued for unsporting behavior

(UB).

Handbook For Referees 15

7 Sending-off Offenses

Sending-off offenses require that a player, substitute or substituted player be shown a red card

A player, substitute or substituted player is sent off for committing any of the following seven offenses:

1.

Serious foul play (SFP)

2.

Violent conduct (VC)

3.

Spitting at an opponent or any other person (S)

4.

Denying the opposing team a goal or an obvious goal-scoring opportunity by deliberately handling the ball (this does not apply to the goalkeeper within his or her own penalty area) (DGH)

5.

Denies an obvious goal-scoring opportunity to an opponent moving towards the player’s goal by an offense punishable by a free kick or a penalty kick (DGF)

6.

Using offensive, insulting or abusive language and/or gestures (AL)

7.

Receives a second caution in the same match (2CT)

Although the Laws of the Game state that all seven sending-off offenses may be committed by a substitute or substituted player, U.S. Soccer recommends that any violent act committed by a substitute or substituted player be categorized as violent conduct (VC) in the match report.

A substitute or substituted player who commits any violent act should be sent off and shown the red card for Violent Conduct.

16 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Law 13, Free Kicks

Encroachment and Free-kicks

A very important problem referees have to deal with is deliberate encroachment on free-kicks to delay the taking of the kick or to narrow the angle of a shot. This action is serious misconduct and should be punished by a caution. Proper management of tense free kicks can prevent many cautions from having to be given. Here are some guidelines.

The "Quick Free-kick"

T he purpose of a free-kick is to restore an advantage that the offending team has taken away. Often, the way a team can best regain its advantage is to put the ball back into play quickly. The referee is not acting in the spirit of the game when, at every free-kick, he delays the kick by standing over the ball, picking it up or insisting on “setting the wall.”. He denies the team entitled to the free-kick the advantage of the quick taking of the kick.

Law 13 in no way justifies a referee letting the side at fault organize its defenses before allowing the team that was fouled to play the ball.

You should encourage players to take the kick quickly if possible. Remember, however, that you may not wish to allow a quick kick if, for example, you intend to caution or send off a player for this foul or for a previous foul for which you allowed advantage. (Remember that you cannot go back and punish the misconduct once you have stopped and restarted play.)

There are several situations that can be confusing at the taking of a “quick” free kick. Specific guidance can be found in the Interpretations and Guidelines that are part of the Laws of the Game.

a.

b.

c.

“If a player decides to take a free kick and an opponent who is less than ten yards from the ball intercepts it, the referee must allow play to continue.”

“If a player decides to take a free kick quickly and an opponent who is near the ball deliberately prevents him from taking the kick, the referee must caution the player for delaying the restart of play.”

The key terms in “deliberately prevents” are moving, lunging, or advancing toward the ball.

These include the player who runs from behind the ball at the taking of the free kick. (If contact is made with the ball in this instance, the player must be cautioned; no contact leaves the referee discretion based on the circumstances.) A lateral motion that intercepts the quick free kick is unlikely to warrant a caution provided the attacking team’s kicker knew where the defender was at the time of the kick.

TIP: Use the markings on the field to judge the ten-yard distance: remember that the penalty arc is 10 yards from the penalty spot, the goal area line is 12 yards from the penalty area line, and so forth. During your pre-game inspection, measure the distance from the penalty area to the touch line.

Handbook For Referees 17

The Ceremonial Free-kick

W hen it becomes apparent to the referee that a quick free kick is not going to happen, the referee must intervene and manage the so-called ceremonial free kick. A ceremonial free kick is required when: a.

A red or yellow card is to be shown for misconduct occurring before the restart b.

c.

A serious injury requiring bench personnel to enter the field

The kicking team requests that the minimum distance requirement be enforced d.

The referee decides to slow down the tempo of the match for game control purposes (for example, to have an extended, formal conversation with a player)

To manage a ceremonial free kick, follow these simple steps: c.

d.

a.

b.

Get to the ball

Show the “wait for the whistle” signal

Move the wall back. Get ten yards in all directions

Move to your restart position e.

a.

Whistle for restart

Once the defenders are in position and the signal given to take the kick, several actions by the defending team may need the referee’s attention. If at the taking of the free kick:

A player moves toward the ball (fails to respect the required distance) and the ball strikes the player: caution and retake b.

c.

A player moves within the required distance but with no contact with the ball AND the referee decides the encroachment interfered with the taking of the kick, the referee has discretion, but the recommended action is: caution and retake

A player moves within the required distance but with no contact with the ball AND the referee decides the encroachment did NOT interfere with the taking of the kick: allow play to continue d.

A player moves within the required distance prior to the kick being taken:

• Referee makes every effort to intervene before allowing the kick to proceed.

• First time failing to respect the distance: issue a warning to the player and the team IF the ball has not been put into play.

Second time; caution.

Note: this does NOT prohibit the referee from cautioning the first encroachment depending on the situation and the “big picture” of the game.

Note that any time the kick is to be retaken due to a player failing to respect the distance (encroaching), there must be a caution. Also note that any time the referee intervenes to interrupt the process of taking a quick free kick, the restart must be a ceremonial one. In other words, once the referee makes himself part of the procedure by standing in front of the ball or setting or beginning to set the wall, he has become “part of the play” and cannot allow a quick free kick to be taken.

If more than one player is encroaching, caution the player who has taken charge of forming the wall. If that does not make the players draw back the required distance, then caution the other players one after the other until they adhere to the law.

18 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

T he key to managing a free kick situation is to move quickly toward the spot of the foul, making your presence felt by the players. Get close without interfering. It is all right to ask the kicking team if they want the wall moved and set; sometimes they will say “No.” A quick word can often prevent delay, encroachment and the necessity to issue a caution. It is critical to set the tone early on all free kick restarts. Set your standards, set a precedent, and then hold the players accountable. Failing to deal with encroachment and interference early makes it more difficult to get distance in the critical areas of the field as the game develops. Where encroachment or interference is blatant and obvious, your control is being tested and it is particularly important that you act firmly.

Where it is less obvious, use discretion.

TIP: Whenever you want a team to wait for your whistle to play the ball, show the whistle to the players as you tell them. Then later, after the ball has gone in the net and you have made them re-take the kick, everyone will know why!

Law 14, Penalty-kick

Consequences of an Infringement of Law 14

Who infringed Law 14?

Attacker (including the kicker)

Defender (including the goalkeeper)

Both attacker and defender

Ball goes into goal

What was the outcome of the kick?

Ball does NOT go into goal

RETAKE PENALTY KICK

GOAL (KICK OFF)

INDIRECT FREE KICK

RETAKE PENALTY KICK

RETAKE PENALTY KICK RETAKE PENALTY KICK

Handbook For Referees 19

Administering Kicks From the Penalty Mark

Kicks From The Penalty Mark Checklist

(References below to “regular play” include any additional periods of play required by the competition authority as a means of breaking a tie prior to the use of kicks from the penalty mark. References to “round” mean the entire set of eligible players for a team.)

Before the conclusion of regular play

• Cover in the pregame the basic requirements for this procedure

• In competitions using unlimited substitution rules, remind both coaches at a convenient stoppage (e.g., between the first and second additional periods of play) that: o Only players on the field at the end of regular play will be eligible to participate in kicks from the mark o Eligible players must be kept separate from ineligible players when regular play ends

Between the conclusion of regular play and the taking of the first kick

• The “kicks from the penalty mark” phase of the match begins immediately upon the conclusion of regular play and includes the activities described in this section

• Determine the number of eligible players for each team o Eligible players include any players temporarily off the field with the permission or at the direction of the referee (e.g., receiving treatment, correcting equipment, bleeding, or blood on the uniform who have not been substituted with the permission of the referee) o A player temporarily off the field at the end of regular play who is declared unable to return after regular play has ended but before the first kick from the mark is taken may not be substituted for and will reduce the number of eligible players for that team

• If, based on this determination, the teams are of unequal numbers, the team with more eligible players must "reduce to equate" o The captain of the team with the greater number must identify the player(s) to be excluded from participating in kicks from the penalty mark as a means of making equal the number of eligible players on each team o The excluded player(s) must join team officials and substitutes in the technical area

• Allow eligible players to receive water, treatment, equipment repair, or other such assistance on the field, preferably near the center of the field. Team officials may temporarily enter the field but must exit the field when directed by the referee.

• Decide which end of the field will be used for this procedure o The senior assistant referee takes a position at the intersection of the goal line and the goal area line o The other assistant referee will be located in the center circle

• Conduct a coin toss (winner chooses which team will kick first)

20 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

• At the conclusion of the break time set by the competition authority, ensure that only eligible players remain on the field o Defending goalkeeper properly positioned at the goal o Non-defending goalkeeper at the intersection of the goal line and the penalty area line behind the senior assistant referee o All others off the field (substitutes and team officials in their respective technical areas)

During kicks from the penalty mark (from the first kick onward)

• All eligible players (including the goalkeeper) must conform with the uniform and equipment requirements of Law 4

• All players and substitutes remain under the authority of the referee

• A foul cannot be committed, but an appropriate card can be shown for misconduct

• A caution issued during regular play (including any extra time) is counted in causing a send-off if a second caution is given during kicks from the mark

• Team officials are required to behave in a responsible manner

• A player who is sent off or is injured and unable to continue will reduce the team's pool of eligible players but the opposing team will not further "reduce to equate"

• Substitutions are not permitted o However, an injured goalkeeper may be substituted if the team has not used all its permitted substitutions o If the goalkeeper had kicked before being replaced, the goalkeeper’s substitute from off the field is considered also to have kicked o No eligible player will be permitted to kick more than once in the same round of that player’s team o The goalkeeper may change places with an eligible teammate at any time provided the requirements of Law 3 are met

• Except where modified by rules specific to this procedure, kicks from the mark are conducted in accordance with the requirements and procedures in Law 14, the Guide to Procedures, and the officiating team’s pregame discussion o However, once the ball is in play, the kicker may not play the ball again in any way (including if the ball rebounds from the goalkeeper, the crossbar, or a goalpost) o A goal is scored by a kick from the mark only if it meets the requirements of Law 10 o If the kicker violates Law 14 and a goal is scored or if the goalkeeper violates Law 14 and a goal is not scored, the kick must be retaken o If, as a result of a violation, the kick must be repeated, it may be taken by a different eligible player

# The other eligible player must not have kicked already in the same round

# The original kicker whose kick is retaken by a different eligible player is not counted as having taken a kick o The senior assistant referee assists the referee with determining if a goal has been scored and whether there has been illegal goalkeeper movement which affected the outcome of the kick

Handbook For Referees 21

o The other assistant referee assists in managing the eligible players in the center circle and maintaining an orderly movement of the players out from and back to the center circle, in accordance with the procedures discussed in the pregame.

• If the end of the field being used for kicks from the mark becomes unplayable (field conditions and/or the condition of the goal), the referee may change to the other end of the field, but it is recommended that, if possible, this not be done until each team has kicked an equal number of times

• Unless otherwise specified by the rules of competition, the final match report will indicate the tied score at the end of regular play (including any extra time) and will then indicate the final tally of kicks from the mark which allowed one team to advance

• If, through misconduct, injury, or other cause, the number of players on a team falls below seven, the kicks from the penalty mark will continue so long as the team has at least a single eligible player

Initial group of 5 kicks from the mark

• Kicks from the mark are conducted in pairs, one from each team, for an initial round of up to five pairs

• Kicks from the mark are stopped and one team is declared the winner if that team has scored more goals than the other team and the number of kicks remaining for that other team is insufficient to make up the difference (e.g., 3-0 after three rounds -- the team with 0 cannot make up the difference since only two kicks remain)

• Kicks from the mark proceed past the initial round of five only if, after five kicks by each team, the score is still tied

Initial round of all eligible players

• Past the initial group of five, kicks from the mark proceed only in single pairs

• At this point, kicks from the mark are stopped and one team is declared the winner if that team has scored in its pair but the other team has not

• If kicks from the mark proceed beyond all eligible players into a second or subsequent round, players are not required to kick in the same order as in any previous round

22 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Concept Chart -- Fouls and Misconduct

8 IFK Offenses Misconduct 10 Direct kick fouls

Carelessly, recklessly or with excessive force:

Kicks or attempts to kick

Trips

Jumps at

Plays in a dangerous manner

Impedes the goalkeeper releasing the ball

Impedes an opponent

Dissent

Unsporting behavior

Persistent infringement

Serious foul play

Violent conduct

Charges

Offensive, insulting or abusive language

Spits at anyone

Pushes

Strikes, attempts to strike, or spits at

Commits misconduct without any other offense with a designated restart

Goalkeeper takes more than six seconds before releasing the ball

Goalkeeper touches ball twice illegally

Entering field without permission

Leaves field without permission

Delays restart

Denies obvious goalscoring chance by fouling

Tackles an opponent

Commits any of the following:

Goalkeeper handles ball deliberately kicked to him by teammate

Goalkeeper handles ball thrown in to him by teammate

Fails to respect distance at FK or CK or TI

Denies obvious goalscoring chance by illegally handling ball

Commits second cautionable offense after receiving caution

Holds an opponent

Spits at an opponent

Handles the ball

Direct Free-kick

or Penalty-kick

Indirect Free-kick

Caution

Send Off

Advantage

Handbook For Referees 23

C

ONDUCT OF A

M

ATCH

O ne word sums up proper conduct at the match site: professionalism. When you accept a match, you undertake a professional responsibility, and people will expect you to behave in a professional way.

Someone has said of refereeing that when you blow the whistle for the kickoff, you have 90 percent of the respect you need in that match. Certainly players, coaches, spectators, and colleagues watch very closely the demeanor of officials at the field. They will form opinions of your abilities from the outset. Your conduct "outside of the lines" can be crucial to gaining respect and controlling the game. The following is a guide for beginning referees in their conduct at the match site.

Arrival

Y our arrival at the match site says a great deal about your approach to the game. It tells the players and fellow officials the respect you have for them. You should arrive in plenty of time. Thirty minutes before the scheduled start is the standard for an ordinary league or tournament match. One hour is proper for national cup matches, and two hours for a professional match. You should be prepared then to start your duties, properly dressed and equipped to referee a match. You should have with you two whistles, two pens, a notepad, red and yellow cards, two watches, a coin, and a set of assistant referees’ flags.

Avoid riding to the site with anyone who is a member or supporter of either team. That can create a sense among the visiting team that the referees will favor one team. If you are a player in a preceding match for the home club, try to change your uniform away from the field, out of sight of visiting players.

If your fellow officials are delayed, you should begin whatever pre-game duties you can: check the nets and field markings, collect player rosters, examine the players' equipment, etc.

No game should ever have to begin late because of the officials!

Dress and Appearance

Y ou must wear the appropriate referee's uniform to the match. Your uniform should be clean and unwrinkled, your shoes shined. When you arrive at the site, you should be ready to officiate: your shirt should be tucked in, socks pulled up, and sunglasses put away. No one wants to watch you dressing on the sidelines before the match.

Socializing

Y ou will probably have friends at the site of the game, at least at the start. There is no need to be rude or pretend not to know them, but avoid spending too much time with them. Say hello, exchange remarks, and then get on with your job. If you do greet someone who is with one team, make a point of having a brief word with members of the other team as well. You must do everything you can to avoid any appearance of potential bias toward one team or the other. Besides that, you have a job to do and should pay attention to your duties. Your friends will understand that you have professional responsibilities and are not there just to have a good time.

Attitude Toward Colleagues

T he attitude you show toward your colleagues should be friendly, cooperative, and respectful. You must support and help one another to conduct the match. Whatever your feelings toward the individuals you officiate with, and whatever your opinion of their abilities, while you are doing a match together you must cooperate fully.

24 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

If you as assistant referee are senior to the referee (older or with a higher certification level), make a special effort to show that you will give your full support. If you notice something the referee has overlooked, quietly direct his or her attention to it.

Showing Teamwork

F rom the moment they meet at the field, the three officials should show that they are a team. They should inspect the field and players together. Five minutes before the start, the referee and assistant referees should bring the captains to a neutral part of the field. The referee introduces himself and the assistant referees to the captains and conducts the coin toss. After recording the results of the toss, each assistant referee breaks smartly to his goal to see if the nets have come loose during warmup. He tells the goalkeeper that the kick-off will take place shortly after he goes to the touchline. The assistant referee then goes to the touchline in line with the second-tolast defender. When his end of the field is clear of all but the 11 players on his side, the assistant referee puts his unfurled flag down at his side nearest the referee to show that he and the team at his end are ready for play. At the end of each half, the official nearest the ball retrieves it, and all three officials meet at the center and leave the field together. The procedure for the second half is the same.

It is up to the referee to set this tone from the outset. Coordination of the team should be part of the pre-game briefing by the referee.

Attitude Toward Players and Coaches

Y our attitude toward participants should be courteous but firm. Always listen to what players and coaches have to say. If you have some flexibility in your actions, you may ask them their opinions or desires before making your decision. When the laws are clear, or you have made your decision, be firm while remaining pleasant. You will win no points for being arrogant or tyrannical.

If players or coaches approach you politely at half-time or after the match, listen to their questions or comments and answer politely. Make it clear that you have heard and listened to the individual, but do not prolong such discussions. If the individual is angry or abusive, break off the discussion as quickly as possible. If the person’s behavior constitutes misconduct, report it.

Never demean or belittle players or coaches.

Never comment on the play of a team or a player. Do not discuss the skills, tendencies, abilities, or character of any team's opponents or potential opponents. It is not one of your jobs to serve as a scout for any team!

Always remember that it is the players' game, not yours.

Dealing With Spectators

T he attitude you take toward fans should also be friendly but firm. Spectators have more latitude than players or team officials in criticizing refereeing publicly, but you do not have to let them confront you. If a spectator approaches you in a pleasant manner after the game, you may wish to clarify an interpretation of the Laws.

Quickly end any conversation with a fan who is critical or angry.

Do not answer fans' questions or comments during the game. This may seem rude, but to miss something because you were talking to a fan is inexcusable. Do not respond to criticism from spectators. If spectators are abusive or interfere with the conduct of the game, deal with them through the coach. Go to the coach, explain the behavior that is interfering with the game, and ask him or her to try to stop the actions that are bringing the game into disrepute. Some clubs or tournaments have field marshals who are given the job of dealing with spectators.

You or the coach may go to them and ask them to deal with the problem. Do not deal with spectators directly except in carrying out your duties such as clearing the field for play, keeping the touchline unobstructed, and keeping spectators from behind the goals.

Handbook For Referees 25

Movement

M ovements and posture of the referee on the field and off should show that you are alert and attentive to your job. Walk briskly as you carry out your pre-game duties. Assistant referees should carry their flags furled in their hands until they are ready for play. When you are not moving, stand in a relaxed but alert manner. Keep your attention focused on the subjects of your job: the field, the players, other officials, the ball. Do not play with the ball or the flags or engage in horseplay before the match or at half-time.

TIP: Put your bags down and set up “headquarters” away from spectators — and away from the path they will take to leave the field. Choose a place near the teams, if they are both on one side of the field. This will make it easier to converse with players and coaches at half time and before and after the game while minimizing interference from spectators.

Weather

I t is up to the field owners or managers to decide if they want their field used in wet conditions. It is up to you as referee to decide if the field is playable (can you see the lines?) and safe for players to participate. If the weather poses a danger, such as lightning, err on the side of caution. The referee has the power to stop the game for any cause. If you think the conditions might improve (e.g., a thunderstorm with lightning is passing through), you can suspend the game (a temporary stoppage). If conditions will not or do not improve, you can terminate the game

(abandoned match — go home).

TIP: If you suspend a game for weather, give the teams a specific time to check back with you. For example, tell them “We will stop for fifteen minutes and then decide what to do.” That keeps people from running about in the rain from shelter to shelter asking confusing questions.

Missing Officials

I f you do not have a full crew of officials for a match, every effort should be made to find a neutral referee to serve as an assistant — i.e. a certified official not associated with either team. If one cannot be found, club personnel may be used. Club personnel should be instructed to indicate only that the ball has gone out of play across the goal line or touch-line.

The Georgia Soccer - Youth Division has clearly indicated through its playing rules the procedures to use in case a full crew of referees is not present for a select team match (Classic, Athena, Academy).

1.If the referee is absent, one of the assistant referees may take charge of the match if he or she feels capable of doing so and both coaches agree. If neither assistant agrees to take charge, the coaches may agree on a volunteer referee. If the coaches cannot agree, or a volunteer cannot be found, the game must be postponed.

26 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

2.If an assistant referee is absent, a certified referee who is affiliated with one of the teams may be used, or club personnel not registered with USSF as a referee. Both coaches must agree to such a change.

3.Whenever either of these changes is made to the assigned personnel, both coaches should sign the game report.

Once the coaches have agreed to play with the officials present, they may not protest the outcome of the match due to the conditions under which the game was officiated. If either coach is not satisfied with the arrangements, he or she may decline to play the game.

Pre-game Duties

Y ou must see to it that the players have a safe field on which to play. You owe it to yourself to make your match as trouble-free as you can. You can go a long way toward both of these goals if you carry out your pre-game duties carefully. Before each game, the officials should:

1. Check the field for hazards. These might include broken glass on the field, bolts sticking out of the front of the goal posts, nets hanging too close to the goal line, and exposed boulders on the field.

2. Check to see that the markings are correct. This does not require measuring tools. You should be able to pace off the basic distances — the goal areas, penalty areas, and penalty marks. If the optional mark 11 yards from the corner flag post is absent, make a note of where it should be in relation to the penalty area.

3. Check to see that the field equipment is correct (flags, goals, nets). Make sure the nets are firmly attached to the posts and bar, look for holes in the nets that a ball could pass through, and make sure the goals are securely anchored to the ground.

5. Check players' equipment for safety and completeness. All jewelry must be removed. Make sure each player has shinguards that provide adequate protection. Be sure to see what color jerseys the goalkeepers will wear and have them change if they are the same as either team’s jerseys.

6. Receive rosters from each team. Ensure that each player has a unique number. In Georgia Youth select games and inter-league scheduled matches, the roster must be a computer-printed one that comes from the registration and scheduling system. In other matches, such as amateur, Academy, or friendly recreational matches, it is a good idea to ask the coach or manager if he or she is certain that all players are listed. You will be surprised how often a last glance reminds the coach of a missing name! If any players are ineligible, their names should be marked on the roster. Ask if any team member is sitting out a game suspension, and note the information on the game report card.

7. Check the coaches’ passes. The coach should have a coach’s pass with the coaching license level indicated on it (Georgia Youth rules). If the coach is not present, there must be a responsible adult associated with the team whose name is on the game report form and who has a picture identification of some kind. (Note: Never take or hold a driver’s license from anyone; just look at it.) Other competitions than Georgia Soccer Youth Division will have different requirements that you should be aware of before you go to the game.

8. Check players' identification if the game is a Georgia Soccer select program game (Academy, Classic or

Athena) or an adult game or a recreational game between two different clubs. Usually the best way to check the players is for the referee to read out the name on the player pass and ask the player to step forward. You can match the player to the picture identification and inspect the player’s equipment while one assistant checks the player’s name against the roster and matches the numbers on the roster and the shirt. Keep in mind that in a

Georgia Soccer - Youth match you are responsible to ensure that each player has a valid pass (except for U-8 and younger). You do not have to ensure that the player is of an eligible age or is in fact the person he or she pretends to be except by the player pass.

Handbook For Referees 27

Procedures may vary. Recreational games played in-house, i.e. between teams from the same club, do not require that passes be checked. Inter-league games require player and coach passes. In tournaments, the tournament staff will often take on the responsibility of checking player identifications. Most adult amateur leagues have a similar requirement for checking player passes. You should learn the specific requirements

for each competition.

9. Go over a pre-game briefing. Discuss what the referee expects of the assistant referees in various situations.

An example of a pre-game briefing can be found elsewhere in this handbook – use it!

TIP: Carry two or three short pieces of string or tape with you as you inspect the field; they can save a tremendous amount of time in fixing nets that have been torn or have come loose from the posts.

Post-game Duties

A t the end of the match, the assistant referees meet the referee near the center of the field. Then leave the field together. Do not linger on the field and discuss the game among yourselves or with others. That is not the place to do your paperwork, either. Go to where you set up “headquarters”. This should be in a neutral part of the area around the field away from spectators and out of their path from the field to the parking areas.

Now the paperwork begins. Every league and tournament provides game report forms, usually on the same page as the roster information. Refer to the notes you made in the game and fill out the report form. There will be spaces for the winning team, the score, who scored and when, which players were cautioned or sent off, why and when, etc. Be sure to clearly write your name and the names of the AR’s on the form.

In recreational youth play, tournaments and some amateur leagues, the form will be a single sheet that you fill out and give to the sponsoring league. You may do this by turning the form in to a central location, handing it to a field marshal, or mailing it to the league office.

In Georgia Soccer - Youth Division select and state-scheduled recreational matches there will be four copies of the game-day roster printed from a computer, two from each team. Have each AR fill out one from your dictation while you fill out a third. The fourth one is for you and you can fill it in later.In most amateur leagues, in-house recreational leagues, and the like, there will be a one-part or a multi-part form with similar information on it.

Printed on the form will be instructions about which copy goes to whom. You should keep any copies you end up with until the season is over in case the competition authority has a question come up.

If it was a youth select or inter-league recreational match, and for some amateur leagues, you will have collected the players’ and coaches’ passes before the game. Take them out now and cross check the numbers and names of any players or team officials reported for misconduct. Now, not during a disciplinary process, is the time to make sure you report the proper names. After you have verified the identities, return the passes and the game report forms (one for each team) to the coaches. If it was an amateur match, you will probably retain the pass of anyone sent off for misconduct to mail in with your report. This will depend on instructions from the league.

If you do not have another match scheduled on the same field, you should now leave the vicinity of the field.

Although you may want to review incidents in the game with your assistant referees, do not linger at the field to discuss the game with players, spectators, or coaches.

28 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

After you get home, the work continues. If it was a youth game and there was a player sent off, misconduct by coaches or spectators, game termination or abandonment, or a serious injury, you must write a full report. Use the

Georgia Soccer - Youth misconduct form (a copy is in this Handbook). If it was an amateur or other match, use the

USSF supplemental match report. Depending on the league rules, include the player’s or coach’s pass with your report. The game report and any misconduct report MUST be submitted within 48 hours. Submit Georgia Soccer -

Youth reports at www.gareferees.com.

The paper version of the Georgia - Youth Referee Report of Misconduct included at the end of this section is for emergency or tournament use where website submission is not possible.

See the section in this Handbook on report writing for guidance in writing your first few reports.

Handbook For Referees 29

G

AME AND

M

ISCONDUCT

R

EPORTS

Game Reports

T he referee keeps the official record of the game. Therefore, leagues and competitions rely on the referee's report to learn the winning team, the score, players cautioned or sent off, and any unusual incidents that occurred. It is very important that you write your game report neatly and mail it or hand it in as soon as possible after the game.

In all leagues and tournaments in Georgia, you will receive a roster of each team for each game, on a printed form or game card similar to the sample shown on page 33. The card doubles as the referee's game report. There are spaces on it to fill in essential information, such as who won, the score, your and your assistant referees’ names, and players cautioned or sent off.

Recreational league game reports may be mailed or handed into designated league representatives. You should ask your local league where to submit your game reports. For Georgia Soccer - Youth select programs (Classic,

Athena, and Academy), all game reports should be mailed or e-mailed to the designated staff member at Georgia

Soccer ([email protected]).

Remember, your report is the only official game report! Fill it out completely and legibly and submit it right away.

The USSF and Georgia Soccer - Youth Misconduct report in Adobe Acrobat format are available for downloading at the Georgia Soccer website under About Us, Document Center, Referee Documents. Here is a link: http://www.georgiasoccer.org/about/document-center.aspx

How to Write a Misconduct Report

A s a referee, you are required to report any misconduct at a match, whether it is committed by a player, a coach, or a spectator. The means of submitting a report vary from competition to competition. Georgia Soccer Youth

Division does its reporting online. You can link to the site from www.gareferees.com.

For tournaments, adult games, and other competitions, refer to the competition authority for their procedures.

Georgia youth soccer does not require a separate report for cautioned players. You need only fill in the basic information on the game report form. However, for more serious incidents, a separate report is required. You must write a report when a player or substitute is sent off, when misconduct is committed by a coach or spectator, a player is seriously injured, or when a game is suspended or terminated. Many adult leagues require a report for cautions, as well.

Your misconduct report is very important. Each incident will be reviewed by a disciplinary committee, who will decide what additional punishment, if any, should be applied. Without a clear report from you, they cannot do their job. Here are some tips on how to write effective reports.

First, find a quiet place where you can gather your thoughts and recall the incident calmly. When you sit down to write your report, remember that the people who will read it know absolutely nothing about the match you refereed and sometimes not much about the laws of the game. They need to know four basic things: What game are we talking about? Who was involved? What happened? What did the referee do?

Second, gather the materials you need. You should have your game notebook to refresh your memory, the roster/game cards with lists of players and their numbers,, and a copy of the Laws of the Game. In addition, you will need a report form. You should have copies of any report form used by the competition. The United States

Soccer Federation has a form that includes areas to report misconduct. You can find it at www.ussoccer.com. If you do not have either of these, use a blank sheet of paper. Not having a form is no excuse to avoid writing a report!

30 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Third, open this book to the section on Report Codes for Cautionable and Sending-off Offenses. At this point, make sure that the action of the player or substitute is matches one of the seven reasons to caution a player, seven reasons to send off a player or substitute, or the three reasons to caution a substitute.

At this point, you may realize (we hope to your horror) that you have made a mistake. For instance, you sent off (and showed a red card) to a player for dissent, which you now discover under the cautionable offenses, not the sending-off offenses; or perhaps you cautioned a player for denying an obvious goal-scoring opportunity, which is a sending-off offense. Do not alter the facts of what you did in your report. Simply write the report accurately, including your mistake. Allow the competition authority to remedy the error to the extent possible.

Okay, everything is correct and clearly laid out. Now you take pen or keyboard in hand and begin.

Fourth, set down the basic facts. The youth website and most administrative forms have labeled spaces to help you with most of this. Follow this checklist:

8. Where and when did this incident take place?

1. Date of the match

2. Location of the match (city, state, field number or name)

3. Time of the match

4. League/Division

5. Age group and whether male or female or co-ed.

6. Home team

7. Away team

9. Who was involved?

1. Team of the player (or other person)

2. Number of the player or substitute

3. Name of the player (or other person)

4. Name and number of opponent (if you recorded it)

10.

What happened?

1. What the player did (be specific)

2. What form the misconduct took (for example, serious foul play, violent conduct)

3. What specific part of the laws was involved

4. What the person's behavior was afterward (if you think it is relevant)

11.

What did you do?

1. What action you took (example: awarded a penalty kick and sent the player off and showed a red card)

2. How you restarted the match

Remember the ABC’s of report writing: Be Accurate, Brief, and Clear.

Sign and print your name and date the report if it is paper. Make a copy of the completed report for your records.

Then mail it in or hand it in if at a tournament. It should be in the mail within 48 hours of the match.

Handbook For Referees 31

Here are some examples of things you definitely should leave out of your report.

— Extraneous assumptions, views, and speculation

"Mr. Jones only committed the foul because his team was losing." Such comments only decrease your credibility as an objective reporter.

— Extraneous details

"Both teams were playing hard, at great speed, and both had good chances to score, one team hitting the post

at one end and the other missing close in, when Jones went in hard. . . ." Leave it to the reporters. This sort of thing merely clutters your report and makes it harder to understand.

— Personal attacks on individuals.

"Jones is a continual embarrassment to himself, his club, and the game of soccer." Just put in the facts. Again, the judging the facts is your job, not judging character.

— Recommendations for further punishment or leniency

"Jones's actions deserve suspension for at least three weeks, if not for the rest of the season." That is not your business.

— Too many pronouns

"Jones tackled Smith hard and he fell down. When he got up, he seemed injured. He argued with him and then

he kicked him hard in the shin." Who did what to whom?

The following version may sound awkward, but it is clear what happened:

"Jones tackled Smith hard, and Smith fell down. When Smith got up, he seemed injured and argued with Jones.

Then Jones kicked Smith in the shin."

Some better examples:

“At the 33 rd

minute of play, Crickets number 4, Mr. Loudyeller, was cautioned for unsporting behavior after he recklessly tripped an opponent from behind, with little or no attempt to play the ball. When shown the yellow card, Mr. Loudyeller threw his hands in the air and shouted “No way. You’re an idiot.” I cautioned Mr.

Loudyeller for dissent and then sent him off and showed him a red card for receiving a second caution. Mr.

Loudyeller left the field while continuing to visibly show dissent, and eventually left the vicinity of the field escorted by an assistant coach.”

“In the 65 th

minute, Thumpers #17, Ms. Hurtful, tackled Weasels’ #4 from behind with excessive force. She kicked #4 in the back of the leg with her studs while making no attempt to play the ball. I immediately showed

Ms Hurtful a red card and sent her off for serious foul play. After an altercation with Weasels’ #4 (see the accompanying report) and a brief verbal argument with some players of the Weasels, Ms. Hurtful left the vicinity of the field. There were no further incidents with this player.”

“In the 65 th

minute, Weasels’ #4, Ms. Cotton was tackled hard from behind by Thumpers #17. I showed the

Thumpers’ player a red card immediately (see previous report), but while I was doing so, Ms. Cotton got up off the ground and struck #17 in the face and screamed, “You b***h! I’ll knock your nose off!” Other Weasels players entered a verbal argument with Thumpers’ #17. After the players were separated, I isolated Ms. Cotton, informed her she would have to be sent off for violent conduct, and showed her a red card. Ms. Cotton left the vicinity of the field without further incident.”

Note that two separate reports are required for each of the cards in the Weasels-Thumpers game. When writing your reports, use a copy of the Laws of the Game to get the exact language used, such as “little or no attempt to play the ball, and “excessive force.” Also note that in a real report, every effort should be made to quote the exact language used by the player; where asterisks are inserted here, the actual words would be used.

32 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Handbook For Referees 33

34 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Referee Report of Misconduct

Age Group: Under _______

Competition:

Academy girls: ____ Academy boys: ____

Athena A: Athena B:___ Athena C:___ Athena D: _ Athena E:___ Athena F:____

Classic I: Classic II:___ Classic III:___ Classic IV:___ Classic V:____

Recreation: ____ Recreation (RIAS):____ R3PL girls: ____ R3PL boys: ____

Cautioned For:

Unsporting behavior

Dissent by word or action

Persistent infringement

Delaying the restart of play

Enter / re-enter field w/o permission

Deliberately leaving field w/o permission

Failure to respect required distance on corner kick or free kick

Sent Off For:

Serious Foul Play

Violent Conduct

Spitting at an opponent

Illegally denying an obvious

goal-scoring opportunity

Offensive, insulting, or abusive

language

Receiving a second caution

Referee Assault

Spectator Problem

Game # Date

Referee Abuse

Termination

______

Coach Misconduct

Serious Injury

Game Location _________________________________ Time of Incident: _________

_ Player’s Name

Team

Opposing Team

____ Jersey # _________

League__________________________

League__________________________

Referee: Daytime Phone: ________

Email Address:_____________________________________________________________

Asst. Referee: _ Asst. Referee:

Daytime Phone:_______________________ Daytime Phone :_______________________

Email :______________________________ Email:________________________________

Provide a detailed report of the incident in the space provided on the back or next page.

REPORT MUST BE SUBMITTED WITHIN 48 HOURS

2323 Perimeter Park Drive, Atlanta, GA 30341

[email protected]

Handbook For Referees 35

Game #______ Player’s Name

League Name

________________

________________

________ Jersey # _____

Team Name ________________

_______ ____________ _____

Signature:___________________________________________Date:_____________________

36 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

A

SSAULT ON

R

EFEREES

A ssaults do happen, even to experienced referees. If such assaults are to be stamped out, referees must follow a sensible and consistent course of action that will enable the State Association to punish offenders and discourage potential offenders from acts of violence. A referee should react to an assault in a manner that will permit administration and enforcement agencies to do their jobs.

TIP: Remember! Referee assault must be reported to the State Referee

Administrator or the State Youth Referee Administrator as soon as possible.

They can be reached by e-mail at [email protected]

and [email protected]

.

If an Assault Occurs

1.

Never, never strike back, if such action can be avoided. Defend yourself as passively as possible. When a referee is struck, the majority of players and bystanders are automatically sympathetic toward him, even if they were previously hostile. If the referee chooses to slug it out, he stands to lose the support and calming influence of these people. He may also prejudice his own legal position.

2.

3.

Try to remain calm and avoid undue signs of stress. Maintain a standard of behavior befitting a professional referee. Remember that police officers are assaulted frequently, yet they react in as controlled a manner as the situation permits, drawing on their resources of self-control to get to the top of the threatening situation.

Get the details down on paper (when things are under control).

4.

5.

6.

a) b)

Note the player's number and obtain his name from the team captain or coach if necessary.

Send him off if possible. If not, advise the captain of your decision, and be prepared to abandon the game if the player is not removed completely from the scene.

Obtain witnesses. Consult your assistant referees, if any, or any unattached bystanders.

Obtain names and telephone numbers. Use other players only as a last resort. Do not be concerned about holding up the game; common assault is a criminal offense and must be treated seriously. Make notes to be sure that your subsequent report is accurate. After the game, discuss the incident with your witnesses; this is quite legal as no charges have been laid at this stage. Get your facts right.

Seek medical attention if you are injured. Go to the nearest hospital emergency room or trauma clinic. The medical personnel will not only be able to treat any injuries, but also document them for the record.

Upon returning home after the game, contact by telephone the president of the state association and the State Referee Administrator. Those individuals will then be aware of the incident, and will be in a position to give you immediate support and advice. You will probably still be quite upset, so take all the help you can get.

Handbook For Referees 37

7.

8.

Write a misconduct report. The report must be professional, precise, informative, not too brief, not too long, and above all, accurate. The report is sent to the state association, the league under whose control the game was played, and the State Referee Administrator.

In the event that the assault is serious enough for you to consider filing civil action with the local authorities, you do have that right. However, you must inform the state association president of your intent to do so.

Terms

1.

Referee. All currently registered USSF referees, assistant referees, or others duly appointed to assist in officiating in a match; any non-licensed non-registered person serving in an emergency capacity as a referee; and any club linesman.

2.

3.

Referee Assault. An intentional act of physical violence at or upon a referee. Assault includes, but is not limited to the following acts committed upon a referee: hitting, kicking, punching, choking, spitting at, or on, grabbing or bodily running into a referee; head butting; the act of kicking or throwing any object at a referee that could inflict injury; damaging the referee’s uniform or personal property, i.e. car, equipment, etc.

Referee Abuse. A verbal statement or physical act not resulting in bodily contact which implies or threatens physical harm to a referee or the referee’s property or equipment. Abuse includes but is not limited to the following acts committed upon a referee: using foul or abusive language toward a referee; spewing any beverage on a referee’s personal property; or verbally threatening a referee. Verbal threats are remarks that carry the implied or direct threat of physical harm. Such remarks as “I’ll get you after the game” or “You won’t get out of here in one piece,” shall be deemed referee abuse.

Procedure

Report of Assault. All referees shall, by the next "business day" (Monday, if the incident took place on a weekend) following a referee assault, notify the state president and State

Referee Administrator by telephone, and follow up with a complete written report filed within

48 hours. The report should be accompanied by written reports from the assistant referees (if used) and by copies of any game misconduct reports sent to the league under whose jurisdiction the match was played.

38 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

R

EFEREE

'

S

I

NSTRUCTIONS

T

O

A

SSISTANT

R

EFEREES

T his is an example of the referee's instructions to the assistant referees before a match. The pregame briefing should cover all assignments of duties, the responsibilities of each member of the team in every foreseeable situation, and the signals that will be expected. Full coverage of all the important points will require at least fifteen minutes and often more. This list is intended as a guide and an example. Each referee will wish to modify and expand upon it as necessary.

Pre-game Briefing

We will be the three officials working together on this match. I want all of us to be absolutely sure what our responsibilities are in every situation. I want you to involve yourselves in the match throughout.

If you have any questions or uncertainties, let's talk about them and clear them up. Let's not run any risk of confusion during the game.

1. Before the Match

a.

We will inspect the field and the players' equipment together. We will get all the paper work from the coaches and select a game ball. About five minutes before the kick-off we will get the players off the field, bring out the captains, and toss the coin.

b.

Before the kick off, check the nets one last time, count eleven players, see that everyone is ready. Only then unfurl your flag. I will start when I see your signal.

c.

At the end of each half, the nearest of us to the ball will get it and all three of us will meet at the center circle and leave the field together.

2. Administration

a.

You [indicate] will be the senior assistant referee, and will take over if I cannot continue. Do you both have all your equipment with you? [Check: watch, pens, paper, red & yellow cards, whistles, coin.]

b.

I will run a left [or right] diagonal. You [indicate] will be along this touchline and you

[indicate] will be along the other. [Note: The left diagonal is most often used. The right diagonal should be used only when conditions make it necessary.]

c.

Both of you keep the time and back me up. I will ask for a time check from time to time, especially about five minutes from the end of the half. We will be playing 45 minute halves

[or other]. Toward the end of the half, I will let the senior AR know how much additional time I am allowing. AR1 will share that with the benches if I don’t do so directly.

d.

Both of you keep a record of the game: goals, who scored, players cautioned or sent off, etc.

The trail assistant referee will record each goal immediately, while the lead assistant referee and I return to position. Then, we will record the goal while the trail assistant referee watches the players.

Handbook For Referees 39

e.

You will control substitutions on your side of the field. They should get your attention first.

You should signal to me. The assistant referee on the opposite side will mirror your signal.

Drop the signal as soon as you know I have seen it. Substitutes will wait at the halfway line until the players they are replacing have come off and I signal them to come on. If I don’t see your signal, yell my name. Sometimes, if you are far down the line, I will manage the substitution, in which case I will signal to you like this [demonstrate].

3. Ball In and Out of Play

a.

You will be responsible for observing when the ball goes out of play over the touch-line and the goal-line and for signaling when necessary. b.

When the ball goes out of play on your half of the touch-line or goal-line, signal immediately.

c.

On my half of the touch line and my half of the goal-line, if I am in position, let me have first chance at signaling the direction of the throw or goal-kick/corner kick. If I look to you, however, give me a signal indicating your best judgment. Mirror my signal once I have given it.

d.

If the ball goes out of play and then back into play on my diagonal, and play continues, then raise your flag straight up and hold it until I see you and stop play. Use the hand you are going to point with, so you won’t look awkward changing hands.

ee.

If an apparent goal is good, run up the touch-line about 15 yards or until we make eye contact.

Watch the players and look for misconduct that might occur.

f.

If there is any reason why the goal should not be allowed, come to attention, get eye contact with me, and we will talk. That goes for the trail assistant referee as well as the lead assistant referee. I will check with you before kicking off. If you see anything that would cause the goal not to be allowed, stand at attention.

g.

If the ball crosses the goal-line inside the goal and comes back out, that is, a goal is scored, but it is not obvious, put your flag up to signal ball out of play. Hold the flag up until I whistle, then run toward the halfway-line.

h.

The trail assistant referee will record the goal immediately. The lead assistant referee and I will wait until I get back to the center circle and we are sure there won't be any trouble.

TIP: When, as an assistant referee, you are about to give the referee a signal, always get eye contact with the referee to be sure the referee is looking for your flag. If he is looking away, ask yourself whether it is critical to signal right now. If the referee has already made a decision and is signaling, either keep your flag down or signal to support the referee’s decision.

40 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

4. Restarts

a.

On a goal-kick, you are responsible for placement of the ball in the goal-area. After that, take up your position with the 2nd defender. You are also responsible for seeing whether the kick clears the area on your side and the top of the penalty-area.

b.

On a corner-kick, you are responsible for placement of the ball on your side, encroachment, and the ball out of play. Stand behind the flag.

c.

On a throw-in, call whatever violations you see. Signal a throw taken wrongly by raising the flag and then pointing in the direction of the new throw-in after my whistle. Give the players and me help with the position of the throw-in. I will decide when to penalize for taking the throw from the wrong place.

d.

On a free-kick, you will keep the off-side position and control encroachment in front of you.

If I need you to come on the field to deal with encroachment, I will signal you like this

[demonstrate]. Otherwise, remain outside the touchline I will take care of everything else.

If there is a shot on goal, bolt for the goal-line as quickly as you can.

e.

On a penalty-kick, take a position on the goal-line at the penalty-area line. You will be watching the goal-line to see if the ball has crossed it. Also watch for goalkeeper movement and encroachment behind me. I will take the kicker and encroachment. If you see anything wrong that would make us retake the kick, do not wave the flag, but come to attention and give the approved signal. Make eye contact with me and I will either stop play or wave you off if I disagree. Only put up the flag if the ball crosses the goal line and they continue playing.

f.

On each kick-off, I will check with each of you. Stand relaxed with your flag at your side, unfurled, if you are ready to play. Hold it clipped or furled if you are not ready.

5. Offside

a.

Keep your position with the 2nd defender unless the ball is closer to the goal-line, then the ball will be the focus of the off-side decision. Follow the ball all the way to the goal-line or goalkeeper.

b.

You are responsible for all the law on offside. Don't signal if the player in an off-side position is not involved in play or the ball is last deliberately played by a defender. As soon as you are certain that no other player on his team can possibly play the ball, put the flag up. Do the same if you foresee an collision or physical challenge on the offside player. If you see the defense get an advantage, do not put the flag up. In all cases remember that I may wave you down. We must work as a team in dealing with off-side; please don't feel there is any implied criticism if I do wave down your flag.

c.

Once you signal offside, hold your signal until I whistle or wave you down like this

[demonstrate], or it is clear that the offside player will not be involved in play — the goalkeeper gaining possession, for instance. Once I blow the whistle, signal for the far, middle, or near third of the field. If I or the players seem to need help with placing the ball for the kick, come back up the line to a spot even with where the player was when the ball was played by a teammate.

Handbook For Referees 41

d.

Keep an eye on the goalkeeper releasing the ball legally at the top of the penalty area, but if there is any question of choosing between marking the second-to-last defender and watching that, your first priority is always going to be offside.

6. Fouls

a.

Signal any foul that you think I may not have seen, either because I was too far away, or screened, or paying attention elsewhere. Your primary responsibility will be in the area immediately in front of you — your quadrant — but it will extend farther if I am far behind play or you are 100% positive it was a foul and it might be a game-critical call. Unless there is a very serious incident that must be addressed at once, try to keep from signaling to my back.

b.

Signal a foul by raising your flag in the hand that you will point with and, after I have seen you, waving it. Give direction, with your flag, as soon as I blow the whistle. Give an indication like this [demonstrate] if it's to be an indirect free-kick near the goal. If I don't see your flag, hold it for a count of three and then go on. If a goal results directly from the foul, stand at attention and I will come over and we can talk about it.

c.

If you see one of the ten direct kick fouls in the penalty-area, first try to get eye contact with me and make sure I do not have a good view of it and that I am not waving you off. Then flag it as you would any other foul. After I blow the whistle, raise your flag across your legs, then walk toward the corner flag with your eyes on me.

d.

I may call a foul near the penalty-area, and need to know whether it was inside or outside.

Signal that it was inside by raising your flag from your side to a horizontal position across your legs. [Demonstrate.] If the foul was committed outside the area, leave your flag at your side.

7. Misconduct

a.

Try not to signal to my back unless the offense is serious -- worthy of a caution or sending off. Trail assistant referee watch out for misconduct behind my back and don't be afraid to signal. If the lead assistant referee sees a flag behind my back, put the flag up and get my attention. When you do, point back toward the other assistant referee. Both of you feel free to use my name to get my attention. b.

If you need to tell me about an incident that I didn't see, but we don't have to stop play, get my attention when the ball is out of play.

c.

Talk with the players to help control the game. Be involved. d.

In case there is an altercation, if it is near you, intervene according to your best judgment if it remains between two players. If the situation deteriorates into a mass confrontation — three or more players — don't get involved. Stay back, prevent other people, especially from the bench, from getting involved, and observe their actions. You can take notes!

42 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

8. Technical Areas

The following will vary depending on the experience and confidence of your senior assistant referee.

a.

Senior AR keep an eye on the technical area. Keep it tidy — no loose balls, junk too close to the line, no throwing water bottles long distances onto the field. Remind the coaches if they wander out of their technical areas or if more than one is giving tactical instructions at the same time. Be nice. Only take it to the next level if they disregard your advice.

b.

If a situation arises where there is irresponsible behavior, you are to ASK the person to stop.

Make allowance for the coach or substitutes to vent in the heat of an emotional moment as long as it is brief and not offensive, insulting or abusive. If it persists, is personal or provocative, ASK the person to stop.

c.

If there is another occurrence where there is irresponsible behavior, inform that person that the behavior is not permissible and TELL them to stop. (Alternatively, if the AR is not experienced, this is where the AR should call you over, and you tell the coach to stop.) d.

If, after either you or I have TOLD the coach to stop the behavior and the behavior persists, call me over again (assuming I haven’t noticed it already), and I will DISMISS the person.

f.

Finally, we don’t have to use the ASK, TELL, REMOVE steps if the behavior is well outside the norms of responsible behavior, for example, using offensive, insulting or abusive language or violence.

9.

Last Point a.

If it appears to you that we as a team are about to make a serious error, DO WHATEVER IT

TAKES to keep me from restarting play. Examples include: cautioning a player twice without sending her off; not dealing with a 100% red card situation like denying a goal-scoring opportunity; or allowing a clearly illegal goal.

TIP: To give your pre-game instructions, take your assistant referees aside to a quiet, comfortable place where you will not be disturbed or interrupted during your briefing. Use a checklist.

Handbook For Referees 43

G

EORGIA

S

OCCER

Y

OUTH

M

ODIFICATIONS TO THE

L

AWS OF THE

G

AME

AND

A

DMINISTRATIVE

R

ULES

G eorgia Soccer - Youth has modified the laws of the game for youth play and has added league rules that referees must administer. Each program (boys' recreational, boys' challenge, boys' classic, junior soccer (U-19), girls' recreational, and girls' Athena) has its own specific rules.

What follows is a list of the rules that affect the referee's conduct of a match. The modifications are grouped by law number, and only those rules that modify or elaborate on the Laws of the Game or direct referees in the conduct of their administrative duties are included. The chart at the end of this section is a quick reference guide to which rules are in effect for which leagues. Unless otherwise specified, the rules below apply to all teams in all age groups and programs. Note that “select programs” include the Challenge, Classic, Junior (U-

19), and Athena programs. The numbers in parentheses refer to rule numbers in Georgia Soccer - Youth

Rules and Regulations, as amended through January, 2008.

Players participating in Academy play are listed on a single club roster, and players on the roster may be participating in different games.

g g

Pregame and Administration

g

All spectators, coaches, and substitutes must stay clear of the touch line between the corner and the 18-yard extension of the penalty area. The referee or assistant referee may, at any time, restrict the sideline movement of coaches, substitutes, or spectators.(430.4, 430.5b).

g

No one, spectator or participant, shall be allowed behind the goal lines during the game. The referee shall halt the game, if necessary, to enforce this rule. (510.4)

Coaches are responsible for the conduct of their players, officials and spectators. (710.4)

The use of noise-making or amplifying devices is prohibited. (710.6) g

[Note: You should address any difficulty with or misconduct by fans through the coach, who is responsible for his team's supporters. You must also report any misconduct.]

Misconduct of parents and spectators will be handled by the Georgia Soccer – Youth D&P

Committee using the same standards of conduct and behavior and sanctions as those used with players, coaches or administrators. g

Any parent or spectator dismissed from a game shall be automatically suspended from the next game scheduled and played under US Youth Soccer affiliation and competition. The parent or spectator shall not be present at the field or in the parking lot or any adjacent area to the field of play. g

Any parent or spectator dismissed from a game must immediately leave sight and sound of the field and cannot return to the field of play until the referee crew has left the field after the completion of the game. g

Failure to leave sight and sound after a dismissal may result in the game being terminated by the referee. Parents and Spectators are not permitted to have any contact with players,

44 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

g team management or other coaches during the course of the game from which they are dismissed. [733.1 - 733.6]

Once dismissed from the game, parents and spectators may not approach the referee crew during or after the match. g g g g g

Any coach dismissed by the referee from a game must immediately leave sight and sound of the field and cannot return to the field of play until the referee crew has left the field after the completion of the game. Failure to leave sight and sound after a dismissal may result in the game being terminated by the referee. Coaches are not permitted to have any contact with players, team management or other coaches during the course of the game from which they are dismissed.

The start of play shall take place within fifteen minutes of the scheduled starting time. If a team cannot field the required minimum number of players within fifteen minutes of the kick-off time, that team will forfeit the game.(580.1) [Note to referees: It is not your duty to determine a forfeited game. You simply file a report that the game was abandoned and why.]

Each team shall be represented at the field of play by a coach or assistant coach or a parent appointed in his place. A team not so represented shall forfeit the match. The coach must have a valid coach’s pass with the coaching license level indicated. The game must not be started if there is not a credentialed coach present for each team. In emergencies, a responsible adult identified on the game card and associated with the team may be acceptable. (230.5d1, 580.2)

[Note: The referee should never let a match proceed unless there is an adult responsible for the team. If a coach is removed for any reason, be sure you have identified the person who will take charge of the team.]

In all select program divisions and inter-league scheduled recreational games, all teams are required to have USYS passes for each player and coach with the player’s or coach’s picture and signature. If a team does not have any passes, the referee should abandon the match and report the matter on the game report. Referees must collect and check passes, and any player without a proper pass will not be allowed to play. Recreation Inter-affiliate

Schedule (RIAS) teams must be issued new player passes each season. Referees will only accept passes for the current season (fall or spring). Return the passes to the coach or manager after the game. Do not withhold the pass of any player sent off (red card). (420)

Rosters

Prior to the start of a match, a complete team roster shall be prepared by each team coach and presented to the referee, except U-06 program games. The referee shall not allow a match to take place unless a roster is presented. (530.2 and 530.2a)

For Select (U13 and above) and Recreation Inter-affiliate Scheduled (RIAS) teams: The roster (i.e., electronic game card) shall be prepared on-line using the ADG system. The roster/electronic game card shall include the name of each registered player on each team, whether present or not, and any Club Pass players if playing. All player names, including

Club Pass player names, must be included electronically; no names can be handwritten.

(530.2b)

Handbook For Referees 45

For all other teams: If the electronic form is not available, the team roster shall be written on a league/club/state provided official game day roster and shall include the name and jersey number of each registered player on each team, whether present or not, and any

Club Pass players if playing. (530.2b)

For Select (U13 and above) and RIAS teams, a player not listed on the roster at the start of the game, or whose name is hand written and not preprinted on the electronic game card, shall be ineligible to play in that game. (530.2c)

In all Academy games, U-10, U-11, and U-12, each player must be listed on a spreadsheet form supplied by Georgia Soccer. Names and numbers may be written in or printed by computer.

In inter-league recreational program games (RIAS) played between different clubs, but

NOT scheduled by Georgia Soccer, a roster of players and named substitutes must be presented to the referee prior to the start of the match in accordance with the Laws of the

Game. There is no specified format for rosters for privately-scheduled recreation games.

(620.6)

Select teams that change division of play between the Fall and Spring seasons are required to have new player passes printed in the Spring, showing the correct division of play.

All U-10 and above recreation teams with inter-league-scheduled games (RIAS) must be issued new player passes each season. Referees will only accept passes for the current playing season (Fall or Spring).

No rosters are required (and no passes are required) for in-house recreation games for players under eight years of age.

A maximum of three club pass players may be used for a game.

Law 1 - The Field of Play

g

The home team is to provide a properly lined and cut field, nets, and corner flags. (430.3) g

The referee is empowered to refuse to allow the game to be played if, in the referee's judgement, the field is unplayable due to the length of the grass, inadequate lines, or other impediments. (230) g

The minimum and maximum field sizes, dimensions of penalty and goal areas and penalty marks, and sizes of the goals used by each age group are given in the modifications chart.

(510) g

A technical area shall be marked in the area designated by the host club for players’ seating, unless such marking is not feasible due to the layout or arrangements of the particular field. The technical area shall not be marked nearer to the touch line than one yard. If the technical areas are on the same side of the field, they should be equidistant from the halfway line and no more than 20 yards in length. (510.6)

Law 2 - The Ball

g

The home team is to provide the game ball. (430.3)

46 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

g

See the chart for the ball sizes for each age group. Odd year age groups play with the same sized ball as the next higher even-year age groups (e.g. Under-11's and Under-12's both play with size 4). (510)

Law 3 - Number of Players

g

The maximum number of players allowed and the minimum number necessary to start or continue a match are given in the chart for each age group. (510) g

A match shall not begin until each team has given the referee a roster with every registered player and his or her number listed on it. Ineligible players shall be marked with an

?X”. A player not listed at the start may not play. (See, however, U-6 rules below.) If a game card is not available, a roster on any piece of paper will do. (530.2) g

For all select program teams and recreational teams over the age of eight years, unlimited substitutions may be made at the following times, with the consent of the referee (530.5):

(a) prior to the substituting team’s throw-in;

(b) prior to a goal-kick by either team;

(c) after a goal by either team;

(d) after an injury, by either team, when the referee stops play — substitution shall not be limited to only the injured player or his team;

(e) at half time;

(f) after a caution, by either team.

g

Substitution for U-4 through U-8 small-sided recreational teams shall be as follows

(520.4):

(a) in the middle of the first half of play (mandatory);

(b) in the middle of the second half of play (mandatory);

(c) at half time (option of the coach); g

(d) in case of an injured player (the opposing team may also substitute one player for each injured player substituted).

(e) In case of fatigue, or for individual player instruction, or to return a player after instruction at a stoppage in play (in this case, only one player may be substituted at a time on this occasion).

At mandatory substitution times, all players on the bench must be substituted, unless injured or listed as ineligible on the roster. The referee shall whistle at the first dead ball after the times specified below and allow substitutes to enter the field. (530.4b)

Half time of 25 minutes:

Half time of 30 minutes:

First dead ball after 11th minute.

First dead ball after 14th minute.

[Note: All the provisions of Law 3 still apply during any of these substitutions.]

In recreational games, each player listed as eligible on the roster must play a minimum of half of each half if he or she has met the coach’s practice requirements. If the referee

Handbook For Referees 47

g g g learns that this rule has not been followed, he shall record it on the game report, notify each coach, and complete the match. (530.3e)

In recreational U-10 play, the goalkeeper must be given at least as much time in each game as a field player as he or she plays as goalkeeper. (530.4g)

In Classic and Athena play, each eligible player must play half of each match, but not half of each half. (530.3f)

[Note to referees: These rules of participation are not a matter for referee enforcement. If a complaint is made, make a report of the incident to the Georgia Soccer office.]

In a playoff match requiring overtime periods, substitutions may be made at the beginning of any overtime period. Mandatory substitution is not required in overtimes (530.3d).

g g g

Law 4 - Players' Equipment

g

All players on the same team shall wear the same color uniforms, except the goalkeeper.

The goalkeeper need not have a number. Player uniform shirts must clearly display a player number which corresponds to the player number for that player as shown on the referee report. (540.1) g

If the referee decides that there is a conflict of uniform colors, the home team shall be responsible for resolving it prior to the game. In such an event, players may wear T-shirts of contrasting colors without numerals. The referee shall determine if there is a conflict of team colors. Playing in "skins" is not allowed. (540.2)

[Note: The change shirts of one team must still be all the same color.]

Under-10 and younger age groups shall only wear molded cleats or tennis shoes. (540.3)

Players shall not play with a cast. (540.4) g

All players must wear commercially manufactured shin guards specifically designed for that purpose. No home-made products such as newspapers or bandages are acceptable.

(540.5)

Any screw-in cleat that is broken or damaged in any way so as to expose any internal structure or present any surface deformations with sharp edges or projections that might endanger any player coming in contact with it is prohibited and must be removed and/or replaced before that player is allowed to play. (540.6)

[Note to referees: This is a common sense application of Law 4. You should inspect each player’s shoes before the game and at substitutions and not allow them to wear broken or sharp cleats or any other dangerous component. However, the referee is the sole judge of whether a player’s equipment is dangerous.]

Law 5 - The Referee

g

The referee shall make the final decision, at the field of play, as to whether or not to begin the match, based upon his judgement of the condition of the field of play, the weather, or any other factor he considers pertinent. (230.5.d) g

The referee is in complete charge of the field and adjacent areas from the time the referee arrives at the game site until the referee departs. (230.5)

48 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

g g g g g g g g g

The referee is empowered to terminate a game for coach, player or spectator misconduct.

(230.5c)

In any recreational game whose outcome is protested by one of the coaches, the referee will see that the game is played and then submit a report to the league. (550.3)

Every team has the right to a neutral referee and assistant referees. No referee or assistant referee shall officiate a game in which a relative is coaching or playing unless both coaches provide their specific prior consent by signing both game cards. (U-06 and U-08 are exempt from this rule.) No referee or assistant referee shall officiate a game where they were a recent (within one year) member or coach of either team unless both coaches provide their specific prior consent by signing both game cards. (U-06 and U-08 are exempt from this rule.) (230.1 a-b)

Referee Grade. No Grade 9 referee shall act as a center referee in any match U-15 or older. No grade 9 referee shall act as center referee in a select match under any circumstances. No grade 9 referee shall act as an assistant referee in any match (select or recreational) of U-15 or older unless working in the capacity of a club linesman. In the latter case, both coaches must provide their specific prior consent by signing both game cards. (230.1 c-d)

In the event the appointed referee fails to appear within 15 minutes of the scheduled kickoff time, and where assistant referees are present, one of the assistant referees shall take charge if he feels capable of refereeing the game and both coaches mutually agree. In the event that neither AR agrees to take charge, the coaches may agree upon a volunteer referee. If no such agreement is reached, the game will be postponed. The same procedures will be followed in the event a referee becomes ill during the game. The dual system (i.e., two referees) of refereeing is not approved for Georgia Soccer - Youth

Program games.(230.2)

A game cannot be played under protest due to the lack of the required number of certified referees [Ed note: this means three]. If a coach agrees to play/continue play once they become aware of the number and types of referees (certified versus club), the coach gives up the right to protest the game based on the number and types of referees. This does not eliminate the right to protest other misapplications of the rules. (230.9d)

The referee is empowered to . . . refuse to allow the game to be played if, in the referee’s judgement, the field is unplayable due to length of the grass, inadequate lines, or other impediments. The referee may depart the area certain of receiving his or her fee. (230.5d)

The referee shall refuse to allow the game to be played if there is not a credentialed coach on the sideline with each team present or, if necessary, a responsible adult identified on the game card and associated with the team. (230.5d.1)

Referees for Recreational Programs.

U-6 and U-8. Each league reserves the right to determine whether to use certified referees, club linesmen, coaches or parents for in-house games. It is recommended that there be a certified referee for inter-scheduled U-8 games.

U-10. Each league shall provide at least one certified referee for each game scheduled at its own fields.

U-12. For inter-scheduled games, each league shall provide at least one certified referee, and it is strongly recommended that two certified assistant referees be utilized as well.

Handbook For Referees 49

g g g

U-14 through U-19. Each league shall provide three appropriately certified USSF referees for each home game. (230.6 a-e.)

Referees for Academy Programs.

U-10 and older: Each league shall provide at least one certified referee for each game scheduled on its own fields. Leagues are encouraged to provide assistant referees for all games. For inter-scheduled games, it is strongly recommended that two certified assistant referees be utilized. (230.7 a-c.)

Select Program Divisions. Each league shall provide three currently certified USSF referees for each home match.

The referee (center) shall be a minimum of one year above the maximum eligible playing age of the age group to be officiated except for those young referees who have been placed on a first track for upgrade by the Georgia State Referee Committee. (230.8b)

Law 7 - Duration of Play

See the chart for the lengths of halves for each age group. Odd year age groups play the lengths of the next higher age groups (e.g. U-11's and U-12's both play 35-minute halves). (570) g

All matches of U-10's and above shall have a ten minute halftime interval. All other age groups shall have a five minute halftime interval . (570.2) g

For league championship or playoff games, in the case of a draw at the end of regular play, two overtime periods will be played. If the score remains tied, the game will be decided by kicks from the penalty mark according to the Laws of the Game. The overtime periods will be five minute halves for U-8, ten minutes for U-10 through U-14, and fifteen minutes for ages over 14. These arrangements may be modified for certain competitions.

If the game is still a draw after the overtime periods, the “Kicks from the Mark” as provided by the IFAB shall be used (570)

Law 12 - Fouls and Misconduct

g

For Under-10 and younger play: When the goalkeeper has taken possession of the ball within his own penalty area, opposing players are required to move away and to the side so as not to interfere with the goalkeeper putting the ball into play. Opposing players shall not play or touch the ball until it has left the penalty area. The normal provisions of Law

12 apply. (620.2, 620.3)

50 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Penalty: For any infringement on this modification, an indirect free-kick shall be awarded at the spot of the infringement given the overriding provisions of Law 13. (620.4)

[Note for referees: The ball remains in play, and Law 12 still applies, i.e. the goalkeeper cannot pick it up again after releasing it, and the six-second time limit is in effect.] g g g g g g

Under-6 and Under-8 Special Rules

g g

No roster is required for Under-6 teams.

It is recommended that players play three quarters of each game (rather than one half), unless they are unable or unwilling to play. (530.3e) g

U-10 recreation team goalkeepers are required to play at least as much time in the field as in goal (it is only recommended for other groups). The rule also applies to U-6 and U-8, but they are encouraged not to use goalkeepers. (530.4g)

It is recommended that the referee explain all infractions to the offending players. (620.1)

There is no off-side law. (610)

There is no center circle and goal areas are optional. For free-kicks, goal-kicks, and corner-kicks, opponents in U-6 must stay three yards from the ball. In U-8, they must stay six yards from the ball. No kicks shall be taken within 3 yards of the opponents’ goal.

(630)

Goal-kicks are taken within three yards of the goal-line. (660)

All free-kicks are indirect. (630)

In U-6, throw-ins may be substituted for corner-kicks. (670) [Note: This refers to local league modifications and would apply throughout the game; throw-ins and corner kicks cannot be interchanged within the same game.] g

A second throw-in must be allowed if the player makes an improper throw-in on the initial attempt. The second throw-in takes place after the referee explains the proper method.

(650) g

Substitution is at the quarter and half and one-for-one for an injured player (see above).

Handbook For Referees 51

T

ABLE OF

G

EORGIA

Y

OUTH

M

ODIFICATIONS

Law 1 - The Field - Width

Length

PA dimensions

GA dimensions

Goal dimensions

LAW

50-100

100-130

LOTG

18x44 yds

6x20 yds

8x24 ft

REC SELECT

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) -->

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) -->

U-6

15-20

20-30

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> None

U-8

20-30

25-35

U-10

35-45

45-60

U-11

U-12

40-60

60-100

None 10 x 26

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> Optional 3 x 12 6 x 18

6' x 4' 12' x 6' 18' x 6'

14 x 30

6 x 18

18' x 6'

Penalty mark

Law 2 - The Ball

Law 3 - No of Players - Max to start/continue

Player & coach passes req

Complete roster req

Subs at quarter or injured player

12 yds

#5 27-28"

11/7 na

YES

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> None None 8 yds

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> #3 23-24" #3

10 yds

#4 25-26" #4

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> 3/3 4/3 6/5 8/6

BOTH If interleague

YES

Small Sided

YES

NO

NO

YES YES NO NO

Subs at GK, Goal, Half, Own Throw-in, Injury, After a

Caution

Gk’s must play equal time in field and goal

Law 4 - Equipment - Like uniforms, unique nos.

Home team changes (nos. not required)

Cleats

No casts

Law 7 - Duration - Periods & Length of Periods

Half Time Interval

Law 8 - Start of Play – Grace period

Law 11 - No off-side used

Law 12 - Fouls & Misc — GK Harassment rule

All fouls indirect FK/No PK na

Ref's dec

Ref's dec

45 na

NO na na

Any stoppage

NO

Nos not req

Not over 15 min

11 v 11

REC ONLY

YES

YES

NO

YES

NA

YES YES

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> Molded

YES YES

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) -->

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) -->

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) -->

NO

YES

YES

YES

Law 13 - Free-kicks – Modified "10 yards" na ------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> 3 yds

Legend: na - Not applicable; YES - Rule is in effect; NO - Rule is not in effect; NC - No change from the Laws of the Game.

NO

NA

Molded Molded

YES

YES

YES

YES

REC

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> 4x8 or 10 4 x 12 2 x 30

------ Varies with age (see chart at right) --> 5 5 10

15 MIN 15 MIN

NO

YES

NO

6 yds NO

YES

NO

NC

2 x 30

10

NO

NO

NO

NO

U-14

U-13

U-16

U-15

NC

NC

NC

#5

NC

50-100 50-100 NC

100-130 100-

NC

130

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

#5

NC

NC

NC

NC

#5

NC

U-19

U-17

NO

YES

NO

NC

2 x 35

10

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

YES

NO

NC

2 x.40

10

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

YES

NO

NC

2 x 45

10

NO

NO

NO

NO

52 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

L

IST OF

G

EORGIA

S

OCCER

Y

OUTH

M

ODIFICATIONS

Under-6

Field: 15 - 20 by 20 - 30

Penalty area: None

Goal area: Optional

Goal: 6' by 4'

Penalty mark: None

Ball: Size 3

Number of players: 3 max, 3 to continue

Roster: None

Subs: At quarter (bench emptied), half (discretionary), or injured player

Goalkeepers: None. No rule.

Cleats: Molded or tennis shoes

Duration of halves: 8 or 10 minute quarters

Half time interval: 5 minutes

Offside: Not applied

Fouls & Misconduct: All free kicks indirect

Minimum distance at FK, CK: 3 yards

Under-8

Field: 20 - 30 by 25 - 35

Penalty area: None

Goal area: 3 by 12 yds

Goal: 12' by 6'

Penalty mark: None

Ball: Size 3

Number of players max/continue: 4/3

Handbook For Referees 53

Roster: Discretionary

Subs: At quarter (bench emptied), half (discretionary), or injured player

Goalkeepers: None

Cleats: Molded or tennis shoes

Duration of halves: 12 minute quarters

Half time interval: 5 minutes

Offside: Not applied

Fouls & Misconduct: All free kicks indirect

Minimum distance at FK, CK, KO: 6 yards

Under-09 & 10

Field: 35 - 45 by 45 - 60

Penalty area: 10 by 26 yds

Goal area: 6 by 18 yds

Goal: 18' by 6'

Penalty mark: 8 yds

Ball: Size 4

Number of players max/continue: 6/5

Roster: Required

Passes required: Academy/select or Rec scheduled by state, yes. Rec scheduled by clubs, optional

Subs: Gks, goals, halftime, injury, caution (any number, both teams). Own throw-ins.

Goalkeepers: GK harassment rule in effect for Rec (see text)

Cleats: Molded or tennis shoes

Duration of halves: 30 minutes

Half time interval: 10 minutes

Offside: Is applied.

Fouls & Misconduct: No modifications

Minimum distance at FK, CK, KO: 10 yds

Under-11 & 12

Field: 40 - 60 by 60 - 100

54 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Penalty area: 14 by 30 yds

Goal area: 8 by 18 yds

Goal: 18' by 6'

Penalty mark: 10 yds

Ball: Size 4

Number of players max/continue: 8/6

Roster: Required

Passes required: Academy/select or Rec scheduled by state, yes. Rec scheduled by clubs, optional

Subs: Gks, goals, halftime, injury, caution (any number, both teams). Own throw-ins.

Duration of halves: 30 minutes

Half time interval: 10 minutes

Minimum distance at FK, CK, KO: 10 yds

All games under-13 & older

Field: 50 - 100 by 100 - 130

Penalty area: 18 by 44 yds

Goal area: 6 by 20 yes

Goal: 8' by 24'

Penalty mark: 12 yds

Ball: Size 5

Number of players max/continue: 11/7

Roster: Required (if select, GaSoccer Game-day roster)

Subs: Gks, goals, halftime, injury, caution (any number, both teams). Own throw-ins

Half time interval: 10 minutes

Minimum distance at FK, CK, KO: 10 yards

Handbook For Referees 55

Under-13 & 14

Duration of halves: 35 minutes

Under-15 & 16

Duration of halves: 40 minutes

All over-16

Duration of halves: 45 minutes

56 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

C

ODE OF

E

THICS FOR

R

EFEREES

1.

2.

3.

4.

United States Soccer Federation

I will always maintain the utmost respect for the game of soccer.

I will conduct myself honorably at all times and maintain the dignity of my position.

I will always honor an assignment or any other contractual obligation.

I will attend training meetings and clinics so as to know the Laws of the Game, their proper interpretation, and their application.

I will always strive to achieve maximum teamwork with my fellow officials.

5.

6.

7.

8.

I will be loyal to my fellow officials and never knowingly promote criticism of them.

I will be in good physical condition.

I will control the players effectively by being courteous and considerate without sacrificing firmness.

I will do my utmost to assist my fellow officials to better themselves and their work.

9.

10.

I will not make statements about any games except to clarify an interpretation of the Laws of the

Game.

11.

I will not discriminate against nor take undue advantage of any individual group on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

12.

I consider it a privilege to be a part of the United States Soccer Federation and my actions will reflect credit upon organization and its affiliates.

C

ODE OF

E

THICS FOR

R

EFEREES

2.

3.

1.

Some Practical Examples

Make sure you arrive on time for every match that you accept. For ordinary league or tournament matches you should be present and ready to officiate 30 minutes before the scheduled kick-off time.

You should be physically and mentally prepared for each match you officiate. You should be well rested and must put any distractions out of your mind while you are doing your job.

You should not accept a match in which any relative or boyfriend or girlfriend is a player, coach, or other team official. It is your responsibility to inform an assignor of any potential conflict that might call into question your impartiality.

Handbook For Referees 57

4.

5.

6.

7.

Concentrate on the job at hand, no matter what the score is or what the game is like. Do not become distracted by conversations with spectators or coaches during the game. Stay out of long chats before the game or at half-time. Do not engage in horseplay or play with the ball during stoppages or before the game.

You should do everything you can to keep up with changes in the rules and their interpretation, including attending refereeing clinics and studying the internet sites listed at the start of this handbook.

As assistant referee, always help and support your referee. Never try to look good at the referee's expense and never by word or action show disagreement with the referee's decision.

As referee, support your assistant referees, even when you must over-rule them. Never make them look bad and never let others abuse them.

8.

Do not criticize fellow officials in the hearing of non-referees. Do not discuss referees' decisions except to clarify an interpretation of the Laws. If you believe that a referee has made a serious error, you should bring it to the referee's attention or to take it up with your association. Don't respond with public criticism.

9.

Never say or do anything that might offend or humiliate a player, such as wagging fingers, shouting, or pointing.

10.

Do not ever touch any player, coach, team official, or spectator.

11.

Show that you are neutral and objective by not socializing at the match site or near the match site with players, coaches, or fans of either team, before or after the game.

12.

Help your fellow officials whenever you can. Take the time to discuss problems they have with a match and help them solve them.

13.

There is no reason to accept or condone unethical behavior by fellow referees. Do not be afraid to let a referee know that you find his or her conduct unacceptable. There are procedures set up by the United States Soccer Federation to complain about referees' unethical conduct. The state office can tell you how to contact the Referee Ethics and Greivance Committee.

58 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

C

ODE OF

E

THICS FOR

A

SSIGNORS

5.

6.

1.

2.

3.

4.

I will maintain the utmost respect for referees and other officials of the game and I will conduct myself honorably at all times.

I will make the assignments based on what is good for the game and what is good for the referee.

As a member of the U.S. Soccer Federation, my actions will reflect credit upon the organization.

I will contribute to the continuous development of referees in the National Referee

Development Program.

I will conduct myself ethically and professionally in the assignment process.

I will respect the rights and dignity of all the referees and I will not criticize them unless it is in private, constructive, and for their benefit.

8.

9.

7.

I will offer equal opportunity to all qualified referees and I will not discriminate against or take undue advantage of any individual or group on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

I will cooperate fully in the timely resolution of any grievance hearing or complaint.

I consider it a privilege to be a part of the U.S. Soccer Federation and my actions will reflect credit upon that organization or its affiliates.

10.

I will safeguard the confidentiality of the U.S. Soccer registered referee list.

11.

I will give priority to U.S. Soccer affiliated games when assigning games.

12.

The use of U.S. Soccer affiliated game assignments shall not be used to persuade U.S.

Soccer registered referees to accept game assignments for non-members of U.S. Soccer.

Handbook For Referees 59

C

HECK

L

ISTS FOR

R

EFEREES AND

A

SSISTANT

R

EFEREES

.

O ne effective method for improving performance and skills is to use an orderly self-evaluation after each match. A referee is usually his own most severe critic. In most instances, the referee instinctively realizes those things that were done well and those that might have been done better.

The following lists of questions are furnished for the referee and assistant referees to review important elements of match performance and reflect on which ones were performed well and should be continued and which ones need to be improved on

Self-evaluation Check List for Referees

Did I:

7.

8.

5.

6.

3.

4.

1.

2.

Arrive at the game site early and complete all pre-game responsibilities?

Enforce and apply the laws correctly?

Deal with misconduct correctly, sensibly and fairly?

Interpret "dangerous play" correctly?

Recognize the difference between careless or reckless play and incidental contact?

Deal quickly and firmly with dissent?

Avoid putting my hands on players for any reason?

Avoid gesturing or speaking to players in a way that might suggest that I was belittling them?

9.

Concentrate on the game and my responsibilities and always appear to be interested in the game?

10.

Anticipate play and move quickly to be near possible incidents?

11.

Keep up with play by moving quickly when necessary and moving to extreme positions when play dictated it?

12.

Try to keep play between me and one assistant referees while not being a slave to a narrow diagonal line?

13.

Avoid getting in the way of the ball or the players, especially in the middle of the field?

14.

Apply the "advantage clause" correctly?

15.

Get play restarted as quickly as possible and not allow players to waste time?

16.

Handle substitutions properly?

17.

Deal with injuries quickly and firmly and control the entry of bench personnel onto the field?

60 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

18.

Vary the tone and strength of my whistle appropriately for different occasions?

19.

Give the authorized signals and ensure that any additional communication was brief, clear, and did not unnecessarily draw attention to myself?

20.

Cover everything in my pre-game instructions to my assistant referees and make sure I was understood?

21.

Accept information from my assistant referees, consulting with them quickly and privately if necessary, yet not rely on them for decisions that were my responsibility?

22.

Keep a full and accurate record of the game?

23.

Report the match results and any misconduct in a timely manner to the proper authorities?

Self-evaluation Check List for Assistant Referees

Did I:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Arrive at the game site early enough to complete all pre-game responsibilities?

Cooperate with my colleagues and help the referee in approaching the game?

Actively listen to the referee's pre-game briefing, making sure all instructions were clear to me?

Carry all required refereeing equipment as backup?

Properly, smartly, and pleasantly carry out any pre-game duties I was given?

Correctly position myself for all restarts?

7.

8.

Maintain proper position and an alert watch on off-side situations?

Precisely meet the referee's instructions concerning off-side flag signals?

9.

Follow the ball all the way to the goal-line or goalkeeper when long kicks and back passes were made?

10.

Move quickly to act as a goal judge when needed?

11.

Assist the referee with game control by oral advice to nearby players regarding throw-ins, encroachment, free-kicks, and misconduct?

12.

Control my touchline, keeping the line clear of bench personnel and spectators, administering substitutions, and talking to bench personnel when required?

13.

Concentrate on the game at all times and sprint when rapid movement was required?

14.

Give clear, authorized signals to the referee with the flag?

15.

Keep the flag down at my side during movement up and down the touchline?

16.

Refrain from signaling when the referee did not need any information and avoid signaling to the referee's back?

Handbook For Referees 61

17.

Get eye contact with the referee whenever either of us gave a signal?

18.

Avoid giving any appearance of resentment or disagreement when the referee acknowledged my signal but did not act upon it, or when he "missed" my signal?

19.

Keep a proper record of the game as a backup to the referee?

20.

Enter and leave the field smartly with the referee as a member of a cooperating team?

62 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

A

DMINISTRATION

The referee program in Georgia is administered by the state referee committee through Georgia Soccer offices at 2323 Perimeter Park Drive, Atlanta, GA 30341. Telephone 770-452-0505 extension 105. You can also contact the program by e-mail at [email protected]

The web site for Georgia Soccer is at www.georgiasoccer.org.

Look for the referee page. The state office handles registration and supports the various referee departments. Registration for classes is handled entirely online at www.gareferees.com.

Referee Certification

US Soccer has several levels of referees. In Georgia, we use nine. Grade 9 Referee is the lowest and

Grade 1 (FIFA) is the highest. Grade 9 Recreational Referees are permitted ONLY to be referees

(centers) for Under-14 and younger recreational games and to be assistant referees for U-14 and

younger games, recreational or select. Grade 8 Referees (also known as R2) are recommended to be a referee or assistant referee on all youth games. Grade 7 Referees (R1) are recommended to be referees for all youth games and adult leagues. Grade 6 Referees (State Referee) are recommended to referee all youth games and adult amateur games. Grade 5 referees are candidates to become national referees. Grades 4 and 3 (National Referee) are recommended for full professional games. Grade 2 is a FIFA Assistant

Referee, and Grade 1 is a FIFA Referee. Grades 5 through 1 are not under the administration of the State

Referee Committee.

The basic entry level course in Georgia is the Entry Course (R9). It consists of completing the USSF

Grade 9 Course online or in the classroom and a classroom and field session on the practical aspects of refereeing. There is no age limit.

The entry level referee course for R8 in Georgia is termed the Adult Player - Returning Referee Course, and consists of the USSF Grade 8 Course, online or in the classroom and a classroom and field session

The upgrade process from Recreational Referee Grade 9 to Referee Grade 8 requires completion of an online course on the Laws of the Game, a passing grade on an online test, and attendance at a one-day class, which includes a final exam. The class emphasizes foul recognition, misconduct, game and player management, use of advantage, and other issues typically encountered in select soccer games more frequently than in recreational games.

For advanced grades, the upgrade period begins with the taking of the upgrade course and lasts for 12 months. A referee who wishes to upgrade may apply at any time, and his or her upgrade process will begin at the beginning of the next cycle. A candidate for a grade that requires an assessment or physical test must complete requirements within that year, unless given an exemption by the SRA/SYRA.

Classroom training and testing must be completed before moving on to the assessment phase. At the end of twelve months, all assessment results, whether passed or failed, are void and the assessment process must be begun again.

USSF Upgrade Requirements for Grade 7

Handbook For Referees 63

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Minimum age – TBD by SRC (in Georgia, 16 or discretion of SRC)

Minimum game experience – TBD by SRC (in Georgia, 50R/25 AR)

Previous grade – One year as a Grade 8 or at discretion of SRC

Training – Grade 7 course online and classroom.

Test – Pass USSF Grade 7 examination.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

USSF Upgrade Requirements for Grade 6 (State Referee)

1.

Minimum age – TBD by SRC (Georgia 17 or at discretion of SRC)

2.

Previous game experience – TBD by SRC (Georgia 100/50)

Previous grade – One year as Grade 7 (at discretion of SRC)

Training – USSF Grade 6 course online, classroom, and field

Test – Pass USSF Grade 6 examination

Fitness test – Pass FIFA Sprint and Interval Test at grade 6 level

Practical evaluation – Minimum of two assessments on 40-min half games by two different State

Assessors; at least one assessment must be on adult match. One assessment asAR

Procedure

To apply for upgrade, a candidate must notify the State Referee Administrator or the State Youth Referee

Administrator (for Grade 7 upgrade) of their desire to apply for upgrade (registering for an upgrade course will suffice for notification). and a log of qualifying games. The log should include, for each game, the date, field location, level of game, teams, and position (as referee or assistant referee).

After meeting all course work and testing requirements, the referee (if applying for Grade 6) will be placed on the assessment list given to the State Director of Assessment. Assessment fees will be established by the Georgia State Referee Committee. It is the responsibility of the candidate to arrange for at least three matches for each assessment and to notify the assessment program of these matches, so that the Director of Assessment has sufficient opportunity to assign an assessor to one of the matches.

Recertification Requirements

Referees are required to register each year. The registration year runs from January 1 to June 30. Further details of the certification requirements can be found at www.gareferees.com

home page.

64 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

USSF Requirements for Grade 9 Recertification

Training – TBD by SRC (Georgia: completion of Annual Recertification Course R9 and R8 online and classroom (4 hours).

Test – Passing score on all required tests, online and classroom.

USSF Requirements for Grade 8 Recertification

Training – TBD by SRC (Georgia: completion of Annual Recertification Course for R9 and R8 online and classroom. (4 hours)

Test – Passing score on USSF Grade 8 test, online and classroom

USSF Requirements for Grade 7 Recertification

Training – Complete Grade 7 Recertification Course, online and classroom (4 hours)

Test – Passing score on USSF Grade 7 test

USSF Requirements for Grade 6 Recertification

Training – Complete Grade 6 Recertification Course, online and classroom

Test – Pass USSF Grade 6 test.

Fitness test – Pass the FIFA Sprint and Interval Test at Grade 6 level

Practical Evaluation – Pass two assessments as referee conducted by different State Assessors on 40minute half game or higher; one game must be an adult match.

Handbook For Referees 65

Georgia SRC AdditionalRequirements to Participate in State, Regional, and

National Events

The Georgia State Reveree Committee has adopted additional standards for its Advanced Referee

Development Program. Referees interested in representing Georgia at state, regional, or, if Grade 7 and lower to advance to Grade 6 or higher in the future, should consider working to meet these requirements.

Grade 9 Referee

No additional requirements.

Grade 8 Referee — Upgrade or Recertification

Test – Pass the Georgia Laws of the Game Test (LOTG Test) online or classroom with a minimum score of 90%.

Fitness test – Pass the FIFA Sprint and Interval Test at the Grade 6 level.

Practical Evaluation – Pass one assessment on a U-15 or higher match.

Grade 7 Referee — Upgrade or Recertification

Training – For recertification, eight hours of online, classroom, or field training.

Test – Pass the Georgia Laws of the Game Test (LOTG Test) online or classroom with a minimum score of 90%.

Fitness test – Pass the FIFA Sprint and Interval Test at the Grade 6 level.

Practical Evaluation – For upgrade, pass two assessments by different State Assessors on a U-16 or higher match as referee and one as assistant referee. For recertification, one referee assessment and one AR assessment.

Grade 6 Referee — Upgrade or Recertification

Training – For recertification, eight hours of online, classroom, or field training.

66 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Test – Pass the Georgia Laws of the Game Test (LOTG Test) online or classroom with a minimum score of 90%.

Fitness test – Pass the FIFA Sprint and Interval Test at the Grade 6 level.

Practical Evaluation – For upgrade, four upgrade, pass two assessments — one developmental, two as referee, one as AR on a U-17 or higher match on U-17 or higher match; at least one CR must be on adult match. For recertification, one referee assessment and one AR assessment. For recertification, one CR and one AR on U-16 or higher match; CR assessment must be by State Assessor.

State Referee Committee Policies on Maintenance and Upgrade Assessments

Required maintenance assessments. For registration in each calendar year, each referee who requires assessments must pass them during the previous calendar year. If a passing assessment is not obtained, the referee must be registered at the highest grade not requiring an assessment, until maintenance assessments are passed.

Failed assessments: A referee is required to make up a failed assessment before additional assessments may ‘count.’. A referee who fails a maintenance assessment must pass only one assessment to qualify at grade. A second failed assessment, however, must be made up for by passing two assessments. Failure in three assessments, whether for maintenance or upgrade, ends the assessment process for that registration year. The two passing assessments must be for the same position, i.e. centers for a center, assistant referees for assistant referee. Assessment that make up for failed assessments must be on games of equal or higher level competition.

Assessments beyond the usual time limit: Referees are expected to complete their upgrade assessments within one year of completing the upgrade clinic and passing the written and physical tests. However, if the assessment process is begun, i.e. assessments have been requested, but all necessary assessments have not been completed due to scheduling problems with assessors or other conditions beyond the referee’s control, the assessment period will be extended until all assessments have been completed.

Upgrade clinic before eligible date: Georgia usually offers an upgrade clinic for grades 7 at least twice per year and for 6 once per year. Given this limited window of opportunity, referees may attend an upgrade clinic and take the relevant tests before they are eligible to apply for upgrade based on age, game count, or time in grade, provided that the time between the upgrade clinic and the first eligible date is less than or equal to half the time until the next clinic opportunity (rounded to the nearest month). The referee may attend an upgrade clinic before having the necessary game count, provided that the referee has a reasonable expectation of completing the necessary game count within the same time period as above. (Note: referees may be invited or be given permission to attend any clinic for general improvement, not in preparation for upgrade, at any time.)

Assessments before eligible date. Referees may not be assessed for upgrade until their time in grade and game count requirements have been satisfied, unless permission has been granted by the

SRA or SYRA. The date of attaining present grade is usually the date on which the last required assessment was completed. However, referees should check with the SRA or SYRA to determine the date recorded by USSF as “attained present grade.”

Changing states during upgrade cycle: A referee who begins the upgrade process outside

Georgia and moves his or her registration to Georgia may have all completed accomplishments

Handbook For Referees 67

• recognized in Georgia, provided that written documentation is provided by the SRA, SYRA, or

SDA in the state of origin to the SRA or SYRA in Georgia.

Returning to refereeing after an absence: A referee who has not registered for less than four years may re-register by participating in a re-certification clinic at the appropriate level. A referee grade 8 who has not registered for longer than that years may re-certify after taking the Upgrade to

R8 from R9 Course (“bridge course”) for grade 8. A referee who has not registered for more than four years must take the full entry course (grade 8 entry or grade 9 followed by grade 8 upgrade course). A referee who had a grade 6 or higher badge in the past and has not registered for more than one year may be re-registered at a grade one level below the grade last held. In other words, a grade 6 may return as a grade 7, etc. The referee must proceed through the usual procedure for upgrade to return to his or her previous grade. The same requirements for physical testing and maintenance assessments will apply. A grade 6 referee in such an instance must complete a maintenance assessment prior to December 31 in order to be registered for the following year at the desired grade. Retroactive assessments applying to the year or years the referee was not registered are NOT required.

Upgrade assessments to satisfy maintenance requirements. Assessments for upgrade to Grade

6 will satisfy the requirement for a maintenance assessment for the previous grades. (For example, a referee who passes an assessment for upgrade to 6 will not need an additional maintenance assessment at Grade 7 (Advanced Program) to register for the following year.) If the referee has not passed a maintenance assessment at the time of an upgrade assessment, there are three possible outcomes:

If the referee passes the upgrade assessment, it will “count” as the maintenance assessment required for the previous grade.

If the referee fails the upgrade assessment, but the assessor recommends grade retention, the assessment will “count” as the required maintenance assessment.

• If the referee fails the upgrade assessment and the assessor does not recommend grade retention, the assessment will “count” as a failed maintenance assessment and must be made up by passing another assessment (or two assessments, as appropriate). Note that the make-up assessment(s) must be at the same or higher level game as the failed assessment.

Once a referee has satisfied the maintenance assessment requirement, the referee cannot be reduced in grade due to any failure of a later assessment that year.

Assessments out of state. Assessments for either upgrade or maintenance of grade may be obtained in other states. All out-of-state assessments must be arranged through, and have the permission of, the State Director of Assessment in advance.

Assessment Guidelines

There are three possible outcomes from your assessment. The referee may pass, the referee may fail, or the game may be considered not ratable. To be ratable, the game must be a “sufficient test” that presents the referee with the opportunity to exhibit the skills required of a referee at that grade. If a majority of the opportunities are present, then the game will be a “sufficient test.” If the game is judged to be ratable, then the performance of the referee will be rated on the following criteria. Some examples, but not all, are

68 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

• given in each area. Note that the numerical score will not necessarily correlate with whether the game was a “sufficient test,” since every performance will be given a numerical score, regardless.

Personality and Communication

Demonstrated personality and presence.

• Communication.

Game Control, Flow and Risk Taking

Misconduct — game or player needed the card

“Big Picture” approach in game control.

• Allowed game to flow and took risks.

Foul recognition/discrimination

Applied advantage effectively

Tactical approach

Teamwork

Points of Emphasis

Tackles — Elbows — Contact above the shoulder

Dissent — Game disrepute — Mass confrontation

Managing the Technical Areas

Fitness / Work Rate / Movement / Stamina / Positioning

At each increasing grade level — from 8 to 7 to 6 — the referee is expected to perform with increasing levels of performance in each of these areas. The higher the grade, the wider the variety of skills the referee should be able to display. As the grade level increases, there should be a gradient from simple recognition and application of the basic laws to more emphasis on managing the players and the game, and officiating with presence and personality. There should be a shift from recognizing and reacting to anticipating and being proactive with respect to both tactical considerations and player behavior.

The scoring system is consistent for all grades and is outlined below. An equivalent score for referees of different grades will require demonstration of different skill sets. Just as a score of 75 in calculus requires different skills than a score of 75 in algebra, so a score of 70 for a grade 6 requires demonstration of a deeper understanding and display of higher skills than a score of 70 for a grade 7. Besides passing or failing, the numerical score you receive on your assessment will tell you whether, in the assessor’s judgment, you did well or “just scraped by”, very nearly have the skills to pass or failed badly.

90 - 100

80 - 89

Outstanding. The referee showed exceptional technical and man-management skills in a match that was a major test of his or her abilities. A near-flawless performance. The match should have presented a difficult to very difficult challenge to the referee.

Very good. The referee demonstrated a high level of skill in controlling a match that was a demanding test of his or her refereeing ability. Referee presented with at least one difficult

Handbook For Referees 69

70 - 79

60 - 69

50 - 59

49 or less and challenging decision. The match should have presented a difficult challenge to the referee. Performance well above expectations for this grade level referee.

Acceptable. The referee demonstrated the ability to control a competitive match. Player management, disciplinary control and other technical requirements should be of good standard, but some advice and/or areas for improvement will be covered. Most referees’ scores will lie in this range. 70 is just passing; 79 is very good.

Not acceptable. The referee is inconsistent in decision making and dealing with players or fails to deal correctly with major incidents. The match was made difficult in part because of the referee’s performance. Clear advice and/or areas for improvement will be required.

Performance below expectations for this grade level referee.

Poor. Not acceptable. The referee made multiple mistakes, more than expected from a referee of this grade level. Performance well below the expectations for a referee at this grade level.

Performance subject to review. The referee demonstrated a serious failure to control the match, to apply the Laws of the Game, and deal with major situations during and after the match. Referee should be closely monitored and present grade reviewed if this performance is repeated.

Referee Assignment

Being registered as a referee will not guarantee you assignments to games. Remember, it is up to you to contact an assignor and to make your availability known — when, where, and what level you want to referee. Here is how it works:

Each league and each tournament in Georgia that is affiliated with Georgia Youth or Adult Divisions has an assignor whose job is to appoint referees and assistant referees to matches. All assignors must take an assignment course and be certified by USSF. You may choose to work primarily in one league or to be available to many. Assignments are made by on line, by telephone, or e-mail depending on the custom of the organization. A list of assignors is available at the Georgia Referee web page at www.gareferees.com.

Log in and then click on Reports and select the Certified Assignors Report. You may filter the report by zip code or area code. Most assignors who assign for leagues list their league affiliation. To find a club or league near you, visit the Georgia Soccer web page at www.georgiasoccer.org

and either click on the

Members tab or use the Field Locator feature under Resources. Most have links to web sites where you will usually find a Referees link or email to contact.

Referees are registered with the United States Soccer Federation, not with individual leagues. Referees are independent contractors. That means you may either accept or decline any match that is assigned to you. Once you do accept an assignment, however, you are bound to officiate it, barring illness or emergency. Remember, it is unethical conduct to return a match already accepted in order to accept a more attractive one. The exception is that certain games sponsored by the Federation or FIFA have a higher claim. Games that have priority over ordinary league or tournament games are, in order of decreasing priority: FIFA Appointments, CONCACAF Appointments, International A Matches, U.S.

National Team Matches, Professional Division I Matches, Foreign Pro Club vs Foreign Pro Club

Matches, National Cup Finals, Regional Cup Finals, Other Professional Matches (A-League, D3 Pro),

70 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

National Tournaments (Youth and Adult), National Adult Leagues, Interstate National Cup Competitions

(Adult), PDL and W-League Matches, Intrastate National Cup Competitions, (Adult), and State Cup

Competitions (Adult and Youth). You must turn back local games if you are appointed to one of these matches, provided that you are given 72 hours notice. No other match has priority or precedence over any other within the state.

Unaffiliated Games

USSF policy states that the primary duty of a federation-registered referee is to officiate games among teams affiliated with the Federation. Referees who take the benefits of the National Referee Development

Program and do not assist affiliated teams by refereeing at least as many affiliated games as unaffiliated games may lose their privileges to register with and participate in programs sponsored by the Federation.

(Note: school-sponsored games are not considered either affiliated or unaffiliated for this purpose.).

Solicitation of Game Assignments

Referees at all grade levels should not solicit game assignments from assignors of any level of competition, from the recreational level up through professional games at the national level. In this sense, solicitation refers to the active pursuit of games through persistent requests for game assignments. It does not apply to advising the assignors of availability when asked, nor does it apply to merely informing assignors that you are available to referee within their geographic area or league. Should a referee wish to be considered for a higher level of competition than he is normally assigned to, the referee should make a written request for consideration to be assigned to higher-level competition.

Ethical Considerations

It is your responsibility as a referee to avoid any conflicts of interest in officiating matches. Assignors should not appoint referees to games in which their children, siblings, or parents are competing or coaching. It is the responsibility of the referee to inform the assignor of these limitations. If an error occurs, and the assignor puts you on a game with a relative on one of the teams, you must turn it down.

There are other conflicts that it is your responsibility to avoid. You should avoid refereeing a game where:

• You have been a coach, player, or team official of any kind within the past year.

• The outcome of that match may affect a team on which you are a player or coach or have a close relative who is a player, coach, or team official.

You have close ties to a player, coach, or team official involved in the game. (For example, do not referee a game in which your boyfriend or girlfriend is playing. This is especially important because the assignor will probably not know about your connection.)

An active referee may serve on the administrative committees or board of a league or state association, including being the chief officer (except as restricted in USSF rules), and may referee in the league or state association of which he is a member. However, the referee shall disqualify himself from participating in any disciplinary proceeding in which the subject is a team, player, or other person in which he has a vested interest. He shall also disqualify himself from participating in any disciplinary proceeding involving a game in which he officiated and should not referee in any match in which he has a vested interest.

Handbook For Referees 71

A R

EFEREEING

B

IBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Ager, David, The Soccer Referee’s Manual, A & C Black, London, 1994.

Baay, Dirk, Blowing the Whistle: A Referee’s View of Soccer, Halftime Press, Colorado Springs,

Colorado, 1997.

Burtenshaw, Norman, Whose Side Are You On, Ref?, Arthur Baker, London, 1977.

Caminsky, Jeffrey, The Referee’s Survival Guide: Practical Suggestions for Soccer Officials, New

Alexandria Press, Livonia, MI, 2007.

Collina, Pierluigi, The Rules of the Game, translated from the Italian by Iain Halliday, Macmillan,

London, 2003.

Elleray, David, The Man in the Middle, Time Warner Books, London, 2004.

Evans, Robert, and Edward Bellion, For the Good of the Game, Youth Sports Publishing, Chatsworth,

California, 2000.

Harris, Paul, Before Fair or Foul: The New Referee's Companion, Soccer for Americans, Manhattan

Beach, California, 1992.

Harris, Paul, and Larry Harris, Fair or Foul: The Complete Guide to Soccer Officiating in America,

Soccer for Americans, Manhattan Beach, California, 1978.

Hill, Gordon, Give a Little Whistle, Souvenir Press, London, 1975.

Howell, Denis, Soccer Refereeing, Pelham Books, London, 1977.

Klein, Abraham and Rubi Shalev, The Referee’s Referee: Becoming the Best, Soccer for Americans,

Manhattan Beach California, 1995.

Lover, Stanley, Soccer Laws Illustrated, Pelham, London, 1971, rev. 1984.

Lover, Stanley, Soccer Match Control, Pelham, London, 1978, rev. 1986.

Lover, Stanley, The Illustrated Soccer Quiz Book, USSF Publications, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1983.

Mathurin, D.C. Emerson, Linesmanship, The Sporting Press, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, 1995.

Partridge, Pat, Oh, Ref!, Souvenir Press, London, 1979.

Ring, Ted, The Assessor’s Challenge, The Referees Association, Coundon, Coventry, 1994.

Ross, David J., Ed., In the Eye of the Whistle: The Refereeing at the 1986 World Cup, Onereal, Ottowa,

1988.

Ross, David J., Ed., In the Eye of the Whistle II: The Refereeing at the 1990 World Cup, Onereal, Ottowa,

1991.

72 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

Rouse, Sir Stanley, and Ford, Donald, A History of the Laws of Association Football, Federation

Internationale de Football Association, Zurich, 1974.

Schwartz, Carl P.,

Soccer Officials Guidebook For a Crew of Three Officials, Diagonal System of Control

,

Referee Enterprises, Inc., Franksville, Wisconsin, 1999.

Taylor, Jack, Soccer

Refereeing

: A Personal View, Faber and Faber, London, 1978.

Taylor, Jack, World Soccer Referee, Pelham Books, London, 1976.

Thompson, George J., Verbal Judo: The Gentle Art of Persuasion, William Morrow, New York, 1993.

Weinberg, Robert S. and Peggy A. Richardson, Psychology of Officiating, Leisure Press, Champagne,

Illinois, 1990.

Winter, Jeff, Who the B*****d in Black?, Confessions of a Premiership Referee, Ebury Press, London,

2006.

Videos

History of Refereeing: The Team that Can Never Win, World Productions Establishment, 1992.

Football Rules! A Guide to the Laws of the Game, Scottish Football Association, 1997. (An excellent introduction for new players and fans.)

Use of the Penalty Mark and Judging Challenges, The Football Association, 1991.

The Role of the Referee and Fitness Testing for Referees, The Football Association, 1991. (Although somewhat dated — the penalty-kick has changed substantially — the sections on judging challenges and the role of the referee are very valuable, the former especially for referees who have not yet experienced a high level of competition.)

Soccer Refereeing, Tape One: Fair and Unfair Challenges and Managing Set Play Situations, Tape Two:

Dealing with Unsporting Behavior and Positioning and Movement, The Football Association and the

B.B.C., 1986. (Many of the Laws of the Game have been changed since these tapes were produced, but they remain excellent tools if care is taken to recognize the differences in the laws.)

Dealing with Foul Play, United States Soccer Federation, 1995. (An instructional video with excellent examples of foul play, cautionable offenses, and sending-off offenses. Silent, accompanied by written textual commentary.)

Fouls and Misconduct, United States Soccer Federation, 2003. (An instructional video using examples from the Women’s World Cup, 1999.)

Gamesmanship, United States Soccer Federation, 1996. (An instructional video with examples of gamesmanship. Narrated.)

Guide to Procedures for Referees, Assistant Referees, and Fourth Officials, United States Soccer

Federation, 2000.

Making the Offside Call, United States Soccer Federation, 2003. (An instructional video with examples of offside decisions at the Women’s World Cup 1999.)

Offside, United States Soccer Federation, 1995. (An instructional video with examples illustrating the concepts of area of active play and involvement in offside situations.)

Handbook For Referees 73

Offside Decision, United States Soccer Federation, 1999. (An instructional video covering all of the offside law, with examples illustrating the concepts of offside position and active involvement.)

Jurgen Klinsmann Presents The 17 Laws of Soccer, German Impex International, Inc., 1996. (An introduction to the laws for young people. It includes some very good visual examples of the laws from

German league and international play.)

Myths of the Game, United States Soccer Federation, 1999. (An introduction to some of the most misunderstood rules of soccer.)

The Laws of the Game: The Gray Areas, United States Soccer Federation, 2002 (A sequel to Myths of the

Game.)

History of Soccer — The Beautiful GameFreemantle Media Enterprises Ltd., 2001.(Six discs.)

Internet

There are several valuable internet web sites for referees, including www.fifa.com

and www.ussoccer.com, www.usysa.org, . See also the list of sites at the front of this book.

These and other links are available at the Georgia Soccer website: www.georgiasoccer.org.

You should visit the site often. The referee page has news and updated material. The Ask the SDRI page is an interactive forum where you can ask questions of the State Director of Referee Instruction, to get answers to problems that may come up in your games.

74 Georgia State Referee Committee 2015

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