Guide - Something Different Linen

Guide - Something Different Linen
Thank you for your interest in Milliken products. Over
the years, we at Milliken have strived to improve our
products and services to form profitable partnerships
with our customers. In doing so, we have developed
revolutionary fabrics which provide benefits to the
end user and improved ROI for the launderer. The
processing of these fabrics has also evolved.
Enclosed is a compilation of articles and tips to be
used as a reference only. These come from many
sources, and there are various opinions involved.
Some of this may conflict with your current practices
and should be studied and tested on a small scale
before real world application. Again, this information
is to be used as a guide, to troubleshoot and stimulate
thought regarding laundering practices. Please consult
and confer with your experts, chemical, mechanical,
and trade organizations, and other suppliers to the
industry. We welcome your comments and any
information you might add to future publications.
Thank you to all the sources for the information
included in this booklet. Happy laundering.
Milliken Technical Representatives
1-800-322-TEAM
SUGGESTED COLOR GROUPINGS FOR WASHING
MILLIKEN TABLE LINEN FABRICS
The general rule for mixing table linen colors in the wash is to keep similar colors and
similar degrees of color darkness together. If you have any questions about mixing colors
call your Milliken technical representative at 1-800-322-TEAM.
Encore Plus
Name
Number
Signature Plus
Number
Encore Plus
Signature Plus
Number Number
White
9660
9297/9680
Ivory
Bermuda Sand
Maize
Salmon
Beige
Wheat
Light Pink
Lemon Yellow
9722
7684
4647
1421
7616
7223
1625
4382
9245
7043
4504
1903
7284
7961
1686
4687
Nude
Dusty Rose
Violet
Deep Coral
Raspberry
Cast Red
Burnt Orange
7666
1059
8726
1494
8488
1884
5089
6708
6648
6473
2584
3558
8324
3526
2375
6439
6390
6491
3235
3419
3956
3835
3953
8707
2511
3345
3891
Medrite Gray
Dove Gray
Powder Gray
Light Blue
Seafoam Green
Allen Turk
Turquoise
Wedgewood Blue
Kelly Green
Christmas Green
Blue Coral
Teal
Ocean Teal
Ford Blue
Royal Blue
Forest Green
Tangerine
Soft Peach
Peach
Pink
Blush
T. Rose
Flesh Tone
Pink Salmon
Pale Mauve
Sandalwood
Gold
5499
5062
5262
1461
1676
1200
5220
5711
1447
7842
4663
Red
Navy
Rust
Maroon
Dark Burgundy
Aubergine
Purple
Chocolate
Black
1555
2499
5922
1752
1004
8809
8529
7134
5650
1598
2006
5000
0995
1861
8539
8871
7979
6297
Name
3800
3719
3661
2228
5732
5428
5786
1025
1923
1113
8122
5251
3241
3444
2983
3130
5219
5098
1720
7597
4866
All table linen should be washed separately when new. Dark shades should be washed
several times before mixing with a shade group.
Table Linen
Fabrics by
A Laundry Manager’s Guide to
Washroom Formulas
TROUBLESHOOTING IN THE WASHROOM
The following are usually the factors at fault when problems
develop in the washroom.
• Poor Soil Removal
Not enough suds baths
Insufficient suds time
Temperature too low
Insufficient alkali/soap/detergent
Overloading wash wheels
Improper water levels
Hard water
Improper classifying
Missing soil loads
Wrong formula being used
• Poor Color (Redeposition)
Hard water
Overloading wash wheels
Insufficient alkali/soap/detergent
Poor balance of alkali to soap/surfactant
Too few rinses
Cutting rinse times
• Poor Color – Whites (Other than redeposition)
Yellow/Brown –
Iron in water
Poor rinsing
Undersouring
Unneutralizing bleach
TROUBLESHOOTING IN THE WASHROOM
• High Tensile Strength Loss
Bleach too strong – too much bleach
Low bleach pH
Too high bleach temperature
Steam on bleach bath
Excessive mechanical action
Underloading
Too lengthy formulas
Too much time between filling/draining
Too low water levels
Excessive use of highly alkaline builders in presence of
steam or very high temperatures
Improper souring agents
• Linting/Pilling
Excessive mechanical action
Underloading
Too lengthy formula
Too much time between filling/draining
Too low water levels
Leaky wash wheels
• Short Textile Fibers
Low twist yarns
Rough surfaces in wash wheels, conditioners, tumblers,
or on flatwork ironers
Excessive use of bleach/low pH bleaching/high temperature bleaching
Excessive use of strong alkalies in presence of steam or
very high temperatures
Improper souring agents
TROUBLESHOOTING IN THE WASHROOM
• Odor in Textiles
Hard water reacting with soap
Fermentation of poorly soured loads
Excessive use of sour
Poor soil removal
Incomplete rinsing
Resin treated fabrics
• Flatwork Rolling
Excess sour
Too short a souring time
Improper addition of sour
Wrong type of sour
Work too damp
Dirty ironer chests
Build-up on chests
Rust on chests
Cold chests
Improperly sized steam lines
Steam pressure not high enough
Traps not operating properly
Chests bound with air
Warped chests
Starch on chests
Static electricity
Improper feeding
Lack of lubrication in fabrics
Poorly maintained apron covers, padding, ribbons,
and guide strings
WASHROOM
• Wash wheels
Should be cleaned and lubricated regularly
Check for overgreasing and leaking grease
Keep water and dump valves tight
Keep doors and latches tight
Eliminate rough or protruding edges that cause tears
and rips
Check water gauges and thermometers for accuracy
Keep cylinders free from lime soap
Keep motors clean (no lint between fields)
Keep belts tight with no slippage
• Extractors
Keep clean and well lubricated
Should be easy to balance
Check perforations in baskets for ample size (may need
drilling)
Check for proper speed
Keep motor clean
Should attain speed quickly
GRAYING – RESULTS OFF STANDARD
Graying or redeposition refers to the gradual discoloration of
fabrics – white or colored. It can generally be recognized as
a dull off-color or dingy gray cast on fabrics. The following
checklist ranges from the most to least likely common cause.
Causes
a. Insufficient detergent
usage
b. Improper washing and/or
rinsing temperatures
c. Not enough rinsing,
eliminating rinse time
Solutions
a. Use product amounts
b. Set water temperatures
at recommended levels
for that classification
c. Use recommended
number of rinses at the
correct water levels for
the proper length of time
d. Mixing fabrics with
different soil levels in a
single load
d. Pre-sort items to insure
fabrics with similar soil
levels are included in
each load
e. Water hardness higher
than tested when formulas
were installed
e. If a mechanical
water softener is
used, determine if it
is working properly
or if it needs to be
repaired or recharged.
If no softener is used,
increase detergent
usage to compensate for
additional hardness
STAINS – RESULTS OFF STANDARD
In referring to stains, as opposed to poor soil removal, we mean
items which are basically clean but have an unacceptable rate or
presence of stains. The following checklist ranges from the most
to least probable cause of an increase in common stains such as
blood, food, grease and medication.
Causes
Solutions
a. Overloading the wash
wheel
a. Reduce fabric weight to
meet plant standard
b. Washer controls
malfunctioning
b. Insure controls are
working properly,
especially water level,
temperature therm
controls, and dump valves
c. Improper break
temperature
c. Insure water
temperature is at the
recommended level
during the break
d. Improper bleaching
d. Use correct amount of
bleach at the recommended
temperature for the
recommended time interval
e. Liquid bleach stock
solutions not strong enough
e. Mix bleach to obtain
proper concentration
f. pH of bleach bath out of
range
f. Reduce product usage or give
a flush prior to bleach bath
g. Too much soil carried into
bleach bath
g. Use recommended number
of flushes prior to bleach bath
h. Insufficient souring for
acid soluble stains
h. Use recommended amount
of sour for that classification
YELLOWING/BROWNING – RESULTS OFF STANDARD
Yellowing/browning refers to a general yellow/brown
discoloration or deposit on the fabric as opposed to a dull gray
color (grayness). It can be splotchy in appearance and in severe
cases, deep in color. The following checklist ranges from the
most to least likely common causes of this trouble.
Causes
Solutions
a. Not enough rinses
a. Use recommended
number of rinses at the
correct water levels and
temperatures
b. Insufficient souring
- confirm with pH test
b. Use recommended
amount of sour
c. Bleach overuse
c. Use recommended
amount of bleach
d. Fabric softener build-up
d. Insure fabric softener is
added at the right time
in the right quantity and
at the right temperature
e. Iron in the water - confirm
with water iron test
e. 1. Use an iron
sequestering agent
2. Use recommended
amount of rustremoving sour
f. Fabric retains too much
chlorine
f. Use an antichlor
ODOR
The sense of smell can be a useful laundry evaluation tool.
Knowing the smell of a particular soil can sometimes tell you the
cause of a problem without elaborate testing. Specific causes
and solutions include:
Causes
Solutions
a. Oily, greasy smells (work
not thoroughly clean)
a. Insure correct formula
is being used for that
classification
b. Oily, greasy smells
(incomplete rinsing)
b. Rinse properly
c. Chlorine odor
c. Use bleach properly
d. Mustiness (fermentation)
d. 1. Sour properly and
cool load before
pulling
2. Don’t let load stand
overnight without
extracting
e. Fatty odor (lime soap on
clothes)
e. Soften water
f. Sharp odor - sour odor
(overuse of sour - confirm
with pH test)
f. Use proper amount of
sour
SUPPLY COSTS - RESULTS OFF STANDARD
The following checklist ranges in a sequence from the easiest
to check most likely causes, to the more difficult to check less
likely causes.
Causes
Solutions
a. Check to see if several
production unit costs are
out of range
a. 1. If yes, check
production tallies for
math errors
2. If no, continue
b. Review record for
accuracy
1. Inventory
2. Billing
b. 1. If inaccurate, correct
2. If accurate, continue
c. Review historical data for
“highs” and “lows” from
different billing inventory
periods
c. If yes, average high
and low periods and
compare to base period
d. Is washman using the
wrong size scoops?
d. 1. If yes, weigh and cut
proper size scoops
2. If no, continue
e. Is washman using the
wrong number of scoops?
e. 1. If yes, train
washman to use the
appropriate amount
2. If no, continue
f. Are wheels being
improperly loaded?
f. If yes, load wheels to
plan standards
POOR SOIL REMOVAL – RESULTS OFF STANDARD
By poor soil removal we refer to items which simply do not come
out clean as opposed to gradually discoloring. The following
checklist ranges in sequence from the most to least likely
common causes.
Causes
a. Incorrect formula being
used
Solutions
a. Use correct formula for
each classification washed.
b. Improper product usage
b. Use product amounts
recommended.
c. Skipping formula
operations
c. Insure all formula
operations are followed
completely and in the
proper sequence.
d. Improper pre-sorting
d. Insure items are properly
pre-sorted so formulas
accurately match soil
levels being washed.
e. Overloading the wash
wheel
e. Reduce fabric weight to
meet plant standard.
f. Washer controls
malfunctioning
f. Insure controls are working
g. Water hardness higher
than tested when formulas
were installs (confirm
using water hardness
tests)
g. If a water softener is used,
properly, especially water
levels, temperature (therm)
controls, and dump valves.
determine if it is working
properly or if it needs to
be repaired/recharged. If a
water softener is not used,
slightly increase detergent
usage to compensate for
additional hardness.
IN HOUSE SMALL LAUNDRIES
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HANDLING SIGNATURE PLUS™
HOME TYPE WASHER & DRYER
Equipment: Maytag, Kenmore, General Electric, Whirlpool, etc.
Loading:
Do not overload washer or dryer. Wash loads must have
good flotation and agitation.
Washing:
Use perma press cycle or split water temperatures
(110-130º) with a cold water rinse. Use chemicals
recommended for home type washers. Do not use
softeners, as they may waterproof the linen.
Dryers:
Use perma press cycle for 12-15 minutes with an 8
minute cool down. (Times may vary due to load size
and extraction.) If dryers do not have perma press cycle,
use medium heat (120-160º), and “air” for cool down
step. Do not overload dryer; linen must tumble freely for
optimum flat dry results.
Check List for Wrinkles:
1. Overloading - wash loads may be too large for size washer or dryer
(no mechanical action or flotation equipment).
2. Overdrying - linen may be too dry before cool down begins.
Reduce dryer time to where linen is just dry before cool down cycle
begins.
3. Thermal Shock Wrinkles - drastic changes in fabric temperatures.
Examples: water temperature drops from 180º-100º; dryers are
being stopped while still hot (140º-160º).
4. Improper Cool Down - dryers have been stopped before linen has
been cooled to normal body temperature for folding.
5. Process Wrinkles - wrinkles due to mishandling. Linen which has
been set in the washer, dryers, or buggies for prolonged periods of
time.
6. Improper Storage - inadequate storage on shelves or racks. Linen
also may have been folded improperly before reaching storage
areas.
7. Shelf Time - recommended shelf time for linen is 24 hours for
optimum flat dry results.
IN HOUSE SMALL LAUNDRIES
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HANDLING SIGNATURE PLUS™
HOME TYPE WASHER & DRYER
Check List for Stains:
1. Overloading - no mechanical action or linen has been packed too
tight for proper agitation.
2. Improper Chemical Usage - the amount of detergent may be too
small for the size wash load being processed, or the soil level is too
high.
3. Abusive Stains - these type stains are usually of three types:
A.
carbon based - grill grease - ashtrays, etc.
B.
silver polish
C.
cement stains
Usually bleach will help salvage the linen unless stains are of above
types.
4. Softeners - we do not recommend the use of softeners. Most
softeners coat the Signature Plus™ linen making it waterproof and
hard to remove stains due to this waterproofing action.
5. Hard Water - chemicals that may be found in water make cleaning
at normal detergent loads difficult. Some stains may be due to iron,
calcium, which may be found in the water. Check with your chemical
representative for this type of problem.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
DISCOLORATION
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Bleach on Colors
Do not use bleach on colors.
Residual Dye Transfer
Prewash colors separately on first wash to
prevent residual dye transfer. Sort napery
into recommended color groupings for
subsequent washings. Always wash white
separately.
Soil Redeposition
Reclaim napery with soil redeposition
by using additional temperature and
supplies. Prevent redeposition by
adjusting the formula for soil level.
Specific recommendations are available
from your Milliken Technical Services
Representative.
Chemical Reaction
Avoid chemical discoloration by
thoroughly rinsing all chemicals out of
the napery before drying or finishing.
Yellowed Whites
Chlorine bleach will not damage Milliken
fabric, but residual bleach on white
napery can cause yellowing if the chlorine
is not neutralized before exposure to heat.
Avoid yellowing by using an antichlor
in the second rinse after bleaching with
chlorine.
Incorrect Ordering
Order napery colors by the four-digit code
number or the distributor color codes to
avoid confusing similar colors.
Glazing
Keep ironer chest temperatures under
350º F and use correct roll pressures to
prevent glazing.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
WATERPROOFING
Contrary to what many people may think, polyester can be modified
to be very absorbent. This is a particularly good characteristic for table
linen fabric. A major quality issue for table linen is the ability to absorb
spills. Milliken Table Linens are engineered with a permanent chemical
treatment that makes them very absorbent when completely clean.
This same treatment that makes them absorb liquids also allows the
fabric to release stain and odor in the washing process. This absorbency
enhancement also allows for good starch adhesion.
You should test your finished, dry fabric periodically for absorbency.
Gently place a drop of clean water on the clean and cooled piece
of fabric. A properly washed piece of our table linen fabric should
completely absorb this drop in well under 3 seconds. The cleaner the
fabric, the faster the water will absorb. The easiest way to determine
if your linen is washing clean and performing as it should is to do this
simple wicking test. Can your linen pass the test? If not, refer below
for reasons that cause waterproof linen or contact your Milliken LST
representative.
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Fabric Softeners
Fabric softeners prevent Milliken napery
from absorbing liquids. Do not use fabric
softeners on Milliken napery.
Tallow Soap
Do not use tallow soaps on Milliken
napery. Instead, use built detergents,
surfactants, and solvated surfactants.
Mildewcides
To help minimize mildew growth on
Milliken napery, use only mildewcides
that have no quaternary ammonium
base.
Washing with Cotton
Wash Milliken napery with other 100%
synthetic fabrics. Do not wash with cotton
or poly-cotton blends.
Soil Redeposition
See DISCOLORATION – Soil Redeposition.
PVAc Build-Up
Reclaim, then reformulate the starch ratio:
four parts natural starch to one part
PVAc.
Insufficient Surfactant
Sufficient surfactant must be used to allow
suspension of greases and oils allowing
the fabric to wick moisture and allow
starch to adhere.
WASH PIE
The card controls the
length of the wash cycle,
short washing affects
results.
Recommended
temperature is
120º.*
Ï
Ï
TEMPERATURE
CHEMICALS
MECHANICAL
Ï
Detergents, bleach, sour
and starch. Not adding
enough negatively impacts
results.
Ï
TIME
Underloading
and overloading
decrease
mechanical action.
To properly clean linen, if one slice gets smaller, another slice has to
increase to achieve the desired results.
*120º washing for Signature Plus, Encore Plus, Defender, and Milliken
Damask fabrics. Other non-Milliken fabrics may require higher
temperatures and additional wash chemicals.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
STATIC
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Overdrying
Reduce extraction or conditioning, and
cover wet work to maintain 20% - 25%
moisture retention in napery before
ironing.
(See following page concerning moisture
retention.)
Incorrect Grounding
To effectively ground equipment, sink
a 6’ steel rod in the ground and attach
grounding straps. Also, use static bars on
folders and conveyors.
Friction
Eliminate friction from goods slipping on
the belts by synchronizing the speeds of
adjacent belts.
Folders
Check folder adjustments and/or use
more starch on napery.
Low Humidity
Low relative humidity can cause goods
to stick due to static electricity. On
particularly dry days, a humidifier may be
needed.
TROUBLESHOOTING – STATIC
MOISTURE RETENTION
How to determine the percentage of moisture retention after extraction.
The best way is to weigh ten sheets after extraction, then – tumble dry
and weigh again. Take the difference of these two weights and multiply
by 100 then divide by the dry weight. This will give you the percentage
of moisture in the goods after extraction.
EXAMPLE
#1
Extraction Weight
14 Lbs
Less Tumble Weight -9 Lbs
5 Lbs x 100 = 500
500 = 55.56% = MOISTURE RETENTION
9
In this example, the moisture content is more than 50% and should be
decreased before the goods go to the flatwork ironer. Variations in the
size of loads may result in difference in moisture content with the same
amount of extraction time, and you should adjust accordingly.
EXAMPLE
#2
wet weight - dry weight x 100
dry weight
200 lbs wet - 150 lbs dry = 50 x 100 = 33.3%
150
25% to 40% range is best for flatwork ironing. Over tumbling produces
static – blows out sizing and affects ironing quality.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
STAINS
CAUSE
SOLUTION
PERMANENT:
Bleach Spots/Cleaners
Carbon/Metal
Heat Set Food/Cement
For all permanent stains, try reclaiming
with more supplies and higher temperatures to reduce stain heat visibility. Napery
with noticeable stains should be ragged,
overdyed by a qualified dye house, or cut
into smaller pieces.
REMOVABLE:
Blood
Use a warm water flush, then normal
washing. Do not use hot water on protein
soils.
Fats/Corn Oil
Salad Dressing
Use solvated surfactants to boost regular
formula.
Motor Oil/Grease
Use solvated surfactants to boost regular
formula.
Lipstick/Candle Wax
Use solvated surfactants and/or higher
temperatures.
Rust
Use an oxalic acid prewash or rushremoving sours.
Mildew
Use chlorine bleach on whites. As a last
resort, use 1% available chlorine bleach
at 1-2 quarts/CWT to remove mildew
from colored napery. This will cause some
color deterioration. A mildewcide with no
quaternary ammonium base should be
used to minimize mildew growth.
STAINS AND RECLAIMS
GETTING THE NAPERY CLEAN
Table linens present the toughest cleaning problems faced by any
laundry. Here are some troubleshooting tips for on-premise laundries
aimed at preventing and removing stains.
TROUBLESHOOTING
BY KEVIN KEYES
If food stains were all you had to deal with on table linens, your job
would be easy. Right? But for virtually all laundries, this is not the case.
In addition to food, table linens can contain all types of dirt and stains
caused by food and beverage personnel, restaurant patrons, and even
the laundry itself.
Listed below are the types of stains often encountered, the best
formulas for removing them, and tips on when to throw in the napkin
and rag an item.
IN THE RESTAURANT
Often, linen is permanently stained before it reaches the laundry. For
example, food and beverage personnel use table linen as all-purpose
rags to wipe up spills, clean ashtrays, clean the grills and polish silver
and brass.
This kind of abuse presents a virtually insurmountable problem
for the laundry, particularly the silver and brass polishing since the
cleaning compounds chemically bond with the linen and are impossible
to remove.
The solution is two-fold:
• Take the time to educate the food and beverage staff of the damage
this type of abuse causes, and
• Make an abundance of rags readily available since staff tend to use
what is the easiest to reach.
Other problems occur when the linen is improperly stored. It should
never be placed on the floor. This is especially crucial on bare cement
floors since wet, soiled linen absorbs the concrete particles, forming
permanent stains. (I’ve seen reports that claim using motor oil in the
wash formula will remove concrete stains, but I personally haven’t seen
it done.)
To ensure proper storage, place bags or carts for the soiled linen
close by the clean linen so that people find using the containers as
easy as not using them. Provide enough containers to allow restaurant
employees to separate the various types of linen.
Set up a system to get the soiled linen to the laundry as soon as
possible. Stains that might otherwise be easily removed will become
much more difficult to deal with if allowed to sit too long. Mildew
becomes a problem after 36 hours.
IN THE PLANT
Once the table linen is in the plant it’s not necessarily out of harm’s
way. How it’s handled during sorting, loading, washing, and ironing
determines the quality of linen returned to the food and beverage
department.
Sorting and loading
There are three key steps to focus on in this area.
• Do not mix dissimilar types of linen. While it may be obvious that
you don’t wash towels with table linen, or sheets with chef coats,
it is equally important that you keep cotton napery separate from
poly napery. When mixed, the process quality of both fabrics
suffers.
• Just as a two-by-four board is only 11/2 by 31/2 inches, a 100pound capacity wash wheel will not effectively clean 100 pounds
of linen. A 100-pound load might be approached when washing
towels and sheets, since the majority of this soil is water soluble,
but the greasy stains found on table linens demand adequate
mechanical action.
Experience has shown that table linens process best at approximately
80 percent of the machine’s rated capacity. This figure should be
reduced further if the wash wheel isn’t an open-pocket machine.
• Use the proper formula program or card. Table linens will not
clean properly on a sheet or towel formula. Conversely, there is a
lot of waste if these light-soil items are washed using a table linen
or chef coat formula.
Washing
First-quality processing begins with the right formula. In the majority
of on-premise laundries, the chemical representative programs or cuts
the cards for the washers. Only the laundry manager should review the
process; in no case should anyone else be allowed to tamper with the
formula.
A solid formula includes each of the following steps:
• Flush – 2 minutes at a high water level and a split (100-120°
Fahrenheit) temperature. This step serves several purposes. The
most important being the removal of a large portion of loose soil
and particulate matter, allowing the chemicals in the next step to
go right to work on the difficult stains.
• Break – 10 to 12 minutes at a low level and a high (120° F)
temperature. Chemicals should include a built alkaline product
and a detergent containing surfactants in quantities recommended
by your chemical representative.
Washroom technology has been evolving away from high alkalinity and
towards high-surfactant chemistry. This type of formulation works very
well for poly napery since polyester doesn’t require high pH. In fact the
surfactants will do the great majority of the cleaning.
• Carryoversuds – 5 to 6 minutes at a low water level and a high
(140° F) temperature. The main purpose of this step is to use
up the residual chemicals while supplying additional time and
mechanical action to the formula.
• Bleach – 6 to 8 minutes at a low water level and a high (140-150° F)
temperature. These parameters apply when using a chlorine product
on white table linen only. Oxygen bleach is not recommended.
Though it is true that oxygen bleach doesn’t degrade cotton to the
same degree as chlorine, is safer to use on colors and does have some
cleaning effect. It is very expensive relative to chlorine and has no effect
on mildew stains. In addition, chlorine has no degrading effect on poly
napery. Using oxygen bleach on colored table linen is a very expensive
alternative to a sound wash formula, and more white table linen will be
discarded due to stains than by the wear of chlorine bleach.
• Rinses – three rinses of 2 minutes each at high water levels.
Decrease the temperature with each rinse, the first at 130° F and
the third at 100-110° F.
• Sour – 4 to 5 minutes at low water level and low (90-100° F)
temperature. This step neutralizes any alkalinity left from washing.
A pH of 5.5 to 6.5 is recommended for flatwork ironing.
Do not use a sour/softener product here. Fabric softeners coat the
surface of linen and waterproof the fabric. This prevents table linen
from absorbing spills, makes starching difficult, and locks in stains.
• Starch –adds 4 to 5 minutes to the sour step. Starch is added 2
minutes after the sour and allowed to run for the remaining time.
Amounts depend upon the type of linen, load size, and type of
starch or sizing.
• Extract –the main rule here is to keep this step to the shortest
time and slowest speed possible. If starching, high speeds and
long cycles throw off much of the starch. If in a wash and tumble
operation, excessive extraction sets in wrinkles that are difficult to
remove in the dryer.
SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
Even with the best formulas, some stains will occur due to unexpected
problems. The following are problem areas that I’ve observed in onpremise laundries around the country:
• Steam capability at the wash wheel is very useful to boost wash
temperatures. However, in some facilities the steam jets go unused
for extended periods and get rusty. Check steam jets often, since
metals from the rust will combine with many linen stains to form a
stain that can only be removed with an oxalic acid scour.
• Leaks in a wash wheel can often go undetected for a long
period unless the washer is regularly checked. Loss of water and
chemicals during the break lessens cleaning action. The problem is
compounded when fresh water is added to satisfy automatic level
controls.
• Control cards can be switched between machines. If using control
cards, make sure that they are identical for each category, or are
used only on the intended machine. Formula consistency is a key
factor in quality processing.
• Liquid feed systems can also be confusing. If using liquid feed
systems, set them up in the same configuration for each machine.
For instance, if the bleach supply is the fourth line on one machine
and the third on the other, you run the very real risk of the wrong
product being added at the wrong time, particularly if control
cards are interchanged between machines.
• Quality can suffer if white and colored linen are washed in the
wrong formulas. The best solution is to maintain a separate
program for white and colored linen.
Some laundries have a program card for white linen that requires
the wash person to press a “defeat” switch at the bleach step when
washing colored linen. This is a very dangerous practice that can lead to
color loss, as the switch is invariably forgotten. Also, the extra time for
the bleach step is unnecessary.
• Liquid supply systems can clog. Check the supply system weekly
by triggering each of the supply lines while holding a measuring
cup under the delivery end. This is the only way to check that
you are getting the proper amount of each product. It is amazing
how frequently the feed tubes clog or the drum runs out, and the
problem is unnoticed for a long time.
RECLAIMING STAINED LINEN
Obviously the idea is to do everything right the first time and not
have reclaims. Unfortunately this isn’t realistic, but reclamation can be
a relatively inexpensive and successful process if done properly. Train
your ironer personnel to notice stains before the linen is ironed. Many
stains that might easily be removed become impossible when set by
ironer temperatures of 300-350° F.
A good reclamation formula is not difficult to attain. NO exotic
chemicals are required. Generally, a formula with 50 percent additional
time and chemicals will recover 80 percent of the linens with removable
stains.
If this does not work, the stain is certainly either permanent, as
discussed earlier, or has been locked in by combining with metals. In
the latter case, an oxalic acid scour, recommended by your chemical
representative, followed by a standard wash formula should solve the
problem.
If the item is still stained after these steps, reclaim it or have it
overdyed. Reclaim kits are not recommended. These packages usually
consist of a small quantity of alkali, chlorine bleach, and oxalic acid—all
products that you likely have on hand—and cost several times more
than the same quantity of the individual products.
SUMMARY
Keeping table linens looking good and protecting your facility’s
linen investment are two goals that should be shared by laundry as well
as food and service personnel. Steps to reaching these goals include:
• educating the food and beverage staff on how to prevent abuses,
• using a sound wash formula,
• enlisting the full cooperation of your chemical representative to
maintain your level of quality, and
• running reclaims intelligently, being prepared to rag some of your
linens rather than waste undue time or money.
Follow these steps to success.
Kevin Keyes is a laundry services representative for Milliken & Company,
Spartanburg, S.C.
CHLORINE BLEACH OR OXYGEN BLEACH?
Steven J. Tinker
Director, Research & Development
Gurtler Industries, Inc.
Several key factors in the laundry industry have seen major changes in
the last several years. Polyester fabrics have become more dominant
vs. cotton. Today, 100 percent spun poly fabrics are replacing cotton/
poly blends in many applications. Tunnel washers are becoming more
prominent as smaller, less efficient plants are being consolidated and
upgraded. Water and energy conservation and wastewater quality are
greater concerns. The nature of detergents is being changed to meet
the new challenges in the industry, with more emphasis on surfactant
cleaning and a reduction in the use of harsh alkaline builders.
One are in laundry chemistry has been left unexamined in light of
all these changes, and that is: What bleach will work best for my
operation?
Let’s look at the pros and cons of the two major bleaches, chlorine
and oxygen. (We will limit this discussion to liquid bleaches.) There
are several areas that we should consider: bleaching efficiency, fabric
safety, storage requirements and employee safety, and environmental
concerns.
Bleaching efficiency: First, let’s review the function of bleach. In
laundry applications bleach is primarily a stain removal agent. As such,
bleaching is best done after the bulk of the soil is removed from the
fabric and flushed away. Bleach cycles in traditional washers are usually done “in the clear” or in fresh water so that excessive amounts of
dissolved soils won’t react with the bleach before it can react with the
stains remaining on the fabric. Bleaches oxidize stain molecules, breaking them up into smaller, more soluble molecules that can be washed
away. (Or bleaches will react with colored stains making them colorless.)
Liquid chlorine bleach chemically is a solution of sodium hypochlorite, usually about 12 percent active as chlorine. In a traditional wash
application chlorine bleach is applied at a rate of 75-150 parts per million (ppm) of active chlorine, in a wash temperature of 140º-150ºF, at a
pH of 10.2-10.8. Chlorine bleach will become more aggressive as the pH
decreases and less aggressive as the temperature decreases. So some
have recommended low temperature (90º-120ºF) bleaching be done
at a lower pH, around 9.8-10.5, to maintain bleaching efficiency. The
potential drawback with this bleaching is creating an over-aggressive
bleaching environment that my damage some fabrics.
Liquid oxygen bleach chemically is hydrogen peroxide, and can be
as high as 35 percent, which calculates to about 16.5 percent active oxygen. Oxygen bleaches differ from chlorine bleaches in the most efficient
application. Generally oxygen bleaches are used at a little higher level,
about 100-200 ppm activity. And, they need higher temperature and
higher pH to be activated. The recommended levels are temperatures
of 150º-160ºF and pH of 10.8-11.8. Unlike chlorine, oxygen bleaches
become less aggressive as the pH decreases. However, like chlorine,
oxygen also becomes less aggressive as the temperature decreases.
Since oxygen bleaches work well at high pHs, in many situations you
can combine the detergent and bleach steps for a more efficient wash
formula. Tunnel washers that may have a limited number of modules
may benefit from oxygen bleach, as you can combine the detergent and
bleach operations in one zone of the tunnel.
Fabric safety: Chlorine bleach is generally considered to have
greater potential to damage cotton-based fabrics. Cotton can easily be
oxidized by chlorine when it is applied wrong, creating a weakness in
the fiber that can lead to thin areas or to excessive linting. Cotton is especially vulnerable to damage when chlorine bleaches are not properly
rinsed out of the fabric. And a residual of just a few parts per million of
chlorine in the fabric can be a major problem when a sour is added to
the final rinse, dropping the pH to under 7.0. This activates the chlorine
to it’s most aggressive chemical form and can cause significant damage
to cotton. So, it is always a good idea to use an “anti-chlor” to neutralize
residual chlorine before the sour step in the wash formula.
Chlorine bleach, when used at lower temperatures (90º-120ºF) and
increased chlorine concentrations (200 ppm) at the proper pH of 9.810.5 will give excellent results, with very little tensile strength loss. This
method is used in tunnel washers for bleaching in the rinse zone with
great success. It also applies to conventional washer bleaching as well.
This low temperature chlorine bleaching method is often utilized in Europe. It is very important to use an anti-chlor with this method to avoid
potential fabric damage caused by chlorine carryover into the sour operation.
Polyester fibers are generally unaffected by chlorine or by oxygen
bleaches. However some permanent press finishes on fabrics can react
with chlorine and possible retin the chlorine in the fiber, causing a yellowing of the fabric.
Oxygen bleaches are sometimes referred to as “color-safe” bleaches. However, oxygen bleaches can be aggressive on fibers and dyes as
chlorine bleaches, if applied in inappropriate methods. But, generally
oxygen bleaches are safer on fabrics because they are “deactivated” by
the low pH of the sour step. And when dried, oxygen bleaches degrade
to water and oxygen, which will safely evaporate away without damaging the fabric.
Storage requirements and employee safety: Concentrated
chlorine bleach solutions are very unstable. They actually begin to
slowly degrade immediately after they are manufactured. The degradation can be accelerated by storing at high temperatures (over 90ºF). Exposure to sunlight will also increase degradation. Contact with organic
material or metals are also detrimental to stability. In the concentrated
form, chlorine bleach can be very dangerous if accidentally mixed or
contaminated with an acidic product, such as a laundry sour. This can
cause rapid release of chlorine gas, which is toxic.
Oxygen bleach is much more stable than chlorine bleach. However,
it is good practice to store in a cool place, out of direct sunlight. With
proper storage, most oxygen bleaches can be stable and not lose activity for a year or more. Oxygen bleach can become rapidly unstable if it is
contaminated with metals or organic materials. Concentrated hydrogen
peroxide, when contaminated with incompatible materials can release
oxygen and hydrogen gases, which can be an explosive combination.
Exposure to concentrated chlorine or oxygen bleaches can cause
irritation, severe burns, or corrosion. Proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be used when handling concentrated bleaches. Rubber gloves, boots, goggles and/or face shields are recommended. It is
best to refer to your chemical manufacturer’s Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS) for proper precautions on storage, handling and spill clean-up
procedures.
Environmental concerns: Chlorine bleach has come into scrutiny
over the past few years due to environmental concerns. Some claim
that chlorine in the water and wastewater streams can cause the formation of certain chlorinated organic materials that may have negative
human health impacts. However, the science of these assertions is not
fully developed. As a result, in some areas of the world there is pressure
to reduce the use of chlorine compounds including chlorine bleaches.
In another aspect, however, chlorine is well known to have excellent
anti-bacterial and anti-viral efficacy. In the laundering process, several
factors assure us that the finished textiles are essentially bacteria-free.
These factors include the effect of dilution from several exchanges of
water, temperature, high pH followed by low pH, and the use of oxidizers such as chlorine bleach. Oxygen bleach is considered to be somewhat less aggressive on bacteria and viruses; however, when combined
with the other cleaning factors in a laundry formula, oxygen bleach is
effective in deactivating residual microbes.
How do you choose? So what do all these differences mean to
you? Check what you need in a bleach. If you are running most of
your operations at low temperature, chlorine bleach, at the right pH is
probably your best choice. But, since chlorine is difficult to rinse at low
temperature, it is essential that you use an anti-chlor to prevent cotton
fabric damage.
If you have a tunnel washer, your best choice is probably oxygen
bleach, especially if it is shorter than 12 mods. The use of oxygen in
shorter tunnels lets you wash and bleach in the same zone. Oxygen
bleach in this application is less aggressive on colors, and as an added
benefit in the tunnel, oxygen bleach is less aggressive on stainless steel
when it evaporates. So you can minimize potential rusting issues that
may be a problem with chlorine bleaches.
Perhaps you have heavy soiled textiles that need super stain removal performance. Then we would select chlorine bleach due to its rapid
aggressive action on stains.
Perhaps you have a lot of light soil classifications, and you want to
save water and time. Combining your wash and bleach steps and the
use of oxygen bleach would serve you best.
There are numerous scenarios that can be considered. The selection
of the best bleach depends on your specific conditions and needs. Our
recommendation is to check with your laundry chemical technician for
his or her advice. Together you can make the best choice.
The following formulas are specifically designed for Milliken
table linens. However, if you experience a similar problem, they
can be modified for your particular needs.
I. RECLAIM FORMULA
CYCLE
WATER
LEVEL
TEMP.
(°F)
TIME
(Min.)
SUPPLIES/CWT
Break
Low
180
12
2.5 lbs. Built Product
24 oz. Solvated Surfactant
C/O
Flush
Suds
Low
High
Low
180
180
180
6
2
8
*
Rinse
Rinse
Rinse
Sour
High
High
High
Low
160
145
130
90-100
2
2
2
2
Starch
Low
90-100
8
1.5 lbs. Built Product
12 oz. Solvated Surfactant
1-2 oz./Do Not Drain
After Sour
0.75-1.5 lbs.
* For white Milliken napery, insert bleach cycle and antichlor in formula.
Bleaching of colored Signature Plus™ is not recommended.
II. RUST REMOVAL FORMULA
CYCLE
WATER
LEVEL
TEMP.
(°F)
TIME
(Min.)
SUPPLIES/CWT
Break
Low
Flush
High
Flush
High
Break
Low
Phosphates
C/O
Low
*
Rinse
High
Rinse
High
Rinse
High
Sour
Low
170
150
150
150
15
2
2
10
1-2 lbs. Oxalic Acid
150
5
Solvated Surfactant
135
120
105
90-100
2
2
2
2
Starch
90-100
8
Low
1-1.5 lbs. Alkali with
1-2 oz./Do Not Drain
After Sour
0.75-1.5 lbs.
* For white Signature Plus™ napery, insert beach cycle and
antichlor in formula. Bleaching of colored Signature Plus™ is not
recommended.
III. CONCRETE AND GRAPHITE FORMULA
CYCLE
WATER
LEVEL
TEMP.
(°F)
TIME
(Min.)
SUPPLIES/CWT
*
**
Drain
Rinse
Rinse
Rinse
Rinse
***
3 in.
6 in.
100
160
10-15
5-10
2 qts. Mineral Seal Oil
Detergent 2 lbs.
High
High
High
High
160
160
160
160
3
3
3
3
* 10W-40 / Dust Mop Oil are also great substitutions for the mineral
seal oil.
** On water levels: Do not drain between the extra low level and
normal low level (6 inches) functions. Detergent and oil can be
added together.
*** Proceed with standard reclaim formula
IV. CANDLE WAX REMOVAL
CYCLE
WATER
LEVEL
TEMP.
(°F)
TIME
(Min.)
SUPPLIES/CWT
Flush
Flush
Break
High
High
Low
170
140
170
15
2
20
3 oz. Surfactant
High
160
2
High
High
High
Low
145
130
115
90-100
2
2
2
2
Low
90-100
8
Detergent
Rinse
*
Rinse
Rinse
Rinse
Sour
Starch
32 oz. Alkali
6 oz. Solvent Based
1-2 oz./Do Not Drain
After Sour
0.75-1.5 lbs.
* For white Signature Plus™ napery, insert bleach cycle and
antichlor in formula. Bleaching of colored Signature Plus™ is not
recommended.
HAIR REMOVAL
CYCLE
WATER
LEVEL
Break
Low
Flush
High
*Caustic Low
Bath
**
***
TEMP.
(°F)
TIME
(Min.)
160
180
180
12
2
15
SUPPLIES/CWT
2-3 lbs. Of Caustic Based
Alkali
* Add caustic based alkali only after achieving maximum
temperature.
** Proceed with standard reclaim formula.
*** For white Signature Plus™ napery insert bleach cycle and
antichlor in formula. Bleaching of colored Signature Plus™ is not
recommended.
NOTE: Some alkaline hydrolysis will occur. Proper rinsing will keep this
to a minimum.
CHECKLIST FOR HAIR PREVENTION & REMOVAL
Prevention:
1. Keep grooming accounts and accounts such as pillow cases and
sheets separated from linen accounts.
2. The use of specific laundry bags for grooming accounts is
recommended. These bags are not to be mixed with linen account
bags.
3. If reclamation or recycled water is being used, check the filtering
system and guarantee appropriate filter element sizing that will not
allow hair follicles to recirculate.
4. Create standard operating procedures for soil sorting area. Make
sure area is swept down and cleaned after sorting of grooming
accounts.
5. Maintain a good preventative maintenance program on all flatwork
ironers (cleaning and waxing). Keep ironer roll covers free of hair
and other debris.
Removal:
1. If hair is detected in Milliken fabrics, the first step is to place affected
linen in a tumble dryer. Slightly under load the tumbler and run
approximately 20 – 30 minutes at 170 degrees F. This will loosen the
hair follicles from the fabric.
2. Follow up the tumble drying step with a complete reclaim wash,
utilizing a slightly higher alkalinity wash. Please see attached reclaim
formula.
3. Steps 1 & 2 can be repeated until the hair follicles have been
removed.
4. As a last resort, the linen can be processed through a caustic bath
formula. Please note that a certain amount of tensile and tear
strength could be lost after this treatment resulting in a shorter
fabric life cycle. Please see attached caustic bath formula. This
formula should be used only as a last resort and only once.
NOTE: Once hair follicles have been detected in Milliken table
linen, the first task is to locate the source and begin
immediate prevention. Then separate the contaminated
linen from the other inventories. Only then can removal
steps be introduced.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
IRONING REJECTS
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Dirty Ironer
First, do a thorough downtime cleaning.
Follow up with regular cleaning and
maintenance checks. Do not overwax
the ironer to avoid wax build-up.
Roll Pressure
Do the paper test on the first ironer roll.
Correct uneven or incorrect pressure.
Side-to-Side Pressure
Check bearings, individual roll
pressures, and the pillow blocks.
Drafting
Check the circumference of each roll
with adding machine tape to determine
if there is appropriately increasing
diameter from front to back. If not,
replace the ironer padding.
Incorrect Feeding
Carefully instruct all personnel on
correct feeding procedures.
Cold Chest
Maintain a minimum chest temperature
of 310°F.
Warped Chest
A warped chest must be replaced.
Over or Undersoured Napery
Adjust the amount of sour to maintain
5.5-6.0 pH.
Ironer Tapes
Be sure there are two ironer tapes
per lane for napkins. Tapes should be
around the ironer rolls and tension
bars only – not around the finger roll.
Residual Chemicals
Rinse goods thoroughly, then sour to
neutralize rinse water alkalinity. Also,
thoroughly clean the ironer chests and roll
pad covers to remove chemical buildup.
Quality Tips
TRSA’s Strategic Management Committee invites readers to share ideas
for improving quality in the office, on the route, and in the plants—tips
for doing business better. Send your quality tips to Steven Biller, Textile
Rental 1130 E. Hallandale Beach Blvd., Suite B, Hallandale, FL 33009.
Production
Ten Commandments For Tip-Top Ironers
To keep your ironers running smoothly and producing top-quality linen,
listed are 10 commandments for ironer troubleshooting. Operators
who follow these commandments are one step closer to getting the
maximum production and quality out of their ironers.
I. Make sure the ironer chest is silver in color. If it is not, it is
dirty. A dirty chest transfers dirt to linen and causes it to pull and
buckle in the ironer.
II. Lubricate sparingly. Most operators want a recipe on when and
how to lubricate their ironers. The majority of ironers are lubricated
too much or not enough. I recommend lubricating often, yet
sparingly. During an eight-hour shift, lubricate the ironer every two
hours. However, add lubricant to your cloth only if it is limp when
cold. If the cloth is hard, it does not need lubrication.
III. Keep a neutral pH. Your pH should be neutral—between 6 and 7. A
lower or higher pH creates problems. For example, a pH of 5 causes
linen to roll up and squeak and squeal.
IV. Monitor speed vs. feed rate. Coordinate ironer speed with the
rate that items are fed. While 30 ft. per minute is adequate for
napkins, 60 ft. per minute is more realistic for 6-ft. sheets if the
operator wants to produce 60 an hour. If operators take time to
work out linear speed needed to run items, their production rate is
sure to improve.
V. Monitor conditioning vs. chest temperature. Keep in mind that
the colder the ironer chest, the drier the linen fed through it needs
to be. Wet linen will stop dead in the ironer if the temperature is
270° F or lower. The hotter the ironer chest, the wetter the linen can
be. The goal is to run the linen through the ironer as wet as possible
and still have it come out dry.
VI. Check roll size. Regularly measure the circumference of your
roller. When roll size drops below the minimums prescribed by the
manufacturer, you lose as much as 50% of pressing capacity.
VII. Monitor linear speed. Linear speed increase—each roll turning
a little faster than the previous one as the linen goes through the
ironer—is necessary on all ironers. Most older ironers are built
with the rolls turning at the same speed, so increased speed is
accomplished by increasing the padding thickness on successive
rolls. Linear speed is critical in ironing polyester linen. If linen is
buckling between rolls, check the padding to ensure that linear
speed is adequate.
VIII. Make sure rolls are square to the ironer chest. Sometimes
an ironer gets out of level or the bearing blocks wear out. When
this happens, the rolls may not be entirely parallel or square to the
ironer chest. This can cause problems in feeding. If the rolls aren’t
square, linen tends to buckle, then tighten and bunch up.
IX. Check the feed board. It is common for the feed board to warp.
Warping causes an uneven pull on the linen and results in linen with
dog ears or with a trailing edge that rolls up. To test the feed board,
remove the finger roll and see if the problem goes away. If it does,
that is a sure sign you need to replace or fix the feed board.
X. Check the finger roll. The finger roll is supposed to be round,
but through wear and tear, it may become chipped or split in the
middle. If it is not perfectly smooth, the linen may buckle or bunch
up. Also check the placement of the finger roll. Many operators like
to position the finger roll back toward the safety to provide more
room for feeding cotton linen. However, if the plant is running
polyester linen, it is best to place the finger roll toward the front of
the feed board. Polyester linen does not require the same space to
feed it through the ironer.
XI. Avoid excessive chemicals in wash formulas. Avoid using
excessive chemicals in your wash formulas. Although a load may
test with a pH of 7, it may contain excessive chemicals that will
evaporate when linen is run through the ironer. The chemicals then
attach themselves to the ironer chest and can leave dirt deposits on
linen or cause linen to buckle on the leading edges.
P.S. If anyone noticed there are 11 commandments, touché! Checking
to see if you’re paying attention.
Paul Roche, District Sales Manger
Tague Brown & Co.
Chicago, Ill.
Reprinted with permission of Textile Rental magazine, the official
publication of the Textile Rental Services Association of America,
January 1995
SOLUTIONS FOR POLY NAPERY
IRONING PROBLEMS
Poly napery requires a few adjustments in the flatwork ironing
department. Here is an overview of possible problems and where to
look for solutions.
TROUBLESHOOTING
BY KEVIN KEYES
Polyester napery has cornered a share of the linen supply market
because of its durability and colorfastness. This shift in the market has
not, however, been made without a slight learning curve in processing.
It is the hope of this article to help you round that curve to improve
and maintain the quality of the poly napery your plant produces.
Probably the greatest concern is with poly napery processing through
the flatwork ironer. Problems most often occur because of mechanical
faults on the ironer. Several of these problems can be anticipated and
solved.
MAINTENANCE
Proper maintenance is often forgotten—whether it’s with your
personal automobile or your flatwork ironer. A regular maintenance
program will help you maintain optimum flatwork ironer efficiency,
eliminating unnecessary and unexpected downtime.
This program can be as simple as a daily or weekly check of the
following areas: belts, roll pads and covers, chests, aprons, traps, steam
lines, drive systems, and emergency stop systems. Take the time to set
up a program with your maintenance staff.
DAILY CLEANING
Many flatwork ironer rejects are a direct result of improper cleaning
of the ironer.
The flatwork ironer should be cleaned at the start of each shift.
A more thorough cleaning can be completed on a day the plant isn’t
operating.
Several cleaning and scrubbing pads are available that do a very
good job of breaking up and removing the dirt and residue from the
chest. Once this is completed, run a cloth with a cleaning solution
through the ironer to ensure all dirt and residue is removed.
Many products on the market are a combination cleaner and lubricant
that may eliminate the need for the additional step of waxing the chest.
As with all products in your plant, follow supplier recommendations for
proper use.
Once the chest is cleaned, napery should pass smoothly through the
ironer. To maintain smooth processing, run the treated cloth through
the ironer several times during the day. The best times to run the cloth
are at each break and at lunch. Should processing become a problem,
then run the cloth as a test to determine if a dirty chest is the cause. If
cleaning does not improve processing, then look at other areas.
IRONER CHEST TEMPERATURE
A key element in the proper processing of poly napery is ironer
chest temperature.
The optimum flatwork ironer temperature range is 310 to 350
degrees Fahrenheit. Below this temperature, the napery won’t pass
through properly. At temperatures above 350 degrees Fahrenheit,
particularly in the 400 degrees Fahrenheit area, glazing or melting can
occur.
Neither of these situations is desirable in your plant, but since chest
cooling is often more of a problem than chest overheating, let’s look at
situations that can cause the chest to cool.
Poly napery must be properly extracted for processing through the
flatwork ironer. A moisture retention of 20 to 25 percent seems to work
best. Higher moisture content than this can cause the ironer chest to
cool and the napery to stick and roll on the first or second roll.
An easy way to determine if chest cooling is the cause of processing
problems is to stop feeding for a few minutes. This will allow the chest
to once again reach temperature, and the sticking should cease until the
chest once again cools down. If this is the case, then either additional
extraction time or conditioning is needed.
Another often overlooked but integral part of the flatwork ironer is
the steam traps. Traps are used to remove condensate from the chest,
which keeps the chest hot. Inoperative traps can’t effectively remove
water or maintain pressure, causing the chest to cool and the poly
napery to stick.
For best results from the flatwork ironer, each chest should be
trapped individually. Be sure that traps are in proper working order
and replace them when needed. Your flatwork ironer manufacturer can
recommend traps and a maintenance schedule for your specific ironer.
PROBLEMS FROM THE WASHROOM
Many of the processing problems experienced in the flatwork
department can be attributed to the washroom. Much has been written,
or speculated about the effects of residual chemicals and improper
souring. Let’s look at each of these. Sour is used to overcome the
bicarbonate alkalinity of the water supply. It will also neutralize alkali
left from poor rinsing. An optimum pH range for poly napery processing
on the flatwork ironer is 5.5 to 6.0. If the pH is too low, below 5.5, then
the poly napery tends to roll and crease on the first or second roll of the
flatwork ironer.
If the pH is too high, above 6.5, then residue from the alkali and
soaps can be left behind. This too can cause rolling and creasing of the
poly napery. Unfortunately, the only way to correct these situations is to
reprocess the load in the washroom with the proper sour amount.
Residues from improperly soured or rinsed loads can cause a
buildup on the chest of the flatwork ironer. These can be seen as a
yellow to brown powdery material on the chest and roll covers. This can
be removed by the cleaning procedure discussed earlier.
MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS
All poly napery is somewhat less forgiving than cotton or blends
of mechanical problems caused by poor maintenance of the flatwork
ironer. Some of the more common problems have to do with pressure,
drafting, roll covers, and warped chests.
Roll pressure is critical for proper processing. Less effort and energy
are required to finish poly napery than cotton napery. Therefore, less
roll pressure is needed.
A good test for the first roll is the “brown paper test.” Fold a piece of
brown wrapping paper in half and pass it under the first ironer roll; you
should be able to freely pull it back without ripping. If this isn’t the case,
roll pressure should be reduced.
Ironer rolls must be properly graduated in order to obtain the
correct drafting. Padded roll diameter increases from the entry end to
the exit end of the ironer. Improper drafting will cause the linen to rise
up off the chest between rolls.
An easy way to check for proper drafting is by using adding machine
tape to measure the diameter of each roll. Moving from the back to
the front, the strip of adding machine paper should get shorter as the
roll size decreases. If this isn’t the case, then adjust the rolls and pads
accordingly.
Roll covers on the flatwork ironer must be in good shape. If they’re
old and slick, the napery will crease and roll going into the first ironer
roll. Covers should be replaced before they get old and worn for
optimum ironer efficiency. Several manufacturers offer a special cover
for the first two rolls to help pull the linen flat as it’s fed.
Warped chests can have a detrimental effect on processing efficiency
and quality. Once again, linen can roll and crease as a result of this
condition. Unfortunately, the only solution is to replace the ironer
chest. If this happens to you, you may want to find out what caused the
warping so the same situation doesn’t recur.
QUALITY FEEDING
It should be obvious that feeding plays an important role in finished
product quality. Workers should be properly trained and supervised
to ensure that they understand the correct procedure for feeding all
products.
When the napery is fed, it should be fed flat. The trailing ends should
not be pulled back, as this can cause a leading bow in the linen. Each
napkin lane should have two tapes to keep the linen flat against the
chest.
SUMMARY
While we’ve discussed the main processing problems with poly
napery in the flatwork ironer area, the list is by no means complete.
The key to eliminating processing problems is to first understand the
situation and then take measures to ensure the problems don’t recur. If
you need help, look to your equipment manufacturers, textile suppliers,
and associations.
Go ahead now and produce the quality of polyester napery your
customers have come to expect from you.
Kevin Keyes is a laundry service representative with the napery, uniform,
and institutional fabrics division of Milliken & Company, Spartanburg,
S.C.
COMMON FINISHING PROBLEMS
Leading Edge Concave Bow
1. Leading edge not pulled taut enough.
2. Sheet sucker malfunctioning.
3. Half of sheet under other sheets or linen.
4. Worn feed ribbons.
5. Improper waxing & cleaning procedures.
6. Ironer speed too high.
7. Finger roll too far forward.
Trailing Edge Concave Bow
1. Feeders hanging onto sides.
2. Uneven finger roll.
3. Uneven feed board.
4. Worn feed ribbons.
5. Dirty chest.
6. Improper waxing & cleaning procedures.
Leading Edge Scallops
1. Dirty Chest.
5. Improper waxing & cleaning procedures.
2. Wet linen
6. Under - or - oversize rolls.
3. Chest not hot enough – (less than 315ºF).
4. Excessive sour.
Corners
Cock-Eyed
Off-Center
1. Poor – feed habits.
2. Lack of coordination between feeders.
3. Ironer speed too high.
4. Uneven padding diameter.
5. Split doffer roll.
6. Missing feed ribbons.
Tingue, Brown & Co.
With worn roll bearings and worn roll boxes, your rolls continually
want to climb forward in the chest and then fall back again. This puts
tremendous pressure on the front entry point and will quickly wear
down the rolls padding.
By inserting a piece of stiff cardboard behind the roll, you can feel if you
have this problem.
ROLL CLIMBS FORWARD
ROLL FALLS BACK
THE SOLUTION TO THIS PROBLEM IS TO EQUALIZE “A” AND “B” WITH
BRASS SHIMS.
Tingue, Brown & Co.
ROLL PRESSURE MECHANISM
Static electricity affects flatwork productivity
JOHN SCHNEIDER – Tingue, Brown & Co., Los Angeles
Static electricity causes excessive folder jams each day. It results in
iron-overs because of poor folds. Static electricity causes guide tape to
be replaced more often than otherwise — also folder ribbons and ironer
covers.
Static causes linen to be damaged, results in downtime, lost
customers, overtime, poor quality, and increased maintenance. An
eight-roll ironer, operating at a rate of 1,200 sheets per hour with five
minutes per hour down-time, loses $160 per eight-hour day in revenue.
Do we really have to accept continuous productivity losses due to static
electricity?
What is static electricity? It is the product of stationary electrical
charges, either positive or negative, that result from friction. Linen which
carries a sufficient voltage of static electricity – 5,000 to 20,000 volts
– will be repelled or cling to parts of the folder, causing a poor quality
fold or, worse yet, a jam-up. A positively charged sheet in contact with a
positively charged folder ribbon repels the other, as is true if both items
are negatively charged. If they carry opposite charges (positive versus
negative) they cling to each other.
Where does the friction come from which causes static electricity?
• It comes from the washroom. Chemical residues can be left
on the linen after the final step in the formula. Among these
residues are alkali, sour antichlors, bleach, or sizing such as
starch.
• The presence of these chemicals restricts the smooth flow of
linen across the chest, thus causing friction.
• It comes from improper chest temperatures. Friction is increased
as chest temperature decreases. One hundred pounds of
steam pressure equates to chest temperatures of 338 degrees
Fahrenheit. Chest temperatures of less than 310 degrees cause
excessive friction. Wet steam due to faulty traps or boiler
problems results in poor chest temperature recovery as cool,
wet linen passes across the chest.
• Friction comes from excessive tumbling. Linen friction is
produced by the rubbing of linens during the conditioning
process. Once the moisture has been removed, the linen is no
longer a conductor of electricity; that is, the electrical charges
produced through friction become static, or stationary, locked
on the linen.
• It comes from dirty chests. Ironer chests become dirty from
buildups from washroom chemicals, from the carbonizing of
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
lint and chest lubricants, from plastic wrap, auto-clave tape and
adhesive tape.
It comes from poor ironer chest and roll lubrication. The ironer
roll has the largest bearing in the laundry. It must be lubricated
with the same principles of lubrication for all bearings – “Not too
much: not too little.”
Linen friction comes from the folder ribbons. On low humidity
days the folder ribbons become very dry and lose their
conductivity. Spraying moisture onto the ribbons can help.
Folders pulling away linen at 200 feet per minute from ironers
at 150 feet per minute causes friction to build up. Lint buildup
on the underside of folder ribbons is an obvious situation where
opposite charges attract – lint and ribbons. This lint should be
cleaned off frequently.
Linen friction is caused by padding problems. Incorrectly
graduated roll sizes cause drop of tapes and linen. Undersize
rolls increase the ironing pressures per square inch beyond
the ironer manufacturer’s recommendations. These heavier
pressures increase the linen friction.
Linen friction is caused by aprons. Dry bearings on drive, idle
and guide rolls cause these rolls to freeze up and generate
tremendous amounts of friction.
If the feed ribbon support roll is set too low, the feed ribbons rub
against the lower aprons causing friction.
If aprons are not strung correctly they rub against each other
causing friction. Some new aprons have an excessive amount of
surface fuzz and must be “broken in.”
Running guide tape through the upper apron doffs off linen
which clings to the upper apron, and helps during periods of
breaking in aprons and on low humidity days.
The following are a few methods for reducing static electricity during
ironing and folding:
• It is important to maintain the proper pH on high production linens.
A pH of six is ten times the acidity of a pH of seven and a pH of
five is 100 times the acidity of seven. Conversely a pH of eight is
ten times the alkalinity of seven. And a pH of nine is 100 times the
alkalinity of seven. Just being close is not enough.
• Blend sheets conditioned from 10 to 20 minutes generate a
tremendous amount of static electricity.
• It is important to inspect and clean the first two chests of ironers
regularly.
• Consider the use of humidifiers under the folder ribbons. Also
some plants have successfully ducted some of the moisture from
the ironer vacuum system under the folders.
• Ironers and folders should be grounded together using heavy
copper wire. Both the folder and the ironer should be grounded
through the floor to the ground with four-feet copper rods.
Grounding to the ironer plumbing pipes is not recommended
because there is too much resistance in these pipes.
• Successfully combating static electricity is possible with certain
managed controls. It is an important part of operating a highly
productive plant.
FINISHING METHODS
The following finishing equipment is usually found in the laundry
department:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
flatwork ironers
tumblers
steam tunnels
shirt presses
wearing apparel presses
Each one of these types of finishing equipment will be treated separately
in this text.
FLATWORK IRONER
A great part of the work mix in the typical laundry will be processed
over the flatwork ironer. Some OPL’s (on-premise laundries) have
eliminated this department and are washing and folding the flatwork.
Since most linen is 100% polyester, the resin used in making it will
impart a memory to the fabric. Drying and folding this type of linen
will produce an acceptable quality for some businesses and institutions.
When such procedures and correct extraction principles are used,
immediate folding or hanging is necessary. The loss of cotton fibers and
resin finish after repeated washings and use will cause a decrease in the
appearance quality of the polyester linens.
Most laundries process 100% polyester linens over their flatwork ironers
producing an excellent finish. The capacities for processing linens on
the flatwork ironer have been increased greatly due to the polyester
content. The polyester absorbs no water and dries faster.
There are basically two types of flatwork ironers—the chest type and
the cylinder ironer. The chest type has the steam in a series of steam
chambers with a padded roll riding in the curvature of the chest. This
type of ironer is more prevalent in the industry with very few changes
made over the years by manufacturers. Increasing the heating surface
by increasing the diameter of roll and the deletion of the aprons
are basically the difference between a new and an older ironer. The
principle advances are in the addition of feeding and folding equipment
in the past years. The chest type ironers also have bare rolls or may
be equipped with a vacuum attachment which aids in pulling moisture
from the rolls.
The vacuum fan merely pulls the moisture thru the padding. The well
contains a number of holes through which the moisture travels to its
vacuum attachment at the end of the roll. When using such an ironer,
it is essential to keep the openings in the roll as well as all vacuum
fittings at the end of the roll, clean and tight so that the vacuum fan
can function. These ironers are equipped with springs over the bare
metal of the roll so that the moisture will penetrate the padding and
pass through the springs into the holes in the roll. Should the holes in
the roll become clogged with lint or foreign matter, the operation of the
vacuum will be reduced.
The chests are usually heated by steam, however, in recent years some
ironers offer the use of “liquid heat transfer.” In this system, a hot
mineral oil is used as the heat transfer agent. The oil is heated and
then circulated through the chests at a low pressure, in most cases not
exceeding 15 pounds of pressure. This type of ironer is independent
of the general steam system; it permits a degree of flexibility without
depending on the steam source. Overtime or weekend use of the ironer
will not require the steam from the power plant. The heat transfer of the
oil is much better than steam—allowing ironer temperatures of 400°F. or
more. The chests themselves can be of thinner construction as they will
not be required to withstand the 125 pounds steam pressure required
from steam heated ironers. Steam traps will not be required since the
hot oil is merely circulated through the chests. The cost of heating the
oil should be compared to the cost of generating steam. Liquid phase
heat transfer ironers are not for everyone. Their advantages and
disadvantages should be considered when purchasing a new ironer.
The cylinder ironer, unlike the chest ironer, has the steam in the roll.
Many of the older cylinder ironers were able to give a finish to both
sides of the linen.
The greater number of rolls, the greater the capacity of the ironer.
Most ironers are four, six or eight roll construction. The chests of the
older ironers were placed in the frame of the ironer as the ironer was
assembled in the plant. Today, ironers are shipped in sections and
can be added later, to the ironer, as the production needs increase.
By increasing the roll diameter, the same amount of heating surface
results in fewer rolls.
The following eleven points should be understood when operating a
flat work ironer:
1. Steam pressure (PSI). Older ironers usually required 100
PSI, however, the new ironers require 125 PSI for maximum
productivity. A pressure gauge on the steam line going into the
ironer will indicate the pressure. This is particularly important
when the power plant is some distance from the laundry. A
steam pressure of 80 PSI at the ironer can have crippling effects
on production.
2. Steam trapping system. A steam trap is used to dispose
of the condensate water and not waste steam in doing so. In
older installations, a single steam trap might be used to drain
condensate from all the chests. Individual steam traps on each
chest has been found to produce greater productivity since the
chests are drained more effectively. Should a steam trap fail
to drain the condensate effectively, the chest will become cold
causing rolling of the linen to occur as it goes over ironer.
3. Ironer temperature. The ironer temperature can be checked
with a pyrometer, heat sticks, or heat sensitive paper. The
temperature of the chests should be approximately the same
temperature as the steam it is using. An ironer with 100 PSI steam
pressure should have a chest temperature of approximately
338°F.
4. Chest warpage. This condition is usually caused by opening
valves to the ironer too rapidly. This often happens when the
main steam valve of the ironer is closed every night. When steam
is supplied by a main power plant, such as in an institution or
hospital, the main steam valve is closed at the end of the shift. To
prevent too rapid opening of the main steam line of the ironer,
a by-pass of 1/2 inch pipe is inserted around the main valve.
By allowing the ironer to be heated with this smaller line, the
expansion caused by a large surge of steam will not counteract
the cold condensate remaining in the chest. When warpage
occurs, the metal edges will bulge a small amount causing an
uneven surface. Warpage will cause undue wear on padding
and top covers. If warpage exists, it must be compensated for in
the padding.
5. Linen rolling on an ironer. The linen must travel smoothly
over the chests of the ironer; however, if any friction builds up,
the sheet may emerge from the ironer rolled to the diameter of
a broomstick. The following are the main causes:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
underextraction of the linen.
low steam pressure.
traps not working correctly.
feed ribbons missing.
ironer tapes missing.
use of too much sour.
insufficient rinsing which causes chemicals to build-up
on the chests.
There are more but the trouble can usually be found in the
above reasons.
6. Static on the ironer and the folding equipment. Any time
two pieces of material are rubbed together, static electricity will
develop. The aprons on the ironer, as well as the belts on the
folding equipment, generate static electricity. By grounding the
ironer effectively and keeping the static bar of the folder clean,
a great amount of the static can be eliminated. Fabric softeners
will help control the static problem to a degree. The static will
be greater when the relative humidity is low. That is why static
is more of a problem during the cold winter months when the
relative humidity is low. Some plants have solved this problem
by using a vaporizer which emits a small amount of steam under
the folder.
7. Roll diameter importance. The padded roll should not be
over or underpadded so that it will fit the contour of the chest
to get maximum ironing capacity. When the padding loses its
resiliency, it will not fill the curvature of the chest so the quality
of the ironing will also suffer. When the padded roll is larger
than the diameter recommended by the manufacturer, the
quality will also suffer.
8. Proper linen movement through ironer. For the linen to
move through the ironer, it is necessary for each roll to have a
slightly larger padded diameter than the preceding roll. When
this is not the case, the linen will loop between the rolls. For
this reason, the pads are always numbered when purchased.
The padding gets heavier as the numbers progress. If the ironer
has spring adjusting nuts, faulty diameters can be corrected by
adjusting them.
9. Pressure amount on rolls. Good ironing depends on the
resiliency of the padded rolls. As pressure is applied to the
rolls, the resiliency is lost. In many plants when the ironer is
not drying properly, the first action is to apply more pressure
to the rolls. This could be a mistake because it would be some
other reason such as under extraction of the linen. The pins of
the roller bearings should be loose and a piece of kraft paper
should feed into the ironer and be able to be withdrawn when
the pressure is correct. Addition of unnecessary pressure has
been a principle reason for short padding life. Before pressure is
added to the rolls, test the pressure with a piece of kraft paper.
Assign a person to add the pressure and make sure only that
person is responsible for the resiliency of your ironer.
10. Purpose of aprons. Aprons are the large duck conveyor belts
which carry the linen under the polished surface of the chest.
They are used to add additional drying for the linen. With the use
of 50/50 polyester/cotton linen, the need for drying power of the
ironer has been reduced. This reduction has made it possible to
eliminate the use of aprons. The linen then travels from the last
chest of the ironer on the primary folder. Aprons are expensive
and sometimes difficult to control. If the linen will dry without
their use, considerable cost and trouble can be eliminated.
11. Importance of cleaning the chests. The metal of the chests
should always be kept clean, free of dirt or any blemishes. Dirty
or encrusted chest surfaces can result in rolling of the linen.
Many chest cleaners and waxes can be used for keeping the
chests in good condition. When using cleaners be sure the flash
point of the product is high enough to avoid a fire when cleaning
the ironer. Usually, if the chests are waxed twice a day, the chest
surface will be kept in good condition.
Tumblers
Tumblers have the same function as the flatwork ironer, in that,
they evaporate water from the linen. Regardless of their heating source,
all tumblers operate in the same manner. Air is heated and circulated
through the clothes or linens carrying off the moisture.
TROUBLESHOOTING FLATWORK ROLLING
SPECIAL REPORTER
Vol. 5 No. 4
INTERNATIONAL FABRICARE INSTITUTE
There probably is no problem in laundry production that has been
more perplexing to more people than the problem of flatwork ironer
rolling.
In some plants the condition is routine and is attributed to an old
ironer. It often is accepted as a condition which cannot be eliminated
without the replacement of the ironer. In some instances, plants have
replaced such ironers with new ones without solving the problem of
rolling.
The other type of situation is where rolling is not the usual problem,
but occurs every once in a while on everything put through the ironer,
particularly sheets and most particularly when the flatwork from one
account is ironed. In this type of situation, the desperation to get the
work through the ironer is met with frantic instructions: “Open the bypass at the trap”. “Increase extraction time”. “Reduce the amount of
sour”. Immediately or gradually the condition disappears and there is
no knowledge of the cause of it. The condition occurs again and again
and each time results in the same frantic efforts to stop it.
FLATWORK IRONER ROLLING
Flatwork ironer rolling as considered in this study is a condition
found with chest type ironers. It is usually encountered in the ironing of
sheets. The leading edge of a sheet going over the chest surfaces of the
ironer will roll and in extreme cases will continue to roll the entire sheet
into a hard solid mass. When it occurs, it usually does not begin to take
place until after several sheets have been fed in quick succession.
Heat-Friction Conflict
Flatwork ironer rolling is attributed to a great many causes which will
be discussed in this report. Actually, these only serve to contribute to
this basic cause. Flatwork ironer rolling is caused by a conflict between
heat and friction. Anything which will increase friction between the
damp cloths being ironed and the chest of the ironer will contribute to
the possibilities of rolling.
Some simple experiments may be made to demonstrate the
relationship between heat and friction. If a wet piece of cloth is laid on an
ironing board and ironed with a cool iron, difficulty will be encountered
in sliding the iron across the piece of cloth. As the temperature of the
iron is increased, it will be found easier to move the iron across the
damp cloth. If wax is applied to the ironing surface, the iron will move
more easily than without wax. However, as more wax is added to the
iron and hardens to the surface of the iron, it becomes increasingly
difficult to move the iron across the damp cloth.
The experiment may be continued by reducing the amount of
moisture in the cloth. It will be noted that with less moisture it becomes
easier to slide even a cool iron across the cloth. If a wax emulsion or
soluble oil is added to the water in the cloth, it will be found that the
iron will slide easier until the ironing surface has become coated with
any residue from this lubricant.
Then difficulty is again encountered in moving the iron across the
damp cloth.
Other Elements Affect Performance
Other elements may be added to the moisture in the cloth to show
that increasing quantities of some will increase the difficulty of moving
the iron across the damp cloth. These are simple experiments. They
may be considered an over-simplification of the problem. Yet if these
are kept in mind, they may be very helpful in determining the specific
cause of flatwork ironing rolling in a given situation. In hand ironing,
the iron is moved across the clothes. In a chest type ironer, the clothes
are moved across the ironer. In both cases the heat dries the friction
provides the finish.
It appears probable no one condition in itself can be said to be the
cause of flatwork ironer rolling. The many elements which are suggested
as being contributing factors present a virtually endless list. It is usually
combinations of some of these elements which result in the condition.
The attack on the problem must be made in the light of basic principles
and in various directions leading to the elimination of any factor which
may contribute to the condition.
Poor Drying A Factor
It appears that flatwork ironer rolling is most frequently found to exist
when poor drying results are obtained in the ironer. This is indicated by
the amount of moisture remaining in the clothes after ironing and by
the amount of vapor appearing above the ironer. In such cases, the
correction of the conditions causing poor drying usually corrects the
rolling. A 6-roll ironer should iron sheets dry at a speed not less than 60
feet a minute. An 8-roll should do so at not less than 80 feet a minute.
These speeds are for cotton linens and can be increased when
100% polyester linens are used. For example 130 feet per minute is not
unreasonable for an 8-roll ironer if 100% polyester linens are processed,
moisture retention of the work is at 30%, and the ironer itself is in good
mechanical condition.
The first attack on a problem of rolling should therefore be towards
an improvement in drying.
Don’t Overlook Washing Operation
When this is achieved, the second step should begin investigation
of the washing operation to remedy the excessive or improper use of
supplies, the use of improper supplies or the incompatibility of supplies
in their effect on rolling.
For the purpose of reporting on this study the many factors have
been classified as following, though not necessarily in the order of
importance – extraction, the flatwork ironer, steam supply, steam
returns, washing, the material ironed and temperature.
Extraction Influence
Satisfactory ironing of flatwork can best be obtained with what
is generally stated as “50% extraction”. This expression is a literal
misstatement of the true condition. It means that extraction of water
has been made to a point where the remaining moisture content of the
clothes is equal to 50% of the dry weight of the clothes. A load weighing
150 pounds after extraction and 100 pounds after having been ironed
dry contained 50 pounds of moisture. This is equivalent to 50% of the
dry weight of the load.
Uniform extraction of any one load is not entirely possible. The
effect of air drying to the exposed surfaces in the load will result in the
removal of more moisture from those surfaces than from the clothes
which are not exposed to the air in the extractor. A small sample of
clothes taken from one load for weighing to determine the degree
of extraction obtained in that load may not be representative of the
average extraction of the load.
Redistribute Moisture
When the load is removed from the extractor or the conditioning
tumbler and immediately fed into the flatwork ironer, some portions of
that load may be ironed more readily than other portions of the load
due to uneven moisture removal during extraction and possibly during
the preconditioning of the work.
The operations of the flatwork ironer can sometimes be improved
by permitting the load to wait until the moisture in that load has
been redistributed after extraction. If, on the other hand, a load of
flatwork is allowed to remain unironed for a longer period of time,
those surfaces of the load exposed to the sides of the basket and to the
atmosphere will tend to dry out while the clothes nearest the bottom
may contain more moisture than is desirable. The conditioning of
loads immediately may contain more moisture than is desirable. The
conditioning of loads immediately before being ironed can be helpful in
redistributing the moisture uniformly throughout the clothes. The value
of this conditioning can be lost if the clothes are permitted to be stored
between the time of conditioning and the time of ironing.
The most common practice in control of extraction is to determine
the length of time that a given extractor must be operated to leave the
correct moisture content for ironing. Variations in the sizes of the loads
may result in differences in moisture content with the same amount of
time in the extractor.
In other situations, variations in electrical power or in belt slippage
can result in varying degrees of extraction with the same sized load in
the same extractor.
Compression extraction will also be affected by faulty pumps if
water type compression is used.
Remove Water During Extraction
It is costly to remove water from clothes in ironing. An excessive
amount of moisture causes unnecessary friction in the ironer. It
condenses more steam than is necessary. It results in the absorption of
moisture by the padding to shorten the life of the padding and covers.
As moisture is absorbed by the padding, the drying effect of the padding
is lost and ultimately the accumulated moisture in the padding causes
the clothes to be stained.
Over-extraction to a moisture content below 45% of the dry weight
of the clothes leaves creases in some types of fabrics that remain as
unsightly lines on the ironed articles. In other types of materials, overextraction will result in a rough-dry appearance of the clothes after
ironing, as does over-drying between extraction and ironing.
Ironer Ills
The first consideration may well be that of the steam chests, both
the upper and the lower surfaces. These chests may be rough or dirty:
caked direct deposits make rough chests. Dirt may result from a washing
residue having been deposited on the heated surfaces. There may be
rust spots formed by water dripping on the ironer from overhead. This
water may come from an uncovered cold water pipe over the ironer. It
may be caused by condensate forming on the ceiling above the ironer
during cold weather. Tar from the roof has been known to melt and drip
on a flatwork ironer causing rough chests.
Accumulations of carbonized lint, wax, soap, etc., on chests have
been found to contribute to rolling. Rough chests have been reported
to have caused plastic coated roll covers to shed some of the coating
by abrasion to add to the accumulation on a chest. Where any of these
have formed on the chests the ironer should be cleaned by feeding
through it an abrasive cloth of the proper degree of fineness until the
surface is clean.
The cleaning and removing of rough spots from a chest surface
must be done with caution. Improper use of abrasives may result in a
rough chest. Whenever an abrasive is applied to the surface of a chest,
it should be very fine, and of a type that will not injure the polished
surface of the chest. It should be applied in the direction of the flow of
flatwork through the ironer.
Check Chest for Warping
Rolling is oftentimes attributed to a warped chest. This is a condition
where the length of a chest is not straight. It can be checked by drawing
a fine silk thread tightly over the chest or by removing the apron and
placing a straight edge underneath the chest. Warped chests are caused
by quick heating of the ironer, turning the steam on too fast. It is usually
a result of carelessness. It may be avoided either by putting a special
valve in the steam line to permit only a small amount of steam to pass
until the pressure on both sides of the valve is equalized, or by placing a
small by-pass around the main steam valve to the ironer. When the bypass method is used, the by-pass valve is opened fully until the ironer is
hot. Then the main steam valve is opened to permit a free and adequate
flow of steam to the ironer.
If a chest is found to have been warped to a point of causing
difficulty, it is advisable to have that chest replaced.
Vibrations May Change Alignment
The alignment of chest surfaces in relation to each other is important.
The delivery edge of each chest must be slightly higher than the receiving
edge of the next chest. When a flatwork ironer is assembled, the chests
are lined up in that manner. Vibration of some ironers may cause these
positions to change. It is advisable to provide regular inspection for a
possibility of this condition and then have a factory mechanic change
the alignment of the chests whenever it is detected.
Whenever flatwork ironer rolling is encountered it is common
practice to try to eliminate the condition by waxing the ironer. The
application of wax usually has the immediate effect of eliminating
rolling. However, excessive use of wax, or the use of improper wax,
aggravates the condition in two ways. Wax is built up on the chest
surfaces as a residue which causes roughness, resulting in friction. The
use of wax with a low melting point causes the wax to seal the pores of
the cover cloth and padding, and results in wet padding.
Paraffin oils with a high volatilization point or a type of grease or
oil as used in the baking industry, seem best. Whatever wax or oil is
used, it should be used sparingly and infrequently. There is available a
prepared cloth for use in cleaning and oiling an ironer surface. This cloth
contains a piece of fine emery cloth intended to remove any residue by
its abrasive action on the surface.
The ironer chest must be level and square at all times. The shifting of
the ironer, after its installation, frequently causes distortion in the level
or the squareness of the machine itself.
Pad Rolls Properly
The padded rolls are important in the good operation of a flatwork
ironer as well as in the consideration of rolling. Each roll must fit the
contour of the chest in which it rolls. The diameter of the rolls must
always be maintained within the limits specified by the manufacturer,
neither smaller nor larger. If the proper diameter of the rolls is not
known, it can readily be determined by contacting the manufacturer of
the ironer to the serial number of that ironer.
A reliable method of determining the diameter is that of wrapping
a two or three inch wide strip of wrapping paper around the roll and
marking that paper to indicate the circumference of the roll. The
measurement of that circumference divided by 3.1416 will give the
diameter. It is advisable to measure each roll at both ends and the
center.
Different grades or types of padding behave differently in use. It is
advisable to check the diameters throughout the life of the padding to
assure that at no time is that diameter reduced below the manufacturers’
recommended minimum. Steel padding requires the same type of
checking.
The most common cause of insufficient roll diameter is excessive
pressure of the roll against the chest. This pressure should never be
greater than is necessary for good ironing. Excessive roll pressure
should never be resorted to for the purpose of overcoming the effect of
other conditions which should be corrected.
It is easy to check the pressure of the roll against the chest. Take
a strip of wrapping paper two or three inches wide and stick it under
the roll while it is revolving under pressure. If the paper is immediately
pulled away the pressure is excessive. The pressure should never be
greater than that which will allow the paper to be withdrawn from
below the rolls with some effort.
Center Padded Roll
The padded roll must be in the center of the chest. A worn bearing
may cause the roll to press more against one side of the concave chest
than on the other. This can be checked by stopping the ironer with the
rolls under pressure and inserting a shirtboard on both sides of the roll.
If it is possible to pass more of the shirtboard under one side of the
roll than the other, it will be advisable to check the bearings for proper
alignment.
Check Vacuum on Spring Pads
Certain flatwork ironer rolls are equipped with springs over which
padding is applied. One end of these rolls is usually connected through
a manifold to a motor driver exhauster which serves to draw out the
moisture from the padded rolls to keep the padding dry. When it is
operating properly, this system is effective. However, faulty operating
can result in an accumulation of moisture in the padding, especially on
the rolls at the front end of the machine.
The smaller amount of padding reduces the moisture absorbing
ability of the spring padded roll drastically unless the vacuum exhauster
system is maintained in proper operating condition. The pipes, fittings,
and the manifold should be removed yearly and cleaned of any
accumulation of lint, wax, oil, or grease. A free outlet and drainage
must be provided from the exhauster. The vacuum pump impeller must
rotate in the right direction to provide suction to the padded rolls.
Static Electricity
In some instances, flatwork ironer rolling has been attributed to
excessive static electricity in the ironer. Static electricity in a flatwork
ironer is more frequently associated with the ironer aprons. It is a
condition which causes clothes to stick to the apron and may result in
sparks leaping from the aprons to the fingers of the folders. It is usually
encountered when the two aprons do not travel at the same speed in
feet per minute.
Static electricity is caused by friction and is most frequently
encountered after the installation of a new apron. A new apron is stiff
and requires more traction at the drive roll than an old apron does.
Apron drive rolls are made with rough surfaces to provide the needed
traction. This traction may be lost by an accumulation of dirt on a rough
surface or by the wearing down of that surface. When loss of traction is
the result of an accumulation of dirt, the roll should be cleaned. When
it is due to a worn drive roll, the drive roll should be replaced, or it may
be coarse sand blasted to again roughen that surface. The drive roll may
be cleaned and then painted with a paint containing abrasive material.
Other apron rolls may contribute to friction of the aprons, resulting in
one apron traveling faster than the other apron. These rolls should be
checked to assure that they rotate freely and that they are in proper
alignment. Moderate waxing of a new apron will serve as an aid in
reducing the friction between the two aprons.
A temporary correction for excessive static may be resorted to by
suspending a stout wire over the top of the folding end of the inside
apron and then hanging Christmas tree tinsel from this wire to contact
the surface of the apron. It has been reported that in other cases wire
has been clamped to the apron roll shaft and attached to a cold water
pipe and this has resulted in the elimination of static.
The ironer itself should be correctly grounded to eliminate the
possibility of static. For best grounding a pipe driven into the damp
earth under the floor is far more effective than grounding the ironer to
a steam or water pipe.
Electronic static bars are used on all primary folders and will operate
effectively if kept clean. It is essential to blow the static bars at least once
a day to prevent lint from interfering with the static bar.
Use of fabric softeners in the washing formulas will also prevent
friction build up which produces static charges.
The installation of a piece of copper tubing under the belts of the
primary folder has helped in many chronic static conditions. The _”
tubing runs the width of the folder and is perforated by a number of
small holes which will emit a small amount of steam. This steam will
raise the moisture level and prevent the static electricity. A globe rake at
the one end can be used to throttle the amount of steam escaping from
the holes.
Warm Up Ironer Sufficiently
When flatwork ironer rolling is found to be encountered only early in
the day, it can usually be attributed to insufficient heating of the ironer
before operations were started. It is important that after the chest has
been heated the ironer motor be started, the roll pressure applied and
the ironer be permitted to run until the padding in the rolls has reached
its proper temperature before the ironer is put into use.
Poor Feeding May Cause Rolling
The manner in which sheets are fed into an ironer can contribute
much towards rolling. If the leading edge of a sheet going into the
ironer is fed loosely and matted in the center, the mass of cloth and
moisture at that point places a heating load as well as a friction load on
a small area of the chest out of proportion to other parts of the chest.
The leading edge of a sheet should always be pulled tight to distribute
the area of the cloth as fully as possible over the ironing surface.
Several cases of rolling are reported to have been traced to excessive
feed ribbon speeds. These excessive speeds are caused by overpadding
the feed ribbon drive roll. The diameter of the drive roll should never
be greater than will provide a ribbon speed slightly less than the speed
of the first padded roll.
Control Steam Supply
One of the greatest problems encountered in obtaining maximum
utilization of steam heated flatwork ironers is a lack of understanding of
the importance of the many factors involved in the behavior of steam.
The many rules common to steam engineering and steam piping seem
wholly inadequate when related to flatwork ironer operations. It must
be recognized also that the operating speed of the ironer and degree
to which the chests are covered with fabrics being ironed contribute
greatly to steam requirements.
Steam piping tables will show that for steam at 100 p.s.i. a 1 1/4”
steam line is ample for a 6-roll flat work ironer. Experience, however,
indicates a 2” line is adequate only when the length of that line is
not excessive, and if that pipe is properly insulated. Flatwork ironers
operate most successfully when provided with steam lines of adequate
size directly from the boilers and with no other equipment using steam
from those lines.
The older chest type flatwork ironers were constructed to include 1/2”
steam and return lines between the headers under the ironer and the
chests of the ironer. It was found that these short lengths of 1/2” pipe were
inadequate on some chests. Newer ironers are being built with pipe in
these locations as large as 1” for at least the first few chests in the ironer.
In some cases, improvement in drying of old ironers has been
obtained by replacing the 1/2” lines to the first two or three chests with
3/4” or 1” lines. Caution must be used in the drilling and tapping of
chests to avoid damage to them.
Drain Steam Lines
All steam supply lines to flatwork ironers should be pitched towards
the ironer and should be provided with drains or traps at the low point
in the steam line to remove any condensate accumulating between the
boiler and the ironer. Condensate pockets in a steam line reduce the
effective size of the pipe by the amount of water that is permitted to
accumulate in that pipe.
Insulation Cuts Condensate
The type of pipe covering used is important because it must serve
its purpose of providing good insulation. At steam temperatures used
in the laundry industry, 85% magnesia or its equivalent appears to be
most practical.
Steam Quality
The quality of the steam delivered by the boiler is an important
factor for flatwork ironer utilization. Steam should be clean and at least
98% dry. Inadequate boiler blowdowns can result in poor quality steam
as may improper treatment of boiler feed water. Poor steam may be
due to an excessive amount of air or other non-condensable gases
in the boiler feed water. This may be reduced by proper treatment of
boiler feed water and maintaining it at pH 10.5.
Fluctuations in steam pressure are frequently noticed in laundries. It
has been observed that during even moderate drops in steam pressure,
the clothes will not dry when passing through the ironer and they may
roll at such times. The ironer speed must be that at which the clothes
will dry when pressure is at its lowest. An accurate pressure gauge
should be installed near the steam valve at the ironer.
Control Back Pressure
In the case of the high pressure trapless system, it is important to
guard continuously against the possibility that regular or intermittent
discharge at high pressures from one piece of equipment may restrict
the flow of condensate and insoluble gases at lower pressures from
other equipment.
When traps are used, an open by-pass or a leaking trap can easily
build up pressure in the return line to restrict the flow of condensate
and non-condensable gases from other equipment.
Free Discharge Required
In all cases, the objectives should be a free discharge of condensate
and gases without loss of steam into the atmosphere.
Superheated Steam
Questions of the value of superheated steam in laundry ironing
equipment are frequently raised. The value of steam in ironing
equipment is in the latent heat given out when that steam is converted
into water. Steam superheated to a temperature beyond that at which
the steam condenses provides little heat value, if any, at an ironer. Any
value of superheat in the laundry industry is confined to providing
enough superheat to maintain a steam temperature above that of
condensation during the travel of the steam through the steam line to
the ironer itself.
Traps – Number and Locations
Many flatwork ironers are provided with a separate trap for each
chest. Others are equipped with only one trap serving all of the chests.
It appears probable that this conflict of experience may be attributed to
other factors not readily determined. The amount of steam condensed
by a 6-roll ironer in one plant may be greater than that condensed in
another plant.
The size of the trap is important. The trap must be large enough to
adequately discharge the condensate and gases. There appears to be
some validity to the contention that the trap should be small enough at
the same time to provide for frequent discharges and thereby increase
the turbulence of the steam within the chest. When only one trap is
used for a flatwork ironer, it appears advisable to install that trap at a
level below the floor to provide suitable drainage of the condensate into
the trap.
Traps are designed to suit specific operating conditions. It must,
therefore, be recognized that each trap will operate most effectively at
the pressure for which it was designed. If the steam pressure at the
ironer is 100 p.s.i. the trap must obviously be one intended to operate at
100 p.s.i. At the same time, consideration must be given to the pressure
or vacuum to which a trap discharges.
Some laundry equipment manufacturers recommend the installation
of by-passes around traps. This is intended for use as an aid in quickly
heating the flatwork ironer, as for example, in the morning. It is also
intended for use in an emergency requiring the removal of the trap for
repair. Experience has indicated that when by-passes are used they are
frequently opened and then forgotten.
In other cases, it has been observed that by-passes are regularly
cracked open slightly to improve the continued operations of the
equipment. In still other instances, it has been observed that apparently
because of the expansion and contraction of the metal in the by-pass
valves, slight leaks cause wire drawing of the valve seats and result in
large losses of steam. For these reasons, consideration should be given
to the elimination of by-passes and, perhaps, the installation of petcocks
in or at traps for testing and for emergency use.
Adequate Pipe Size
The size of the piping in the return lines is important. As in the
steam supply lines, these pipes should be of adequate size. The use
of “Y” fittings in the return lines is to be preferred to “T” fittings. When
“T” fittings are used, there is a tendency for the pressure discharges
from one part of the plant to reduce the discharge into a main return
line from other parts of the plant. When “Y” fittings are used, pressure
discharge from one part of the plant will tend to aid rather than restrain
the discharge from another part of the plant.
It has been reported that in one plant with a flatwork ironer equipped
with traps at each chest, rolling was eliminated and the drying by the
ironer was materially increased by running a separate return line from
the flatwork ironer to the receiver in the boiler room.
All traps should be regularly inspected to assure that they are
functioning properly. Frequent mechanical action within most traps
result in wear of the moving parts. These can usually be replaced
without replacing the entire trap.
Non-Condensable Gases
In some cases, flatwork ironer rolling has been eliminated by the
installation of air eliminators between the chests and the traps. These
air eliminators are constructed to open by the cooling effect of an
accumulation of air. The installation of such an air eliminator in the
return end of the last chest of an ironer has been reported to have
eliminated flatwork ironer rolling and increased the drying capacity of
the ironer.
Affect of Washing
There is much confusion about the effect of each of many elements
of washing on flatwork ironer rolling.
Any influence of washing on flatwork rolling is in the final condition
of the fabric as it goes to the flatwork iron. It is believed that any of the
following may contribute to rolling.
1. Presence of any residue which may cause unnecessary friction in
the ironer.
2. Absence of residues which may serve as lubricants
3. Presence of lubricating residues which carbonize with heat and
adhere to the chests of the ironer.
4. Temperature of the clothes.
Souring May Effect Rolling
In the washing operation itself, the supply most commonly
mentioned as a contributing factor to flatwork ironer rolling is sour
used in excess. Sour is used to overcome any alkaline supplies used
in the washing operation as well as the alkalinity of the water supply
itself. Alkali remaining in clothes after the complete washing cycle may
result in a discoloration of the clothes during the ironing process. It may
also cause skin irritation to people exposed to the use of clothes after
laundering.
Variations in the size of the load, the temperatures of the various
baths, the characteristics of the water supply, water levels in the various
baths may result in wide pH variations with a given amount of sour.
Because of the variations which may result from these factors, it is
highly important that the quantity of sour added to the load be precisely
determined and used. When flatwork ironing is considered, it must be
recognized that it may not only be the pH of the moisture in the clothes
that is the determining factor. Consideration must also be given to the
quantity of sour and type of residue remaining in the clothes after
washing. A given quantity of acetic acid will neutralize the alkalinity at
a pH of 5.3. Regardless of the quantity of acetic acid added beyond
that point, there is very little reduction in the pH of the solution. If, on
the other hand, equivalent amounts of other sours are used, lower pH
values are obtained.
The more commonly used fluoride sours fall in this group. Sours
marketed under trade brands generally fall within the range of the
fluoride sours. Regardless of the brand of sour used, it is important to
determine the exact quantity of that sour necessary for a given load and
then provide containers suitable for properly measuring that quantity
with subsequent supervision to assure that quantity, and that quantity
only, is being used.
The distribution of the sour in the load is important. When a dry form
of sour is applied to the washer, sufficient time and temperature must
be provided to assure complete solution of the sour and its distribution
throughout the load.
In the purchase of sour, it is important to consider good quality
merchandise designed for this purpose. Occasionally, laundry owners
will purchase a type of sour not designed for laundry use – but one
which appears to give adequate souring at low cost. Such sours may
contain matter which leaves a residue in the clothes that contributes to
flatwork ironer rolling. It has been reported that some types of silicated
sours when used in the presence of unrinsed alkali, may form a residue
and cause rolling in flatwork ironers. Other types of silicated sours may
combine with unrinsed soap and provide lubricating properties.
Soap Limited Hazard
Soap normally is not regarded as contributing towards flatwork
ironer rolling. More commonly, soap is considered as an aid in reducing
the condition. The soaps designed for laundry use have shown no
indication of being a contributing factor to the subject under discussion.
But other types of soaps may contain ingredients which will not entirely
rinse out in the washing but leave a residue in the clothes to be ironed.
Opinions Differ on Alkali Bleach
The degree to which any type of alkali may contribute to flatwork
ironer rolling appears to be highly controversial. Alkali may contribute
towards rolling of flatwork in two ways. In the first place, new cotton
sheets contain a certain amount of fats which serve to lubricate the
fibers. Whenever alkali is used in quantities or at temperatures to
reduce the amount of lubrication in the fibers, friction may result. In the
second place, it appears probable that alkali may react with some sours
to form a residue and then contribute to rolling. This effect appears due
to inadequate rinsing rather than to the type of alkali used.
Bleach
Bleach is not commonly considered as having any effect on flatwork
ironing rolling. It appears possible that it may be a factor in some
cases. With bleach prepared in the plant from lime and soda, the lime
should be allowed to settle out from the liquid that is to be used. The
chlorinated lime powders made for use in commercial laundering are
designed to settle out readily. Other types of lime intended for other
purposes and not for laundry use may not settle out as readily and
should not be used for this purpose.
Poor Rinsing Leads to Rolling
Rinsing is highly important in consideration of the possible effect of
washing on flatwork rolling. The presence of objectionable residues in
the clothes after washing is largely dependent on the degree of rinsing.
Alkali removed in rinsing cannot combine with sour to form a residue.
There appears to be considerable evidence that a small amount of
unrinsed soap left in the fabrics serves as a lubricant in ironing. This
soap may be in the form of lime soap resulting from the use of hard
water, or it may be in the form of an acid soap formed by souring in the
presence of soap and with completely softened water.
However, when the practice of leaving soap in the fabric is used it is
invariably found to result in dirty ironer chests which cause rolling. If
a lubricant is desired, it appears preferable to add it to the last washing
operation. It should be of a type that will not carbonize with the heat of
the ironer to form objectionable residue on the chests.
It has been reported that in some cases soap and alkali residues
have accumulated in fabrics with repeated washings to cause greater
problems in ironing as well as noticeable harshness to the fabrics.
Any investigation of rinsing must include consideration of load size,
temperature, time, water levels and number of rinses.
Control Starch Quantity
The principle reason usually given for not using starch on flatwork
is that when it is used, it tends to deposit on the chest of the ironer. If
any starch or sizing is to be used on any flatwork, it must be of a type
prepared and used in such a manner that it will not readily deposit
on the surface of the ironer. The factors to be controlled are quantity,
penetration and lubrication.
Impurities in Water Supply
Water suitable for the washing of clothes should not in itself
contribute towards flatwork ironer rolling. All natural waters contain
some impurities. It is believed that in some cases a large amount of
minerals or other suspended matter may contribute towards the
condition. Proper filtering and pre-treatment of the water may reduce
this possibility.
Plants have reported that the installation of a water softener has
resulted in flatwork ironer rolling. When no water softening is used,
even small amounts of calcium hardness will convert soluble soaps into
lime soaps. The residue of lime soap in the clothes serves as a lubricant.
Whenever a water softener is installed, the washing formula must be
adjusted accordingly. Softened water requires less soap and alkali than
does water which has not been softened. A reduction in the amount of
soap and alkali is normally followed by a reduction in the amount of
rinsing and in the amount of sour necessary.
Consider Types Material Ironed
A discussion of the subject of flatwork ironer rolling cannot be
complete without consideration of the material that is being ironed. It
is believed by some that finishing agents used in the manufacture of
textiles may have a bearing on this problem of rolling.
Heavy fabrics contain more moisture per square foot than light
fabrics. Consequently more steam is required to iron them dry. On the
other hand, light fabrics requiring less heat, are more easily affected by
friction in the ironing.
Temperature Affects Rolling
The temperature of fabrics as fed into the ironer influences the heat
demands on the first chest or two. Cold fabrics require more heat than
warm fabrics do.
Extraction appears to be influenced by the temperature of clothes
when placed in the extractor. Studies indicate that more moisture is
removed by an extractor during a given time if the clothes are warm
than if they are cold.
When cold water is used in the last washing operation, considerable
seasonal variations in final temperatures will result in plants buying
water in northern climates. The incoming cold water may range from
35°F in the winter to 70°F in the summer.
In climates with wide seasonal variations in relative humidity,
rolling is often encountered during the highly humid seasons. This can
probably be attributed to the inability of humid atmosphere to absorb
more moisture at existing temperatures. Corrections can usually be
made by better extraction, better heating of the ironer, or lower ironer
speeds.
Maintain Control
One of the greatest difficulties in determining the cause of flatwork
ironer rolling in any one plant is in the difficulty of maintaining continued
controls of all the many factors involved. This appears to point towards
the advisability of more positive attention towards maintaining stable
physical conditions.
Flatwork ironer rolling should never be encountered when all
operating conditions are correctly maintained. When it does exist, it
can be eliminated by correcting each condition that may contribute to
rolling.
Check These
The Flatwork
Ironer
Look For
Static-caused by apron
friction.
Ironer too cool when
feeding started.
Poor feeding.
Washing
General
Feed ribbons travel too fast
or are missing.
Residue in clothes after
washing.
Too much used.
Sour
Soap
Alkali
Bleach
Poor distribution.
Poor quality sour.
Not intended for laundry
use.
Too much used.
Residue from unsuitable
bleaching powder.
Inadequate.
Rinsing
Residue on ironer chests.
Starching
Water Supply Objectionable impurities.
The Material
Ironed
Heavy materials.
Light materials.
Accumulated residues.
Low temperature of clothes
leaving wash-wheel during
winter months.
Temperature
Low temperature of clothes
fed into ironer.
Effect of humidity on
ironing.
What To Do
See that both aprons run at same
speed in feed per minute.
Turn on steam in ironer earlier.
Run ironer to heat padding well
before using.
Train and supervise feeders to
feed properly.
Reduce diameter of feed ribbon
drive roll.
Eliminate residues that may cause
friction or carbonize on ironer
surfaces.
Consider leaving non-cumulative
lubricants that will not carbonize
on ironer surfaces.
Use only enough to neutralize
alkalinity usually to pH 5.0.
Run sour bath long enough
and at temperatures to assure
thorough distribution.
Purchase from reliable supplier.
Use good quality soap intended
for laundry use.
Use only enough for good results
on type of load washed.
Purchase good quality for laundry
use from reliable supplier.
Rinse thoroughly. Use proper
water levels, proper time, and
number of rinses.
Use no starch on flatwork
or control starch for quality,
penetration and lubrication.
Filter, treat, or properly soften
water.
Use lower ironer speeds.
Clean ironer chests.
Wash correctly until residue
removed.
Increase final temperature to
improve extraction. Preheat
clothes immediately before
feeding.
Increase extraction. Improve
ironer heat transfer.
Reduce ironer speed.
PRESSING & FINISHING PROBLEMS
SPECIAL REPORTER
INTERNATIONAL FABRICARE INSTITUTE
Vol. 9, No. 5
There is no substitute for proper padding in producing quality work.
Income and profit depend on economically finished, quality work that
pleases the users.
Probably more words have been written concerning the operation
of flatwork ironers than any other piece of laundry equipment. Even so,
much needs to be said about proper padding of ironers – its importance
and purpose.
Ironers have often been considered a “temperamental” piece of
equipment but much of this was due to the lack of understanding its
operation, improper or worn padding, and poor maintenance.
What are the principles of ironing?
1. The linen is ironed when the heat from the chests or cylinders
drives the moisture from the cloth into the padded rolls so the
moisture can be dispersed.
2. Gloss or sheen is supplied by the clean, smooth surface of the
chest surfaces.
3. To smoothly and uniformly iron the entire piece of linen, the
padding on the rolls must be sufficiently resilient to absorb the
irregularities of cloth seams.
4. Each succeeding roll is slightly larger than the one proceeding it,
so the linen can move lightly and smoothly through the ironer.
Undersized padded rolls or oversized padded rolls will not give
maximum contact with the heated surface of the ironer. This reduced
contact does not permit proper heating for efficient moisture elimination
or drying. Consult your ironer maintenance manual for the padded roll
size which is correct for your ironer.
PADDING PRINCIPLES
Ironers are padded to obtain proper resilience, roll size and
graduation. The heat retention of the padding is another factor to
consider when selecting padding.
Since the chest type ironer is used the most, much of this material
pertains to such ironers.
Padding
Cost, instead of initial price of padding, is the prime concern when
making your selection. The various advantages and disadvantages of
each type of padding will be discussed.
Knitted cotton is supplied either by the yard or in cut pieces and has a
short resilient life. It will burn out and have a low heat retention, losing
the roll size within 12 weeks.
It has the lowest initial cost; however, the cost involved in changing
this type of padding every 12 weeks really makes this padding the most
expensive to use. It produces an excellent finish during the first part of
its short wear life.
Nylon pads are usually supplied in cut pads. The pads are numbered
so that roll graduation is built into the padding. The nylon pads are
inserted between the padding. The nylon pads are inserted between the
binder and its top cover and usually lasts for nine months with fortyhour-week operation.
The nylon pad has a higher initial price than the cotton pad; but,
considering the wear life, nylon has a lower cost than cotton. Nylon is
absorptive and loses roll size less rapidly than cotton.
Asbestos type pads have virtually disappeared from use due to
its ingredient being declared a carcinogen. This type of padding had
enjoyed wide use in the fabricare industry since it would not “burn out.”
Its finishing qualities were good and it required little servicing.
Metal padding is made to size for the individual ironer with roll
graduation incorporated in the pad. Such padding is installed by the
manufacturer since they guarantee a specified wear life.
While metal padding has the highest initial price, it will usually have
the lowest overall cost.
Check These
Look For
Extraction
Too much water in clothes.
Dirty.
Rough surfaces.
Warped.
The Flatwork
Ironer
Chests
What To Do
Check weigh full or partial
extractor load after extraction and
after ironing dry. Damp weight
should not be over 150% of dry
weight.
Clean carefully with kerosene
cloth or use very fine emery cloth
on both top and bottom of chests.
Ask manufacturer.
Check by drawing silk thread over
length of chest.
Chest walls may be too thin
as result of poor corrective Replace chest
of warping.
See that delivery edge of each
chest is slightly above the
Improper alignment.
receiving edge of the next chest.
Improper waxing.
Use proper wax. Apply smaller
amounts. Use less frequently.
Make ironer level.
Not level.
Make ironer square.
Not square.
Check These
Look For
What To Do
Keep padded roll diameters
Too large or too small
within manufacturers limits for
that ironer.
Check by inserting strip of paper
Rolls
Too great roll pressure
under roll. Should be able to pull
against chest.
paper out with some effort. Keep
roll pressure low.
Not in center of chest.
Replace bearings.
Vacuum system not
Remove vacuum pipes, fitting,
working properly.
etc., and clean thoroughly.
Poor drying.
Use slower ironer speed.
Too small steam line.
Install larger size line.
Too much equipment on
Run separate main from boiler
steam main.
to ironer.
Water in steam line.
Drain condensate from all low
points in steam line.
Poor insulation.
Cover with 85% Magnesia or
equivalent.
Steam Supply Wet steam from boiler.
Blow down better or install
“dry-back”.
Improper feedwater
Maintain boiler feedwater at pH
treatment.
10.5. Keep non-condensable
gases down.
Use not less than 100 lbs. steam
pressure at ironer or reduce
Less steam pressure.
ironer speed.
Fluctuations in steam
Maintain constant pressure at
pressure.
ironer.
Improper trap sizes.
Use traps neither too large nor
too small.
Poor location of traps.
Provide for ample drainage
between chests and traps.
Non-condensable gases not Use traps with proper air vents.
removed.
Steam Returns Improper traps.
Use traps designed for operating
pressure used.
Consult with competent steam.
Poor return system.
Stop steam leaks, laundry steam,
or other steam.
Excessive back pressure
Stop steam leaks thru other traps.
on traps.
PRESSURE ON THE ROLLS
Pressure which is set wisely and sparingly will add considerably
to the wear life of the padding and covers. In some plants, there is a
tendency to increase the pressure whenever the work is not drying. In
most cases, more pressure on the rolls is not required, but the reduced
drying capacity is due to some other cause, such as water-extraction.
If the ironer will feed a piece of kraft paper which can be pulled
back out from the rolls, it has sufficient pressure. Careless pressure
adjustments on the roller will reduce the wear life of the padding and
top covers.
CHEST MAINTENANCE
Clean, smooth chests are essential to good finish, clean work, and
will prevent excessive top cover wear. Excessive tape breakage is often
due to dirty chests.
A scheduled cleaning-waxing program will help prevent the troubles
mentioned above. A suggested schedule is listed below. It may require
some variance to meet your operating conditions.
1. Use a steel wool chest cleaner. Run this once a day, paying
particular attention to the ends of the chest. Run it twice a day if
you are experiencing considerable buildup.
2. Be sure to put the folder in “by-pass” or turn it off when running
the chest cleaner.
3. Run a wax cloth after the steel wool cleaner.
4. For normal operating conditions, the wax cloth, using 1/4 cup
of powdered wax per ironer roll, is run each morning. The wax
cloth will be run again without adding any wax.
5. Run the wax cloth at noontime without adding additional wax.
6. For faster operating ironers or heavier chest buildup, it will be
necessary to run the wax cloth with wax morning and noon
using 1/4 cup of wax per roll each time. The wax cloth is run an
additional two times without more wax at each using.
7. Use wax cloth twice at mid-morning and twice at mid-afternoon
without using more wax.
8. For breaking-in new covers, run the wax cloth with about 1/2
cup of wax per roll making sure to run the cloth four or five
times after the initial run without adding wax. After running eight
or ten sheets, follow with the wax cloth again with 1/2 cup of
wax per roll. The cloth will then run an additional 2 or 3 times
without additional wax.
At noon, run the wax cloth with 1/4 cup of wax per roll, followed
by 2 or 3 times without additional wax. The wax cloth without
additional wax should be run during the afternoon.
For the rest of the first week, use 1/4 cup of wax per roll on the
wax cloth first thing in the morning. Then, use an 1/8 cup of wax
per roll at noon. After the first week, revert to the normal waxing
schedule.
There are a number of good wax and clean products available. After
the initial break-in period on covers, there should be no hesitation in
using one.
VACUUM TUBES
When the ironer is equipped with springs and a vacuum system,
ensure the tube at the end of the roll is kept clean and tight. It is not
unusual to see several of the connections loose or unconnected. When
this occurs, the vacuum system will be ineffective for the roll.
Every few months, the vacuum tube should be cleaned so it is free
of any accumulations. The purpose of the vacuum is to aid in the faster
elimination of moisture. It can only function effectively when it is clean
and fits tightly.
PADDED ROLL LENGTH
It is usually not wise to pad the ends of the rolls which receive no
use. Not only is it a waste of money for unused padding but it causes
excessive cover wear. Much of the padding is tapered at the roll edge to
avoid excessive wear in this area.
If cross folders are not used, it is advisable to feed large pieces
alternately to one side and then the other to prevent dirt deposits on
the edge of the rolls.
APRONS
The apron on the ironer is actually a long canvas belt used to add
drying time by passing the linen over the polished bottom of the chest.
AN ANALYSIS OF GRADUATING METHODS
1. USING PRESCRIBED PRESSURE SCREW ADJUSTMENTS
This method requires:
Uniformity from pad to pad.
No variation within the pad itself
Consistent and equal spring strength
Perfect mechanical condition of the ironer (no warped chests,
no worn bearing boxes, etc.).
2. USING GRADUATED-WEIGHT PADS
This method requires:
Enough weight difference between the graduated-weight pads
to give proper roll size graduation
No variation within the pad itself
Perfect mechanical condition of the ironer
Consistent and equal spring strength (If screw adjustments are
prescribed).
In both of these methods travel is judged visually – by watching
work flow. If there is a considerable amount of buckling,
scabbing (using additional covers or inserts) or “guess-work”
screw adjustments are used to adjust for some of the variations
that exist. Lacking accurate means of measurement, however,
proper graduation results only by chance.
3. USING THE VELOCITY STEAM CALIPER TO GUIDE PRESSURE
SCREW ADJUSTMENTS
This method is independent of any physical qualities of padding,
cover, or ironer. Roll size is the all-important factor.
The Velocity Steam Caliper method allows for variation in padding
consistency and recognizes that ironers differ and mechanical
misalignments are frequent.
Use of the Velocity Steam Caliper to guide screw adjustments insures
accurate graduation.
HOW TO GRADUATE WITH THE VELOCITY STEAM CALIPER
Because new pads are the most resilient, rolls should be graduated
at the time of padding so that the pads will react most directly to screw
adjustments.
1. With ironer padding and covers installed according to the
manufacturer’s instructions, allow the ironer to come to full heat.
2. As soon as the pads are installed and loosely “wound in”, loosen all
individual roll pressure screws completely.
3. With the ironer running at slow speed, apply light bar pressure
until covers just touch the chests, and observe the covers paying
particular attention to the unused areas at both ends of each roll.
Any pulling, dragging or distortion at this stage indicates a dirty
chest or that something is under the roll. This should be corrected
immediately.
4. Apply more light pressure until the pad is snugly fitted to the roll.
Watch for humps, knots, etc., and correct them at once.
THE FIRST FOUR STEPS SHOULD TAKE
APPROXIMATELY 1/2 HOUR
It has been standard practice to apply bar pressure until the
first pin is loose as soon as padding is applied. Applying only
light bar pressure initially is a safeguard for padding and covers
since it prevents excess pressure application before knots and
lumps which can cause deep distortion of the padding, have
been smoothed out, and gives time to remove glue or dirt which
may pull and damage covers.
5. Turn all individual roll pressure screws down finger tight. This should
be from 1/2 turn to 1 turn past contact with spring caps.
a. Tighten the lock nuts of the two screws on the last roll (the roll
farthest from the feeders).
b. Make one-sixth of a turn (1 face on a hex set screw) on each of
the two pressure screws on the next to the last roll, then tighten
the lock nuts.
c. Continuing back from the last roll, increase the screws on each
roll one-sixth of a turn more than the screws of the roll you have
just tightened before tightening the lock nuts.
This adjustment is necessary to start getting a graduated roll with
correct travel as soon as the machine starts to operate and to test
for variations in the padding and/or machine misalignments.
If there are no variations in the padding and the machine is in perfect
alignment, roll sizes will now be graduated. Since this condition rarely, if
ever, exists it is necessary to locate any variations and compensate for
them.
6. Lower the pressure bar until the roll hanger pins of the first roll just
become loose.
7. As soon as this pressure has been applied, measure each roll at
both ends. Set your Velocity Steam caliper on the roll as far in as
reach permits (at least two feet in from the end of the roll) at a right
angle to the roll shaft, making sure that both sides and the top of
the Caliper are touching the roll. Plan the overall graduation before
making any adjustments.
8. Special attention should be given to the covers. If one end of a roll
cover is pulling, immediately check the caliper of the roll ends. The
end that is pulling will probably be smaller than the other end.
The pressure screw on this small end should be backed off by the
amount that it is small. If the roll is 1/32” smaller on one end, the
screws on that end should be backed off 1/3 of a turn (2 hexes).
It is important that any adjustments necessary to obtain equal
diameters at both ends of the roll be made as soon as possible
so that padding will not be compressed and unable to respond
to backing off of the screws.
9. Run cleaning cloths through the ironer and lubricate the chests and
covers well.
10. Work may now be started through the machine. It is suggested that
during the initial graduation period all work be run at one speed less
than normal.
11. Pins should be checked frequently to keep them loose.
12. Unless the ironer is badly out of alignment (in which case an expert
should be called in), compensation for variations in padding and
machine misalignments can be completed in one to four hours, and
roll diameters should be equal at both ends of each roll.
13. Calipering from the last roll, which should be the largest, to the first,
each roll diameter should be approximately 1/32” smaller. If there is
not 1/32” graduation, the screws should now be adjusted to obtain
it. A guide to the regulation of roll size is: 1/3 of a turn (2 hexes) of
the screw equals 1/32” change in diameter.
14. Calipering should be done frequently – at least once every 15 minutes
– during the entire regulating period. After any screw adjustment,
there will be a short period of time before the pad reacts to the
adjustment. Velocity Steam Calipers should be used constantly to
watch the “trend” of the adjustment.
A “trend” that does not correspond to the screw adjustments usually
indicates a misalignment in the ironer. For example: if the roll diameter
on one side of a roll keeps getting smaller, although screws have been
“back off”, the shaft on that roll may be bent, or there may be a worn
bearing on that side.
NOTE
Once the screws have been adjusted for correct graduation, the
screws never have to be touched again as long as the same type and
brand of padding is used. When repadding, do not touch the screws
(unless calipering after work has started through the ironer indicates
that adjustments are necessary).
SUMMARY
Here is a diagram of the ironer rolls during the graduation process.
Ironer has just been repadded, the rolls are very big, all pressure screws
have been loosened, and there is no screw pressure being applied. Turn
the screws down “finger tight”.
Bar pressure has been applied to the point where the pins just become
loose. Starting with the left roll, all screws have been increasingly
tightened 1/6 of a turn to start graduation and test for variations. Both
ends at each roll should be calipered frequently. Record diameters and
plan adjustments. Note varying spring compression.
Screws have been tightened or loosened to compensate for variations,
using 1/3 turn for 1/32” change in diameter, and the roll sizes are now
graduated. From this point on roll sizes will reduce equally as the
weights of the rolls are equal and there is no screw pressure being
applied. Not graduated roll sizes.
RULES FOR SCREW ADJUSTMENT
1. Apply only light bar pressure until all knots and lumps have been
smoothed out and all dirt and glue have been cleaned off the
chests.
2. Use 1/3 turn (2 hexes) equals 1/32” as a guide for adjustments.
3. When the diameters at the ends of a roll are not equal, back off the
screws on the small end so that the small end will equal the large end.
4. In graduating, start from the last roll which should be the largest,
and work toward the feed end of the ironer.
5. Consider the effect of any adjustment in relation to the over-all
pattern – both end to end of each roll and roll to roll across the
ironer.
6. Once they are adjusted for proper graduation, screws should not be
touched when repadding with the same type and brand of padding,
or when building up diameters with booster pads, etc. Be sure that
built-up rolls fit into the graduation properly.
SHORT CUTS:
In compensating for unequal diameters at the ends of a roll, backing
off the screws to enlarge the smaller end is a precaution to reserve
padding. However, the graduation pattern may require that the
large end be reduced to equal the small end and, after experience
has been gained in this method of graduation, only one adjustment
may be initially necessary.
A TYPICAL ADJUSTMENT FOR AN 8-ROLL STANDARD IRONER
1. The ironer has just been padded, knots and lumps have been
smoothed out, the chests are clean, and pressure screws have been
turned down finger tight.
Starting with the last roll all screws have been increasingly tightened
1/6 of a turn to start graduation.
FIRST CALIPER READINGS
LEFT SIDE
Additional
Caliper
Roll
Screw
Pressure
12-11/32
1
1-1/6
2
1
-14/32
3
-5/6
-14/32
-16/32
4
-4/6
5
-3/6
-17/32
-17/32
6
-2/6
7
-1/6
-19/32
8
0
-20/32
LEFT SIDE
Adjustment
Necessary
2/3 Turn up
none
1/3 Turn up
1/3 Turn up
none
1/3 Turn up
none
none
Additional
Screw
Pressure
1-1/6
1
-5/6
-4/6
-3/6
-2/6
-1/6
0
Caliper Adjustment
Necessary
12-13/32
none
-13/32 1/3 Turn up
none
-15/32
-17/32
none
-17/32
none
-18/32
none
-19/32
none
none
-20/32
2. After operating one to four hours, adjustments have been made for
major machine misalignments and both ends of each roll are equal.
Note that roll sizes have been reduced 1/32” all the way through,
which indicates that during this interval the pins became tight and
more bar pressure had to be applied until they become loose.
Graduation is not perfect, possibly due to variations in the padding,
and adjustments must be made to obtain 1/32” graduation.
ADJUSTING FOR GRADUATION
LEFT SIDE
LEFT SIDE
Additional
Additional
Screw
Caliper Adjustment
Caliper Adjustment
Roll
Screw
Necessary
Necessary Pressure
Pressure
none
none
1-1/6 12-12/32
-3/6
12-12/32
1
-12/32 1/2 Turn up
-4/6
-13/32 1/3 Turn up
1
2
none
-5/6
-14/32
-14/32
none
3
-3/6
-16/32 1/3 Turn dwn
-4/6
-16/32 1/3 Turn dwn
-2/6
4
-16/32
none
none
-3/6
-3/6
-16/32
5
none
-17/32
-2/6
none
-17/32
0
6
none
-1/6
-18/32
-18/32
none
7
-1/6
none
-19/32
0
none
-19/32
0
8
3. After operating 1/2 to 2 hours. The rolls are graduated correctly
and the ironer may be speeded up to normal. Note that roll sizes
have again reduced 1/32” throughout, so more bar pressure was
necessary to loosen the pins.
The padding is still in the process of being pulled in and frequent
caliper checks should be made for the next two days, making further
adjustments if necessary.
START OF PULL-IN
LEFT SIDE
Additional
Screw
Caliper
Roll
Pressure
-5/6
12-11/32
1
2
-4/6
-12/32
-13/32
3
-8/6
-4/6
-14/32
4
-15/32
5
-8/6
6
0
-16/32
-17/32
7
-1/6
0
-18/32
8
LEFT SIDE
Additional
Adjustment
Screw
Necessary Pressure
1-1/6
-3/6
-5/6
N
O
1
N
-3/6
E
-2/6
-1/6
0
Caliper Adjustment
Necessary
12-11/32
-12/32
-13/32
N
O
-14/32
-15/32
N
E
-16/32
-17/32
-18/32
4. After operating for one or two days. The padding is now pulled
in and properly graduated. It should not be necessary to add bar
pressure as frequently. The screws, guided by the Velocity Steam
Caliper, have served their purpose in regulating the padded roll size.
They should not have to be touched as long as the same type and
brand of padding is used.
As the padding pulled in, the springs rebounded so that now there
is no screw pressure being applied.
AFTER PULL-IN
Roll
Caliper
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
12-9/32
-10/32
-11/32
-12/32
-13/32
-14/32
-15/32
-16/32
CAUTION!
The sizes are 1/8” larger than the manufacturer
specifications and apply only to ironer operating with the
high heat levels of Velocity Steam. For ironers operating
with traps or other systems, all caliper readings should
be 4/32” less.
Padding in this case has pulled in a total of 1/8” (4/32”) since the
first caliperings. The amount of pull-in will vary with the kind and quality
of the padding used.
Remember: It’s the pulled-in diameter that finally determines
padding efficiency.
How Velocity Steam High Heat Levels Lengthen Effective Padding
Life and Enable the Use of Larger Roll Sizes for the Highest
Possible Utilization of All Available Contact Heating Surface
Padded roll sizes after pull-in may be 1/8” larger when ironers have
heat levels that are high enough to keep friction wear on the covers at a
minimum and padding resiliency at a maximum.
1. FRICTION
Friction varies inversely with heat – the more the heat, the less
the friction.
Just as a hot hand iron slips more easily over a damp cloth surface,
a padded roll slips more easily over a hot ironer surface.
Since a Velocity Steam heated ironer consistently maintains a
high heat level, ironer roll friction is reduced to a minimum and
excessive friction drags are avoided…. even when pads are
“over-sized”.
2. RESILIENCY
a. Heavy thick pads are more resilient because they have more
body.
b. Wet pads are less resilient – more heat means faster
evaporation and drier pads.
Only the last rolls exceed the manufacturers’ specified
maximum operating roll diameter. The greatest moisture
evaporation load is always on the first rolls. When these first
rolls are hotter they do even more of the work… leaving very
little moisture to be evaporated by the last rolls which retain
their resiliency longer. (Note that in the typical calipering it is
the last four rolls which exceed the manufacturers’ specified
maximum.)
3. PADDING LIFE
The higher heat levels resulting from Velocity Steam’s reduction
of air and water films give greatly increased resiliency to the
padding. This greater resiliency enables the padding to conform
exactly to the concave of the ironer chest. The result is a snug
fit – as true as a machined bearing – after pull-in, insuring full
utilization of all of the ironer’s contact heating surface and longer
effective life for the padding.
Mechanical and Maintenance Factors
Which Affect Ironing Efficiency
After proper graduation, pressure, and heat have been obtained,
any lack of ironing efficiency is probably due to maintenance factors
or mechanical misalignments. Since space does not permit listing every
possible contingency, only the most common are given here.
While some of the mechanical misalignments may temporarily be
compensated for by screw adjustments, any mechanical misalignment
should be checked with the ironer manufacturer.
Dirty Chests
There are many reasons for residue forming on chests, and this is
probably the most common – and most overlooked – maintenance
factor. Dirty chests cause rolling, buckling and streaking.
To test for dirty chests: In the middle of the ironer between the first
and second rolls rub a fine piece of emery cloth on the lip of the
chest. If it comes away dirty (chalky white), or there is a chalky white
dust on the chest, the chest needs cleaning.
Worn Bearings
If one bearing on a roll is worn more than the other and pressure
is applied, the roll end with the worn bearing will rest on the chest
before the other end. This causes an unequal pressure across the
roll and unequal diameters result. Screw adjustment, guided by the
Velocity Steam Caliper, compensates for some of this wear, but if it
is too great the only solution is replacement of the bearings.
STAINS & STRESSES
Dropping a wrench into the ironer, work piling up between the rolls
then being released so that the whole pile goes through; accidentally
reversing the ironer which unwinds the covers and padding so that
they wad up between the rolls and then go through; or other very
thick items going under the rolls cause terrible pressure and strain,
and something on the ironer has to give.
Bent or Cracked Pressure Bar
The pressure bar may bend or crack making it impossible to
maintain proper pressure, graduation or roll size.
Sometimes a cracked pressure bar can be welded satisfactorily.
Have the manufacturer check the ironer to see if this is possible.
Bent or Out-Of-Alignment Shafts
Another common result of severe strain is bending of the roll shafts.
It is impossible to maintain proper roll size and graduation and to
keep bearings in an ironer when the shafts are out of alignment.
Warped Chests
Chests warp because of different rates of expansion in the chest
when it is heated up too rapidly.
Water which collects as the chest cools down at night insulates the
bottom of the chest so that it cannot heat up as fast as the top. This is
a major cause of chest warpage because return systems are unable
to effectively drain all the water out of an ironer. Velocity Steam
automatically drains the system when the steam is turned off, thus
preventing chest warpage.
It is difficult to pad satisfactorily to compensate for a warped chest.
The more resilient types of padding will adapt to slight warpage,
and it is sometimes possible to compensate by “scabbing.” In severe
cases of warpage the chest should be replaced; grinding down the
warped chest is not quite as satisfactory.
Vertical or Horizontal Misalignment
One corner of the ironer may “settle” causing undue strain on the
operating parts of the ironer.
It is also possible for the ironer to get “out of square”, which causes
similar strains and may also result in permanent distortion.
Improper Chest Installation
This is fairly easy to detect as it usually causes the work to hit on one
edge of a chest. (When the chests are set into the ironer, they are
positioned so that the edge of each chest is slightly lower than the
edge of the preceding chest. Work flows smoothly because it drops
as it transfers from one chest to the other.) Shimming will correct
this condition.
Worn Gears
This occurs when the teeth of the gears wear thin there is slack in
the meshing of the gears and the rotation of the rolls is jerky and
noisy. This affects the pressure of the roll on the chest. Worn gears
should be replaced.
Off-Standard Rolls
Some rebuilt ironers have off-standard rolls. If the rolls are not too
off-size they may be properly padded using standard padding. If the
rolls are far off-size special pads, must be ordered.
Regardless of the size of the bare rolls, if the chests are standard,
the padded roll sizes should meet the specifications for proper
graduation.
Off-Standard Chests
If all of the chests of an ironer have been reground equally, properly
padded rolls may be obtained by using the Velocity Steam Caliper
and ordinary thickness initial pads.
If only one chest has been reground, it is possible to have either
proper roll size or graduation, but not both. It is better to sacrifice
roll size and obtain graduation.
TODAY EVERY IRONER CAN BE PADDED EFFICIENTLY
Until the development of the Velocity Steam Caliper, there was no way
of accurately measuring roll sizes under operating conditions. Various
devices have been tried – tapes, bands, machinists’ calipers and fixed
maximum-minimum calipers, to mention a few. These methods require
that the ironer be stopped while the rolls are being measured. Some
even require that the rolls be raised from the chests. The accuracy of
the readings depends on the skill of the individual doing the measuring.
Even at best, none of these methods is dependably accurate.
The importance of obtaining maximum diameters has been
overlooked because there has been no dependable method for closely
measuring operating roll sizes. Since accurate graduation also depends
on operating roll size, the net result has been too many inefficiently
padded and operated ironers.
Velocity Steam engineers saw they must have an accurate device
for measuring operating roll diameter if laundry operators were to gain
full advantage of the super speeds made possible by Velocity Steam’s
higher heat levels.
To fill this need, they invented a floating arm caliper that would be
dependable under normal operating conditions – independent of the
type or brand of padding, and applicable to all standard and super-roll
ironers.
The Velocity Steam Caliper
OPERATION OF THE CALIPER: The
Velocity Steam Caliper is a precision
tool which accurately measures roll
diameters to within 1/32”. With the
ironer operating normally, with or
without work being processed, set the
Velocity Steam Caliper on the roll and
a right angle to the roll shaft, with both
sides and top touching the roll. The
movable arm automatically adjusts to
the roll, and diameter is read directly form the gauge.
ROLL PRESSURE
Pressure is a vital factor in ironing efficiency because even the bestpadded roll has a natural tendency to climb out of the chest. An air gap
only the thickness of a cigarette paper between the chest surface and
the work, or between the roll and the work, will lower the heat level
considerably.
The roll is made to fit snugly in the chest by bar pressure
application.
Material hugs the roll instead of being ironed
against the concave.
When there is NO PRESSURE, the roll does
not rest in the chest. Work never touches the
heating surface of the concave.
No Pressure
When there is INSUFFICIENT PRESSURE,
the roll jumps up and down in the chest. Work
touches the heating surface of the concave only
part of the time.
Insufficient Pressure
When there is PROPER PRESSURE, heat is
wiped off all the concave heating surface.
Proper Pressure
A PROPERLY PADDED ROLL fits snugly into
the chest utilizing the maximum contact ironing
surface in the concave.
Properly Padded
„ „
lost
surface
lost
surface
Under-Padded
UNDER-PADDED ROLLS: When the initial
padded diameter of the roll is less than the
minimum, some contact heating surfact is
lost. This happens quite frequently. Because
padding is constantly being compressed and
losing its resiliency, the diameter of a padded
roll is reduced with usage. Sooner or later the
roll becomes underpadded and must be repadded or built up to size.
OVER-PADDED ROLLS: After the padding
is pulled in, if the diameter of the roll is larger
than the concave can accommodate, the roll
cannot “seat” all the way into the chest and
the contact heating surface at the bottom of the
chest is wasted.
This happens infrequently and usually from
using a pad that is incorrect for the particular
ironer.
· ·
wasted surface
Over-Padded
A SLIGHTLY OVER-SIZED ROLL will improve
ironing if the pad has sufficient heat to reduce
friction wear.
The weight of the roll will force the padding
into the chest and the resilient padding and will
conform exactly to the concave. Then, as the
padding loses its resiliency, it will maintain its
Slightly Oversized shape and fit as snugly as a machined bearing.
Since the padding is compressed to the maximum operating diameter
(and therefore, will not compress much smaller with continued use) it
will remain at the maximum size for a longer period of time. In other
words, the effective life of the padding is increased considerably.
However, you must have a heat level that is high enough to
keep padding resiliency at a maximum and friction wear on the
covers at a minimum.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
KEEP CHEST CLEAN
LUBRICATE CHEST SPARINGLY & OFTEN
NEUTRAL pH
SPEED vs. FEED RATE
CONDITIONING vs. CHEST TEMP.
ROLL SIZE NOMINAL
LINEAR SPEED INCREASE (GRADUATION)
ROLLS SQUARE TO CHEST
FEED BOARD CONDITION
FINGER ROLL CONDITION
AVOID EXCESSIVE CHEMICALS
FINGER ROLL PLACEMENT
TINGUE TOPICS
FLATWORK IRONER CHEST CLEANING
AND LUBRICATION
The residues which are deposited on ironer chest are carbon from
lubricants, burnt lint, washroom products, plastic and hospital tapes.
If linens are not adequately rinsed, carbonates or silicates from the
products which remain in the fabric can be deposited on the chest. If
the water contains a high bicarb content, or if any high concentration of
salts from silicaflouride base sours remain in linens, a buildup will occur
on the chest.
Salt build up comes from faulty operating water softeners. Excessive
use of powdered softeners and antichlors also contribute to the
problem. Since the residue build-up causes excessive friction, the linen
will not slide on the chest, which in turn causes excessive static and
rolling problems. Quality and production is directly affected; then add
to this the cost of damaged roll dressing, guide tape and folder ribbons.
Lubricants and cleaners help overcome these problems.
If the washroom is in perfect order, there would be little need for
chest lubricants. There is no miracle cleaner that will instantly clean
an ironer chest merely by feeding the product through the ironer via a
wax cloth. Chest surfaces must be cleaned by hand or by the use of a
Continuous Cleaning Belt. After the build up is removed, regular use
of various cleaners and lubrication products will help prevent further
building. The cleaners and lubricants must be used sparingly and
regularly. The following is a guide to various cleaners and lubricants
and their intended use.
1. LUBRI-KLEEN COMPOUND:
Combination lubricant, antistat and cleaner. One step product to
be used at regular intervals daily. Available in paste form for steam
and thermal ironers. LUBRI-KLEEN OIL is available for steam heated
ironers only.
2. POWDERED WAX LUBRICANT:
For lubrication only. Safe for steam, thermal and gas ironers.
Granular form, synthetic wax manufactured from glycerides. A cloth
containing wax should be run 3 or 4 times throughout the work
day.
3. THERMA LUBE COMPOUND:
Special high temperature chest lubricant for thermal heated ironers
with temperatures in excess of 400ºF.
4. LUBRI-KLEEN #2:
Cleaner only. A semi-liquid compound which contains pumice.
For hand cleaning ironer chests and for use in the Continuous Belt
Cleaning device.
Lubrication and Cleaning Aids
1. TINGUE LUBRICATING APRONS
Wax cloth 2 ply coverdux sheeting, overedged, 120” width. Also
available in cotton double face panel.
2. KLEENO PAD
Woven steel wool sewn to heavy cloth. Aids in removal of heavy
duty build ups, i.e., melted plastic, autoclave tape, carbon, washroom
residue, etc. 65” width. Designed so that one operator can feed it
into the ironer.
3. WAX-N-CLEAN CLOTH
Ironer wax cloth with built in cleaning metallic scouring section.
Helps remove build ups before lubrication is applied on same cloth.
Available in 72” and 120” widths. Available with aluminum mylar
flap for ironers using needlefelt roll dressing. Keeps felts clean and
helps keep lubricants out of roll vacuum systems.
4. CONTINUOUS BELT CLEANER:
Available in 36” OR 72” widths. Special aluminum scouring edges
sewn to heavy canvas duck complete with velcro connecting device.
Eliminates hand cleaning. Should be used with special cleaner with
pumice Lubri Kleen #2 for maximum cleaning.
Be cautious of compounds which claim to clean ironer chest merely
by feeding through a cleaner cloth. These products could be caustic,
thus causing damage to covers, pads, roll springs, apron ducks and
chest surfaces.
Concentrate efforts in the washroom; in doing so, there will be very
little chest lubricating and cleaning problems. Feed linens across
the entire width of the padded roll so that ends of the chest and roll
covers will remain clean.
For additional information, contact your Tingue, Brown & Co. representative.
RECOMMENDED AMOUNTS OF CLEANERS AND WAX
RECOMMENDED TIMES FOR PERFORMANCES:
1. To apply cleaners, use 54” or 72” wide cotton flannel as long as the
ironer chest (i.e. 100”, 110”, or 120”).
• If you are using a paste cleaner, spread about three pounds of
paste on cotton flannel. Fold the flannel so paste is enveloped
in cloth.
• If you are using an oil, saturate the first 12 inches of cotton flannel
with oil then wring out the excessive oil with your hands.
• This procedure should be followed three times a week, at
morning start-up Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
2. A heavier material such as a bath towel should be used down the
sides of the ironer where padding is tapered.
3. After running cleanser through the ironer on these three days, the
Resillo Kleeno pad should be run through the ironer after cleaning
cloth. This helps loosen any dirt on ironer chests.
4. After running the Resillo pad, follow-up with the waxing of the
ironer.
Waxing procedure should be followed every day of operation in the
following manner.
1. Every morning apply about a half cup of powered wax to the wax
cloth (which is a different cloth than the cleaning cloth).
2. Run wax cloth through the ironer at morning start-up, after morning
break, after lunch break and after the afternoon break. This is four
times a day every day of operation. Do not add wax to the wax cloth
during the day but only at the morning start-up.
3. When running cleaner or wax through the ironer, always allow the
cloth to run under the first roll of ironer then stop the ironer for
about 10 seconds to allow wax or cleaner to become soft. This will
insure good cleaning and lubrication to all the rolls.
4. Never use wax or cleaners when ironer is about to be shut down.
The soft lubricant on the chest as the chest cools down will have
the ability to harden and it may pick up lint or chemicals and fuse
together to cause a buildup on the lips of the chest.
5. In multiple ironer plants, separate cleaning and waxing cloths for
each ironer. This saves time and insures the same amounts of
cleaner and wax is applied to each ironer.
6. After cleaning and waxing, turn vacuum system and static bars back
on and set folder on operation desired.
CLEANING AND WAXING SCHEDULE
Time
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
Start-up
K.P.
L.K.
C.W. 3
K.P.
C.W. 3
K.P.
P.W.
C.W. 3
K.P.
C.W. 3
K.P.
P.W.
C.W. 3
Each 2 Hrs.
C.W. 3
C.W. 3
C. W. 3
C.W. 3
C.W. 3
Each Day
B.D.
B.D.
B.D.
B.D.
B.D.
Each Week
S. & E. C.
Each Quarter
B. C. P.
1. “K.P.” – Kleeno Pad – After ironer is hot and before start-up time, run
“Kleeno Pad” through ironer on each side. Use normal pressure.
2. “L. K.” – Lubri-Kleen should be applied to clean-n-wax cloth on
Monday morning. Use one double handful. Spread evenly inside
“pocket” and close it. An alternate product is white oil A.
3. “C.W. 3” – Clean-N-Wax cloth should be run through the ironer 3
times: Once on the far left (lapped over the edge of the chest ),
once on the far right (lapped over the edge of the chest ) and straight
down the middle. Never drag cloth on the floor.
4. “P.W.” – Powdered Wax should be applied to the Clean-N-Wax Cloth
on Wednesday and Friday mornings. Use approximately 3 cups.
Spread evenly inside “pocket” and close it.
5. “B.D.” – Blow Down ironer thoroughly every day to reduce fire
hazard and prevent residue “Build-Up.”
6. “S. & E.C.” – Scraper and Emory Cloth – Once a week when ironer is
cool and Power is off, use a scraper and emory cloth to clean the
“reachable” area of the chest.
7. “B.C.P.” – Belt Cleaning Pad – Once a quarter, run on each side of
the ironer with a good application of lubri-Kleen, depending on dirt
residue. Run for 1-4 hours only on warm ironer.
Note: When applying “Fresh” wax, stop the ironer when the wax is
under roll #1, wait about 10 seconds, then continue running
through. On the next pass, open the flat and do not stop the
ironer.
On Hamilton Spring Roll-Type Ironers, turn the vacuum off when
waxing and for 10 minutes afterward. Then turn vacuum back
on.
THE BEST IRONING TEMPERATURE FOR NAPERY
If napery is losing color or melting after finishing, check ironer
temperature.
TROUBLESHOOTING
BY KEVIN KEYES
One of the most detrimental types of processing that can occur in
the laundry is the continued ironing of table linen at temperatures in
excess of 330 degrees Fahrenheit.
Particularly harmful is ironing repeatedly at over 400 degrees
Fahrenheit. At 400 degrees Fahrenheit, all major types of table linen
– 100 percent cotton, 50/50 polyester/cotton blends, and 100 percent
polyester are damaged.
The damage to each type of fabric is different.
WHAT TO EXPECT
At high temperatures, the cotton fiber in 100 percent cotton napery
is not hurt; it is the dye on the fabric that is damaged. Dye is sublimated
off the fabric at 400 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. This means that the
dye literally disappears – vaporizes if you will off the fabric surface.
This loss of color due to heat is in addition to the normal color loss
that occurs in processing 100 percent cotton. Therefore, cotton should
not be ironed at 400 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.
One hundred percent polyester has a different set of problems.
The sublimation that occurs on cotton also occurs on the polyester. In
addition, at 400 degrees Fahrenheit, polyester melts or at least glazes,
depending on the time and pressure the fabric encounters in the ironer.
Obviously, polyester should not be ironed at 400 degrees Fahrenheit or
higher.
With 50/50 polyester/cotton blend linen, the problems encountered
are the combination of what can happen to each fiber separately. As
with 100 percent cotton and 100 percent polyester, dye sublimation
occurs off both parts of the 50/50 blend fabric. Also, the polyester can
melt, leaving melt balls with edges sharp enough to cut and damage
the adjacent cotton fibers in the weave. Therefore, as with the other
table linen fabrics, 50/50 blends should not be ironed at 400 degrees
Fahrenheit or higher.
THE IDEAL TEMPERATURES
So what is the best temperature? A maximum of 350 degrees
Fahrenheit is the most efficient ironer temperature without sacrificing
quality or productivity, or damaging table linen.
Usually this decrease in temperature requires a decrease in ironer
speed to assure that the table linen still dries in one pass through the
ironer. However, there is almost never a loss of productivity at this
slower speed since feeders can work only so fast. The ideal situation
is a fully covered ironer or gaps of only two to three inches between
items.
In summary, since any or all of the types of table linen are damaged
at temperatures above 330 degrees Fahrenheit and severely damaged
at temperatures in excess of 400 degrees Fahrenheit, table linen life can
be preserved and extended by running ironers at a maximum of 330
degrees Fahrenheit.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
LAUNDRY PICKS & SNAGS
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Burrs & Sharp Edges
Check for burrs and sharp edges on
machinery and handling equipment by
using a wet napkin. Do not use staples to
fasten ironer tapes, and check for loose
or broken wires on feed and exit apron
connectors.
Washing with Tableware
Be sure all tableware and other foreign
objects are removed before washing.
Rough Shelves
& Table Corners
Eliminate rough spots and protruding
nails on shelves. Tape table corners.
Personnel
Educate personnel on correct handling
techniques.
PICKING/SNAGGING CHECK LIST
If picking and snagging are problems, and the source of this is not
obvious, the following check list may be helpful in determining this
source.
1. How is the soiled linen handled on truck? Bagged, thrown in bin,
piled on the floor of truck?
2. Is the linen sorted from foreign matter?
3. What is the condition of equipment in the soil sort area?
Transport buggies, conveyors and belts (including belt fasteners),
loading chutes and ducts (on overhead load vacuum systems, the
screen over fan has been source of damage to Signature Plus™ linen
– may need finer mesh cover to prevent ends of over-edged napkins
from contacting fan blades or blower cage and avoid chewing off
corners).
4. Is the wash wheel free of burrs? (Door tracks and new welds are
prime source of burrs. Also, on unloaders check washer/can
extension board, as these receive rough treatment through repeated
collisions by extractor cans). Check drain holes of wash wheels with
a shear fabric to uncover burrs in drain holes themselves.
5. If tumblers are used, is the basket freed of melted plastic and
imbedded foreign objects? On new tumblers, perforations may
have burrs. Also, check for missing drum gasket at door. Check
door for weld burrs and imbedded foreign objects.
6. Are staples used to fasten ironer tapes?
7. Are feed and exit apron connectors free of loose or broken wires?
8. Has the chest been damaged by dropping tools on them?
9. Are the folder/accumulator belts and blades free of burrs or broken
connectors?
10. Are there any rough covered traction rolls on ironer or folder/
accumulator?
11. Are clean storage shelves, bins, or carts free of splinters or burrs?
12. How is napery handled for transport to the customer?
If nothing is found in any of the above areas, it will be necessary to go
to the restaurant location to check on handling.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
STARCH/SIZING
CAUSE
TOO STIFF:
PVAc Buildup or
Excessive Starch
SOLUTION
Reclaim with additional alkali and
more heat. Then reformulate four
parts natural starch to one part PVAc.
TOO LIMP:
Water Level
Use lower available water level for
optimum starch penetration. Actual level
varies by washer.
Sour
Starching results are best at pH levels
between 5.5-6.5. Add sour at least two
minutes before starch to allow even
distribution.
Temperature
Maintain bath temperatures between 90º
– 105º F for starch.
Supplies
Check with your Milliken Technical Services
Representative for the recommended
amounts and ratios of supplies for each
type of starch or sizing material.
Load Size
Starch penetration is limited when the
washer is overloaded. Use the following
clean dry weight capacities as a guideline
for load size: Full Drop: 90%, Split Pocket:
75%, Y Pocket: 65%
Overdrying
Too much extraction or conditioning causes
starch to be lost. Maintain 20% - 25%
moisture retention in napery before ironing.
Time
Allow at least eight minutes starch time for
even penetration of starch.
Inadequate Cleaning
Reformulate washing process to insure
thorough cleaning of napery so starch can
adhere to the fabric.
Personnel
Carefully instruct all personnel on correct
starching procedures to insure consistency
from load to load.
MILLIKEN TABLE LINEN STARCHING CHECKLIST
If you are having trouble getting your napkins starched enough to suit
you, check to be sure you are doing the following:
1. Linens should be clean and processed without fabric softener. If
they are waterproof or slow to absorb (taking longer than 3 seconds
to absorb a drop of water), then napkins are not getting sufficiently
clean, and food grease or fabric softener is preventing starch
adherence.
2. Linens should be properly soured to a pH of 5.5 – 6.5 before starch
is added.
3. Sour should not have fabric softener or door lubricant in it – this will
waterproof the linen.
4. Water level during starch should be low, and starch cycle should run
at least 6 minutes - preferably 8-10 minutes.
5. Starch should be added to the wash wheel based on the wash wheel
size, not the amount of linen being washed.
6. If mildewcide is being used in the wash cycle, be sure it is not a
quaternary ammonium type (softener containing), which will also
waterproof the linen.
7. Final extract time should be as short as possible – preferably between
30 seconds to 4 minutes, so that you do not sling the starch out of
the linens.
8. Whenever possible, take damp linens from the washer right to the
ironer. If some tumbling is necessary, keep it to a minimum (5
minutes or less) to avoid exhausting the starch out of the dryer.
9. Make sure linens are damp (20-25% moisture retention), not dry,
going to the ironer.
10. Ironer temperature should be in the proper range, between 310ºF
and 330ºF.
If you have any additional questions, contact your Milliken Technical
Service Representative at 1-800-322-TEAM.
STARCHING SOLUTIONS FOR POLY NAPERY
In a new column on troubleshooting processing problems, John Potts
discusses how to get the best results possible when starching poly
napery.
TROUBLESHOOTING
BY JOHN POTTS
You are using polyester napery to take advantage of durability and
color fastness. Your customers ask for more body and a firmer hand
in order to make fancy napkin folds. From your experience, this is a
perplexing problem. With cotton napery it was simple, but can anything
be done with poly napery? Of course. It’s a matter of understanding the
starching process, and just as important, the napery.
First, let us talk about starches and sizing materials. Starches are
derived from natural substances like corn, wheat, or rice. They are
available in either raw or instant form and can be chemically modified
to produce thick or thin boiling starches. Raw starches usually need to
be cooked prior to using. Instant starches, having been precooked, are
added dry to the wash wheel and are considered the easiest to use.
Synthetic starches or sizing were developed to provide an improved
and enhanced hand for blend and all-poly fabrics. Sizing can be
totally synthetic or blended with natural starches, and most chemical
suppliers have generic or proprietary sizing for synthetic flat goods and
garments.
STARCH OR SIZING?
Which type of starch or sizing should you use? The choice can be
involved, but in fact, a reasonable degree of firmness can be achieved
on poly napery with either type of starch or sizing. As a rule, for light
to moderate firmness, starches work well. For a stiff to boardy hand,
sizing is sometimes necessary. The choice between raw or instant
starch depends on what your starch supplier offers and whether a
cooker is available in the laundry. Additional factors include the napery
characteristics as well as the processing situation.
Starching or sizing is both a chemical and a mechanical operation.
The effectiveness depends on the type of napery, previous processing,
current procedures, later handling, as well as the type of sizing substance
used. Why should the fabric characteristics be important? Cotton, for
example, is an organic fiber. It has a non-uniform cross section, is
hollow and porous, and has a relatively scaly surface. Cotton provides
a good substrate on which the small particles of natural starches can
become attached.
Generic polyester is a manmade petrochemical-based substrate with
a smooth, non-porous surface and a uniform cross section. It is difficult
to achieve satisfactory starch film buildup on unmodified polyester
napery.
Much of the polyester napery used today has been engineered
to take advantage of the desirable characteristics of cotton, but this
doesn’t mean that the starching procedure will not need a few minor
modifications.
HOW PROBLEMS OCCUR
Nearly all the various types of starches and sizing compounds work
satisfactorily with cotton, blends, and surface-modified polyester napery
when used as directed by the manufacturer. But if the desired result
isn’t achieved, attention should be focused on the overall wash process
and process control in the laundry.
With any type of linen, but particularly with polyester napery, the
major prerequisite is a clean fabric surface. Redeposited soil, residual
softeners, and mildewcides can coat the fabric, preventing the proper
interaction of starch or sizing with the fibers. The result is light starch
film formation with most of the starch going down the drain or coming
off on ironer covers. An adequate wash formula is necessary to prepare
the poly napery for starching.
As basic as it may seem, most of the same situations that cause
failure in the break, carry-over, and bleaching operations also cause
inconsistency and poor results in the starching or sizing process.
For example, overloading the wheel reduces the mechanical action
necessary to work starch and sizing materials into the yarn. In fact,
more mechanical action is needed with poly napery to overcome its
lack of natural porosity. Overloading also causes poor distribution of
starch throughout the load, resulting in poor uniformity.
Water levels are important, as with any part of the wash cycle. A
high concentration of the starching material is needed, so keep the
water level low, about two to four inches above the basket.
Improper control of pH, time, and temperature also reduces the
quality, degree, and consistency of the starching operation.
THE RIGHT PROCEDURE
The starching procedure essentially should work like this:
1. Following the last rinse of the napery wash formula, refill the wheel
with tempered water (90 to 105 degree Fahrenheit) to a starching or
low level (two to four inches).
2. Add a good grade of laundry sour in an amount sufficient to reduce
the pH to 5.5 to 6.5. This is the correct range for proper adhesion of
most starching or sizing compounds, as well as, for proper flatwork
finishing. The cycle should run for no less than two minutes to
ensure proper distribution of the sour throughout the washload.
3. Without draining the wheel, add the cooked/instant starch or sizing
substance and continue the cycle for eight to ten minutes. In my
experience, the major source of starching failures is the tendency
to short-cut with a four minute cycle. It’s essential to allow enough
time at this point to work the starch or sizing into the poly fabric.
4. When the cycle is complete, drain the wheel. At this point, the linen
should have a uniform application of starch.
5. It is now very important not to undo all of the time, chemicals, and
cost invested by over-extracting. Since optimum starching results
depend on minimal handling and flexing of the poly napery, a
washer/extractor is the ideal wash and extract equipment.
Not all companies have washer/extractors, though. Next best is an
off-line centrifugal extractor, and the most common are hydraulic
and diaphragm extractors. Since these types of extractors nearly
always require conditioning, if only to break up the cake, it is
essential to control the conditioning time involved. This tumbling
and flexing will undo a proper starch or sizing application more than
any other handling.
The time and speed of all extraction and conditioning should be
controlled to retain a moisture level of 20 to 25 percent. This is easy
to achieve in poly napery with four minutes in a centrifugal extractor
at high speed or 375 pounds per square inch; in a diaphragm-type
extractor followed by two to five minutes in an efficient tumbler.
Obviously, these are guidelines, as all equipment is different.
6. The residual moisture in the poly napery is dried by flatwork ironing,
setting the starch or sizing film. As the linen cools, the film becomes
less flexible and the job is done.
WHY PROBLEMS OCCUR
Certain problems will become visible at this point, such as
highlighting, lumpy deposits of starch, or disappointing results in degree
or consistency of firmness in the napery. Heavy buildup of the white
starch or sizing on the first two or three rolls of the ironer also can be
seen at times.
When problems occur, troubleshoot your procedure. For the most
part, highlighting and deposits of starch on the linen result from failing
to properly maintain starch particles in suspension. Suspects are:
Residual wash chemicals in the fabric, too cold a water temperature,
and any condition that prevented proper dispersion and distribution
throughout the load. Was too much starch product used for the amount
of linen? Could the starch or sizing material be contaminated? Was the
proper starch or size used?
Occasionally, a buildup of some sizing products will occur. Symptoms
are inconsistency of firmness, too boardy a hand, or inadequate
absorption by the napery. The solution to this problem is a simple
reclaim wash to strip the buildup of sizing before the next application.
As a rule, using an adequate wash formula to begin with prevents the
situation.
Inconsistency or lack of firmness are related to the amounts of
starch used as well as the type of starch. Was linen too dry going to the
ironer? Tumbled too long? Were lubricants used in wash chemicals to
assist with wheel door operation?
This has not been an attempt to cover all aspects of starching or
sizing polyester napery; it’s a guideline to understanding the interaction
of the mechanical and chemical environment involved.
By taking into account these factors and some trial-and-error
modifications, you will be on the right track to satisfying your customers
with the elegant napery they desire while reaping the rewards of
durability and profitability using polyester napery.
John Potts is a Milliken & Company associate, Spartanburg, S.C.
Reprinted with permission from Clean Scene Magazine, January 1989
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
WRINKLES
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Thermal Shock
Thermal shock wrinkles occur when
napery is exposed to sudden changes in
temperature. Avoid thermal shock by
tempering cold water in the winter. Then
reduce the water temperature in 15º
increments to 100ºF before extracting.
Extraction
Reduce pressure, RPM or time during
extraction.
Insufficient Cool Down
Cool to a temperature of 100ºF or less
before extracting or removing from
washer or dryer.
Hot Spots on Dryer
Be sure gas flame is not impinging on the
dryer basket.
Malfunction
Inspect all machinery and maintain on a
regular schedule.
Overloading
Washer capacity should not exceed
90% of clean dry weight for full drop
machines, 75% for split pocket, and 65%
for Y pocket. Tumbler loads should be
50%. Also, do not leave carts or slings
overloaded for extended periods.
Folder Stacks
Reduce the size of napery stacks on the
folder or increase air flow to cool the
napery before stacking.
Storage
Fold napery correctly before storing, and
allow adequate storage space to prevent
wrinkling.
SIGNATURE PLUS™‚ TABLE LINEN
WRINKLING CAUSES & SOLUTIONS
1. Cause:
Solution:
Overloading washer
Load 2/3 dry rated capacity
2. Cause:
Solution:
Overloading dryer
Load 1/2 dry rated capacity
3. Cause:
Solution:
Excessive extraction
1. Limit extract to low speed only if possible for 2-3
minutes
2. If high only – minimum possible time
3. If low speed built in (stabilize machine time
usually 45 to 55 seconds) run low plus minimum
high speed
4. Cause:
Excessive drop of water temperature (more than 15º
drop, especially at 150º plus) from last break to first
rinse to second rinse.
Temperature drops between steps of 15º or less.
Solution:
5. Cause:
Solution:
Not drying linen
Linen cycle for synthetics is:
1. Wet and cold when you put it in the dryer
2. Wet and hot as it dries
3. Dry and hot for as short a time as possible
4. Dry and cool until linens are completely cool
(100ºF or body temperature).
6. Cause:
Solution:
Overdrying linen
Not serious except in conjunction with no heat
controls (i.e. no cool down).
7. Cause:
Solution:
Insufficient cool down or no cool down
“Memory” of fabric for flat state requires slow cooling
to room temperature.
8. Cause:
Solution:
Faulty drying equipment – controls, air flow gauges
Equipment must have proper and adequate controls
for hot cycle, cool cycle, temperature control.
9. Cause:
Solution:
Dryer capacity too small for size of linen
Large cloths in small diameter dryers won’t work
10. Cause:
Solution:
Temperature of heat cycle too low
Suggested range for dryer heat wetting is 180º– 190º
(this is where perma-press cycle runs). This yields an
exhaust temperature of 160º – 170º.
11. Cause:
Solution:
Temperature of heat cycle too high
Only a problem if high enough to damage cloth or no
cool down
12. Cause:
Solution:
No shelf life
Linens need 24 hours of shelf life
When problems with wrinkling occur, this procedure should enable the
restoration of the linen to a non-wrinkled state.
SIGNATURE PLUS™‚ TABLE LINEN
WRINKLING RECLAIM PROCEDURE
1. Load gas dryer 50% capacity or preferably less with dry wrinkled
linen.
2. Run on “hot” setting (190º – 210ºF) from 20 to 30 minutes.
3. Run 10 to 15 minutes “cooldown” or until dryer is sufficiently cooled
to about 100ºF.
4. Be sure dryer does not stop during either heat or cool cycles.
5. Remove linen as per proper handling instructions as outlined in
Milliken’s processing sheets.
6. Allow shelf life, if possible, to remove remaining “soft” wrinkles.
Hard creases and wrinkles should be gone. The high heat and extended
time allow the fabric to “relax” back into its flat dry state.
NOTE:
For steam tumblers more time may be necessary due to the
limited temperature range of the machine.
If the dryer does not get hot enough to do a reclaim, the
linens may be taken to a laundromat to run this procedure.
Or, a rental laundry or dry cleaners can run the linens
through a flatwork ironer (set at 325º – 340ºF) to remove
the hard wrinkles.
TO REMOVE LINT FROM
NAPKINS, TOPS
• Load dryer to 50% capacity
• Leave door open (slightly) to increase
vacuum effect
• No heat
• Run 15-20 minutes
SUGGESTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND REMOVAL
OF LINT/CONTAMINATION
1. Reduce contamination in wash wheels by reordering wash loads by
fabric type and the potential of each fabric to create lint or loose
fibers.
2. Clean ironer covers by brushing with wire brush and collecting lint.
3. After cleaning the ironer, run a few wet sheets to pick up residual
lint.
4. Increase the frequency of lint removal methods (blowing down with
compressed air, vacuuming, and sweeping).
5. Reduce static in fabrics by maintaining a higher moisture level in the
air.
6. Wash laundry bags.
7. Reduce contact with rags or other textiles that produce lint in
processing and storage.
8. Try to identify contaminate fiber type and reduce contact. Then,
isolate lint producing products.
9. As a reclaim option, try to condition some of the fibers out by
conditioning in the dryer for extended cycles. Some people have
successfully opened the door slightly during processing to increase
the vacuum effect to try to remove lint.
10. As a last resort, you may want to try to burn off contamination with
appropriate chemicals for each fiber (but with caution!). Below are
some of the chemicals used in laundries.
•
Alkali for polyester. This is not recommended as it will eventually
damage the napkin too.
•
Bleaching may help to remove natural fibers and could discolor
colored lint to avoid detection. (Use on white fabrics only.)
•
Oxalic acid can also help with natural fibers.
•
Contact your chemical representative to discuss these alternatives
prior to trying them. They also may have other chemicals with
enzymes which will possibly remove cotton lint.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
FOLDER REJECTS
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Settings
Check manufacturer’s recommendations
for correct settings.
Slippage
Inspect and maintain gears, belts and
conveyors at the apron/conveyors
junction. Also, try slowing down the
conveyors or using more starch.
Uneven Folds
Adjust folder alignment to manufacturer’s
specifications and repair or replace worn
belts.
Belt Angle
Reduce the incline if the conveyor belt
angle is too sharp.
Static
See STATIC – Grounding, and check the
speeds of adjacent surfaces.
Dirty Folder
Clean each folder and folder belt with an
air hose as needed.
Personnel
Carefully instruct all personnel on correct
feeding techniques and lane alignment.
NAPERY TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Problem
CUSTOMER ABUSE
CAUSE
SOLUTION
Excessive Heat
Explain to the customer that excessive heat
such as a hot grill will damage linens.
Incorrect Storage
Set-up storage for both clean and soiled
napery in a convenient place. Check to
be sure correct procedures are being
followed.
Soil Segregation
Advise the customer not to mix soiled
napery with bleach rags or bar wipes.
Incorrect Usage
Napery should not be used as a grease
rag or bar wipe. Offer the customer
appropriate items for these applications.
ABUSIVE SITUATIONS SHOULD BE AVOIDED:
1. No polishing silverware with linens
2. No shining shoes with linens
3. No dragging linens across floor
4. No cleaning ashtrays with linens
5. No wiping tables with linens
6. No food/utensils in linen bags
7. No rags in linen bag
8. Associates should shake out linens prior to placing them in their
respective bags.
Recommendations for Handling
Milliken Napery Fabrics
For Laundries With Finishing Equipment
BASIC REQUIREMENTS:
1.
2.
3.
Equipment must be free of burns and sharp edges.
Washing equipment should have properly functioning water level and temperature
controls.
Follow normal extraction procedures on cool (90º-100ºF) linens. n
Cleaning and waxing of ironer chest, and maintenance of roll pads and covers should
comply with ironer manufacturer’s recommendations. Maintain chest temperature
between 315ºF and 350ºF on gas, steam, electric, and thermal fluid ironers.
Chemical feed systems must be functioning properly.
PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS:
1.
Before placing new linen into service, it should be washed separately to remove
manufacturing residual dyes. Darker shades should be washed separately
several times.
2. Shade groups such as darks, mediums and lights should be washed separately. To
avoid color contamination red colors should always be washed separately.
Contact your Milliken representative for further information on shade groupings.
3. Milliken Napery Fabrics should be washed separately from 100% Cotton and
Poly/Cotton blends to avoid contamination from lint and ensure proper cleaning.
4. Wash formula and wash chemicals should be appropriate for type and amount of soil
to be removed. t
5. Surfactants are recommended in the break cycle.
6. Use of complex phosphates along with silicated alkalies are recommended where
permitted by law.
7. Soaps of animal or vegetable fats should be avoided.
8. Bleaches should not be used on colored Milliken napery.
9. White Milliken napery should receive antichlor treatment after hypochlorite or other
chlorine bleaching.
10. For good mechanical action, load wash wheel: Full Drop - 90% Split Pocket - 75%
Y-Pocket - 65%
11. Softeners and waxes must not be used with Milliken napery, as these will mask the
absorbency of the fabric.
12. Adequate rinsing to remove residual chemical is necessary to ensure maximum fabric
life and color retention.
P ROC E S S I N G R E Q U I R E M E N T S FO R G I N G H A M C H E C KS :
1.
2.
All requirements as stated above.
Checks must be washed separately from all other linen products to prevent color
transfer from other products. Different colors of checks may be washed together after
several washes.
n Polyester Spun fabrics will retain more moisture and may require longer extract/drying time.
t Additional chemicals and/or time may be required for spun polyester.
Tablelinen Fabrics,
Made in America
For Laundries with Finishing Equipment
SUGGESTED WASH FORMULAS & CHEMICAL
SUPPLIES FOR MILLIKEN NAPERY
TIME SUPPLIES/100 lbs.
WATER
ºF
SUPPLIES/100 lbs.
LEVEL TEMPERATURE (Min.) POWDER SYSTEMS
LIQUID SYSTEMS
Split
3
Flush
High
12 1.5-2.5# Built Detergent
Break
Low
120º≠
12-24 Alkali
15oz. Surfactant (pH 11-11.5)
15oz. Surfactant (pH 11-11.5)
6
Carry-over Low
120
l
High
120
2
Rinse
2
Rinse
High
120
High
120
2
Rinse
90-100
2 1-2oz. Sour/Do Not Drain 1-2oz. Sour/Do Not Drain
Sour
Low
After Sour (pH 5.5-6.5) After Sour (pH 5.5-6.5)
Starch
Low
90-100
10 Add 3/4 to 1 1/2 lbs. Starch Add 3/4 to 1 1/2 lbs. Starch
Extract
CYCLE
≠Temperature recommendations for Signature Plus™ and Encore® table linens
lBleaching not recommended for colors. Recommended bleach temperature for whites
is 140º
For temperature recommendations for other Milliken table linen fabrics, contact our
Laundry Service Team at 1-800-322-TEAM
Items Per Washer Load
Napery
Item
Napkins
Napkins
Napkins
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Size
(inches)
18x18
20x20
21x21
42x42
52x52
54x54
64x64
70x70
85x85
90x90
54x110
Weight
(pounds)
.09
.12
.13
.51
.78
.84
1.19
1.42
2.09
2.34
1.72
18#
120
90
83
21
13
12
9
7
5
4
6
30#
200
150
138
35
23
21
15
12
8
7
10
Rated Washer Capacity
50#
60#
75#
100#
500
666
400
333
375
500
300
250
276
346
461
230
70
88
117
58
57
76
46
38
53
71
42
35
37
30
50
25
31
25
42
21
21
17
28
14
19
15
25
12
26
20
34
17
125#
833
625
576
147
96
89
63
52
35
32
43
20#
111
83
76
19
12
11
8
7
4
4
5
30#
166
125
115
29
19
17
12
10
7
6
8
Rated Washer Capacity
50#
75#
100# 110#
277
411
555
611
208
308
416
458
192
284
384
423
49
72
98
107
32
47
64
70
29
44
59
65
21
31
42
46
17
26
35
38
11
17
23
26
10
15
21
23
14
21
29
31
200#
1111
833
769
196
128
119
84
70
47
42
58
Items Per Dryer Load
Napery
Item
Napkins
Napkins
Napkins
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Size
(inches)
18x18
20x20
21x21
42x42
52x52
54x54
64x64
70x70
85x85
90x90
54x110
Weight
(pounds)
.09
.12
.13
.51
.78
.84
1.19
1.42
2.09
2.34
1.72
* for white Milliken napery insert bleach cycle and antichlor in formula. Bleaching of colored Milliken napery
is not recommended.
** Time depends on machine design. Use a minimum time.
For additional information and assistance contact:
Milliken & Company
920 Milliken Road, M-143
Spartanburg, SC 29303
1-800-322-TEAM
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.54
0.83
0.90
1.26
1.60
2.23
2.50
1.86
18x18
20x20
21x21
42x42
52x52
54x54
64x64
70x70
85x85
90x90
54x110
Napkins
Napkins
Napkins
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
1533
1262
1152
331
216
200
142
113
81
72
97
958
789
720
207
135
125
89
70
50
45
61
766
631
576
165
108
100
71
56
40
36
48
575
473
432
124
81
75
53
42
30
27
36
460
378
346
99
65
60
43
34
24
22
29
50#
336
277
252
83
47
44
36
25
18
16
21
30#
202
166
151
50
28
26
21
15
11
9
13
18#
121
100
91
30
17
16
13
9
6
6
8
Weight
(Pounds)
0.13
0.16
0.18
0.54
0.95
1.03
1.26
1.83
2.54
2.85
2.12
Size
(inches)
18x18
20x20
21x21
42x42
52x52
54x54
64x64
70x70
85x85
90x90
54x110
Napery
Item
Napkins
Napkins
Napkins
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
Tabletops
403
332
303
99
57
53
43
30
21
19
25
504
415
379
124
71
66
53
37
27
24
32
672
553
505
165
95
88
71
49
35
32
42
840
691
631
207
118
110
89
62
44
39
53
1344
1106
1010
331
189
175
142
99
71
63
85
Rated Washer Capacity (90% Full Drop)
60#
75#
100#
125#
200#
200#
125#
100#
75#
60#
383
315
288
83
54
50
36
28
20
18
24
230
189
173
50
32
30
21
17
12
11
15
138
114
104
30
19
18
13
10
7
6
9
Rated Washer Capacity (90% Full Drop)
50#
30#
18#
7.2 oz/yd2 Items Per Wash Load
Weight
(Pounds)
Size
(inches)
Napery
Item
6.4 oz/yd2 Items Per Wash Load
1680
1383
1262
413
236
219
178
123
88
79
106
2688
2212
2020
661
378
351
285
197
142
126
170
400#
800#
5375
4424
4040
1322
756
701
570
395
283
252
340
600#
4031
3318
3030
992
567
526
427
296
212
189
255
6131
5047
4606
1322
863
800
570
450
323
288
387
4598
3785
3456
992
647
600
427
338
242
216
291
3065
2523
2304
661
431
400
285
225
161
144
194
1916
1577
1440
413
270
250
178
141
101
90
121
250#
800#
600#
400#
250#
HOW TO DETERMINE
CORRECT TABLECLOTH SIZES
FOR MILLIKEN TABLE LINENS
TABLE
SIZE
24x24
24x30
24x36
24x42
30x30
30x36
30x42
30x45
30x48
30x72
30x84
30x96
36x36
36x42
36x48
36x72
36x96
Note:
SUGGESTED
TABLECLOTH SIZE
41x41 (8)
41x47 (8)
41x53 (8)
41x59 (8)
52x52 (10)
52x58 (10)
52x64 (10)
52x67 (10)
52x70 (10)
52x94 (10)
52x107 (10)
52x118 (10)
52x52 (7 ½)
52x58 (7 ½)
52x64 (7 ½)
52x88 (7 ½)
52x112 (7 ½)
TABLE
SIZE
42x42
42x48
42x60
42x72
42x84
42x96
42x108
48x48
30” Rnd
36” Rnd
42” Rnd
48” Rnd
51” Rnd
54” Rnd
60” Rnd
66” Rnd
72” Rnd
SUGGESTED TABLECLOTH
SIZE
61x61 (9)
61x67 (9)
61x79 (9)
61x91 (9)
61x103 (9)
61x115 (9)
61x127 (9)
71x71 (9 ½)
51” Dia (10)
51” Dia (7)
60” Dia (8)
70” Dia (9 ½)
70” Dia (8)
70” Dia (7 ½)
80” Dia (9)
89” Dia (10 ½)
89” Dia (7 ½)
The tablecloth sizes suggested are cut sizes. The number
in parentheses indicates the drop in inches. If you want a
larger or shorter drop, then the tablecloth size needs to be
modified to accommodate the look you want to achieve.
Milliken & Company – Laundry Service Team
Laundry Audit Form
Auditor: _________________________ Date: _______________
SOIL SORT
1. Are there noticeable material handling (quality, efficiency, or safety)
issues from the unloading dock to the soil sort area?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
2. Is the segregation process automatic or manual ? _____________
3. Is polyester separated from cotton? ______________________
_________________________________________________
4. Are there snag points on the equipment?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
5. Are there any mechanical belt problems?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
6. Are there any apparent material handling problems (slings, carts, etc)?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
7. Sorting by color or shade? ________________ Are the darker
shades washed separately to prevent the residual dye from discoloring other colors?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
8. Are the load sizes being weighed and procedures followed and/or posted?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
9. Approximate production rate (pounds, pieces, bags, etc.)?
_________________________________________________
10. Comments (safety, housekeeping, etc.):
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
WASH ROOM
1. Chemical Supplier: __________________________________
2. Chemical feed system is automatic or Manual? ______________
3. Are chemicals labeled and stored in a safe area? _____________
4. Are Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) easily accessible?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
5. Are the wash wheels being properly loaded?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
6. How is the condition of the equipment (slings, carts, etc.) being used
to transport the linen to the washer?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
7. Are the water hose/lines in good working condition?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
8. Are there temperature gauges on the machine? _____ Are they accurate? ____
9. Is fabric softener being used? ___________________________
10. Is the proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) accessible and
being used?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
11. Are there any burrs or rough edges that could contribute to picks or
snags in the wash wheel?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
12. Are operators checking pH of the linen (5.5 – 6.5)? ___________
13. Is the linen dryed/conditioned prior to the ironer? ____________
14. Suggested wash formula for Signature Plus™ and Encore Plus™
table linen:
Load:
90% Capacity (Open Pocket)
75% Capacity (Split Pocket)
66% Capacity (Y Pocket)
Operation Time Temperature (ºF)
(mins)
Level Supply
Usage/100lbs
Flush
3
Split
High
Break
5
120º
Low
Carryover 5
120ºF
Low
*Bleach
8-12
140ºF
Low
Rinse
2
120º
High
Rinse
2
120º
High
Rinse
2
105º
High
Sour
2
90º-110º
Low
Sour,
1-2 fl. oz.
(pH 5.5-6.5) *Do not drain
Starch
10
90º-105º
Low
3/4-1 1/2 lb Starch
Solvated
12-24 fl. oz.
Surfactant
*Do not drain/add Alkali
pH 10.2-10.8
Extract
*Note:
*Bleach – For white napery, insert bleach cycle and
antichlor in formula. Bleaching of colored linen is not
recommended.
Comments/Suggestions for wash formula:
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
15. Comments (safety, housekeeping, etc.):
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
COMMON FINISHING PROBLEMS
Leading Edge Concave Bow
1. Leading edge not pulled taut enough.
2. Sheet sucker malfunctioning.
3. Half of sheet under other sheets or linen.
4. Worn feed ribbons.
5. Improper waxing & cleaning procedures.
6. Ironer speed too high.
7. Finger roll too far forward.
Trailing Edge Concave Bow
1. Feeders hanging onto sides.
2. Uneven finger roll.
3. Uneven feed board.
4. Worn feed ribbons.
5. Dirty chest.
6. Improper waxing & cleaning procedures.
Leading Edge Scallops
1. Dirty Chest.
5. Improper waxing & cleaning procedures.
2. Wet linen .
6. Under - or - oversize rolls.
3. Chest not hot enough – (less than 315ºF).
4. Excessive sour.
Corners
Cock-Eyed
Off-Center
1. Poor – feed habits.
2. Lack of coordination between feeders.
3. Ironer speed too high.
4. Uneven padding diameter.
5. Split doffer roll.
6. Missing feed ribbons.
IRONERS
1. Equipment manufacturer(s): ___________________________
2. Are there rough edges or quality opportunities with the equipment
that transports the linen from the previous process to the ironing
process?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
3. Is the moisture retention acceptable upon entering the ironer? Was
it covered? How long was it staged?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
4. Are the ironer feed systems clean and free of rough edges?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
5. Ironer checklist:
Ironer #1
Tapes:
__________
Roll Covers:
__________
Speed:
__________
Chest Clean: __________
Temperature: __________
Feed Roll:
__________
Apron Fingers: __________
Cleanliness:
__________
Ironer Belts:
__________
Sensors:
__________
Tapes/lane:
__________
Safety Stop:
__________
Chest Level:
__________
Wax Cloth:
__________
Ironer #2
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
Ironer #3
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
6. What is the frequency of waxing?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
7. Is the linen sticking to the roller covers?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
8. Are associates stripping the linen and feeding it straight?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
9. Are there any noticeable feeding problems?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
10. Are there any handling problems at the Entry/Exit of the Ironer(s)?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
11. Are the pinch/nip points labeled for safety?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
12. Approximate production rate (pounds, pieces/hour, etc.)?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
13. See sheet for common finishing problems. Indicate if any occur.
14. Comments:
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
FOLDING/STORAGE STATIONS
1. Folding equipment manufacturer: ________________________
2. Is the linen clean and absorbent?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
3. Are there any quality or efficiency problems related to the folder?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
4. How are rejects handled? Are wrinkled and soiled linen rejected
together?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
5. Are staging shelves clean and free of rough edges?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
6. How is the finished linen presented to the customer (strapped,
banded, shrink wrapped, etc.)?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
7. How is linen sorted/transported to the designated route trucks?
Handling procedure?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
8. Comments:
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
SAFETY & HOUSEKEEPING
1. Is the floor clean and free from trip hazards?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
2. Is Lock-Out-Tag-Out (LOTO) procedure in place and being followed?
Is the LOTO procedure in writing and communicated to the
associate? Is the written LOTO documentation signed-off by the
associate acknowledging his awareness of the procedure?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
3. Is Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) accessible and being worn
in their designated area (chemical storage area, wash room, etc.)?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
4. Are eyewash stations present, unobstructed, and in working order?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
5. Is excessive water standing on the floor? Slip hazards? Drains
covered/blocked?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
6. Are fire extinguishers properly labeled and placed every 75 feet?
Are sign-off sheets being used showing that the fire extinguishers
have been inspected every 30 days?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
7. Is adequate lighting present throughout the plant? Dark areas?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
8. Are area(s) behind laundry equipment clean and orderly?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
9. Are items leaning against the wall(s)?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
10. Are “Traffic Lanes” for moving laundry from process-to-process
labeled and unobstructed by tools/equipment? Are visitor or
designated walkways labeled?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
11. Are emergency exits labeled clearly and unobstructed?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
12. Comments:
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
Notes:
OVERALL COMMENTS/RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Comments:
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS
We have found in visits to other laundries the cause of the fabric
weakness near the hemmed area is a condition known as alkaline
hydrolysis. Improper wash/rinse procedures will cause this deterioration
of the fabric.
Some checkpoints to be aware of are:
1. Is pH exceeding 11.5 in the washing step? Should titrations be
performed on several washloads to be certain this is correct?
Ideally pH should be in the 11.0 – 11.5 range. If pH consistently runs
above 12.0 severe fabric damage will occur.
2. Are chemicals being added only when sufficient water is in the wash
cylinder? If high concentrations of alkali are dumped onto fabric
before intended water levels are reached, the fabric can be exposed
to high concentrations of alkali.
3. Are chemicals added only after steam has been applied and correct
temperature is reached? If steam is applied while chemicals are
being added some tops and napkins can be exposed to very high
temperatures and high alkali concentrations simultaneously.
4. Are high level rinses always used to remove carryover alkali before
exposing the fabric to ironing temperatures? Good rinsing will assist
in keeping alkaline hydrolysis in check.
5. Quaternary fabric softeners should not be used since they will
contribute to alkaline hydrolysis as well as mask the Signature
Plus™‚ soil release chemical properties.
PAR CALCULATIONS
I. NAPKINS:
A. Restaurant has __________ 4 person tables
__________ 2 person tables (deuces)
(_______ 4 person tables x 4 ) + (________ 2 person tables x 2)
= ______________ total seats
B. __________total # seats x ___________ # times seats turn
= # restaurant meals _______________
(or use your ticket summary of # of diners, on average)
C. ____________ # restaurant meals + # room services means/day
= total # meals/day _______________
D. _________ total meals/day x 2.5 par x (1 for daily wash, etc.)
(2 for every other day)
(7 for weekly wash)
= total napkins ___________
E. ______ total napkins ÷ 12 = ________ dozen napkins to order
II. TABLECLOTHS:
A. __________ 4 person tables x 2.5 par x (1 for daily wash, etc.)
x __________ # times cloth is changed/day
= _________ # tops ÷ 12 = ____________ dozen tops to order
B. __________ 2 person tables x 2.5 par x (1 for daily wash, etc.)
x ___________ # times cloth is changed/day
= __________ # tops ÷ 12 = ____________ dozen tops to order
III. MEETING ROOMS:
A. Napkins:
___________ total seats x ____________ seats served/day
x 2 par x (1 for daily wash)
(2 for every other day)
(7 for weekly wash)
= _________ total napkins ÷ 12 = ________ dozen napkins to order
B. Cloths:
________ # meeting tables x 2 par x ________ times cloth is
changed/day x 1 for daily wash, etc.
= ___________ total # tops ÷ 12 = __________ dozen tops to order
Notes:
When ordering tops, allow for a 9” – 10” drape on all sides
for correct sizing
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