Mackie Designs M*2600 Owner`s Manual
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
19
21
2v
31
29
27
SIG
–20
–20
SIG
–9
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
21
2v
31
29
27
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
1.23v (+4dBu)
33
1v
25
CH
2
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
23
3v
GAIN/dB
SENSITIVITY
11
19
17
–6
–9
–3
OL
–6
CAUTION
1.23v (+4dBu)
33
1v
25
–3
OL
SERIAL NUMBER
2
1
MANUFACTURING DATE
TEMP STATUS
CH
1& 2
COLD
HOT
SHORT
PROTECT
INTERNAL STATUS
CH
CH
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
–
–
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
CH
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
SENSITIVITY
11
17
23
3v
GAIN/dB
0
0
CH
0
0
1
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SUB WOOFE
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
90Hz
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
POWER
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
OFF
ON
PROFESSIONAL POWER AMPLIFIER
SUB WOOFE
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
2
M•2600
OWNER’S MANUAL
™
HIGH-CURRENT POWER AMPLIFIER
CAUTION
AVIS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE
NE PAS OUVRIR
CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR BACK)
NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE
REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL
ATTENTION: POUR EVITER LES RISQUES DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE, NE PAS ENLEVER LE COUVERCLE. AUCUN
ENTRETIEN DE PIECES INTERIEURES PAR L'USAGER. CONFIER
L'ENTRETIEN AU PERSONNEL QUALIFIE.
AVIS: POUR EVITER LES RISQUES D'INCENDIE OU
D'ELECTROCUTION, N'EXPOSEZ PAS CET ARTICLE
A LA PLUIE OU A L'HUMIDITE
The lightning flash with arrowhead symbol within an equilateral
triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of uninsulated
"dangerous voltage" within the product's enclosure, that may be
of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons.
Le symbole éclair avec point de flèche à l'intérieur d'un triangle
équilatéral est utilisé pour alerter l'utilisateur de la présence à
l'intérieur du coffret de "voltage dangereux" non isolé d'ampleur
suffisante pour constituer un risque d'éléctrocution.
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to
alert the user of the presence of important operating and maintenance
(servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the appliance.
Le point d'exclamation à l'intérieur d'un triangle équilatéral est
employé pour alerter les utilisateurs de la présence d'instructions
importantes pour le fonctionnement et l'entretien (service) dans le
livret d'instruction accompagnant l'appareil.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1. Read Instructions — All the safety and operation instructions
should be read before this Mackie product is operated.
2. Retain Instructions — The safety and operating instructions
should be kept for future reference.
3. Heed Warnings — All warnings on this Mackie product and in
these operating instructions should be followed.
7. Heat — This Mackie product should be situated away from heat
sources such as radiators, or other devices which produce heat.
8. Power Sources — This Mackie product should be connected to a
power supply only of the type described in these operation
instructions or as marked on this Mackie product.
9. Power Cord Protection — Power supply cords should be routed
so that they are not likely to be walked upon or pinched by items
placed upon or against them, paying particular attention to cords at
plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit this
Mackie product.
10. Object and Liquid Entry — Care should be taken so that
objects do not fall into and liquids are not spilled into this Mackie
product.
11. Damage Requiring Service — This Mackie product should be
serviced only by qualified service personnel when:
A. The power-supply cord or the plug has been
damaged; or
B. Objects have fallen, or liquid has spilled into this
Mackie product; or
C. This Mackie product has been exposed to rain; or
D. This Mackie product does not appear to operate
normally or exhibits a marked change in performance;
or
E. This Mackie product has been dropped, or its chassis
damaged.
12. Servicing — The user should not attempt to service this
Mackie product beyond those means described in this operating
manual. All other servicing should be referred to the Mackie Service
Department.
4. Follow Instructions — All operating and other instructions
should be followed.
13. To prevent electric shock, do not use this polarized plug with an
extension cord, receptacle or other outlet unless the blades can be
fully inserted to prevent blade exposure.
5. Water and Moisture — This Mackie product should not be used
near water – for example, near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink,
laundry tub, in a wet basement, near a swimming pool, swamp or
salivating St. Bernard dog, etc.
Pour préevenir les chocs électriques ne pas utiliser cette fiche
polariseé avec un prolongateur, un prise de courant ou une autre
sortie de courant, sauf si les lames peuvent être insérées à fond
sans laisser aucune pariie à découvert.
6. Ventilation — This Mackie product should be situated so
that its location or position does not interfere with its proper
ventilation. For example, the Component should not be situated
on a bed, sofa, rug, or similar surface that may block any
ventilation openings, or placed in a built-in installation such as a
bookcase or cabinet that may impede the flow of air through
ventilation openings.
14. Grounding or Polarization — Precautions should be taken so
that the grounding or polarization means of this Mackie product is
not defeated.
PORTABLE CART WARNING
Carts and stands - The
Component should be used
only with a cart or stand
that is recommended by
the manufacturer.
A Component and cart
combination should be
moved with care. Quick
stops, excessive force, and
uneven surfaces may cause
the Component and cart
combination to overturn.
15. This apparatus does not exceed the Class A/Class B (whichever
is applicable) limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus
as set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian
Department of Communications.
ATTENTION —Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits
radioélectriques dépassant las limites applicables aux appareils
numériques de class A/de class B (selon le cas) prescrites dans le
règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique édicté par les ministere
des communications du Canada.
WARNING — To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock,
do not expose this appliance to rain or moisture.
Lend Me Your Ears
According to OSHA, any exposure in excess of
these permissible limits could result in some hearExposure to extremely high
ing loss. To ensure against potentially dangerous
noise levels may cause perexposure to high sound pressure levels, it is recommanent hearing loss.
Individuals vary considerably mended that all persons exposed to equipment
capable of producing these levels (such as the
in susceptibility to noiseM•2600) use hearing protectors while this unit is in
induced hearing loss, but nearly everyone will
lose some hearing if exposed to sufficiently intense operation. Ear plugs or protectors in the ear canals
or over the ears
noise for a period of
Duration in
Sound level dBA Typical example
must be worn when
time. The U.S.
operating this amGovernment’s Occu- hours per day (slow response)
8
90
Duo in small club
plification system
pational Safety and
6
92
in order to prevent
Health Administra4
95
Subway Train
a permanent heartion (OSHA) has
3
97
2
100
Very loud classical music
ing loss if exposure
specified the per1.5
102
is in excess of the
missible noise level
1
105
Lori screaming at Ron
limits set forth here.
exposures shown in
0.5
110
this chart.
0.25 or less
115
Loudest parts at a rock concert
INTRODUCTION
Thank you for choosing a Mackie Designs
power amplifier! The M•2600 is designed to
fulfill the amplification needs of almost any type
of application, with solid design features such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2600 watts into 4 ohms, bridged
1700 watts into 8 ohms, bridged
1300 watts x 2 into 2 ohms, stereo
850 watts x 2 into 4 ohms, stereo
500 watts x 2 into 8 ohms, stereo
Easily handles 2 ohm loads all night long
Two low-cut filters, 2nd-order Bessel,
12dB/octave, variable from Off to 170Hz
Two superior design active crossovers,
4th-order Linkwitz-Riley, 24dB/octave,
selectable crossover point at 60, 90 or 120Hz
Switchable limiter
Automatic soft turn-on and multiple
protection circuits
Balanced/unbalanced 1/4" and XLR inputs
XLR thru outputs, selectable to full-range,
high pass or low pass
Speakon® or binding post outputs
Superior T-Design fan cooling
Ultra low noise and distortion
Fast Recovery design
Five year warranty
At Mackie, we know what it takes to be
roadworthy. After all, our mixers have traveled
all over the world under the worst of conditions,
and we’ve applied what we’ve learned to the
mechanical design of our amplifiers.
Reliability is paramount to sound reinforcement. That’s why we use double-sided thru-holeplated fiberglass printed circuit boards. That’s
why our engineers have subjected the amplifier
to the most rigorous and fiendish tests imaginable to fine-tune the design and extend its
limits beyond those of ordinary amplifiers.
Our Fast Recovery (FR) amplifiers perform
better than conventional designs when presented
with adverse conditions such as clipping. Conventional designs use lots of negative feedback
to provide stability and lower distortion. When
clipping occurs, this “feedback” causes highfrequency sticking, keeping the amplifier
“latched” in the clipping state longer than
necessary. This results in painfully audible
distortion. The Fast Recovery design eliminates
this high-frequency sticking and allows the
amplifier to remain stable when powering
highly reactive loads at high volume levels.
Carefully read and follow all the safety instructions explained on page 2 and throughout
the manual. The Quick Start guide on page 4
gives an overview of the amplifier, and the rest
of the manual explains the wealth of features
and operating instructions in loving detail.
Please write your serial number here for
future reference (i.e., insurance claims, tech
support, return authorization, etc.):
Purchased at:
Date of purchase:
Part No. 820-078-00 Rev. A 10/98
©1998 Mackie Designs, All Rights Reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.
3
®
READ THIS PAGE!
QUICK START
I got ants in my pants and I got to dance!
INSTALLATION
You can mount the M•2600
amp in any standard rack
system (see page 29), or
place it horizontally on a
floor or table. The heavier
internal components are
located towards the front of the chassis to make
it easier to hold the amp by its front handles.
The M•2600 amp draws its
ventilation air in from the
front and out through the
side panels. It needs plenty
of fresh air to stay cool.
DO NOT BLOCK THE VENTILATION PORTS
(see page 29).
CONNECTIONS AND SETTINGS
1. The output terminals
are capable of high voltage
output, so for your safety,
the POWER
switch
must be off before making
any connections.
2. Turn the GAIN
controls fully down
(counterclockwise) for now.
controls to
3. Set both LOW CUT FILTER
their TYPICAL marks (35Hz).
switch on.
4. Set the LIMITER
Note: If you’re using the M•2600 to power a
subwoofer, you probably do not need an external
crossover. Please see page 28 for details.
5. Determine which AMP MODE
is best
for your application:
• STEREO mode (separate left and right
inputs, separate left and right outputs) is
the typical setup for amplifying stereo
signals.
• MONO mode (sometimes called DualMono mode — one or two inputs, two mono
outputs) is for sending a mono signal to
two different speaker sets, with separatelyadjustable level controls.
• BRIDGED mode (sometimes called
Bridged-Mono — one or two inputs, one
mono output) uses both sides of the amp to
triple the power going to one speaker. An
M•2600 in BRIDGED mode, delivers 2600
watts (into 4 ohms). Garsh!
Note: In BRIDGED mode, 4 ohms is the minimum speaker impedance you should connect to
the amplifier. If you connect a lower impedance
load, the amplifier may go into PROTECT
mode and the SHORT LEDs will turn on.
Then the audience will turn on you.
6. In STEREO mode, connect line-level cables
from your signal source to the M•2600’s
INPUT
jacks, either XLR or TRS:
• The XLR and TRS inputs for each
channel are wired in parallel.
• The balanced XLR inputs are wired
pin 2 = hot (+), pin 3 = cold (–), and
pin 1 = shield (ground).
• The 1/4" TRS inputs are wired
tip = hot (+), ring = cold (–), and
sleeve = shield (ground), and can accept
either balanced (TRS) or unbalanced (TS)
cables.
PROFESSIONAL POWER AMPLIFIER
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
ON
GAIN/dB
CH
1
3v
21
23
25
OL
OL
–3
–3
GAIN/dB
CH
2
3v
21
23
25
2v
19
27
17
29
31
SENSITIVITY
4
–6
–6
–9
–9
–20
–20
33
1v
1.23v (+4dBu)
19
27
17
29
31
11
0
0
0
0
11
2v
SIG
SIG
SENSITIVITY
33
1v
1.23v (+4dBu)
CH
CH
1
2
INTERNAL STATUS
PROTECT
SHORT
TEMP STATUS
CH
1& 2
COLD
HOT
POWER
OFF
7. In BRIDGED mode, connect an input cable
to CHANNEL 1’s INPUT or CHANNEL 2. If
you want to use both inputs, the two input
signals are summed internally to produce a
mono signal.
8. In STEREO and MONO modes, connect
speaker cables to the SPEAKER OUTPUTS
, using either the binding post or
Speakon® connectors.
• The binding post connectors are wired
red = hot (+) and black = cold (–).
• See page 40 for Speakon wiring details.
9. In BRIDGED mode, connect the speaker
cable like this: the positive (+) wire goes in
the CHANNEL 1 SPEAKER OUTPUT’s red
post and the negative (–) wire goes in
CHANNEL 2’s red post. Plug nothing into
the black posts. There is also a single
Speakon connector for BRIDGED mode
(see page 40).
10. Connect the other ends of the speaker
cables to your loudspeakers.
into a
11. Plug the amp’s power cord
3-prong AC outlet properly configured for
the type of plug supplied with your amplifier,
and capable of delivering at least 20 amps
(for the 120V model).
NEMA 5-20R
(120 VAC, 20Amp
Receptacle)
12. Make sure your signal source (feeding the
M•2600’s inputs) is powered up and
delivering signal to the amp.
13. Turn the M•2600’s POWER
switch on
and verify that the SIG LEDs are
showing an input signal is present.
CAUTION
WARNING:
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
CHANNEL
CROSSOVER
CH
2
1
+
+
–
–
INPUT
TYPICAL
35 Hz
MONO
BRIDGE
R
OFF
LOW CUT FILTER
60Hz
90Hz
120Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
60Hz
90Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
120Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
R
OFF
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
170 Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
THRU
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
CROSSOVER
AMP MODE
LOW CUT FILTER
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
MONO
BRIDGE
CH
1 CHANNEL
INPUT
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
SUB WOOFE
NEMA 5-20P
(Plug supplied with
120 VAC models)
G
Things You Must Remember:
• Never plug amplifier
outputs into anything
except speakers (unless
you have an outboard box
specifically designed to
handle high-power
speaker-level signals).
• Before making connections to an amp or
reconfiguring an amp’s routing, turn the
amp’s level (GAIN) controls down, turn
the power off, make the changes, turn
the power back on, and then turn the
level controls back up.
• If you shut down your equipment, turn
off the amplifiers first. When powering
up, turn on the amplifiers last.
• Save the shipping boxes! You may need
them someday, and you probably don’t
want to have to pay for them again.
SUB WOOFE
G
14. Slowly turn both GAIN
controls up:
You should hear the music and see the SIG
and meter LEDs flashing.
If the topmost LEDs (named OL, for
overload) are flashing, turn down either
the GAIN controls on the amp or the
source signal’s output level controls (i.e.,
master faders). The point is: The OL LEDs
should not light up.
15. For quieter listening, it is preferable to
adjust the amp’s GAIN controls rather
than the source signal’s output level
(unless you have the source’s control all
the way up!).
16. Start dancing, but don’t let the ants out of
your pants.
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CAUTION
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
5
2
HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL
APPLICATION DIAGRAMS
Mackie’s chain gang of illustrators have
created easy-to-understand diagrams of popular
studio and live-sound setups. Your setup will
probably be different in some way, but these
diagrams will help you see the big picture so
you can add your own finishing touches.
FEATURE DESCRIPTIONS:
MIND-BOGGLING DETAILS
Each and every knob, switch, and connector
on the M•2600 power amplifier is explained in
depth here. Throughout this section you’ll find
illustrations, with each feature numbered like
this . If you’re curious about a feature, simply locate it on the appropriate illustration,
note the number attached to it, and find that
number in the nearby paragraphs.
This icon marks information that is critically
important or unique to the M•2600. For your
own good, read the information carefully and
remember it. We may call you someday and
quiz you.
GLOSSARY: A HAVEN OF NONTECHINESS FOR THE NEOPHYTE
Just in case you’re new to the audio world,
we’ve included a fairly comprehensive dictionary of pro audio terms. If terms like “clipping,”
“noise floor,” “unbalanced,” or “groupie” leave
you blank, flip to the glossary at the back of
this manual for a quick explanation.
A PLUG FOR THE CONNECTORS
SECTION
Also at the back of this manual is a section on
connectors: XLR, TRS, binding post connectors,
balanced connectors, unbalanced connectors,
and Speakon® connectors. If you plan on wiring your own cables, please visit this section
before you start.
ARCANE MYSTERIES ILLUMINATED
Almost last but not least, we’ve included
an appendix entitled Arcane Mysteries Illuminated. This section discusses some of the down
’n’ dirty practical realities of signal transmission,
balancing a sound system, grounding, and balanced versus unbalanced lines. It’s a gold mine
for the neophyte, and even the seasoned pro
might learn a thing or two.
TECHNICAL INFO
This section is for you tech-heads who like
to use a calculator and read specifications.
You’ll find it all here.
This icon leads you to in-depth explanations
of features and practical tips. While not mandatory, these explanations contain some
valuable information.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AND
CONSIDERATIONS
This section discusses important things to
keep in mind when installing and using the
M•2600, including rack mounting, AC power,
and wiring.
6
CONTENTS
QUICK START .......................................................... 4
APPLICATION DIAGRAMS ......................................... 8
FEATURE DESCRIPTIONS .............................................. 17
GAIN ............................................................. 17
METERS ......................................................... 18
SIG ............................................................... 19
PROTECT........................................................ 19
SHORT ........................................................... 19
TEMP STATUS ................................................. 20
POWER ......................................................... 21
POWER CORD ................................................ 21
SPEAKER OUTPUTS ......................................... 22
INPUT ........................................................... 23
THRU ............................................................ 24
THRU SWITCH ................................................ 24
LOW CUT FILTER ............................................. 24
CROSSOVER SWITCH....................................... 25
AMP MODE SWITCH ........................................ 25
STEREO .......................................................... 26
MONO ........................................................... 26
BRIDGED ....................................................... 26
OUTPUT APPLICATION SWITCH ......................... 27
LIMITER ON.................................................... 27
LIMITER OFF ................................................... 27
LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER) ................................. 28
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS ............. 29
RACK MOUNTING ................................................ 29
THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS .................................. 29
AC POWER CONSIDERATIONS ................................ 29
INPUT WIRING .................................................... 30
OUTPUT WIRING .................................................. 30
70V DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS ................................ 31
APPENDIX A: SERVICE INFORMATION ........................... 32
WARRANTY SERVICE ............................................ 32
TROUBLESHOOTING ............................................. 32
REPAIR ............................................................... 33
APPENDIX B: GLOSSARY ............................................. 34
APPENDIX C: CONNECTORS ......................................... 39
APPENDIX D: ARCANE MYSTERIES ILLUMINATED ............ 41
BALANCED LINES .................................................. 41
FIXED INSTALLATIONS ........................................... 41
GROUNDING ....................................................... 42
OPTIMISING SOUND LEVELS .................................. 42
BI- AND TRI-AMPLIFICATION ................................. 44
APPENDIX E: TECHNICAL INFORMATION ........................ 45
DO THE MATH: OHMS, LOADS AND SUCH ................ 45
SPECIFICATIONS ................................................... 46
BLOCK DIAGRAM ................................................. 48
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE GRAPHS .......................... 49
M•2600 LIMITED WARRANTY ...................................... 51
7
APPLICATION DIAGRAMS
The following pages show some of the more
common uses for the M•2600, including
stereo, mono, and bridged operation.
USING THE LOW CUT FILTER
AMP MODE
LOW CUT FILTER CROSSOVER
TYPICAL
35 Hz
SUB WOOFE
The application diagrams include some
small graphs of the frequency range going into
and coming out of the amplifier. These graphs
show the effect of the LOW CUT FILTER to roll
off the lower frequencies going to the speakers.
R
OFF
60Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
FULL
RANGE
THRU
SWITCHED OUTPUT
Level, dB
120Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
THRU
5dB
90Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
LOW OUT
(SUBWOOFER)
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
HIGH PASS
0dB
–5dB
–10dB
–15dB
1Hz
10Hz
Low Cut Filter
100Hz
1kHz
Frequency, Hz
10kHz 20kHz
The LOW CUT FILTER rolls off the lows below the frequency setting of the rotary control.
It affects the Speaker output and the THRU
output (if the THRU switch is set to HIGH OUT
or LOW OUT).
Using the LOW CUT FILTER allows you to
tailor the output to the speakers so they receive only the frequency range they can
handle. For example, if your speakers can
reproduce the frequency range down to
35Hz, set the LOW CUT FILTER to 35Hz. If
your main speakers can reproduce the full
range, then set it to OFF.
In the hookup diagrams on pages 9–12 and
page 15, this small icon is used to indicate that
the lows have been rolled off by using the LOW
CUT FILTER.
Note: On page 14 and page 16 it shows the
use of the internal CROSSOVER.
FULL PASS
This icon indicates that the full frequency
range is passed, either to the speakers or to the
THRU outputs. In the pages that follow, this
also indicates a full-range signal coming from
your mixer or preamp.
LOW PASS
This icon indicates that the highs have been
rolled off. The low-pass range is available if you
use the internal CROSSOVER, discussed in
more detail on page 13, with some application
diagrams on pages 14, 15, and 16.
8
TWO M•2600S: MAIN SPEAKERS AND STAGE MONITORS
9
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
CH
–
–
CH
CAUTION
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
CH
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
–
–
CH
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
MANUFACTURING DATE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
OFF
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
120Hz
120Hz
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OFF
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
STEREO
LIMITER ON
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
STEREO
LIMITER ON
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
100Hz
LOW CUT FILTER
R
THRU
60Hz
CROSSOVER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
AUX 1 OUT
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
(play above 100Hz in
this example).
SERIAL NUMBER
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
STAGE MONITORS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
CAUTION
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
35Hz
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
LEFT MAIN OUT
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
(play above 35Hz
in this example).
MAIN SPEAKERS
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
90Hz
90Hz
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
SWITCHED OUTPUT
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
100Hz
120Hz
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
AUX 2 OUT
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
CROSSOVER
35Hz
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
RIGHT MAIN OUT
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
These two examples
show how the LOW CUT
FILTER is used. Set it to
the lowest frequency
your speakers can
handle.
M•2600: MAIN SPEAKERS AND STAGE MONITORS WITH ONE AMPLIFIER
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
CH
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
–
–
CH
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
35Hz
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
120Hz
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OFF
LIMITER ON
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
90Hz
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
100Hz
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MONITOR OUT
This example shows how each LOW CUT FILTER can
be adjusted so you can play a different type of
speaker on each channel.
STEREO
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SUB WOOFE
CAUTION
(play above 100Hz in
this example).
(play above 35Hz in
this example).
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MAIN OUT
STAGE MONITORS
MAIN SPEAKERS
SUB WOOFE
10
M•2600: EIGHT MONITOR SPEAKERS-MONO MODE
11
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
The TOTAL IMPEDANCE must
be greater than 2 ohms per
channel.
In this example, each speaker
must be 8 ohms or greater.
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
CH
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
–
–
CH
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
LIMITER ON
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
90Hz
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
NOTE: In MONO MODE, you can feed
Channel 2 as well, and the speakers will
play the sum of both inputs. Set both LOW
CUT FILTERS to the same frequency.
This example shows how you can use the
MONO MODE to play the same source in
both the left and right Speaker Outputs.
MONO MODE
100Hz
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MONITOR OUT
SUB WOOFE
STUDIO MONITORS
(play above 100Hz in this example).
SUB WOOFE
M•2600: STEREO SYSTEM WITH TWO AMPLIFIERS IN BRIDGED MODE
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
+
–
–
CAUTION
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
–
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
MANUFACTURING DATE
CH
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
–
–
CH
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
MANUFACTURING DATE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
120Hz
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
90Hz
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
90Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
THRU
120Hz
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
BRIDGED
LIMITER ON
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
BRIDGED
LIMITER ON
CROSSOVER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
35Hz
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
Use this MONO BRIDGE output instead if
your speaker wire has a SPEAKON connector.
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
RIGHT MAIN OUT
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
SERIAL NUMBER
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
CH
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
CAUTION
(above 35Hz in
this example)
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
SERIAL NUMBER
35Hz
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
LEFT MAIN OUT
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
RIGHT SPEAKER
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
–
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
+
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
CAUTION
(above 35Hz in
this example)
LEFT SPEAKER
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
12
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
2
IT IS IMPORTANT THAT
YOUR SPEAKERS ARE
4 OHMS OR GREATER
WHEN USING THE
BRIDGED MODE.
Each amplifier is set to BRIDGED
MODE by setting the AMP MODE
switch to BRIDGED. Each speaker will
then receive up to 2600 WATTS
(into 4 ohms).
USING THE CROSSOVER
AMP MODE
LOW CUT FILTER CROSSOVER
TYPICAL
35 Hz
SUB WOOFE
The following three pages show how the
internal crossover can be used to biamp your
system. One amplifer plays the lower frequencies, while another plays the highs.
The electronic crossover inside the M•2600
splits the frequency band into two ranges, one
below the crossover point (LOW OUT) and
one above (HIGH OUT). The LOW OUT is
available to the amplifier section for powering
subwoofers. Both the LOW OUT and the HIGH
OUT are switchable to the THRU outputs, for
sending line-level signals to the inputs of other
amplifiers.
60Hz
R
OFF
90Hz
120Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
FULL
RANGE
THRU
THRU
SWITCHED OUTPUT
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
LOW OUT
(SUBWOOFER)
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
IT’S FREE!
The crossover has been carefully designed to
give high quality, no-compromise performance,
equal to external crossovers (without the extra
cost). It uses a 4th-order Linkwitz-Riley design,
with a slope of 24 dB/octave.
LOW OUT
LOUDER
OUTPUT LEVEL dB
The output level rolls off above the crossover
point. By setting the OUTPUT APPLICATION
switch to LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER), any
speakers attached to the M•2600 will play only
the lower frequency range.
By setting the THRU Switch to LOW OUT,
this range can be sent to another amplifier via
the THRU output jacks.
QUIETER
FREQUENCY IN Hz
HIGH OUT
QUIETER
The output level rolls off below the crossover
point. The high range is not available to the speaker
outputs; it can be sent to another amplifier via
the THRU output jacks if you set the THRU
switch to HIGH OUT.
The LOW CUT FILTER can be used to reduce
the bass level of the speakers attached to the
host amplifer.
crossover point
OUTPUT LEVEL dB
LOUDER
FREQUENCY IN Hz
13
M•2600: STEREO SYSTEM BIAMPED WITH SUBWOOFERS, OPTION 1
SUBWOOFERS
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
(play above 90Hz
in this example)
MAIN SPEAKERS
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
(play between 20Hz and
90Hz in this example)
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
–
–
CAUTION
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
MANUFACTURING DATE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
–
–
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
CH
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
SERIAL NUMBER
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
2
CH
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
CAUTION
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
ON
TYPICAL
OFF
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
AMP MODE
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
90Hz
90Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
CHOOSE
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
THRU
120Hz
HIGH
OUT
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
LOW OUT
(SUBWOOFER)
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
60Hz
CROSSOVER
20Hz
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
2
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MAIN RIGHT OUT
CHOOSE
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
LIMITER ON
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
MONO
STEREO
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
HIGH
OUT
SWITCHED OUTPUT
THRU
60Hz
CHOOSE
THRU
100 Hz
CROSSOVER
CHOOSE
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
20Hz
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MAIN LEFT OUT
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
14
This amplifier receives the frequency
range above the first amplifier's
CROSSOVER point.
NOTE: Set its LOW CUT FILTER
below the CROSSOVER point of the
first amplifier or you will miss part of
the bass range.
Because the OUTPUT APPLICATION
switch is set to LOW OUT, this
M•2600 plays the frequency range
below the CROSSOVER point (60, 90,
or 120Hz).
Set the LOW CUT FILTER to the
lowest frequency your subwoofers can
handle (or set it to OFF).
Set the THRU switch to HIGH OUT
so the next amplifier will receive the
frequency range above the
CROSSOVER point.
Use the MONO MODE so the
subwoofers play the same and are
always in-phase. Low-frequency sound
is non-directional, so there is no
benefit in playing the subs in STEREO,
in fact, there may be times when the
speakers get out of phase, causing
some bass reduction.
M•2600: STEREO SYSTEM BIAMPED WITH SUBWOOFERS, OPTION 2
15
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
(play between
20Hz and 90Hz
in this example)
SUBWOOFERS
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
(play above 35Hz
in this example)
MAIN SPEAKERS
CAUTION
WARNING:
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
–
–
CAUTION
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WARNING:
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
MANUFACTURING DATE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
–
–
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
CH
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
SERIAL NUMBER
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
CH
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
CAUTION
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
OFF
100 Hz
THRU
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
120Hz
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
AMP MODE
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO
90Hz
THRU
120Hz
90Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
20Hz
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
CHOOSE
THRU
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
35Hz
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
2
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MAIN RIGHT OUT
LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER)
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
LIMITER ON
CHOOSE
60Hz
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
AMP MODE
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
STEREO
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
THRU
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
LOW CUT FILTER
20Hz
R
THRU
60Hz
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
35Hz
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MAIN LEFT OUT
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
Because the OUTPUT APPLICATION
switch is set to LOW OUT, this amplifier
plays the frequency range below the
CROSSOVER point (60, 90, or 120Hz).
Set the LOW CUT FILTER of this
M•2600 to the lowest frequency your
subwoofers can handle, or set to the
"OFF" position.
Set the CROSSOVER switch to the
highest frequency the subwoofers can
handle, or to the lower range of your main
speakers.
Use the MONO MODE so that your
subwoofers will play the same program
and will always be in-phase.
NOTE: If you do not have two
M•2600s as shown here, you should use
your most powerful amplifier to drive the
subwoofers. If your second amplifier is
more powerful than the M•2600, set the
THRU switch to "LOW OUT" so the
second amp will receive the frequencies
below the crossover point.
If your second amplifier is less
powerful than the M•2600, set the
THRU switch to "HIGH OUT" so the
second amp receives just the highs.
Set the THRU switch to "THRU" so the
next M•2600 will receive the full
frequency range, unaffected by the LOW
CUT FILTER or CROSSOVER of this first
amplifier.
M•2600: STEREO SYSTEM BIAMPED WITH BRIDGED SUBWOOFER
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
(play above 90Hz
in this example)
MAIN SPEAKERS
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
–
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
+
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
–
–
CAUTION
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
MANUFACTURING DATE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
–
–
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
2
CH
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
CAUTION
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
MONO
BRIDGE
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
SERIAL NUMBER
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
+
+
2
CH
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
CAUTION
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
1
CH
MONO
BRIDGE
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
1 CHANNEL
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
THRU
60Hz
SWITCHED OUTPUT
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
OFF
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
AMP MODE
OFF
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
90Hz
90Hz
THRU
120Hz
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
CROSSOVER
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
CHOOSE
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
THRU
120Hz
HIGH
OUT
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
60Hz
CROSSOVER
LOW OUT
(SUBWOOFER)
(CH1 & CH2)
LIMITER
ON
TYPICAL
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
LIMITER ON
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
HIGH
OUT
CH's
SUMMED
MONO BRIDGED
OUTPUT APPLICATION
STEREO
TYPICAL
AMP MODE
20Hz
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
IN
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
INPUT
CHANNEL
2
2
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MAIN RIGHT OUT
CHOOSE
BRIDGED
STEREO
120Hz
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
90Hz
CROSSOVER
SWITCHED OUTPUT
THRU
60Hz
CHOOSE
THRU
100 Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
170 Hz
TYPICAL
35 Hz
OFF
R
LOW CUT FILTER
20Hz
CHOOSE
FROM MIXING CONSOLE
MAIN LEFT OUT
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
CAUTION
(plays between
20Hz and 90Hz
in this example)
SUBWOOFER
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
16
This amplifier receives the frequency
range above the first amplifier's
CROSSOVER point.
NOTE: Set the LOW CUT FILTER to
below the CROSSOVER point of the
first amplifier, or you will miss part of
the bass range.
Because the OUTPUT APPLICATION
switch is set to LOW OUT, this
amplifier plays the frequency range
below the CROSSOVER point (60, 90,
or 120Hz).
Set the LOW CUT FILTER to the
lowest frequency your subwoofers can
handle.
Set the THRU switch to HIGH OUT
so the second amplifier will receive the
frequency range above the
CROSSOVER point.
This example also illustrates the
BRIDGED MODE, playing a single
subwoofer. Both input signals are
summed in this mode, so the
subwoofer plays the combined
channel 1 and channel 2 signal.
The outputs going to the other
amplifier are not summed.
FEATURE DESCRIPTIONS
GAIN/dB
3v
21
23
25
2v
19
27
17
29
31
0
0
11
GAIN
SENSITIVITY
33
1v
1.23v (+4dBu)
These front panel knobs allow you to control
the levels going into the output section of the
M•2600 amplifier. Their travel is detented,
meaning there are 20 built-in “resting points” so
you can easily set both controls to the same level.
Usually, these controls are set to maximum.
The gain structure of the amplifier is designed
so that a +4 dBu (1.23V rms) input signal drives
the amplifier to 700 watts into 4 ohms. This is
how the sensitivity of an amplifier is defined.
In this case, it equates to a voltage gain of 32.7
dB. The graphics around the knob depict two
different methods for setting the gain. The inner circle is marked in dB, calibrated from off
(∞) to 33. This represents the amount of voltage
gain from input to output. When using professional equipment with +4 dBu output levels,
set the GAIN control all the way up to 33.
The outer circle is labeled in volts, with indications of 1V, 2V, and 3V. These correspond to
the input sensitivity of the amplifier. With the
GAIN control all the way up (fully clockwise),
the input sensitivity is 1.23V, which works well
with professional equipment operating at a
nominal +4 dBu level.
On the other hand, you may want your listening level to be quieter than the M•2600’s
maximum level. For instance, if you’re using
the M•2600 as a control room amp and your
control room is the size of a telephone booth,
you’ll probably never want to hear the amp at
its maximum level.
You can set the GAIN
controls as low as you like.
However, reducing the
GAIN controls requires an
increased input level to
reach full power at the amplifier’s output. See
the sidebar “Constant Gain vs. Constant Sensitivity” for a better understanding of how this
works.
Like all amplifier controls, you’ll typically
determine the optimal settings during installation or sound check, then leave them alone,
using your signal source (usually a mixer) to
control listening levels as you work. Or play.
Constant Gain vs. Constant Sensitivity
There are two viewpoints, or philosophies,
regarding the gain structure of power amplifiers
— constant gain and constant sensitivity.
Constant Gain means that regardless of the
output power of the amplifier, the gain from input
to output remains the same. (By the way, this
refers to the full gain of the amplifier, with the
gain or level controls all the way up.) Within a
product line of constant gain power amplifiers,
as the output power rating of an amplifier
increases, the level of the input voltage must
also increase.
For example, if an amplifier is rated at 100W
into an 8-ohm load, and it has 26 dB of gain, it
requires an input signal of 1.4V rms to drive it to
full power. This is about +5 dBu, a reasonable
operating point for professional gear.
Now take an amplifier rated at 200W into an
8-ohm load. If it also has a gain of 26 dB, it requires an input signal of 2.0V rms to drive it to
full power, or +8 dBu.
This can become problematic as the power
of the amplifier increases. What if you have a
power amp rated at 800W into 8 ohms? This
will require an input signal of 4.0V rms to drive
it to full power. This equates to a whopping
+14.3 dBu! You’ve just robbed your mixer of
10 dB of headroom. You’ll either have to have a
good limiter to keep the transient peaks down,
or turn down the level from the mixer and not
use all the power available from the amplifier.
Constant Sensitivity means that regardless
of the output power of the amplifier, the input
sensitivity of the amplifier (the input voltage
required to attain full output power) remains
the same. As the output power of an amplifier
increases, the gain of the amplifier must also
increase.
Referring back to the previous example, an
amplifier rated at 100W into 8 ohms with a
gain of 26 dB requires an input signal of 1.4V
rms to drive it to full power. It has an input
sensitivity of 1.4V rms. In order for the 200W
amplifier to reach full power into 8 ohms with
a 1.4V rms input signal, it must have a gain of
29 dB. And the 800W amplifier will require a
gain of 35 dB to reach full power with a 1.4V
input signal.
Continued on page 18
17
You may wonder why we
didn’t use just one stereo
control to control both sides.
That’s in case your application requires a left/right
imbalance (due to an irregularly shaped room) or if you’re using the two
sides for completely different purposes (monitor in channel 1 and side-fill in channel 2, for
instance). Besides, they look cool.
So what are the pros and cons of these two
approaches? The reason some amplifier
manufacturers use the constant gain approach
is because the noise specification looks better.
It’s a fact of physics that as the gain of the
amplifier increases, the circuit noise is amplified
and increases too. By maintaining a constant
gain, the noise spec for an 800W amplifier can
look as good as the noise spec for a 100W amplifier. The downside to this is that you have
to crank up the mixer level feeding the input
of the amplifier, losing headroom and possibly
increasing the noise level from the mixer
(unless you have a Mackie mixer with lownoise VLZ circuitry!).
Conversely, constant sensitivity demands
that as the power increases, so must the gain.
Yes, the output noise of the amplifier will
increase, but you maintain the critical headroom available from your mixer. The noise is
generally not a problem in live sound reinforcement situations. If it is, you can turn down the
GAIN control a few clicks to find a happy
compromise between noise floor and the
available headroom (see “Optimizing Sound
System Levels” in Appendix D). As an added
benefit, you can drive multiple amplifiers with
the same signal and get the maximum power
available from all of them.
Mackie subscribes to the philosophy of
constant sensitivity. Our amplifiers can be
driven to full power with an input level of
+4 dBu (1.23V rms).
METERS
The M•2600’s meters indicate the relative
output level of the amplifier referenced to full
power. The numbers next to the meter’s LEDs
are in dB below full power.
Ideally, the M•2600’s –20, –9, –6, and –3
LEDs will flicker at normal signal levels, while
the OL LED may flicker occasionally during
peak moments.
OL is short for overload. Overloading, or
clipping, occurs when the output voltage no
longer linearly follows the input voltage and
simply stops. This causes a sine wave to “square
off,” or get “clipped off.” Thus, the term clipping.
Fear not — this scenario is quite unlikely.
Even with the GAIN controls fully up, the
M•2600 amplifier easily accepts professional
“+4 dBu” operating levels.
If the OL (Overload) LED
is blinking frequently or
continuously, turn down
the source signal (i.e., the
mixer’s master faders).
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
GAIN/dB
CH
1
3v
21
23
25
OL
OL
–3
–3
GAIN/dB
CH
2
3v
21
23
25
2v
19
27
17
29
31
SENSITIVITY
18
–6
–6
–9
–9
–20
–20
33
1v
1.23v (+4dBu)
19
27
17
29
31
11
0
0
0
0
11
2v
SIG
SIG
SENSITIVITY
33
1v
1.23v (+4dBu)
CH
CH
1
2
INTERNAL STATUS
PROTECT
SHORT
TEMP STATUS
CH
1& 2
COLD
HOT
SIG
SIG (short for “signal present”) is the lowest
step in the meter ladder. It senses the signal
prior to the GAIN control, so when SIG is lit,
you know the M•2600 is receiving signal. If it’s
the only meter LED lit (meaning the other meter
LEDs are not lit), the M•2600 is receiving a
very weak signal (below –20 dB).
PROTECT
If the PROTECT LEDs are on, the M•2600’s
output section has shut down. That, of course,
means you won’t hear anything until you rectify
the situation. Three things can cause the
PROTECT circuit to engage:
• Powering up the M•2600. A built-in delay
circuit saves your speakers (and ears)
from the thumps or pops that can sometimes occur when powering up a system.
During this 4-second delay, the PROTECT
LEDs light up.
• A short circuit (or near short) in either of
the outputs. Both the PROTECT and the
SHORT
LEDs light up.
• The temperature in the M•2600 has risen to
an unsafe level. The PROTECT and the
TEMP STATUS HOT LEDs
light up.
The M•2600 amp draws its
ventilation air in from the
front and out through the
side panels. The amp
needs plenty of fresh air to
stay cool. DO NOT BLOCK
THE VENTILATION PORTS. See “Thermal
Considerations,” on page 29.
SHORT
If this LED comes on, the M•2600 has detected a short circuit in either of the outputs,
meaning that the positive (+) and negative (–)
speaker wires are touching, or a speaker itself
is shorted out. Such a condition causes the
M•2600 to engage its PROTECT
mode
(when a signal is present), muting all signals
at the amp’s outputs.
This short-circuit LED is a Mackie exclusive
(until the other guys “borrow” the idea) and
can save precious minutes of your troubleshooting time. Without it, you’d still have
speaker and amp protection (via the PROTECT
circuit), but you wouldn’t be able to determine
the source of the problem. But with the SHORT
LED, the M•2600 comes right out and tells you!
WARNING: The SHORT
LEDs indicate an unsafe
condition for the power
amplifier. When the shortcircuit protection is activated, the SHORT LED
lights, then the PROTECT LED lights. After
about four seconds, the protection circuit turns
off and the amplifier resumes normal operation.
If it senses the shorted condition again, the
cycle repeats until you fix the problem.
Typical causes for a “short” indication would
be either a shorted speaker cable or too many
speakers connected to the amplifier (i.e., the
load impedance is too low). If a “short” is indicated, please check your cables. If the cabling
is OK, then reduce the number of speakers
driven by the amplifier.
PROFESSIONAL POWER AMPLIFIER
ON
POWER
OFF
19
Note: When using the amplifier in
BRIDGED mode, both SHORT LEDs will light
under shorted or low impedance conditions.
This is an indication of a problem that requires
further investigation.
TEMP STATUS
TEMP (short for temperature) is another
feature designed to keep your mind at ease.
Normally the COLD LED is lit, indicating that
the M•2600 is working normally. Under extreme
conditions the amplifier may overheat. You
may ask, “What kind of extreme conditions?”
Overheating problems are usually caused by
one of the following situations: improper ventilation, high ambient temperatures, overdriving
the amplifier into clipping, driving the amplifier
hard into low impedance loads, frayed or partially shorted speaker cables, or defective or
internally shorted speakers.
The heaviest load the M•2600 can tolerate
is 2 ohms per channel (4 ohms in bridged
mode). If you’ve got a set of speakers wired in
parallel, be sure the load isn’t adding up to less
than 2 ohms. Anything below 2 ohms can cause
the SHORT
LED to light and trigger the
PROTECT mode.
Remember: As the load gets
“heavier,” its value in ohms
goes down. For instance, a
2-ohm speaker load is twice
as “heavy” as a 4-ohm load.
CAUTION
Please see “Do The Math: Ohms, Loads and
Such” in Appendix E to learn about speaker
loads.
As the internal temperature of the amplifier
rises, the fan speed gradually increases. More
air moves through the constant temperature
gradient cooling tunnel to remove additional
heat from the output transistors. However, if
the internal temperature of one of the amplifier channels should exceed 90°C (194°F), the
COLD LED turns off, the HOT LED turns on,
and its PROTECT LED shines. The output of
the amplifier is muted — at this point the amplifier is in Standby mode and remains there
until the internal temperature cools off to a
safe level (52°C or 125°F). When this occurs,
the HOT LED and PROTECT LEDs turn off,
the COLD LED turns on and normal operation
resumes.
In the rare event that the transformer gets
too hot, the amplifier will shut down. It will not
come back on until the transformer has cooled
sufficiently, which can take an hour or so.
Be Aware: If the HOT LED
comes on frequently or the
transformer ever thermals
out, something is overworking the M•2600 or it’s
not properly ventilated.
Look at each of the “extreme conditions” described on this page and try to determine what
is causing the amplifier to overheat. Refer to
“Thermal Considerations” on page 29 and
“Troubleshooting” on page 32.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
MONO
BRIDGE
CH
CH
2
1
+
+
–
–
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
CAUTION
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
20
MONO
BRIDGE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
When you shut down your
system, turn off your amplifiers first. When powering
up, turn on your amplifiers
last. This way, equipment
feeding the amp won’t
“pop” or “thud” the speakers during power up
or power down.
What’s that? Why doesn’t the
fan just go fast all the time?
Well, if it did, you might actually hear it whirring during
your quiet moments (there
are quiet moments in your
life, aren’t there?). While this whirring would
be of no concern in most live-sound situations,
it could become annoying in a control room
environment. So, when the M•2600 is not working hard, the fan goes slow; when the music
gets loud and puts the amp to work, the fan
goes faster, and faster still if the heatsink
temperature keeps rising.
POWER CORD
We all know what a power cord is. The
M•2600 has a detachable cord. Attach it to the
amplifier first, then plug it into an AC outlet
properly configured for the type of plug on the
power cord and for the voltage rating of your
amplifier.
POWER
To turn on the amplifier, push the top half of
the POWER switch. It clicks into place and a
soothing green light adjacent to it glows. To
turn the amp off, push the lower half. It’ll click
again and the green light will extinguish.
When you power up the M•2600, an in-rush
limiting circuit limits the turn-on current and
prevents you from popping the house circuit
breakers. After about a second, a relay clicks,
defeating this in-rush circuit, meanwhile builtin output muting relays prevent any pops or
thumps from being transmitted to the speakers.
Be sure the signal driving the amplifier is turned
down when you first power up the system.
There are few things as rude as four seconds
of silence followed by full-blast stereo sound,
especially when the baby is sleeping.
The M•2600’s voltage
source must be capable of
continuously delivering 20
amps at 120 VAC (9 amps
for 240 VAC models and 14
amps for 100 VAC models).
For safety reasons, the source must be a 3-prong
outlet with hot, neutral, and ground terminals.
We’re dealing with some big-time electricity
here — don’t mess with it. See “AC Power Considerations” on page 29, and carefully read and
follow all the safety instructions at the start of
this manual.
1 CHANNEL
CHANNEL
INPUT
CROSSOVER
CROSSOVER
AMP MODE
LOW CUT FILTER
SUB WOOFE
TYPICAL
35 Hz
R
OFF
LOW CUT FILTER
60Hz
90Hz
120Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
60Hz
90Hz
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
TYPICAL
35 Hz
120Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
SUB WOOFE
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
2
INPUT
R
OFF
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
170 Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
21
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
The binding posts provide a secure and safe
connection for bare speaker wire.
To use the binding post outputs, unscrew
them enough to reveal the holes on their sides,
then insert your stripped wires (stripped about
3/8" back) into the holes and retighten the posts
(finger tight is fine — please don’t reef on them
with a wrench!). Be careful that no runaway
strands touch the chassis or other terminals.
The red posts are labeled “+,” which means
positive. The black posts are labeled “–” for
negative. You probably know the importance of
getting these terms correct — if one side is
hooked up “in phase” and the other side is “out
of phase,” you’ll be “out of work.” (By the way,
although everyone says “phase” in this situation, the correct word is “polarity”... but it’s not
as much fun to say.)
Using high-quality stranded speaker cable
(14 gauge or thicker), connect the positive
outputs of the M•2600 to the positive inputs of
your speakers, and the negative outputs to the
negative inputs. The exception: If you’re using
the M•2600 in BRIDGED
mode, this does
not apply (see page 26).
CAUTION
In addition to binding posts, the M•2600 also
has Speakon® SPEAKER OUTPUTS, so you can
use speaker cables with Speakon connectors.
These locking connectors are easy to attach
and are capable of handling high currents and
low impedance loads. Pin 1+ is positive (+)
and pin 1– is negative (–). They’re wired in
parallel with the binding posts and behave
exactly the same (there is a separate Speakon
output if you are using BRIDGED
mode).
You can use Speakons and
the binding posts simultaneously. Just remember
that doing so creates two
parallel loads. Please see
“Do The Math: Ohms, Loads
and Such” in Appendix E to learn about
speaker loads.
The M•2600 is capable of
high voltage output at the
binding post and Speakon
connectors. Great care
should be taken to avoid
this potential shock hazard:
• Treat the speaker wires with respect, as
you would any live power cord.
• Before you make any connections or
reconfigure any signal routing, turn the GAIN
controls down, turn the POWER
off,
make the changes, turn the POWER back on,
and then turn the GAIN controls back up.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
MONO
BRIDGE
CH
CH
2
1
+
+
–
–
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
CAUTION
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
22
MONO
BRIDGE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
When connecting a balanced signal using the
XLR or 1/4" jacks, they’re wired as shown, per
AES (Audio Engineering Society) standards:
Ordinarily, applying a positive
voltage to a speaker’s positive
input and negative voltage to
the negative input results in
an outward excursion of the
woofer. But some woofers are
built with reverse polarity, meaning that the
above conditions result in an inward excursion.
If you’re not sure which type of speakers you
have, take a look at their literature. If you’re
still not sure, here is a simple test: remove the
speaker wires from the back of the speakers,
then take a 1.5V flashlight battery and connect
the positive terminal of the battery to the positive (+) input of the speaker, and connect the
negative terminal of the battery to the negative
(–) input of the speaker. Observe the motion of
the speaker cone. It should move out when voltage is applied, and return to rest when voltage
is removed. Make sure all the speakers in the
system move in the same direction (there are
a few exceptions — some speakers are deliberately designed with reverse-polarity woofers).
XLR
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 1
Hot (+)
Cold (–)
Shield (Ground)
TRS
Tip
Ring
Shield
RING SLEEVE
SLEEVE RING TIP
TIP
RING (COLD)
TIP (HOT)
SLEEVE (SHIELD)
Balanced 1/4" TRS Plug
Unbalanced TS (tip-sleeve) lines can be
accommodated via the TRS jack. Make sure the
cord terminates with a TS plug (like a guitar
plug), or if it’s a TRS plug (like a headphone
plug), make sure the ring is tied to the shield,
preferably at the source.
INPUT
The M•2600 amplifier gives you a choice —
it has the traditional XLR inputs, as well as 1/4"
TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) input jacks. Sonically
(and electrically) they’re identical, so choose
either one, but do not use both at the same
time to send signals into the M•2600.
Each can be used with either balanced or
unbalanced signals.
SLEEVE
SLEEVE
TIP
RING (COLD)
TIP (HOT)
SLEEVE (SHIELD)
Unbalanced 1/4" TS Plug
1 CHANNEL
CHANNEL
INPUT
CROSSOVER
CROSSOVER
R
AMP MODE
OFF
LOW CUT FILTER
60Hz
90Hz
120Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
60Hz
90Hz
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
TYPICAL
35 Hz
120Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
SUB WOOFE
SUB WOOFE
TYPICAL
35 Hz
2
INPUT
LOW CUT FILTER
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
TIP
R
OFF
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
170 Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
23
You can connect an unbalanced XLR cable
to the M•2600, although this would be unusual
— as unusual as an unbalanced XLR output.
However, if you have an unbalanced XLR
connection to make, refer to the “Connectors”
section (Appendix C) at the back of this
manual for more information.
2
SHIELD
HOT
COLD
SHIELD
COLD 3
HOT
1
3
1
2
1
3
SHIELD
COLD
2
HOT
Balanced XLR Connectors: Apollo/Soyuz Rendezvous
The M•2600 amp expects to see a nominal
signal level anywhere between the –10 dBV
“semipro” and +4 dBu “pro” standards, meaning almost any line-level mixer or other device
can be plugged into the amp’s INPUTs. Use
the GAIN
controls to adjust the gain of the
amplifier to match the signal level you’re using.
THRU and
THRU SWITCH
Someday you’ll do a show at NudeStock and
realize that one M•2600 amplifier is just not
going to do the job — you’ll need a six-foothigh rack full of ’em to hide behind. That’s
what the THRU jack is for. It has three modes
of operation, depending on the setting of the
THRU switch :
• THRU, a straight copy of what’s going into
the amplifier, nothing added or taken
away from your big finish on spoons.
• LOW OUT, the lower frequencies only,
below the frequency set by the
CROSSOVER switch .
• HIGH OUT, the higher frequencies only,
above the frequency set by the
CROSSOVER switch .
Note that the LOW OUT
and HIGH OUT are also affected by the setting of the
LOW CUT FILTER .
24
To use the THRU outputs, connect your
source equipment into the first amp’s INPUTs
as usual, then patch from that amp’s THRU
jacks to the next amp’s INPUTs, and so on,
daisy-chaining as many amps as you want for
your application.
A general rule of thumb is to
maintain a load impedance
10 times or more than the
source impedance to prevent
excessive loading. If your
console has an output impedance of 100 ohms, then you can daisy-chain
up to twenty M•2600 amplifiers, which presents
a load of 1200 ohms to the console (input
impedance of 24 kohms divided by 20 amplifiers
= 1200 ohms).
The THRU jacks can also be used to relay
the signal on to other devices such as a DAT or
cassette recorder, enabling you to record exactly
what the audience is hearing. In the THRU
position of switch , the THRU jacks are
wired straight from the XLR and TRS INPUTs
— so the signal coming out of the THRU jacks
is exactly the same as the signal going into the
amplifier.
You can also use the 1/4"
TRS INPUT jacks as THRU
jacks, (not affected by
switch or by the LOW
CUT FILTER ). Connect
the 1/4" TRS INPUT jacks
on the first amplifier to the TRS 1/4" INPUT
jacks on the second amplifier using 3-conductor
shielded cables with TRS plugs on both ends.
Warning: If you use a regular guitar cord with
2-conductor TS plugs, you’ll unbalance the signal at the XLR input by grounding the low side
(–) of the signal (pin 3).
LOW CUT FILTER
Every woofer has frequency response specifications. It’s usually expressed in Hertz (or cycles
per second), like “40Hz–300Hz.” The “40Hz”
refers to the low-frequency point (usually, but
not always) where the speaker’s output drops
by 3 dB, and will “roll off” completely as the frequency goes down. There is no point in sending
a woofer any frequencies it can’t reproduce —
you can’t hear it, and worse yet, it’s a waste
of amplifier power that can be better used
reproducing frequencies you can hear.
CROSSOVER SWITCH
Level, dB
5dB
This three-way switch allows you to set the
crossover point of the internal CROSSOVER
to either 60Hz, 90Hz or 120Hz. This affects
two things:
• The THRU output , if the THRU
switch
is set to LOW OUT or
HIGH OUT.
• The SPEAKER OUTPUTS , if the
OUTPUT APPLICATION switch
is
set to LOW OUT. The amplifier then
plays the frequency range below the
crossover point.
Note: The LOW CUT FILTER
affects
both the THRU outputs
and the SPEAKER
OUTPUTS
in the cases above.
0dB
–5dB
–10dB
–15dB
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz 20k
Frequency, Hz
L Filter
C FilFrequency Response
Low Cut
In order to match the output bandwidth
with your particular speaker system, the
M•2600 amplifier has a tunable LOW CUT
FILTER. The frequencies are marked along the
knob’s travel :
• Fully counterclockwise, the frequency is
below 10Hz, effectively bypassing the filter.
• Center detent is 35Hz and labeled TYPICAL,
since precious few woofers actually go
below that.
• 3/4 of the way up is labeled STAGE MONITOR, 100Hz, perfect for stage monitors
(they seldom reproduce below 100Hz;
besides, it prevents low-frequency “leakage”
into the house).
• Fully clockwise is labeled 170Hz.
So, grab your woofer’s spec sheet and find
the low roll-off spec. Then set the M•2600’s
LOW CUT FILTER
at the same frequency.
If you do this correctly (and make sure the
meters
are happy), you’ll never again see
your woofer moving sporadically without audible signal. Your system will play louder and
cleaner, and you may never blow another
woofer again!
AMP MODE SWITCH
This three-way switch, along with the
OUTPUT APPLICATION switch , determines
what kind of amplifier you want the M•2600 to
be (or not to be — what was the question?).
The AMP MODE switch determines the input signal routing within the M•2600 amplifier.
Shipped from the factory, the switch is set to
STEREO. This is correct for about 90% of the
applications using an amp like this (hence the
TYPICAL indicator near it). But you may be in
the 10% bracket, requiring special input routing
within the amp.
AMP MODE should always be configured
before operation, with the amplifier turned off.
1 CHANNEL
CHANNEL
INPUT
CROSSOVER
AMP MODE
LOW CUT FILTER
SUB WOOFE
TYPICAL
35 Hz
R
OFF
LOW CUT FILTER
60Hz
90Hz
120Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
60Hz
90Hz
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
TYPICAL
35 Hz
120Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
SUB WOOFE
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
2
INPUT
CROSSOVER
R
OFF
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
170 Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
25
STEREO
mode (separate left and right
inputs, separate left and right outputs) is the
typical setup for amplifying stereo signals.
MONO
mode (sometimes called DualMono — one or two inputs, two mono outputs)
is for sending a mono signal to two different
speaker sets, with separately-adjustable GAIN
controls.
BRIDGED
mode (sometimes called
Bridged-Mono — one or two inputs, one mono
output) uses both sides of the amp to send
great power to one speaker.
BRIDGED
In STEREO mode, the M•2600 Power
Amplifier can deliver 1300 watts per side into
2 ohms. If that’s not enough, you can use two
M•2600’s, each in BRIDGED mode, and deliver
2600 watts per amplifier into 4 ohms. Or, you
can use one amp in BRIDGED mode to power a
monaural system. Finally, BRIDGED mode is
also popular for subwoofer applications — but
please see LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER) on page
28 for a special subwoofer surprise.
To use all the M•2600’s power to drive one
speaker using BRIDGED mode:
1. Turn off the power to the M•2600.
2. Set the AMP MODE switch to BRIDGED.
3. The BRIDGED mode requires the speaker
to be wired as follows :
CAUTION
Connect the positive side of the speaker
cable to the Channel 1 red (+) binding post.
Connect the negative side of the speaker
cable to the Channel 2 red (+) binding post.
4. Instead of the binding posts, you could use
the MONO BRIDGE Speakon connector.
Pin 1+ connects to your speaker red post
(positive +).
Pin 1– connects to your speaker black post
(negative –).
5. In MONO or BRIDGED mode, you can use
either Channel 1 input, or Channel 2, or
both. If both inputs are used, the inputs are
summed.
Once again: Before making connections to
an amp or reconfiguring an amp’s routing, turn
the power off, make the changes, then turn the
power back on.
In BRIDGED mode, both
connections to your
speaker are live; that is,
neither is grounded
through the chassis. Take
great care to read and follow all of the safety instructions. The amplifier
is capable of up to 116 VAC across the speaker
terminals, potentially LETHAL!
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
SERIAL NUMBER
MANUFACTURING DATE
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE
WA • 98072 • USA • MADE IN USA • PATENTS PENDING • COPYRIGHT ©1998
• THE FOLLOWING ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "FR SERIES", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE •
1300 WATTS / CH
2 OHM LOAD MIN.
120 VAC 60 Hz
2000 WATTS
2600 WATTS
4 OHM LOAD MIN.
MONO
BRIDGE
CH
CH
2
1
+
+
–
–
PIN 1+ CH2+
PIN 1– CH2–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
PIN 1+ CH1+
PIN 1– CH1–
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
SPEAKER OUTPUTS
CAUTION
LETHAL VOLTAGES MAY APPEAR AT OUTPUT
TERMINALS. CLASS 1 WIRING IS REQUIRED
26
MONO
BRIDGE
PIN 1+ BRIDGE+
PIN 1– BRIDGE –
PIN 2+ & 2 – NOT USED
OUTPUT APPLICATION SWITCH
The LIMITER works independently on each
channel. It senses when the amplifier channel
is about to be overdriven and attenuates the
overall level just enough to keep the signal
from clipping. Clipping occurs when the output
voltage no longer linearly follows the input
voltage and simply stops. This causes a sine
wave to “square off,” and the average power
going into the speaker is roughly double that
of a sine wave. Square waves sound awful, and
could possibly damage your tweeters and your
reputation.
The LIMITER is especially handy when
you’re working with loud output levels. Having
the signal spikes (kick drum, for instance)
attenuated a bit can actually increase the
apparent loudness of the overall mix without
diminishing the “power” behind the spikes.
Be Forewarned: With the LIMITER engaged,
you can still overdrive the amplifier into clipping
and cause distortion. It just takes a stronger
signal to do it. So even with the LIMITER
turned on, you should still pay close attention
to the front panel OL LEDs , especially if
you are hearing distortion or your speakers
start smoking (which is bad for their health).
The OUTPUT APPLICATION switch should
be configured before you turn on the amplifier.
This switch allows you to choose between three
different configurations:
LIMITER ON (TYPICAL). This is the
normal configuration: full-bandwidth audio
with protective limiting.
LIMITER OFF is also full bandwidth
audio, but without protective limiting.
LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER) mode, with
built-in low-pass filter, but no protective
limiting.
LIMITER ON,
LIMITER OFF
The LIMITER is not designed
to alter your sound — it’s
just there to protect your
speakers from the effects of
clipping. Its effect is virtually
transparent, meaning you
probably won’t even notice any audible difference.
We recommend that you leave it engaged, hence
the TYPICAL label below the ON setting.
If you’re working at quiet levels all the time,
or you’ve already placed a compressor/limiter
in the signal path, or if you just hate compression,
you can leave the LIMITER off.
1 CHANNEL
CHANNEL
INPUT
CROSSOVER
CROSSOVER
AMP MODE
LOW CUT FILTER
SUB WOOFE
TYPICAL
35 Hz
R
OFF
LOW CUT FILTER
60Hz
90Hz
120Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
60Hz
90Hz
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
TYPICAL
35 Hz
120Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
SUB WOOFE
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
2
INPUT
R
OFF
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
170 Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
27
LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER)
Here’s a special surprise: If you bought the
M•2600 amplifier to power a subwoofer system,
you just saved yourself the cost of a crossover!
The M•2600 amp has an active crossover built
in. The amplifier can play the frequencies
below the crossover point set with the CROSSOVER switch .
5dB
0dB
–5dB
–10dB
–15dB
20Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz 20kHz
Crossover settings.
Here’s how to configure it:
1. Turn the M•2600’s POWER off.
2. Set the OUTPUT APPLICATION switch
to LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER).
3. Select a crossover point, via the CROSSOVER switch : At 120Hz, you’ll get the
low sub-harmonics on up to the audible
bass range. At 90Hz, you’ll get the standard
subwoofer range. At 60Hz you’ll get the
lowest frequencies, more to be felt than
heard. You’ll probably want to try this
switch each way.
4. Make sure the LOW CUT FILTER
is set to
OFF or nearly OFF. If it is turned up above
the crossover frequency, the output from the
amplifier will be greatly diminished.
5. Set the AMP MODE
to either STEREO,
MONO, or BRIDGED, depending on your
application. These three modes operate as
usual with LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER)
activated, except the speakers just get the
lower frequencies.
6. Connect your cords and speaker cables as
required (see the examples on pages 13-16).
7. Turn the M•2600’s POWER on. Woof!
If you want to use a second M•2600 or an
M•1400i to reproduce the rest of the audio
range, follow this procedure:
1. Connect the THRU
jacks on the first
subwoofer amplifier to the INPUT
jacks
on the second amplifier.
2. Set the THRU switch on the first
subwoofer amplifier to the HIGH OUT
position.
3. With POWER off, set the OUTPUT APPLICATION switch on the second amplifier to
FULL RANGE (LIMITER either ON or OFF).
The first amplifier will play the frequency
range below the crossover point, and the second
amplifier will play the frequency range above it.
See the diagrams and further information on
pages 13–16. As a general rule, use your biggest
amplifier to power the subs.
1 CHANNEL
CHANNEL
INPUT
CROSSOVER
CROSSOVER
AMP MODE
INPUT
LOW CUT FILTER
SUB WOOFE
TYPICAL
35 Hz
R
OFF
LOW CUT FILTER
60Hz
90Hz
120Hz
STEREO
TYPICAL
MONO BRIDGED
60Hz
90Hz
100 Hz
CH's
SUMMED
170 Hz
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
TYPICAL
35 Hz
120Hz
STAGE
MONITOR
SUB WOOFE
BALANCED
OR
UNBALANCED
R
OFF
STAGE
MONITOR
100 Hz
170 Hz
OUTPUT APPLICATION
LOW OUT
FULL
RANGE (SUB WOOFER)
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
28
LOW HIGH
OUT OUT
OFF
ON
TYPICAL
LIMITER
(CH1 & CH2)
HIGH LOW
OUT OUT
THRU
THRU
IN
SWITCHED OUTPUT
2
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS
RACK MOUNTING
AC POWER CONSIDERATIONS
The M•2600 amp requires three rack space
units (3 U = 5.2"). It also requires 16.7" depth
inside the rack, including the rear supports.
When designing your rack, put the heavier
items at the bottom and the lighter items toward
the top.
Secure the front panel of the amplifier to
the front of the rack using eight screws with
soft washers to prevent scratching the panel.
In addition, because of the weight of the amplifier, you must secure the rear support brackets
of the amplifier to the back of the rack. You
could use a support rail or shelf across the
back of the rack, or angle brackets attached
between the rear support brackets and the rear
rails of the rack. This is recommended for all
components mounted in a rack that is going to
be moved frequently (or thrown in the back of
a pickup truck and transported down a bumpy
gravel road to that outdoor festival!).
Be sure the M•2600 is plugged into an outlet
that is able to supply the correct voltage specified for your model. If the voltage should drop
below 97% of the line voltage, the M•2600 will
no longer be able to supply rated power. (It will
continue to operate down to 63% of the rated
voltage, but won’t reach full power.)
Under typical conditions, reproducing music
where musical peaks are just below clipping, the
M•2600 draws the following average currents:
THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS
The M•2600 amp is fan-cooled and brings
air in through the front and out through the
sides. Make sure that cool air is available at the
front of the amplifier, and that there is room
on each side for the warm air to exit from the
amplifier and dissipate. If rack-mounted, make
sure there is room for the warm air to circulate
around the side and out through the rear of the
rack. In a typical rack, there will be a space of
1 to 2 inches on either side of the amplifier.
This is adequate to allow the warm air to exit
from the amplifier.
In the unlikely event of the amplifier overheating, you might consider leaving 2 rack spaces
between amplifiers, or using extra cooling fans
in the rack.
The M•2600’s unique T-Design constant
gradient cooling tunnel provides substantially
better cooling for the output transistors than
conventional designs that simply blow air
through the chassis, getting dust, cat hair, and
other contaminants over all the internal
components. The cooling tunnel provides a
shorter, more direct path so the cool air concentrates on the heat produced by the output
devices. This results in increased reliability
and longevity for the amplifier.
Amplifier Loading
Average current
2Ω per side or 4Ω bridged
18A
4Ω per side or 8Ω bridged
12A
8Ω per side or 16Ω bridged
7A
(Above current based on use of amplifier on 120V AC line)
When heavily loaded, the
M•2600 can pull a considerable amount of current
from the AC power line.
Because of the high current demand, the power
cord of the USA model is terminated into a 20A
plug (NEMA 5-20P). A similar 20A rated receptacle is required to power the amplifier
(NEMA 5-20R).
The following table shows how many amplifiers can be plugged into the same 20 or 30
amp service. This is for typical conditions,
reproducing rock music where musical
peaks are just below clipping.
Amplifier Loading
(of 240 V model)
2Ω per side or 4Ω bridged
Max. # amps
on 20A service
1*
G
NEMA 5-20P
(Plug supplied with
120 VAC models)
G
NEMA 5-20R
(120 VAC, 20Amp
Receptacle)
Max. # amps
on 30A service
1
4Ω per side or 8Ω bridged
1
2
8Ω per side or 16Ω bridged
2
3
(*May cause nuisance tripping of breakers
under very high output / heavy loading conditions. This table refers to 120V AC line. Other
models are equipped with a power cord and
plug appropriate for the local voltage).
NEVER bypass the plug’s
ground pin. This is
dangerous !
29
It is recommended that a
stiff supply of AC power be
used because the amplifier
places high current demands
on the AC line. The more
power that is available on the line, the louder
the amplifier will play and the more peak output
power will be available for cleaner, punchier
bass. A suspected problem of “poor bass performance” is often caused by a weak AC supply to
the amplifier.
The M•2600 has an in-rush limiting circuit
and relay that will prevent popping the house
circuit breakers during turn-on. You should still
avoid turning on all of your amplifiers at the
same time. Rather, turn them on one at a time.
AC Power Distribution
The majority of AC outlets encountered in
homes and clubs (in the U.S.) are served by a
240VAC center-tapped service entrance transformer. This provides two phases of AC power
on either side of the center tap, at 120V each.
In order to minimize ground loops, the safety
grounds for all the outlets should be connected
to a common (“star”) grounding point, and the
distance between the outlets and the common
grounding point should be as short as possible.
If lighting is used in a show, it is preferable
to power the lights from one leg of the service,
and power the audio equipment from the other
leg. This will help minimize noise from the
lights coupling into the audio (particularly if
SCRs are used).
When setting up for a show, oftentimes you
are plugging into an AC power distribution system you know nothing about. You may even be
faced with 2-wire outlets that are missing the
third safety ground pin. It’s a good idea to have
a three-wire AC outlet tester in your toolbox so
you can check the outlets yourself to make
sure they are wired correctly. These testers will
tell you if the polarity of the hot and neutral
wires is reversed and if the safety ground is
disconnected. Don’t use an outlet if it is wired
improperly! This is to protect yourself as well
as your equipment.
INPUT WIRING
Use a high-quality 3-conductor shielded
cable to connect the signal between the signal
source (mixing console, equalizer, etc.) and
the balanced inputs to the amplifier. If you’re
using the unbalanced inputs, use a high-quality
2-conductor shielded cable. Your Mackie
Dealer can recommend a suitable cable for
your application.
If you want to roll your own, refer to the
“Connectors” section in Appendix C.
OUTPUT WIRING
Use heavy gauge, stranded wire for connecting speakers to the M•2600 amplifier’s
SPEAKER OUTPUT terminals. As the distance
between the amplifier and the speakers increases, the thickness of the wire should also
increase. Speaker wire has resistance, and
when electricity passes through a resistor,
power is lost. The thicker the wire, the less
resistance it offers and the more power actually
gets to the speakers.
The wire thickness is rated in gauges. Use
the chart below to determine the correct gauge
of wire to use according to the distance between
the speakers and the amplifier, and the impedance of the load the amplifier is driving. This
ensures that the power lost across the speaker
wire is less than 0.5 dB.
Wire Length
Up to 25 ft.
Up to 40 ft.
Up to 60 ft.
Up to 100 ft.
Up to 150 ft.
HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINE
Up to 250 ft.
120V
PRIMARY
WINDING
240V
120V
TRANSFORMER
240V Center-Tapped Secondary
30
EARTH
GROUND
(NEUTRAL)
SECONDARY
WINDING
Load
Impedance
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
Gauge of
Wire
14 gauge
14 gauge
14 gauge
12 gauge
12 gauge
14 gauge
10 gauge
12 gauge
14 gauge
8 gauge
10 gauge
14 gauge
6 gauge
8 gauge
12 gauge
4 gauge
6 gauge
10 gauge
70V DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
A distributed sound system uses a constantvoltage, high-impedance network that feeds a
number of tapped transformers which, in turn,
deliver power to individual speakers. Each tap
is rated in watts, so you can select the amount
of power delivered to the speaker. Developed
for distributed paging and public address systems,
one benefit of such a system is that it eliminates
complicated impedance calculations when setting up a multi-speaker system. You just add
up the total wattages of all the speakers in the
system and make sure that it doesn’t exceed the
total power rating of the amplifier (allowing at
least 10% for insertion losses). Another benefit
is that by using high voltage and low current,
losses in the speaker distribution wiring are kept
to a minimum. Standard voltage levels include
25V, 70V, and 100V, but 70V systems (actually
70.7V) are most commonly used in commercial
sound distribution systems in the U.S.
Because of the high power capability of the
M•2600 amplifier, it can be used to directly
drive 70V constant-voltage distribution systems
without the use of a step-up transformer.
In STEREO, into a nominal 70V system, the
M•2600 output can produce a maximum of 500
watts into 8 ohms (equal to 63V). Since this is
less than 70.7V, you can recalculate the actual
power delivered to each tap by multiplying the
tap’s rated wattage by a correction factor (K).
The correction factor is P1/P2, where P1 is the
power delivered by the amplifier into 8 ohms,
and P2 is the power delivered by 70.7V into 8
ohms (625W).
M•2600: K = 500W/625W = 0.8. Thus, a
2.5W tap becomes 2W, a 5W tap becomes 4W
and a 10 W tap becomes 8W.
CAUTION: A characteristic of many tapped
transformers is that they saturate at very low
frequencies, which causes their impedance to
decrease, approaching the DC resistance of the
copper wire. This can result in overloading the
amplifier if the signal contains lots of low frequencies. When using an M•2600 amplifier in a 70V
distribution system, set the LOW CUT FILTER
to 100Hz or higher. In addition, install an RC
network at the SPEAKER OUTPUT of the amplifier, as shown in the figure below.
We recommend that you
do not use the M•2600 in
BRIDGED mode with a 70V
system, as it can produce
up to 1700 watts into 8
ohms, or 116V. This may
saturate the small 70V transformers. Use the
STEREO or MONO mode instead, and you can
run one or two separate 70V lines.
M•2600
POWER AMPLIFIER
IN STEREO MODE
RC NETWORK
+ C1 C2+
+
CH 1
R1
70V LINE
–
CONSTANT
VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER
R1
70V Constant Voltage
Distribution System
2.5W
5W
10W
C3
2.5W
5W
10W
ALTERNATE RC NETWORK
Note: You can substitute
a single capacitor for C1/C2.
C3 = 330µF @ 250VDC,
NON-POLARIZED.
2.5W
5W
10W
RC NETWORK VALUES
C1 = C2 = 680µF @ 250VDC
R1 = 4Ω @ 150W
POWER TAP
SWITCH
+
+
+
–
–
–
31
APPENDIX A: Service Info
WARRANTY SERVICE
Details concerning Warranty Service are
spelled out on page 51 of this manual.
If you think your amplifier has a problem,
please do everything you can to confirm it before
calling for service, including reading through
the following Troubleshooting section. Doing so
might save you from being deprived of your
Mackie amplifier.
Of all Mackie products returned for service
(which is hardly any at all), many are coded
“CND” — Could Not Duplicate, which usually
means the problem lay somewhere else in the
system. These may sound obvious to you, but
here are some things you can check:
TROUBLESHOOTING
No power!
• Our favorite question: Is it plugged in?
Make sure the AC outlet is live (check with
a tester or lamp).
• Our next favorite question: Is the POWER
switch on? If not, try turning it on.
• Is the green light next to the power switch
illuminated? If not, make sure the AC outlet
is live. If so, refer to “No sound” below.
• The AC line fuse inside the chassis is
blown. This is not a user-serviceable part.
Refer to “Repair” on the next page to find
out how to proceed.
No sound!
• Are the GAIN controls turned all the way
down? Slowly turn them up and see if you
hear anything.
• Is the signal source turned up? Make sure
the signal level from the mixing console (or
whatever device immediately precedes the
amplifier) is high enough to produce sound
in the amplifier. The SIG LEDs should be
blinking to indicate that signal is present.
• If the speakers are wired for BRIDGED
mode, make sure the AMP MODE switch is
set to BRIDGED.
32
• If the OUTPUT APPLICATION switch is set
to LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER), make sure the
LOW CUT FILTER frequency control is set
to OFF or nearly OFF. If it is turned up above
the subwoofer cutoff frequency, the output
from the amplifier will be diminished.
• Is the SHORT LED lit? Turn the POWER off,
check the speaker connections and make
sure that there are no strands of wire
shorting across the speaker terminals.
• Is the HOT LED lit? Make sure there is
cool air available at the front of the
amplifier. Make sure there is room at the
sides of the amplifier for warm air to exit.
Allow the amplifier to cool off.
• Are there fuses in the speaker or in-line
fuses in the speaker wire? Check ’em to see
if they’re blown.
• Make sure the speakers are working properly.
One side is way louder than the other!
• Do the M•2600’s meters read the same
on both sides? If not, your source may be
delivering an out-of-balance stereo signal.
• Are both GAIN knobs set to the same
position?
• Are the speaker(s) impedances
matched? (See Appendix E — “Do The
Math: Ohms, Loads, and Such.”)
• Try swapping sides: Turn off the amp,
swap the speaker cables at the amp, turn
the amp back on. If the same side is still
louder, the problem is with your speakers
or speaker cabling. If the other side is
louder now, the problem is with the
mixer, the amp, or the line-level cabling.
The stereo music sounds kind of sideways,
and the bass frequencies diminish when
standing center, but get louder as you
approach one side!
• Check the polarity of the speaker cable
connections. You may have your positive
and negative connections reversed at
one end of one speaker cable.
As soon as the music gets loud, the amp
shuts down!
• Check the M•2600’s meters. Be sure that OL
is not lighting up frequently or continuously.
• Can the amp breathe? The M•2600 amps
draw their ventilation air in from the front
and out through the side panels. They
need plenty of fresh air to stay cool.
Do not block the ventilation ports.
• Is the SHORT LED lit? If so, you’ve got a
dead short somewhere in your speaker
setup, or the total impedance of the load is
too low. Turn the amp off and rectify that
right away.
No mid or high frequencies!
• Make sure the OUTPUT APPLICATION switch
is not set to LOW OUT (SUBWOOFER).
It hurts when I touch my arm, or my leg, or
even my head!
• You have a broken finger.
Bad sound!
• Is it loud and distorted? Turn down the
signal coming from the mixer or signal source.
• Is the input connector plugged completely
into the jack? Check the speaker connections and verify that all connections are
tight and that there are no stray strands of
wire shorting across the speaker terminals.
• If possible, listen to the signal source with
headphones plugged into the console. If it
sounds bad there, the problem’s not in the
amplifier.
• Keep practicing.
Noise/Hum
• Check the signal cable between the mixer
and the amplifier. Make sure all connections
are good and sound.
• Make sure the signal cable is not routed
near AC cables, power transformers, or
other EMI-inducing device.
• Is there a light dimmer or other SCR-based
device on the same AC circuit as the
monitor? Use an AC line filter or plug the
amplifier into a different AC circuit.
• If possible, listen to the signal source with
headphones plugged into the console. If it
sounds noisy there, the problem’s not in the
amplifier.
• Refer to “Grounding” in Appendix D.
REPAIR
Service for the M•2600 amplifier is available
only from one of our authorized domestic service
stations or at the factory, located in sunny
Woodinville, Washington. Service for Mackie
amplifiers living outside the United States can
be obtained through local dealers or distributors.
If your amplifier needs service, follow these
instructions:
1. Review the preceding troubleshooting
suggestions. Please.
2. Call Tech Support at 1-800-258-6883, 8am
to 5pm PST, to explain the problem and
request an RA (Return Authorization)
number. Have your amplifier’s serial
number ready. You must have an RA
number before you can obtain service at
the factory or an authorized service center.
3. Keep this owner’s manual. We don’t need it
to repair the amplifier.
4. Pack the amplifier in its original package,
including endcaps and box. This is very
important. When you call for the RA
number, please let Tech Support know if
you need new packaging. Mackie is not
responsible for any damage that occurs
due to non-factory packaging.
5. Include a legible note stating your name,
shipping address (no P.O. boxes), daytime
phone number, RA number, and a detailed
description of the problem, including how
we can duplicate it.
6. Write the RA number in BIG PRINT on
top of the box.
7. Ship the amplifier to us. We recommend
United Parcel Service (UPS). We suggest
insurance for all forms of cartage. Ship to
this address:
Mackie Designs
SERVICE DEPARTMENT
16220 Wood-Red Rd. NE
Woodinville, WA 98072
8. We’ll try to fix the amplifier within three
business days. Ask Tech Support for the
latest turn-around times when you call for
your RA number. We normally send everything back prepaid using UPS BLUE
(Second Day Air). However, if you rush your
amplifier to us by Next Day Air, we’ll treat it
in kind by shipping it back to you UPS RED
(Next Day Air). This paragraph does not
necessarily apply to non-warranty service.
33
APPENDIX B: Glossary
This Glossary contains brief definitions of
many of the audio and electronic terms used in
discussions of sound mixing and recording.
Many of the terms have other meanings or nuances or very rigorous technical definitions
which we have sidestepped here because we
figure you already have a lot on your mind. If
you’d like to get more information, you can call
Mix Bookshelf at 1-800-233-9604. We recommend the following titles: The Audio
Dictionary, by Glenn White; Tech Terms, by
Peterson & Oppenheimer; Handbook for
Sound Engineers, by Glen Ballou; Mackie
Mixer Book by Rudy Trubitt; and Sound Reinforcement Handbook, by Gary Davis.
balanced
In a classic balanced audio circuit, the two
legs of the circuit (+ and –) are isolated from
the circuit ground by exactly the same impedance. Additionally, each leg may carry the signal
at exactly the same level but with opposite polarity with respect to ground. In some balanced
circuits, only one leg actually carries the signal,
but both legs exhibit the same impedance characteristics with respect to ground. Balanced
input circuits can offer excellent rejection of
common-mode noise induced into the line and
also make proper (no ground loops) system
grounding easier. Usually terminated with 1⁄4"
TRS or XLR connectors.
bandwidth
The band of frequencies that pass through a
device with a loss of less than 3 dB, expressed
in Hertz or in musical octaves. Also see Q.
clipping
A cause of severe audio distortion that is the
result of excessive gain requiring the peaks of
the audio signal to rise above the capabilities
of the amplifier circuit. Seen on an oscilloscope, the audio peaks appear clipped off. To
avoid distortion, reduce the system gain in or
before the gain stage in which the clipping occurs. See also headroom.
console
A term for a sound mixer, usually a large
desk-like mixer.
crest factor
The ratio of the peak value to the RMS
value. Musical signals can have peaks many
times higher than the RMS value. The larger
the transient peaks, the larger the crest factor.
dB
See decibel.
dBA
Sound Pressure Level (SPL) measured with
an “A” weighting filter.
dBm
A unit of measurement of audio signal level
in an electrical circuit, expressed in decibels
referenced to 1 milliwatt. The “m” in dBm
stands for “milliwatt.” In a circuit with an impedance of 600 ohms, this reference (0 dBm)
corresponds to a signal voltage of 0.775 VRMS
(because 0.775 V across 600 ohms equals 1mw).
dBu
bus
An electrical connection common to three
or more circuits. In mixer design, a bus usually
carries signals from a number of inputs to a
mixing amplifier, just like a city bus carries
people from a number of neighborhoods to
their job.
channel
A functional path in an audio circuit: an input channel, an output channel, a recording
channel, the left channel, and so on.
A unit of measurement of audio signal level
in an electrical circuit, expressed in decibels
referenced to 0.775 VRMS into any impedance.
Commonly used to describe signal levels within
a modern audio system.
dBv
A unit of measurement equal to the dBu but
no longer in use. It was too easy to confuse a
dBv with a dBV, to which it is not equivalent.
dBV
A unit of measurement of audio signal level
in an electrical circuit, expressed in decibels
34
referenced to 1 VRMS across any impedance.
Commonly used to describe signal levels in
consumer equipment. To convert dBV to dBu,
add 2.2 dB.
decibel (dB)
The dB is a ratio of quantities measured in
similar terms using a logarithmic scale. Many
audio system parameters measure over such a
large range of values that the dB is used to simplify the numbers. A ratio of 1000V:1V=60 dB.
When one of the terms in the ratio is an
agreed-upon standard value such as 0.775V,
1V, or 1mw, the ratio becomes an absolute
value, i.e., +4 dBu, –10 dBV, or 0 dBM.
detent
A point of slight physical resistance (a clickstop) in the travel of the gain controls, used to
help get both controls to identical levels by
counting the number of detents turned.
diffraction
The bending of sound waves around an obstacle (Huygens Principle). The longer the
wavelength in comparison to the obstacle, the
more the wave will diffract around it.
dipping
The opposite of peaking, of course. A dip is
an EQ curve that looks like a valley, or a dip.
Dipping with an equalizer reduces a band of
frequencies. See guacamole.
dry
Usually means without reverberation, or
without some other applied effect like delay or
chorusing. Dry is not wet, i.e., totally unaffected.
duty cycle
The ratio of pulse width to total cycle time.
dynamic
In sound work, dynamic refers to the class
of microphones that generates electrical signals by the movement of a coil in a magnetic
field. Dynamic microphones are rugged, relatively inexpensive, capable of very good
performance and do not require external power.
dynamic range
The range between the maximum and minimum sound levels that a sound system can
handle. It is usually expressed in decibels as
the difference between the level at peak clipping and the level of the noise floor.
EMI
Electro Magnetic Interference. This refers to
current induced into the signal path as a result
of an external magnetic field. In audio systems,
this is usually manifested as a 60Hz or 120Hz
hum or buzz. The source of this noise can be
from a ground loop or from the signal wire coming too close to a strong magnetic field such as a
transformer or high-current linecord.
EQ curve
A graph of the response of an equalizer, with
frequency on the x (horizontal) axis and amplitude (level) on the y (vertical) axis.
Equalizer types and effects are often named
after the shape of the graphed response curve,
such as peak, dip, shelf, notch, knee, and so on.
equalization
Equalization (EQ) refers to purposefully
changing the frequency response of a circuit,
sometimes to correct for previous unequal response (hence the term, equalization), and
more often to add or subtract level at certain
frequencies for sound enhancement, to remove
extraneous sounds, or to create completely
new and different sounds.
Bass and treble controls on your stereo are
EQ; so are the units called parametrics and
graphics and notch filters.
A lot of how we refer to equalization has to
do with what a graph of the frequency response
would look like. A flat response (no EQ) is a
straight line, a peak looks like a hill, a dip is a
valley, a notch is a really skinny valley, and a
shelf looks like a plateau (or a shelf). The
slope is the grade of the hill on the graph.
Graphic equalizers have enough frequency
slider controls to form a graph of the EQ right
on the front panel. Parametric EQs let you vary
several EQ parameters at once. A filter is simply a form of equalizer that allows certain
frequencies through unmolested while reducing or eliminating other frequencies.
Aside from the level controls, EQs are probably the second most powerful controls on any
mixer (no, the power switch doesn’t count!).
fader
Another name for an audio level control.
Today, the term refers to a straight-line slide
control rather than a rotary control.
filter
A simple equalizer designed to remove
certain ranges of frequencies. A low-cut filter
(also called a high-pass filter) reduces or
35
The number of times an event repeats itself
in a given period. Sound waves and the electrical signals that represent sound waves in an
audio circuit have repetitive patterns that
range from a frequency of about 20 repetitions
per second to about 20,000 repetitions per second. Sound is the vibration or combination of
vibrations in this range of 20 to 20,000 repetitions per second, which gives us the sensation
of pitch, harmonics, tone, and overtones. Frequency is measured in units called Hertz (Hz).
One Hertz is one repetition or cycle per second.
Maintaining a good safety ground is always
essential to prevent electrical shock. Follow
manufacturer’s suggestions and good electrical
practices to ensure a safely grounded system.
Never remove or disable the grounding pin on
the power cord.
In computer and audio equipment, tiny
currents and voltages can cause noise in the
circuits and hamper operation. In addition to
providing safety, ground provisions in these
situations serve to minimize the pickup, detection and distribution of these tiny noise signals.
This type of ground is often called technical
ground.
Quality audio equipment is designed to
maintain a good technical ground and also operate safely with a good safety ground. If you
have noise in your system due to technical
grounding problems, check your manual for
wiring tips or call technical support. Never disable the safety ground to reduce noise problems.
gain
ground loop
The measure of how much a circuit amplifies
a signal. Gain may be stated as a ratio of input
to output values, such as a voltage gain of 4, or
a power gain of 1.5, or it can be expressed in
decibels, such as a line amplifier with a gain
of 10 dB.
A ground loop occurs when the technical
ground within an audio system is connected to
the safety ground at more than one place. Two
or more connections will allow tiny currents to
flow in the loops created, possibly inducing
noise (hum) in the audio system. If you have
noise in your system due to ground loops,
check your manual for wiring tips or call technical support. Never disable the safety ground
to reduce noise problems.
eliminates frequencies below its cutoff frequency.
There are also high-cut (low-pass) filters,
bandpass filters (which cut both higher and
lower frequencies but leave a band of frequencies in the middle untouched), and notch
filters (which remove a narrow band but leave
the high and low frequencies alone).
frequency
gain stage
An amplification point in a signal path,
within either a system or a single device. Overall system gain is distributed between the
various gain stages.
graphic EQ
A graphic equalizer uses slide pots for its
boost/cut controls, with its frequencies evenly
spaced through the audio spectrum. In a perfect world, a line drawn through the centers of
the control shafts would form a graph of the
frequency response curve. The positions of the
slide pots give a graphic representation of
boost or cut levels across the frequency spectrum.
headroom
The difference between nominal operating
level and peak clipping in an audio system. For
example, a mixer operating with a nominal line
level of +4 dBu and a maximum output level of
+22 dBu has 18 dB of headroom. Plenty of
room for surprise peaks.
Hertz
The unit of measure for frequency of oscillation, equal to 1 cycle per second. Abbreviated
Hz. kHz (pronounced “kay-Hertz”) is an abbreviation for kilohertz, or 1000 Hertz.
ground
Also called earth. Ground is defined as the
point of zero voltage in a circuit or system, the
reference point from which all other voltages
are measured. In electrical systems, ground
connections are used for safety purposes, to
keep equipment chassis and controls at zero
voltage and to provide a safe path for errant
currents. This is called a safety ground.
36
Hz
See Hertz.
impedance
The AC resistance/capacitance/inductance
in an electrical circuit, measured in ohms. In
audio circuits (and other AC circuits) the impedance in ohms can often be very different
than the circuit resistance as measured by a
DC ohmmeter.
Maintaining proper circuit impedance relationships is important to avoid distortion and
minimize added noise. Mackie input and output impedances are designed to work well with
the vast majority of audio equipment.
knee
A knee is a sharp bend in an EQ response
curve, not unlike the sharp bend in your leg.
Also used in describing dynamics processors.
level
Another word for signal voltage, power,
strength, or volume. Audio signals are sometimes classified according to their level.
Commonly used levels are: microphone level
(–40 dBu or lower), instrument level (–20 to
–10 dBu), and line level (–10 to +30 dBu).
line level
A signal whose level falls between –10 dBu
and +30 dBu.
master
A control affecting the final output of a
mixer. A mixer may have several master controls, which may be slide faders or rotary
controls.
mixer
An electronic device used to combine various audio signals into a common output.
Different from a blender, which combines various fruits into a common libation.
monaural
Literally, pertaining to or having the use of
only one ear. In sound work, monaural has to
do with a signal that, for purposes of communicating audio information, has been confined to
a single channel. One microphone is a mono
pickup; many microphones mixed to one channel
is a mono mix; a mono signal played through
two speakers is still mono, since it only carries
one channel of information. Several monaural
sources, however, can be panned into a stereo
(or at least two-channel, if you are going to be
picky) mix. Monaural sound reinforcement is
common for environments where stereo sound
reinforcement would provide an uneven reproduction to the listener.
formers to hear themselves. Monitor speakers
are also called foldback speakers. In recording,
the monitor speakers are those used by the
production staff to listen to the recording as it
progresses. In zoology, the monitor lizard is the
lizard that observes the production staff as the
recording progresses. Keep the lizard out of the
mixer.
noise
Whatever you don’t want to hear. Could be
hum, buzz, or hiss; could be crosstalk or digital
hash or your neighbor’s stereo; could be white
noise or pink noise or brown noise; or it could
be your mother-in-law reliving the day she had
her gallstone removed.
noise floor
The residual level of noise in any system. In
a well-designed product, the noise floor will be
a very quiet hiss, which is the thermal noise
generated by bouncing electrons in the transistor junctions. The lower the noise floor and the
higher the headroom, the more usable dynamic
range a system has.
parametric EQ
A “fully” parametric EQ is an extremely powerful equalizer that allows smooth, continuous
control of each of the three primary EQ parameters (frequency, gain, and bandwidth) in each
section independently. “Semi” parametric EQs
allow control of fewer parameters, usually frequency and gain (i.e., they have a fixed
bandwidth, but variable center frequency and
gain).
peaking
The opposite of dipping, of course. A peak
is an EQ curve that looks like a hill, or a peak.
Peaking with an equalizer amplifies a band of
frequencies.
phone jack
Ever see those old telephone switchboards
with hundreds of jacks and patch cords and
plugs? Those are phone jacks and plugs, now
widely used with musical instruments and
audio equipment. A phone jack is the female
connector, and we use them in 1⁄4" two-conductor (TS) and three-conductor (TRS)
versions.
monitor
In sound reinforcement, monitor speakers
(or monitor headphones or in-the-ear
monitors) are those speakers used by the per-
phone plug
The male counterpart to the phone jack.
See above.
37
Q
TRS
A way of stating the bandwidth of a filter
or equalizer section. An EQ with a Q of .75 is
broad and smooth, while a Q of 10 gives a narrow, pointed response curve. To calculate the
value of Q, you must know the center frequency
of the EQ section and the frequencies at which
the upper and lower skirts fall 3 dB below the
level of the center frequency. Q equals the center frequency divided by the difference between
the upper and lower –3 dB frequencies. A peaking EQ centered at 10kHz whose –3 dB points
are 7.5kHz and 12.5kHz has a Q of 2.
Acronym for Tip-Ring-Sleeve, a scheme for
connecting three conductors through a single
plug or jack. 1/4" phone plugs and jacks and
1/8" mini phone plugs and jacks are commonly
wired TRS or TS. Since the plug or jack can
carry two signals and a common ground, TRS
connectors are often referred to as stereo or
balanced plugs or jacks. Another common TRS
application is for insert jacks, used for inserting an external processor into the signal path.
In Mackie mixers, the tip is send, ring is return, and sleeve is ground, in accordance with
AES standards.
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference. High
frequency radiation that often results from
sparking circuits. This can be manifested in a
number of ways in audio systems, but is usually
evident as a high-frequency buzz or hash sound.
RMS
An acronym for root mean square, a conventional way to measure AC voltage and audio
signal voltage. Most AC voltmeters are calibrated to read RMS volts. Other conventions
include average volts, peak volts, and peak-topeak volts.
shelving
A term used to describe the shape of an
equalizer’s frequency response. A shelving
equalizer’s response begins to rise (or fall) at
some frequency and continues to fall (or rise)
until it reaches the shelf frequency, at which
point the response curve flattens out and remains flat to the limits of audibility. If you were
to graph the response, it would look like a shelf.
At least, more like a shelf than a hiking boot.
The EQ controls on your stereo are usually
shelving equalizers. See also peaking, dipping,
bobbing, weaving, ducking and diving.
stereo
Believe it or not, stereo comes from a Greek
word that means solid. We use stereo or stereophonic to describe the illusion of a continuous,
spacious soundfield that is seemingly spread
around the listener by two or more related audio signals. In practice, stereo often is taken to
simply mean two channels.
sweep EQ
An equalizer that allows you to “sweep” or
continuously vary the affected frequency of one
or more sections.
38
TS
Acronym for Tip-Sleeve, a scheme for connecting two conductors through a single plug
or jack. 1⁄4" phone plugs and jacks and 1⁄8"
mini phone plugs and jacks are commonly
wired TRS or TS. Sometimes called mono or
unbalanced plugs or jacks. A 1⁄4" TS phone
plug or jack is also called a standard phone
plug or jack.
unbalanced
An electrical circuit in which the two legs of
the circuit are not balanced with respect to
ground. Usually, one leg will be held at ground
potential. Unbalanced circuit connections require only two conductors (signal “hot” and
ground). Unbalanced audio circuitry is less
expensive to build but under certain circumstances is more susceptible to picking up noise.
unity gain
A circuit or system that has its voltage gain
adjusted to be one, or unity. A signal will leave
a unity gain circuit at the same level at which
it entered. In Mackie mixers, unity gain is
achieved by setting all variable controls to the
marked “U” setting. Mackie mixers are optimized for best headroom and noise figures at
unity gain.
volume
Electrical or sound level in an audio system.
Perhaps the only thing that some bands have
too much of.
XLR connector
A three-pin connector used in audio for
transmitting a balanced signal. Sometimes referred to as a Cannon connector, named for the
manufacturer who first popularized the threepin connector.
APPENDIX C: Connectors
“XLR” CONNECTORS
Mackie amplifiers use 3-pin female “XLR”
connectors on each input, with pin 1 wired to
the grounded (earthed) shield, pin 2 wired to
the “high” (“hot” or positive polarity) side of
the audio signal, and pin 3 wired to the “low”
2
SHIELD
HOT
COLD
SHIELD
COLD 3
HOT
1
3
1
3
1⁄4" TS PHONE PLUGS AND JACKS
1
2
SHIELD
COLD
2
(output from mixer), ring to signal return
(input back into mixer), and sleeve to ground
(earth).
• Balanced mono circuits. When wired as a
balanced connector, a 1⁄4" TRS jack or plug is
connected tip to signal high (hot), ring to signal low (cold), and sleeve to ground (earth).
This is the application used for the inputs to
Mackie amplifiers.
HOT
Figure A: XLR Connectors
(“cold” or negative polarity) side of the signal
(Figure A). All totally above-board and in full
accord with the hallowed standards dictated
by the AES (Audio Engineering Society).
Use a male “XLR”-type connector, usually
found on the nether end of what is called a
“mic cable,” to connect to a female XLR jack.
“TS” stands for Tip-Sleeve, the two connections available on a “mono” 1⁄4" phone jack or
plug (Figure C). TS jacks and plugs are used
in many different applications, always unbalanced. The tip is connected to the audio signal
and the sleeve to ground (earth). Some
examples:
• Unbalanced microphones
• Electric guitars and electronic
instruments
• Unbalanced line-level or speaker-level
connections
SLEEVE
SLEEVE
TIP
TIP
TIP (HOT)
1⁄4" TRS PHONE PLUGS AND JACKS
“TRS” stands for Tip-Ring-Sleeve, the three
connections available on a “stereo” 1⁄4" or “balanced” phone jack or plug (Figure B). TRS
jacks and plugs are used in several different
applications:
RING SLEEVE
SLEEVE RING TIP
TIP
RING (COLD)
TIP (HOT)
Figure B: 1⁄4" TRS Plugs
SLEEVE (SHIELD)
• Stereo Headphones, stereo microphones
and stereo line connections. When wired for
stereo, a 1⁄4" TRS jack or plug is connected tip
to left, ring to right and sleeve to ground
(earth).
• Unbalanced Send/Return circuits. When
wired as a send/return “Y” connector, a 1⁄4" TRS
jack or plug is connected tip to signal send
SLEEVE (SHIELD)
Figure C: TS Plug
UNBALANCING A LINE
In most studio, stage, and sound reinforcement situations, there is a combination of
balanced and unbalanced inputs and outputs
on the various pieces of equipment. This
usually will not be a problem in making
connections.
• When connecting a balanced output to
an unbalanced input, be sure the signal high
(hot) connections are wired to each other, and
that the balanced signal low (cold) goes to the
ground (earth) connection at the unbalanced
input. In most cases, the balanced ground will
also be connected to the ground at the unbalanced input. If there are ground-loop problems,
this connection may be left disconnected at the
balanced end.
39
• When connecting an unbalanced output
to a balanced input, be sure that the signal
high (hot) connections are wired to each
other. The unbalanced ground (earth) connection should be wired to the low and the ground
connections of the balanced input. If there are
ground-loop problems, try connecting the unbalanced ground connection only to the input
low connection, and leaving the input ground
connection disconnected.
• In some cases, you will have to make up
special adapters to interconnect your equipment. For example, you may need a balanced
XLR female connected to an unbalanced 1⁄4"
TS phone plug. The balanced-to-unbalanced
connection has been anticipated in the wiring
of Mackie jacks. A 1⁄4" TS plug inserted into a
1⁄4" TRS balanced input, for example, automatically unbalances the input and makes all
the right connections. Conversely, a 1⁄4" TRS
plug inserted into a 1⁄4" unbalanced input
automatically ties the ring (low or cold) to
ground (earth).
BINDING POSTS
The binding posts provide a safe and secure
connection for speaker wire.
Prepare your wire by stripping back about
half an inch of insulation to reveal clean, shiny
wire. Carefully twist the wire so that any fine
wire strands are together.
SPEAKONS
Speakon® connectors have become popular
with many loudspeaker manufacturers because they provide a quick, yet safe and secure
method of connecting speaker cables. The connectors have a twist-locking mechanism that
prevents them from being pulled out accidentally. Plus, they are capable of handling high
currents and meet IEC 65 and IEC 348 safety
requirements.
Pin 1+ is speaker positive(+) and Pin 1– is
the speaker negative (–).
The amplifier is fitted with three Speakon
connectors, one for the left, one for the right
and one for the bridged mono operation. The
bridged mono connector must not be used with
any other connection, no speaker wire attached to the binding posts, and no other
Speakons used.
Internally, the bridged mono Speakon is
wired directly to the binding posts. Pin 1+ is
connected to the Channel 1 positive and Pin 1–
is connected to Channel 2 positive. If you find
that your speaker (in bridged mono) sounds
strange, check that the AMP MODE switch is
correctly set to BRIDGED. Otherwise, your
speaker will be playing the difference between
Channel 1 and Channel 2, like an earlier
method of home theater center fill.
Make sure the amplifier is
turned off before connecting the speaker wire, as
there may be high AC voltages present at the outputs
•
•
•
Untighten the posts and insert the
bare wire as shown below.
Check there are no strands of wire
sticking out which may touch the
other terminal.
Tighten the posts by hand, do not use
a wrench!
1+
1–
1–
1+
2–
2+
COLD
HOT
Figure E: Speakon
Connectors
Figure D: Binding Posts with Bare Wire
40
APPENDIX D: Arcane
Mysteries Illuminated
Balanced Lines
Balanced lines offer increased immunity
to external noise (specifically, hum and buzz).
Because a balanced system is able to minimize
noise, it is the preferred interconnect method,
especially in cases where very long lengths of
cable are being used. A long unbalanced cable
carries with it more opportunity for noise to get
into a system — having balanced inputs means
very little noise will enter the system via snakes
and other cables that typically must run a long
length.
A balanced line is a threewire system where two wires
carry the signal and the third
is a ground wire that shields
the inner conductors from
EMI. The two inner conductors carry the same signal, but with opposite
polarity. The balanced input amplifies only the
difference between the two conductors. But a
signal that is common to both conductors, and
in phase, is rejected (canceled out) at the balanced input. This includes hum from AC lines
or other EMI induced noise.
An unbalanced line does not have this
noise-rejecting capability because it has only
two conductors. One conductor carries the signal and the other is a ground wire that shields
the inner conductor. Any hum or EMI noise
that gets through the shield is added to the signal and amplified at the unbalanced input.
Often the hum can be louder than the signal itself!
“Do’s” and “Don’ts” of Fixed
Installations
If you install sound systems into fixed installations, there are a number of things that you
can do to make your life easier and increase
the likelihood of the sound system operating
in a predictable manner. Even if you don’t do
fixed installations, these are good practices for
any sound system.
1. Do use foil-shielded snake cable for long
cable runs. Carefully terminate each end,
minimizing the amount of shielding
removed. Protect the exposed foil shield
with shrink sleeving or PVC sleeving.
Prevent adjacent shields from contacting
each other (electrically). Use insulating
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
sleeving on the drain wire (the one that
connects to pin 1) to prevent it from
contacting the connector shell.
Don’t connect the XLR connector shell to
pin 1 of the XLR connector unless necessary
for RFI shielding. Doing so is an invitation
for a ground loop to come a-courting.
Do ensure that your speaker lines and AC
power lines are physically separated from
your microphone lines.
If you use floor pockets, use separate
pockets for inputs and speakers, or put the
connectors on opposite sides of the box so
that they may be shielded separately.
If your speaker lines run in the open, they
should be twisted pairs, at least 6 twists per
foot. Otherwise, run the speaker lines in
their own conduit. (Of course, conduit is not
too practical for portable systems, heh-heh.)
Minimize the distance between the power
amplifiers and the speakers.
Use heavy gauge, stranded wire for speaker
lines. Ideally, the wire resistance should be
less than 6% (0.5 dB power loss) of the load
impedance. Remember that the actual run
is twice as long as the physical length of
the run. See below.
Maximum wire run for 0.5dB power loss in feet
wire
res. per
2
4
8
gauge 1000 ft.
Ω
Ω
Ω
10
1.00
60
120
240
12
1.59
40
75
150
14
2.5
24
48
95
16
4.02
15
30
60
8. Ensure that the electrician uses the starground system for the safety grounds in
your electrical system. All of the audio
system grounds should terminate at the
same physical point. No other grounds may
come in contact with this ground system.
9. Ensure that the AC power feeds are
connected to the same transformer, and
ideally, the same circuit breaker.
10. Walk outside — look at the horizon. See
any radio towers? Locate potential sources
41
of RF interference and plan for them
before you begin construction. Know the
frequency, transmitter power, etc. You can
get this information by calling the station.
Remember that many broadcast stations
change the antenna coverage pattern and
transmitter power at night.
11. Don’t use hardware-store light dimmers.
12. Don’t allow for anything other than microphone inputs at stage/altar locations.
Supplying line inputs at these locations is
an invitation for misuse. Make all sources
look like microphones to the console.
13. Balance (or at least impedance balance)
all connections that are remote from the
console’s immediate location.
Grounding
Grounding exists in your audio system for
two reasons: product safety and noise reduction. The third wire on the power cord exists
for product safety. It provides a low-resistance
path back to the electrical service to protect
the users of the product from electrical shock.
Hopefully, the resistance to ground through the
safety ground (third wire) is lower than that
through the user/operator to ground. If you remove this connection (by breaking or cutting
the pin off, or by using a ‘ground cheater’), this
alternate ground path ceases to exist, which is
a safety hazard.
The metal chassis of the product, the
ground connections provided by the various
connectors, and the shields within your connecting cables provide a low-potential point for
noise signals. The goal is to provide a lower impedance path to ground for noise signals than
through the signal wiring. Doing so helps
minimize hum, buzz, and other extraneous
non-audio signals.
Many “authorities” tell you that shields
should be connected only at one end. Sometimes this can be true, but for most (99%)
audio systems, it is unnecessary. If you do everything else correctly, you should be able to
connect every component of your audio system
using standard, off-the-shelf connecting cables
that are available at any music store.
Here are some guidelines:
1. Use balanced lines if at all possible. They
provide better immunity to induced noise
and ground loops. Remember that you can
balance a line by inserting in-line a piece of
equipment that has a balanced output.
42
2. Avoid using three-phase power lines since
they are usually used for air conditioning
and other heavy power equipment. If using
240VAC single phase with center-ground
power, connect all audio equipment to one
side of the AC power, and all lighting and
other equipment to the other side.
3. Be sure all AC outlet safety grounds are
connected to one common point in a star
ground arrangement. This common ground
point should then tie back to earth ground
at the service entrance by one heavy
stranded wire, #2 gauge or larger.
4. Don’t cut the third pin off the power cord.
Carry some ground-lifter adapters and use
them only if you have to plug into an
ancient two-wire outlet.
5. Cables that are too long are less likely to
pick up hum if you uncoil them in their
entirety, and then find a place to stow the
excess. Leaving the excess coiled only helps
the cable pick up hum more efficiently.
6. If you bundle your cables together, don’t
bundle AC wiring and audio wiring together. Bundle them separately.
7. If your sound system insists on humming,
you may want to teach it the words.
Optimizing Sound System Levels
In a full-blown (not fully blown) sound
system, the signal level can be controlled or
adjusted at many different points throughout
the signal chain. The best system performance
is achieved when the dynamic range of the
system is maximized, thus reducing noise and
allowing a nominal signal level to be used with
maximum headroom. Whatzat!?
Dynamic range is the difference between
the noise floor and the maximum undistorted
signal level capability of the component. The
greater the dynamic range, the better the signal to noise ratio, because the nominal signal
level can be set at a higher amplitude and the
noise tends to get buried underneath the signal. Headroom is the difference between the
maximum undistorted signal level capability of
the component and the nominal signal level.
It is important to maintain a reasonable
amount of headroom so that the dynamic
transient peaks of the musical program can be
reproduced without clipping. 10 dB of headroom is usually adequate, but some program
material may require up to 20 dB.
MAXIMUM OUTPUT LEVEL
(M•2600 = 850W/4Ω)
40dBu
30dBu
HEADROOM
NOMINAL LEVEL (25W/4Ω)
20dBu
10dBu
0dBu
0 dBu = 0.775V
DYNAMIC
RANGE
–10dBu
–20dBu
SIGNAL TO NOISE
RATIO
–30dBu
–40dBu
–50dBu
–60dBu
–70dBu
NOISE FLOOR
–80dBu
DYNAMIC RANGE
If the processor has enough headroom, set
the level controls to unity gain, so with a +4 dB
input it produces a +4 dB output. Keep in
mind that if this is an equalizer, and you’ve
boosted several frequency bands, the nominal
output level may be more than +4 dB because
of the extra energy the processor is adding to
those frequencies. It may be necessary, in that
case, to reduce the level controls a few dB
below unity.
The M•2600 amp is designed to accept a
nominal +4 dB input signal. Set the GAIN controls fully clockwise. This will provide the best
signal-to-noise ratio and available headroom
for the amplifier.
GAIN/dB
3v
21
23
25
2v
19
27
17
29
31
11
0
0
The best way to accomplish this goal is to
optimize the input and output levels for each
component in the system. It is best to start at
the beginning of the chain (the microphone)
and work your way to the end (the speakers).
The following procedure details how to optimize a sound system with 10 dB of headroom.
A microphone is connected to the mic input
on the mixing console. The gain of the mic
preamp circuit, sometimes called Mic Trim,
should be adjusted so that the loudest microphone signal is just below the overload point
of the preamp. Most mixing consoles provide a
mic preamp clipping indicator or level metering of some kind to optimize the mic preamp.
Next comes the output level of the channel,
controlled by a fader or rotary gain control.
Faders usually have an indication in the graphics that shows the normal or nominal setting
for the fader. This setting is usually 10 or 12 dB
below the maximum output level of the channel. This provides the headroom needed to
reproduce the transient peaks associated with
music. If the channel has a meter, you can use
that to visually confirm that the nominal output
level of the channel is around “0” on the meter.
Next set the master output level (fader)
control on the mixer to the nominal level indication next to the control. Again, this should be
at least 10 dB below the maximum output level
of the mixer. You can double-check the actual
output signal level if there is an output meter
on the mixer. On most professional equipment,
this nominal output level will be +4 dBm
(1.23V rms into 600 ohms).
The output of the mixer may drive a power
amplifier directly, or it may go through a signal
processor first (i.e., equalizer, compressor limiter, crossover). Determine the maximum
output capability of the signal processor.
Hopefully, it can produce at least +14 dB to
maintain the required 10 dB of headroom.
Chances are it can produce considerably more
than that (like +20 dB to +24 dB). If 10 dB of
headroom is not available, you’ll have to introduce a resistive pad between the mixer and the
signal processor to reduce the signal level from
the mixer so it is at least 10 dB below the maximum output of the processor.
SENSITIVITY
33
1v
1.23v (+4dBu)
43
Biamplified and Triamplified Systems
Most speaker systems in use today are of
the two-way or three-way variety. Cone speakers are good at reproducing low and mid-range
frequencies, but not high frequencies. Likewise,
compression drivers are good at reproducing
high frequencies, but definitely not low frequencies. This is why two-way, three-way and even
four-way speaker systems were developed —
to improve the efficiency of each individual
driver by requiring it to reproduce only the
frequencies that it reproduces best.
One method of accomplishing this is
through the use of a passive crossover network
between the amplifier and the speaker(s).
Often the passive crossover is built into the
cabinet along with the various drivers. The
crossover divides the high-level speaker signal
into frequency bands, which are then directed
to the appropriate driver. There are some drawbacks to this method, however. The passive
crossover adds reactance to the load that the
amplifier sees, which can affect the damping.
Power is wasted as heat across the resistors in
the crossover, reducing the amount of amplifier
power available to the drivers themselves.
Biamplified and triamplified systems use
separate power amplifiers to power each individual low-frequency and high-frequency
driver. An electronic crossover (a.k.a. active
crossover) is located between the signal source
and the power amplifier. The advantages of
this method include:
• Increased headroom available from each
amplifier, since they’re amplifying only a
portion of the entire audio spectrum.
• Improved damping factor because the
amplifier output is connected directly to
the driver.
• Improved efficiency because there are no
passive resistors to dissipate heat; and
• Flexibility to choose the optimum cross
over frequency and crossover slope for
the individual drivers in the system.
The M•2600’s internal crossovers are
electronic (active) and allow biamplification
above and below a user-selectable crossover
point of 60Hz, 90Hz, or 120Hz. See the
application diagrams on pages 13-16.
TWO-WAY SPEAKER CABINET
HIGH-LEVEL
PASSIVE
CROSSOVER
FR SERIES
POWER AMPLIFIER
(STEREO MODE)
FROM SIGNAL SOURCE
(MACKIE MIXING CONSOLE)
CH 1
IN
CH 1 +
OUT
–
FROM SIGNAL SOURCE
(MACKIE MIXING CONSOLE)
CH 2
IN
CH 2
OUT
HIGH FREQUENCIES
TO TWEETER
LOW FREQUENCIES
TO WOOFER
TWO-WAY SPEAKER CABINET
–
+
HIGH-LEVEL
PASSIVE
CROSSOVER
HIGH FREQUENCIES
TO TWEETER
LOW FREQUENCIES
TO WOOFER
Passive Crossover System
FR SERIES
POWER AMPLIFIER
(STEREO MODE)
FROM SIGNAL SOURCE
(MACKIE MIXING CONSOLE)
LOW-LEVEL
3-WAY ACTIVE
CROSSOVER
TO HIGH-FREQUENCY
AMPLIFIER
TO MID-FREQUENCY
AMPLIFIER
TO HIGH-FREQUENCY
AMPLIFIER
LOW-LEVEL
2-WAY ACTIVE
CROSSOVER
TO LOW-FREQUENCY
AMPLIFIER
CH 1
INPUT
CH 2
INPUT
CH 1
OUT
CH 2
OUT
+
CH 2
OUT
TWEET
TO LOW-FREQUENCY
AMPLIFIER
CH 1
INPUT
CH 1
OUT
–
CH 2
OUT
–
+
Biamplified System with External Active Crossover
44
CH 2
INPUT
CH 1
OUT
TWEET
+
–
–
+
MID
FR SERIES
POWER AMPLIFIER
(BRIDGE MODE)
FR SERIES
POWER AMPLIFIER
(STEREO MODE)
FROM SIGNAL SOURCE
(MACKIE MIXING CONSOLE)
CH 1
INPUT
+
–
–
WOOF
+
WOOF
Triamplified System with External Active Crossover
APPENDIX E: Technical Info
DO THE MATH: OHMS, LOADS, AND SUCH
Remember: As the load gets “heavier,” its
value in ohms goes down. For instance, a
2-ohm speaker load is twice as “heavy” as a
4-ohm load. An ohm is a unit of resistance —
the more ohms, the more resistance (impedance). The more the resistance, the less the
power. It can all seem backwards at first. Just
remember that a dead short means no resistance at all, or zero ohms.
Since you’re in the biz (or you are now,
since you just bought an amp), you probably
own a volt/ohm meter (or DVM, for Digital Volt
Meter). It’s an indispensable tool for anyone
working with speakers and such. If you don’t
own a meter, go out and get one right now —
we’ll wait.
If you’re just dealing with one speaker (or
cabinet) per output, the load in ohms will be
printed on it somewhere. That’s your load. You
can confirm this with the volt/ohm meter you
just bought — set it for ohms, set it for the
lowest range (unless it’s an autoranging
meter) and measure across the speaker terminals. It may not agree exactly; a speaker rated
at eight ohms may read between 5 and 7 ohms.
(If it’s a multiple-driver speaker with a built-in
passive crossover, this method won’t work.)
If you’re driving an assortment of speakers
(or cabinets), things can get complicated.
There are two basic ways of linking multiple
loads (speakers in this case): series and parallel.
“Series” means that the positive amp output
connects to the first speaker’s positive terminal, the first speaker’s negative terminal
connects to the second speaker’s positive terminal, the second speaker’s negative terminal
goes to the third, and so on, until the chain
ends at the amp’s negative output. Series connections are not normally used in PA
applications because it ruins the amplifier’s
ability to damp (control) the speakers.
Doing load calculations with series configurations is easy — just add the loads. For
instance, four 8-ohm speakers, connected in
series, will equal 32 ohms (8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 32).
“Parallel” means that the positive amp output connects to the positive terminals of all the
speakers, and the negative amp output connects to the negative terminals of all the
speakers. If one speaker fails in a parallel configuration, the others will still work, but the
load will change. That lets you breathe a little
easier (the show will go on), except that you
may have a dead speaker and not even know it.
Calculating parallel loads is also easy, as
long as each speaker has the same value —
just divide the value by the number of speakers. For instance, four 8-ohm speakers,
connected in parallel, will equal 2 ohms
(8 / 4 = 2). If the loads aren’t all the same, the
formula gets a little more complicated, but
nothing that you can’t do with a simple calculator.
ZT =
1
1 + 1 + 1 +
...
Z1
Z2
Z3
There are other, more complicated configurations, like series-parallel (using a combination
of series and parallel links to arrive at a desired load) and parallel configurations of
unmatched loads (usually not recommended).
But rather than get too deep into this, let’s just
summarize the basics, as they apply to you and
your M•2600 power amplifier:
• As a load gets “heavier,” its impedance in
ohms decreases.
• The lower the impedance (ohms), the
higher the power: The M•2600 has 1300 watts
(per side) with a 2-ohm load, 850 watts with
4 ohms, and 500 watts with 8 ohms.
• Do not connect a load of under 2 ohms
(in STEREO and MONO mode) or 4 ohms
(in BRIDGED mode).
• Never plug amplifier outputs into anything except speakers (unless you have an
outboard box designed to accept speaker levels).
• Never play good music through bad speakers. You may, however, play bad music through
good speakers (but only on odd-numbered
Fridays).
45
SPECIFICATIONS
M•2600
Maximum Power at 1% THD, midband:
500 watts per channel into 8Ω
850watts per channel into 4Ω
1300 watts per channel into 2Ω
1700 watts into 8Ω bridged
2600 watts into 4Ω bridged
Continuous Sine Wave Average Output Power,
both channels driven:
425 watts per channel into 8Ω from 20Hz to 20kHz,
with no more than 0.025% THD
700 watts per channel into 4Ω from 20Hz to 20kHz,
with no more than 0.05% THD
1000 watts per channel into 2Ω from 20Hz to 20kHz,
with no more than 0.1% THD
1,400 watts into 8Ω from 20Hz to 20kHz, with no more
than 0.05% THD
2000 watts into 4Ω from 20Hz to 20kHz, with no more
than 0.1% THD
Note: Power ratings are specified at 120VAC line voltages.
The M•2600 power amplifier draws large amounts of
current from the AC line with continuous sine wave testing. Accurate measurement of power requires a steady
and stable AC supply. This means the line impedance
must be very low to insure that the peak AC line voltage
does not sag to less than 97% of its value.
If driving highly reactive loads, we recommend that the
limiter circuit be engaged.
Power Bandwidth:
20Hz to 70kHz (+0, –3 dB) @ 700W into 4Ω
Frequency Response:
20Hz to 40kHz (+0, –1 dB)
10Hz to 70kHz (+0, –3 dB)
< 0.025% @ 8Ω
< 0.050% @ 4Ω
< 0.150% @ 2Ω
> 107 dB below rated power into 4Ω
Channel Separation:
> 80 dB @ 1kHz
Damping Factor:
> 350 @ 400Hz
Input Impedance:
24kΩ balanced
Input Sensitivity:
1.23 volts (+4 dBu) for rated power into 4 ohms
Maximum Input Level:
9.75 volts (+22 dBu)
46
Voltage Slew Rate > 60V/µs
Current Slew Rate> 30A/µs at 2Ω
CMRR:
> 40 dB, 20Hz to 20kHz
Load Angle:
8(±jx) time independent at 8Ω
4(±jx) time dependent, T > 6 min. at 4Ω
2(1±jx) time dependent, T > 2 min. at 2Ω
Transient Recovery:
High Frequency Overload and Latching:
No latch up at any frequency or level.
High Frequency Stability:
Unconditionally stable, driving any reactive or
capacitive load.
Turn On Delay:
3-5 seconds
Variable Low-Cut Filter:
10Hz (Off) to 170Hz, 2nd-Order Bessel
Internal Crossover:
Switched: 60Hz/90Hz/120Hz, 4th-Order Linkwitz-Riley
Lowpass outputs switchable to internal Subwoofer
mode.
Lowpass and Highpass outputs switchable to Thru
output jacks.
Complementary Positive and Negative Peak Detecting
Signal-to-Noise Ratio:
32.7 dB (43V/V)
Slew Rate:
Limiter Section:
Distortion:
Gain:
< 5µs
< 1µs for 20 dB overdrive @ 1kHz
Bridged mono operation:
THD, SMPTE IMD, TIM
Rise Time:
Indicators:
6 meter LEDs per channel
SIG (Signal Present), –20, –9, –6, –3, OL (Overload)
CH 1 & 2
PROTECT LEDs
SHORT LEDs
TEMP STATUS
COLD/HOT LEDs
Physical: (lets get)
(three rack spaces high, standard rack width)
Height
5.20 inches
(132mm)
Front panel Width 19.00 inches
(483mm)
Chassis Width
17.24 inches
(438mm)
Depth
15.65 inches
(398mm)
Overall Depth
16.67 inches
(423mm)
Handle Depth
1.64 inches
(42mm)
Weight
55 pounds
(25 kg)
Power Consumption
Country
AC input
requirements
Line Range
Power Consumption
(1/8 of 2Ω resistive
power/ nominal)
North America 120 V, 60 Hz
76 V - 132 V
1650 W, 18.2 A
240 V, 60 Hz
152 V - 264 V
1650 W, 9.1 A
Europe
240 V, 50/60 Hz
152 V - 264 V
1650 W, 9.1 A
Korea
240 V, 60 Hz
152 V - 264 V
1650 W, 9.1 A
Japan *
100 V, 50/60 Hz
63 V - 110 V
1000 W, 13.8 A (4Ω)
200 V, 50/60 Hz
126 V - 220 V
1650 W, 10.9 A
* The 100 V version of the Japanese model is not rated into 2Ω. It is only rated at 4Ω stereo or 8Ω bridged.
AC Drop-out Voltage:
Disclaimer:
At approximately 63% of rated line voltage
Since we are always striving to make our products
better by incorporating new and improved materials,
components, and manufacturing methods, we reserve
the right to change these specifications at any time
without notice.
“Mackie,” “The Running Man,” and “FR Series” are trademarks or registered trademarks of Mackie Designs Inc.
All other brand names mentioned are trademarks or
registered trademarks of their respective holders, and are
hereby acknowledged.
©1998 Mackie Designs Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Printed in the U.S.A.
1.64"
(42mm)
ventilation slots
(do not cover)
Overall Depth 16.67" (423mm)
M•2600
WEIGHT
55 lbs.
(25 kg)
NOTE: The Depth is measured from the rear face of the rack ears
Depth 15.65" (398mm)
17.24" (438mm)
ON
CH
1
GAIN/dB
GAIN/dB
CH
2
CH
CH
1
2
POWER
5.2"
(132mm)
3U
PROFESSIONAL POWER AMPLIFIER
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
OFF
19.00" (483mm)
47
48
MACKIE DESIGNS
M•2600
BLOCK DIAGRAM
9/21/1998
THRU OUTPUT
(XLR-MALE)
LINE INPUT
(XLR-FEMALE)
LINE INPUT
(1/4" TRS)
THRU OUTPUT
(XLR-MALE)
LINE INPUT
(XLR-FEMALE)
LINE INPUT
(1/4" TRS)
FUSE
LOW CUT
FILTER
FREQ
LOW CUT
FILTER
FREQ
CROSSOVER
LAMP
POWER
SWITCH
TRANSFORMER
THERMAL
IN-RUSH
LIMIT
CROSSOVER
HIGH
LOW
60-90-120Hz
THRU–LOW–HIGH
CH 2
SIG
HIGH
LOW
60-90-120Hz
THRU–LOW–HIGH
CH 1
SIG
CH–2
TOROIDAL POWER
TRANSFORMER
IN-RUSH CONTROL
LIMIT–OFF-LOW OUT
Σ
STEREO-MONO-BRIDGED
22 VAC
-15 VDC
+15 VDC
+
30 VDC
–
+
CH.1 100 VDC
–
+
CH.2 100 VDC
–
STEREO-MONO-BRIDGED
STEREO-MONO-BRIDGED
(THE CHANNELS ARE
SUMMED IN MONO
OR BRIDGED MODE)
LIMITER
CONTROL
CH–1
LIMIT–OFF-LOW OUT
LIMIT–OFF-LOW OUT
CH 2
TEMP
SENSOR
CH 1
TEMP
SENSOR
+
CH.1 115 VDC
–
–115VDC
–100VDC
+15VDC
+15VDC
+100VDC
+115VDC
+
CH.2 115 VDC
–
MUTE
DC OFFSET
PROTECT
SHORT
MUTE
CHANNEL 1
POWER
AMPLIFIER
PROTECTION CIRCUITRY
FUSE
FUSE
MUTE
DC OFFSET
PROTECT
SHORT
MUTE
CHANNEL 2
POWER
AMPLIFIER
CH 2
SIG
CH 1
SIG
SHORT 2
0
FAN IDLE/VARIABLE CH.1 POWER DETECTOR
FAN IDLE/VARIABLE CH.2 POWER DETECTOR
0
450C – 650C SPEED CONTROL CH.1
45 C – 65 C SPEED CONTROL CH.2
OL
–3
–6
–9
–20
SIG
COLD LED
HOT LED
CH.2 DISSIPATION
PROTECT
SHORT
OL
–3
–6
–9
–20
SIG
CH.1 DISSIPATION
METER
DRIVE
SHORT 1
PROTECT
SHORT
METER
DRIVE
VARIABLE SPEED FAN CONTROLLER
OVER TEMPERATURE
DETECTOR
IN-RUSH CONTROL
LOW VOLTAGE DETECT
TRANSIENT SOA FLT
STEADY STATE SOA FLT
OUTPUT DISSIPATION
OUTPUT STAGE CURRENT
OUTPUT STAGE VOLTAGE
PROTECTION CIRCUITRY
FUSE
FUSE
IN-RUSH CONTROL
LOW VOLTAGE DETECT
TRANSIENT SOA FLT
STEADY STATE SOA FLT
OUTPUT DISSIPATION
OUTPUT STAGE CURRENT
OUTPUT STAGE VOLTAGE
+30VDC
-30VDC
22VAC
LIMITER
CH.1 DISSIPATION
CH.2 DISSIPATION
–115VDC
–100VDC
+15VDC
+15VDC
22VAC
LIMITER
TRANSFORMER
THERMAL SWITCH
SHORT 1
SHORT 2
(THE SHORT LEDS ARE
JOINED IN BRIDGED MODE)
CH.2 GAIN
INVERTER
(FOR BRIDGED MONO
OPERATION)
CH.1 GAIN
+115VDC
+100VDC
0
1-
1+
1-
1+
1-
1+
+
-
+
-
FAN
0
CH.2 MUTE 800 C MUTE
52 C UN-MUTE
800 C MUTE
CH.1 MUTE 52 C UN-MUTE
OUTPUT
RELAY
OUTPUT
RELAY
CH. 2
SPEAKER
OUT
CH. 2
SPEAKON
BRIDGED
MONO
SPEAKON
CH. 1
SPEAKON
CH. 1
SPEAKER
OUT
BLOCK DIAGRAM
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
CHANNEL 1
THD AND NOISE
vs FREQUENCY
CH.1 THD & NOISE vs FREQ.
(BOTH CHANNELS DRIVEN)
PERCENTAGE (%)
(Channel 2 has the
same performance, but it
is omitted for clarity).
1
0.1
1000W INTO 2Ω
700W INTO 4Ω
0.01
425W INTO 8Ω
0.001
20
BRIDGED MONO
THD AND NOISE
vs FREQUENCY
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10k
20k
1
PERCENTAGE (%)
THD & NOISE vs FREQ.
BRIDGED MODE
0.1
2000W INTO 4Ω
0.01
1400W INTO 8Ω
0.001
20
CHANNEL 1
THD AND NOISE
vs OUTPUT POWER
100
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10k
20k
1
PERCENTAGE (%)
(Channel 2 has the
same performance).
100
CH.1 THD & NOISE
vs
OUTPUT POWER INTO 8Ω,
BOTH CHANNELS DRIVEN
0.1
0.01
0.001
@ 20kHz
@ 1kHz
@ 20Hz
1
10
100
OUTPUT POWER (W)
1k
49
PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
BRIDGED MONO
THD AND NOISE
vs OUTPUT POWER
PERCENTAGE (%)
1
THD & NOISE
vs
OUTPUT POWER INTO 4Ω,
BRIDGED MODE
0.1
@ 20kHz
@ 1kHz
@ 20Hz
0.01
0.001
1
10
100
OUTPUT POWER (W)
1k
3k
CHANNEL 1
DAMPING FACTOR
vs FREQUENCY
DAMPING FACTOR
1k
10
dB (relative to 425 W)
1
20
50
(Channel 2 has the
same performance).
100
+10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
20
CH.1 DAMPING FACTOR
(into 8Ω) vs FREQUENCY
100
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10k
20k
CROSSTALK INTO
CHANNEL 1
vs FREQUENCY
(Channel 2 has the
same performance).
CROSSTALK INTO CH.1
vs FREQUENCY,
CH.2 DRIVEN AT 425 W
(into 8Ω)
100
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10k
20k
M•2600 LIMITED WARRANTY
Please keep your sales receipt in a safe place.
A. Mackie warrants all materials, workmanship and
proper operation of this FR Series product for a
period of three years from the original date of
purchase. If you complete the optional questionnaire portion of the Product Registration Card, the
warranty will be extended for an additional two
years. If any defects are found in the materials or
workmanship or if the product fails to function
properly during the applicable warranty period,
Mackie, at its option, will repair or replace the
product. This warranty applies only to equipment
sold and delivered within the U.S. by Mackie or
its authorized dealers.
B. Failure to return the card will not void the 3-year
warranty.
C. Service and repairs of Mackie products are to be
performed only at the factory (see D below) OR at an
Authorized Mackie Service Center (see E below).
Unauthorized service, repairs, or modification will
void this warranty.
D. To obtain factory service:
1. Call Mackie at 800/258-6883, 8AM to 5PM
Monday through Friday (Pacific Time) to get a
Return Authorization (RA). Products returned
without an RA number will be refused.
2. Pack the FR Series product in its original
shipping carton. If you do not have the carton,
just ask for one when you get your RA number,
and we’ll send a shipping carton out promptly.
More information on packing can be found in
the Service section of the appropriate manual.
Also include a note explaining exactly how to
duplicate the problem, a copy of the sales receipt
with price and date showing, and your return
street address (no P.O. boxes or route numbers,
please!). If we cannot duplicate the problem at
the Mackie Factory or establish the starting date
of your Limited Warranty, we may, at our
option, charge for service time.
3. Ship the product in its original shipping
carton, freight prepaid to:
Mackie Designs Inc.
SERVICE DEPARTMENT
16220 Wood-Red Road NE
Woodinville, WA, 98072, USA
IMPORTANT: Make sure that the RA number is
plainly written on the shipping carton.
E. To obtain service from an Authorized Mackie Service
Center:
1. Call Mackie at 800/258-6883, 8AM to 5PM
Monday through Friday (Pacific Time) to get 1)
The name and address of your nearest Mackie
Authorized Service Center and 2) A return
authorization (RA). You must have an RA number
before taking your unit to a service center.
2. Make sure that you have a copy of your FR
Series sales receipt from the store where you
bought the product. It is necessary to establish
purchase date and thus determine whether or not
your FR Series product is still under warranty. If
you can't find it, the Authorized Service Center
may charge you for repairs even if your FR Series
product is still covered by Mackie's 3-Year Limited
Warranty.
3. Make sure that the problem can be duplicated. If you bring your FR Series product to an
Authorized Service Center and they can't find
anything wrong with it, you may be charged a
service fee.
4. If the Mackie Authorized Service Center is
located in another city, pack the FR Series
product in its original shipping carton. More
information on packing can be found in the
Service section of the appropriate manual.
5. Contact the Mackie Authorized Service Center
to arrange service or bring the FR Series product
to them.
F. Mackie and Mackie Authorized Service Centers
reserve the right to inspect any products that may
be the subject of any warranty claims before repair
or replacement is carried out. Mackie and Mackie
Authorized Service Centers may, at their option,
require proof of the original date of purchase in the
form of a dated copy of the original dealer’s invoice
or sales receipt. Final determination of warranty
coverage lies solely with Mackie Designs Inc. or its
Authorized Service Centers.
G. Mackie FR Series products returned to Mackie
and deemed eligible for repair or replacement
under the terms of this warranty will be repaired or
replaced within thirty days of receipt by Mackie at
our rainforest factory complex. Products returned to
Mackie that do not meet the terms of this Warranty
will be repaired and returned C.O.D. with billing
for labor, materials, return freight, and insurance.
Products repaired under warranty at Mackie's
factory will be returned freight prepaid by Mackie
to any location within the boundaries of the USA.
H. Mackie assumes no responsibility for the quality
or timeliness of repairs performed by Mackie
Authorized Service Centers.
I. This warranty is extended to the original
purchaser and to anyone who may subsequently
purchase this product within the applicable
warranty period.
J. This is your sole warranty. Mackie does not
authorize any third party, including any dealer or
sales representative, to assume any liability on
behalf of Mackie Designs or to make any warranty
for Mackie Designs.
K. THE WARRANTY GIVEN ON THIS PAGE IS THE
SOLE WARRANTY GIVEN BY MACKIE AND IS IN
LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
AND IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE WARRANTY GIVEN
ON THIS PAGE SHALL BE STRICTLY LIMITED IN
DURATION TO THREE YEARS FROM THE DATE
OF ORIGINAL PURCHASE FROM AN AUTHORIZED
MACKIE DEALER. UPON EXPIRATION OF THE
APPLICABLE WARRANTY PERIOD, MACKIE
SHALL HAVE NO FURTHER WARRANTY OBLIGATION OF ANY KIND. MACKIE SHALL NOT BE
LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES THAT MAY RESULT
FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE MACKIE PRODUCT
OR ANY WARRANTY CLAIM. Some states do not
allow exclusion or limitation of incidental, special,
or consequential damages or a limitation on how
long warranties last, so some of the above limitations and exclusions may not apply to you. This
warranty provides specific legal rights and you may
have other rights which vary from state to state.
51
Some of the
people at our
Woodinville,
Washington factory
who helped
design, build, sell,
and support your
product.
®
®
™
®
Mackie Designs Inc.
16220 Wood-Red Rd. NE • Woodinville, WA 98072 • USA
800/898-3211 • Outside the US: 425/487-4333
Fax: 425/487-4337 • www.mackie.com
E-mail: [email protected]
OFFICIAL
PRODUCT REGISTRATION CARD
Detach, fold-up, tape shut and mail this portion to complete your Registration
Yes, we know it looks like a major interrogation complete with hot lights and rubber hoses,
but it’ll go quickly once you get into it…
Model # __________________________________________ Serial # _______________________
Purch. Date _____________ Price Paid _______________________________________________
Dealer Name _________________________________ Dealer City _________________________
Your First Name ______________________________ Last Name __________________________
Company/Organization _________________________ Department _________________________
Address _____________________________________ City __________________ State ________
Zip/Postal Code __________________ Country ______________ Phone ________________ E-mail ____________
?
Primary location where Mackie product is used (check ONE only):
■ Commercial Recording Studio ■ Home Recording Studio
■ On Stage/On the Road [PA Sound Reinforcement]
■ House of Worship ■ Video Studio ■ Theater
■ Permanent Installation ■ Live Venue ■ DJ/Karaoke
■ Other ____________________________________________
?
?
What will your Mackie product power? (check ALL that apply):
■ Full-range Speakers ■ Highs ■ Mids ■ Lows
■ Subwoofers ■ Stage Monitors/Wedges ■ Studio Monitors
■ Home Stereo/Home Theater ■ Other ___________________
? What were the GREATEST deciding factors in choosing this Mackie
?
What other BRANDS/MODELS did you consider before making
your purchase decision? _______________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
?
Is your PA System/Studio:
■ For your use only? ■ For Rental/Hire?
■ Both?
?
Does your PA System/Studio generate revenue ($)?
■ Yes ■ No
?
What mixer(s) do you use? _____________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
?
?
What instruments do you regularly play?
■ Keyboards ■ Electric Guitar ■ Acoustic Guitar ■ Bass
■ Drums/Percussion ■ Sax or Other Reeds ■ Vocalist
■ Trumpet or Other Brass ■ None ■ Other _______________
What were your BEST sources of information when making your
buying decision? (check ALL that apply and/or fill in blank):
■ Ad ■ Brochure ■ Magazine Review ■ Previous Mackie Use
■ Salesperson's Demo ■ Friend's Recommendation ■ Video
■ Mail Order Catalog ■ WWW Site (whose _________________)
■ Other ____________________________________________
product? (check ALL that apply and/or fill in blank):
■ Features ■ Specifications ■ Size ■ Weight
■ Durability/Reliability ■ Price/Value ■ Uniqueness
■ Previous Mackie Use ■ Mackie Reputation
■ Other __________________________________________
? Do you read any of the following magazines? (check ALL that apply)
■ EM ■ Keyboard ■ Recording ■ EQ ■ MIX ■ Musician ■ Guitar
■ Canadian Musician ■ Guitar Player ■ Guitar World ■ Drum
■ Modern Drummer ■ A/V Video ■ S&VC ■ Film & Video
■ Millimeter ■ Sound & Communications ■ MacUser ■ Video Systems
■ Worship Leader ■ New Media ■ Live Sound! ■ Macworld
■ PC Magazine ■ Boys Life ■ Systems Contractor News ■ MAD
■ Videographer ■ Videomaker ■ Radio World ■ PC World ■ Grit
■ Pro Sound News ■ Broadcast Engineering ■ Post ■ Windows
■ Windows User ■ Your Church ■ The Beano
? Do you own a computer?
■ IBM/PC ■ Mac ■ Sinclair/Timex 1000 ■ Nope
? Do you own a CD-ROM drive?
■ Yes
■ No
? Do you surf the internet?
■ Yes
■ No
? Do you use a computer for video editing/multimedia?
■ Yes ■ No
OPTIONAL: Comments. (Please! A real genuine Mackoid will read what you write. Your feedback helps us make our products better...)
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
?
OPTIONAL: What other products would you like to see Mackie Designs offer? _____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
■ Under 18
■ 18-24
■ 25-34
VERY OPTIONAL: How old are you?
■ I do not want to be on your mailing list. You upset me by asking my age.
■ 35-49
■ 50-65
■ Over 65
After folding, secure the Warranty Registration with tape (no staples please!) along this edge.
your Registration Card.
OUT when mailing
This side should be facing
Fold in half along this line and secure with tape
(no staples please!)
Fold in half along this line and secure with tape
(no staples please!)
From:
__________________________
NO POSTAGE
NECESSARY
IF MAILED
IN THE
UNITED STATES
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
BUSINESS
REPLY
MAIL
FIRST-CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO. 11 WOODINVILLE, WA
POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE
Mackie Designs Inc.
16220 Wood-Red Rd. NE
Woodinville, WA 98072
U.S.A.
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