Evaluation of thermometers for ear temperature measurement

Evaluation of thermometers for ear temperature measurement
Vítor Rodrigues do Nascimento
Licenciatura em Ciências da Engenharia Biomédica
Evaluation of thermometers for ear
temperature measurement at the wards
in a university hospital.
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em
Engenharia Biomédica
Orientador: Heikki Teriö, Ph.D. R&D Manager, Karolinska
Institutet
Co-orientador: Mário Secca, Ph.D, FCT-UNL
Júri:
Presidente: Prof. Doutora Maria Adelaide de Almeida Pedro de Jesus
Arguente(s): Prof. Doutor Hugo Gamboa
Vogal(ais): Prof. Doutor Mário Forjaz Secca
Vítor Rodrigues do Nascimento
Licenciatura em Ciências da Engenharia Biomédica
Evaluation of thermometers for ear
temperature measurement at the wards
in a university hospital.
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em
Engenharia Biomédica
Orientador: Heikki Teriö, Ph.D. R&D Manager, Karolinska
Institutet
Co-orientador: Mário Secca, Ph.D, FCT-UNL
Universidade Nova de Lisboa - Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia
Lisboa - 2012
I
Evaluation of thermometers for ear temperature
measurement at the wards in a university hospital.
Copyright © 2012
Vítor Rodrigues do Nascimento, FCT/UNL, UNL.
A Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia e a Universidade Nova de Lisboa têm o direito, perpétuo
e sem limites geográficos, de arquivar e publicar esta dissertação através de exemplares impressos
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crédito ao autor e editor.
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia and Universidade Nova de Lisboa have the perpetual and
unlimited geographic right to archive and publish this dissertation through printed or digital
versions or any other known or still to be invented way, and to disclose it through scientific
repositories and to admit its copy and distribution for educational or research purposes, noncommercial, as long as due credit is given to its author and editor.
II
Abstract
Since mercury thermometers were banned due to environmental concerns, hospitals started to use
electronic thermometers for measuring body temperature. Body temperature can be measured
from different body parts, although the least invasive and quickest is preferred and therefore
eardrum measurements are frequently taken. However, lately the staff feels that the taken
measurements are not accurate. A new purchasing agreement for the purchase of these devices
renders a good opportunity to study further the use of these devices at the wards of the university
hospital, study their maintenance process, identify what performance is essential for the clinical
usage, the parameters that are essential to measure and also identify ear thermometers in the
market that can be used for comparative study.
Temperature measurements were taken with the help of an infrared ear thermometer, Covidien
Genius2, in its calibration blackbody device at the R&D department of the Huddinge Hospital in
order to verify accuracy claims. This data were compared against other studies and measurements
of other infrared ear thermometers devices, the Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000 and also a digital
contact thermometer, Welch Allyn Suretemp Plus, applied to different body sites. Informal
meetings also took place in order to get more information about the devices and to know where
they were used and repaired.
It was found that Genius2 measured temperature accurately when compared with a blackbody
radiator. Regarding the Braun, it showed an accurate estimate of core temperature in comparison
to invasive pulmonary artery catheter thermometry.
Electronic tympanic thermometers proved to be a good replacement for conventional methods of
thermometry. However, preventive maintenance should occur more often, since the devices are
very fragile. Tympanic thermometers are generally very accurate instruments. Most likely,
problems are not related to the thermometers themselves, they are possibly the result of an
inadequate understanding of the limitations of ear thermometry.
III
Resumo
Desde que o uso de termómetros de mercúrio foi proibido, começaram a ser utilizados nos
hospitais termómetros electrónicos para medição da temperatura corporal. A temperatura corporal
pode ser medida em diversos locais no corpo, mas tendo em conta que é preferível uma medição
mais rápida e menos invasiva, é costume que as medições sejam feitas no tímpano. Contudo,
ultimamente o staff do hospital sente que as medições não são precisas. O novo acordo de compra
para este tipo de aparelhos é uma boa oportunidade para estudar melhor o seu uso no hospital, o
seu processo de manutenção, identificar a performance essencial para uso clinico, parâmetros
essenciais para a medição e identificar que tipo de termómetros timpânicos no mercado podem
ser usados para um estudo comparativo.
Usando um termómetro timpânico, Covidien Genius2, mediu-se, no Hospital de Huddinge, a
temperatura no aparelho de calibração (corpo negro) para verificar a sua precisão e exactidão.
Comparou-se com estudos e medições de outros termómetros, Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000 e
Welch Allyn SureTemp Plus (termómetro contacto) aplicados e comparados com diferentes
partes do corpo. Houve várias reuniões com o staff de forma a ter mais informação sobre os
aparelhos, saber onde se encontram e como são reparados.
Verificou-se que o Genius2 mediu correctamente a temperatura, quando comparado com o corpo
negro. O Braun tem uma estimativa precisa da temperatura corporal quando comparado com um
cateter arterial pulmonar.
Os termómetros timpânicos provam ser uma boa alternativa aos métodos convencionais de
termometria, contudo a manutenção preventiva deve ocorrer mais frequentemente. Muito
provavelmente os problemas não estão relacionados com os aparelhos em sim, mas devido à falta
de compreensão das limitações da termometria timpânica.
Key Words
Electronic ear thermometer, tympanic thermometer, thermometry, infrared, total cost of
ownership, temperature.
Palavras-chave
Termómetro auricular digital, termómetro timpânico, infra vermelho, custo total de posse,
temperatura.
IV
Index
Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... III
Resumo ........................................................................................................................................ IV
Key Words .................................................................................................................................. IV
Index ..............................................................................................................................................V
Figure index ................................................................................................................................ IX
Table index .................................................................................................................................. XI
1.
Introduction - Analysis of the situation ................................................................................. 1
2.
State of the art ....................................................................................................................... 5
3.
Methods used ...................................................................................................................... 11
3.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................. 11
4.
5.
3.2
Meetings ...................................................................................................................... 11
3.3
Experiments and data gathering .................................................................................. 11
3.4
Market Analysis .......................................................................................................... 12
Temperature ........................................................................................................................ 13
4.1
Normal Temperature ................................................................................................... 14
4.2
Fever ............................................................................................................................ 15
4.3
Hypothermia ................................................................................................................ 15
Thermometry ....................................................................................................................... 17
5.1
Oral.............................................................................................................................. 17
5.2
Ear / Tympanic ............................................................................................................ 18
5.3
Axillary ....................................................................................................................... 18
5.4
Rectal........................................................................................................................... 18
5.5
Temporal ..................................................................................................................... 19
5.6
Core ............................................................................................................................. 19
5.7
Infrared sensing thermometers .................................................................................... 19
5.7.1
Radiation ............................................................................................................. 19
V
5.7.2
How they measure temperature ........................................................................... 20
5.7.3
Thermopile .......................................................................................................... 21
5.8 Hospital equipment ........................................................................................................... 24
6.
Essential parameters ............................................................................................................ 25
6.1
Essential Principles of Safety and performance of Medical devices ........................... 25
6.2
Accuracy and Clinical repeatability ............................................................................ 26
6.3
Total cost of ownership, product life and maintenance ............................................... 26
6.4
Breakdowns and down time ........................................................................................ 27
6.5
Performance according to specification ...................................................................... 27
6.6
Cleaning and infection control issues.......................................................................... 27
6.7
Storage and ambient operating environment ............................................................... 27
6.7.1
Effect of (ambient) conditions ............................................................................. 28
6.7.2
Electromagnetic Interference .............................................................................. 28
6.8
Lifetime costs .............................................................................................................. 28
6.8.1
Disposable/sterile covers ..................................................................................... 28
6.8.2
Batteries............................................................................................................... 29
6.8.3
Re-Calibration ..................................................................................................... 29
6.8.4
Maintenance costs ............................................................................................... 29
7
Clinical use .......................................................................................................................... 31
8
Manufacturing Standards .................................................................................................... 33
9
8.1
CE Marking ................................................................................................................. 33
8.2
International safety and performance standards .......................................................... 34
Result of comparison........................................................................................................... 37
9.1
Calibration and Maintenance Process ......................................................................... 37
9.1.1
Covidien Genius 2 ............................................................................................... 37
9.1.2
Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000 .............................................................................. 38
9.1.3
Welch Allyn SureTemp ....................................................................................... 38
10 Data and Results .................................................................................................................. 41
10.1
Costs ............................................................................................................................ 41
VI
10.2
Accuracy claims .......................................................................................................... 43
10.2.1
Covidien Genius2 ................................................................................................ 43
10.2.2
Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000 .............................................................................. 45
10.2.3
Welch Allyn Suretemp ........................................................................................ 48
10.2.4
Braun ThermoScan Pro4000 and Covidien Genius2........................................... 53
11 Discussion of results............................................................................................................ 61
11.1
Market Analysis .......................................................................................................... 36
12 Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 63
Bibliography................................................................................................................................ 65
A.
Printed Sources.................................................................................................................... 65
B. Manuals .................................................................................................................................. 67
C. Electronic Sources .................................................................................................................. 68
Annex I – Market Research ......................................................................................................... 69
A Cute Baby MT510 Infrared Ear Thermometer ........................................................................ 70
A Cute Baby MT511 Infrared Ear Thermometer ........................................................................ 71
Actherm 8000R ........................................................................................................................... 72
Alaris Med IVAC Core-Check.................................................................................................... 73
Beurer FT-55 ............................................................................................................................... 74
Bosotherm Medical ..................................................................................................................... 75
Braun IRT 3020........................................................................................................................... 75
Braun ThermoScan 4000............................................................................................................. 76
Comdek Industrial HD-7 ............................................................................................................. 78
Comdek Industrial HD-11 ........................................................................................................... 79
Comdek Industrial HD-21 ........................................................................................................... 80
Covidien Genius2 ........................................................................................................................ 81
DigiO2 ETH-101 ......................................................................................................................... 82
Easytem BT-020.......................................................................................................................... 83
Easytem BT-021.......................................................................................................................... 84
Exergen Ototemp 3000SD .......................................................................................................... 85
VII
Exergen Ototemp Light touch ..................................................................................................... 86
GF Health Products Deluxe Instant-Read Ear Thermometer Model 2215.................................. 87
HuBDIC NET100........................................................................................................................ 88
HuBDIC NET100........................................................................................................................ 89
Microlife IR 100 .......................................................................................................................... 90
Microlife IR 120 .......................................................................................................................... 91
Microlife IR 1DA1 ...................................................................................................................... 92
Omron Gentle Temp MC-510-E ................................................................................................. 93
Predictor Ear Thermometer ......................................................................................................... 94
Riester ri-Thermo N Professional ............................................................................................... 95
Rossmax TD100 .......................................................................................................................... 96
Rossmax TE100 .......................................................................................................................... 97
Spengler Temp'O ......................................................................................................................... 98
Topcom Ear&Forehead 301 ........................................................................................................ 99
Veridian VTemp Pro ................................................................................................................. 100
Devices Specifications .............................................................................................................. 101
Annex II .................................................................................................................................... 105
VIII
Figure index
Figure 2.1 Galileo’s first thermometer .......................................................................................... 5
Figure 5.1 The electromagnetic Spectrum .................................................................................. 20
Figure 5.2 General scheme of the evolution of the output and the target temperature ............... 22
Figure 5.3 The linear region matches the conventional thermocouple to a specified tolerance.. 23
Figure 5.4 General scheme of a thermopile ................................................................................ 23
Figure 5.5 Distribution of the devices according to their type .................................................... 25
Figure 8.1 Flowchart depicting the process of CE Marking ....................................................... 33
Figure 10.1 Scatter Plot for Covidien Genius2 measurement ..................................................... 43
Figure 10.2 Histogram for Covidien Genius2 measurement ....................................................... 44
Figure 10.3 Bland Altman plot: ThermoScan Pro 4000 vs. pulmonary artery catheter. ............. 46
Figure 10.4 Bland Altman plot: ThermoScan Pro 4000 vs. tympanic membrane probe. ........... 47
Figure 10.5 Welch Allyn Monitor mode Vs Paediatric axillary mode........................................ 49
Figure 10.6 Welch Allyn Difference between pulmonary artery and axillary temperature. ....... 51
Figure 10.7 Welch Allyn Difference between pulmonary artery and oral temperature. ............. 51
Figure 10.8 Covidien Genius2 difference between right ear and left ear and, right ear and rectal
measurements .............................................................................................................................. 55
Figure 10.9 Braun ThermoScan difference between right ear and left ear and, right ear and rectal
measurements .............................................................................................................................. 55
Figure 10.10 Covidien Genius2 difference between right ear and rectal and, right ear and core
measurements .............................................................................................................................. 57
Figure 10.11 Braun ThermoScan difference between right ear and rectal and, right ear and core
measurements .............................................................................................................................. 57
IX
X
Table index
Table 5.1 Normal body temperature ranges depending on site and age ...................................... 17
Table 8.1 Key Parameters in European Standard EN 12470-5:2003 .......................................... 34
Table 8.2 Key requirements in ASTM E1865-98 ....................................................................... 35
Table 10.1 Cost estimatesof the devices used in Karolinska....................................................... 42
Table 10.2 Genius2 Frequency and percentage of the acquired measurements .......................... 43
Table 10.3 Statistical data ........................................................................................................... 44
Table 10.4 Descriptive statistics for measurement differences .................................................. 54
XI
XII
1. Introduction - Analysis of the situation
Measuring body temperature is one of the most common clinical procedures in hospitals.
Temperature has been recognized as an aid in diagnosing and treating diseases (Konopad et al.
1994, Purssell et al. 2009) and core temperature, in particular provides essential information about
health and illness (Smith 1998). Temperature is an SI base quantity related to our sense of hot and
cold. It is measured with a thermometer, which contains a working substance with a measurable
property, such as length or pressure, that changes in a regular way as the substance becomes hotter
or colder (Halliday et al. 2010).
Due to Swedish regulations, the manufacture and sale of products containing mercury, such as
thermometers has been prohibited since the early 1990s. Nowadays, digital thermometers are
widely used in hospital wards or at home in order to measure body temperature. These
thermometers are, generally, either contact thermometers, which have a sensor on the tip (with
different types of sensor for each specific use), or infrared thermometers, which are almost contact
free. The most common digital thermometers are ear/tympanic, oral, axillar, rectal and pulmonary
artery catheter thermometers. Measuring the core temperature using an invasive method, like the
pulmonary artery catheter, is referred to as the gold standard for measuring body temperature
(Smith 1998, Giuliano et al. 1999, Bock & Hohfeld, 2005, Nimah et al. 2006, Edelu et al. 2011).
As this seldom is applicable outside the intensive care unit and operation room, rectal
measurement has been the standard method for centuries in clinical practice, however,
temperature changes in the rectum are relatively slow and do not always reflect the core
temperature. This is especially true for patients under general or regional anesthesia who may
develop rapid changes in core temperature (Bock & Hohfeld, 2005). Still, another common
method to determine body temperature, during daily clinical practice, is the evaluation of axillar
temperature. During the measurement, the thermometer is positioned in the axilla and the arm
should be held tight against the thorax for about four minutes or until the sound alarm is set off.
Infrared ear thermometers allow users to measure body temperature quickly and noninvasively
by inserting a probe into the patient’s ear canal. These thermometers do not contact any mucous
membranes, reducing the incidence of cross-contamination, and can be used on unconscious and
uncooperative patients. With the growing need of quick and less invasive measurement devices,
hospitals and other healthcare facilities have a strong need to introduce this kind of devices in
their wards, not only because of the patients, but also for the personnel in charge of their use. But
what is an Infrared Thermometer? According to Omega Engineering, an Infrared Thermometer is
a non-contact temperature measurement device able to detect the infrared energy emitted by all
1
materials, at temperatures above absolute zero, (0°Kelvin), converting the energy factor into a
temperature reading.
On the technical side, there are many pitfalls in the everyday usage of the ear thermometers at the
wards in a hospital, per example the devices fall on the floor, they become dirty, the batteries are
not charged properly, there is no disposable protection caps when the thermometer is needed,
calibration is not done, the staff feels that the device is difficult to use. Also, some of the technical
staff feels that some of the devices are not working properly, and asked for a revision of the
aforementioned devices. On the other hand, body temperature is one of the five vital signs
measured by health professionals. It’s predicted that 3–4 out of 10 febrile cases can be missed by
using infrared tympanic thermometers instead of rectal thermometry. The reasons are the
variability of the auditory canal, unwanted hair in the ear, the lack of reproducibility and the fact
that ear temperature can be lower than rectal temperature (Smith R et al. 2008).
A slight elevation in body temperature might lead to the prescription of medicine, prolonged stay
in a healthcare facility or other medical procedures, leading to rising costs. At home it might lead
to incorrect auto-medication, also leading to increased costs and patient safety issues.
After a literature revision it is possible to note that up until now, there have been several studies
regarding the accuracy, in a clinical setting, of previous generations of Infrared tympanic
thermometers, some revealing misdiagnosis and questioning those early models (Banitalebi et al.
2002, Nordås et al. 2005, Dodd et al. 2006, Duberg et al. 2007, Lawson et al. 2007), while others
say the devices proved to be accurate (Kocoglu & Goksu, 2002, Nimah et al. 2006, Villaescusa
et al. 2008, Jefferies et al. 2011). However there are not many studies for the new generation,
especially in a clinical practice environment. Some of the existing studies on these devices
demonstrate that the accuracy of Infrared ear thermometers is not the same as the one stated by
the manufacturers, being complicated to reach a consensus (Haugan et al. 2012).
So, since infrared tympanic thermometers are, along with digital contact thermometers for rectal
and axillary temperature measurements, the most common way to measure patient’s temperature,
it is necessary to measure their reliability, ownership costs and accuracy with other known and
reliable body temperature monitoring sites.
The hospitals in the region of Stockholm (Stockholm County Council) are reduced to buy new
infrared ear thermometers according to the agreement from the purchasing process in late 2011.
This proved to be a good opportunity to start a new study on these devices. This agreement is for
three years with the possible extension of one year. The supplied equipment is calculated
according to hospital needs in a 3 year interval, but also based on historical data from purchasing
database. There is no mandatory yearly quota that the hospital binds to buy from certain suppliers.
2
The equipment that is to be compared is electronic tympanic thermometers that are currently in
the market, which have replaced conventional mercury thermometers and rectal or axillary
thermometers in the hospital wards. This comparison covers infrared thermometers that measure
patient temperature by collecting emitted thermal radiation from the ear canal and/or tympanic
membrane and displaying the temperature in Celsius or Fahrenheit degrees on a liquid crystal
display (LCD) or light-emitting diode (LED) display.
The purpose of this report is to identify the essential performance parameters for the clinical usage
of Infrared Tympanic Thermometers.
3
4
2. State of the art
Nowadays temperature control and measurement are of the utmost importance, whether it is in
industries (chemical, plastic, paper, automobile, pharmaceutical, and aviation), laboratories, home
or the human body (TME Electronics). In the past such measurements where not accurate and
they were difficult to make, and most of the times they were based on sensorial experiences, rather
than on physical or chemical processes. Due to these reasons, there was a great need to create
some kind of instrument that could consistently measure a correct temperature, no matter the user
– the thermometer, which is the standard device to measure body temperature.
Regarding the human condition, body temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure and
pain are the five vital signs that show the organism’s capability to control body temperature, blood
flow and oxygenation of body tissues in the presence of environmental change, physical and
psychological stress (Oliveira D. 2010).
The following section encompasses the evolution of the thermometer and thermometry and is
based on some sources, but mostly Cabral, P. essay “Breve História da Medição de
Temperaturas”, Ostman H. “The evolution of the thermometer” and TME Electronics “The history
of thermometers”.
Historical records date the first attempt to establish a temperature scale around 170AD, by the
hand of Greek doctor Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (129 – 201AD). He suggested that the hot
and cold feelings should be measured on a scale with four divisions,
above and under a neutral point. In that scale he assigned, to boiling
water, the designation of “4 degrees of heat” and, to ice, was
assigned the designation of “4 degrees of cold”. The neutral scale
was a mix of equal quantities of both substances, boiling and ice
water.
In spite of thermometry dating to remote times, the invention of the
first “thermometer” is credited to Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642AD).
The device consisted on a small glass vessel with colored water,
where the tip of a thin glass tube was inserted, suspended, and with
a hollow sphere on the opposite extremity. An increase of the air in
the hollow sphere’s temperature expands the air, making the liquid Figure 2.1 Galileo’s first
go down, and a decrease of the temperature would make the liquid
thermometer
rise. Even though this device is able to register a temperature change, the absence of a scale means
5
that the device is, in fact, a thermoscope. A “true thermometer” must include a temperature sensor
where physical change occurs with changes in temperature - and a means of converting that
physical change into a readable value. For a long time, this meant a bulb (containing some form
of liquid) and a scale, generally displayed on the tube through which the liquid expanded or
contracted with changes in temperature.
The first “true thermometer” is credited to Robert Fudd (1574 – 1637AD), since it was the first
diagram with both temperature sensor and scale, but the first person that developed the idea of
the thermometer and actively used it was Santorio Santorio (1561 – 1636AD). He developed a
clinical thermometer, using it to produce an estimated heat of a patient’s heart by measuring the
heat of his expired air.
In 1644, Evangelista Torricelli (1608 – 1647AD) discovered the variability of air pressure so,
unfortunately, all the early thermometers and thermoscopes suffered of the same design flaw.
They were sensitive to air pressure as well as temperature, functioning, therefore also as a
barometer, rather than a pure thermometer.
In 1654, Ferndinando II de’Medici (1610 – 1670AD) created the first thermometer, which gave a
clear reading of temperature, unaffected by any other factor. He used a liquid instead of air as a
thermometric mean, sealing a tube with alcohol, with an engraved arbitrary scale of 50 degrees,
although there was no point marked as a zero. He also created the first blueprints for many
thermometer manufacturers, but there was one big problem. Each manufacturer had its own scale
and own system for temperature measurement. The scales were not standardized or calibrated to
one another.
In 1664, the London Royal Society proposed the use of Robert Hook’s (1635 – 1703AD)
thermometer scales as a standard. He used red dye on alcohol and although his scale was volume
dependent (each degree was 1/500 of the total volume of the liquid in the thermometer), it had a
fixed point. Water’s freezing point. Still, the London Royal Society had no real power to
implement Hook’s scale, but slowly a scale evolved Christian Huygens in 1665 suggested the
melting and boiling points of water as standard lower and upper limits, and in 1701 Isaac Newton
(1643 – 1727AD) proposed a scale of twelve degrees, with the extremes being melting ice and
body temperature.
In 1702, Danish astronomer Ole Rømer (1644 – 1710AD) also used two fixed points in his scale,
the upper value was the armpit temperature of a healthy adult and the lower limit was a mixture
of salt and ice. It was after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686 – 1738AD), German physicist and
engineer, visited Rømer in 1708, and started to use his scale in 1724, that it really caught on.
Fahrenheit was also the first manufacturer to use mercury in thermometers instead of alcohol.
Mercury is a better substance to use because its movement corresponds more exactly to
6
temperature change, and so a thermometer containing it can produce a more accurate reading than
a thermometer using alcohol. So Fahrenheit’s thermometers became the most popular designs,
and eventually the standard ones. Fahrenheit’s scale is still used nowadays in the U.S.A.
Still, the scale most widely used in thermometers of all kind is the Celsius scale. The Celsius scale
was developed in 1742 by Anders Celsius (1701 – 1744 A.D.), a Swedish astronomer who devised
a scale of 100 degrees, with zero as the boiling point of water and 100 as its freezing point. As he
died just two years later, his assistant Carolus Linnaeus was instrumental in developing and
publicizing the scale, and in encouraging its use among thermometer manufacturers. Linnaeus
reversed the scale, making zero the freezing point of water and 100 its boiling point, and used it
in his patented Linnaeus-thermometers, which were thermometers for use in greenhouses. In 1794
it was defined that a thermometric degree should be the hundredth part of the distance between
the freezing and boiling temperature of water, giving birth to the centigrade scale, other
denomination for the Celsius scale. The scale caught on and, since about 1950 has been the most
widely used on all almost all kinds of industries and thermometers, with the exception of some
scientific fields such as astrophysics, where the Kelvin scale is used.
The development of thermometers has moved quickly since the eighteenth century. In 1866, Sir
Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836 – 1925AD) devised a clinical thermometer which produced a body
temperature reading in five minutes rather than twenty. Since then, thermometers have become
essential and highly accurate devices used to analyze and control chemical reactions in fields as
diverse as astrophysics, restaurant catering, and electronical manufacture.
Since the introduction of the International Temperature Scale in 1990 many different thermometer
designs have been required to cover the whole range of temperatures. These range from ‘absolute
zero’, where all energy (expressed as heat) has been removed from a substance or atmosphere, to
very hot temperatures – thermometers have been developed that can even measure the temperature
of the surface of the sun (5526 degrees Celsius).
Nowadays, many different types of thermometer exist, including the alcohol thermometer, the
mercury thermometer, the medical thermometer, the reversing thermometer, the maximum
minimum thermometer, the thermistor, the thermocouple, the coulomb blockade thermometer,
the Beckmann differential thermometer, the bi-metal mechanical thermometer, the silicon band
gap temperature sensor, and the liquid crystal thermometer. However, the most common in
general manufacturing purposes is still the electronic thermometer, which uses tiny microchips to
pick up and to measure information on temperature.
The thermocouple is now the most widely used thermometer, or 'temperature sensor.' It uses
electrical technology to show temperature. Two metals are used, one contained within the
thermocouple, and one forming a probe which acts as a sensor to test the temperature of a
7
substance or atmosphere. The word 'thermocouple' comes from the idea of the 'coupling' of two
different metals.
The difference between their temperatures is expressed electrically through their difference in
voltage. As the temperature of the metal inside the thermocouple is already known, the difference
between the two temperatures can let us easily deduce the temperature of the metal attached to
the probe. This deduction is usually carried out electronically by a tiny microchip inside the
instrument, so that the scale or display on a thermocouple thermometer simply shows the
temperature which the probe has sensed.
Thermocouples are used extensively in electrical engineering and industry. For instance, they are
essential in fields such as heating appliance safety, radiation testing and in many areas of
manufacture. The principle behind thermocouples was discovered by the German-Estonian
physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck (1770 – 1831AD) in 1821, and is known as the thermoelectric
effect or Seebeck effect.
In 1867, English physician, Sir Thomas Allbutt (1836 – 1925AD) invented the first practical
medical thermometer used for taking the temperature of a person.
In 1884, Ludwig Boltzmann (1844 – 1906AD) derives Josef Stefan's (1835 – 1893AD) black
body radiation law, being named father of infrared thermometry. In 1899, the first patent for a
disappearing-filament optical pyrometer is granted to Everett F. Morse. In 1931 the first total
radiation thermometer is made available. In 1977, the first miniature thermopile appears,
decreasing its size to 4 mm2. In 1984, Theodore Hannes Benzinger (1905 – 1999AD), a German
surgeon invented the first ear thermometer, with Englishman David Phillips inventing the first
infrared ear thermometer, receiving the Inventor of the Year Award in 1986.
Regarding clinical thermometers, the development of infrared thermometers, brought us temporal
artery scanners, and some devices are now ear, forehead and ambient thermometers. Nowadays,
infrared ear thermometers are getting smaller, more accurate, they require less radiation to achieve
a usable signal, have a faster response time between carrying the measurement and displaying the
result and, of course, are now cheaper due to the mass production. There are several companies
worldwide, such as Braun, Covidien, Omron, Exergen, Microlife, Comdek, among several others,
investing in research and development of safe, accurate and reliable thermometers. In the future
it might be possible to constantly monitor patient’s temperature, with such a device. Infrared
tympanic thermometers were of great importance during the SARS epidemic outbreak between
November 2002 and July 2003, enabling rapid and accurate checking of body temperature at the
Lo Wu Border between Hong Kong and continental China. The use of these devices was pivotal
in preventing further spread of SARS carriers (Wing, 2004).
8
New clinical thermometers may be in the form of pills, like the CorTemp, with the temperature
display in a near monitor and the receiver is a small and thin coil placed under the sheet or
mattress, lasting up to eight days or more. It is possible to record a temperature measurement
every 30 seconds with memory up to 4500 measurements. It is also possible to turn it off remotely.
They are more practical, cheaper and safer than catheters and require no surgery.
Much has changed since 170AD, however, the basic principles for measuring temperature still
remain the same. All thermometers require a temperature sensor and a means of translating a
change in temperature into a numerical value. For example, in a mercury thermometer the
temperature sensor is the mercury. The change in numerical value is registered on the scale on
the thermometer.
9
10
3. Methods used
3.1Overview
During the working period a study plan was developed, several meetings were held with
technicians and nursing staff to discuss general characteristics, learn about the maintenance
procedures and problems associated with the devices. Experiments and data collection from the
inventory systems were carried out in the Biomedical/R&D department and a market analysis was
also conducted.
3.2 Meetings
The meetings were held with several technicians (Laszlo Fabian, Pernilla Holm, Pierre Foglöv,
and some of the nursing staff). On one of the meetings there was a visit to the neonatal ward of
the hospital. The meetings were informal, and consisted on information and advice exchange.
Laszlo provided some of the device manuals and his expertise on how to do the calibration and
maintenance of the devices.
Pernilla talked about previous experience, the motive behind the previous research and the
problems encountered when making the device measurements. She found that the devices had a
temperature variation of 0.8ºC, with standard deviation of 0.4ºC. She also proposed some
alternatives to the devices.
Pierre gave his input regarding Infrared thermometry and the standards used in Karolinska,
Huddinge, also referring to some previous research on infrared thermometry (Falk et al. 2003).
The nursing staff gave their opinions on the devices, their most common problems and difficulties.
Everybody gave their input regarding the devices being used in the hospital, their pros and cons,
and also a better perspective on how to attack the problem.
3.3 Experiments and data gathering
Experiments were done at the Biomedical/R&D department of the Huddinge Hospital. They
consisted on temperature acquisition with the Genius2 thermometer with the aid of its calibration
device.
The device was connected, and the instructions in the monitor were followed. For one
measurement, a new probe cover was installed and a measurement was taken in the low
temperature blackbody. The cover was then ejected and replaced by a new one and a new
measurement was taken in the high temperature blackbody. The temperature difference was then
displayed in the monitor and registered.
11
The calibration device also gave a log with the ambient temperature at the time of the calibration.
For the other devices, the data was gathered on scientific papers, independent research, through
Welch Allyn and the medical device inventory system (both the old and the new, which has
replaced the system that had been developed in Karolinska for over 20 years). This data was later
processed either with MS Excel or SPSS.
3.4 Market Analysis
The market analysis was conducted by an on-line search, exchanging e-mails with the
manufacturers, suppliers and reading the adequate literature (References B and C). A total of
thirty one thermometers were analyzed. 4 thermometers provide an oral equivalent temperature
while the other twenty seven provide the ear temperature. 12 provide either a “3-in-1” (ear,
ambient and surface temperature) or a “2-in-1” (ear and forehead temperature) system, 10 are
thermometers that provide ear temperature, the other 2 oral. There is also one thermometer that
can display several offsets (oral, rectal, ear and core). The specifications of these devices can be
found in Appendix I.
12
4. Temperature
It is of the utmost importance to accurately measure body temperature at the wards of a hospital.
A slight temperature elevation may lead to drug prescriptions, longer time in the hospital or
surgical procedures, leading to rising costs and risking patient safety. For these reasons it is
important to safely and accurately monitor body temperature.
Body temperature can be comprised by the temperatures of the core and shell. The core
temperature refers to the temperatures of the cranial, thoracic and abdominal cavities whereas the
shell temperature refers to the temperatures of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and muscles.
The human body is considered homeothermic, which means that it is able to maintain constant
temperature. The division of body temperature into core temperature and shell temperature is
unique in that the core temperature is endothermic, regulated by the brain, whereas shell
temperature is ectothermic, being influenced by external environment. During heat stress, skin
blood flow is increased, resulting in an elevated shell temperature and an increase in heat
dissipation to the environment. In contrast, cold stress reduces blood flow to the skin, leading to
a decrease in shell temperature and conservation of heat in the body. The ectothermic properties
of shell temperature and the endothermic properties of core temperature function in synchrony to
maintain thermal balance within the body.
Heat transfer between the body and the external environment occurs through the processes of
conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. Heat transfer through convection, conduction
and radiation is bi-directional, where heat transfer between the skin surface and the environment
is driven by the temperature gradient between the skin and the surrounding environment. Heat is
transferred from the environment to the skin if the ambient temperature is warmer than the shell
temperature and vice-versa. Based on these mechanisms of heat exchange between the skin and
the surrounding environment, it is recommended that strenuous physical activities should be
conducted during the cooler hours of the day and under the shade whenever possible. Deviation
from resting body temperature affects various physiological systems in the body, which is
indicative of the span of biological functions and dysfunctions that interact with the
thermoregulatory mechanisms (Lim C. 2008).
13
4.1 Normal Temperature
There are several factors which affect normal body temperature. In equilibrium, body temperature
is generally stable at 37ºC, with extremes at 36.1ºC and 37.2ºC. This equilibrium is maintained
through the balance between loss and production or acquisition of heat (Oliveira D. 2010). Body
temperature can be divided in core temperature, the “inner” temperature that varies around 0.5ºC
and surface temperature which is the superficial temperature of the skin which suffers greater
variation during the day, mostly due to its exposure to the environment. Body temperature varies
during the day and is approximately 0.5°C higher in the afternoon than during the morning.
Temperature also varies with extremes of age and tends to be lower in the elderly. Temperature
is also influenced by other factors such as gender (temperature rises in women around the time of
ovulation) or exercise (Oliveira D, 2010).
Hence, it is best to define normal temperature as a range of values, rather than a specific value. It
is necessary to be aware that when measuring temperature in patients, there are several other
factors which are also important and will influence the normal range:

Site of measurement (mouth, axilla, rectum, ear);

Type of thermometer used (mercury, infrared, electronic, chemical change);

Clinical reason for which temperature is being measured (detection of fever in a newborn,
monitoring of rewarming after surgery, etc.).
The variation in normal temperature between body sites is probably one of the key factors in
thermometry, and there have been several attempts to determine the difference in temperature
between the different body sites (called physiological offsets). Some thermometers have the
capacity to encode the physiologic offset figure into the thermometer’s displayed value, so the
temperature at a “familiar” body site (e.g. oral or core) is predicted from measurements at other
sites (e.g. forehead or ear). Other thermometers do not automatically add the physiologic offset
and provide the actual temperature measured at that site. It is of the utmost importance to know
from the operator’s manual for a particular thermometer which body site is displayed.
Since “normal” temperature is dependent on the body site and varies accordingly, the threshold
for clinical action may need to be adjusted depending on the thermometer being used. Some
manufacturers recommend that ideally individual temperature records should be recorded when
in normal health, due to the fact that individual differences also contribute to the variation of
normal temperature range. This is particularly crucial for patient groups in whom changes in
temperature might be of clinical significance, such as young children and patients with
14
immunosuppression. In addition, in hospitalized patients frequent monitoring is important in
order to detect shifts in temperature that might correlate with changes in clinical condition (e.g.
monitoring response to antimicrobial therapy, monitoring rewarming after some types of surgery)
(Crawford D. et al. 2005).
4.2 Fever
Fever occurs when the body creates extra heat so that a foreign organism cannot survive therefore
temperature monitoring and evaluation is part of the normal health care response to infection and
many other disease processes. The exact temperature that is used to define fever varies between
clinicians, and may also vary depending on the patient population (e.g. a lower definition of
“fever” may be used in some immunosuppressed patients). In general, the upper limit of normal
temperature varies from 37.0°C to 38.0°C, and most clinicians will use fever to be a temperature
that exceeds some figure in this range (Crawford et al. 2005, Bridges & Thomas, 2009).
Nevertheless review of the manufacturer’s data reveals that some manufacturers disclose
information on the normal temperatures that can be expected for their device and some document
an upper limit which is different from 37.0°C.
4.3 Hypothermia
Hypothermia can occur accidentally (e.g. due to environmental reasons) or intentionally, such as
during certain types of surgery. So it can be of vital importance to reliably measure body
temperatures well below 36.0°C. Reviewing the operating range for these digital thermometers it
is possible to observe that not all of the devices can match the range of a conventional mercury
thermometer (Omega Engineering, “Principles of Infrared thermocouple). Some infrared sensing
devices will measure low temperatures but these values may be less accurate as they are well
beyond the temperature range used for clinical validation (and as shown on Figure 5.2 General
scheme of the evolution of the output and the target temperature).
Accurate and reliable measurement of body temperature well below the normal range is likely to
be particularly relevant for emergency rescue teams, emergency admissions, staff working in
post-operative intensive care and possibly community healthcare workers. It is also important for
clinicians to know that different body sites respond at different speeds to rewarming the body,
and for example the rectal site may lag behind the tympanic membrane measurements in some
situations (Crawford et al. 2005).
15
16
5. Thermometry
The variation in normal temperature between body sites is probably one of the key factors in
thermometry, and there have been several attempts to determine the difference in temperature
between the different body sites, therefore temperature measurements can be taken in several
parts of the body. Table 5.1 Normal body temperature ranges depending on site and age (Welch
Allyn SureTemp Plus Manual, 2006) shows the range of temperature variation by site and age.
The temperature measurement can be more invasive such as rectal or with the help of catheters
or they can be less invasive like axillary or ear. Each of these types may provide different results,
which can also be affected by age, gender (Welch Allyn SureTemp Plus manual, 2006, Oliveira,
2010) or even the time of the day when the measurement is taken, so it's best to define normal
temperature as a range of values, rather than a specific value. Measurements from different areas
of the body should not be directly compared, even if taken at the same time. Some devices possess
the capacity to encode a physiological offset figure into the displayed value, so the thermometer
predicts the temperature at a familiar site such as oral.
Table 5.1 Normal body temperature ranges depending on site and age (Welch Allyn SureTemp Plus
Manual, 2006)
5.1 Oral
Oral temperature may only be taken from a patient who is capable of holding the thermometer
securely under the tongue, which generally excludes small children or people who are
unconscious or overcome by coughing, weakness, or vomiting. Mouth breathing, heated gases
and hot or cold fluids can distort the reading. Oral probes can damage oral mucosa, especially in
patients with abnormal mucosa due to trauma, thermal injury, infection, surgery, cancer, or
cytotoxic drugs. In critically ill patients, oral temperatures are often not practical due to intubation
or inability of the patient to cooperate (Lawson et al. 2007).
17
5.2 Ear / Tympanic
A digital ear thermometer measures the infrared energy emitted from the patient's eardrum in a
calibrated length of time. The infrared energy falls on a thin pyroelectric crystal which develops
a charge proportional to that collected energy (Hyperphysics). Discharging the crystal sends a
current pulse through filters and conversion circuits which compare the signal to tabulated data
on temperature and calculate a body temperature for the display (Lawson et al. 2007). This kind
of temperature from the eardrum has been found to be a clinically reliable indicator of body core
temperature.
Tympanic membrane temperature is believed to reflect the temperature of the hypothalamus
(Grady, 2010, Matzukawa et al. 1996, Villaescusa et al. 2008, Gentle Temp 510 Digital Ear
Thermometer manual, 2007) and thus the core body temperature. Direct measurement of the
tympanic membrane temperature requires an electronic probe, and risks trauma to the tympanic
membrane. Infrared ear thermometry is used to detect radiant energy from the tympanic
membrane and ear canal through an otoscopic probe (Kocoglu & Goksu, 2002, Lawson et al.
2007). Infrared ear thermometers may not be accurate if inflammation of the auditory canal or
tympanic membrane is present, or if there is obstruction of the external canal. Infrared devices do
not always correlate well with other measurement devices, which may be due to poor maintenance
or calibration.
5.3 Axillary
Axillary temperature is a skin temperature for an area that is somewhat protected from the ambient
air. The axillary temperature consistently varies from the core temperature. A digital thermometer
may be used to take an axillary which can be taken in patients of all ages, most digital
thermometers are easy and fast to use and measure body temperature in a short period, although
mercury or liquid-based thermometers may also be used (Lawson et al. 2007).
5.4 Rectal
Rectal temperatures obtained with a mercury thermometer or an electronic probe (intermittent or
continuous) is a traditional measurement device. Readings from the rectum are often a few tenths
of a degree higher than core temperature. Rectal temperature measurement is often perceived by
patients as unpleasant and intrusive. Access to the rectum may be limited by patient position.
Moreover, there is a small risk of trauma or perforation to the rectum that is a particular problem
in patients who are neutropenic, coagulopathic, or who have had recent rectal surgery. Rectal
temperature measurements have also been implicated in spreading enteric pathogens via the
device or the operator (Naomi et al. 1998).
18
5.5 Temporal
The temporal scanning is a relatively new technology for temperature measurement, which uses
the infrared principle to accurately report a patient's skin temperature directly over the superficial
temporal artery (forehead), with accuracy comparable to rectal thermometry. A technique known
as Arterial Heat Balance method is used to correct radiant heat loss, measuring the ambient
temperature at the same time that it measures the absolute temperature of the skin surface over
the artery (Lawson et al. 2007).
5.6 Core
Core temperature measurements are generally taken with the help of a pulmonary catheter
(Lawson et al. 2007). It’s the operating temperature of the human body, it is essentially the
temperature of the blood in the circulation, or in deep structures of the body such as the liver (it
is measured in the pulmonary artery because it is possible to monitor several other health
parameters such as pressure in the right atrium and right ventricle, detect heart failure, sepsis and
evaluate the effect of administered drugs). So that enzymatic reactions may occur, it’s maintained
in a narrow range.
5.7 Infrared sensing thermometers
5.7.1
Radiation
One of the methods by which an object and its environment can exchange energy as heat is via
electromagnetic waves. No medium is required for heat transfer via radiation. The radiation can
travel through vacuum from the Sun to any bystander on Earth.
The rate P, at which an object emits energy via electromagnetic radiation depends on the object’s
surface area A and the temperature T of that area in Kelvin degrees and is given by P= ε σAT4. In
order to absorb all radiated energy it intercepts, rather than sending a portion back away from
itself through reflection or scattering, it should have an emissivity, ε = 1, thus being an ideal
blackbody radiator.
Because an object will radiate energy to the environment while it absorbs energy from the
environment, the object’s net rate of energy exchange due to thermal radiation is the difference
between the absorption rate and the radiation rate. It is positive if net energy is being absorbed
via radiation and negative if it is being lost via radiation (Halliday et al. 2010).
Infrared radiation lies between visible light and radio waves on the electromagnetic spectrum.
Infrared light has wavelengths between about 1 millimeter and 750 nanometers, as shown in Fig.
5.1. The wavelength of red light is 700 nanometers. Infrared radiation oscillates at rates between
300 gigahertz and 400 terahertz. The infrared spectrum is sometimes subdivided into the far
19
infrared (1 mm to 10 µm wavelengths), mid infrared (10 to 2.5 µm wavelengths), and near infrared
(2,500 to 750 nm wavelengths). A portion of the far IR, including wavelengths between 100 and
1,000 µm, is sometimes referred to as the extreme infrared. Boundaries aren't always distinct, and
difference between extreme infrared radiation and microwave radio frequencies is less than
crystal clear.
Due to the fact that heat or thermal radiation are the primary sources of infrared radiation, any
object which has a temperature radiates in the infrared. Even objects that we think of as being
very cold, such as an ice cube, emit infrared. When an object is not quite hot enough to radiate
visible light, it will emit most of its energy in the infrared. For example, hot charcoal may not
give off light but it does emit infrared radiation which we feel as heat. The warmer the object, the
more infrared radiation it emits. (NASA Infrared (IR) Radiation, NASA The electromagnetic
spectrum)
Figure 5.1 The electromagnetic Spectrum (Halliday, D. Resnick, R. Walker, J. Fundamentals of
physics, 9th Edition. John Wiley and Sons, 2010,)
5.7.2
How they measure temperature
An infrared thermometer is composed by an optical sensor, usually a thermopile, which is able to
detect the infrared emissions from any hot object (Kocoglu & Goksu, 2002, The thermopile,
Virginia Tech,Omega Engineering, “Principles of Infrared thermocouples”). The spectrum and
magnitude of emitted infrared energy depends on (Falk et al. 2003, Tsai et al. 2006):
20

Emissivity which describes the efficiency of their surface for radiating electromagnetic
radiation and is a dimensionless number between 0 (smooth shiny surface) and 1 (dark
rough surface).

Internal temperature of the body.

Filtering effect of optical components, including the prove cover.

Temperature of the thermometer, which is also radiating infrared energy.
Infrared ear thermometers are designed to sense the temperature of the tympanic membrane within
the ear. The measured temperature is an average across the visualized area. The sensor’s field of
view may encompass adjacent ear structures, approximately 2°C cooler than the tympanic
membrane (Crawford et al. 2005). An instrumentation offset is usually applied which incorporates
information about the thermometer's temperature and the filtering effect of the optical
components. The effect of averaging is also corrected by some of the devices (making
assumptions about the relative size of the tympanic membrane in the field of view).
The temperature of the tympanic membrane is displayed by most models however an infrared ear
thermometer may be designed to apply a physiological offset to predict the temperature reading
for another body site, usually oral, based on data obtained by the manufacturer in clinical testing.
Surface temperature of regions of peripheral skin or other objects may also be measured using
models with a wide display range (References B,C). These direct readings will have lower
measurement accuracy but will incorporate an instrumentation offset to compensate for the
thermometer's internal temperature.
5.7.3
Thermopile
All Infrared thermocouples have a proprietary infrared detection system which receives the heat
energy radiated from the objects that the sensor is aimed at, and passively converts the heat into
an electrical potential. A millivolt signal is produced, which is scaled to the desired thermocouple
characteristics. Since all Infrared thermocouples are self-powered devices, and rely only on the
incoming infrared radiation to produce the signal through thermoelectric effects, the signal will
follow the rules of radiation thermal physics, and be subject to the non-linearities inherent in the
process, as shown on Figure 5.2 General scheme of the evolution of the output and the target
temperature (Omega Engineering. Principles of Infrared thermocouple). However, over a range
of temperatures, the Infrared thermocouples output is sufficiently linear to produce a signal which
can be interchanged directly for a conventional thermocouples signal as shown on Figure 5.3 The
linear region matches the conventional thermocouple to a specified tolerance (Omega
Engineering. Principles of Infrared thermocouple). For example, specifying a 2% match to
21
thermocouple linearity results in a temperature range in which the Infrared thermocouples will
produce a signal within 2% of the conventional thermocouples operating over that range.
Specifying 5% will produce a somewhat wider range, etc.
Each Infrared thermocouples model is specifically designed for optimum performance in the
region of best linear fit with conventional thermocouples, but can be used outside of those ranges
by simply calibrating the readout device appropriately. The output signal is smooth and
continuous over its entire rated temperature range, and maintains 1% repeatability over its entire
range (Omega Engineering. Principles of Infrared thermocouple).
Figure 5.2 General scheme of the evolution of the output and the target temperature (Omega
Engineering. Principles of Infrared thermocouple)
The signal generated by the thermocouple can be approximated to a fourth order polynomial
function of target temperature. This fourth power dependence is due to radiation physics, StefanBoltzmann Law, and not a limitation of the thermocouple.
22
Figure 5.3 The linear region matches the conventional thermocouple to a specified tolerance (Omega
Engineering. Principles of Infrared thermocouple)
The atoms and molecules that compose materials are in constant motion, and the interactions
among them (collisions and bonding forces) produce displacements in the elementary charges
within them. The resulting accelerating chargers and changing electrical dipole moments produce
thermal radiation. A thermopile is made of thermocouple junction pairs connected electrically,
generally in series, as shown in Figure 5.4 General scheme of a thermopile (Virginia Tech, The
thermopile).
Figure 5.4 General scheme of a thermopile (Virginia Tech, The thermopile)
This type of arrangement is useful for obtaining a substantial electromagnetic force for
measurement of a small temperature difference between two junctions. In this way a relatively
insensitive instrument may be used for voltage measurement, whereas a microvolt potentiometer
might otherwise be required.
23
The typical thermocouple measures the difference in temperature between a certain unknown
point and another point designated as the reference temperature.
The absorption of thermal radiation by one of the thermocouple junctions, called the active
junction, increases its temperature. The differential temperature between the active junction and
the reference junction kept at a fixed temperature produces an electromotive force directly
proportional to the differential temperature created, this effect is called a thermoelectric effect, or
in other words it’s any phenomenon involving an interconversion of heat and electrical energy
(Virginia Tech, The thermopile).
Thermocouple operation is based on the Seebeck effect; thus, the amount of electrical potential
produced can be interpolated as a measure of temperature difference. Some pairs of thermocouple
elements give a Seebeck voltage which varies in an anticipated way with temperature.
Thermocouples in common use have nearly linear temperature-emf characteristics (Virginia
Tech, The thermopile).
5.8 Hospital equipment
According to the inventory system, in the Karolinska wards there is a total of 1576 thermometers,
they are categorized in the inventory system in four (actually ten, but they are redundant
categories) different categories. Digital thermometers (72%), Spirit Thermometers (2%),
Thermometer (2%) and Ear thermometers (24%), as shown on Figure 5.5 Distribution of the
devices according to their type. There are over 50 different brands of thermometers. The biggest
suppliers are Welch Allyn Sverige AB, Covidien Sverige AB, Ottosson AB and Göteborgs
Termometerfabrik.
Quantity
2%
24%
Spirit thermometer
Digital thermometer
2%
Thermometer
72%
Ear Thermometer
24
Figure 5.5 Distribution of the devices according to their type
6. Essential parameters
The essential performance parameters for clinical usage are: Safety and absence of potential risks,
Accuracy, Clinical repeatability, Product life, maintenance, number of break downs, down time
and total cost of ownership, ease of use, serving the purpose, performance according to its
specification, storage temperature, ambient operating temperature and tolerability by the patient
(Kocoglu & Goksu, 2002).
6.1 Essential Principles of Safety and performance of Medical devices
According to the Global Harmonization Task Force (Cheng, 2003, Global Harmonization Task
Force Study Group I, 2005):
1. Medical devices should be designed and manufactured in such a way that, when used under
the conditions and for the purposes intended and, where applicable, by virtue of the technical
knowledge, experience, education or training of intended users, they will not compromise the
clinical condition or the safety of patients, or the safety and health of users or, where
applicable, other persons, provided that any risks which may be associated with their use
constitute acceptable risks when weighed against the benefits to the patient and are
compatible with a high level of protection of health and safety.
2. The solutions adopted by the manufacturer for the design and manufacture of the devices
should conform to safety principles, taking account of the generally acknowledged state of
the art. When risk reduction is required, the manufacturer should control the risk(s) so that
the residual risk(s) associated with each hazard is judged acceptable. The manufacturer should
apply the following principles in the priority order listed:

Identify known or foreseeable hazards and estimate the associated risks arising from the
intended use and foreseeable misuse;

Eliminate risks as far as reasonably practicable through inherently safe design and
manufacture,

Reduce as far as is reasonably practicable the remaining risks by taking adequate
protection measures, including alarms;

Inform users of any residual risks;
25
3. Devices should achieve the performance intended by the manufacturer and be designed,
manufactured and packaged in such a way that they are suitable for one or more of the
functions within the scope of the definition of a medical device applicable in each jurisdiction.
4. The characteristics and performances referred to in Clauses 1, 2 and 3 should not be adversely
affected to such a degree that the health or safety of the patient or the user and, where
applicable, of other persons are compromised during the lifetime of the device, as indicated
by the manufacturer, when the device is subjected to the stresses which can occur during
normal conditions of use and has been properly maintained in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions.
5. The devices should be designed, manufactured and packed in such a way that their
characteristics and performances during their intended use will not be adversely affected
under transport and storage conditions (for example, fluctuations of temperature and
humidity) taking account of the instructions and information provided by the manufacturer.
The benefits must be determined to outweigh any undesirable side effects for the performances
intended.
6.2 Accuracy and Clinical repeatability
All of the chosen devices follow the European Standards EN 12470:5, which states that the
maximum permissible error is ±0.2ºC for temperatures in the range of 35.5-42.0ºC and ±0.3ºC for
any other ranges (Shimek & Emmanuel, 2011). The maximum permissible clinical repeatability
is ±0.3ºC for every patient age group for which the infrared ear thermometer is intended for use
(Shimek & Emmanuel, 2011). They also follow ASTM standards.
6.3 Total cost of ownership, product life and maintenance
Every medical device or system should be evaluated based on the total cost of ownership over
some period of use, for example: 5 years. This will identify the true cost of operating the device(s)
and the effect on annual operating expense. If only the purchase cost is considered, expenses may
exceed the expected return on the medical device (Crawford et al. 2003). Variables to consider
may include: Initial purchase cost, disposable and single-use supplies required for use, personnel
cost, annual service cost (preventive maintenance and repair), software upgrades, utility/space
costs (power, A/C), initial and ongoing training costs for the clinical and support staff, interfaces
(data and networking), finance charges: lease, rental, present value of the device(s) at the end of
analysis period. In this particular case, there is no depreciation, because the equipment will not
be sold, it will be used until there is no more support from the supplier, or until it´s obsolete.
26
Assuming an 800 bed hospital with 100% occupation and a minimum of 4 daily measurements,
there will be at least a total of 1168000 measurements per year.
6.4 Breakdowns and down time
This refers to a period of time that the equipment fails to provide or perform its primary function.
The lower the downtimes and breakdowns the less expensive it gets, due to not adding repair
costs, while its still working, therefore reduction of the breakdowns and their down time is
essential, not only in a cost-effective, but also in a way that they fit their purpose (Crawford et al.
2005).
6.5 Performance according to specification
If the devices are complicated to use, the operating staff may have problems with it, leading to
inaccurate measurements, therefore leading to bad equipment performance, making the purchase
senseless. The devices should, for that same reason, meet the nursing staff desired characteristics.
6.6 Cleaning and infection control issues
Even though general recommendation on sterilization, disinfection and cleaning of medical
equipment is provided by the local legislation (the Swedish legislation Center is SIQ - Institutet
för Kvalitetsutveckling). It is also very important to follow the cleaning and decontamination
instructions provided by the manufacturer, since that cleaning instructions vary considerably for
thermometers.
Despite the use of sterile covers, some thermometers must be wiped with a soft dampened cloth
(References B), although in certain clinical situations this may be considered an unacceptable risk
for cross-contamination (Crawford et al. 2005).
Disposable probe covers avoid direct contact of the probe assembly with the patient and reduce
the risk of becoming contaminated or damaging the lens; a new probe cover is used for each
patient to prevent cross-contamination. Probe covers are attached by simply inserting the probe
into the cover and are automatically detached by pressing an eject button or manually by pulling
the probe off by hand. Covers can be rigid, pliable opaque plastic or soft, clear polyethylene.
6.7 Storage and ambient operating environment
If the storage and ambient operating temperatures are outside the range specified by the
manufacturers, the thermometer accuracy can be compromised. Generally the storage temperature
is a big interval, ranging from -10ºC to 40ºC with <95% Relative humidity, while the operating
temperature has a shorter interval, generally from 10ºC to 40ºC also with <95% Relative humidity.
27
The devices should be stored away of direct sunlight, electrical or mechanical shock and away
from any dripping liquids, the probe window should be well protected (References B and C).
6.7.1
Effect of (ambient) conditions
Technical literature documents the recommended temperature and humidity conditions for
warehouse storage and transportation (References B and C).
While the thermometers are not being used in the clinical setting, it should be stored in the
temperature range listed as the “ambient operating temperature” (the appropriate for stated
accuracy) as most require between thirty minutes to an hour to acclimatize to the ambient
temperature. To prevent measurement errors, most electronic thermometers sample the ambient
temperature during the startup checks and use this information to predict the temperature reading
of tissue at the measurement site.
Some manufacturers also advise that their models should not be stored under direct sunlight and
should also be protected from vibrating shock (References B and C).
6.7.2
Electromagnetic Interference
Another issue for consideration is the risk of false reading when the thermometer is exposed to
electromagnetic interference. Electromagnetic interference causes electromagnetic induction in
the circuits, interrupting, obstructing, or otherwise degrading or limiting the effective
performance of the circuit. Possible strong sources include the surgical diathermy (electro
surgery) generator in operating theatre, defibrillators and mobile communication systems such as
emergency services two-way radios.
The devices which comply with the international Standard for electromagnetic compatibility,
EN60601-1-2, are likely to be immune to most sources of interference but may still be affected
by surgical diathermy equipment (Crawford et al. 2005).
6.8 Lifetime costs
The lifetime cost could be more than the double of the acquisition cost for some devices. For
instance, some companies may offer the base unit, free of charge because they expect to recover
the purchase price through their charges for consumables, maintenance, etc.
6.8.1
Disposable/sterile covers
The manufacturers recommend the use of their own specific disposable covers to help reduce the
risk of cross infection for those devices that cannot be cleaned properly. Depending on the
thermometer selected, the annual consumable budget cost for probe covers in an 800 bedded
hospital can have a daily variance from 96.00€/859,65SEK (0.03€/0.27SEK each, excluding
28
taxes) to 864.00€/7691.85SEK (0.27€/2.40SEK each, excluding taxes), assuming 4 perfect
readings per patient, per day.
6.8.2
Batteries
All electronic thermometers are battery powered. Battery type, battery lifetime (generally in the
form of number of measurements) and the existence of a low battery indicator is described in the
technical documentation. Generally a good battery lifetime is preferred as it will decrease
operational costs, downtimes, and technical staff working hours. All batteries need to be disposed
of in accordance with local waste management policies.
6.8.3
Re-Calibration
An infrared thermometer is calibrated to indicate the temperature of a blackbody, which, as stated
previously, is an ideal radiator. The blackbody absorbs all incident radiation regardless of
wavelength and direction. For a given wavelength and temperature, there is no surface that is able
to emit more thermal radiation. Although the radiation emitted by the blackbody is a function of
wavelength and temperature, it is independent of direction. An infrared thermometer senses, with
its detector, the radiant flux from the target and generates an output signal. The signal is processed
with the help of electronics and an algorithm to the thermometer display, which indicates the
radiance temperature (Crawford et al. 2005).
Temperature measurement accuracy needs to be checked on a regular basis and especially if the
thermometer has been dropped, or exposed to extremes of temperature or humidity. Some
manufacturers recommend that professional users arrange for a periodic technical inspection for
accuracy but frequently no instructions are provided in the information supplied, so most of the
times the devices are only checked when the staff feels that the measurements are not reliable
(References B, Crawford et al. 2005).
Some manufacturers sell specific electronic devices for checking or calibrating thermometer
accuracy which are designed to be used by local medical technologists. Some manufacturers
recommend calibration at their premises, while others offer no advice at all.
6.8.4
Maintenance costs
For some models the purchase cost is so low that any repair work is not cost effective, whilst for
other models the maintenance costs can be equal to the purchase cost over the life of the
thermometer. Scientists and engineers at the clinical engineering department should be
responsible for medical equipment management. The purchase negotiation should also state if the
manufacturer (Crawford et al. 2005):
29

Will provide all maintenance, re-calibration and repair work, and if it is to be performed
at their facilities

Will provide the service manuals and the specific training to local medical engineering
support staff so maintenance, re-calibration and/or repair work can be performed within
the local hospital

Intends the thermometers to be discarded if a fault occurs, other than when covered by
the warranty period.
30
7 Clinical use
The key issues covered in the technical documentation for correct temperature measurements with
infrared ear thermometers are (References Section B, Critical Care Diagnostic and Nutritional
Delivery Group, 2006, Grady, 2010):

Confirming that the ear canal is unobstructed with excessive earwax or blood, should
not contain vernix or any inflammation. It should be clean, dry and with normal
appearance;

Ensuring that the thermometer lens is clean and equipped with a new probe cover.
Using only probes recommended by the manufacturer;

Straightening the ear canal in order to have a clear view of the ear drum, and
positioning the probe accordingly, so that the sensor is directed at the tympanic
membrane instead of other surface that might be colder. Incorrect placing might give
erroneous low temperature readings;

Using excessive force is not encouraged, especially while inserting the probe, as it may
injure the ear drum or canal;

Guaranteeing that the patient is quiet and still;

Allowing 30 minutes to pass before taking a reading on a patient that took a
shower/bath or was swimming;

Measuring a temperature in the ear that was lying on a pillow or mattress is not advised;

Waiting at least two minutes before repeating a measurement in the same ear;

Personnel should compare the measurements from the same ear;

Using the maximum of three repeated measurements so that the probe doesn’t warm up.
31
32
8 Manufacturing Standards
8.1 CE Marking
Manufacturers of medical devices placed on the market in Europe are required to meet the relevant
requirements of European Union Medical Devices Directive and be labeled with CE Marking. A
medical device may be classified as Class I (including Is & Im), Class IIa, IIb and III, with Class
III covering the highest risk products. Classification of a medical device will depend upon a series
of factors, including how long the device is intended to be in continuous use, whether or not the
device is invasive or surgically invasive, whether the device is implantable or active, whether or
not the device contains a substance (which in its own right is considered to be a medicinal
substance and has action ancillary to that of the device) (European Comission, Classification of
Medical Devices).
Differences in their mode of operation, and the consequent risk to the patient will alter the
appropriate classification for the thermometer. For invasive devices in body orifice or stomas (not
surgically) see Figure 8.1 Flowchart depicting the process of CE Marking for a medical device
such as an infrared ear thermometer (European Comission, Classification of Medical Devices):
Figure 8.1 Flowchart depicting the process of CE Marking for a medical device such as an infrared
ear thermometer (European Comission, Classification of Medical Devices)
33
In order to get CE Marking on their devices, manufacturers generally rely on full quality
assurance, which is audited and certified by a notified body. Most have used the general quality
system standard such as ISO9001 and others comply with additional requirements important for
medical device manufacturers as outlined in ISO13485 or ISO13488 (European Comission,
Classification of Medical Devices).
8.2 International safety and performance standards
European standard EN12470 (see Table 8.1 Key Parameters in European Standard EN 124705:2003(Shimek & Emmanuel, 2011)for EN12470:5) comprises five parts each covering a specific
thermometer type (Lóio & Lobo, 2011). Other thermometers were designed to comply with other
standards, e.g. ASTM (see Table 8.2 Key requirements in ASTM E1865-98 (reapproved 2009)
(Shimek & Emmanuel, 2011)for ASTM E1865-98), ISO. In the market analysis, most devices
follow both EN and ASTM standards. However some just follow one of them. The Alaris Med
and Riester ri-Thermo follow only ASTM, while the Predictor thermometer follows EN. Spengler
and Comdek devices follow ISO standards. This may happen, due to the fact that some devices
are only marketed in either Europe or U.S.A. so there is no need to comply with other standards.
The relevant standard for all electrical medical devices is EN60601-1, particularly for electronic
contact thermometers or those performing infrared sensing. Compliance with EN60601-1-2
demonstrates that electromagnetic compatibility has been tested demonstrating that performance
of the thermometer will not be affected by electrical interference from most types of medical and
communication equipment like mobile phones, and do not generate significant electromagnetic
interference for other devices (Cheng, 2003, Shimek & Emmanuel, 2011).
Table 8.1 Key Parameters in European Standard EN 12470-5:2003(Shimek & Emmanuel, 2011)
Parameter
Summary of the specification
Test Procedure
34
Maximum
permissible error
over the specified
temperature
range
±0.2 °C
±0.3 °C
Minimum
measuring range
Maximum
permissible
clinical
repeatability
Resolution
(digital
increment)
Ambient
temperature
operating range
Measuring temperature
range: 35.5–42.0 °C
Ambient temperature
range: 18–28 °C
Outside the above
measuring range or
ambient temperature
range
Method in 7.4 and 7.5
of
EN 12470-5:2003
Method in 7.3 of EN
124705:2003
35.5–40.0 °C
±0.3 °C for every patient age group
(newborn, children, adults) for which the
infrared ear thermometer is intended for use
Method in 7.7 of EN
124705:2003
0.1 °C or less
Visual inspection
16–35 °C
Method in 7.4 of EN
124705:2003
Note: If the infrared ear thermometer uses a protective probe cover, the thermometer together with the probe
cover must meet the requirements above. If the probe cover is intended for multiple uses, the above
requirements must be met after the probe cover has been cleaned, disinfected and/or sterilized according to the
manufacturer’s specifications.
Table 8.2 Key requirements in ASTM E1865-98 (reapproved 2009) (Shimek & Emmanuel, 2011)
Parameter
Maximum
permissible
laboratory error
for given blackbody
temperature
range
Minimum
measuring range
Summary of the specification
Section
0.3 °C
<36 °C
0.2 °C
36–39 °C
5.3
0.3 °C
>39 °C
(see test method in
6.1.4)
34.4–42.2 °C unless otherwise labeled
5.2
Clinical accuracy
To be determined and disclosed upon
request for each device model, adjustable
display mode and age group intended for use
5.5.1
(see also 6.2)
Display
resolution
0.1 °C
5.8.1
Operating
temperature
The device should meet the laboratory error
requirement operating in the range of 16°C–
40°C unless otherwise marked
5.6.1.1
Operating
humidity range
Up to 95% for the specified operating
temperature range
5.7
35
9 Market Analysis
In the analysis a total of thirty one thermometers were included. 4 provide an oral equivalent
temperature while the other twenty seven provide the ear temperature. 12 provide either a “3-in1” (ear, ambient and surface temperature) or a “2-in-1” (ear and forehead temperature) system,
10 are thermometers that provide ear temperature, the other 2 oral. There is also one thermometer
that can display several offsets (oral, rectal, ear and core).
A majority of these devices are sold in Europe, other fail to meet the required European standards
and cannot be marketed. 12 of the 31 are sold in Sweden through a supplier.
Five devices claim to be probe cover free when measuring ear temperature, “3-in-1” or “2-in-1”
devices do not require probe covers when measuring non-ear temperatures.
However there is a lack of information regarding the devices. Some manuals consist on a leaflet
(general with a picture depicting bad technique) including only the basic information (accuracy,
the type of batteries used and cleaning instructions), leaving aside the basic operation techniques
such as the ear tug. Some suppliers or manufacturers do not disclose certain information regarding
their devices (prices or materials used for the disposable covers).
36
10 Result of comparison
Most of the devices accounted for in the market analysis were marketed as a “home care device”,
therefore they could not provide reliable measurements in the heavy use environment that is a
hospital. Also ECRI (Emergency Care Research Institute) suggests the use of only one model of
ear thermometer in any given institution. For that same reason only the Braun Thermoscan
Pro4000 and the Covidien Genius2 were considered, especially taking into account the numbers
of the devices registered in the inventory database. In this report both devices will be compared
against the Welch Allyn SureTemp 690/692 (digital non-IR thermometer) also used in the hospital
wards which has the characteristics and reliability to be a good option. According to the inventory
database there are 117 Covidien Genius2, 61 Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000 (and 66 Braun devices
from previous generation) and 55 Welch Allyn SureTemp.
Covidien states that pre-recalibration, their device, Genius2, has an accuracy that lies between
±0.1 to ±0.2ºC, depending on the target temperature. However, post-recalibration the values lay
within ±0.2ºC and ±0.3ºC. Braun claims a constant ±0.2ºC accuracy, while Welch Allyn, being a
digital contact thermometer claims a ±0.1ºC accuracy for their device. They’re all battery powered
and can be used on patients of all ages. The Genius2 can be set to Oral, Core, and Rectal equivalent
temperatures (physiological offset). The Welch Allyn can be set to take instant temperatures at
different places, such as in the mouth, axilla or the rectum; it can also be set to monitor the
temperature during a period of time (although these temperatures will not be memorized for future
recall).
All devices have their own probe covers that must be used in order to prevent erroneous
measurements and cross contamination.
10.1
Calibration and Maintenance Process
The steps required for the calibration or maintenance process are described below.
10.1.1 Covidien Genius 2
The procedure at the department is to start with an inspection of the probe lens with a magnifying
glass, and clean it if needed with a cotton swab moistened with alcohol. Clean the excess alcohol
with another swab. Use compressed air on the probe to dry it and wait around 5 minutes. In the
meanwhile turn on the calibration device, and then disassemble the back cover and take out the
batteries. Connect the thermometer to the calibrating device using the connector. Place a new
cover and follow the steps on the screen. Generally at least four measurements are needed (two
in the low temperature blackbody and two in the high temperature). Save the calibration log to
37
the USB stick. Control the batteries and then assemble the back-cover of the device. If needed,
the device is also cleaned.
At the moment there are three improvements used in the calibrations and maintenance process of
the Genius2:
First, for a better inspection of the probe lens a magnifying glass is used. Second, to reduce waiting
time, compressed air is used to dry the lens after using a swab moistened with alcohol. Third,
when connecting the Genius2 with the calibration device, a strap is used to hold both pieces
firmly, this is a great addition since the connector doesn’t fit tightly, is a bit loose and is very easy
to disconnect, and when it disconnects the process has to restart from that step.
A new string of code could be introduced in order to know the time and number of measurements
between the last calibration or other repair service. If the logs from the calibration machine could
be updated in the same file instead of rewritten, useful information could be extracted. Or if after
every calibration the log would be stored in some computer (without re-writing), the same
information (mean time between failures/maintenance) could be extracted.
10.1.2 Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000
According to technical documentation, the device should have an operational verification every
year. The device goes to the factory for calibration. For the preventive maintenance service, a
cotton swab moistened in alcohol is used to clean the probe lens, and the batteries are also
checked. If needed, the exterior cover of the device is also cleaned (ThermoScan Pro 400
usermanual, 2006).
There are no other improvements in the ThermoScan Pro 4000, because the calibration of these
devices happens in factory and not at the R&D/Biomedical Department, the possible
improvement would be to acquire the 9600 Plus Calibration Tester, to ensure the devices
(Thermoscan and Suretemp) are calibrated to factory settings.
10.1.3 Welch Allyn SureTemp
This maintenance consists in a visual inspection of the device for any physical damage that might
cause future failure, removing the probe, the “probe well” and the batteries and replace them. The
batteries should be removed if the instrument is not used for a long period of time, in order to
avoid damage to the device due to battery leakage.
Cleaning of the thermometer and probe should be done regularly using a cloth dampened with
warm water and a mild detergent solution for the case and a 70% isopropyl alcohol solution for
38
the probe. Steam, heat, or gas sterilization must not be used on the thermometer or probe. The
device must also never be immersed in any type of fluid. Cleaning of the “probe well” should be
done by removing the “probe well” from the unit, unplugging the latching probe connector to
prevent the device from consuming battery and then cleaning the inner surface of the “probe well”
by swabbing the surface with a cloth dampened with a mild detergent solution or 70% isopropyl
alcohol solution (Welch Allyn SureTemp Plus manual, 2006).
The Welch Allyn is in the same situation for improvements as the Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000.
39
40
11 Data and Results
Gathered data was processed either with SPSS or MS Office.
11.1
Costs
All of the data was extracted from both of the inventory systems in use at Karolinska. The
approximate annual costs for the 3 devices are shown in the table below (Table 10.1).
Depreciation of equipment and the cost of the nursing personnel are not included in the estimated
costs, however it is easily possible to conclude the amount of time invested by nurses in taking
the ear temperature measurements: According to Stavem et al. the total time to conclude a
tympanic measurement (collection, insertion of the probe cover, measurement, and reading and
documenting the temperature) is 108s. So, 1168000measurements*108seconds = 35040 hours
(spent in just measuring temperature during a year). Assuming a single nurse works 40 hours per
week and 48 weeks in a year, 18 nurses are needed per year just to take the temperature
measurements of patients. The average yearly salary of a nurse, according to Statistiska
Centralbyrån (www.sbc.se), is 363600SEK, so the total expense, regarding the nursing staff, just
for the tympanic temperature measurement would be around 6.54Million SEK.
41
Table 11.1 Cost estimates, in Swedish Crowns, of the devices used in Karolinska
Braun
ThermoScan
Pro4000
Covidien
Genius2
Welch
Allyn
Suretemp
690/692
1095
2300
2800
67,2 (96)
126 (200)
160 (250)
Price per cover
0,7
0,63
0,8
Price per covers per year
817600
735840
934400
0,0018
0,0045
1168
78
195
20245
2025
5061
6157
49065
10589
No
No
No
844003
786930
950050
131400
276000
336000
2663407
2636788
3186150
4351413
4210648
5086251
6,8
51,9
9,6
Price of the Device *1
Price box covers (number)
*2
Battery price per measurement 0,018
*3
Battery changes per year
Battery Price per year *4
Maintenance price (Yearly)
*5
Training
Total Running Price per year *6
Total acquisition price
*7
TCO for 3 and 5 years
Work hours per year
*5
*1
Lowest price paid by the Hospital for the device, as per the inventory system. *2 Average price
from on-line stores. *3 assuming 9SEK per battery *4 24 unit boxes-208SEK each *5 Maintenance
work hours. Values taken from inventory system and adjusted to the number of devices. *6Sum of
covers, batteries and maintenance price*7 120 devices per 3 years. All prices are in Swedish Crowns.
There is no training required, due to the fact that these devices are already in use at the wards of
the hospital. If indeed it is needed, the cost would still be relatively low due to the fact that most
of the staff is already familiar with both devices. The maintenance price of the Covidien Genius2
is much higher than the Braun ThermoScan Pro4000, which might be due to the fact that when
these devices need a bigger repair, the Braun is disposed, while the Covidien is indeed repaired.
From the inventory database it was possible to see that 71 Covidien Genius2, 39 Braun
ThermoScan Pro 4000 and 11 Welch Allyn SureTemp underwent repair, but it is not possible to
see how many devices were disposed.
42
11.2
Accuracy claims
11.2.1 Covidien Genius2
In order to test the accuracy of the calibration, the general accuracy of the devices and confirm if
it is in agreement with Ms. Pernilla Holm’s findings, the following data was gathered according
to the procedure in paragraph 9.1.1.
Variation
0,2
Variation ºC
0,1
0,0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Variation
-0,1
-0,2
Measurements
Figure 11.1 Scatter Plot of the value of the measurements
These 101 measurements were taken with the Covidien Genius2 thermometer in the calibration
device, which contains 2 blackbodies, one with a low temperature (around 32.2ºC) and another
with a higher temperature (around 40.5ºC). SPSS frequency analyzer shows that, regarding the
stated blackbody temperature, a single measurement taken by the thermometer had a temperature
variation of -0.1ºC, 81 had no variation and 19 had a variation of +0.1ºC.
Table 11.2 Frequency of the acquired measurements and their percentage
Measurements
Frequency
Valid
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
-0,10
1
1,0
1,0
1,0
0,00
0,10
Total
81
19
101
80,2
18,8
100,0
80,2
18,8
100,0
81,2
100,0
Table 10.2 explains Figure 10.1 in more detail, breaking the graph into a table showing the
frequency and the corresponding percent of the taken measurements, for an easier read.
43
Figure 11.2 Histogram depicting the frequency of the measurements, and the normal curve.
Temperature in ºC
Examining Fig. 10.2 it is possible to see that the majority of the values within the normal curve
fall between a temperature variation of 0.0ºC and 0.1ºC, this is also easily observed in Table 10.2.
The peak of the curve is at 0.02ºC. Measurements vary from -0.1ºC to 0.1ºC, with 81 out of 101
measurements proving to be exact, this is, with 0.0ºC variation, and the standard deviation is
standing at 0.04ºC. This Histogram and the following statistical data (Table 10.3), were obtained
through SPSS Frequency Analyzer function.
Table 11.3 Statistical data
Statistics
N
Mean
Std. Error of Mean
Median
Mode
Std. Deviation
Variance
Skewness
Std. Error of Skewness
Kurtosis
Std. Error of Kurtosis
101
0,0178
0,00408
0,00
0,00
0,04098
0,002
1,253
0,240
0,927
0,476
44
The measured temperatures varied from 32.2-32.3ºC in the low temperature black body to 40.540.6ºC in the high temperature blackbody. Ambient temperature at the time of the experiment
was 27.2ºC.
Using the same method as Haugan et al. where the accuracy was defined as 2 x SD (standard
deviation), the accuracy for these measurements is ±0.082, falling within the parameters specified
by the manufacturer.
11.2.2 Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000
Due to the fact the there are no devices to calibrate the Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000 device at the
Biomedical/R&D department of Karolinska, it was impossible to make similar measurements to
the ones in chapter 10.1.1. For this reason, other studies were used to help in the evaluation
process and which are described below.
The following study was carried out at the Heidelberg University Hospital (Bock & Hohfeld,
2005) with the purpose of evaluating the equivalency between an infrared ear thermometer and
the temperature measurements of a pulmonary artery catheter and a contact probe on the tympanic
membrane. In this research the device used as an infrared ear thermometer is the Braun
ThermoScan Pro 4000, making it a valuable contribution to the present study, since it was not
possible to carry out measurements for this device.
The study consisted on obtaining a total of 729 measurements on 26 patients, with ages ranging
from 48 to 81 years (with a median of 67.5 year). The median duration of all operations was 153
min (range 97–263 min) with a median duration of the extra corporal circulation of 69.5 min
(range 33–123 min). Patients with an acute or chronic infection of the external auditory canal, the
middle ear, the mastoid, and those with a congenital or acquired anomaly of the auditory canal as
well as a defect of the tympanum, and impacted cerumen were excluded from the study. Also,
patients with clinically significant microangiopathia, cerebral circulatory disease and migraine
headaches were excluded. Infections in the external auditory canal or cerumen were excluded by
preoperative otoscopy. It should be noted that this practice is not applicable for a routine use in a
clinical setting. In this study, and unlike previous studies, the infrared thermometer was evaluated
in a population undergoing rapid changes in core temperature, using a large number of
measurements by an expert observer.
Twenty-two data sets were excluded because strong artefacts caused by bipolar high frequency
coagulation interfered with the data registration of the ThermoScan Pro 4000, leaving 707 data
sets for statistical analysis. These artefacts consisted of temperatures on the display which were
obviously higher than the range of human thermoregulation. Per patient, a mean of 26.3 and a
45
median of 23 measuring episodes (range 11–53) were included in the analysis. The temperatures
evaluated in the calculations ranged from 33.6 to 37.6°C.
Ambient temperature ranged from 18.2 to 27.7°C which is within the range specified for the
ThermoScan Pro 4000 (10–40°C).
Figure 11.3 Bland Altman plot of the paired measurements displayed against the average of the pair
when the prototype of the infrared ear thermometer (ThermoScan Pro 4000) was compared to the
pulmonary artery (PA) catheter.
Fig. 10.3 shows that, concerning the pulmonary artery catheter, the agreement between
measurements of the infrared thermometer ThermoScan Pro 4000 and those of the pulmonary
artery catheter was +0.08°C, with a precision between .61 (upper 95% CI) and -0.44 (lower 95%
CI).
46
Figure 11.4 Bland Altman plot of the paired measurements plotted against the average of the pair
when the prototype of the infrared ear thermometer ThermoScan Pro 4000 was compared to the
tympanic membrane probe.
Fig. 10.4 shows that, regarding the tympanic contact probe, the agreement between measurements
of the infrared thermometer ThermoScan Pro 4000 and those of the tympanic contact probe was
+0.22°C, with a precision between 1.13 (upper 95% CI) and -0.69 (lower 95% CI;).
47
11.2.3 Welch Allyn Suretemp
The following study was conducted by Welch Allyn (Welch Allyn, 2007) with the purpose of
demonstrating the accuracy of this device in the pediatric mode. In the following researches the
device used was the Welch Allyn Suretemp Plus 690/692, making it an important addition to the
present study, since it was not possible to carry out measurements for this device, due to the fact
the there are no devices to calibrate the Welch Allyn Suretemp device at the Biomedical/R&D
department of Karolinska, so it was impossible to make similar measurements to the ones in
chapter 10.1.1.
The purpose of this Welch Allyn study was to demonstrate the accuracy of the SureTemp in
Pediatric Axillary mode and consisted on collecting one hundred and ten temperature data sets.
Sixteen percent of the data represent newborns, while thirty percent of the data (excluding the
newborns) represent patients with fever (in this particular study, fever is a temperature superior
to 37.77ºC). For each subject, an initial axillary temperature was taken in the predict mode. Once
the temperature was recorded, the probe was left in place and the thermometer was switched to
the monitor mode for five minutes to establish a reference temperature. A direct comparison was
then made between each predicted temperature and the corresponding reference temperature.
Data were then analyzed by comparing each subject’s predicted temperature to the corresponding
five-minute monitor mode reference temperature.
48
Figure 11.5 Welch Allyn Monitor mode Vs Paediatric axillary mode (Welch Allyn, 2007)
Monitor mode is a function of an electronic thermometer used to monitor a temperature reading
until it reaches the thermal steady state. The thermal steady state for axillary temperatures is
reached in approximately five minutes.
Predicted temperatures are from any thermometer that renders a temperature reading before the
steady state is achieved. Predictive thermometers reduce the time required for measurement by
predicting what the temperature would be if the probe were left in the site until steady state is
reached.
Regarding the Data of the newborn, axillary temperatures ranged from 35.88°C to 37.38° C. The
total number of data sets was twenty. Subjects ranged from 1 hour to 3 days old. The average
error was 0.044° C with a Standard Deviation of 0.199°C (Figure 10.5).
For the Pediatric Axillary Data, 17 years and younger, excluding newborns (subjects ranged in
age from 1 month to 16 years). Axillary temperatures ranged from 36.16° C to 39.66° C. The total
number of data sets was 90, with 27 of those being in a febrile state. An equal number of axillary
data sets were also collected from three age groups: one month to 4 years, 5 years to 10 years, and
11 years to 17 years. The average error was 0.055° C with a Standard Deviation of 0.175° C
(Figure 10.5).
49
The next study was conducted in the ICU at the University of Washington Medical Centers in
Seattle (Lawson et al. 2007) with the purpose of determining the accuracy and precision of oral,
ear-based, temporal artery, and axillary temperature measurements compared with pulmonary
artery temperature. In this research one of the devices used is the Welch Allyn Suretemp 692,
making it an important addition to the present study, since it was not possible to carry out
measurements for this device.
During a 6-month period, a convenience sample (n = 60) of adult Intensive Care Unit patients at
the University of Washington Medical Centers, Seattle, Washington (an academic medical center)
were studied. Patients who had a pulmonary artery catheter in place because of clinical necessity
participated in the study. Patients were excluded if they had an oral abscess, stomatitis or oral
trauma.
The probe, which was placed in the posterior sublingual pocket, was held by the investigator
during the temperature measurement to maintain contact between the probe tip and the tissue.
Patients who were intubated also were included in the study. A repeated-measures design was
used to describe the accuracy and precision of noninvasive temperature measurements (oral)
compared with pulmonary artery temperature. Study participants served as their own controls.
The thermometer was placed in the “axillary” mode. The temperature probe requires direct
contact with the skin, although no shaving or clipping of hair is required.
Temperature measurements were obtained in the following manner: The thermometer was placed
in the “axillary” mode. The temperature probe requires direct contact with the skin, although no
shaving or clipping of hair was required. With the axillary mode indicator flashing, the patient’s
arm was lifted so that the entire axilla was easily seen. The probe was then placed as high as
possible in the axilla. The probe tip did not come into contact with the patient until the probe was
placed in the measurement site. After verifying that the probe tip was completely surrounded by
axillary tissue, the patient’s arm was then snugly placed at his side. The patient’s arm was held in
this position to avoid movement of the arm or the probe during the measurement cycle.
50
Figure 11.6 Welch Allyn Difference between pulmonary artery and axillary temperature. The bias
was 0.23ºC, with a standard deviation of 0.44ºC, indicating that the axillary temperatures tended to
underestimate the pulmonary artery temperature. (Lawson et al. 2007)
Figure 11.7 Welch Allyn Difference between pulmonary artery and oral temperature. The bias was
0.09ºC, with a standard deviation of 0.43ºC, indicating that the oral temperatures tended to
underestimate the pulmonary artery temperature. (Lawson et al. 2007)
51
Figure 10.6 shows the 180 measurements (60 triplicate sets) obtained to compare axillary and
pulmonary artery temperature measurements. The accuracy was 0.23ºC and the precision was
0.44ºC, indicating that the axillary temperature measurements underestimated the pulmonary
artery temperature. The confidence limits ranged from -0.64ºC to 1.12ºC. Of the 180 data points,
49 (27%) were outside the ±0.5ºC range.
Figure 10.7 shows the 180 measurements (60 triplicate sets) were obtained to compare oral and
pulmonary artery temperature measurements. The accuracy was 0.09ºC and the precision was
0.43ºC, indicating that the oral temperatures slightly underestimated the pulmonary artery
temperature. The confidence limits ranged from -0.75ºC to 0.93ºC. Of the 180 data points, 34
(19%) were outside the ±0.5ºC range.
52
11.2.4 Braun ThermoScan Pro4000 and Covidien Genius2
According to a study carried in a University Hospital in Oslo (Haugan et al. 2012), with the
purpose of exploring the reliability and validity of the new generation of infrared tympanic
thermometers, ear temperature measurements were compared by taking measurements in both
ears, and also by comparing ear temperature with rectal and core.
The study was carried in a surgical ward and one Intensive Care Unit. All patients were 18 or
older, and patients with ear infection, acute pain or bandage over the ear were excluded. At the
ward, temperature was measured with two infrared tympanic thermometers of different brands in
both ears. Finally, the rectal temperature was measured. These five measurements were taken
twice, once in the morning and once in the evening, either on the same day or on two consecutive
days. If the measurements were taken on two consecutive days, the evening measurement was
taken first. The staff, both at the ICU and at the surgical ward went through training in infrared
tympanic thermometer handling. All thermometers followed cleaning procedures as instructed by
the manufacturers and were calibrated before the study. The pulmonary artery catheter
temperature was measured with a Swan-Ganz catheter, using a Pulse-Induced Contour Cardiac
Output (PICCO) catheter. The rectal temperature measurements were taken, with several digital
thermometers of the same brand (DIGItemp). The core and rectal temperature measurements were
taken not more than 3 minutes after infrared thermometry. Measurements taken with the infrared
tympanic thermometers followed manufacturer’s guidelines. Data were collected for nine months.
53
Table 11.4 Overall descriptive statistics for the differences in pairs of temperature measurements.
The measurements were rectal temperature and ear temperature measured in left and right ears, by
Braun and Genius thermometers (ward) and the same measurements supplemented by the core
temperature at the Intensive Care Unit
Ward
Braun Right vs Left
Genius Right vs Left
Rectal vs Braun Right
Rectal vs Braun Left
Rectal vs Genius Right
Rectal vs Genius Left
n
371
370
378
379
378
378
Mean
0.04
-0.01
0.34
0.39
0.87
0.85
SD
0.32
0.36
0.38
0.39
0.47
0.47
Min
-1.50
-1.50
-1.00
-1.00
-1.10
-1.00
Max
1.00
1.20
1.90
2.10
2.30
2.40
Rectal vs Core
Braun Right vs Left
Genius Right vs Left
Core vs Braun Right
Core vs Braun Left 2
Core vs Genius Right
Core vs Genius Left
Rectal vs Braun Right
Rectal vs Braun Left
Rectal vs Genius Right
Rectal vs Genius Left
240
243
244
245
245
246
245
237
236
238
236
0.16
0.06
0.07
-0.05
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.11
0.17
0.18
0.17
0.18
0.38
0.48
30
0.31
0.36
0.31
0.33
0.34
0.38
0.34
-0.40
-1.40
-1.40
-1.10
-1.10
-1.00
-1.10
-1.00
-0.80
-1.30
-0.80
0.70
1.70
1.50
1.20
1.50
1.40
1.50
1.20
1.60
1.40
1.60
ICU
54
Figure 11.9 On th
Figure 11.8 On the left side, Measurements from the ward: Bland–Altman plots of the tympanic temperature in left and right ears measured by Covidien devices.
On the right side
On the right side Measurements from the ward: Bland–Altman plots of the tympanic temperature in right ear measured by Braun instruments. Similar results
found for left ear
were found for left ear. For both graphics, the solid lines are the mean difference, and the dashed lines are 95% limits of agreement. (Haugan et al. 2012
55
56
Figure 11.10 On the left, measurements from the intensive care unit: Bland–Altman plots of the tympanic temperature in right ear measured by Covidien
instruments, compared with the rectal temperature. On the right, Measurements from the intensive care unit: Bland–Altman plots of the tympanic temperature
in right ear measured by Covidien instruments, compared with the core temperature. The solid lines are the mean difference, and the dashed lines are 95% limits
of agreement. Similar results were found for left ear. (Haugan et al. 2012)
Figure 11.11 On t
compared with th
measured by Bra
Similar results we
57
58
Regarding the measurements taken at the wards, the descriptive statistics indicate higher variation
in temperature measurements made in the ear. The greatest variation was found in measurements
from Genius instruments. The mean difference between right and left ears was 0.04ºC for Braun
and -0.01ºCC for Genius (Table 10.4, and on the right side of Fig. 10.8 and Fig. 10.9). The
differences were not more than 1.5ºC for either brand, with 50% of the differences between -0.2ºC
and 0.2ºC for both brands.
The differences between rectal temperature and ear temperature are outlined on the right side of
Fig. 10.8 and Fig. 10.9 and Table 10.4. Both brands consistently measured a temperature lower
than the rectal temperature, with Genius showing the largest deviation.
The difference between rectal temperature and temperatures measured by Braun instruments was
statistically significant (p < 0.001) and estimated to be 0.36ºC. The difference between rectal
temperature and temperatures measured by Genius instruments was statistically significant (p <
0.001) and estimated to be 0.85ºC.
Regarding the temperature measurements taken at the Intensive Care Unit, the descriptive
statistics indicate a higher overall mean temperature and an overall larger variation in the
temperature measurements in the Intensive Care Unit as compared with the ward. The agreement
between left and right ears is shown in Table 10.4. The mean rectal temperature was higher than
the mean core temperature (Table 10.4, Fig. 4), with minor differences in ear temperature as
compared with the core temperature. The differences between rectal temperature and ear
temperature are outlined on the left side of Fig. 10.10 and Fig. 10.11 and in Table 10.4. The
corresponding differences between core temperature and ear temperature are outlined on the right
side of Fig. 10.10 and Fig. 10.11 and on Table 10.4.
According to Haugan et al. a mixed model analysis restricted to ear temperature measurements
showed a slight, but statistically significant, difference in measurements from left ear vs. right
ear, with the temperature measured in the left ear being on average 0.06ºC lower than that in the
right ear (p = 0.02). Because of the magnitude of this difference and the fact that ‘left’ and ‘right’
were only attributable to the ear temperature measurements, this difference was disregarded in
further analyses. When the core temperature was left out of the mixed model analyses, it was
found that the same overall trends at the ICU as at the ward, but with less discrepancy between
Braun and Genius instruments, as compared with the rectal temperature (mean effect -0.13ºC, p
< 0.001 for Braun and mean effect -0.21ºC, p < 0.001 for Genius). Rectal temperatures were the
only temperature measurements that significantly differed from the core temperature.
The Department of Clinical and Biomedical Engineering did the recalibration tests after the data
collection. One of the Genius instruments did not pass the recalibration test. Excluding the
59
measurements with this instrument from the sample did not change the results of the analyses.
One of the Braun thermometers had lower readings during the calibration. Dirt covering the lens
was discovered on visual inspection. After cleaning the lens, all Braun thermometers passed the
calibration test.
Regarding the limitations of this study, it should be noticed that few patients in this study had a
fever because most patients receive treatment against fever, as it is ethically wrong not to give
the patients optimal treatment like antipyretics, steroids and antibiotics.
60
12 Discussion of results
The aim of this examination was to examine the accuracy, prices and reliability of infrared ear
thermometers when compared against normal contact digital thermometry equipment. Two
tympanic thermometers and one digital thermometer were evaluated in the present study. Each of
these thermometers is commercially available in the European Union.
All recorded temperatures lay within the temperature range specified by the manufacturers.
One of the experiments was conducted in Karolinska University Hospital, while the results from
the others were compiled from different sources, such as the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia,
American Journal of Critical Care, Welch Allyn and Journal of Clinical Nursing.
Gathered data (Fig. 10.1, Fig. 10.2, Table 10.1 and Table 10.2) show that the Covidien Genius2
can measure temperature with high accuracy and precision, detecting accurately hypothermia or
fever. It should be noted however that the Covidien Genius2 measurements were not done on
human subjects, but on the calibration machine (black bodies), so the human error, the ear
anatomy, or other factors were not taken into account. It is also to be noted that these results differ
from the results obtained by Ms. Pernilla Holm, who used the same method as the one used in
this study. Pernilla found the devices to be very inaccurate, with temperature variations reaching
the 0.8ºC, with standard deviation of 0.4ºC. It was confirmed by Covidien that a certain batch of
devices, were not packed accordingly to their standards, and suffered some damage on the probes
while being transported. Those devices were replaced.
It has been demonstrated that the Braun ThermoScan Pro 4000 (Fig. 10.3 and Fig. 10.4) offers an
accurate estimate of core temperature in comparison to invasive pulmonary artery catheter
thermometry and contact measurement on the tympanic membrane, as well as high
reproducibility. A major advantage of the ThermoScan Pro 4000 compared to the pulmonary
artery catheter is the non-invasive operation of the device. The ThermoScan Pro 4000 may
therefore be used as an alternative to the pulmonary artery thermometry for the measurement of
core temperature in the perioperative setting, however it is important to note that limited access
to the aural canal might interfere with the measurements when the thermometer’s infrared
collecting cylinder cannot be centered exactly towards the tympanum.
Regarding the Welch Allyn, the data (Figure 10.5) shows excellent correlation and no clinically
significant differences between the five-minute monitor mode reference temperatures and the
predicted axillary temperatures. Axillary temperatures in children are often preferred over other
sites because of safety, hygiene, and simplicity.
61
The axillary temperature measurements (Figure 10.6) underestimated the pulmonary artery
temperature, although the precision of temporal artery measurements was comparable to the
precision of the oral temperature measurements.
The oral temperature measurements (Figure 10.7) agreed closely with the pulmonary artery
temperature, with mean differences less than 0.1ºC. The axillary temperature measurements
underestimated the pulmonary artery temperature.
Regarding the study done by Haugan et al. they showed that there is a good agreement between
both ears for the two brands of infrared tympanic thermometers. It was found that, at the intensive
care unit, the tympanic temperature was closer to core temperature than to the rectal temperature,
so there is also the possibility that the same happens at the surgical ward.
Haugan et al have also done some calculations regarding the clinical accuracy of the tympanic
thermometers. They defined the error limits as 2 x SD (standard deviation) of left vs. right ear,
finding ±064ºC at the ward and ±0.76ºC at the Intensive Care Unit for the Braun ThermoScan Pro
4000 and, for the Covidien Genius2 ±0.72ºC at the ward and ±0.96ºC at the Intensive Care Unit.
Prior to the study, they also hypothesized 95% confidence limits of ±0.5ºC for the true difference
between rectal and ear temperature to be acceptable to introduce IRTT at the ward. Except from
the differences found at the ward between rectal temperature and temperatures measured by
Geniu2, all comparisons in the study conducted by Haugan et al. met these criteria.
These results clash with several other studies, which state that in a clinical setting, ear
thermometry is not an adequate alternative to the golden standard, rectal thermometry, being
inaccurate and possibly revealing misdiagnosis (Banitalebi et al. 2002, Nordås et al. 2005, Dodd
et al. 2006, Duberg et al. 2007, Lawson et al. 2007). However the results are in agreement with
other studies that state that the infrared thermometers proved to be accurate (Kocoglu & Goksu,
2002, Nimah et al. 2006, Villaescusa et al. 2008, Jefferies et al. 2011). However most of the
previous studies were either made on previous models of the devices or for infrared devices that
were not built for human temperature measurement, but for other purposes and possess a much
wider range (from 50ºC to 200ºC), although the same thermometry principles still apply.
Nevertheless, a newer study (Haugan et al. 2012) seems to be in agreement with the conducted
research.
On a price related view, for 3 years the Covidien Genius2 proves to be the cheapest option by a
small margin of around 27000SEK, while for 5 years the difference increases to 140765SEK.
Also the device with larger life expectancy, according to the technicians is the Covidien Genius2.
And the stated initial accuracy of the Genius2 is 0.1ºC better than the ThermoScan Pro 4000.
62
13 Conclusions
It is of vital importance to understand that body temperature varies according to body location
and is not a specific value, but rather a set of values.
Infrared tympanic thermometry is easy to learn and to perform and, although training has some
impact on the accuracy of the measurements, it is a viable option for use in daily clinical practice
(results suggest that infrared ear thermometers are a good alternative to traditional methods of
thermometry and that infrared ear thermometers are accurate instruments), however ear
thermometers should be used only for tracking or trending of patient temperature status and never
used on critical patients.
Several factors, such as lack of training or poor equipment handling, may affect the measurement
of tympanic membrane temperature. Most likely, problems are not related to the thermometers
themselves, rather they are likely the result of an inadequate understanding of the limitations of
ear thermometry. In order to avoid measurement problems, the devices should have their accuracy
checked more periodically, once a year, as recommended, every time they are exposed to
electrical and mechanical shock or water, or when the staff feels unsure about the measurements.
It is of vital importance to have studies on medical equipment before purchasing. During an
economic crisis like the one we are going through, cost reduction and cost effectiveness are of the
utmost importance. It was possible to see that the operation of a simple device such as a tympanic
thermometer implies significant annual costs for the hospital. Even though a single measurement
is quite inexpensive, barely reaching 1SEK, however it is the heavy utilization of the device that
must be taken into account. In this case, using the least expensive devices (regarding only its
running cost) has an annual cost of 786930SEK, when we add the cost with the non-technical
staff, which is around 6.54Million SEK, the total cost of usage of the infrared ear thermometer
devices is roughly 7.33Million SEK, which is a considerable value, for a task (temperature
measurement) that is most often perceived as “trivial”, by medical staff and regular people.
During the course of three years, Covidien Genius2 it is still 26619SEK cheaper than its direct
competitor and for five years the difference is 140765SEK. Covidien’s Genius2 has a larger life
and it can be used to display temperatures at a known body site, such as oral, rectal or axillary if
needed. They are also relatively easy to fix and most of the work can be done “in house”.
Regarding accuracy, both tympanic thermometers are proven to be accurate devices. Therefore,
taking into account the personnel opinion, features, specifications, and total cost of ownership of
the devices the optimal buying decision would be the Covidien Genius2 thermometer.
Since core temperature is considered the golden standard, it is recommended that further data be
obtained on the Covidien Genius2 and the Braun ThermoScan Pro4000 for comparison of
tympanic measurements with a pulmonary artery catheter, providing the possibility to further
63
compare the performance of the different thermometers. Further research is also recommended
on febrile patients.
64
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http://www.omega.com/temperature/z/pdf/z076-080.pdf (26-07-2012)
68. Ostman H. The Evolution of the Thermometer. http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Evolutionof-the-Thermometer&id=2732962 (28-07-2012)
69. TME
Electronics.
The
history
of
thermometers
http://www.tmelectronics.co.uk/acatalog/History_of_Thermometery.pdf (28-07-2012)
70. Virginia
Tech.
The
Thermopile.
Available
from:
<http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-8497-205315/unrestricted/chap2.pdf> (0806-2012)
71. www.actherm.com.tw
72. www.brannan.co.uk/
73. www.carefusion.com/medical-products/infusion/alaris-system/
74. www.comdek.com/
75. www.digio2.com/
76. www.easytem.co.kr/
77. www.exergen.com/
78. www.grahamfield.com/
79. www.hubdic.com/
80. www.microlife.com/
81. www.predictor.eu/
82. www.rossmaxhealth.com
83. http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____28319.aspx (29-08-2012)
84. www.spengler.fr/
85. www.topcom.net/
86. www.veridianhealthcare.com/
87. Zytemp. Infrared History. http://www.zytemp.com/infrared/history.asp (29-07-2012)
68
Annex I – Market Research
The introductory part of the market analysis was incorporated in the report. The following pages
contain the specifications and characteristics of several devices currently in the market.
Some of the terms used are explained below:
CE Mark: European Conformity Mark
Temperature Range: Range of displayed temperatures in the monitor in °C or °F
Ambient Operating temperature: The range of optimal operating temperature
LCD: Liquid crystal display
LED: Light-emitting diode
Dimensions, L x dia, mm: The shape of the probe is typically conical, with the tip of the cone
sliced off for the lens opening. The height of the cone is designated as the length, and the diameter
is that of the circular lens opening
No. of Measurements: Average life span of the batteries
69
A Cute Baby MT510 Infrared Ear Thermometer
Measures infrared energy emitted
from the tympanic membrane.
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear, surface,
scan
Patient group: Adults, children and
Infants
Size LWD: 12.6 x 3.0 x 2.2
Weight: 55g
User’s information: Gently pull the
ear back to straighten the ear canal
and snugly position the probe into the ear canal, aiming towards the
membrane of the eardrum
Special features: 3in1 ear thermometer (measurement in the ear, ambient
and surface temperature), ten memories, fever alarm, automatic switch-off
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Disposable covers: Required
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Manufacturing standards:
Measurement Range: 0ºC-50ºC
ASTM E1965-98, EN12470-5
Accuracy: ±0.2°C 36°C –39°C
CE Mark: Yes
and ±0.3°C 34°C –36°C and 39°C
Website: www.acuteideas.com
–43°C
Email: [email protected]
±1°C other temperatures
Manufacturer: A Cute Baby
Storage conditions: 10°C+40°C,
3F, No.11, Lane35, Jihu Road,
RH<=95%
Taipei
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
114
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
Tel.: 886-2-87514868
Cleaning body: Soft cloth
moistened with a soap solution
70
A Cute Baby MT511 Infrared Ear Thermometer
Measures infrared energy emitted from the tympanic membrane.
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear, surface and scan
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 11.0 x 5.0 x 3.4
Weight: 30g
User’s information: Gently pull the ear back to
straighten the ear canal and snugly position the
probe into the ear canal, aiming towards the
membrane of the eardrum
Special features: 3in1 ear thermometer
(measurement in the ear, ambient and surface
temperature), ten memories, two colours
backlight, automatic switch-of
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Measurement Range: 0ºC-50ºC
Disposable covers: Required for ear
Accuracy: ±0.2°C 36°C –39°C and
measurements
±0.3°C 34°C –36°C and 39°C –43°C
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
±1°C other temperatures
Manufacturing standards:
Storage conditions: 10°C+40°C,
ASTM E1965-98, EN12470-5
RH<=95%
CE Mark: Yes
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
Website: www.acuteideas.com
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
Email: [email protected]
Cleaning body: Soft cloth moistened
Manufacturer: A Cute Baby
with a soap solution
3F, No.11, Lane35, Jihu Road,
Taipei
114
Tel: 886-2-87514868f
71
Actherm 8000R
Measures infrared energy emitted
from the tympanic membrane.
Intended Use: Hospital, primary
and home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children
and Infants
Size LWD: n/d
Weight: n/d
User’s information: Several
“packs” available, Simple, Cradle,
Desktop and Wall mount.
Special features: Extra-large and
Backlight LCD for easy reading,
rechargeable, 10 memories, beeper
alarm, Hygienic and Hands-Free
Probe Cover Installation and
Disposal, Probe Cover Positioning
Detective System, Back-light
Display Optional for Easy Reading
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Measurement Range: 26.0°C 43.9°C
Accuracy: ±0.2°C or ±0.3°C if
outside
ambient
operating
parameters
Storage conditions: 16.0°C-40°C
Cleaning probe tip: Use a cotton
swab moistened with alcohol
Cleaning body: Use a dampened
cloth
Disposable covers: Required
Battery: AAA 1.5V (2)
rechargeable battery pack
or
Manufacturing standards:
EN 12470-5: 2003 & ASTM
E1965-98
CE Mark: Yes
Website: www.actherm.com.tw
Manufacturer
6F, No. 18, Jhanye 2nd Rd.
Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu
30078, Taiwan, R.O.C
TEL: 886 3 666 9596
FAX: 886 3 666 9697
E-mail:
[email protected]
72
Alaris Med IVAC Core-Check
Measures infrared energy emitted from the tympanic
membrane.
Intended Use: Hospital, primary or home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 19.05 x 3.81 x 7.62
Weight: 266g with batteries
User’s information: Place a probe cover on the
device. Centre the probe tip far enough into the ear
canal to firmly seal the ear canal opening and point
in the direction of the tympanic membrane. Gently
restrain the head if necessary. Press and hold the temperature switch until the
green light flashes and temperature reading is displayed.
Special features: Anti-theft, video
Disposable covers: Required
and wall charts are available to aid
Battery: 9V (1)
in training
Manufacturing standards:
Self-check on start-up: Yes
ASTM E1112-86
Calibration and Maintenance: In
CE Mark: Yes
house, according to legislation
Supplier: Alaris Med
Measurement Range: 25°CWebsite:
43.3°C
http://www.carefusion.com/
Accuracy: ±0.1°C
Manufacturer:
Storage conditions: -35°C - 60°C
CareFusion V. Mueller
Cleaning probe tip: Use a cotton
1500 Waukegan Rd.
swab moistened with Isopropanol
Waukegan, IL 60085
Cleaning body: Use a cloth
Email:[email protected]
dampened with Ammonium or
m
mild detergent
73
Beurer FT-55
Converts the ear temperature to display its “oral equivalent”
Intended Use: Hospital, Clinics and home care
Measurement Site: Ear, surface, ambient
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 14.5 x 3.4 x 2.8
Weight: 57g
User’s information: Gently pull the ear back to
straighten the ear canal and snugly position the
probe into the ear canal, aiming towards the
membrane of the eardrum to obtain an accurate
reading
Special features: 3in1 ear thermometer
(measurement in the ear, ambient and surface
temperature), 9 memories, Large display, Display
of normal or elevated temperature with colour
LEDs, automatic switch-off
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
Calibration and Maintenance:
Manufacturing standards:
Factory every 2 years
ASTM E1965-98, EN12470-5: 2003,
Measurement Range: 34ºC-42.2ºC
IEC/EN60601-1-2
Accuracy: ±0.2°C 35.5°C – 42°C
CE Mark: Yes
and ±0.3°C other temperatures
Website: http://beurer.com
Storage conditions: -20°C+50°C,
Email: [email protected]
RH<=85%
Manufacturer: Beurer GmbH
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
Soeflinger Strasse 218
with Alcohol, Water or disinfectant
89077 Ulm
Cleaning body: Soft cloth moistened
Germany
with a soap solution
Tel.: +49(0)7 31/39 89-0
Disposable covers: Required
74
Bosotherm Medical
Infrared detector measures emitted radiation from the inner ear and predicts
ear temperature
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear and surfaces
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants?
Size LWD: 14.1 x 2.6 x 2.0
Weight: 45g with battery
User’s information: While gently pulling the
ear, insert the probe carefully into the ear canal
and press the "START” button. A beep sound
confirms the end of measurement.
Special features: “Nite glow”,
Fever alarm, automatic switchoff
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation.
Disposable covers: Required
Measurement Range: 0°C-100°C
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
Battery: 3.0V CR2032 (1)
Storage conditions: -25°C-55°C
Manufacturing standards:
40%-80% RH
EN 12470-5; ASTM E1965
Cleaning probe tip: Use an
CE Mark: Yes
alcohol sponge or cotton swab
Website: www.boso.de
moistened with alcohol (70%
Manufacturer:
Isopropyl)
to
clean
the
BOSCH + SOHN GMBH U. CO.
thermometer casing and the
KG
measuring probe.
Bahnhofstrasse 64
Cleaning body: Never use
72417 Jungingen/Germany
abrasive cleaning agents, thinners
Email: [email protected]
or benzene for cleaning
Braun IRT 3020
75
Measures the infrared heat generated by the eardrum and surrounding tissue
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 20.32 x 9.4 x 5.08
Weight: 163g (boxed)
User’s information: Perform an ear tug to straighten the
ear canal, fit the probe snugly into the ear canal as far as
possible and press the activation button
Special features: 8 memories, automatic switch-off
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
Factory every 2 years
Measurement Range: 34ºC-42.2ºC
Accuracy: ±0.2°C or ±0.3°C outside
ambient operating temperature
Storage conditions: -20°C+50°C,
Manufacturing standards:
RH<=95%
ASTM E1965-98, EN12470-5: 2003,
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
IEC/EN60601-1 :3/96
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
CE Mark: Yes
Cleaning body: Use a soft, dry cloth
Supplier:Welch
Allyn
AB
to clean the thermometer display and
Svärdvägen
21
exterior.
182 33 Danderyd
Maintenance and ongoing costs:
Website: www.welchallyn.se
Disposable covers: Required
Email: [email protected]
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
Manufacturer: Braun GmbH
Braun ThermoScan 4000
76
Measures the infrared heat generated by the eardrum and surrounding
tissues.
Intended Use: Hospital and primary care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 15.5 x 3.5 x 4.5
Weight: 120g
User’s information: Detailed user manual
provided. Information on range for normal
temperature readings is supplied for site and
patient age group.
Special
features:
Displays
message for position error,
Ambient temperature error, no
probe cover attached, measured
Cleaning body: Use a soft cloth
temperature too high or too low,
slightly moistened with alcohol to
system error, low battery, battery
clean the thermometer display and
too low to take correct temperature
exterior. Do not use abrasive
measurements, thermometer stand.
cleaners.
Anti-theft
Disposable covers: Required
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Battery: AA 1.5V (2)
Calibration and Maintenance:
Manufacturing standards:
Done in factory (once a year or
ASTM:E 1965-98; EN 60601-1: EN
according to legislation)
12470-5: 2003
Measurement Range: 20°CCE Mark: Yes
42.2°C
Accuracy: ±0.2°C if in the range
Supplier: Welch Allyn AB
between 35.5°C-42.0°C or 0.3°C if
Svärdvägen
21
outside 35.5°C-42.0°C
182 33 Danderyd
Storage conditions:-20°C-40°C
Website: www.welchallyn.se
RH up to 95%
Email: [email protected]
Cleaning probe tip: gently wipe
Manufacturer: Braun GmbH
its surface with a cotton swab
slightly moistened with alcohol
and then wipe dry with a clean
cotton swab
77
Comdek Industrial HD-7
Takes body temperature by measuring infrared heat from the eardrum.
Intended Use: Home use
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and
Infants
Size LWD: 15 x 3.3 x 9
Weight: 101g without batteries
User’s information: Gently pull
the ear back to straighten the ear
canal and gently position the probe
into the ear canal, aiming towards
the membrane of the eardrum to
obtain an accurate reading
Special features: Large LCD, low
battery indicator, hold sign
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Measurement Range: 34°C-42°C
Accuracy:
Storage conditions: 5°C+55°C,
RH<=95%
Cleaning probe tip: Use a cotton
swab moistened with alcohol
Cleaning body: Use a dampened
cloth
Disposable covers: Required
Battery: AA 1.5V (2)
Manufacturing
standards:
ISO9001, ISO13485, CE0434
CE Mark: Yes
Website:
http://www.comdek.com
Email:
[email protected]
Manufacturer:
Comdek
Industrial
9F-1, No. 3, Yuan Qu Street, NanKang,
Taipei 11503, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2655-7810
78
Comdek Industrial HD-11
Takes body temperature by measuring infrared heat from the eardrum.
Intended Use: Professional use
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children
and Infants
Size LWD: 15 x 3.3 x 9
Weight: 101g without batteries
User’s information: Continuous
scanning, Gently pull the ear back
to straighten the ear canal and
gently position the probe into the
ear canal, aiming towards the
membrane of the eardrum to
obtain an accurate reading
Special features: Large LCD, low
battery indicator, hold sign, 2
minutes auto shut-off, continuous
scanning
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Manufacturing
standards:
Measurement Range: 20°C-50°C
ISO9001, ISO13485, CE0434
Accuracy:
CE Mark: Yes
Storage conditions: 5°C+55°C,
Website: www.comdek.com
RH<=95%
Email:
Cleaning probe tip: Use a cotton
[email protected]
swab moistened with alcohol
Manufacturer:
Comdek
Cleaning body: Use a dampened
Industrial
cloth
9F-1, No. 3, Yuan Qu Street, NanDisposable covers: Required
Kang,
Battery: AA 1.5V (2)
Taipei 11503, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2655-7810
79
Comdek Industrial HD-21
Takes body temperature by measuring infrared heat from the eardrum.
Intended Use: Home use
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Children and Infants
Size LWD: 9.2 x 4.5 x 6.5
Weight: 101g without batteries
User’s information: Continuous scanning,
Gently pull the ear back to straighten the ear
canal and gently position the probe into the ear
canal, aiming towards the membrane of the
eardrum to obtain an accurate reading
Special features: Foldable design, Large LCD,
low battery indicator, hold sign, continue sign,
2 minutes auto shut-off, continuous scanning
Self-check on start-up:
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Measurement Range: 34°C-42°C
CE
Accuracy:
Mark: Yes
Storage conditions: 5°C+55°C,
Website:
RH<=95%
http://www.comdek.com
Cleaning probe tip: Use a cotton
Email:
swab moistened with alcohol
[email protected]
Cleaning body: Use a dampened
Manufacturer:
Comdek
cloth
Industrial
Disposable covers: Required
9F-1, No. 3, Yuan Qu Street, NanBattery: AA 1.5V (2)
Kang,
Taipei 11503, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2655-7810
Manufacturing
standards:
ISO9001, ISO13485, CE0434
80
Covidien Genius2
The Genius2 thermometer uses its proprietary Peak Select System
technology to determine the body's accurate temperature directly from the
tympanic membrane.
Intended Use: Hospital
Measurement Site: Ear with several offset
modes
Patient group: All Ages
Size LWD: 17.8cm
Weight: 160g, base 100g
User’s information: Place the
probe in the ear canal and seal the
opening with the probe tip. Once
positioned lightly in the ear canal
press and release the scan button.
Wait for the triple beep before
Cleaning probe tip: Isopropyl
removing the thermometer.
alcohol wipe
Special features: Ambidextrous
Cleaning body: may be wiped
use, Peak select system, Oral,
clean with a damp cloth. Water
Rectal, Core and Ear offsets
temperature should not exceed
Self-check on start-up: Yes
55°C
Calibration and Maintenance: In
Disposable covers: Required
house,
12
months
checks
Battery: AAA 1.5V (3)
recommended
Manufacturing standards:
Measurement Range: 33°CEN12470:5-2003, ASTM E196542°C
98, ISO
Accuracy: ±0.2°C - ±0.3°C (after
CE Mark: Yes
recalibration)
Website:
Storage conditions: -25°C-55°C
Email: [email protected]
up to 95% of non-condensing RH
Manufacturer: Covidien/Kendall
Principal Executive Office
Covidien plc
20 Lower Hatch Street
Dublin 2, Ireland
81
DigiO2 ETH-101
Measures infrared energy emitted from the tympanic membrane.
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: n/d
Weight: n/d
User’s information: is designed to provide a reliable yet
convenient and easy to use thermometer.
Special features: Suspended tip, avoiding surface contact; 2
inches large screen, intuitive 3 colour LCD backlight for
temperature indication, 30 memory recall with time and date,
anti-bacterial probe
Self-check on start-up:
Calibration and Maintenance: According to legislation
Measurement Range: 34°C-43°C
Accuracy: ±0.2°C-±0.3°C
Manufacturing
Storage conditions:-20°C-50°C
standards:
Cleaning probe tip: Isopropyl
EN127470-5 and ASTM E-1965alcohol wipe
98
Cleaning body: may be wiped
CE Mark: Yes
clean with a damp cloth
Supplier: DigiO2
Maintenance and ongoing costs:
Website:
Disposable covers: Required
Email:[email protected]
Battery: n/d
Manufacturer:DigiO2
No. 582, Kuo-Hwa Rd. Miaoli
360, Taiwan
+88637330099
82
Easytem BT-020
The Easytem BT-020 makes the reading by measuring the heat through
infrared light.
Intended Use: Hospital, primary or home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 13.6 x 3.8 x 5.1
Weight: 53g
User’s information: takes a total of
nine different measurements in one
second and displays the highest reading
Special features: Beeps when
measurement completes, memory
for ten readings, automatic poweroff after 20 seconds, may be used
without prove cover
Cleaning body: Wipe with a clean
Self-check on start-up:
or a damp cloth.
Calibration and Maintenance:
Disposable covers: Required
According to legislation
Battery: 3.0V CR2032 (1)
Measurement Range: 0°C-100°C
Manufacturing standards:
Accuracy: 36 to 39°: ±0.2°C.
n/d
Other temperatures: 2%
CE Mark: Yes
Storage conditions: From 25°C to
Website:
50°C with RH from 15 to 95%
http://www.easytem.co.kr
Cleaning probe tip: Wipe lightly
Email: [email protected]
with a soft dry cloth or a cotton
Manufacturer: Easytem Co. Ltd.
swab
83
Easytem BT-021
The Easytem BT-021 makes the reading by measuring the heat through
infrared light.
Intended Use: Hospital, primary or home
care
Measurement Site: Ear and forehead
Patient group: Adults, children and
Infants
Size LWD: 13.6x3.8x5.3
Weight: 53g
User’s information: takes a total
of nine different measurements in
one second and displays the
highest reading
Cleaning probe tip: Isopropyl
Special features: switch off
alcohol wipe
automatically after 20s, memory
for 10 readings, beeps when
Cleaning body: Wipe clean with a
measurement completes, may be
damp cloth.
used without covers
Self-check on start-up:
Disposable covers: Not Required
Calibration and Maintenance:
Battery: DC 3.0V CR2032 (1)
According to legislation
Manufacturing standards:
Measurement Range: 0°-100°C //
n/d
22°C -43°C
CE Mark: Yes
Accuracy: 36 to 39°C : ±0.2°C
Website:
Other temperatures: ±0.3°C //
http://www.easytem.co.kr
Forehead Mode: ±0.3°C
Email: [email protected]
Storage conditions:-25C°-50°C
Manufacturer: Easytem Co. Ltd.
Relative humidity: 15-95%
84
Exergen Ototemp 3000SD
Scans to read actual tympanic temperature without offsets
Intended Use: Operation in harsh conditions
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: patients over 3 years old
Size LWD: 16.5 x 8.9 x 1.9
Weight: 184g
User’s information: The Ototemp 3000 Special Duty
Tympanic Thermometer was designed specifically for field
use in harsh, demanding environments, such as at
Marathons, Olympic Games, and in Desert Shield.
Special features: Special heavy duty thermometer. Can
scan to read actual tympanic temperature without offsets
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance: In House and in factory,
according to legislation
Measurement Range: 18.3°CManufacturing
54.4°C
standards:
Accuracy: n/d
n/d
Storage conditions: n/d
CE Mark: Yes
Cleaning probe tip: Wipe lightly
Website: www.exergen.com
with a soft dry cloth or a cotton
Email:[email protected]
swab
Manufacturer: Exergen
Cleaning body: Wipe with a clean
400 Pleasant St. Watertown, MA
or a damp cloth.
02472
Disposable covers: Required
Phone: 617-923-9900 F // (800)
Battery: 9V (1)
422-3006
85
Exergen Ototemp Light touch
Scans to measure arterial heat balance at ear
Intended Use:
Measurement Site: Ear and forehead
Patient group: Neonates
Size LWD: 5x20x3
Weight: 184g
User’s information: informacoes simples sobre o aparelho, ou
como tirar a temperature
Special features: Probe does not enter ear canal; scans to
measure arterial heat balance at ear; complete copper coating
for EMI/RFI protection; impact-resistant casing; hermetically
sealed sensing system; stainless steel probe.
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance: In House and in factory,
according to legislation
Measurement Range: 16.6°C-43.3°C
Accuracy: n/d
Storage conditions: n/d
Cleaning probe tip: Use a cotton swab with alcohol to gently
clean the surface of the lens.
Cleaning body: Use a cloth
Email:
moistened with alcohol
[email protected]
Disposable covers: Required
Manufacturer: Exergen
Battery: 9V alkaline
400 Pleasant St. Watertown, MA
Manufacturing standards:
02472
n/d
Phone: 617-923-9900 F // (800)
CE Mark: Yes
422-3006
Website: www.exergen.com
86
GF Health Products Deluxe Instant-Read Ear
Thermometer Model 2215
Measures infrared energy emitted from the tympanic membrane.
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children
Size LWD: 11.4 x 3.8 x 3.0
Weight: 64g
User’s information: Straighten the ear canal
by pulling the ear back and insert the probe
Special features: No probe cover required,
Auto Shut off, LCD colour changes with
temperature, automatically converts measured
ear temperature reading to oral temperature, 10
memory capability
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Disposable covers: Not Required
Battery: DC 3.0V CR2032 (1)
Calibration and Maintenance:
Factory, in house, according to
Manufacturing standards:
legislation
EN12470-5,
ASTM1965-98,
Measurement Range: 20°CISO13485
42.2°C
CE Mark: Yes
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
Supplier: Graham Field
Storage conditions:-25°C-55°C
Website: www.grahamfield.com
and <95%RH
Email: [email protected]
Cleaning probe tip: Use a cotton
Manufacturer:
GF
Health
swab with alcohol to gently clean
Products, Inc.
the surface of the lens.
2935 Northeast Parkway
Cleaning body: Use a cloth
Atlanta, Georgia 30360
moistened with alcohol
678-291-3207
87
HuBDIC NET100
Measures infrared energy emitted from the tympanic membrane.
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 14.9 x 3.2 x 3.1
Weight: 50g w/batteries
User’s information: Gently pull the ear back to
straighten the ear canal and snugly position the
probe into the ear canal, aiming towards the
membrane of the eardrum to obtain an accurate
reading
Special features: Probe cover free
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Measurement Range: 32ºC-42.2ºC
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
CE Mark: Yes
Storage conditions:
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
Website: www.hubdic.com
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
Email: [email protected]
Manufacturer: Hubdic
Cleaning body:
Disposable covers: Not required
B-301,
Taekwang-industrial
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
building, 191-1, Anyang 7-dong,
Manufacturing standards: n/d
Manan-gu, Anyan-si, Gyeonggi-do,
Korea
430-815
88
HuBDIC NET100
Measures infrared energy emitted from the tympanic
membrane
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 14.9 x 3.2 x 3.1
Weight: 50g w/batteries
User’s information: Gently pull the ear back to
straighten the ear canal and snugly position the probe
into the ear canal, aiming towards the membrane of the
eardrum to obtain an accurate reading
Special features: Probe cover free
Battery:
Self-check on start-up: Yes
CR2032
3V (1)
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Manufacturing standards: n/d
Measurement Range: 0ºC-100ºC
CE Mark: Yes
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
Website: www.hubdic.com
Email: [email protected]
Storage conditions:
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
Manufacturer: Hubdic
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
B-301,
Taekwang-industrial
Cleaning body: Alcohol-moistened
building, 191-1, Anyang 7-dong,
cotton tissue
Manan-gu, Anyan-si, Gyeonggi-do,
Korea
Disposable covers: Not required
430-815
89
Microlife IR 100
Infrared detector measures emitted radiation from the
inner ear and predicts ear temperature
Intended Use: Home use
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: All ages
Size LWD: 12.0 x 3.5 x 6.0
Weight: 53g
User’s information: This thermometer offers a wide
measurement range feature from 0 °C to 100.0 °C
Special features: Multiple Uses, 0° C -100° C
measurement, Probe is cover free, Fever alarm,
Auto-Display Memory
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Battery:
DC 3.0V CR2032 (1)
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
Manufacturing standards:
Measurement Range: 0° C EN 12470-5; ASTM E1965;
100°C
IEC 60601-1; IEC 60601-1-2
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
(EMC)
Storage conditions: -25°C-55°C,
CE Mark: Yes
15-95 % maximum relative
Website: www.microlife.com
humidity
Email:
[email protected]
Cleaning probe tip: [email protected]
moistened cotton tissue
Manufacturer: Microlife AG
Cleaning
body:
AlcoholSwiss Corporation
moistened cotton tissue
Espenstrasse 139
CH-9443 Widnau/ Switzerland
Tel. +41 71 727 70 00
Disposable covers: Required
90
Microlife IR 120
Infrared detector measures emitted radiation from
the inner ear and predicts ear temperature
Intended Use: Home use
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: All ages
Size LWD: 14.0 x 4.7 x 1.5
Weight: 59g
User’s information: This thermometer offers a
wide measurement range feature from 0 °C to
100.0 °C
Special features: Multiple Uses, 0° C -100° C
measurements, Fever alarm, Auto-Display
Memory, High temperature indication
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Manufacturing standards:
Calibration and Maintenance:
EN 12470-5; ASTM E1965;
According to legislation
IEC 60601-1; IEC 60601-1-2
Measurement Range: 0° C (EMC)
100°C
CE Mark: Yes
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
Website: www.microlife.com
Storage conditions: -25°C-55°C,
Email:
[email protected]
15-95 % maximum relative
[email protected]
humidity
Manufacturer: Microlife AG
Cleaning probe tip: AlcoholSwiss Corporation
moistened cotton tissue
Espenstrasse 139
Cleaning
body:
AlcoholCH-9443 Widnau/ Switzerland
moistened cotton tissue
Tel. +41 71 727 70 00
Disposable covers: Required
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
91
Microlife IR 1DA1
Infrared detector measures emitted radiation from the inner ear and predicts
ear temperature
Intended Use: Home use
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: All ages
Size LWD: 14.1 x 2.6 x 2.0
Weight: 45g
User’s information: This thermometer offers
a wide measurement range feature from 0°C
to 100.0 °C
Special features: Multiple Uses, 0° C -100° C
measurements, Fever alarm, Auto-Display
Memory, High temperature indication
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
Manufacturing standards:
Measurement Range: 0° C EN 12470-5; ASTM E1965;
100°C
IEC 60601-1; IEC 60601-1-2
Accuracy: ±0.2°C to 1ºC
(EMC)
Storage conditions: -25°C-55°C,
CE Mark: Yes
15-95 % maximum relative
Website: www.microlife.com
humidity
Email:
[email protected]
Cleaning probe tip: [email protected]
moistened cotton tissue
Manufacturer: Microlife AG
Cleaning
body:
AlcoholSwiss Corporation
moistened cotton tissue
Espenstrasse 139
Disposable covers: Required
CH-9443 Widnau/ Switzerland
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
Tel. +41 71 727 70 00
92
Omron Gentle Temp MC-510-E
Infrared detector measures emitted radiation from inner ear and uses to
predict ear temperature
Intended Use: Hospital and home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: All ages
Size LWD: 9.3 x 4.6 x 5.7
Weight: 50g
User’s information: Movement of the unit in
the ear enables maximum temperature detected.
Three repeated measurements warms up the
device, so ten minutes must pass before further
readings. Do not use portable phone near the
unit.
Special features: Fast measurement (13seconds) and 10 second measurement for
difficult measurement conditions, auto shut off,
low battery
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Battery: 3.0V CR2032 (1)
Calibration and Maintenance:
Comes with factory calibration.
Manufacturing standards
Recommended once a year for
EN 12470-5:2003, ASTM E1965professional units
98, ISO9001:2000
Measurement Range: 34°C –
CE Mark: Yes
42.2°C
Website: www.omron.com
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
Manufacturer:
OMRON
Storage conditions: 10°C to 40°C,
HEALTHCARE CO. LTD.
Relative humidity: 30 - 85%
24, Yamanouchi YamanoshitaCleaning probe tip: Wipe it
cho, Ukyo-ku,
lightly with a soft dry cloth or a
Kyoto, 615-0084 Japan
cotton swab.
Cleaning body: Lightly wipe off
any dirt from the main unit with a
soft dry cloth.
Disposable covers: Required
93
Predictor Ear Thermometer
The Predictor ear thermometer converts the temperature taken in the ear into
an oral temperature
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: All ages
Size LWD: n/d
Weight: n/d
User’s information: Insert the sensor into the
ear canal in the direction of the eardrum and
briefly press the On/Off button. An arrow is
displayed on the screen to indicate that
temperature measurement is in progress.
A double beep then sounds to indicate that the
measurement is completed.
Special features: Rotating head positions, 1
memory, auto shut off, low battery, large
display, easy to handle, compact design
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Storage conditions: -25°C to
Calibration and Maintenance:
According to legislation
55°C, Relative humidity below
Measurement Range: 32.2°C –
85%
43.3°C
Cleaning probe tip: cotton swab
Accuracy: ±0.2°C between 36°C
lightly dipped in alcohol.Cleaning
and 39°C, ±0.3°C for other
body: Lightly wipe off any dirt
temperatures
from the main unit with a soft dry
cloth.
Disposable covers: Required
Supplier: Laboratoires Omega
Battery: 3.0V CR2032 (1)
Pharma France
BP850 - 92542 Montrouge Cedex
Manufacturing standards
EN
12470-5
EN60601-1,
Website: www.predictor.be
ISO9001:2000
Manufacturer: Thermofina - 77
CE Mark: Yes
France
94
Riester ri-Thermo N Professional
Takes body temperature by measuring infrared heat
Intended Use: Hospital and home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 15.7 x 4.1 x 6.9
Weight: 150g
User’s information: informacoes simples sobre o
aparelho, ou como tirar a temperature
Special features: Temperature curves can also be
plotted retrospectively or different measured values
compared, so patients large and small can be monitored
even more closely.
Sounds a handy acoustic signal when it has finished
measuring and if it detects a fever
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance: According to
legislation
Measurement Range: 0°C-100°C
Accuracy: ±0.2°C
Manufacturing standards:
Storage conditions: -25°C ASTM E-1965
+55°C
CE Mark: No
Supplier: AB Henry Eriksson
Cleaning probe tip:
Cleaning body: Lightly wipe off
Skebokvarnsvägen 267
any dirt from the main unit with a
SE-12453 Bandhagen
soft dry cloth.
0046 8 647 4805
Disposable covers: Required
Website: www.riester.de
Battery: 3.0V CR2032 (1)
Email: [email protected]
Manufacturer: Riester
95
Rossmax TD100
Converts the ear temperature to display its “oral equivalent”
Intended Use: Hospital, Clinics and home
care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and
Infants
Size LWD: n/d
Weight: n/d
User’s information: Gently pull the ear
back to straighten the ear canal and snugly
position the probe into the ear canal, aiming
towards the membrane of the eardrum to
obtain an accurate reading
Special features: Smallest hygiene
probe cover, 9 memories, Fever
Alarm
Disposable covers: Required
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
Calibration and Maintenance:
Factory every 3 years
Manufacturing standards:
ASTM E1965-98, EN12470-5: 2003,
Measurement Range: 34ºC-42.2ºC
IEC/EN60601-1-2, IEC/EN60601-1
Accuracy: ±0.2°C 35.5°C – 42°C
CE Mark: Yes
and ±0.3°C other temperatures
Website:
Storage conditions: -20°C+50°C,
http://www.rossmaxhealth.com
RH<=85%
Email: [email protected]
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
Manufacturer: Tramstrasse 16
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
CH-9442 Berneck
Cleaning body: Lightly wipe off any
Switzerland
dirt from the main unit with a soft dry
Tel: +41 71 747 11 93
cloth.
96
Rossmax TE100
Converts the ear temperature to display its “oral equivalent”
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear, Forehead, scan
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: n/d
Weight: n/d
User’s information: Gently pull the ear back to
straighten the ear canal and snugly position the probe
into the ear canal, aiming towards the membrane of
the eardrum to obtain an accurate reading
Special features: 3 in 1 (forehead,
ear, room), High/low temperature,
Disposable covers: Not Required
risk indicator, Free of probe cover, 9
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
memories, Fever Alarm, Date &
Manufacturing standards:
Time indicator
ASTM E1965-98, EN12470-5: 2003,
Self-check on start-up: Yes
IEC/EN60601-1-2, IEC/EN60601-1
Calibration and Maintenance:
CE Mark: Yes
Factory every 3 years
Website:
http://www.rossmaxhealth.com
Measurement Range: 34ºC-42.2ºC
Email: [email protected]
Accuracy: ±0.2°C 35.5°C – 42°C
Manufacturer: Tramstrasse 16
and ±0.3°C other temperatures
CH-9442 Berneck
Storage conditions: -20°C+50°C,
Switzerland
RH<=85%
Tel: +41 71 747 11 93
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
Cleaning body: Lightly wipe off any
dirt from the main unit with a soft dry
cloth.
97
Spengler Temp'O
Takes body temperature by measuring infrared heat
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants?
Size LWD: n/d
Weight: 500g
User’s information: Gently pull the ear back to
straighten the ear canal and snugly position the
probe into the ear canal, aiming towards the
membrane of the eardrum to obtain an accurate
reading
Special features: Compact, takes measurement in
1 second,
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance: Factory or in house, according to legislation
Measurement Range: 32.2°C –
Battery: AAA 1.5V (2)
43.3°C
Manufacturing
standards:
Accuracy: ±0.3°C
ISO9001
Storage conditions: -25°C+55°C
CE Mark: Yes
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
Website: www.spengler.fr
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
Email: [email protected]
Manufacturer: Spengler SAS
Cleaning body: Lightly wipe off
39/41, avenue Aristide Briand
any dirt from the main unit with a
92163 Antony Cedex
soft dry cloth.
France
Disposable covers: Required
98
Topcom Ear&Forehead 301
Uses infrared technology to measure infrared energy emitted from the
forehead or eardrum and surrounding tissue, and then converts it into
temperature value.
Intended Use: Home care
Measurement Site: Ear, forehead and
scan
Patient group: Adults, children and
Infants
Size LWD: n/d
Weight: 65g
User’s information: While holding the
ear, insert the probe to seal the ear
canal. Press the START button once.
You will hear a short beep. The ear
mode icon is displayed. When you hear
a double beep, the measurement is
finished. Take out the thermometer
from the ear canal. The result is
displayed.
Special features: Temperature
LED indication, 30 Memory
feature recall, fever alarm,
Cleaning body: Lightly wipe off
sequential measurement, Auto
any dirt from the main unit with a
shut-off
soft dry cloth.
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Disposable covers: Required
Calibration and Maintenance:
Battery: CR2032 3V (1)
According to legislation
Manufacturing standards:
Measurement Range: 32ºC n/d
42.9ºC
CE Mark: Yes
Accuracy: ±0.2°C 35.5°C - 42°CWebsite: www.topcom.se
±0.3°C for other temperatures
Email: [email protected]
Storage conditions: -10ºC-55ºC,
Manufacturer: Energigatan 10
RH 30%-80%
434 37 Kungsbacka, Sverige
Cleaning probe tip: cotton swab
moistened with alcohol
99
Veridian VTemp Pro
Takes body temperature by measuring infrared heat
Intended Use: Hospital, primary and home care
Measurement Site: Ear
Patient group: Adults, children and Infants
Size LWD: 11.5x9.5x5.5
Weight: 1.04Kg (with all accessories)
User’s information: Straighten the ear canal by
pulling the ear back and insert the probe
Special features: Oversized illuminated LCD, 10
Memory feature recall, Auto shut-off, docking
station, hands free probe cover application and
disposal
Self-check on start-up: Yes
Calibration and Maintenance:
According
to
legislation
Measurement Range: 26.0˚C –
Battery: AA1.5V (2)
43.9˚C
Manufacturing standards:
Accuracy: n/d
n/d
Storage conditions: -25°C+55°C
Cleaning probe tip: Cotton swab
CE Mark: Yes
with Alcohol (70% con-centration)
Supplier: Veridian Healthcare, LLC
Cleaning body: Lightly wipe off any
Website:
dirt from the main unit with a soft dry
www.veridianhealthcare.com
cloth.
Email:
Disposable covers: Required
[email protected]
Manufacturer: Veridian Healthcare,
LLC
1465 S. Lakeside Drive Waukegan,
Illinois 60085
Phone: 866-799-8181
100
Devices Specifications
The following tables contain the specifications of each of the devices
A Cute Baby
MT510
Infrared Ear
Thermometer
A Cute Baby
511 Infrared
Ear
Thermometer
Actherm ACT
8000/8000R
Alaris Med
IVAC CoreCheck
Highest Accuracy
±0.3ºC
±0.3ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.1ºC
Lowest accuracy
(eg outside
operating range)
±1ºC
±1ºC
±0.3ºC
n/d
Operating Range
0ºC-50ºC
0ºC-50ºC
26.0ºC - 43.9ºC
25°C-43.3°C
Ambient
temperature range
10.0ºC-40.0ºC
10.0ºC-40.0ºC
16.0ºC-40.0ºC
18.3ºC-43.3ºC
Storage Conditions
RH<=95%
RH<=95%
n/d
RH<=90%
Warning if reading
is outside display
range
Yes
Yes
n/d
Yes
Batteries (num)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
AAA 1.5V (2)
9V (1)
Beuer FT-55
BOSO
Bosotherm
Medical
Braun IRT
3020
Braun
Thermoscan
4000
Highest Accuracy
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
Lowest accuracy
(eg outside
operating range)
±0.3°C
±1ºC
±0.3ºC
±0.3ºC
Operating Range
34ºC-42.2ºC
0ºC-100ºC
34ºC-42.2ºC
20ºC-42.2ºC
Ambient
temperature range
10.0ºC-40.0ºC
5°C - 40°C
10ºC-40ºC
10ºC-40ºC
Storage Conditions
RH<=85%
40%-80% RH
-20°C+50°C,
RH<=95%
-20°C+40°C,
RH<=95%
Warning if reading
is outside display
range
n/d
Yes
Yes
Yes
Batteries (num)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
101
Comdek
Industrial HD7
Comdek
Industrial HD11
Comdek
Industrial HD21
Covidien
Genius2
Highest Accuracy
n/d
n/d
n/d
±0.2ºC
Lowest accuracy
(eg outside
operating range)
n/d
n/d
n/d
±0.3ºC
Operating Range
34°C-42°C
0°C -100°C
5°C -50°C
33.0ºC-42.0ºC
Ambient
temperature range
5°C -40°C
5°C -40°C
15°C -40°C
16ºC-33ºC
Storage Conditions
5°C+55°C
5°C+55°C
5°C+55°C
-25°C+55°C,
RH<=95%
Warning if reading
is outside display
range
n/d
n/d
n/d
Yes
Batteries (num)
AA 1.5V (2)
AA 1.5V (2)
AA 1.5V (2)
AAA 1.5V (3)
DigiO2 ETH101
Easytem BT020
Easytem BT021
Exergen
Ototemp
3000SD
Highest Accuracy
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
n/d
Lowest accuracy
(eg outside
operating range)
±0.3ºC
2%
2%
n/d
Operating Range
34.0ºC-43ºC
0ºC-100°C
0ºC-100°C
18.3ºC-54.4ºC
Ambient
temperature range
10ºC-40ºC
10ºC-40ºC
10ºC-40ºC
0ºC-54ºC
Storage Conditions
-20°C+50°C
-25°C+50°C,
RH 19%-95%
-25°C+50°C,
RH 19%-95%
n/d
Warning if reading
is outside display
range
Yes
Yes
Yes
n/d
Batteries (num)
AAA 1.5V (2)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
9V (1)
102
Exergen
Ototemp Light
touch
GF Health
Products
DELUXE
MODEL 2215
HuBDIC
NET100
HuBDIC
TB100
Highest Accuracy
n/d
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
Lowest accuracy
(eg outside
operating range)
n/d
n/d
n/d
n/d
Operating Range
16.6ºC-43.3ºC
20ºC-42.2ºC
32.0ºC – 42.2ºC
0°C-100.0°C
Ambient
temperature range
16.6ºC-43.3ºC
10ºC-40ºC
15ºC-35ºC
15ºC-35ºC
Storage Conditions
n/d
-25°C+55°C,
RH<=95%
n/d
n/d
Warning if reading
is outside display
range
n/d
Yes
Yes
Yes
Batteries (num)
9V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
Microlife IR
120
Microlife IR
100
Microlife IR
1DA1
Omron Gentle
Temp MC-510E
Highest Accuracy
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
Lowest accuracy
(eg outside
operating range)
n/d
n/d
±1ºC
n/d
Operating Range
0°C-100.0°C
0°C-100.0°C
0°C-100.0°C
34°C – 42.2°C
Ambient
temperature range
5°C -40°C
5°C -40°C
5°C -40°C
10°C – 40°C
Storage Conditions
-25°C+55°C,
RH<=95%
-25°C+55°C,
RH<=95%
-25°C+55°C,
RH<=95%
10°C – 40°C,,
RH 30%-85%
Warning if reading
is outside display
range
Yes
Yes
Yes
n/d
Batteries (num)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
103
Predictor Ear
Thermometer
Riester riThermo N
Professional
Rossmax
TD100
Rossmax
TE100
Highest Accuracy
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
±0.2ºC
Lowest accuracy
(eg outside
operating range)
±0.3ºC
n/d
±0.3ºC
±0.3ºC
Operating Range
32.2ºC-43.3ºC
0°C-100.0°C
34ºC-42.2ºC
34ºC-42.2ºC
Ambient
temperature range
16ºC-40ºC
5°C -40°C
n/d
n/d
Storage Conditions
-25°C+55°C,
RH<=85%
-25°C+55°C
20°C+50°C,
RH<=85%
-20°C+50°C,
RH<=85%
Warning if reading
is outside display
range
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Batteries (num)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
CR2032 3V (1)
Spengler Temp'O
Topcom
Ear&Forehead 301
Veridian V Temp
Pro
Highest Accuracy
±0.3ºC
±0.2ºC
n/d
Lowest accuracy (eg
outside operating range)
n/d
±0.3ºC
n/d
Operating Range
32,2ºC – 43,3°C
32ºC - 42.9ºC
26.0ºC-43.9ºC
Ambient temperature
range
5°C -40°C
15ºC-35ºC
5°C -40°C
Storage Conditions
-25°C+55°C
-10ºC-55ºC, RH
30%-80%
-25°C+55°C
Warning if reading is
outside display range
Yes
Yes
Yes
Batteries (num)
AAA 1.5V (2)
CR2032 3V (1)
n/d
104
Annex II
The following table should be given to all personnel handling the devices. It shows a set of guidelines,
written by NHS:Greater Glasgow and Clyde(Grady, 2010) and Kendall(
gnostinc and Nutritional Delivery Group, 2006)that should be followed and the appropriate explanation
for each step. All staff involved in the measuring and monitoring of should be familiar with this
procedural guideline
Procedure:
Explanation:
Provide age appropriate explanation of To ensure the child (and parent) understand
procedure
and consent to the procedure.
Wash hands thoroughly with appropriate To minimize the risk of cross infection.
antibacterial skin cleanser and disposable
gloves.
To ensure consistency in temperature
Choose tympanic temperature measurement readings. Switching between sites and
device required and document which type changing from one type of thermometer to
another can produce misleading results.
chosen.
There may be differing measurements if
temperature measured in exposed or nonexposed ear or if in a superheated
Where possible use same type of equipment environment.
and same ear each time. Document if infant
or child in heated environment.
Anatomical differences between the two ears
can result in a difference of up to 1◦C.
Remove thermometer from base unit and If lens is cracked or dirty then it may result in
check lens clean and intact.
an inaccurate reading.
If dirty then a dry wipe may be used.
Alcohol based wipes can lead to a false low
temperature measurement.
The disposable probe cover protects the tip of
Place disposable cover on the probe tip, the thermometer probe and is needed for the
ensuring the manufacturer’s instructions are unit to function correctly.
followed.
A disposable thermometer tip cover can help
minimize the risk of cross infection.
105
Use a gentle ear tug by pulling the pinna For an accurate reading it is vital that the
down and back in infants and small children, tympanic membrane is ‘visualized’ by the
and up and back for older children.
thermometer tip. The gentle ‘ear tug’ can help
align the thermometer probe toward the
tympanic membrane.
Gently place the probe tip in the outer third
of the ear canal and seal the opening, This prevents ambient air interfering with the
temperature reading and causing a false low
ensuring a snug fit.
temperature measurement.
An inappropriate mode setting may not give
an accurate ‘core’ reading.
Ensure the thermometer is ‘set’ to correct
mode according to the individual Predictive mode is quicker as temperature is
manufacturers’ instructions.
estimated but direct mode may be more
accurate for temperature recording.
Press and release SCAN button.
Ensure thermometer stays in situ (either a This commences the thermometer scanning.
few seconds or few minutes) until reading
appears and thermometer ‘beeps’.
Once thermometer bleeps and displays
DONE, remove thermometer probe tip from Movement of the thermometer and probe
may interfere with its ability to ‘visualize’ the
ear immediately.
tympanic membrane or risk exposing the
probe to the ambient air and can interfere
The disposable probe tip cover can be temperature recording.
removed (according to manufacturer’s
instructions) and discarded
The nurse should now read and document the child’s temperature and site – i.e. left ear
106
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