Beginners Manual

Beginners Manual

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

MELSEC FX Family

Programmable Logic Controllers

Beginner´s Manual

FX

1S

, FX

1N

,

FX

2N

, FX

2NC

,

FX

3U

Art. no.: 166388

12012007

Version B

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

The texts, illustration, diagrams and examples in this manual are provided for information purposes only. They are intended as aids to help explain the installation, operation, programming and use of the programmable logic controllers of the MELSEC FX

1S

, FX

1N

, FX

2N

,FX

2NC and FX

3U series.

If you have any questions about the installation and operation of any of the products described in this manual please contact your local sales office or distributor (see back cover).

You can find the latest information and answers to frequently asked questions on our website at www.mitsubishi-automation.com

.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC EUROPE BV reserves the right to make changes to this manual or the technical specifications of its products at any time without notice.

© 01/2006 – 01/2007

A

B

Beginner’s Manual for the programmable logic controllers of the MELSEC FX family

FX

1S

, FX

1N

, FX

2N

, FX

2NC und FX

3U

Art. no.: 166388

Version

01/2006

01/2007 pdp-tr pdp-dk

Revisions / Additions / Corrections

First edition

Addition of chapter 7

Considering of the extended product range for the base units of the FX

3U series in chapters 2.3

and 2.4.

Safety Guidelines

Safety Guidelines

For use by qualified staff only

This manual is only intended for use by properly trained and qualified electrical technicians who are fully acquainted with the relevant automation technology safety standards. All work with the hardware described, including system design, installation, configuration, maintenance, service and testing of the equipment, may only be performed by trained electrical technicians with approved qualifications who are fully acquainted with all the applicable automation technology safety standards and regulations. Any operations or modifications to the hardware and/or software of our products not specifically described in this manual may only be performed by authorised Mitsubishi Electric staff.

Proper use of the products

The programmable logic controllers of the FX

1S

, FX

1N

, FX

2N

, FX

2NC and FX

3U series are only intended for the specific applications explicitly described in this manual. All parameters and settings specified in this manual must be observed. The products described have all been designed, manufactured, tested and documented in strict compliance with the relevant safety standards. Unqualified modification of the hardware or software or failure to observe the warnings on the products and in this manual may result in serious personal injury and/or damage to property. Only peripherals and expansion equipment specifically recommended and approved by Mitsubishi Electric may be used with the programmable logic controllers of the FX

1S

,

FX

1N

, FX

2N

FX

2NC and FX

3U series.

All and any other uses or application of the products shall be deemed to be improper.

Relevant safety regulations

All safety and accident prevention regulations relevant to your specific application must be observed in the system design, installation, configuration, maintenance, servicing and testing of these products. The regulations listed below are particularly important in this regard. This list does not claim to be complete, however; you are responsible for being familiar with and conforming to the regulations applicable to you in your location.

쎲 VDE Standards

VDE 0100

Regulations for the erection of power installations with rated voltages below 1000 V

VDE 0105

Operation of power installations

VDE 0113

Electrical installations with electronic equipment

VDE 0160

Electronic equipment for use in power installations

VDE 0550/0551

Regulations for transformers

VDE 0700

Safety of electrical appliances for household use and similar applications

VDE 0860

Safety regulations for mains-powered electronic appliances and their accessories for household use and similar applications.

쎲 Fire safety regulations

FX Beginners Manual I

Safety Guidelines

쎲 Accident prevention regulations

VBG Nr.4

Electrical systems and equipment

Safety warnings in this manual

In this manual warnings that are relevant for safety are identified as follows:

P

DANGER:

Failure to observe the safety warnings identified with this symbol can result in health and injury hazards for the user.

E

WARNING:

Failure to observe the safety warnings identified with this symbol can result in damage to the equipment or other property.

II

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Safety Guidelines

General safety information and precautions

The following safety precautions are intended as a general guideline for using PLC systems together with other equipment. These precautions must always be observed in the design, installation and operation of all control systems.

P

DANGER:

Observe all safety and accident prevention regulations applicable to your specific application. Always disconnect all power supplies before performing installation and wiring work or opening any of the assemblies, components and devices.

Assemblies, components and devices must always be installed in a shockproof housing fitted with a proper cover and fuses or circuit breakers.

Devices with a permanent connection to the mains power supply must be integrated in the building installations with an all-pole disconnection switch and a suitable fuse.

Check power cables and lines connected to the equipment regularly for breaks and insulation damage. If cable damage is found immediately disconnect the equipment and the cables from the power supply and replace the defective cabling.

Before using the equipment for the first time check that the power supply rating matches that of the local mains power.

Take appropriate steps to ensure that cable damage or core breaks in the signal lines cannot cause undefined states in the equipment.

You are responsible for taking the necessary precautions to ensure that programs interrupted by brownouts and power failures can be restarted properly and safely. In particular, you must ensure that dangerous conditions cannot occur under any circumstances, even for brief periods.

EMERGENCY OFF facilities conforming to EN 60204/IEC 204 and VDE 0113 must remain fully operative at all times and in all PLC operating modes. The

EMERGENCY OFF facility reset function must be designed so that it cannot ever cause an uncontrolled or undefined restart.

You must implement both hardware and software safety precautions to prevent the possibility of undefined control system states caused by signal line cable or core breaks.

When using modules always ensure that all electrical and mechanical specifications and requirements are observed exactly.

FX Beginners Manual III

Safety Guidelines

IV

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1

About this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1

1.2

More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1

2 Programmable Logic Controllers

2.1

What is a PLC? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1

2.2

How PLCs Process Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2

2.3

The MELSEC FX Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4

2.4

Selecting the Right Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5

2.5

Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6

2.5.1 Input and output circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6

2.5.2 Layout of the MELSEC FX1S base units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6

2.5.3 Layout of the MELSEC FX1N base units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

2.5.4 Layout of the MELSEC FX2N base units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

2.5.5 Layout of the MELSEC FX2NC base units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8

2.5.6 Layout of the MELSEC FX3U base units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8

2.5.7 PLC components glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9

3 An Introduction to Programming

3.1

Structure of a Program Instruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1

3.2

Bits, Bytes and Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2

3.3

Number Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2

3.4

The Basic Instruction Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-5

3.4.1 Starting logic operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6

3.4.2 Outputting the result of a logic operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

3.4.3 Using switches and sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

3.4.4 AND operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-9

3.4.5 OR operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11

3.4.6 Instructions for connecting operation blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12

3.4.7 Pulse-triggered execution of operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14

3.4.8 Setting and resetting devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15

3.4.9 Storing, reading and deleting operation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17

Contents

FX Beginners Manual V

Contents

3.4.10Generating pulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18

3.4.11Master control function (MC and MCR instructions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19

3.4.12Inverting the result of an operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

3.5

Safety First! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-21

3.6

Programming PLC Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23

3.6.1 An alarm system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23

3.6.2 A rolling shutter gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-28

4 Devices in Detail

4.1

Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1

4.2

Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3

4.2.1 Special relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3

4.3

Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4

4.4

Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-7

4.5

Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9

4.5.1 Data registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9

4.5.2 Special registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10

4.5.3 File registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-11

4.6

Programming Tips for Timers and Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.6.1 Specifying timer and counter setpoints indirectly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

4.6.2 Switch-off delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14

4.6.3 Delayed make and break. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-15

4.6.4 Clock signal generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-16

5 More Advanced Programming

5.1

Applied Instructions Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1

5.1.1 Entering applied instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6

5.2

Instructions for Moving Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7

5.2.1 Moving individual values with the MOV instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7

5.2.2 Moving groups of bit devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9

5.2.3 Moving blocks of data with the BMOV instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10

5.2.4 Copying source devices to multiple destinations (FMOV) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11

5.2.5 Exchanging data with special function modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12

VI

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

5.3

Compare Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15

5.3.1 The CMP instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15

5.3.2 Comparisons within logic operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17

5.4

Math Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-20

5.4.1 Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-21

5.4.2 Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-22

5.4.3 Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-23

5.4.4 Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-24

5.4.5 Combining math instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25

6 Expansion Options

6.1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1

6.2

Available Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1

6.2.1 Modules for adding more digital inputs and outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

6.2.2 Analog I/O modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1

6.2.3 Communications modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2

6.2.4 Positioning modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2

6.2.5 HMI control and display panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2

7 Processing Analog Values

7.1

Analog Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1

7.1.1 Criteria for selecting analog modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

7.2

List of Analog Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5

Index

Contents

FX Beginners Manual VII

Contents

VIII

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Introduction

1 Introduction

About this Manual

1.1

1.2

About this Manual

This manual will help you to familiarise yourself with the use of the MELSEC FX family of programmable logic controllers. It is designed for users who do not yet have any experience with programming programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

Programmers who already have experience with PLCs from other manufacturers can also use this manual as a guide for making the transition to the MELSEC FX family.

The symbol „

쏔“ is used as a placeholder to identify different controllers in the same range. For example, the designation "FX

1S

-10

쏔-쏔쏔" is used to refer to all controllers whose name begins with FX

1S

-10, i.e. FX

1S

-10 MR-DS, FX

1S

-10 MR-ES/UL, FX

1S

-10 MT-DSS and

FX

1S

-10 MT-ESS/UL.

More Information

You can find more detailed information on the individual products in the series in the operating and installation manuals of the individual modules.

See the MELSEC FX Family Catalogue, art. no. 167840, for a general overview of all the controllers in the MELSEC FX family. This catalogue also contains information on expansion options and the available accessories.

For an introduction to using the programming software package see the GX Developer FX

Beginner’s Manual, art. no.

166391.

You can find detailed documentation of all programming instructions in the Programming Manual for the MELSEC FX family, art. no.

132738 and in the Programming Manual for the FX

3U series, art. no.

168591.

The communications capabilities and options of the MELSEC FX controllers are documented in detail in the Communications Manual, art. no.

070143.

All Mitsubishi manuals and catalogues can be downloaded free of charge from the Mitsubishi website at www.mitsubishi-automation.com

.

FX Beginners Manual 1 – 1

More Information Introduction

1 – 2

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Programmable Logic Controllers

2

What is a PLC?

Programmable Logic Controllers

2.1

What is a PLC?

In contrast to conventional controllers with functions determined by their physical wiring the functions of programmable logic controllers or PLCs are defined by a program. PLCs also have to be connected to the outside world with cables, but the contents of their program memory can be changed at any time to adapt their programs to different control tasks.

Programmable logic controllers input data, process it and then output the results. This process is performed in three stages:

쎲 an input stage,

쎲 a processing stage and

쎲 an output stage

Programmable Logic Controller

Input Output

Switch

Contactors

Input Stage Processing Stage Output Stage

The input stage

The input stage passes control signals from switches, buttons or sensors on to the processing stage.

The signals from these components are generated as part of the control process and are fed to the inputs as logical states. The input stage passes them on to the processing stage in a pre-processed format.

The processing stage

In the processing stage the pre-processed signals from the input stage are processed and combined with the help of logical operations and other functions. The program memory of the processing stage is fully programmable. The processing sequence can be changed at any time by modifying or replacing the stored program.

The output stage

The results of the processing of the input signals by the program are fed to the output stage where they control connected switchable elements such as contactors, signal lamps, solenoid valves and so on.

FX Beginners Manual 2 – 1

How PLCs Process Programs

2.2

Programmable Logic Controllers

How PLCs Process Programs

A PLC performs its tasks by executing a program that is usually developed outside the controller and then transferred to the controller’s program memory. Before you start programming it is useful to have a basic understanding of how PLCs process these programs.

A PLC program consists of a sequence of instructions that control the functions of the controller. The PLC executes these control instructions sequentially, i.e. one after another. The entire program sequence is cyclical, which means that it is repeated in a continuous loop. The time required for one program repetition is referred to as the program cycle time or period.

Process image processing

The program in the PLC is not executed directly on the inputs and outputs, but on a “process image” of the inputs and outputs:

Switch on PLC

Delete output memory

Input signals

Input terminals

Poll inputs and signal states and save them in the process image of the inputs

Process image of inputs

Process image of outputs

PLC program

Instruction 1

Instruction 2

Instruction 3

....

....

....

Instruction n

Output terminals

Transfer process image to outputs

Output signals

Input process image

At the beginning of each program cycle the system polls the signal states of the inputs and stores them in a buffer, creating a “process image” of the inputs.

2 – 2

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Programmable Logic Controllers How PLCs Process Programs

Program execution

After this the program is executed, during which the PLC accesses the stored states of the inputs in the process image. This means that any subsequent changes in the input states will not be registered until the next program cycle!

The program is executed from top to bottom, in the order in which the instructions were programmed. Results of individual programming steps are stored and can be used during the current program cycle.

Program execution

0

X000 X001

M6

M0

Store result

4

M1 M8013

M2

Y000

Control output

9

M0

Process stored result

Y001

Output process image

Results of logical operations that are relevant for the outputs are stored in an output buffer – the output process image. The output process image is stored in the output buffer until the buffer is rewritten. After the values have been written to the outputs the program cycle is repeated.

Differences between signal processing in the PLC and in hard-wired controllers

In hard-wired controllers the program is defined by the functional elements and their connections (the wiring). All control operations are performed simultaneously (parallel execution).

Every change in an input signal state causes an instantaneous change in the corresponding output signal state.

In a PLC it is not possible to respond to changes in input signal states until the next program cycle after the change. Nowadays this disadvantage is largely compensated by very short program cycle periods. The duration of the program cycle period depends on the number and type of instructions executed.

FX Beginners Manual 2 – 3

The MELSEC FX Family

2.3

Programmable Logic Controllers

The MELSEC FX Family

The compact micro-controllers of the MELSEC FX series provide the foundation for building economical solutions for small to medium-sized control and positioning tasks requiring 10 to

256 integrated inputs and outputs in applications in industry and building services.

With the exception of the FX

1S all the controllers of the FX series can be expanded to keep pace with the changes in the application and the user’s growing requirements.

Network connections are also supported. This makes it possible for the controllers of the FX family to communicate with other PLCs and controller systems and HMIs (Human-Machine

Interfaces and control panels). The PLC systems can be integrated both in MITSUBISHI networks as local stations and as slave stations in open networks like PROFIBUS/DP.

In addition to this you can also build multi-drop and peer-to-peer networks with the controllers of the MELSEC FX family.

The FX

1N

, FX

2N and FX

3U have modular expansion capabilities, making them the right choice for complex applications and tasks requiring special functions like analog-digital and digital-analog conversion and network capabilities.

All the controllers in the series are part of the larger MELSEC FX family and are fully compatible with one another.

Specifications

Max integrated

I/O points

Expansion capability

(max. possible I/Os)

Program memory

(steps)

Cycle time per log. instruction (

µs)

No. of instructions

(standard / step ladder / special function)

Max. special function modules connectable

FX

1S

30

34

2000

0,55 – 0,7

27 / 2 / 85

FX

1N

60

132

8000

0,55 – 0,7

27 / 2 / 89

2

FX

2N

128

256

16000

0,08

27 / 2 / 107

8

FX

2NC

96

256

16000

0,08

27 / 2 / 107

4

FX

3U

128

384

64000

0,065

27 / 2 / 209

8 right

10 left

2 – 4

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Programmable Logic Controllers

2.4

Selecting the Right Controller

Selecting the Right Controller

The base units of the MELSEC FX family are available in a number of different versions with different power supply options and output technologies. You can choose between units designed for power supplies of 100–240 V AC, 24 V DC or 12–24 V DC, and between relay and transistor outputs.

Series

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

I/Os

16

32

64

48

64

80

128

30

14

24

40

10

14

20

60

16

32

96

16

32

48

64

80

128

Type

FX

1S

-10 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

1S

-14 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

1S

-20 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

1S

-30 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

1N

-14 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

1N

-24 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

1N

-40 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

1N

-60 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2N

-16 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2N

-32 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2N

-48 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2N

-64 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2N

-80 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2N

-128 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2NC

-16 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2NC

-32 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2NC

-64 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

2NC

-96 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

3U

-16 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

3U

-32 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

3U

-48 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

3U

-64 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

3U

-80 M

쏔-쏔쏔

FX

3U

-128 M

쏔-쏔쏔

48

8

16

24

32

40

24

32

40

64

8

16

32

10

16

24

8

16

6

8

14

6

No. of outputs

8

64

48

8

16

24

32

40

24

32

40

64

8

16

32

14

24

36

8

16

8

12

16

8

No. of inputs

6

64

Power supply

24 V DC or

100 – 240 V AC

12 – 24 V DC or

100 – 240 V AC

24 V DC or

100 – 240 V AC

24 V DC

24 V DC or

100 – 240 V AC

100 – 240 V AC

Output type

Transistor or relay

Transistor or relay

Transistor or relay

Transistor or relay

Transistor or relay

Transistor or relay

To choose the right controller for your application you need to answer the following questions:

쎲 How many signals (external switch contacts, buttons and sensors) do you need to input?

쎲 What types of functions do you need to switch, and how many of them are there?

쎲 What power supply options are available?

쎲 How high are the loads that the outputs need to switch? Choose relay outputs for switching high loads and transistor outputs for switching fast, trigger-free switching operations.

FX Beginners Manual 2 – 5

Controller Design

2.5

2.5.1

Programmable Logic Controllers

Controller Design

All the controllers in the series have the same basic design. The main functional elements and assemblies are described in the glossary in section 2.5.7.

Input and output circuits

The input circuits use floating inputs. They are electrically isolated from the other circuits of the PLC with optical couplers. The output circuits use either relay or transistor output technology. The transistor outputs are also electrically isolated from the other PLC circuits with optical couplers.

The switching voltage at all the digital inputs must have a certain value (e.g. 24 V DC). This voltage can be taken from the PLC’s integrated power supply unit. If the switching voltage at the inputs is less than the rated value (e.g. <24 V DC) then the input will not be processed.

The maximum output currents are 2 A on 250 V three-phase AC and non-reactive loads with relay outputs and 0.5 A on 24 V DC and non-reactive loads.

2.5.2

Layout of the MELSEC FX

1S

base units

Mounting hole

Power supply connection

Interface for expansion adapter boards

Cutout for adapters or control panel

2 analog potentiometers

Connection for programming units

Connection for the service power supply

Terminals for digital outputs

100-240

VAC

L N

S/S

X0

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

IN

POWER

RUN

ERROR

24V

0V

Y0

Y1 Y2

COM0 COM1COM2

Y3

Y4

Y5

OUT

0 1 2 3

4 5

14MR

-ES/UL

MITSUBISHI

Protective cover

Terminal cover

Terminals for digital inputs

LEDs for indicating the input status

RUN/STOP switch

LEDs for indicating the operating status

LEDs for indicating the output status

Protective cover

2 – 6

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Programmable Logic Controllers

2.5.3

Layout of the MELSEC FX

1N

base units

Terminal cover

Mounting hole

RUN/STOP switch

Slot for memory cassettes, adapters and displays

2 analog potentiometers

Connection for programming units

Connection for the service power supply

Terminals for digital outputs

Terminal cover

Protective cover

100-240

VAC

L N

S/S

X0

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X11 X13

X10

X12

X15

X14

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11

12 13 14 15

IN

POWER

RUN

ERROR

0V

24+

Y0

COM0

Y1 Y2

COM1

COM2

Y3

COM3 Y4

Y5 Y6

COM4

Y10

Y7

Y11

OUT

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

10 11

24MR

-ES/UL

MITSUBISHI

2.5.4

Layout of the MELSEC FX

2N

base units

Connection for the service power supply

Terminal cover

Mounting hole

Connection for expansion adapter boards

Memory battery

Connection for programming units

RUN/STOP switch

Removable terminal strip for digital outputs

Housing cover

FX Beginners Manual

Slot for memory cassettes

Terminals for digital inputs

LEDs for indicating the input status

LEDs for indicating the operating status

Connection for extensions

Protective cover des

Erweiterungsbusses

LEDs for indicating the output status

Protective cover

2 – 7

Controller Design

Protective cover

Terminals for digital inputs

Connection of the power supply

Extension bus

LEDs for indicating the input status

LEDs for indicating the operating status

LEDs for indicating the output status

Housing cover

Lid

Controller Design

2.5.5

Layout of the MELSEC FX

2NC

base units

Programmable Logic Controllers

RUN/STOP switch

Operating status LEDs

2nd interface for CNV adapter

Cover

Memory cassette

(optional)

Memory cassette slot

Terminals for digital inputs

Terminals for digital outputs

POWER

RUN

BATT

ERROR

3

X4

5

6

7

X0

1

2

RUN

STOP

MITSUBISHI

MELSEC

3

Y4

5

6

7

Y0

1

2

Protective cover

Memory battery

Battery compartment

Extension bus

(on side)

Protective cover for expansion bus

LEDs for indicating the output status

LEDs for indicating the input status

Connector for terminal strips

2.5.6

Layout of the MELSEC FX

3U

base units

Battery cover

Memory battery

Installation place for the

FX3U-7DM display

Blind cover for expansion board

RUN/STOP switch

Connection for programming unit

Top cover

(used if FX3U-7DM is not installed)

2 – 8

Protective cover

Terminal cover

Terminals for digital inputs

LEDs for indicating the input status

LEDs for indicating the operating status

Protective cover for expansion bus

LEDs for indicating the output status

Output terminals

Terminal cover

Protective cover

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Programmable Logic Controllers

2.5.7

Controller Design

PLC components glossary

The following table describes the meaning and functionality of the single components und parts of a Mitsubishi PLC.

Component

Connection for expansion adapter boards

Connection for programming units

EEPROM

Description

Optional expansion adapter boards can be connected to this interface. A variety of different adapters are available for all FX lines (except the FX2NC). These adapters extend the capabilities of the controllers with additional functions or communications interfaces. The adapter boards are plugged directly into the slot.

This connection can be used for connecting the FX-20P-E hand-held programming unit or an external PC or notebook with a programming software package (e.g. GX Developer/FX).

Read/write memory in which the PLC program can be stored and read with the programming software. This solid-state memory retains its contents without power, even in the event of a power failure, and does not need a battery.

Memory cassette slot

Slot for optional memory cassettes. Inserting a memory cassette disables the controller’s internal memory – the controller will then only execute the program stored in the cassette.

Extension bus

Analog potentiometers

Service power supply

Digital inputs

Digital outputs

LEDs for indicating the input status

Both additional I/O expansion modules and special function modules that add additional capabilities to the PLC system can be connected here. See Chapter 6 for an overview of the available modules.

The analog potentiometers are used for setting analog setpoint values. The setting can be polled by the PLC program and used for timers, pulse outputs and other functions (see

Section 4.6.1).

The service power supply (not for FX

2NC

) provides a regulated 24V DC power supply source for the input signals and the sensors. The capacity of this power supply depends on the controller model (e.g. FX

1S and FX

1N

: 400mA; FX

2N

-16M

쏔-쏔쏔 through

FX

2N

-32M

쏔-쏔쏔: 250 mA, FX

2N

-48M

쏔-쏔쏔 through FX

2N

-64M

쏔-쏔쏔: 460 mA)

The digital inputs are used for inputting control signals from the connected switches, buttons or sensors. These inputs can read the values ON (power signal on) and OFF (no power signal).

You can connect a variety of different actuators and other devices to these outputs, depending on the nature of your application and the output type.

These LEDs show which inputs are currently connected to a power signal, i.e. a defined voltage. When a signal is applied to an input the corresponding LED lights up, indicating that the state of the input is ON.

LEDs for indicating the output status

LEDs for indicating the operating status

Memory battery

RUN/STOP switch

These LEDs show the current ON/OFF states of the digital outputs. These outputs can switch a variety of different voltages and currents depending on the model and output type.

The LEDs RUN, POWER and ERROR show the current status of the controller. POWER shows that the power is switched on, RUN lights up when the PLC program is being executed and ERROR lights up when an error or malfunction is registered.

The battery protects the contents of the MELSELC PLC’s volatile RAM memory in the event of a power failure (FX

2N

, FX2

NC and FX

3U only). It protects the latched ranges for timers, counters and relays. In addition to this it also provides power for the integrated real-time clock when the PLC’s power supply is switched off.

MELSEC PLCs have two operating modes, RUN and STOP. The RUN/STOP switch allows you to switch between these two modes manually. In RUN mode the PLC executes the program stored in its memory. In STOP mode program execution is stopped and it is possible to program the controller.

FX Beginners Manual 2 – 9

Controller Design Programmable Logic Controllers

2 – 10

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

3

Structure of a Program Instruction

An Introduction to Programming

3.1

A program consists of a sequence of program instructions. These instructions determine the functionality of the PLC and they are processed sequentially, in the order in which they were entered by the programmer. To create a PLC program you thus need to analyse the process to be controlled and break it up into steps that can be represented by instructions. A program instruction, represented by a line or “rung” in ladder diagram format, is the smallest unit of a

PLC application program.

Structure of a Program Instruction

A program instruction consists of the instruction itself (sometimes referred to as a command) and one or more (in the case of applied instructions) operands, which in a PLC are references to devices. Some instructions are entered on their own without specifying any operands – these are the instructions that control program execution in the PLC.

Every instruction you enter is automatically assigned a step number that uniquely identifies its position in the program. This is important because it is quite possible to enter the same instruction referring to the same device in several places in the program.

The illustrations below show how program instructions are represented in the Ladder Diagram

(LD, left) and Instruction List (IL, right) programming language formats:

Device

X0

Device

Instruction Instruction

AND X0

The instruction describes what is to be done, i.e. the function you want the controller to perform. The operand or device is what you want to perform the function on. Its designation consists of two parts, the device name and the device address:

X 0

Device name Device address

Examples of devices:

Device name

X

Y

M

T

C

D

Type

Input

Output

Relay

Timer

Counter

Data register

Function

Input terminal on the PLC (e.g. connected to a switch)

Output terminal on the PLC (e.g. for a contactor or lamp)

A buffer memory in the PLC that can have two states, ON or OFF

A “time relay” that can be used to program timed functions

A counter

Data storage in the PLC in which you can store things like measured values and the results of calculations.

See Chapter 4 for a detailed description of the available devices.

The specific device is identified by its address. For example, since every controller has multiple inputs you need to specify both the device name and the address in order to read a specific input.

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 1

Bits, Bytes and Words

3.2

3.3

An Introduction to Programming

Bits, Bytes and Words

As in all digital technology, the smallest unit of information in a PLC is a “bit”. A bit can only have two states: “0” (OFF or FALSE) and “1” (ON or TRUE). PLCs have a number of so-called bit

devices that can only have two states, including inputs, outputs and relays.

The next larger information units are the “byte”, which consists of 8 bits, and the “word”, which consists of two bytes. In the PLCs of the MELSEC FX families the data registers are “word devices”, which means that they can store 16-bit values.

Bit 15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 Byte

1 Word

0

Bit 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 Byte

Since a data register is 16 bits wide it can store signed values between -32,768 and +32,767

(see Chapter 3.3). When larger values need to be stored two words are combined to form a

32-bit long word, which can store signed values between -2,147,483,648 and +2,147,483,647.

Counters make use of this capability, for example.

Number Systems

The PLCs of the MELSEC FX family use several different number systems for inputting and displaying values and for specifying device addresses.

Decimal numbers

The decimal number system is the system we use most commonly in everyday life. It is a “positional base 10” system, in which each digit (position) in a numeral is ten times the value of the digit to its right. After the count reaches 9 in each position the count in the current position is returned to 0 and the next position is incremented by 1 to indicate the next decade (9

à 10, 99

à 100, 199 à 1,000 etc).

– Base: 10

– Digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

In the MELSEC FX family of PLCs decimal numbers are used for entering constants and the setpoint values for timers and counters. Device addresses are also entered in decimal format, with the exception of the addresses of inputs and outputs.

Binary numbers

Like all computers a PLC can only really distinguish between two states, ON/OFF or 0/1. These

“binary states” are stored in individual bits. When numbers need to be entered or displayed in other formats the programming software automatically converts the binary numbers into the other number systems.

– Base: 2

– Digits: 0 and 1

3 – 2

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming Number Systems

When binary numbers are stored in a word (see above) the value of each digit (position) in the word is one power of 2 higher than that of the digit to its right. The principle is exactly the same as in decimal representation, but with increments of 2 instead of 10 (see graphic):

2

15

0

2

14

2

13

2

12

2

11

2

10

2

9

2

8

2

7

2

6

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2

5

0

2

4

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

0

0 0 0 0 0

Example

Base 2 Notation

2

0

2

1

2

2

2

3

2

4

2

5

2

6

2

7

Decimal Value

1

2

4

8

16

32

64

128

Base 2 Notation

2

8

2

9

2

10

2

11

2

12

2

13

2

14

2

15

Decimal Valuet

256

512

1024

2048

4096

8192

16384

32768*

*

In binary values bit 15 is used to represent the sign (bit 15=0: positive value, bit 15=1: negative value)

To convert a binary value to a decimal value you just have to multiply each digit with a value of 1 by its corresponding power of 2 and calculate the sum of the results.

00000010 00011001 (binary)

00000010 00011001 (binary) = 1 x 2

9

+ 1 x 2

4

+ 1 x 2

00000010 00011001 (binary) = 512 + 16 + 8 + 1

00000010 00011001 (binary) = 537 (decimal)

3

+ 1 x 2

0

Hexadecimal numbers

Hexadecimal numbers are easier to handle than binary and it is very easy to convert binary numbers to hexadecimal. This is why hexadecimal numbers are used so often in digital technology and programmable logic controllers. In the controllers of the MELSEC FX family hexadecimal numbers are used for the representation of constants. In the programming manual and other manuals hexadecimal numbers are always identified with an H after the number to avoid confusion with decimal numbers (e.g. 12345

H

).

– Base: 16

– Digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F (the letters A, B, C, D, E and F represent the decimal values 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15)

The hexadecimal system works in the same way as the decimal system – you just count to F

H

(15) instead of to 9 before resetting to 0 and incrementing the next digit (F

H

à 10

H

, 1F

H

à 20

H

,

2F

H

à 30

H

, FF

H

à 100

H etc). The value of digit is a power of 16, rather than a power of 10:

1A7F

H

16

0

= 1

16

1

16

2

16

3

= 16

= 256

= 4096

(in this example: 15 x 1

(in this example: 7 x 16

(in this example: 10 x 256

(in this example: 1 x 4096

= 15)

= 112)

= 2560)

= 4096)

6783 (decimal)

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 3

Number Systems An Introduction to Programming

The following example illustrates why it is so easy to convert binary values hexadecimal values:

1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 Binary

15 5 11 9 Decimal*

F

5 B 9

Hexadecimal

*

Converting the 4-bit blocks to decimal values does not directly produce a value that corresponds to the complete

16-bit binary value! In contrast, the binary value can be converted directly to hexadecimal notation with exactly the same value as the binary value.

Octal numbers

Inputs X8 and X9 and outputs Y8 and Y9 do not exist on the base units of the MELSEC FX family. This is because the inputs and outputs of MELSEC PLCs are numbered using the octal number system, in which the digits 8 and 9 don’t exist. Here, the current digit is reset to 0 and the digit in the next position is incremented after the count reaches 7 (0 – 7, 10 – 17, 70 – 77,

100 – 107 etc).

– Base: 8

– Digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Summary

The following table provides an overview of the four different number systems:

Decimal notation

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

10

11

12

7

8

9

16

:

99

13

14

15

:

Octal notation

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

12

13

14

7

10

11

15

16

17

20

:

143

:

Hexadecimal notation

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

A

B

C

7

8

9

10

:

63

D

E

F

:

Binary notation

0000 0000 0000 0000

0000 0000 0000 0001

0000 0000 0000 0010

0000 0000 0000 0011

0000 0000 0000 0100

0000 0000 0000 0101

0000 0000 0000 0110

0000 0000 0000 0111

0000 0000 0000 1000

0000 0000 0000 1001

0000 0000 0000 1010

0000 0000 0000 1011

0000 0000 0000 1100

0000 0000 0000 1101

0000 0000 0000 1110

0000 0000 0000 1111

0000 0000 0001 0000

:

0000 0000 0110 0011

:

3 – 4

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming The Basic Instruction Set

3.4

The Basic Instruction Set

The instructions of the PLCs of the MELSEC FX family can be divided into two basic categories, basic instructions and applied instructions, which are sometimes referred to as “application instructions”.

The functions performed by the basic instructions are comparable to the functions achieved by the physical wiring of a hard-wired controller. All controllers of the MELSEC FX family support the instructions in the basic instruction set, but the applied instructions supported vary from model to model (see Chapter 5).

ORB

LDP

LDF

ANDP

ANDF

ORP

ORF

SET

RST

MPS

MRD

MPP

ANB

PLS

PLF

MC

MCR

INV

Basic instruction set quick reference

Instruction Function

LD

Load

LDI

OUT

AND

ANI

Load invers

Output instruction

Logical AND

OR

ORI

AND NOT

Logical OR

OR NOT

AND Block

OR Block

Pulse signal instructions

Set device

Reset device

Store, read and delete intermediate operation results

Pulse instructions

Master Control

Master Control Reset

Invert

Description

Initial logic operation, polls for signal state “1” (normally open)

Initial logic operation, polls for signal state “0” (normally closed)

Assigns the result of a logic operation to a device

Logical AND operation, polls for signal state “1”

Logical AND NOT operation, polls for signal state “0”

Logical OR operation, polls for signal state “1”

Logical OR NOT operation, polls for signal state “0"

Connects a parallel branch circuit block to the preceding parallel block, in series.

Connects a serial block of circuits to the preceding serial block, in parallel.

Load Pulse, load on detection of rising edge of device signal pulse

Load Falling Pulse, load on falling device signal pulse

AND Pulse, logical AND on rising device signal pulse

AND Falling Pulse, logical AND on falling device signal pulse

OR Pulse, logical OR on rising device signal pulse

OR Falling Pulse, logical OR on falling device signal pulse

Reference

Chapter 3.4.1

Chapter 3.4.2

Chapter 3.4.4

Chapter 3.4.5

Chapter 3.4.6

Chapter 3.4.7

Assigns a signal state that is retained even if after input condition is no longer true

Chapter 3.4.8

Memory Point Store, store an operation result in the stack

Memory Read, read a stored operation result from the stack

Memory POP, read a stored operation result and delete it from the stack

Pulse, sets a device for one operation cycle on the rising pulse of the input condition (input turns ON)

Pulse Falling, sets a device* for one operation cycle on the falling pulse of the input condition (input turns OFF)

Chapter 3.4.9

Chapter

3.4.10

Instructions for activating or deactivating the execution of defined parts of the program

Chapter

3.4.11

Inverts the result of an operation

Chapter

3.4.12

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 5

The Basic Instruction Set

3.4.1

3.4.2

An Introduction to Programming

Starting logic operations

Instruction

LD

LDI

Function

Load instruction, starts a logic operation and polls the specified device for signal state “1”

Load instruction, starts a logic operation and polls the specified device for signal state “0”

Symbol GX Developer FX

F5

F6

A circuit in a program always begins with an LD- or LDI instruction. These instructions can be performed on inputs, relays, timers and counters.

For examples of using these instructions see the description of the OUT instruction in the next section.

Outputting the result of a logic operation

Instruction

OUT

Function

Output instruction, assigns the result of an operation to a device

Symbol GX Developer FX

F7

The OUT instruction can be used to terminate a circuit. You can also program circuits that use multiple OUT instructions as their result. This is not necessarily the end of the program, however. The device set with the result of the operation using OUT can then be used as an input signal state in subsequent steps of the program.

Example (LD and OUT instructions)

Ladder Diagram

X000

0

Y000

Instruction List

0 LD

1 OUT

X000

Y000

These two instructions result in the following signal sequence:

ON (1)

X0

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

Y0

OFF (0)

The condition of the LD instruction (poll for signal state “1”) is true so the result of the operation is also true (“1”) and the output is set.

t

3 – 6

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

Example (LDI and OUT instructions)

Ladder Diagram

0

X000

Y000

The Basic Instruction Set

Instruction List

0 LDI

1 OUT

X000

Y000

ON (1)

X0

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

Y0

OFF

(0)

The condition of the LDI instruction (poll for signal state “0”) is no longer true so the output is reset.

t

Double assignment of relays or outputs

Never assign the result of an operation to the same device in more than one place in the program!

The program is executed sequentially from top to bottom, so in this example the second assignment of M10 would simply overwrite the result of the first assignment.

X001

X004

X003

X005

M10

M10

You can solve this problem with modification shown on the right. This takes all the required input conditions into account and sets the result correctly.

X001 X003

X004 X005

M10

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 7

The Basic Instruction Set

3.4.3

An Introduction to Programming

Using switches and sensors

Before we continue with the description of the rest of the instructions we should first describe how signals from switches, sensors and so on can be used in your programs.

PLC programs need to be able respond to signals from switches, buttons and sensors to perform the correct functions. It is important to understand that program instructions can only poll the binary signal state of the specified input – irrespective of the type of input and how it is controlled.

Make contact

Break contact

When a make contact is operated the input is set (ON, signal state “1”)

When a break contact is operated the input is reset (OFF, signal state “0”)

As you can imagine, this means that when you are writing your program you need to be aware whether the element connected to the input of your PLC is a make or a break device.

An input connected to a make device must be treated differently to an input connected to a break device. The following example illustrates this.

Usually, switches with make contacts are used. Sometimes, however, break contacts are used

for safety reasons – for example for switching off drives (see section 3.5).

The illustration below shows two program sequences in which the result is exactly the same, even though different switch types are used: When the switch is operated the output is set

(switched on).

24 V

LD X000

OUT Y000

0

X000

Y000

X0

Schalter betätigt

ON

X0

OFF

ON

Y0

OFF t

24 V

LDI X000

OUT Y000

0

X000

Y000

X0

Schalter betätigt

ON

X0

OFF

ON

Y0

OFF t

3 – 8

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

3.4.4

AND operations

Instruction

AND

Function

Logical AND (AND operation with poll for signal state “1” or ON)

ANI

Logical AND NOT (AND operation with poll for signal state “0” or OFF)

An AND operation is logically the same as a serial connection of two or more switches in an electrical circuit. Current will only flow if all the switches are closed. If one or more of the switches are open no current flows – the AND condition is false.

Symbol

The Basic Instruction Set

GX Developer FX

F5

F6

Note that the programming software uses the same icons and function keys for the AND and

ANI instructions as for the LD and LDI instructions. When you program in Ladder Diagram format the software automatically assigns the correct instructions on the basis of the insertion position.

When you program in Instruction List format remember that you can’t use the AND and ANI instructions at the beginning of circuit (a program line in ladder diagram format)! Circuits must begin with an LD or LDI instruction (see Chapter 3.4.1).

Example of an AND instruction

Ladder Diagram

AND instruction

X000 X001

0

Y000

Instruction List

0 LD

1 AND

2 OUT

X000

X001

Y000

In the example output Y0 is only switched on when inputs X0 and X1 are both on:

ON (1)

X0

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

X1

OFF

(0)

ON (1)

Y0

OFF (0) t

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 9

The Basic Instruction Set

Example of an ANI instruction

Ladder Diagram

ANI instruction

0

X000 X001

Y000

An Introduction to Programming

Instruction List

0 LD

1 ANI

2 OUT

X000

X001

Y000

In the example output Y0 is only switched on when input X0 is on and input X1 is off:

ON (1)

X0

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

X1

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

Y0

OFF

(0) t

3 – 10

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

3.4.5

The Basic Instruction Set

OR operations

Instruction

OR

Function

Logical OR (OR operation with poll for signal state “1” or ON)

ORI

Logical OR NOT (OR operation with poll for signal state “0” or OFF)

An OR operation is logically the same as the parallel connection of multiple switches in an electrical circuit. As soon as any of the switches is closed current will flow. Current will only stop flowing when all the switches are open.

Example of an OR instruction

Ladder Diagram

X000

0

Y000

X001

OR instruction

Symbol GX Developer FX

Instruction List

0 LD

1 OR

2 OUT

X000

X001

Y000

In the example output Y0 is switched on when either input X0 or input X1 is on:

ON (1)

X0

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

X1

OFF (0)

ON (1)

Y0

OFF

(0) t

F5

F6

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 11

The Basic Instruction Set An Introduction to Programming

Example of an ORI instruction

Ladder Diagram

X000

0

Y000

X001

ORI instruction

Instruction List

0 LD

1 ORI

2 OUT

X000

X001

Y000

In the example output Y0 is switched on when either input X0 is on or input X1 is off:

ON (1)

X0

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

X1

OFF (0)

ON

(1)

Y0

OFF (0) t

3.4.6

Instructions for connecting operation blocks

Symbol Instruction

ANB

Function

AND Block (serial connection of blocks of parallel operations/circuits)

ORB

OR Block (parallel connection of blocks of serial operations/circuits)

GX Developer FX

F9

Although ANB- and ORB are PLC instructions they are only displayed and entered as connecting lines in the Ladder Diagram display. They are only shown as instructions in Instruction List format, where you must enter them with their acronyms ANB and ORB.

Both instructions are entered without devices and can be used as often as you like in a program. However, the maximum number of LD and LDI instructions is restricted to 8, which effectively also limits the number of ORB or ANB instructions you can use before an output instruction to 8 as well.

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MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

Example of an ANB instruction

Ladder Diagram

ANB instruction

0

X000 X001

M2 M10

Y007

The Basic Instruction Set

Instruction List

0 LD X000

1 ORI M2

2 LDI

3 OR

X001

M10

4 ANB

5 OUT Y007

1 st parallel connection (OR operation)

2 nd parallel connection (OR operation)

ANB instruction connecting both OR operations

In this example output Y07 is switched on if input X00 is “1”, or if relay M2 is “0” and input X01 is

“0”, or if relay M10 is “1”.

Example of an ORB instruction

Ladder Diagram

X000 X001

0

M2 M10

ORB instruction

Y007

Instruction List

0 LD X000

1 ANI X001

2 LDI M2

3 AND M10

4 ORB

5 OUT Y007

1

2 st nd serial connection (AND operation) serial connection (AND operation)

ORB instruction connecting both AND operations

In this example output Y07 is switched on if input X00 is “1” and input X01 is “0”, or if relay M2 is

“0” and relay M10 is “1”.

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 13

The Basic Instruction Set An Introduction to Programming

3.4.7

Note

Pulse-triggered execution of operations

Instruction

LDP

Function

Load Pulse, loads on the rising edge of the device’s signal

Symbol

LDF

Load Falling Pulse, loads on the falling edge of the device’s signal

ANDP

ANDF

ORP

ORF

AND Pulse, logical AND operation on the rising edge of the device’s signal

AND Falling Pulse, logical AND operation on the falling edge of the device’s signal

OR Pulse, logical OR operation on the rising edge of the device’s signal

OR Falling Pulse, logical OR operation on the falling edge of the device’s signal

GX Developer FX

In PLC programs you will often need to detect and respond to the rising or falling edge of a bit device’s switching signal. A rising edge indicates a switch of the device value from “0” to “1”, a falling edge indicates a switch from “1” to “0”.

During program execution operations that respond to rising and falling pulses only deliver a value of “1” when the signal state of the referenced device changes.

When do you need to use this? For example, suppose you have a conveyor belt with a sensor switch that activates to increment a counter every time a package passes it on the belt. If you don’t use a pulse-triggered function you will get incorrect results because the counter will increment by 1 in every program cycle in which the switch registers as set. If you only register the rising pulse of the switch signal the counter will be incremented correctly, increasing by 1 for each package.

Most applied instructions can also be executed by pulse signals. For details see chapter . 5).

Evaluating a rising signal pulse

Ladder Diagram

X001

0

M0

Instruction List

0 LDP

1 OUT

X001

M0

ON (1)

X1

OFF (0)

1

M0

0

Relay M0 is only switched on for the duration of a single program cycle t

3 – 14

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming The Basic Instruction Set

Evaluating a falling signal pulse

Ladder Diagram

0

M235 X010

M374

Instruction List

0 LD M235

1 ANDF X010

2 OUT M374

1

M235

0

ON (1)

X10

OFF (0)

1

M374

0

If X10 is off (0) and M235 is on (1) relay M374 is switched on for the duration of a single program cycle.

t

With the exception of the pulse trigger characteristic the functions of the LDP, LDF, ANDP,

ANDF, ORP and ORF instructions are identical to those of the LD, AND and OR instructions.

This means that you can use pulse-trigger operations in your programs in exactly the same way as the conventional versions.

3.4.8

Setting and resetting devices

Instruction

SET

Function

Set a device

,

(assign signal state “1”)

Symbol

SET

GX Developer FX

F8

RST

Reset a device

,

(assign signal state “0”)

RST

F8

The SET instruction can be used to set outputs (Y), relays (M) and state relays (S).

The RST instruction can be used to reset outputs (Y), relays (M), state relays (S), timers (T), counters (C) and registers (D, V, Z).

The signal state of an OUT instruction will normally only remain “1” as long as the result of the operation connected to the OUT instruction evaluates to “1”. For example, if you connect a pushbutton to an input and a lamp to the corresponding output and connect them with an LD and an OUT instruction the lamp will only remain on while the button remains pressed.

The SET instruction can be used to use a brief switching pulse to switch an output or relay on

(set) and leave them on. The device will then remain on until you switch it off (reset) with a RST instruction. This enables you to implement latched functions or switch drives on and off with pushbuttons. (Outputs are generally also switched off when the PLC is stopped or the power supply is turned off. However, some relays also retain their last signal state under these conditions – for example a set relay would then remain set.)

To enter a SET or RST instruction in Ladder Diagram format just click on the icon shown in the table above in GX Developer, or press the F8 key. Then enter the instruction and the name of the device you want to set or reset, for example SET Y1 .

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 15

The Basic Instruction Set

Ladder Diagram

X001

0

X002

2

SET M0

RST M0

An Introduction to Programming

Instruction List

0 LD

1 SET

2 LD

3 RST

X001

M0

X002

M0

If the set and reset instructions for the same device both evaluate to “1” the last operation performed has priority. In this example that is the RST instruction, and so M0 remains off.

X1

X2

M0 t

This example is a program for controlling a pump to fill a container. The pump is controlled manually with two pushbuttons, ON and OFF. For safety reasons a break contact is used for the

OFF function. When the container is full a level sensor automatically switches the pump off.

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

X001

0

Pump

ON

SET Y000

Pump

0 LD

1 SET

2 LDI

3 OR

4 RST

X001

Y000

X002

X003

Y000

X002

2

Pump

OFF

RST Y000

Pump

X003

Level sensor

3 – 16

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

3.4.9

The Basic Instruction Set

Storing, reading and deleting operation results

Instruction

MPS

MRD

MPP

Function

Memory Point Store, stores the result of an operation

Memory Read, reads a stored operation result

Memory POP, reads a stored operation result and deletes it

Symbol

GX Developer FX

The MPS, MRD and MPP instructions are used to store the results of operations and intermediate values in a memory called the “stack”, and to read and delete the stored results. These instructions make it possible to program multi-level operations, which makes programs easier to read and manage.

When you enter programs in Ladder Diagram format these instructions are inserted automatically by the programming software. The MPS, MRD and MPP instructions are only actually shown when you display your program in Instruction List format, and they must also be entered manually when you program in this format.

Ladder Diagram

0

X000

MPS

MRD

MPP

X001

X002

X003

Y000

Y001

Y002

Instruction List

0 LD

1 MPS

2 AND

3 OUT

4 MRD

5 AND

6 OUT

7 MPP

8 AND

9 OUT

X000

X001

Y000

X002

Y001

X003

Y002

To make the advantage of these instructions clearer the example below shows the same program sequence programmed without MPS, MRD and MPP:

Ladder Diagram

0

3

6

X000

X000

X000

X001

X002

X003

Y000

Y001

Y002

Instruction List

0 LD

1 AND

2 OUT

3 LD

4 AND

5 OUT

6 LD

7 AND

8 OUT

X000

X001

Y000

X000

X002

Y001

X000

X003

Y002

When you use this approach you must program the devices (X0 in this example) repeatedly.

This results in more programming work, which can make quite a difference in longer programs and complex circuit constructions.

In the last output instruction you must use MPP instead of MRD to delete the stack. You can use multiple MPS instructions to create operations with up to 11 levels. For more examples of how to use the MPS, MRD and MPP instructions see the Programming Manual for the FX Family.

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 17

The Basic Instruction Set

3.4.10

An Introduction to Programming

Generating pulses

Instruction

PLS

PLF

Function

Pulse, sets an device* for the duration of a single program cycle on the rising edge of the switching pulse of the input condition / device

Pulse Falling, sets a device* for the duration of a single program cycle on the falling edge of the switching pulse of the input condition / device

Symbol

PLS

PLF

GX Developer FX

F8

F8

*

PLC and PLF instructions can be used to set outputs (Y) and relays (M).

These instructions effectively convert a static signal into a brief pulse, the duration of which depends on the length of the program cycle. If you use PLS instead of an OUT instruction the signal state of the specified device will only be set to “1” for a single program cycle, specifically during the cycle in which the signal state of the device before the PLS instruction in the circuit switches from “0” to “1” (rising edge pulse).

The PLF instruction responds to a falling edge pulse and sets the specified device to “1” for a single program cycle, during the cycle in which the signal state of the device before the PLF instruction in the circuit switches from “1” to “0” (falling edge pulse).

To enter a PLS or PLF instruction in Ladder Diagram format click in the GX Developer toolbar on the tool icon shown above or press

F8

. Then enter the instruction and the corresponding device to be set in the dialog, e.g. PLS Y2.

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

X000

0

2

4

M0

X001

PLS

SET

PLF

M0

Y000

M1

0 LD

1 PLS

2 LD

3 SET

4 LD

5 PLF

6 LD

7 RST

X000

M0

M0

Y000

X001

M1

M1

Y000

M1

6

RST Y000

X0

X1

The rising edge of the device X0 signal triggers the function.

In the case of device X1 the falling edge of the signal is the trigger.

M0

Relays M0 and M1 are only switched on for the duration of a single program cycle.

M1

Y0 t

3 – 18

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

3.4.11

The Basic Instruction Set

Master control function (MC and MCR instructions)

Instruction

MC

Function

Master Control, sets a master control condition, marking the beginning of a program block

Symbol

MC n

GX Developer FX

F8

MCR

Master Control Reset, resets a master control condition, marking the end of a program block

MCR n

F8

The MC instruction can be used on outputs (Y) and relays (M). n: N0 through N7 n: N0 through N7

The Master Control Set (MC) and Reset (MCR) instructions can be used to set conditions on the basis of which individual program blocks can be activated or deactivated. In Ladder Diagram format a Master Control instruction functions like a switch in the left-hand bus bar that must be closed for the following program block to be executed.

Ladder Diagram

X001

0

N0 M10

X002

The “switch” does not have to be programmed manually and it is only actually displayed during program execution in

Monitor mode.

4

6

8

10

X003

X002 X004

MC N0 M10

Y003

Y004

MCR N0

M155

Instruction List

0 LD

1 MC

4 LD

5 OUT

6 LD

7 OUT

8 MCR

10 LD

11 AND

12 OUT

X001

N0

X002

Y003

X003

Y004

N0

X002

X004

M155

M10

In the example above the program lines between the MC and MCR instructions are only executed when input X001 is on.

The section of the program to be executed can be specified with the nesting address N0 through N7, which allows you to enter multiple MC instructions before the closing MCR instruction. (See the FX Programming Manual for an example of nesting.) Addressing a Y or M device specifies a make contact. This contact activates the program section when the input condition for the MC instruction evaluates true.

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 19

The Basic Instruction Set

3.4.12

An Introduction to Programming

If the input condition of the MC instruction evaluates false the states of the devices between the

MC and MCR instructions change as follows:

– Latched timers and counters and devices that are controlled with SET an RST instructions retain their current state.

– Unlatched timers and devices that are controlled with OUT instructions are reset.

(See chapter 4 for details on these timers and counters.)

Inverting the result of an operation

Symbol GX Developer FX Instruction Function

INV

Invert, reverses the result of an operation

The INV instruction is used on its own without any operands. It inverts the result of the operation that comes directly before it:

– If the operation result was “1” it is inverted to “0”

– If the operation result was “0” it is inverted to “1”.

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

X001 X002

0 Y000

INV instruction

0 LD

1 AND

2 INV

3 OUT

X001

X002

Y000

The above example produces the following signal sequence:

1

X001

0

1

X002

0

1

Operation result before the

INV instruction

0

1

Operation result after the

INV instruction

Y000

0 t

The INV instruction can be used when you need to invert the result of a complex operation. It can be used in the same position as the AND and ANI instructions.

The INV instruction cannot be used at the beginning of an operation (circuit) like an LD, LDI,

LDP or LDF instruction.

3 – 20

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

3.5

Safety First!

Safety First!

PLCs have many advantages over hard-wired controllers. However, when it comes to safety it is important to understand that you cannot trust a PLC blindly.

Emergency STOP devices

It is essential to ensure that errors in the control system or program cannot cause hazards for staff or machines. Emergency STOP devices must remain fully functional even when the PLC is not working properly – for example to switch off the power to the PLC outputs if necessary.

Never implement an Emergency STOP switch solely as an input that is processed by the PLC, with the PLC program activating the shutdown. This would be much too risky.

Safety precautions for cable breaks

You must also take steps to ensure safety in the event that the transmission of signals from the switches to the PLC are interrupted by cable breaks. When switching equipment on and off via the PLC always use switches or pushbuttons with make contacts for switching on and with break contacts for switching off.

+24 V

In this example the contactor for a drive system can also be switched off manually with an Emergency OFF switch.

EMERG.

OFF

ON OFF

X000 X001 X002

COM Y000 Y001

0 V

0

X001

Motor ON

SET Y000

Motor ON

RST Y000

Motor ON

In the program for this installation the make contact of the ON switch is polled with an LD instruction, the break contact of the OFF switch with an LDI instruction. The output, and thus also the drive, is switched off when the input X002 has a signal state of “0”. This is the case when the OFF switch is operated or when the connection between the switch and input X002 is interrupted.

2

X002

Motor OFF

This ensures that if there is a cable break the drive is switched off automatically and it is not possible to activate the drive. In addition to this, switching off has priority because it is processed by the program after the switch on instruction.

Interlock contacts

If you have two outputs that should never both be switched on at the same time – for example outputs for selecting forward or reverse operation for a motor – the interlock for the outputs must also be implemented with physical contacts in the contactors controlled by the PLC. This is necessary because only an internal interlock is possible in the program and an error in the

PLC could cause both outputs to be activated at the same time.

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 21

Safety First!

The example on the right shows such an interlock with contactor contacts. Here it is physically impossible for contactors K1 and K2 to be switched on at the same time.

An Introduction to Programming

X000 X001 X002

COM Y000 Y001

K2 K1

K1 K2

Automatic shutdown

When a PLC is used to control motion sequences in which hazards can arise when components move past certain points additional limit switches must be installed to interrupt the movement automatically. These switches must function directly and independently of the PLC. See

Chapter 3.6.2 for an example of such an automatic shutdown facility.

Output signal feedback

Generally, the outputs of PLCs are not monitored. When an output is activated the program assumes that the correct response has taken place outside the PLC. In most cases no additional facilities are required. However, in critical applications you should also monitor the output signals with the PLC – for example when errors in the output circuit (wire breaks, seized contacts) could have serious consequences for safety or system functioning.

In the example on the right a make contact in contactor K1 switches input X002 on when output Y000 is switched on. This allows the program to monitor whether the output and the connected contactor are functioning properly.

Note that this simple solution does not check whether the switched equipment is functioning properly (for example if a motor is really turning). Additional functions would be necessary to check this, for example a speed sensor or a voltage load monitor.

X000 X001

COM Y000

K1

X002

Y001

+24 V

3 – 22

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

3.6

3.6.1

Programming PLC Applications

Programming PLC Applications

Programmable logic controllers provide an almost unlimited number of ways to link inputs with outputs. Your task is to choose the right instructions from the many supported by the controllers of the MELSEC FX family to program a suitable solution for your application.

This chapter provides two simple examples that demonstrate the development of a PLC application from the definition of the task to the finished program,.

An alarm system

The first step is to have a clear concept of what you want to do. This means that you need to take a “bottom-up” approach and write a clear description of what it is you want the PLC to do.

Task description

The objective is to create an alarm system with several alarm circuits and a delay function for arming and disarming the system.

– The system will be armed with a key switch, with a 20-second delay between turning the switch and activation. This provides enough time for the user to leave the house without tripping the alarm. During this delay period a display will show whether the alarm circuits are closed.

– An alarm will be triggered when one of the circuits is interrupted (closed-circuit system, also triggers an alarm when a circuit is sabotaged). In addition to this we want to show which circuit triggered the alarm.

– When an alarm is triggered a siren and a blinking alarm lamp are activated after a delay of

10 seconds. (The acoustic and visual alarms are activated after a delay to make it possible to disarm the system after entering the house. This is also why we want to use a special lamp to show that the system is armed.)

– The siren will only be sounded for 30 seconds, but the alarm lamp will remain activated until the system is disarmed.

– A key-operated switch will also be used to deactivate the alarm system.

Assignment of the input and output signals

The next step is to define the input and output signals we need to process. On the basis of the specifications we know that we are going to need 1 key-operated switch and 4 alarm lamps. In addition to this we need at least 3 inputs for the alarm circuits and 2 outputs for the siren and the blinking alarm lamp. This makes a total of 4 inputs and 6 outputs. Then we assign these signals to the inputs and outputs of the PLC:

Function

Input

Output

Arm system

Alarm circuit 1

Alarm circuit 2

Alarm circuit 3

Display “system armed”

Acoustic alarm (siren)

Optical alarm (rotating beacon)

Alarm circuit 1 display

Alarm circuit 2 display

Alarm circuit 3 display

Name

S1

S11, S12

S21, S22

S31, S32

H0

E1

H1

H2

H3

H4

Adress Remarks

X1

X2

Make contact (key-operated switch)

X3

Break contacts (an alarm is triggered when the input has the signal state “0”)

X4

Y0

Y1

Y2

Y3

The outputs functions are activated when the corresponding outputs are switched on (set). For example, if Y1 is set the acoustic alarm will sound.

Y4

Y5

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 23

Programming PLC Applications An Introduction to Programming

Programming

Now we can start writing the program. Whether relay devices are going to be needed and if so how many usually only becomes clear once you actually start programming. What is certain in this project is that we are going to need three timers for important functions. If we were using a hard-wired controller we would use timer relays for this. In a PLC you have programmable electronic timers (see section 4.3). These timers can also be defined before we start programming:

Function

Timer

Arming delay

Alarm triggering delay

Siren activation duration

Adress

T0

T1

T2

Remarks

Time: 20 seconds

Time: 10 seconds

Time: 30 seconds

Next we can program the individual control tasks:

쎲 Delayed arming of the alarm system

Ladder Diagram

0

X001

K200

T0

T0

4

Y000

Instruction List

0

1

4

5

LD

OUT

LD

OUT

X001

T0

T0

Y000

K200

When the key-operated switch is turned to ON the delay implemented with timer T0 starts to run. After 20 seconds (K200 = 200 x 0.1s = 20s) the indicator lamp connected to output Y000 lights up, indicating that the system is armed.

쎲 Monitor alarm circuits and trigger alarm signal

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

X002 Y000

6

10

X003

Y000

14

X004 Y000

SET

SET

SET

SET

SET

M1

Y003

M1

Y004

M1

6 LDI

7 AND

8 SET

9 SET

10 LDI

11 AND

12 SET

13 SET

14 LDI

15 AND

16 SET

17 SET

X002

Y000

M1

Y003

X003

Y000

M1

Y004

X004

Y000

M1

Y005

SET Y005

Output Y000 is polled in this routine to check whether the alarm system is armed. You could also use a relay here that would then be set and reset together with Y000. An interruption of an alarm circuit will only set relay M1 (indicating that an alarm has been triggered) if the alarm system is actually armed. In addition to this outputs Y003 through Y005 are used to indicate which alarm circuit triggered the alarm. Relay M1 and the corresponding alarm circuit output will remain set even when the alarm circuit is closed again.

3 – 24

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming Programming PLC Applications

쎲 Alarm activation delay

Ladder Diagram

M1

18

22

T1

K100

T1

K300

T2

Instruction List

18 LD

19 OUT

22 LD

23 OUT

M1

T1

T1

T2

K100

K300

When an alarm is triggered (M1 switches to “1”) the 10s delay timer starts. After the 10 seconds

T1 then starts timer T2, which is set to 30 seconds, and the siren activation time begins.

쎲 Alarm display (switch on siren and rotating beacon)

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

T1 T2

26

29

T1

Y001

Y002

26 LD

27 ANI

28 OUT

29 LD

30 OUT

T1

T2

Y001

T1

Y002

The siren is activated after the 10s activation delay (T1) and remains on while timer T2 is running. After the end of the 30s activation period (T2) the siren deactivates. The rotating beacon is also switched on after the 10s delay. The following illustration shows the signal sequence generated by this section of the program:

1

M1

T1

0

1

T2

0

ON

Y1

OFF

0

1

10 s

30 s

ON

Y2

OFF t

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 25

Programming PLC Applications An Introduction to Programming

쎲 Resetting all outputs and the relay

Ladder Diagram

X001

31 RST Y000

RST

RST

RST

RST

Y001

Y002

Y003

Y004

RST

RST

Y005

M1

Instruction List

31 LDI

32 RST

33 RST

34 RST

35 RST

36 RST

37 RST

38 RST

X001

Y000

Y001

Y002

Y003

Y004

Y005

M1

When the alarm system is switched off with the key-operated switch all the outputs used by the program and the relay M1 are all reset. If an alarm was triggered the interrupted alarm circuit which was released until the system was switched off is displayed.

3 – 26

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming Programming PLC Applications

Connection of the PLC

The sketch below shows how easy it is to implement this alarm system with a PLC of the FX family. The example shows a FX

1N

-14MR.

S1

S11 S21 S31

S12 S22 S32

S/S 0 V

N

PE

L1

100-240

VAC

L N

S/S

X0

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

MITSUBISHI

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

IN

POWER

RUN

ERROR

24V

0V

COM0

Y0

COM1

Y1

COM2

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

OUT

0 1 2 3

4 5

14MR

-ES/UL

H0 E1 H1 H2 H3 H4

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 27

Programming PLC Applications

3.6.2

An Introduction to Programming

A rolling shutter gate

Task description

We want to implement a control system for a warehouse’s rolling shutter gate that will enable easy operation from both outside and inside. Safety facilities must also be integrated in the system.

Warning lamp H1

S3

S7

S1 S5

STOP

S6

S0 S2 S4

쎲 Operation

It must be possible to open the gate from outside with the key-operated switch S1 and to close it with pushbutton S5. Inside the hall it should be possible to open the gate with pushbutton S2 and to close it with S4.

An additional time switch must close the gate automatically if it is open for longer than

20 s.

The states “gate in motion” and “gate in undefined position” must be indicated by a blinking warning lamp.

쎲 Safety facilities

– A stop button (S0) must be installed that can halt the motion of the gate immediately at any time, stopping the gate in its current position. This Stop switch is not an Emergency OFF function, however! The switch signal is only processed by the PLC and does not switch any external power connections.

– A photoelectric barrier (S7) must be installed to identify obstacles in the gateway. If it registers an obstacle while the gate is closing the gate must open automatically.

– Two limit switches must be installed to stop the gate motor when the gate reaches the fully open (S3) and fully closed (S6) positions.

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MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming Programming PLC Applications

Assignment of the input and output signals

The task description clearly defines the number of inputs and outputs needed. The gate drive motor is controlled with two outputs. The signals required are assigned to the PLC inputs and outputs as follows:

Function

Inputs

Outputs

Timer

STOP button

OPEN key-operated switch

(outside)

OPEN button (inside)

Upper limit switch (gate open)

CLOSE button (inside)

CLOSE button (outside)

Lower limit switch (gate closed)

Photoelectric barrier

Warning lamp

Motor contactor (motor reverse)

Motor contactor (motor forward)

Delay for automatic close

S7

H1

K1

K2

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

Name

S0

X7

Y0

Y1

Y2

T0

Adress Remarks

X0

Break contact (when the switch is operated X0 = “0” and the gate stops)

X1

X2

Make contacts

Break contact (X2 =”0” when the gate is up and S3 is activated)

X3

X4

X5

Make contacts

X6

Break contact (X6 = “0” when the gate is down and S6 is activated)

X7 is set to “1” when an obstacle is registered

Reverse = OPEN gate

Forward = CLOSE gate

Time: 20 seconds

The program components

쎲 Operation of the rolling shutter gate with the pushbuttons

The program must convert the input signals for the operation of the gate into two commands for the drive motor: “Open Gate” and “Close Gate”. Since these are signals from pushbuttons that are only available briefly at the inputs they need to be stored. To do this we use two relays to represent the inputs in the program and set and reset them as required:

– M1: open gate

– M2: close gate

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

X001

0

4

7

X002

M100 M2

X004

X005

PLS

SET

PLS

M100

M1

M200

0 LD

1 OR

2 PLS

4 LD

5 ANI

6 SET

7 LD

8 OR

9 PLS

11 LD

12 ANI

13 SET

X001

X002

M100

M100

M2

M1

X004

X005

M200

M200

M1

M2

M200

M1

11 SET M2

The signals for opening the gate are processed first: When key-operated switch S1 or button

S2 are operated a signal is generated and M001 is set to a signal state of “1” for just one pro-

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 29

Programming PLC Applications An Introduction to Programming

NOTE

gram cycle. This ensures that the gate cannot be blocked if the button sticks or of the operator does not release it.

It must be ensured that the drive can only be switched on when it is not already turning in the opposite direction. This is implemented by programming the PLC so that M1 can only be set when M2 is not set.

The motor direction interlock must also be complemented by an additional interlock with physical contactors outside the PLC (see wiring diagram).

A similar approach is used to process the signals from buttons S4 and S5 for closing the gate.

Here, M1 is polled for a signal state of “0” to ensure that M1 and M2 cannot both be set at the same time.

쎲 Close gate automatically after 20 seconds

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

14

X003

T0

18

K200

T0

SET M2

14 LDI

15 OUT

18 LD

19 SET

X003

T0

T0

M2

K200

When the gate is open limit switch S3 activates and input X3 is switched off. (For safety reasons

S3 is a break contact.) When this happens timer T0 starts the 20s delay (K200 = 200 x 0.1s =

20s). When the timer reaches 20s relay M2 is set and the gate is closed.

쎲 Stop gate with STOP switch

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

X000

20 RST M1

RST M2

20 LDI

21 RST

22 RST

X000

M1

M2

Pressing the STOP button (S0) resets relays M1 and M2, stopping the gate motor.

쎲 Identifying obstacles with the photoelectric barrier

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

23

X007 M2

RST M2

SET M1

23 LD

24 AND

25 RST

26 SET

X007

M2

M2

M1

If an obstacle is registered by the photoelectric barrier while the gate is closing relay M2 is reset and the close operation is halted. After this relay M1 is set, opening the gate again.

3 – 30

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

An Introduction to Programming

쎲 Switching the motor of with the limit switches

Ladder Diagram

X003

27 RST M1

29

X006

RST M2

Programming PLC Applications

Instruction List

27 LDI

28 RST

29 LDI

30 RST

X003

M1

X006

M2

NOTE

When the gate is open limit switch S3 is activated and input X3 is switched off. This resets relay

M1, turning off the motor. When the gate is fully closed S6 is activated, X6 is switched off and

M2 is reset, turning off the motor. For safety reasons the limit switches are break contacts. This ensures that the motor is also switched off automatically (or cannot be switched on) if the connection between the switch and the input is interrupted.

The limit switches must be wired so that they also switch off the motor automatically without support from the PLC (see wiring diagram).

쎲 Controlling the motor

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

M1

31

33

M2

Y001

Y002

31 LD

32 OUT

33 LD

34 OUT

M1

Y001

M2

Y002

At the end of the program the signal states of relays M1 and M2 are transferred to outputs Y001 and Y002.

쎲 Warning lamp: “Gate in Motion” and “Gate in Undefined Position”

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

35

X003 X006 M8013

Y000

35 LD

36 AND

37 AND

38 OUT

X003

X006

M8013

Y000

If neither of the limit switches is activated this means that the gate is being opened or closed or has been stopped in an intermediate position. In all these situations the warning lamp blinks.

The blink speed is controlled with special relay M8013, which is automatically set and reset at

1s intervals (see Chapter 4.2).

FX Beginners Manual 3 – 31

Programming PLC Applications An Introduction to Programming

Connection of the PLC

The rolling shutter gate control system can be implemented with a controller like the

FX

1N

-14MR.

L1

N

PE

24 V

S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7

S/S 0 V

100-240

VAC

L N

S/S

X0

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

MITSUBISHI

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

IN

POWER

RUN

ERROR

24V

0V

COM0

Y0

COM1

Y1

COM2

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

OUT

0 1 2 3

4 5

14MR

-ES/UL

H1

K2

S3

K1

S6

K1 K2

Interlock by contactor

Deactivation by limit switches

3 – 32

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail

4 Devices in Detail

Inputs and Outputs

4.1

NOTE

The devices in PLCs are used directly in control program instructions. Their signal states can be both read and changed by the PLC program. A device reference has two parts:

– the device name and

– the device address.

Example of a device reference (e.g. input 0):

X 0

Device name Device address

Inputs and Outputs

The PLC’s inputs and outputs connect it to the process that it is controlling. When an input is polled by the PLC program the voltage on the input terminal of the controller is measured.

Since these inputs are digital they can only have two signal states, ON or OFF. When the voltage at the input terminal reaches 24V the input is on (state “1”). If the voltage is lower than 24V the input evaluates as off (signal state “0”).

In MELSEC PLCs the identifier “X” is used for inputs. The same input can be polled as often as necessary in the same program.

The PLC cannot change the state of inputs. For example, it is not possible to execute an OUT instruction on an input device.

If an output instruction is executed on an output the result of the current operation (the signal state) is applied to the output terminal of the PLC. If it is a relay output the relay closes (all relays have make contacts). If it is a transistor output the transistor makes the connection and activates the connected circuit.

The illustration on the left shows an example of how you can connect switches to the inputs and lamps and contactors to the outputs of a MELSEC PLC.

X000 X001 X002

Y000 Y001 Y002

The identifier for output devices is “Y”. Outputs can be used in logic operation instructions as well as with output instructions. However, it is important to remember that you can never use an output instruction on the same output more than once (see also section 3.4.2).

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 1

Inputs and Outputs Devices in Detail

The following table provides a general overview of the inputs and outputs of the controllers of the MELSEC FX family.

Device

Device identifier

Device type

Possible values

Device address format

Number of devices and addresses (depends on controller base unit type)

FX

FX

FX

FX

2NC

FX

1S

1N

2N

3U

Inputs

X

Bit device

Outputs

Y

0 or 1

Octal

6 (X00–X05)

8 (X00–X07)

12 (X00–X07, X10, X11, X12, X13)

16 (X00–X07, X10–X17)

8 (X00–X07)

14 (X00–X07, X10–X15)

24 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27)

36 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37, X40, X41, X42, X43)

The total number of inputs can be increased to max. 84 (X123) with expansion modules. However, the sum of all inputs and outputs cannot exceed 128.

4 (Y00–Y03)

6 (Y00–Y05)

8 (Y00–Y07)

14 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y15)

6 (Y00–Y05)

10 (Y00–Y07, Y10, Y11)

16 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17)

24 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27)

The total number of outputs can be increased to max. 64 (Y77) with expansion modules. However, the sum of all inputs and outputs cannot exceed 128.

8 (X00–X07)

16 (X00–X07, X10–X17)

24 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27)

32 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37)

40 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37, X40–X47)

64 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37, X40–X47, X50–X57,

X60–X67, X70–X77)

8 (X00–X07)

16 (X00–X07, X10–X17)

32 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37)

48 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37, X40–X47, X50–X57)

8 (X00–X07)

16 (X00–X07, X10–X17)

24 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27)

32 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37)

40 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37, X40–X47)

64 (X00–X07, X10–X17, X20–X27,

X30–X37, X40–X47, X50–X57,

X60–X67, X70–X77)

8 (Y00–Y07)

16 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17)

24 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27)

32 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37)

40 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37, Y40–Y47)

64 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37, Y40–Y47, Y50–Y57,

Y60–Y67, Y70–Y77)

8 (Y00–Y07)

16 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17)

32 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37)

48 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37, Y40–Y47, X50–X57)

8 (Y00–Y07)

16 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17)

24 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27)

32 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37)

40 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37, Y40–Y47)

64 (Y00–Y07, Y10–Y17, Y20–Y27,

Y30–Y37, Y40–Y47, Y50–Y57,

Y60–Y67, Y70–Y77)

*

The total number of inputs can be increased to max. 248 (X367) with expansion modules. However, the sum of all inputs and outputs cannot exceed 256.

4 – 2

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail

4.2

Relays

Relays

In your PLC programs you will often need to store intermediate binary results (a signal state of

“0” or “1”) temporarily for future reference. The PLC has special memory cells available for this purpose known as “auxiliary relays”, or “relays” for short (device identifier: "M").

You can store the binary result of an operation in a relay, for example with an OUT instruction, and then use the result in future operations. Relays help to make programs easier to read and also reduce the number of program steps: You can store the results of operations that need to be used more than once in a relay and then poll it is often as you like in the rest of the program.

M1

4.2.1

M1

M1

Poll for signal state “1” (relay set)

Poll for signal state “0” (has the relay been reset?)

In addition to normal relays the FX controllers also have retentive or “latched” relays. The normal unlatched relays are all reset to a signal state of “0” when the PLC power supply is switched off, and this is also their standard state when the controller is switched on. In contrast to this, latched relays retain their current states when the power is switched off and on again.

Device

Device identifier

Device type

Possible values für a device

Device address format

Number of devices and addresses

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

1S

1N

2N

2NC

3U

Unlatched relays

M

Bit device

0 or 1

Decimal

384 (M0–M383)

384 (M0–M383)

500 (M0–M499)

500 (M0–M499)

Relay types

Latched relays

128 (M384–M511)

1152 (M384–M1535)

524 (M500–M1023)

2048 (M1024–M3071)

524 (M500–M1023)

6656 (M1024–M7679)

You can also configure these relays as latched relays with the PLC parameters.

You can also configure these relays as unlatched relays with the PLC parameters.

Special relays

In addition to the relays that you can switch on and off with the PLC program there is also another class of relays known as special or diagnostic relays. These relays use the address range starting with M8000. Some contain information on system status and others can be used to influence program execution. The following table shows a few examples of the many special relays available.

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 3

Timers

4.3

Devices in Detail

Special relay

M8000

M8001

M8002

M8004

M8005

M8013

M8031

M8034

Function

Program processing options

When the PLC is in RUN mode this relay is always set to “1”.

When the PLC is in Run mode this relay is always set to “0”.

Initialisation pulse (following activation of RUN mode this relay is set to “1” for the duration of one program cycle.

PLC error

Low battery voltage

Clock signal pulse: 1 second

Clear all devices (except data registers D) that are not registered as battery-latched.

Disable outputs – the PLC outputs remain off but program execution continues.

Poll signal state

Poll signal state

Set signal state.

Timers

When you are controlling processes you will often want to program a specific delay before starting and stopping certain operations. In hard-wired controllers this is achieved with timer relays. In PLCs this is achieved with programmable internal timers.

Timers are really just counters that count the PLCs internal clock signals (e.g. 0.1s pulses).

When the counter value reaches the setpoint value the timer’s output is switched on.

All timers function as make delay switches and are activated with a “1” signal. To start and reset timers you program them in the same way as outputs. You can poll the outputs of timers as often as you like in your program.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

X0

K123

T200

T200

0 LD

1 OUT

4 LD

5 OUT

X0

T200

T200

Y0

4 Y0

K123

In the above example timer T200 is started when input X0 is switched on. The setpoint value is

123 x 10ms = 1.23 s, so T200 switches on output Y0 after a delay of 1.23 s. The signal sequence generated by the following program example is as follows:

1,23 s

X0

The timer continues to count the internal

10ms pulses as long as X0 remains on.

When the setpoint value is reached the output of T200 is switched on.

T200

If input X0 or the power supply of the PLC are switched off the timer is reset and its output is also switched off.

Y0

You can also specify the timer setpoint value indirectly with a decimal value stored in a data register. See section 4.6.1 for details.

4 – 4

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail Timers

Retentive timers

In addition to the normal timers described above the controllers of the FX

1N

, FX

2N

, FX

2NC and

FX

3U series also have retentive timers that retain their current time counter value even if the device controlling them is switched off.

The current timer counter value is stored in a memory that is retained even in the event of a power failure.

Example of a program using a retentive timer:

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

0

X1

K345

T250

4

T250

Y1

0 LD

1 OUT

4 LD

5 OUT

6 LD

7 RST

X0

T250

T250

Y1

X2

T250

K345

X2

6

RST T250

Timer T250 is started when input X0 is switched on. The setpoint value is 345 x 0.1 s = 34.5s.

When the setpoint value is reached T250 switches output Y1 on. Input X2 resets the timer and switches its output off..

t1 t2

X1 t1 + t2 = 34,5 s

When X1 is on the timer counts the internal

100ms pulses. When X1 is switched off the current time counter value is retained. The timer’s output is switched on when the current value reaches the setpoint value of the timer.

T250

Y1

A separate instruction must be programmed to reset the timer since it is not reset by switching off input X1 or the PLC’s power. Input

X2 resets timer T250 and switches off its output..

X2

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 5

Timers Devices in Detail

Timers in the base units of the MELSEC FX family

Device

Device identifier

Device type (for setting and polling)

Possible values (timer output)

Device address format

Timer setpoint value entry

Number of devices and addresses

Normal Timers

Timer types

Retentive Timers

T

Bit device

0 or 1

Decimal

As a decimal integer constant. The setpoint can be set either directly in the instruction or indirectly in a data register.

63 (T0–T62) —

FX

FX

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

1S

1N

3U

100 ms

(Range 0.1 to 3276.7 s)

10 ms

(Range 0.01 to 327.67 s)

1 ms

(Bereich 0.001 to 32.767 s)

100 ms

(Range 0.1 to 3276.7 s)

10 ms

(Range 0.01 to 327.67 s)

1 ms

(Range 0.001 to 32.767 s)

100 ms

(Range 0.1 to 3276.7 s)

10 ms

(Range 0.01 to 327.67 s)

1 ms

(Range 0.001 to 32.767 s)

100 ms

(Range 0.1 to 3276.7 s)

10 ms

(Range 0.01 to 327.67 s)

1 ms

(Range 0.001 to 32.767 s)

31 (T32–T62)*

1 (T63)

200 (T0–T199)

46 (T200–T245)

4 (T246–T249)

200 (T0–T199)

46 (T200–T245)

200 (T0–T199)

46 (T200–T245)

256 (T256–T511)

6 (T250–T255)

6 (T250–T255)

4 (T246–T249)

6 (T250–T255)

4 (T246–T249)

*

These timers are only available when special relay M8028 is set. The total number of 100ms timers is then reduced to 32 (T0 – T31).

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MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail

4.4

Counters

Counters

The programmers of the FX family also have internal counters that you can use for programming counting operations.

Counters count signal pulses that are applied to their inputs by the program. The counter output is switched on when the current counter value reaches the setpoint value defined by the program. Like timers, counter outputs can also be polled as often as you like in the program.

Example of a program using a counter:

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

X0

0

3

X1

RST

C0

C0

K10

0 LD

1 RST

3 LD

4 OUT

7 LD

8 OUT

X0

C0

X1

C0

C0

Y0

K10

C0

7 Y0

Whenever input X1 is switched on the value of counter C0 is incremented by 1. Output Y0 is set when X1 has been switched on and off ten times (the counter setpoint is K10).

The signal sequence generated by this program is as follows:

X0

First the counter is reset with input X0 and a

RST instruction. This resets the counter value to 0 and switches off the counter output.

X1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Once the counter value has reached the setpoint value any additional pulses on input X1 no longer have any effect on the counter.

Y0

There are two kinds of counters, 16-bit counters and 32-bit counters. As their names indicate, they can count up to either 16-bit or 32-bit values and they use 16 bits and 32 bits, respectively, to store their setpoint values. The following table shows the key features of these counters.

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 7

Counters Devices in Detail

Feature

Count direction

Setpoint value range

Setpoint value entry

Counter overflow behaviour

Counter output

Resetting

16 Bit Counters

Incrementing

32 Bit Counters

Incrementing and decrementing (the direction is specified by switching a special relay on or off)

-2 147 483 648 to 2 147 483 647 1 to 32767

Directly as a decimal constant (K) in the instruction, or indirectly in a data register

Counts to a maximum of 32,767, after which the counter value no longer changes.

Once the setpoint value has been reached the output remains on.

Directly as a decimal constant (K) in the instruction or indirectly in a pair of data registers

Ring counter: After reaching 2,147,483,647 the next incrementing value is

-2,147483,648. (When counting backwards the jump is from -2,147483,648 to

2,147,483,647)

When incrementing the output remains on once the setpoint value has been reached.

When decrementing the output is reset

(switched off) once the value drops below the setpoint value.

An RST instruction is used to delete the current value of the counter and turn off its output.

In addition to normal counters the controllers of the MELSEC FX family also have high-speed counters. These are 32-bit counters that can process high-speed external counter signals read on inputs X0 to X7. In combination with some special instructions it is very easy to use these counters to automate positioning tasks and other functions.

High-speed counters use an interrupt principle: The PLC program is interrupted and responds immediately to the counter signal. For a detailed description of high-speed counters please refer to the Programming Manual for the MELSEC FX family.

Counter overview

Device

Device identifier

Device type (for setting and polling)

Possible device values (counter output)

Device address format

Counter setpoint value entry

Number of devices and addresses

FX

FX

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

1S

1N

3U

16 bit counter

32 bit counter

32 bit high-speed counter

16 bit counter

32 bit counter

32 bit high-speed counter

16 bit counter

32 bit counter

32 bit high-speed counter

16 bit counter

32 bit counter

32 bit high-speed counter

Normal counters

C

Counter types

Retentive counters

Bit device

0 or 1

Decimal

As a decimal integer constant. The setpoint can be set either directly in the instruction or indirectly in a data register (two data registers for

32-bit counters).

16 (C0–C15)

16 (C0–C15)

20 (C200–C219)

100 (C0–C99)

20 (C200–C219)

21 (C235–C255)

100 (C0–C99)

20 (C200–C219)

21 (C235–C255)

16 (C16–C31)

21 (C235–C255)

184 (C16–C199)

15 (C220–C234)

21 (C235–C255)

100 (C100–C199)

15 (C220–C234)

100 (C100–C199)

15 (C220–C234)

The current counter values of retentive counters are retained when the power supply is switched off.

You can set the PLC parameters to configure whether the current values of these counters should be retained when the power supply is switched off.

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MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail

4.5

Registers

Registers

The PLC’s relays are used to store the results of operations temporarily. However, relays can only store values of On/Off or 1/0, which means that they are not suitable for storing measurements or the results of calculations. Values like this can be stored in the “registers” of the controllers of the FX family.

Registers are 16 bits or one word wide (see section 3.2). You can create “double word” registers capable of storing 32-bit values by combining two consecutive data registers.

1 sign bit 15 data bits

Register:

16 bit

2

14

2

13

2

12

2

11

2

10

2

9

2

8

2

7

2

6

2

5

2

4

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

0

0: = positive value

1: = negative value

4.5.1

Double word register:

32 bit

1 sign bit

2

30

2

29

2

28

. . .

31 data bits

. . .

2

2

2

1

2

0

0: = positive value

1: = negative value

A normal register can store values from 0000

H

– FFFF

H

(-32,768 – 32,767). Double-word registers can store values from 00000000

H

– FFFFFFFF

H

(-2,147,483,648 – 2,147,483,647).

The controllers of the FX family have a large number of instructions for using and manipulating registers. You can write and read values to and from registers, copy the contents of registers,

compare them and perform math functions on their contents (see chapter 5).

Data registers

Data registers can be used as memory in your PLC programs. A value that the program writes to a data register remains stored there until the program overwrites it with another value.

When you use instructions for manipulating 32-bit data you only need to specify the address of a 16-bit register. The more significant part of the 32-bit data is automatically written to the next consecutive register. For example, if you specify register D0 to store a 32-bit value D0 will contain bits 0 through 15 and D1 will contain bits 16 through 31.

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 9

Registers Devices in Detail

NOTE

4.5.2

What happens when the PLC is switched off or stopped

In addition to the normal registers whose contents are lost when the PLC is stopped or the power supply is turned off, the FX PLCs also have latched registers, whose contents are retained in these situations.

When special relay M8033 is set the contents of the unlatched data registers are also not cleared when the PLC is stopped.

Data register overview

Device

Device identifier

Device type (for setting and polling)

Possible device values

Device address format

Number of devices and addresses

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

1S

1N

2N

2NC

3U

Normal registers

D

Data register types

Latched registers

Word device (two registers can be combined to store double-word values)

16 bit registers: 0000

H to FFFF

H

(-32768 to 32767)

32 bit register: 00000000

H to FFFFFFFF

H

(-2 147 483 648 to

2 147 483 647)

Decimal

128 (D0–D127)

128 (D0–D127)

200 (D0–D199)

200 (D0–D199)

128 (D128–D255)

7872 (D128–D7999)

312 (D200–D511)

7488 (D512–D7999)

524 (M500–M1023)

6656 (M1024–M7679)

You can also configure these registers as latched registers with the PLC parameters.

You can also configure these registers as unlatched registers with the PLC parameters.

Special registers

Just like the special relays (Chapter 4.2.1) starting at address M8000 the FX controllers also have special or diagnostic registers, whose addresses start at D8000. Often there is also a direct connection between the special relays and special registers. For example, special relay

M8005 shows that the voltage of the PLC’s battery is too low, and the corresponding voltage value is stored in special register D8005. The following table shows a small selection of the available special registers as examples.

Program processing optionsm

Special register

D8004

D8005

D8010

Function

Error relay address (shows which error relays are set)

Battery voltage (e.g. the value “36” means 3.6V)

Current program cycle time

D8013–D8019 Time and date of the integrated real-time clock

D8030

D8031

Value read from potentiometer VR1 (0 – 255)

Value read from potentiometer VR2 (0 – 255)

Read register contents

Read register contents

Change register contents

Read register contents (FX1S and FX1N only)

Registers with externally modifiable contents

The controllers of the FX

1S and FX

1N series have two integrated potentiometers with which you can adjust the contents of special registers D8030 and D8031 in the range from 0 to 255

(see section 4.6.1). These potentiometers can be used for a variety of purposes – for example to adjust setpoint values for timers and counters without having to connect a programming unit to the controller.

4 – 10

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail

4.5.3

4.6

4.6.1

Programming Tips for Timers and Counters

File registers

The contents of file registers are also not lost when the power supply is switched off. File registers can thus be used for storing values that you need to transfer to data registers when the

PLC is switched on, so that they can be used by the program for calculations, comparisons or as setpoints for timers.

File registers have the same structure as data registers. In fact, they are data registers – they consist of blocks of 500 addresses each in the range from D1000 to D7999.

Device

Device identifier

Device type (for setting and polling)

Possible device values

Device address format

FX

1S

File registers

D

Word device (two registers can be combined to store double-word values)

16 bit register: 0000

H to FFFF

H

(-32768 to 32767)

32 bit register: 00000000

H to FFFFFFFF

H

(-2 147 483 648 to

2 147 483 647)

Decimal

1500 (D1000–D2499)

A maximum of 3 blocks of 500 file registers each can be defined in the PLC parameters.

Number of devices and addresses

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

7000 (D1000–D7999)

A maximum of 14 blocks of 500 file registers each can be defined in the PLC parameters.

For a detailed description of the file registers see the Programming Manual for the MELSEC

FX family.

Programming Tips for Timers and Counters

Specifying timer and counter setpoints indirectly

The usual way to specify timer and counter setpoint values is directly, in an output instruction:

Ladder Diagram

X17

0

4

M50

T31

C0

K500

K34

Instruction List

0 LD

1 OUT

4 LD

5 OUT

X17

T31

M50

C0

K500

K34

In the example above T31 is a 100ms timer. The constant K500 sets the delay to 500 x 0.1s =

50s. The setpoint for counter C0 is also set directly, to a value of 34 with the constant K34.

The advantage of specifying setpoints like this is that you don’t have to concern yourself with the setpoint value once you have set it. The values you use in the program are always valid, even after power failures and directly after switching the controller on. However, there is also a disadvantage: If you want to change the setpoint you need to edit the program. This applies particularly for timer setpoint values, which are often adjusted during controller configuration and program tests.

You can also store setpoint values for timers and counters in data registers and have the program read them from the registers. It is then possible to change the values quickly with a pro-

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 11

Programming Tips for Timers and Counters Devices in Detail gramming unit if necessary, or to specify setpoint values with switches on a control console or a HMI control panel.

The following listing shows an example of how to specify setpoint values indirectly:

Instruction List Ladder Diagram

M15

0 MOV D100 D131

6

10

16

X17

M8002

M50

D131

T31

MOV K34 D5

C0

D5

0 LD

1 MOV

6 LD

7 OUT

10 LD

11 MOV

16 LD

17 OUT

M15

D100

T31

M8002

K34

M50

C0

D131

X17

D131

D5

D5

– When relay M15 is one the contents of data register D100 are copied to D131. This register contains the setpoint value for T131. You could use a programming or control unit to adjust the contents of D100.

– The special relay M8002 is only set for a single program cycle directly after the PLC is switched on. This is used to copy the constant value of 34 to data register D5, which is then used as the setpoint value for counter C0.

You don’t have to write program instructions to copy the setpoint values to the data registers.

You could also use a programming unit to set them before the program is started, for example.

E

WARNING:

If you use normal registers the setpoint values will be lost when the power supply is switched off and when the RUN/STOP switch is set to the STOP position. If this happens hazardous conditions may be created next time the power is switched on and/or when the PLC is started again, because all the setpoints will have a value of “0”.

If you don’t configure your program to copy the values automatically you should always use latched data registers for storing the setpoint values for timers and counters. Also, remember that even the contents of these registers will also be lost when the PLC is switched off if the backup battery is empty.

4 – 12

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail Programming Tips for Timers and Counters

Setting setpoints with the integrated potentiometers

The controllers of the FX

1S and FX

1N series have two integrated analog potentiometers with which you can adjust setpoint values for timers and other functions quickly and easily.

100-240

VAC

L

N

S/S

X0

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X10

X11 X13

X12

X15

X14

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11

12 13 14 15

IN

POWER

RUN

ERROR

The value of the upper potentiometer (VR1) can be read from special data register D8031, the value of the lower potentiometer (VR2) from register D8031. To use one of the potentiometers as the setpoint value source for a timer you just specify the corresponding register in your program instead of a constant.

OUT

0V

24+

Y0

COM0

Y1

Y2

COM1

COM2

Y3

COM3 Y4

Y5

Y6

COM4

Y10

Y7

0 1 2 3

4 5 6 7

10 11

Y11

24MR

-ES/UL

MITSUBISHI

The value in the register can be adjusted between

0 and 255 by turning the potentiometer.

Potentiometer

Ladder Diagram

X001

0

T1

4

T1 T2

8

D8030

T1

D8031

T2

Y000

Instruction List

0 LD

1 OUT

4 LD

5 OUT

8 LD

8 ANI

10 OUT

X001

T1

T1

T2

T1

T2

Y000

D8030

D8031

In the program example above Y0 is switched on after the delay specified for timer T1, for the time specified for timer T2 (delayed pulse generation).

Signal sequence

ON

X1

OFF

1

T1

0

1

T2

0

ON

Y0

OFF

[D8030]

[D8031] t

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 13

Programming Tips for Timers and Counters

4.6.2

Devices in Detail

Switch-off delay

By default, all the timers in MELSEC PLCs are delayed make timers, i.e. the output is switched

ON after the defined delay period. However, you will often also want to program a delayed break operation (switch OFF after a delay). A typical example of this is a ventilation fan in a bathroom that needs to continue running for several minutes after the lights are switched off.

Program version 1 (latching)

Ladder Diagram

X001

0

Y000

Y000 T0

5

X001 K300

T0

Instruction List

0 LD

1 LD

2 ANI

3 ORB

4 OUT

5 LDI

6 OUT

T0

Y000

X001

T0

X001

Y000

K300

As long as input X1 (e.g. a light switch) is on output Y0 (fan) is also on. However, the latching function ensures that Y0 also remains on after X1 has been switched off, because timer T0 is still running. T0 is started when X1 is switched off. At the end of the delay period (300 x 0.1s =

30s in the example) T0 interrupts the Y0 latch and switches the output off.

Signal sequence

X1

30 s

T0

Y0 t

Program version 2 (set/reset)

Ladder Diagram

X001

0

SET Y000

2

X001

K300

T0

T0

6

RST Y000

Instruction List

0 LD

1 SET

2 LDI

3 OUT

6 LD

7 RST

X001

Y000

X001

T0

Y000

K300

T0

When X1 is switched on output Y0 is set (switched on). When X1 is switched off timer T0 is started. After the delay period T0 then resets output Y0. The resulting signal sequence is identical with that produced by program version 1.

4 – 14

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Devices in Detail

4.6.3

Programming Tips for Timers and Counters

Delayed make and break

Sometimes you will want to switch an output on after a delay and then switch it off again after another delay. This is very easy to implement with the controller’s basic logical instructions.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

X000

T1

K25

4

8

X000

T1 T2

T2

K50

Y000

0 LD

1 OUT

4 LDI

5 OUT

8 LD

9 OR

10 ANI

11 OUT

X000

T1

X000

T2

T1

Y000

T2

Y000

K25

K50

Y000

Signal sequence

ON

X0

OFF

1

T1

0

1

T2

0

ON

Y0

OFF t1 t2 t

Output Y000 is latched with the help of T1, keeping the output switched on until the end of the break delay period.

FX Beginners Manual 4 – 15

Programming Tips for Timers and Counters

4.6.4

Devices in Detail

Clock signal generators

The controllers have special relays that make it very easy to program tasks requiring a regular clock signal (for example for controlling a blinking error indicator light). Relay M8013 switches on and off at 1-second intervals, for example. For full details on all special relays see the Programming Manual for the FX family.

If you need a different clock frequency or different on and off times you can program your own clock signal generator with two timers, like this:

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

0

X001 T2

T1

K10

5

T1

T2

K20

0 LD

1 ANI

2 OUT

5 LD

6 OUT

9 OUT

X001

T2

T1

T1

T2

Y000

K10

K20

Y000

Input X1 starts the clock generator. If you want, you can omit this input – then the clock generator is always on. In the program you could use the output of T1 to control a blinking warning light. The on period is determined by T2, the off period by T1.

The output of timer T2 is only switched on for a single program cycle. This time is shown much longer than it really is in the signal sequence illustration below. T2 switches T1 off and immediately after this T2 itself is also switched off. In effect this means that the duration of the on period is increased by the time that it takes to execute a program cycle. However, since the cycle is only a few milliseconds long it can usually be ignored.

Signal sequence

ON

X0

OFF

1

T1

0

1

T2

0

ON

Y1

OFF t1 t2 t

4 – 16

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

More Advanced Programming

5

Applied Instructions Reference

More Advanced Programming

5.1

The basic logic instructions listed in Chapter 3 can be used to emulate the functions of a hard-wired contactor controller with a programmable logic controller. However, this only scratches the surface of the capabilities of modern PLCs. Since every PLC is built around a microprocessor they can also easily perform operations like mathematical calculations, comparing numbers, converting from one number system to another or processing analog values.

Functions like these that go beyond the capabilities of logic operations are performed with special instructions, which are referred to as applied or application instructions .

Applied Instructions Reference

Applied instructions have short names that are based on the English names of their functions.

For example, the instruction for comparing two 16-bit or 32-bit numbers is called CMP, which is short for compare

.

When you program an applied instruction you enter the instruction name followed by the device name. The following table shows all the applied instructions currently supported by the

MELSEC FX family of controllers. This list may look a little overwhelming at first, but don’t worry

– you don’t have to memorise them all! When you are programming you can use the powerful

Help functions of GX Developer and GX IEC Developer to find the instructions you need.

In this chapter we will only cover the more frequently-used instructions, which are shown with a grey shaded background in the reference table. For full documentation of all the instructions with examples please refer to the Programming Manual for the FX family.

Category

Program flow functions

Move and compare functions

DI

FEND

WDT

FOR

NEXT

CMP

ZCP

MOV

SMOV

CML

BMOV

FMOV

XCH

BCD

BIN

Instruction

CJ

CALL

SRET

IRET

EI

Function

Conditional Jump to a program position

Calls (executes) a subroutine

Subroutine Return, marks the end of a subroutine

Interrupt Return, marks the end of an interrupt routine

Enable Interrupt, enables processing of interrupt routines

Disable Interrupt, disables processing of interrupt routines

First End, marks end of main program block

WatchDog Timer refresh

Marks beginning of a program loop

Marks end of a program loop

Compare numerical values

Zone Compare, compares numerical ranges

Move data from one storage area to another

Shift Move

Compliment, copies and inverts

Block Move

Fill Move, copy to a range of devices

Exchange data in specified devices

BCD conversion

Binary conversion

Controller

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

쏹 쏹

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 1

Applied Instructions Reference More Advanced Programming

Category

Math and logic instructions

Rotate and shift functions

Data operation functions

High-speed instructions

Application instructions

Instruction

Function

PLSR

IST

SER

ABSD

INCD

TTMR

STMR

ALT

RAMP

ROTC

SORT

ADD

SUB

MUL

DIV

INC

DEC

AND

OR

XOR

Add numerical values

Subtract numerical values

Multiply numerical values

Divide numerical values

Increment

Decrement

NEG

ROR

ROL

RCR

RCL

SFTR

SFTL

WSFR

WSFL

SFWR

Logical AND

Logical OR

Logical exclusive OR

Negation, logical inversion of device contents

Rotate right

Rotate left

Rotate carry right, rotate right with carry

Rotate carry left, rotate left with carry

Shift right, bitwise shift to the right

Shift left, bitwise shift to the left

Word shift right, shift word values to the right

Word shift left, shift word values to the left

Shift register write, writes to a FIFO stack

SFRD

ZRST

DECO

ENCO

SUM

BON

MEAN

ANS

ANR

SQR

FLT

REF

Shift register read, reads from a FIFO stack

Zone Reset, resets ranges of like devices

Decode data

Encode data

Sum (number) of active bits

Bit on, checks status of a bit

Calculates mean values

Timed annunciator set, starts a timer interval

Annunciator reset

Square root

Floating point, converts data

Refresh inputs and outputs

REFF

MTR

Refresh inputs and filter adjust

Input matrix, read a matrix (MTR)

DHSCS

High-speed counter set

DHSCR

High-speed counter reset

DHSZ

High speed zone compare

SPD

PLSY

PWM

Speed detection

Pulse Y output (frequency)

Pulse output with pulse width modulation

Pulse ramp (accelleration/deceleration setup)

Initial state, set up multi-mode STL system

Search data stack

Absolute counter comparison

Incremental counter comparison

Teaching timer

Special timer

Alternate state, flip-flop function

Ramp function

Rotary table control

Sort table data on selected fields

Controller

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

5 – 2

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

More Advanced Programming Applied Instructions Reference

Category

Instructions for external

I/O devices

Instructions for external serial devices

Store/restore index registers

Floating point operations

Trigonometry instructions for floating point numbers

Instruction

Function

TKY

HKY

DSW

SEGD

SEGL

ARWS

ASC

PR

FROM

TO

RS

PRUN

ASCI

HEX

CCD

VRRD

VRSC

Ten key input

Hexadecimal key input

Digital switch

7-segment display decoder

7-segment display with latch

Arrow switch

ASCII conversion

Print, data output via the outputs

Read data from a special function module

Write data to a special function module

RS serial communications

Parallel run (octal mode)

Convert to an ASCII character

Convert to a hexadecimal character

Check Code, sum and parity check

Read setpoint values from FX1N-8AV-BD and

FX2N-8AV-BD

Read switch settings from FX1N-8AV-BD and

FX2N-8AV-BD

RS2

PID

RS serial communications (2)

Program a PID control loop

ZPUSH

Zone push, store contents of index registers

ZPOP

Zone pop, restore contents of index registers

DECMP

Compare floating point values

DEZCP

Compare floating point values (range)

DEMOV

Move floating point values

DESTR

Convert floating point value to a string

DEVAL

Convert string to floating point value

DEBCD

Convert floating point value to scientific notation

DEBIN

Convert scientific notation to floating point

DEADD

Add floating point numbers

DESUB

Subtract floating point numbers

DEMUL

Multiply floating point numbers

DEDIV

Divide floating point numbers

DEXP

Floating point exponent

DLOGE

Calculate natural logarithm

DLOG10

Calculate decadic logarithm

DESQR

Square root of floating point numbers

DENEG

Reverse sign of floating point numbers

INT

SIN

COS

Convert floating-point numbers to integers

Calculate the sine

Calculate the cosine

TAN

ASIN

ACOS

ATAN

RAD

DEG

Calculate the tangent

Calculate the arc sine

Calculate the arc cosine

Calculate the arc tangent

Convert degrees to radians

Convert radians to degrees

Controller

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 3

Applied Instructions Reference More Advanced Programming

Category

Instruction

Function

Data operations

Positioning instructions

Operations with the PLC’s integrated clock

WSUM

Sum of the contents of word devices

WTOB

BTOW

UNI

Word to byte, divide words into bytes

Byte To Word, form words from individual bytes

Combine groups of 4 bits to form words

DIS

SWAP

SORT

DSZR

DVIT

TBL

Divide words into groups of 4 bits

Swap least and most significant bits

Sort the data in a table

Return to zero home point (with proximity switch)

Positioning with interrupt

DABS

ZRN

PLSV

Positioning with data table

Read absolute current position

Return to zero home point

DRVI

DRVA

TCMP

TZCP

TADD

TSUB

Output pulses with variable frequency

Position to an incremental value

Position to an absolute value

Compare clock data

Compare clock data with a zone (range)

Add clock data

Subtract clock data

HTOS

STOH

Convert hours / minutes / seconds time value to seconds

Convert seconds time value to hours / minutes / seconds

TRD

TWR

HOUR

GRY

GBIN

RD3A

Read clock time and date

Write time and date to PLC clock

Operating hours counter

Convert Gray code to decimal

Convert decimal number to Gray code

Read analog input values

Gray code conversion

Data exchange with analog modules

Instructions in external memory

WR3A

EXTR

Write analog output values

Execute command stored in an external ROM

Miscellaneous instructions

Instructions for data stored in consecutive devices (data blocks)

COMRD

Read device comment

RND

DUTY

Generate a random number

Generate a pulse with a defined length

CRC

Check data (CRC check)

HCMOV

Move the current value of a high-speed counter

BK+

Add data in a data block

Subtract data in a data block

BK-

BKCMP=

BKCMP>

BKCMP<

BKCMP<>

Compare data in data blocks

BKCMP<=

BKCMP>=

Controller

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

5 – 4

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

More Advanced Programming Applied Instructions Reference

Category

String operations

Data table operations

Comparison operations

Data control instructions

Instructions for communication with frequency inverters

Data exchange with special function modules

High-speed counter instruction

Instruction

Function

STR

VAL

$+

Convert binary data to a string

Convert a string to binary data

Concatenate strings

LEN

Returns the length of a string

RIGHT

Extract substring from right

LEFT

Extract substring from left

MIDR

MIDW

Select a character string

Replace a character strings

LD<=

LD>=

AND=

AND>

AND<

AND>=

OR=

OR>

INSTR

Search for a character string

$MOV

Move a character string

FDEL

Delete data from a table

FINS

POP

SFR

Insert data in a table

Read last data inserted in a table

Shift a 16-bit data word right

Shift a 16-bit data word left

SFL

LD=

LD>

LD<

LD<>

Compare data within operations

OR<

OR<>

OR<=

OR>=

LIMIT

BAND

ZONE

Limits the output range of values

Define input offset

Define output offset

SCL

Scale values

DABIN

Convert an ASCII number to a binary value

BINDA

Convert a binary value to ASCII code

SCL2

IVCK

Scale values (different value table structure to

SCL)

Check status of frequency inverter

IVDR

IVRD

IVWR

Control frequency inverter

Read frequency inverter parameter

IVBWR

Write parameter to frequency inverter

Write parameters to frequency inverter in blocks

RBFM

Read from module buffer memory

Controller

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

쏹 쏹 쏹 쏹

WBFM

Write to module buffer memory

HSCT

Compare current value of a high-speed counter with data in data tables

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 5

Applied Instructions Reference More Advanced Programming

Category

Instructions for extension file registers

Instruction

Function

LOADR

Read data from extension file registers

SAVER

Write data to extension file registers

INITR

Initialise extension registers and extension file registers

LOGR

RWER

Read values from devices in extension registers and extension file registers

Write data from extension registers to extension file registers

INITER

Initialise extension file registers

Controller

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

5.1.1

Entering applied instructions

Programming applied instructions in GX Developer FX is simple. Just position the cursor in the place in the program line where you want to insert the instruction and type the abbreviations for the instruction and its operand(s). GX Developer will automatically register that you are entering an instruction and will open the input dialog (see below). Alternatively, you can also position the cursor and then click on the insert instruction tool in the toolbar .

You can also select the instruction from the drop-down list, which you can display by clicking on the „

쑽“ icon.

5 – 6

Then enter the abbreviations for the instruction and its operand(s) in the input field, separating them by spaces.

All numbers must be preceded by a letter character, which either identifies the device type or – in the case of constants – specifies the number format. The letter “K” identifies decimal constants and “H” identifies hexadecimal constants.

In the example on the left a MOV instruction is used to write the value 5 to data register

D12.

The

Help

button opens a dialog in which you can search for a suitable instruction for the function you want to perform. The help also contains information on how the functions work and the type and number of devices that they take as operands.

Then you just click on

OK

to insert the applied instruction into the program.

M457

MOV K5 D12

If you are programming in Instruction List format enter the instruction and its operand(s) in a single line, separated by spaces.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

More Advanced Programming Instructions for Moving Data

5.2

5.2.1

NOTE

Instructions for Moving Data

The PLC uses data registers for storing measurements, output values, intermediate results of operations and table values. The controller’s math instructions can read their operands directly from the data registers and can also write their results back to the registers if you want. However, these instructions are also supported by additional “move" instructions, with which you can copy data from one register to another and write constant values to data registers.

Moving individual values with the MOV instruction

The MOV instruction “moves” data from the specified source to the specified destination.

Note that despite its name this is actually a copy process – it does not delete the data from the source location.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

MOV D10 D200

� �

0 MOV D10

D200

쐃 Data source (this can also be a constant)

쐇 Data destination

In the example the value in data register D10 will be copied to register D200 when input X1 is on. This results in the following signal sequence:

X001

D10 5384 963 125

D200 2271

5384

963 t

The contents of the data source will be copied to the data destination as long as the input condition evaluates true. The copy operation does not change the contents of the data source.

When the input condition is no longer true the instruction will no longer change the contents of the data destination.

Pulse-triggered execution of the MOV instruction

In some applications it is better if the value is written to the destination in one program cycle only. For example, you will want to do this if other instructions in the program also write to the same destination or if the move operation must be performed at a defined time.

If you add a “P” to the MOV instruction (MOVP) it will only be executed once, on the rising edge of the signal pulse generated by the input condition.

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 7

Instructions for Moving Data More Advanced Programming

In the example below the contents of D20 are written to data register D387 when the state of

M110 changes from “0" to ”1".

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

M110

0

MOVP D20 D387

0 LD

1 MOVP D20

M110

D387

After this single operation has been performed copying to register D387 stops, even if the

M110 remains set. The signal sequence illustrates this:

M110

D20 4700 3300

D387

6800 4700 3300 t

The contents of the data source are only copied to the destination on the rising pulse of the input condition.

Moving 32-bit data

To move 32-bit data just prefix a D to the MOV instruction (DMOV):

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

X010

0 DMOV C200 D40

0 LD X010

1 DMOV C200 D40

When input X010 is on the current value of 32-bit counter C200 is written to data registers D40 and D41. D40 contains the least significant bits.

As you might expect, there is also a pulse-triggered version of the 32-bit DMOV instruction:

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

M10

0 DMOVP D10 D610

0 LD

1 DMOVP D10

M10

D610

When relay M10 is set the contents of registers D10 and D11 are written to registers D610 and

D611.

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More Advanced Programming

5.2.2

Instructions for Moving Data

Moving groups of bit devices

The previous section showed how you can use the MOV instruction to write constants or the contents of data registers to other data registers. Consecutive sequences of relays and other bit devices can also be used to store numerical values, and you can copy them as groups with applied instructions. To do this you prefixing a “K” factor to the address of the first bit device, specifying the number of devices you want to copy with the operation.

Bit devices are counted in groups of 4, so the K factor specifies the number of these groups of

4. K1 = 4 devices, K2 = 8 devices, K3 = 12 devices and so on.

For example, K2M0 specifies the 8 relays from M0 through M7. The supported range is K1 (4 devices) to K8 (32 devices).

Examples for addressing groups of bit devices:

– K1X0: 4 inputs, start at X0 (X0 to X3)

– K2X4: 8 inputs, start at X4

– K4M16: 16 relays, start at 16

(X4 to X13, octal notation)

(M16 to M31)

– K3Y0: 12 outputs, start at Y0

– K8M0: 32 relays, start at M0

(Y0 to X13, octal notation)

(M0 to M31)

Addressing multiple bit devices with a single instruction makes programming quicker and produces more compact programs. The following two examples both transfer the signal states of relays M0 – M4 to outputs Y10 – Y14:

M0

Y010

M1

M8000

Y011

MOV K1M0 K1Y010

M2

Y012

M3

Y013

If the destination range is smaller than the source range the excess bits are simply ignored

(see the following illustration, top example). If the destination is larger than the source “0” is written to the excess devices. Note that when this happens the result is always positive because bit 15 is interpreted as the sign bit (lower example in the following illustration).

Bit 15

0 1 0 1 0 1

Sign bit (0: positive, 1: negative)

These relays will not be changed

0 1 0 1 0

MOV D0 K2 M0

1 0 1 0

Bit 0

1

M15 M14 M13 M12 M11 M10 M9

0

M8 M7

1 0

M6 M5

MOV K2 M0 D1

1 0 1 0

M4 M3 M2 M1

1

M0

0

Bit 15

Sign bit (0: positive, 1: negative)

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Bit 0

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 9

Instructions for Moving Data

5.2.3

More Advanced Programming

Moving blocks of data with the BMOV instruction

The MOV instruction described in section 5.2.1 can only write single 16 or 32 bit values to a destination. If you want, you can program multiple sequences of MOV instructions to move contiguous blocks of data. However, it is more efficient to use the BMOV (Block MOVe) instruction, which is provided specifically for this purpose.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0 BMOV D10 D200 K5

� � �

0 BMOV D10

쐃 Data source (16-bit device, first device in source range)

쐇 Data destination (16-bit device, first device in destination range)

쐋 Number of elements to be moved (max. 512)

The example above works as follows:

BMOV D10 D200 K5

D200

K5

M0

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

D 10

D 11

D 12

D 13

D 14

1234

5678

-156

8765

4321

1234

5678

-156

8765

4321

D 200

D 201

D 202

D 203

D 204

5 data registers

BMOV also has a pulse-triggered version, BMOVP (see section 5.1.2 for details on pulse-triggered execution).

Blocks of bit devices: When you move blocks of bit devices with BMOV the K factors of the data source and the data destination must always be identical.

Example

BMOV K1M0 K1Y0 K2

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

Y000

Y001

Y002

Y003

1

0

1

0

Y004

Y005

Y006

Y007

This copies 2 blocks with 4 bit devices each.

5 – 10

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

More Advanced Programming

5.2.4

Instructions for Moving Data

Copying source devices to multiple destinations (FMOV)

The FMOV (Fill MOVe) instruction copies the contents of a word or double word device or a constant to multiple consecutive word or double word devices. It is generally used to delete data tables and to set data registered to a predefined starting value.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0 FMOV D4 D250 K20

� � �

0 FMOV D4

쐃 Data to be written to the target devices (constants can also be used here)

쐇 Data destination (first device of the destination range)

쐋 Number of elements to be written in the destination range (max. 512)

The following example writes the value “0” to 7 elements:

FMOV K0 D10 K7

D250

K20

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

D 10

D 11

D 12

D 13

D 14

D 15

D 16

7 data words

Here too, FMOV has a pulse-triggered version, FMOVP (see section 5.1.2 for details on pulse-triggered execution).

You can also transfer 32-bit data by prefixing the instruction with “D” (DFMOV and DFMOVP).

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 11

Instructions for Moving Data

5.2.5

More Advanced Programming

Exchanging data with special function modules

You can add expansion modules to increase the number of inputs and outputs available to all base units of the MELSEC FX series except the FX

1S models. In addition to this you can also supplement the controller’s functions by adding so-called “special function modules” – for example for reading analog signals for currents and voltages, for controlling temperatures and for communicating with external equipment.

The digital I/O expansion modules do not require special instructions; the additional inputs and outputs are handled in exactly the same way as those in the base unit. Communication between the base unit and special function modules is performed with two special applied instructions: the FROM and TO instructions.

Each special function module has a memory range assigned as a buffer for temporary storage of data, such as analog measurement values or received data. The base unit can access this buffer and both read the stored values from it and write new values to it, which the module can then process (settings for the module’s functions, data for transmission etc).

Base unit

Device memory

Special function module

Buffer memory

TO

FROM

The buffer memory can have up to 32,767 individual addressable memory cells, each of which can store 16 bits of data. The functions of the buffer memory cells depends on the individual special function module – see the module’s documentation for details.

Buffer memory address 0

Buffer memory address 1

Buffer memory address 2

:

:

Buffer memory address n-1

Buffer memory address n

The following information is required when you use the FROM and TO instructions:

– The special function module to be read from or written to

– The address of the first buffer memory cell to be read from or written to

– The number of buffer memory cells to be read from or written to

– The location in the base unit where the data from the module is to be stored or containing the data to be written to the module

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More Advanced Programming Instructions for Moving Data

Special function module address

Since you can attach multiple special function modules to a single controller each module needs to have a unique identifier so that you can address it to transfer data to and from it. Each module is automatically assigned a numerical ID in the range from 0 – 7 (you can connect a maximum of 8 special function modules). The numbers are assigned consecutively, in the order in which the modules are connected to the PLC.

D / A

Special function module 0

Module 1 Module 2

Starting address in the buffer memory

Every single one of the 32,767 buffer addresses can be addressed directly in decimal notation in the range from 0 – 32,767 (FX

1N

: 0 – 31). When you access 32-bit data you need to know that the memory cell with the lower address stores the less significant 16 bits and the cell with the higher address stores the more significant bits.

Buffer address n+1

More significant 16 bits

Buffer address n

Less significant 16 bits

32-Bit-Wert

This means that the starting address for 32-bit data is always the address containing the less significant 16 bits of the double word.

Number of data units to be transferred

The quantity of data is defined by the number of data units to be transferred. When you execute a FROM or TO instruction as a 16-bit instruction this parameter is the number of words to be transferred. In the case of the 32-bit versions DFROM and DTO the parameter specifies the number of double words to be transferred.

16-bit instruction

Units of data: 5

32-bit instruction

Units of data: 2

D100

D101

D102

D103

D104

Adr. 5

Adr. 6

Adr. 7

Adr. 8

Adr. 9

D100

D101

D102

D103

D104

Adr. 5

Adr. 6

Adr. 7

Adr. 8

Adr. 9

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 13

Instructions for Moving Data More Advanced Programming

The value you can enter for the number of data units depends on the PLC model you are using and whether you are using the 16-bit or 32-bit version of the FROM instruction:

PLC Model

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

Valid range for no. of data units to be transferred

16-Bit Instruction (FROM, TO) 32-Bit Instruction (DFROM, DTO)

1 bis 32

1 bis 32

1 bis 32767

1 bis 16

1 bis 16

1 bis 16383

Data destination or source in the base unit

In most cases you will read data from registers and write it to a special function module, or copy data from the module’s buffer to data registers in the base unit. However, you can also use outputs, relays and the current values of timers and counters as data sources and destinations.

Pulse-triggered execution of the instructions

If you add a P suffix to the instructions the data transfer is initiated by pulse trigger (for details see the description of the MOV instruction in section 5.2.1).

How to use the FROM instruction

The FROM instruction is used to transfer data from the buffer of a special function module to the controller base unit. Note that this is a copy operation – the contents of the data in the module buffer are not changed.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

FROM K0 K9 D0 K1

� � � �

0 FROM K0 K9 D0 K1

� � � �

쐃 Special function module address (0 to 7)

쐇 Starting address in buffer (FX

1N

: 0 – 31, FX

2N

, FX

2NC and FX

3U

: 0 – 32,766). You can use a constant or a data register containing the value.

쐋 Data destination in the controller base unit

쐏 Number of data units to be transferred

The example above uses FROM to transfer data from an FX

2N

-4AD analog/digital converter module with the address 0. The instruction reads the current value of channel 1 from buffer address 9 and writes it to data register D0.

The next example shows how the 32-bit version of the instruction is used to read data from address 2 in the special function module. The instruction reads 4 double words starting at buffer address 8 and writes them to data registers D8 – D15.

0

DFROM K2 K8 D8 K4

The next example illustrates the use of the pulse triggered version, FROMP. Here the contents of the four buffer addresses 0 – 3 are only transferred to data registers D10 – D13 when the signal state of the input condition changes from “0” to “1”.

0 FROMP K0 K0 D10 K4

5 – 14

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More Advanced Programming

5.3

5.3.1

Compare Instructions

How to use the TO instruction

The TO instruction transfers data from the controller base unit to the buffer of a special function module. Note that this is a copy operation, it does not change the data in the source location.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

TO K0 K1 D0 K1

� � � �

0 TO K0 K1 D0 K1

� � � �

쐃 Special function module address (0 – 7)

쐇 Starting address in buffer (FX

1N

: 0 – 31, FX

2N

, FX

2NC and FX

3U

: 0 – 32,766). You can use a constant or a data register containing the value.

쐋 Data source in the controller base unit

쐏 Number of data units to be transferred

In the example above the contents of data register D0 are copied to the buffer address 1 of special function module number 0.

Compare Instructions

Checking the status of bit devices like inputs and relays can be achieved with basic logic instructions because these devices can only have two states, “0” and “1”. However, you will also often want to check the contents of word devices before doing something – for example switching on a cooling fan when a specified setpoint temperature is exceeded. The controllers of the MELSEC FX family provide a number of different ways to compare data.

The CMP instruction

CMP compares two numerical values, which can be constants or the contents of data registers. You can also compare the current values of timers and counters. Depending on the result of the comparison (greater than, less than or equal) one of three bit devices is set.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

CMP D0 K100 M0

� � �

0 LD

1 CMP D0

K100

M0

쐃 Input condition

쐇 First value to be compared

쐋 Second value to be compared

쐏 First of three consecutive relays or outputs, which are set (signal status “1”) depending on the result of the comparison:

1. Device 1: ON if Value 1 > Value 2

2. Device 2: ON if Value 1 = Value 2

3. Device 3: ON if Value 1 < Value 2

In this example the CMP instruction controls relays M0, M1 and M2. M0 is “1” if the contents of D0 is greater than 100; M1 is “1” if the contents of D0 is precisely 100 and M2 is “1” if D0 is less than 100. The state of the three bit devices is maintained even after the input condition has been switched off because their last state is stored.

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 15

Compare Instructions More Advanced Programming

To compare 32-bit data you just use DCMP instead of CMP:

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

DCMP D0 D2 M0

0 LD ....

1 DCMP D0 D2 M0

In the example above the contents of D0 and D1 are compared with the contents of D2 and D3.

The handling of the three bit devices indicating the result of the comparison is exactly the same as for the 16-bit version of the instruction.

Application example

It is easy to create a two-point control loop with the CMP instruction:

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

M8000

0

8

M20

CMP D20 K22 M20

RST Y000

0 LD

1 CMP

8 LD

9 RST

10 LD

11 SET

M8000

D20

M20

Y000

M22

Y0001

M22

10

SET Y000

K22 M20

In this example the CMP instruction is executed cyclically. M8000 is always “1” when the PLC is executing the program. Register D20 contains the value for the current room temperature.

Constant K22 contains the setpoint value of 22°C. Relays M20 and M22 show when the temperature goes higher or lower than the setpoint. If the room is too warm output Y0 is switched off. If the temperature is too low M22 switches output Y0 on again. This output could be used to control a pump for adding hot water, for example.

5 – 16

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More Advanced Programming

5.3.2

Compare Instructions

Comparisons within logic operations

In the CMP instruction described in the last section the result of the comparison is stored in three bit devices. Often, however, you only want to execute an output instruction or a logic operation on the basis of the result of a comparison, and you generally won’t want to have to use three bit devices for this. You can achieve this with the “load compare” instructions and the AND and OR bitwise logic comparisons.

Comparison at the beginning of a logic operation

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

>= D40 D50

� � �

0 LD>=

D40

D50

쐃 Compare condition

쐇 First compare value

쐋 Second compare value

If the condition evaluates true the signal state after the comparison is set to “1”. A signal state of

“0” shows that the comparison evaluated as false. The following comparisons are possible:

– Compare for "equals":

=

(value 1 = value 2)

The output of the instruction is only set to "1" if the values of both devices are identical.

– Compare for "greater than":

>

(value 1 > value 2)

The output of the instruction is only set to "1" if the first value is greater than the second value.

– Compare for "less than":

>

(value 1 < value 2)

The output of the instruction is only set to "1" if the first value is smaller than the second value.

– Compare for "not equal":

<>

(value 1 <> value 2)

The output of the instruction is only set to "1" if the two values are not equal.

Compare for "less than or equal to":

<=

(value 1

울 value 2)

The output of the instruction is only set to "1" if the first value is less than or equal to the second value.

– Compare for "greater than or equal to": >= (value 1

욷 value 2)

The output of the instruction is only set to "1" if the first value is greater than or equal to the second value.

To compare 32-bit data prefix a D (for double word) to the compare condition:

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

D> D10 D250

This "D" specifies 32-bit data

0 LDD> D10 D250

The example above checks whether the contents of data registers D10 and D11 are greater than the contents of registers D250 and D251.

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 17

Compare Instructions More Advanced Programming

More examples:

Ladder Diagram

0

>= C0 D20

M12

Instruction List

0 LD>=

5 OUT

C0

M12

D20

Relay M12 is set to "1" when the value of counter C0 is equal to or greater than the contents of D20.

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

T52

K-2500

0 > D10 K-2500 Y003

0 LD>

5 AND

6 OUT

D10

T52

Y003

Output Y003 is switched on when the contents of D10 is greater than -2,500 and timer T52 has finished running.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0 D< C200 K182547

M53

0 LDD< C200

9 OR M110

10 OUT M53

K182547

M110

Relay M53 is set to "1" if either the value of counter C200 is less than 182,547 or relay M110 is set to "1".

Compare as a logical AND operation

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0 <= D40 D50

� � �

0 LD

1 AND<= D40

� �

...

D50

쐃 Compare condition

쐇 First comparison value

쐋 Second comparison value

An AND comparison can be used just like a normal AND instruction (see chapter 3).

The comparison options are the same as those described above for a comparison at the beginning of an operation. Here too, you can also compare 32-bit values with an AND operation:

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

D= D30 D400

This "D" specifies 32-bit data

0 ANDD= D30 D400

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More Advanced Programming Compare Instructions

Compare as a logical OR operation

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

0 LD ...

1 OR>= C20

� �

K200

>= C20 K200

� � �

쐃 Compare condition

쐇 First comparison value

쐋 Second comparison value

An OR comparison can be used just like a normal AND instruction (see chapter 3).

The comparison options are the same as those described above for a comparison at the beginning of an operation. Here too, you can also compare 32-bit values with an OR operation:

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0

0 LD

1 ORD= C200

...

D10

D= C200 D10

This "D" specifies 32-bit data

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 19

Math Instructions

5.4

More Advanced Programming

Math Instructions

All the controllers of the MELSEC FX family can perform all four basic arithmetical operations and can add, subtract, multiply and divide integer numbers (i.e. non-floating-point numbers).

These instructions are described in this section.

The controller base units of the FX

2N

, FX

2NC and FX

3U series can also process floating-point numbers. This is done with special instructions that are documented in detail in the Programming Manual of the MELSEC FX series.

After every addition or subtraction you should always program instructions to check the states of the special relays listed below to see whether the result is 0 or has exceeded the permitted value range.

쎲 M8020

This special relay is set to "1" if the result of an addition or subtraction is 0.

쎲 M8021

Special relay M8021 is set to "1" if the result of an addition or subtraction is smaller than

-32,767 (16-bit operations) or -2,147,483,648 (32-bit operations).

쎲 M8022

Special relay M8022 is set to "1" if the result of an addition or subtraction is greater than

+32,767 (16-bit operations) or +2,147,483,647 (32-bit operations).

These special relays can be used as enable flags for continuing with additional math operations. In the following example the result of the subtraction operation in D2 is used as a divisor.

Since dividing by 0 is impossible and causes an error the division is only executed if the divisor is not 0.

Ladder Diagram

M8000

0

M8020

8

SUB D0 D1 D2

DIV D3 D2 D5

Instruction List

0 LD

1 SUB

8 LDI

9 DIV

M8000

D0

M8020

D3

D1

D2

D2

D5

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More Advanced Programming

5.4.1

Math Instructions

Addition

The ADD instruction calculates the sum of two 16-bit or 32-bit values and writes the result to another device.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0 ADD D0 D1 D2

� � �

0 ADD D0

D1

쐃 First source device or constant

쐇 Second source device or constant

쐋 Device in which the result of the addition is stored

The example above adds the contents of D0 and D1 and writes the result to D2.

Examples

Add 1,000 to the contents of data register D100:

ADD K1000 D100 D102 1000

+

D 100

53

D 102

1053

D2

The signs of the values are taken into account by the ADD instruction:

ADD D10 D11 D12

D 10

5 +

D 11

-8

D 12

-3

You can also add 32-bit values by prefixing a "D" to the ADD instruction (DADD):

DADD D0 D2 D4

D 1 D 0

65238

+

D 3 D 2

27643

D 5 D 4

92881

If you want you can also write the result to one of the source devices. However, if you do this remember that the result will then change in every program cycle if the ADD instruction is executed cyclically!

ADD D0 K25 D0

D 0

18 + 25

D 0

43

The ADD instruction can also be executed in pulse-triggered mode. Then it is only executed when the signal state of the input condition changes from "0" to "1". To use this mode just add a

"P" suffix to the ADD instructions (ADDP, DADDP).

In the following example the constant value 27 is only added to the contents of D47 once, in the program cycle in which the signal state of relay M47 changes from "0" to "1":

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

M47

0 ADDP D47 K27 D51

0 LD M47

1 ADDP D47 K27 D51

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 21

Math Instructions

5.4.2

More Advanced Programming

Subtraction

The SUB instruction calculates the difference between two numerical values (contents of

16-bit or 32-bit devices or constants). The result of the subtraction is written to a third device.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0 SUB D0 D1 D2

� � �

0 SUB D0

D1

D2

쐃 Minuend (the subtrahend is subtracted from this value)

쐇 Subtrahend (this value is subtracted from the minuend)

쐋 Difference (result of the subtraction)

In the example above the contents of D1 is subtracted from the contents of D0 and the difference is written to D2.

Examples

Subtract 100 from the contents of data register D11 and write the result to D101:

SUB D100 K100 D101

D 100

247

– 100

D 101

147

The signs of the values are taken into account by the SUB instruction:

SUB D10 D11 D12

D 10

5 –

D 11

-8

D 12

13

You can also subtract 32-bit values by prefixing a “D” to the SUB instruction (DSUB):

DSUB D0 D2 D4

D 1 D 0

65238

D 3 D 2

27643

D 5 D 4

37595

If you want you can also write the result to one of the source devices. However, if you do this remember that the result will then change in every program cycle if the SUB instruction is executed cyclically!

SUB D0 K25 D0

D 0

197 – 25

D 0

172

The SUB instruction can also be executed in pulse-triggered mode. Then it is only executed when the signal state of the input condition changes from "0" to "1". To use this mode just add a

"P" suffix to the SUB instructions (SUBP, DSUBP).

In the following example the contents of D394 is only subtracted from contents of D50 once, in the program cycle in which the signal state of relay M50 changes from "0" to "1":

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

M50

0 SUBP D50 D394 D51

0 LD M50

1 SUBP D50 D394 D51

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MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

More Advanced Programming Math Instructions

5.4.3

NOTE

Multiplication

The FX controllers’ MUL instruction multiplies two 16-bit or 32-bit values and writes the result to a third device.

Ladder Diagram Instruction List

0 MUL D0 D1 D2

� � �

0 MUL D0

D1

D2

쐃 Multiplicand

쐇 Multiplier

쐋 Device in which the result of the addition is stored

The example above adds the contents of D0 and D1 and writes the result to D2.

When you multiply two 16-bit values the result can quite easily exceed the range that can be displayed with 16 bits. Because of this the product of multiplications is always written to two consecutive 16-bit devices (i.e. a 32-bit double word).

When you multiply two 32-bit values the product is written to four consecutive 16-bit devices

(64 bits, two double words).

Always take the size of these device ranges into account when you are programming and take care not to create range overlaps by using the devices in the ranges to which the products are written!

Examples

Multiply the contents of D0 and D1 and store the product in D3 and D2:

MUL D0 D1 D2

D 0

1805 x

D 1

481

D 3 D 2

868205

The signs of the values are taken into account by the MUL instruction. In this example the value in D10 is multiplied by the constant value -5:

MUL D10 K-5 D20

D 10

8 x -5

D 21

-40

D 20

You can also multiply 32-bit values by prefixing a "D" to the MUL instruction (DMUL):

DMUL D0 D2 D4

D 1 D 0

65238 x

D 3 D 2

27643

D 7 D 6 D 5

1803374034

D 4

The MUL instruction can also be executed in pulse-triggered mode by adding a "P" suffix to the

MUL instructions (MULP, DMULP). The following multiplication is only executed when input

X24 switches from "0" to "1":

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

X24

0 MULP D25 D300 D26

0 LD X24

1 MULP D25 D300 D26

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 23

Math Instructions More Advanced Programming

5.4.4

NOTES

Division

The MELSEC FX family’s DIV instruction divides one number by another (contents of two

16-bit or 32-bit devices or constants). This is an integer operation and cannot process floating-point values. The result is always an integer and the remainder is stored separately.

Ladder Diagram

Instruction List

0 DIV D0 D1 D2

� � �

0 DIV D0

D1

D2

쐃 Dividend

쐇 Divisor

쐋 Quotient (result of the division, dividend ÷ divisor = quotient)

The divisor should never be 0. Division by 0 is not possible and will generate an error.

When two 16-bit values are divided the quotient is written to one 16-bit device and the remainder is written to the next device. This means that the result of a division always requires two consecutive 16-bit devices (= 32 bits).

When you divide two 32-bit values the quotient is written to two 16-bit devices and the remainder is written to the next two 16-bit devices. This means that four consecutive 16-bit devices are always required for the result of a 32-bit division.

Always take the size of these device ranges into account when you are programming and take care not to create range overlaps by using the devices in the ranges to which the results of the calculations are written!

Examples

Divide the contents of D0 by the contents of D1 and write the result to D2 and D3:

DIV D0 D1 D2

D 0

40

D 1

6

D 2

6 Quotient (6 x 6 = 36)

D 3

4 Remainder (40 - 36 = 4)

The signs of the values are taken into account by the DIV instruction. In this example the counter value of C0 is divided by the value in D10:

DIV C0 D10 D200

C 0

36

D 10

-5

D 200

-7

Quotient

D 201

1 Remainder

5 – 24

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

More Advanced Programming

5.4.5

Math Instructions

Division with 32-bit values:

DDIV D0 D2 D4

D1

65238

D0

D3 D2

27643

D5 D4

2

D7

9952

D6

Quotient

Remainder

Adding a “P” suffix to the DIV instructions executes the instructions in pulse-triggered mode

(DIV -> DIVP, DDIVPL -> DMULP). In the following example the counter value of C12 is only divided by 4 in the program cycle in which input X30 is switched on:

Instruction List Ladder Diagram

X30

0

DIVP C12 K4 D12

0 LD

1 DIVP

X30

C12 K4 D12

Combining math instructions

In real life one calculation is seldom all you want to perform. The FX controllers allow you to combine math instructions to solve more complex calculations. Depending on the nature of the calculation you may have to use additional devices to store intermediate results.

The following example shows how you could calculate the sum of the values in data registers

D101, D102 and D103 and then multiply the result by the factor 4:

Ladder Diagram

M101

0

M8022

M8021 M8022

ADD D101 D102 D200

ADD D200 D103 D200

MUL D200 K4 D104

Instruction List

0 LD M101

1 ADD D101

8 MPS

9 ANI M8022

10 ADD D200

17 MPP

18 ANI M8021

19 ANI M8022

20 MUL D200

D102

D103

K4

D200

D200

D104

– First the contents of D101 and D102 are added and the result is stored in D200.

– If (and only if) the sum of D101 and D102 does not exceed the permitted range it is then added to the value in D103.

– If the sum of D101 through D103 does not exceed the permitted range it is multiplied by the factor 4 and the result is written to D104 and D105.

FX Beginners Manual 5 – 25

Math Instructions More Advanced Programming

5 – 26

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Expansion Options

6 Expansion Options

Introduction

6.1

6.2

6.2.1

6.2.2

Introduction

You can expand the base units of the MELSEC FX series with expansion modules and special function modules.

These modules are divided into three categories:

쎲 Modules that that occupy digital inputs and outputs (installed on the right of the controller).

These include the compact and modular digital expansion and special function modules.

쎲 Modules that do not occupy any digital inputs and outputs (installed on the left side of the controller).

쎲 Interface and communications adapters that do not occupy any digital inputs and outputs

(installed directly in the controller unit).

Available Modules

Modules for adding more digital inputs and outputs

A variety of different modular and compact expansion modules are available for adding I/Os to the MELSEC FX

1N

/FX

2N

/FX

2NC and FX

3U base units. In addition to this, digital I/Os can also be added to the controllers of the FX

1S

, FX

1N and FX

3U series with special expansion adapters that are installed directly in the controller itself. These adapters are a particularly good choice when you only need a few additional I/Os and/or do not have enough space to install expansion modules on the side of the controller.

The "modular" expansion units only contain the digital inputs and outputs, they do not have their own power supplies. The "compact" expansion units have a larger number of I/Os and an integrated power supply unit for the system bus and the digital inputs.

The available base units and expansion units can be mixed and matched in a huge variety of different combinations, making it possible to configure your controller system very precisely to the needs of your application.

Analog I/O modules

Analog I/O modules convert analog input signals to digital values or digital input signals to analog signals.

A number of modules are available for current/voltage signals and for temperature monitoring

with direct connections for Pt100 resistance thermometers or thermo elements. See Chapter 7

for an introduction to analog signal processing.

FX Beginners Manual 6 – 1

Available Modules

6.2.3

6.2.4

Expansion Options

Communications modules

Mitsubishi Electric produces a range of interface modules and adapters with serial ports

(RS-232, RS-422 and RS-485) for connecting peripherals or other controllers.

A number of special communications modules are available for integrating the MELSEC FX

1N

,

FX

2N

, FX

2NC and FX

3U in a variety of different networks.

ENetwork interface modules are currently available for Profibus/DP, AS-interface, DeviceNet,

CANopen, CC-Link and Mitsubishi’s own proprietary networks.

Positioning modules

You can complement the internal high-speed counters of the MELSEC FX controllers with additional external hardware high-speed counter modules, which you can use for connecting devices like incremental rotary transducers and positioning modules for servo and stepping drive systems.

You can program precise positioning applications with the MELSEC FX family with the help of positioning modules for pulse train generation. These modules can be used to control both stepping and servo drives.

6.2.5

HMI control and display panels

Mitsubishi Electric’s control and display panels provide an effective and user-friendly human-machine interface (HMI) for working with the MELSEC FX series. HMI control units make the functions of the controlled application transparent and comprehensible.

All the available units can monitor and edit all relevant PLC parameters, such as actual and setpoint values for times, counters, data registers and sequential instructions.

HMI units are available with both text and graphics based displays. Fully-programmable function keys and touch-sensitive screens make them even easier to use. The units are programmed and configured with a Windows

®

-based PC running user-friendly software.

The HMI units communicate with the FX PLCs via the programming interface, and they are connected directly with their standard cable. No additional modules are required to connect the units to the PLCs.

6 – 2

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Processing Analog Values

7 Processing Analog Values

Analog Modules

7.1

Analog Modules

When you automate processes you will frequently need to acquire or control analog values such as temperatures, pressures and filling levels. Without additional modules the base units of the MELSEC FX family can only process digital input and output signals (i.e. ON/OFF data).

Additional analog modules are thus required for inputting and outputting analog signals.

Basically, there are two different kinds of analog modules:

쎲 Analog input modules and

쎲 Analog output modules.

Analog input modules can acquire current, voltage and temperature values. Analog output modules send current or voltage signals to the module’s outputs. In addition to this there are also combination modules, which can both acquire and output analog signals.

Analog input modules

Analog input modules convert a measured analog value (e.g. 10 V) into a digital value (e.g.

4000) that can be processed by the PLC. This conversion process is known as analog/digital conversion or A/D conversion for short.

Temperatures can be acquired directly by the analog modules of the MELSEC FX family but other physical values like pressures or flow rates must first be converted into current or voltage values before they can be converted into digital values for processing by the PLC. This conversion is performed by sensors that output signals in standardised ranges (for example 0 to 10 V or 4 to 20 mA). The measurement of a current signal has the advantage that the value is not falsified by the length of the cables or contact resistances.

The following example of analog value acquisition shows a flow measurement solution with a

PLC of the MELSEC FX

3U series.

Flow measurement device with voltage or current output e. g. 50 l/s

Voltage or current e. g. 5 V or 12 mA

Analog input module

Analog/Digital conversion

Digital value e. g. 2000

Base unit of

FX

3U series

FX Beginners Manual 7 – 1

Analog Modules Processing Analog Values

Analog input modules for temperature acquisition

Temperature values can be acquired with two different sensor technologies: Pt100 resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

쎲 Pt100 resistance thermometers

These devices measure the resistance of a platinum element, which increases with temperature. At 0°C the element has a resistance of 100

쎷C (thus the name Pt100). The resistance sensors are connected in a three-wire configuration, which helps to ensure that the resistance of the connecting cables does not influence the measurement result.

The maximum measurement range of Pt100 resistance thermometers is from -200°C to

+600°C but in practice it also depends on the capabilities of the temperature acquisition module being used.

쎲 Thermocouples

These temperature measurement devices take advantage of the fact that a voltage is generated when heat is applied to an element made of two different metals. This method thus measures a temperature with the help of a voltage signal.

There are different kinds of thermocouples. They differ in their thermal electromotive force

(thermal e.m.f.) and the temperature ranges they can measure. The material combinations used are standardized and are identified by a type code. Types J and K are both commonly used. Type J thermocouples use a combination of iron (Fe) and a copper/nickel alloy

(CuNi), type K thermocouples use a NiCr and Ni combination. In addition to their basic construction thermocouples also differ in the temperature range they can measure.

Thermocouples can be used to measure temperatures from -200°C to +1,200°C.

Example of temperature measurement:

Base unit of

FX family

Temperature probe

Temperature

Temperature acquisition module

Analog/Digital conversion e. g. 47

쎷C

Digital value e. g. 470

Peripheral equipment

Analog output modules

Analog output modules convert a digital value from the PLC base unit into an analog voltage or current signal that can be used to control an external device (digital/analog conversion or D/A conversion).

The analog output signals generated by the MELSEC FX family use the standard industrial ranges of 0–10V and 4–20mA.

The example on the next page shows an analog signal being used as a setpoint value for a frequency inverter drive. In this application the current or voltage signal from the PLC adjusts the speed of the motor connected to the frequency inverter.

7 – 2

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Processing Analog Values Analog Modules

7.1.1

Base unit of

FX family

Digital value e. g. 2000

Analog output module

Digital/Analog conversion

Voltage or current

Inverter z. B. 5 V oder 12 mA

The level of the current or voltage signal from the PLC controls the speed of the connected motor.

Criteria for selecting analog modules

A wide range of analog modules are available for the MELSEC FX family and you need to choose the correct module for each automation task. The main criteria for selection are as follows:

쎲 Compatibility with the PLC base unit

The analog module must be compatible the with PLC base unit you are using. For example, you cannot connect the analog modules of the FX

3U series to a base unit of the FX

1N series.

쎲 Resolution

The resolution describes the smallest physical value that can be acquired or output by the analog module.

In the case of analog input modules the resolution is defined as the change in voltage, current or temperature at the input that will increase or decrease the digital output value by 1.

In the case of analog output modules the resolution is the change in the voltage or current value at the module output caused by increasing or decreasing the digital input value by 1.

The resolution is restricted by the internal design of the analog modules and depends on the number of bits required to store the digital value. For example, if a 10V voltage is acquired with a 12-bit A/D converter the voltage range is divided into 4,096 steps (2

12

= 4096,

see section 3.3). This results in a resolution of 10V/4096 = 2.5mV.

쎲 Number of analog inputs or outputs

The inputs or outputs of analog modules are also referred to as channels. You can choose analog input modules with 2, 4 or 8 channels, depending on the number of channels you need. Please note that there is a limit to the number of special function modules you can

connect to a PLC base unit (see section 7.1.2). If you know that you will need to install other

special function modules it is thus better to use one module with four channels rather than two modules with two channels each, because this allows you to connect more additional modules.

FX Beginners Manual 7 – 3

Analog Modules Processing Analog Values

A number of different types of analog modules are available for the MELSEC FX family.

Adapter Boards

Adapter boards are small circuit boards that are installed directly in the FX

1S or FX

1N controllers, which means that they don’t take up any extra space in the switchgear cabinet.

FX1N-2AD

The digital values generated from the signals coming from the analog input adapter’s two input channels are written directly to special registers D8112 and D8113, which makes it particularly easy to process them.

The output value for the analog output adapter is written by the program to special register D8114 and then converted by the adapter and sent to the output.

Special Adapter

Special adapters can only be connected on the left side of a base unit of the MELSEC FX

3U series. You can install up to a maximum of four analog special adapters.

Special adapters do not use any input or output points in the base unit. They communicate directly with the base unit via special relays and registers. Because of this, no instructions for communication with special function modules are needed in the program (see below).

7 – 4

Special function modules

Up to eight special function modules can be connected on the right side of a single base unit of the MELSEC FX family.

In addition to analog modules the available special function modules include communication modules, positioning modules and other types. Each special function module occupies eight input points and eight output points in the base unit. Communication between the special function module and the PLC base unit is carried out via the memory buffer of the special function module with

the help of FROM and TO instructions (see section 5.2.5).

A / D

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Processing Analog Values List of Analog Modules

7.2

List of Analog Modules

Modul Type

Adapter

Board

Special

Adapter

FX

3U

-4AD-ADP

Special

Function

Block

Adapter

Board

Special

Adapter

Special

Function

Block

Designation

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

FX

1N

2N

2N

2N

3U

1N

3U

2N

2N

3U

-2AD-BD

-2AD

-4AD

-8AD*

-4AD

-1DA-BD

-4DA-ADP

-2DA

-4DA

-4DA

No. of channels

Range

2

4

2

Voltage:

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

0 V to 5 V DC

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

-10 V to 10 V DC

4

8

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

-20 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

-10 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

-20 mA to 20 mA DC

4

1

4

2

4

4

Voltage:

-10 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

-20 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

0 V to 5 V DC

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

-10 V to 10 V DC

Current:

0 mA to 20 mA DC

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

-10 V to 10 V DC

Current:

0 mA to 20 mA DC

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Resolution

2.5 mV (12 bits)

8 µA (11 bits)

2.5 mV (12 bits)

10 µA (11 bits)

2.5 mV (12 bits)

4 µA (12 bits)

5 mV

(with sign, 12 bits)

10 µA

(with sign, 11 bits)

0.63 mV

(with sign, 15 bits)

2.50 µA

(with sign, 14 bits)

0.32 mV

(with sign, 16 bits)

1.25 µA

(with sign, 15 bits)

2,5 mV (12 bits)

8 µA (11 bits)

2.5 mV (12 bits)

4 µA (12 bits)

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

2.5 mV (12 bits)

4 µA, (12 bits)

5 mV (with sign, 12 bits)

쑗 쎲

쑗 쎲

20 µA (10 bits)

0.32 mV

(with sign, 16 bits)

0.63 µA (15 bits)

쑗 쑗

쎲 쎲

쎲 쎲

쑗 쎲

3U

*

The special function module FX

2N

-8AD can acquire temperatures as well as currents and voltages.

FX Beginners Manual 7 – 5

List of Analog Modules Processing Analog Values

Modul Type

Special

Function

Block

Special

Adapter

Special

Function

Block

Temperature

Control Module

(Special

Function Block)

Designation

FX

FX

FX

0N

2N

3U

-3A

-5A

-4AD-PT-ADP

FX

3U

-4AD-TC-ADP

FX

FX

FX

FX

2N

2N

2N

2N

-8AD*

-4AD-PT

-4AD-TC

-2LC

No. of channels

Range

2 inputs

1 output

Voltage:

0 V to 5 V DC

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

0 V to 5 V DC

0 V to 10 V DC

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

4 inputs

1 output

4

4

8

4

4

2

Resolution

40 mV (8 bits)

64 µA (8 bits)

40 mV (8 bits)

64 µA (8 bits)

Voltage:

-100 mV to 100 mV DC

-10 V to 10 V DC

50 µV

(with sign, 12 bits)

0.312 mV

(with sign, 16 bits)

Current:

4 mA to 20 mA DC

-20 mA to 20 mA DC

Voltage:

-10 V to 10 V DC

Current:

0 mA to 20 mA DC

Pt100 resistance thermometer:

-50

쎷C to 250 쎷C

Thermocouple type K:

-100

쎷C to 1000 쎷C

Thermocouple type J:

-100

쎷C to 600 쎷C

Thermocouple type K:

-100

쎷C to 1200 쎷C

Thermocouple type J:

-100

쎷C to 600 쎷C

Thermocouple type T:

-100

쎷C to 350 쎷C

Pt100 resistance thermometer:

-100

쎷C to 600 쎷C

Thermocouple type K:

-100

쎷C to 1200 쎷C

Thermocouple type J:

-100

쎷C to 600 쎷C

For example with a thermocouple type K:

-100

쎷C to 1300 쎷C

Pt100 resistance thermometer:

-200

쎷C to 600 쎷C

10 µA/1,25 µA

(with sign, 15 bits)

5 mV

(with sign, 12 bits)

20 µA (10 bits)

0.1

쎷C

0.4

쎷C

0.3

쎷C

0.1

쎷C

0.1

쎷C

0.1

쎷C

0.2 to 0,.

0.4

쎷C

0.3

쎷C

쎷C

0.1

쎷C or 1 쎷C

(depends on temperature probe used)

FX

1S

FX

1N

FX

2N

FX

2NC

FX

3U

*

The special function block FX

2N

-8AD is able to measure voltage, current and temperature.

The adapter board, special adapter or special function block can be used with a base unit or expansion unit of this series.

The adapter board, special adapter or special function block cannot be used with this series.

7 – 6

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

Index

Index

A

Adapter boards (analog input/output) · · · · · 7-4

ADD instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-21

Analog input modules

Function · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-1

Overview · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-5

Analog output modules

Function · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-2

Overview · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-5

ANB instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-12

AND instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-9

ANDP/ANDF instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

ANI instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-9

Automatic shutdown · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-22

B

Binary numbers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-2

BMOV instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-10

Buffer memory· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-12

C

CMP instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-15

Counter

Functions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-7

Specifying setpoints indirectly · · · · · · · 4-11

D

Data registers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-9

Device

Address · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-1

Counter overview · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-8

Data register overview · · · · · · · · · · · 4-10

File register overview · · · · · · · · · · · 4-11

Inputs/outputs overview · · · · · · · · · · · 4-2

Name · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-1

Relay overview · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-3

Timer overview · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-6

DIV instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-24

E

EEPROM · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2-9

Emergency STOP devices · · · · · · · · · · 3-21

Example of programming

A rolling shutter gate · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-28

An alarm system · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-23

Clock signal generator · · · · · · · · · · · 4-16

Delay switch · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-4

Specifying timer and counter setpoints · · 4-11

Switch-off delay · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-14

F

Falling edge · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

FMOV instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-11

FROM instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-14

H

Hexadecimal numbers · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-3

I

Instruction

ADD · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-21

ANB · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-12

AND · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-9

ANDF· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

ANDP · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

ANI · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-9

BMOV · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-10

CMP · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-15

DIV · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-24

FMOV · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-11

FROM · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-14

Interlock of contacts · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-21

INV · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-20

LD · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-6

LDF· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

LDI· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-6

LDP · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

MC · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-19

MCR · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-19

MOV · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-7

MPP · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-17

MPS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-17

MRD · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-17

MUL · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-23

FX Beginners Manual I

Index

OR · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-11

ORB · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-12

ORF · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

ORI · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-11

ORP · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

OUT · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-6

PLF· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-18

PLS· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-18

RST · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-15

SET · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-15

SUB · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-22

TO · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-15

INV instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-20

L

LD instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-6

LDI instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-6

LDP/LDF instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

M

MC instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-19

MCR instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-19

Memory battery · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2-9

MOV instruction· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-7

MPP instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-17

MPS instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-17

MRD instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-17

MUL instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-23

O

Octal numbers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-4

Optical couplers· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2-6

OR instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-11

ORB instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-12

ORF instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

ORI instruction· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-11

ORP/ORF instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

OUT instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-6

P

PLF instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-18

PLS instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-18

Process image processing · · · · · · · · · · · 2-2

Program instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-1

Pt100 resistance thermometers · · · · · · · · 7-2

R

Resistance thermometer · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-2

Resolution (Analog modules) · · · · · · · · · · 7-3

Retentive timers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-5

Rising edge · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-14

RST instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-15

RUN/STOP switch · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2-9

S

Safety for cable breaks · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-21

Service power supply · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2-9

SET instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-15

Signal feedback · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3-22

Special adapter · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-4

Special function modules

Analog modules · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-4

exchange of data with base unit · · · · · · 5-12

Special registers· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-10

Special relays · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-3

SUB instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-22

Switch-off delay · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-14

T

Temperature acquisition modules

Function · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-2

Overview · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-6

Temperature control module · · · · · · · · 7-5, 7-6

Thermocouples · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 7-2

Timers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4-4

TO instruction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5-15

II

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

HEADQUARTERS

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

EUROPE B.V.

German Branch

Gothaer Straße 8

D-40880 Ratingen

Phone: +49 (0) 2102 / 486-0

EUROPE

Fax: +49 (0) 2102 / 486-1120 e mail: [email protected]

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

EUROPE B.V.

French Branch

FRANCE

25, Boulevard des Bouvets

F-92741 Nanterre Cedex

Phone: +33 1 55 68 55 68

Fax: +33 1 55 68 56 85 e mail: [email protected]

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

EUROPE B.V.

IRELAND

Irish Branch

Westgate Business Park, Ballymount

IRL-Dublin 24

Phone: +353 (0) 1 / 419 88 00

Fax: +353 (0) 1 / 419 88 90 e mail: [email protected]

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

EUROPE B.V.

Italian Branch

Via Paracelso 12

ITALY

I-20041 Agrate Brianza (MI)

Phone: +39 039 6053 1

Fax: +39 039 6053 312 e mail: [email protected]

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

EUROPE B.V.

Spanish Branch

Carretera de Rubí 76-80

E-08190 Sant Cugat del Vallés

Phone: +34 9 3 / 565 3160

Fax: +34 9 3 / 589 1579 e mail: [email protected]

SPAIN

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

EUROPE B.V.

UK Branch

Travellers Lane

GB-Hatfield Herts. AL10 8 XB

Phone: +44 (0) 1707 / 27 61 00

Fax: +44 (0) 1707 / 27 86 95 e mail: [email protected]

UK

JAPAN

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

CORPORATION

Office Tower “Z” 14 F

8-12,1 chome, Harumi Chuo-Ku

Tokyo 104-6212

Phone: +81 3 6221 6060

Fax: +81 3 6221 6075

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

AUTOMATION

500 Corporate Woods Parkway

Vernon Hills, IL 60061

Phone: +1 847 / 478 21 00

Fax: +1 847 / 478 22 83

USA

MIDDLE EAST

REPRESENTATIVES

Ilan & Gavish Ltd.

Automation Service

24 Shenkar St., Kiryat Arie

IL-49001 Petah-Tiqva

Phone: +972 (0) 3 / 922 18 24

Fax: +972 (0) 3 / 924 07 61 e mail: [email protected]

ISRAEL

TEXEL Electronics Ltd.

Box 6272

IL-42160 Netanya

Phone: +972 (0) 9 / 863 08 91

Fax: +972 (0) 9 / 885 24 30 e mail: [email protected]

ISRAEL

EUROPEAN REPRESENTATIVES

GEVA

Wiener Straße 89

AT-2500 Baden

Phone: +43 (0) 2252 / 85 55 20

Fax: +43 (0) 2252 / 488 60 e mail: [email protected]

AUSTRIA

TEHNIKON

Oktjabrskaya 16/5, Ap 704

BY-220030 Minsk

Phone: +375 (0)17 / 210 4626

Fax: +375 (0)17 / 210 4626 e mail: [email protected]

BELARUS

Koning & Hartman B.V.

BELGIUM

Researchpark Zellik, Pontbeeklaan 43

BE-1731 Brussels

Phone: +32 (0)2 / 467 17 51

Fax: +32 (0)2 / 467 17 45 e mail: [email protected]

AKNATHON

Andrej Ljapchev Lbvd. Pb 21 4

BULGARIA

BG-1756 Sofia

Phone: +359 (0) 2 / 97 44 05 8

Fax: +359 (0) 2 / 97 44 06 1 e mail: —

AutoCont

Control Systems s.r.o.

Nemocnicni 12

CZECH REPUBLIC

CZ-702 00 Ostrava 2

Phone: +420 59 / 6152 111

Fax: +420 59 / 6152 562 e mail: [email protected]

DENMARK

louis poulsen industri & automation

Geminivej 32

DK-2670 Greve

Phone: +45 (0) 70 / 10 15 35

Fax: +45 (0) 43 / 95 95 91 e mail: [email protected]

UTU Elektrotehnika AS

Pärnu mnt.160i

EE-11317 Tallinn

Phone: +372 (0) 6 / 51 72 80

Fax: +372 (0) 6 / 51 72 88 e mail: [email protected]

ESTONIA

Beijer Electronics OY

Ansatie 6a

FIN-01740 Vantaa

Phone: +358 (0) 9 / 886 77 500

Fax: +358 (0) 9 / 886 77 555 e mail: [email protected]

FINLAND

UTECO A.B.E.E.

5, Mavrogenous Str.

GR-18542 Piraeus

Phone: +302 (0) 10 / 42 10 050

Fax: +302 (0) 10 / 42 12 033 e mail: [email protected]

GREECE

HUNGARY

Meltrade Ltd.

Fertõ Utca 14.

HU-1107 Budapest

Phone: +36 (0)1 / 431-9726

Fax: +36 (0)1 / 431-9727 e mail: [email protected]

SIA POWEL

Lienes iela 28

LV-1009 Riga

Phone: +371 784 / 22 80

Fax: +371 784 / 22 81 e mail: [email protected]

UAB UTU POWEL

Savanoriu pr. 187

LT-2053 Vilnius

Phone: +370 (0) 52323-101

Fax: +370 (0) 52322-980 e mail: [email protected]

LATVIA

LITHUANIA

EUROPEAN REPRESENTATIVES

INTEHSIS SRL

Bld. Traian 23/1

MD-2060 Kishinev

Phone: +373 (0)22/ 66 4242

Fax: +373 (0)22/ 66 4280 e mail: [email protected]

MOLDOVA

Koning & Hartman B.V.

NETHERLANDS

Donauweg 2 B

NL-1000 AK Amsterdam

Phone: +31 (0)20 / 587 76 00

Fax: +31 (0)20 / 587 76 05 e mail: [email protected]

NORWAY

Beijer Electronics A/S

Teglverksveien 1

N-3002 Drammen

Phone: +47 (0) 32 / 24 30 00

Fax: +47 (0) 32 / 84 85 77 e mail: [email protected]

MPL Technology Sp. z o.o.

ul. Sliczna 36

PL-31-444 Kraków

Phone: +48 (0) 12 / 632 28 85

Fax: +48 (0) 12 / 632 47 82 e mail: [email protected]

POLAND

Sirius Trading & Services srl

Str. Biharia No. 67-77

RO-013981 Bucuresti 1

Phone: +40 (0) 21 / 201 1146

Fax: +40 (0) 21 / 201 1148 e mail: [email protected]

ROMANIA

CRAFT

Consulting & Engineering d.o.o.

Branka Krsmanovica Str. 43-V

SCG-18000 Nis

Phone: +381 (0)18 / 531 226

Fax: +381 (0)18 / 532 334 e mail: [email protected]

INEA SR d.o.o.

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Karadjordjeva 12/260

SCG-113000 Smederevo

Phone: +381 (0)26 / 617 163

Fax: +381 (0)26 / 617 163 e mail: [email protected]

AutoCont Control s.r.o.

Radlinského 47

SK-02601 Dolný Kubín

SLOVAKIA

Phone: +421 435868 210

Fax: +421 435868 210 e mail: [email protected]

INEA d.o.o.

Stegne 11

SI-1000 Ljubljana

Phone: +386 (0) 1-513 8100

Fax: +386 (0) 1-513 8170 e mail: [email protected]

SLOVENIA

Beijer Electronics AB

Box 426

S-20124 Malmö

Phone: +46 (0) 40 / 35 86 00

Fax: +46 (0) 40 / 35 86 02 e mail: [email protected]

SWEDEN

ECONOTEC AG

Postfach 282

SWITZERLAND

CH-8309 Nürensdorf

Phone: +41 (0) 1 / 838 48 11

Fax: +41 (0) 1 / 838 48 12 e mail: [email protected]

GTS

Darülaceze Cad. No. 43 Kat. 2

TURKEY

TR-80270 Okmeydani-Istanbul

Phone: +90 (0) 212 / 320 1640

Fax: +90 (0) 212 / 320 1649 e mail: [email protected]

CSC Automation Ltd.

UKRAINE

15, M. Raskova St., Fl. 10, Office 1010

UA-02002 Kiev

Phone: +380 (0) 44 / 494 3355

Fax: +380 (0) 44 / 494 3366 e mail: [email protected]

EURASIAN REPRESENTATIVES

Kazpromautomatics Ltd.

KAZAKHSTAN

2, Scladskaya Str.

KAZ-470046 Karaganda

Phone: +7 3212 50 11 50

Fax: +7 3212 50 11 50 e mail: [email protected]

RUSSIA

Avtomatika Sever Ltd.

Lva Tolstogo Str. 7, Off. 311

RU-197376 St Petersburg

Phone: +7 812 1183 238

Fax: +7 812 1183 239 e mail: [email protected]

Consys

Promyshlennaya St. 42

RU-198099 St Petersburg

Phone: +7 812 325 3653

Fax: +7 812 147 2055 e mail: [email protected]

Electrotechnical

Systems Siberia

Shetinkina St. 33, Office 116

RU-630088 Novosibirsk

Phone: +7 3832 / 119598

Fax: +7 3832 / 119598 e mail: [email protected]

RUSSIA

RUSSIA

Elektrostyle

Poslannikov Per., 9, Str.1

RU-107005 Moscow

Phone: +7 095 542 4323

Fax: +7 095 956 7526 e mail: [email protected]

RUSSIA

Elektrostyle

RUSSIA

Krasnij Prospekt 220-1, Office No. 312

RU-630049 Novosibirsk

Phone: +7 3832 / 106618

Fax: +7 3832 / 106626 e mail: [email protected]

ICOS

RUSSIA

Industrial Computer Systems Zao

Ryazanskij Prospekt, 8A, Off. 100

RU-109428 Moscow

Phone: +7 095 232 0207

Fax: +7 095 232 0327 e mail: [email protected]

NPP Uralelektra

Sverdlova 11A

RU-620027 Ekaterinburg

Phone: +7 34 32 / 532745

Fax: +7 34 32 / 532745 e mail: [email protected]

STC Drive Technique

Poslannikov Per., 9, Str.1

RU-107005 Moscow

Phone: +7 095 790 7210

Fax: +7 095 790 7212 e mail: [email protected]

RUSSIA

RUSSIA

AFRICAN REPRESENTATIVE

CBI Ltd.

Private Bag 2016

ZA-1600 Isando

SOUTH AFRICA

Phone: +27 (0) 11/ 928 2000

Fax: +27 (0) 11/ 392 2354 e mail: [email protected]

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

Gothaer Straße 8 Telefon: 02102 486-0 Fax: 02102 486-7170 www.mitsubishi-automation.de

D-40880 Ratingen Hotline: 01805 000-7650 [email protected]

www.mitsubishi-automation.com

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