EL-9900 Operation-Manual GB

EL-9900 Operation-Manual GB
EL-9900
®
02JGK(TINSE0511EH01)
PRINTED IN CHINA/IMPRIMÉ EN CHINE/IMPRESO EN CHINA
GRAPHING CALCULATOR
SHARP CORPORATION
®
MODEL
EL-9900
GRAPHING CALCULATOR
OPERATION MANUAL
In the U.S.A.
Declaration of Conformity
Graphing Calculator: EL-9900
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Responsible Party:
SHARP ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
Sharp Plaza, Mahwah, New Jersey 07430-1163
TEL: 1-800-BE-SHARP
Tested To Comply With FCC Standards
FOR HOME OR OFFICE USE
WARNING — FCC Regulations state that any unauthorized changes or modifications to this
equipment not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the user’s authority to
operate this equipment.
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a
residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy
and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
— Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
— Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
— Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
— Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Note: A shielded interface cable is required to ensure compliance with FCC regulations for Class B
certification.
FOR YOUR RECORDS...
For your assistance in reporting this product in case of loss or theft, please
record the model number and serial number which are located on the bottom
of the unit.
Please retain this information.
Model Number
Serial Number
Date of Purchase
Place of Purchase
Introduction
This graphing calculator can handle many types of mathematical formulas and
expressions for you. It is powerful enough to process very complex formulas used in
rocket science, but yet so compact that it fits in your coat pocket. The main features of
this graphing calculator are as follows:
• Reversible Keyboard to suit the needs of students’ levels, ranging from middleschool level arithmetic to high-school calculus, and beyond,
• Graphing Capability to help you visualize what you are working on,
• Slide Show Function to help you understand common formulas, prepare for presentations,
• Large memory capacity, with fast processing speed, and more.
We strongly recommend you read this manual thoroughly. If not, then browse through
the very first chapter “Getting Started”, at least. Last, but not least, congratulations on
purchasing the Graphing Calculator!
NOTICE
• The material in this manual is supplied without representation or warranty of any
kind. SHARP assumes no responsibility and shall have no liability of any kind,
consequential or otherwise, from the use of this material.
• SHARP strongly recommends that separate permanent written records be kept of all
important data. Data may be lost or altered in virtually any electronic memory
product under certain circumstances. Therefore, SHARP assumes no responsibility
for data lost or otherwise rendered unusable whether as a result of improper use,
repairs, defects, battery replacement, use after the specified battery life has expired,
or any other cause.
• SHARP assumes no responsibility, directly or indirectly, for financial losses or claims
from third persons resulting from the use of this product and any of its functions, the
loss of or alteration of stored data, etc.
• The information provided in this manual is subject to change without notice.
• Screens and keys shown in this manual may differ from the actual ones on the
calculator.
• Some of the accessories and optional parts described in this manual may not be
available at the time you purchase this product.
• Some of the accessories and optional parts described in this manual may be
unavailable in some countries.
• All company and/or product names are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of
i
their respective holders.
Introduction
Reversible Keyboard
This calculator comes equipped with a reversible keyboard. Reverse the keyboard to
select Basic Mode or Advanced Mode.
Basic Mode
A green background color keyboard with basic mathematical functions. This mode is
suitable for learning mathematics in lower grades.
ii
Introduction
Advanced Mode (Default mode)
A blue background color keyboard with advanced mathematical functions. This mode
is suitable for learning or studying mathematics in higher grades.
iii
Contents
Caring for Your Calculator ............................................................................................... 1
Chapter 1
Getting Started ..............................................................................................................2
Before Use ...................................................................................................................... 2
Using the Hard Cover ..................................................................................................... 3
Part Names and Functions ............................................................................................. 4
Main Unit ................................................................................................................. 4
Reversible Keyboard ............................................................................................... 6
Basic Key Operations ..................................................................................................... 8
Changing the Keyboard .................................................................................................. 9
Quick Run-through: Basic Mode ...................................................................................10
Chapter 2
Operating the Graphing Calculator ......................................................................... 13
Basic / Advanced Keyboard ..........................................................................................13
Basic Key Operations - Standard Calculation Keys ..................................................... 13
1. Entering numbers ............................................................................................. 14
2. Performing standard math calculations ............................................................ 15
Cursor Basics ............................................................................................................... 15
Editing Entries ..............................................................................................................17
Second Function Key .................................................................................................... 18
ALPHA Key ...................................................................................................................19
Math Function Keys ......................................................................................................20
MATH, STAT, and PRGM Menu Keys ........................................................................... 23
SETUP Menu ................................................................................................................ 24
SETUP Menu Items ......................................................................................................25
Precedence of Calculations ..........................................................................................27
Error Messages ............................................................................................................28
Resetting the Calculator ............................................................................................... 29
1. Using the reset switch ....................................................................................... 29
2. Selecting the RESET within the OPTION menu .............................................. 30
Chapter 3
Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard .................................................................... 31
1. Try it! ........................................................................................................................31
2. Arithmetic Keys .......................................................................................................33
3. Calculations Using Various Function Keys ............................................................. 35
4. Calculations Using MATH Menu Items ................................................................... 42
iv
Contents
Chapter 4
Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard ......................................................... 50
1. Try it! ........................................................................................................................50
2. Explanations of Various Graphing Keys ................................................................. 52
3. Other Useful Graphing Features ............................................................................. 58
Substitution feature ............................................................................................... 63
Chapter 5
Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard .................................................... 66
1. Try it! ........................................................................................................................66
2. Various Calculation Keys ........................................................................................ 67
3. Calculations Using MATH Menu ............................................................................. 70
4. More Variables: Single Value Variables and LIST Variables ................................... 80
5. TOOL Menu .............................................................................................................81
6. SETUP Menu .......................................................................................................... 83
Chapter 6
Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard .......................................... 84
1. Try it! ........................................................................................................................84
2. Graphing Parametric Equations .............................................................................. 87
3. Polar Graphing ........................................................................................................ 88
4. Graphing Sequences .............................................................................................. 89
5. The CALC Function ................................................................................................93
6. Format Setting ........................................................................................................ 95
7. Zoom Functions ......................................................................................................96
8. Setting a Window .................................................................................................... 98
9. Tables ...................................................................................................................... 99
10. The DRAW Function ............................................................................................. 102
11. Substitution Feature ..............................................................................................114
Chapter 7
SLIDE SHOW Feature .............................................................................................. 115
1. Try it! ..................................................................................................................... 115
2. The SLIDE SHOW menu ...................................................................................... 118
Chapter 8
Matrix Features ........................................................................................................ 120
1. Try it! ..................................................................................................................... 120
2. Entering and Viewing a Matrix ............................................................................. 122
Editing keys and functions ..................................................................................123
3. Normal Matrix Operations ..................................................................................... 124
4. Special Matrix Operations ..................................................................................... 125
Calculations using OPE menus ......................................................................... 125
Calculations using MATH menus ....................................................................... 129
Use of [ ] menus .................................................................................................. 130
v
Contents
Chapter 9
List Features ............................................................................................................ 131
1. Try it! ..................................................................................................................... 131
2. Creating a list ....................................................................................................... 133
3. Normal List Operations .........................................................................................133
4. Special List Operations .........................................................................................135
Calculations using the OPE menu functions ..................................................... 135
Calculations using MATH Menus ....................................................................... 139
5. Drawing multiple graphs using the list function ................................................... 141
6. Using L_DATA functions ........................................................................................142
7. Using List Table to Enter or Edit Lists .................................................................. 143
How to enter the list ............................................................................................ 143
How to edit the list ..............................................................................................144
Chapter 10
Statistics & Regression Calculations .................................................................... 145
1. Try it! ..................................................................................................................... 145
2. Statistics Features ................................................................................................149
1. STAT menus .................................................................................................. 149
2. Statistical evaluations available under the C CALC menu .......................... 150
3. Graphing the statistical data ................................................................................ 153
1. Graph Types .................................................................................................. 153
2. Specifying statistical graph and graph functions ......................................... 157
3. Statistical plotting on/off function ................................................................. 157
4. Trace function of statistical graphs .............................................................. 158
4. Data list operations ...............................................................................................159
5. Regression Calculations ....................................................................................... 160
6. Statistical Hypothesis Testing .............................................................................. 165
7. Distribution functions ............................................................................................ 177
Chapter 11
Financial Features ................................................................................................... 183
1. Try it! 1 .................................................................................................................. 183
Try it! 2 .................................................................................................................. 187
2. CALC functions .....................................................................................................189
3. VARS Menu .......................................................................................................... 193
Chapter 12
The SOLVER Feature ................................................................................................194
1. Three Analysis Methods: Equation, Newton, and Graphic .................................. 194
2. Saving/Renaming Equations for Later Use ......................................................... 200
3. Recalling a Previously Saved Equation ............................................................... 201
vi
Contents
Chapter 13
Programming Features ........................................................................................... 202
1. Try it! ..................................................................................................................... 202
2. Programming Hints ...............................................................................................204
3. Variables .............................................................................................................. 206
Setting a variable ................................................................................................206
4. Operands ............................................................................................................. 206
Comparison operands ........................................................................................206
5. Programming commands ...................................................................................... 207
A PRGM menu ....................................................................................................207
B BRNCH menu .................................................................................................. 209
C SCRN menu ....................................................................................................209
D I/O menu ......................................................................................................... 209
E SETUP menu .................................................................................................. 210
F FORMAT menu ................................................................................................211
G S_PLOT menu ................................................................................................213
6. Flow control tools .................................................................................................. 214
7. Other menus convenient for programming .......................................................... 216
H COPY menu ....................................................................................................216
VARS menu ....................................................................................................... 217
8. Debugging ............................................................................................................ 219
9. Sample programs .................................................................................................. 220
Chapter 14
OPTION Menu ........................................................................................................... 222
Accessing the OPTION Menu .................................................................................... 222
1. Adjusting the screen contrast ...................................................................... 222
2. Checking the memory usage ....................................................................... 222
3. Deleting files .................................................................................................. 224
4. Linking to another EL-9900 or PC ............................................................... 224
5. Reset function ...............................................................................................227
Appendix ................................................................................................................... 228
1. Replacing Batteries ...............................................................................................228
2. Troubleshooting Guide ..........................................................................................231
3. Specifications ....................................................................................................... 233
4. Error Codes and Error Messages ........................................................................ 235
5. Error Conditions Relating to Specific Tasks ........................................................ 237
1. Financial ....................................................................................................... 237
2. Error conditions during financial calculations .............................................. 239
3. Distribution function ...................................................................................... 239
6. Calculation Range ................................................................................................. 241
1. Arithmetic calculation .................................................................................... 241
2. Function calculation ...................................................................................... 241
vii
Contents
3. Complex number calculation ........................................................................ 245
7. CATALOG Feature ................................................................................................246
8. List of Menu/Sub-menu Items .............................................................................. 247
1. MATH menus ................................................................................................. 247
2. LIST menus ................................................................................................... 249
3. STAT menus .................................................................................................. 251
4. STAT PLOT menus ........................................................................................253
5. DRAW menus ................................................................................................254
6. ZOOM menus ................................................................................................255
7. CALC menus ................................................................................................. 257
8. SLIDE SHOW menus ....................................................................................258
9. PRGM menus ................................................................................................258
10. MATRIX menus .............................................................................................261
11. FINANCE menus ...........................................................................................262
12. TOOL menus .................................................................................................263
13. SOLVER menus ............................................................................................264
INDEX ........................................................................................................................ 265
viii
Caring for Your Calculator
Caring for Your Calculator
• Do not carry the calculator around in your back pocket, as it
may break when you sit down. The display is made of glass and
is particularly fragile.
• Keep the calculator away from extreme heat such as on a car
dashboard or near a heater, and avoid exposing it to excessively humid or dusty environments.
• Since this product is not waterproof, do not use it or store it
where fluids, for example water, can splash onto it. Raindrops,
water spray, juice, coffee, steam, perspiration, etc. will also
cause malfunction.
• Clean with a soft, dry cloth. Do not use solvents.
• Do not use a sharp pointed object or exert too much force when
pressing keys.
• Avoid excessive physical stress.
1
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Before Use
Inserting
batteries resetting the
memory
1. Open the battery cover
located on the back of the
calculator. Pull down the
notch, then lift the battery
cover up to remove it.
2. Insert the batteries, as
indicated. Make sure that the
batteries are inserted in the
correct directions.
3. Pull off the insulation sheet
from the memory backup
battery.
4. Place the battery cover
back, and make sure that the
notch is snapped on.
5. Press O and you will
see the following message on the display:
PRESS [CL] KEY TO CLEAR ALL DATA
PRESS [ON] KEY TO CANCEL
Note:
If the above message does not appear, check the direction of the
batteries and close the cover again. If this does not solve the
problem, follow the instruction described in "Resetting the
Calculator - 1. Using the reset switch" on page 29.
6. Press C to reset the calculator’s memory. The memory will
be initialized. Press any key to set the calculator ready for
normal calculation mode.
2
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Adjusting
display contrast
Since the display contrast may vary with the ambient temperature
and/or remaining battery power, you may want to adjust the
contrast accordingly. Here’s how:
1. Press @, then p.
2. Adjust the contrast by using the + and - keys.
+: increases the contrast
-: decreases the contrast
3. When done, press C to exit the mode.
Turning the
calculator OFF
Press @ o to turn the calculator off.
Automatic power off function
• The calculator is automatically turned off when there is no key
operation for approximately 10 minutes (The power-off time
depends on the conditions.)
• The calculator will not automatically power off while it is
executing calculations (“■” flashes on the upper right corner of
the display.)
Using the Hard Cover
To open the cover:
When in use:
When not in use:
3
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Part Names and Functions
Main Unit
1 Display screen
2 Power ON/
OFF key
4 Graphing keys
5 Cursor keys
3 Key operation
keys
4
Chapter 1: Getting Started
1 Display screen:
Displays up to 132 pixels wide by 64 pixels tall of graphs and texts.
2 Power ON/OFF key:
Turns calculator ON. To turn off the calculator, press @, then o.
3 Key operation keys:
These keys are used to change the key functions.
@:
Changes the cursor to “2”, and the next keystroke enters the
function or mode printed above each key in yellow.
A:
Changes the cursor to “A”, and the next keystroke enters the
alphabetical letter printed above each key in purple.
Note:
Press @ . to lock the specific keys in the alphabet
entering mode. (ALPHA-LOCK)
4 Graphing keys:
These keys specify settings for the graphing-related mode.
Y:
Opens the formula input screen for drawing graphs.
G:
Draws a graph based on the formulas programmed in the Y
window.
T:
Opens a Table based on the formulas programmed in Y.
W:
Sets the display ranges for the graph screen.
Z:
Changes the display range of the graph screen.
U:
Places the cursor pointer on the graph for tracing, and displays
the coordinates.
,:
Displays the substitution feature.
":
Displays both a graph and a table at the same time.
y:
Opens the table setup screen.
d:
Draws items on the graph. Use this key also to save or recall the
graph/pixel data.
f:
Sets the operations of the graph screen.
k:
Calculates specific values based on formulas programmed in
Y
5
Chapter 1: Getting Started
5 Cursor keys:
Enables you to move the cursor (appears as _, ■, etc. on the screen) in four
directions. Use these keys also to select items in the menu.
Reset switch (in the battery compartment):
Used when replacing batteries or clear the calculator memory.
# key:
Returns calculator to calculation screen.
p key: Sets or resets the calculator settings, such as LCD contrast and memory
usage.
n key: Obtains the screen for the slide show.
l key: Accesses list features.
] key: Creates your own slide shows.
[ key: Sets the statistical plotting.
Reversible Keyboard
Basic keyboard
Advanced keyboard
Basic Operation keys
E:
C / q:
6
Used when executing calculations or specifying commands.
Clear/Quit key
B:
Backspace delete key
D:
Delete key
i:
Toggle input mode between insert and overwrite (in one-line edit
mode).
;:
Allows you to set up the basic behavior of this calculator, such as
to set answers in scientific or normal notation.
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Menu keys (Function of these keys may vary between basic and advanced mode.)
M:
Enter the Math menu with additional mathematical functions.
S:
Enter the statistics menu.
P:
Enter the programming menu.
z:
Enter the menu for calculator specific variables.
Advanced Mode specific keys
V:
Converts hexadecimal, decimal, octal and binary numbers or
solves systems of linear equations, finds roots for quadratic and
cubic equations.
m:
Enter menu for matrix functions
':
Enter screen and menu for Solver features
g:
Enter menu for financial solver and functions
Scientific Calculation keys (See each chapter for details.)
Basic Mode specific keys
Q / / / < / >:
Fraction calculation keys
i:
Integer division and remainder calculation keys
%:
Percentage calculation key
* In Advanced mode, you can access above functions from
CATALOG menu.
Advanced Mode specific keys
s / c / t / s / c / t:
Trigonometric function keys
l / I / 0 / @:
Logarithm and exponential functions.
7
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Basic Key Operations
Since this calculator has more than one function assigned to each key, you will need
to follow a few steps to get the function you need.
Example
x-1
F
Operation of y
@ x: Specify x-1
A F: Specify character F
y: Specify x
2
• Press “as is” to get the function and number printed on each key.
• To access secondary function printed above each key in yellow, press
@ first, then press the key. Press C to cancel.
• To press the key printed above each key in purple, press A first,
then press the key. When in Menu selection screen however, you do
not have to press A to access the characters. Press C to
cancel.
• If you want enter alphabetical letters (purple) sequentially, use @
.. Press A to return to the normal mode.
• In this manual, alphanumeric characters to be entered are indicated
as they are (without using the key symbols). Use of the key symbol
indicates that it is for selecting the menu specified by the character or
number. The above example also indicates the key notation rules of
this manual.
8
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Changing the Keyboard
This calculator is designed with a reversible keyboard, which by utilizing it will not only
change the appearance, but will also change the internal functions and configurations
of the calculator as well.
To change the
keyboard:
1. Press @ o to turn off the calculator’s power.
2. Open the battery
compartment cover.
Hold the calculator as
illustrated.
3. Slide the keyboard eject
tab (KEYBOARD
EJECT) down.
The keyboard will be
ejected.
Be careful not to drop
the keyboard on the floor, as this may damage it.
4. Turn the keyboard
over, and replace in
the calculator as
illustrated. Secure by
gently pressing the
keyboard until you
hear the notch click.
Note:
Clean the edges and contact points of the keyboard and the
keyboard tap before reattaching the keyboard to the main unit.
DO NOT touch the pad portion in the keyboard tap.
5. Replace the battery compartment cover.
6. Press O.
7. Make sure that the message
shown on the right appears.
8. Press O.
9
Chapter 1: Getting Started
When you reverse the keyboard, the following settings are automatically changed.
Basic → Advanced
• Simplifying: Auto (Auto at SIMPLE in SETUP menu)
Advanced → Basic
• Coordinate system: Rectangular coordinates (Rect at COORD
in SETUP menu.)
• Answer mode: Displays a mixed number if ANSWER is set to
complex numbers.
• Angle unit: Set to Deg if DRG is set to Grad.
• Decimal format: Set to FloatPt if FSE is set to Eng.
Quick Run-through: Basic Mode
Here are the major ingredients for 18 doughnuts:
1
4 cup warm water
3
4 cup warm milk
1
3 cup sugar
4 cups all-purpose flour
2 eggs
3 tablespoons butter
Based on these values, solve the following problems using the calculator.
Question
If you make 60 doughnuts according to the above recipe,
how many cups of warm milk are required?
At first, you may calculate how many cups of warm milk are
required for 1 doughnut =
3
4
÷ 18
As for the ordinary calculator, the answer is 0.041666666. But
how much is 0.04166666 of a cup of warm milk? The Basic mode
of this graphing calculator is initially set to the fraction answer
mode instead of the decimal answer mode. You may easily obtain
the answer in fraction.
10
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Set up the
calculator
before
calculation
1. Press # to enter the
calculation screen.
Enter fractions
3. Press 3 b 4 '.
2. Press C to clear the
display.
4. Press b 18 '.
5. Press E.
1
Now we have found 24 of a cup of warm milk is required per one
doughnut, how many cups are required for 60 doughnuts?
If you want to use the answer of the previous calculation, press
b and you do not have to reenter the value.
6. Press @ b |, or directly | (multiplication).
“Ans×” is displayed. ANS is a calculator specific variable which
indicates the answer of calculations just before.
* When you enter + (addition), – (subtraction), × (multiplication),
÷ (division), it is not required to press b.
7. Press 60.
8. Press E.
Answer:
2
1
2 cups of warm milk are required for making 60 doughnuts.
11
Chapter 1: Getting Started
On the Basic Mode, you can toggle between decimal values,
mixed values, and improper fractions using >, /, and
<, respectively.
1. Press > E.
2. Press < E.
3. Press / E.
Change answer
mode from
fractions to
decimals
1. Press @ ;.
2. Select F ANSWER and
press 1.
3. Press C.
Now the answer mode is set to the decimal answer mode and 2.5
is displayed.
12
Chapter 2
Operating the Graphing
Calculator
Basic / Advanced Keyboard
This calculator comes equipped with a reversible keyboard to support two different
keyboard configurations: Basic and Advanced keyboard. By reversing the keyboard,
the calculator switches its set of functions and behaviors as well as its visual aspect.
The Basic keyboard, with its key frame colored in dark green, is designed to be used
by students at lower grades of math classes. Functions associated with complex
calculations, such as matrix functions and various trigonometric functions, are not
included in this layout to avoid confusing students. Menu items are also carefully
chosen to meet the educational needs of the students at lower grades.
With the Advanced keyboard however, all functions and features are accessible for
higher grade math students and various professionals in the fields of architecture,
finance, mathematics, and physics.
How to switch the keyboard
See page 9.
Basic Key Operations - Standard Calculation Keys
The standard calculation keys, located at the bottom four rows of the keyboard,
enable you to access the basic functions of the calculator.
13
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
1. Entering numbers
Use the number keys (0 ~ 9), decimal point key (.), and negative
number key (_) to enter numbers into the calculator. To clear the screen entry,
press C.
Number entry
Example
Type 10.23456789 onto the
Calculation screen.
1. Enter the Calculation screen,
then clear the screen entry:
#C
2. Enter numbers with the number keys and decimal point key, as
follows:
10 . 23456789
Note:
$ can be used to enter a value in scientific notation.
Example
6.3 × 108 + 4.9 × 107
# C 6.3 $ 8 + 4.9
$7
Entering a
negative value
Note:
The negative number key _ can be used to enter numbers,
lists, and functions with negative values. Press _ before
entering the value.
Do not use the - key to specify a negative value. Doing so
will result in an error.
Example
Type -9460.827513 into the
Calculation screen.
# C _ 9460.827513
14
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
2. Performing standard math calculations
By utilizing the + - | and = keys, you can perform the standard
arithmetic calculations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Press
E to perform each calculation.
Perform an
arithmetic
calculation
Example
Obtain the answer to “6 × 5 + 3
– 2”.
#C6|5+3
-2E
Using
parentheses
With the ( and ) keys, parentheses (round brackets)
can be added to group sections of expressions. Sections within
the parentheses will be calculated first. Parentheses can also be
used to close the passings of values in various functions, such as
“round(1.2459,2)”.
Example
Obtain the answer to “(9 + 7) ×
(5 – 3)”.
#C(9+7
)|(5-3
)E
Note:
The multiplication sign “×”, as the one in the above example, can
be abbreviated if it proceeds a math function, a parenthesis “(”, or
a variable. Abbreviating “(1 + 2) × 3” to “(1 + 2) 3” will result in an
error.
Cursor Basics
The cursor indicates where the next entry will be placed. The cursor may be placed
automatically to different areas by various functions and tools, or can be moved
around by using the ; ' { } keys. Use the cursor keys to select a
menu item, select a cell item in a matrix, and trace along a graph.
15
013_030_chapter2_en
15
02.8.23, 5:23 PM
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
Example
Enter “ 4 65536 × 3 8 ” in the Calculation screen. Jump the cursor
to the beginning of the expression (just for this exercise), then
press E to calculate.
1. Press #, then C to clear the display.
2. Enter 4 for the root’s depth, then press @ _.
The root figure is entered, with the cursor automatically placed
below the figure.
For detailed instructions of how to use the @ key, refer to
“Second Function Key” and “ALPHA Key” in this chapter.
3. Enter 65536.
At this moment, the cursor is still placed under the root figure.
4. Press ' to move the cursor out of the area, then enter
| at the cursor.
5. Press @ _ again. Notice that the cursor is automatically placed so that you can specify the depth of this root
figure. Type 3, }, and 8.
6. Press E to obtain the
answer.
Cursor appearance and input
method
The cursor also displays information regarding the calculator’s
input method. See the following diagram.
Mode
Normal mode
When A is pressed
When @ is pressed
Symbol
Remarks
The appearance of the cursor pointer
may vary according to the mode or
position. The major shapes and the
definitions are as follows:
: Insert mode
: Overwrite mode
* , and appear at the insertion point within the functions such as a/b and
16
a
.
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
Editing Entries
Editing modes
The calculator has the following two editing modes: equation
mode, and one line mode.
You can select one from the G EDITOR menu of the SETUP
menu.
Equation editor
One line editor
* See page 26 for details.
Cursor navigation
Use ; ' { } to move the cursor around, and
use the D B C keys to edit entries.
• D key deletes an entry AT THE CURSOR.
• B key erases one BEFORE THE CURSOR.
• Use C to clear the entire entry line.
About the Insert
mode
When the editing mode is set to one-line, insert mode needs to
be manually specified. Press and release @, then i to
set the insert mode. Press @ i again to return to the
overwrite mode.
The C key clears all screen entries in the Calculation screen,
as well as clearing error messages. It also clears a single line
equation in the Y screen. For more information on the Y
key, refer to Chapters 4 and 6 of the manual.
Example
Type 3096, then change 3 to 4. When done, jump the cursor to
the very end of the numbers.
#C3096;
;;;D4
'''
17
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
Example
Type 4500000, then remove 500.
#C4500000;
;;BB
B
Tips:
You can jump the cursor to the beginning or the end of line by
using the @ and ; ' keys. Likewise, press @
} to jump the cursor all the way to the bottom. Press @
{ to jump the cursor to the top. To learn about how to use the
@ key and its functions, refer to the section “Second Function
Key” of this chapter.
Second Function Key
Use @ to call up the calculator’s extended key functions, math functions and
figures.
All functions associated with @ are color coded light yellow, and are printed above
each key.
Note:
Available Second function keys differ between the Basic keyboard
and the Advanced keyboard. For example, a second function “ex”
is not accessible within the Basic keyboard.
Example
Enter “2π” on the screen.
1. Press # C to clear the screen, then enter “2” by
pressing 2.
2. Press @. When the key
is released, the cursor on
the screen changes,
indicating that a second
function is now ready to be
called up.
3. Press $. The entry
appears on the screen.
18
013_030_chapter2_en
18
02.8.23, 1:48 PM
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
ALPHA Key
Use A to enter an alphabet character. With the Basic keyboard, all 26 alphabet
characters from “A” up to “Z”, and space can be typed; the Advanced keyboard has all
26 characters accessible, as well as “θ ”, “=”, “ : ”, and space.
All functions associated with A are color coded purple, and are printed above
each key.
Note:
Entering one
Alphabet
character
Do not type out math figures (sin, log, etc.), graph equation
names (Y1, Y2, etc.), list names (L1, L2, etc.), or matrix names
(mat A, mat B, etc.), etc. with A keys. If “SIN” is entered from
A mode, then each alphabet character — “S”, “I” and “N” —
will be entered as a variable. Call up the figure and equation
names from within the second functions and various menus
instead. If a colon (:) is used, data may continue to be entered in
more than one term.
Example
Enter 2 × A on the screen.
1. Press # C to clear
the screen. Enter “2 ×” by
pressing 2 |.
2. To enter “A”, press A;
the cursor pattern changes
to “A
_” upon releasing the key.
3. Press A to call “A” at the
cursor.
After the entry, the cursor
pattern changes back to
normal.
Entering 1 or
More Alphabet
characters
To type more than one alphabet character, use @ then A
to apply the “ALPHA-LOCK”. When done, press A to escape
from the mode.
19
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
Math Function Keys
Basic keyboard
Advanced keyboard
Mathematical functions can be called up quickly with the Math Function keys. The
Math Function key sets for both the Basic and Advanced Keyboards are designed to
suit the needs of calculations at each level.
Math Function keys for the
Basic keyboard:
Q
Reduces a fraction
/
Converts a number to a mixed fraction, if possible
<
Converts a number to an improper fraction
>
Converts a number to decimal form
i
Gives an answer in quotient and remainder
%
Specifies a percentage number
x
Enters an variable “x” at the cursor
Math Function keys for the
Advanced keyboard:
20
s
Enters a sine function at the cursor
s
Enters an arc sine function at the cursor
c
Enters a cosine function at the cursor
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
c
Enters an arc cosine function at the cursor
t
Enters a tangent function at the cursor
t
Enters an arctangent function at the cursor
l
Enters a logarithm function at the cursor
0
Enters “10 to the xth power”, then sets the cursor at the “x”
I
Enters a natural logarithm function at the cursor
@
Enters “e-constant to the power of x”, then sets the cursor at the
“ x”
X
Enters a variable “x”, “θ”, “T”, or “n”. The variable is automatically
determined according to the calculator’s coordinate setup: “x” for
rectangular, “θ” for polar, “T” for parametric, “n” for sequential.
Common Math Function
keys for both keyboards:
y
Enters “ 2 ” at the cursor, to raise a number to the second power
x
Enters “ -1 ” at the cursor, to raise a number to the negative first
power
d
Enters a mixed number.
b
Enters a fraction.
a
Enters an exponent.
_
By itself enters a “root” figure; the cursor will be set at “a”, the
depth.
21
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
Note:
If a number precedes d b a and _, then the
number will be set as the first entry of the figure. Else, the first
entry is blank and the cursor flashes.
Examples
2d3}
4'
d
;2'3}4'
22
+
Enters a “root” figure at the cursor
,
Enters “ , ” (a comma) at the cursor
R
Stores a number or a formula into a variable
r
Recalls an item stored in a variable
z
Brings up the VARS menu.
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
MATH, STAT, and PRGM Menu Keys
By using the M, S, and P keys, you can access many menu items for
complex calculation tasks. The appendix “List of Menu/Sub-menu Items” shows the
contents of each, with detailed descriptions of each sub-menu item.
Note that the contents of menu items differ drastically between the Basic keyboard
and the Advanced keyboard. For example, the P menu for the Basic mode
contains only one item (A EXEC), while in the Advanced mode there are three menu
items (A EXEC, B EDIT, and C NEW).
Example
Round the following number beyond the decimal point: 34.567
1. Press # C, then
M. The MATH menu
takes over the screen, as
shown to the right. MATH
menu items are displayed on
the left side of the screen.
Note:
The example above is simulated on the Basic mode. There are
more menu items available with the Advanced mode.
2. Use the { and } keys to move the cursor up and
down the menu. As you scroll, you will see the corresponding
sub-menu contents (shown on the right side of the screen)
change.
3. Set the cursor at B NUM.
Menu items can also be selected by using shortcut keys (A
through H); in this example, simply press B to select B
NUM. There is no need to use A for this operation.
4. Press a shortcut key 2
to select 2 round(. The
screen now goes back to the
calculation screen, as
follows:
Another way of selecting the sub-menu item is to press '
(or E) on the menu item B NUM. The cursor will be
extended into the sub-menu on the right. Now, move the
cursor on the sub-menu down to 2 round(, then press E.
23
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
5. Type 3 4 . 5 6 7 ,
0 ), and press E.
SETUP Menu
Use this menu to verify basic configurations, such as to define the calculator’s editing
preferences, and scientific and mathematical base units.
Checking the
calculator’s
configuration
To check the current configuration of the calculator, press @,
then ;.
By entering menu items (B
DRG through H SIMPLE),
various setups can be changed.
To exit the SETUP menu, press
C.
Example
Display the calculation result of “10002” in scientific notation.
1. Press @, then ;.
Within the SETUP menu,
press C, then 3 to
select 3 Sci under the C
FSE menu.
Tips:
Using the arrow keys, move the cursor down to the C FSE
position, press E, and then move the cursor down to the 3
Sci position. Press E to select the sub-menu item.
2. The display goes back to the
SETUP menu’s initial screen.
3. Press C to exit the
SETUP menu.
24
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
4. Press # C to clear
the Calculation screen, type
1 0 0 0 y, then E.
SETUP Menu Items
DRG:
FSE:
For trigonometric calculations and coordinate conversions,
various angle units can be selected:
Deg
Angle values to be set in degrees (default for Basic
mode)
Rad
Angle values to be set in radians (default for Advanced
mode)
Grad
Angle values to be set in gradients (for Advanced mode
only)
Various decimal formats can be set:
FloatPt
Answers are given in decimal form with a floating
decimal point (default).
Fix
Answers are given in decimal form. The decimal point
can be set in the TAB menu.
Sci
Answers are given in “scientific” notation. For example,
“3500” is displayed as “3.500000000E3”. The decimal
point can be set in the TAB menu.
Eng
Answers are given in “engineering” notation with
exponents set to be multiples of 3. “100000” will be
displayed as “100.0000000E3”, and “1000000” will be
shown as “1.000000000E6”. The decimal point can be
set in the TAB menu. (for Advanced mode only)
Note:
If the value of the mantissa does not fit within the range
±0.000000001 to ±9999999999, the display changes to
scientific notation. The display mode can be changed
according to the purpose of the calculation.
25
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
TAB:
COORD:
Sets the number of digits beyond the decimal point (0 through 9).
The default is “9”.
Sets the calculator to various graph coordinate systems.
Rect
Param
Polar
Seq
ANSWER:
Parametric equation coordinates (for Advanced mode
only)
Polar coordinates (for Advanced mode only)
Sequential graph coordinates (for Advanced mode
only)
Sets the answer preference to various number formats.
Decimal (Real)
Mixed (Real)
Answers will be given in decimal form (default for
Advanced mode)
Answers will be given in mixed fractions, whenever
appropriate (default for Basic mode)
Improp (Real)
Answers will be given in improper fractions, whenever
appropriate
x±yi (Complex)
Answers will be given in complex rectangular form (for
Advanced mode only)
r∠θ (Complex)
EDITOR:
Answers will be given in complex polar form (for
Advanced mode only)
Sets the editing style to one of two available formats.
Equation
One line
26
Rectangular coordinates (default)
Formulas can be
entered in a "type it
as you see it approach" (default
setting).
Formulas will be
displayed on one line.
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
Notes:
Immediately after changing the EDITOR, the calculator will return
to the calculation screen and the following data will be cleared.
• ENTRY memory
• Equations stored in the graph equation window (Y)
• Equations temporally stored in the SOLVER window (@
')
* Resetting to the default settings (@ p E 1)
will also clear the above data.
Expression of up to 114 bytes can be entered in the Equation edit
mode. If the expression exceed the screen width, it is horizontally
extended.
Expression of up to 160 bytes can be entered in One-line edit
mode. if the expression exceed the screen width, it goes to the
next line.
SIMPLE:
Note:
Sets the preference for handling reducible fractions.
Auto
Fractions will automatically be reduced down (default)
Manual
Fractions will not be reduced unless Q is pressed
All the procedures in this manual are explained using the default
settings unless otherwise specified.
Precedence of Calculations
When solving a mathematical expression, this calculator internally looks for the following figures and methods (sorted in the
order of evaluation):
1) Fractions (1/4, a/b, , etc.)
2) Complex angles (∠)
3) Single calculation functions where the numerical value occurs
before the function (X2, X-1, !, “ ° ”, “ r ”, and “ g ”)
4) Exponential functions (ab,
a
, etc)
5) Multiplications between a value and a stored variable/constant, with “×” abbreviated (2π, 2A, etc.)
6) Single calculation functions where the numerical value occurs
after the function (sin, cos, tan, sin-1, cos-1, tan-1, log, 10x, ln,
e x,
, abs, int, ipart, fpart, (–), not, neg, etc.)
27
013_030_chapter2_en
27
02.9.6, 2:44 PM
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
7) Multiplications between a number and a function in #6
(3cos20, etc. “cos20” is evaluated first)
8) Permutations and combinations (nPr, nCr)
9) ×, ÷
10) +, –
11) and
12) or, xor xnor
13) Equalities and nonequalities (<, ≤, >, ≥, ≠, =, →deg, →dms,
etc.)
Example
The key operation and calculation precedence
5 + 2 | s 30 + 25 | 5 a 3 E
1st
4th
2nd
5th
3rd
6th
• If parentheses are used, parenthesized calculations have
precedence over any other calculations.
Error Messages
The calculator will display an error message when a given
command is handled incorrectly, or when instructions cannot be
handled correctly such that the task cannot be processed further.
Various types of error messages are given to inform users the
types of situations to be remedied.
For example, performing the
following key strokes:
5|E
will result in an error, and the
error message will be displayed.
In such a situation, you can go back to the expression to correct
its syntax by pressing ; or ', or you can erase the
entire line to start over by pressing C.
For a list of various error codes and messages, refer to the
appendix.
28
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
Resetting the Calculator
Use the reset when a malfunction occurs, to delete all data, or to set all mode values
to the default settings. The resetting can be done by either pressing the reset switch
located in the battery compartment, or by selecting the reset in the OPTION menu.
Resetting the calculator’s memory will erase all data stored by the user; proceed with
caution.
1. Using the reset switch
1. Pull down the notch to open the battery cover located on the
back of the calculator.
2. Place the battery cover back until the notch is snapped on.
3. Press O.
The verification window will
appear on the screen.
4. Press C to clear all the
stored data. Press O to
cancel resetting. After C
is pressed, the calculator's
memory will be initialized.
Press any key to display the
calculation screen.
Note:
If the above verification window does not appear, remove the
battery cover and gently push the RESET switch with the tip of a
ball-point pen or a similar object.
DO NOT use a tip of a pencil
or mechanical pencil, a
broken lead may cause a
damage to the button mechanism.
29
Chapter 2: Operating the Graphing Calculator
• The message on the right may
occasionally appear. In this
case, repeat the procedure
from step 1 to prevent loss of
data.
2. Selecting the RESET within the OPTION menu
1. Press @, then p.
The OPTION menu appears.
2. While in the OPTION menu,
press E to select E
RESET; the RESET submenu items should appear on
the right side of the screen.
3. The first item 1 default set will initialize only the SETUP and
FORMAT settings, while the second item 2 All memory will
erase all memory contents and settings. To reset the memory,
select 2 All memory by pressing 2. The verification
window will appear.
4. Press the C key to clear
all data stored on the
calculator.
Press any key to continue.
30
Chapter 3
Basic Calculations —
Basic Keyboard
In this chapter, we explore more features of this calculator using the Basic Keyboard.
Features such as fraction to decimal conversion and the quotient-remainder key, as
well as basic arithmetic calculations, will be covered in this chapter.
Note: To try the examples in the chapter, it is required that the Basic Keyboard is
already set up by the user. To learn how to set up the Basic Keyboard, read
“Changing the Keyboard” in Chapter 1.
1. Try it!
The speed of light is known to be 186,282
miles (approximately 300,000 kilometers) per
second. That means light can go around the
earth 7 and a half times within a second!
Suppose you are standing at the equator.
While the earth rotates over the period of one
day, you also rotate around the globe at a
certain speed. Knowing the facts above, can
you figure out how fast you are traveling, in
miles per hour?
Since distance traveled = average speed × time taken, the
following equation can be formed to find out the circumference of
the earth (x miles):
x × 7.5 = 186282
Then,
x = 186282 ÷ 7.5
Since you know the earth turns around once a day (which means,
in 24 hours), divide the above “x” with 24 to get a value in miles
per hour.
24 × v = x
x
v = 24
31
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
CONCEPT
1. Enter a math expression, then perform the calculation.
2. Save a number into a variable, then recall the value later.
PROCEDURE
1. First, press #, then C to clear any screen entries.
2. Type 186282 = 7.5,
then press E. The
circumference of the earth is
thus obtained.
3. Store the answer in a variable. A variable is a symbol under
which you can store a numerical value.
We will use variable A to
store the circumference of
the earth. Press R to set
the “store” mode. Press
A A, then E to
store the answer. To call up
the stored answer, press A A E again.
Note:
While checking the stored values, you may see “0”; this means
that no value is stored in the variable.
4. Now, since the value you
have stored under “A” is the
distance you will be travelling in 24 hours, divide the
number by 24. Press A
A = 24, then E.
So, you are travelling at 1034.9 miles/hour. That is fast!
32
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
2. Arithmetic Keys
Performing
addition,
subtraction,
multiplication
and division
E
There are various keys for arithmetic calculations. Use the +
- | =, _, ( and ) keys to perform
basic arithmetic calculations. Press E to solve an equation.
Executes an expression.
Example
• Calculate 1 + 2.
#C1+2E
A Note about
expressions
+
An expression is a mathematical statement that may use numbers and/or variables that represent numbers. This works just like
a regular word sentence; one may ask “how are you?”, and you
may answer “okay.” But what if an incomplete sentence is thrown,
such as “how are”? You’ll wonder, “how are... what?”; it just
doesn’t make sense. A math expression needs to be complete as
well. 1 + 2, 4x, 2sinx + cosx form valid expressions, while “1 +” and
“cos” do not. If an expression is not complete, the calculator will
display an error message upon pressing the E key.
Enters a “+” sign for addition.
Example
• Calculate 12 + 34.
#C12+34
E
-
Enters a “–” sign for subtraction.
Example
• Subtract 21 from 43.
43-21E
33
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
|
Enters a “×” sign for multiplication.
Example
• Multiply 12 by 34.
12|34E
=
Enters a “÷” sign for division.
Example
• Divide 54 by 32.
54=32E
When to leave
out the “×” sign
The multiplication sign can be left out when:
a. It is placed in front of an
open parenthesis.
b. It is followed by a variable or
a mathematical constant (π,
e, etc.):
c. It is followed by a scientific
function, such as sin, log,
etc.:
Entering a number
with a negative value
_
Sets a negative value.
Example
• Calculate -12 × 4.
_12|4E
Note:
34
Do not use the - key to enter a negative value; use the
_ key instead.
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
(
Enters an open parenthesis. Use with “)” as a pair, or the calculation will result in an error.
)
Enters a closing parenthesis; a parenthesis left open will result in
an error.
Example
• Calculate (4 + 6) ÷ 5.
(4+6)=
5E
Note:
Functions, such as “round(”,
automatically include an open parentheses. Each of these
functions needs to be closed with a closing parenthesis.
3. Calculations Using Various Function Keys
Use the calculator’s function keys to simplify various calculation tasks. The calculator’s
Basic Keyboard is specially designed to help you learn/solve fraction calculations
easier.
Q
Simplifies a given fraction stored in the ANSWER memory.
(Set the SIMPLE mode to Manual in the SETUP menu to use this
key.)
Specifying no common factor
Simplify the fraction using the lowest common factor other than 1.
Example
1 b 12 ' + 5
b 12 E
Q E (Simplified by 2,
the lowest common factor of 12
and 6.)
Q E (Simplified by 3,
the lowest common factor of 6
and 3.)
35
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
Specifying a common factor
Simplify the fraction using the specified common factor.
Example
1 b 12 ' + 5
b 12 E
Q 6 E (Manually
specify 6, the Greatest Common Factor of 12 and 6, to
simplify the fraction.)
Note:
If the wrong number is specified for a common factor, an error will
occur.
Q is effective in a fraction calculation mode only (when the
ANSWER mode is set to Mixed or Improp in the SETUP menu).
/
Converts an improper fraction to a mixed number.
Example
12
• Change 5 to a mixed
number.
12 b 5 ' /
E
<
Converts a mixed number to an
improper fraction.
Example
2
• Change 2 5 to an improper fraction.
<E
>
Converts a fraction to a decimal
number.
Example
12
• Change 5 to a decimal
number.
>E
Note:
Above three conversions will not affect the ANSWER settings in
the SET UP menu.
If a decimal number is not rational, fraction conversion will not
function and display the answer in decimal format.
36
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
i
Performs an integer division, and returns a quotient and a
remainder.
Example
• Get a quotient and a remainder of 50 ÷ 3.
50 i 3 E
* Quotient value is set to Ans
memory and remainder is not
stored.
y
Squares the preceding number.
Example
• Obtain the answer to 122. (= 144)
12 y E
Note:
When no base number is entered, the base number area will be
left blank and just the exponent appear.
C y ;1 2 ' E
d
Enters a mixed number.
Example
5
• Enter 4 6
4d5'6E
Note:
When no value is entered prior to this key, the number areas will
be left blank.
* If the calculator is set to one-line mode, d enters “ ”
(integer-fraction separator) only. Use d in combination with
b as follows.
5
• Enter 4 6 in one-line mode
4d5b6E
* Integer part of the mixed
number must be a natural
number. A variable can not be
used. Equation or use of parenthesis, such as (1+2) 2 ¬ 3 or
(5) 2 ¬ 3, causes syntax error.
* When a numerator or a denominator is negative, the calculator
will cause error.
37
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
b
Enters a fraction, setting the preceding number as its numerator.
* If the calculator is set to one-line mode, then “ ¬” will be entered
2
instead. For example, “2 ¬ 5” indicates “ ”.
5
Example
2
3
• Calculate 5 + 4 .
2b5'+b
3'4'E
a
Enters an exponent, setting the preceding number as its base.
Example
• Raise 4 to the 5th power. (= 1024)
4a5E
Note:
When no base value is entered, “ab” will be entered with both
number areas left blank.
Ca;4'5E
When calculating x to the power of m-th power of n, enter as
follows;
• Calculate 232 (= 512)
2a3a2E
The above calculation is interpreted as 232 = 29.
If you wish to calculate (23)2 = 82, press ( 2 a 3 '
) a 2 E.
,
Enters a comma “ , ” at the cursor. A comma is required in some
of the MATH functions. For more information, refer to the next
section “Calculations Using MATH Menu Items” in this chapter.
R
Stores a number in a variable.
Example
• Let A = 4, and B = 6.
Calculate A + B.
4RAAE
6RABE
AA+ABE
38
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
x
Second
functions
Enters an “x”, an unknown variable. Use this key when working
with graph equations. Refer to Chapter 4 “Basic Graphing
Features” to learn how to use this feature.
To access the second function of a key (printed above the keys in
yellow), press and release @, then press the key you want to
use.
%
Set the preceding value as a percentage.
Example
• Get 25% of 1234.
1234|[email protected]
%E
* Percentage must be a positive
value equal to or less than
100.
x
Enters “x-1”, and returns an inverse by raising a value to the -1
1
power. The inverse of “5”, for example, is “ 5 ”.
Example
• Raise 12 to the -1 power. (= 0.083333333)
[email protected]
Note:
When no base number is entered, “x-1” will be entered, with “x” left
blank.
C @ x ;1 2 E
_
Enters “ a
”.
Example
• Bring 4 to the 5th root. (= 1.319507911)
[email protected]_4E
Note:
When no depth of power is entered, “ a
number areas left blank.
” is entered, with both
[email protected]_5'4E
+
Enters a square root symbol.
Example
• Obtain the square root of 64. (= 8)
@+64E
39
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
r
Recalls a variable.
Example
• Set C = 8.
8RACE
Recall the value of C.
@rACE
z
{}
b
Accesses the VARS menu. Refer to chapters 4 and 6 to learn how
to use each item in this menu.
Enter braces to group numbers as a list.
Recalls the previous answer. Use this key to incorporate the
answer to the previous calculation into an expression.
Example
• Perform 3 × 3.
3|3E
Subtract the value of the
previous answer from “10”.
[email protected]
Note:
40
b can be considered as a variable; its value is automatically
set when E is pressed. If b is not empty, then pressing
+, -, |, or = will recall “Ans” and places it at
the beginning of an expression. If “1” was the previous answer,
then pressing + 4 E will result in “5”.
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
e
Recalls the previous entry. This is useful when you want to modify
the previous entry, rather than reenter the whole expression over.
Example
• Calculate 4 × 6.
4|6E
Next, calculate 4 × 8.
@eB8E
Note:
Executed expressions are stored in a temporary memory in the
executed order. If the temporary memory is full, the oldest data is
automatically deleted. Be aware that e may not function on
these occasions.
A maximum of 160 bytes can be stored in the temporary memory.
The capacity may vary when there are division codes between
expressions.
When switching from equation edit mode to one-line edit mode in
the SETUP menu, all the numerical and graph equations stored in
the temporary memory are cleared and cannot be recalled.
$
Enters “pi”. Pi is a mathematical constant, representing the ratio
of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
Example
• Enter “2π”. (= 6.283185307)
[email protected]$E
j
Calls up the CATALOG menu. From the CATALOG menu, you can
directly access various functions in the menus.
• Functions are listed in alphabetic order.
• Move the cursor using the {/} keys and press E
to access or enter the function.
• Press A and an appropriate alphabetic key (A to Z) to
navigate the catalog.
• Press A + {/} to scroll the catalog page by page
and press @ + {/} to jump to the beginning or the
end of the catalog.
• See page 246 for details.
41
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
4. Calculations Using MATH Menu Items
The MATH menu contains functions used for more elaborate math concepts, such as
trigonometry, logarithms, probability, and math unit/format conversions. The MATH
menu items may be incorporated into your expressions.
Note:
A Note about
Degrees and
Radians
The default angle measurement unit while using the calculator’s
Basic Keyboard is degrees. If you wish to work in radians, then
the configuration must be changed in the SET UP menu. For
more information, see page 25.
The degree and radian systems are two of the basic methods of
measuring angles. There are 360 degrees in a circle, and “2-pi”
radians. 1 degree is equal to pi/180 radians. “Then, what’s this
pi?”, you may ask. Pi, or to use its symbol “π”, is the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diameter. The value of π is the
same for any circle “3.14...”, and it is believed to have an infinite
number of digits beyond the decimal point.
A
CALC
The CALC sub-menu contains items to be used in calculations
containing trigonometric and logarithmic functions.
Note:
The following examples show keystrokes with keyboard shortcuts.
It is also possible to select a sub-menu item using the cursor
keys.
1 sin
Enters a sine function to be used in a trigonometric calculation.
Example
• Calculate sine 90°.
MA190E
2 cos
Enters a cosine function to be
used in a trigonometric calculation.
Example
• Calculate cosine 60°.
MA260E
42
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
3 tan
Enters a tangent function to be used in a trigonometric calculation.
Example
• Calculate tangent 45°.
MA345E
4 log
Enters a “log” function for a logarithmic calculation
Example
• Calculate log 100.
MA4100
E
5 10x
Enters a base of 10, setting the
cursor at the exponent.
Example
• Calculate 5 × 105.
5|MA55E
B
NUM
Use the NUM sub-menu items when converting between various
number systems.
1 abs(
abs(value)
Returns an absolute value.
* A real number, a list, matrix, variable, or equation can be used
as values.
Example
• Find an absolute value of
“-40.5”.
MB1_40
.5E
43
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
2 round(
round(value [, digit number of decimals])
Returns the rounded value of the term in parentheses. A rounding
point can be specified.
* A real number, a list, matrix, variable, or equation can be used
as values.
Example
• Round off 1.2459 to the nearest hundredth. (= 1.25)
MB21.2459,2)E
3 ipart
ipart value
Returns only the integer part of a decimal number.
* A real number, a list, matrix, variable, or equation can be used
as values.
Example
• Discard the fraction part of 42.195. (= 42)
MB342.195E
4 fpart
fpart value
Returns only the fraction part of a decimal number.
* A real number, a list, matrix, variable, or equation can be used
as values.
Example
• Discard the integer part of 32.01. (= 0.01)
MB432.01E
5 int
int value
Rounds down a decimal number to the closest integer.
Example
• Round down 34.56 to the nearest whole number. (= 34)
MB534.56E
44
031_049_chapter3_en
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02.8.23, 1:50 PM
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
6 min(
min(list)
Finds and returns the minimum value within a list of numbers. To
define a list of more than two numbers, group the numbers with
brackets (@ { and @ }), with each element
separated by a comma.
Example
• Find the smallest value among 4, 5, and -9.
[email protected]{4,5,_9
@})E
7 max(
max(list)
Finds and returns the maximum
value within a list of numbers.
Example
• Find the largest value among 4, 5, and -9.
[email protected]{4,5,_9
@})E
8 lcm(
lcm(natural number, natural number)
Returns the least common multiple of two integers.
Example
• Find the least common multiple of 12 and 18.
MB812,18)E
9 gcd(
gcd(natural number, natural
number)
Returns the greatest common
divisor of two integers.
Example
• Find the greatest common divisor of 16 and 36.
MB916,36)E
45
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
0 remain
natural number remain natural number
Returns the remainder of a division.
Example
• Obtain the remainder when
123 is divided by 5.
123MB05
E
C
PROB
Use the PROB sub-menu items for probability calculations.
1 random
random [(number of trial)]
Returns a random decimal number between 0 and 1.
Example
• Make a list with three random
numbers.
Note:
Set the “FSE” to “Fix” and “TAB”
to “0”.
@{MC
1 | 100 , M C 1 | 100 ,
M C 1 | 100 @ } E
Note:
2 rndInt(
The random functions (random, rndInt(, rndCoin, and rndDice)
will generate different numbers every time when the display is
redrawn. Therefore, the table values of the random functions will
be different every time. When in case of random-based graphing
calculations, the tracing values and other parameters of the graph
will not match the graph's visual representation.
rndInt(minimum value, maximum value [, number of trial])
Returns a specified number of random integers, between a
minimum and a maximum value.
Example
• Produce eight random integers, ranging between values of 1
and 6.
MC21,6,3)E
* Minimum value: 0 ≤ xmin ≤ 1010
Maximum value: 0 ≤ xmax ≤ 1010
Number of trial: 1 ≤ n ≤ 999
46
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
3 rndCoin
rndCoin [(number of trial)]
Returns a specified number of random integers to simulate a coin
flip: 0 (head) or 1 (tail). The size of the list (i.e., how many times
the virtual coin is thrown) can be specified. (The same as rndInt
(0, 1, number of times))
Example
• Make the calculator flip a
virtual coin 4 times.
MC3(4
)E
4 rndDice
rndDice [(number of trial)]
Returns specified number of random integers (1 to 6) to simulate
rolling dice. The size of the list (i.e., how many times the die is
thrown) can be specified. (The same as rndInt (1, 6, number of
times))
Example
• Make the calculator roll a virtual die 11 times.
M C 4 ( 11 ) E
5 nPr
Returns the total number of different arrangements (permutations) for selecting “r” items out of “n” items.
Pr =
n
n!
(n – r)!
Example
• How many different ways can
4 people out of 6 be seated in
a car with four seats?
6MC54E
47
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Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
6 nCr
Returns the total number of combinations for selecting “r” item out
of “n” items.
n
Cr =
n!
r!(n – r)!
Example
• How many different groups of
7 students can be formed with
15 students?
15MC67
E
7 !
Returns a factorial.
Example
• Calculate 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1.
6MC7E
D
CONV
CONV sub-menu items are to be used when converting a number
in decimal form (degrees) to a number in sexagesimal form
(degrees, minutes, seconds), or vice versa.
Sexagesimal
and Degree
System
1 →deg
The “base 60” sexagesimal system, as well as the minutessecond measurement system, was invented by the Sumerians,
who lived in the Mesopotamia area around the fourth millennium
B.C.(!) The notion of a 360 degrees system to measure angles
was introduced to the world by Hipparchus (555-514 B.C.) and
Ptolemy (2nd cent. A.D.), about 5000 years later. We still use
these ancient systems today, and this calculator supports both
formats.
Takes a number in sexagesimal form, and converts it into a
decimal number.
Example
• Convert 34° 56’ 78” to
degrees.
34ME156
M278 M
3 MD1
E
48
Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard
2 →dms
Takes a number in decimal form (in degrees), and converts it into
a sexagesimal number. To enter a number in sexagesimal form,
use items in the “ANGLE” sub-menu, described in the next
subsection of this Chapter.
Example
• Show 40.0268 degrees in
degrees, minutes, and
seconds.
4 0 . 0268 M D
2E
E
ANGLE
The Basic mode has two angle modes: Deg (degree) and Rad
(radian). Use the E ANGLE menu to enter a degree value in Rad
mode or a radian value in Deg mode. (The gradient mode is not
included in the Basic mode. Refer to Chapter 5 for details.)
1 °
Inserts a degree, and sets the preceding value in degrees.
2 ’
Inserts a minute, and sets the preceding value in minutes.
3 ”
Inserts a second, and sets the preceding value in seconds.
Example
• Enter 34° 56’ 78”.
34ME1
5 6 M 2 ← “E ANGLE” remains selected;
78M3
type the number to enter the symbols.
E
4 r
Enters an “r”, to enter a number in radians.
Example
• Type 2 radian.
2ME4E
49
Chapter 4
Basic Graphing Features
— Basic Keyboard
This chapter takes the knowledge you have gained in Chapter 3 several steps further.
Note: To try the examples in this chapter, it is required that the Basic Keyboard is
already set up by the user. To learn how to set up the Basic Keyboard, read
“Changing the Keyboard” in Chapter 1.
1. Try it!
There are two taxi cab companies in your city, Tomato Cab and Orange Cab,
with different fare systems. The Tomato Cab charges $2.00 upon entering the
taxi cab, and $1.80 for each mile the taxi travels. The Orange Cab, on the other
hand, charges $3.50 plus $1.20 per mile. This means that taking the Tomato
Cab will initially cost less than
going with the Orange Cab, but
will be more expensive as you
travel longer distances.
Suppose you need to go to a place
3 miles away from where you are
now. Which cab company should
you take to save money?
Two math expressions can be derived from the above fare
systems. If “y” represents the cost, while “x” represents the
mileage, then:
y = 2 + 1.8x .................... Tomato Cab’s fare system
y = 3.5 + 1.2x ................ Orange Cab’s fare system
Use the calculator’s graphing capabilities to figure out the
approximate point where the Orange Cab gets ahead of the
Tomato Cab, in terms of cost performance.
50
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
CONCEPT
1. By using two linear graphs, the approximate crossing point
can be found.
2. The exact crossing point can be found with the TABLE
function.
PROCEDURE
1. Press Y to enter the Graph Equation window. Six equation entry areas appear, from “Y1=” to “Y6=”. Since we need
only two equations in this exercise, let’s use “Y1=” and “Y2=”.
2. By default, the cursor should be placed on the right side of the
“Y1=” equation, next to the equal sign. If this is not so, use the
cursor keys to bring the cursor to the “Y1=” line, then press the
C key to clear any entries. The cursor will automatically be
placed to the right of the equal sign.
3. Enter the first equation, “2 + 1.8X”, to represent the Tomato
Cab’s fare system.
2+1.8x
Use the x key to enter the “x”, representing the distance
in miles.
4. When the equation line is complete, press E. The first
equation is now stored, and the cursor automatically jumps to
the second line, where the second equation can be entered.
5. At the second line, press
C to clear any entries,
then enter “3.5 + 1.2X” to
represent the Orange Cab’s
fare system. When done
entering the equation, press
E. The two equations are now ready to graph.
6. Press G to draw the graphs.
To draw a graph, “=” must be highlighted. If not, move the
cursor to “=” of the targeted equation and press E to draw
a graph, and press E again not to draw a graph.
51
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
Graph Basics
The graph examples in this exercise are called X-Y graphs. An
X-Y graph is quite useful for clearly displaying the relationship
between two variables.
7. Let’s take a look at the
graph. The vertical axis
represents the Y value, while
X is represented by the
horizontal axis. It appears
that the two diagonal lines
cross at the point where the X value is somewhere between 2
and 3, indicating that Orange Cab costs less than the other,
after 3 miles of traveling.
8. Next, press T to find the
values per graph increment.
When the traveling distance
is 2 miles, the Tomato Cab
charges 30 cents less overall
than the Orange Cab, but it
costs 30 cents more at 3 miles. To make the X increment
smaller, press @ y.
9. When the Table setting window appears, move the cursor
down to “TBLStep”, type . 5, and press E. Now
the Y values will be sampled at every 0.5 mile.
10. Press T to show the
table again. It indicates that
when the X value is 2.5, both
Y1 and Y2 values are 6.5. It
is now clear that if you are
traveling 2.5 miles or more,
the Orange Cab costs less.
2. Explanations of Various Graphing Keys
Y:
52
Displays the Graph Equation window. Up to 10 different equations
can be entered.
After the graph expression is entered, press E to store the
equation.
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
=:
The expression can be represented as a graph.
=:
The expression cannot be drawn as a graph.
• Move the cursor pointer to the “=” sign and press E to
change between to-draw and not-to-draw.
Note:
To switch the window back to the calculation screen, simply press
the # key.
G:
Draws a full-screen graph based on the equation(s) entered in the
Graph Equation window. To cancel the graph drawing, press
O.
Note:
If no equations are entered in the Graph equation window, only
the vertical (Y) and horizontal (X) axis will be displayed upon
pressing the G key.
T:
Displays the graph values in a table. The default sample increment value of the graph’s X axis is “1”.
Z:
Displays the ZOOM menu. Within the ZOOM menu, various
preferences can be set for the graph appearance on zooming in/
out .
The menu items with each function and the sub-menu items are
described below:
A ZOOM
There are a myriad of tools under this menu item, by which the
graph can be zoomed in/out in various styles. Press “A” within the
ZOOM menu to select this menu item.
1 Auto
Note:
According to the WINDOW setup, the graph will be
zoomed in by adjusting the “Ymin” (the minimum Y
value) and “Ymax” (the maximum Y value) according to
the “Xmin” (the minimum X value) and “Xmax” (the
maximum X value). When this item is selected, the
graph will automatically be redrawn.
The “Auto” sub-menu item is directly affected by how the WINDOW items are set up. Refer to the W key section in this
chapter to learn how to set up the Xmin and Xmax items.
53
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
2 Box
A box area can be specified with this sub-menu tool so
that the area within the box will be displayed full
screen.
To select a box area to zoom:
1. While the ZOOM menu item is selected within the
ZOOM window, press 2 to select 2 Box.
2. The graph appears on the screen. Use the cursor
keys to position the cursor at a corner of the
required box area. Press E to mark the point as
an anchor.
3. Once the initial anchor is set, move the cursor to a
diagonal corner to define the box area. When the
required area is squared off, press E.
If a mistake is made, the anchor can be removed by
pressing the C key.
4. The graph will automatically be redrawn.
3 In
4 Out
The graph image will be zoomed out according to the B
FACTOR setup under the ZOOM menu.
5 Default
The graph will be displayed with default graph setting
(Xmin = -10, Xmax = 10, Xscl = 1, Ymin = -10, Ymax =
10, Yscl = 1)
6 Square
Set the same scale for X and Y axes. The Y-axis scale
is adjusted to the current X-axis scale. The graph will
be redrawn automatically.
7 Dec
Sets the screen dot as 0.1 for both axes. The graph will
then be redrawn automatically.
8 Int
Sets the screen dot as 1.0 for both axes. The graph will
then be redrawn automatically.
9 Stat
54
A zoomed-in view of the graph will be displayed, sized
according to the B FACTOR set up under the ZOOM
menu. For example, if the vertical and horizontal zoom
factors are set to “2”, then the graph will be magnified
two times. Refer to the B FACTOR segment of this
section for more information.
Displays all points of statistical data set.
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
B FACTOR
Use this menu to set the vertical and horizontal zooming factor.
The factor set under this menu directly affects the zoom rate of
the 3 In and 4 Out sub-menu tools under the ZOOM menu, as
described above.
To set the zooming factor, do the following:
1. Within the
B FACTOR menu,
press E to
activate the setup
tool.
2. When the “Zoom factor” window appears, the cursor
is automatically placed at “X_Fact=”. The default
zoom factor is 4; enter the required value here.
3. Pressing E after entering a value will switch the
cursor position to “Y_Fact=”. Enter the required
zooming factor, and press E.
4. To go back to the ZOOM menu, press the Z
key.
C POWER
1 x2
Use this zooming tool when the equation contains a
form of “x2”.
2 x–1
Use this zooming tool when the equation contains a
form of “x-1”.
3 x
Use this tool to zoom correctly when the equation
contains a form of “ x ”.
D EXP
1 10X
2 log X
Use this tool when the equation contains a form of
“10x”.
Use this tool when the equation contains a form of “log
x”.
55
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
E TRIG
1 sin X
Use this when the equation contains a sine function.
2 cos X
Use this when the equation contains a cosine function.
3 tan X
Use this when the equation contains a tangent function.
F STO
Under this menu item there is one tool that enables the storing of
graph window settings.
1 StoWin
Note:
By selecting this sub-menu item, the current graph
window setup will be stored.
The actual graph image will not be stored with this tool.
G RCL
Under this menu item there are two tools that enable the recalling
of the previous graph window setup:
56
1 RclWin
On selecting this sub-menu item, the previously stored
window setup will be recalled, and the graph will be
redrawn accordingly. If no window setup has been
stored previously, the default graph window setup will
be used.
2 PreWin
On selecting this sub-menu item, the window setup
prior to the current zoom setup will be recalled, and the
graph will be redrawn accordingly.
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
U:
Press this button to trace the graph drawn on the screen, to
obtain the X-Y coordinates:
1. While the graph is displayed,
press the U key. The
cursor appears, flashing on
the graph line, with the
present X-Y coordinates.
2. Trace the graph using the ; or ' keys. The ; key
decreases the value of x, while the ' key increases it.
3. Pressing the U key again will redraw the graph, with the
cursor at the center of the screen. If the cursor is moved
beyond the range of the screen, pressing the U key will
redraw the screen centered around the cursor.
4. When done, press the C key to escape the tracing
function.
If more than one graph is displayed on the screen, use the {
or } keys to switch the cursor from one graph to the other.
Note:
W:
If the U key is not activated, the cursor will not be bound to
the graph. Pressing the ;, ', {, or } keys will
position the free-moving flashing cursor on the graph display.
Displays the graph window setup. The setup values — the
minimum/maximum X/Y values, and X/Y-axis scale — can be
changed manually:
1. While the graph is displayed
on the screen, press the
W key. The following
window appears, with the
cursor set at “Xmin=”.
2. The required X-minimum value can be entered here. This
limits the left boundary of the graph window. For example, if
“Xmin=” is set to “0”, then the portion of the graph’s Y-axis to
the left will not be displayed.
3. Once the “Xmin=” value is entered (“0”, for example), press
E. The left limit of the graph is now set, and the cursor
moves to “Xmax=”.
57
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
4. Now the right boundary of the graph can be set. Enter the
required value here (“3”, for example), and press E.
Note:
The “Xmax=” value cannot be set equal to or smaller than the
value of “Xmin”. If so done, the calculator will display an error
message upon attempting to redraw the graph, and the graph will
not be displayed.
5. The next item “Xscl=” sets the frequency of the X-axis indices.
The default value is “1”. If, for example, the value is set to
“0.5”, then indices will be displayed on the X-axis at increments of 0.5. Enter the required “Xscl=” value (“0.5”, for
example), and press E.
6. The “Ymin=”, “Ymax=”, and “Yscl=” can be set, as was
described for “Xmin=”, “Xmax=”, and “Xscl=” above.
7. When done, press the G key to draw the graph with the
newly configured window setup.
3. Other Useful Graphing Features
":
Splits the display vertically, to show the graph on the left side of
the screen while showing the X-Y values in a table on the right.
The cursor is positioned on the table, and can be scrolled up/
down using the { or } keys.
Graph and table
Graph and equation
• When @ " are pressed on the graph screen, the graph
and table are displayed on the same screen.
• When @ " are pressed on the equation input screen,
the graph and equation are displayed on the same screen.
58
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
The following illustration shows these relationships.
Y
G
G
@"
Y
Y
@"
G
@"
• The split screen is always in the trace mode. Therefore, the
cursor pointer appears on the graph. Accordingly, the coordinate values are displayed reverse in the table and in the
equation at which the cursor pointer is located is also displayed
reversely.
• Using ; or ', move the cursor along the graph.
(Values displayed reverse in the table are also changed
accordingly.)
• When two or more graphs are displayed on the screen, the
desired graph is selected using { or }. (The table or
equation on the right of the screen is also changed accordingly.)
• The table on the split screen does not relate to the table
settings on the full-screen table.
• The table on the split screen is displayed in units of trace
movement amount based on the cursor pointer position on the
graph screen. When the full-screen table is displayed by
pressing T, a different table may appear on the screen.
• When the EXPRES or Y’ is set to ON on the FORMAT menu,
the equation or coordinates are displayed on the graph screen.
• Only equations to be graphed are displayed on the split screen.
• Press G or T on the split screen to display the fullscreen of the graph or table. To exit the split screen, press any
of other function keys.
59
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
k:
Calculations can be performed on the entered graph equation(s).
Press @ k to access. The following 6 sub-menu tools are
available:
1 Value
Note:
2 Intsct
Note:
3 Minimum
Note:
60
With this sub-menu tool, the Y value can be obtained
by entering an X value. The flashing graph cursor will
then be placed in that position on the graph. If more
than one graph equation is set, use the { or
} keys to switch to the equation you wish to work
with.
If the entered X value
is incalculable, an
error message will be
displayed. Also, if the
Y value exceeds the
calculation range, then “----” will be displayed instead.
With this tool, the intersection(s) of two or more graphs
can be found, where the flashing cursor will be placed.
When the intersection is found, then the X-Y coordinates of the intersection will be displayed at the bottom
of the screen. If there is more than one intersection,
the next intersection(s) can be found by selecting the
tool again.
If there is only one
graph equation
entered there will be
no other graph(s) to
form an intersection,
so selecting this tool
will result in an error.
Finds the minimum of the given graph, and places the
flashing cursor at that position.
If the given graph has
no minimum value,
an error message will
be displayed.
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
4 Maximum
Note:
5 X_Incpt
Note:
6 Y_Incpt
d:
Finds the maximum of the given graph, and places the
flashing cursor at that position.
If the given graph has
no maximum value,
an error message will
be displayed.
Finds an X-intercept (a crossing point of the graph on
the X-axis) of the given graph, and places the flashing
cursor at that position. If there is more than one Xintercept, the next X-intercept can be found by selecting the tool again.
If the graph has no Xintercept, an error
message will be
displayed.
Finds an Y-intercept of the given graph, and places the
flashing cursor at that position.
Note:
If the graph has no Yintercept, an error
message will be
displayed.
Note:
The result may be different when the ZOOM function is
used.
There is an extensive set of features under this menu item that
enhance the graphing capabilities of the calculator. Only the
shading function will be covered here; refer to Chapter 6 “Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard” in this manual
for more information.
To access the DRAW menu, press @ d.
An inequation can be expressed with the calculator’s graphing
capability. Here’s how:
1. Set up a simple graph within the Graph Equation window.
Enter “X2” for Y1, for example.
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Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
2. Press @, and d to enter the DRAW menu, then press
G to select G SHADE. The SHADE sub-menu appears.
3. Press 1 to select 1 SET.
The “Set shade” window
appears.
4. Using the cursor keys, move
the cursor pointer to the
appropriate position.
5. Press @ z A.
6. Press 1 to select Y1.
7. When the value is set, press
the G key. The graph will
be redrawn.
8. Let’s add another inequation,
so that the area where the
two inequality overlap can be shaded. Press the Y key,
and enter another simple graph equation such as “X + 4” for
“Y2”.
9. Now, return to the SHADE menu by pressing @ d,
and G. Press 1 to select “1 SET”.
10. Within the “Set shade” window, add the second equation at the
right of the topmost inequation. Use the ' or ; key to
position the underscore cursor, then select “Y2” using the
VARS menu.
11. Press the G to redraw the graph with the new shading
appearance.
62
Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
f:
The graph appearance can be set and verified under this menu.
Press @ f to access.
A ––––––
Displays the current FORMAT settings. The default
setting is:
OFF
(for the graph equation to be displayed
on the graph)
OFF
(for displaying numeric derivatives on
the graph)
ON
(for displaying the X/Y axis on the
graph)
OFF
(for displaying a grid on the graph)
B EXPRES
This sets whether or not graph equations are displayed
on the graph screen (in the trace mode, etc.). To
display the equations on the graph, select 1 ON by
pressing 1 at this menu item.
C Y’
The numeric derivative (dx/dy) can be displayed on the
graph screen (in the trace mode, etc.). To activate this
function, select 1 ON by pressing 1 at this menu
item.
D AXIS
The graph axis can be set invisible with this menu item.
To hide the X/Y axis of the graph, select 2 OFF by
pressing 2 at this menu item.
E GRID
The graph display can be backed with an X-Y grid. To
show the grid on the graph, select 1 ON by pressing
1 at this menu item.
Substitution feature
• The substitution feature allows you to input an equation using characters and
variables, and then substitute numeric values for the characters to draw the graph.
• The substitution feature is valid only in the rectangular coordinate system.
Using this feature, any number of numeric value sets can be substituted while
referring to the graph drawing screen. This clearly shows the changes in the graph
depending on numeric values.
For example, the graph for “Y1 = AX3 + BX2 + CX2 – D” is drawn by substituting
numeric values for variables A, B, C, and D of the equation.
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Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
• 22 kinds of variables (characters), A to Z except for R, T, X, and Y can be used for
the substitution feature.
• Up to seven variables (characters) can be used for one equation. (If the equation
contains more than seven variables (characters), up to seven characters from the
top of the equation are determined as variables and subsequent characters are
ignored.)
• If you attempt to execute an equation containing no variables, the substitution
feature becomes invalid and the error message, “NO VARIABLE”, appears on the
screen.
• To input the equation, there are the following two methods after Y has been
pressed. After the equation has been input, the same operations apply to subsequent steps.
Example
Substitute numeric values under the conditions that “Y1 = AX2 +
BX + C” and “Y2 = AX” have been input.
Equation Entry screen
The cursor pointer is located at
Y1. Drawing of both graphs Y1
and Y2 is valid.
1. Press @ ,.
The substitution feature
screen will appear. The
equation on which the cursor
pointer is located and its
variables are displayed on
the right of the screen.
If variables (characters) contain no values, the graph is not
drawn.
If independent memories A to C contain any numeric values,
the graph is drawn based on these values.
* If the equation (in this example, Y1) on which the cursor is
located contains no variables, the substitution feature screen
will not appear.
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Chapter 4: Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard
2. Press 2 E.
(2 is input to A.)
The graph for “Y1 = 2X2” is
drawn. (Since B and C have
no values, they are ignored.)
At this time, the graph for Y2
is also drawn. Y2 also uses variable A which is used in Y1.
Therefore, the drawing of the graph for Y2 is also valid.
* If you need to draw only the graph for Y2, it is necessary to
change variables (characters) or make the graph drawing for
Y1 invalid.
3. Press 1 E.
(1 is input to B.)
The graph is changed from
“Y1 = 2X2” to “Y1 = 2X2 +
1X”.
4. Press _ 3 E.
(-3 is input to C.)
Now, the graph for “Y1 = 2X2
+ 1X – 3” is drawn on the
screen.
Next, change variable A from 2 to 5 and see how the graph
changes.
1. Press { { 5 E.
(The cursor is moved from C
to A and 5 is input.)
The slope of the graph
becomes sharp.
* Move the cursor accordingly and substitute other numeric
values for variables to view how the graph changes.
* The trace function cannot be used in the substitution feature.
(When U is pressed, the full-screen graph will appear.)
65
Chapter 5
Advanced Calculations —
Advanced Keyboard
Note: To try the examples in the chapter, it is required that the Advanced Keyboard is
already set up by the user. To learn how to set up the Advanced Keyboard, read
“Changing the Keyboard” in Chapter 1.
1. Try it!
The Mendocino Tree, a coast redwood growing in Montgomery Woods State
Reserve in California, is known to be the tallest living tree in the world. You are
to find out how tall the tree is by using the following factors:
• The distance from you to the bottom of the
tree is exactly 505.8 feet, and the tree
stands vertically.
• The angle of elevation between the top
and the bottom of the tree is 36 degrees
If the base length of the right triangle is 505.8 feet, and the angle
of elevation is 36 degrees, then the following expression can be
derived:
the height of the Mendocino tree (ft.) = 505.8 ft. × tan(36°)
CONCEPT
1. Verify/change the calculator’s angle unit.
2. Use the calculator’s trigonometric function key on the
Advanced keyboard to enter/perform the calculation.
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
PROCEDURE
1. Since the angle of elevation is measured in degrees, the
calculator’s angle setting will
need to be matched with
that. Press @ ; to
bring up the SETUP menu.
2. On the right side of the
SETUP menu, the current
setup will be displayed.
Make sure that the top line is
indicated as Deg (i.e.,
degrees). If not, then the
angle system will need to be
changed. Press B to
select B DRG, then press
1 to select 1 Deg.
3. Now, let’s work on the actual calculation part. Press the #
key to enter the Calculation screen, and press C to clear
any screen entries.
4. Press 505.8 | t
36. Press E to execute
the calculation.
2. Various Calculation Keys
The calculator’s Advanced Keyboard is designed so that various advanced-level
expressions can be written quickly with few strokes of the keys.
Note:
The default angle unit for the Advanced mode is radians. The
examples hereafter will therefore feature the radian angle system,
unless otherwise specified.
The keys with each associated math function are described
below. Refer to the usage diagram in the Appendix for the
parameters for each sub-menu item.
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
s
Enters a sine function to be used in a trigonometric expression.
c
Enters a cosine function to be used in a trigonometric expression.
t
Enters a tangent function to be used in a trigonometric expression.
l
Enters a common logarithm function.
I
Enters a natural logarithm function.
Example
• Calculate In e4.
I @ @ 4 E.
y
Raises the preceding value to the 2nd power.
If no preceding value exists, then the base value will be left blank.
d
Enters a mixed number, with all elements left blank. If a preceding
number exists, then the number is assumed as the integer part of
the mixed number. (See page 37.)
b
Enters a fraction. Sets the preceding value as its numerator while
the denominator left blank. (See page 38.)
If no preceding value exists, then both the numerator and the
denominator will be left blank.
a
Raises the preceding value to a power. The exponent value can
subsequently be entered.
If no preceding value exists, then both the base and the exponent
area will be left blank. (See page 38.)
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
The following math functions can be accessed with the use of @ key. To learn the
basic steps of how to access the second function of each key, refer to the section
“Second Function Key” of Chapter 2.
s
Enters an arcsine function to be used in a trigonometric expression.
Example
• Calculate arcsine 1.
@ s 1 E.
c
Enters an arccosine function to
be used in a trigonometric
expression.
Example
• Calculate arccosine 0.5.
@ c 0.5 E.
t
Enters an arctangent function to be used in a trigonometric
expression.
Example
• Calculate arctangent 1.
@ t 1 E.
Note:
Expressions with inverse trigonometric functions evaluate in the
following ranges.
θ = sin-1x, θ = tan-1x
Deg: 0 ≤ |θ | ≤ 90
π
Rad: 0 ≤ |θ | ≤ 2
Grad: 0 ≤ |θ | ≤ 100
θ = cos-1x
Deg: 0 ≤ |θ | ≤ 180
Rad: 0 ≤ |θ | ≤ π
Grad: 0 ≤ |θ | ≤ 200
0
Raises 10 to the power of x.
@
Enters the Euler Number e (2.71…) to a power. The cursor will
then be placed at the exponent.
Example
• Obtain a value of e3.
@ @ 3 E.
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
x
Raises a preceding value to the power of -1. If no value is
preceded, then the cursor will be placed at the base.
_
Enters an ath root of a base. When a value precedes, then the
value will be incorporated as the index number. Otherwise, both
entry areas will be left blank.
+
Enters a square root; sets the cursor at the base entry area.
$
Enters π (3.14…).
~
Sets the following value as θ, assuming the preceding value is the
radius of the polar coordinates.
#
Enters i (representing
-1 ), to make imaginary or combination
numbers.
3. Calculations Using MATH Menu
The Advanced keyboard has considerably more MATH menu items to choose from
than that of the Basic keyboard:
A CALC
Contains sub-menu tools for advanced calculations. To access
each sub-menu item, make sure that this A CALC menu item is
selected. Pressing the ' cursor key will extend the cursor to
the sub-menu items. Items can then be highlighted by scrolling
with {, }, ; or ', and selected by pressing
E, or simply use the short cut key stroke (i.e., select 01 by
pressing 0 and 1).
A sub-menu item with open parenthesis will need to be completed
by the closing parenthesis; failure to do so will result in an error.
01 log2
70
log2 value
Enters a base-2
logarithm (log2).
Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
02 2X
2value
Raises 2 to a power. Sets the cursor to exponent.
03 fmin(
fmin(equation, lower limit of x, upper limit of x)
Returns the value of
variable x when the
equation Y has the
minimum value within
the specified range of
x.
04 fmax(
fmax(equation, lower limit of x, upper limit of x)
Return the value of variable x when the equation Y has
the maximum value within the specified range of x.
05 d/dx(
d/dx(equation, value of x [, tolerance])
Returns derivative of
equation Y at the
specified X value
using the tolerance (if
not specified, default
value is 1E–5).
06 ∫
∫ equation, lower limit, upper limit [, tolerance] dx
Calculates an integral
value of equation Y
from the lower limit to
the upper limit using
the specified tolerance (if not specified,
default value is 1E–5). Use in conjunction with the 07
dx sub-menu item.
• Press the keys as follows in the Equation edit mode.
MA062{8'(
X a 3 ' - 0.5 X y +
6 ) , 0.001 M A 0 7
E
07 dx
Enters a differential “dx” in an integration expression.
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
08 ∑(
72
∑(expression, initial value, end value [, increment])
Returns the cumulative sum of a given
expression from an
initial value to an end
value in the specified
increment value (if
not specified, default increment is 1).
09 sec
sec value
Enters a secant
function to be used in
a trigonometric
expression.
10 csc
csc value
Enters a cosecant (cosec) function to be used in a
trigonometric expression.
11 cot
cot value
Enters a cotangent (cotan) function to be used in a
trigonometric expression.
12 sec-1
sec-1 value
Enters an inverse
secant.
13 csc-1
csc-1 value
Enters an inverse
cosecant.
14 cot-1
cot-1 value
Enters an inverse cotangent.
15 sinh
sinh value
Enters a hyperbolic
sine.
16 cosh
cosh value
Enters a hyperbolic cosine.
17 tanh
tanh value
Enters a hyperbolic tangent.
Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
B NUM
18 sinh-1
sinh-1 value
Enters an inverse
hyperbolic sine.
19 cosh-1
cosh-1 value
Enters an inverse
hyperbolic cosine.
20 tanh-1
tanh-1 value
Enters an inverse hyperbolic tangent.
Use the sub-menu items below to convert a value. Refer to
“Chapter 3: Basic Calculation — Basic Keyboard” to learn how
these tools can be used.
1 abs(
2 round(
Returns the absolute value of a given number.
Returns a rounded value of a given term in parentheses. A rounding point can be specified.
3 ipart
Returns only the integer part of a decimal number.
4 fpart
Returns only the fraction part of a decimal number.
5 int
Rounds a decimal number to the closest integer.
6 min(
Finds and returns the minimum value within a list of
numbers.
7 max(
Finds and returns the maximum value within a list of
numbers.
8 lcm(
Returns the least common multiple of two integers.
9 gcd(
Returns the greatest common divisor of two integers.
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
C PROB
These sub-menu items are useful for probability calculations.
Refer to “Chapter 3: Basic Calculations — Basic Keyboard” for
details. A comprehensive list of menu items can be found in the
Appendix.
1 random
2 rndInt(
Returns a list of random integers, between a minimum
and a maximum value.
3 nPr
Returns the total number of permutations for selecting
“r” items out of “n” items.
4 nCr
Returns the total number of combinations for selecting
“r” items out of “n” items.
5!
D CONV
Returns a random number form between 0 and 1.
Returns a factorial.
These tools deal with conversions between different angle units
and between rectangular and polar coordinates.
1 →deg
value (sexagesimal number) →deg
Takes a number in sexagesimal form, and converts it
into a decimal number.
2 →dms
value (degrees) →dms
Takes a number in decimal form (in degrees), and
converts it into a sexagesimal number. To enter a
number in sexagesimal form, use items in the ANGLE
sub-menu, described in Chapter 3.
Rectangular/polar coordinate conversion
This calculator is equipped with rectangular coordinates and polar
coordinates conversion capabilities.
x
y
74
r
θ
Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
Rectangular to polar coordinate conversion functions
Conversion formulas: r = (x2 + y2)1/2, θ = tan-1(y/x)
3 xy→r(
xy→r(x coordinate, y coordinate)
Returns polar
coordinate radius
value from X-Y
rectangular coordinates.
θ(
4 xy→θ
xy→θ
θ(x coordinate, y coordinate)
Returns polar
coordinate θ value
from X-Y rectangular
coordinates.
The following ranges
are used to find θ.
Degree mode: 0 ≤ |θ| ≤ 180
Radian mode: 0 ≤ |θ| ≤ π
Gradient mode: 0 ≤ |θ| ≤ 200
Polar to rectangular coordinate conversion functions
Conversion formulas: x = rcosθ, y = rsinθ
θ→x(
5 rθ
θ→x(r coordinate, θ coordinate)
rθ
Returns rectangular
coordinate X value
from r-θ polar
coordinates.
θ→y(
6 rθ
θ→y(r coordinate, θ coordinate)
rθ
Returns rectangular
coordinate Y value
from r-θ polar
coordinates.
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02.8.23, 1:56 PM
Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
E ANGLE
F INEQ
76
Use these tools to enter the symbols to specify angle units.
1°
Inserts a symbol for “degrees”.
2’
Inserts a symbol for “minutes”.
3”
Inserts a symbol for “seconds”.
4r
Enters an “r” symbol, to enter a number in radians.
5g
Enters an “g” symbol, to enter a number in gradients.
Use the equality/inequality figures to compare two values. These
sub-item tools return 1 (true) or 0 (false).
1=
Tests whether a
preceding value and
a following value are
equal.
2
Tests whether a
preceding value and a following value are not equal.
3>
Tests whether a preceding value is larger than a
following value.
4
Tests whether a
preceding value is
larger than OR equal
to a following value.
5<
Tests whether a
preceding value is smaller than a following value.
6
Tests whether a preceding value is smaller than OR
equal to a following value.
Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
G LOGIC
Use the LOGIC sub-menu items to perform boolean operations.
In the N-base calculation mode (binary, octal, decimal and
hexadecimal), A LOGIC will directly appear when M is
pressed.
The following is the truth table of the combination of input A and
B:
A B
A and B
A or B
A xor B
A xnor B
A
notA
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
The following examples show the answer screen when
executing a boolean operation for AND, OR, XOR,
XNOR between “1100” and “1010” in binary mode.
Compare the results (binary) to the above table.
1. Press # @ V A E to enter the binary,
octal, and hexadecimal calculation mode.
2. Press } } } to select the binary mode.
1 and
value A and value B
Enters an “AND” logic
figure.
1100 M 1
1010 E
2 or
value A or value B
Enters an “OR” logic
figure.
1100 M 2
1010 E
3 not
not value
Enters a “NOT” logic
figure.
M 3 10
E
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
4 neg
Note:
“4 neg” menu
appears only in the N-base calculation (binary, octal,
decimal and hexadecimal) mode.
5 xor
value A xor value B
Enters an ExclusiveOR (xor) logic figure.
1100 M 5
1010 E
6 xnor
H COMPLX
neg value
Enters a “neg” logic
figure.
M41
E
value A xnor value B
Enters an ExclusiveNOR (xnor) logic
figure.
1100 M 6
1010 E
In order to use the sub-menu items within the COMPLX menu,
the calculator must be set up to handle complex numbers.
Otherwise the result will be a data type error.
Refer to the section “6. SETUP Menu” in this chapter for changing/verifying the calculator’s setup to enable complex number
answers, in either rectangular or polar coordinates.
1 conj(
78
conj(complex number)
Returns the complex
conjugate of the
specified complex
number (or list of
complex numbers).
Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
2 real(
3 image(
real(complex number)
Returns the real part
of a complex number
(or list of complex
numbers).
image(complex number)
Returns the imaginary part of a
complex number (or
list of complex
numbers).
4 abs(
abs(complex number)
Returns the absolute
value of a complex
number (or list of
complex numbers).
5 arg(
arg(complex number)
Takes the coordinates (x + yi), and
returns the θ.
Calculations using complex numbers
To calculate using complex numbers, select the sub-menu item 4
x ± yi or 5 r ∠ θ in the F ANSWER of the SETUP menu items.
The initial screen for the complex number calculation mode is the
same as for the real number mode.
Complex numbers can be noted using either 4 x ± yi (rectangular
coordinates) or 5 r ∠ θ (polar coordinates).
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
Example
• Calculate (3 + 4i) × (4 – 6i)
Note:
It is possible to input complex
numbers (i) in the real number
mode, however an error
message will return.
Functions available for complex number calculations
The following function keys are available for complex number
calculations without the limits existing in the real number calculations.
y, x, l, I, 0, @, a, +,
_
The following MATH menu functions are also available for
complex number calculations.
abs(, round(, ipart, fpart, int
4. More Variables: Single Value Variables and
LIST Variables
Additional single value variables (from A to Z, and θ) may be accessed. In addition, six
LIST variables (from L1 to L6) are readily accessible through the second function of
the Advanced Keyboard.
To save a list of numbers, follow the procedure below:
1. On the Calculation screen (#), create a list of numbers (“1,
2, 3”, in this example). Separate numbers with a comma
(,), and group the numbers with braces ({ and }).
2. Press R, then select
one of the six LIST variables.
To store the list in “L1”, press
@ 1 to call up the
LIST variable.
3. Pressing E will store the
list in the LIST variable. Note
that this procedure will
overwrite the list previously
stored in the LIST variable.
80
Refer to Chapter 9 “LIST Features” to learn more about how LIST
variables can be utilized.
Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
5. TOOL Menu
The TOOL menu contains items to help calculating in different number systems, as
well as to help solve both linear and polynomial equation. Press @ V to
access the TOOL menu. Press the # key (or @ q) to escape from the
menu.
A NBASE
Calculations can be performed in different number base systems,
while simultaneously converting the calculation result into
hexadecimal, decimal, octal, and binary systems.
1. While this menu item A
NBASE is selected, press
the E key. The NBASE
tool opens, with the cursor
set at HEX: (hexadecimal).
2. Type 1B | 9, for example. When entering the hexadecimal
B, simply press the B key; using the A key will call up
the variable B instead.
3. When done entering the
hexadecimal expression,
press E. The calculation
result will be displayed in
three other number base
systems, as well as in
hexadecimal format.
Note:
Numerical values in binary, octal, and hexadecimal modes can be
expressed in the following number of digits:
Binary: 16 digits
Octal: 10 digits
Hexadecimal: 10 digits
If you enter a number exceeding the range specified above for
calculations or conversions, the calculator will return an error.
If the answer exceeds the above range, the calculator will also
return an error.
Decimals can be used for DEC mode only (. cannot be used
in the other modes). If you convert decimal values to binary,
octal, or hexadecimal number, the decimal part is discarded and
only the integer part is converted.
When numerical values of binary, octal, and hexadecimal modes
are negative, the display is switched to complements of 2.
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
B SYSTEM
With this tool, linear equations containing up to 6 unknown values
(i.e., ax + by + cz + du + ev + fw = g) can be solved.
1. Press B to select B SYSTEM, and select the number of
unknown values. For example, press 2 if values x and y
are unknown.
2. In the next screen, an
equation ax + by = c is
displayed, with an entry
table for the known values —
a, b, and c.
3. Enter 2 sets of the known
values, as shown in the
figure. Pressing E at
each entry will store the
value, and sets the cursor at
the next entry area.
4. When done entering the
known values, press @
h. The calculation result
will be displayed on the next
screen.
Pressing C will bring back the previous entry screen.
5. To go back to the TOOL menu to perform another calculation,
press @ V.
C POLY
This tool is designed so that quadratic (ax2 + bx + c = 0) or cubic
(ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0) equation may be solved.
1. Press C to select C
POLY, and select the degree.
For example, press 2 if
a quadratic equation is
desired.
2. In the next screen, an equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is displayed,
with an entry area for the known values — a, b, and c.
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Chapter 5: Advanced Calculations — Advanced Keyboard
3. Enter the values, as shown
in the screen to the right.
Pressing E at each
entry will store the value,
and sets the cursor at the
next entry area.
4. When done, press @ h to execute the calculation.
The results (i.e. the x-intersects) will be displayed.
5. To enter a different set of
numbers for a, b, and c,
press C to go back to
the previous screen. To
select a different degree of
polynomial, press @
V to go back to the TOOL menu.
•
If the solution cannot be displayed on the screen, a symbol will
appear at the bottom left corner of the screen. Press } to
scroll the screen.
6. SETUP Menu
Use the SETUP menu to verify the calculator’s current setup for mathematical and
scientific base units and the global editing style, as well as to change each
configuration.
It is very important that each item within this menu is properly set
up, or calculation results may not turn out as expected. For
example, entering 1 × sin90 in the Calculation screen will result
as either “1” (when set to degree mode), or “0.893996663” (when
set to radian mode), or “0.98768834” (when set to gradient
mode). Refer to the “SETUP Menu” in Chapter 2 to learn about
each setup configuration.
83
Chapter 6
Advanced Graphing Features
— Advanced Keyboard
In this chapter, some real-life situations are featured. You are encouraged to modify
the examples to make your own graph schemes.
Note: To try the examples in this chapter, it is required that the Advanced Keyboard is
already set up by the user. To learn how to set up the Advanced Keyboard, read
“Changing the Keyboard” in Chapter 1.
It should be noted that the following examples assume that the angle mode is
set to Rad (radian), the default angle unit for the Advanced Keyboard. If set to
degree or gradient, some unexpected results will be obtained.
1. Try it!
You have just opened your own bank
account, with an initial deposit amount of
$2,000. Suppose your monthly income is
$3,000, and you will spend 60 percent of
what you have in the account every month,
how much will your balance be after one
year? How much will you have in the
account, 6 months from now?
The example can be expressed as a sequential equation, as
follows:
un = un–1 × (1 – 0.6) + 3000
where un is the balance of the current month and un–1 is the
balance of the previous month, and n is the month.
84
Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
CONCEPT
1. Grasp the idea of sequential equations.
2. Use the graph tracing function to obtain approximate values.
PROCEDURE
1. First, let us set the calculator
to the appropriate graphing
coordinate mode. Press
@ ; to enter the
SETUP menu, press E
to select E COORD, then
press 4 to select 4 Seq, and press C.
2. We will use the “Time”
sequential graph type within
the FORMAT menu. Press
@ f, press G
to select G TYPE, and 2
to select 2 TIME.
3. Then press Y.
The Graph Equation Entry window will open.
4. Enter a new equation set
u(n-1) × (1 - 0.6) + 3000 for
u(n)=. Press @ u
(7) to enter u and
press X for n. Press
E when done entering.
Note:
Press C to clear the previous entry.
Using a capitalized “U” or “N” here will result in an error upon
pressing the G key.
5. On the second entry row
(u(nMin) =), enter 2000,
then press E.
The figure is automatically
enclosed by braces.
6. The v and the w entry sets will not be necessary in this case,
so press C to clear, then press E to move one row
down. Repeat until the four unnecessary entry rows are
cleared.
85
Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
7. Press G to draw the graph.
8. If the line is outside of the
graph’s range, press Z
then 1 to select
automatic zoom.
This will only display a small
portion of the graph, so the
graph’s range will need to be changed.
9. Press W. Find nMax=
and change the value to 15
(default: 10). Next, find
Xmax= and change the
value to 15 too (default: 10).
10. Press the G key again.
11. Use the graph trace function
by pressing U. As '
is pressed several times, the
n value (=X value, since the
graph is set to “Time” format)
increases, and the Y value
(the balance of your account) will change. Find the
Y value when the n value is
6 (after 6 months) as well as
the value when n=12 (after 12 months = 1 year).
You can obtain the value directly from the CALC menu.
1. Press @ k and
select 1 VALUE.
n= will appear on the bottom
line of the screen.
2. Enter the n value of 6, and
press E.
3. Follow the procedure 1 to 2 to obtain the Y value for 12.
86
Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
2. Graphing Parametric Equations
A two-dimensional parametric equation assumes that both X and Y are represented
by functions in a third variable T. When set in parametric graphing mode, the calculator
automatically sets up the Graph Equation Entry screen to take one set of X and Y per
each graph, with the equation’s right side variable to be set as “T”.
Example
• Draw a graph: x(t) = 16cos(t), y(t) = 9sin(t).
1. Press @ ; to enter the SETUP menu.
2. Press E to select E
COORD, then 2 to
select 2 Param.
Be sure that the other
settings are as shown on the
right.
To exit the SETUP menu, press C.
3. Press Y to go to the Graph Equation Entry window.
4. Enter 16cos(t) for X1T=.
Press E when done
entering.
5. Enter 9sin(t) for Y1T=. Press
E when done entering.
Note:
The right side variable is automatically set to “T”. When the X
key is pressed within the Graph Equation Entry window, it will
enter the variable “T”.
6. Press G to draw the graph.
7. If the graph line extends
beyond the screen, press
Z and select A ZOOM
then 1 AUTO.
Use 3 IN or 4 OUT of the A
ZOOM to adjust the drawing size.
You can also set the drawing size in the WINDOW menu by
determining the maximum and minimum values of T, X and Y.
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3. Polar Graphing
Polar coordinates are a different method of specifying a point in two dimensions; the
location of the point is described by the distance from the X-Y intersect “r”, and its
elevation angle “θ”.
r
θ
Example
• Draw a graph: r = 16cos(θ)sin(θ).
1. Press @ ;.
The SETUP menu appears.
2. Press E to select E
COORD, then press 3
to select 3 Polar. Be sure
that the other settings are as
shown on the right.
To exit the SETUP menu,
press C.
3. Press Y.
The Graph Equation Entry window will appear.
4. At the first entry row R1=,
enter 16cos(θ) × sin(θ).
Press E.
5. Press G to draw the
graph.
Press Z, then press
6 to select 6 Square.
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4. Graphing Sequences
The sequence graph mode can store and simultaneously draw three graph equations
u(n), v(n), and w(n).
Variables u, v, and w are entered as @ u (or v, w).
Use X to enter the natural number n.
A sequence is an ordered set of numbers with a defined relationship. The recursive sequential formulas can be described as
un = un-1 + d
un = un-1 × r
and/or
where un is the n-th term, d is the common difference, and r is the
ratio. In many occasions however, the term before un-1 (i.e., one
term before un) is not known. In such cases, the explicit formulas
must then be derived as:
un = u1 + d × (n - 1)
un = u1 × rn-1
and/or
where un is the n-th term, u1 is the first term of the sequence, d is
the common difference, and r is the ratio.
A sequence {2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ...} may suggest the following
recursive sequence expression:
un = 2 × 2n-1
or it may also suggest the following non-recursive expression:
u n = 2n
The calculator can plot sequential graphs in three different
schemes, as follows:
n-based (Time)
The un values will be plotted
against the n value.
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phase-based (uv, uw, or vw)
The un values will be plotted against the vn values (uv).
(n–1)-based (Web)
The un values will be plotted against the un-1 value.
Note:
• When un–2 is incorporated in to the equation, the u(nMin)
requires two values: the minimum, and the second smallest. For
example, you will need {0, 1} in the u(nMin) entry row if u(n–1)
+ u(n–2) is entered as the equation.
• When Web is selected, n – 2 cannot be referred to. n also
cannot be directly referred to; entering u(n–1) + n will result in
an error.
Before entering graphing sequences, the calculator’s graphing
coordinates will need to be set up:
1. Press @ ;. The SETUP menu appears.
2. Press E to select E COORD, then press 4 to select 4
Seq.
3. Press C to exit the SETUP menu.
Example 1: n-based Graphing (Time)
• Draw a sequential graph of un = 2 × 2n–1.
First, make sure that the graph coordinate mode is set to
sequential (see above.)
1. Press @ f to open the FORMAT menu. The FORMAT
menu allows user to change the graph configurations.
2. When the menu appears, select the item G TYPE.
3. Press 2 to select 2
Time.
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4. Now, go to the Graph Equation Entry window by pressing
Y.
The cursor is set at the first line u(n); pressing C will clear
any previous entry, as well as to put the cursor at the right side
of the equation.
5. Enter 2 × 2n-1. Use the X
key to enter n. When done,
press E. The cursor
moves down to the second
row.
6. In the entry area u(nMin)=,
enter the minimum value of
the n, 1, then press E.
7. Press the G key.
8. Press Z, then press
1 to select 1 Auto
(automatic zoom).
9. Press the U key, then
use the ' key to trace the graph.
Example 2: Phase-based Graphing (uv)
• Compare 2 × 0.9n-1 with the previously entered sequence.
Phase-based graphing requires a set of two sequential equations.
Since we already have one entered as above, we will create
another one here, but first the sequential graph format will need
to be set to uv.
1. Press @ f to enter the FORMAT menu, then press
G to select G TYPE.
2. Select uv by pressing 3.
3. Press Y to go to the
Graph Equation Entry
window.
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The calculator can accept up to three sequential equation
entries. We will use the v set, since the u set already has an
entry. Move the cursor down to the v(n) entry area, and press
C.
4. Enter 2 × 0.9n-1, then press
E.
The cursor will be set to the
fourth entry row v(nMin=).
5. Press C, then enter 1.
6. Press the G key to draw
the graph, then zoom the
graph so that it be comes
visible (Z, 1 Auto).
7. Use the U function to
trace the graph. Press the ' key to trace the plotted graph
values.
When w, the third sequential equation set is entered, it can also
be compared with the two other equations; simply set the TYPE
under the FORMAT menu to either 4 uw to compare the first set
with the third, or 5 vw to compare the second and the third.
Note: Comparing a sequence with an empty set will result in an
error. If the v set is to be used, then the equation entry rows
will need to have appropriate entries.
Example 3: n-1-based Graphing (Web)
• Compare the u(n–1) value against the u(n) value of u(n-1) + 100.
This particular graph equation requires an index to the previous
term (un-1).
1. Press @ f to enter
the FORMAT menu, then
press G to select G
TYPE.
2. Select 1 Web by pressing
1.
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3. Press the Y key to go to the Graph Equation Entry
window.
4. At the first equation entry
row, enter u(n - 1) + 100.
When done entering, press
E.
5. At the next entry row, make
sure that it has the starting value “0”.
6. Bring the cursor down, and clear the rest of the four rows.
7. Press G, then press Z, 1 Auto to view the graph.
Two diagonal parallel lines should appear; the top line represents the n value, while the
n–1 value is represented by
the line below.
8. Press U to trace the
graph. As ' is pressed,
you will see the traced points
connected with lines, indicating the comparison between the n
and n–1 values.
5. The CALC Function
The CALC function utilizes the entered graph equation to calculate values. In
conjunction with the 4 graph coordinates, it can be called up anywhere. Note however
that the CALC function will not do anything if no graph equation has been entered or
specified.
The following is an example that uses the previously entered
polar graph equations above.
1. First, verify the graph
coordinate mode by pressing
@ ;; check to see if
E COORD is set to Polar. If
not, this will need to be
changed accordingly. Also,
make sure the angle unit B DRG is set to Rad. Otherwise the
graph will not be drawn correctly.
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2. Press Y to verify the
previously entered polar
graph equation, then press
G to draw the graph.
Adjust the view by using
Z menu items.
3. Press @ k.
4. Press 1 to select 1
Value. The graph is drawn
back on the screen again,
with the θ= prompt visible at
the bottom left side of the screen.
5. Enter the θ value at the
prompt. Enter π, for example.
Be aware that θ cannot be
more than 2π (2π radians =
360 degrees).
6. Upon pressing E, the radian r coordinate will be calculated.
Note:
Advanced
keyboard
specific submenus
7 Inflec
When coordinate system is Polar, Param or Seq, only 1 Value is
selectable in the CALC menu.
See Chapter 4 “Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard” on
pages 60 to 61 for details of the other sub-menu tools available.
Calculates the inflection point of the given graph and moves the
cursor to that point.
Example
1. Enter the graph equation
Y1 = x3 – 3x2 + 2.
2. Press @ k 7.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
6. Format Setting
You can set up the Graph screen format from the
FORMAT menu.
Press @ f to display the Graph format
menu.
Advanced keyboard
specific sub-menus
Note:
A ––––––
G TYPE appears only when the sequence coordinate graph mode
is selected.
Displays the current FORMAT settings. The default setting is:
OFF
(for the graph equation to be displayed on the
graph)
OFF
(for displaying numeric derivatives on the graph)
ON
B EXPRES
(for displaying the X/Y axis on the graph)
OFF
(for displaying a grid on the graph)
RectCoord
(for displaying the cursor location)
This sets whether or not graph equations are displayed on the
graph screen (in the trace mode, etc.). To display the equations
on the graph, select 1 ON by pressing 1 at this menu item.
C Y’
The numeric derivative (dx/dy) can be displayed on the graph
screen (in the trace mode, etc.). To activate this function, select 1
ON by pressing 1 at this menu item.
D AXIS
The graph axis can be set invisible with this menu item. To hide
the X/Y axis of the graph, select 2 OFF by pressing 2 at this
menu item.
E GRID
The graph display can be backed with an X-Y grid. To show the
grid on the graph, select 1 ON by pressing 1 at this menu
item.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
F CURSOR
The coordinate system that indicates the location selected by the
trace or other function can be selected from 1 RectCoord
(Rectangular coordinates) or 2 PolarCoord (Polar coordinates)
(In the parametric system, the T indication is added.)
G TYPE
This menu is only active when the sequence coordinate graph
mode is selected in the SETUP menu. The G TYPE menu will not
appear in the other modes.
1 Web
A web graph plot mode where x = u(n-1) and y = u(n).
2 Time
Time graph plot mode where x = n and y = u(n), v(n),
w(n). (default)
3 uv
A uv mode where x = u(n) and y = v(n).
4 uw
A uw mode where x = u(n) and y = w(n).
5 vw
A vw mode where x = v(n) and y = w(n).
Note:
u(n), v(n) and w(n) indicate the n-th term of the
sequences.
7. Zoom Functions
Displays the ZOOM menu. Within the ZOOM menu,
various preferences can be set for the graph
appearance on zooming in and out.
Advanced
keyboard
specific submenus
See Chapter 4 “Basic Graphing Features — Basic Keyboard” on
pages 53 to 56 for details of the other menu items and their submenu items.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
D EXP
2ex
4 In X
Use this tool when the equation contains a form of “ex”.
Use this tool when the equation contains a form of “In
x”.
E TRIG
4 sin–1 X
Use this when the equation contains an arc sine
function.
5 cos–1 X
Use this when the equation contains an arc cosine
function.
6 tan–1 X
Use this when the equation contains an arc tangent
function.
1 sinh X
Use this when the equation contains a hyperbolic sine
function.
2 cosh X
Use this when the equation contains a hyperbolic
cosine function.
3 tanh X
Use this when the equation contains a hyperbolic
tangent function.
F HYP
4 sinh-1 X
Use this when the equation contains an inverse
hyperbolic sine function.
5 cosh-1 X
Use this when the equation contains an inverse
hyperbolic cosine function.
6 tanh-1 X
Use this when the equation contains an inverse
hyperbolic tangent function.
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8. Setting a Window
The W key displays the graph window setup. The display will differ according to
the selected coordinate system. See also Chapter 4 “Basic Graphing Features —
Basic Keyboard” on pages 57 to 58 for details of rectangular coordinate system
settings.
Rectangular coordinate system
Xmin/Xmax
Xscale
Ymin/Ymax
Yscale
Minimum and maximum values
of x-axis, respectively
Scale of x-axis
Minimum and maximum values
of y-axis, respectively
Scale of y-axis
Parametric coordinate system
Tmin/Tmax
Tstep
Others
Minimum and maximum values
for T, respectively
Cursor pointer step value for
tracing
Same as rectangular coordinate
system
Polar coordinate system
θmin/θ
θmax
θstep
Others
Minimum and maximum angle
for θ, respectively
Cursor pointer step value for
tracing
Same as rectangular coordinate
system
Sequential coordinate system
nMin/nMax
Minimum and maximum value
for n, respectively
PlotStart
Starting value of sequential
variable n
PlotStep
Increments of sequential
variable n
Others
Same as rectangular coordinate system
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
9. Tables
The calculator enables you to illustrate the changes using the equation and graph you
have input. It also has tables for showing a list of X and Y values. Each column item
can display up to 7 digits, including a sign and/or a decimal point.
There are four kinds of tables available corresponding to the coordinate system.
Rectangular coordinate system
• The variable X is displayed in
the left end column.
• The columns Y1 to Y3 are
displayed on the first screen.
• Press ; ' to
horizontally scroll the table. (The variable X is always displayed
in the left end column.)
• The 10-digit value in the column where the cursor is currently
located is displayed on the bottom line of the screen.
• Move the cursor using ; ' { }.
• Non-input equation numbers and equations invalid for graphing
will not be displayed in the above table.
Parametric coordinate system
• The variable T is displayed in
the left end column.
• The columns X1T, Y1T, and
X2T are displayed on the first
screen.
• Press ; ' to horizontally scroll the table.
• The 10-digit value in the column where the cursor is currently
located is displayed on the bottom line of the screen.
• Move the cursor using ; ' { }.
• Non-input equation numbers and equations invalid for graphing
will not be displayed in the above table.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
Polar coordinate system
• The variable θ is displayed in
the left end column.
• The columns θ, R1 to R3 are
displayed on the first screen.
• Press ; ' to
horizontally scroll the table.
• The 10-digit value in the column where the cursor is currently
located is displayed on the bottom line of the screen.
• The cursor can be moved using ; ' { }.
• Non-input equation numbers and equations invalid for graphing
will not be displayed in the above table.
Sequential coordinate system
• The variable n is displayed in
the left end column.
• Tables values u(n), v(n), and
w (n) are simultaneously
displayed.
• The 10-digit value in the column where the cursor is currently
located is displayed on the bottom line of the screen.
• The cursor can be moved using ; ' { }.
• Non-input equation numbers and equations invalid for graphing
will not be displayed in the above table.
Setting a table
• To display the table, press T.
• Table setting allows you set how to input data for a table.
• Press @ y to enter
the table setting screen.
• The cursor is initially located
at Auto, showing the variable
input method.
Auto:
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Automatically creates a table based on the graph equations and
given TableStart and TableStep values.
Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
User:
Displays a blank table. As you input values for variable columns,
table values are automatically calculated by the equation. Thus,
although TableStart and TableStep inputs can be made when
selecting User, set values will be ignored.
• Press ; or ' to switch between Auto and User.
• TableStart is a start value of the variable in the table, and
TableStep is a step value of the variable. Both are numeric values.
Example
Automatically create a table starting from -5 with a step of 1 in the
X-Y coordinate after equations, based on “Y1 = X”, “Y2 = X2”, and
“Y3 = -X2 + 3”.
1. Press @ y and
}_5E1
E.
2. Press T.
* If the cursor is on the top or bottom line of the table, { or
} can still be used. The table contents will move to become
visible in the display area.
Example
Create a table in the User mode under the above conditions.
1. Press @ y and
'E}0E
1 E.
2. Press T.
Blank table will appear.
3. Press 2 E _ 3
E to enter X values.
* An automatically created table in the User mode cannot be scrolled vertically.
Note:
While the table is in the User mode, a selected row can
be deleted by pressing D.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
10. The DRAW Function
With the DRAW function, lines, circles, graphs, and pixel points can be added to the
graph window. The DRAW menu also contains configuration tools for the ordinary
graphs entered in the Graph Equation Entry window: line types, shading, and visibility
status of each graph.
Press @ d to enter the DRAW menu.
Note:
A DRAW
When entering coordinates, the DRAW function assumes that
rectangular coordinates will be entered. The exception to this is
for PxlON(, PxlOFF(, PxlCHG(, and PxlTST(, all within the B
POINT menu item.
The tools in this menu add lines, circles, additional graphs and
text on the graph screen.
The tools below can be accessed from the GRAPH window, or
any other windows such as the Graph Equation Entry window and
Calculation screen. Most of these tools, such as Line(, can be
entered directly onto a graph from the cursor point.
1 ClrDraw
Clears all items on the graph window EXCEPT for the
graphs entered via the Graph Equation Entry window.
1. From the GRAPH
window, press
@ d to
enter the DRAW
menu.
2. Press A to select A DRAW, then press 1
to select 1 ClrDraw.
or
1. From the Calculation screen, press @ d
A 1.
“ClrDraw” will appear.
2. Press E.
All the items on the graph will be deleted and the
message “Done” will appear.
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2 Line(
Note:
From the Calculation
screen
Draws a line according to the given X-Y coordinates of
a start/end point.
This tool can be used with any type of graph.
Line(x-coordinate of start point, y-coordinate of
start point, x-coordinate of end point, y-coordinate
of end point [,0])
Example
1. Select the DRAW
menu. Select A
DRAW in the
menu, then select
2 Line(.
“Line(” will appear.
Suppose you wish to draw a line, starting from an
X-Y coordinate (1,2) to end at (8,8).
2. Enter “1,2,8,8”
right after the
“Line(” object,
then close the
expression with
).
3. Press E.
The GRAPH window will appear with the specified
line drawn on the graph.
Note:
From the GRAPH
window
If you enter 0 for the 5th element of Line( function, (e.g.
Line(1,2,8,8,0)) and press E, you can clear the
specified line.
Line(
1. Press @
d to enter the
DRAW menu.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
2. Press A to select A DRAW, then press 2
to select 2 Line(.
The GRAPH
window reappears, with the
coordinate of the
cursor showing at
the bottom of the
screen.
Note:
To change the cursor coordinate system, use the
FORMAT menu. Select F CURSOR, then select the
required coordinate system for the cursor.
3. Move the flashing cursor on the screen to set the
starting point of the line.
Note:
The pixel increment can be set within the ZOOM menu.
While A ZOOM is selected, choose 7 Dec to set each
pixel size to “0.1 × 0.1”, or 8 Int to set to “1 × 1”.
4. When the starting
point is set, press
E to anchor
the location.
5. Move the cursor
to indicate the end
point of the line.
When set, press
E to finalize
the line drawing.
6. You may draw as many lines as you wish, by
repeating the procedure from 4 to 5. When done
drawing, press C to exit the entry mode.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
3 H_line
From the Calculation
screen
Draws a horizontal line on the graph window.
H_Line y-value
Draws a horizontal line (y = value) on the graph
window.
Example
• Draw a horizontal line of y = 5.
1. Press @
dA
3 and enter
the value 5.
From the GRAPH
window
H_Line
Example
• Draw a horizontal line manually.
1. Press @
dA
3.
2. Use the cursor
navigation keys
({ } ; ') to move the flashing
cursor to the appropriate position.
3. Press E to draw the line.
4 V_line
From the Calculation
screen
Draws a vertical line on the graph window.
V_Line x-value
Draws a vertical line (x = value) on the graph
window.
Example
• Draw a horizontal line of x = 3.
1. Press @ d A 4 and enter the
value 3.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
From the GRAPH
window
V_Line
Example
• Draw a vertical line manually.
1. Press @ d A 4.
2. Use the cursor navigation keys ({ } ;
') to move the flashing cursor to the appropriate position.
3. Press E to draw the line.
5 T_line(
From the Calculation
screen
Draws a tangental line at the specified point of a graph
curve.
T_line(equation, x-value)
Example
• Draw the tangental line of y = x2 at x = 1.
1. Select T_Line(.
2. Enter “x2, 1)” on
the line.
3. Press E.
Note:
From the GRAPH
window
It is also possible to
specify a function
equation from Y0 to
Y9 if stored.
(T_line(Y1, 1))
T_line(
Example
• Draw a tangental line by manually specifying the
point.
1. Select T_Line(.
2. Use ; ' to move the flashing cursor on
the targeted graph line.
Use { } to select a graph to draw the
tangental line.
3. When the point is set at the tangent point, press
E.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
6 Draw
Draw equation
Draws an additional graph based on a given expression.
Example
• Draw the graph of y = 3x2-4x+2.
1. Select Draw.
2. Enter “3x2–4x+2”
on the line.
3. Press E.
Note:
7 Shade(
This tool can be used
with rectangular coordinate graphs only.
Shade(equation1, equation2 [, lower value, upper
value])
Draws two graphs, and shades the area between the
two. If the x range is specified, it shades the area within
the specified range.
Example
1
• Shade the area enclosed by y = 4 x2 – 8 and y = x.
1. Select Shade(.
1
2. Enter “ 4 x2 – 8,
x)” on the line.
3. Press E.
Example
1
• Shade the area enclosed by y = 4 x2 – 8 and y = x
within the range of –2 ≤ x ≤ 3.
Before starting operation, Select ClrDraw to clear the
graphs previously drawn.
1. Select Shade(.
1
2. Enter “ 4 x2 – 8, x,
-2, 3)” on the line.
3. Press E.
Note:
It is also possible to
specify a function equation from Y0 to Y9 if stored.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
8 DrawInv
DrawInv equation
Draws an inverse of a given graph expression.
Example
1
• Draw the inverse graph of y = 4 x2 – 8.
1. Select DrawInv.
1
2. Enter “ 4 x2 – 8”
on the line.
3. Press E.
Note:
9 Circle(
From the Calculation
screen
It is also possible to
specify a function equation from Y0 to Y9 if stored.
Draw a circle on the graph screen.
Circle(x-coordinate of center, y-coordinate of
center, radius)
Example
• Draw a circle with center at (2,3) and of radius 7.
1. Select Circle(.
2. Enter “2,3,7)” on
the line.
3. Press E.
Note:
From the GRAPH
window
Before drawing a
circle, press Z A 6 to set the X-Y
coordinates to square.
Circle(
Example
• Draw a circle manually.
1. Select Circle(.
2. Move the cursor to set the center point of the circle.
Press E to set the anchor.
3. Move the cursor to determine the radius length of
the circle.
4. When done, press
E.
The circle is
drawn at the
location.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
0 Text(
Text(column, row, “strings”)
Enters a text string at a given coordinate.
Example
• Draw “HELLO” on the graph at column 2, row 1.
Text(2, 1, “HELLO”)
Note:
Use M E
3 to enter “ " ”
(double quotes).
Column and row definitions for text input
*
Refer to the following diagram to specify the
coordinates where you wish to start writing the text.
column
(0,0)
(30,0)
(0,9)
(30,9)
row
Note:
Lines, points, and curves drawn by the Draw menu are handled
as pictures. Therefore, they cannot be traced.
Graphs drawn by the Draw menu are automatically cleared if any
screen settings are changed. To save the graph, use the StoPict
menu.
B POINT
Utilize these tools to manage point drawing and deletion on the
graph.
There are two operation methods. One is to directly move the
cursor pointer to the location on the graph screen where you wish
to insert the point. The other is to call a relevant command on the
Calculation screen and to directly input the coordinates to draw or
delete the point. (X and Y coordinates should be separated by a
comma.)
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
1 PntON(
PntON(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
Draws a point at a given coordinate. It takes the X-Y
coordinate as an argument.
This tool can either be accessed from the GRAPH
window or other windows. Entering from the GRAPH
window enables a graphic entry, while entering from
other windows enables text-based entry.
2 PntOFF(
PntOFF(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
Erases a pixel point. It takes the X-Y coordinate as an
argument.
3 PntCHG(
PntCHG(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
Changes the status (i.e., visible/invisible) of a pixel at a
given coordinate. Deletes the point when it is displayed
and draws the point when it is not displayed.
4 PxlON(
PxlON(column, row)
Draws a pixel point at a given screen location indicated
by column and row.
The column and row definitions are as follows:
Column: 0 to 132,
Row: 0 to 64.
column
132
(0, 0)
(126, 0)
(0, 62)
(126, 62)
row
64
This area cannot be specified
110
5 PxlOFF(
PxlOFF(column, row)
Erases a pixel point at a given screen location indicated by column and row.
6 PxlCHG(
PxlCHG(column, row)
Changes the status (i.e., visible/invisible) of a pixel at a
given screen location indicated by column and row.
Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
7 PxlTST(
C ON/OFF
PxlTST(column, row)
Returns “1” if a pixel point is present at a given screen
location indicated by column and row.
Returns "0" if no pixel point exists.
Sets the visibility status of a given graph number (0-9).
1 DrawON
2 DrawOFF
DrawON [equation number 1, ....] or DrawON
Sets the specified graphs visible. If no argument is
given, then all graphs will be set visible.
DrawOFF [equation number 1, ....] or DrawOFF
Sets the specified graphs invisible. If no argument is
given, then all graphs will be set invisible.
Example
• Set Y1 and Y2 to visible and Y3 to invisible.
1. Press @ d C 1.
2. Enter “1, 2” for equation numbers.
3. Press E.
4. Press @ d C 2.
5. Enter 3 for
equation number.
6. Press E.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
D LINE
Sets the line appearance of each graph. Each graph coordinate
mode (i.e., rectangular, polar, etc.) can retain a set of line
appearance preferences. Solid line, dotted line, bold line, locus
and dots can be selected.
1. Press @ d D to select D LINE, then press
E.
2. The next window enables
you to select the line types
of each graph in the set
coordinate mode. (The
rectangular coordinate mode
is selected in this example.)
Use the cursor keys to select
the required line type, and
press E.
E G_DATA
All graph data, including the graph equations and window
settings, can be stored in 10 graph storage areas (1-9, and 0),
which can be called up later.
1 StoGD
StoGD number (0-9)
Saves the graph data.
Example
• Store the current graph data in location #1.
Note:
2 RclGD
The lines, graphs and
pixels drawn with the
A DRAW tools will
not be saved here;
use StoPict under F
PICT instead.
RclGD number (0-9)
Recalls the saved graph data.
Example
• Call back the previously stored graph data from
location #1.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
Note:
F PICT
Attempting to call
back graph data from
an empty location will
result in an error.
Stores and recalls the displayed pixel data for the graph window.
The graph equations will not be saved or recalled with these
tools.
1 StoPict
StoPict number (0-9)
Saves the pixel data.
Example
• Store the current graph, including the drawings, in
location #1.
2 RclPict
RclPict number (0-9)
Recalls the saved pixel data.
Example
• Call back the previously stored graph data from
location #1.
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Chapter 6: Advanced Graphing Features — Advanced Keyboard
G SHADE
With these sub-menu tools, inequalities, intersections and
compliments of multiple graphs can be visualized.
1 SET
2 INITIAL
Sets up the shading area for each graph. Refer to “3.
Other Useful Graphing Features” in Chapter 4 of this
manual to learn how to utilize this tool.
Initializes the shading setup, and brings up the shading
setup window.
11. Substitution Feature
Refer to the page 63 for details.
As for the Advanced keyboard, you can rewrite the equation based on the numeric
values input on the substitution feature screen.
Example
Follow the step 1 on page 65:
1. Press @ h to return
to the equation display
screen.
The equation is written
based on the last numeric
values input on the substitution feature screen.
* Once @ h have been pressed, the screen cannot
be returned to the previous substitution feature screen.
114
Chapter 7
SLIDE SHOW Feature
The SLIDE SHOW feature is especially incorporated to help students understand
math concepts utilizing the calculator’s graphing capabilities. With this feature, the
calculator’s screen images can be captured, organized, and stored.
The SLIDE SHOW feature is designed to be used with SHARP’s optional overhead
projection system, which offers a hassle-free math presentation environment for the
entire class.
The SLIDE SHOW can be used in both Basic and Advanced mode.
To enter the SLIDE SHOW, press ]. To exit the SLIDE SHOW feature, press
#.
1. Try it!
Make a SLIDE SHOW named “CUBIC” to
explain how to draw the graph of a factorbase cubic function and explain how to solve
cubic equations using factors. Use the
following cubic function as a sample.
y = (x – 3)(x – 1)(x + 2)
Create a new
SLIDE SHOW
1. Set up a SLIDE SHOW file.
Press ] to enter the SLIDE SHOW menu.
2. Press C E to select C NEW.
3. Name your project (type “CUBIC,” for example), and press
E.
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Chapter 7: SLIDE SHOW Feature
Capture images
4. Press Y to enter the graph equation mode.
5. Enter (x – 3)(x – 1)(x + 2) at
the first equation.
6. Press @ n.
The message “STORE
SCREEN: 01” will appear.
The image will be stored on
page 1 of the SLIDE SHOW
“CUBIC,” and the screen will
automatically return to the
previous screen.
Each time you press @ n, the screen image will be
captured and stored in the SLIDE SHOW.
7. Press G.
Note:
• You cannot capture an image
while drawing.
• If the cursor flashes at the
upper right corner of the
screen, the calculator is busy processing tasks. The SLIDE
SHOW feature cannot capture images during this period.
• A captured image cannot be recaptured.
8. After the graph is drawn, press @ n.
The image will be stored on page 2 of the SLIDE SHOW
“CUBIC”.
9. Press @ " to split
the screen between the
graph and the table.
10. After drawing is done, press
@ n.
The screen image is stored on page 3.
11. Press ' once, and press @ n. Continue this
operation.
116
Chapter 7: SLIDE SHOW Feature
Playing back the newly created SLIDE SHOW
1. Press ] to go to the
SLIDE SHOW menu.
Press B to select B
PLAY.
A list of saved SLIDE SHOW
projects will be shown.
2. Select the one you want to play back, either by using the
shortcut key strokes, or by moving the cursor. (Select the item
and press E.)
The first page of the SLIDE
SHOW will appear.
The number appearing at
the upper right of the screen
is the slide number.
3. Use the } key or E to display the next image; press
the { key to show the previous image.
Rearranging the captured images
Let’s change the last image of the SLIDE SHOW feature to before
the third.
1. Press ] to bring up the SLIDE SHOW menu.
Select a file
2. Press D to select D
SELECT.
3. Choose the project you want
to edit from the sub-menu
list.
4. Press E to select.
The target SLIDE SHOW will be selected.
Select an image
5. Press ] E to select
E EDIT, then press 1 to
select 1 MOVE.
The first image of the
selected SLIDE SHOW file
appears.
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Chapter 7: SLIDE SHOW Feature
6. Go down to the last captured
image using the } key.
7. Press E to mark the
image.
Specify the
insertion point
8. Go up to the page 3 using
the { key.
9. Press E.
The marked image will be
inserted at page 3.
2. The SLIDE SHOW menu
This section of the chapter
summarizes each item in the
SLIDE SHOW feature menu.
A CURR
Displays the name of the
currently selected or working
SLIDE SHOW. Press @ n to capture an image.
B PLAY
Enables you to select a SLIDE SHOW file for playback.
C NEW
Creates a new SLIDE SHOW file to store screen images.
D SELECT
E EDIT
Note:
Enables you to select a SLIDE
SHOW file to be edited and
display its name in the A CURR
window.
Enables you to move/delete captured images, or change the file
name of the current SLIDE SHOW.
If no SLIDE SHOW file is stored, selecting any of the following
sub-menu items will result in an error.
1 MOVE
With this sub-menu tool, a selected screen image can be moved,
so that the playback order will change. To escape from this mode
and go back to the SLIDE SHOW menu, press the ] key.
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Chapter 7: SLIDE SHOW Feature
1. While in the SLIDE SHOW menu, press E to select E
EDIT, then press 1 to select the 1 MOVE sub-menu item.
2. With the { and } cursor keys, select the captured
image you wish to move, then press E.
3. Select the position to which you wish to move the previously
selected image using the { and } cursor keys.
4. Pressing E will place the selected image at the new
location. The selected image will be placed immediately before
the current screen.
2 DEL
This sub-menu tool deletes the selected image captured in the
SLIDE SHOW.
1. While in the SLIDE SHOW
menu, press E to select
E EDIT, then press 2 to
select the 2 DEL sub-menu
item.
2. With the { and } cursor keys, select the image you
wish to delete.
3. Press E to remove the selected image from the SLIDE
SHOW file.
3 RENAME
Use this sub-menu tool to rename the SLIDE SHOW.
1. In the SLIDE SHOW menu, press E to select E EDIT, then
press 3 to select the 3 RENAME sub-menu item.
2. The following screen enables you to change the SLIDE SHOW
name.
3. Type the new name.
The default input mode is A-LOCK.
If you wish to incorporate numbers, press the A key to
enter numbers.
To switch back into the ALPHA mode, press A again.
4. Pressing E will store the new SLIDE SHOW name.
119
Chapter 8
Matrix Features
Within the Matrix features, up to ten different matrices can be entered.
To get to the Matrix features, press @ m. Define and edit the matrices within
this mode too.
1. Try it!
Three sheaves of the first class crop, two of the
second, and one of the third are sold for 39
dollars. Two of the first, three of the second and,
one of the third for 34 dollars. And one of the
first, two of the second and three of the third for
26 dollars. How much did you receive from each
sheaf of the first, second and third class crops?
(Chapter VIII of Chiu Chang Suan Shu - Nine
Chapters of Arithmetic Arts, 200 B.C., China)
Three equations can be derived as follows, containing three
unknown quantities:
3x + 2y + z = 39
2x + 3y + z = 34
x + 2y + 3z = 26
x, y and z represent the price for each sheaf of the first, second
and third class crops, respectively.
You can solve the above system of linear equations by using a
matrix.
CONCEPT
1. Enter the coefficients as elements in a matrix.
2. Use the rrowEF function to obtain the reduced row echelon
form.
120
Chapter 8: Matrix Features
PROCEDURE
Select a matrix
to edit
1. Press @ m to enter
the MATRIX menu.
2. Press B to select EDIT
and then 1 to select 1
mat A.
Define
dimensions
3. Press 3 E 4 E to
define the dimensions of the
matrix (3 rows × 4 columns).
Enter the values
4. Press 3 E 2 E 1
E 3 9 E to enter the
first row of 3x + 2y + z = 39.
The cursor will automatically
position itself at the beginning of the second row.
5. Press 2 E 3 E 1 E 3 4 E to enter the second
row of 2x + 3y + z = 34.
6. Press 1 E 2 E 3
E 2 6 E to enter the
third row of x + 2y + 3z = 26.
7. Press # to return to the
calculation screen.
Matrix A is now set.
Solve the
problem
8. Press @ m to display the MATRIX MENU, and press
D to select D MATH and then press 4 to select 4
rrowEF. The reduced row
echelon form is now set, as
shown:
9. Press @ m, then
press A to select NAME
and press 1 to select 1
mat A. The Matrix A is now set and ready to be calculated.
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Chapter 8: Matrix Features
10. Press E.
The reduced row echelon form of the matrix is displayed.
Display
Solution
1x + 0y + 0z = x = 9.25
0x + 1y + 0z = y = 4.25
0x + 0y + 1z = z = 2.75
2. Entering and Viewing a Matrix
Select a matrix
Note:
Define
dimensions
1. Press @ m, then press B (select EDIT) and
select the matrix you want to define.
Up to 10 matrices from 1 matA to 0 matJ can be defined.
2. Enter the row dimension number and press E.
Cursor moves to the column dimension.
3. Enter the column dimension number and press E.
The matrix will be displayed with null values. (See below.)
* It is not required to press E when the dimension number is
2 digits.
Matrix name
Matrix dimensions (row × column)
Element entry field
Input field (bottom line)
Up to 5 rows by 3 columns of elements can be displayed on the
screen.
Press ; ' { } to scroll the matrix. Use row
and column numbers on the left and upper side of the matrix to
check the display location.
• If the dimensions of the matrix have previously been defined,
the values will be displayed. You can retain or alter the dimensions accordingly.
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Chapter 8: Matrix Features
Enter elements
in the matrix
1. Press appropriate number keys to enter numbers at the 1st
row and 1st column.
The number is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
2. Press E.
The cursor moves to the 1st row, 2nd column.
3. Sequentially input the element data.
4. Press # after completion of data input.
Editing keys and functions
;'
Move the cursor within the current row or scroll horizontally.
{}
Move the cursor within the current column or scroll vertically.
On the top row, { moves the cursor to the dimensions field.
E
ENTER the number in the cursor position and move the cursor to
the next position.
C
Clear the value of bottom line (input field).
#
Store all the elements of the matrix and returns to the calculation
screen.
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Chapter 8: Matrix Features
3. Normal Matrix Operations
Many calculations can be made between a matrix and a real number or between
matrices.
Examples of each calculation are as follows:
Matrix + Matrix
Matrix – Matrix
To add or subtract matrices, the dimensions must be the same.
Example
1. Press # C.
2. Press @ m A
[email protected]
A2
3. Press E.
Matrix × Matrix
To multiply two matrices, the column dimension of the first matrix
must match the row dimension of the second matrix.
Example
1. Press # C.
2. Press @ m A
1|@m
A2
3. Press E.
Square of
Matrix
To obtain the square of a matirx:
Example
1. Press # C.
2. Press @ m A
1y
3. Press E.
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Chapter 8: Matrix Features
4. Special Matrix Operations
This calculator has three Matrix calculation menus: OPE, MATH and [ ].
Examples of each calculation are as follows:
Calculations using OPE menus
01 dim(
dim(matrix name)
Returns the dimensions of the specified matrix.
Example
• Check the dimensions of mat A.
• Newly define or change the
dimensions to 2 × 3 for
Mat C.
02 fill(
fill(value, matrix name)
Fills each element with a
specified value.
Example
• Enter the value 5 into all the
empty elements of matrix C.
125
Chapter 8: Matrix Features
03 cumul
cumul matrix name
Returns the cumulative matrix.
Example
• Obtain the cumulative sum of mat A.
cumulative sum of aij =
ai1 + ai2 + ...... + aij
04 augment(
augment(matrix name, matrix
name)
Appends the second matrix to
the first matrix as new columns. The first and second matrices
must have the same number of rows.
Example
• Create a new matrix with matrix A augmented by matrix B.
05 identity
identity dimension value
Returns the identity matrix with specified value of rows and
columns.
Example
• Create the identity matrix of
3 rows × 3 columns.
06 rnd_mat(
rnd_mat(number of row, number of column)
Returns a random matrix with specified values of rows and
columns.
Example
• Create a matrix of 2 rows × 3
columns with generated
random values.
(when TAB = 2 and FSE =
“FIX” at SETUP menu)
126
Chapter 8: Matrix Features
07 row_swap(
row_swap(matrix name, row number, row number)
Returns the matrix with specified rows swapped.
Example
• Swap the 2nd and 3rd rows in
the matrix E.
e2j = e3j , e3j = e2j
08 row_plus(
row_plus(matrix name, row number, row number)
Adds the first specified row data to the second specified row data.
Example
• Add the 2nd row data to the
first row of matrix E.
e1j = e1j + e2j
09 row_mult(
row_mult(multiplied number, matrix name, row number)
Returns the scalar multiplication of elements in a specified row.
Example
• 3 × each element of 1st row of
mat E
e1j = 3 × e1j
10 row_m.p.(
row_m.p.(multiplied number, matrix name, row number, row
number)
Returns the scalar multiplication of elements in a specified row
and adds result to elements in another specified row.
Example
• 2 × each element of 3rd row
and add the result to each
element of the 1st row.
e1j = e1j + 2 × e2j
127
Chapter 8: Matrix Features
11 mat→list(
Creates lists with elements from each column in the matrix.
If dimensions of columns is greater than the number of lists
specified, extra columns are ignored. Also, if it is less than the
number of lists specified, extra lists are ignored.
mat→list(matrix name, list name 1, ..., list name n)
Example
• Make List 1 and List 2 by
using the 1st and 2nd
columns of matrix E,
respectively.
mat→list(matrix name, column number, list name)
Example
• Make List 3 by using the 3rd
column of matrix E.
12 list→mat(
Note:
list→mat(list 1, .... list n, matrix name)
Creates a matrix using specified lists. This function is the same as
list→mat( in the List OPE menu.
The list items must be prepared prior to executing this function.
Example
• Create columns of matrix D by
using list items in L1 and L2.
128
Chapter 8: Matrix Features
Calculations using MATH menus
1 det
det matrix name
Returns the determinant of a square matrix.
The determinant can only be applied to a matrix which has the
same row and column dimensions.
Example
• Give the determinant of matrix
A.
2 trans
trans matrix name
Returns the matrix with the columns transposed to rows and the
rows transposed to columns.
Example
• Transpose rows and columns
of matrix B.
3 rowEF
rowEF matrix name
Returns the row Echelon Form of the specified matrix. The
number of columns must be greater than or equal to the number
of rows.
Example
• Give the row-echelon form of
matrix B.
4 rrowEF
rrowEF matrix name
Returns the reduced row Echelon Form of the specified matrix.
The number of columns must be greater than or equal to the
number of rows.
Example
• Give the reduced row-echelon
form of matrix B.
129
Chapter 8: Matrix Features
Use of [ ] menus
Using [ ] menus, you can manually enter a matrix on the calculation screen.
1. Press @ m E 1 ( [ ) at the beginning of the
matrix.
2. Press @ m 1 ( [ ) to indicate the beginning of the
first row.
Once you enter the manual matrix entry mode, you can
directly enter “or” by selecting 1 or 2.
3. Enter a number or expression for each element. Separate
each element with commas.
4. Press @ m 2
( ] ) to indicate the end of the
first row.
5. Repeat above steps 2 to 4 to enter all the rows.
6. Press @ m 2 ( ] ) to indicate the end of the
matrix.
7. Press E.
The matrix will be displayed.
Using a Matrix in
an expression
To use a matrix in an expression, you can do any of the followings:
• Select a matrix from the m NAME menu.
• Enter the matrix directly using the [ ] function menus.
130
Chapter 9
List Features
List features can be used in both Advanced and Basic mode. In this chapter, all the
procedures are based on the Advanced mode. In the Basic mode, press @ l
and select A NAME to access L1 to L6.
1. Try it!
By analyzing years of data, we found that it takes the driver of a car
approximately 0.75 seconds to react to a situation before actually applying the
brakes. Once the brake pedal is depressed, it takes additional time for the car to
come to a complete stop. Here is the equation used to compute total stopping
distance on dry, level concrete:
The reaction time distance (in feet) = 1.1 times the speed (in miles per hour);
The braking distance = 0.06 times the speed squared;
y = (1.1 × v) + (0.06 × v2),
where y represents the total stopping distance
(in feet), and v represents the speed (miles/
hour)
Calculate the total stopping distances at the
speeds of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 miles per hour.
CONCEPT
1. You can calculate all answers individually, but if you use list,
you can obtain the results with one calculation.
PROCEDURE
Enter each
speed value in
the list
2. Press # C to enter the calculation screen.
3. Press @ { 30
, 40 , 50 ,
60 , 70 , 80
@}
The calculator displays the
set of data.
131
Chapter 9: List Features
Store the list in
L1
4. Press R @ 1.
Enter the
equation using
L1
6. Press 1.1 | @
1 + 0.06 |
@1y
5. Press E to store the list
in L1.
7. Press E.
8. List {87, 140, 205, 282, 371,
472} will appear.
So the solutions are:
Car speed
Note:
Stopping distance
30 miles/hour
87 feet
40 miles/hour
140 feet
50 miles/hour
205 feet
60 miles/hour
282 feet
70 miles/hour
371 feet
80 miles/hour
472 feet
• You can also perform the
above calculation using the
direct list input method (using
braces).
1.1 | {30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80} + 0.06 | {30, 40,
50, 60, 70, 80} y and press E.
• In the Basic mode, you can
access L1 to L6 from A
NAME and “{ }” (braces) from
E {} in the LIST menu.
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Chapter 9: List Features
2. Creating a list
A list is a series of values enclosed by braces, and is treated as a single value in
calculations or an equations.
The calculator has 6 storage areas for lists from L1 to L6.
You can edit or access lists by pressing @ 1 to 6 (numeric keys from 1
to 6).
Using @ l (L_DATA) menus, you can store up to 10 sets (L_DATA 0 to
L_DATA 9) of lists (L1 to L6) in a memory and recall any of the stored sets as required.
Store a series
of data 1, 3, 2,
and 9 in the list
L1, and 5, 4, 6, 3
in L2
1. Press # C to enter the calculation screen.
2. Press @ { 1 ,
3,2,[email protected]
}
3. Press R @ 1.
4. Press E to store the list
in L1.
5. Press @ { 5 ,
4,6,[email protected]
}[email protected]
E for L2.
Tips:
To view a specific list, press
@ 1 to 6, then E at the calculation screen.
3. Normal List Operations
• Lists can contain real and complex numbers.
• Lists can be used as values (or variables) in calculations or equations.
• Calculations between lists are also possible. (Both lists must contain the same
number of elements.)
• The following examples use the L1 and L2 values stored in the previous section.
133
Chapter 9: List Features
Calculate 10 ×
L1 and store the
results in L3
1. Press 10 | @
[email protected]
E.
Calculate the
sine of L3
2. Press s @ 3
E. “...” shows that
results extend beyond the
display to the right. Use
;, ' to scroll left or
right, respectively.
Calculate
L1 + L2
3. Press @ 1 +
@ 2 E.
Change the 3rd
element of L1
to –3
4. Press _ 3 R @
1(3)A
/ @ 1 E.
Append the new
value 7 to L1 as
the 5th element
5. Press 7 R @ 1
(5)A/
@ 1 E.
Note:
Separated by a colon (:), two or
more commands can be
entered in one line.
Calculate the
root of L2
134
6. Press @ + @
2 E.
Chapter 9: List Features
4. Special List Operations
This calculator has three list calculation menus: OPE, MATH and L_DATA.
* In the Basic mode, L1 to L6 (list names) can be accessed from the LIST menu.
Calculations using the OPE menu functions
1 sortA(
sortA(list name)
Sorts lists in ascending order.
Example
• Store list {2, 7, 4} in L1, and
sort L1 in ascending order.
2 sortD(
sortD(list name)
Sorts lists in descending order.
Example
• Sort the above list L1 in
descending order.
Note:
sortA(list name 1, subordinate list name 1,...)
If two or more lists are entered separated by commas, a sort is
performed on the first list as a key, and the following lists are
sorted in the order corresponding to the elements in first list (key
list).
Example
• Store lists {2, 7, 4} and {-3, -4,
-1} in L1 and L2 respectively,
and sort L1 and L2 in ascending order using list L1 as a
key list.
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Chapter 9: List Features
3 dim(
dim(list)
Returns the number of items
(dimension) in the list.
Example
• Display the dimension of list
L1.
natural number ⇒ dim(list name)
Set the number of items (dimension) of specified list to the
specified number.
Example
• Set the dimension of list L6 to
4.
All the elements are initially 0.
This operation overwrites the
existing list dimensions.
The existing values within the new dimensions remain as they
are.
4 fill(
fill(value, list)
Enter the specified value for all the items in the specified list.
* The dimension of the list must be set beforehand.
Example
• Set the dimension of list L6 to
4 and substitute 5 for all the
items of list L6.
136
Chapter 9: List Features
5 seq(
seq(equation, start value, end value[, increments]) target list
name
Makes a list using the specified equation, range (start value and
end value) and increments.
Example
• Fill the list using the equation
y = x2 – 8, where x increases
from -4 to 4 by increments of
2.
* If increment is omitted, the
default value 1 is used.
6 cumul
cumul list
Sequentially cumulates each item in the list (for Advanced mode
only).
li = l1 + l2 + ... + li , where li is the i-th item of the list.
Example
• Set the list L1 to {4, 2, 7}, and
obtain the cumulated list L1.
• Cumulate the above result.
7 df_list
df_list list
Returns a new list using the difference between adjacent items in
the list.
li = li+1 – li, where li is the i-th item of the list.
Example
• Set the list L1 to {4, 2, 7}, and
calculate the difference
between adjacent items.
137
Chapter 9: List Features
8 augment(
augment(list 1, list 2)
Returns a list appending the specified lists.
Example
• Obtain the list appending L1
({4, 2, 7}) and L2 ({-1, -3, -4}).
9 list→mat(
list→mat(list 1, ..., list n, matrix name)
Makes a matrix using the specified list as column data, stored
under the specified matrix name (for Advanced mode only).
Example
• Make a matrix mat A using list
L1 as the first column and list
L2 as the second column.
* The dimensions of the two
lists must be the same.
* Complex numbers cannot be used with this function.
* This function is the same as list→mat of the OPE menu in the
MATRIX function.
0 mat→list(
mat→list(matrix name, list name 1, ..., list name n)
mat→list(matrix name, column number, list name)
Makes lists from the matrix (for Advanced mode only).
This function is the same as “mat→list” of the OPE menu in the
MATRIX function. See page 128 for details.
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Chapter 9: List Features
Calculations using MATH Menus
During the following explanations, the values of lists, L1 and L2 will be assumed to be:
L1 = {2, 8, -4}
L2 = {-3, -4, -1}
1 min(
min(list)
Returns the minimum value in the list.
Example
• Calculate the minimum value
of the list L1.
2 max(
max(list)
Returns the maximum value in
the list.
Example
• Calculate the maximum value of the specified list L2.
Note:
min(list 1, list 2)
max(list 1, list 2)
If two lists are specified in
parenthesis separated by a
comma, then a list consisting of
minimum (or maximum) values
is returned.
3 mean(
mean(list [, frequency list])
Returns the mean value of items in the specified list.
Example
• Calculate the mean value of
list L1.
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Chapter 9: List Features
4 median(
median(list [, frequency list])
Returns the median value of items in the specified list.
Example
• Calculate the median value of
the list L2.
5 sum(
sum(list [, start number, end number])
Returns the sum of items in the specified list.
Example
• Calculated the sum of the list
items of L1.
* You can specify the range of
items in the list to sum.
sum(L1,1,2) means sum
the 1st to 2nd items of the list L1.
sum(L1,2) means sum all items from the second to the last
of the list L1.
6 prod(
prod(list [, start number, end number])
Returns the multiplication of items in the specified list (for
Advanced mode only).
Example
• Calculate the multiplication of
items in the list L1.
* You can specify the range of
items in the list to multiply.
prod(L1,1,2) means
multiply the 1st to 2nd items of the list L1.
prod(L1,2) means multiplication of all items from the
second to the last of the list L1.
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Chapter 9: List Features
7 stdDv(
stdDv(list [, frequency list])
Returns the standard deviation of the specified list items.
Example
• Calculate the standard
deviation using the list items
of list L2.
8 varian(
varian(list [, frequency list])
Returns the variance of the specified list items.
Example
• Calculate the variance using
the list items of list L2.
Standard deviation and variance
Standard deviation: s =
Variance
n
∑ (l – m)
2
Variance =
k
k=1
n–1
where n = number of list items
lk = list item value
m = mean value of the list
5. Drawing multiple graphs using the list function
Using list items as coordinates, you can simultaneously draw multiple graphs.
1. Press Y.
2. Enter the equation;
Y1 = {3, -2}x2 + {5, 3}x + {2, 4}
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Chapter 9: List Features
3. Press G.
Two graphs are drawn as
shown on the right.
In this case, the first one
represents the equation y =
3x2 + 5x + 2 and the second y = -2x2 + 3x + 4.
You can also use L1 to L6 to enter the equation;
1. Set the lists L1 to L3 as
follows;
{3, -2} ⇒ L1,
{5, 3} ⇒ L2,
{2, 4} ⇒ L3, and then
2. Enter the equation as follows.
Y1 = L1x2 + L2x + L3
6. Using L_DATA functions
The calculator can store up to 10 list groups in memory (L_DATA 0 to L_DATA 9). You
may store or recall any one of these list groups. Each list group can contain up to 6
lists.
1 StoLD
StoLD natural number (0-9)
Stores the current group of lists (L1 to L6) in L_DATA 0 to 9.
Example
1. Press @ l and
select C 1.
2. Enter the preferred number
from 0 to 9 and press E.
“Done” will appear and the
current lists will be stored in L_DATA #.
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Chapter 9: List Features
2 RclLD
RclLD natural number (0-9)
Recall the stored group of lists for use.
Any current list data (not stored in L_DATA) is overwritten.
Example
1. Press @ l and
select C 2.
2. Enter the number to recall
and press E.
“Done” will appear and the
current lists will be overwritten by the recalled list group.
7. Using List Table to Enter or Edit Lists
You can use List Table in the STAT menu to easily access the contents of the lists.
Though the STAT menu was originally designed for Statistics function calculations, the
List Table is very useful for entering or editing list items.
How to enter the list
1. Press S A E.
The list table will appear.
The first column indicates
the order number of each
list, and the 2nd column
corresponds to the list L1, the 3rd to the L2, and so on.
2. Move the cursor to the target cell and enter the appropriate
value.
The value will appear on the bottom line.
3. Press E.
The value will enter the cell and the cursor move down to the
next cell.
* “--------” indicates the end of the list. When you enter the value,
“--------” goes down to the next cell.
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Chapter 9: List Features
How to edit the list
1. Press S and select A EDIT, then press E.
2. Use the cursor keys to move the cursor to the target cell.
3. Enter the new value and press E.
The new value will be stored in the target cell.
* The display on the bottom line relates to the cell where the
cursor pointer is located.
Though any number can be entered in a cell, the bottom line of
the screen can display up to a maximum of 10 digits excluding
exponents, and the cell can display up to a maximum of 8 digits
including exponents.
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Chapter 10
Statistics & Regression
Calculations
Note:
The explanation of this chapter is based on the Advanced
Keyboard.
The following statistical and regression features are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Statistical calculations such as means and standard deviations
Graphing statistical data
Plotting regression curves
Statistical tests
Estimation
Obtaining coefficients from regressions
Distribution functions
1. Try it!
The following table shows the access counts (per hour) of a certain web site
from Sunday midnight to Monday midnight.
Hours
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Sunday 98 72 55 3
6 24 15 30 59 72 55 43 21 10 150 151 135 108 204 253 232 251 75 30
Monday 32 8 12 2
4 19 32 72 95 91 123 201 184 108 95 72 45 38 75 111 153 90 84 35
Let’s input these data into the calculator (List
function) and plot a histogram.
Opening the list
table to enter
data
1. Press S.
The Stat menu will appear.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
2. Select A EDIT and press E.
The List table will appear. Initially, all elements are blank and
the cursor pointer is located at L1-1 (top left).
Entering hours
(index value)
3. Input 1 for hour.
4. 1 will be displayed at the
bottom line of the display.
5. Press E to input the
index value.
6. Continue the procedure to input 2 to 24.
Entering the
data for Sunday
7. Press ' to move the
cursor to the top line of L2.
8. Input 98 for hour 01.
98 will be displayed at the
bottom line of the display.
9. Press E to input the data.
98 will appear in position L2-1 and the cursor will move to the
second row.
10. Input 72 for hour 02 and press E. Continue the procedure
to the end of the data.
Entering the
data for Monday
11. Press ' to move the
cursor to the top line of L3.
12. Input 32 for hour 01 and
press E.
13. Continue the procedure to
the end of the data.
If you enter the
wrong data
1. Press ;, ', {, or } to move the cursor
pointer to the target cell.
2. Input the correct number and press E.
Graphing the
statistical data
(Histogram)
Now we can plot the data to make histograms, broken line graphs
and other statistical graphs.
1. Press [.
2. Select A PLOT1 and press E.
The following screen will appear.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
Setting the
graph drawing
“on”
3. The first line shows if the
graph drawing is on or off.
Initially, the graph drawing is
off. With the cursor pointer at
the “on” position, press
E to set the graph
drawing on.
Selecting
whether 1variable plotting
or 2-variable
plotting
4. Press } to move the cursor to the next line (DATA).
Select the list
number used
for graphing
Determining ListX and Freq Frequency relates to the number of
times access occurred (L2) at the ListX stage. You can refer that
the Access of ListX (L1) hour occurred Freq (L2) number of times.
5. Select X for 1-variable plotting and press E.
6. Press } to move the cursor to the next line (ListX).
7. The default list name for ListX is L1. If another list name is set,
press @ 1 to enter L1.
8. L1 is set to be used for x-axis items.
Setting the
frequency
9. Press } to move the
cursor to the next line (Freq).
10. Press @ 2 to enter
L2.
Selecting the
graph
11. Press } to move the cursor to the next line (GRAPH).
Making a graph
13. Press Z, and then
select A ZOOM.
12. The graph format defaults to histogram, so if that is what is
required, this does not need to be changed.
14. Press ' to move the
cursor right and then press
} several times.
9 Stat will appear.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
15. Select 9 Stat and press E.
You can directly press 9 at step 13 to select 9 Stat.
The histogram will appear on the display.
When you draw the graph using the automatic statistics zoom
function (9 Stat), the division number is automatically set to
Xmax –Xmin
(default value: 10). If you wish to show the graph
Xscl
hour by hour, change the value in the W menu.
Set the WINDOW
settings
1. Press W.
Window (Rect) setting menu
will appear.
2. Enter the values as shown in
the diagram to the right.
Ymax is determined by the maximum access number (253 at
20:00 on Sunday).
3. Press G.
You can compare up to 3
statistical data by setting
PLOT2/PLOT3 to on.
Compare the
access rates on
Sunday and
Monday
Set the statistical 1. Press [ A E and move the cursor to GRAPH.
plotting of PLOT1 2. Press [ again.
(Sunday data) to
3. Press B and 1
a broken line
(broken line with circle dots).
4. Press G.
The histogram is now
changed to a broken line graph.
5. Press @ q to clear the screen.
6. Press [ and select B PLOT2.
7. Set as follows.
PLOT: on, DATA: X, ListX: L1, and Freq: L3.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
8. Move the cursor to GRAPH
and press [.
9. Press B 2 (broken
line with cross points).
10. Press G.
Now you can compare the
difference in web site access
counts between Sunday and Monday.
Press @ q.
2. Statistics Features
1. STAT menus
Press the S key to access the statistical calculation menus. The menus are as
follows:
A EDIT
Provides the entry or edit mode and displays a list table.
B OPE
Calculation menu for operations such as ascending or descending sort.
C CALC
Obtains statistical values.
D REG
Calculates regression curves.
E TEST
Statistical hypothesis tests
F DISTRI
Distribution menu items
Data Entry
Use a list table to enter the statistical data (press S to
access). Up to 999 elements can be used for each list, though the
amount of data able to be entered will vary according to the
memory usage.
Calculating
statistic values
(CALC menu)
Use the CALC menu under the STAT menu to obtain statistic
values.
Press S C to access the CALC menu.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
2. Statistical evaluations available under the C CALC menu
1_Stats
1-variable (x) statistical a calculations
_
x
Mean of sample (x)
sx
Standard deviation of sample (x)
2
2
sx = Σx – nx
n–1
σx
Population standard deviation of sample (x)
2
2
σx = Σx – nx
n
Σx
Σx
2
n
xmin
Q1
Med
2_Stats
Sum of sample (x)
Sum of squares of sample (x)
Sample number
Smallest value of sample (x)
First quartile of sample (x)
Median of sample (x)
Q3
Third quartile of sample (x)
xmax
Largest value of sample (x)
2-variable (x, y) statistical calculations
The following values are added to the 1-variable statistic calculations
_
y
Mean of sample (y)
sy
Standard deviation of sample (y)
σy
Population standard deviation of sample (y)
Σy
Sum of sample (y)
Σy
2
Σxy
150
Sum of squares of sample (y)
Sum of product of sample (x, y)
ymin
Smallest value of sample (y)
ymax
Largest value of sample (y)
Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
The web site access counts example on page 145 will be used again to demonstrate
the calculation of statistical values.
Hours
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Sunday 98 72 55 3
6 24 15 30 59 72 55 43 21 10 150 151 135 108 204 253 232 251 75 30
Monday 32 8 12 2
4 19 32 72 95 91 123 201 184 108 95 72 45 38 75 111 153 90 84 35
* If you did not previously enter the above values in the list table, press S and
select A EDIT to display the list entry mode and enter the values.
Calculating one-variable statistics using web site access counts for Sunday (L2) and
Monday (L3).
Statistical
1. Press # C and S to display the statistics menu.
calculations
2. Press C and then 1.
using the
1_Stats will be displayed on the top line of the screen followed
Sunday data (L2)
by the cursor.
3. Press @ 2 to enter
L2 and press E.
All the statistical values will
be displayed on the screen.
4. Press } or { to scroll the screen.
5. Press S to display the statistics menu.
Statistical
calculations
6. Press C and then 1.
using the
1_Stats will be displayed on the bottom line of the screen
Monday data (L3)
followed by the cursor.
7. Press @ 3 to enter
L3 and press E.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
Calculating the previous two-variable statistical values can be
performed in a single operation. Use a “ , ” (comma) to separate
the two variables.
1. Press # C and
S to display the statistics menu.
2. Press C and then
2.
2_Stats will be displayed on the top line of the screen followed
by the cursor.
3. Press @ 2 , @ 3 to enter L2 and L3,
and press E.
All the statistical values will
be displayed on the screen.
4. Press } or { to
scroll the screen.
ANOVA(
The ANOVA( feature performs an analysis of variance to compare
up to six population means.
1. Press # C and S to display the statistics menu.
2. Press C and then 3.
ANOVA(_ will display on the top line of the screen.
3. Press @ 2 ,
@ 3 ).
4. Press E.
The answer will appear on
the screen.
Each character represents the following variables.
F
p
df
SS
MS
sxp
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The F statistic for the analysis
The p value for the analysis
Degrees of freedom
Sum of squares
Mean Square
Pooled standard deviation
Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
3. Graphing the statistical data
Press [ to access the statistical graphing mode.
The calculator can plot statistical data on up to 3 types of graph
(PLOT1 to PLOT3) to check the state of distribution.
The graph types can be selected from histogram, broken line plot,
normal probability plot, normal distribution plot, box plot, modified
box plot, pie chart, scatter diagram and XY line. Broken line plot,
normal probability plot, modified box plot, scatter diagram and XY
line can use 3 different types of points — circle, cross, and
square.
Statistical graph types overview (chart)
Histogram
Broken line plot
PLOT1
Normal probability plot
Normal distribution plot
PLOT2
Box plot
POINT: °
POINT: +
Modified box plot
PLOT3
Pie chart
POINT:
Scatter diagram
XY line
1. Graph Types
Histogram
(HIST)
A bar graph of sample (x)
The width of the bars is set by the Xscl*.
The Y-axis shows the frequency.
* The Xscl can be changed to
between 1 and 64. Use the
Window Setting Menu to
change the Xscl. (See page
57.)
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
Broken line plot
(B.L.)
A broken line graph for the frequency distribution of sample (x)
Three types of points can be selected from circle, cross and
square.
The broken line is displayed by connecting the upper left points of
the bars of the histogram, as the upper left point of each bar
represents each class value in
the histogram.
The calculator can draw both a
histogram and a broken line plot
at the same time.
Normal
probability plot
(N.P.)
Plots the variance of the
standardized normal distribution
with the statistical data (x) on
the X axis or Y axis.
If the points plot almost linearly,
it indicates that the data is of
normal distribution.
The distance between the dots is set by the Xscl.
• The Xscl can be changed between 1 and 64. Use the Window
Setting Menu to change the figure. (See page 57)
• You cannot set the frequency in the Normal probability plot. The
statistical data must be created using only one list without
splitting into the data and frequency.
Normal
distribution plot
(N.D.)
A normal distribution curve of sample(x)
The x-axis is in the range of
Xmin to Xmax.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
Box plot
(Box)
A box plot graph of sample (x)
A. The minimum value (xmin) of
the sample (x)
B. The first quartile (Q1)
A
B
C
D
E
C. Median (Med) of the sample
(x)
D. The third quartile (Q3)
E. The maximum value (xmax) of the sample (x)
Modified box
plot
(MBox)
A modified box plot graph of sample (x)
A. The minimum value (xmin) of
the sample (x)
B. The tip of extension which is
defined by (Q3 – Q1) x 1.5
A B
CD E
F
G
C. The first quartile (Q1)
D. Median (Med) of the sample (x)
E. The third quartile (Q3)
F. The tip of extension which is defined by (Q3 – Q1) x 1.5
G. The maximum value (xmax) of the sample (x)
• Statistical data on the outside of the extension are indicated by
points, selectable from circle, cross, or square.
• The length of the extension from the box is determined by Q1
and Q3.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
Pie chart
(PIE)
Pie graph of sample (x)
• Maximum number of division
is 8.
• Calculation range: 0 ≤ x < 10100
• Data can be displayed in two
modes:
• Value display: 8 digits
• Percentage display: Fixed decimal (2 digits decimal)
* Pie graphs are drawn in the same order as on the specifying
list.
* Pie graphs cannot be displayed simultaneously with other
graphs and X/Y axis, though lines or dots can be drawn. The
coordinates of the free-moving cursor depend on the Window
settings.
• The values are stored in variables A to H.
• As all the displayed values are rounded down in the percentage
display mode, the total percentage may not be 100.
Scatter diagram
(S.D.)
A two-dimensional plot graph using two samples (x, y)
Two sets of statistical data are required for the scatter diagram.
• Three types of points are
selectable from circle, cross
and square.
• Two statistical data lists can
be set to either x- or y-axis
according to your requirements.
XY Line
(XYLINE)
• Displays a graph that connects each point of the scatter
diagram.
• Each point is connected in the
sequence (rows) of the
statistical data.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
2. Specifying statistical graph and graph functions
• Up to three graphs can be plotted per sample data.
Specifying type
of statistics
graphing
1. Press [.
2. Select from A PLOT1, B PLOT2 or C PLOT3 and press E
to set the statistical graphing specifications.
Press @ q before step #3.
• You may just press A to C to select.
• You can overlap 3 plotting graphs (from PLOT1 to PLOT3) on a
single screen. Choose on or off at the top line to determine
whether each graph is displayed or not.
Limit settings
(x value)
3. Press [ D (D Limit) to specify the graphing range.
The D Limit menu is used to set the upper and lower limit
lines of sample (x) of the statistical graph.
Displaying the
upper and lower
limit lines
4. Press 1 (1 SET).
Displaying the
mean value line
of sample (x)
7. Press [ D (D Limit) and press 2 (2 LimON)
E to display a line that indicates the mean value of
sample (x), as well as the upper and lower limit lines.
5. Enter the appropriate value for Lower limit and press E.
6. Enter the appropriate value for Upper limit and press E.
8. Press [ D 3 (3 LimOFF) and E not to
display the lines.
• Upper and lower limit values are displayed using short broken
lines.
• The default value of the upper/lower limit is 1.
* The mean value line is indicated by a long broken line.
3. Statistical plotting on/off function
• You can set the statistical plotting of PLOT 1 to 3 at once.
1. Press [.
2. Press E.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
3. • To set the all plotting ON: Press 1 (1 PlotON).
• To set the all plotting OFF: Press 2 (2 PlotOFF).
* You can control the plotting of PLOT1 to PLOT3 separately
by pressing 1 ~ 3 after PlotON (or PlotOFF).
4. Press E to set.
4. Trace function of statistical graphs
• The trace feature is available in statistical graphing and can be used to trace the
curves of graphs with the cursor.
Tracing the
graph
1. Press U.
Histogram
How tracing is done
2. Use ; or ' to move the cursor pointer to trace the
graph curve.
• After pressing U, the
cursor pointer will appear on
the top left corner of the first
bar.
• If you press ; or ', the cursor pointer sequentially
jumps between top left corners of the bars.
• X and Y values are displayed at the bottom line of the screen.
• Use { or } to change between graphs to trace.
Box plots and
modified box
plots
• After pressing U, the
cursor pointer will appear on
the Med value of sample (x).
• If you press ; or ',
the cursor pointer sequentially
jumps among specific values, such as Q1, Q3, min, max.
• The value of cursor pointer position is displayed at the bottom
line of the screen.
Pie chart
158
• If you press ; or ', the cursor pointer sequentially
trace the chart. The cursor is displayed at the outside the graph,
and the selected chart is highlighted.
Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
4. Data list operations
Descending sort, ascending sort, changing the list order and deleting the lists can be
done in the Operation menu.
Press S B OPE to access the data list operations.
1 sortA(
sortA(list)
Sorts the list in ascending order.
This function is the same as the sortA( menu item in List functions.
See page 135 for details.
2 sortD(
sortD(list)
Sorts the list in descending order.
This function is the same as the sortD( menu item in List functions.
See page 135 for details.
3 SetList
SetList list name 1 [, list name 2 ...]
Changes the list order as specified.
Example
To change the order of lists in
order of L2, L3, L1.
Press E to execute.
Each list must be separated by
a “ , ” (comma).
• If only a single list name is specified, the specified list moves to
the left end of the table.
• After changing the list order, execute SetList with no argument.
The list names are redefined according to the changing order.
4 ClrList
ClrList list name 1 [, list name 2 ...]
Deletes all the data from the specified list(s).
Example
To delete the data of L1 and L2.
Press E to execute.
Each list must be separated by
a “ , ” (comma).
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
5. Regression Calculations
Accessing the
1. Press S D REG.
regression menu
The Regression menu is displayed.
01 Med_Med
Med_Med (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression line using the median-median method.
(linear regression)
Formula: y = ax + b
Parameters: a, b
02 Rg_ax+b
Rg_ax+b (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression line. (linear regression)
Formula: y = ax + b
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
03 Rg_a+bx
Rg_a+bx (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression line. (linear regression)
Formula: y = a + bx
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
04 Rg_x2
Rg_x2 (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression line using the second degree polynomial.
(quadratic regression)
Formula: y = ax2 + bx + c
Parameters: a, b, c, R2
05 Rg_x3
Rg_x3 (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression line using the third degree polynomial. (cubic
regression)
Formula: y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
Parameters: a, b, c, d, R2
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
06 Rg_x4
Rg_x4 (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the fourth degree polynomial.
(quartic regression)
Formula: y = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e
Parameters: a, b, c, d, e, R2
07 Rg_ln
Rg_ln (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the natural logarithm. (natural
logarithm regression)
Formula: y = a + b ln x
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
08 Rg_log
Rg_log (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the common logarithm. (common logarithm regression)
Formula: y = a + b log x
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
09 Rg_abx
Rg_abx (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the exponential function.
(exponential regression)
Formula: y = abx
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
10 Rg_aebx
Rg_aebx (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the Euler exponential function.
(Euler exponential regression)
Formula: y = ae^bx
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
11 Rg_x–1
Rg_x–1 (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the reciprocal function. (reciprocal regression)
Formula: y = a + bx-1
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
12 Rg_axb
Rg_axb (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the power function. (power
regression)
Formula: y = axb
Parameters: a, b, r, r2
13 Rg_logistic
Rg_logistic (list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [,
equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the logistic function. (logistic
regression)
Formula: y = c ÷ (1 + ae-bx)
Parameters: a, b, c
14 Rg_sin
Rg_sin ([iterations,] list name for x, list name for y [, frequency list] [, period] [, equation name to store])
Finds the regression curve using the sine function.
The calculator will fit a sine curve for unequal and equal spacing.
Formula: y = a sin(bx + c) + d
Parameters: a, b, c, d
Note:
162
The default iterations value is 3. The user may specify the value
up to 25. To raise the accuracy, set the iterations value to 25 and
enter 2π/b to the period, where b = result obtained from the
calculation beforehand.
Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
value or list x’
Finds the estimated value of x for a given value of y by applying
the function determined by the regression.
15 x’
Example
When the following is entered as statistical data:
x
y
10
20
20
40
30
60
40
80
50
100
Find estimated value of x given
y = 140.
1. Enter the above data into L1
(x) and L2 (y) and execute
Rg_ax+b (L1, L2).
2. Press # 140 S D 1 5 E.
value or list y’
Find the estimated value of y for a given value of x by applying
the function determined by the regression formula.
16 y’
Example
Using above data, find the estimated value for y given x = 80, 100.
1. Press # @ { 80
, 100 @ }
SD16
E.
• 15 x’ and 16 y’ will be valid
after executing a regression calculation excluding 2nd, 3rd, 4th,
degree polynomial, logistic, and sine regressions.
The following table shows the relationship between the time and
temperature of water, when heating a beaker filled with water.
Using the
regression
functions
Time (min)
Temperature
(°C)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5
38.4 46.4 54.4 62.5 69.6 76.1 82.4 88.6 93.4 94.9 96.5 98.2 99.1 100
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
Enter a data in a
list table
1. Press S A E.
2. Enter the time into list 1 (L1).
3. Enter the temperature into list 2 (L2).
Plotting the data
1. Press [ A E.
2. Press E to turn on the plotting.
3. Press } and ' to select XY of DATA menu and press
E.
Freq will change to ListY and set L2 to ListY.
Selecting the
graph type
1. Press } to move the cursor to GRAPH.
2. Press [ G and 2 (2 Scattr+) to set the graph
type to scatter and point type to “+”.
3. Press Z A 9 (9 Stat) to plot the scatter diagram
for this data.
• Selecting A 9 in the ZOOM mode allows for quick
graphing in an optimum range since window setting values of
the graph plotting screen are automatically set using the list
data.
Drawing a
regression
curve using
quadratic
regression
1. Press # C S D 0 4 (04 Rg_x2).
2. Press ( @ 1 , @ 2 , @
z A E A 1 ).
If you enter Y1 as the last variable, the obtained formula will
automatically be set to the formula Y1.
3. Press E.
The regression formula and parameters will be displayed on
the screen.
4. Press G.
The calculator will draw the scatter diagram using the determined parameter values.
5. If there is a large difference between the regression curve and
plotted dots, change the regression curve and repeat the
above procedures.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
About the
residual list
• There are residuals between regression curves and actual
values.
• The residual list stores these residuals automatically.
• The resid list can be found in B REGEQN of the STAT VARS
menu (@ z H E B 0).
• Use the following key operation to recall the residual list from
the calculation screen.
#[email protected]
• Press E to display the residual list on-screen.
• To show the residual list in the form of a graph, first store as a
list, then follow the graphing operation.
* resid cannot be graphed when specified independently.
6. Statistical Hypothesis Testing
• The calculator performs hypothesis tests on statistical data.
Start a statistical test
1. Press S E (E TEST).
The statistics test menu will appear.
2. There are 17 options in the statistics test menu. Press '
to navigate between pages,
and press { or } to
scroll the window.
3. Press the appropriate
number to access a specific
test.
The statistics test window will appear.
4. Input appropriate information in the test window.
• There are two types of input, from a statistics data list or
inputting numerical values.
• Some tests may not allow for inputting from the statistics
data lists.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
• 16 InputList and 17 InputStats specify the above input
methods.
16 InputList:
Sets the input mode to the statistic data list
method
17 InputStats: Sets the input mode to the value input mode
For example, press S E 1 6 E to set to
the list input mode.
5. Press @ h to execute the hypothesis test.
Note:
• Either list input or parameter input may be used for tests other
than 01 χ2test, 05 TtestLinreg, 10 Ztest1prop, 11Ztest2prop,
14 Zint1prop and 15 Zint2prop.
• To clear the contents entered in Freq, move the cursor to the
list name then press D E.
01 χ2 test
Uses the sample data from a two-dimensional table represented
by a matrix.
Example
If mat A =
3254
6138
2351
execute the χ2test and store the obtaining results in mat B.
1. Press S E 0 1.
2. Enter mat A as the Observed Matrix, and mat B as the
Expected Matrix.
Press @ m A
[email protected]
A 2.
3. Press @ h to
execute the χ2 test.
The result is entered in mat
B.
χ2: χ-squared statistic for the
test
p: p value for the test
df: degrees of freedom
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
02 Ftest2samp
Two samples data are tested for equality of standard deviation σ1
and σ2.
Example
Test when population standard deviation σ1 < σ2,
n1 = 20,
standard deviation sx1 = 5.6,
n2 = 50, and
standard deviation sx2 = 6.2
Set the input
method to value
input mode
1. Press # S E 1 7 E.
2. Press S E 0 2.
The parameter input screen
will appear.
3. Press ' E } to
select σ1 < σ2.
4. Enter the values into the
parameter fields.
5.6 E 20 E 6.2 E 50 E.
5. Press @ h to
execute the test.
F: Statistics
p: Probability
03 Ttest1samp
Tests the hypothesis of population mean µ.
Example
Test the population mean µ0 = 65 with the sample data of
{65.6, 62.8, 66.0, 64.5, 65.1, 65.3, 63.8, 64.2, 63.5, 64.4},
from a given population
(alternate hypothesis of µ < µ0)
1. Enter the above statistical data into L1.
Press S E 1 6 E to set the list input
mode.
2. Press S E 0 3.
The parameter input screen will appear.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
3. Press ' E } to
select µ < µ0 and press
E.
4. Move the cursor pointer to µ0
and input 65 and press
E.
5. Set the List to L1 and press E.
6. Press @ h.
Answers are displayed on
the screen, where t is the t
statistic for the test, p is the
p value for the test and sx
indicates sample standard
deviation.
• If there is no weight list, the Freq field can remain empty.
04 Ttest2samp
Tests two sample means, µ1 and µ2.
Example
Test the following two samples;
List 1 {2.37, 2.51, 2.43, 2.28, 2.46, 2.55, 2.49}
List 2 {2.63, 2.71, 2.56, 2.61, 2.55, 2.68, 2.42, 2.48, 2.51, 2.65}
1. Enter the above data into lists L1 and L2, respectively.
2. Press S E 0
4.
The parameter input screen
will appear.
3. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
If no Freq specification data
is input, an initial Freq value
of 1 is used.
* Pooled is prediction for
unknown σ1, σ2.
Select “No” if σ1, σ2, are subjectively unequal.
Select “Yes” if σ1, σ2, are equal.
Calculation is executed using this prediction as the basis.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
4. Press @ h.
05 TtestLinreg
Tests the significance of the slope for the linear regression and its
correlation coefficient ρ.
Example
The test is for the slope β, and correlation coefficient ρ obtained
from statistical data X {65, 56, 78, 86, 92, 71, 68} and Y {95, 59,
88, 78, 75, 68, 80} are not equal to zero (β & ρ ≠ 0.)
1. Input the above lists X and Y into lists L1 and L2, respectively.
2. Press S E 0
5.
The parameter input screen
will appear.
3. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
• Equation items may not be
required.
• If a linear regression
calculation has been
executed using the data, and the function equation has been
stored in Y0 to Y9, input that equation number for the
equation items.
4. Press @ h.
Answers are displayed on
the screen, where a, b
indicate regression coefficients, s indicates standard
deviation, r indicates the
correlation coefficient, and r2 indicates the coefficient of
determination.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
06 Tint1samp
Finds the confidence interval for the population mean µ.
Example
Find the confidence interval for the statistical data of
{65.6, 62.8, 66.0, 64.5, 65.1, 65.3, 63.8, 64.2, 63.5, 64.4},
from a given population and the level of confidence is 0.99.
1. Enter the above statistical data into list L1.
2. Press S E 0 6.
The parameter input screen will appear.
3. Enter the C-level value of
0.99.
4. Set the List to L1 and press
E.
5. Press @ h.
Answers are displayed on
the screen, where sx
indicates the sample
standard deviation.
• If you enter a value from 1
to 100 for the C-level, it will be changed to the % input mode.
• In the numerical value input mode, n is a positive integer.
07 Tint2samp
Finds the confidence interval for the difference of two sample
means, µ1 and µ2.
Example
Use the following two sample data (used for example 04);
List 1 {2.37, 2.51, 2.43, 2.28, 2.46, 2.55, 2.49}
List 2 {2.63, 2.71, 2.56, 2.61, 2.55, 2.68, 2.42, 2.48, 2.51, 2.65},
with the level of confidence of 0.99.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
1. Enter the above data in to lists L1 and L2.
2. Press S E 0
7.
The parameter input screen
will appear.
3. Enter the appropriate value
in each field.
4. Press @ h.
Answers are displayed on
the screen, where the
numerical value within ()
indicates the confidence
interval for the differences
between µ1 and µ2 when the
level of confidence is 99%.
In the numerical value input
mode, “n1”, “n2” are positive integers.
08 Ztest1samp
Tests the hypothesis of population mean µ.
Example
The average weight of a newly developed product is known to be
53.4 g and standard deviation (σ) is 4.5. Judge the validity when
the average weight of 20 units is 52.4 g (x).
Set the input method to value input mode
1. Press # S E 1 7 E.
2. Press S E 0
8.
The parameter input screen
will appear.
3. Set the alternate hypothesis
to µ ≠ µ0, µ < µ0 and µ > µ0
(two-tail test, one-tail test
settings). In this case,
choose µ ≠ µ0 (two-tail test).
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
• µ0 indicates the hypothesis mean, σ indicates the population
standard deviation, x indicates the sample mean and n
indicates the sample size. (“n” is a positive integer.)
4. Enter the appropriate value in each field.
5. Press @ h.
Answers will be displayed on
the screen, where z indicates the test statistic and p
indicates the p value of the
test.
09 Ztest2samp
Tests the equality of two sample means, µ1 and µ2.
Example
_
_
Test µ1 > µ2 where x1 = 77.3, σ1 = 3.4, n1 = 30, and x2 = 75.2, σ2 =
2.8, n2 = 20.
Set the input method to value input mode
1. Press # S E 1 7 E.
2. Press S E 0 9.
The parameter input screen will appear.
3. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
4. Press @ h.
Answers will be displayed on
the screen.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
10 Ztest1prop
Tests the success probability P0 of a population.
Example
A coin was tossed 100 times and landed head side up 42 times.
Normally, the probability of head facing up is 0.5. Test to see if the
coin is fair.
1. Press S E 1 0.
The parameter input screen will appear.
• prop is the hypothesis probability. The test will be conducted
using hypothesis prop ≠ P0.
• x is the number of successes observed and n is the number
of trials (where n is a positive integer.)
2. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
3. Press @ h.
^: Success probability
p
obtained from the sample
data.
11 Ztest2prop
Executes a comparative test for two success probabilities, (P1,
P2).
Example
Test the equality of P1 and P2 given the sample data n1 = 50, x1 =
16 and n2 = 20, x2 = 5, where the hypothesis is P1 < P2.
1. Press S E 1 1.
The parameter input screen will appear.
2. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
3. Press @ h.
Answers will be displayed on
^
the screen, where P indicates the calculated success
rate of the data combined
with sample data 1 and 2,
^
^
and P1 and P2 show the success rates of sample data 1 and 2,
respectively. n1 and n2 are positive integers.
12 Zint1samp
Finds the confidence interval of a population mean, µ.
Example
The average weight of a newly developed product is known to be
52.4 g and standard deviation (σ) is 4.5. Given the average
weight of 20 units is 53.4 g (x), find the confidence interval of the
data where the level of confidence (C-level) is 0.95.
Set the input method to value input mode
1. Press # S E 1 7 E.
2. Press S E 1 2.
The parameter input screen will appear.
3. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
4. Press @ h.
Answers will be displayed on
the screen, where the
numerical value within ()
indicates the confidence
interval with the level of
confidence at 0.95, that is, the confidence interval of this
sample data with the confidence level of 95% is between
51.427… and 55.372….
C-level indicates the level of confidence and n is a positive
integer.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
13 Zint2samp
Finds the confidence bound of two sample means µ1 and µ2.
Example
Find the confidence interval of µ1 and µ2 of sample data with the
_
_
confidence level of 0.9, where x1 = 77.3, σ1 = 3.4, n1 = 30 and x2 =
_
_
75.2, σ2 = 2.8, n2 = 20 (x1 and x2 indicate sample means of two
data.)
Set the input method to value input mode
1. Press # S E 1 7 E.
2. Press S E 1 3.
Parameter input screen will appear.
3. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
4. Press @ h.
Answers will be displayed on
the screen, where the
numeric value within ()
indicates the confidence
interval of µ1 and µ2 at a confidence level of 90%.
* n1 and n2 are positive integers.
14 Zint1prop
Finds the confidence interval of the success probability of a
population from the success probability obtained from sample
data collected from a population.
Example
A coin was tossed 100 times and landed head side up 42 times.
Normally, the probability of head facing up is 0.5. Find the
confidence interval of the success probability at a confidence
level of 0.95.
1. Press S E 1 4.
The parameter input screen will appear.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
2. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
3. Press @ h.
Answers will be displayed on
the screen, where the
numerical value within ()
indicates the confidence
interval of the success probability at a confidence level of
95%.
* n is a positive integer.
15 Zint2prop
Finds the confidence interval of the difference (P1-P2) of the
success probability obtained from the two sets of sample data
collected from two different populations.
Example
Find the confidence interval of the success probability (P1, P2) at
a confidence level of 0.9 for the two sets of sample data n1 = 50,
x1 = 16 and n2 = 20, x2 = 5.
1. Press S E 1 5.
The parameter input screen will appear.
2. Enter the appropriate value
into each field.
3. Press @ h.
4. Answers will be displayed on
the screen, where the
numerical value within ()
indicates the confidence
interval of the success probability P1-P2 at a confidence level
of 90%.
* n1 and n2 are positive integers.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
7. Distribution functions
The calculator has distribution features to find statistical calculations.
To enter the distribution menu,
1. Press S F (F DISTRI).
The distribution menu will appear.
2. There are 15 options in the
distribution menu. Press
' to navigate between
pages, and press { or
} to scroll the window.
3. Press E to select the function.
4. Input the specified values.
5. Press E to solve.
01 pdfnorm(
pdfnorm(value [, mean, standard deviation])
Finds the probability density of the specified value x for the
normal distribution N(µ, σ2). A list cannot be used.
* When mean (µ) and standard deviation (σ) are omitted, µ = 0
and σ = 1 are applied.
Example
Find the nominal distribution
probability density for x = 65
when the normal distribution of
the test score averages is 60
with a standard deviation of 6.
02 cdfnorm(
cdfnorm(lower limit, upper limit [, mean, standard deviation])
Calculates the normal distribution probability of a specified range
x for the normal distribution N(µ, σ2). A list cannot be used.
* When mean (µ) and standard deviation (σ) are omitted, µ = 0
and σ = 1 are applied.
Example
Calculate the probability of
range x = 54 to 66 in the above
sample.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
03 InvNorm(
InvNorm(probability [, mean, standard deviation])
Finds the value of x of a given normal distribution probability. A
list cannot be used.
* When mean (µ) and standard deviation (σ) are omitted, µ = 0
and σ = 1 are applied.
Example
Find the value of x for the
probability of 0.8 in the above
sample.
04 pdfT(
pdfT(value, degree of freedom)
Finds the probability density of a specified value x for the T
distribution with n degrees of freedom. A list cannot be used.
Limitations:
Degree of freedom ≤ 140
• Degrees of freedom is a positive real number.
If decimal values are used for the degrees of freedom, the
calculator uses the closest integer of the given degree of
freedom.
• An error may occur when an extremely large number is entered
for degree of freedom.
Example
Find the probability density of
the T distribution with 9 degrees
of freedom when x = 2.5.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
05 cdfT(
cdfT(lower limit, upper limit, degree of freedom)
Finds the T distribution probability within the specified range of x
for the T distribution with n degrees of freedom. A list cannot be
used.
Limitations:
Degree of freedom ≤ 670
• Degrees of freedom is a positive real number.
Example
Find the probability of range X =
0.5 to 3.2 for T distribution with
9 degrees of freedom.
06 pdfχ2(
pdfχ2(value, degree of freedom)
Finds the probability density of a specified value x for the χ2
distribution with n degrees of freedom. A list cannot be used.
Limitations:
Degree of freedom ≤ 141
• Degree of freedom is a positive real number.
Example
Find the probability density of χ2
distribution with 15 degrees of
freedom when x = 6.5.
07 cdfχ2(
cdfχ2(lower limit, upper limit, degree of freedom)
Finds the χ2 distribution probability of a specified range of x for
the χ2 distribution with n degrees of freedom. A list cannot be
used.
• Degree of freedom is a positive real number.
Example
Find the probability of range x =
3 to 15 for the χ2 distribution
with 10 degrees of freedom.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
08 pdfF(
pdfF(value, degree of freedom of numerator, degree of
freedom of denominator)
Finds the probability density of a specified value x for the F
distribution that possesses two independent degrees of freedom,
m and n. A list cannot be used.
Limitations: Degree of freedom ≤ 70
• Degree of freedom is a positive real number.
• An error may occur when an extremely large number is entered
for degrees of freedom.
Example
Find the probability density for
the F distribution generated with
degrees of freedom 15 and 10
when x = 3.
09 cdfF(
cdfF(lower limit, upper limit, degree of freedom of numerator,
degree of freedom of denominator)
Finds the F distribution probability of a specified range x for the F
distribution with two independent degrees of freedom, m and n. A
list cannot be used.
Limitations:
Degree of freedom ≤ 670
• Degree of freedom is a positive real number.
• An error may occur when an extremely large number is entered
for degree of freedom.
Example
Find the probability of the range
x = 0 to 2.5 for the F distribution
generated with degrees of
freedom 15 and 10.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
10 pdfbin(
pdfbin(trial number, success probability [, success number]))
Finds the probability density of a specified value x for the binomial
distribution. A list cannot be used except for success numbers.
When the success number is not specified, the calculation is
executed by entering values from 0 to the trial number and
displays the list.
Limitations:
Success probability is 0 ≤ p ≤ 1.
Example
Find the probability density for
15 trials with x = 7, for the
binomial distribution with
success probability of 30%.
11 cdfbin(
cdfbin(trial number, success probability [, success number]))
Finds the probability of a specified range x for the binomial
distribution. A list cannot be used except for success numbers.
When the success number is not specified, the calculation is
executed by entering values from 0 to the trial number and
displays the list.
Example
Find the probability of range up
to x = 7 for the F distribution
generated with degrees of
freedom 15 and 10.
12 pdfpoi(
pdfpoi(mean, value)
Finds the probability density of a specified value x for a Poisson
distribution of mean µ.
Limitations: Mean of Poisson distribution ≤ 230
Example
Find the probability density of x
= 4, for the mean of a Poisson
distribution of 3.6.
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Chapter 10: Statistics & Regression Calculations
13 cdfpoi(
cdfpoi(mean, value)
Finds the probability of a specified range x for a Poisson distribution of mean mu.
Example
Find the probability within the
range up to x = 4.
14 pdfgeo(
pdfgeo(success probability, value)
Finds the probability density of a specified value x for the geometric distribution.
Limitations:
Success probability is 0 ≤ p ≤ 1.
Example
Find the probability density of a
geometric distribution of
success at the 26th time with
success probability of 5.6%.
15 cdfgeo(
cdfgeo(success probability, value)
Finds the probability of a specified range of x for the geometric
distribution.
Limitations:
Success probability is 0 ≤ p ≤ 1
Example
Find the probability for the
range up to x = 26 with success
probability of 5.6%.
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Chapter 11
Financial Features
The financial calculation features include capabilities for compound interest calculations.
Press @ g.
The financial menu screen will appear.
• Specifies the TVM-SOLVER mode.
• Selects a financial calculation function
• Specifies payment due (to pay at the beginning or end of
period)
• Determines individual settings (in TVM-SOLVER mode)
1. Try it! 1
You plan to purchase a house for a price of
$300,000. The down payment is $100,000.
Calculate the monthly payments for a 30year loan at an annual interest rate of 5%
for the remaining $200,000.
Draw a cash
flow diagram on
paper
1. Draw the following cash flow diagram to simplify the problem.
( +)
Present Value (PV) = 300,000 – 100,000
= 200,000
I = 5%
Future Value (FV) = 0
Cash flow
Time flow
(–)
1
2
3
PMT = ?
358 359 N = 12 × 30
= 360
• A horizontal line indicates a time flow (left to right) divided into
even sections — months in this case. Each section indicates a
compound period and the total number of sections indicates the
total number of periods for payment.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
• Vertical arrows along the horizontal line indicate the cash flow.
An UP arrow indicates inflow (+) and a DOWN arrow indicates
outflow (–).
• The calculator considers the cash inflow for each period is
constant. (Even payment.)
2. Determine the time each payment is due.
For deposits and loan payments, the time each payment is
due (paid at the beginning or the end of the period) makes for
a different cash flow diagram.
Payment due at the end of the period
( +)
PV
I%
FV
Cash flow
Time flow
1
(–)
N–1 N
2
PMT
Payment due at the beginning of the period
(+)
PV
I%
FV
Cash flow
Time flow
(–)
1
N–1 N
2
PMT
In this case payment is due at the end of the period.
3. Determine the inflow and outflow and place the present value
(PV = $200,000) on the diagram.
We can consider the present value (PV) as a loan and thus
inflow (revenue) from the customer’s point of view. So, place
the PV at the top left end of the diagram. We also can consider
the principal interest total (Future value) as outflow (payment).
Draw a vertical line with a DOWN arrow on the top of the
diagram.
4. Complete the diagram with interest (I%), number of payment
periods (N), future value (FV), and other required numbers.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
Starting the
calculation
Setting the payment due time
5. Press @ g.
6. Press C (C PERIOD).
7. Press 1 (1 PmtEnd)
and press E.
Payment due time is now set
to the end of the period.
Enter the value
using the
SOLVER
function
8. Press @ g.
9. Press A E.
10. The following TVM-SOLVER screen will appear.
The payment due time is set to the end of the period.
The payment due time is set to
the end of period.
Payment due settings
Number of payment periods
Interest
Present value (principal sum)
Payment or received amount
Future value (principal interest total)
Number of payments per year
Cumulative interest per year
11. Input 360 for N (number of payment periods) and press E.
The cursor moves to “I%”.
12. Input 5 for I% (annual
interest) and press E.
13. Input 200000 for PV (present
value) and press E.
14. Press E.
Since the payment amount is to be calculated from the other
values, no value must be entered for PMT (payment or
received amount).
15. Press E again.
Since FV (future value) is “0” at the end, no value must be
entered for FV.
16. Press 12 for P/Y (number of payments per year) and press
E.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
17. Press E.
Usually C/Y (cumulative
interest per year) is the
same value as P/Y. If not,
enter the value instead.
18. Press { 3 times to move the cursor to PMT (payment
amount).
19. Press @ h.
The result will appear as follows.
20. Payment amount per month
PMT = -1073.643246
(Negative value indicates
payment.)
The numerical value input
format and display format in
the FINANCE mode comply to that of SETUP.
The above answer is given when the FSE setting in SET UP
menu is set to FloatPT. If you wish to display 2 digit decimal
point format, set TAB to 2 and FSE to FIX.
Answer:
You have to pay $1,073.64 per month for 30 years.
Simple interest and compound interest
There are two ways to calculate interest: simple and compound. In the FINANCE
mode, the calculator can execute compound interest calculations.
Example of depositing $10,000 in a bank for 3 years at an annual interest rate of 3%
Period
First year
Second year
Simple interest
Receive $10,000 x 0.03 =
$300
Receive $300 (constantly)
Third year
Receive $300 (constantly)
Compound interest
Receive $10,000 x 0.03 =
$300
Receive $10,300 x 0.03 =
$309
Receive $10,609 x 0.03 =
$318.27
With compound interest, the amount in the bank is increased by receiving interest on
the interest gained during each calculated period.
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183_193_chapter11_en
186
02.8.23, 2:19 PM
Chapter 11: Financial Features
Try it! 2
If the monthly payments in the first example is limit to a fixed $800, how much
must be the present value (PV) and the required amount of down payment.
( +)
PV = 300,000 – down payment
I = 5%
FV = 0
Cash flow
Time flow
(–)
Set the TAB and
FSE (2 and FIX
respectively)
1
2
3
358 359 N = 360
PMT = 800
1. Press @ ; C 2 D 2
TAB is set to 2 and FSE is set to FIX.
2. Press C @ g
A and E.
The previous TVM-SOLVER
screen will appear with the
cursor flashing on N.
3. Press } three times to move the cursor to PMT.
4. Press _ 800 and E.
Be sure to enter the minus
sign to indicate payment.
5. Move the cursor to PV.
6. Press @ h.
7. PV will change to 149025.29
• This indicates that the total
amount over 30 years will
be $149,025.29 if the
maximum monthly payment is limited to $800.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
• So, the required amount of down payment is
$300,000 – $149,025.29 = $150,974.71.
Using the TVM-SOLVER screen, you can obtain various results
by inputting the known variables and then moving the cursor to
the unknown variable and pressing @ h. The value
where the cursor pointer is placed will be calculated from the
known variables.
Example
Compare the principal interest total when accumulating an
interest of 2.18% monthly on $100 for 5 years with payment due
at the beginning of the period and at the end of the period.
1. Payment due at the beginning of the period
1. Press @ g C 2 and press E.
2. Press @ g A E.
Payment due is now set to
the beginning of the period.
3. Enter the values.
4. Move the cursor to FV and
press @ h.
2. Payment due at the end of the period.
1. Press @ g C 1 and press E.
2. Press @ g A E.
Payment due is now set to
the beginning of the period.
3. Enter the values.
4. Move the cursor to FV and
press @ h.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
2. CALC functions
Press @ g B to access the CALC functions.
The CALC functions 01 to 05 calculate any of the following
variables from the other variables. (The same calculations are
possible as the SOLVER functions.)
N:
I%:
PV:
PMT:
FV:
P/Y:
C/Y:
Number of payment periods
Interest
Present value (principal sum)
Payment or received amount
Future value (principal interest total)
Number of payments per year
Cumulative interest per year
• The contents calculated on the calculation screen do not affect
the variable values in the TVM-SOLVER.
01 slv_pmt
solv_pmt [(N, I%, PV, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
Calculates monthly payment (PMT)
02 slv_I%
slv_I% [(N, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
Calculates annual interest
03 slv_PV
slv_PV [(N, I%, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
Calculates present value (PV)
04 slv_N
slv_N [(I%, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
Calculates the number of payment periods (N)
05 slv_FV
slv_FV [(N, I%, PV, PMT, P/Y, C/Y)]
Calculates future value (FV)
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
06 Npv (
Npv (Interest rate, initial investment, list of following collected investment [, frequency list])
Calculates the net present value and evaluates the validity of the
investment. You can enter unequal cash flows in the list of
following collected investment.
Example
The initial investment is $25,000
planning to achieve the profits
each year as shown on the
right, Evaluate whether annual
revenue of 18% is achieved.
$11K
$9K
$7K
1
$25,000
$8K
$5K
2
3
4
5
Year
* You can execute the calculation by using a list or a
frequency list calculation.
The result indicates that annual revenue of 18% cannot be
secured.
07 Irr (
Irr (initial investment, list of following collected investment [,
frequency list] [, assumed revenue rate])
Calculates the investment revenue rate where the net present
value is 0.
Example
If the investment for the sales
plan in the previous example is
$28,000, how much is the
investment revenue rate?
• 12.42 is obtained as the
answer, thus, the investment revenue rate for the above
condition is 12.42%.
* In the previous example, revenues following the investment
value (input using minus sign) were assumed to be positive.
However, when the assumed revenue is set to minus (in other
words, more than two inverse symbols), the assumed revenue
rate must be entered at the end. Otherwise an error may occur.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
The following CALC functions, 08 Bal, 09 ΣPrn and
10 ΣInt require the values of I%, PV and PMT
variables. Enter the values beforehand in the TVMSOLVER function.
Example using the 08 and 10
calculations
You plan to purchase a house for the price of $300,000. The down
payment is $100,000. Calculate the monthly payments for a 30year loan at an annual interest rate of 5% for the remaining
$200,000.
08 Bal (
Bal (number of payments [, decimal place to round])
Calculates loan balance.
Calculate the loan balance after
15 years (180 months).
09 ΣPrn (
ΣPrn (initial number of payments, end number of payments [,
decimal place to round]).
Calculates the principal amount of the total payments.
Compare the principal amount
of the total payments after 5 (1
to 60 months) and 10 years (61
to 120 months).
10 ΣInt (
ΣInt (Initial number of payments, end number of payments [,
decimal place to round])
Calculates the sum of the interest on the payments.
Compare the sum of the
interest on the payment sum
after 5 years and 10 years.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
Conversion functions
11 →Apr (
→Apr (effective interest rate, number of settlements)
Converts effective interest rate to nominal interest rate
Example
If the effective interest rate is
12.55%, how much is the
nominal interest rate for the
quarterly compound interest? If
the monthly compound interest
rate is 10.5%, how much is the
nominal interest rate?
12 →Eff (
→Eff (nominal interest rate, number of settlements)
Converts nominal interest rate to effective interest rate
Example
If the annual (nominal) interest
rate is 8%, how much is the
effective interest rate for
monthly compound interest?
How much is it over half a year?
13 days (
days (start month.day year, end month.day year)
days (day month.year, day month.year)
Calculates the number of days between dates entered (within the
range of 1950 to 2049)
Year, month, and day must be
entered in 2-digit form. For
example, enter 02 for 2002.
Calculate the number of days
from September 1, 1997 to
December 31, 2004.
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Chapter 11: Financial Features
3. VARS Menu
The VARS menu consist of a list of the variables used for the TVM-SOLVER functions.
• The VARS menu can be used to enter values in the sub-menu
within the Finance menu.
1. Press @ g D.
2. The VARS sub-menu will
appear.
3. Select the appropriate
variable to use.
The variables in the VARS sub-menu are the same as those of
the TVM-SOLVER feature.
How to recall
the content of N
1. Press # @ g
D 1 E.
How to recall
the content of
I%
2. Press @ g D
2 E.
How to recall
the content of
PV
3. Press @ g D 3 E.
How to reenter
the value
• Each variable of the TVM-SOLVER can be recalled and then
reentered.
Reenter 400 for N instead of 360
1. Press 400 R.
2. Press @ g D
1 E.
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Chapter 12
The SOLVER Feature
The SOLVER feature is one of the calculator’s most powerful and distinctive features,
and helps you solve math problems with various analysis methods.
Using this feature, problems from linear equations to complex formulas can be solved
with ease.
To access the SOLVER feature, press @ '; to exit, press #.
Note:
• The SOLVER feature is not available in the Basic mode.
• The SOLVER feature shares variables with other calculator
features. These variables can be called up or defined within the
SOLVER feature OR any other features. For example, solving/
defining a value of “A” within the SOLVER feature will also
change the global value of “A”.
1. Three Analysis Methods: Equation, Newton,
and Graphic
To switch your preferred analysis style:
1. Go into the SOLVER menu by pressing @ ' WITHIN
the SOLVER window. The SOLVER menu appears with four
menu items.
2. While A METHOD item is
selected on the left, select
your preferred method by
pressing 1, 2, or
3.
Equation
method
The Equation method is useful when there is only one unknown
variable. For example, if you know the values of B and C for an
expression “A + B = C”, use the Equation method.
Example
Determine the value of “C” in “A = 2B2 + 4C”, when A = 4, and
B = 5.
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Chapter 12: The SOLVER Feature
1. Enter SOLVER by pressing @ '. The word SOLVER
will flash on the screen, indicating that you are now in the
SOLVER feature mode.
2. Enter the equation “A = 2B2
+ 4C”.
Press A A A =
2ABy+4
A C.
3. Press E.
The screen above right appears, indicating that there are 3
variables to be assigned.
Note:
If values were assigned to those variables prior to this operation,
then the previously set values will be shown here. For example,
“C = 57” may show up in this
window; this simply indicates
the value of “C” was previously
set to “57”.
4. Enter “4” for variable “A”, and
“5” for variable “B”.
Press 4 E 5 E.
5. When the two known values have been specified, make sure
that the cursor is at the value yet to be determined (in this
case, the value of “C”).
6. Press @ h to
execute the SOLVER. The
value of “C” will be obtained.
* After the solution has been
found, press C to return
to the variable input screen. You may change the numeric
values for the variables and select another unknown variable to
solve.
* To edit the equation, press C on the variable input screen.
The equation input screen allows you to correct or edit the
previously input equation.
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Chapter 12: The SOLVER Feature
Newton’s
method
Newton’s method is a technique of finding approximate solutions
to a math problem via calculus, when conventional algebraic
techniques just cannot work. If the Equation method fails, the
calculator will automatically switch to Newton’s method.
Example
Solve “X2 + 4X – 2 = 0”.
1. Enter SOLVER by pressing @ '. If you have items left
on the screen, clear the entries by pressing the C key
several times.
2. Enter “X2 + 4X – 2”. When
the expression is entered as
a non-equation format, then
“=0” is automatically assumed at the end. When
done, press E.
3. The next screen indicates
the variable “X” and its
previously set value. This
value will be assumed as the
starting point of the calculation segments, and the
Newton SOLVER will find the closest approximation to the
starting point. Enter “0”, and press E.
4. Now, press @ h to
execute the SOLVER. Since
this cannot be solved using
the Equation method, the
calculator automatically
switches analysis to
Newton’s method.
5. The next window confirms
the starting point of the
analysis (set to “X = 0” from
step #3), and the size of
each step (default is set to
“0.001”). Press @ h.
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Chapter 12: The SOLVER Feature
6. The following window shows
the approximate value of X
(0.449489742), the right side
value of the equation
(assumed as “0”, at step #2),
the left side value (which the
entered expression results to this value when the value X is
entered), and the difference between the left and the right
side.
7. Since the L-R difference
above indicates a margin of
error, try entering smaller
steps. Press C to go
back to step #3. Enter the
value of X, then press @
h to execute the SOLVER again. When the next window
appears, try entering smaller step value (“0.00001”, for
example).
8. Press E to register the
step value change, then
@ h. Although the
value of X appears to be
unchanged, the margin of
error will have become small
enough (“0”, in this example), to be as close to zero as
possible.
Note:
As you may well know, there may be more than one solution to
the equation. To obtain the value of the other solutions, set the
starting point of Newton’s method lower (“-10”, for example) or
execute the SOLVER again with the current solution as a starting
point.
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Chapter 12: The SOLVER Feature
Graphic method
The Graphic method is another way of approximating solutions,
using graphical representations. This method is particularly useful
when finding more than one solution on a graph axis.
Example
Obtain values for “Y = X3 – 3X2 + 1”, when Y = 0.
1. Press @ ' to enter SOLVER. Clear screen entries by
pressing C several times.
2. Enter “Y = X3 – 3X2 + 1” into
the initial window, and press
E.
3. In the next window, set the Y
value as “0”, and press
E. The right side value
of the equation is now set.
Note:
Unlike in the Newton’s method,
the X value will not be assumed
as the starting point for the
Graphic method.
4. Before proceeding further,
you will need to set the
SOLVER to the Graphic
method. Press @ '
to call up the SOLVER
menu, and press A (for
“A METHOD”), then 3 (for “3 Graphic”). The Graphic
method is now set.
5. Press @ h to proceed.
6. Next in the following window,
specify the range of analysis
that will incorporate all
possible solution. In this
example, we will set the
beginning point at “-1”, and
the end point at “3”. Press E at each variable entry.
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Chapter 12: The SOLVER Feature
Note:
The analysis will be limited to the range specified; a solution
outside of the analysis range will not be detected. If no crossing
point is found in the range, then a message “No solution found”
will show at the bottom of the screen.
7. Pressing @ h at this point will engage the analysis,
as well as the graphical representation of the equation. Note
that while the cursor flashes at the upper right corners of the
screen, the calculator is busy processing tasks.
8. When the processing is
complete, you will get the
first value of X (the smallest), with a flashing star on
the graph at the crossing
point.
To obtain the next X value,
press @ k.
Note:
To enlarge a part of graph after
the solution has been found,
you may use the ZOOM Box
function. Press Z and use the cursor for defining the box
area.
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Chapter 12: The SOLVER Feature
2. Saving/Renaming Equations for Later Use
The expressions you have entered in the SOLVER can be named
and stored:
1. Go to the SOLVER menu by
pressing @ '.
2. Press C to select the C
SAVE menu, and press
E.
3. When the next screen
appears, ALPHA LOCK
mode is automatically set
and the cursor is changed to
“A”, indicating that alphabet
characters can be entered.
To enter numbers, press A.
The equation name should consist of 8 characters/numbers or
less.
4. When done, press E. The screen goes back to the
SOLVER function screen.
Saved SOLVER expressions can also be renamed:
1. Go to the SOLVER menu, and press D to select the D
RENAME sub-menu.
2. A list of saved equation
names appears in the submenu. Select the equation
name you wish to change.
For example, press 0
1 to select the first item
of the list.
3. When renaming is complete, press E to save the change.
The screen goes back to the SOLVER function screen.
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Chapter 12: The SOLVER Feature
3. Recalling a Previously Saved Equation
To recall a stored SOLVER equation:
1. Go to the SOLVER menu,
and press B to select
the B EQTN sub-menu.
2. A list of saved equation
names appears in the submenu. Select the equation you wish to call back.
3. Press E. The stored equation is called back.
Note:
Any changes unsaved prior to recalling will be lost. Also be aware
that any changes to the recalled equation will not be retained
unless saved manually.
201
Chapter 13
Programming Features
The calculator has programming features that enable automatic processing of a series
of calculations any number of times.
* The Programming features are only supported by the Advanced mode. In the Basic
mode, only the execution of programs is available.
Almost all the calculation and graphing language can be used in programs as well as
the usual control flow statements such as If, For, While and Goto (with Label).
Please note that complex numbers cannot be used in programming.
1. Try it!
Display a message “HELLO WORLD” on the
display.
Creating a new
program
1. Press P.
The program menu screen will appear.
A EXEC
Executes the
selected program
B EDIT
Opens a stored
program file.
C NEW
Creates a new
program file
* In the Basic mode, only the A EXEC menu item will appear.
202
Chapter 13: Programming Features
2. Press C E.
A new program window will
open.
3. Input the program name
(HELLO) on the top line of
the screen.
Up to 8 characters can be used for the title.
4. Press E.
5. The cursor will move to the program input field just under the
title.
Starting
programming
6. Press P.
The program menu will open.
The commands and other
statements are preinstalled
in the calculator.
Do not directly type in commands using the Alphabetical
mode, select each command from the program menu.
Note:
Entering a
command
Press @ j, and you can access all the available commands at once.
7. Select A 1.
8. Press P.
9. Select A 2.
The characters following a
double quotation mark can
be manipulated as text. No double quotation mark is required
to close the text.
Entering the
alphabetical
input lock mode
10. Press @ . to enter
the alphabetic lock mode.
11. Type HELLO WORLD.
Up to 160 alphanumeric
characters can be input per
line. (Strings of up to 158 characters maximum can be entered
per line excluding commands, because each command is
regarded as a single character.
203
Chapter 13: Programming Features
When a line exceeds the width of the screen, the display will
shift to the left.
Store the
program line by
line
12. Press E.
The cursor will move to the next line and the data input will be
stored.
Store the program line by line by pressing E, { or
}.
13. Press @ q to exit the program edit screen.
Execute the
program
14. Press P A.
A list of stored programs will
appear.
15. Press 0 1 to
execute the program 01
“HELLO”.
2. Programming Hints
Editing the
program
Press P B and then the appropriate numbers to open
the stored program.
Adding commands, strings
or command
lines to the
program
Press @ i to enter the insert type mode.
Press E to go to the next line. Be sure to press @ i
again to turn off the insert type mode and return to type over
mode.
Entering
alphabetical
characters
(uppercase
only)
Press A to enter characters. Press @ . to use a
ALPHA-LOCK mode to input a series of alphabetical characters.
Inputting
commands
In general, only a single command can be input per line.
204
Press E twice to insert a blank line.
Chapter 13: Programming Features
Storing a
program line by
line
After pressing E, } or {, the line will be stored in
memory. Otherwise, it is not stored. Be sure to store the all lines
by pressing E ({ or }) before quitting editing
(pressing @ q).
Blank line
Blank lines are ignored during execution. You can include blank
lines to gain better readability.
Deleting a line
Move the cursor to the line you wish to delete and press C.
Deleting
command or
strings
Move the cursor to on or after the letter you wish to delete and
press D or B, respectively.
Deleting an
entire program
Press @ p and use C DEL. (See Chapter 14 OPTION
Menu, page 224).
Copying a line
to another
location
Press P H in the program edit mode. (See page 216 for
details)
Changing the
program name
Press { to move the cursor to the program name field. Enter
the new name and press E or }.
Re-executing
the program
Pressing E again after execution of the program completes.
Break the
execution
process
Press O or @ q to break the execution process.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
3. Variables
• Single letters (uppercase letter from A to Z and θ) can be used as variables.
• Defined once in one program, a variable is set as a global variable across all other
stored programs unless redefined.
Hence results calculated in one program can be used by another.
• Only value (numbers) can be set as variables.
• Strings cannot be set as variables.
Setting a variable
Use R to input a specific value or the value of formula into
the variable. Do not use = (comparison operands) to set the
values into variable.
5→X
MX + B → Y
The variable X is set to the value 5.
The variable Y is set to the value of formula MX + B.
4. Operands
• Almost all the calculation operands can be used in a program.
• Input an operand directly from the keys (+, –, ×, ÷, sin, cos, log and others) or using
MATH, STAT, LIST, MATRIX and other menus.
Comparison operands
• The calculator has 6 comparison operands.
• Press M F and select
an appropriate comparison
operand.
206
= Equal
≠ Not equal
> Greater than
≥ Greater than or equal
< Less than
≤ Less than or equal
Chapter 13: Programming Features
5. Programming commands
• Print, Input, Wait, Rem, End and other commands can be used in a program.
Screen settings, data input/output, graph settings and others can be controlled from
a program.
• Press P in the program edit mode to input the command.
A PRGM menu P A
1 Print
Print variable
Print “character strings [“]
Displays the value of the variable on the screen.
The display format may vary according to the SET UP menu
settings.
Character strings displayed by the print command will break at
the edge of the screen.
2“
command “ strings
Characters enclosed by double-quote marks are considered to be
strings.
The closing double-quote can be omitted when it would appear at
the end of a line.
3 Input
Input [“prompt strings”,] variable
Enables the user to input a
value (list, etc.) for the specified
variable during execution. A
message “variable = ?” or
“prompt strings?” will appear on
the screen while the calculator
waits for data input.
Prompt strings include alphabetical words, numbers, and
other character strings that can
be entered by keys and menus.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
4 Wait
Wait [natural number (1 to 255)]
Interrupts execution for the
(natural number) of seconds. If
no value is specified, interruption continues until any key is
pressed.
• A symbol will flash at the
upper right corner of the screen during the wait.
• This command can be used for displaying intermediate results
or other information.
5 Rem
Rem comments
Comments start with Rem and extend to the end of the line.
These lines are ignored at execution.
Comments should be entered as notes for future reference,
though it should be noted that they do occupy some memory
space.
6 End
End
Indicates the end of a program.
End is not necessary at the last line of the program.
7 Key
Key variable
If a numeric key or one of the cursor keys is pressed, the variable
is set to the corresponding numeric value as specified in the
following table.
208
10
9
○
○
11
12
○
○
○
○
○
}
○
8
Numbers
○
{
○
;
7
○
○
○
○
○
6
○
9
'
○
8
4
keys
5
○
3
○
○
7
○
6
2
Numbers
○
1
○
4
○
3
○
2
○
5
○
○
keys
0
○
1
Numbers
○
0
○
keys
○
○
Keys and Corresponding Numbers
13
Chapter 13: Programming Features
B BRNCH menu P B
See 6. Flow control tools on page 214.
C SCRN menu P C
C SCRN menu commands are used to display or clear the
screen.
1 ClrT
ClrT
Clears the program text screen without affecting the plotted
graph.
2 ClrG
ClrG
Clears the graph screen without affecting the specified graph.
After the graph screen is cleared, the specified graph statement is
drawn.
3 DispT
DispT
Displays the program text screen.
4 DispG
DispG
Displays the graph screen.
D I/O menu P D
This menu is used to send or receive data from externally
connected devices.
1 Get
2 Send
Get variable
Receives data from externally connected devices.
Send variable
Sends data to externally connected devices.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
E SETUP menu P E
SETUP menu commands are used to set the various settings
used in graphing and calculations.
01 Rect
02 Param
03 Polar
04 Web
Rect
Sets the graph coordinates as X and Y coordinates.
Param
Sets the graph coordinates as parametric coordinates.
Polar
Sets the graph coordinates as polar coordinates.
Web
Sets the graph coordinates as axes in sequence graphs.
u(n – 1) is set to the X axis and u(n) is set to the Y axis.
05 Time
Time
Sets the graph coordinates as axes in sequence graphs.
n is set to the X axis and u(n), v(n) and w(n) is set to the Y axis.
06 uv
uv
Sets the graph coordinates as the axes of sequence graphs.
u(n) is set to the X axis and v(n) is set to the Y axis.
07 uw
uw
Sets the graph coordinates as the axes of sequence graphs.
u(n) is set to the X axis and w(n) is set to the Y axis.
08 vw
vw
Sets the graph coordinates as the axes of sequence graphs.
v(n) is set to the X axis and w(n) is set to the Y axis.
09 Deg
Deg
10 Rad
Rad
11 Grad
210
Grad
Sets the angle mode to degree, radian and gradient, respectively.
Chapter 13: Programming Features
12 FloatPt
FloatPt
13 Fix
Fix
14 Sci
Sci
15 Eng
Eng
16 Tab
Tab integer (0 to 9)
Sets the number display mode to floating point, fixed decimal,
scientific and engineering, respectively.
17 Decimal
Decimal
18 Mixed
Mixed
19 Improp
Improp
20 x±yi
x±yi
21 r ∠ θ
r∠θ
Sets the answering mode to the one specified.
F FORMAT menu P F
F FORMAT menu commands are used to set the graph format.
01 RectCursor
02 PolarCursor
03 ExprON
04 ExprOFF
05 Y’ ON
06 Y’ OFF
RectCursor
Sets the graph coordinate display format to X - Y axes.
PolarCursor
Sets the graph coordinates display format to polar coordinates.
ExprON
Sets the graph equation to be displayed on the graph screen.
ExprOFF
Sets the graph equation to not be displayed on the graph screen.
Y’ON
Sets the derived function (Y’) to be displayed on the graph
screen.
Y’OFF
Sets the derived function (Y’) to not be displayed on the graph
screen.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
07 AxisON
08 AxisOFF
09 GridON
AxisOFF
Sets the specified axis to not be displayed on the graph screen.
GridON
Sets the grid lines to be displayed on the graph screen.
10 GridOFF
GridOFF
Sets the grid lines to not be displayed on the graph screen.
11 Connect
Connect
Draws a graph with connected lines.
12 Dot
13 Sequen
14 Simul
212
AxisON
Sets the specified axis to be displayed on the graph screen.
Dot
Draws a graph with dots.
Sequen
Draws the graphs in sequential order.
Simul
Draws the graphs simultaneously.
Chapter 13: Programming Features
G S_PLOT menu P G
S_PLOT menu commands are used for statistics plotting.
1 Plt 1(
Sets the statistical graph settings for plot 1.
2 Plt 2(
Sets the statistical graph settings for plot 2.
3 Plt 3(
Sets the statistical graph settings for plot 3.
The above menu commands have the same usage as the
following:
Plt1(graph type, X list name [, Y list name, frequency list])
* Press [ to specify a graph type.
4 PlotON
PlotON [number]
Sets drawing of the specified statistical graph to on.
If no number is specified, this command turns on all of the
statistical graphs.
5 PlotOFF
PlotOFF [number]
Sets drawing of the specified statistical graph to off.
If no number is specified, this command turns off all of the
statistical graphs.
6 LimON
7 LimOFF
LimON
This commands turns on the limit lines for upper, lower, and mean
values.
LimOFF
This commands turns off the limit lines for upper, lower, and
mean values.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
6. Flow control tools
The calculator has the common flow control tools such as Goto - Label loop structures, and If-, For- and While-statement clauses for enhancing a program’s efficiency.
It also has the capability for subroutines.
It is recommended to use If, For or While statements rather than Goto-Label loop
structures.
To access the flow control tools, use the P B BRNCH menu.
01 Label
Label label name
Specifies a branch destination for Goto or Gosub.
The same Label name cannot be used in two places within the
same program.
Up to 10 characters can be used for a Label name.
Up to 50 Labels can be used in a single program.
02 Goto
03 If
Goto label name
To shift the program execution to a label.
If conditional statements Goto label name
or
If conditional statements
Then
commands or multiple statements *
[Else
commands or multiple statements]
EndIf
* Multiple statements mean a group of statement lines separated
by colons(:) that are evaluated as a single line.
Within a second structure it is possible to use the following menu
items.
04 Then
05 Else
06 EndIf
* Use a comparison operand in a condition statement.
* Up to 115 If clauses can be nested, though if combined with
other types of loops, the maximum nested loop number may
vary due to the memory capacity.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
07 For
08 Next
For variable, initial value, end value [, increment]
commands or multiple statements
Next
• The increment value can be omitted. The default value is 1.
• For and Next statements must be placed at the beginning of the
line.
• If the comparisons variable > end value (positive) or variable <
end value (negative) are satisfied, the program will end the loop
and go to the line indicated by the Next command.
• Up to 5 For loops can be nested, though if combined with other
types of loops, the maximum nested loop number may vary due
to the memory capacity.
• It is highly recommended that Label and Goto statements are
not used in For loop structures.
09 While
10 WEnd
While conditional statements
commands or multiple statements
WEnd
• While and WEnd statements must be placed at the beginning of
the line.
• Multiple While loops can be nested to within the memory
capacity.
• Conditional statements are evaluated before entering the While
clause.
• It is highly recommended that Label and Goto statements are
not used in While loop structures.
* Up to 8 while loops can be nested, though if combined with
other types of loops, the maximum nested loop number may
vary due to the memory capacity.
Note:
Else clause cannot be omitted when the matching If clause is
contained in a For or a While loop.
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202_221_chapter13_en
215
02.8.23, 2:22 PM
Chapter 13: Programming Features
11 Gosub
12 Return
Gosub label name
.....................
End
[Rem start of the subroutine (label name)]
Label label name
Statements
Return
Subroutine structures can be used for programming.
• The Gosub label name must be the same as the Label starting
the subroutine.
• A Return statement is necessary at the end of the subroutine.
When the Return statement is executed, the calculator executes
the next line after the Gosub statement.
• Up to 10 subroutines can be nested.
7. Other menus convenient for programming
H COPY menu P H
You can copy and paste line by line using the COPY menu
commands.
1. Move the cursor to the line that you wish to copy.
2. Press P H.
3. Select 1 StoLine and press
E.
The selected line will be
stored in the memory.
4. Move the cursor to the line where you wish to paste the stored
line.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
5. Press P H, select 2
RclLine and press E.
The stored line will be
inserted at the targeted
position.
•
Please note that only a single line can be stored in the
memory.
VARS menu
• Functions that control the
graph screen can be selected
from the VARS menu.
• Press @ z to display
the VARS menu (shown to the
right).
* There are differences in functions between the Advanced mode
and the Basic mode. The following menus and their descriptions
are based on the Advanced mode.
A EQVARS
Specifies the graph equation (Y1 to Y9, and Y0, X1T•Y1T to
X6T•Y6T, R1 to R6).
B WINDOW
Specifies the functions that set the graph display screen size
(Xmin, Ymax, Tstep, etc.).
C STOWIN
Specifies the stored zoom (window) setting value (Zm_Xmin,
Zm_Ymax, etc.).
D L_DATA
Specifies list data (L_Data1 to L_Data9, and L_Data0).
E G_DATA
Specifies the graph data (G_Data1 to G_Data9, and G_Data0).
F PICTUR
Specifies picture data (Pict1 to Pict9, and Pict0).
G TABLE
H STAT
Specifies table setting values (Table Start, Table Step, Table List).
_
_
Specifies statistics, functions ( x , Σx, y … ), regression expressions, points and statistical verification functions.
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Chapter 13: Programming Features
• The commands and functions in the VARS menu can be
displayed on the screen. Current setting data can also be reset.
• The results of arithmetic functions can also be displayed.
• The ZOOM command is selected directly from the ZOOM menu.
Names of some ZOOM commands change when inserted into
programs. These are [A ZOOM], [C POWER], [D EXP], [E
TRIG], and [F HYP] of the ZOOM menu.
“Zm_” is automatically added to each of these functions when
inserted into programs.
Example
Zm_Auto, Zm_x2, Zm_sin, etc.
• Always enter the argument for functions requiring an argument
at the end of the command, such as the CALC function (@
k). An error will be returned for commands not accompanied by an argument.
Example
Value 5
Example
Set Xmin = -3, Xmax = 10, Xscl = 1, Ymin = -5, Ymax = 5, Yscl =
1 in the WINDOW screen.
Use R to input the settings.
Expression
Operational sequence
-3 ⇒ Xmin
[email protected]
10 ⇒ Xmax
10 R @ z E 2 E
1 ⇒ Xscl
[email protected]
-5 ⇒ Ymin
[email protected]
5 ⇒ Ymax
[email protected]
1 ⇒ Yscl
[email protected] E6E
* Operation to input a function equation (for example, x2 + 2) to
the graphic equation “Y1” is also made using R in the same
manner as described above.
“X2 + 2” ⇒ Y1: P A 2 X y + 2 P
[email protected]
Note:
218
Function equations cannot be assigned in the graphic equations,
such as Y1, if the EDITOR mode under SET UP is set to Equation. Switch the EDITOR to One line mode prior to assigning such
graphic equations.
Chapter 13: Programming Features
Example
The following data are included in list L1.
L1: 165, 182.5, 173.8, 166.5, 185.3
A one-variable calculation was executed based on this data.
After returning to the calculation screen, average values can be
viewed by using the following procedure.
• Press @ z H
E A 0 2 to
_
display “x ” on the screen.
• Press E to obtain the
average value of X as
determined in the previous calculation.
• In this way, the contents of an immediately preceding statistical
calculation can be stored as statistical values.
• These contents remain valid until the next statistical calculation
is executed, even if the power is turned off.
• The same is true even for regression calculations and verification calculations.
8. Debugging
After programming, it is required to debug the program.
1. Press P A and select the program to debug.
If any bugs are present, error messages will appear.
The following example indicates that the same label name has
been used two or more times.
2. Press ; or ' to display the line where the error exists
and correct the mistake.
219
Chapter 13: Programming Features
When an infinite
loop occurs
Execution can be interrupted by pressing O.
Use this command if the program enters an infinite loop. Press
; or ' to display the program source with the cursor on
the line where interrupted.
* Refer to Appendix “Error Codes and Error Messages” on page
235.
* It is highly recommended that goto-Label statements are not
used in If, While and For loop structures.
* Multiple statements cannot be used in a command line such as
Else, EndIf, Next, While and WEnd. It is recommended not to
use multiple statements.
9. Sample programs
MATFILL
* Fill the matrix M × N with random numbers from 0 to 9.
Ask and set the
dimension of
mat A
Input “ROW:”, M
Generate integer
from 0 to 9 using
int and random
function and set it
to each element
1⇒I
Input “COLUMN:”, N
{M, N} ⇒ dim(mat A)
While I ≤ M
1⇒J
While J ≤ N
int (random x10) ⇒ mat A(I, J)
J+1⇒J
WEnd
I+1⇒I
WEnd
Print mat A for
confirmation
Print mat A
Wait
End
220
Chapter 13: Programming Features
HIST
10 ⇒ dim(L1)
Gosub INSCORE
Gosub AVGSCORE
Plt1(Hist, L1)
Zm_Stat
Wait
End
Sequencially
input the data in
list L1.
Label INSCORE
1⇒I
Input “ENTER SCORE”, A
A ⇒ L1(1)
2⇒I
For I, 2, 10
Input “ENTER NEXT”, A
A ⇒ L1(I)
Next
Return
Calculate the
median of List
L1.
Label AVGSCORE
Print “AVERAGE IS
Median(L1) ⇒ M
Print M
Wait 3
Return
221
Chapter 14
OPTION Menu
The calculator is equipped with OPTION menu for adjusting the display contrast,
checking memory usage, deleting stored data, transferring data, and resetting the
calculator’s memory.
Accessing the OPTION Menu
Press @ p.
The OPTION Menu will appear.
A: Adjusts the display contrast
B: Checks the memory usage
C: Deletes files
D: Link command to use with another calculator or PC.
E: Resets the calculator
1. Adjusting the screen contrast
1. Press @ p.
The screen contrast setting window will appear.
2. Press + to darken or - to lighten the screen.
2. Checking the memory usage
The memory usage window enables you to check how much memory you have used.
If the memory is nearly full, delete files or reset the calculator to operate safely.
1. Press @ p.
2. Press B.
The memory check window
will appear. The remaining
number of bytes of user
memory will be shown on the display.
The user memory is used to store data for graph equations,
graph screens, matrices, lists and so on.
222
Chapter 14: OPTION Menu
3. If you want check the details,
press E.
The detailed memory usage
window will appear.
The total remaining memory
will appear on the bottom line of the screen.
4. Press } to scroll the
window.
List:
Matrix:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by lists
The amount of memory (bytes) used by matrices
Graph Eqn:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by graph equations
Solver Eqn:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by solver equations
Program:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by program files
Picture:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by graph pictures
G_Data:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by stored graph data
L_Data:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by stored list data
Slide:
The amount of memory (bytes) used by slide shows the user has
created
223
Chapter 14: OPTION Menu
3. Deleting files
Press @ p C to enter the delete menu.
The sub-menu items are the same as those of the Memory Check menu (List, Matrix,
Graph Eqn, Solver Eqn, Program, Picture, G_Data, L_Data and Slide).
Deletions can be executed entry by entry.
To delete the
matrix mat C
1. Press @ p C
2.
The matrix deletion window
will appear with the cursor
pointer at the top (mat A).
2. Move the cursor pointer to mat C using { / }.
3. Press E.
mat C will disappear and the
mat C line will become
empty.
• Press @ q to cancel
the delete option.
• Above procedures and displays are only an example. Displayed
items may vary according to data input and use.
* Press @ p C 0 to delete the memories
previously entered.
4. Linking to another EL-9900 or PC
Using the optional CE-451L or CE-LK2, the EL-9900 can be linked to another EL9900 or PC, respectively.
To transfer data, press @ p D to open the Link option window. Press
1 to send data and press 2 to receive data.
Transmission
between EL9900’s
1. Connect the calculators securely using
the optional CE-451L
communication cable.
• Make sure the communication cable is firmly inserted into the ports of both calculators.
* Use the CE-451L only for linking two EL-9900’s.
The EL-9900 can only be linked to another EL-9900.
224
Chapter 14: OPTION Menu
2. Press @ p D on both calculators.
3. Press 2 on the receiving machine.
The receive mode screen
will appear on the display.
4. Press 1 on the sending
machine.
5. The send menu will appear on the display. Specify the data to
send from the following categories.
A SELECT
Displays the menu window to send the data specified as follows:
01 ALL
Displays a list of all
the stored files
category by category.
02 List
Displays a list of all
the stored list files.
03 Matirx
Displays a list of all the stored matrix files.
04 Graph Eqn
Displays a list of all the stored graph equations.
05 Solver Eqn
Displays a list of all the stored solver equations.
06 Program
Displays a list of all the stored program files.
07 G_Data
Displays a list of all the stored graph data files.
08 L_Data
Displays a list of all the stored list data files.
09 Picture
Displays a list of all the stored picture files.
10 Slide
11 A - Z, θ
B BACKUP
Displays a list of all the user-made slide show data.
Displays a list of variables A to Z and θ.
Send all the data stored in the calculator memory.
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Chapter 14: OPTION Menu
6. Select the item to send using { / } and pressing
E. A “✱” will be placed by the selected item.
7. Press @ E to send.
8. Transmission begins and a
busy message will appear on
the displays of the both
calculators.
• An data in the same memory locations in the receiver will be
automatically overwritten.
• Up to 10 files can be selected to send at once.
Example
If you wish to send the list L1, matrices mat A and mat B and
graph equation Y2 to the other calculator.
1. Prepare the receiving calculator by pressing @ p
D 2.
2. Press @ p D
1 on the sending
calculator.
The send menu will appear.
3. Press 0 1.
A list of all the data stored will be are displayed and the cursor
positioned on the top line.
• You can also select 02 List for “L1”, 03 Matrix for “mat A”
and “mat B”, and 04 Graph Eqn for “Y2”, for example, and
send the data category by category.
4. Move the cursor to L1 and
press E.
A “✱” mark will flash to the
left of “L1”, indicating that
the item has been selected
to be sent.
Press E again to deselect.
5. Select the other files you wish to send in the same manner.
6. Press @ E to start transmission.
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Chapter 14: OPTION Menu
Transmission
between the EL9900 and PC
• The optional kit CE-LK2 (cable and Windows software) is
required for calculator to data communication with PC.
• Refer to the CE-LK2 operation manual for details.
• During communications between calculator and PC, no operation of the calculator is required. Just connect the cable and
press the power on key, and the entire operation can be
controlled from the PC.
5. Reset function
If a problem occurs after replacing batteries, or the calculator does not function
correctly, use the RESET option.
1. Press @ p E.
2. Press 1 to return the
calculator’s SETUP and
FORMAT settings to the
default value, or 2 to
delete all the stored data.
See “Resetting the Calculator” on page 29 for details.
227
Appendix
1. Replacing Batteries
The calculator uses two different kinds of batteries: manganese (AAA) for unit
operation, and lithium (CR2032) for memory backup.
Compatible battery types
Type (use)
Manganese battery
(for unit operation)
Lithium battery
(for memory backup)
Model
AAA
Quantity
4
CR2032
1
* To prevent loss of stored data, DO NOT remove both the unit operation and
memory backup batteries at the same time.
Precautions for
handling
batteries
• Fluid from a leaking battery accidentally entering an eye could
result in serious injury. Should this occur, wash with clean water
and immediately consult a doctor.
• Should fluid from a leaking battery come into contact with your
skin or clothes, immediately wash with clean water.
• If the product is not to be used for some time, to avoid damage
to the unit from leaking batteries, remove them and store in a
safe place.
• Do not leave exhausted batteries inside the product.
• Do not fit partially used batteries, and be sure not to mix
different batteries types.
• Keep batteries out of the reach of children.
• Do not allow batteries to become completely exhausted; doing
so may cause the batteries to leak, and may damage the
calculator’s hardware.
• Do not throw batteries into a fire or water, as this may cause
them to explode.
228
Appendix
Procedures for
replacing unit
operation
batteries
When battery power becomes
low, a message will show
indicating that a new set of
batteries are needed.
1. Turn off the calculator’s
power (@ o).
2. Turn over the calculator.
Locate the battery compartment cover, and open the
cover as illustrated.
3. Replace all four AAA
batteries as illustrated.
4. Replace the battery compartment cover.
5. Press O.
The following message will
appear.
If the message does not
appear, repeat the procedures from step 2.
6. Press O.
Do not press C. This will clear all the data.
Replacing the
memory backup
battery
Note:
Once every 5 years, the lithium battery will need to be replaced.
The lithium battery is used to maintain the memory of the
calculator.
Do not remove the lithium battery while the unit operation
batteries are removed; otherwise all the calculator’s stored
memory will be lost.
229
Appendix
1. Perform procedures 1 and 2, as shown above. Do not remove
the unit operation batteries.
2. Remove the screw and the
lithium battery cover, as
shown.
3. Use a pen to lift the lithium
battery out of the battery
compartment.
4. Insert the new battery with
the PLUS (+) side facing up.
5. Replace the lithium battery
cover and fasten the screw.
6. Replace the battery compartment cover and press O.
The following message will appear.
7. Press O.
Do not press C. This
will clear all the data.
230
Appendix
2. Troubleshooting Guide
Refer to the list of possible symptoms, and solutions may be found here.
The calculator’s power won’t turn on!
• The operation batteries may not be installed, may be exhausted, or may be inserted incorrectly. Check the operation
batteries in the battery compartment.
• Place the battery cover securely or the calculator will not turn
on.
The saved calculator configurations are not retained!
• Both the lithium battery and the operation batteries may need to
be replaced.
The power seems to be on, but the characters and numbers cannot be seen
clearly on the display!
• The screen contrast may need to be adjusted.
Press @ p, then press A to enter A CTRST; the
screen contrast can be adjusted by using the + or the
- key.
The calculator won’t take the minus (-) sign; calculation results in a syntax
error!
• To set a negative value, use the _ key instead of the key.
The calculation results are very different from what is usually expected!
• The angle unit and other configurations may be incorrectly set.
Check the configuration under the @ ;.
The graph cannot be seen!
• Check the zoom configuration. Try selecting the automatic zoom
tool, by pressing Z, then A 1.
• The graph line may be set differently; check the line configuration under @ d menu.
• The calculator may not be set to display graphs. Check the “=”
sign in Y= screen.
231
Appendix
The screen images cannot be stored (SLIDE SHOW)
• The available memory may be too small to store the screen
image. Select “B MEMCHK” under @ p menu. Select
and delete unnecessary items under “C DEL”.
There appears to be no functions available for integral/differential calculations!
• Make sure that the Advanced mode is selected. The integral/
differential calculation tools can be found in the M menu.
• Access CATALOG menu by pressing @ j.
The calculator is not responding; the software appears to have crashed!
• Press O. If this does not work, then press @, then
O to tell the running application to quit.
If everything fails, then the calculator’s memory may need to be
reset. Resetting the calculator’s memory will clear all the stored
information, such as programs, lists, and variables.
To reset the unit’s memory, open and close the battery compartment cover, and press O to open the verification window. To
prevent data loss, try O first. If it does not work, repeat the
reset operation and press C when prompted.
232
Appendix
3. Specifications
Model
EL-9900
Product name
Graphing Calculator
Display
132 x 64 dot matrix liquid crystal display
Number of digits: mantissa 10 digits, exponents 2 digits
(standard screen); 7 digit display (including negatives,
decimals) for table screen, split screen, etc.
Mantissa of 10 digits in the complex number mode
Display method: Numerical value, calculation equation input
(direct algebraic logic input / one-line input method), fraction,
and complex number display method specification.
Reversible keyboard Basic and Advanced
Note:
Advanced mode specific functions are: financial function,
statistical test function and distribution function, solver
function, matrix function, and tools function, etc.
Calculation method
D.A.L. (Direct Algebraic Logic)
Calculation features
Manual calculation (arithmetic, parentheses calculation,
memory calculation, function calculation, integral calculation,
coordinate conversion), binary/octal/decimal/hexadecimal
calculation, Boolean operation, matrix calculation, complex
number calculation, complex function calculation, statistic
calculation, regression calculation, statistic authorization
calculation, financial calculation, etc.
Input method
Manual key entry
Graphic features
Rectangular/polar/parametric/sequence coordinate graph
Graph range specification, graph window mode automatic
specification, graph plotting, trace, calculation function, zoom,
picture input, paint, graph database register split-screen, etc.
Statistic features
1-/2-variable statistical data input/calculation, register, edit
and frequency input, regression calculation function, and
estimated statistic/authorization function, etc.
Solver features
Equation solver: numerical syntax analysis, Newton’s method,
graph analysis, and solver equation register.
233
Appendix
List features
Direct data entry/edit to list, calculation function for various
lists, and list/matrix conversion.
Substitution features Graph drawing, numerical input from split-screen
Slide Show features
Screen image capture, play function
The maximum number of pages to be captured:
Approx. 250 pages (pages equivalent to the Y = X2 graph
screen)
Program features
Condition statement command, subroutine, graph, various
function commands
Option menu
Screen contrast adjustment, memory usage check, data
delete, data link (between EL-9900 and PC or another EL9900)
Memory size
64 KB (user area: approx. 47.4 KB)
Power supply
— AAA manganese battery (R03) × 4
Operation: 6 V DC...
— Lithium battery (CR2032) × 1
Memory backup: 3 V DC...
Automatic power-off Approx. 10 minutes
Operating temperature range
0 °C to 40 °C (32 °F to 104 °F)
Power consumption
0.23 W
Battery life
Operation battery set: approx. 150 hours (with 5 minutes of
continual use and 55 minutes in the display state for every
hour at a temperature of approx. 20 °C/68 °F)
Memory backup: approx. 5 years (at a temperature of approx.
20 °C/68 °F, and when the operation batteries are replaced
frequently)
Note:
The life span may differ according to battery brand, type,
usage, and ambient temperature.
External dimensions 86 mm (W) × 183 mm (D) × 23 mm (H)
3-3/8” (W) × 7-7/32” (D) × 29/32” (H)
Weight
240 g ( 0.53 lb) (with batteries, without the hard cover)
Accessories
4 AAA manganese batteries (included), 1 lithium battery
(installed), operation manual
234
Appendix
4. Error Codes and Error Messages
Error
Code
Error Message
Description
01
02
Syntax
Calculate
03
Nesting
04
Invalid
Matrix definition error or entering an invalid value.
05
Dimension
Matrix dimension, or STAT list dimension, inconsistent.
07
08
Invalid DIM
Argument
Size of list/matrix exceeds calculation range.
Inconsistency found in argument of the structured
function.
09
Data Type
Invalid data type used in calculation.
10
No Sign Change
Financial calculation error found.
11
No define
Undefined list/matrix used in calculation.
12
Domain
Argument definition outside of domain.
13
Increment
Increment error found.
16
Irr Calc
More than two inflection points for Irr calculation.
17
Stat Med
Med-Med law (statistic) error found.
20
No Argument
Argument missing.
21
Not pair ∫ dx
∫ and dx are not used in a pair.
22
Not pair [ ]
Brackets are not used in a pair.
23
Not pair ( )
Parentheses are not used in a pair.
24
Not pair { }
Braces are not used in a pair.
25
Line over
Line is over the capacity.
26
Not delete
Unable to delete a selected item.
27
Buffer over
Input/equation exceeds buffer capability.
30
Editor type
Invalid editor type found.*
31
Continue =
“ = ” exists in equation that has been recalled (RCL).
32
No data
Data does not exist.
33
Graph Type
Graph type setting incorrect.
34
Too many var.
Too many variables assigned in the SOLVER.
35
No variable
No variable specified in the SOLVER.
36
No solution
No solution found.
37
No title
No title entered.
Syntax error found in equation/program
Calculation-related error found (division by 0, calculation
beyond range, etc.)
Cannot nest more than 14 numerical values, or 32
functions during execution.
235
Appendix
Error
Code
Error Message
Description
38
Too many obj
More than 30 objects selected.
40
Lbl duplicate
Labels with identical name found in program.
41
Lbl undefined
Goto/Gosub encountered with no defined label.
42
Lbl over
More than 50 labels found in program.
43
Gosub stack
Nesting of more than 10 subroutines found.
44
Line too long
Line contains more than 160 characters.
45
Can’t return
Return used without jumping from subroutine.
46
Storage full
Cannot create more than 99 files.
47
Coord type
Invalid coordinate system for command.
48
Without For
For is missing corresponding to the Next command.
49
Without WEnd
WEnd is missing corresponding to the While command.
50
Without While
While is missing corresponding to the WEnd command.
51
Without Then
Then is missing corresponding to the If command.
52
Without EndIf
EndIf is missing corresponding to the If command.
53
Without If
If is missing corresponding to the EndIf command.
70
I/O device
Communication error found among devices.
71
Wrong Mode
Wrong communication mode set.
90
Memory over
Memory is full; cannot store data as requested.
99
System error
System error found; user memory space is insecure.
Low battery
Operation interrupted due to low battery power.
BREAK!!
Operation break specified.
* The following operations may cause Editor type error. Correct the Editor type to
continue.
• Recall the SOLVER equations (EQTN) or Graph data (G_DATA) stored in a
different EDITOR mode than currently in use.
• Receive the Graph equation (Y1 and others) entered in a different EDITOR mode
than currently in use.
236
Appendix
5. Error Conditions Relating to Specific Tasks
1. Financial
* Define constants “r” and “s” as used in the equation below.
r=
(
I (%)
100
)
÷ C/Y + 1
C/Y
P/Y
–1,
{ SS == 10 (Pmt_Begin)
(Pmt_End) }
1. I% calculation
1 If PMT = 0
(
r = - PV
FV
- 1n
)
–1
2 If PMT ≠ 0
-n
f (r) = PV + (1 + r × s) × PMT × 1 – (1 + r) + FV (1 + r)-n: (r ≠ 0)
r
f (r) = PV + PMT × n + FV: (r = 0)
calculate the following for r solved in 1 and 2
P/Y
I (%) = 100 × C/Y × ((r + 1)C/Y –1)
2. PV calculation
1 If r ≠ 0, r > -1
-n
PV = - (1 + r × s) × 1 – (1 + r) × PMT – FV × (1 + r)-n
r
2 If r = 0
PV = -n × PMT – FV
3 If r ≤ -1
Error
237
Appendix
3. FV calculation
1 If r ≠ 0, r > -1
FV = –
1 – (1 + r)-n
× PMT
r
-n
(1 + r)
PV + (1 + r × s) ×
2 If r = 0
FV = -n × PMT – PV
3 If r ≤ -1
Error
4. PMT calculation
1 If r ≠ 0, r > -1
PMT = –
PV + FV × (1 + r)-n
1 – (1 + r)-n
(1 + r × s) ×
r
2 If r = 0
PMT = – PV + FV
n
3 If r ≤ -1
Error
5. N calculation
1 If r ≠ 0, r > -1
log
N=–
{
PV +
1
× (1 + r × s) × PMT – FV
r
log (1 + r)
2 If r = 0
N = – FV + PV
PMT
3 If r ≤ -1
Error
238
1
× (1 + r × s) × PMT
r
}
Appendix
2. Error conditions during financial calculations
• r ≤ -1
• N = 0 in PMT calculations
• I% = 0 and PMT = 0, or I% ≠ 0 and FV = (1/r) (1 + r × s) × PMT, in N calculations.
s = 1 (Pmt_Begin)
s = 0 (Pmt_End)
In I% calculations
If PMT > 0:
Pmt_End mode:
PV ≥ 0 and FV + PMT ≥ 0
PV < 0 and FV + PMT < 0
Pmt_Begin mode:
PV + PMT ≥ 0 and FV ≥ 0
PV + PMT < 0 and FV < 0
If PMT < 0:
Pmt_End mode:
PV > 0 and FV + PMT > 0
PV ≤ 0 and FV + PMT ≤ 0
Pmt_Begin mode:
PV + PMT > 0 and FV > 0
PV + PMT ≤ 0 and FV ≤ 0
If PMT = 0: PV ÷ FV ≥ 0
• FV, N × PMT, PV ≥ 0 or FV, N × PMT, PV ≤ 0
• Irr calculation: all cash flows have the same sign.
3. Distribution function
1 pdfnorm(
(x – µ)
1
exp (–
)
2σ2
2π σ
2
f (x) =
Calculation result→Xreg µ: Mean
σ: Standard
deviation
2 pdfT(
2
- df + 1
Γ ( df + 1 ) (1 + x ) 2
2
df
f (x) =
Γ ( df )
πdf
2
∞
However: Γ(s) = ∫ 0 xs–1 e-x dx
Calculation result→Xreg
239
Appendix
3 pdfχ2(
1
2
f (χ , df) =
2Γ ( df )
2
df
χ2 2 – 1 (- χ )
e 2
)
2
2
(
∞
However: Γ(s) = ∫ 0 xs–1 e-x dx
df: Degree of freedom
4 pdfF(
f (x) =
Γ (m + n)
m
m
–1
2
( m ) 2 x 2 (1
n
m
n
Γ( ) Γ( )
2
2
+ mx
)
n
- m 2+ n
∞
However: Γ(s) = ∫ 0 xs–1 e-x dx
m: Degree of freedom of
numerator
n: Degree of freedom of
denominator
5 pdfbin(
P (x = 0) = (1 – p)n
P (x = c +
(n – c) p
1) =
P (x = c)
(c + 1)(1 – p)
(c = 0, 1, ..., n – 1)
n: Trial number (integers
greater than 0)
p: Success probability
(0 ≤ p ≤ 1)
c: Success number
6 pdfpoi(
x
-µ
f (x) = e µ
x!
(x = 0, 1, 2, ...)
7 pdfgeo(
f (x) = p (1 – p)x - 1
240
x: First successful trial number
Appendix
6. Calculation Range
1. Arithmetic calculation
The results for dividend, multiplicand and operand are:
-1 × 10100 < x ≤ -1 × 10-99, 1 × 10-99 < x ≤ 1 × 10100 or x = 0
(valid within the range of display capability)
Note:
Calculation results and input values less than 1 × 10-99 are
considered equal to 0.
2. Function calculation
Calculation accuracy
In principle, calculation errors are ±1 of the last digit. (In case of exponential
display, the calculation errors are ±1 of the last digit of the mantissa display.)
However, a calculation error increases in continuous calculations due to
accumulation of each calculation error. (This is the same for ab, a b , n!, ex, In, etc.
where continuous calculations are performed internally.)
Additionally, a calculation error will accumulate and become larger in the
vicinity of inflection points and singular points of functions. (for example,
calculating sinh X or tanh X at X = 0)
Function
Calculation range
DEG
: |x| < 1 × 1010
RAD
: |x| < 180 × 1010
π
10
cos x
: |x| < 9 × 1010
However, the following are excluded for tan x
tan x
DEG
: |x| = 90 (2n – 1)
RAD
: |x| = 2 (2n – 1)
: |x| = 100 (2n – 1)
sin x
GRAD
GRAD
Notes
π
“n” is an integer
-1
sin x
cos-1 x
tan-1 x
-1 ≤ x ≤ 1
|x| < 1 × 10100
sinh x
cosh x
-230.2585093 ≤ x ≤ 230.2585092
tanh x
sinh-1 x
|x| < 1 × 1050
cosh-1 x
1 ≤ x ≤ 1 × 1050
-1
tanh x
|x| < 1
241
Appendix
Function
ln x
log x
ex
10x
x- 1
x
2
x
n!
Calculation range
Notes
ln x = loge x
1 × 10-99 ≤ x < 1 × 10100
e .=. 2.71828...
-1 × 10100 < x ≤ 230.2585092
-1 × 10100 < x < 100
|x| < 1 × 10100
|x| < 1 × 1050
0 ≤ x < 1 × 10100
x≠0
-0.5 ≤ n ≤ 69.5
n is an integer or
integer + 0.5
When a > 0:
-1 × 10100 < b log a < 100
When a = 0:
ab (^)
0 < b < 1 × 10100
ab = 10b·log a
When a < 0:
1
b is an integer, or b is an odd number (b ≠ 0)
However, -1 × 10100 < b log |a| < 100
When b > 0:
1
-1 × 10100 < a log b < 100, a ≠ 0
When b = 0:
a
b
0 < a < 1 × 10100
a
When b < 0:
1
log b
b = 10 a
1
a is an odd number, or a is an integer (a ≠ 0)
1
However, -1 × 10100 < a log |b| < 100
nPr
nCr
Decimal:
|x| ≤ 9999999999
Binary:
1000000000000000 ≤ x
≤ 1111111111111111
dec
0 ≤ x ≤ 0111111111111111
bin
oct
hex
n and r are positive
integers
0 ≤ r ≤ n ≤ 69
Octal:
4000000000 ≤ x ≤ 7777777777
0 ≤ x ≤ 3777777777
Hexadecimal: FDABF41C01 ≤ x ≤ FFFFFFFFFF
0 ≤ x ≤ 2540BE3FF
242
x is an integer
Appendix
Function
→dms
→deg
xy → r
xy → θ
Calculation range
Notes
|x| < 1 × 10100
|x| < 1 × 10100, |y| < 1 × 10100
x2 + y < 1 × 10
y
| x | < 1 × 10100
2
r = x2 + y2
100
y
θ = tan-1 x
x = r cosθ
rθ → x
rθ → y
y = r sinθ
|r| < 1 × 10100
Binary:
The range of θ is
the same as x of
sin x and cos x
1000000000000000 ≤ x
≤ 1111111111111111
0 ≤ x ≤ 0111111111111111
not
Octal:
4000000000 ≤ x ≤ 7777777777
0 ≤ x ≤ 3777777777
Hexadecimal: FDABF41C01 ≤ x ≤ FFFFFFFFFF
0 ≤ x ≤ 2540BE3FE
Binary:
1000000000000001 ≤ x
≤ 1111111111111111
Other Boolean
operations are the
same as not and
neg
0 ≤ x ≤ 0111111111111111
neg
Octal:
4000000001 ≤ x ≤ 7777777777
0 ≤ x ≤ 3777777777
Hexadecimal: FDABF41C01 ≤ x ≤ FFFFFFFFFF
0 ≤ x ≤ 2540BE3FF
|x| < 1 × 1050
|y| < 1 × 1050
|Σx| < 1 × 10100
Statistic
calculations
Σx2 < 1 × 10100
|Σy| < 1 × 10100
Σy2 < 1 × 10100
|Σxy| < 1 × 10100
|n| < 1 × 10100
243
Appendix
Function
_
n≠0
x
Calculation range
Notes
n>1
sx
|Σx| < 1 × 1050
(Σx)2
Σx2 –
n < 1 × 10100
0≤
n–1
_
Same for y, sy and
σy
n>0
σx
|Σx| < 1 × 1050
(Σx)2
Σx2 –
n < 1 × 10100
0≤
n
n>0
|Σx| < 1 × 1050
|Σy| < 1 × 1050
r
(Σx)2
(Σy)2
) (Σy2 – n ) <1
n
ΣxΣy
| < 1 × 10100
n
0 < (Σx2 –
|Σxy –
× 10100
< 1 × 10100
n>0
|Σx| < 1 × 1050
|(Σx) (Σy)| < 1 × 10100
b
(Σx)2
| < 1 × 10100
n
ΣxΣy
| < 1 × 10100
n
0 < |Σx2 –
|Σxy –
Regression calculations excluding 2nd,
3rd, and 4th degree
polynomials.
< 1 × 10100
a
y’
x’
244
_
|bx| < 1 × 10100
_
_
|y – bx| < 1 × 10100
|bx| < 1 × 10100
|a + bx| < 1 × 10100
|y – a| < 1 × 10100
y–a
| b | < 1 × 10100
Same as above.
Same as b for other.
Appendix
Function
Calculation range
Notes
int÷
0 ≤ x < 10
remain
0 ≤ x < 1010
%
|x| < 10100
→ a b/c
|x| < 1010
A number with 10 or
less decimal places,
or the 1010-th or
above decimal
places are 0.
List
Error is returned when the number of elements
exceeds 1000.
This is the same
when the result of a
list function specifies 1000 or more
elements.
Matrix
Error is returned when specifying columns or rows
that exceed 100.
10
→ b/c
3. Complex number calculation
In a complex number calculation, a calculation error may occur and increase due to
inner continuous calculations.
Function
1
x + yi
Calculation range
|x| < 10
Notes
50
|y| < 1050
x + yi ≠ 0
|x| < 1050
(x + yi)2
|y| < 1050
|xy| < 5 × 1099
In (x + yi)
|x| < 1050
log (x + yi) |y| < 1050
x + yi
y
| x | < 10100
|x| < 230
e(x + yi)
|y| < 230
|x| < 100
10(x + yi)
|y| < 100
|x| < 1050
(x + yi)(a + bi)
|y| < 1050
|a| < 10100
|b| < 10100
245
Appendix
7. CATALOG Feature
Press @ j to display the CATALOG menu.
You can directly access various features and commands from the CATALOG menu.
CATALOG menu lists are different between the Basic mode and the Advanced mode.
For example, in Program edit mode of the Advanced mode, you can access the
program commands from the CATALOG menu.
Please note that you can enter the eular number “e” only from the CATALOG menu.
The Basic mode features and commands accessible only from the CATALOG menu
are:
and, ANOVA(, cos–1, cosh, cosh–1, cot, cot–1, csc, csc–1, cumul, d/dx(, dx, e, ex,
fmax(, fmin(, Inflec, ln, log2, not, or, prod(, Rg_a+bx, Rg_aebx, Rg_axb, Rg_ln,
Rg_log, Rg_logistic, Rg_sin, Rg_x3, Rg_x4, sec, sec–1, sin–1, sinh, sinh–1, tan–1,
tanh, tanh–1, xnor, xor, [, ], :, =, , >, , <, , 2x, Σ(, ∫.
The Advanced mode features and commands accessible only from the CATALOG
menu are:
→a b/c, →A.xxx, →b/c, e, int÷, remain, rndCoin, rndDice, Simp, %.
The CATALOG commands and the equivalent keys:
CATAROG command
¬
Equivalent key
^
a
2
y
-1
x
C
M C nCr
P
M C nPr
b
R
d
246
Appendix
8. List of Menu/Sub-menu Items
CATALOG function lets you access almost all the functions and commands.
Square brackets indicate that the value or variable is optional.
1. MATH menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
M CALC
log2
log2 value
A01
70
2X
2 value
A02
71
fmin(
fmin(equation, lower limit of x, upper limit of x)
A03
71
fmax(
fmax(equation, lower limit of x, upper limit of x)
A04
71
d/dx(
d/dx(equation, value of x [, tolerance])
A05
71
∫
∫ equation, lower limit, upper limit [, tolerance] dx
A06
71
dx
∫ equation, lower limit, upper limit [, tolerance] dx
A07
71
∑(
∑ (expression, initial value, end value [, increment]) A 0 8
72
sec
sec value
A09
72
csc
csc value
A10
72
cot
cot value
A11
72
sec–1
sec–1 value
A12
72
csc–1
csc–1 value
A13
72
cot–1
cot–1 value
A14
72
sinh
sinh value
A15
72
cosh
cosh value
A16
72
tanh
tanh value
A17
72
sinh–1
sinh–1 value
A18
73
cosh–1
cosh–1 value
A19
73
tanh–1
tanh–1 value
A20
73
sin
sin value
A1
42
cos
cos value
A2
42
tan
tan value
A3
43
log
log value
A4
43
10x
10 value
A5
43
247
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
M NUM
abs(
abs(value)
B1
B1
73/43
round(
round(value [, digit number of decimals])
B2
B2
73/44
ipart
ipart value
B3
B3
73/44
fpart
fpart value
B4
B4
73/44
int
int value
B5
B5
73/44
min(
min(value A, value B) or min(list)
B6
B6
73/45
max(
max(value A, value B) or max(list)
B7
B7
73/45
lcm(
lcm(natural number, natural number)
B8
B8
73/45
gcd(
gcd(natural number, natural number)
B9
remain
natural number remain natural number
B9
73/45
B0
46
M PROB
random
random [(number of trial)]
C1
C1
74/46
rndInt(
rndInt(minimum value, maximum value [, number of
C2
trial])
C2
74/46
rndCoin
rndCoin [(number of trial)]
C3
47
rndDice
rndDice [(number of trial)]
C4
47
nPr
value A nPr value B
C3
C5
74/47
nCr
value A nCr value B
C4
C6
74/48
!
value !
C5
C7
74/48
M CONV
→deg
value →deg
D1
D1
74/48
→dms
value →dms
D2
D2
74/49
xy→r(
xy→r(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
D3
75
xy→θ(
xy→θ(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
D4
75
rθ→x(
rθ→x(r-coordinate, θ-coordinate)
D5
75
rθ→y(
rθ→y(r-coordinate, θ-coordinate)
D6
75
M ANGLE
°
value ° [value ’ value "]
E1
E1
76/49
’
value ° value ’ [value "]
E2
E2
76/49
"
value ° value ’ value "
Print "character strings["]
E3
E3
76/49
r
value r
E4
E4
76/49
248
Appendix
Functions
Commands
g
Syntax
value g
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
E5
76
M INEQ
=
value A = value B
F1
76
≠
value A ≠ value B
F2
76
>
value A > value B
F3
76
≥
value A ≥ value B
F4
76
<
value A < value B
F5
76
≤
value A ≤ value B
F6
76
value A and value B
G1
77
or
value A or value B
G2
77
not
not value
G3
77
xor
value A xor value B
G4
78
xnor
value A xnor value B
G5
78
M LOGIC
and
M COMPLEX
conj(
conj(complex number)
H1
78
real(
real(complex number)
H2
79
image(
image(complex number)
H3
79
abs(
abs(complex number)
H4
79
arg(
arg(complex number)
H5
79
value A and value B
A1
77
or
value A or value B
A2
77
not
not value
A3
77
neg
neg value
A4
78
xor
value A xor value B
A5
78
xnor
value A xnor value B
A6
78
M (in the N-base calculation mode) LOGIC
and
2. LIST menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@ l OPE/NAME
L1
No arguments
A1
132
249
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
L2
No arguments
A2
132
L3
No arguments
A3
132
L4
No arguments
A4
132
L5
No arguments
A5
132
L6
No arguments
A6
132
sortA(
sortA(list name [, subordinate list name1, ... ,
subordinate list name n])
A1
B1
135
sortD(
sortD(list name [, subordinate list name1, ... ,
subordinate list name n])
A2
B2
135
dim(
dim(list)
A3
B3
136
fill(
fill(value, list)
A4
B4
136
seq(
seq(equation, start value, end value [, increment])
A5
B5
137
cumul
cumul list
A6
df_list
df_list list
A7
B6
137
augment(
augment(list 1, list 2)
A8
B7
138
list→mat(
list→mat(list 1, ... , list n, matrix name)
A9
138
mat→list(
mat→list(matrix name, list name1, ... , list name n)
A0
mat→list(matrix name, column number, list name)
138
137
@ l MATH
min(
min(value A, value B) or
min(list)
B1
C1
139
max(
max(value A, value B) or
max(list)
B2
C2
139
mean(
mean(list [, frequency list])
B3
C3
139
median(
median(list [, frequency list])
B4
C4
140
sum(
sum(list [, start number, end number])
B5
C5
140
prod(
prod(list [, start number, end number])
B6
stdDv(
stdDv(list [, frequency list])
B7
C6
141
varian(
varian(list [, frequency list])
B8
C7
141
140
@ l L_DATA
StoLD
StoLD natural number
C1
D1
142
RclLD
RclLD natural number
C2
D2
143
* “list” in the above table means a list or a list name.
250
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@l{}
{
No arguments
E1
132
}
No arguments
E2
132
3. STAT menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
S EDIT/OPE
EDIT
No arguments
AE
AE
149
sortA(
sortA(list [, subordinate list 1, ... , subordinate list n])
B1
B1
159
sortD(
sortD(list [, subordinate list 1, ... , subordinate list n])
B2
B2
159
SetList
SetList [list name 1, list name 2, list name 3, ... ]
B3
B3
159
ClrList
ClrList list name1 [, list name 2, ... ]
B4
B4
159
S CALC
1_Stats
1_Stats [x list name [, frequency list]]
C1
C1
150
2_Stats
2_Stats [x list name, y list name [, frequency list]]
C2
C2
150
ANOVA(
ANOVA(list name 1, list name 2 [, ... ])
C3
152
S REG
Med_Med
Med_Med (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D01 D1
160
Rg_ax+b
Rg_ax+b (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D02 D2
160
Rg_a+bx
Rg_a+bx (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D03
160
Rg_x2
Rg_x2 (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D04 D3
160
Rg_x3
Rg_x3 (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D05
160
Rg_x4
Rg_x4 (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D06
161
Rg_ln
Rg_ln (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D07
161
Rg_log
Rg_log (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D08
161
* “list” in the above table means a list or a list name.
251
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
Rg_abx
Rg_abx (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D09 D4
161
Rg_aebx
Rg_aebx (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D10
161
Rg_x-1
Rg_x-1 (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D11 D5
162
Rg_axb
Rg_axb (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D12
162
Rg_logistic
Rg_logistic (list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, equation name to store])
D13
162
Rg_sin
Rg_sin ([iterations,] list name for x, list name for y
[, frequency list] [, period] [, equation name to
store])
D14
162
x'
value or list x'
D15 D6
163
y'
value or list y'
D16 D7
163
S TEST
χ2 test
No arguments
E01
166
Ftest2samp
No arguments
E02
167
Ttest1samp
No arguments
E03
167
Ttest2samp
No arguments
E04
168
TtestLinreg
No arguments
E05
169
Tint1samp
No arguments
E06
170
Tint2samp
No arguments
E07
170
Ztest1samp
No arguments
E08
171
Ztest2samp
No arguments
E09
172
Ztest1prop
No arguments
E10
173
Ztest2prop
No arguments
E11
173
Zint1samp
No arguments
E12
174
Zint2samp
No arguments
E13
175
Zint1prop
No arguments
E14
175
Zint2prop
No arguments
E15
176
InputList
No arguments
E16
166
InputStats
No arguments
E17
166
F01
177
S DISTRI
pdfnorm(
252
pdfnorm(value [, mean, standard deviation])
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
cdfnorm(
cdfnorm(lower limit, upper limit [,mean, standard
deviation])
F02
177
InvNorm(
InvNorm(probability [, mean, standard deviation])
F03
178
pdfT(
pdfT(value, degree of freedom)
F04
178
cdfT(
cdfT(lower limit, upper limit, degree of freedom)
F05
179
pdfχ2(
pdfχ2(value, degree of freedom)
F06
179
cdfχ2(
cdfχ2(lower limit, upper limit, degree of freedom)
F07
179
pdfF(
pdfF(value, degree of freedom of numerator,
degree of freedom of denominator)
F08
180
cdfF(
cdfF(lower limit, upper limit, degree of freedom of
numerator, degree of freedom of denominator)
F09
180
pdfbin(
pdfbin(number of trial, success probability
[, success numbers])
F10
181
cdfbin(
cdfbin(number of trial, success probability
[, success numbers])
F11
181
pdfpoi(
pdfpoi(mean, value)
F12
181
cdfpoi(
cdfpoi(mean, value)
F13
182
pdfgeo(
pdfgeo(success probability, value)
F14
182
cdfgeo(
cdfgeo(success probability, value)
F15
182
4. STAT PLOT menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
[ PLOT1/PLOT2/PLOT3/LIMIT/ON/OFF
PLOT1
No arguments
AE
AE
157
PLOT2
No arguments
BE
BE
157
PLOT3
No arguments
CE
CE
157
SET
No arguments
D1
D1
157
LimON
No arguments
D2
D2
157
LimOFF
No arguments
D3
D3
157
PlotON
PlotON [number]
E1
E1
158
PlotOFF
PlotOFF [number]
E2
E2
158
[ (in STAT PLOT mode) HIST/B.L./N.P./N.D./BOX/PIE/S.D./XYLINE
Hist
No arguments
A1
A1
153
Broken •
No arguments
B1
B1
154
253
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
Broken +
No arguments
B2
B2
154
Broken
No arguments
B3
B3
154
Norm •_X
No arguments
C1
C1
154
Norm+_X
No arguments
C2
C2
154
Norm _X
No arguments
C3
C3
154
Norm •_Y
No arguments
C4
C4
154
Norm+_Y
No arguments
C5
C5
154
Norm _Y
No arguments
C6
C6
154
NormDis
No arguments
D1
D1
154
Box
No arguments
E1
E1
155
MBox •
No arguments
E2
E2
155
MBox+
No arguments
E3
E3
155
MBox
No arguments
E4
E4
155
Pie
No arguments
F1
F1
156
Pie%
No arguments
F2
F2
156
Scattr •
No arguments
G1
G1
156
Scattr+
No arguments
G2
G2
156
Scattr
No arguments
G3
G3
156
xyLine•
No arguments
H1
H1
156
xyLine+
No arguments
H2
H2
156
xyLine
No arguments
H3
H3
156
5. DRAW menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@ d DRAW
ClrDraw
No arguments
A1
A1
102
Line(
Line(x-coordinate of start point, y-coordinate of
start point, x-coordinate of end point,
y-coordinate of end point [,0])
A2
A2
103
H_line
H_line y-value
A3
A3
105
V_line
V_line x-value
A4
A4
105
T_line(
T_line(equation, x-value)
A5
A5
106
254
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
Draw
Draw equation
A6
A6
107
Shade(
Shade(equation 1, equation 2 [, begin, end])
A7
A7
107
DrawInv
DrawInv equation
A8
A8
108
Circle(
Circle(x-coordinate of center, y-coordinate of center, radius)
A9
A9
108
Text(
Text(column, row, "character strings")
A0
A0
109
@ d POINT
PntON(
PntON(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
B1
B1
110
PntOFF(
PntOFF(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
B2
B2
110
PntCHG(
PntCHG(x-coordinate, y-coordinate)
B3
B3
110
PxlON(
PxlON(column, row)
B4
B4
110
PxlOFF(
PxlOFF(column, row)
B5
B5
110
PxlCHG(
PxlCHG(column, row)
B6
B6
110
PxlTST(
PxlTST(column, row)
B7
B7
111
@ d ON/OFF/LINE/G_DATA/PICT/SHADE
DrawON
DrawON [equation number 1, equation number 2,
…]
C1
C1
111
DrawOFF
DrawOFF [equation number 1, equation number 2,
…]
C2
C2
111
LINE
No arguments
DE
DE
112
StoGD
StoGD number
E1
E1
112
RclGD
RclGD number
E2
E2
112
StoPict
StoPict number
F1
F1
113
RclPict
RclPict number
F2
F2
113
SET
No arguments
G1
G1
114
INITIAL
No arguments
G2
G2
114
6. ZOOM menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
Z ZOOM
Auto
Zm_Auto
No arguments
A1
A1
53
Box
Zm_Box
No arguments
A2
A2
54
255
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
In
Zm_In
No arguments
A3
A3
54
Out
Zm_Out
No arguments
A4
A4
54
Default
Zm_Default
No arguments
A5
A5
54
Square
Zm_Square
No arguments
A6
A6
54
Dec
Zm_Dec
No arguments
A7
A7
54
Int
Zm_Int
No arguments
A8
A8
54
Stat
Zm_Stat
No arguments
A9
A9
54
Z FACTOR/POWER
FACTOR
No arguments
BE
BE
55
x2 _
Zm_x2
No arguments
C1
C1
55
x-1
Zm_x-1
No arguments
C2
C2
55
No arguments
C3
C3
55
D1
55
x
Zm_ x
Z EXP
10x
Zm_10x
No arguments
D1
ex
Zm_ex
No arguments
D2
log x
Zm_log
No arguments
D3
ln x
Zm_ln
No arguments
D4
97
D2
55
97
Z TRIG
sin x
Zm_sin
No arguments
E1
E1
56
cos x
Zm_cos
No arguments
E2
E2
56
tan x
Zm_tan
No arguments
E3
E3
56
256
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
sin-1 x
Zm_sin-1
No arguments
E4
97
cos-1 x
Zm_cos-1
No arguments
E5
97
tan-1 x
Zm_tan-1
No arguments
E6
97
Z HYP/STO/RCL
sinh x
Zm_sinh
No arguments
F1
97
cosh x
Zm_cosh
No arguments
F2
97
tanh x
Zm_tanh
No arguments
F3
97
sinh-1 x
Zm_sinh-1
No arguments
F4
97
cosh-1 x
Zm_cosh-1
No arguments
F5
97
tanh-1 x
Zm_tanh-1
No arguments
F6
97
StoWin
No arguments
G1
F1
56
RclWin
No arguments
H1
G1
56
PreWin
No arguments
H2
G2
56
7. CALC menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@ k CALC
Value
Value x
A1
A1
60
Intsct
No arguments
A2
A2
60
Minimum
No arguments
A3
A3
60
Maximum
No arguments
A4
A4
61
X_Incpt
No arguments
A5
A5
61
Y_Incpt
No arguments
A6
A6
61
Inflec
No arguments
A7
94
257
Appendix
8. SLIDE SHOW menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
] CURR/PLAY/NEW/SELECT/EDIT
CURR
No arguments
AE
AE
118
PLAY
No arguments
NEW
No arguments
B
B
118
CE
CE
118
SELECT
No arguments
D
D
118
MOVE
No arguments
E1
E1
118
DEL
No arguments
E2
E2
119
RENAME
No arguments
E3
E3
119
9. PRGM menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
P
EXEC
No arguments
A
A
EDIT
No arguments
B
202
NEW
No arguments
CE
202
202
P (in the Prgramming mode) PRGM
Print
Print variable
Print "character strings ["]
A1
207
"
"characters ["]
A2
207
Input
Input ["prompt strings", ] variable
A3
207
Wait
Wait [natural number]
A4
208
Rem
Rem comments
A5
208
End
No arguments
A6
208
Key
Key variable
A7
208
P (in the Prgramming mode) BRNCH
Label
Label label name
B01
214
Goto
Goto label name
B02
214
If
If conditional statements
Then
commands
[Else
commands]
EndIf
B03
214
B04
214
B05
214
B06
214
Then
Else
EndIf
258
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
For variable, start value, end value [, increment]
commands
Next
B07
215
B08
215
B09
215
WEnd
While conditional statements
commands
WEnd
B10
215
Gosub
Gosub label name
B11
216
Return
No arguments
B12
216
For
Next
While
P (in the Prgramming mode) SCRN
ClrT
No arguments
C1
209
ClrG
No arguments
C2
209
DispT
No arguments
C3
209
DispG
No arguments
C4
209
P (in the Prgramming mode) I/O
Get
Get variable
D1
209
Send
Send variable
D2
209
P (in the Prgramming mode) SETUP
Rect
No arguments
E01
210
Param
No arguments
E02
210
Polar
No arguments
E03
210
Web
No arguments
E04
210
Time
No arguments
E05
210
uv
No arguments
E06
210
uw
No arguments
E07
210
vw
No arguments
E08
210
Deg
No arguments
E09
210
Rad
No arguments
E10
210
Grad
No arguments
E11
210
FloatPt
No arguments
E12
211
Fix
No arguments
E13
211
Sci
No arguments
E14
211
Eng
No arguments
E15
211
Tab
Tab integer
E16
211
259
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
Decimal
No arguments
E17
211
Mixed
No arguments
E18
211
Improp
No arguments
E19
211
x ± yi
No arguments
E20
211
r∠θ
No arguments
E21
211
P (in the Prgramming mode) FORMAT
RectCursor
No arguments
F01
211
PolarCursor
No arguments
F02
211
ExprON
No arguments
F03
211
ExprOFF
No arguments
F04
211
Y'ON
No arguments
F05
211
Y'OFF
No arguments
F06
211
AxisON
No arguments
F07
212
AxisOFF
No arguments
F08
212
GridON
No arguments
F09
212
GridOFF
No arguments
F10
212
Connect
No arguments
F11
212
Dot
No arguments
F12
212
Sequen
No arguments
F13
212
Simul
No arguments
F14
212
P (in the Prgramming mode) S_PLOT
Plt1(
Plt1(graph type, X list name [, Y list name,
frequency list])
G1
213
Plt2(
Plt2(graph type, X list name [, Y list name,
frequency list])
G2
213
Plt3(
Plt3(graph type, X list name [, Y list name,
frequency list])
G3
213
PlotON
PlotON [number]
G4
213
PlotOFF
PlotOFF [number]
G5
213
LimON
No arguments
G6
213
LimOFF
No arguments
G7
213
260
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
P (in the Prgramming mode) COPY
StoLine
No arguments
H1
216
RclLine
No arguments
H2
217
10. MATRIX menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@ m NAME
mat A
No arguments
A1
130
mat B
No arguments
A2
130
mat C
No arguments
A3
130
mat D
No arguments
A4
130
mat E
No arguments
A5
130
mat F
No arguments
A6
130
mat G
No arguments
A7
130
mat H
No arguments
A8
130
mat I
No arguments
A9
130
mat J
No arguments
A0
130
@ m EDIT
mat A
No arguments
B1
122
mat B
No arguments
B2
122
mat C
No arguments
B3
122
mat D
No arguments
B4
122
mat E
No arguments
B5
122
mat F
No arguments
B6
122
mat G
No arguments
B7
122
mat H
No arguments
B8
122
mat I
No arguments
B9
122
mat J
No arguments
B0
122
@ m OPE
dim(
dim(matrix name)
C01
125
fill(
fill(value, matrix name)
C02
125
cumul
cumul matrix name
C03
126
261
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
augment(matrix name A, matrix name B)
C04
126
identity
identity dimension value
C05
126
rnd_mat(
rnd_mat(number of row, number of column)
C06
126
row_swap(
row_swap(matrix name, row number, row number)
C07
127
row_plus(
row_plus(matrix name, row number, row number)
C08
127
row_mult(
row_mult(multiplied number, matrix name, row
number)
C09
127
row_m.p.(
row_m.p.(multiplied number, matrix name, row
number, row number)
C10
127
mat→list(
mat→list(matrix name, list name 1, …, list name n)
C11
mat→list(matrix name, column number, list name)
128
list→mat(
list→mat(list 1, …, list n, matrix name)
C12
128
augment(
@ m MATH/[ ]
det
det matrix name
D1
129
trans
trans matrix name
D2
129
rowEF
rowEF matrix name
D3
129
rrowEF
rrowEF matrix name
D4
129
[
No arguments
E1
130
]
No arguments
E2
130
11. FINANCE menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@ g SOLVER/CALC
SOLVER
(TVM SOLVER screen appears)
AE
185
slv_pmt
slv_pmt [(N, I%, PV, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
B01
189
slv_I%
slv_I% [(N, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
B02
189
slv_PV
slv_PV [(N, I%, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
B03
189
slv_N
slv_N [(I%, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y)]
B04
189
slv_FV
slv_FV [(N, I%, PV, PMT, P/Y, C/Y)]
B05
189
Npv(
Npv(interest rate, initial investment, list of following
collected investment [, frequency list])
B06
190
262
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
Irr(
Irr(initial investment, list of following collected
investment [, frequency list] [, assumed revenue
rate])
B07
190
Bal(
Bal(number of payments [, decimal place to
round])
B08
191
∑Prn(
∑Prn(initial number of payments, end number of
payments [, decimal place to round])
B09
191
∑Int(
∑Int(initial number of payments, end number of
payments [, decimal place to round])
B10
191
→Apr(
→Apr(effective interest rate, number of
settlements)
B11
192
→Eff(
→Eff(nominal interest rate, number of
settlements)
B12
192
days(
days(start month. day year, end month. day year)
days(day month. year, day month. year)
B13
192
@ g PERIOD
PmtEnd
No arguments
C1
188
PmtBegin
No arguments
C2
188
@ g VARS
N
No arguments
D1
193
I%
No arguments
D2
193
PV
No arguments
D3
193
PMT
No arguments
D4
193
FV
No arguments
D5
193
P/Y
No arguments
D6
193
C/Y
No arguments
D7
193
12. TOOL menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@ V N BASE/SYSTEM/POLY
NBASE
No arguments
AE
81
2
No arguments
B2
82
3
No arguments
B3
82
4
No arguments
B4
82
5
No arguments
B5
82
263
Appendix
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
6
No arguments
B6
82
2
No arguments
C2
82
3
No arguments
C3
82
13. SOLVER menus
Functions
Commands
Syntax
Keystrokes
Advanced mode
Basic mode
Page
@ ' (in the Solver mode) METHOD/EQTN/SAVE/RENAME
Equation
No arguments
A1
194
Newton
No arguments
A2
196
Graphic
No arguments
A3
198
EQTN
No arguments
B
201
SAVE
No arguments
CE
200
RENAME
No arguments
D
200
264
Appendix
INDEX
: (colon) ......................................................... 134, 214
(n-1)-based (Web), sequence ................................ 90
“, PRGM ................................................................ 207
1_Stats, CALC ...................................................... 150
2nd Function key .................................................... 18
2ndF key ......................................................... 5, 8, 18
2x, CALC ................................................................. 71
2_Stats, CALC ...................................................... 150
10x ........................................................................... 43
χ2 test, TEST ........................................................ 166
∑Int(, CALC .......................................................... 191
∑Prn(, CALC ........................................................ 191
→Apr(, CALC ........................................................ 192
→Eff(, CALC ......................................................... 192
A
A-LOCK key .............................................................. 5
abs( ......................................................................... 43
abs(, COMPLX ................................................... 79
abs(, NUM .......................................................... 73
Absolute value ................................................... 43
absolute value, COMPLX .................................. 79
Advanced keyboard ................................................ 66
Advanced Mode ............................................... iii, 7, 9
ALPHA key ..................................................... 5, 8, 19
and, LOGIC ............................................................ 77
ANGLE .................................................................... 49
ANGLE, MATH ................................................... 76
ANOVA(, CALC ..................................................... 152
ANS key .................................................................. 40
ANSWER ............................................................ 26
Answer mode, changing the .............................. 12
Arc cosine ............................................................... 69
Arc sine ................................................................... 69
Arc tangent ............................................................. 69
arg(, COMPLX ........................................................ 79
augment(, OPE ............................................. 126, 138
Auto, SIMPLE ......................................................... 27
Auto, TABLE ..................................................... 100
Auto, ZOOM ....................................................... 53
AXIS, FORMAT ................................................. 63, 95
AxisOFF, FORMAT ............................................... 212
AxisON, FORMAT ................................................ 212
B
Bal(, CALC ............................................................ 191
Basic keyboard ................................................. 31, 50
Basic Mode ....................................................... ii, 7, 9
Battery, inserting ...................................................... 2
Battery, replacing the ....................................... 228
Binary, NBASE ....................................................... 81
Blank line, programming ...................................... 205
Box plot, Graph type ............................................ 155
Box, ZOOM ............................................................. 54
Braces ..................................................................... 40
BRNCH menu, Programming ....................... 209, 214
Broken line plot, Graph type ................................ 154
BS key ...................................................................... 6
C
CALC .......................................................... 42, 60, 70
CALC function .................................................... 93
CALC functions, financial ................................ 189
CALC key ............................................................. 5
CALC menu, STAT ........................................... 150
CALC, MATH ...................................................... 70
Calculation screen, entering the ............................ 11
CATALOG ............................................................... 41
cdfbin(, DISTRI ..................................................... 181
cdfF(, DISTRI ....................................................... 180
cdfgeo(, DISTRI .................................................... 182
cdfnorm(, DISTRI ................................................. 177
cdfpoi(, DISTRI ..................................................... 182
cdfT(, DISTRI ....................................................... 179
cdfχ2(, DISTRI ...................................................... 179
Circle(, DRAW ...................................................... 108
CL key ....................................................................... 6
CLIP key ................................................................... 6
ClrDraw, DRAW .................................................... 102
ClrG, SCRN .......................................................... 209
ClrList, OPE .......................................................... 159
ClrT, SCRN ........................................................... 209
Combination ........................................................... 48
Comma ................................................................... 38
Command, programming ..................................... 207
Common math function keys ................................. 21
Comparison operand, program ............................ 206
Complex conjugate, COMPLX ............................... 78
Complex number ................................................ 78
Complex number, available keys ....................... 80
Complex number, calculation ............................ 79
COMPLX, MATH ................................................ 78
compound interest ................................................ 186
Cumulative sum, CALC .......................................... 72
conj(, COMPLX ...................................................... 78
Connect, FORMAT ............................................... 212
265
Appendix
CONV ..................................................................... 48
CONV, MATH ..................................................... 74
Conversion ......................................................... 48
Conversion keys, fraction and decimal .............. 36
Conversion, coordinates ........................................ 74
COORD .................................................................. 26
COPY menu, programming .................................. 216
cos .......................................................................... 42
cos-1 X, TRIG .......................................................... 97
cosecant, CALC ..................................................... 72
cosh X, HYP ........................................................... 97
cosh, CALC ............................................................ 72
cosh-1 X, HYP ......................................................... 97
cosh-1, CALC .......................................................... 73
cosine ..................................................................... 68
cot-1 ......................................................................... 72
cotangent, CALC .................................................... 72
csc-1 ......................................................................... 72
cumul, OPE .................................................. 126, 137
cumulative matrix ............................................. 126
CURR, SLIDE SHOW .......................................... 118
Cursor ............................................................... 15, 16
Cursor appearance ............................................ 16
Cursor key ............................................................ 6
Cursor navigation ............................................... 17
CURSOR, FORMAT ........................................... 96
D
d/dx(, CALC ............................................................ 71
Data list operation, statistics ................................ 159
days(, CALC ......................................................... 192
Debugging, program ............................................. 219
Dec, ZOOM ............................................................ 54
Decimal (Real) ........................................................ 26
Decimal ........................................................ 49, 74
Decimal, NBASE ................................................ 81
Decimal, SETUP .............................................. 211
Default, ZOOM ....................................................... 54
Deg ......................................................................... 25
Deg, SETUP ..................................................... 210
Degree .......................................................... 49, 74
Degree, angle ..................................................... 49
DEL key .................................................................... 6
DEL, SLIDE SHOW ......................................... 119
Delete files ....................................................... 224
det, MATH ............................................................. 129
df_list, OPE .......................................................... 137
Differential, CALC .................................................. 71
266
dim(, OPE ..................................................... 125, 136
DispG, SCRN ....................................................... 209
Display contrast, adjusting ....................................... 3
Display screen ...................................................... 5
Display, clear the ................................................ 11
DispT, SCRN ........................................................ 209
DISTRI menu, STAT ............................................. 177
Distribution functions, statistics ....................... 177
Dot, FORMAT ....................................................... 212
DRAW ..................................................................... 61
DRAW function ................................................. 102
DRAW key ............................................................ 5
Draw, DRAW .................................................... 107
DrawInv, DRAW ............................................... 108
DrawOFF, ON/OFF .......................................... 111
DrawON, ON/OFF ............................................ 111
DRG ........................................................................ 25
Derivative, CALC .................................................... 71
E
EDIT, SLIDE SHOW ............................................. 118
Editing mode .......................................................... 17
EDITOR .................................................................. 26
Else, BRNCH ........................................................ 214
End, PRGM .......................................................... 208
EndIf, BRNCH ...................................................... 214
Eng ......................................................................... 25
Eng, SETUP ..................................................... 211
ENTER key ......................................................... 6, 33
ENTRY key ............................................................. 41
Equality ................................................................... 76
Equation ................................................................. 26
Equation method, SOLVER ............................. 194
Equation mode ................................................... 17
Equation, recalling a ........................................ 201
Equation, renaming a ....................................... 200
Equation, saving a ........................................... 200
EQVARS, VARS .................................................... 217
Error codes ........................................................... 235
Error messages .................................................. 28
Euler number ........................................................ 246
ex ......................................................................... 69
ex, EXP ............................................................... 97
EXP, ZOOM ...................................................... 55, 97
Exponent ................................................................ 38
EXPRES, FORMAT .......................................... 63, 95
ExprOFF, FORMAT ............................................... 211
ExprON, FORMAT ................................................ 211
Appendix
F
H
FACTOR, ZOOM .................................................... 55
Factorial .................................................................. 48
Factorial, PROB ................................................. 74
fill(, OPE ....................................................... 125, 136
FINANCE key ........................................................... 7
Financial features ............................................. 183
Fix ........................................................................... 25
Fix, SETUP ...................................................... 211
FloatPt .................................................................... 25
FloatPT, SETUP ............................................... 211
Flow control, programming .................................. 214
Flow diagram, financial ........................................ 183
fmax(, CALC ........................................................... 71
fmin(, CALC ............................................................ 71
For, BRNCH .......................................................... 215
FORMAT ................................................................. 63
FORMAT key ........................................................ 5
FORMAT menu, programming ......................... 211
Format setting .................................................... 95
fpart ........................................................................ 44
Fraction calculation keys .............................. 7, 20, 35
Fraction, entering ............................................... 11
Frequency, setting the .......................................... 147
FSE ......................................................................... 25
Ftest2samp, TEST ................................................ 167
Hard cover, using the ............................................... 3
Hexadecimal, NBASE ............................................ 81
Histogram, Graph type ......................................... 153
HYP, ZOOM ............................................................ 97
Hyperbolic cosine, CALC ....................................... 72
Hyperbolic sine, CALC ........................................... 72
Hyperbolic tangent, CALC ..................................... 72
H_line, DRAW ....................................................... 105
G
gcd( ......................................................................... 45
gcd(, NUM .......................................................... 73
Get, I/O ................................................................. 209
Gosub, BRNCH .................................................... 216
Goto, BRNCH ....................................................... 214
Grad ........................................................................ 25
Grad, SETUP ................................................... 210
GRAPH key ........................................................ 5, 53
Graph Equation window ..................................... 51
Graph type, statistics ....................................... 153
Graphic method, SOLVER ............................... 198
Graphic parametric equation ............................. 87
Graphing sequences .......................................... 89
Greater than ........................................................... 76
Greatest common divisor ....................................... 45
GRID, FORMAT ................................................ 63, 95
GridOFF, FORMAT ........................................... 212
GridON, FORMAT ............................................ 212
G_DATA, DRAW ................................................... 112
G_DATA, VARS ..................................................... 217
I
I/O menu, programming ....................................... 209
identity, OPE ......................................................... 126
If, BRNCH ............................................................. 214
image(, COMPLX ................................................... 79
Imaginary part, COMPLX ....................................... 79
imaginary number .............................................. 70
Improp, SETUP .................................................... 211
Improp (Real) ..................................................... 26
In, ZOOM ................................................................ 54
INEQ, MATH ........................................................... 76
Inequality ................................................................ 76
Infinite loop, programming ................................... 220
Inflec, CALC ........................................................... 94
INITIAL, SHADE ................................................... 114
Input method .......................................................... 16
Input, PRGM .................................................... 207
INS key ..................................................................... 6
Insert mode ........................................................ 17
int ............................................................................ 44
Int, NUM ............................................................. 73
Int, ZOOM .......................................................... 54
Integer ................................................................ 44
Integer division keys ...................................... 7, 37
Integer division ............................................. 20, 37
Integral, CALC ........................................................ 71
Intsct, CALC ........................................................... 60
Inverse cotangent, CALC ....................................... 72
Inverse cosecant, CALC ........................................ 72
Inverse hyperbolic cosine, CALC ........................... 73
Inverse hyperbolic sine, CALC ............................... 73
Inverse hyperbolic tangent, CALC ......................... 73
Inverse secant, CALC ............................................ 72
InvNorm(, DISTRI ................................................. 178
ipart ......................................................................... 44
ipart, NUM .......................................................... 73
Irr(, CALC ............................................................. 190
267
Appendix
K
Key, PRGM ........................................................... 208
Keyboard, changing the ........................................... 9
L
Label, BRNCH ...................................................... 214
lcm( ......................................................................... 45
lcm(, NUM .......................................................... 73
Least common multiple ...................................... 45
Less than ................................................................ 76
LimOFF, S_PLOT ................................................. 213
LimON, S_PLOT ................................................... 213
Line(, DRAW ......................................................... 103
LINE, DRAW .................................................... 112
Linking to another EL-9900 or PC ....................... 224
LIST key .................................................................... 6
List features ...................................................... 131
List variable ........................................................ 80
list→matrix(, OPE .................................... 128, 138
List, creating a .................................................. 133
List, drawing multiple graphs ........................... 141
List, normal operations .................................... 133
List, special operations .................................... 135
List, Table ......................................................... 143
ln ............................................................................. 68
ln X, EXP ............................................................ 97
log ..................................................................... 43, 68
log2, CALC .......................................................... 70
Logarithm keys ................................................... 7, 68
LOGIC, MATH ......................................................... 77
L_DATA function, List ........................................... 142
L_DATA, VARS ...................................................... 217
M
Manual, SIMPLE .................................................... 27
MATH menu ............................................................ 42
MATH menu key ............................................. 7, 23
MATH menu, List .............................................. 139
MATH menu, Matrix ......................................... 129
Math calculation ................................................. 15
MATRIX key .............................................................. 7
Matrix ................................................................ 120
matrix→list(, OPE .................................... 128, 138
Matrix, define dimensions ................................ 122
Matrix, editing keys and functions ................... 123
Matrix, entering a ............................................. 122
Matrix, entering manually ................................ 130
Matrix, normal calculations .............................. 124
268
Matrix, using in an expression ......................... 130
Matrix, viewing a .............................................. 122
max( ........................................................................ 45
max(, MATH ..................................................... 139
max(, NUM ......................................................... 73
Maximum value .................................................. 45
Maximum, CALC ................................................ 61
mean(, MATH ........................................................ 139
median(, MATH ..................................................... 140
Med_Med, REG .................................................... 160
Memory usage, checking the ............................... 222
min( ......................................................................... 45
min(, MATH ...................................................... 139
min(, NUM .......................................................... 73
Minimum value ................................................... 45
Minimum, CALC ................................................. 60
Minute, angle .......................................................... 49
Mixed (Real) ........................................................... 26
Mixed number, entering the ............................... 36
Mixed, SETUP .................................................. 211
Modified box type, Graph type ............................. 155
N
n-based (Time), sequence ..................................... 90
NBASE, TOOL ........................................................ 81
nCr .......................................................................... 48
nCr, PROB ......................................................... 74
neg, LOGIC ............................................................ 78
Negative value ........................................................ 34
Negative value, entering the .............................. 14
NEW, SLIDE SHOW ............................................. 118
Newton’s method, SOLVER ................................. 196
Next, BRNCH ....................................................... 215
Normal distribution plot, Graph type .................... 154
Normal probability plot, Graph type ..................... 154
not, LOGIC ............................................................. 77
nPr .......................................................................... 47
nPr, PROB .......................................................... 74
Npv(, CALC .......................................................... 190
NUM ........................................................................ 43
NUM, MATH ............................................................ 73
Numbers, entering .................................................. 14
O
Octal, NBASE ......................................................... 81
OFF, turn ................................................................... 3
ON/OFF, DRAW .................................................... 111
One-line mode .................................................. 17, 26
Appendix
OPE menu, List .................................................... 135
OPE menu, Matrix ............................................ 125
OPE menu, STAT ............................................. 159
Operand, programming ........................................ 206
OPTION key ............................................................. 6
OPTION Menu ................................................. 222
or, LOGIC ............................................................... 77
Out, ZOOM ............................................................. 54
P
Param ..................................................................... 26
Param, SETUP ................................................. 210
Parametric coordinate system, TABLE .................. 99
Parametric coordinate system, WINDOW ............. 98
Parentheses ..................................................... 15, 35
Payment due at the beginning of the period ....... 188
Payment due at the end of the period ................. 184
pdfbin(, DISTRI ..................................................... 181
pdfF(, DISTRI ....................................................... 180
pdfgeo(, DISTRI ................................................... 182
pdfnorm(, DISTRI ................................................. 177
pdfpoi(, DISTRI ..................................................... 181
pdfT(, DISTRI ....................................................... 178
pdfχ2(, DISTRI ...................................................... 179
Permutation ............................................................ 47
phase-based (uv, uw, vw), sequence .................... 91
PICT, DRAW ......................................................... 113
PICTUR, VARS ..................................................... 217
π ................................................................................ 41, 70
Pie chart, Graph type ........................................... 156
PLAY, SLIDE SHOW ............................................ 118
PlotOFF, S_PLOT ................................................. 213
PlotON, S_PLOT .................................................. 213
Plotting on/off, statistical graph ............................ 157
Plt1(, S_PLOT ...................................................... 213
Plt2(, S_PLOT ...................................................... 213
Plt3(, S_PLOT ...................................................... 213
PntCHG(, POINT .................................................. 110
PntOFF(, POINT ................................................... 110
PntON(, POINT .................................................... 110
POINT, DRAW ...................................................... 109
Polar ........................................................................ 26
Polar coordinate system, TABLE ..................... 100
Polar coordinate system, WINDOW .................. 98
Polar coordinate, CURSOR ............................... 96
Polar coordinates ............................................... 74
Polar graphing .................................................... 88
Polar, SETUP ................................................... 210
PolarCursor, FORMAT ..................................... 211
POLY, TOOL ........................................................... 82
Power ...................................................................... 69
Power ON/OFF key .................................................. 5
POWER, ZOOM ..................................................... 55
Precedence of calculation ...................................... 27
PreWin, ZOOM ....................................................... 56
PRGM menu key ................................................ 7, 23
PRGM menu, programming ............................. 207
Print, PRGM ......................................................... 207
PROB ...................................................................... 46
PROB, MATH ..................................................... 74
Probability .......................................................... 46
prod(, MATH ......................................................... 140
Program, blank line .............................................. 205
Program, changing a name ............................. 205
Program, copying ............................................. 205
Program, creating a ......................................... 202
Program, debugging ........................................ 219
Program, deleting a line ................................... 205
Program, entering a command ........................ 203
Program, entering an alphabet ........................ 203
Program, executing the .................................... 204
Program, operand ............................................ 206
Program, storing a ........................................... 205
Program, variable ............................................. 206
Programming command .................................. 207
Programming features ..................................... 202
Programming hints ........................................... 204
Programming, infinite loop ............................... 220
PxlCHG(, POINT .................................................. 110
PxlOFF(, POINT ................................................... 110
PxlON(, POINT ..................................................... 110
PxlTST(, POINT ................................................... 111
Q
QUIT key ................................................................... 6
R
r ∠ θ (Complex) ...................................................... 26
r ∠ θ, SETUP ................................................... 211
Rad ......................................................................... 25
Rad, SETUP ..................................................... 210
Radian ................................................................ 49
random .................................................................... 46
random, PROB ................................................... 74
RCL, ZOOM ............................................................ 56
RclGD, G_DATA .................................................... 112
269
Appendix
RclLD, L_DATA ..................................................... 143
RclPict, PICT ........................................................ 113
RclWin, ZOOM ....................................................... 56
Real part, COMPLX ............................................... 79
real(, COMPLX ................................................... 79
Recall, variable ....................................................... 40
Recalling a equation ........................................ 201
Rect ........................................................................ 26
Rect, SETUP .................................................... 210
Rectangular coordinate system, TABLE ............ 99
Rectangular coordinate system, WINDOW ....... 98
Rectangular coordinate, CURSOR .................... 96
Rectangular coordinates .................................... 74
RectCursor, FORMAT ...................................... 211
REG menu, STAT ................................................. 160
Regression ....................................................... 145
Regression calculation .................................... 160
Regression function, using the ........................ 163
Rem, PRGM ......................................................... 208
remain ..................................................................... 46
Remainder .......................................................... 46
Remainder, division ........................................... 37
Renaming a equation ........................................... 200
Reset function, OPTION ...................................... 227
Reset switch ................................................... 6, 29
RESET, OPTION menu ..................................... 30
Resetting the calculator ..................................... 29
Residual list .......................................................... 165
Return, BRNCH .................................................... 216
Reversible Keyboard ................................................ ii
Rg_a+bx, REG ..................................................... 160
Rg_abx, REG ........................................................ 161
Rg_aebx, REG ....................................................... 161
Rg_ax+b, REG ..................................................... 160
Rg_axb, REG ........................................................ 162
Rg_ln, REG .......................................................... 161
Rg_log, REG ........................................................ 161
Rg_logistic, REG .................................................. 162
Rg_sin, REG ......................................................... 162
Rg_x-1, REG ......................................................... 162
Rg_x2, REG .......................................................... 160
Rg_x3, REG .......................................................... 160
Rg_x4, REG .......................................................... 161
rndCoin ................................................................... 47
rndDice ................................................................... 47
rndInt( ..................................................................... 46
rndInt(, PROB .................................................... 74
rnd_mat(, OPE ..................................................... 126
270
Root .................................................................. 39, 70
round( ..................................................................... 44
round(, NUM ....................................................... 73
Rounded value ................................................... 44
rowEF, MATH ........................................................ 129
row_m.p.(, OPE .................................................... 127
row_mult(, OPE .................................................... 127
row_plus(, OPE .................................................... 127
row_swap(, OPE ................................................... 127
rrowEF, MATH ....................................................... 129
S
Saving a equation ................................................ 200
Scatter diagram, Graph type ................................ 156
Sci ........................................................................... 25
Sci, SETUP ...................................................... 211
Screen contrast, adjusting the ............................. 222
SCRN menu, programming .................................. 209
sec-1 ........................................................................ 72
secant, CALC ......................................................... 72
Second, angle ........................................................ 49
SELECT menu, OPTION ..................................... 225
SELECT, SLIDE SHOW ....................................... 118
Send, I/O .............................................................. 209
Seq ......................................................................... 26
seq(, OPE ......................................................... 137
Sequen, FORMAT ............................................ 212
Sequential coordinate system, TABLE ............ 100
Sequential coordinate system, WINDOW ......... 98
SET, SHADE ......................................................... 114
SetList, OPE ......................................................... 159
SETUP key ......................................................... 6, 24
SETUP menu ............................................... 25, 83
SETUP menu, programming ........................... 210
Sexagesimal ........................................................... 48
SHADE, DRAW .................................................... 114
Shade(, DRAW ................................................. 107
Simp key ................................................................. 35
SIMPLE .............................................................. 27
simple interest .................................................. 186
Simul, FORMAT .................................................... 212
sin ........................................................................... 42
sin-1 X, TRIG ........................................................... 97
sine ......................................................................... 68
sinh X, HYP ............................................................ 97
sinh, CALC ............................................................. 72
sinh-1 X, HYP .......................................................... 97
sinh-1, CALC ........................................................... 73
Appendix
SLIDE SHOW ....................................................... 115
SLIDE SHOW key ................................................ 6
SLIDE SHOW menu ......................................... 118
slv_FV, CALC ....................................................... 189
slv_I%, CALC ....................................................... 189
slv_N, CALC ......................................................... 189
slv_pmt, CALC ..................................................... 189
slv_PV, CALC ....................................................... 189
SOLVER feature ................................................... 194
SOLVER, equation method .............................. 194
SOLVER function, Financial ............................ 185
SOLVER, graphic method ................................ 198
SOLVER, Newton’s method ............................. 196
SOLVER key ......................................................... 7
sortA(, OPE .................................................. 135, 159
sortD(, OPE .................................................. 135, 159
Specifications ....................................................... 233
SPLIT ...................................................................... 58
SPLIT key ............................................................. 5
Square .................................................................... 37
Square, ZOOM ................................................... 54
Standard deviation ............................................... 141
STAT menu ........................................................... 149
STAT menu key .............................................. 7, 23
STAT PLOT key .................................................... 6
STAT, VARS ...................................................... 217
Stat, ZOOM ........................................................ 54
Statistical graph functions ............................... 157
Statistical graph, plotting on/off ....................... 157
Statistical graph, specifying ............................. 157
Statistical graph, trancing the .......................... 158
Statistical hypothesis testing ........................... 165
Statistics ........................................................... 145
Statistics, graphing .......................................... 153
Statistics, opening the list table ....................... 145
Statistics, plotting ............................................. 147
Statistics features ............................................ 149
stdDv(, MATH ....................................................... 141
STO key .................................................................. 38
STO, ZOOM ....................................................... 56
StoGD, G_DATA ............................................... 112
StoLD, L_DATA ................................................. 142
StoPict, PICT ................................................... 113
STOWIN, VARS ................................................ 217
SUB key .............................................................. 5, 63
Substitution ........................................................ 63
Substitution feature (Advanced) ...................... 114
sum(, MATH .......................................................... 140
SYSTEM, TOOL ..................................................... 82
S_PLOT menu, programming .............................. 213
T
TAB ......................................................................... 26
Tab, SETUP .......................................................... 211
TABLE key .......................................................... 5, 53
TABLE, VARS ................................................... 217
Table, editing the list ........................................ 144
Table, entering the list ...................................... 143
Table, List ......................................................... 143
Table, setting a ................................................. 100
Tables ................................................................. 99
tan ........................................................................... 43
tan-1 X, TRIG ........................................................... 97
tangent .................................................................... 68
tanh X, HYP ............................................................ 97
tanh, CALC ............................................................. 72
tanh-1 X, HYP .......................................................... 97
tanh-1, CALC ........................................................... 73
TBLSET key ............................................................. 5
TEST menu, STAT ................................................ 165
Text(, DRAW ......................................................... 109
Then, BRNCH ....................................................... 214
Time, SETUP ........................................................ 210
Time, TYPE ........................................................ 96
Tint1samp, TEST .................................................. 170
Tint2samp, TEST .................................................. 170
TOOL key .................................................................. 7
TOOL menu ........................................................ 81
TRACE .................................................................... 57
TRACE key ........................................................... 5
Trace function, statistical graph ....................... 158
trans, MATH .......................................................... 129
TRIG, ZOOM .................................................... 56, 97
Trigonometric keys .......................... 7, 20, 21, 68, 69
Trouble shooting ................................................... 231
Ttest1samp, TEST ................................................ 167
Ttest2samp, TEST ................................................ 168
TtestLinreg, TEST ................................................ 169
TYPE, FORMAT ..................................................... 96
T_line(, DRAW ...................................................... 106
U
User, TABLE ......................................................... 101
uv, SETUP ............................................................ 210
uv, TYPE ................................................................. 96
uw, SETUP ........................................................... 210
271
Appendix
uw, TYPE ................................................................ 96
V
Value, CALC ........................................................... 60
Variable, programming ......................................... 206
Variable, store .................................................... 38
varian(, MATH ....................................................... 141
Variance ........................................................... 141
VARS key ............................................................ 7, 40
VARS menu, financial ...................................... 193
VARS menu, programming .............................. 217
vw, SETUP ........................................................... 210
vw, TYPE ................................................................ 96
V_line(, DRAW ..................................................... 105
W
Wait, PRGM .......................................................... 208
Web, SETUP ........................................................ 210
Web, TYPE ......................................................... 96
WEnd, BRNCH ..................................................... 215
While, BRNCH ...................................................... 215
WINDOW ................................................................ 57
WINDOW key ....................................................... 5
WINDOW, setting the ....................................... 148
WINDOW, VARS .............................................. 217
Window, setting a ............................................... 98
X
x’, REG ................................................................. 163
xnor, LOGIC ........................................................... 78
xor, LOGIC .............................................................. 78
XY Line, Graph type ............................................. 156
X_Incpt, CALC ........................................................ 61
x±yi (Complex) ....................................................... 26
X±yi, SETUP ........................................................ 211
Y
Y’, FORMAT ...................................................... 63, 95
y’, REG ................................................................. 163
Y’OFF, FORMAT ................................................... 211
Y’ON, FORMAT .................................................... 211
Y= key ....................................................................... 5
Y_Incpt, CALC ........................................................ 61
Z
Zint1prop, TEST ................................................... 175
Zint1samp, TEST .................................................. 174
Zint2prop, TEST ................................................... 176
Zint2samp, TEST .................................................. 175
ZOOM ..................................................................... 53
ZOOM key ............................................................ 5
272
Zoom Functions ................................................. 96
Ztest1prop, TEST ................................................. 173
Ztest1samp, TEST ................................................ 171
Ztest2prop, TEST ................................................. 173
Ztest2samp, TEST ................................................ 172
In Europe:
Authorized representative responsible for the European Union Community Market
In Canada: Au Canada:
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB003 du Canada.
NOTE: FOR NETHERLANDS ONLY
For USA only:
This product contains a CR Coin Lithium Battery which
contains Perchlorate Material – special handling may
apply, California residents,
See www.dtsc.ca.gov/hazardouswaste/perchlorate/
EL-9900
®
PRINTED IN CHINA/IMPRIMÉ EN CHINE/IMPRESO EN CHINA
06JGK(TINSE0511EH30)
GRAPHING CALCULATOR
SHARP CORPORATION
®
MODEL
EL-9900
GRAPHING CALCULATOR
OPERATION MANUAL
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