Assembly and Instruction Guide

Assembly and Instruction Guide
WEAR YOUR
SAFETY GLASSES
FORESIGHT IS BETTER
THAN NO SIGHT
READ INSTRUCTIONS
BEFORE OPERATING
Miniature Lathe and Milling Machine
Assembly and
Instruction Guide
Eighth Edition
P/N 5326
©2017, Sherline Products Inc.
Full One-Year Warranty on Sherline’s 3.5" Metal Lathe, Vertical Milling Machine, and Accessories
If within one year from the date of purchase a new* Sherline power tool fails due to a defect in material or workmanship,
Sherline will repair it free of charge. In addition, it has always been our policy to replace all parts at no cost, regardless
of age, which are determined to have been incorrectly manufactured or assembled and have failed due to this cause
rather than because of improper use or excessive wear caused by continuous use in a production environment.
90-Day Warranty on CNC and Computer-Related Components
If a new* CNC or computer-related component sold by Sherline fails within 90 days of purchase Sherline will repair
it free of charge. These components include, but are not limited to, controllers, driver boxes, stepper motor cables,
computers, and other computer-related components.
Right of Inspection
Sherline will inspect the machine or part and will be the sole judge of the merit of the claim. Freight charges for returning
a machine are not covered. Merchandise which has been abused or misused is not subject to warranty protection.
Disassembly of a machine or accessory beyond normal maintenance procedures described in this manual may void the
warranty. Before attempting major repairs, call the factory for advice and instructions.
Warranty service is available by simply returning the machine, defective assembly, or part to:
Sherline Products, Inc., 3235 Executive Ridge, Vista, CA 92081-8527
Please write, fax, call, or email to let us know that you are retuning a part and to receive a return authorization
number. This will speed up the warranty process (Email is sherline@sherline.com)
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.
*NOTE: Only new machines purchased directly from Sherline or from an authorized Sherline dealer are covered by this warranty. This includes machines
purchased via on-line auctions when offered by Sherline or its authorized dealers. Machines purchased second-hand or from a non-authorized dealer are
considered “used” and are not subject to warranty even if they appear to be new in the box. If you are in doubt about the status of a dealer or are suspicious
about an offer that doesn’t seem quite right, you can always confirm a dealer’s status by checking our DEALERS page (sherline.com/authorized-sherlinedealers/) for a listing or by calling (800) 541-0735 to confirm a dealer’s authority to represent Sherline.
Sherline Service Policy
Sherline’s policy regarding customer service is simple: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION!
Because products manufactured by Sherline are produced and assembled in our Vista, California plant, we offer fast
and reasonably priced service. All we ask when you pack the items for shipping is to use common sense, individually
protecting items from one another during shipping. Ship by UPS or FedEx ground whenever possible. If you have
attempted a repair and then decide to return the item it is not necessary to reassemble the machine. If you have lost a
part, don’t worry, we’ll still get it looking great for you and return it via UPS or FedEx*. Work and parts not covered
under warranty can be charged to your credit card for your convenience or we can call with an estimate at your request
before performing any work. Again, please email or call Sherline to obtain an RMA number before returning anything
for service. Cleaning the returned items thoroughly before you ship them will save time and money.
*If merchandise is received damaged by the shipper, keep the original shipping carton and contact your local shipping office.
How to Order Replacement Parts
The model number of your machine will be found on the chrome nameplate attached to the top or side of the headstock.
The serial number is laser engraved into the back of the headstock. Always mention the model number when requesting
service or repair parts for your machine or accessories.
Replacement parts may be ordered from the factory or from any Sherline dealer. The most expeditious way to order
parts is directly from the factory by phone, fax or our e-commerce website at www.sherlinedirect.com. Office hours
are 8 AM to 4 PM (PST or PDT) Monday through Friday. We do our best to see that orders received before 12 noon
(Pacific Standard or Daylight Time) will be shipped the same day. We accept payment by Visa, MasterCard, Discover
or American Express.
Parts Orders:
Toll free order line: (USA and Canada) 1-800-541-0735
International or Technical Assistance: 1-760-727-5857 • Fax: 760-727-7857
Websites: For information visit www.sherline.com, or to place orders 24 hours a day www.sherlinedirect.com
Electronic Line Filter makes Sherline Tools CE Compliant
As countries around the world have tightened up their import regulations, Sherline has taken
the extra step to make available an in-line electronic filter between the DC motor speed
control and the incoming AC current in order to meet CE standards. Users outside the USA
will only need to supply a wall plug adapter to go from the American style 3-prong plug to
the type of plug used in your country. An extra charge applies for machines ordered with this
filter installed, but the shipping box will state that the machine complies with CE standards.
We highly recommend that customers in countries requiring CE certification order this part
in order to avoid possible problems with customs.
The line filter cuts electronic
emissions to meet CE standards. CE Filter added to any machine: Part number plus letters -CE, Retrofit filter/cord only: P/N 45500
Table of Contents
Safety Rules for Power Tools..............................................2
An Introduction to the World of Miniature Machining.........3
General Precautions..............................................................3
Machine Terminology...........................................................4
The Customer's Responsibility.............................................5
Learning More About Machining.........................................5
Visit the Sherline Website for the Latest Updates.................5
Lubrication............................................................................5
Initial Assembly of a New Machine......................................5
Installing the Lathe Crosslide...............................................6
Installing the Mill X-Axis Handwheel..................................6
Installing the Mill X-axis Digital Readout Handwheels.......6
5000/5400-Series Mills—Mounting the Column.................6
2000/5800-Series Mills—Assembling and Mounting
the Multi-Direction Column.................................................7
Mounting the Motor and Speed Control Assembly..............7
Operation of the Motor and Electronic Speed Control.......10
What to Do if the Motor Suddenly Shuts Down.................10
Replacing Brushes on a DC Motor.....................................10
Mounting the Lathe or Mill to a Board for Stability...........10
Converting Machines from Inch to Metric.........................11
Adjustments.......................................................................11
Two-Speed Pulley........................................................11
Spindle Preload............................................................11
Gib ...............................................................................11
Leadscrew Backlash (Lathe and Mill).........................12
Handwheels (Lathe and Mill)......................................12
Saddle Nut (Lathe and Mill)........................................12
Adjustment and Use of the Tailstock Gib....................12
Aligning the Headstock and Tailstock.........................13
Squaring up Your Mill..................................................13
Use of Cutting Oils and Lubricants....................................17
General Machining Terms...................................................17
Lathe Operation................................................................18
Leveling the Cutting Tool............................................18
Initial Test Cutting........................................................18
Inducing Chatter and Learning How to Overcome It..19
Holding the Workpiece................................................19
Turning Between Centers.............................................19
Removing Tools from the Morse Taper Spindles.........19
Center Drilling.............................................................20
Tailstock Drilling.........................................................20
Headstock Drilling.......................................................20
Reaming.......................................................................20
Faceplate Turning.........................................................20
Taper Turning...............................................................20
Tool Shapes and Grinding Your Own Cutting Tools....21
Using the Cutoff or Parting Tool..................................22
Inserted Tip Carbide Tools...........................................23
Guide to Approximate Turning Speeds........................24
Accessories for Your Lathe...............................................24
3-Jaw, 4-Jaw and Drill Chucks....................................24
Thread Cutting Attachment..........................................25
Steady Rest...................................................................25
Live Center...................................................................25
Digital Readouts...........................................................25
3-Jaw Chuck Operation and Maintenance.....................26
Helpful Tips for Milling...............................................27
Securing the Workpiece...............................................28
Locking the Axes.........................................................28
Before You Start Cutting..............................................28
Purchasing Materials in Small Quantities....................28
Three Types of Work....................................................29
Types of Milling Cutters..............................................29
Standard Milling Versus Climb Milling.......................29
Using a Dial Indicator..................................................30
Locating the Edge of a Part..........................................31
Determining the Depth of Cut......................................31
Cutting Speeds for Milling...........................................32
End Mills......................................................................32
Using the Mill Column Saddle Lock...........................32
Accessories for Your Milling Machine............................33
Sensitive Drilling Attachment......................................33
3/8" End Mill Holder...................................................33
Drill Chuck Holder.......................................................33
Mill Collet Set..............................................................33
Boring Head.................................................................33
Fly Cutters....................................................................34
Drill Chucks and Center Drills.....................................34
Mill Vise Set.................................................................34
Tilting Angle Table.......................................................35
4" Rotary Table (Manual and CNC-Ready).................35
CNC Rotary Indexer....................................................36
CNC and CNC-Ready Systems..........................................36
Learning about CNC...........................................................36
Several Reasons to Consider CNC.....................................36
Longer Tables and Taller Milling Columns Available........37
10,000 RPM Spindle Pulley Set.........................................37
Industrial Applications for Sherline Components...............37
DRO Machine Operations................................................37
The Digital Readout in the Modern Machine Shop.....37
Installing the DRO Components..................................38
Making Sure the Housings Do not Move.....................40
Installing the RPM Sensor...........................................40
Hooking up the Connecting Cables.............................40
Initializing the Display for Inch/Metric Leadscrews...40
Setting the Backlash Compensation Values.................41
Adjusting the Z-Axis Handwheel Screw.....................41
Reverse Direction of the Reading on the X-axis..........41
Getting the Most out of Your DRO..............................42
Installing Stepper Motors.................................................42
Stepper Motor Installation Instructions........................42
Using Handwheels on the Stepper Motors...................43
Sherline Stepper Motor Specifications.........................43
Lead Wire Connection and Color Code.......................43
Sherline CNC Motor-Mounting Instructions...............44
Lathe and Mill Exploded Views.......................................45
Exploded view, manual 4000/4400-series lathes.........45
Exploded view, CNC 4000/4400-series lathes ............46
Exploded view, manual 5000/5400-series mills..........47
Exploded view, CNC 5000/5400-series mills..............48
Exploded view, manual 2000 series 8-direction mill...49
Exploded view, CNC 2000-series 8-direction mill......50
Exploded view, manual 5800-series Nexgen mill........51
Exploded view, CNC 5800-series Nexgen mill...........52
Machining Basics—Using the Handwheels........................53
Sherline Machine Technical Specifications........................53
Vertical Milling Machine Operation...............................26
General Description.....................................................26
-1-
Safety Rules for Power Tools
on bearings and other moving parts of your tool. For
the same reason, if the lathe or any other precision
tool is kept near an operating grinder, it should be
kept covered when not in use.
21.Don't Let Long, Thin Stock Protrude from the Back of the
Spindle—Long, thin stock that is unsupported and turned
at high RPM can suddenly bend and whip around.
22. Wear Your Safety Glasses—Foresight is better than NO
SIGHT! The operation of any power tool can result
in foreign objects being thrown into the eyes, which
can result in severe eye damage. Always wear safety
glasses or eye shields before commencing power tool
operation. We recommend a Wide Vision Safety Mask
for use over spectacles or standard safety glasses.
1. Know Your Power Tool—Read the owner’s manual
carefully. Learn its application and limitations as well
as the specific potential hazards peculiar to this tool.
2. Ground All Tools—If a tool is equipped with a three-prong
plug, it should be plugged into a three-hole receptacle.
If an adapter is used to accommodate a two-prong
receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a
KNOWN GROUND. Never remove the third prong.
(See Figure 1.)
3. Keep Guards in Place—and in working order.
4. Remove Adjusting Keys and Wrenches—Form a habit of
checking to see that keys and adjusting wrenches are
removed from the tool before turning on any machine.
5. Keep Work Area Clean—Cluttered areas and benches
invite accidents.
6. Avoid a Dangerous Work Environment—Do not use power
tools in damp or wet locations. Keep your work area
well illuminated.
7. Keep Children Away—All visitors should be kept a safe
distance from the work area.
8. Make Your Workshop Childproof—with padlocks, master
switches or by removing starter keys.
9. Do Not Force a Tool—Do not force a tool or attachment
to do a job for which it was not designed. Use the
proper tool or accessory for the job.
10. Wear Proper Apparel—Avoid loose clothing, neckties,
gloves or jewelry that could become caught in moving
parts. Wear protective headgear to keep long hair styles
away from moving parts.
11.Use Safety Glasses—Also use a face or dust mask if a
cutting operation is dusty.
12. Secure Your Work—Use clamps or a vise to hold work
when practicable. It is safer than using your hand and
frees both hands to operate the tool.
13.Do Not Overreach—Keep your proper footing and
balance at all times.
14.Maintain Tools in Top Condition—Keep tools sharp
and clean for best and safest performance. Follow
instructions for lubrication and changing accessories.
15. Disconnect Tools—Unplug tools before servicing, or when
changing accessories such as blades, bits or cutters.
16. Avoid Accidental Starting—Make sure the switch is “OFF”
before plugging in a power cord.
17.Use Recommended Accessories—Consult the owner's
manual. Use of improper accessories may be hazardous.
18. Turn the Spindle by Hand Before Switching Motor On—This
ensures that the workpiece or chuck jaws will not hit
the lathe bed, saddle, crosslide or cutting tool and that
a key or spindle bar was not left in the chuck.
19.Check that all Holding, Locking and Driving Devices Are
Tightened—At the same time, be careful not to
overtighten these adjustments. They should be just
tight enough to do the job. Overtightening may damage
threads or warp parts, thereby reducing accuracy and
effectiveness.
20. Don't Use Your Lathe for Grinding—The fine dust that
results from the grinding operation is extremely hard
PROPERLY
GROUNDED
TYPE OUTLET
GROUNDING TYPE 3-PRONG PLUG
GROUND PRONG
NOTE: Power cords are
available with UK and
European plugs.
UK—P/N 40630
Europe—P/N 40640
USE PROPERLY
GROUNDED
RECEPTACLE AS
SHOWN
PLUG ADAPTER
GROUND WIRE
FIGURE 1—Proper grounding for electrical connections.
Electrical Connections
The power cord supplied is equipped with a 3-prong
grounding plug that should be connected only to a
properly grounded receptacle for your safety. Should an
electrical failure occur in the motor, the grounded plug
and receptacle will protect the user from electrical shock.
If a properly grounded receptacle is not available, use a
grounding adapter to adapt the 3-prong plug to a properly
grounded receptacle by attaching the grounding lead from
the adapter to the receptacle cover screw.
NOTE: The electrical circuit designed into the speed
control of your lathe or mill reads incoming current from
100 to 240 volts AC and 50 or 60 Hz and automatically
adapts to supply the correct 90 volts DC to the motor. As
long as you have a properly wired, grounded connector
cord for your source, the machine will operate anywhere
in the world without a transformer. This has been true
for all Sherline machines built since 1994. Prior to that,
an AC/DC motor was used. Use that motor ONLY with
the power source for which it was intended. It will not
automatically adapt to any other current and using it with
an improper power source will burn out the motor or speed
control. Also, the first few DC units built did not include
the circuits to adapt to other currents. If you think you
may have an early DC model, remove the plastic speed
control housing and look for a label on the aluminum
speed control frame. If it has a small metallic label on top
of the frame that lists input voltage as 120VAC, DO NOT
ATTEMPT TO CONVERT THIS MODEL TO OTHER
CURRENTS. Models that can be used with any current
have a paper label on the end of the speed control frame
which lists the model number as KBLC-240DS.
See inside cover for information on ordering an optional
CE compliant electronic filter if required in your country.
-2-
An Introduction to the World of Miniature Machining
a time. The interesting thing is, a skilled machinist may take
almost as long to make the same part as a novice. Shortcuts
usually end in failure. Unlike some other trades, mistakes
cannot be covered up. There are no erasers, white-out or
“putting-on tools” for machinists; you simply start over. To
expand a little on an old rule: “Think three times, measure
twice and cut once!”
The Craftsman’s Strength—Anticipating a Tool’s Limitations
The skill in machining isn’t just “moving the dials.” It is a
combination of engineering and craftsmanship. A file is just
as useful a tool to a good machinist as a multi-thousanddollar machine tool. Tools “deflect” or bend under load,
and anticipating this bend is what it is all about. Sharp tools
deflect less than dull tools, but with each pass the tool gets a
little duller and the deflection becomes greater. If you try to
machine a long shaft with a small diameter, the center will
always have a larger diameter than the ends, because the part
deflects away from the tool where it has less support. You can
go crazy trying to machine it straight, or you can simply pick
up a good, flat mill file and file it straight in a few moments.
Machine tools will never replace the “craftsman’s touch,”
and machining is a combination of both good tools and good
technique.
You Don’t Become a Machinist by Buying a Machine
You should strive from the beginning to make better and
more accurate parts than you think you need. Work to closer
tolerances than the job demands. Be on the lookout for ways to
make a job easier or better. Having a selection of appropriate
materials on hand and a good cutoff saw to get them to rough
size is a good start. Take some time and read through this
instruction book before you try machining anything. We
want you to enjoy the process of creating accurate parts from
raw metal. Buying a machine didn’t make you a machinist,
but using it along with the skill and knowledge you acquire
along the way eventually will. With the purchase of Sherline
equipment, you have taken your first step toward many years
of machining satisfaction. We thank you for letting us be a
part of that.
Thank you,
Sherline Products Inc.
Getting Answers to Your Questions About Machining
Over the years we have found that the majority of our customers
are both highly intelligent and skilled craftsmen. Often they
are also new to machining. The instructions we have included
in this book, while far more extensive than anything included
with other machine tools—even ones costing thousands
of dollars—still only scratch the surface when it comes to
machining. We have tried to anticipate the most common
problems and questions asked by a new machinist. What we
have provided in this book and with each accessory, when
combined with a liberal amount of common sense, is more
than enough to get you started. If you apply what you learn
here, you will be well on your way to making good parts.
No doubt you will also have many questions specific to your
project that simply can’t be addressed in a manual of this type.
Answers to questions beyond the scope of this booklet will have
to come from your own research. Bookstores and libraries are
full of excellent books on machining, and the Internet offers
some great user groups that can put you in direct contact with
others who share your specific interests. Our own website is a
great source of information as well. We have published there
all the instructions for all our tools and accessories for you to
read and print out for free. There are also links to many other
fascinating sites. We have found Machinery’s Handbook to
be a great resource to turn to answer many of your questions.
Sherline founder, Joe Martin, wrote a book called Tabletop
Machining that is specifically directed to the owners of Sherline
tools and to anyone who wants to learn to make small metal
parts. The instructions you are reading that come with your
machine are quite complete, however, if you want to get into
more detail or want to see color photos of setups and projects
made by some of the best craftsmen around, We are sure you
will find more than your money’s worth in Tabletop Machining.
May your journey toward becoming a skilled machinist be
an enjoyable one.
What New Machinists Like Most and Least
If you are new to machining, you may find it to be either one of
the most rewarding skills one can learn or the most frustrating
thing you have ever attempted. What makes machining fun
for some is the complexity and challenge. The same thing
will drive others up the wall. One customer may be overjoyed
because he can now make parts that were not available for
purchase. Another may wonder why he just spent all day
making a part that is similar to one he could have purchased
for two dollars. The difference is that it is not the same as the
two-dollar part—it is exactly the part needed.
There Are no Shortcuts
Machining is a slow process because parts are made one at
•
•
•
SHERLINE FACTORY TOURS
Visit Sherline’s factory in North San Diego County and
see miniature machine tools being produced. If you can’t
come by, see the photo factory tour on our website at
sherline.com/about/factory-tour/.
General Precautions
DO NOT attempt to operate the lathe or mill without first
mounting them to a secure base. (See page 10.)
DO NOT turn on the motor with a 3-jaw chuck mounted if
the jaws are not tightened on themselves or on a part. The
acceleration of the spindle can cause the scroll to open the
chuck jaws if not tightened.
DO NOT lift or carry the machine by the motor. The cast
motor mount was not designed to support the entire weight
of the machine. Carry the machine by lifting under the base
•
-3-
or by the mounting board. It is also advisable to remove the
headstock/motor/speed control unit when transporting the
machine. The inertia of a sudden shock can also over stress
the motor mount.
A chip guard (P/N 4360) is now available that offers
additional protection from flying chips when working near
the spindle. It is not a substitute for wearing proper eye
protection, but it does offer additional safety. It will also
contain cutting oil to help keep your work area cleaner.
SPEED CONTROL
ASSEMBLY
SPEED CONTROL KNOB
Machine Terminology
ON/OFF SWITCH
TAILSTOCK DRILL CHUCK
HEADSTOCK
DC MOTOR
TAILSTOCK SPINDLE
TOOL POST
3-JAW CHUCK
TAILSTOCK SPINDLE LOCK
CROSSLIDE
SADDLE
TAILSTOCK
TAILSTOCK FEED
HANDWHEEL
HEADSTOCK
SPINDLE
“V” BELT
TAILSTOCK
LOCKING
SCREW
LATHE BED
GIB
ADJUSTMENT
SCREWS
2-SPEED
STEPPED PULLEY
HEADSTOCK
LOCKING SCREW
LEADSCREW
HANDWHEEL
LATHE DRIVE DOG
FACEPLATE
HARD STOP
HOLES
SPINDLE BARS
#1 MORSE
HEADSTOCK CENTER
#1 MORSE
ARBOR
#0 MORSE TAILSTOCK
CENTER
MOUNTING
DRAWBOLT AND
HOLES
HEX KEYS
WASHER
SADDLE NUT
Z-AXIS
CHUCK KEY
ADJUSTMENT SCREWS LOCKING LEVER
CROSSLIDE FEED HANDWHEEL
BRASS
TAILSTOCK
GIB
LATHE BASE
(Located beneath saddle on
Z-Axis Leadscrew)
FIGURE 2—Lathe part terminology
VERTICAL FEED HANDWHEEL
(Z-AXIS)
HEADSTOCK ALIGNMENT KEY
DC MOTOR
SPEED CONTROL ASSEMBLY
“V” DRIVE BELT
VARIABLE SPEED CONTROL KNOB
2-SPEED STEPPED PULLEY
COLUMN SADDLE LOCKING LEVER
(Located behind saddle
on Z-Axis Leadscrew)
ON/OFF SWITCH
Z-AXIS OILER
(Located behind column)
HEADSTOCK
HEADSTOCK LOCKING SET SCREW
SPINDLE
HEADSTOCK SPACER BLOCK
DRILL CHUCK
Z-AXIS GIB
TABLE FEED HANDWHEEL
(X-AXIS)
TABLE
Z-AXIS COLUMN BED
X-Y AXES OILER
COLUMN BASE
TABLE SADDLE
LEADSCREW COVER
TABLE LOCK (X-AXIS)
MOUNTING HOLE
Y-AXIS ANTI-BACKLASH NUT
AND LOCK
TABLE T-SLOTS (2)
TABLE FEED HANDWHEEL
(Y-AXIS)
X-AXIS STOP SCREW
SADDLE FRICTION ADJUSTMENT
SCREW (Y-AXIS LOCK)
ADJUSTABLE ZERO HANDWHEEL
COLLAR LOCKING NUT
Y-AXIS GIB
MOUNTING HOLE
FIGURE 3—Milling machine part terminology
-4-
MILL BASE
WARNING! WD-40 is a rust preventative, not a lubricant. Do
not use WD-40 on your machine slides or screws as a lubricant.
Avoid Overtightening!
One of the problems with designing and manufacturing metal
cutting equipment of this size is that the operator can physically
be stronger than the machine, which is not normally the case
with larger tools. For example, a 10-pound force applied a
couple of inches out on a hex key becomes a 650-pound force
at the tip of the screw. If you tighten both screws on the tool
post this tight, it becomes approximately 1300 pounds of
force on relatively small parts! Tools and/or parts can become
distorted and accuracy will be lost. Overtightening hold-down
screws and T-nuts in their slots can distort the crosslide or
mill table. It is not necessary to overtighten parts and tools,
because loads are smaller on equipment of this size. Save
your equipment and increase accuracy by not overtightening
and by taking light cuts.
Don't Over stress the Motor!
It is also important to realize that you can overload the motor
supplied with this lathe or mill.* The many variables involved
in machining, such as materials being machined, size of cutter,
shape of cutter, diameter of stock, etc., can leave but one rule
to follow...COMMON SENSE!
*The motor is thermally protected, so if it is overloaded, it will
simply shut down until it cools. See note on thermal protection
in the motor/speed control section on page 10.
CAUTION!
Read all operating instructions and safety rules carefully before
attempting any machining operations.
The Customer's Responsibility
Always use care when operating the lathe and mill. Follow
the safety rules for power tools on page 2. Turn off the motor
before attempting adjustments or maintenance. (Do not simply
turn the speed control down to zero RPM but leave the motor
switch on.) Be sure the work piece is firmly supported on the
lathe or mill. Accessories should be mounted and operated
following instructions carefully. Keep your machine clean,
lubricated and adjusted as instructed. Do not leave cleaning
rags, tools or other materials on the lathe bed or around moving
parts of the machine.
Learning More About Machining
Many fine books have been written on machining techniques
and are available at your local library or bookstore. Although
these books often refer to machines many times larger than
Sherline’s tools, the principle remains the same. Sherline
offers several good books related specifically to miniature
machining. Visit sherline.com/books/ for more information.
Visit the Sherline Website for the Latest Updates
A world of up-to-date information on Sherline tools and
accessories, and their use is available at sherline.com.
Here are a few key addresses ( type sherline.com/ and then
add the following file names after the “/” symbol):
Lubrication
Machine Slides—Use a light oil such as sewing machine or 3-in-1
oil or grease on all points where there is sliding contact. This
should be done immediately after each cleanup. We grease
the slides at the factory to ensure the lubrication stays in place
during shipping, but light oil will work fine once you begin
using the machine. Do NOT use WD-40 for lubrication!
Leadscrew, Tailstock Feed Screw, Crosslide Screw—Light oil should
be placed along all threads regularly. At the same time, check
that the threads are free from any metal chips. Use an air hose
or inexpensive paint brush to keep them clean. All Sherline
mills now include oil reservoirs on the X/Y axes and the Z
axis to help keep critical parts lubricated. Another new feature
is the brass leadscrew cover that keeps chips off the rear of
the Y-axis leadscrew.
Tailstock Screw—Wind out the spindle as far as it will go and
oil it with light oil.
Handwheels—A few drops of light oil or a little grease behind
the handwheel will reduce friction between the surfaces and
make operation easier and smoother.
Headstock Bearings—These bearings are lubricated at the factory
for the lifetime of the machine and should not need further
lubrication. DO NOT break the seals.
Spindle Motor—Sealed ball bearings require no maintenance.
When NOT to lubricate certain surfaces
The mating surfaces of the arm, the column and the column cap
on the Model 2000 mill are to be kept free from lubrication.
Tightening the column bolt causes friction between these
surfaces to resist movement of the arm during the forces and
vibration of machining. If these smooth surfaces are lubricated,
the arm or the column could move during machining even if the
bolt is securely tightened. Clean these surfaces periodically with
mild detergent or bathroom spray cleaner to keep a good “bite”
between surfaces. The same goes for the surfaces between the
“knuckle” and the ends of the swing arm. These surfaces are
smooth enough that adjustment is easily accomplished with
the nut loosened even without lubrication. They should be free
of dirt and chips, but please resist your natural inclination to
lubricate them, as they do their intended job better when dry.
A Note on Synthetic Greases
Several years ago we started using a Teflon-based (PTFE)
synthetic grease to lubricate not only the Sherline tools we
sell, but also the factory machines that we use to produce them.
This clear, non-staining grease can be found in most auto part
stores, and it is also available from Sherline as an accessory
in either tube or spray canister form. It offers smoother action
than conventional grease when used on sliding parts, and we
highly recommend it.
Initial Assembly of a New Machine
Your new lathe or mill will come packed in a box with some
items disassembled for shipping purposes. This has been
done to minimize the chance of damage during shipping. On
the lathe, you will install the crosslide table onto the saddle.
On the mill you will install the Z-axis column onto the base.
On some mills you will reinstall the X-axis handwheel. On
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-5-
Video instructions for assembling Sherline lathes and
mills can be viewed at sherline.com/sherline-videos/.
FIGURE 5—Installing
the crosslide table onto
the saddle
both machines you will need to install the motor and speed
control. Some of these parts are assembled and tested for fit
at the factory prior to shipping. They are then disassembled
and packaged, so everything should go together easily when
you reassemble it. The motors are “run in” for approximately
one hour to assure proper function and seating of the brushes.
Before you call us and say a part is missing, please look
carefully through the packaging. Some parts are in bags taped
to the bottom of cardboard flaps or spacers, and you may not
notice them when you open the box and remove the major
components.
LATHE—Mounting the Crosslide
Installation of the crosslide requires no tools. It is located under
a flap of cardboard that retains the lathe base in the shipping
box. First, make sure the bottom of the crosslide has a light
coat of grease on all the sliding surfaces. This will have been
applied at the factory, just make sure it has not been wiped
off and that it is evenly distributed.
SLIDE SCREW INSERT
GIB
FIGURE 6—Aligning the slide screw with the brass slide screw
insert
GIB LOCK
3. The handwheel was installed at the factory and then
removed for shipping. You should be able to see a mark
on the leadscrew where the set screw was previously
tightened. When reinstalling the handwheel, try to have
the set screw pick up this same position on the leadscrew.
4. Slide the handwheel onto the end of the leadscrew shaft
and push until the handwheel is fully seated and the thrust
collar is clamped tightly between the handwheel and the
leadscrew collar. A 3/32" hex wrench is included with
your machine to tighten the handwheel set screw.
Digital Readout Handwheels
If you ordered your mill equipped with a digital readout, the
X-axis handwheel will again be removed to prevent damage
during shipping. The proper thrust collar has been factory
installed. If a 1/4" shim washer is required, it will be included
in this package. Place it on the leadscrew shaft before installing
the handwheel. Follow the installation instructions included
with the P/N 8100 digital readout to install the encoder housing
and handwheel unit.
5000-Series Mills—Mounting the Column
The mill is shipped attached to a piece of
plywood to keep it from moving in the box.
Before you begin, remove the screws holding
the mill base to the plywood. It was installed
strictly for packing purposes and will need to
be removed so that the column can be installed.
The Z-axis column is mounted to the base with
two 1-3/4" long, 1/4-20 socket head screws.
These screws and the hex key tool you will
need to tighten them are packaged in the bag
with the motor mounting bracket and
drive belt. It is much easier to
mount the column to the base
before you mount the motor and
speed control to the saddle.
Set the column on the base
FIGURE 7—Mounting the aligned with the mounting holes
5000-series mill Z-axis and hold it in position while you
insert the first screw up from the
column
SADDLE
SLIDE SCREW INSERT and
ANTI-BACKLASH NUT
ANTI-BACKLASH
LOCK
FIGURE 4—Lathe bed, saddle, and gib
Next, see that the gib is in the proper position on the saddle.
(See Figure 4.) It is taped into position for shipping. Remove
the tape holding it in place. If the gib has come off, reposition
it on the gib lock as shown.
From the front of the lathe, engage the crosslide dovetail with
the gib and matching dovetail on the saddle. Slide it onto the
saddle about 1/4" (6-7 mm) until it stops. (See Figure 5.)
Look underneath and align the slide screw with the threads
on the brass slide screw insert on the side of the saddle. (See
Figure 6.) Turn the crosslide handwheel clockwise to engage
the threads. Continue to crank the handwheel clockwise until
the crosslide is in the desired position on the saddle.
All MILLS—X-Axis Handwheel Installation
Mills with adjustable “zero” handwheels come with the X-axis
handwheel removed to prevent damage to the leadscrew during
shipping. Reinstalling the handwheel is a simple process:
1. Loosen the X-axis table lock (the barrel-shaped lock on
the saddle that is tightened against the side of the mill
table with a socket head cap screw). From the end of the
mill table where the X-axis leadscrew protrudes, push
on the end of the mill table to make sure it seats tightly
against the leadscrew.
2. Examine the red collar on the handwheel to see that the
small hole is aligned with the head of the set screw. If it
is not, loosen the black locking nut on the handwheel and
rotate the collar until you can see the head of the set screw.
-6-
bottom of the base. Hand-turn the first screw part way in, and
then start the second screw. This can be done with the machine
upright by letting the base hang over the edge of your table or
bench just far enough to expose the first hole. Using the large
3/16" hex key provided, snug up both screws lightly first, and
then tighten evenly.
2000- and 5800-Series Mills—Assembling and Mounting
the Multi-Direction Column
To assemble the multi-direction column, make reference to the
exploded view on pages 49 through 52 of these instructions
and complete the steps that follow:
1. Attach the round column base (P/N 56700) to the mill
base with the two 1/4-20 x 1-1/2" socket head cap screws.
2. Screw the arm hold-down bolt (P/N 56130) into the top
of the round column base and tighten with an adjustable
wrench using the two flat indentations on the shaft.
3. Slip the round column top (P/N 56550) over the pin and
rotate it until the flat sides are parallel to the mill base
and the engraved degree lines are on the same side as the
X-axis handwheel.
4. Using an 11/16" or a 17 mm wrench, loosen the flange nut
holding the bed and swing arm together. Rotate the bed
away from the swing arm until they are at approximately
a 90° angle to each other. Retighten the flange nut firmly
to hold the column in this position. Discard the protective
wood spacer that was installed between the bed and arm
during shipping.
5. Set the swing arm over the column and align it approximately
square with the mill base and in about the center of its
travel. Make sure the swing arm registers on the flats of
the column top and is properly seated. While still holding
the swing arm unit in place, set the hold-down washer
(P/N 56200) over the end of the bolt. Put a flange nut on
the end of the bolt and tighten it against the hold-down
washer firmly to lock the swing arm in place. NOTE:
There should be NO lubrication on the mating surfaces
between the arm and the column base. Friction between
these surfaces keeps the arm from moving during cuts.
6. Place the column adjustment block (P/N 56350) on top of
the swing arm and attach it with two 10-32 x 5/8" socket
head cap screws at both ends. Adjust the 1" long center
bolt so that it is just touching the flat in the bottom of the
relieved section in the top of the pivot knuckle when the
column is in the 90° position.
NOTE: If you remove the column adjustment block to
accommodate a backward tilt movement of the column,
make sure you replace it when returning the column to
an upright position. It not only serves as a reference point
when returning the column to the 90° position, it also
keeps it from accidentally swinging down and damaging
the table if the flange nut is loosened.
7. Slip the alignment key into its keyway in the mill saddle.
Place the assembled headstock/motor/speed control unit
(See next section) over the pin on the mill saddle and over
the alignment key. Tighten the set screw in the side of the
headstock to hold the entire unit in place. Recheck to be
sure you have tightened the flange nut on the shouldered
bolt pivot pin (56210) securely so that all the weight of the
column is not resting on the column adjustment block bolt.
FIGURE 8—The assembled power unit.
Mounting the Motor and Speed Control Unit
to the Headstock
(Refer to Figure 13 on the following page, and the exploded
views on pages 45 through 52 for part number references.)
In order to keep shipping costs and damage to a minimum, all
new Sherline machines are shipped with the motor and speed
control disassembled. The same power unit assembly is used
on all Sherline lathes or mills, so these instructions apply to
all machines (Video instructions available on sherline.com).
FIGURE 9—Components ready for assembly.
Assembly Procedure
Gather all the needed components as shown in Figure 9 above.
Assemble them as follows:
1. Using the small hex key, remove the motor pulley from the
motor shaft by loosening its set screw. Place the inner belt
guard against the motor and secure it using the two hex
aluminum standoffs (P/N 43100). There are four threaded
holes in the motor. Use the pair that aligns with the brush
housings so the cord to the speed control housing points
downward as shown. (See Figure 10.) Reinstall the motor
pulley (P/N 43360) to the motor shaft and tighten the set
screw, making sure it engages the flat on the motor shaft.
The end of the pulley should be even with the end of the
motor shaft with the smaller pulley toward the outer end
of the shaft.
2. Place the drive belt over motor pulley. (See Figure 10 on
next page.)
3. Make sure the drive belt is routed properly. Then set the outer
belt guard in place on the inner belt guard, locating the holes
in outer belt guard over the ends of the motor standoffs. -7-
Motor Mounting Screw
Speed Control Housing
Pin
S/C Hinge Plate
Pin
S/C Cover Mounting Plate
Drive Belt
Spindle Pulley
DC Motor
Headstock Spindle and Motor
Mounting Bracket Assembly
FIGURE 10—Place belt over motor pulley.
Press the two nuts into the hex shaped depressions in the
rear of the inner belt guard and secure the outer cover with
two 1-3/8" pan head screws through the covers and into
the nuts. Don’t fully tighten until everything is aligned.
Ear
Ear
Inner Belt Guard
Motor Standoff
Motor Drive Pulley
Outer Belt Guard
Belt Cover Screws
Motor Mounting Screws and Washers
FIGURE 13—DC motor and speed control assembly.
4. On top of one end of the two belt guard halves you will
see two “ears” with holes in them. These are where the
speed control housing pivots. On the plate on the bottom
of the speed control housing are two pins that go into
these holes. Put the pin closest to the motor in place, then
bend the other “ear” away from the motor far enough that
you can engage the other pin so the cover pivots on these
pins. The plastic is flexible enough so that you can do this
easily and it will spring back into position.
5. Attach the motor mounting bracket to the rear of the
headstock with two 10-32 x 7/16" socket head screws.
These screws are shipped threaded into the headstock
rather than in the parts bag. There is enough “play” in the
mounting holes to allow the motor to be adjusted so it is
parallel with the spindle axis. (NOTE: If a chip guard is
to be mounted, its attachment screw replaces one of these
mounting screws. It can be mounted at this time or after
the headstock is in place. See instructions that come with
the chip guard.)
6. Place the drive belt over the spindle pulley and insert the
two 10-32 x 3/4" socket head screws (with 2 washers
on each) through the motor mount slot and into holes
in the ends of the motor standoffs which are exposed
through locating holes in the outer belt guard. The
normal operating position for the drive belt is on the
large diameter groove on the motor pulley and the small
diameter groove on the spindle pulley. Use of the other
(high torque) position is discussed elsewhere in the
instruction manual.
FIGURE 12—Insert “ears” of speed control housing into holes
in belt guard tabs.
FIGURE 14—Attach motor to motor bracket.
FIGURE 11—Attach outer belt guard.
-8-
7. Temporarily tighten the two motor mount screws. Pivot
the speed control unit up and out of the way to check the
alignment of the drive belt. It should be perpendicular
to the drive pulleys. If not, loosen the set screw on the
motor pulley and adjust it in or out on its shaft until the
drive belt is square with the motor.
8. Loosen the two motor mounting screws and push the motor
away from the headstock to adjust tension in the drive
belt. Tighten the mounting screws once again to hold
the motor/speed control unit in place. (NOTE: Do not
over-tension the drive belt. Just make sure it has enough
tension to drive the spindle pulley without slipping under
normal load. By not over-tightening the belt you will
not only extend its life, but will also provide a margin of
safety for belt slippage should a tool jam in a part or an
accident occur. The belt must be a little tighter when used
in the high torque pulley range because small diameter
pulleys are not as efficient.)
9. Set the cover mounting plate into the top of the belt guard
housing so it rests on the rails molded onto the inside
surfaces of the housing. (The pressed-in nut in the
mounting plate goes down and toward the outside.) Slide
the plate toward the outside (toward the spindle pulley)
until it stops. (NOTE: The mounting plate is removable
to allow easy changing of the drive belt position.)
Mounting the Headstock to the Lathe or Mill
You may notice that the post onto which the headstock mounts
is a loose fit where it projects from the lathe bed or column
saddle. This is normal, and the diagram in Figure 16 will help
you understand how it works.
The screw in the front center of the headstock has a cone
point. The pivot pin has a tapered slot with a corresponding
angle. When the screw is tightened, its angled face engages the
groove, and, because the pivot pin can not come up, it draws
the headstock down into position, clamping it into place. If
the pin were rigid, it could keep the headstock from pulling
down squarely on the alignment key.
The headstock is aligned with the lathe bed or column saddle
by means of a precision ground key that fits into keyways
in both parts. It is not square in cross section so it will fit in
only one direction. Push the headstock firmly against it as you
tighten the hold-down screw. The mill column saddle has two
keyways milled into it so the headstock can be mounted in
conventional fashion or at a 90° angle for horizontal milling.
NOTE: Alignment keys are custom fitted to each machine.
If you have more than one component that uses an alignment
key, try to keep the key with the slot it was originally fitted to.
HEADSTOCK CASE
HEADSTOCK PIVOT PIN
HEADSTOCK LOCKING SCREW
ALIGNMENT KEY
LATHE BED
LATHE BASE
FIGURE 16—A cross-section of the headstock showing the
pointed locking screw.
FIGURE 15—Insert mounting plate between belt guard halves
and secure speed control housing to nut in plate.
HEADSTOCK ASSEMBLY
10. Rotate the speed control housing down into place and
insert the single 10-32 x 1/2" socket head screw through
the hole in the speed control housing and into the nut in
the mounting plate. Tighten it enough to hold the housing
in place, but do not over-tighten.
11. Make sure the power switch is in the “OFF” position and
the speed control knob is dialed all the way counterclockwise to the lowest speed position. Plug in the motor,
turn the On/Off switch to the “ON” position and slowly
turn the speed control knob clockwise until the spindle
starts to turn. Listen and watch the belt to make sure it is
not rubbing on the belt guard or mounting tab near where
it exits the belt guard. If it is, you may need to file off a
little plastic until the belt does not rub. Turn the On/Off
switch to “OFF,” unplug the motor. Headstock unit is now
ready to install on a lathe or milling machine.
HEADSTOCK LOCKING SCREW
PIVOT PIN
ALIGNMENT KEY
FIGURE 17—Headstock and alignment key in position over lathe.
CAUTION! Always make sure the key, slot and mating surfaces
are free from dirt and chips before locking down the headstock.
-9-
Removing the headstock alignment key permits the headstock
to be mounted in positions other than square. This allows you
to mill parts at an angle or turn tapers on the lathe. When
using the lathe or mill without the alignment key, keep cutting
loads light.
Operation of the Motor and Electronic Speed Control
The motor is supplied with current from an electronic speed
control that produces a comprehensive range of speeds suitable
for all operations. Special circuitry designed into the DC
motor speed control automatically compensates for speed
changes due to increased load. If the spindle RPM drops
noticeably when cutting, you are taking too heavy a cut. The
speed range of the spindle using the speed control is from 70
to 2800 RPM in the normal belt position. This is achieved
without the inconvenience of belt or gear ratio changes as is
the case with other designs. A second belt position is offered
as an additional feature to provide extra torque at low RPM
for larger diameter parts should your job require it.
To operate the motor, turn the speed control knob
counterclockwise as far as it will go Then turn the toggle
switch to “ON” and select the desired speed by turning the
speed control knob clockwise.
The Advantages of Sherline's DC Motor and Electronic Speed Control
Sherline’s 90-volt DC motor is very smooth and powerful,
particularly at low RPM. The specially designed electronics
package also provides some unique advantages in addition
to smooth speed control and a broad speed range. A special
circuit compensates for load, helping to keep RPM constant.
The machines can also be used on any electrical current
worldwide from 100 to 240 VAC, 50 or 60 Hz without further
adjustment other than seeing that the proper wall plug is used.
The control reads the incoming AC current and automatically
adjusts to output the proper DC current to the motor.
Motors are Pretested at the Factory
Your new motor should run smoothly the first time you use it,
as it has been “run in” for about an hour before being shipped
to you. Despite our secure packaging, there have been cases
where extremely rough handling by a shipper has damaged the
magnets in the motor. If the motor does not run when plugged
in, turn the motor by hand. If it does not turn smoothly, it may
have been damaged in shipment. Call Sherline for instructions
on making a damage claim with the shipper. Do not attempt
to repair the motor yourself.
CAUTION—Motor is Thermally Protected
Thermal protection means there is a built-in circuit breaker
that will shut off the motor if it gets too hot. This keeps the
motor from burning out. The breaker will automatically reset
as soon as the motor cools, and you can go back to cutting,
but you should be aware of how it works and what to do if the
machine suddenly shuts itself off. If your motor is shutting
down from overheating on a regular basis, it means you are
taking cuts that are too heavy or operating at too high an RPM
for long periods. Slow your speed down, reduce your cut or
feed rate, and you should have no further problems.
Due to the nature of miniature machining, overloading the
machine is a common problem. It is often tempting to try to
speed up the process by working faster. Keep in mind this is a
small machine, and work with patience and precision—don’t
be in a hurry. Your parts will come out better, and your machine
will last much longer if it is not overstressed.
What to Do if the Motor Suddenly Shuts Down
If your thermal protection circuit shuts down the motor while
work is in progress, immediately shut off the power switch
and then back the tool out of the work. It should only take 10
seconds or less for the circuit breaker to reset. Then you can
turn the motor on and start the cut again, this time putting a
little less stress on the motor. If you leave the tool engaged
in the part and the power on, when the circuit breaker kicks
back on, the motor must start under load. This can be very
hard on your motor.
Remember that the circuit breaker turns the speed control off,
which turns off the motor. If power were to be applied to the
speed control with the motor disconnected, it could damage
the speed control.
Thermal protection is built into your motor to insure it is not
damaged by overloading. Use good common sense when
operating the motor for years of trouble-free operation.
Replacing Brushes on a DC Motor
Since 2002, Sherline has used DC motors with externally
replaceable brushes. The brushes are removed by using a large,
flat-bladed screwdriver to unscrew the brush covers which are
located in round bosses on the sides of the motor near the rear.
New brushes and springs are inserted and the covers replaced.
Brushes should be replaced if they are chipped, worn unevenly
or if they are less than 1/4" long. DC motors supplied before
2002 utilize a different brush replacement procedure. If you
have the older style internal brushes, instructions for changing
them can be found at sherline.com/Wordpress/wp-content/
uploads/2016/01/dc_brush.pdf.
Mounting the Lathe or Mill to a Board for Stability
Mounting the lathe to a board is necessary because of the
narrow base. This keeps the machine from tipping. We
recommend mounting the lathe on a piece of finished shelf
material, which is readily available at most hardware stores.
(See Figure 18 for sizes.) The machine can be secured to the
7.19"
5.0"
4000/4100
LATHE
2.25"
The overall sizes are based on standard
laminated shelf material. You may adjust
them to fit the material available to you.
The mill mounting boards will have to
be cut to length as shelf material is not
normally available in lengths that short.
2.25"
24" x 10" BASE
17.0"
3.5"
4400/4410
LATHE
2.25"
2.25"
36" x 10" BASE
10.5"
(5400-Series Mills)
12.5"
(2000-Series Mills)
FRONT
2.38"
2.38"
2.38"
16.5"
(5800-Series Mills)
20" x 12" BASE
1.75"
.75" (5400)
1.5" (5000)
2.38"
8.5"
(5000-Series Mills)
12" x 10" BASE
FIGURE 18—Plans for mounting board hole patterns. Confirm
actual dimensions from your lathe or mill before drilling.
-10-
CAUTION! Check the Tightness of all Bolts—Vibration in shipping can cause some bolts or screws to loosen up. Before
using your new machine, check the tightness of all fasteners. It is also a good idea to check tightness periodically when
using the machine, as vibration from operation may cause some fasteners to loosen up.
HIGH TORQUE, LOW RPM POSITION
NORMAL BELT POSITION
A
B
FIGURE 20—The two pulley positions. Position A is the
conventional setting, position B offers more torque at low
RPM when turning large diameter parts.
Approximate RPM range: A=70-2800, B=70-1280
RUBBER FEET
FIGURE 19—Machines mounted to a base board for stability.
board using four 10-32 screws with washers and nuts. Lengths
should be 1-1/2" for short bed lathes and 1-7/8" for long bed
lathes. Rubber feet should be attached at each corner on the
bottom of the mounting boards. They are also readily available
in hardware stores. This arrangement gives the machines a
stable platform for operation yet still allows for easy storage.
The rubber feet help minimize the noise and vibration from
the motor. Mounting the tool directly to the workbench can
cause vibration of the bench itself, which acts as a “speaker”
and actually amplifies the motor noise. Bench mounting also
eliminates one of the best features of Sherline machines...the
ability to be easily put away for storage.
The mill may be mounted in a similar manner on a 10" x 12"
to 12" x 20" finished shelf board with rubber feet using 10-32
x 1" screws to attach the mill to the board. You may want to
drill clearance holes through the mill base board to access the
column screws so the column can later be removed from the
mill without removing the mill base from the mounting board.
REMEMBER: Do not lift your machine by the motor!
Carry the machine by lifting under the base or by the mounting
board. The cast motor bracket was not designed for lifting.
To keep your Sherline tools clean, soft plastic dust covers are
available. The lathe cover is P/N 4150 for the Model 4000/4100
and 4500/4530 short bed lathes and P/N 4151 for the Model
4400/4410 long bed lathe. A mill dust cover is available as
P/N 5150 for 5000-series mills and P/N 5151 for 2000-series
8-direction mills.
Converting Machines from Inch to Metric and Vice Versa
All Sherline tools and accessories are manufactured in your
choice of inch or metric calibrations. Converting a lathe or
mill from one measurement system to the other is possible, but
it takes more than changing the handwheels. The leadscrews,
nuts and inserts must also be changed. A look at the exploded
views of the machines on pages 45 through 52 will show which
parts need to be purchased. (Look for parts that have both a
metric and inch version in the parts listing.) Conversion kits
with all the necessary parts are available. If you are a good
mechanic, you can do the conversion yourself, or you can
return your machine to the factory for conversion.
ADJUSTMENTS
Two-Speed Pulley
The normal pulley position, which is placing the belt on the
larger motor pulley and smaller headstock pulley, will suffice
for most of your machining work. Moving the belt to the other
position (smaller motor pulley, larger headstock pulley) will
provide additional torque at lower RPM. It is particularly
useful when turning larger diameter parts with the optional
riser block in place. To change the pulley position, remove the
speed control hold-down screw and pivot the speed control
housing up out of the way. Remove the mounting plate from
its position on the rails of the two halves of the belt guard
housing. Loosen the two nuts that hold the motor to the motor
mounting bracket and take the tension off the belt. With your
finger, push the belt off the larger diameter groove of the
pulley and into the smaller one. (Depending on which way
you are changing it, this could be either the motor or spindle
pulley.) Then move the belt to the larger diameter groove on
the other pulley, and rotate the headstock by hand to get it to
seat. Push the motor outward on the motor mounting bracket
to put the proper tension on the belt, and retighten the two
motor mounting screws. Now you can replace the mounting
plate, pivot the speed control back down, and refasten it.
Moving the belt back to the other position is simply a reverse
of the above procedure.
Spindle Preload Adjustment
If any end play develops in the main spindle, it can be easily
eliminated by re-adjusting the preload nut. (See part number
40160 in the exploded view.) When the headstock is assembled
at the factory, the preload nut is adjusted to .0002" (.005 mm)
of end play. This is controlled by the outer races of the bearing
being held apart by the headstock case and the inner races being
pulled together by the preload nut. This setting was determined
through experience, and, like everything in engineering, it is
a compromise. If the machine is only to be run at high-speed,
this setting may be too “tight.” The headstock will run fairly
warm to the touch normally, but extended periods of high
speed operation may bring about excessive temperature. The
headstock should not become too hot to touch. If this is your
case, the preload tension may need to be reduced slightly.
To change the adjustment, remove the spindle pulley, loosen
the set screw in the preload nut and back the preload nut off
4° of rotation (counter-clockwise). The bearings are lightly
pressed into the case, so the inner race will not move without a
sharp tap with a plastic mallet to the end of the spindle where
the pulley is attached.
If you find your bearings are set too loose, you may want to
take up on the end play. You can check them with an indicator
or by spinning the spindle without the motor belt engaged.
If the spindle spins freely with a chuck or faceplate on it,
the spindle is too loose for normal work. Adjust the preload
nut until it turns only about one and a half revolutions when
spun by hand.
-11-
Want to see some projects built by other Sherline
machinists? Visit sherline.com/workshop/.
SADDLE
BED
Gib Adjustment
(Lathe and Mill)
GIB
(See Figure 21.)
Tapered gibs are
fitted to the mill
headstock, saddle
and table and to
GIB LOCK
the lathe saddle and
crosslide. Correct
adjustment of the
gibs will ensure
smooth and steady
FIGURE 21—Adjusting the gibs
operation of the
slides. The gib is
effectively a taper with an angle corresponding to the one
machined into the saddle. It is held in place by an “L” wire
gib lock that is secured with a locking screw. It is adjusted by
loosening the gib locking screw and pushing the tapered gib
inward until “play” is removed. After adjusting, retighten the
locking screw. Milling operations require a tighter adjustment
of the gibs than lathe operations.
LEADSCREW
SET SCREW
SADDLE
ANTIBACKLASH
NUT
NUT
FIGURE 22—Mill Backlash Adjustment
(NOTE: Older mills use a “pointer” type lock instead of
the star gear.)
Backlash Adjustment (Lathe and Mill)
Backlash is the amount the handwheel can be turned before
the slide starts to move when changing directions. This is a
fact of life on any machine tool, and on machines of this type
it should be about .003" to .005" (.08 mm to .12 mm).
Backlash must be allowed for by feeding in one direction only.
Example: You are turning a bar to .600" diameter. The bar
now measures .622" which requires a cut of .011" to bring it
to a finished diameter of .600". If the user inadvertently turns
the handwheel .012" instead of .011", he couldn’t reverse
the handwheel just .001" to correct the error. The handwheel
would have to be reversed for an amount greater than the
backlash in the feed screw before resetting the handwheel to
its proper position.
Backlash on the X- and Y-axes of the mill may be reduced to
a minimum by adjustment on the anti-backlash nuts. These
nuts are located on the handwheel ends of the mill saddle. The
nuts are secured by button head screws that hold a star gear
that interlocks with teeth on the nut.
To adjust backlash, simply loosen the button head screw that
locks the star gear. Rotate the anti-backlash nut clockwise
on the X-axis or counter-clockwise on the Y-axis until snug.
Retighten the button head screw while pushing the gear toward
the nut. With the anti-backlash nuts properly adjusted, the
leadscrews should turn smoothly and have no more than the
proper .003" to .005" of backlash.
Handwheel Adjustment (Lathe and Mill)
The handwheels are secured to their corresponding leadscrew
shafts by a small set screw in the side of the handwheel base.
Check them periodically to make sure they have not been
loosened by vibration. On the adjustable “zero” handwheels,
you must first release the rotating collar by loosening the
locking wheel. Then rotate the collar until you can see the
set screw through the small hole in the side of the collar and
adjust the screw as necessary.
If a handwheel has been removed, when reinstalling it, make
sure it is pushed up tightly against its thrust collar before
tightening the set screw. Push the appropriate table or saddle
toward the handwheel to remove any excess play before
tightening. For the mill Z-axis, lift up on the headstock to
remove play.
If excessive backlash develops at the handwheel and thrust
collar junctions, adjust by first loosening the handwheel set
screw. Index (rotate) the handwheel so the set screw tightens on
a different part of the shaft. (If you don’t, it may tend to keep
picking up the previous tightening indentation and returning
to the same spot.) Push the handwheel in tightly while holding
the saddle and retighten the handwheel set screw.
Saddle Nut Adjustment (Lathe and Mill)
Both the lathe saddle and mill column saddle are connected
to their respective leadscrews using a similar brass saddle nut
(P/N 40170/41170 or 40177/41177). The saddle should first be
positioned at the end of its travel as close to the handwheel as
possible. A socket head cap screw attaches the saddle nut to
the saddle, while two set screws align the nut to the leadscrew.
Loosen the cap screw, bring each set screw into light contact
with the saddle nut and retighten the cap screw. If binding
occurs, readjust the set screws.
NOTE: The mill column saddle nut differs from the lathe
leadscrew saddle nut in that it includes a spring-loaded ball
that engages a detent in the saddle locking lever. See pages
17, 32 and 33 for details on use of the saddle locking lever.
Adjustment and Use of the Tailstock Gib
The brass tailstock gib should be adjusted so that it is equally
tight at both ends and slides easily on the bed dovetail when
the adjustment screw is loosened. As the brass gib wears,
any play that develops can be adjusted out by loosening the
two set screws, readjusting the two button head screws and
then re-locking the set screws. To lock the tailstock in place
on the bed, tighten the center socket head cap screw. Do not
overtighten.
(NOTE: Lathes made prior to 1999 do not have a tailstock gib
adjustment. They are locked by means of a horizontal screw
through a split in the tailstock case.)
-12-
TAILSTOCK CASE
LOCKING SCREW
ADJUSTMENT LOCKING
SET SCREWS
BRASS GIB
ADJUSTMENT SCREWS
FIGURE 23—
Components of the
tailstock case and
adjustable gib.
General questions about tools or accessories? See our “Frequently asked questions” section at sherline.com/standard-faq/.
Aligning the Headstock and Tailstock on the Lathe
The versatile feature of Sherline machines that allows the
headstock to be removed or rotated for taper turning and
angle milling keeps us from being able to lock the headstock
in perfect alignment. Precision ground alignment keys and
accurate adjustment at the factory, however, make the machines
highly accurate. In standard form, alignment should be within
.003" (.08 mm). This should be more than acceptable for most
jobs you will attempt.
Only someone new to machining would talk about “perfect”
alignment. Machinists speak instead in terms of “tolerances,”
because no method of measurement is totally without error.
We believe the tolerances of your machine are close enough
for the work for which it was intended, however, for those
searching for maximum accuracy, here are some tips for
maximizing the accuracy of your machine.
Loosen the headstock, push it back evenly against the alignment
key and retighten. This will maximize the accuracy of the
factory setting. To achieve greater accuracy, you will have
to be willing to sacrifice one of the better features of your
lathe or mill; that is, its ability to turn tapers and mill angles
in such a simple manner.
HEADSTOCK—If you choose total accuracy over versatility or
need it for a particular job, proceed as follows. Remove the
headstock and clean any oil from the alignment key and slot
and from the area of contact between bed and headstock.
Replace the headstock, pushing squarely against the key
and retighten. Take a light test cut on a piece of 1/2" to 3/4"
diameter by 3" long aluminum stock held in a 3-jaw chuck.
Use a sharp-pointed tool to keep cutting loads low so as not
to cause any deflection of the part. Measure the diameter of
both machined ends. If there is a difference, the headstock
is not perfectly square. Now, without removing the key, tap
the headstock on the left front side (pulley end) if the part is
larger at the outer end. Tap on the right front side (chuck end)
if the part is larger at the inner end.) You are trying to rotate
the headstock ever so slightly when viewed from the top until
the machine cuts as straight as you can measure. There should
be enough movement available without removing the key, as
its factory placement is quite accurate.
Take another test cut and remeasure. Repeat this procedure
until you have achieved the level of perfection you seek. Then
stand the lathe on end with the alignment key pointing upward
and put a few drops of LocTite® on the joint between key
and headstock. Capillary action will draw the sealant in, and
when it hardens, the key will be locked in place. We prefer this
method to “pinning” the head with 1/8" dowel pins, because
it offers you the option to change your mind. The headstock
can be removed by prying with a screwdriver blade in the
slot between the bottom of the headstock and the lathe bed
to break the LocTite® loose should you wish to be able to
rotate the headstock again.
TAILSTOCK—To maximize the machine’s tailstock alignment,
first make sure that there are no chips caught in the dovetail
of the bed and no chips or dents in the taper of your tailstock
center. Now put a 6" long piece between centers and take a
long, light test cut. Measurements at either end will tell you
if you need to use an adjustable tailstock tool holder in the
tailstock to achieve better tailstock alignment. We manufacture
adjustable tailstock tool holders (P/N 1202, -03, -04, -06) and
an adjustable live center (P/N 1201) that can help you attain
near perfect alignment at the tailstock should your job require
it. Instructions for their use are included with each item.
Remember that unless you drill very small holes (less than
1/64") or turn a lot of long shafts, you are giving up a very
useful feature to solve a problem which can usually be
handled with a few passes of a good mill file. The inaccuracy
inherent in any drill chuck is such that perfect machine
alignment is meaningless unless you use adjustable tailstock
tool holders.
Squaring up Your Mill
The following tips are taken from the Model 2000 mill
instructions. Though the 8-direction mill is shown in the
examples, the same procedures would be used for aligning the
5000-series, and 5800-series mills, or any mill for that matter.
FIGURE 24—The
axes of movement of
Z
a Sherline 8-direction
mill. Table left/right
6
movement is referred
to as the X axis. Table
5
in/out movement is
the Y axis. Headstock
4 up/down movement is
referred to as the Z
8
axis. The headstock can
also be rotated on its
7
saddle on Sherline mills
(Shown as movement
X
Y #4). Four additional
column movements
available on the model 2000 mill are also illustrated here as
numbers 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Determining the Level of Accuracy You Really Need
Squaring up a multi-direction mill can be a chore if you want
“perfection.” It is best to determine how accurate the setup
must be before you start. The larger a close tolerance part is
the better the setup required. An error of .001" (.025 mm)
per inch (25.4 mm) would be a very small error on a part .4"
(10 mm) long. However, a part that is 5" long would have
an error of .005". The type of machining that is going to be
performed also has a bearing on the quality of the setup. As
an example, a drilled hole doesn’t usually require the quality
of setup that would be used for a bored hole, (assuming the
hole is being bored for accuracy rather than for lack of a drill
of the proper size). The amount of work that will be done with
the setup should be considered too. If your setup is just to do
one particular job you only have to set it up close enough to
do that job. If the setup will accommodate future operations
as well, it should be adjusted to the tolerances of the most
critical job. For example, squaring up a mill and vise to work
on a number of precise parts is worth more of your attention
than setting up to drill one clearance hole in a non-critical part.
Limitations of the Production Process
Before starting you should realize that these mills are relatively
inexpensive machine tools. They have accurately milled slides
but the surfaces are not ground. To increase the accuracy of
a Sherline tool only a percentage point would dramatically
increase the price. We try to give a customer what we consider
“the most bang for the buck.”
-13-
Why Aren’t Alignment Pins Used to Square up the Machine?
If you are a novice to machining, you probably believe a
machine should be designed so that a couple of pins could be
dropped into holes, squaring up the machine and eliminating
this whole alignment process. After all, that is the way they
do it with woodworking tools. The truth is the tolerances
that work well for wood cutting tools simply aren’t accurate
enough for most metalworking jobs. You just can’t hold the
tolerances required with “pins.” When they fit tight enough to
lock the head square to the table you can’t remove them to do
work that isn’t square. They become more of a problem than
the problem they were installed to eliminate. For example,
an alignment or assembly error of .010" in a wooden kitchen
table will never be noticed. Usually the floor it sits on is not
even flat. It would be a waste of time and effort to make it
more accurate than it has to be. On the other hand, a cylinder
that has been bored out of square with the crankshaft in an
automobile engine could wear the entire engine at an alarming
rate. The piston can go up and down over a million times in a
normal day’s use. The additional cost in fuel and shortened life
demands accuracy. Your Sherline mill should be adjusted and
aligned to the degree of accuracy demanded by the particular
job you are attempting to do.
Start by Getting the Column Close to Square with the Table
All Sherline Mills—The first place to start is to get the column
approximately square with the table using the pointers and
laser engraved scales on the machine. The first time you set it
up you will have to use a machinist’s square on the side-to-side
column rotary adjustment as the pointer will not have been
“zeroed in” yet. None of these adjustments must be extremely
precise at this point because a finger type dial indicator will be
used to make the final adjustments later. Remove the headstock/
motor/speed control unit from the saddle. Place a machinist’s
square on the table and line up the front of the saddle to get
the column approximately square front to back. Then line up
on the right side of the saddle to get the column approximately
square side to side. Reinstall the headstock assembly.
Check for Any Built-in Error in Your Machine
All Sherline Mills—(See Figure 25.) To check the built-in error
of the machine use a dial indicator mounted in the spindle.
Move the table under spindle with the Y-axis handwheel
and note the error. This error will usually be around .001" to
.002" (.05 mm) in 3" (76 mm). (Remember, the components
are not precision ground, they are precision milled.) When
squaring the head later on this error should be accounted for.
Remember you are squaring the head and spindle to the base
of the machine where the saddle travels, not the surface of
the table itself. The head doesn’t have to be square for this
operation as long as you don’t rotate the spindle since you
are only checking for square in one direction.
Squaring up the Column
Model 2000- and 5800-Series Mills—(See Figure 26.) The next
decision to make is where the spindle is to be located. With
all the adjustments that can be made with the 8-direction mill
you’ll probably start with the spindle located near the middle
of the X/Y table movements. Something that isn’t too obvious
should be considered now. If the ram (the two-bar slide that
allows you to move the head in or out and left or right) isn’t
square with the X-axis, the rotating column calibrations will
have an error. To square up the ram, mount a dial indicator
to the worktable and move the X-axis back and forth while
FIGURE 25—Checking
for built in error in the
table travel along the
Y-axis
WHEN SQUARE,
SCRIBE ZERO
REFERENCE
MARK HERE
reading the left and right surfaces of the column bed near the
bottom. This only has to be done if you will be rotating the
column and want to be able to rely on the angle graduation
readings. Once set, lock the ram in place with the flange nut.
Now you can scribe a line on the column base opposite the
“zero” mark for future reference as shown in Figure 25. We
can't engrave this mark at the factory. For perfect accuracy,
it must be done after each machine is aligned.
Model 5000-Series Mills—Though the column ram does not rotate
on the 5000-series mills, its squareness can still be checked
in the same manner if desired. The factory alignment of the
holes is quite accurate, but a small amount of adjustment is
available by loosening the two screws that hold the column
base to the bed and pressing the base to one side or the other
while retightening.
Squaring the Column with the X-Axis
Model 2000-Series Mills, Model 5800-Series Mills, OR 5000-Series
Mills with Optional Rotary Column Attachment—(See Figure 27.)
The column should next be squared with the X-axis. This is
accomplished with an indicator mounted in the spindle. Have
the four socket head cap screws used to clamp the column
rotation tight enough to keep the column from rotating, but
not so tight that you can’t move it with a light tap from a
plastic mallet to the column bed. Because the axis that allows
you to tilt the column in and out hasn’t been squared yet you
should only read the indicator at the same Y-axis location on
the worktable that you used before. Offset the indicator at
an angle in the spindle so that when the spindle is rotated it
describes about a 2" to 3" circle on the table. Take readings at
the extreme left and right positions. Adjust the column with
light taps until there is little difference in the readings at either
extreme. Don’t try to get it perfect yet, just close enough so
there isn’t a gross error.
Hint: To keep the tip of the indicator from falling into the
T-slots, some machinists keep a large ball bearing on hand.
The two surfaces of a precision bearing are generally parallel.
The bearing is placed on the mill table centered on the spindle
-14-
WHEN SQUARE,
SCRIBE ZERO
REFERENCE
MARK HERE
FIGURE 26—Squaring up the ram parallel to the Y-axis on the
2000-series mill. The indicator can be held with a chuck on the
table or a mill vise as shown here. When square, tighten the nut
on top of the column. 5000/5400-series mills can be adjusted
slightly by loosening the two bolts that hold the column base in
place, twisting the column slightly and retightening the bolts.
and the indicator is run around the surface of the bearing
race, which provides a round, flat, parallel surface for the
tip of the indicator to run against.
Model 5000-Series Mills—This axis is not adjustable on the
5000-series mills, but it can be checked in the same manner.
Again, factory alignment should be quite good, but a slight
amount of adjustment can be obtained by loosening the four
screws that hold the column to the base and pressing the
column to one side or the other while retightening.
Squaring the Column with the Y-Axis
Model 2000- and 5800-Series Mills—(See Figure 28.) Loosen
the flange nut on the horizontal pivot pin just enough so that
the column can be moved using the adjustment screw in the
alignment block but there is no slop in the assembly. The tilt
is harder to set because the spindle doesn’t rotate at the pivot
point, but once you understand this, the task becomes simpler.
This is explained in the example that follows. The alignment
block adjustment screw helps make fine adjustments in this
direction easy. With the block in place and the flange nut
loose, the entire assembly is kept from falling forward by
the adjusting screw. This block can be left in place unless
the ram is completely retracted or the column is tilted back
at an angle that interferes with the block. With the indicator
still held in the spindle, take readings parallel with the Y-axis
near the front and rear edges of the table. Raise or lower the
column with the alignment block adjusting screw until the
readings are the same front and rear. Remember the location
of the pivot point as you take these measurements and allow
for it. (See following example in next column.)
Model 5000-Series Mills—This axis is not adjustable on the
5000-series mills, but it can be checked in the same manner.
Again, factory alignment should be quite good, but a slight
FIGURE 27—Squaring the left to right rotation of the column
with the X-axis.
amount of adjustment can be obtained by loosening the two
screws that hold the column to the base and shimming the
column at the front or back with thin metal shim stock* as
needed. Recheck your X-axis alignment after shimming.
*Hint: Shim stock can be purchased from most tooling supply
catalogs. If you don’t have metal shim stock available, cigarette
paper or business card stock can be used as a temporary
substitute depending on thickness needed.
Example:
If the indicator reading is larger at the front of the table than
the back, that means the column must be tilted back. Say your
reading is “0” at the back and .010" (.25 mm) at the front. If
you tipped the column back until the indicator read zero at
the front, the reading at the back would not remain at “0” but
would now be a negative reading. This is caused because the
pivot point is located far enough behind the spindle so that
both front and rear measuring points are still in front of it.
Swinging the column back actually raises both points. The
front point raises more than the back point, but both do go up.
You will have to keep tilting the column back and measuring
until you get the same reading front and back. This may require
more movement than you first thought based on the difference
between the initial measurements.
Fine Tuning the Headstock Alignment
All Sherline Mills—It is time to make the final adjustments to
the rotating column, but first we’ll add a little more confusion
to your life. Remember it was mentioned that alignment pins
are somewhat useless to line up a machine? Well, as much
as we hate to admit it, in a sense we already have one. It is
the alignment key that holds the headstock assembly square
to the column saddle, which is mounted on the column bed.
Removal of this key is what allows you to pivot the headstock
on Sherline lathes and mills. It is one of the features that make
our machines easy to use, versatile and very adaptable. It is
also another thing you have to consider when searching for
“perfect” alignment. If you have more than one key, try not
to mix them up because they are matched during assembly to
-15-
ADJUST FORE/AFT MOVEMENT
WITH CENTER ADJUSTMENT
SCREW ON ALIGNMENT BLOCK
LOCK ADJUSTMENT
IN PLACE WITH
11/16" FLANGE NUT
HEADSTOCK PIVOTS ON
SADDLE PIN. EVEN WITH
ALIGNMENT KEY IN PLACE,
SLIGHT ADJUSTMENT
CAN BE MADE TO GET
HEADSTOCK PERFECTLY
SQUARE.
FIGURE 28—Squaring the fore and aft pivot movement of the
column with the Y-axis. (See the hint in the section on squaring
the X-axis above for a way to keep the tip of the indicator from
dropping into the T-slots.)
fit as closely as possible. We have found the best way to deal
with this potential problem is to push the head square against
the key before tightening the cone point screw that locks the
headstock in place. If you ever want to check alignment of the
key to the column bed, mount a dial indicator in the spindle.
Raise and lower the head while reading the vertical edge of a
precision square. (See Figure 29.) Adjust the rotating column
until there is no error as the indicator moves up and down the
square. Now read the table with the indicator. If the slot and
key are perfect there shouldn’t be any error, but in most cases
there will be a small amount. This can usually be eliminated
by taking advantage of what play does exist in the alignment
key and slot. With the cone point set screw loosened slightly,
tap the headstock with a plastic mallet to take out play in the
direction you want to go. Then retighten the set screw.
Making Final Adjustments
The rotating column and tilting adjustments can be finalized
so the indicator needle shows no movement as the spindle is
rotated, however the error we measured when checking the
table flatness could be accounted for now if need be. If the
pointer on the back of the rotary column disk doesn’t line up
with the zero mark, loosen the screw holding it in place and
reset it to indicate zero for future reference. (Model 2000 mills
and 5000-series mills with rotary column attachment only.)
Your machine is now “indicated in” and ready to use. As you
get a feel for your machine and go through this adjustment
procedure a few times, the time it takes to get good results
will decrease. Being able to accurately indicate in a mill is
one of the skills that must be developed by any machinist who
plans on making accurate parts. Though the adjustments on
larger machines may be made in slightly different ways, the
skills and procedures you learn here can be applied to other
machines as well.
Using the Column Spacer Block
Model 2000- and 5800-Series Mills (Standard)—In normal use the
column spacer block will not be required. However, if you are
working on a larger part or your setup requires more clearance
FIGURE 29—Fine tuning the headstock rotation alignment with
a machinist’s square and dial indicator. The headstock pivots
on the saddle pin. Even with the alignment key in place, slight
adjustment can be made to get the headstock perfectly square.
under the swing arm, the spacer block can be installed to raise
the column an additional two inches. (Installation will be made
easier if you first remove the headstock/motor unit to reduce
the weight of the column.) To install the spacer block, remove
the flange nut on top of the column hold-down bolt, and lift
off the hold-down washer so that the entire column top and
swing arm assembly can be lifted off of the hold-down bolt.
Screw the extension bolt onto the end of the column bolt and
tighten with an adjustable wrench. Slide the column spacer
over the bolt and reinstall the column top and swing arm
assembly. Reinstall the headstock/motor unit.
NOTE: The column spacer block (P/N 56770 + 56110) is
included as standard with the Model 2000 mill. It is optional
at extra cost on all mill column upgrades and 8-direction
vertical milling columns and upgrades.
Model 5000- and 5400-Series Mills (Optional)—There is now
an optional column spacer block available for use with the
standard mill column. It is P/N 1300 and includes longer bolts
needed to attach the column to the base through the spacer
block. The spacer block will add 2" of additional distance
between the spindle and the table. If you simply need more
travel, there is also an optional 15" column bed (P/N 45260)
and matching leadscrew (P/N 45270/45280), allowing your
column to be converted from the standard 11" height to add
four more inches of Z-axis travel. This taller column can be
ordered as an extra cost option on all new mills.
Working with Setups that Require Extremely Low
or High Column Travel
Model 2000- and 5800-Series Mills—An upgrade to the Model
2000 mill was introduced in March, 1999. It adds 1.6" of travel
-16-
to the lower end of the Z-axis movement so that end mills can
be brought down below the surface of the table for working on
the edge of parts. This travel extension is now standard on all
Model 2000 mills. The headstock may be lowered even more
by placing the column top (P/N 56550) above the swing arm
instead of below it. Remove the flange nut, hold-down washer
and swing arm. Place the swing arm over the hold-down bolt
directly on top of the column base (P/N 56660). Place the
column top back onto the hold-down bolt upside down and
replace the hold-down washer and flange nut. Although you
cannot use the alignment lines to help square up the head, this
makes for a very strong and stable setup. In most cases the
new travel extension will make this procedure unnecessary.
Should you wish to work on extremely tall setups that combine
several holding devices (i.e., a chuck on top of a rotary table
on top of a tilting angle table) you can extend Z-axis travel
on the top end by either adding an additional spacer block to
the column or by removing the saddle travel extension and
attaching the saddle directly to the saddle nut as is done on
standard Sherline mills. This information also applies to the
5800-series mills.
Using the Saddle Locking Lever
All Sherline Mills—Along with the travel extension, a new saddle
locking lever was installed to replace the old saddle friction lock
used prior to 2/99. This new locking lever is standard on all
manual mills and vertical milling columns as of that date. This
lever is located on the Z-axis leadscrew behind the saddle. When
turned to the full clockwise position the saddle will move freely.
A spring-loaded ball locates in a detent in the bottom of the lever
to hold it in this position. To lock the saddle in position, move
the lever to the full counterclockwise position. This locks the
lever against the saddle nut which prevents the leadscrew from
turning. The exploded views on page 45 (manual) and page 46
(CNC) show the location of the components.
Engineering Compromises
It is difficult when writing instructions on complicated
procedures like describing the alignment procedure for this
mill. By giving you this much information we know that it
is making life easier for some customers by answering their
questions. On the other hand, it is probably confusing to
another customer who would never have asked the question,
because of the type of work that they perform on their mill or
lathe. We don’t want to create a customer who spends all his
time trying to achieve perfect alignment for work that doesn’t
require it and ends up never using the machine. Engineering
is always a compromise. We deal with this fact with each new
product that we design. While our machines aren’t accurate
enough for some customers, they are still too expensive for
others. We hope you are pleased with the new capabilities
this multi-direction mill can bring to your shop. We think
you will find the combination of features offers a very good
machining value.
Use of Cutting Oils and Lubricants
Much can be written about the use of lubricants, but they may
usually be dispensed with where production rates are not very
important. A small amount of any kind of oil applied with a
small brush will be sufficient. Aluminum and its alloys may
require the use of cutting oil to prevent the chips from welding
to the tool’s point. Do not use oils with a low flash point or
a bad smell. If desired, a mixture of one part soluble oil to
six parts water may be used on steel to assist in producing
a smoother finish and reduce tool chatter when parting off.
Brass and cast iron are always turned dry. Cutting lubricants
should be cleaned off the tools after use.
Cutting oils can be purchased at an industrial supply store. In
the past it was sold only in “industrial” quantities that were too
large for home shop use, however, several industrial suppliers
now sell it in quantities small enough to be practical for the
home machinist. Do not use high sulfur pipe thread cutting
oil. It is good for hard-to-machine materials, but is so dirty to
work with we do not recommend it. We also find some of the
cutting fluids used for tapping are too smelly and unpleasant
to use for general machining.
The main purpose of using lubricants is to keep the chips
from sticking to the cutting tool. When used properly, modern
high-speed tool bits are not likely to be affected by heat on
the type of work usually done on miniature machine tools.
General Machining Terms
Two terms frequently used in machining are “feed” and “cut.”
Reference to the diagrams that follow will show what is meant
by these terms. Normal turning on a lathe, when used to
reduce the diameter of a work piece, involves advancing the
cutting tool perpendicular to the lathe bed by an appropriate
amount (depth of cut) and feeding the tool along parallel to
the lathe bed to remove material over the desired length. (See
Figure 30A.)
FEED
A
CUT
FEED
B
CUT
FIGURE 30—Directions of Feed and Cut showing (A) Turning
work between centers and (B) Facing off a work piece
In normal lathe turning, the depth of cut is set by the crosslide
handwheel, and the feed is provided by the handwheel on the
end of the bed. When facing off the end of a work piece held in
a chuck or faceplate, the depth of cut is set by the handwheel
on the end of the bed, and the feed is provided by the crosslide
handwheel. (See Figure 31.)
-17-
CUT (Z-AXIS)
FEED (X-AXIS)
FEED (Y-AXIS)
FIGURE 31—Directions of
Feed and Cut when working
with a milling machine
When using a mill, cut is
determined by the amount of
depth the cutter is set to by
the Z-axis handwheel. Feed
is supplied by either or both
the X- or Y-axis handwheels
depending on the desired
direction of the cut.
What is “Tool Chatter?” To see a video demonstration of what “chatter” actually sounds like and how to cure it, see
the Sherline website at sherline.com/test-cuts/. The page contains short video clips of various materials from Delrin to
Inconel being cut on a Sherline lathe. At the bottom of the page is a link to a video demonstration of chatter.
General Rules for Feed Rates and Cutting Speeds
Before attempting to machine any metal, please try to remember
this simple rule about machining:
“If the tool chatters,
decrease speed and increase feed.”
Understanding this simple rule can save you many hours of
grief. When the tool “chatters,” it is not cutting in a continuous
fashion. Metal likes to be machined in a way that allows the
material to come off in a continuous strip while the tool is
in contact with the metal. If the tool is not fed at a rate that
is fast enough, the tool skips along the surface, occasionally
digging in. The surface of the tool that is doing the most
cutting will find a frequency of vibration that is a product of
all the variables involved. This can cause anything from a
high pitched whine on light, high speed cuts to a resonating
racket that can rip the work out of the chuck on heavy cuts.
If you maintain the same feed rate and reduce the RPM, the
feed will increase because the chip will be thicker. (If that
sounds wrong at first, think of it this way: At the same feed
rate, if you cut the RPM in half, twice as much metal must be
removed with each rotation to get to the end of the cut in the
same amount of time. The chip is twice as thick, so the feed
is GREATER at lower RPM if the feed RATE stays constant.)
When a tool chatters, it gets dull faster, because it must keep
cutting through the previously machined surface that has been
“work hardened” by machining. As you can imagine, there are
limits to how much you can increase feed rate, so the answer
lies in adjusting both speed and feed to achieve the proper cut.
Proper cutting speed is the rate a particular material can be
machined without damaging the cutting edge of the tool that
is machining it. It is based on the surface speed of the material
in relation to the cutter. This speed is a function of both the
RPM of the spindle as well as the diameter of the part or
size of the cutter, because, as the part diameter or cutter size
increases, the surface moves a greater distance in a single
rotation. If you exceed this ideal speed, you can damage the
cutting tool. In the lathe and mill instructions, we give some
examples of suggested cutting speeds, but what we wanted
to get across here is that the damage isn’t a slow process. A
tool can be destroyed in just a few seconds. It isn’t a case of
getting only one hour of use instead of two. The cutting edge
actually melts. If you machine tough materials like stainless
steel, you will ruin more tools than you care to buy if you
don’t pay a lot of attention to cutting speeds. Charts showing
suggested cutting speeds for various materials are included
in both the lathe and mill sections that follow.
Lathe Operating Instructions
CAUTION!
Read All Operating Instructions Carefully Before Attempting
Any Machining Operations.
Leveling the Cutting Tool
Each type of turning work requires the correct tool for the job.
It is important that the cutting tool be sharp and correctly set up
in the tool post. The cutting edge of the tool should be exactly
level with the center height of the lathe. Check this by bringing
the tool tip up to the point of either the headstock center or
tailstock center. (See Figure 32A.) We also manufacture a
simple tool height adjustment gauge that allows you to check
tool height at any time by measuring from the table surface.
(See Figure 32B.)
HEIGHT Gauge
P/N 3009
B
NOTE: Upper position is for
tools held in extended tool
post used with riser blocks.
A
CENTER
TOOL POST
CROSSLIDE
FIGURE 32—Leveling the tool using (A) the tip of a head- or
tailstock center or (B) Sherline’s tool height gauge P/N 3009.
The standard Sherline tool post is designed to hold common
1/4" square tool bits which have had a few thousandths of an
inch (.1 mm) ground off the top edge for sharpening. Loosen
the hold-down bolt and slide the tool post as close to the point
of the dead center as possible. Inspect with a magnifying glass.
The tip of the tool bit may be raised or lowered by sliding a
shim* underneath it. The cutting edge must be on center or
just below center (0.004" or .01 mm maximum). Ensure that
the tool is fixed securely in position by firmly tightening the
socket head screws. Try not to have the tool cutting edge
protruding more than 3/8" (10 mm) from the tool post.
*NOTE: Thin metal shim stock is available for this purpose.
If you don’t have any metal thin enough, a single thickness of
paper business card stock will usually do the job. Do not use
more than one thickness as it will compress too much. Our
optional rocker tool post (P/N 3057) allows this adjustment
to be made without shims. It comes standard with the Model
4400/4410 long bed lathe.
Initial Test Cutting
If you have never operated a lathe before, we suggest that you
make a trial cut on a scrap of material to learn the operation of
the machine. In a 3- or 4-jaw chuck, secure a piece of round
aluminum stock approximately 3/4" (19 mm) diameter and
1-1/2" (38 mm) long. Secure the pre-sharpened 1/4" square
right-hand cutting tool supplied with the lathe in the tool post,
making sure that it is properly positioned. First, turn the speed
control all the way counter-clockwise, then turn the motor
on. Bring the speed up to approximately 1000 RPM (about
1/3 speed). To establish tool position in relation to the work,
bring the tool in slowly until it just starts to scribe a line on
the work. Crank the tool towards the tailstock until it clears
the end of the work. Advance the tool .010" (.25 mm) using
the crosslide handwheel (10 divisions on the inch handwheel
scale). Using the bed handwheel, move the tool slowly across
the work toward the headstock.
Cutting tools used on lathes are designed to remove metal
much as paper is removed from a roll. It takes a positive feed
rate to accomplish this. If the feed rate isn’t fast enough, it
-18-
would be similar to tearing an individual sheet of paper off
the roll. The results when cutting metal would be shorter tool
life, a poor finish and tool “chatter.” Chatter is a function of
rigidity, but it is controlled by speed (RPM) and feed rate.
Since you already have a piece of aluminum chucked up,
experiment with speed and feed rate. You just took a cut of
.010" (.25 mm) and probably noticed that the machine didn’t
even slow down in the slightest. Now take a 1/2 inch long cut
.050" or 1 mm deep, which is one complete revolution of the
handwheel. If you used the sharpened cutting tool that came
with your machine, it should have made the cut easily. If the
tool “squealed,” reduce the RPM a little and take another
.050" cut while feeding the tool faster. You will probably be
surprised at how easily your machine takes cuts this heavy.
Inducing Chatter and Learning How to Overcome It
To better understand what is going on, we will now purposely
try to make the machine “chatter.” Make sure the stock you
are cutting is sticking out of the chuck no more than 1 inch
(25 mm). Crank the handwheel two turns further in from the
last setting which will give you a .100" (100 thousandths of an
inch) or 2 mm cut. Set the spindle speed to about 1000 RPM
(1/3 speed) and feed the tool slowly into the material. Vary
speed and feed until you get a substantial chatter. Without
changing the depth of the cut, drop the speed to about 200
RPM and feed the tool into the work with more force. The
chatter should disappear. Once you have learned to control
chatter by adjusting speed and feed, you will be well on your
way to becoming a machinist.
Holding the Workpiece
Work can be held between centers, in 3-jaw or 4-jaw chucks,
on the faceplate or with a collet. Sometimes it is necessary to
use a chuck and center, and, if the work is spinning fast, a live
center should be used. (See Figures 33, 34 and 35.)
The dog is driven by fitting it into one of the faceplate holes.
This method of turning is ideal for bar work or turning of
steps on a bar. The tailstock center must be greased to prevent
overheating. (An optional live center—such as P/N 1191—
turning on ball bearings is the solution preferred by most
machinists.) The headstock spindle has a #1 Morse taper in
the spindle nose. The tailstock spindle has a #0 Morse taper.
Removing Tools from the Morse Taper Spindles
HEADSTOCK—Accessories held in the Morse #1 taper
of the headstock spindle can be removed with the use of a
knockout bar (not supplied) approximately 3/8" in diameter
and 6" long. The bar is inserted through the back of the spindle,
and accessories, such as centers, can be removed with a few
taps. Accessories like the drill chuck that are drawn into the
spindle taper with a drawbolt are removed by loosening the
drawbolt a few turns and then giving the head of the bolt a
sharp tap with a mallet to break the taper loose. Supporting
FIGURE 34—Holding a square work piece in a 4-jaw chuck.
FACEPLATE
DOG
Grease tailstock center to
prevent overheating or use a
“Live center.”
FIGURE 33—Holding a round work piece in a 3-jaw chuck.
Turning Between Centers
This is done by fitting the dog to the work which is to be
turned and placing the work and dog between the centers in
the headstock and tailstock. The maximum diameter that can
be held with the dog is 5/8" (15 mm). (See Figure 35.)
FIGURE 35—Turning between centers with a faceplate and
drive dog.
-19-
the headstock by lowering it onto a block of wood extending
to the table on the mill will keep from knocking the column
out of alignment.
TAILSTOCK—The tailstock spindle does not have a through
hole and a drawbolt is not used. It is equipped with a Morse
#0 taper, and accessories such as drill chucks and centers
can be removed by turning the handwheel counter-clockwise
until the back of the taper hits the inside of the spindle and
the accessory is ejected
FIGURE 37—Headstock drilling. The drill turns in the headstock
spindle while the work is held stationary.
FIGURE 36—Tailstock center drilling. The work turns while the
drill is held stationary in the tailstock.
Center Drilling
Because the work turns and the drill does not on a lathe, it is
necessary to use a center drill before a standard drill can be
used. Due to the flexibility of a standard drill bit, it will tend
to wander on the surface of the rotating work, whereas a center
drill is designed to seek the center and begin drilling. The 60°
point of the center drill makes a properly shaped index hole
for the tip of a live or dead center. It also provides an accurate
starting point for a standard drill. Cutting oil is recommended
for all drilling operations. A center drill should be withdrawn,
cleared of chips and oiled several times during the drilling of
a hole to keep the small tip from breaking off.
For more information, see the chart of commonly available
center drill sizes on page 34.
Tailstock Drilling
Hold the work in a 3- or 4-jaw chuck. If the work is longer
than approximately 3" (76 mm), support the free end with
a steady rest. Seat the drill chuck’s #0 Morse arbor into the
tailstock spindle and secure a center drill in the chuck. Adjust
the tailstock to bring the center drill close to the work and
lock it in position. Turn the tailstock handwheel to bring the
center drill forward. After the hole is started with the center
drill, switch to a standard drill bit of the desired size to drill
the hole. (See page 34 for more on drilling holes.)
The easiest way to center drill the end of a round shaft that has
a diameter too large to be put through the spindle is to support
it with a steady rest (P/N 1074) while the end is being drilled.
If this isn’t possible, find the center with a centering square,
prick punch a mark and center drill by hand. (See page 25 for
a photo of a steady rest.)
Headstock Drilling
The drill chuck comes fitted with a #0 Morse arbor that fits
in the tailstock spindle. To use it in the headstock, you will
need to first change to the #1 Morse arbor that is included
with your chuck. To change arbors, put the drill chuck key in
its hole to give you better purchase to grip the chuck while
using a wrench to remove the #0 arbor. Replace it with the
larger #1 arbor. Put the drill chuck in the headstock. Then put
the drawbolt with its washer through the spindle hole from
the other end of the headstock and tighten the drawbolt. DO
NOT OVERTIGHTEN! (See Figure 37.)
Reaming
Twist drills will generally not drill perfectly accurate sizes,
and very small boring tools are not satisfactory in deep holes
because of their flexibility. Therefore, reaming is used for
holes requiring accuracy within .0005" (.013 mm). Reamers
are available in any standard size, but they are rather expensive
and are generally not purchased to do one-of-a-kind type work.
Use them only when a boring tool cannot be used because
of the depth or size of the hole. Because of their length, they
cannot always be used on a small lathe.
Reamers are used only to “clean up” a hole. To make an
accurate hole, the work is drilled approximately .010" (.25
mm) smaller than the reamer size. The work should be slowly
rotated and the reamer slowly fed into the hole while applying
plenty of cutting oil. The reamer should be frequently removed
and cleared of chips. Never rotate a reamer backwards in the
work as this can dull the cutting edges.
Faceplate Turning
The faceplate has three slots that allow work to be bolted to
its surface. Flat work can be screwed directly to the faceplate.
Extra holes can be drilled to suit odd shaped work unsuitable
for a chuck. If the work is mounted off-center, be sure to
counterbalance the faceplate and use very low RPM. Don’t
hesitate to drill holes in or modify the faceplate as needed to do
a particular job. That’s what they are for. They are inexpensive
and you can have several on hand modified for special jobs.
Taper Turning
On some lathes, a taper is cut by offsetting the tailstock. On
the Sherline lathe, taper turning is done by removing the
headstock key and turning the headstock to any angle away
from dead center. To rotate the headstock, the alignment key
-20-
NORMAL TURNING TOOLS (SIDE TOOLS)*
LEFT-HAND
BORING TOOL*
RIGHT-HAND
INSIDE
THREADING TOOL
PARTING TOOL***
THREADING TOOL**
(P/N 1200)
* These shapes are available in high speed steel tool set, P/N 3007.
** The 60° threading tool is included as part of the carbide tool set, P/N
3006 and also comes with the thread cutting attachment (P/N 3100.)
***The parting tool comes with the cutoff tool holder, P/N 3002. Other
shapes are custom ground to accomplish special purposes as needed.
FIGURE 38—Turning a taper with the headstock slightly rotated.
FIGURE 40—Cutting tool shapes
FIGURE 39—Long, shallow tapers can be cut in a continuous pass
by pivoting the headstock to the proper offset while supporting the
other end with the tailstock. The work is driven by using a drive
dog in the faceplate. The dog acts like a “universal joint” as the
drive pin slides in the faceplate slot. A dead center is used here
in the tailstock but an optional live center could also be used.
must first be removed. Loosen the set screw in the front of the
headstock, and lift the headstock and motor unit off the locating
pin. Tap the alignment key out of its slot on the bottom of the
headstock, and replace the headstock unit on the pin. While
pressing down on the headstock, rotate it to the angle you
desire by referring to the angle scale on the bed. The base is
calibrated in 5° increments up to 45° on either side of center.
When set to the proper angle, retighten the set screw against
the pin to lock the headstock into position. Tapers can also
be cut without turning the headstock by using a compound
slide (P/N 1270).
Short work can be inserted in a 3- or 4-jaw chuck and turned
as shown in Figure 38. If the headstock is angled towards the
lathe front, the taper will be cut smaller at the right. Tapered
holes can also be bored in work held in the 3- or 4- jaw chuck.
To machine a taper on longer stock, center drill both ends of
the bar, set the headstock angle and mount the part between
centers using a faceplate and drive dog. (See Figure 39.)
Tool Shapes and Grinding Your Own Cutting Tools
The shaping of cutting tools to suitable angles for the type
of material and nature of work being performed can be very
important to satisfactory work. When tools become dull, gently
re-grind and preserve the original angles and shapes. Do not
grind the top face of the tools, but confine sharpening to the
end and/or sides except form tools which are ground on the top
surface. Remember that heavy cuts and rapid feed will cause
greater strain on the chuck and lathe. This may induce “spring”
or binding of work and tools that can produce a poor finish.
NOTE: Because of the importance of a sharp and properly
ground tool to the cutting process, Sherline has prepared a
special instruction sheet on Grinding Your Own Lathe Tools.
There are a few tips that can make the process a simple one.
The instructions are included with each lathe and with cutting
tool sets when you order them from us, or you may call us
and request a copy. (Cost is $5.00 postage paid.) They are
also available from our website at no cost. (See sherline.
com/test-cuts/.) Unfortunately, space does not permit us to
reprint them as part of this booklet.
Cutting tools are ground to various shapes according to their
usage. Tools are usually ground to shape as needed by the
operator. Some standard tools are described below:
Normal Turning Tool—or RIGHT-hand tool feeds from right
to left, is used to reduce work to the desired diameter and is
the most frequently used of all tools.
Side Tools—These are used to face off the ends of shoulders
and may also be used as normal turning tools. Note that a tool
that is fed from left to right and has its cutting edge on the right
is called a LEFT-hand side tool because the chip comes off to
the left. Cutting tools are named based on which direction the
chip comes off, not which side has the cutting face.
Parting Tool—The conventional parting tool or cutoff tool is
shaped like a dovetail when viewed from above and is used to
cut off work pieces by feeding the end of the tool across the
lathe bed and through the work piece. The Sherline parting
tool instead uses a thin .040" (1 mm) blade that has a slightly
thicker ridge at the top to accomplish the same job of providing
clearance for the tool while cutting. Parting tools thicker than
.040" (1 mm) will be too thick for use on your Sherline lathe.
Boring Tool—A boring tool is used in the tool post on a lathe
or in an off-settable boring head on a mill to enlarge holes in
a work piece. (See Figures 41 [lathe] and 58 [mill].)
-21-
NORMAL TOOL
SIDE TOOLS
SLIGHTLY
ROUNDED
CORNER
CLEARANCE
LEFT-HAND RIGHT-HAND
TOOL
TOOL
CLEARANCE
FIGURE 43—Arrows show direction of tool feed in all diagrams.
FIGURE 41—A boring tool in use on the lathe
PART
FIGURE 42—Form tool and part
Form Tool—A custom contour can be
ground into a tool to produce a special
shape like a radius in a part. The width of
the cutting edge must be less than 2-1/2
TOOL
times the smallest diameter. Cutting speed
must be slow to prevent chatter.
The clearances ground behind the cutting
edges indicate the type of material for which the tool may
be used and the direction in which it is fed along the work.
When grinding tool bits, correct clearances are essential or
“rubbing” can occur.
The shape shown here would be difficult to grind on a home
bench grinder, however, the same form could be achieved by
grinding two separate tools with half the needed arc on the
outside corner of each tool–a “left” and a “right.” By using
a number of simple shaped tools in sequence, complicated
forms can be generated.
Turning Tools (Left- and Right-Hand)—Reference to Figure
43 will illustrate the lateral positioning of this tool. Note the
clearance behind the point between the end of the tool and
the work. Insufficient clearance will cause the tool to “rub,”
and excessive clearance will produce a ridged or wavy finish
due to the small length of tool edge in contact with the work.
This ridging becomes more pronounced with rapid feed. To
provide a smooth finish, the sharp cutting point may be slightly
rounded with an oil stone, taking care to preserve the side
clearance underneath this corner.
This type of tool should not be advanced directly end-wise
into the work. The depth of cut is set while the tool is clear of
the end of the work. The starting procedure is to advance the
tool until the point just touches the work. Note the reading on
the crosslide handwheel, withdraw the tool slightly and move
along until clear of the end of the work. Now advance the
crosslide to the above reading, add desired depth of cut and
then feed the tool along the work piece the desired distance.
Withdraw the tool clear of the work, having noted the reading
on the crosslide handwheel. Mentally note the reading on the
leadscrew handwheel, return the tool to starting position and
advance to the previous reading plus the desired cut.
NOTE: Sherline offers optional adjustable “zero” handwheels
that allow you to reset the handwheel to zero at any time...a
handy feature normally found only on larger, more expensive
machine tools. New tools may be ordered with them already
installed, and existing tools can be retrofitted with them on
any axis.
The second feed is now commenced, stopping at the same
reading on the leadscrew handwheel as before. This procedure
enables turning to accurate length.
Repeat the procedure until the work has been reduced to within
about .010" (0.25 mm) of desired diameter, noting that each
.015" (0.4 mm) increase in depth of cut will reduce the work
diameter by twice this amount; that is, .030" (0.8 mm). For
the finishing pass, advance the tool by the required amount
and feed along the work just far enough to gauge the finished
diameter. Adjust depth of cut if necessary and complete the
final pass using a SLOW feed to obtain a smooth finish and
exact size.
Using the Cutoff or Parting Tool
(See Figure 44.) After completing a part in the lathe, it is
frequently necessary to separate the part from the excess
material used for chucking. This operation is best accomplished
with the use of a cutoff tool or “parting tool” as it is sometimes
called. The Sherline cutoff tool and holder utilizes a very
slender, high-speed tool steel cutting blade mounted in a
special tool holder. The thinness of the blade (.040") enables
it to feed into the part quite easily and at the same time
minimizes the amount of waste material. A word of caution:
Never use a parting tool on a part mounted between centers.
The part may bind on the cutter, resulting in a scrapped part
or a broken cutting tool.
Always try to lay work out so the cutoff tool is used as close
to the spindle as possible. Set blade height by sliding the blade
back and forth in the slightly angled slot in the tool holder. It
should be set so the tip is aligned with the centerline of the
part being cut. An unusual diameter may require a shim under
the front or rear of the holder to accomplish this. The tool can
also be mounted on the back side of the table by using the
rear mounting block, P/N 3016.
IMPORTANT!
Always use cutting oil when using the cutoff tool. The
cut will be made much smoother, easier and cooler.
The turning speed for parting should be about one-half the
normal turning speed, and feed rate should be a little heavy
so the chip will not break up in the slot. If speed and feed are
correct, there will not be any chatter, and the chip will come
out as if it were being unrolled. Cutting oil plays a major roll
in this occurring properly.
-22-
FIGURE 44—A parting tool used to separate a part from it’s
bar stock.
If the tool chatters, first check to see if the work is being held
properly. Then decrease speed (RPM) or increase feed rate or
both. Once the blade has chattered, it leaves a serrated finish
that causes more chatter. Sometimes a serrated finish can be
eliminated by stopping the spindle, adding a liberal amount of
cutting oil, bringing the blade up so there is a slight pressure
on it without the spindle turning, and then turning the spindle
by hand or as slowly as possible with the speed control.
Very small work may be completely cut off when held in a
chuck and allowed to fall onto the crosslide. It is too small
and light to cause any damage. Hollow articles, such as
rings, may be caught on a piece of wire whose end is held in
a suitable position.
Side Tools
While these may be, and often are, used as general purpose
turning tools, their specific use is for facing the sides of collars
and shoulders; that is, finishing these to correct dimension and
with a smooth, flat surface. They are also for facing work held
on a faceplate or in a chuck. The facing of work in this manner
is very useful for the production of truly flat surfaces and for
producing articles to an exact thickness. The uses of side tools
are illustrated in Figures 40 and 43. The sharp corner at the
cutting point should not be slightly rounded, as may be done
with the normal turning tool, as knife tools may be required
to produce sharp corners.
Boring Tools
The use of this tool requires the existence of a drilled or cored
hole, or it may be used to enlarge the bore of a tube. The work
must be mounted in a chuck or on a faceplate and the boring
tool set as shown in Figure 41. Note the clearance behind the
cutting point as shown in
Figure 45.
CLEARANCE
A slow rate of feed should
be used, as the turnings
are not able to escape
freely from the hole and
can jam the tool. Frequent
F I G U R E 4 5 — B o r i n g t o o l withdrawal of the tool to
allow turnings to escape
clearance
may be necessary. Care
should be taken not to feed the tool beyond the depth required
or to feed so deeply as to damage the chuck or faceplate.
Where a hole must be bored right through the work, it should
be shimmed out from the faceplate to provide clearance for the
tool to feed through. The leadscrew handwheel graduations
can be used to indicate the correct depth at which to stop the
feed. Notice that, with boring, the depth of cut is increased
by moving the tool and crosslide towards the operator and
not away as with normal turning.
The boring of holes often necessitates greater than normal
overhang of the tool from the tool post, so the depth of cut
and rate of feed should be reduced from normal.
Inserted Tip Carbide Tools
Sherline brings the home shop machinist into the space age
with cutting tools that add a new dimension to small lathes.
When working with tough metals, high-speed steel tools need
constant sharpening and have a relatively short life. Brazed
carbide tools cut great but chip easily. Inserted carbide cutting
tools are the answer and have replaced those other tools in
the modern machine shop. Carbide inserts have the ability to
consistently give good finishes and long tool life at a much
higher cutting speed. This is especially important with small
lathes, because they do not have excessive power at low
RPM. With inserted carbide tools you can cut stainless steel
at the same RPM you were formerly using to cut aluminum
with high-speed steel tools without any sacrifice in quality
in surface finish.
P/N 7600 TOOL POST
FOR 3/8" INSERT
HOLDERS AND 3/8"
ROUND BORING
TOOLS
A SPECIAL TORX DRIVER
FOR TIGHTENING THE
INSERT HOLD-DOWN
SCREW IS INCLUDED
WHEN CARBIDE TIPS
ARE PURCHASED
CARBIDE INSERT
P/N 2256 TOOL HOLDER
FIGURE 46—Carbide insert tool and tool post. The tool post
holds both 3/8" square and round tools.
These tools are more expensive than high-speed steel,
however, they are worth every penny if you have problems
grinding your own steel tools or are cutting exotic materials
like stainless steel. Sherline offers a tool post (P/N 7600) that
holds the larger 3/8" square tool shanks used to hold carbide,
ceramic or diamond inserted tips. It also has a 3/8" round
hole for boring tools.
A good starting point for an inserted tip tool is the P/N 2256
right-hand holder with a 35° offset. This holder uses the P/N
7605 carbide insert, which is a 55° insert good for turning,
facing and profiling. A left-hand tool is also available as P/N
2257, or a set of both left- and right-hand tools is P/N 2258.
Tools are also available to hold 80° inserts, which are slightly
less versatile but offer longer tool life because of their stronger,
more square shape. These tools should not be used to cut
hardened steels or piano wire. Materials such as those are
normally ground to shape, not cut, although ceramic inserts
can sometimes be employed to cut these materials. Abrasive
materials such as glass-reinforced plastics can be easily cut
with these tools.
-23-
New Sherline Accessories
Sherline introduces new accessories every year. See our
website for new product introductions.
FIGURE 47—Two-Position Rocker
Tool Post (P/N 7603)
Another tool available to Sherline
machinists that holds carbide
inserts is the 1/4"–3/8" twoposition rocker tool post, P/N 7603 (See Figure 47). This
tool post has slots on two opposite sides to hold both 1/4"
and 3/8" square shank tools individually or at the same time.
This allows you to switch quickly between tools of the two
different sizes simply by rotating the tool post. The 3/8" side
is designed to fit the larger 3/8" square tool holders commonly
used for carbide or diamond inserted tips. Adding this tool
post to your arsenal will allow you to keep both your standard
1/4" high-speed steel tools set up for jobs where they are
sufficient and also have a 3/8" carbide insert tool ready for
jobs where it is required.
Sherline also offers a ceramic insert and holder, P/N 2265. (See
Figure 48.) The 3/8" IC negative rake ceramic indexable holder
will bring a lot of enjoyment to your machining, particularly if
you choose to turn hard materials such as tool steel or abrasive
materials like fiberglass or composites.
When searching for a mirror-like finish on copper or aluminum,
diamond inserts are also available. Though expensive, certain
jobs can make their use desirable.
While inserted tip carbide, ceramic and diamond cutting tools
will improve the performance of the Sherline lathe, they will
not correct poor machining technique. Rigid setups are a must
for tools such as these.
FIGURE 48—The P/N 2265
negative rake ceramic insert and
3/8" holder make it possible to cut
hardened tool steels.
Turning Speeds
The following chart in Figure 49 provides a guide to speeds
at which work of differing materials should be rotated. Note
that the turning speed is inversely proportional to the diameter
of the work; that is, the larger the diameter, the slower the
turning speed. Material often differs in hardness, so these
figures may have to be adjusted. The harder the material, the
slower the turning speed should be.
Guide to Approximate Turning Speeds
Material
Stainless, 303
Stainless, 304
Stainless, 316
Steel, 12L14
Steel, 1018
Steel, 4130
Gray Cast Iron
Aluminum, 7075
Aluminum, 6061
Aluminum, 2024
Brass
Cut Speed
S.F.M.
67
50
47
174
87
82
57
400
375
268
1/4" (6mm)
Diameter
1000 RPM
800
700
2600
1300
1250
900
2800
2800
2800
1/2" (13mm)
Diameter
500 RPM
400
350
1300
650
650
450
2800
2800
2000
1" (25mm)
Diameter
250 RPM
200
175
650
300
300
220
1400
1400
1000
400
2800
2800
1400
FIGURE 49—High-speed steel cutting tool turning speeds
sherline.com/whats-new/
Keep in mind that, apart from possible production of excessive
heat and the fact that excessive speed may damage the cutting
edge or cause it to “rub” instead of cutting, turning speeds are
not too critical. Slower than normal speeds cause no harm,
except by increasing the time involved. Aluminum, however,
usually gives a better finish turned at high speed and with the
use of lubrication (coolant).
Accessories for Your Lathe
Your lathe can be made more versatile with the addition of
suitable attachments and accessories. These include various
chucks and collets, a thread-cutting attachment, vertical
milling column, knurling tool, a live center and many others.
Remember that accessories and attachments must be cared for
in the same way as the lathe. Always make sure that threads
are free from metal chips and dirt. Chucks should be lightly
oiled frequently so that they continue to function smoothly
and accurately. Gears in the thread-cutting attachment should
be lightly greased when in operation. Some attachments have
moving slides, and these should be lubricated in the same
way as the slides in your lathe. Each accessory comes with
complete instructions for its use when it is purchased.
3-Jaw, 4-Jaw and Drill Chucks
Chucks are used to hold work in the lathe. They can also be
used to function like a vise to hold a part for milling. Drill
chucks can be used in the lathe headstock or tailstock or in
the mill for drilling. Here are some of the chucks available
for your Sherline tools:
Three-Jaw Self-Centering Chucks—Three jaws
scroll in unison to grip round or hex stock
The 2.5" chuck (P/N 1041) holds from
3/32" (2 mm) up to 1-3/16" (30 mm) in
diameter. Jaws are reversible for holding
larger stock up to 2-1/4" (56 mm) in
diameter. The chuck has a .687" (17 mm) through hole and
3/4-16 spindle thread. The larger 3.1" (70 mm) diameter P/N
1040 chuck is similar but holds parts up to 2-3/4" in diameter
with the jaws reversed.
Four-Jaw Self-Centering Chucks—These scrolling
chucks hold round or square stock. The
2.5" diameter P/N 1075 version holds
from 3/32" (2 mm) up to 1-3/16" (30 mm).
With the jaws reversed, it will grip stock
up to 2-1/4" (56 mm). The jaws scroll in
unison as on the 3-jaw chuck. (NOTE:
stock held in this chuck must be perfectly
round or square to be gripped by all four jaws.) The larger
3.1" diameter version of this chuck is P/N 1076, which can
hold parts up to 2-3/4" in diameter with the jaws reversed.
Four-Jaw (Independent) Chucks—Each jaw is
adjusted independently, allowing precise
adjustment for perfect centering or for
holding odd-shaped parts. Four-jaw
chucks take a little more time to use, but
offer much greater accuracy and versatility
than a 3-jaw chuck. Holding range is the
same as for the 2.5" and 3.1" 3-jaw chucks above. The 2.5"
4-Jaw is P/N 1044 and the 3.1" 4-Jaw is P/N 1030.
Jacobs Drill Chucks—Various size conventional Jacobs drill chucks
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are fitted with a #0 Morse arbor for use
in the tailstock for center drilling parts.
They also come with a #1 Morse arbor and
drawbolt for use in the headstock on the
lathe or mill. Adjustment keys are included. Chucks available
include a 5/32", 1/4" and 3/8" size.
5/32" Drill Chucks—These small chucks hold tiny drills from
size #80 up to 5/32". Because they have a #0 Jacobs taper
in the back, the adapter arbor must be pressed in, so it is not
interchangeable. P/N 1010 comes with a #1 Morse arbor and
P/N 1015 has a #0 Morse arbor. A sensitive drilling attachment
(P/N 1012) using this same chuck is available for the mill.
1/4" Drill Chucks—The 1/4" drill chuck has a threaded hole in the
back so it can accept either a #1 Morse or #0 Morse arbor.
Drills from 1/4" down to 3/32" can be held in the chuck. P/N
1072 comes with both arbors, a drawbolt and key for use on
either the lathe or the mill. P/N 3072 comes with just the #1
Morse arbor, drawbolt and key for use on the mill.
3/8" Drill Chucks—Like the 1/4" chucks, the 3/8" chuck has a
threaded hole to accept either a #1 or #0 Morse arbor. Drills
from 3/8" down to 3/32" can be held. P/N 1069 includes both
arbors, drawbolt and key, while P/N 3073 includes just the #1
Morse arbor, drawbolt and key.
Lathe Headstock Hard-Stop Kit, P/N 40116
Every Sherline headstock now includes
the holes to add an optional hard stop.
The hard-stop kit, P/N 40116*, includes
two hardened steel rods and a knurled
thumbscrew lock. The .242" diameter steel
rods are 4" and 8" long. A hole through the headstock base
allows the hard-stop rod to be set to contact the lathe table,
providing a hard stop for the Z-axis during turning operations.
(*Headstock not included)
Thread Cutting Attachment, P/N 3100
Common threads are most easily cut using taps and dies, but
it would be impossibly expensive to own a tap and die for
every conceivable thread size. Cutting threads on a lathe is
the traditional alternative and one of the real advantages of
owning a lathe. A lathe cuts threads by gearing the leadscrew
directly to the spindle. This is called “single pointing” a thread.
When the spindle turns, the saddle moves.
Sherline’s thread cutting attachment provides all the necessary
gears and support arms to cut any thread from 80 TPI down
to 5 TPI. Both left-hand or right-hand threads can be cut.
With this attachment and your lathe, you will never be stuck
without a way to come up with the right thread. Even if a tap
or die is available, you can set up and cut a thread faster than
you could get to the store and back to buy it, and you’ll save
yourself some money as well!
Steady Rest, P/N 1074
A steady rest supports longer work with
three adjustable brass pads that rub on the
outside surface of the part. It keeps long
parts from deflecting away from the tool or
from wobbling while turning and centers
the end of a part for center drilling. Along
with a live center, this is one of the first
accessories most lathe owners acquire.
Live Center, P/N 1197
The lathe comes with a “dead” (non
rotating) center for the tailstock. This is
the traditional way of supporting the free
end of long work, but a live center is more
popular for this task. On a “live” center, the
center point rotates in a ball bearing, turning with the work.
This eliminates the need for lubrication at the tailstock center
and prevents the buildup of heat from friction.
Digital Readouts, P/N 8200
Add the convenience of electronic digital readout to your
lathe. They can be ordered that way from the factory or you
can install them as an accessory later. Reads out to .0005"
or .01 mm plus a readout of spindle speed is also included.
Return the count on any axis to zero with the push of a button.
No more counting handwheel revolutions on long moves (For
instructions on installing DRO see page 37).
Digital Readout for the lathe
HANDWHEEL DRIVES
SPINDLE SHAFT
(HANDWHEEL REMOVED
FOR CLARITY.)
Learning About Other Accessories for Your lathe
The best place to learn about Sherline accessories is on our
website. Instructions for their use are posted there. A complete
list of accessories with links to instructions for each can be found
at sherline.com/product-information/sherline-accessoryinstructions/. If you do not have an Internet connection,
Sherline offers a collection of printed instructions called the
Sherline Accessories Shop Guide, P/N 5327. A color catalog
featuring the tools and accessories may be requested by calling
(800) 541-0735 or (760) 727-5857.
HANDWHEEL
LEADSCREW SHAFT
FIGURE 50—Sherline’s thread cutting attachment. (Handwheel
is removed for clarity.)
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Additional Tips from Sherline Machinists
For some helpful tricks and tips when working with your
Sherline machines see sherline.com/tips/.
3-Jaw Chuck Operation and Maintenance
The 3-jaw self-centering chuck is the most popular of all the
accessories available for the Sherline lathe. It is available in
both 2-1/2" diameter (P/N 1041) and 3-1/8" diameter (P/N
1040). These chucks will grip round or hexagonal work quickly,
since the jaws move simultaneously to automatically center
the work being held. The jaws on the chuck are designed so
that the same chuck can be used for both internal and external
gripping. Jaws are reversible for holding larger diameter work.
Due to the nature of the design of a 3-jaw chuck, it cannot be
expected to run perfectly true. Even 3-jaw chucks costing five
times more than the one made for this lathe will have .002"
to .003" runout. If perfect accuracy is desired in a particular
operation, the use of a 4-jaw chuck is recommended. Each jaw
is adjusted independently so parts can be centered with total
precision. Both a 2-1/2" and 3-1/8" 4-jaw chuck are available
for the Sherline lathe as P/N 1044 and P/N 1030 respectively.
JAW LOCATION
1ST
3RD
C
A
STANDARD JAW
IDENTIFICATION
B
2ND
1ST
2ND
3RD
FIGURE 51—Jaw locations and identification.
NOTE: Do Not Turn the Lathe Spindle On Without Having the
Chuck Jaws Tightened on Themselves or a Part!
The acceleration of the spindle can cause the scroll to open
the chuck jaws if not tightened!
The 2-1/2" 3-jaw chuck (P/N 1041) is designed to take up to
1-3/16" (30 mm) diameter stock with the jaws in the normal
position. The 3-1/8" 3-jaw chuck (P/N 1040) is designed to
take up to 1-1/2" (38 mm) diameter stock. For larger diameter
work, reverse the jaws (See Fig. 52). To prevent permanent
damage, finished, turned or drawn stock should only be held
with this chuck. For rough castings, etc., use a 4-jaw chuck.
Do Not Overtighten the Chuck!
Use only moderate pressure with the spindle bars (P/N 40580)
supplied.
JAW LOCATION
1ST
3RD
C
A
REVERSED JAW
IDENTIFICATION
B
2ND
1ST
2ND
3RD
FIGURE 52—Reversing the chuck jaws.
NOTE: Always start with position “A.”
To reverse the chuck jaws, rotate the knurled scroll until the
jaws can be removed from the chuck body. After the jaws are
removed, they can be easily identified by the location of the
teeth in relation to the end of the jaws. (See Figures 51 and
52.) To maintain chuck accuracy, the 2nd jaw must always be
inserted in the same slot even when the jaws are reversed. This
slot is identified by the laser engraved letter “B” next to the
slot. Always insert the jaws in the order and location shown on
the drawings. Turn the scroll counter-clockwise when viewed
from the face of the chuck until the outside start of the scroll
thread is just ready to pass the slot for the first jaw. Slide the
first jaw as far as possible into the slot. Turn the scroll until
the first jaw is engaged.
Due to the close tolerances between the slot and jaw, the most
difficult part in replacing the jaws is engaging the scroll thread
and first jaw tooth without binding. Therefore, never use force
when replacing the jaws, and, if binding occurs, back up the
scroll slightly and wiggle the jaw until it is free to move in the
slot. Advance the scroll and repeat for the second and third
jaws. The scroll thread must engage the first tooth in the first,
second and third jaws in order.
Removing a Stuck Chuck from the Spindle
Use one tommy bar in the hole in the spindle and another tommy
bar in a hole in the chuck body to achieve enough leverage
to unscrew the chuck (counter-clockwise) from the spindle
thread. If the chuck becomes stuck on the spindle thread, put
a tommy bar in the hole in the chuck body. Place a block of
wood against the tommy bar where it enters the chuck. With
a small mallet, give the block of wood a sharp tap, turning
the chuck in a counter-clockwise direction. It should not be
necessary to hold the spindle, as its inertia should be sufficient.
(Don’t hit the tommy bar anywhere other than right where it
enters the chuck or you could bend it.) This small but sharp
force at the outer edge of the chuck should break the thread
loose and the chuck can then be unscrewed by hand.
Vertical Milling Machine Operation
CAUTION!
Read all operating instructions carefully before
attempting any machining operations.
NOTE: See pages 3 through 18 for setup, lubrication and
general machining instructions. Read Safety Rules for Power
Tools on page 2 before operating any machine.
General Description
At first glance, a vertical mill looks similar to a drill press,
-26-
but there are some important design differences; for example,
the mill has a spindle that can take side loads as well as end
loads and an accurate method of moving work in relation to
the spindle on all three axes. It is wise to memorize these
“X,” “Y” and “Z” axes, because, since the advent of complex
electronically controlled milling machines, these terms have
become common “shop talk,” even outside engineering
departments. Feed screws with calibrated handwheels control
movements on these three axes. The handwheel calibrations
are quite accurate and should be used whenever possible.
Angles can be machined by removing the headstock alignment
key and rotating the milling head to the appropriate angle to
the work or by holding the work at an angle to the spindle.
3 (Z-axis)
5
4
8
7
6
2 (Y-axis)
1 (X-axis)
Z
FIGURE 54—Eight directions of movement of the model 2000
series milling machines.
•
X
•
Y
•
FIGURE 53—The axes of movement for milling on a standard
3-axis vertical milling machine.
(NOTE: Lighter than normal cuts should be taken when the
alignment key is not in place.) The latter method must be
used for drilling on 5000/5400-series mills to keep the drill
movement parallel with the machine slide. Angle drilling can
also be accomplished without removing the alignment key
by using the optional rotary column attachment (P/N 3500).
(The Model 2000 mill is also capable of angle drilling due to
its multi-axis design.) All machine slides have an adjustable
gib to compensate for any “play” that may develop. (See
“adjusting gibs” on page 12.)
It is assumed that anyone purchasing a vertical milling
machine has had some experience working with metal cutting
tools; therefore, these instructions are somewhat limited for a
beginner. There is enough information, however, to enable a
good craftsman to get started. Using a vertical mill correctly
takes more skill and experience than is required for lathe
operation because of the additional axis (vertical) and the
more varied type of work that can be performed.
The machine must be well maintained, for it is subject to
higher stresses than a lathe. This particular mill is one of
the smallest being manufactured and is an extremely useful
tool. However, it would be unreasonable to clamp a 3-pound
piece of stainless steel to the work table and expect to make
a 1-pound part from it. The key point is to work within the
capabilities of the machine, and those limitations can only be
determined by the operator.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
-27-
Helpful Tips for Milling
This is a small, light-duty mill and should not be used to
remove large amounts of stock that could be easily removed
with a hacksaw. For efficiency, select a piece of stock as close
to finished size as possible.
Stresses on a mill are quite high when cutting most materials;
therefore, gib and backlash adjustments must be properly
maintained. (See “Adjustments” section beginning on page 11.)
End mills must run true and be sharp. Holding end mills in a
drill chuck is a poor practice. Use collets or an end mill holder
instead. The 3/8" end mill holder (P/N 3079) allows you to
use a large range of readily available 3/8" end mills with your
machine. (Several other size inch and metric end mill holders
are also available.)
Fly cutting is an excellent way of removing stock from flat
surfaces.
Normal machine alignment is adequate for most work, but if
the work is exceptionally large or requires extreme accuracy,
shims may be employed to improve machine alignment.
For accurate setups you should have and know how to use a
dial indicator.
Often, more time will be spent making fixtures to hold work
than doing the actual machining.
To help save time on many simple setups, a good mill vise is a
must. A drill press vise is not designed for the forces involved
in milling.
Plan ahead. Always try to have one point from which to
measure. Do not machine this point off part way through the
job. This would leave you with no way of measuring the next
operation.
Remember the basic machining rule that says: “If the tool
chatters, reduce speed and increase feed.”
It takes a long time to accumulate the knowledge, tools and
fixtures required for many different types of milling operations.
Do not become discouraged by starting with a job that is too
complex or by using materials that are extremely difficult to
machine.
CAUTION! Because the tool spins on a mill, hot chips can be
thrown much farther than when using a lathe. Safety glasses
and proper clothing are a must for all milling operations.
Securing the Workpiece
The first problem encountered will be holding the work
and aligning it to the machine. It is important for reasons of
safety and accuracy that the workpiece be solidly secured.
This may be the most difficult task, since once the work is
clamped in position, the method of doing the entire job has
been established. Usually, a rectangular block can be easily
held in a mill vise. Note that round stock may also be held
in a “V” shaped vise slot. Mill vises are specially designed
to pull the movable jaw downward as they tighten on it. (See
Mill Vise P/N 3551 shown on page 34 and in the Sherline
Tools and Accessories Catalog.)
Certain objects can be secured with a 4-jaw lathe chuck, which
is, in turn, clamped to the machine. Some irregular shapes
such as castings may present greater difficulties. Often they
may be clamped directly to the table. Very small or irregular
shapes can be secured by epoxying them to a second, more
easily held piece of material. They are broken loose after
machining. A mill tooling plate (P/N 3560) is a very useful
fixture for holding parts. It has a number of holes pre-drilled
for holding clamps, and additional holes can be drilled and
tapped as needed. It also provides additional stiffness and
protection for your mill table.
Locking the Axes
To keep the table from moving in a particular direction during
an operation, there is a lock available on each axis. To lock
the X-axis table from moving side-to-side there is a barrel
lock on the front of the saddle. (See Figure 55.) The Saddle is
locked by means of a thumbscrew on the left side that presses
a nylon plug against the gib to pull the saddle tight against the
dovetail. The Z-axis can be locked during milling operations
by means of a brass lever that tightens against the saddle nut
on the back of the column. (See Figure 66, page 33.)
Things to Consider Before You Start Cutting
The following steps should be considered before commencing
any part:
• Is the material about to be machined best suited for the
job, and is it machinable with available cutting tools and
equipment? Work with aluminum, brass, plastic or cast iron
whenever possible. Too often a hobbyist will pick up the
first correctly-sized piece of material he finds at his local
salvage dealer thinking that, if it is rusty, it’s steel, and that
all steels are pretty much the same. Not so! Anyone who
has ever tried to machine an old automobile axle can attest
to this. If the part must be steel, grade 12L14, commonly
called “lead-loy,” is about the best material for machining.
It was developed for screw-machine use and is available in
round stock only. However, it works so well that many times
it may be advisable to machine rectangular parts from it. It
can also be case hardened. Your local screw-machine shop
will usually have scrap pieces available and may be a good
source for obtaining it.
• Avoid exotic materials, such as stainless steel, unless
absolutely necessary because of machining difficulty and
poor milling cutter life. (If each new mechanical engineer
were given a block of stainless steel to mill, drill and tap
upon his graduation, stainless steel sales would probably
drop considerably!)
P/N 3012 HOLD-DOWN
SET SHOWN. A NEWER
P/N 3013 STEP BLOCK
HOLD-DOWN SET IS NOW
ALSO AVAILABLE
TABLE LOCK
SADDLE LOCK
(NOW A THUMBSCREW)
FIGURE 55—Large or odd shaped parts are usually clamped
to the mill table as shown here. Smaller parts can be held in a
milling vise. Here a center drill is used to accurately locate the
holes to be drilled in a clamped part.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Before beginning, carefully study the part to be machined.
Select the best surface from which to work (usually the
flattest).
Decide if work should be “rough cut” to size. Some materials
will warp while being machined. Close tolerance parts can
be ruined by attempting heavy machining at the end of the
job rather than at the beginning.
The method of holding the work is also determined by the
type of machining to be performed. For instance, work that
involves only small drilling jobs does not have to be held
as securely as work to be milled.
Lay the job out so that it can be machined with the minimum
number of setups.
Be sure to have all needed cutting tools available before
beginning a job.
Do not start off with a job so complex that the odds of success
are limited. Making complex machined parts requires a great
deal of intelligence, planning and skill. Skill is acquired only
through experience.
In summary, you should be aware of the fact that milling
is difficult, but not impossible. There are many more
considerations than just moving the handwheels, and you
should not start your first step until your last step has been
determined.
Purchasing Materials in Small Quantities
Commercial metal suppliers are not set up to serve the
home shop machinist. They usually have large minimum
order quantities and high “cutting charge” fees that make it
impractical to purchase small amounts from them. However,
there are now a number of suppliers that cater to the hobby
market. They have complete catalogs of the materials most
commonly used by hobbyists, and you can order as much or as
-28-
little as you need. The price per inch is somewhat higher than
industrial rates, but the convenience and overall savings make
it well worth it. There are several suppliers listed on Sherline’s
website. Your local scrap yard can also be a good source for
raw materials at good prices. Bring your own hacksaw, and be
aware that the some yards are better than others at identifying
and organizing the materials. If you are not sure exactly what
kind of metal you are getting, you could be letting yourself
in for a lot of trouble when you start cutting. See sherline.
com/raw-materials/ for a list of sources for obtaining raw
material in small quantities.
Three Types of Work
There are three basic types of work that can be performed
with a vertical milling machine: milling, drilling and boring.
It would be extremely difficult to determine whether a
vertical mill or a lathe would be the most valuable machine
in a shop. Theoretically, most vertical mills are capable of
reproducing themselves with standard milling accessories
such as a rotary table and centers. This would be impossible
on a lathe without exotic modifications and attachments.
These instructions briefly describe standard vertical mill work.
Several comprehensive books are available on this subject,
and, although the machines they describe are much larger, the
principles remain the same. A good starting point is a book
we offer called Tabletop Machining. It is printed in full color
and is available through Sherline as P/N 5301. Sherline tools
are used throughout in all the setups and examples.
Types of Milling Cutters
Milling on a vertical mill is usually accomplished with end
mills. These cutters are designed to cut with both their side
and end. (See Figure 64, Page 32.) Drilling is accomplished
by raising and lowering the entire milling head with the
Z-axis feed screw. Center drills must be used before drilling to
achieve any degree of accuracy. (See Figures 55 and 70.)Note
that subsequent holes may be accurately “dialed in” from the
first hole by using the calibrated handwheels. Each revolution
of the wheel will yield .050" of travel or 1mm for the metric
machines. There is no need to start with the handwheel at “zero,”
although this can be easily accomplished with the optional
resettable “zero” handwheels to make calculations easier.
Boring is a method of making accurate holes by rotating a
tool with a single cutting edge, usually in an adjustable holder
called a “boring head.” It is used to open up drilled holes or
tubing to a desired diameter. (See Figure 57.)
Another type of milling is performed with an adjustable fly
cutter, which may be used for surfacing. For maximum safety
and rigidity, the cutting bit should project from the holder no
further than necessary. A 1-1/2" diameter circle of cut is quite
efficient, and multiple passes over a surface should overlap
about 1/3 of the circle size. For machining aluminum, use a
speed of 2000 RPM and remove about .010" (0.25 mm) per
pass. (See Figure 68 on page 34.)
Standard Milling Versus Climb Milling
It is important to understand that the cutting action of a milling
cutter varies depending upon the direction of feed. Study the
relationship of cutting edges to the material being cut as shown
in Figure 57. Note that in one case the tool will tend to climb
onto the work, whereas in the other case the tool will tend
to move away from the cut. The result is that climb milling
should normally be avoided except for very light finishing cuts.
FIGURE 56—A complex setup shows a part held in a 3-jaw
chuck, which is mounted to the rotary table, which is mounted
to the tilting angle table, which is in turn mounted to the mill
table. A mill arbor holds a gear-tooth cutter which is cutting
teeth in a bevel gear. The horizontal milling conversion is used
to mount the headstock in the horizontal position. With Sherline
tools and accessories, the parts you machine are limited only by
size, not by complexity.
TATION
RO
FEED
FIGURE 57—Standard
vs. climb milling. For
clarity, imagine the
cutter is moving rather
than the part.
PART
TOP VIEW
STANDARD
MILLING
CLIMB
MILLING
Climb Milling Advantages and Drawbacks
Though you will almost always use conventional milling,
climb milling can create a better finish in two ways. First, the
lightest part of the cut is at the end of the cut. Second, the chips
are tossed from the cutting area and do not affect the finish.
The major problem with machining in this direction is that
the cutter may actually do just that—climb up on the part and
break. Also, when a climb cut is first started, the work has
to be pushed into the cutter. Then the cutting action pulls the
backlash out of the table leadscrew, and a heavier cut is taken
than planned. If you understand and compensate for these
drawbacks, climb milling can be used. However, for those
new to milling, it is best to try and plan your cuts so that the
end mill is cutting in the conventional manner.
Working to Scribed Layout Lines
A common practice when working with a mill is to lay out the
hole centers and other key locations using a height gauge and
a surface plate. A coloring (usually deep blue) called layout
fluid or “Dykem” is brushed or sprayed on a clean surface
of the part. A thin layer is best because it dries quicker and
-29-
FIGURE 58— Boring the inside of a hole to exact size with a
boring tool held in a boring head.
won’t chip when a line is scribed. The purpose of this fluid is
to highlight the scribed line and make it easier to see.
Don’t prick-punch the scribed, crossed lines representing
a hole center. Using a center drill in the mill spindle and a
magnifying glass, bring the headstock down until the center
drill just barely touches the scribed cross. Examine the mark
left with a magnifying glass and make any corrections needed
to get it perfectly on center. You should be able to locate the
spindle within .002" (.05 mm) of the center using this method.
Once the first hole is located in this manner, the additional
holes can be located using the handwheels. (This is where the
optional resettable “zero” handwheels are useful.) Now the
scribe marks are used as a double check and the handwheels
take care of the accuracy. Don’t forget the rules of backlash—
always turn the handwheels in the same direction as you go
from one point to the next.
Using a Dial Indicator
(NOTE: For more on use of a dial indicator to square up your
mill, see pages 13-16.)
The basis of most accurate machining involves the use of a
“universal dial test indicator”; a small, inexpensive indicator
which is calibrated in .001" or .01 mm divisions. An indicator
with a large face or one that reads in finer divisions is not
necessary for use with this mill. Three major tasks that can
be accomplished with an indicator are:
1. Checking the squareness of a setup.
2. Finding the center of a hole.
3. Aligning the work with the machine.
A vise can be mounted or a part can be clamped down exactly
parallel with the machine slides by holding the test indicator
stationary and moving the slide with which you wish to align
the part. When “indicating in” a vise, always take the reading
on the fixed jaw. To start with, use approximately .005"
indicator deflection from neutral. Remember that excessive
pressure can cause inaccurate readings. Also, try to keep the
indicator finger at a reasonable angle to the indicated part or
FIGURE 59—Indicating in the jaws of a vise. Shown is a Starrett
“Last Word” Indicator. Starrett gauges are available in numerous
sizes and types. They are manufactured in Athol, Massachusetts
and can be purchased from most industrial dealers.
surface. When the part is properly aligned, there will not be
any deflection on the indicator. If you wish to locate the spindle
over an existing hole, place the indicator in the spindle and
read the inside surface. Move the X- and Y-axes until there
is no deflection when the spindle is rotated. At this point, the
spindle is in perfect alignment with the hole’s center.
When aligning the spindle to used bearing holes, remember
that the hole may be worn out-of-round, and it may be
impossible to attain zero indicator deflection reading. Boring
out a worn bearing hole to a larger diameter and sleeving it
with a simple bushing made on a lathe is a fairly common
machining operation. With the new bushing pressed in, the
bearing will be like new.
The squareness of your machine may also be checked with
an indicator. For instance, alignment of the head can be
checked by offsetting the indicator in the spindle so the tip
will move on about a 3" to 5" diameter circle. The amount of
reading relative to the table is the amount of error. Don’t be
discouraged to find a few thousandths of an inch error in your
machine. This machine has been designed to have the most
accuracy commensurate with reasonable cost. In machine
tool manufacturing, accuracy and cost run hand-in-hand. To
increase accuracy only a few percentage points could double
the selling price, because entirely different manufacturing
processes would be required. However, you can personally
improve the accuracy of your machine with a few shims, if
needed, by employing your dial indicator.
The column bed is aligned with the column block at the
factory. If you remove the block, it will have to be realigned
by mounting a known “square” on the mill table and adjusting
placement of the bed by running an indicator on the square
as the headstock is raised and lowered. (See Figure 29, page
16.) The same method can be used to check alignment of the
column bed to ensure it is square with the Y-axis. To correct
-30-
FIGURE 60—Indicating in the center of a hole.
any error (which should be small), place a shim between the
column block and the mill base.
Locating the Edge of a Part in Relation to the Spindle
There are two quick methods of “picking up an edge” of a
part on a mill. The first is to put a shaft of known diameter in
the spindle and see that it runs perfectly true. Using a depth
micrometer against the edge of the part, measure the distance
to the outside diameter of the shaft. To that dimension add half
the known shaft diameter. You now have the distance from
the edge of the part to the centerline of the spindle. Rotate
the handwheel on the axis being set exactly this distance and
you will have the centerline of the spindle lined up with the
edge of the part from which you measured.
The second method is much easier. It involves the use of a
clever tool called an “edge finder.” These devices have been
around for years and have two lapped surfaces held together
by a spring. One surface is on the end of a shaft that fits in
a 3/8" end mill holder and is held
in the spindle. The other is a .200"
SPINDLE
diameter shaft held to the larger shaft
with a spring so it is free to slide
around. With the spindle running
at approximately 2000 RPM, the
shorter shaft will be running way off
center. As this shaft is brought into
3/8" SHAFT
contact with the edge you are trying
to locate in relation to the spindle,
PART
the .200" shaft will be tapped to the
center as the spindle rotates. This
keeps making the .200" shaft run
continually truer. When the shaft
runs perfectly true it makes contact
.200" DIA. SHAFT
with the part 100% of the time. This
creates a drag on the surface of the FIGURE 61—Using
shaft that will “kick” it off center. an “edge finder” to
(See Figure 61.) At this point you accurately locate the
know the part is exactly .100" (half edge of a part.
FIGURE 62—Indicating in a 30° head tilt using a mill vise and
draftsman’s triangle
the diameter) from the centerline of the spindle. Advancing
the handwheel on a Sherline mill two revolutions (.050" per
revolution) will bring the edge of the part into alignment with
the spindle.
It is important to use a high quality edge finder such as the
Starrett 827A shown in the drawing. It must have a 3/8" shaft
to fit the end mill holder on the Sherline mill. Metric sized
edge finders are also available which work in the same manner.
For those who like to own the newest gadgets, electronic
edge finders are now available. Import models are available
for less than $100.00.
Determining the Depth of Cut
There are no firm rules other than common sense for
determining depth of cut. A .030" cut depth with a 3/16" end
mill in aluminum could be considered light, but .003" cut
depth in steel with a 1/32" diameter end mill would break the
cutter. Start with very light cuts and gradually increase the
depth until satisfactory results are achieved. Try to develop
the skill of knowing how much of a cut is satisfactory without
breaking the cutter or damaging the work.
Note that regular end mills should not be used for drilling,
however, they may be employed to enlarge an existing hole.
The cutting edges deserve more respect than those of drills
even though similar in appearance; they are designed to cut
with their sides. Handle and store them with care.
Work Accurately
It should be remembered that a good machinist is capable
of making a part to much closer tolerances than those of the
machine with which he is working. The accuracy of the parts
you make is limited only by your skill as a craftsman and the
quality of your measurement equipment. Accuracy should be
the ultimate goal of every machinist!
-31-
Cutting Speeds for Milling
Speed Adjustment Chart
SPINDLE RPM = 3.82 x S.F.M.
D
S.F.M. = The rated Surface Feet per Minute for milling. For drilling, use 60% of the rated surface feet.
RPM = The rated spindle speed in Revolutions Per Minute
D =
The Diameter of work in inches
FIGURE 63—Formula for adjusting spindle speed for cutting
a given diameter.
NOTE: To estimate RPM, remember that the speed range of
your vertical mill is from 0 to 2800 RPM. (The lowest usable
speed is about 70 RPM, so we use that in our specifications.
To obtain much more torque at the lower speed ranges, the
drive belt can be switched to the smaller diameter positions
on the spindle and drive pulleys.) Therefore, in the normal
belt position, half speed is approximately 1450 RPM and so
on. You can estimate these speeds by a combination of the
setting on the speed control knob and the sound of the motor
itself. When using the optional digital readout (P/N 8100),
the exact RPM is displayed constantly on the LCD screen.
End Mills
End mills are the standard cutting tools used on a vertical mill.
We recommend 3/8" shank end mills held in the 3/8" end mill
holder (P/N 3079). One of the benefits of 3/8" end mills is
that they are available in a large range of sizes. The end mill
is held with a set screw on its flat surface, and it can be easily
changed. They are also lower in price than miniature cutters
because of their popularity.
You can also use
miniature series
end mills having
3/16" or 1/4" shank
sizes which should
be held in collets
or end mill holders
sized for those tools.
Many “Dremel ® ”
type cutting tools
FIGURE 64— 4- and 2-flute double- come with a 1/8"
shank. End mills held
ended end mill sets.
in collets must be
single-ended, while end mill holders are capable of holding
single- or double-ended end mills. We recommend using 2-flute,
high-speed steel (HSS) end mills for aluminum because the
flutes are less prone to clog with chips. Use 4-flute cutters for
cutting steels with lower RPM. The solid carbide tools are not
suggested since they are very expensive and the cutting edges
will chip unless used with heavy-duty production equipment.
As a convenience to our customers, Sherline keeps in inventory
many of the popular sizes of end mills that are appropriate for
use on our machines. See our “Cutting Tools Price List” for
selection. End mills may also be purchased on-line or from
your local industrial machine shop supply outlet. Do a search
for or see the yellow pages under “Machine Shop Supplies.”
Because small diameter cutters (less than 1/8") are quite fragile,
the largest diameter cutter possible for the job requirements
MATERIAL
END MILLS (Slot and side milling)
CUT SPEED (S.F.M.) 1/8" DIA. 1/4" DIA. 3/8" DIA.
Stainless Steel, 303
Stainless Steel, 304
Stainless Steel, 316
Steel, 12L14
Steel, 1018
Steel, 4130
Gray Cast Iron
Aluminum, 7075
Aluminum, 6061
Aluminum, 2024
Aluminum, Cast
Brass
MATERIAL
Carbon Steel
Cast Iron, Soft
Stainless Steel
Copper
Aluminum, Bar
Aluminum, Cast
40
36
30
67
34
27
34
300
280
200
134
400
1200 RPM
1100
900
2000
1000
800
1000
2800
2800
2800
2800
2800
DRILLS
CUT SPEED (S.F.M.)
36
30
24
72
240
120
600 RPM 400 RPM
500
350
450
300
1000
650
500
350
400
250
500
350
2500
2000
2500
2000
2500
2000
2000
1300
2800 2800
1/16" DIA.
1/4" DIA.
2000 RPM
550 RPM
1800
450
1400
360
2000
1100
2000
2000
2000
2000
FIGURE 65—Drill and milling cutter speed chart.
should be employed. Be certain that the RPM is appropriate
before attempting to remove any metal. An end mill can be
instantly damaged if a cut is attempted at excessive RPM. Like
all cutting tools, end mills will have a short life span when
used for machining steel or other exotic materials. Save new
cutters for finish work. Because of excessive cutter deflection
(bending), do not use small diameter end mills with long flutes
unless absolutely necessary.
Resharpening End Mills
End mills can be resharpened by your local tool and cutter
grinding shop. End mills lose their cutting edge clearance
after a couple of sharpenings and should no longer be reused.
Using the Mill Column Saddle Lock
The saddle locking lever is located on the back side of the mill
column just above the saddle nut. This lever tightens against
the saddle nut on the column leadscrew to keep it from moving
during milling operations.
With the lever released, adjust the Z-axis handwheel to the
desired setting. Rotate the lever counter-clockwise to lock
the saddle. This will eliminate any backlash in the leadscrew.
Friction on the gib can still cause a little backlash to be present
between the handwheel and the leadscrew thrust. To eliminate
this, push down on the saddle to make sure the handwheel
is fully seated against the thrust. Double check your height
adjustment. Now, when milling, the saddle cannot move any
further down.
To release the saddle, rotate the lever clockwise. A springloaded ball in the saddle fits in a detent on the lever to keep
it from locking accidentally when the Z-axis is adjusted. (See
Figure 66.)
An adjustable saddle lock is available that allows adjustment
of backlash on the Z-axis. This is particularly useful in CNC
applications but can be used on manual machines as well. It is
standard on new CNC machines and available as an upgrade
for manual machines as P/N 4017Z/4117Z.
-32-
(P/N 6080), 1/4" (P/N 6079), 5/16" (P/N 3075), 6.0 mm (P/N
3076), 8.0 mm (P/N 3077) and 10 mm (P/N 3078).
Drill Chuck Holder (P/N 3074)
In order to allow for a quick way to change
chucks, a similar holder with a 3/8-24
threaded boss on the end instead of a hole
is now available. This allows 1/4" and 3/8"
Jacobs drill chucks to be threaded onto
a holder and changed quickly. During CNC operations this
also means drills can be changed without having to change
the tool length in the “tools” table.
MILL SADDLE
LOCKING LEVER—
TURN LEVER COUNTERCLOCKWISE TO LOCK,
CLOCKWISE TO RELEASE
SADDLE NUT
LEADSCREW
COLUMN
LEADSCREW
SADDLE NUT
ADJUSTMENT
SET SCREWS
FIGURE 66—Mill column saddle lock
Machining Tip
Use of a tooling plate (P/N 3560) is an inexpensive
way to protect the surface of your mill table while
providing a flat, versatile clamping surface with a predrilled pattern of tapped holes for mounting parts and
fixtures. The additional thickness also adds rigidity to
the mill table. A round tooling plate is also available
for the rotary table (P/N 3725).
Accessories for Your Milling Machine
The addition of accessories can greatly enhance the utility of
your mill. A few of the more popular milling accessories and
how they are used are described below.
Sensitive Drill Attachment (P/N 1012)
The sensitive drilling attachment provides both
faster drilling of multiple holes and better “feel”
for the cut when using drills smaller than 1/16".
This is essential to keep from breaking tiny drill
bits that can be quite expensive. A Jacobs 5/32"
drill chuck is fitted to a spring-loaded shaft that
inserts into the spindle. A red knurled collar with a
ball bearing at the center, allows the user to hand
feed the chuck. A spring inside the brass tube
helps return the chuck to the up position when
done. The chuck holds drills from 5/32" (4 mm)
down to much smaller sizes. The attachment is
easily installed by screwing it onto the external
3/4-16 thread of the spindle.
3/8" End Mill Holder (P/N 3079)
The 3/8" end mill holder makes it easy to use the popular
(and less expensive) 3/8" end mills. Using double-ended
end mills is economical and easy with this holder, as tools
are changed by simply loosening a set screw and changing
the tool. Sherline now offers similar
holders for other size cutting tools as
well. For CNC use, these holders allow
for quick tool changes and unlike when
using collets, the cutter length does not
change. The following additional sizes
are available: 1/8" (P/N 6081), 3/16"
Mill Collet Set
(P/N 3060)
The main purpose of the
mill collet set is to hold
single-ended end mills
accurately on center.
The spindle nose has an
internal Morse #1 taper
that closes the collet as
the drawbolt is tightened.
Mill collets are available individually or in sets of the three
most common sizes with a drawbolt included.
Boring Head (P/N 3054/3049)
The main purpose of the boring head is to eliminate the need
for a large inventory of drills and reamers. A small milling
machine would not have the power or rigidity to turn a oneinch diameter drill even if one could be obtained that would
fit. However, holes of up
to 1-3/4" (44 mm) can
BORING HEAD
be accurately bored to
size with a little patience
and care.
Boring heads for the mill
work on the same cutting
principle as lathe boring,
except that the cutting
BORING TOOL
tool turns while the work
remains stationary. (In
the case of a lathe, the work turns and the cutter remains
stationary.) The boring head is designed to employ round
cutting tools with a 3/8" shank. Sherline offers three boring
tools with sizes and lengths appropriate for the Sherline
mill. It is sometimes advisable to remove excessive tool
shank length from standard (non-Sherline) 3/8" boring tools
in order to improve rigidity. (See Figure 58, page 30 for a
boring tool in use.)
Tool sizes are listed indicating the smallest diameter hole
that can be bored and the maximum depth that can be cut.
For best results, use the largest diameter possible with the
shortest lengths. A .010" cut represents a good starting point.
If boring a hole where a flat bottom is required, it is advisable
to stop the down-feed at about .002" above the desired depth,
turn off the motor and cut the remaining distance by handturning the spindle to eliminate any possibility of chatter.
Boring Tools Available—3/8" diameter shanks
P/N 3061—Min. hole size: 1/4" (6.4 mm), Max. depth: 0.6" (15 mm.)
P/N 3063—Min. hole size: 5/16" (7.9 mm), Max. depth: 1.0" (25 mm)
P/N 3064—Min. hole size: 5/16" (7.9 mm), Max. depth: 1.5" (38.1 mm)
-33-
P/N 7620 FLY CUTTER
WITH CARBIDE INSERT
P/N 3052 FLY CUTTER USES
A 1/4" SQUARE HSS OR
BRAZED CARBIDE CUTTING
TOOL
FIGURE 67—Fly cutters and drawbolts
Fly Cutters (P/N 3052 and P/N 7620)
For machining flat surfaces, fly cutters are recommended.
It is imperative that the tool be used with utmost care. EYE
PROTECTION IS A MUST, and the work as well as the
cutting tool must be properly held. The big advantage of a fly
cutter is its ability to take light cuts up to 2" wide and to give
an excellent surface finish. It is ideal for squaring up work.
Also, the machining stresses are lower than one might imagine,
because, unlike an end mill, very little crushing action takes
place at the cutting edge. Fly cutting tools look like left-hand
lathe tools, and, although the fly cutter (P/N 3052) comes with
a brazed carbide tool, high-speed tools work quite well and
can be sharpened on any grinder. (See Figures 68 and 69.)
Drill Chucks (P/N 3072) and Center Drills
The 1/4" drill chuck available for this vertical mill is supplied
complete with a #1 Morse arbor and a drawbolt to hold it
securely in place. Drilling can be accomplished by raising and
lowering the entire head with the vertical feed handwheel. This
allows for very accurate control of feed rate and hole depth.
For accurately located holes we again stress the importance
of using center drills.
Drills should be kept in excellent condition, either by
replacement or proper resharpening. Good quality high-speed
steel drills should be employed. A dull or improperly sharpened
drill can cut oversize by as much as 10%. When you start to
drill, the initial penetration should be no more than twice the
diameter of the hole before you retract the drill, clear the chips
and add coolant with the tip of a small brush. From then on,
do not try to drill deeper than the diameter of the drill without
clearing the chips and adding coolant. For example:
To drill a 1/8" diameter hole 1" deep:
Total Depth
1st Pass: 2 times diameter or 1/4"1/4"
2nd Pass: 1 times diameter or 1/8"3/8"
3rd Pass: 1 times diameter or 1/8"1/2"
Etc.
(You may encounter recommendations exceeding this, but
they are meant for automatic equipment with pressurized
coolant systems.)
It is difficult to maintain tolerances of better than +.003"–.000"
with a drill. If tolerances closer than these are required, a
reamer must be employed. Try to use fractional size reamers
whenever possible rather than decimal sizes, because the
cost difference can amount to 2 or 3 times higher for decimal
sizes. (The length of reamers may prevent their use for some
operations on machines of this size.)
Center Drills
To accurately start holes, center drills must be used. They
have a small tip that accurately starts the hole, and then the
shaft widens with a 60° cutting face to the final diameter.
Care must be taken to employ cutting oil and to clear chips
from the drill frequently. If this is not done, the fragile tip
FIGURE 68—Typical setup for fly cutting.
may load up and twist off, even in soft materials. Center drills
are available in a variety of sizes, but for general work we
recommend size No. 1.
FIGURE 69—Three center drills in the
P/N 3021 set.
SIZE
BODY
DIA.
DRILL
DIA.
DRILL
LENGTH
LENGTH
OVERALL
000
1/8"
.020"
.020"
1-1/4"
00
1/8
.025
.025
1-1/4
0
1/8
1/32
1/32
1-1/4
1
1/8
3/64
3/64
1-1/4
2
3/16
5/64
5/64
1-7/8
3
1/4
7/64
7/64
2
FIGURE 70—Table of common HSS center drill sizes.
Mill Vise Set (P/N 3551)
The vise shown here and
in use in Figures 59 and 62
is furnished with special
clamps that allow it to be
clamped in any position
on the mill table. The vise
capacity is 2 inches. It
has a movable jaw that
is pulled down while
clamping, eliminating
any chance for the jaw
to lift. Perpendicular grooves in the fixed jaw help secure
round stock. It is the most convenient way to hold small parts
for milling. Also available for the mill vise is a rotating base
(P/N 3570) that greatly adds to the versatility of this basic
machining accessory.
-34-
Tilting Angle Table (P/N 3750)
This accessory opens up a great variety of setup options. The
table can be tilted to any angle from 0° to 90°. A hole pattern
in the table is designed to
easily mount the mill vise
or rotary table for holding
parts. A chuck adapter is
included that allows the
3-jaw or 4-jaw chuck to
be screwed directly to
the table as well. Parts
mounted to the table can
be machined or drilled at
precise angles without
tilting the column or
headstock. In the 90° position, the rotary table is held at the
same height as it would be on the P/N 3701 right angle plate,
eliminating the need for that accessory.
Horizontal Milling Conversion (P/N 6100)
for 5000/5400-Series Mills
A number of milling operations require the application of the
cutting tool from the side rather than from the top. A 3/4" thick
aluminum base 10.5" x 12.5" allows a 5000/5400-series mill
column to be mounted separately from the base for a variety
of milling configurations. The headstock is rotated 90° and
work is machined from the side, allowing larger surfaces to be
worked on without having to re-clamp the work. (NOTE: The
greater versatility and capacity of the 2000-series 8-direction
mill eliminate the need for this accessory on those mills.)
The black anodized mounting plate is pre-drilled to mount the
base and column in several possible locations. Alignment bars
and a selection of appropriate bolts are included to make it
easy to accurately relocate the column. Rubber feet insulate
the table for quiet, vibration-free operation. (NOTE: The
column base should be shortened by 2" for best operation.
Instructions are provided with the accessory, or we can shorten
your column for you. The modification is listed as P/N 6101 on
the price list. New mills purchased along with the horizontal
milling conversion can be factory ordered with the column
already split.)
FIGURE 71—One of the configurations possible with the
horizontal milling conversion, P/N 6100.
5400 Mill Column Base with 2000 Ram
(P/N 5640 Short, P/N 5645 Tall)
These rigid columns are
designed for those who have
a 5400-series mill. Each
comes with the 2000-series
ram and gives the versatility
of Sherline’s 2000-series mill
column with it’s large work
area and seven directions of
movement. The tall column
provides more Z-clearance.
Rigid Mill Column Bases for 2000 Mills
(P/N 5605 Short, P/N 5606 Tall)
For those who want the
versatility of Sherline’s
2000/2010 mill column with
it’slargeworkareaandmultiple
directions of movement but
have experienced unwanted
column rotation during
extreme machining loads
on the 2000 mill, this new
column offers another option.
The one-piece column absolutely prevents that from happening,
although you do give up the ability to rotate the column ram
from side-to-side.
4" Rotary Table (P/N 3700)
The rotary table mounts to the mill table and provides a
rotary axis for milling. Each increment on the handwheel
represents 1/10° of rotation,
so a circle can be divided
into 3600 segments without
interpolation. Seventy-two
handwheel revolutions rotate
the table one time. It can
be used to mill a radius on
a part, cut a circular slot or
drill precision circular hole
patterns. Used with the right angle attachment (P/N 3701) and
right angle tailstock (P/N 3702), it can also be used to cut gear
teeth. A rotary table used with a mill allows a machinist to
produce virtually any part he can design. On a Sherline mill,
the only limits are size, not complexity. The compact size of
this high quality rotary table also makes it a good choice for
use on larger machines as well, where its size would offer an
advantage in working with small parts. (See Figure 56 for a
photo of the rotary table in use.)
CNC Rotary Tables
The rotary table can also be
purchased in CNC-ready form
with a stepper motor mount
attached ready to accept a
NEMA 23 size stepper motor
of your choice. The CNCready table is P/N 3700-CNC.
If you prefer to purchase a
rotary table with a Sherline stepper motor already attached it
is P/N 8730. The motor is pre-wired with a 5-pin plug that is
ready to plug in to the Sherline driver box (P/N 8760) and go
to work as the 4th axis of your CNC mill system.
-35-
FIGURE 73—P/N 8020 CNC
system includes 2000 mill, motors,
computer and software.
To view or print complete instructions for all Sherline
accessories, see sherline.com/product-information/
sherline-accessory-instructions/.
CNC Rotary Indexer (P/N 8700)
This completely self-contained, programmable unit is perfect
for repetitive radial operations like gear cutting, drilling
multiple hole patterns, cutting splines on a shaft or spokes in
a wheel. Using the keypad, you enter the parameters such as
the number of divisions or degrees of rotation required, speed
and direction of rotation. When the command is given, the
indexer will move precisely to the next programmed position.
The computer keeps track of the divisions to many decimal
places, so error is virtually eliminated. Backlash can also be
accounted for electronically if a direction change is required.
The unit includes a programmable keypad unit, rotary table,
motor mount, stepper motor, power supply and all connecting
cables. It can also be “daisy chained” with other rotary or
linear units to produce sequenced operations.
A linear version of this same keypad and motor unit is available
that functions like a power feed on any axis of the lathe or
mill. Various kits are available with motor mount, keypad
and stepper motor to convert any mill axis from manual to
stepper motor driven. The motor and keypad unit is P/N 8800.
If you need to install a motor mount in place of a handwheel,
the P/N 8850 kit includes the mount, motor, keypad, power
supply and everything you need to convert either the X or Y
axis of the mill. Other kits are available for the Z axis or for
the lathe leadscrew or crosslide.
FIGURE 72—This simple programmable indexer brings computer
control to operations like cutting gears.
CNC and CNC-Ready Sherline Lathes and Milling Machines
Computer Numeric Control (CNC) is the way most machine
tools are run in the modern machine shop. As more people
have learned the advantages of using CNC and costs have
come down, it has become more popular in the home shop
as well. Therefore, Sherline now offers you several options.
Any existing Sherline lathe or mill can be purchased in any
one of three configurations:
1. MANUAL—Any standard machine can be converted to
CNC later with the purchase of a CNC upgrade kit.
2. CNC-READY—These machines come with stepper motor
mounts on all axes ready for the application of stepper
motors. You can use our P/N 8760 4-axis driver box, our
stepper motors and your own computer running either our
Linux/EMC2 G-code software (included with driver box)
or Windows® based software you purchase elsewhere.
(NOTE: These machines cannot be operated manually
until stepper motors with dual shafts are installed.)
3. FULL CNC—These CNC packages include a mill with
three stepper motor mounts or a lathe with two stepper
motor mounts, the appropriate number of stepper motors,
a new computer with a built-in, 4-axis driver box
(includes keyboard, mouse, and all necessary cables to
connect it, but not a monitor), a Linux operating system
and the LinuxCNC G-code control program installed
in the computer (formerly known as EMC2). With
handwheels mounted to the rear motor shafts, the operator
has the choice of manual or CNC operation.
Of course, no matter how you order your machine in relation
to CNC, all machines are still available in your choice of
metric or inch leadscrews and any of the accessory packages
can also be ordered with the machine itself.
Learning about CNC
CNC means instead of you turning the handwheels directly,
you are giving a computer instructions to turn the handwheels
for you. The language the computer uses to communicate
with the machine is called “G-code.” G-code is a simple
text-based language where each line of code tells each axis
of the machine where to go next. A driver box converts these
instructions into signals the stepper motors understand, and
they move the various axes for you. A stepper motor accurately
divides a single rotation into several hundred steps, providing
a predictable and repeatable method of precisely moving the
table when the appropriate number of pulses are sent to it
from the driver box.
G-code can be written directly by you, or for more complicated
2D curves or 3D shapes, it can be translated from a CAD
(Computer Aided Drafting) file using a utility program, or it
can be output from a CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing)
program as part of a CAD/CAM package. Sherline does not
promote one CAD or CAD/CAM system over another, and
there are many good ones out there, but we do offer references
to what is available from our website. See sherline.com/
cnc-links-and-resources/ for a wealth of information about
CNC and G-code. CNC systems come with a CD that includes
several free translation utilities to help convert your CAD files
(in .DXF or .STL file formats) into G-code text.
Several Reasons to Consider CNC
There are several reasons people choose to use CNC over
manual machining methods:
1. CAPABILITY—CNC makes it possible to turn all
the handwheels at once so you can make curved,
3-dimensional shapes, helical gears or other designs that
would be impossible to do manually. The ability to go
directly from a CAD/CAM design to a CNC machined
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part has helped establish a new era of product design.
2. PRODUCTION—CNC can speed up the process on short
run production parts. It can also take the boredom (and
resulting mistakes) out of making the same part over and
over again.
3. EDUCATION—If you are thinking of becoming a
machinist today, you will need to know how to use CNC.
Learning on an inexpensive machine is an excellent
training experience with no worries about “crashing” a
more expensive, high powered machine.
4. CHALLENGE—Some simply enjoy the challenge of
seeing if they can get a high-tech robot to do what they
command, and a computer controlled machine tool is
simply a special purpose robot.
Longer Tables and Taller Milling Columns Available
Sherline now offers an 18" long mill table that adds 5" of extra
X travel as well as a 15" tall mill column that adds 4" more Z
travel. Matching inch or metric, and manual or CNC leadscrews
are available. These
items can be ordered
as a factory-installed
option on new mills
or can be retrofitted to
any existing Sherline
FIGURE 74—P/N 54182 mill. Call for part
18" mill table
numbers.
10,000 RPM Spindle Pulley Set (P/N 4335)
The standard pulley set allows a maximum spindle speed of
about 2800 RPM, although the
bearings are rated for 10,000
RPM. Sherline offers a special
pulley set that gears the 6000
RPM motor up to 10,000 RPM
at the spindle. A second pulley
position offering a maximum
3000 RPM is similar to the high
speed ratio of the standard pulleys when you need more torque
but less speed. This high spindle speed is useful for engraving
operations or using very small drills or turning small shafts.
Although torque is somewhat reduced, this is not normally a
problem because you will be removing only small amounts of
metal in those types of operations. We recommend reducing
the preload adjustment on the spindle bearings from .0002"
end play to .0003" to keep from overheating the bearings
when using this accessory. Instructions to do this are provided.
FIGURE 75—A typical Sherline
industrial slide based on
components from the tool line.
Industrial Applications for Sherline Components
For many years, Sherline spindles, slides and motor units
have been especially popular with designers of custom
tooling for small industrial applications because of the
low cost and the large number of Sherline accessories that
fit the spindle. In fact, we use them in our own production
facility for a number of operations. Sherline is now offering
a complete line of components made specifically for the
production tooling designer. As you would expect, the size
range is best suited for smaller operations, but if your needs fit
within the specifications of Sherline components, excellent
design results can be achieved. For more information on
products from Sherline’s Industrial Products Division, see
our website at www.sherlineIPD.com.
DRO Machine Operations
FIGURE 76—A digital
readout makes life easier
for the machinist.
CAUTION!
Read all operating instructions carefully before
attempting any machining operations.
The Digital Readout in the Modern Machine Shop
Digital readouts are popular on full size machine tools because
they make the life of a machinist much simpler. They make
it easier to accurately set or change the table position and
eliminate errors caused by misreading handwheel increments or
losing track of multiple rotations. Now that same convenience
is available on tabletop size machines with the availability of
a DRO (Digital ReadOut) for Sherline lathes and mills. The
compact electronics package and clever backlash compensation
feature were designed by John Wettroth.
On industrial DRO’s, a sensor reads a highly accurate external
scale. On Sherline’s DRO, the sensor reads rotation of the
leadscrew. Because of the accuracy of Sherline’s precision
rolled leadscrew threads and the short travels on a machine
of this size, this system makes it possible to provide a DRO
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with sufficient accuracy while maintaining a price appropriate
for a machine of this size and cost.
The kit can be installed on any Sherline lathe or mill, regardless
of age, and is very easy to use. Three axes of movement are
provided so the readout can be used when the lathe is set up
as a mill with the optional vertical milling column attachment.
In the lathe configuration you will use only two of the three,
as the tailstock spindle feed screw is not fitted with a readout.
Remember that the directions of movement of the mill are
referred to as the X-axis (table side-to-side), Y-axis (table
in-out) and Z-axis (spindle up-down) when seen from the
leadscrew handwheel end of the lathe. When used as a lathe, the
nomenclature changes slightly. The crosslide feed handwheel
still controls what is called the “X” axis, but the leadscrew
controls what is now called the “Z” axis. Remember also that
as you feed the cutter into the rotating part with the crosslide
handwheel you will reduce the diameter of the part by twice
the amount of the feed. This is because you are reducing the
part’s radius but measuring its diameter. This DRO measures
the change in radius.
FIGURE 78A—Installing
the new thrust collar on the
lathe crosslide screw, or on
the mill X- and Y-axes.
EXISTING SCREW
LEADSCREW SHOULDER
LEADSCREW
THRUST COLLAR, P/N 8130
EXISTING SCREW
FIGURE 78B—Installing
the new thrust collar on the
lathe leadscrew.
LATHE BED
LEADSCREW
EXISTING WASHER
EXISTING SCREW
AND WASHER OR
WASHERS
(Crosslide)
(Leadscrew)
FIGURE 77—The designations of the axes of movement are
different in lathe and mill configurations. A lathe used with a
vertical milling column is considered a mill when it comes to
naming the axes.
The readout of any axis can be set to zero at any time with
the push of a button. As you move the handwheels you can
read the table position to three and a half decimal places on
the digital readout. It is not necessary to keep track of the
number of handwheel rotations to figure the stopping point on
larger dimensions. This will be especially appreciated when
cranking in “negative” amounts. Backlash is compensated for
by setting it into the unit’s electronic memory in increments
of .0005". As a bonus, the package also includes an electronic
readout of spindle RPM at all times.
Installing the DRO Components on Your Sherline Machine
The following instructions describe the steps required to
remove the existing handwheels and thrust collars and replace
them with the DRO encoder/handwheel units.
1. LATHE: Move the crosslide all the way in. This will help
locate the slide screw to assure that the collar is centered.
The saddle can be positioned anywhere on the leadscrew.
MILL: Move the table all the way to the left. This will
limit movement of the leadscrew and help center the
new collar. Then move the table all the way to the front
toward the operator.
2. Raise the headstock all the way up to the top of its travel
on you mill. Do the same if you are using a vertical milling
THRUST COLLAR, P/N 81508
column on a lathe.
3. Using a 3/32" hex wrench, remove all three handwheels
by releasing their set screws and sliding them off their
leadscrews. (If your machine has resettable “zero”
handwheels, loosen the collar locking knob and rotate the
collar until the hole lines up with the set screw. Then use
the 3/32" hex wrench to loosen the set screw and remove
the entire handwheel/collar unit.)
4. Using a 3/32" hex wrench, remove the 5-40 screw holding
the thrust collar over the crosslide (lathe), or X- and
Y-axes (mill) and remove the collar. (See Figure 78A.)
LATHE ONLY: Use a 1/8" hex wrench to remove the
countersunk screw in the top of the lathe bed and a 5/32"
hex wrench to remove the socket head cap screw under
the lathe base so that the collar can be removed from the
leadscrew. (See Figure 78B.)
5. Clean each grooved thrust collar with a solvent like
acetone or lacquer thinner to remove any oil from the
surface. (You will later lock them in place in relation to the
plastic housing with “instant glue” and the glue will not
stick to an oily collar.) Using the existing screws, install
new grooved thrust collars on the X- and Y-axes, making
sure the leadscrew is centered in the collar. Make sure
the screws are secure, but do not overtighten. If a shim
washer was present on your existing leadscrew, reinstall
it as it was before.
CENTER THE SLIDE SCREW BEFORE TIGHTENING SCREW
FIGURE 79—Making sure the crosslide screw is centered
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TOWARD THRUST COLLAR
THICKER SIDE OF HOUSING
FIGURE 80—Detail of the encoder housing showing direction
of installation
6. LATHE: Install a new handwheel with encoder ring
on the crosslide screw and leadscrew. Note that the
handwheels are similar except that on the leadscrew, the
numbers face away from the handwheel. On the crosslide
they face toward the handwheel. Make sure the shoulder
at the end of the leadscrew thread is seated against the
thrust collar and the handwheel is pushed in tightly to
remove end play before tightening the set screw. On the
crosslide, push the crosslide table toward the bed so that
the collar is securely against the shoulder of the leadscrew.
On the leadscrew, hold the table (not the base) with one
hand and push the handwheel onto the shaft with the other.
Rotate the handwheel so that the set screw tightens on
FIGURE 81—Installing the encoder unit over the thrust collar.
The unit can be installed upside down to make it easier to put
in the screws. It is then rotated into position and tightened to
lock it in place.
a new part of the shaft. If you don’t, it will tend to pick
up it’s old indentation making it difficult to tighten it in
a new position.
MILL: Install a new handwheel and encoder ring on
the X- and Y-axes. (The encoder ring has been factory
installed on the handwheel for easier assembly.) Note
that the X and Y handwheels are similar except that on
the X-axis, the numbers on the handwheel face away
from the handwheel. On the Y-axis they face toward
the handwheel. Make sure the shoulder at the end of the
leadscrew thread is seated against the thrust collar and the
handwheel is pushed in tightly to remove end play before
tightening the set screw. On the X-axis, push the table
AWAY from the handwheel while pushing the handwheel
onto the leadscrew shaft. On the Y-axis, hold the table (not
the base) with one hand and push the handwheel onto the
shaft with the other. Rotate the handwheel so that the set
screw tightens on a new part of the shaft. If you don’t, it
will tend to pick up it’s old indentation making it difficult
to tighten it in a new position.
See Figure 80 for orientation of the encoder housing. The
thicker shoulder inside the encoder should be facing toward
the thrust collar. It is easier to tighten the screws if you install
the units upside down with the screws coming down from the
top. Place the two halves of the shell over the thrust collar
and over the encoder ring and install the four #2 x 3/8" selftapping screws. Draw the screws down until they seat snugly,
but DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN or you will strip the threads!
Once tightened into position, the unit can be rotated around
until the screws and cable are on the bottom. When finished,
the cable from the encoders should come off to the right side
of the handwheel.
7. MILL and VERTICAL MILLING COLUMN: Using
a 1/8" hex wrench, remove the flat head screw that holds
the Z-axis thrust collar to the vertical milling column.
Remove the collar by lifting it up and off the leadscrew.
If the spacer washer sticks to the bottom of it, remove
it and reinstall it on the leadscrew shaft. Then remove
FIGURE 83—Order of
EXISTING WASHERS
washers and bearing
AND BALL BEARING
in Z-axis thrust collar
FROM OLD COLLAR
on mill, or optional
vertical milling
column.
1. First the shell is installed over the thrust
collar and handwheel upside down. (Left)
THRUST COLLAR
P/N 8135
EXISTING WASHER
LEADSCREW
2. Then the shell is rotated into position
with the cable lead on the bottom. (Below)
COLUMN
FLAT HEAD SCREW
FIGURE 82—Rotating the unit into its proper position. (Note:
Handwheel/encoder unit not shown for clarity.)
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the ball bearing thrust and two washers from the collar
and reinstall them in the new Z-axis thrust collar in the
same order (See Figure 83). Install the new collar on the
leadscrew shaft and secure it to the bed with the flat head
screw.
8. Install the remaining handwheel and encoder unit onto the
Z-axis leadscrew. Lift up on the saddle assembly until the
washer and shoulder of the leadscrew are all the way up
against the bottom of the collar. Then push down on the
handwheel and tighten its set screw, being sure to tighten
it against a new spot on the shaft. If installed on your
machine, reinstall the 5-40 x 3/8" flat head screw through
the center of the Z-axis handwheel and into the end of
the leadscrew. See “Adjusting the Z-axis handwheel” on
page 41 for more details on adjusting this screw. Install
the pickup housing over the handwheel unit as shown
in Figures 4 and 5. When finished, the cable should exit
toward the left when viewed from the front.
Leadscrew Handwheel Position on the Model 4400 Lathe
The die cast base on the Model 4400/4410 long bed lathe is
relieved so that the bed and base align. The lip on the bottom
of the machined area will keep the sensor housing from being
able to be rotated straight down. The solution to this is to orient
the housing as shown in Figure 84 below. The joint between
the two halves of the housing now becomes the witness mark
against which you read the handwheel markings. On the Model
4400/4410 lathe, the bed and base are flush at the end, so the
housing can be positioned straight down as is shown in the
other figures.
JOINT BETWEEN UPPER AND
LOWER HOUSING HALVES
FIGURE 84—On the long bed lathe, the leadscrew handwheel
sensor housing must be positioned as shown.
Making Sure the Housings Do not Move
The sensors that read gear-tooth position as you turn the
handwheel are located in the bottom of the handwheel housing.
If the housing moves, it is the same as if you moved the
handwheel, because it changes the relationship between the
sensor and the gear tooth. Therefore, the housing should be
anchored in place so that it cannot be inadvertently moved.
The screws that hold the two halves together go into plastic,
and overtightening them can strip the threads out of the hole.
If the housing rotates too easily when the screws are tightened,
you can remove the housing shell and sand the mating surfaces
on a piece of sandpaper on a flat surface until they grip the
collar more tightly. If this doesn’t do the job, another solution
is to place a drop of “super glue” between the plastic housing
and the metal collar once the housing is positioned where you
want it. This will keep it in place but can still be broken loose
if you need to later.
Installing the RPM Sensor
1. Reinstall the headstock/motor/speed control onto the lathe
or milling column.
2. Peel off the backing and apply the 2-1/2" round sticker
to the pulley. (HINT: A little liquid window cleaner
on the pulley allows the sticker to be repositioned and
bubbles squeezed out before it adheres. Once the liquid
is squeezed out and dries, the adhesive on the sticker will
stick fine.)
3. Locate the RPM sensor by holding it in the position shown
in Figure 7. Mark the center of the hole on the plastic belt
housing and drill a 1/16" hole. Fasten the sensor to the
belt housing using the self-tapping screw provided. (Do
not overtighten or you can strip the threads.) A plastic tiewrap is provided to secure the sensor lead to the motor’s
power cord to keep it out of the way.
NOTE: If you have a machine with an older AC/DC motor
that does not have a plastic belt guard, the RPM sensor can be
mounted in the proper position over the pulley by attaching
it to the motor mounting bracket. Locate and mark where the
hole should be drilled. Remove the motor and drill a hole
through the bracket. You can use a self-tapping sheet metal
screw or a bolt and nut through the hole, or you can tap the
hole to match the thread of the bolt you use.
Hooking up the Connecting Cables
Plug the cable connector from each encoder unit into its
respective port on the display unit. The telephone type cable
connectors go in with the locking tab facing up when the unit
is lying on its back. The RPM sensor cable goes into the port
marked “Tach In.”
Plug the power adapter into the bottom hole marked “DC In,”
and plug the transformer into a 115 VAC (60 Hz.) source.
Check to make sure all three axes are functioning. Turn on the
motor and check to see that the RPM indicator is functioning.
Initializing Your Display for Inch or Metric Leadscrews
When you press the “Power” button to turn your system on,
the upper right corner of the display will read either “inch”
or “metric” mode. Normally, the DRO will be set up properly
when you receive it, but there is always a possibility it could
be set wrong. To set or change the system of measurement
your unit displays, follow these steps:
1. With the power off, unplug the power cable from the
display unit.
2. INCH—Hold down both the “Power” button and the
X-axis button while you plug the power cord back into
the display unit. After the display comes up, release the
buttons. The display should now read in inch dimensions.
3. METRIC—To initialize your display unit to read metric
dimensions, hold down the “Power” and “Y” buttons
while plugging the power cord back into the display unit.
Once initialized, the unit will always read in your chosen
system of measurement each time it is turned on unless
you change it.
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NOTICE! THE DISPLAY DOES NOT
CONVERT DIMENSIONS FROM INCH TO METRIC!
The DRO reads rotary handwheel movement and converts
it to a linear dimension based on a formula assuming a
certain leadscrew thread pitch. The DRO must be set to
agree with the leadscrews installed on your machine to
provide accurate measurements.
The only difference between the inch and metric packages is
the number of divisions engraved into the handwheels. The
electronics package is the same for either and can be set to read
in either measurement system depending on the leadscrews
of the machine on which it is installed.
Setting the Backlash Compensation Values
To set backlash compensation for each axis, you must first
measure to determine what the backlash is. Use a dial indicator
to determine how far the handwheel on each axis rotates before
the table starts to move. (If this amount is excessive, see your
instruction manual for instructions on setting backlash. It should
ideally be in the .003" to .005" range.) Once the amount is
determined, the backlash is compensated for by setting it into
the display unit’s memory.
To set the backlash to correspond to your machine’s leadscrews,
complete the following steps for each axis:
1 Turn the handwheel for each axis one full turn clockwise.
This assures that the software starts the backlash
compensation at the proper initial point.
2. Hold down the “Power” button for longer than a second
until the display changes.
3. Now you can set in the backlash for each axis by pushing
the button for that axis. Each time the button is depressed,
.0005" (or .01 mm on metric units) is added to the reading.
Set in the amount of backlash you measured previously
for each axis. Amounts up to .015" (.50 mm) can be set.
(Note: You cannot cycle backwards to a lower number.
If you go past your desired setting you must continue
pushing the button until the reading passes .015" (.50
mm) and returns to zero. Then start over.)
4. Once the backlash for all three axes is set, briefly push the
“Power” button again to return the display to its normal
reading. The backlash setting can be checked or changed
at any time by holding the power button until the display
changes. The amount can then be reset as described in
instruction number 3 above. Once set, backlash settings
are held in a special memory chip even if the unit is turned
off and unplugged. They remain until you change them.
Using the DRO with the Sherline Power Feed
or Thread Cutting Attachment
The DRO leadscrew thrust collar is longer than the standard
thrust collar so that the DRO housing can attach to it. This
changes the position of the leadscrew. This has no effect on
the lathe except when it is used with a power feed or thread
cutting attachment. In those cases you will need to replace the
existing sliding engagement shaft (P/N 1509) which will be
a little too short. If you return the existing shaft to Sherline it
will be replaced at no charge with a shaft of the appropriate
length (P/N 81509) for use with the DRO. If you purchase a
new power feed or thread cutting attachment, notify Sherline
that you will be using it with the lathe DRO and the proper
shaft will be supplied with your purchase. The only alternative
to solving this problem would have been to provide a longer
leadscrew which would have been far more expensive.
Adjusting the Z-Axis Handwheel Screw
To adjust tension on the screw, first remove all Z-axis backlash
in the conventional manner by lifting the motor/speed control
unit by hand while tightening the handwheel set screw on a
“fresh” quadrant of the leadscrew to avoid picking up any
previous indentations. Once adjusted, tighten the new center
screw only until it is “finger tight”. Use a very small amount
of Loctite® on the end of the screw to keep it in place. (Do
not coat the threads or the screw may become impossible to
remove.) Overtightening the screw will cause the handwheel
to become hard to turn. The purpose of the screw is not to
adjust backlash, but rather to keep it from increasing once it
is properly adjusted. Do not try to use the screw to pull out
additional backlash. The small 5-40 threads are not strong
enough for this task.
Reversing the Direction of the Reading on the X-axis
The X-axis readout is designed to read negative numbers
when the handwheel is turned in the clockwise direction and
positive when turned counter-clockwise. Should you wish to
change your readout so that it uses a standard x-y plot, you
can do so by switching two of the four wires coming from
the encoder for the X-axis.
To do so, unplug the X-axis cable from the readout box.
Remove the four screws that secure the lower housing to the
upper housing and then remove the encoder halves from the
handwheel. On the bottom of the half with the encoder is a
cover plate secured by three screws. Remove these screws and
the cover plate. This will expose the soldered connections for
the four wires coming from the encoder. To reverse the direction
of the readout, unsolder the green and black wires. Reverse
their position and re-solder to the encoder leads. Reinstall in
reverse order. The diagram below shows the factory locations
of the wires before the swap is made.
Figure 85—The drawing on the left shows the encoder housing
and wires coming from the plug. The diagram to the right shows
a schematic of where each wire is connected. Swapping the black
and green wires will change the + (plus) and – (minus) directions
of the readout.
NOTE: The wires and solder joints are small and delicate. If
you don’t have a suitable soldering iron and a little expertise
along these lines you may return your encoder housing to the
factory and we will make the change for you at no charge.
Call first for a return authorization number and instructions
on how to return your housing.
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A Few More Tips
When in use, shield the unit from chips so they don’t
accumulate around the telephone jack connections on the
side. Do not use an air hose to clean the unit.
A metal stand is now included with your DRO so you can
stand the unit up on your workbench. This makes it easier
to read while you work. If you wish to secure the box to the
stand, a piece of double-sided foam tape is a good method.
Getting the Most out of Your DRO
When using a machine equipped with a digital readout, we
find it is best to use either the readout or the handwheels,
but not both. If the displayed accuracy of .0005" (.01mm)
is satisfactory for the job you are doing, use just the digital
readout and disregard the handwheel settings. In cases
where you might want to interpolate to a higher degree
of accuracy, the markings on the handwheels will allow
you to do this.
An example of this would be where you have located the
center of a bored hole and then changed the table position.
To return the spindle exactly to the hole’s center again using
the digital readout could leave you a few ten-thousandths
off, which may not be acceptable. In this case, you should
write down your handwheel settings and direction the
handwheel was last turned before moving from the desired
location. This will allow you to return to the same spot
with great accuracy. The handwheel marks are .001" or
.01mm apart. By reading the space between the marks on
the handwheel and interpolating your position, you can
achieve a high degree of accuracy. Knowing your machine
is an important part of achieving this kind of accuracy, and
as you get more familiar with your machine, your accuracy
will continue to improve.
Sherline’s DRO brings modern machine shop technology
down to tabletop size and makes your Sherline tools easier
and more fun to use. We think you will find the digital
readout to be a great addition to your Sherline machine shop.
Installing Stepper Motors
CAUTION!
Read all operating instructions carefully before
attempting any machining operations.
Stepper Motor Installation Instructions
In order to prevent damage during shipment, some of the
stepper motors have not been installed. Install them using the
following procedure:
1. If not already installed, carefully plug the white cable
connector into the slot in the motor. Orient the motor so
the plug is either on the right side or on the bottom to
keep chips and coolant from causing a possible electrical
short at the connection. If you wish, a small amount of
silicon sealant or hot melt glue can be used to secure the
white plug to the motor and seal the joint.
2. Note the location of the flats on the stepper motor shaft.
Always assure that the coupling and handwheel set screws
are tightened against the flat on the shaft. Tightening the
set screw against the round part of the shaft can gall the
shaft and make it impossible to remove from the coupling
later.
3. Align the coupler set screw with the access hole in the
side of the stepper motor mount and assure that the set
screw is sufficiently released so that the motor shaft can
be inserted.
CABLE CONNECTOR
Use fourth Socket Head Cap
Screw here or use tie wrap to
attach wires at this corner.
67111
8-32 x 7/8" SHCS
12050
8-32 x 3/8" SHCS
TIE WRAP IN 4th MOUNTING HOLE
HOLES FOR MOUNTING TO MACHINE
(Holes on top as shown for mill X-axis and
lathe crosslide and leadscrew. Holes on
bottom for mill Y-axis.
67127
STEPPER MOTOR
67115
5-40 x 7/8" SHCS
67120
BALL BEARING
67105
COUPLER w/ 40520 SET SCREW
67102
STEPPER MOTOR MOUNT
PRELOAD NUT
Lathe Leadscrew—67104 (RH 1/4-28 for inch and metric))
X-axis and crosslide—67106 (67108 metric)RH
Y-axis and leadscrew—67107 (67109 metric) LH
-42-
Figure 86—Components of the stepper motor
and mount. The motor can also be mounted
with the electronic cable facing downward.
4. Insert the motor shaft into the coupling, making sure the
set screw is aligned with the flat. Keep the motor square to
the mount so as not to flex the coupling during insertion.
Loosely tighten the set screw.
5. Install three 8-32 x 3/8" socket head cap screws (SHCS)
through the holes in the motor flange and into the stepper
motor mount holes. Instead of a 4th screw in the four
o’clock position use a tie wrap through that hole to secure
the wire bundle from the motor. This will help relieve
strain on the motor plug connection.
6. Assure that the flat on the motor shaft is still aligned with
the coupling set screw (observe the position of the rear
flat or handwheel set screw—the two flats are parallel)
and tighten the coupling set screw. Install and turn the
handwheel and observe the movement of the leadscrew
to make sure everything is turning smoothly.
Using Handwheels on the Stepper Motors
When turning an unpowered stepper motor by hand you may
notice a slightly “notchy” feel because of the permanent
magnets in the motor. This is normal. When the motors are
powered up they lock in position, and it will be very difficult
to move them with the handwheels. Therefore, if you wish to
use manual mode, you should first turn off the power to the
motors using the ON/OFF switch on the external driver box or
on the side of the computer if the driver box is built in. Turning
a DC motor by hand causes it to act as a generator, sending
current backward through the circuit. However, low amounts
of current will not damage the board, so avoid cranking faster
than about 1 rev/sec to be safe. For longer travels, use EMC’s
jog mode for approximate positioning, then turn off driver box
power and use the handwheel for fine tuning.
Sherline Stepper Motor Specifications—Nmb Motors
Sherline P/N:
Manufacturer:
Mfg. P/N (Type):
Frame size:
Step angle:
Voltage:
Current:
Resistance:
Inductance:
Holding torque: Rotor inertia:
Number of wire leads:
Weight:
Length:
Shaft:
TORQUE (kgf-cm)
67127 (w/ DIN plug and flats of shaft)
67130 (no plug, flats on shaft)
NMB (Minebea Co. Ltd.)
23KM-K035-62V (double shaft)
NEMA #23
1.8°
3.2 V
2.0 A/F
1.6 W/F
3.6 mH/F
9.7 kg-cm
250 g-cm2
6 (See color code diagram FIG. 2)
1.32 lb (0.6 Kg.)
2.13" (54 mm)
Double ended, 1/4" diameter
DRIVER : TYPE B(Vs=24V)
CURRENT=2.0A/Phase
EXCITING MODE=2Phase
INERTIAL LOAD : 100g-cm2
Lead Wire Connection and Color Code
RED (+A)
BLACK (COM A)
YELLOW (-A)
BLUE (+B)
WHITE (COM B)
FIGURE 88— Color of internal wiring for NMB motors
See Figure 89 for the pin diagram and wire color layout of the
stepper motor connector cables we supply with our stepper
motors. Since there is no industry standard for wire colors in
this field, if using a connector not supplied by Sherline each
pin and color should be confirmed with a continuity tester
before applying power.
1
color codes are:
1 = Orange
2 = Black
3 = Blue
4 = Yellow
5 = White (or tan)
6 = Red
3
4
5
6
6
1
4
SEEN FROM
OUTSIDE OF
MALE
CONNECTOR
3
2+5
FIGURE 89: diagram shows which pin in the DIN connector is
wired to which position in the motor connector.
NOTE: Motors can be wired in either unipolar or bipolar
configuration depending on how the leads are connected. Sherline
motors with plugs are wired for unipolar operation.
•
•
•
•
8.0
2
SEEN FROM TOP
OF MOTOR PLUG
12.0
10.0
ORANGE (-B)
6.0
PRECAUTIONS
Make sure the ends of raw wires are not touching each other
when turning the handwheel by hand to drive the stepper
motor and leadscrew. It can cause the motor to feel rough
and hard to turn.
DC motors generate current when hand cranked that can
damage the control unit. When positioning a stepper motor
by hand using the handwheel, do not crank faster than about
1 rev/second. For long travels, use the jog mode of your
CNC control software.
Poor connections can cause arcing, which can burn out
motors or control chips. Always make sure plugs and
connections are fully engaged and making good contact.
Always turn off driver box power before plugging in or
unplugging a stepper motor.
4.0
2.0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
“A man who works with his hands is a laborer.
A man who works with his hands and his brain is a craftsman.
5000
FREQUENCY (pps)
A man who works with his hands, his brain and his heart is an artist.”
Figure 87—Motor torque curve
—Louis Nizer
-43-
A
B
0298
-44-
.46
Optional rear
handwheel
shaft
0.515
1.501
1.502
FLAT
Shaft: .25" Diameter
1.775
2
If using a non-Sherline stepper motor, make sure to grind flats on the shafts
as shown where the coupling and handwheel set screws contact the shaft.
.5
FLANGE
BOSS
2.13"
SET SCREW ACCESS HOLE
1.600
2
8–32 TAPPED
THRU 4 PL
2.250
JO E MARTIN
JO E MARTIN
JO E MARTIN
DRAWN
CHECKED
DESIGNER
DO NO T SCALE D RAWING !!!
UNLESS O THERWISE SPECIFIED
D IMENSIO NS ARE IN INCHES.
TO LERANCES ARE:
DECIMALS .00 . . . . . . ±0.006
DECIMALS .000 . . . . . . ±0.003
ANGLES . . . . . . . . . . 1°
D EBURR . . . . . . . . . . HAND
NO NE
HEAT TREAT
BL ACK ANO D IZE
FINISH
MATERIA L
1
1 of 1
67102
SHE E T
RE V.
1998-09
PA RT NUMBE R
3 5/16 RO UND 6061 T 6
SIZE
STE P P E R M OTOR M OUNT
1 = 1
SCALE
TITLE
SH E R L I N E PR O DUC T S, I N C.
Mounting Instructions
To mount the motor, start by turning the leadscrew until the coupling set screw lines up
with the access hole in the mount. Carefully insert the motor shaft into the coupling. With
the flanges touching, rotate the stepper motor until the flat on the shaft is in alignment
with the coupling set screw. Tighten the set screw. Rotate the motor to align with the
motor with the 8-32 tapped holes. We usually attach the motor using three screws and
use a zip tie in the fourth hole to secure the wire bundle.
If you decide to use LocTite® on the shaft set screw, a problem can occur if the motor
has to be removed. What can happen is the shaft ends up glued to the coupling. If this
occurs, loosen the preload nut until the motor and shaft can be backed out to expose
the coupling so you can work on it. Be careful not to flex the coupling or it can break
at the dampening slots.
1.857
1.857
1
A
B
Sherline CNC Motor-Mounting Instructions
FIGURE 90
Replacement parts can be ordered through your dealer or
directly from Sherline. If in doubt about whether you are
ordering the correct part number, please contact Sherline.
We will be glad to help you make sure you are selecting the
proper parts for your needs. For a complete list of parts and
prices see sherline.com/sherline-price-lists/.
Sherline Lathe Exploded View and Part Numbers
Sherline
Manual
Exploded
View
and
Part
NOTE: Where
different,Lathes
Inch part number
is given first,
followed
by Metric
part Numbers
number.
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
30220
40670
41130
90080
90060
Leadscrew End Detail
Leadscrew Body*
40660
30230
43200 (Label)
43110
40310
40760
43160
43170
43120
43190
*LEADSCREW BODY PART NUMBERS
Tailstock Feed Screw Body—40221 (41221)
Crosslide Slide Screw Body—44211 (44221)
* Headstock not included
40440
43130
43360
40090
41080
43180 32100
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
40440
40660
40690
40670
40380
40230
40420
40100
40440
40980
40020
40600
40820
40520
40420
40160
40540
40900
40990
40111
40390
32140
40330
40590
40330
40260
4
00
40220/41220
40250
50150 50211
50130L/51130L
44880
44210/44220
40080/41080
40520
40660 40300
40510
412
0/
020
40340
40660
40330
40590
See Leadscrew Detail
40180
40670
40170/41170
40900
40520
40080/41080
40520
40330
40520
40270/41270
40112
40890/41890 40600 40501
40120
40370/41370
34220
34250
40070
40860
40870
40910
40820
40040
34260/34270
34210
40340
40320
43230
31080
HARD-STOP KIT P/N 40116
10-32 x 5/8" thumbscrew—40760
4" hard-stop rod—40102
8" hard-stop rod—40103
43100
32100
(Nylon
Button)
See Leadscrew Detail
40520
40050/41050
34250
40280
40530
40240
34230/34240
34210
34220
40010
40510
40561
40570
40102
40103
40520
43140
40620 (USA)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Eur.)
Headstock*
40290
43170
43460
43150
Optional Hard-Stop Kit Detail
40520
40400
40660
40670
40550
40580
44120
40340
44200/44230
40690
44010
11990
40660
11980
40511
40510
40400
11950
40250
34220
34410
40520
34260/34270
34250
NOTE: Some factory assembled machines
may have a 0.005” thick shim washer (P/N
40030, not shown) placed between the
handwheel and thrust to adjust backlash.
If removed when servicing the machine they
should be replaced in the same position.
FIGURE 91
-45-
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech. Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
3/6/17
Sherline CNC-Ready Lathe Exploded View and Part Numbers
Sherline CNC-Ready
Lathe
Exploded
and
Part Numbers
NOTE: Where different,
Inch part
first, followedView
by Metric
part number.
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
90080
90060
40177/41177
44172/44173
40660
40740
43170
43460
43150
43140
40760
44171
43160
40173
HARD-STOP KIT P/N 40116
10-32 x 5/8" thumbscrew—40760
4" hard-stop rod—40102
8" hard-stop rod—40103
43170
* Headstock not included
43120
43190
43100
32100
43360
40440
43130
40090
41080 43180 32100
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
40440
40380
40660
40690
40670
40230
40420
40100
40440
40980
40820
40020
(Nylon
Button)
40520
40420
40160
40590
40330
40520
50150
32140
40330
40590
40330
40180
40900
34250
Crosslide: 34230/34240
Leadscrew: 34260/34270 34210
40520
34220
67035
44211/44221
67040
40260
40370/41370
025
67
24/
670
Adjustable “Zero” Handwheels
40250
50130L/51130L
50211
40670
40177/41177*
*See Lock Detail at Top
67022
67106/67108
67120
40660
40510
40240
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
67111
67102
67120
40010
40510
40570
40550
40400
40660
40670
40560
40580
67111
67102
67020
40340
67026/67027
40690
44010
11990
40511
40510
40400
Standard Handwheels
40520
Crosslide: 40050/41050
Leadscrew: 40080/41080
40340 40220/41220
40660
40330
40910
40540
40990
40080/41080
40520
40111
40270/41270
40112
40600
40890/41890
40501
40900
40520
34250
40070
40860
40870
40390
40600
40820
40040
34260/34270
34220 34210
40340
40320
43230
31080
40102
40103
40510
40520
40620 (USA)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Eur.)
Headstock*
Saddle (40910)
40660
30230
43200 (Label)
43110
Optional Hard-Stop Kit Detail
Leadscrew Backlash Lock Detail
30220
40670
41130
11950
40660
11980
67120
67104
67111
40520
67105
67115
67115
40520
67105
67111
67120
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
40250
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
-46Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech. Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
FIGURE 92
3/6/17
SherlineManual
Manual50005000-and
and5400-Series
5400-SeriesVertical
VerticalMilling
MillingMachines
Machines
Sherline
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
Mill Saddle Oiler Detail
Y-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
Exploded View and Part Numbers
50930
50920
NOTE: Some factory assembled machines may have a 0.005" shim washer P/N
40030 (not shown) placed between the handwheel and thrust to adjust backlash. If
removed when servicing the machine they should be replaced in the same position.
40520
40520
1297
40520
X-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
41080
45013
34220
34410
40330
40660
45012
34000/34100
40165
40177/41177
40590
41080
43130
40440
40020
43360
40660
40420
40690
40320
40440
45030
40660
41130
40670
30220
43460 43110
43170
30230
40520
43100
40820 40100
40900
90060
43200 (Label)
90080
40670
40990
45010/45160
43140
43150
32100
40420
40260
40540
40600
45200
43120
40160
(Nylon
Button)
40600 40520
45040
50240
34060
40520
43160
40080/41080
43170
40530
40230
40740
50050
34210
40280
34220
45020
50010
50211
40510
50150
34250
34260/34270
50930
50280
40520
50920
50200/51200
40530
40600
50220
40520
54180/54190 (Engraved)
50180 (Plain)
50165
40620 (US)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Euro.)
43190
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
40040
31080
34250
45014
40175/41175 34260/34270
43180
43230
40520
40510
40520
50910
50190
40690
Leadscrew End Detail
Leadscrew Body*
See Leadscrew Detail
50170/51170 R/H
40290
50130/51130
40310
50140/51140
50160/51160
40980
40820
54165
40520
40760
45070
40890/41890
40600
40520
40050/41050
50150
50211
40520
40980
40820
5.
.49
.48
.39
.38
.37
.29
.28
.27
2.
.19
.18
.9
.8
1.
0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
0
.11
.12
.13
.14
.15
.16
.17
0
.21
.22
.23
.24
.25
.26
3.
0
.31
.32
.33
.34
.35
.36
4.
0
.41
.42
.43
.44
.45
.46
.47
0
.51
.52
.53
.54
.55
40510
See Leadscrew Detail
54020/54120
40560
40550
40570
40580
54160/54170 L/H
*Leadscrew Body Part Numbers:
X-Axis (All)—50171/51171
Y-Axis, 5000-Series—50161/51161
Y-Axis, 5400-Series—54161/54170
Y-Axis, 2000-Series—56161/56151
See Leadscrew Detail
34250
34230/34240
34210
40520
34220
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech.
Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
-47-
FIGURE
3/6/17 93
Sherline CNC-Ready 5000- and 5400 Series Vertical Milling Machines
Sherline CNC-Ready
5000- and 5400 Series Vertical Milling Machines
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
Mill Saddle Oiler Detail
Exploded View and Part Numbers
50930
Y-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
50920
40520
40520
1297
X-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
40520
41080
43180
43230
40150
44171
40660
31080
40175/41175
40173
40165
40170/41170
67115
40520
40520
67111
67105
67120
40160
(Nylon
Button)
40520
43130
40440
40020
43360
40990
43110
43170 30230
40690
40320
40440
12050 (3) 67111
+ 1 zip tie
43160
67021
43170
40740
50050
40230
67051/67052 (Deluxe)
50165
67150
67115
40520
67105
67111
67120
67102
67120
67106/67108 (RH)
67050 (Std.)
40510
41130
30220
43460
40660
40420
40660
40670
40520
43100
40820 40100
67028/67029
90060
43200 (Label)
90080
40670
40260
40540
67102
67120
67104
43140
43150
32100
40420
40600
45040
67111
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
40600
43120
41080
40740
50240
40620 (US)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Euro.)
43190
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
40040
50211
50150
40520
50920
50200/51200
40980
54165
40510
40520
50130/51130
50910
50190
40690
50140/51140
40600
50220
40520
40760
40820
45070
40890/41890
40600
40520
40820
.68
.69
67107/67109 L/H
.65
.64
.63
.62
.61
.59
.58
.57
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
67111
.49
.51
.52
.53
.54
.55
.56
6.
0
67120
.48
0
34250
X-, Z-Axes: 34260/34270
Y-Axis: 34230/34240 34210
40520
5000-series:50161/51161 (7")
34220
5400-series: 54161/54171 (9")
4.
.39
.38
.29
.28
.19
.18
.17
.9
.8
1.
0
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
0
.11
.12
.13
.14
.15
.16
2.
0
.21
.22
.23
.24
.25
.26
3.
67102
.27
0
.31
.32
.33
.34
.35
.36
.37
0
.41
.42
.43
.44
.45
.46
.47
5.
Adjustable “Zero” Handwheels
40980
.66
7.
50150
50211
.67
0
40510
Standard Handwheels
X-Axis: 40080/41080
Y-Axis: 40050/41050
Z-Axis: 34000/34100
40520
50171/51171
50930
67151/67152
40560
40550
40570
40580
67120
67111
40520
67105
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech.
Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
-48-
67115
FIGURE
3/6/17 94
-49-
56230
56240
56010/56020
56700
56130
56770
56110
56550
56220
56400
56200
Saddle Nut Body
P/N 40179 (Inch)
P/N 41179 (Metric)
7.0
.69
.68
.67
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
6.0
.63
.59
.58
.57
.56
.55
.54
.52
.51
5.0
.53
.49
.48
.47
.46
.45
.44
.42
.41
4.0
.43
.39
.38
.37
.36
.35
.34
.32
.31
3.0
.33
.29
.28
.27
.26
.25
.24
.22
.21
2.0
.23
.19
.18
.17
40177/41177
.16
.15
.14
.12
.11
1.0
.13
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.1
0
40530
50280
40690
45030
40900
40600
40520
50150
40520
50211
50150
50211
50930
40230
40320
40440
40420
40100
40540
40260
40520
(Nylon Button)
40520 50920
50200/51200
40820
40990
45040
40980
40760
40820
45070
40890/41890
40600
45200
34060
40520
40600
45013
34220
50240
40330
31080
43160
43130
40440
40670
43360
43100
43170
54180/54190
40020
32100
41080
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
40980
40820
43120
43190
43180
41080
40310
34220
3/6/17
*Leadscrew Body Part Numbers:
X-Axis (All)—50171/51171
Y-Axis, 5000-Series—50161/51161
Y-Axis, 5400-Series—54161/54170
Y-Axis, 2000-Series—56161/56151
40290
Leadscrew End Detail
Leadscrew Body*
34250
34230/34240
34210
40520
See Leadscrew Detail
34220
45020
34210
41130
90080
90060
43200 (Label)
40620 (US)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Euro.)
43140
43150
40660
40670
43460 43110 30220
43170
30230
40520
34260/34270
56160/56150
See Leadscrew Detail
40280
34250
40530
50170/51170 R/H
40510
50130/51130
40520
50910
50190
40690
50140/51140
40690
40660
40420
40160
40040
43230
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech. Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
.2
40670
45011/45161
34260/34270
34250
34410
40740
40660
40600
40176
35170
40510
56440
56450
50211
56230
56350
40340
40330
35160
56165
56330
56210
56470
50220
40165
40175/41175
Exploded View and Part Numbers
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
50920
40520
40520
Sherline Manual Model 2000/2010 Vertical Milling Machine
50930
Saddle Nut Assembly
40177 (Inch), 41177 (Metric) 40560
40550
1/8" Ball, P/N 40178
40570
Spring, P/N 22630
40580
X-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
40520
Mill Saddle Oiler Detail
Y-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
Sherline Manual Model 2000/2010 Vertical Milling Machine
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
FIGURE 95
X-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
-50-
56240
67153/67154
56700
56130
56770
56110
56550
56220
56400
56200
56230
40520
Mill Saddle Oiler Detail
Y-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
7.0
.69
.68
.67
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
6.0
.63
.59
.58
.57
.56
.55
.54
.52
.51
5.0
.53
.49
.48
.47
.46
.45
.44
.42
.41
4.0
.43
.39
.38
.37
.36
.35
.34
.32
.31
3.0
.33
.29
.28
.27
.26
.25
.24
.22
.21
2.0
.23
.19
.18
.17
40170/41170
.16
.15
.14
.12
.11
1.0
.13
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.1
0
40600
40690
67021
40600
40230
40320
40440
40420
40100
40540
40260
40520
50150
40520
50211
50150
50211
40520
(Nylon Button)
50930
40520 50920
50200/51200
40820
40990
45040
40760
40820
45070
40890/41890
40600
40980
67102
67120
67104
40520
67111
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
67115
40520
50240
40330
31080
43160
40980
40820
43130
40440
40670
43360
43100
67115
40520
67105
67111
67120
67102
67120
67111
40520
67105
67107/67109 L/H
3/6/17
67115
67120
67102
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
67111
34220
Adjustable “Zero” Handwheels
Standard Handwheels
X-Axis: 40080/41080
Y-Axis: 40050/41050
Z-Axis: 34000/34100
40520
67120
67106/67108 (RH)
12050 (3) 67111
+ 1 zip tie
41130
90080
90060
43200 (Label)
40620 (US)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Euro.)
43140
43150
40660
40670
43460 43110 30220
43170
30230
40520
43120
43190
43180
41080
34250
X-, Z-Axes: 34260/34270
34210
Y-Axis: 34230/34240
40520
56161/56171
50171/51171
43170
67051/67052
40020
32100
41080
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
40510
50130/51130
40520
50910
50190
40690
50140/51140
40690
40660
40420
40160
40040
43230
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech. Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
.2
40670
67030/67031
67120
67111
67105
40176 40600
35170
40510
56440
56450
50211
56230
56350
40340
40330
35160
56165
56330
40165
56210
56470
50220
40560
40550
40570
40580
40175/41175
40780
40150 40660
40173 44171
Exploded View and Part Numbers
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
50920
40520
40520
Sherline CNC-Ready Model 2000/2010 Vertical Milling Machine
50930
Sherline CNC-Ready Model 2000/2010 Vertical Milling Machine
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
FIGURE 96
40520
-51-
56230
50220
58011
50056
56140
56220
56400
56200
Saddle Nut Body
P/N 40179 (Inch)
P/N 41179 (Metric)
56210
56470
40177/41177
40760
50930
40520
50150
40520
40520
(Nylon Button)
40980
40820
43160
40280
34260/34270
34250
40530
43170
43360
43100
56190/56191
See Leadscrew Detail
40670
43130
40440
32100
41080
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
50172/51172 R/H
40020
54182
40690
40660
40420
40160
40040
40510
50130/51130
40520
50910
50190
40690
50140/51140
40230
40320
40440
40420
40100
40540
40260
50211
50150
50211
40520 50920
50200/51200
40690
40820
40990
45040
40330
31080
43230
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech. Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
40530
40900
45260
40600
45200
34060
40520
40600
45013
34220
50240
40820
45070
40890/41890
40600
50280
40980
40670
45270/45280
34260/34270
34250
34410
40740
40660
40600
40176
35170
40510
56440
56450
50211
56230
56350
40340
40330
35160
58165
56330
40165
40175/41175
Exploded View and Part Numbers
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
Sherline Manual Model 5800/5810 NexGen Vertical Mill
50220
Saddle Nut Assembly
40177 (Inch), 41177 (Metric) 40560
40550
1/8" Ball, P/N 40178
40570
Spring, P/N 22630
40580
X-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
40520
40520
50920
Mill Saddle Oiler Detail 50930
Y-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
34220
34250
34230/34240
34210
40520
3562
34220
See Leadscrew Detail
45020
34210
40310
3/6/17
*Leadscrew Body Part Numbers:
X-Axis (All)—50171/51171
Y-Axis, 5000-Series—50161/51161
Y-Axis, 5400-Series—54161/54170
Y-Axis, 2000-Series—56161/56151
40290
Leadscrew End Detail
Leadscrew Body*
41130
90080
90060
43200 (Label)
40620 (US)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Euro.)
43140
43150
40660
40670
43460 43110 30220
43170
30230
40520
43120
43190
43180
41080
Sherline Manual Model 5800/5810 Vertical Milling Machine
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
FIGURE 97
-52-
56240
58011
50056
56140
56230
40560
40550
40570
40580
56220
56400
56200
X-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
40520
Mill Saddle Oiler Detail
Y-Axis Slide Screw
Insert Lock Screw
56330
56210
56470
50220
40170/41170
56440
40760
40820
45070
40890/41890
40600
40980
40600
40820
40990
40520
50150
40520
40520
(Nylon Button)
40020
54182
40690
40660
40420
40160
40040
43160
40980
40820
40670
67120
67111
40520
67105
67107/67109 L/H
3562
34220
67115
67120
67102
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
67111
40520
34210
Adjustable “Zero” Handwheels
34250
X-, Z-Axes: 34260/34270
Y-Axis: 34230/34240
67111
41130
90080
90060
43200 (Label)
40620 (US)
40630 (UK)
40640 (Euro.)
43140
43150
40660
40670
43460 43110 30220
43170
30230
40520
43120
43190
43180
41080
3/6/17
67115
40520
67105
67111
Standard Handwheels
67120
X-Axis: 40080/41080
67102
67120
Y-Axis: 40050/41050
67106/67108 (RH)
Z-Axis: 34000/34100
40520
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
56192/56193
43170
43360
43100
43130
40440
32100
41080
45450 (Leesondiscontinued)
45470 (Hill House)
50173/51173
40510
50130/51130
40520
50910
50190
40690
50140/51140
40230
40320
40440
40420
40100
40540
40260
50211
50150
50211
45040
50930
40520 50920
50200/51200
40690
45261
67102
67120
40520
67111
12050 (3)
+ 1 zip tie
67115
40600
40520
50240
40330
31080
43230
SHERLINE PRODUCTS INC. • 3235 Executive Ridge • Vista • California 92081-8527 • FAX: (760) 727-7857
Toll Free Order Line: (800) 541-0735 • International/Local/Tech. Assistance: (760) 727-5857 • Internet: www.sherline.com
40510
40670
45290/45291
67120
67111
67105
40176 40600
35170
56450
50211
56230
56350
40340
40330
58165
35160
40165
40175/41175
40780
40150 40660
40173 44171
Exploded View and Part Numbers
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
50920
40520
40520
Sherline CNC-Ready Model 5800/5810 NexGen Vertical Mill
50930
Sherline CNC-Ready Model 5800/5810 Vertical Milling Machine
NOTE: Where different, Inch part number is given first, followed by Metric part number.
FIGURE 98
Machining Basics—Using the Handwheels
P
recision leadscrews and the handwheels that drive
them make it possible to produce highly accurate parts on
a mill or lathe. Here are some tips that should help first-time
machinists get off to a good start.
Handwheel Increments
The handwheels on Sherline machines are marked in increments
of one one-thousandth of an inch (.001") for inch models or
one one-hundredth of a millimeter (.01 mm) for metric models.
One turn of the handwheel causes the leadscrew to advance the
tool or part .050" (inch models) and 1 mm (metric models). The
leadscrews are precision rolled and are quite accurate. Therefore,
moving the handwheel three rotations, for example, moves that
axis exactly .150" (or .03 mm on metric machines). This precise
method of moving the tool or part is what makes it possible to
make accurate parts on a metalworking lathe or mill.
When advancing the crosslide handwheel to take a cut on the
lathe, keep in mind that the amount of metal removed is actually
twice the amount you dial in. You are removing a given amount
of material from the radius of the part, which means you are
actually removing twice that amount from the diameter of the
part. (Some lathes are set up with the crosslide feed reading the
amount the diameter is reduced, however, since it is possible
for Sherline lathes to also be used in a milling configuration
where the crosslide feed becomes the X-axis feed for milling,
this system was not used.)
Turning the Handwheels
Each handwheel has a small handle. This is mainly used to
advance the leadscrew quickly over long distances. When actually
making a cut, or at least when making the final cut on a part, most
machinists will turn the handwheel itself, using the outer surface
and alternating back and forth between hands to keep a smooth,
continuous feed going. On small machines, the handwheel is
turned by its outer knurled surface using the thumb and a finger
of one hand. Then, as that hand is released, the thumb and finger
of the other hand pick up the rotation. Using the handle on the
handwheel can introduce pushing and pulling motions that can
adversely affect the finish. (See Figure 86.)
FIGURE 86—A twohanded technique
for turning the
handwheels yields
a better final finish
on your part. Shown
in use here is an
adjustable “zero”
handwheel.
Adjustable “Zero” Handwheels
Adjustable handwheels are optional on all Sherline machines and
are standard on the deluxe models. The increments are marked
on a collar which can be disengaged from the handwheel and
reset to “zero” or any other desired setting. To release the collar,
turn the black, knurled release knob on the outer face of the
handwheel counter-clockwise. The collar can then be adjusted
without moving the handwheel itself. When reset to zero, carefully
retighten the black locking knob to reengage the collar and then
advance the handwheel. The advantage of this system is that it
can eliminate errors when “dialing in” a dimension, as you are
starting from zero each time, rather than adding one number to
another to come up with the next stopping point.
Sherline Machine Technical Specifications
LATHES
4400 (4410)
VERTICAL MILLS 5000 (5100) 5400 (5410)
Swing over bed
3.50" (90 mm)
3.50" (90 mm)
Swing over carriage
1.75" (45 mm)
1.75" (45 mm)
Distance between centers
8.00" (200 mm)
17.00" (430 mm)
Hole through spindle
.405" (10 mm)
.405" (10 mm)
Spindle nose ext. thread
3/4-16 T.P.I.
3/4-16 T.P.I.
Spindle nose int. taper
#1 Morse
#1 Morse
Travel of crosslide
3.25" (83 mm)
3.25" (83 mm)
Tailstock spindle taper
#0 Morse
#0 Morse
Protractor graduations
0° to 45° by 5°
0° to 45° by 5°
Handwheel graduations
.001" (.01 mm)
.001" (.01 mm)
Leadscrew Pitch
.050"/rev (1 mm/rev) .050"/rev (1 mm/rev)
Electronically controlled
spindle speed range
70 to 2800 RPM
70 to 2800 RPM
Length overall**
23" (584 mm)
32.5" (826 mm)
Width overall**
10.25" (260 mm)
10.55" (267 mm)
Height overall**
8" (203 mm)
8.5" (216 mm)
Shipping weight
24 lb. (10.9 kg)
30 lb. (13.6 kg)
4000 (4100)
Max. clearance,
table to spindle
8.00" (203 mm)
8.00" (203 mm)
Throat (no spacer)
2.25" (50 mm)
2.25" (50 mm)
(w/ headstock spacer)
(optional)
3.50" (90mm)
Travel, X-axis*
8.65" (220 mm)
8.65" (220 mm)
Travel, Y-axis
3.00" (76 mm)
5.00" (127 mm)
Travel, Z-axis*
6.25" (159 mm)
6.25" (159 mm)
Hole through spindle
.405" (10 mm)
.405" (10 mm)
Spindle nose ext. thread
3/4-16 T.P.I.
3/4-16 T.P.I.
Spindle nose int. taper
#1 Morse
#1 Morse
Handwheel graduations
.001" (.01 mm)
.001" (.01 mm)
Leadscrew Pitch
.050"/rev (1 mm/rev) .050"/rev (1 mm/rev)
Electronically controlled
spindle speed range
70 to 2800 RPM
70 to 2800 RPM
Width overall**
14.75" (375 mm)
15.00" (381 mm)
Depth overall**
11.75" (298 mm)
14.00" (356 mm)
Height overall (Max.)**
20.75" (527 mm)
20.75" (527 mm)
Table size
2.75" x 13.00"
2.75" x 13.00"
(70 mm x 330 mm) (70 mm x 330 mm)
Hold-down provision
2 T-slots
2 T-slots
Shipping weight
33 lb (15.0 kg)
36 lb (16.3 kg)
Movements in addition to Headstock rotation Headstock rotation
X-, Y- and Z-axes
(90° L/R)
(90° L/R)
Spindle Motor Specifications
Input voltage—100 to 240 VAC, 50 to 60 Hz
Output to motor—90 VDC
Current draw—.5 to 15 amps depending on load
No-load output shaft speed—6000 RPM (no pulley)
NOTE: Motor and speed control can be purchased separately.
Part numbers are as follows:
P/N 33050—DC Motor and Speed Control
P/N 33060— Headstock, DC Motor, Speed Control
* Standard dimensions listed. Optional longer tables and taller
columns with extra travel are available.
**All overall dimensions include motor and speed control.
-53-
2000 (2010)
5800 (5810)
9.00" (229 mm)
(Adjustable)
(Adjustable)
8.65" (220 mm)
7.00" (178 mm)
5.38" (137 mm)
.405" (10 mm)
3/4-16 T.P.I.
#1 Morse
.001" (.01 mm)
.050"/rev (1 mm/rev)
14.00" (356 mm)
(Adjustable)
(Adjustable)
13.65" (347 mm)
11.00" (279 mm)
9.38" (238 mm)
.405" (10 mm)
3/4-16 T.P.I.
#1 Morse
.001" (.01 mm)
.050"/rev (1 mm/rev)
70 to 2800 RPM
70 to 2800 RPM
15.00" (381 mm)
20.00 (508 mm)
22.25" (565 mm)
23.13" (588 mm)
23.38" (568 mm)
24.50" (622 mm)
2.75" x 13.00"
2.75" x 18.00"
(70 mm x 330 mm)
(70 x 457 mm)
2 T-slots
3 T-slots
38 lb (17.2 kg)
50 lb. (22.7 kg)
Headstock rotation
Headstock rotation
(90° L/R)
(90° L/R)
Column rotation (90° L/R) Column rotation (none)
Column pivot (90° Fwd/Bk) Column pivot (90° Fwd/Bk)
Column swing (90°L/R)
Column swing (90°L/R)
Col. travel (In/Out) 5.5"
Col. travel (In/Out) 5.5"
(140 mm)
(140 mm)
Sherline’s founder, Joe Martin, put together the ultimate book for the Sherline machinist...
This Book Gives You Not Just the “Hows,”
But Also the “Whys” of Machining
The Perfect “Next Step” Beyond this Instruction Book
Right now you are holding one of the most complete
instruction manuals ever given away with any machine tool,
regardless of size or price. However, as complete as it is, most
new machinists will have more
questions than can be answered
in a basic instruction guide. The
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Sherline’s founder, Joe Martin,
the chance to stretch out and
expand these basic instructions to
include much more detail on the
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the book can not provide stepby-step instructions for your
particular project, but rather it
concentrates on the basics of
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right facts, tips and techniques,
the machinist can then apply what
is learned to his particular needs.
Information is given on selecting
materials; using a lathe and a
mill; using measurement tools;
coolants; sharpening cutting tools;
using accessories for threading,
indexing and gear cutting; setting
up a home shop and much more.
Plans and instructions for several projects of varying levels
of difficulty are provided for beginning machinist so you
can get started.
Creative Inspiration as Well as Instruction
A gallery of photos of superb miniature projects will show
you what others have been able to produce using miniature
machine tools. Seeing these fine projects will set your mind
to work in all sorts of new directions. A history of Sherline
tools is also included. It is written from the point of view
of giving you some guidance if
you’ve ever thought of starting
your own business or taking a
product of your own to market.
Printing Quality You’d Expect
in a Book that Chronicles the
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This book will be equally at home
on your living room coffee table
or your shop workbench. Printed
on 350 pages of high quality,
glossy paper, this large 8.5" x 11"
softbound book is packed with
over 400 detail-rich color photos
and hundreds of informative line
drawings by former Sherline art
director and technical illustrator,
Craig Libuse. The “lay-flat”
binding makes it easy to read
and use as a reference in your
shop. The 12-point cover is
laminated with a plastic coating
to protect it. Both the quality of
the printing and the information
within have resulted in excellent reviews from customers
and magazine editors alike. If you like tools and working
on small, intricate projects, you should plan on adding this
book to your library.
P/N 5301 (Softbound)–$42.00
Enjoy the work of some of the world’s
best craftsmen at
www.CraftsmanshipMuseum .com
Sherline's factory and offices
in Vista, California, USA
3235 Executive Ridge, Vista, CA 92081-8527, USA
Toll Free Orders (USA): 1-800-541-0735 • Local/International/Technical Assistance: 1-760-727-5857
Fax: 1-760-727-7857 • Email: sherline@sherline.com
www.Sherline.com
Place orders 24 hours a day: www.SherlineDirect.com
Information, instructions, photos, dealers, prices:
Products Made in USA • Manual Printed In USA
1/8 scale running John Deere tractor model by
Jerry Kieffer, DeForest, WI.
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