SB-400 - Grease Monkey Road Squad

SB-400 - Grease Monkey Road Squad
SB-400
TK 51113-2-MM (Rev. 4, 04/05)
Copyright© 2001 Thermo King Corp., Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A. Printed in
U.S.A.
The maintenance information in this manual covers unit models:
System SB-400 30 (918593)
SB-400 (002004)
System SB-400 30 Tier 2 (920383)
SB-400 30 Tier 2 (002207)
For further information, refer to:
ThermoGuard µP-VI Microprocessor Controller Revision 43xx Software Diagnostic
Manual
TK 51329
SB-400 Refrigeration System Manual
TK 51696
SB-400 Operator’s Manual
TK 51212
SB-400 Parts Manual
TK 51356
SB-400 with Tier 2 Engine Parts Manual
TK 52933
DAS Data Acquisition System Manual
TK 50565
TK 482 and TK 486 Engine Overhaul Manual
TK 50136
S391 Screw Compressor Overhaul Manual
TK 50567
Tool Catalog
TK 5955
Evacuation Station Operation and Field Application
TK 40612
ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) Training Guide
TK 40282
The information in this manual is provided to assist owners, operators and service people in the proper upkeep
and maintenance of Thermo King units.
This manual is published for informational purposes only and the information so provided should
not be considered as all-inclusive or covering all contingencies. If further information is required,
Thermo King Corporation should be consulted.
Sale of product shown in this manual is subject to Thermo King’s terms and conditions
including, but not limited to, the Thermo King Limited Express Warranty. Such terms and
conditions are available upon request. Thermo King’s warranty will not apply to any
equipment which has been “so repaired or altered outside the manufacturer’s plants as,
in the manufacturer’s judgment, to effect its stability.”
No warranties, express or implied, including warranties of fitness for a particular
purpose or merchantability, or warranties arising from course of dealing or usage of
trade, are made regarding the information, recommendations, and descriptions
contained herein. Manufacturer is not responsible and will not be held liable in contract
or in tort (including negligence) for any special, indirect or consequential damages,
including injury or damage caused to vehicles, contents or persons, by reason of the
installation of any Thermo King product or its mechanical failure.
2
Recover Refrigerant
At Thermo King, we recognize the need to preserve the environment
and limit the potential harm to the ozone layer that can result from
allowing refrigerant to escape into the atmosphere.
We strictly adhere to a policy that promotes the recovery and limits
the loss of refrigerant into the atmosphere.
In addition, service personnel must be aware of Federal regulations
concerning the use of refrigerants and the certification of technicians.
For additional information on regulations and technician certification
programs, contact your local Thermo King dealer.
3
4
Table of Contents
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
General Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Battery Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Refrigerant Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Refrigerant Oil Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Electrical Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Low Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Microprocessor Service Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Welding Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
First Aid, Refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
First Aid, Refrigerant Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
First Aid, Engine Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Belt Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Refrigeration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Electrical Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
SMART REEFER µP-VI Microprocessor Temperature Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Design Features and Unit Photos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Serial Number Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Opening the Front Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Opening the Secondary Door Latch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Unit Photos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Maintenance Inspection Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Unit Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Diesel Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
SMART REEFER µP-VI Microprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
CYCLE-SENTRY Start-Stop Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Data Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
DAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Refrigeration System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Thermo King S391 Screw Compressor with Loading Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Refrigeration System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Sequence of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Special Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Auxiliary Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Compressor Temperature (CTMP) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Alarm Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5
Table of Contents
Operating Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
On/Off Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Optional On/Off/Sleep Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Computer Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Printer Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Unit Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Unit Protection Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Unit Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Manual Pretrip Inspection (Before Starting Unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Starting Unit With Electronic Full Pretrip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Selection of Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Restarting Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
After Start Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Loading Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Post Load Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Post Trip Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Electrical Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Alternator (Australian Bosch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Charging System Diagnostic Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Battery Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Unit Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Wire Harness Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Fuse Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Air Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
SMART REEFER µP-VI Microprocessor Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Engine Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Engine Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
EMI 3000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Engine Lubrication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Engine Oil Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Oil Filter Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Low Oil Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Engine Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
ELC (Extended Life Coolant) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Bleeding Air From The Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Engine Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Engine Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Fuel Line Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Fuel Return Line Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Bleeding The Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Draining Water from Fuel Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Fuel Filter/Water Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Fuel Filter/Water Separator Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Engine Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Injection Pump Timing Tier 1 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Injection Pump Timing Tier 2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Injection Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Injection Pump Reinstallation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Fuel Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Trochoid Feed Pump Tier 2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Cold Start Device Tier 2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
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Table of Contents
Engine Valve Clearance Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Crankcase Breather Tier 1 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) Tier 2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
EMI 3000 Air Cleaner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Air Restriction Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Starters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Alternator Belt Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Upper and Lower Fan Belt Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Fan Belt Removal and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Refrigeration Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Suction Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Refrigerant Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Testing The Refrigerant Charge With An Empty Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Testing The Refrigerant Charge With A Loaded Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Testing for an Overcharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Moisture Indicating Sight Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Refrigerant Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Compressor Shaft Seal Leak Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Oil Collection Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Checking Compressor Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Adding Compressor Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Compressor Pump Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Low Side Pump Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
High Pressure Cut In Switch (HPCI) Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
High Pressure Cutout Switch (HPCO) Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Three-Way Valve Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Pressure Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Loading Valve Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Liquid Line Solenoid Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Liquid Injection Valve Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Water Valve Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Heat Check Valve Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Test for Leaking Heat Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Test For Closed Heat Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Compressor Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Refrigeration Service Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Compressor Coupling Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Compressor Coupling Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Compressor Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
System Clean-up Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
System Clean-Up Procedure Using Internal Oil Filter Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
System Clean-Up Procedure Using Screw Compressor Clean-Up Kit P/N 204-920 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
In-line Condenser Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Condenser Check Valve Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Discharge Vibrasorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Receiver Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Filter Drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Evaporator Expansion Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Checking Evaporator Expansion Valve Superheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Evaporator Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Three-way Valve Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Removal/Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
End Cap Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Assembly/Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Three-Way Valve Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Pilot Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
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Table of Contents
Suction Vibrasorbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
High Pressure Cutout and High Pressure Cut In Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
High Pressure Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Liquid Line Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Subcooler/Condenser/Radiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Discharge Pressure Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Suction Pressure Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Economizer Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Economizer Expansion Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Checking Economizer Expansion Valve Superheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Heat Check Valve Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Heat Check Valve Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Liquid Injection Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Structural Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Unit and Engine Mounting Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Unit Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Condenser, Evaporator, And Radiator Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Defrost Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Unit Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Defrost Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Condenser and Evaporator Fan Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Condenser Fan Blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Evaporator Fan Blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Fan Shaft Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Fan Shaft Assembly Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Idler Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Idler Assembly Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Mechanical Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Refrigeration Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Refrigeration System Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Diagnostic Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Refrigeration Diagnosis Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Refrigeration Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Diagram Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
8
List of Figures
Figure 1: Compressor Serial Number Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 2: Unit Serial Number Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 3: Engine Serial Number Location Tier 1 Engine Shown Tier 2 Engine Similar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 4: Door Latch Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 5: Opening Secondary Door Latch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 6: Front View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figure 7: Back View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Figure 8: Front View with Doors Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Figure 9: Engine Compartment with Tier 1 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 10: Engine Compartment with Tier 2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Figure 11: Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Figure 12: SB-400 Front View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 13: TK486E Tier 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 14: TK486V Tier 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 15: Refrigeration System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Figure 16: High and Low Speed Cool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Figure 17: Modulated Cool with LV1 Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Figure 18: Running Null . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Figure 19: Low Speed Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Figure 20: Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Figure 21: On/Off/Sleep Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Figure 22: Check Points for Alternator Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Figure 23: Full Field Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Figure 24: Tier 1 Wire Harness Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Figure 25: Tier 2 Wire Harness Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Figure 26: Relay Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Figure 27: Air Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Figure 28: Tier 1 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Figure 29: Tier 2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Figure 30: ELC Nameplate Located On Expansion Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Figure 31: Engine Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Figure 32: Tier 1 Engine Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Figure 33: Tier 2 Engine Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Figure 34: Fuel Return Line Replacement Decal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Figure 35: Fuel Return Line Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Figure 36: Fuel Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Figure 37: Tier 1 Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Figure 38: Tier 2 Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Figure 39: Filling Fuel Filter/Water Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Figure 40: Tier 1 Engine Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Figure 41: Tier 2 Engine Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Figure 42: Component Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Figure 43: Top Dead Center One and Four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Figure 44: Timing Mark Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Figure 45: Correct Injection Timing Mark Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Figure 46: Tier 2 Index Mark Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Figure 47: Tier 2 Index Mark Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Figure 48: Marking Gear Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Figure 49: Place Injection Angle Sticker on Gear Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Figure 50: Injection Angle Sticker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
9
List of Figures
Figure 51: Removing Injection Pump Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 52: Injection Angle Mark Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 53: Injection Angle Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 54: Injection Pump Serial Number Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 55: Examples of Injection Pump Index Mark Alignment with Injection Angle Sticker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Figure 56: Timing Mark Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Figure 57: Align Flat Sides of Crankshaft Gear with Flat Sides of Inner Rotor in Timing Gear Cover . . . . . . . . 86
Figure 58: Tier 1 Index Mark Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 59: Tier 1 Index Mark Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 60: Tier 2 Index Mark Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 61: Tier 2 Index Mark Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 62: Injection Pump Gear Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Figure 63: Fuel Solenoid Location Tier 1 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Figure 64: Fuel Solenoid Location Tier 2 Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Figure 65: Fuel Solenoid Connector Pin Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Figure 66: Fuel Solenoid Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Figure 67: Trochoid Feed Pump Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Figure 68: Trochoid Feed Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Figure 69: Trochoid Feed Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Figure 70: Cold Start Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Figure 71: Remove Engine Coolant Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Figure 72: Remove Cold Start Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Figure 73: Clean Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Figure 74: Top Dead Center One and Four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Figure 75: Adjusting the Valve Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Figure 76: Tier 1 Crankcase Breather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Figure 77: Tier 2 PCV Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Figure 78: Tier 2 PCV System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Figure 79: EMI 3000 Air Cleaner Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Figure 80: EMI 3000 Air Filter Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Figure 81: Air Restriction Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Figure 82: Tier 1 Starter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Figure 83: Tier 2 Starter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Figure 84: Belt Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Figure 85: Condenser Blower Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Figure 86: Gauge Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Figure 87: Moisture Indicating Sight Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Figure 88: Oil Collection Bottle Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Figure 89: Oil Collection Bottle Tube Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Figure 90: Oil Collection Bottle Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Figure 91: Oil Collection Data Label P/N 92-3562 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Figure 92: Checking Compressor Oil Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Figure 93: High Pressure Cutout Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Figure 94: Three-way Valve Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Figure 95: Electronic Throttling Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Figure 96: Exploded View of LV1 and LV2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Figure 97: Water Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Figure 98: Remove Sump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Figure 99: Compressor Coupling Removal Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Figure 100: Keyway Tool P/N 204-972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
10
List of Figures
Figure 101: Compressor Coupling Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Figure 102: Screw Compressor Clean-Up Kit (P/N 204-920) Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Figure 103: Cross Section of In-line Condenser Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Figure 104: Evaporator Expansion Valve Feeler Bulb Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Figure 105: Three-Way Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Figure 106: Gasket Tool P/N 204-424 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Figure 107: Piston and Stem Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Figure 108: Check Bleed Hole Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Figure 109: Check Piston Bleed Orifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Figure 110: Check Seat Orifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Figure 111: Seal Installation with Tool P/N 204-1008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Figure 112: Teflon Check Valve Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Figure 113: Electronic Throttling Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Figure 114: Stepper Motor and Piston Assembly with Piston in Fully Open Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Figure 115: Economizer Expansion Valve Feeler Bulb Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Figure 116: Economizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Figure 117: Economizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Figure 118: Check Valve with Cap Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Figure 119: Liquid Injection Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Figure 120: Unit and Engine Mounting Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Figure 121: Defrost Damper Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Figure 122: Condenser Blower Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Figure 123: Evaporator Fan Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Figure 124: Fan Shaft Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Figure 125: Idler Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Figure 126: High and Low Speed Cool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Figure 127: Modulated Cool with LV1 Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Figure 128: Running Null . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Figure 129: Defrost and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
11
List of Figures
12
Safety Precautions
Thermo King recommends that all service be
performed by a Thermo King dealer. However,
you should be aware of several general safety
practices:
The
symbol appears next to a point that is
particularly important
DANGER: Denotes the possibility of
serious injury or death.
WARNING: Denotes the possibility of
serious equipment damage or serious
personal injury.
CAUTION: Denotes the possibility of
minor to severe equipment damage or
personal injury.
General Practices
DANGER: Avoid engine operation in
confined spaces and areas or
circumstances where fumes from the
engine could become trapped and cause
serious injury or death.
WARNING: Make sure your gauge
manifold hoses are in good condition
before using them. Never let them come in
contact with moving belts, fans, pulleys or
hot surfaces. Defective gauge equipment
can damage components or cause serious
injury.
WARNING: Always wear goggles or safety
glasses when working on a unit.
Refrigerant liquid, oil and battery acid can
permanently damage your eyes. See “First
Aid” on page 16.
DANGER: Do not operate the compressor
with the discharge service valve closed.
This condition increases internal pressure,
which can cause an explosion.
WARNING: Use extreme caution when
drilling holes in a unit. Holes might
weaken structural components. Holes
drilled into electrical wiring can cause a
fire or explosion.
DANGER: Never apply heat to a sealed
refrigeration system or container. Heat
increases internal pressure, which might
cause an explosion.
WARNING: Exposed coil fins can cause
lacerations. Service work on the
evaporator or condenser coils is best left to
a certified Thermo King technician.
DANGER: Refrigerant in the presence of
an open flame, spark or electrical short
produces toxic gases that are severe
respiratory irritants.
WARNING: Do not apply heat to a closed
cooling system. Before applying heat to a
cooling system, drain it. Then flush it with
water and drain the water. Antifreeze
contains water and ethylene glycol. The
ethylene glycol is flammable and can
ignite if the antifreeze is heated enough to
boil off the water.
DANGER: Keep your hands, clothing and
tools clear of fans when working on a unit
that is running. Loose clothing might
entangle moving pulleys or belts, causing
serious injury or possible death.
DANGER: Do not inhale refrigerant. Use
caution when working with refrigerant or
a refrigeration system in any confined
area with a limited air supply, such as a
cargo area or garage. Refrigerant
displaces air and can cause oxygen
depletion, resulting in suffocation and
possible death.
WARNING: Be careful when using
ladders or scaffolding to install or service
a unit. Observe the manufacture’s safety
labels and warnings.
CAUTION: Make sure all mounting bolts
are tight and are the correct length for
their applications. Improper torque and
incorrect bolt lengths can damage
equipment.
13
Safety Precautions
NOTE: In the USA, EPA Section 608
Certification is required to work on refrigeration
systems.
Battery Removal
DANGER: Disconnect the negative
battery terminal (-) first when removing a
battery. Connect the positive terminal (+)
first when installing a battery.
This order is important because the frame is
grounded to the negative battery terminal. If the
negative terminal is still connected, a complete
circuit exists from the positive terminal of the
battery to the frame. Metal objects contacting the
positive side and the frame simultaneously will
cause sparks or arcing. If there are sufficient
hydrogen gases emitted from the battery, an
explosion might occur, causing equipment
damage, serious injury, even death.
Refrigerant Hazards
DANGER: Do not use a Halide torch.
When a flame comes in contact with
refrigerant, toxic gases are produced.
These gases can cause suffocation, even
death.
DANGER: Store refrigerant in proper
containers, out of direct sunlight and away
from intense heat. Heat increases pressure
inside storage containers, which can cause
them to burst.
DANGER: Do not use oxygen (O2 ) or
compressed air for leak testing. Oxygen
mixed with refrigerant is combustible.
WARNING: Wear butyl lined gloves when
handling refrigerant to help prevent
frostbite.
CAUTION: Refrigerant in a liquid state
evaporates rapidly when exposed to the
atmosphere, freezing anything it contacts.
Be careful when handling refrigerant to
protect your skin from frostbite.
14
CAUTION: When being transferred,
refrigerant must be in liquid state to avoid
possible equipment damage.
CAUTION: When transferring
refrigerant, use a process that prevents or
greatly restricts refrigerant from escaping
into the atmosphere. Refrigerant damages
the earth’s upper ozone layer.
Refrigerant Oil Hazards
WARNING: Protect your eyes from
contact with refrigerant oil. The oil can
cause serious eye injuries. Avoid
prolonged or repeated contact with
refrigerant oil. To prevent irritation, wash
your hands and clothing thoroughly after
handling the oil.
CAUTION: Use the correct oil in Thermo
King systems to avoid damaging
equipment and invalidating its warranty.
CAUTION: Do not mix refrigerant oils
because that can cause system damage.
CAUTION: Use dedicated equipment to
prevent contaminating systems with the
wrong type of oil.
CAUTION: Store refrigerant oil in an
approved sealed container to avoid
moisture contamination.
CAUTION: Do not expose the refrigerant
oil to the air any longer than necessary.
The oil will absorb moisture, which results
in much longer evacuation times and
possible system contamination.
CAUTION: Wipe up spills immediately.
Refrigerant oil can damage paints and
rubber materials.
Safety Precautions
Electrical Hazards
•
Avoid unnecessary contact with the electronic
components.
Low Voltage
•
Store and ship electronic components in
antistatic bags and protective packaging.
•
Leave electronic components in their antistatic
packing materials until you’re ready to use
them.
•
After servicing any electronic components,
check the wiring for possible errors before
restoring power to the unit.
•
Never use a battery and a light bulb to test
circuits on any microprocessor-based
equipment.
WARNING: Control circuits used in
refrigeration units are low voltage (12 to
24 volts dc). This voltage is not dangerous,
but the large amount of amperage
available from the alternator can cause
severe burns if accidentally shorted to
ground with metal objects, such as tools.
WARNING: Do not wear jewelry, watches
or rings because they increase the risk of
shorting out electrical circuits and
damaging equipment or causing severe
burns.
Microprocessor Service
Precautions
Take precautions to prevent electrostatic
discharge when servicing the microprocessor and
its related components. Even tiny amounts of
current can severely damage or destroy electronic
components.
Observe the following precautions when servicing
a microprocessor control system to avoid
damaging electronic components. Refer to the
appropriate microprocessor diagnosis manual and
the Electrostatic Discharge Training Guide (TK
40282) for more information.
Welding Precautions
Take precautions before electrically welding any
portion of the unit or the vehicle to which it is
attached. Ensure that welding currents are not
allowed to flow through the unit’s electronic
circuits.
Observe the following precautions when welding
to avoid damaging electronic components.
•
If the microprocessor has a power switch, turn
it OFF before connecting or disconnecting the
battery.
•
Disconnect power to the unit.
•
Disconnect all wire harnesses from the
microprocessor.
•
If the microprocessor has a power switch, turn
it OFF before connecting or disconnecting the
battery.
•
If there are any electrical circuit breakers in
the control box, switch them OFF.
•
Disconnect power to the unit.
•
Close the control box.
•
Avoid wearing clothing that generates static
electricity (wool, nylon, polyester, etc.).
•
Components that could be damaged by
welding sparks should be removed from the
unit.
•
Wear a wrist strap (P/N 204-622 or its
equivalent) with the lead end connected to the
microprocessor’s ground terminal. These
straps are available from most electronic
equipment distributors. DO NOT wear these
straps with power applied to the unit.
•
Use normal welding procedures, but keep the
ground return electrode as close to the area
being welded as practical. This will reduce the
likelihood of stray welding currents passing
through any electronic circuits.
15
Safety Precautions
First Aid
First Aid, Refrigerant Oil
First Aid, Refrigerant
EYES : Immediately flush with water for at least
15 minutes. CALL A PHYSICIAN. Wash skin
with soap and water.
In the event of frostbite, protect the frozen area
from further injury, warm the area rapidly and
maintain respiration.
EYES : For contact with liquid, immediately flush
INGESTION: Do not induce vomiting.
Immediately contact local poison control center or
physician.
eyes with large amounts of water. CALL A
PHYSICIAN.
First Aid, Engine Coolant
SKIN: Flush
area with large amounts of warm
water. Do not apply heat. Remove contaminated
clothing and shoes. Wrap burns with dry, sterile,
bulky dressing to protect from infection. CALL A
PHYSICIAN. Wash contaminated clothing before
reuse.
INHALATION: Move
victim to fresh air and use
CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation) or
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to restore breathing,
if necessary. Stay with victim until emergency
personnel arrive.
16
EYES : Immediately flush with water for at least
15 minutes. CALL A PHYSICIAN. Wash skin
with soap and water.
INGESTION: Do not induce vomiting.
Immediately contact local poison control center or
physician.
Specifications
Engine
Model:
Ending Second Quarter 2005
Starting Second Quarter 2005
TK486E (Tier 1)
TK486V (Tier 2)
See “Diesel Engine” on page 33 and the photos on page 33
to identify the engine in the unit.
Number of Cylinders
4
Cylinder Arrangement
In-line vertical, number 1 on flywheel end
Firing Order
1-3-4-2
Direction of Rotation
Counterclockwise viewed from flywheel end
Fuel Type
No. 2 diesel fuel under normal conditions
No. 1 diesel fuel is acceptable cold weather fuel
Oil Capacity
13 quarts (12.3 liters) crankcase
Fill to full mark on dipstick
Oil Type
API Classification CI-4 or better
(ACEA Rating E3 or better for Europe)
Oil Viscosity
5 to 122 F (-15 to 50 C): SAE 15W-40
-13 to 104 F (-25 to 40 C): SAE 10W-40
-13 to 86 F (-25 to 30 C): SAE 10W-30
-22 to 32 F (-30 to 0 C): SAE 5W-30
Engine rpm:
Low Speed Operation
High Speed Operation
1450 ± 25 rpm
2200 ± 25 rpm
Engine Oil Pressure
18 psi (127 kPa) minimum in low speed
45 to 57 psi (310 to 390 kPa) in high speed
Intake Valve Clearance
0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm)
Exhaust Valve Clearance
0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm)
Valve Setting Temperature
70 F (21 C)
Fuel Injection Timing:
TK486E (Tier 1)
TK486V (Tier 2)
10 degrees BTDC (timed on No. 1 cylinder)
See “Injection Pump Timing Tier 2 Engine” on page 84
Fuel Injection Nozzle Opening Pressure:
TK486E (Tier 1)
TK486V (Tier 2)
2,800 to 3,000 psi (19,600 to 20,600 kPa)
3,100 to 3,300 psi (21,600 to 22,600 kPa)
Low Oil Pressure Switch (Normally Closed)
17 ± 3 psi (117 ± 21 kPa)
Engine Coolant Thermostat
180 F (82 C)
17
Specifications
Engine
ELC (Extended Life Coolant), which is “RED”
Use a 50/50 concentration of any of the following
equivalents:
Chevron Dex-Cool
Texaco ELC
Havoline Dex-Cool®
Havoline XLC for Europe
Shell Dexcool®
Shell Rotella
Saturn/General Motors Dex-Cool®
Caterpillar ELC
Detroit Diesel POWERCOOL® Plus
Engine Coolant Type
CAUTION: Do not add “GREEN” or “BLUE-GREEN”
conventional coolant to cooling systems using “RED”
Extended Life Coolant, except in an emergency. If
conventional coolant is added to Extended Life Coolant,
the coolant must be changed after 2 years instead of
5 years.
Coolant System Capacity
7.5 quarts (7.1 liters)
Radiator Cap Pressure
7 psi (48 kPa)
Drive
Direct to compressor; belts to fans, alternator and water
pump
Belt Tension
Belt
Tension No. on TK Gauge P/N 204-427
Alternator Belt
61
Lower Fan Belt (Engine to Idler)
67
Upper Fan Belt (Fan to Idler)
74
Refrigeration System
Compressor
Thermo King S391
Refrigerant Charge—Type
19 lb (8.6 kg)—R-404A
Compressor Oil Charge
2.8 quarts (2.7 liters)*
Compressor Oil Type
Ester type P/N 203-515
Electronic Throttling Valve Setting
Variable
Heat/Defrost Method
Hot gas
High Pressure Cut In (Backup for
Discharge Pressure Transducer):
High Pressure Cutout
Opens
325 ± 10 psi (2241 ± 69 kPa)
Closes
425 ± 10 psi (2930 ± 69 kPa)
470 +7/-35 psi (3241 +48/-241 kPa)
Automatic reset @ 375 ± 38 psi (2586 ± 262 kPa)
* This is the total oil charge. It includes the oil in the compressor and the oil in the refrigeration system.
The actual oil charge in the compressor alone is considerably less. The top of the compressor sight
glass corresponds to approximately 1.4 quarts (1.3 liters). The bottom of the compressor sight glass
corresponds to approximately 0.9 quarts (0.8 liters). When the compressor is removed from the unit, the
oil level should be noted or the oil removed from the compressor should be measured so that the same
amount of oil can be added before placing the replacement compressor in the unit.
18
Specifications
Electrical Control System
Voltage
12.5 Vdc
Battery
One, group C31, 12 volt, (950 CCA recommended for
operation below -15 F [-26 C])
Fuse F3—Power to Defrost Relay/Damper
15 amp
Fuse F9—Main Control Power
40 amp
Fuse F18—Power to Throttle Solenoid
15 amp
Fuse F21—Power to On/Off Switch
25 amp
Other Fuses
2, 3, or 5 amp
Battery Charging
12 volt, 37 amp, brush type alternator
Voltage Regulator Setting
13.8 to 14.2 volts @ 77 F (25 C)
NOTE: Fuse F15 (Bypass Resistor for Prestolite Alternator) must be removed for the Bosch Alternator.
The Bosch alternator has the word “BOSCH” on the end opposite the pulley (see Figure 23 on page 66).
19
Specifications
Electrical Components
NOTE: Disconnect components from unit circuit to check resistance.
Component
Fuel Solenoid:
Pull-in Coil
Hold-in Coil
Current Draw (Amps)
at 12.5 Vdc
Resistance—Cold
(Ohms)
35 to 45
0.5
0.2 to 0.3
24 to 29
Damper Solenoid
5.7
2.2
High Speed (Throttle) Solenoid
2.9
4.3
Intake Air Heater
89
0.14
Liquid Line Solenoid
1.3
9.6
Loading Valve #1 (Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
1.25
10.0
Loading Valve #2
1.25
10.0
Water Valve Solenoid
1.25
10.0
Pilot Solenoid
0.7
17.0
Liquid Injection Valve
1.25
10.0
Coil A (Red and Blue Wires)
—
20 to 35
Coil B (Black and White Wires)
—
20 to 35
Electronic Throttling Valve:
Starter Motor:
TK486E (Tier 1)
TK486V (Tier 2)
250-375*
350-475*
* On-the-engine cranking check. Bench test is approximately 140 amps.
SMART REEFER µP-VI Microprocessor Temperature Controller
Temperature Controller
Electronic THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor with
digital thermostat, thermometer and fault indicator monitor
Setpoint Range
Factory default setting -20 to 80 F (-29 to 27 C)
Programmable setpoint range -25 to 90 F (-32 to 32 C)
Digital Temperature Display
-40 to 99.9 F (-40 to 40 C)
Internal Defrost Timer:
2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours (selectable, standard setting 4)
Temperature Pulldown
Temperature In-range
4, 6, 8 or 12 hours (selectable, standard setting 6)
Defrost Initiation
Coil temperature must be below 45 F (7 C)
Defrost Termination
Terminates defrost at coil temperature above 57 F (14 C)
Defrost Interval Timer
Terminates defrost 30 to 45 minutes (programmable) after
initiation if coil sensor has not terminated defrost
20
Design Features and Unit Photos
Unit Model
SB-400 30
(002004)
Unit Model
SB-400 30 Tier 2
(002207)
TK486E (Tier 1) Diesel Engine
•
—
TK486V (Tier 2) Diesel Engine
—
•
S391 Compressor with Ester Base Compressor Oil
•
•
Top Mount Muffler
•
•
Low Noise Acoustical Design Grille
•
•
Stainless Steel Exterior Condenser Hardware
•
•
Stainless Steel Evaporator Hardware
•
•
Tapered Roller Bearing Fanshaft and Idler
•
•
Premium Drive Belts
•
•
3000 Hour Cyclonic Air Cleaner and Filter Inside Unit Frame
•
•
SMART REEFER µP-VI Microprocessor Controller
•
•
Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV)
•
•
3000 Hour Fuel Filter/Water Separator
•
•
3000 Hour Dual Lube Oil Filter
•
•
Side Mount Coolant Expansion Tank
•
•
12,000 Hour (Service Interval) Coolant
•
•
Defrost Timer
•
•
CYCLE-SENTRY System
•
•
37 Amp Alternator
•
•
Refrigerant R-404A
•
•
Silicone Coolant Hoses
•
•
Remote Status Light
•
•
Communications (Data Logging)
•
•
DAS (Data Acquisition System)
•
•
Sleep Mode Easy Switch
Opt
Opt
Fuel Heater
Opt
Opt
Frost Plug Heater
Opt
Opt
Design Features
65 Amp Alternator
Opt
Opt
Fresh Air Exchange
Opt
Opt
Chrome Grills
Opt
Opt
Remote Controls
Opt
Opt
TM
Opt
Opt
Satellite Communications System
Opt
Opt
Thermo King Bulkhead and Duct System
Opt
Opt
Dealer Installed Synthetic Engine Oil
Opt
Opt
R:COM
Automatic Data Transmission System
21
Design Features and Unit Photos
Serial Number Locations
Unit: Nameplates
on the on the bulkhead above
compressor inside the curbside door, and on the
top, roadside corner of evaporator.
Engine: Stamped
1
on an nameplate on the valve
cover.
Compressor: Stamped
on the plate above the oil
level sight glass.
1
1.
Serial Number Location
Figure 2: Unit Serial Number Locations
1
1
1.
Serial Number Location
Figure 1: Compressor Serial Number Location
1.
Serial Number Location
Figure 3: Engine Serial Number Location
Tier 1 Engine Shown Tier 2 Engine Similar
22
Design Features and Unit Photos
Opening the Front Doors
Pull the door latch handle to open the doors and
access the engine compartment. Slam the door to
close it. Do not push the door closed while
holding the door latch handle open or the door
will not close properly.
1
2
1.
Door Latch
2.
Secondary Door Latch Nameplate
Figure 4: Door Latch Location
Opening the Secondary Door Latch
Later model units are equipped with a secondary
door latch. These units also have a secondary door
latch nameplate located below the front doors.
After opening the door latch, reach between the
front doors and lift the spring latch over the spring
catch while opening the door.
1
2
1.
Spring Latch
2.
Spring Catch
Figure 5: Opening Secondary Door Latch
23
Design Features and Unit Photos
Unit Photos
Figure 6: Front View
24
Design Features and Unit Photos
1
3
2
1.
Defrost Damper
2.
S391 Compressor
3.
TK 486 Engine
Figure 7: Back View
25
Design Features and Unit Photos
1
2
3
11
4
5
10
9
6
7
8
1.
Top Access Door
7.
TK486E Engine (Other Engine Similar)
2.
Condenser Fan
8.
S391 Compressor
3.
Radiator Cap (Coolant Fill)
9.
Fuel Filter
4.
Expansion Tank
10.
Air Cleaner
5.
Subcooler/Condenser/Radiator Coil
11.
Top Access Door Pull Down Strap
6
Top Access Door Latch Handle
Figure 8: Front View with Doors Open
26
Design Features and Unit Photos
1
19
18
2
17
3
16
4
15
5
14
6
13
11
12
10
9
8
1.
Alternator
11.
Engine RPM Sensor
2.
Three-way Valve
12.
Economizer Suction Service Valve
3.
Filter Drier
13.
Loading Valve #1
4.
Receiver Tank Sight Glass
14.
Loading Valve #2
5.
Fuel Injection Pump (In-Line)
15.
Discharge Service Valve
6.
Hand Primer Pump
16.
Suction Service Valve
7.
Battery Tray
17.
Suction Access Port
8.
Oil Dipstick
18.
Throttle Solenoid
9.
Low Oil Level Switch
19.
Air Restriction Indicator
10.
Oil Filter
7
Figure 9: Engine Compartment with Tier 1 Engine
27
Design Features and Unit Photos
19
1
18
2
3
17
4
16
5
15
6
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
1.
Alternator
11.
Engine RPM Sensor
2.
Three-way Valve
12.
Oil Collection Bottle
3.
Filter Drier
13.
Economizer Suction Service Valve
4.
Receiver Tank Sight Glass
14.
Loading Valve #1
5.
Fuel Injection Pump (Mono-Plunger and Distributor) 15.
Loading Valve #2
6.
Hand Primer Pump
16.
Discharge Service Valve
7.
Battery Tray
17.
Suction Service Valve
8.
Oil Dipstick
18.
Throttle Solenoid
9.
Low Oil Level Switch
19.
Air Restriction Indicator
10.
Oil Filter
Figure 10: Engine Compartment with Tier 2 Engine
28
7
Design Features and Unit Photos
1
2
5
3
4
1.
Display
2.
Microprocessor Control Panel
3.
Computer Port
4.
Printer Port
5.
On/Off Switch
Figure 11: Control Panel
29
Design Features and Unit Photos
30
Maintenance Inspection Schedule
Pretrip
Every
1,500
Hours
Every
3,000
Hours*
Annual/
4,500 Inspect/Service These Items
Hours
Microprocessor
•
Run Pretrip Test (refer to Pretrip Test in the Operating Manual).
Engine
•
Check fuel supply.
•
Check engine oil level.
•
•
•
•
Inspect belts for condition and proper tension (belt tension tool
No. 204-427).
•
•
•
•
Check engine oil pressure hot, on high speed (should display “OK”).
•
•
•
•
Listen for unusual noises, vibrations, etc.
•
•
Check air cleaner restriction indicator (change filter when indicator
reaches 25 in.). Replace EMI 3000 air cleaner element (see “EMI
3000 Air Cleaner” on page 97) at 3,000 hours or two years (whichever
occurs first) if indicator has not reached 25 in.
•
•
•
Drain water from fuel tank and check vent.
•
•
•
Inspect/clean fuel transfer pump inlet strainer (prefilter).
•
•
•
Check and adjust engine speeds (high and low speed).
•
Check engine mounts for wear.
•
Replace fuel filter/water separator.
•
Change engine oil and filter (hot). Requires oil with API Rating CI-4 or
better (ACEA Rating E3 for Europe).
—
Change ELC (red) engine coolant every 5 years or 12,000 hours.
Units equipped with ELC have an ELC nameplate on the expansion
tank (see page 72).
—
Test fuel injection nozzles at least every 10,000 hours.
—
Replace fuel return lines between fuel injection nozzles every 10,000
hours.
Electrical
•
•
•
•
Inspect battery terminals and electrolyte level.
•
•
•
Inspect wire harness for damaged wires or connections.
•
•
•
Check operation of damper door (closes on defrost initiation and
opens on defrost termination).
•
Inspect alternator wire connections for tightness.
Refrigeration
•
•
•
•
Check refrigerant level.
•
Check compressor oil level and condition.
•
Check compressor efficiency and pump down refrigeration system.
—
Replace dehydrator and check discharge and suction pressure every
two (2) years.
*3,000 hours or two years, whichever occurs first.
31
Maintenance Inspection Schedule
Pretrip
Every
1,500
Hours
Every
3,000
Hours*
Annual/
4,500 Inspect/Service These Items
Hours
•
•
•
•
Visually inspect unit for fluid leaks.
•
•
•
•
Visually inspect unit for damaged, loose or broken parts (includes air
ducts and bulkheads).
•
•
•
Inspect tapered roller bearing fanshaft and idlers for leakage and
bearing wear (noise).
•
•
•
Clean entire unit including condenser and evaporator coils and defrost
drains.
•
•
•
Check all unit and fuel tank mounting bolts, brackets, lines, hoses, etc.
•
•
•
Check evaporator damper door adjustment and operation.
Structural
*3,000 hours or two years, whichever occurs first.
32
Unit Description
General Description
The SB-400 is a one-piece, self-contained, diesel
powered refrigeration-heating unit. The unit
mounts on the front of the trailer with the
evaporator portion extending into the trailer. The
unit uses hot gas to heat and defrost.
There are some other differences (see “Engine
Change” on page 69), but the periodic
maintenance is the same. See “Maintenance
Inspection Schedule” on page 31.
1
1.
In-Line Injection Pump
Figure 13: TK486E Tier 1
Figure 12: SB-400 Front View
Diesel Engine
1
Power is provided by an engine from the TK486
engine family. The Thermo King TK486 family of
engines are 4-cylinder, water cooled, direct
injection diesel engines. The engine is coupled
directly to the compressor. Belts transmit power to
the unit fans, alternator, and water pump.
In the second quarter of 2005 the engines in these
units changed from a TK486E to a TK486V to
meet EPA Tier 2 requirements.
The TK486E is an EPA Tier 1 engine.
The TK486V is an EPA Tier 2 engine.
1.
Mono-Plunger and Distributor Injection Pump
Figure 14: TK486V Tier 2
The main difference between a Tier 1 engine and
a Tier 2 engine is the fuel injection pump (see the
following photographs). The Tier 1 engines use an
in-line injection pump. The Tier 2 engines use a
mono-plunger and distributor injection pump. The
mono-plunger and distributor injection pump uses
a higher injection pressure than the in-line
injection pump. The higher injection pressure
atomizes the fuel more efficiently, which reduces
the emissions.
33
Unit Description
SMART REEFER µP-VI
Microprocessor
The SMART REEFER µP-VI is a microprocessor
control system designed for a transport
refrigeration system. The µP-VI integrates the
following functions: thermostat, digital
thermometer, hourmeters, oil pressure condition,
water temperature gauge, ammeter, voltmeter,
tachometer, mode indicator, refrigeration system
controller, and diagnostic system.
The CYCLE-SENTRY system, an integral defrost
timer, data logging, and remote status lights are
standard features. Remote controls are an optional
feature.
The microprocessor mounts inside a weather tight
control box. The LCD display is clearly visible
through a transparent cover. Opening the keypad
door provides quick access to the microprocessor
keypad. The keypad is used to control the
operation of the microprocessor.
CYCLE-SENTRY Start-Stop Controls
A CYCLE-SENTRY Start-Stop fuel saving
system provides optimum operating economy.
WARNING: With the unit On/Off switch
in the On position, the unit may start at
anytime without prior warning.
NOTE: A buzzer sounds when the unit is
automatically preheating.
NOTE: The microprocessor has an OptiSet™
feature, which can lockout CYCLE-SENTRY
operation and force Continuous Run within a
programmable range of setpoints. If this feature
is active and the setpoint is within the
programmed lockout range, the
CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will flash while the
unit is automatically starting. After the unit
starts, the CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will
disappear and the unit will operate in
Continuous Run as long as the setpoint is within
the programmed lockout range. Refer to the
appropriate THERMOGUARD Microprocessor
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the OptiSet™ feature.
34
The CYCLE-SENTRY system automatically
starts the unit on microprocessor demand, and
shuts down the unit when all demands are
satisfied. In addition to maintaining the box
temperature, engine block temperature and battery
charge levels are monitored and maintained. If the
block temperature falls below 30 F (-1 C), the
engine will start and run until the block
temperature is above 90 F (32 C). If the battery
voltage falls to the programmed limit selected by
CYCLE-SENTRY Battery Voltage (typically 12.2
volts) and Diesel CYCLE-SENTRY mode is
selected, the engine will start and run until the
charge rate falls below that programmed by
CYCLE-SENTRY Amps (typically 5 amperes).
Features of the CYCLE-SENTRY system are:
•
Offers either CYCLE-SENTRY or
Continuous Run operation.
•
Microprocessor controlled all season
temperature control.
•
Maintains minimum engine temperature in
low ambient conditions.
•
Battery Sentry keeps batteries fully charged
during unit operation.
•
Variable preheat time.
•
Preheat indicator buzzer.
Unit Description
Data Logging
Tracker
Data logging is a part of the microprocessor that
records operating events, alarm codes and
compartment temperatures as they occur and at
preset intervals. Because the unit is also equipped
with a DAS, this trip data is retrieved with the
data logged in the DAS (see DAS below).
Tracker is a part of the microprocessor that
interfaces a satellite communication system (SCS)
located in the tractor. The Tracker and the SCS are
connected with a data cable. The Tracker
transmits data (recorded in the microprocessor)
through the SCS to a central location for
processing. The Tracker transmits data at preset
intervals or on demand depending on the type of
SCS. Data can also be transmitted through a
Tracker to the microprocessor with some systems.
DAS
The DAS (Data Acquisition System) is an
independent data logger that logs information
from dedicated external DAS sensors and inputs.
The DAS features up to six directly connected
sensors. The DAS is also connected through a
serial port to the unit microprocessor. This allows
unit operating information to be logged as well.
The data can be retrieved using an IBM® PC
compatible laptop or desktop computer and
Thermo King WinTrac 4.1 (or higher) software.
The computer is connected to the Computer Port
on the front of the control box. Detailed graph or
table trip reports can then be created. A brief
graphical or tabular report can be printed on a
compatible printer (P/N 204-844 or
P/N 204-1020). The printer is connected to the
Printer Port on the front of the control box. Refer
to the DAS Data Acquisition System Manual
TK 50565 for more information.
Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV)
The Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV) is a
variable position valve operated by a stepper
motor. The ETV is located in the suction line near
the evaporator outlet. Discharge and suction
pressure transducers supply pressure information
to the microprocessor control system. The
microprocessor controls the ETV directly, and
uses the ETV to control the refrigerant flow from
the evaporator. The ETV replaces both the
throttling valve and the modulation valve used in
other units.
35
Unit Description
Refrigeration System Components
1.
Compressor
21.
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid (Normally Open)
2.
Discharge Check Valve (Internal)
22.
Drain Pan Heater
3.
Discharge Service Valve
23.
Heat Coil*
4.
Discharge Vibrasorber
24.
Evaporator Coil*
5.
PS—Pilot Solenoid (Normally Closed)
25.
Expansion Valve (Main Evaporator)
6.
Discharge Pressure Transducer
26.
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
7.
Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve
27.
Heating Bypass Orifice
8.
Three-way Valve
28.
Suction Pressure Transducer
9.
Condenser Coil
29.
Main Suction Vibrasorber
10.
Condenser Check Valve
30.
Suction Pressure Access Port
11.
Heat Check Valve
31.
Main Suction Service Valve
12.
Receiver Tank
32.
LV2—Loading Valve #2 (Normally Open)
13.
High Pressure Relief Valve
33.
LV1—Loading Valve #1 (Economizer Bypass
Solenoid, Normally Open)
14.
Receiver Tank Sight Glass
34.
Economizer Suction Service Valve
15.
Receiver Tank Outlet Valve
35.
Economizer Suction Vibrasorber
16.
Subcooler (Part of Condenser)
36.
EWSV—Water Valve (Normally Closed)
17.
Dehydrator (Drier)
37.
High Pressure Cutout Switch (HPCO)
18.
Expansion Valve (Economizer)
38.
High Pressure Cut-In Switch (HPCI)
19.
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve (Normally Closed)
39.
Compressor Temperature Sensor
20.
Economizer Heat Exchanger
* The evaporator coil, even though it is built as a unit, is divided into two separate circuits, one is used during
heating and defrost and one during cooling.
Components Shown in Figure 15 on page 37
36
Unit Description
From
Engine
To
Engine
Figure 15: Refrigeration System Components
37
Unit Description
Thermo King S391 Screw
Compressor with Loading Valves
Refrigeration System
The unit features a Thermo King S391 screw
compressor with loading valves. Some of the
characteristics of this screw compressor are:
The S391 screw compressor refrigeration system
is different from the reciprocating compressor
refrigeration system. Some of the characteristics
of the screw compressor refrigeration system are:
•
It does not have an oil pump.
•
It has no accumulator tank.
•
It has an oil separator and an oil sump on the
discharge side.
•
It has no suction gas/high pressure liquid heat
exchanger.
•
It has two suction connections and one
discharge connection.
•
•
It will not maintain a pressure differential
across itself during shutdown, but has an
internal discharge check valve to slow
equalization.
It has a subcooler that removes heat from the
liquid refrigerant after the refrigerant leaves
the receiver tank.
•
It has an economizer type system that precools
liquid refrigerant going to the cooling coil.
•
It has two expansion valves.
•
It requires a special pump down procedure.
•
It has been improved with an internal
discharge check valve and ported to accept
loading valve assemblies.
NOTE: It cannot be replaced with a standard
S391 (P/N 102-651) non-loading valve screw
compressor.
•
It has two loading valves. Each loading valve
bypasses pressure until its coil is energized,
then pressure forces a piston to close the port.
This lengthens the distance the refrigerant
must travel up the rotor, thus increasing the
volume of gas that is compressed.
•
LV1 (Loading Valve #1) performs the same
function as the Economizer Bypass Solenoid
used in earlier screw compressor systems, but
it is internal to the compressor.
•
LV2 (Loading Valve #2) is de-energized to
further reduce capacity when minimal cooling
is required.
•
38
The engine and compressor start with the
compressor unloaded (both loading valves
de-energized), under a low horsepower/fuel
demand for fuel efficiency. Once flow through
the compressor is established, LV2 is
energized. Then LV1 is energized for full
capacity.
— One for the evaporator coil
— One for the economizer. This is a
Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP)
expansion valve. The MOP is set at 50 psi
(345 kPa). See “Suction Pressures” on
page 103 for more information.
•
It has a separate heating circuit, called the heat
coil, in the evaporator coil assembly. The heat
coil is used for hot gas heat/defrost.
Heat/defrost uses the economizer as an
evaporator (engine coolant is supplied to the
economizer) to heat the refrigerant.
•
It has a Compressor Temperature Sensor
(CTMP). The microprocessor uses the input
from the CTMP to protect the compressor
from high compressor temperatures.
The following characteristics are not used in
earlier screw compressor systems:
•
It has 2 normally open loading valves.
•
It has discharge and suction pressure
transducers. The microprocessor uses the
inputs from the pressure transducers to help
control the refrigeration system.
•
It has an ETV (Electronic Throttling Valve).
The microprocessor uses the ETV to control
the refrigerant flow from the evaporator.
Unit Description
•
•
It has a liquid injection valve. The
microprocessor uses the liquid injection valve
to control the compressor temperature,
discharge pressure, and compression ratio.
•
Null (CYCLE-SENTRY operation only)
•
Low Speed Heat
•
High Speed Heat
It has a condenser pressure bypass check valve
on the three-way valve. This improves the
three-way valve response time when shifting
from heat to cool.
•
Defrost
Refer to the illustration of the “Refrigeration
System Components” on page 36 and 37.
Sequence of Operation
When the unit is turned On, the microprocessor
will run a pre-start self check. The LCD display
will then show the setpoint and return air
temperature as the screen illuminates. The buzzer
will sound as the controller initiates a
configuration check. It does not matter if the unit
is in Cycle-Sentry or Continuos mode, if no keys
are pressed, the unit will start in approximately 30
to 50 seconds. After the unit starts, the
microprocessor will perform an ETV check that
tests the operation of the ETV, the loading valves,
and the suction and discharge pressure
transducers. The ETV check takes approximately
30 to 40 seconds. No mode icons are displayed
during the ETV check. The appropriate mode
icons will appear when ETV check is finished and
the microprocessor is controlling the temperature
to setpoint.
Use the diagrams found on the following pages to
assist you in understanding the various modes.
NOTE: The microprocessor uses a complex
program to continuously adjust the position of
the ETV. There is no set position for the ETV
except in Running Null, Heat, Defrost, and some
Service Test Modes.
High Speed Cool
Component
Status
Engine Speed
2200 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
On
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
On (Closed)
LV2—Loading Valve #2
On (Closed)
EWSV—Water Valve
Off (Closed)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
Off (Open)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
Off (Closed)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
Off (Closed)
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
Full Open
Heat Check Valve
Closed
Condenser Check Valve
Open
Damper Solenoid
Off (Open)
The engine is running on high speed.
Operating Modes
The microprocessor uses a complex program to
determine which operating mode the unit should
be in. Therefore, it is difficult to predict which
operating mode the unit should be in by
comparing the setpoint to the box temperature.
The unit usually runs in the following modes. The
microprocessor also uses special modes and
protection modes called “auxiliary modes” under
certain conditions. These modes are explained on
the following pages.
•
High Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Cool
•
Modulated Cool
•
Running Null
Refrigerant leaves the compressor discharge and
travels to the three-way valve. The valve is in the
cool position because the pilot solenoid is closed.
Refrigerant then travels to the condenser. Here it
is condensed back to a liquid and then goes
through the condenser check valve. The
condenser check valve is open. The refrigerant
cannot travel back to the heat coil because the
heat check valve is closed by the low pressure in
the heat circuit. The pressure is low because the
heat circuit is cut off at the three-way valve and
has been bled down to suction pressure by the
heating bypass orifice.
The liquid refrigerant then flows to the receiver
tank.
39
Unit Description
The refrigerant then passes through the condenser
subcooler where more heat is removed from the
refrigerant. This improves the efficiency of the
cooling cycle.
The refrigerant flows through the drier and arrives
at a tee fitting located near the economizer
expansion valve. The pressure of the liquid
refrigerant is about the same here as it was at the
receiver tank.
Most of the refrigerant enters the outer chamber of
the economizer. A small portion of the refrigerant
goes through the economizer expansion valve and
evaporates in the inner coiled tube of the
economizer. This cools down the liquid going to
the evaporator and again increases efficiency and
capacity of the cooling cycle. The amount of
liquid entering the valve will be proportional to
the heat of the liquid refrigerant in the outer
chamber (except when the economizer suction
pressure is at or above the economizer expansion
valve MOP). The hotter it is, the more refrigerant
is metered in due to an increase in superheat
across the economizer inner coil. The economizer
actually is a refrigeration system in parallel with
the main system, similar to a multi-temp unit. It
shares the same condenser but it has its own
expansion valve, evaporator, and compressor
suction port.
LV1 (economizer bypass solenoid) and LV2 are
closed during full cool so the “suction” gas from
the economizer travels to the compressor through
the economizer suction line. The economizer
suction gas enters the rotor case of the compressor
at a slightly higher pressure than the main suction
pressure. The suction pressure has already started
to rise as the rotors are compressing refrigerant
but is still low enough to pull refrigerant through
the economizer.
The reason the refrigerant can not simply be piped
over to the suction line is that the suction pressure
from the economizer is higher than that from the
evaporator so it would lower the capacity of the
main evaporator. Entering the compressor slightly
downstream of the suction port does not allow the
economizer gas to influence the suction pressure,
but it does influence the discharge pressure
because it adds its heat and volume to the
discharge side.
40
The economizer suction pressure will always be
higher than the main suction pressure, but the
flow through the economizer expansion valve is
controlled by its MOP. The flow through the
economizer expansion valve starts to decrease as
economizer suction pressure approaches the MOP,
and then more or less stops when the economizer
suction pressure is above the MOP.
The liquid refrigerant (cooled by the economizer)
travels through the LLSV, which is open during
the cool cycle. It then passes through the
expansion valve and through the evaporator.
The refrigerant boils off in the evaporator and the
low pressure suction gas travels through the ETV.
The ETV regulates the suction pressure to the
compressor to vary capacity in conjunction with
the loading valves. The gas passes by the heating
bypass orifice but there is no flow either way
through the orifice. The heat circuit is closed at
one end by the heat check valve and at the other
end by the evaporator side of the three-way valve.
The suction gas now returns to the compressor
and into the suction cavity to be compressed and
go through the cycle again.
Low Speed Cool
Component
Status
Engine Speed
1450 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
Off
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
On (Closed)
LV2—Loading Valve #2
On (Closed)
EWSV—Water Valve
Off (Closed)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
Off (Open)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
Off (Closed)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
Off (Closed)
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
Full Open
Heat Check Valve
Closed
Condenser Check Valve
Open
Damper Solenoid
Off (Open)
Low speed cool is the same as high speed cool
except the engine speed drops to 1450 rpm.
Unit Description
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 16: High and Low Speed Cool
41
Unit Description
Modulated Cool
Component
Status
Engine Speed
1450 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
Off
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
Cycles*
LV2—Loading Valve #2
Cycles*
EWSV—Water Valve
Off (Closed)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
Off (Open)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
Off (Closed)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
Off (Closed)
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
0-200 Fresh
0-400 Frozen
Heat Check Valve
Closed
Condenser Check Valve
Open
Damper Solenoid
Off (Open)
* LV1 and LV2 are turned On (Closed) and Off (Open)
as determined by the microprocessor to control the
capacity of the compressor.
The engine remains at low speed. The
microprocessor controls the cooling capacity by
controlling the ETV position. The microprocessor
also opens and closes the loading valves to change
the compressor capacity.
When LV1 (economizer bypass solenoid) is
opened to reduce the capacity, the economizer
suction gas will travel into the main suction line
because the pressure there is normally lower than
the gas coming from the economizer. This adds
flow to the suction side of the compressor,
reducing the amount of flow allowed from the
main evaporator and reducing the capacity.
Opening both LV1 and LV2 gives the rotors less
distance to compress the refrigerant. This reduces
the capacity of the compressor which reduces the
capacity of the system.
At setpoints in the fresh range, the unit typically
enters modulated cool with LV1 and LV2 both
open. To increase the capacity, the microprocessor
closes LV2 first and closes LV1 second. To reduce
the capacity, the microprocessor opens LV1 first
and opens LV2 second.
42
At setpoints in the frozen range, the unit typically
enters modulated cool with LV1 and LV2 both
closed. The microprocessor opens LV1 reduce the
capacity, and closes LV1 to increase the capacity.
LV2 is always closed at setpoints in the frozen
range in modulated cool. If both the loading
valves were open during frozen operation, the
capacity would be too low to maintain a frozen
load.
Unit Description
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 17: Modulated Cool with LV1 Open
43
Unit Description
Running Null
Component
Status
Engine Speed
1450 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
Off
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
Off (Open)
LV2—Loading Valve #2
Off (Open)
EWSV—Water Valve
On (Open)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
On (Closed)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
Off (Closed)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
Off (Closed)
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
30 Steps Open*
Heat Check Valve
Closed
Condenser Check Valve
Open
Damper Solenoid
Off (Open)
* 20 Steps Open in Software Revision 4300
Running null is used when the microprocessor
determines that the engine should be running but
the refrigeration system should not be cooling or
heating. This usually happens when the unit is
operating in Continuous Run and the return air
temperature is near the setpoint.
The engine runs in low speed. LV1 and LV2 are
both opened to minimize the compressor capacity.
LLSV is closed and the EWSV is opened.
The system stops cooling when the LLSV is
closed because that stops the flow of refrigerant
through the evaporator expansion valve and the
evaporator coil. The system does not heat because
the three-way valve is in the cool position and
there is no flow of hot gas through the heat coil.
The EWSV is opened to keep the suction
pressures from getting extremely low. The
economizer is now acting as the only evaporator
in the system.
44
The refrigerant flow in running null goes from the
compressor discharge through the three-way valve
in the cool position, the condenser, condenser
check valve, receiver tank, subcooler, drier,
economizer expansion valve, economizer, LV1
(economizer bypass valve), and the rotors to the
compressor discharge. With the flow of liquid
refrigerant stopped to the main evaporator and the
loading valves de-energized to reduce compressor
capacity, no cooling is done in the evaporator,
there is airflow over the load, and the compressor
has discharge pressure for lubrication.
Unit Description
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 18: Running Null
45
Unit Description
Low Speed Heat
Component
Status
Engine Speed
1450 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
Off
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
Off (Open)
LV2—Loading Valve #2
On (Closed)
EWSV—Water Valve
On (Open)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
On (Closed)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
On (Open)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
Cycles*
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
30 Steps Open**
Heat Check Valve
Open
Condenser Check Valve
Closed
Damper Solenoid
Off (Open)
* Software Revision 4310 (and later) uses Heat Mode
Discharge Superheat Control to maintain a
consistently high heating capacity. The LIV goes On
(Open) when the discharge superheat is above 30 F
(17 C), pulses on and off when the discharge
superheat is between 30 F (17 C) and 15 F (8 C),
and goes Off (Closed) when the discharge
superheat is below 15 F (8 C). See “Heat Mode
Discharge Superheat Control” on page 51 for more
information.
* Software Revision 4300 and 4301; the LIV goes On
(Open) when the discharge pressure falls below
100 psi (689 kPa), pulses on and off at discharge
pressures between 100 and 150 psi (689 and
1034 kPa), and goes Off (Closed) when the
discharge pressure rises to 150 psi (1034 kPa).
** 20 Steps Open in Software Revision 4300.
In the heat cycle the hot gas travels from the
compressor discharge to the three-way valve. The
pilot solenoid has been activated and the
three-way valve has shifted. Hot gas now travels
to the heat coil. This unit has two separate coils in
the evaporator assembly. The evaporator coil is
used for the cool cycle. The heat coil is used for
heat and defrost cycles. The hot gas condenses in
the heat coil and becomes a liquid. The
heat/defrost system is really a reverse cycle
system: the heat coil is the condenser and the
economizer is the evaporator.
46
The liquid now flows through the heat check
valve and is blocked from entering the condenser
by the condenser check valve. The condenser is
blocked off on one end by the condenser end of
the three-way valve and on the other by the
condenser check valve. The liquid enters the
receiver tank and then travels to the economizer
expansion valve. All liquid will now have to
travel through the economizer expansion valve
because the liquid line solenoid is closed during
the heat/defrost cycle. The economizer acts like
an evaporator. The EWSV is opened after a 90
second delay, and hot engine coolant circulates
around the economizer tank. The heat in the
economizer tank warms the inner coil and boils
off the liquid. The gas now contains the heat
added from the coolant. The warm gas flows
through LV1 (economizer bypass solenoid),
which is open (de-energized) during the
heat/defrost cycle.
During the heat cycle, a small amount of flow
between the heat circuit and the suction line
through the heat orifice. This short cycling is
harmless. The purpose of the orifice is to return
liquid from the heat circuit to the cool circuit
when the unit shifts from heat back to cool.
Immediately after the shift occurs, the suction line
pressure drops and the remaining liquid in the
heat circuit boils off and returns to the cool circuit
through the bypass orifice.
A second function of the orifice is to accelerate
heating or defrosting at low box and low ambient
temperatures. If the unit goes into heat or defrost
cycle, the pressures in the heat circuit are very low
and it is difficult to build enough pressure in the
receiver tank to push refrigerant through the
economizer expansion valve. The discharge gas
travels through the orifice and into the suction line
because the pressure in the suction line is very
low. The gas actually short cycles through the
orifice and back to the compressor. This
accelerates the pressure buildup and ultimately
pushes refrigerant through the economizer. The
heat circuit will now heat normally. To enhance
the speed of building discharge pressure, the LIV
is energized by one of the following control
methods:
Unit Description
Software Revision 4310 (and later) uses Heat
Mode Discharge Superheat Control (see page 51)
when the ambient temperature is below 32 F (0
C), or when the TPDF is below 7.2 F (4.0 C) and
the ambient temperature is above 32 F (0 C). The
LIV is energized when the discharge superheat is
above 30 F (17 C), pulses on and off when the
discharge superheat is between 30 F (17 C) and 15
F (8 C), and is de-energized when the discharge
superheat is below 15 F (8 C).
In Software Revision 4300 and 4301 the LIV is
energized when the discharge pressure is below
150 psi (1034 kPa) to add liquid refrigerant to the
suction line. The LIV is fully open at discharge
pressures below 100 psi (689 kPa), and pulses on
and off at discharge pressures from 100 to 150 psi
(689 to 1034 kPa). Once the discharge pressure
rises to 150 psi (1034 kPa), the LIV is
de-energized.
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 19: Low Speed Heat
47
Unit Description
High Speed Heat
Component
Status
Engine Speed
2200 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
On
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
Off (Open)
LV2—Loading Valve #2
On (Closed)
EWSV—Water Valve
On (Open)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
On (Closed)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
On (Open)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
Cycles*
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
30 Steps Open**
Heat Check Valve
Open
Condenser Check Valve
Closed
Damper Solenoid
Off (Open)
* Software Revision 4310 (and later) uses Heat Mode
Discharge Superheat Control to maintain a
consistently high heating capacity. The LIV goes On
(Open) when the discharge superheat is above 30 F
(17 C), pulses on and off when the discharge
superheat is between 30 F (17 C) and 15 F (8 C),
and goes Off (Closed) when the discharge
superheat is below 15 F (8 C). See “Heat Mode
Discharge Superheat Control” on page 51 for more
information.
* Software Revision 4300 and 4301; the LIV goes On
(Open) when the discharge pressure falls below
100 psi (689 kPa), pulses on and off at discharge
pressures between 100 and 150 psi (689 and
1034 kPa), and goes Off (Closed) when the
discharge pressure rises to 150 psi (1034 kPa).
** 20 Steps Open in Software Revision 4300.
High speed heat is the same as low speed heat
except the high speed solenoid is activated.
48
Unit Description
greater than predetermined values. The data
logger records defrost initiated on demand as
Defrost Forced.
Defrost
Component
Status
Engine Speed
1450 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
Off
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
Off (Open)
LV2—Loading Valve #2
On (Closed)
EWSV—Water Valve
On (Open)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
On (Closed)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
On (Open)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
Cycles*
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
30 Steps Open**
Heat Check Valve
Open
Condenser Check Valve
Closed
Damper Solenoid
On (Closed)
* Software Revision 4310 (and later); the LIV is
controlled by Suction Pressure Control (see
page 51).
* Software Revision 4300 and 4301; the LIV goes On
(Open) when the discharge pressure falls below
100 psi (689kPa), pulses on and off at discharge
pressures between 100 and 150 psi (689 and
1034 kPa), and goes Off (Closed) when the
discharge pressure rises to 150 psi (1034 kPa).
•
Two defrost timers are used. When the unit is
In-Range (within a few degrees of setpoint),
defrost intervals are controlled by the Defrost
Interval In-Range timer (DEFI). This timer can be
set for 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours. The standard setting is 6
hours. When the unit is not In-Range, defrost
intervals are determined by the Defrost Interval
Not In-Range timer (DEFN). This timer can be set
for 2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours. The standard setting is 4
hours. This feature allows a shorter defrost
interval to be used when the unit is out of range
during a pulldown and more frequent defrost
cycles may be beneficial.
Normally, longer defrost timer intervals are used
for colder loads. The defrost interval may need to
be changed if the unit will not hold the
compartment temperature at setpoint.
•
Use a longer defrost interval if defrost is not
being initiated on demand.
•
Use a shorter defrost interval if defrost is
frequently being initiated on demand.
** 20 Steps Open in Software Revision 4300.
Software Revision 4310 (and later) does not use
Heat Mode Discharge Superheat Control in
defrost. The LIV is controlled by Suction Pressure
Control (see page 51).
In Software Revision 4300 and 4301, defrost is
the same as low speed heat except the damper
solenoid is activated along with LV2.
The evaporator coil temperature must be below
45 F (7 C) to allow defrost. When the Defrost
Icon appears, the damper door is closed by the
damper solenoid. Defrost can be initiated in
following three ways:
•
•
Defrost is initiated manually through the
defrost screen using the microprocessor MODES
and ENTER keys. The data logger records
defrost initiated manually as Defrost Initiated.
Defrost is initiated automatically, on demand
by the microprocessor if the differences
between the return air temperature, discharge
air temperature, and coil temperature are
Defrost is initiated automatically by a defrost
timer. The data logger records defrost initiated
by a defrost timer as Defrost Timed.
If the unit is in CYCLE-SENTRY Null mode, the
engine will start when defrost is initiated. The
In-Range Icon will remain on if it was on when
defrost was initiated.
The unit will stay in defrost until the evaporator
coil temperature rises to 57 F (13 C). If the
evaporator coil temperature does not rise above
57 F (13 C) within the Defrost Duration (DDUR)
time limit, the microprocessor will terminate
defrost. The Defrost Duration can be set for either
30 or 45 minutes.
When any defrost cycle is terminated normally on
temperature, a 20 minute timer in the
microprocessor is started. When the timer times
out, the return, discharge and coil sensor readings
are compared. These sensor readings must fall
within 30 F (17 C) of each other. If they do not,
alarm code 13 (Check Sensor Calibration) is set.
49
Unit Description
Special Modes
The microprocessor has special modes that are
used when the engine coolant temperature is
below the minimum setting and the unit is in heat
or defrost.
•
•
The minimum engine coolant temperature
setting is 140 F (60 C) in Software Revision
4310 (and later).
The minimum engine coolant temperature
setting is 120 F (49 C) in Software Revision
4300 and 4301.
The special modes normally occur when the
ambient temperature is low, and the unit starts and
then shifts into heat or defrost.
The special modes can also occur if the engine
thermostat is stuck open, or if the engine coolant
temperature sensor is out of calibration or
defective.
Bucking Heat Mode
minimum setting, and the unit then goes back into
the mode required by the box temperature and
setpoint.
The Heat Icon and the Cool Icon are both
displayed when the unit is in the bucking heat
mode.
This mode opens the EWSV to allow the engine
coolant to flow through the economizer. This
prevents the engine coolant from freezing (by the
refrigerant boiling in the economizer coil) when
the unit is started in extremely low ambient
temperatures (usually less than 0 F [–18 C]).
Bucking Defrost
Component
Status
Engine Speed
1450 rpm
High Speed Solenoid
Off
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
Off (Open)
LV2—Loading Valve #2
On (Closed)
EWSV—Water Valve
On (Open)
Component
Status
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
Off (Open)
Engine Speed
1450 rpm
PS—Pilot Solenoid
On (Open)
High Speed Solenoid
Off
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
On (Open)
LV1—Loading Valve #1
(Economizer Bypass Solenoid)
Off (Open)
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
30 Steps Open*
LV2—Loading Valve #2
On (Closed)
Heat Check Valve
Open
EWSV—Water Valve
On (Open)
LLSV—Liquid Line Solenoid
Off (Open)
PS—Pilot Solenoid
On (Open)
LIV—Liquid Injection Valve
On (Open)
ETV—Electronic Throttling Valve
30 Steps Open*
Heat Check Valve
Open
Condenser Check Valve
Closed
Damper Solenoid
Off (Open)
* 20 Steps Open in Software Revision 4300
The bucking heat mode occurs when unit starts
and then shifts to the heat mode with the engine
coolant temperature below the minimum setting.
The microprocessor senses the low engine coolant
temperature and the setpoint calling for heat, so it
opens the LLSV. The unit is now heating and
cooling at the same time, putting maximum load
on the engine. The increased load quickly warms
the engine coolant temperature above the
50
Condenser Check Valve
Closed
Damper Solenoid
On (Closed)
* 20 Steps Open in Software Revision 4300
Bucking defrost is the same as bucking heat
except the damper solenoid is energized.
Unit Description
Auxiliary Modes
Compression Ratio Control
The auxiliary modes are normally used to control
conditions that affect the compressor and the
engine. The conditions that affect the compressor
are compressor temperature, main suction
pressure, and discharge pressure. The conditions
that affect the engine are engine coolant
temperature and the discharge pressure, which is
directly related to the maximum horsepower
requirement. The auxiliary modes control these
conditions as necessary to provide safe and
reliable operation. If this cannot be accomplished,
the unit may shut down to protect the compressor
and other system components. The auxiliary
modes are listed below:
The microprocessor uses the discharge and
suction pressure transducers to monitor the
discharge and suction pressures. If the
compression ratio of the discharge to suction
pressure rises above 25:1, the microprocessor will
use the LIV and the loading valves to reduce the
compression ratio.
Compressor Temperature Control
The microprocessor uses the CTMP System to
monitor the compressor temperature (see
“Compressor Temperature (CTMP) System” on
page 53). If the CTMP rises to 270 F (132 C) the
LIV starts to pulse on and off. At a CTMP of
290 F (143 C) the LIV stops pulsing and is turned
on completely.
•
Discharge Pressure Control
•
Compression Ratio Control
•
Compressor Temperature Control
Suction Pressure Control
•
Suction Pressure Control
•
Heat Mode Discharge Superheat Control
(Software Revision 4310 and later)
The microprocessor uses the suction pressure
transducer to monitor the suction pressure. If the
suction pressure falls below a 12 in. Hg vacuum
[–6 psi (–41 kPa)], the microprocessor will use the
loading valves and the LIV to increase the suction
pressure in cool. The microprocessor will use the
LLSV and the LIV to increase the suction
pressure in heat.
Auxiliary modes can occur in the course of
normal operation for extremely high or low
ambient temperatures, or for other abnormal
conditions. The following are brief descriptions of
the auxiliary modes. Refer to the SB-400
Refrigeration System Manual (TK 51696) for
more detailed information about the auxiliary
modes.
Discharge Pressure Control
The microprocessor uses the discharge pressure
transducer to monitor the discharge pressure. If
the discharge pressure rises above 415 psi
(2861 kPa), the microprocessor will use the ETV
and the loading valves to reduce the discharge
pressure in cool. The microprocessor will use
LV2, LIV, and the PS to reduce the discharge
pressure in heat. The microprocessor also uses
LV2 and LIV to maintain a minimum discharge
pressure in heat. The minimum discharge pressure
is 350 psi (3103 kPa) in Software Revision 4310
(and later), and 250 psi (2758 kPa) in Software
Revision 4300 and 4301.
Heat Mode Discharge Superheat Control
Software Revision 4310 (and later) uses Heat
Mode Discharge Superheat Control to maintain a
consistently high heating capacity. Heat Mode
Discharge Superheat Control usually functions at
ambient temperatures below 32 F (0 C), but will
function at higher ambient temperatures if the
heating TPDF is below 7.2 F (4.0 C).
The microprocessor uses the readings from the
discharge pressure transducer and the compressor
temperature sensor to calculate the discharge
superheat. See “Discharge Superheat Calculation
Table” on page 52.
If the discharge superheat is above 30 F (17 C),
the LIV is energized. This increases the
refrigerant flow, which increases the discharge
pressure and the heating capacity.
51
Unit Description
If the discharge superheat is between 30 F (17 C)
and 15 F (8 C), the LIV pulses on and off. This
maintains a relatively high refrigerant flow, which
maintains the high discharge pressure and the
heating capacity.
If the discharge superheat is below 15 F (8 C), the
LIV is de-energized. This limits the flow of liquid
refrigerant to prevent compressor flooding.
The compressor discharge superheat calculation is
also used to limit liquid injection during low
suction pressure control operation to prevent
compressor flooding.
Heat Mode Discharge Superheat Control is not
used for Defrost and is disabled if the compressor
temperature sensor fails (alarm code 80). The
microprocessor then uses the discharge pressure
to control the LIV (like Software Revision 4300
and 4301). The LIV is fully open at discharge
pressures below 100 psi (689 kPa). The LIV
pulses on and off at discharge pressures from 100
to 150 psi (689 to 1034 kPa). The LIV is closed at
discharge pressures above150 psi (1034 kPa).
You can use the “Discharge Superheat Calculation
Table” below to determine the discharge
superheat from the discharge pressure and the
compressor temperature. The shaded cells in the
table show where the LIV is energized during
Heat Mode Discharge Superheat Control.
Discharge Superheat Calculation Table
Discharge Pressure (psi) versus Compressor Temperature (CTMP Degrees F)
= Discharge Superheat (Degrees F)
Compressor Temperature (CTMP Degrees F)
Discharge
Pressure
(psi)
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
50
24.8
49.8
74.8
99.8
124.8
149.8
174.8
199.8
224.8
249.8
274.8
75
12.5
37.5
62.5
87.5
112.5
137.5
162.5
187.5
212.5
237.5
262.5
100
0.9
25.9
50.9
75.9
100.9
125.9
150.9
175.9
200.9
225.9
250.9
125
15.0
40.0
65.0
90.0
115.0
140.0
165.0
190.0
215.0
240.0
150
4.7
29.7
54.7
79.7
104.7
129.7
154.7
179.7
204.7
229.7
175
20.1
45.1
70.1
95.1
120.1
145.1
170.1
195.1
220.1
200
11.2
36.2
61.2
86.2
111.2
136.2
161.2
186.2
211.2
225
3.0
28.0
53.0
78.0
103.0
128.0
153.0
178.0
203.0
250
20.4
45.4
70.4
95.4
120.4
145.4
170.4
195.4
275
13.6
38.6
63.6
88.6
113.6
138.6
163.6
188.6
300
7.4
32.4
57.4
82.4
107.4
132.4
157.4
182.4
325
1.8
26.8
51.8
76.8
101.8
126.8
151.8
176.8
350
22.0
47.0
72.0
97.0
122.0
147.0
172.0
375
17.8
42.8
67.8
92.8
117.8
142.8
167.8
400
14.3
39.3
64.3
89.3
114.3
139.3
164.3
425
11.5
36.5
61.5
86.5
111.5
136.5
161.5
450
9.3
34.3
59.3
84.3
109.3
134.3
159.3
475
7.8
32.8
57.8
82.8
107.8
132.8
157.8
= LIV On
= LIV Pulsing On and Off
= LIV Off
52
Unit Description
Compressor Temperature
(CTMP) System
Alarm Code 10—High Discharge Pressure
Shutdown
A special RTD (Resistance Thermal Detector)
temperature sensor is installed in the compressor
body and is wired into the microprocessor with
wires CSTP and CSTN through pins 1 and 2 of
the sensor harness plug. The sensor allows the
microprocessor to do the following.
When the shutdown occurs the unit is usually in
the Discharge Pressure Control Auxiliary Mode.
The discharge pressure rises above 470 +7/-35 psi
(3241 +48/-241 kPa) to open the HPCO. The unit
immediately shuts down and the microprocessor
records alarm code 10.
•
The GAUGE key displays a screen called CTMP.
This screen shows the current temperature of
the compressor.
Code 10 in this unit is similar to other SR units.
The only difference is that in this unit the Prevent
System will usually be trying to reduce the head
pressure when the Code 10 appears.
•
The microprocessor has three additional alarm
codes:
— Code 80 indicates the CTMP sensor or
circuit has failed.
— Code 81 indicates the compressor
temperature has been over 290 F (143 C)
for 1 minute. This is a check alarm.
— Code 82 indicates the compressor has been
between 295 and 310 F (146 and 154 C)
for 15 minutes or above 310 F (154 C) for
1 minute. This is a shutdown alarm.
The procedures for calibrating, diagnosing and
repairing the CTMP system are found in the
ThermoGuard µP-VI Microprocessor Controller
Revision 43xx Software Diagnostic Manual
(TK 51329).
Alarm Codes
This unit has some alarm codes other units do not
have. The following text explains some of the
alarm codes used in this unit. Alarm Code 10 is
used in other units. Alarm Codes 81 and 82 are
used in other screw compressor units. Alarm
Codes 93, 94, 95, 99, and 121 are unique to this
unit. Also refer to the “Alarm Code Table” on
page 54.
Alarm Code 81—High CTMP Check
Alarm code 81 occurs when the compressor
temperature has been over 290 F (143 C) for
1 minute. It is a check alarm.
Alarm Code 82—High CTMP Shutdown
Shutdown code 82 occurs when compressor
temperature has been between 295 and 310 F
(146 and 154 C) for 15 minutes, or above 310 F
(154 C) for 1 minute. The microprocessor shuts
the unit down and records alarm code 82. The
microprocessor will use the Compressor
Temperature Control Auxiliary Mode to try to
reduce the compressor temperature before
shutting down on Code 82.
Alarm Code 93—Low Compressor Suction
Pressure Check
Alarm code 93 occurs when the suction pressure
is lower than expected for the current conditions.
It is a check alarm.
Alarm Code 94—LV1 Failure Check
Alarm code 94 occurs if the suction pressure
drops less than 3 psi (21 kPa) when LV1 is
energized. It is a check alarm.
Alarm Code 95—LV2 Failure Check
Alarm code 95 occurs if the suction pressure
drops less than 3 psi (21 kPa) when LV2 is
energized. It is a check alarm.
53
Unit Description
Alarm Code 99—High Compressor
Pressure Ratio Check
Alarm Code 121—LIV Failure Check
Alarm code 99 occurs if the If the compression
ratio of the discharge to suction pressure rises
above 25:1. It is a check alarm.
Alarm code 121 only occurs during the Pretrip
Test if the suction pressure changes less than
expected when LIV is energized. It is a check
alarm.
Alarm Code Table
Alarm Code
Conditions that Cause Alarm Code
Result
10
Discharge pressure above 470 +7/-35 psi (3241 +48/-241 kPa)
Shutdown
81
CTMP above 290 F (143 C) for 1 minute
Alarm Only
82
CTMP between 295 and 310 F (146 and 154 C) for 15 minutes, or above 310 F
(154 C) for 1 minute
Shutdown
93
Suction pressure lower than expected
Alarm Only
94
Suction pressure drops less than 3 psi (21 kPa) when LV1 is energized
Alarm Only
95
Suction pressure drops less than 3 psi (21 kPa) when LV2 is energized
Alarm Only
99
Compression ratio above 25:1
Alarm Only
121
Pretrip Test Only—Suction pressure changes less than expected when LIV is
energized
Alarm Only
54
Operating Instructions
Control Panel
On/Off Switch
Most of the controls used to operate the unit are
located on the control panel. Refer to the SB-400
Operator’s Manual TK 51212 or the
ThermoGuard µP-VI Microprocessor Controller
Revision 43xx Software Diagnostic Manual
TK 51329 for more complete operating
information.
This switch turns the unit on and off. When the
switch is in the Off position, the display will be
off and the display backlight will be off. The
switch should always be placed in the Off position
before servicing the unit. When the switch is in
the On position, the display backlight will turn on
and the Standard Display will appear.
WARNING: The unit may start and run
automatically any time the On/Off switch
is in the On position.
TEMPERATURE
1
CYCLE
SENTRY
COOL
HEAT
!
DEFROST
ALARM
MODULATION
HIGH SPEED
IN-RANGE
SETPOINT
2
MODE
HOURS
GAUGES
PRETRIP
THERMOGUARD uP VI
SELECT
SETPOINT
ENTER
CODE
3
CLEAR
ALARM
5
4
ON
OFF
CAUTION: WHEN UNIT SWITCH IS ON.
UNIT MAY START ANYTIME
COMPUTER
PRINTER
ARA163
1.
Display
4.
Printer Port
2.
Keypad
5.
On/Off Switch
3,
Computer Port
Figure 20: Control Panel
55
Operating Instructions
Optional On/Off/Sleep Switch
This switch turns the unit on and off and also
places the unit directly into the Sleep Mode
without an exit time. When the switch is in the Off
position, the display will be off and the display
backlight will be off. The switch should always be
placed in the Off position before servicing the
unit. When the switch is in the On position, the
display backlight will turn on and the Standard
Display will appear. When the switch is in the
Sleep position, the unit will enter the Sleep mode
(without an exit time), the display backlight will
turn on, and the display will show [SLEEP] and
[MODE].
WARNING: The unit may start and run
automatically any time the On/Off/Sleep
switch is in the On or Sleep position.
NOTE: The unit will not control the box
temperature when the switch is in the Sleep
position.
UNIT SWITCH MUST BE ON TO
PROVIDE LOAD PROTECTION.
Heat Icon: Appears
when the unit is
operating in heat mode.
Defrost Icon: Appears when the unit is
operating in defrost mode.
High Speed Icon: Appears
when the diesel
engine is operating in high speed.
CYCLE-SENTRY Icon: Appears when the unit
is operating in CYCLE-SENTRY mode.
Alarm Icon: Appears
when the
microprocessor detects an alarm condition.
Modulation Icon: Appears
when the unit is
operating in modulation mode.
In-Range Icon: Appears
when the box
temperature is within a few degrees of
setpoint.
Discharge Air Icon: (Arrow
pointing from
unit) Discharge air temperature is being
shown.
Return Air Icon: (Arrow pointing to unit)
Return air temperature is being shown.
ON
OFF
Setpoint Icon: Appears
SLEEP
when the setpoint is
being shown in the lower display.
ZZZ
CAUTION: WHEN SWITCH IS ON OR IN
SLEEP POSITION, UNIT MAY START ANYTIME.
ARA164
Figure 21: On/Off/Sleep Switch
Display
The display normally shows the Standard Display
of return air temperature and setpoint. Other
operating and unit information can also be shown
here. All possible segments and operating icons
are shown in the illustration on page 55.
Icons
An icon will appear next to the appropriate
description when the unit is operating in that
mode or if an alarm condition exists.
Cool Icon: Appears
when the unit is
operating in cool mode.
Cool and Heat Icons displayed at the same
time indicate the unit is operating in
Bucking Heat.
56
Cool and Modulation Icons displayed at the
same time indicate the unit is operating in
Running Null.
Keypad
These touch sensitive keys are used to change the
setpoint, view operating conditions and other unit
information, and to control the unit.
MODE Key: Allows
selection of a Manual
Defrost Cycle, and CYCLE-SENTRY or
Continuous Mode.
HOURMETER Key: Displays Total Hours,
Engine Hours, Electric Hours and the 3
programmable hour meters.
GAUGES Key: Displays
Water Temperature,
Oil Pressure (OK or Low), Amps, Battery
Volts, Engine RPM, Compressor
Temperature [CTMP], Suction Pressure,
Discharge Pressure, and ETV Position. The
state of LV1, LV2, LIV, LLSV, and EWSV
can also be displayed showing ON
(energized) or OFF (de-energized) under a
service menu subset by pressing the THERMO
KING LOGO key for 3 seconds.
Operating Instructions
PRETRIP Key: Allows selection
of Pre-trip
Test, print, or start of trip marker.
Computer Port
selection of
Pretrip Test, Print and Start of Trip and
displays software revision and
clock/calendar settings.
A serial cable from a computer is connected to the
download port to access the Data Logging
functions of the DAS. Refer to the DAS Data
Acquisition System Manual TK 50565 for more
information.
CLEAR Key: This key is pressed to clear alarm
codes when they are shown on the display.
Printer Port
THERMO KING LOGO Key: Allows
CODE Key: Pressing
this key displays any
alarm codes that may be present. [00] means
no codes are present.
ENTER Key: Pressing
this key will execute a
prompt or load a new setpoint or other
setting.
NOTE: An audible enter prompt is
available. If enabled, this feature sounds a
buzzer when the display flashes to remind
you to press the ENTER key.
UP and DOWN ARROW Keys: Pressing
these
keys will change a displayed prompt or
increase/decrease the setpoint or other
setting.
SELECT Key: Pressing
this key displays
temperature sensor readings and Sleep Mode
Wakeup Time (if programmed). See the
following list:
[DIS.A]
Discharge Air Temp
[TPDF]
Temp Differential
[COIL]
Coil Temp
[AMB.T]
Ambient Temp
[SPR.1]
Spare Sensor 1 Temp
[SPR.2]
Spare Sensor 2 Temp
[DAS.1]
DAS Temp Sensor 1*
[DAS.2]
DAS Temp Sensor 2*
[DAS.3]
DAS Temp Sensor 3*
[DAS.4]
DAS Temp Sensor 4*
[DAS.5]
DAS Temp Sensor 5*
[DAS.6]
DAS Temp Sensor 6*
[SDAY]
Sleep Mode Wakeup Day**
[SHR]
Sleep Mode Wakeup Hour**
[SMN]
Sleep Mode Wakeup Minute**
* DAS Sensors are optional.
** Only if Sleep Mode Wakeup Time is
Programmed
A serial cable from a printer is connected to the
printer port to print a report for the directly
connected DAS sensors. Refer to the SB-400
Operator’s Manual TK 51212 of the DAS Data
Acquisition System Manual TK 50565 for more
information.
Unit Indicators
Receiver Tank Sight Glass: The receiver
tank
sight glass is used to check the amount of
refrigerant in the system, and the moisture content
of the refrigerant.
Compressor Oil Sight Glass: The compressor oil
sight glass is used to check the relative level of
compressor oil in the compressor sump.
Air Restriction Indicator: An air
restriction
indicator is attached to the intake manifold.
Visually inspect the restriction indicator
periodically to assure the air filter is not restricted.
Service the air filter when the yellow diaphragm
indicates 25 in. of water column. Press the button
on the top of the restriction indicator after
servicing the air filter. Replace the EMI 3000 air
cleaner element (see “EMI 3000 Air Cleaner” on
page 97) at 3,000 hours or two years (whichever
occurs first) if air clean indicator has not reached
25 in.
Remote Status Light: The remote status light
indicates the operating status of the unit. The
green “T” indicates the unit is functioning
properly. The amber “K” indicates the unit has a
check alarm but is still functioning. The green “T”
and amber “K” both flash to indicate the unit has a
shutdown alarm and is not functioning.
Unit Protection Devices
Fuse Link (Current Limiter): The fuse link is
located in the positive battery cable. The fuse link
protects the electric system from a short in the 2
circuit.
57
Operating Instructions
Fuses: A number of fuses, located on the relay
board, protect various circuits and components.
See “Fuses” on page 67 for more information.
High Pressure Cutout: The high pressure cutout is
a pressure sensitive switch that is located in the
compressor discharge service valve. If the
discharge pressure rises above 470 +7/-35 psi
(3241 +48/-241 kPa), the switch opens the 8D
circuit to the fuel solenoid, which stops the
engine.
High Pressure Relief Valve: The
high pressure
relief valve is designed to relieve excess pressure
within the refrigeration system. The valve is a
spring-loaded piston that lifts off its seat when
refrigerant pressure exceeds 500 psi (3447 kPa).
The valve will reseat when the pressure drops to
400 psi (2758 kPa). The valve could possibly leak
refrigerant after it has relieved excess pressure.
Tapping the valve lightly may help the valve
reseat and SEAL PROPERLY. The valve is
non-repairable and requires no adjustment. If the
valve fails to reseat properly, remove the
refrigerant charge and unscrew and replace the
valve.
The high pressure relief valve is located on the
receiver tank. Its location is such that when the
pressure is expelled from the valve, it would be
directed away from anyone servicing the unit.
Low Oil Level Switch: The low oil level switch
closes if the oil drops below a certain level. If it
stays closed for a specified time, the
microprocessor will shut the unit down and record
alarm code 66.
Preheat Buzzer: The preheat buzzer sounds when
the CYCLE-SENTRY system energizes the air
heater. This should warn anyone near the unit that
the CYCLE-SENTRY system is about to start the
diesel engine.
High Pressure Cut In Switch (HPCI): The
microprocessor uses the input from the HPCI to
protect the compressor from high discharge
pressures if the discharge pressure transducer
fails.
Compressor Temperature Sensor (CTMP): The
microprocessor uses the input from the CTMP to
protect the compressor for high compressor
temperatures.
58
Unit Operation
Manual Pretrip Inspection (Before
Starting Unit)
The following Manual Pretrip Inspection should
be completed before starting the unit and loading
the trailer. While the Manual Pretrip Inspection is
not a substitute for regularly scheduled
maintenance inspections, it is an important part of
the preventive maintenance program designed to
head off operating problems and breakdowns
before they happen.
1. FUEL. The diesel fuel supply must be
adequate to guarantee engine operation to the
next check point.
2. ENGINE OIL. The engine oil level should be
at the FULL mark with the dipstick turned
(threaded) into oil pan. Never overfill.
3. COOLANT. The engine coolant must have
antifreeze protection to -30 F (-34 C). Code 37
indicates low coolant. Add coolant in the
expansion tank.
CAUTION: Do not remove the expansion
tank cap while coolant is hot.
CAUTION: Do not add “GREEN” or
“BLUE-GREEN” conventional coolant to
cooling systems using “RED” Extended
Life Coolant, except in an emergency. If
conventional coolant is added to Extended
Life Coolant, the coolant must be changed
after 2 years instead of 5 years. See “ELC
(Extended Life Coolant)” on page 72 for
more information.
4. BATTERY. The terminals must be clean and
tight.
5. BELTS. The belts must be in good condition
and adjusted to the proper tensions.
6. ELECTRICAL. The electrical connections
should be securely fastened. The wires and
terminals should be free of corrosion, cracks
or moisture.
Operating Instructions
7. STRUCTURAL. Visually inspect the unit for
leaks, loose or broken parts and other damage.
The condenser and evaporator coils should be
clean and free of debris. Check the defrost
drain hoses and fittings to make sure they are
open. Make sure all the doors are latched
securely.
d. Press the ENTER key while PRE TRIP is
displayed.
Starting Unit With Electronic Full
Pretrip
This procedure is used for a complete checkout of
the unit and unit control circuits. It should be used
when first starting the unit for a trip before the
cargo is loaded. A full Pretrip procedure may take
up to 30 minutes and the unit will run unattended.
CAUTION: Monitor the return air
temperature when performing a Pretrip
Test on a loaded trailer. The controller
may not maintain setpoint during the
Pretrip Test.
1. Perform a Manual Pretrip Inspection.
2. Adjust the setpoint to the desired load
temperature (refer to the appropriate
Operator’s Manual or Diagnostic Manual for
detailed information about adjusting the
setpoint).
a. Change the setpoint display with the
ARROW keys.
b. Enter the new setpoint by pressing the
ENTER key within 5 seconds.
3. Initiate a Pretrip Test (refer to the appropriate
Operator’s Manual or Diagnostic Manual for
detailed information about the Pretrip Test).
This procedure is automatic and can be
performed on the way to the loading area or
while waiting to load.
a. Place the On/Off switch in the On
position.
•
PRE LOAD will appear on the display
and the PRE TRIP test will start.
•
PRE AMPS will appear on the display
indicating that the amps check is
running and the PRE TRIP has started.
•
The amps check will continue for
several minutes, then the unit will start
automatically and the operational tests
will be performed.
4. When the PRE TRIP test is complete, PASS,
CHECK, or FAIL will appear on the display
until a function key (e.g., SELECT or
ENTER) is pressed. Continue as follows:
•
PASS—The unit is running and no alarms
have been recorded. The unit has passed
the PRE TRIP. Go to step 6.
•
CHECK—The unit is running but Check
Alarms have been recorded. Go to step 5.
•
FAIL—The unit has shut down, recorded
Alarm Code 28, and possibly recorded
other Shutdown Alarms. Go to step 5.
5. View the Alarms with the CODE key (refer to
the appropriate Diagnostic Manual for
detailed information about alarms).
a. Correct the alarm conditions.
b. Clear the alarms with the CLEAR key (refer
to the appropriate Diagnostic Manual for
detailed information about alarms).
c. Repeat the PRE TRIP test until PASS
appears (the unit passes the Pretrip).
6. Recheck the setpoint.
7. Complete the “After Start Inspection” on
page 61.
b. Clear any alarms.
c. Press the PRETRIP key.
•
PRE TRIP will appear on the display.
59
Operating Instructions
Selection of Operating Modes
The Thermo King CYCLE-SENTRY system is
designed to save refrigeration fuel costs. The
savings vary with the commodity, ambient
temperatures and trailer insulation. However, not
all temperature controlled products can be
properly transported using CYCLE-SENTRY
operation. Certain highly sensitive products
normally require continuous air circulation.
•
•
The microprocessor has a CYCLS screen,
which is used to select CYCLE-SENTRY
(CYCLS YES) or Continuous Run (CYCLS
No) operation. Refer to the appropriate
Operator’s Manual or Diagnostic Manual for
detailed information about CYCLE-SENTRY
selection.
The microprocessor has an OptiSet™ feature
that can lockout CYCLE-SENTRY operation
and force Continuous Run operation within a
programmable range of setpoints. This feature
can be used to provide continuous air
circulation (within the programmed setpoint
range) during CYCLE-SENTRY operation.
Refer to the appropriate Operator’s Manual or
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the OptiSet™ feature.
Examples of Products Normally Requiring
Continuous Run Operation for Air Flow
•
Fresh fruits and vegetables, especially
asparagus, bananas, broccoli, carrots, citrus,
green peas, lettuce, peaches, spinach,
strawberries, sweet corn, etc.
•
Non-processed meat products (unless
pre-cooled to recommended temperature)
•
Fresh flowers and foliage
The above listings are not all inclusive. Consult
your grower or shipper if you have any questions
about the operating mode selection of your type of
load.
Restarting Unit
This procedure is used when starting units that
have been shut off for short periods of time. When
a unit that has been shut off for a long period of
time is first started, it should be started and put
through a pretrip.
1. Place the On/Off switch in the On position.
2. After a 40 second delay, the unit should
preheat and start automatically.
NOTE: When the CYCLE-SENTRY Icon is
active, the unit may not start if: the
compartment temperature is near the
setpoint, the engine is warm, and the battery
is fully charged.
Your selection of the operating mode for the
proper protection of a particular commodity
should use the following guidelines:
Examples of Products Normally
Acceptable for CYCLE-SENTRY Operation
•
Frozen foods (in adequately insulated trailers)
If cooling or heating is required and the engine
temperature is below approximately 90 F (32 C),
but the engine fails to start automatically:
•
Boxed or processed meats
•
Turn the On/Off switch to the OFF position.
•
Poultry
•
•
Fish
•
Dairy products
•
Candy
Check for and correct any alarm conditions
and clear the alarm codes. View the alarms
with the CODE key, clear the alarms with the
CLEAR key, and then repeat the auto start
procedure. Refer to the appropriate Diagnostic
Manual for detailed information about alarms.
•
Chemicals
•
•
Film
•
All non-edible products
If the engine will still not start, turn the
On/Off switch to the Off position, determine
and correct the cause of the failure.
60
Operating Instructions
After Start Inspection
Loading Procedure
After the unit is running, the following items can
be quickly checked to confirm that the unit is
running properly.
1. Make sure the unit is turned Off before
opening the doors to minimize frost
accumulation on the evaporator coil and heat
gain in the trailer. (Unit may be running when
loading the trailer from a warehouse with door
seals.)
1. OIL PRESSURE. Check the engine oil
pressure in high speed by pressing the GAUGES
key. The oil pressure should read OK, not
LOW.
2. AMMETER. Check the ammeter reading by
pressing the GAUGES key. The ammeter should
indicate normal battery charging current. It
may be fairly high right after starting the unit,
but should taper off as the battery is recharged.
3. COMPRESSOR OIL. The compressor oil
level should be visible in the sight glass.
4. REFRIGERANT. Check the refrigerant
charge. See Refrigerant Charge in the
Refrigeration Maintenance chapter.
5. PRE-COOLING. Make sure that the setpoint
is at the desired temperature and allow the unit
to run for a minimum of 1/2 hour (longer if
possible) before loading the trailer.
This provides a good test of the refrigeration
system while removing residual heat and the
moisture from the trailer interior to prepare it
for a refrigerated load.
6. DEFROST. When the unit has finished
pre-cooling the trailer interior, manually
initiate a defrost cycle. This will remove the
frost that builds up while running the unit to
pre-cool the trailer.
To manually initiate a defrost cycle, press the
MODES key until the dEF (defrost) prompt
screen appears, then press the ENTER key.
Refer to the appropriate Operator’s Manual or
Diagnostic Manual for detailed information
about Manual Defrost.
The defrost cycle should end automatically.
NOTE: The unit will not defrost unless the
evaporator coil temperature is below 45 F
(7 C).
2. Spot check and record load temperature while
loading. Especially note any off-temperature
product.
3. Load the product so that there is adequate
space for air circulation completely around the
load. DO NOT block the evaporator inlet or
outlet.
4. Products should be pre-cooled before loading.
Thermo King transport refrigeration units are
designed to maintain loads at the temperature
at which they were loaded. Transport
refrigeration units are not designed to pull hot
loads down to temperature.
Post Load Procedure
1. Make sure all the doors are closed and locked.
2. Start the unit if it was shut off to load (see
Restarting Unit).
3. Make sure the setpoint is at the desired setting.
4. One-half hour after loading, manually initiate
a defrost cycle. If the evaporator coil sensor
temperature is below 45 F (7 C), the unit will
defrost. The microprocessor will terminate
defrost automatically when the evaporator coil
temperature reaches 57 F (13 C) or the unit
has been in the defrost mode for 30 or 45
minutes (depending on setting).
Post Trip Checks
1. Wash the unit.
2. Check for leaks.
3. Check for loose or missing hardware.
4. Check for physical damage to the unit.
61
Operating Instructions
62
Electrical Maintenance
Alternator (Australian Bosch)
CAUTION: The F15 fuse must be
removed from the relay board on units
equipped with the Australian Bosch
alternator. The voltage regulator will be
damaged if the unit is turned On with the
F15 fuse in place on the relay board.
Charging System Diagnostic
Procedures
NOTE: Units manufactured with
CYCLE-SENTRY and alternators with integral
regulators MUST use replacement alternators
with integral regulators.
Complete the following checkout procedure
before replacing the voltage regulator or the
alternator.
CAUTION: Full-fielding alternators
with the integral regulator is
accomplished by installing a jumper from
terminal F2 to ground. Attempting to
full-field the alternator by applying
battery voltage to terminal F2 will cause
voltage regulator failure.
1.
Check Point for 2A Amperage
2.
Check Point for B+ Voltage
•
When testing alternators use accurate
equipment such as a Thermo King P/N
204-615 (FLUKE 23) digital multimeter and a
Thermo King P/N 204-613 amp clamp or an
equivalent.
3.
Check Point for Sense Circuit and
Excitation Circuit Voltages
4.
Position for Full Fielding Jumper
Figure 22: Check Points for Alternator Test
63
Electrical Maintenance
•
Make sure the drive belts and pulleys of the
charging system are in good condition and are
adjusted properly before testing the alternator.
Worn belts and pulleys or loose belts will
lower the output of the alternator.
•
The battery must be well charged, the battery
cable connections must be clean and tight, and
the 2A and excitation circuits must be
connected properly.
NOTE: All voltage readings should be taken
between the negative battery terminal, or a good
chassis ground, and the terminals indicated,
unless stated otherwise.
1. Check to make sure that the F15 fuse has been
removed from the relay board. If not, it must
be removed, however, the voltage regulator
has probably already been damaged.
2. Set the unit for continuous run operation and
place the On/Off switch in the Off position.
3. Check the battery voltage. If the battery
voltage is less than 12 volts, the battery must
be charged or tested to determine if it should
be replaced.
4. Check the voltage at the B+ terminal on the
alternator. Battery voltage must be present. If
not, check the 2A circuit.
5. Disconnect the alternator harness from the
voltage regulator by carefully pushing on the
spring clip to release the plug lock.
6. Place the On/Off switch in the On position and
enter Service Test Mode (HSC) before the unit
starts. Refer to the appropriate Diagnostic
Manual for specific information about the
Service Test Mode.
7. Check the voltage at the A pin and at the B pin
in the two pin connector on the alternator
harness.
a. The A pin is the battery sense circuit and
should be at battery voltage. If not, check
the sense circuit (2 or equivalent) in the
alternator harness and in the main wire
harness.
64
b. Energize the run relay in the relay board
test. The B pin is the excitation circuit and
should be at 10 volts or higher. If not,
check the excitation circuit (7K or
equivalent) in the alternator harness and in
the main wire harness.
8. If battery voltage is present on the sense and
excitation circuits, connect the alternator
harness to the voltage regulator and check the
voltage on the B pin in the two pin connector
on alternator harness. The voltage should be
0.7 to 1 volt using the relay board test.
a. No voltage or a voltage reading below 0.7
volts indicates that the rotor or the voltage
regulator may be shorted. Perform the
field current test to further isolate the
problem.
b. A voltage reading above 3 volts indicates
that the field circuit may be open or have
high resistance. The brushes or the rotor
are probably defective.
9. Attach a clamp-on ammeter to the 2A wire
connected to the B+ terminal on the alternator.
10. Connect a voltmeter between the B+ terminal
and a chassis ground.
11. Start the unit and run it in high speed.
12. Connect a jumper wire between the F2
terminal and a chassis ground. This will full
field the alternator.
CAUTION: DO NOT full field the alternator for
more than seven seconds while checking the meter
readings, or the electrical system may be damaged.
13. Check the amperage in the 2A wire and record
the reading. Check the voltage at the B+
terminal and continue to observe this voltage
for a few seconds to see if it increases,
decreases, or stays the same. Note the change
in voltage and record the voltage reading.
Amperage in the 2A wire =____amps.
Voltage at the B+ terminals =____volts.
The voltage at the B+ terminal should be 13 to
18 volts and the amperage in the 2A wire
should be at least as high as the rated output of
the alternator.
Electrical Maintenance
NOTE: An alternator can easily exceed its
rated output. An alternator MUST at least
reach its rated output when full fielded. An
alternator that has a defective rectifier diode
may reach 75% of its rated output with a full
field.
3. The ammeter reading indicates field current.
The following chart shows the field current for
each alternator with 12 volts applied to the
field:
14. Stop the unit.
15. Use the readings obtained previously to
determine the problem by referring to the
Diagnosis Chart.
NOTE: This assumes that the alternator did
not charge properly prior to the full field test.
Field Current Test (Checks the field
windings, brushes and slip rings)
Perform this test with the On/Off switch in the Off
position.
1. Attach a clamp-on ammeter to the 2A wire
near the B+ terminal on the alternator.
Alternator Rating
Field Current
@ 12 Volts
23 Amp
1.0 to 3.0 Amps
37 Amp
3.5 to 4.5 Amps
65 Amp
4.0 to 5.0 Amps
a. No field current or a low field current
indicates an open circuit or excessive
resistance in the field circuit. Replace the
voltage regulator and brush assembly,
inspect the slip rings and repeat the test. If
the brushes are not the problem, replace
the rotor or the alternator.
b. High field current indicates a short in the
field circuit. Repair or replace the
alternator.
2. Connect a jumper wire between the F2
terminal on the alternator and a chassis
ground, and note the ammeter reading.
Diagnosis Chart
Amperage in 2A
Voltage at B+
Problem/Solution
At or above rated output
At or above battery voltage and
increasing
Voltage regulator defective / Replace
voltage regulator and brush assembly
Approximately 60% of
rated output
Approximately equal to battery voltage
and does not change, or rises slightly
Rectifier diode defective / Repair or replace
alternator
Low or no output
Less than or equal to battery voltage
and decreasing
Stator windings, field windings, brush or
diode defective / Perform Field Current
Test to check brushes and field coil, or
replace alternator
65
Electrical Maintenance
1.
2.
Check Point for 2A Amperage
Position for Full Fielding Jumper
Figure 23: Full Field Test
Battery
Battery Cables
Inspect/clean the battery terminals and check the
electrolyte level during scheduled
maintenance inspections. A dead or low battery
can be the cause of an ammeter indicating
discharge due to lack of initial excitation of the
alternator even after the unit has been boosted for
starting. The minimum specific gravity should be
1.235. Add distilled water as necessary to
maintain the proper water level.
Units with Tier 2 engines use 0-gauge battery
cables to ensure reliable starting in extremely cold
weather. Units with Tier 1 engines use 2-gauge
negative battery cables and 4-gauge positive
battery cables.
66
Make sure to use the 0-gauge battery cables when
replacing the battery cables for a Tier 2 engine.
Refer to the unit Parts Manual for the correct part
numbers. Do not use the 0-gauge battery cables on
Tier 1 engines because the battery cables are sized
to match the starter performance.
Electrical Maintenance
Unit Wiring
Fuses
Inspect the unit wiring and the wire harnesses
during scheduled maintenance inspections for
loose, chaffed or broken wires to protect against
unit malfunctions due to open or short circuits.
A number of fuses, located on the relay board,
protect various circuits and components. The
relay board is located inside the control box. Refer
to the appropriate THERMOGUARD
Microprocessor Controller Diagnostic Manual for
a complete list of the size and function of the
fuses.
Wire Harness Routing
The wire harness routing across the front of the
engine is different for the Tier 1 and Tier 2
engines. The wire harness is routed behind the
starter on the Tier 1 engine. The wire harness is
routed in front of the starter on the Tier 2 engine.
The wire harness is attached to a harness routing
bracket, which is attached to the starter, on the
Tier 2 engine.
1
1.
•
Fuse F3 (15 amp) protects the circuit that
provides power to defrost relay and the
damper.
•
Fuse F9 (40 amp) protects the main control
power circuit.
•
Fuse F18 (15 amp) protects the circuit that
provides power to the throttle solenoid.
•
Fuse 21 (25 amp) protects the circuit that
provides power to the On/Off switch.
•
A number of 2, 3, or 5 amp fuses protect
microprocessor circuits, control relay circuits,
remote status light circuits and various
components.
Wire Harness Behind Starter
Figure 24: Tier 1 Wire Harness Routing
1
2
ARA165
Figure 26: Relay Board
1.
Wire Harness In Front Of Starter
2.
Harness Routing Bracket
Figure 25: Tier 2 Wire Harness Routing
67
Electrical Maintenance
Fuse Link
The fuse link is located in the positive battery
cable. The fuse link protects the electrical system
from a short in the 2 circuit. If the fuse link burns
out, check for a grounded 2 wire before replacing
the fuse link. Replace this fuse link by replacing
the positive battery cable.
Air Heater
The air heater is mounted on the open end of the
intake manifold. It heats the intake air to help the
engine start in cold weather. The air heater is
energized by the microprocessor during preheat,
just before the engine is started.
The heater is probably defective if the resistance
is more than 0.2 ohms and the current draw is less
than 60 amps, or if the current draw is more than
100 amps.
Check the resistance of the air intake heater with
an ohmmeter between the M6 terminal on the
front of the heater and the screw on the back of
the heater (or the heater case). The resistance
should be 0.14 ± 0.02 ohms.
Check the current draw of the heater with a
clamp-on ammeter at the H1 wire near the M6
terminal on the front of the heater. During preheat
the current draw should be approximately 70
amps.
1
AEA693
1.
M6 Terminal
Figure 27: Air Heater
68
SMART REEFER µP-VI
Microprocessor Controller
Refer to the appropriate THERMOGUARD
Microprocessor Diagnostic Manual for complete
service information about the Microprocessor
Controller and the related components.
Engine Maintenance
Engine Change
In the second quarter of 2005 the engines in these
units changed from a TK486E to a TK486V to
meet EPA Tier 2 requirements.
1
The TK486E is an EPA Tier 1 engine.
The TK486V is an EPA Tier 2 engine.
The Tier 1 and Tier 2 engines share many
common parts, however the following major parts
are new on the Tier 2 engine:
•
Cylinder Head Assembly
•
Injection Nozzles
•
Injection Pump
•
Oil Pump
•
Pistons
•
Piston Rings
•
Starter
•
Water Pump
1.
In-Line Injection Pump
Figure 28: Tier 1 Engine
1
The most noticeable difference between a Tier 1
engine and a Tier 2 engine is the fuel injection
pump (see the following photographs). The Tier 1
engines use an in-line injection pump. The Tier 2
engines use a mono-plunger and distributor
injection pump. The mono-plunger and distributor
injection pump uses a higher injection pressure
than the in-line injection pump. The higher
injection pressure atomizes the fuel more
efficiently, which reduces the emissions.
1.
Mono-Plunger and Distributor Injection Pump
Figure 29: Tier 2 Engine
69
Engine Maintenance
EMI 3000
Engine Oil Change
EMI 3000 is an extended maintenance interval
package that is standard equipment on this unit.
The EMI 3000 package consists of the following
key components:
The engine oil should be changed according to the
Maintenance Inspection Schedule. Drain the oil
only when the engine is hot to ensure that all the
oil drains out. When changing oil, keep unit and
trailer level so all the oil can flow from the oil
pan. It is important to get as much of the oil out as
possible because most of the dirt particles are
contained in the last few quarts of oil that drain
out of the pan. Refill the pan with 13 quarts
(12.3 liters) and check the dipstick level. Run the
unit, and then recheck the oil level. The engine oil
level should be at the FULL mark with the
dipstick turned (threaded) into the oil pan. Never
overfill. See Specifications section for correct
type of oil.
•
New EMI 3000-Hour Cyclonic Air Cleaner
Assembly and Air Cleaner Element
•
New EMI 3000-Hour Fuel Filter (black with
gold lettering)
•
New EMI 3000-Hour Dual Element Oil Filter
(black with gold lettering)
•
API Rating CI-4 Mineral Oil (ACEA Rating
E3 for Europe)
•
Five Year or 12,000 Hour ELC (Extended Life
Coolant).
Oil Filter Change
The EMI package allows standard maintenance
intervals to be extended to 3,000 hours, or 2 years,
whichever occurs first.
The oil filter should be changed along with the
engine oil. Use a genuine Thermo King extended
maintenance oil filter.
NOTE: Units equipped with the EMI 3000
package do require regular inspection in
accordance with Thermo King's maintenance
recommendations.
1. Remove the filter.
NOTE: The new EMI 3000 oil filters and new
EMI 3000 air cleaners are NOT interchangeable
with the oil filters and air cleaners previously
used in trailer units.
3. Tighten the filter until the rubber ring makes
contact, then tighten 1/2 turn more.
Engine Lubrication System
The TK486 family of engines use a pressure
lubrication system. Refer to the TK482 and
TK486 Engine Overhaul Manual TK 50136 for a
detailed description of the engine lubrication
system.
70
2. Apply oil to the rubber ring of the new filter
and install the filter.
4. Start the unit and check for leaks.
Low Oil Pressure
Oil pressure is affected by oil temperature, oil
viscosity, and engine speed. Low oil pressure can
usually be traced to the lack of oil, a faulty oil
pressure regulating valve, or worn bearings. Low
oil pressure is not normally caused by a faulty oil
pump. Use the “Low Oil Pressure Flow Chart” on
the following page to help diagnose low oil
pressure.
Engine Maintenance
Low Oil Pressure Flow Chart
Oil Pressure Low
Check Oil Level
Oil Level Low
Oil Level OK or High
Add Oil
Check Oil Pressure
Oil May Be Diluted
Change Oil and Filter
Check Oil Pressure
Oil Pressure OK
Oil Pressure Low
Oil Pressure OK
Install Known Good Oil Pressure Gauge
Check Oil Pressure
Oil Pressure OK
Oil Pressure Low
Remove Oil Pump (Access the oil pump by removing the
crankshaft pulley, the sound shield and the timing gear cover.)
Check Oil Pump Tolerances
Check Oil Pressure Control Valve for Broken Spring or Sticking Piston
Reinstall Oil Pump
Check Oil Pressure
Oil Pressure OK
Oil Pressure Low
Pull Engine
Remove Oil Pan
Check Inlet Screen and Intake Pipe
Pressure Check Engine for Internal Leaks
71
Engine Maintenance
Engine Cooling System
The engine employs a closed, circulating type,
pressurized cooling system. Correct engine
temperatures are controlled and maintained by a
radiator, fan and thermostat. The coolant is
circulated through the system by a belt driven
centrifugal pump. The pump draws the coolant
from the side of the radiator, circulates it through
the cylinder block and head and returns it to the
radiator. A thermostat mounted in the coolant
outlet line from the cylinder head to the radiator
automatically maintains coolant temperature
within the specified temperature range.
All water cooled engines are shipped from the
factory with a 50% permanent type antifreeze
concentrate and 50% water mixture in the engine
cooling system.
This provides the following:
1. Prevents freezing down to -30 F (-34 C).
2. Retards rust and mineral scale that can cause
engine overheating.
AJA1947
Figure 30: ELC Nameplate
Located On Expansion Tank
The following are the Extended Life Coolants
currently approved by Thermo King for use in
ELC units for five years or 12,000 hours:
•
Chevron Dex-Cool
3. Retards corrosion (acid) that can attack
accumulator tanks, water tubes, radiators and
core plugs.
•
Texaco ELC (nitrite free)
•
Havoline Dex-Cool (with nitrites)
4. Provides lubrication for the water pump seal.
•
Havoline Dex-Cool (nitrite free)
NOTE: Do not operate this unit with less than a
50/50 antifreeze mixture because temperatures
in the econmizer get low enough to freeze less
concentrated antifreeze mixtures.
•
Shell Dexcool
•
Shell Rotella
•
Havoline XLC (Europe)
•
Saturn/General Motors Dex-Cool.
•
Caterpillar ELC.
•
Detroit Diesel POWERCOOL Plus.
ELC (Extended Life Coolant)
ELC has been phased into all trailer units
equipped with engines from the TK486 engine
family. A nameplate on the coolant expansion
tank identifies units with ELC.
NOTE: The new engine coolant, Texaco
Extended Life Coolant, is RED in color instead
of the current GREEN or BLUE-GREEN
colored coolants.
72
CAUTION: Do not add “GREEN” or
“BLUE-GREEN” conventional coolant to
cooling systems using “RED” Extended
Life Coolant, except in an emergency. If
conventional coolant is added to Extended
Life Coolant, the coolant must be changed
after 2 years instead of 5 years.
Engine Maintenance
NOTE: The use of 50/50% pre-mixed Extended
Life Coolant (ELC) is recommended to assure
that de-ionized water is being used. If 100% full
strength concentrate is used, de-ionized or
distilled water is recommended over tap water to
insure the integrity of the cooling system is
maintained.
Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure
As with all equipment containing antifreeze,
periodic inspection on a regular basis is required
to verify the condition of the antifreeze. Inhibitors
become worn out and must be replaced by
changing the antifreeze. Change ELC (red) engine
coolant every five years or 12,000 hours
(whichever occurs first).
Do not mix green or blue-green engine coolant
with ELC (red) engine coolant. See “ELC
(Extended Life Coolant)” on page 72 for more
information about ELC.
The factory recommends the use of a 50/50
antifreeze mixture in all units even if they are not
exposed to freezing temperatures. This antifreeze
mixture will provide the required corrosion
protection and lubrication for the water pump.
Checking the Antifreeze
Check the solution concentration by using a
temperature compensated antifreeze hydrometer
or a refractometer (P/N 204-754) designed for
testing antifreeze. Maintain a minimum of 50%
permanent type antifreeze concentrate and 50%
water solution to provide protection to -30 F (-34
C). Do not mix antifreeze stronger than 68%
permanent type coolant concentrate and 32%
water for use in extreme temperatures.
Changing the Antifreeze
1. Run the engine until it is up to its normal
operating temperature. Stop the unit.
2. Use Service Test Mode [LS.H] to place the
unit in low speed heat before the unit starts.
This opens the water valve and allows the
coolant to drain from the economizer and its
hoses. Refer to the appropriate Diagnostic
Manual for specific information about the
Service Test Mode.
3. Open the engine block drain (located behind
the starter) and completely drain the coolant.
Observe the coolant color. If the coolant is
dirty, proceed with a, b, and c. Otherwise go
to 4.
CAUTION: Avoid direct contact with hot
coolant.
a. Run clear water into the radiator and allow
it to drain out of the block until it is clear.
b. Close the block drain and install a
commercially available radiator and block
flushing agent, and operate the unit in
accordance with instructions of the
flushing agent manufacturer.
c. Open the engine block drain to drain the
water and flushing solution.
CAUTION: Avoid direct contact with hot
coolant.
4. Run clear water into the radiator, and allow it
to drain out of the block until it is clear.
5. Inspect all hoses for deterioration and hose
clamp tightness. Replace if necessary.
6. Loosen the water pump belt. Check the water
pump bearing for looseness.
7. Inspect the radiator cap. Replace the cap if the
gasket shows any signs of deterioration.
8. If using ELC concentrate, mix one gallon of
ELC concentrate and one gallon of de-ionized
or distilled water in a container to make a
50/50 mixture. (Do not add antifreeze and
then add water to the unit. This procedure may
not give a true 50/50 mixture because the
exact cooling system capacity may not always
be known.)
9. Refill the radiator with the 50/50 antifreeze
mixture and make sure to bleed the air from
the cooling system as needed.
73
Engine Maintenance
Bleeding Air From The Cooling
System
Jiggle pin thermostats are original equipment on
units that have engines from the TK486 engine
family. Jiggle pin thermostats make it unnecessary
to bleed the air out of the engine block because
they keep air from being trapped in the engine
block. Normally, all but about 1.5 qt (1.4 liters) of
coolant drain out of the cooling system when it is
drained. If approximately half of the Cooling
System Capacity (see Specifications) seems to fill
the cooling system after it has been drained, air
has been trapped in the block. Bleed the air out of
the block using the following procedure:
CAUTION: IF YOU SUSPECT THAT
AIR IS TRAPPED IN THE BLOCK, DO
NOT START THE ENGINE WITHOUT
BLEEDING THE AIR OUT OF THE
BLOCK.
NOTE: If an engine runs with air trapped in the
block, the engine may be damaged. The high
water temperature switch may not protect an
engine that has air trapped in the block, because
the high water temperature switch is designed to
protect an engine from overheating due to
failures in the cooling system.
1. Loosen the plug on the back of the water
pump below the thermostat cover until coolant
comes out of the plug fitting.
2. Tighten the plug.
6
4
1
7
3
2
8
5
9
10
12
11
1.
Economizer Heat Exchanger
7.
Radiator Cap
2.
Water Valve Solenoid
8.
Coolant Level Sensor
3.
Plastic Expansion Tank (Starting 05/2004)
9.
Radiator
4.
Expansion Tank Cap
10.
Thermostat Housing
5.
Coolant Level Switch
11.
Thermostat
6.
Aluminum Expansion Tank (Ending 05/2004)
12.
Water Pump
Figure 31: Engine Cooling System
74
Engine Maintenance
3. Pour coolant into the system until it appears to
be full.
4. Make sure that the amount of coolant that
goes back into the system is approximately
equal to the amount of coolant that came out
of the system.
5. Start the unit on low speed heat, let it run for
two minutes, and then shut it off.
6. Check the coolant level and add coolant if
necessary.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until the coolant level
stabilizes.
Engine Thermostat
For the best engine operation, use a 180 F (82 C)
thermostat year-round.
NOTE: If the thermostat sticks open, it can
cause the unit to go into Bucking Heat or
Bucking Defrost instead of Heat or Defrost in an
attempt to raise the coolant temperature to 140 F
(60 C) in Software Revision 4310 (and later) or
120 F (49 C) in Software Revision 4300 and
4301.
Engine Fuel System
Tier 1 engines use an in-line injection pump.
Operation
Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank and through the
prefilter by the fuel transfer pump. The fuel
transfer pump delivers fuel to the fuel filter/water
separator. Two orifices in the filter head control
the pressure in the fuel system by allowing a
certain amount of fuel to return to the tank. One
orifice is located in the center of the filter head. It
bleeds off water. The other orifice is located
off-center on the filter head. It bleeds off air.
Filtered fuel passes through a line from the outlet
fitting on the filter head to the injection pump.
The injection pump forces the fuel, at a very high
pressure, through the injection nozzles. The
injection nozzles atomize the fuel as it is injected
directly into the combustion chambers.
Injection pump leakage, injection nozzle overflow
and excess fuel from the fuel filter orifice are then
all sent back to the fuel tank in the return line.
Fuel Line Routing
The fuel lines inside the unit are installed and
routed at the factory. The fuel lines from the fuel
tank connect to the fittings on the bottom of the
unit frame. Do not change the factory routing of
the fuel lines inside the unit. See the fuel line
routing diagrams in the Diagrams Chapter.
Tier 2 engines use a mono-plunger and distributor
injection pump.
The components of the fuel system are:
•
Fuel tank
•
Inlet strainer (prefilter)
•
Priming pump
•
Fuel transfer pump
•
Fuel filter/water separator
•
Injection pump
•
Injection nozzles
The priming pump is used to manually draw fuel
from the tank up to the fuel pump if the unit
should run out of fuel.
75
Engine Maintenance
2
1
3
4
5
8
7
6
1.
Check Valve (Keeps air from entering fuel
system when engine is not running.)
5.
Fuel Transfer Pump
2.
Filter Head
6.
Inlet Strainer (Prefilter)
3.
In-line Injection Pump
7.
Priming Pump
4.
Bleed Screw
8.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Figure 32: Tier 1 Engine Fuel System
76
Engine Maintenance
1
2
3
4
7
5
6
1.
Check Valve (Keeps air from entering fuel
system when engine is not running.)
5.
Fuel Transfer Pump
2.
Filter Head
6.
Priming Pump
3.
Bleed Screw
7.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
4.
Mono-plunger and Distributor Injection Pump
Figure 33: Tier 2 Engine Fuel System
Maintenance
The injection pump and fuel transfer pump are
relatively trouble-free and if properly maintained
will usually not require major service repairs
between engine overhauls.
Contamination is the most common cause of fuel
system problems. Therefore, to ensure best
operating results, the fuel must be clean and fuel
tanks must be free of contaminants. Change the
fuel filter/water separator regularly and clean the
prefilter on the inlet side of the fuel transfer pump.
77
Engine Maintenance
NOTE: The injection nozzles should be tested
(and repaired if necessary) at 10,000 hour
intervals when used in normal conditions.
Normal conditions are considered to be the use
of clean high quality fuel, no used oil blending,
and regular maintenance of the fuel system
according to the Maintenance Inspection
Schedule. Refer to the TK482 and TK486
Overhaul Manual TK 50136 for injection nozzle
testing and repair procedures.
Whenever the fuel system is opened, take the
following precautions to prevent dirt from
entering the system:
1. Cap all fuel lines.
2. Work in a relatively clean area whenever
possible.
serial plate. The date and engine hours must be
entered on the decal when the fuel return lines are
changed.
Figure 34: Fuel Return Line Replacement Decal
Use the following procedure to replace the fuel
return lines and end cap.
1. Remove the clamps, the end cap, the short fuel
return lines between the injection nozzles, and
the long fuel return line from the injection
nozzle to the banjo fitting on the injection
pump.
1
3. Complete the work in the shortest possible
time.
3
2
Any major injection pump or nozzle repairs
should be done by a quality diesel injection
service shop. The necessary service equipment
and facilities are not found in most engine rebuild
shops because of the large investment required.
3
4
The following procedures can be done under field
conditions:
3
1. Bleeding air from the fuel system.
2. Fuel tank and filter system maintenance.
5
3. Priming pump (hand) replacement or repair.
3
4. Fuel transfer pump replacement or repair.
5. Injection line replacement.
1.
End Cap
4.
Short Fuel Return Lines
6. Engine speed adjustments.
2.
Larger Clamp
5.
Long Fuel Return Lines
7. Injection pump timing.
3.
Smaller Clamps
8. Nozzle spray pattern testing and adjustment.
9. Minor rebuilding of nozzles.
Fuel Return Line Replacement
The fuel return lines (hoses) and end cap on the
fuel injection nozzles should be changed every
10,000 engine operating hours. The return line kit
(P/N 10-368) contains new return lines, clamps,
an end cap, and a decal like the one shown below.
This decal is was added to production units in
January of 2005. The decal is located near the unit
78
Figure 35: Fuel Return Line Replacement
2. Discard the old clamps, end cap, and fuel
return lines.
3. Install the end cap and clamp. Note that the
end cap has a larger OD than the other hoses
and requires the larger clamp.
4. Install the fuel return lines and clamps. It may
be necessary to adjust the banjo fitting slightly
to obtain the straightest routing for the long
return line.
Engine Maintenance
5. Be sure all the fittings are tight and check for
leaks.
1
6. Write the date and engine hours on the decal.
Bleeding The Fuel System
If the engine runs out of fuel, repairs are made to
the fuel system, or if air gets into the system for
any other reason, the air must be bled out of the
fuel system.
NOTE: MAKE SURE the fuel tank vent is kept
open. If the vent becomes clogged, a partial
vacuum develops in the tank, and this increases
the tendency for air to enter the system.
1.
2
1
2
Bleed Screw
2.
Priming Pump
Figure 37: Tier 1 Injection Pump
1
5
4
aea751
1.
Stand Pipes
4.
Drain Plug
2.
Anti-Siphon Screen
(Optional)
5.
Vent
3.
Fuel Gauge
3
Figure 36: Fuel Tank
To bleed air from the fuel system:
1. Loosen the bleed screw on the Tier 1 injection
pump about two turns. Loosen the bleed screw
on the Tier 2 injection pump about one turn.
2
1.
Bleed Screw
2.
Priming Pump
Figure 38: Tier 2 Injection Pump
2. Unscrew the priming pump handle and
manually prime the fuel system until air
bubbles are no longer visible in the fuel
coming out of the bleed screw.
3. Tighten the bleed screw and screw the priming
pump handle back in.
4. Loosen the injection lines at the injection
nozzles.
5. Crank the engine until fuel appears at the
nozzles.
6. Tighten the injection lines.
79
Engine Maintenance
7. Start the engine and observe the engine run for
a few minutes. If the engine fails to start, or
starts but stops in a few minutes, repeat the
procedure.
Draining Water from Fuel Tank
Water run through the system may damage the
injection pump or nozzles. Damage to the fuel
system will subsequently cause more expensive
damage to the engine. A large accumulation of
water in the bottom of the fuel tank will stop a
diesel engine. Water should be drained off during
scheduled maintenance inspections to prevent
breakdowns. Drain the water off after the fuel
tank and unit have remained idle for an hour.
4. Through one of the small openings in the top
of the canister, fill the new fuel filter/water
separator canister with clean fuel. This will
purge the air from the canister. Do not fill
canister through the center hole.
5. Screw the new canister on hand-tight. Using a
strap wrench, tighten another 1/4 turn.
2
1
1. Place a container under the fuel tank to catch
the draining water and fuel.
2. Remove the drain plug from the bottom of the
fuel tank.
NOTE: Some fuel tanks have a check valve in
the drain plug fitting. Push the check valve open
with a small screw driver to drain the tank.
ARA160
1.
2.
Fill Through Small Opening
Do Not Fill Through Center Hole
Figure 39: Filling Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Engine Speed Adjustments
3. Let the water and fuel drain into the container
until no water is visible in the fuel draining
from the tank. If the water and fuel do not
drain freely, the vent may be plugged. If so,
clean or replace the vent.
When the diesel engine fails to maintain the
correct engine speed, check the following before
adjusting the speed:
4. Install the drain plug.
2. Bleed the air out of the fuel system. Check the
speed.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
3. Bleed the air out of the nozzles. Check the
speed.
The fuel filter/water separator removes water
from the fuel and returns it to the fuel tank.
1. Check the fuel inlet screen. Check the speed.
Make the engine speed adjustments with the
engine fully warmed up.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Replacement
High Speed
Replace the fuel filter/water separator at intervals
according to the Maintenance Inspection
Schedule.
1. Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in
high speed and check the high speed rpm. It
should be 2200 ± 25 rpm.
1. Unscrew the fuel filter/water separator
canister with a strap wrench. Drain, and
dispose of properly.
2. Shut the unit off.
2. Clean the filter head seal surface.
3. Lubricate the canister seal with clean fuel.
80
3. Remove the ball joint from the eye bolt in the
high speed solenoid.
4. Remove the boot from the high speed
solenoid.
Engine Maintenance
5. Pull the plunger out of the solenoid enough to
loosen the jam nut. An Allen wrench placed in
the hex opening in the face of the plunger will
keep the plunger from turning. Turn the
plunger eye bolt clockwise to increase the
speed and counterclockwise to decrease the
speed.
1
2
3
4
5
6. Replace the ball joint, start the unit and check
the speed. When the speed is correct, tighten
the jam nut and replace the solenoid boot.
NOTE: If the correct speed cannot be set close
enough with half turns of the eye bolt, use the
Allen wrench to turn the plunger in smaller
increments.
Low Speed
1. Loosen the jam nut on the low speed
adjustment screw.
2. Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in
low speed. Adjust the screw to obtain the
correct speed. It should be 1450 ± 25 rpm.
3. Tighten the jam nut and recheck the speed.
1
2
3
4
5
1.
High Speed Solenoid
2.
Boot
3.
Ball Joint
4.
Speed Control Rod
5.
Low Speed Adjustment Screw
Figure 41: Tier 2 Engine Speed Adjustments
Injection Pump Timing Tier 1 Engine
This timing procedure requires fuel pressure at the
injection pump inlet. This can be accomplished by
pumping the priming pump by hand, or by using
an electric fuel pump to supply fuel to the fuel
pump inlet.
1. Place the On/Off switch in the Off position.
2. Remove the round cover (plug) from the
timing mark access hole on the front of the
bell housing. The index marks on either side
of this hole and the timing marks on the
flywheel are used to check the injection pump
timing.
ARA112
1.
High Speed Solenoid
2.
Boot
3.
Ball Joint
4.
Speed Control Rod
5.
Low Speed Adjustment Screw
Figure 40: Tier 1 Engine Speed Adjustments
81
Engine Maintenance
1
1
2
aea701
2
ARA113
1.
Number One Cylinder Injection Line
2.
Timing Mark Access Hole
Figure 42: Component Location
CAUTION: Loosen all of the injection
lines at the injection nozzles to prevent the
possibility of the engine firing while it is
being rotated.
3. Remove the injection line for the number one
cylinder from the delivery valve on the
injection pump and from the injection nozzle.
NOTE: The number one cylinder is the
cylinder at the flywheel end of the engine.
4. Remove the rocker arm cover.
5. Place the engine at top dead center of the
compression stroke for the number one
cylinder. Refer to steps a. through d.
a. Rotate the engine in the normal direction
of rotation (clockwise viewed from the
water pump end) until the 1-4 timing mark
on the flywheel lines up with the index
mark in the timing mark access hole.
82
1.
Index Mark
2.
Top Dead Center Mark for 1 and 4
Figure 43: Top Dead Center One and Four
b. Check the rocker arms on the number one
cylinder to see if they are loose.
c. If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is
at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number one cylinder.
d. If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at
top dead center of the exhaust stroke for
the number one cylinder. Rotate the engine
360° to place the engine at top dead center
of the compression stroke for the number
one cylinder.
6. Disconnect the 8S wire from the starter
solenoid to prevent the engine from cranking
when the unit is turned On.
7. Place the On/Off switch in the On position.
8. Use the microprocessor keypad to enter the
Relay Board Test Mode. Refer to the
appropriate Microprocessor Diagnostic
Manual for detailed information about the
Relay Board Test Mode.
9. Energize the fuel solenoid by energizing the
run relay [RUNR] with the Relay Board Test
Mode.
Engine Maintenance
10. Rotate the engine backwards
(counterclockwise viewed from the water
pump end) until the 10 degree BTDC (before
top dead center) timing mark is positioned in
the bottom of the timing mark access hole.
There are two injection timing marks. The 10
degree BTDC timing mark is a horizontal line
stamped on the flywheel approximately 1.0 in.
(25 mm) before the top dead center mark.The
12 degree BTDC timing mark is a horizontal
line stamped on the flywheel approximately
1.2 in. (30 mm) before the top dead center
mark.
1
2
1
2
3
1.
Index Mark
2.
12 Degree BTDC Timing Mark
3.
10 Degree BTDC Timing Mark
Figure 45: Correct Injection Timing Mark Alignment
3
15. If the timing is off by more than 1 degree (0.1
in. [2.5 mm]), loosen the mounting nuts on the
studs that fasten the injection pump to the
engine and rotate the injection pump to change
the timing.
a. Pull the top of the injection pump away
from the engine to advance the timing.
1.
Index Mark
2.
12 Degree BTDC Timing Mark
3.
10 Degree BTDC Timing Mark
Figure 44: Timing Mark Alignment
11. Pump the priming pump by hand a few times,
or energize the electric fuel pump if an electric
fuel is being used.
12. Use a clean towel to remove the fuel from the
top end of the delivery valve holder.
13. Slowly turn the engine in the normal direction
of rotation until you see the fuel rise in the end
of the delivery valve holder. Stop as soon as
you see the fuel rise.
b. Push the top of the injection pump toward
the engine to retard the timing.
16. Tighten the injection pump mounting nuts and
recheck the timing. Repeat steps 10 through
16 until the timing is correct.
17. Install the cover in the timing mark access
hole, install the injection line for the number
one cylinder, install the rocker arm cover,
tighten the other injection lines and reconnect
the 8S wire to the starter solenoid when
finished with the procedure.
14. Check position of the timing marks. The 10
degree BTDC timing mark on the flywheel
should be aligned with the index mark on the
side of the timing mark access hole. Repeat
steps 10 through 14 to recheck the timing.
83
Engine Maintenance
Injection Pump Timing Tier 2 Engine
Use this timing procedure when installing a new
injection pump on a Tier 2 engine. It is not
necessary to use this timing procedure when
removing and reinstalling the original injection
pump. In that case, align the index marks on the
injection pump and the gear case as they were
before removing the injection pump.
1. Before removing the old injection pump, note
the alignment of the index marks on the
injection pump and the gear case. The index
mark on the injection pump is usually aligned
with the index mark on the gear case. If not,
make a mark on gear case in line with the
index mark on the injection pump (see Figure
48).
2
1
3
1.
Index Mark on Injection Pump
2.
Existing Index Mark on Gear Case
3.
Make New Mark on Gear Case If Needed
Figure 48: Marking Gear Case
2. Clean the area with brake cleaner or
something similar. Place an injection angle
sticker on the gear case so the center line on
the sticker is aligned with the index mark on
the injection pump. An injection angle sticker
is provided with the new injection pump.
1
2
1
1.
Index Marks
1.
Index Mark on Injection Pump
2.
Injection Angle Sticker
Figure 46: Tier 2 Index Mark Location
Figure 49: Place Injection
Angle Sticker on Gear Case
0.5 Degrees
1
2
3
1
2
1.
–1.0 Degrees Mark
1.
Index Mark on Injection Pump
2.
Center Line (0 Degrees Mark)
2.
Index Mark on Gear Case
3.
+1.0 Degrees Mark
Figure 47: Tier 2 Index Mark Alignment
84
Figure 50: Injection Angle Sticker
Engine Maintenance
3. Remove the old injection pump. Use the
injection pump gear tool P/N 204-1011 to
remove the injection pump gear without
removing the timing gear cover (see “Injection
Pump Removal”).
1
NOTE: Remove the injection pump gear by
removing the nut and lock washer that
secure the injection pump gear assembly to
the injection pump shaft. The injection pump
gear assembly is made of three pieces; the
flange, the gear, and the transfer pump cam.
Do not loosen or remove the four bolts that
fasten the gear to the flange because that
changes the timing.
1.
Injection Angle Mark
Figure 52: Injection Angle Mark Location
1
1
2
1
1
1
1.
Do Not Loosen or Remove These Four Bolts
2.
Remove Nut and Lock Washer
1.
Injection Angle Mark
Figure 53: Injection Angle Mark
Figure 51: Removing Injection Pump Gear
4. Record the injection angle marked on the old
injection pump (see the following
photographs). The injection angle mark is
located on the side of the pump facing the
engine. The injection angle mark on the pump
does not use a decimal point. Add a decimal
point before the last digit of the injection
angle mark to get the injection angle. The
injection angle mark in the following
photographs is 67. That equals an injection
angle of 6.7 degrees.
NOTE: If you cannot read the injection angle
mark, contact Yanmar (e-mail both Koichi
Sawada at [email protected] and
Hisashi Hamada at
[email protected]) with the
injection pump serial number or the engine
serial number and they will provide the injection
angle. The injection pump serial number is
located on the bottom of the sticker on the
injection pump.
1
Examples
Injection Angle Mark
Injection Angle
67
6.7 Degrees
85
8.5 Degrees
1.
Injection Pump Serial Number
Figure 54: Injection Pump Serial Number Location
85
Engine Maintenance
5. Record the injection angle marked on the side
of the new injection pump.
3
1
2
6. Calculate the injection angle difference by
subtracting the injection angle of the old
injection pump from the injection angle of the
new injection pump.
Examples
Injection Angle of New
Injection Pump (Degrees)
8.5
6.1
– Injection Angle of Old
Injection Pump (Degrees)
– 6.7
– 6.7
= Injection Angle Difference
= +1.8
(Degrees)
4
= –0.6
7. Install the new injection pump on the gear
case and position it so the index mark on the
injection pump is aligned with the mark equal
to the injection angle difference on the
injection angle sticker (see the following
examples). Tighten the injection pump
mounting nuts when the index mark is aligned
as necessary with the injection angle sticker.
1.
Fuel Injection Pump Gear
2.
Idler Gear
3.
Camshaft Gear
4.
Crankshaft Gear
Figure 56: Timing Mark Alignment
NOTE: The oil pump is located in the timing
gear cover on Tier 2 engines. The inner rotor of
the oil pump fits around the crankshaft gear.
Make sure that the flat sides of the inner rotor
are aligned with the flat sides on the crankshaft
gear when installing the timing gear cover.
1
1
2
5
3
4
7
2
6
1.
Injection Pump Index Mark at –0.6 Degrees
2.
Injection Pump Index Mark at +1.8 Degrees
Figure 55: Examples of Injection Pump Index
Mark Alignment with Injection Angle Sticker
1.
Crankshaft Gear
8. Install the injection pump gear, lock washer,
and nut. Torque the nut to 58 to 65 ft-lb (78 to
88 N•m).
2.
Oil Pump Cover
3.
Outer Rotor
4.
Inner Rotor
NOTE: If the timing gear cover was removed to
remove the injection pump gear, make sure the
timing marks on the timing gears are aligned as
shown below. It helps to install the idler gear last
when aligning the timing marks.
5.
Timing Gear Cover
6.
Flat Sides on Inner Rotor
7.
Flat Side on Crankshaft Gear
86
Figure 57: Align Flat Sides of Crankshaft Gear with
Flat Sides of Inner Rotor in Timing Gear Cover
Engine Maintenance
Injection Pump Removal
The injection pump drive gear will not fit through
the gear housing when removing the pump, the
gear must be separated from the pump. Using tool
P/N 204-1011, it will not be necessary to remove
the belts, fuel pump, crankshaft pulley, crankshaft
seal or front plate. See Figure 62 “Injection Pump
Gear Tool” on page 88.
1. Note the alignment of the index marks on the
injection pump and the gear case. On the
Tier 1 engine, the index mark on the injection
pump is usually aligned with the center (long)
index mark on the gear case. On the Tier 2
engine, the index mark on the injection pump
is usually aligned with the single index mark
on the gear case. If not, mark it so the
injection pump can be returned to the same
position when it is reinstalled.
1
1.
Index Marks
Figure 60: Tier 2 Index Mark Location
1
1
1.
Index Marks
Figure 58: Tier 1 Index Mark Location
2
1.
Index Mark on Injection Pump
2.
Index Mark on Gear Case
Figure 61: Tier 2 Index Mark Alignment
2. Remove the starter for clearance. Remove
throttle linkage, fuel lines, harness and
mounting hardware from injection pump.
3. Remove the cover plate from the gear case.
Remove the nut and lock washer which secure
the gear to the injection pump shaft. Use a
shop rag to prevent the lock washer or nut
from falling into the gear case.
1
2
1.
Index Mark on Injection Pump
2.
Center Index Mark on Gear Case
Figure 59: Tier 1 Index Mark Alignment
NOTE: The injection pump gear assembly is
made of three pieces; the flange, the gear,
and the transfer pump cam. Do not loosen or
remove the four bolts that fasten the gear to
the flange because that changes the timing.
4. Use the hardware from the cover plate to
attach the tool plate (with the marked side
pointing up and out) to the gear case.
87
Engine Maintenance
2. Secure injection pump to the gear case with
previously removed hardware. Make sure to
align the index marks on the injection pump
and the gear case like they were in step 1 of
“Injection Pump Removal”.
5. Align the threaded holes in the injection pump
gear with the two holes in the tool plate by
rotating the engine crankshaft. Attach the gear
to the tool plate with the screws provided with
the tool plate.
NOTE: If a different injection pump is being
installed, see the appropriate injection pump
timing procedure to set the timing.
6. Thread the long screw supplied with the tool
plate into the small end of the adapter, also
supplied with the tool plate. Insert the adapter
into the tool plate and rotate to provide a solid
position to force the injection pump shaft from
the gear. Caution should be made to align the
screw over the center of the injection pump
shaft.
3. Remove hardware holding the gear to the tool
plate, then remove the tool plate.
4. Secure the gear to the injection pump shaft
with the lock washer and nut. Use a shop rag,
as before, to prevent the lock washer or nut
from falling into the gear case. Torque the nut
to 43 to 51 ft-lb (59 to 69 N•m) on the Tier 1
engine, or 58 to 65 ft-lb (78 to 88 N•m) on the
Tier 2 engine.
7. Remove the screw and adapter leaving the tool
plate in place. This holds the gear in proper
tooth alignment until the injection pump is
re-installed.
5. Fasten the cover plate to the gear case and
reinstall all components removed previously
to facilitate injection pump removal.
Injection Pump Reinstallation
1. Position injection pump shaft into the gear,
rotating the shaft to mate the key with the
keyway in the gear. Take care to make sure the
key mates with the keyway.
1
3
4
2
5
6
7
9
6.
8
1.
Tier 1 Injection Pump
Adapter
2.
Tier 2 Injection Pump
7.
Tool Long Screw
3.
Gear Case
8.
Tool Short Screw
4.
Cover Plate
9.
Tool Plate
5.
Cover Plate Bolt
Figure 62: Injection Pump Gear Tool
88
Engine Maintenance
Fuel Solenoid
Testing The Fuel Solenoid
The fuel solenoid is located on the end of the
injection pump. It contains two coils: the pull-in
coil, and the hold-in coil. The pull-in coil draws
approximately 35 to 45 amps at 12 volts. The
hold-in coil draws approximately 0.5 amps at
12 volts.
NOTE: The fuel solenoid pull-in coil will
require 35 to 45 amps to turn on the fuel. The
unit’s battery must be in good condition. If the
battery has enough power to crank the engine
over, it has enough power to energize the fuel
solenoid pull-in coil.
The pull-in coil must be energized to move the
injection pump governor linkage to the fuel on
position. Once the injection pump governor
linkage has been moved to the fuel on position,
the hold-in coil will keep it in fuel on position
until the 8D circuit is de-energized. The pull-in
coil must be de-energized after a few seconds to
keep it from being damaged. The pull-in coil is
controlled by the microprocessor through the fuel
solenoid relay (FSR).
If you suspect that the engine does not run
because the fuel solenoid is not operating
correctly, use the following procedure:
1
1. Use the microprocessor keypad to enter the
Relay Board Test Mode. Refer to the
appropriate Microprocessor Diagnostic
Manual for specific information about the
Relay Board Test Mode.
2. Energize the run relay [RUNR] with the Relay
Board Test Mode. The fuel solenoid relay is
momentarily energized when the run relay is
energized with the Relay Board Test Mode.
This energizes the fuel solenoid, which makes
a definite click when energized.
3. De-energize the run relay [RUNR] with the
Relay Board Test Mode. This de-energizes the
fuel solenoid, which makes a definite click
when de-energized.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 a few times to check the
operation of the fuel solenoid.
ARA112
1.
Fuel Solenoid
Figure 63: Fuel Solenoid Location Tier 1 Engine
NOTE: The fuel solenoid may be removed
from the injection pump to visually check its
operation. The fuel solenoid must be
energized when it is re-installed in the
injection pump. If it is not, the plunger and
the linkage may not line up correctly and the
fuel solenoid will not function properly.
5. If the fuel solenoid is not operating properly,
check the run relay, the fuel solenoid relay,
their fuses, and the associated circuits. If the
relays, fuses and circuits are acceptable, use
steps 6 through 9 to isolate and check the fuel
solenoid.
6. Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector
from the main wire harness.
1
1.
Fuel Solenoid
Figure 64: Fuel Solenoid Location Tier 2 Engine
89
Engine Maintenance
AEA633
1.
Red (8D)
2.
White (8DP)
3.
Black (CH)
Figure 65: Fuel Solenoid
Connector Pin Identification
7. Place a jumper wire between the black wire
(CH—pin C) in the fuel solenoid connector
and a good chassis ground.
8. Test the pull-in coil by momentarily placing a
jumper between the white wire (8DP—pin B)
in the fuel solenoid connector and the positive
battery terminal. The fuel solenoid should
make a definite click when the pull-in coil is
energized and should click again when the
pull-in coil is de-energized.
NOTE: The pull-in coil will draw 35 to 45
amps so do not leave the jumper connected to
the white wire (8DP—pin B) for more than a
few seconds.
a. If the pull-in coil does not energize, check
the resistance of the pull-in coil by placing
an ohmmeter between the white wire
(8DP—pin B) and the black wire (CH—
pin C) in the fuel solenoid connector. The
resistance of the pull-in coil should be 0.2
to 0.3 ohms. If the resistance of the pull-in
coil is not in this range, replace the fuel
solenoid.
b. If the pull-in coil does energize, go to
step 9.
9. Test the hold-in coil.
a. Energize the hold-in coil by placing a
jumper between the red wire (8D—pin A)
in the fuel solenoid connector and the
positive battery terminal.
90
b. Momentarily energize the pull-in coil by
placing a jumper between the white wire
(8DP—pin B) in the fuel solenoid
connector and the positive battery
terminal. The fuel solenoid should make a
definite click when the pull-in coil is
energized, but should not click when the
pull-in coil is de-energized.
c. De-energize the hold-in coil by removing
the jumper from the red wire (8D—pin A)
and the 2 terminal. The fuel solenoid
should make a definite click when the
hold-in coil is de-energized.
d. If the hold-in coil does not function
properly, check the resistance of the
hold-in coil by placing an ohmmeter
between the red wire (8D—pin A) and the
black wire (CH—pin C) in the fuel
solenoid connector. The resistance of the
hold-in coil should be 24 to 29 ohms. If
the resistance of the hold-in coil is not in
this range, replace the fuel solenoid.
Fuel Solenoid Replacement
1. Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector
from the main wire harness and remove the
old fuel solenoid.
2. Connect the new fuel solenoid wire connector
to the main wire harness.
3. Place the On/Off switch in the On position.
4. Use the microprocessor keypad to enter the
Relay Board Test Mode. Refer to the
appropriate Microprocessor Diagnostic
Manual for specific information about the
Relay Test Mode.
5. Energize the fuel solenoid by energizing the
run relay [RUNR] with the Relay Board Test
Mode.
NOTE: The fuel solenoid must be energized
when it is installed. If not, the plunger and
the linkage may not line up correctly and the
fuel solenoid will not function properly.
6. Place the O-ring in the groove in the end of
the fuel injection pump. Make sure that the
O-ring is positioned correctly during
installation to avoid damage and leaks.
Engine Maintenance
If the seal in the trochoid feed pump fails, it could
allow some fuel to leak into the engine oil. A
faulty injection nozzle or fuel transfer pump can
also dilute the engine oil with fuel. Replace the
trochoid feed pump if the engine oil is being
diluted with fuel and a faulty injection nozzle or
fuel transfer pump is not the cause.
Use the following procedure to replace the
trochoid feed pump.
AEA635
1.
Fuel Solenoid
2.
O-ring
3.
Groove in Fuel Injection Pump
1. Remove the four hex head screws that attach
the trochoid feed pump to the injection pump.
Do not remove the two Allen head screws.
Figure 66: Fuel Solenoid Components
7. Install the new fuel solenoid.
8. Place the On/Off switch in the Off position
after installing the fuel solenoid.
Trochoid Feed Pump Tier 2 Engine
The Tier 2 engine has a trochoid feed pump on the
fuel injection pump. The trochoid feed pump
supplies fuel to the injection pump at a pressure of
65 to 87 psi (450 to 600 kPa). Check the outlet
pressure of the trochoid feed pump by removing
the plug and attaching a pressure gauge to the port
shown below. The plug has M12x1.25 threads.
You will have to make an adaptor to attach a
pressure gauge. Replace the trochoid feed pump if
the outlet pressure is below 59 psi (410 kPa) or
above 94 psi (650 kPa).
1
2
1
2
1
1.
Allen Head Screws (Do Not Remove)
2.
Hex Head Screws
Figure 68: Trochoid Feed Pump Removal
2. Remove the trochoid feed pump from the
injection pump.
NOTE: The gear on the trochoid feed pump
is lubricated with engine oil. Some engine oil
might leak out of the injection pump when
the trochoid feed pump is removed. The
trochoid feed pump does not need to be timed
when it is installed.Clean the area on the
injection pump from which the trochoid feed
pump was removed.
3. Place new O-rings on the new trochoid feed
pump and make sure it is clean.
1.
Trochoid Feed Pump Outlet Pressure Port
2.
Trochoid Feed Pump
Figure 67: Trochoid Feed Pump Location
91
Engine Maintenance
1
1
1
1.
Plunger (Extended)
Figure 70: Cold Start Device
1.
O-Rings
Checking Cold Start Device Operation
Figure 69: Trochoid Feed Pump
4. Place the new trochoid feed pump on the
injection pump.
5. Install and tighten four hex head screws that
attach the trochoid feed pump to the injection
pump. Torque the hex head screws to 6 to
7 ft-lb (8 to 10 N•m).
Cold Start Device Tier 2 Engine
The Tier 2 engine has a cold start device located
on the fuel injection pump. The cold start device
has a plunger that retracts at engine coolant
temperatures below 41 F (5 C) to advance the
injection timing approximately 2 degrees. The
plunger controls the position of a piston in the
injection pump to change the timing. The plunger
is extended and the injection timing is normal at
engine coolant temperatures above 41 F (5 C).
Check the operation of the cold start device if it is
difficult to start the engine in cold weather.
NOTE: Do not pull the plunger out of a cold
start device because that will damage it.
92
Use the following procedure to check the
operation of the cold start device. The engine
coolant temperature must be below 32 F (0 C) to
start the procedure.
1. Place the On/Off switch in the On position.
2. Press the GAUGES key before the engine starts
and check the coolant temperature to make
sure it is below 32 F (0 C).
3. Let the engine start, then use the GAUGES key
to check the engine rpm. The engine rpm
should be approximately 100 rpm higher than
normal (see Specifications).
4. Let the engine run to warm up and use the
GAUGES key to check the coolant temperature
and engine rpm. When the coolant
temperature rises above 41 F (5 C), the engine
rpm should drop back to normal. Replace the
cold start device if the engine rpm does not
drop approximately 100 rpm when the engine
warms up.
Engine Maintenance
Cold Start Device Replacement
4. Make sure the piston inside the injection
pump fitting is clean.
1. Drain the engine coolant.
2. Remove the banjo bolt that fastens the engine
coolant fitting to the cold start device. Use a
backup wrench on the cold start device if
necessary.
1
1
2
3
1.
Piston
Figure 73: Clean Piston
1.
Banjo Bolt
2.
Engine Coolant Fitting
3.
Coolant Hoses to Cold Start Device
5. Install the new cold start device with a new
O-ring in the injection pump fitting. Torque
the cold start device to 22 to 26 ft-lb (30 to 35
N•m).
6. Install the coolant fitting and banjo bolt on the
cold start device. Torque the banjo bolt to 16
to 18 ft-lb (22 to 25 N•m).
Figure 71: Remove Engine Coolant Fitting
3. Remove the cold start device from the
injection pump fitting. Use a backup wrench
on the injection pump fitting if necessary.
7. Refill the engine cooling system and make
sure to bleed the air from the cooling system.
1
2
1.
Cold Start Device
2.
Injection Pump Fitting
Figure 72: Remove Cold Start Device
93
Engine Maintenance
Engine Valve Clearance
Adjustment
1
2
1. Remove the rocker arm cover.
2. Remove the round cover (plug) from the
timing mark access hole on the front of the
bell housing.
CAUTION: Loosen all of the injection
lines at the injection nozzles to prevent the
possibility of the engine firing while it is
being rotated.
aea701
3. Place the engine at top dead center of the
compression stroke for the number one
cylinder. Refer to steps a. through d.
1.
Index Mark
2.
Top Dead Center Mark for 1 and 4
Figure 74: Top Dead Center One and Four
a. Rotate the engine in the normal direction
of rotation (clockwise viewed from the
water pump end) until the 1-4 timing mark
on the flywheel lines up with the index
mark in the timing mark access hole.
b. Check the rocker arms on the number one
cylinder to see if they are loose.
c. If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is
at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number one cylinder.
d. If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at
top dead center of the exhaust stroke for
the number one cylinder. Rotate the engine
360° to place the engine at top dead center
of the compression stroke for the number
one cylinder.
Valve Adjustments and Cylinder Configurations
Rear
Flywheel End
Cylinder No.
Valve arrangement
Piston in No. 1 cylinder is at
TDC on compression stroke
Piston in No. 4 cylinder is at
TDC on compression stroke
94
Front
Pulley End
1
E
2
I
E
3
I
E
4
I
E
I
Engine Maintenance
4. Use a feeler gauge to check the valve
clearance on both valves for the number one
cylinder, the intake valve for the number two
cylinder, and the exhaust valve for the number
three cylinder. The valve clearance for both
the intake valve and the exhaust valve should
be 0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm).
NOTE: Check to make sure that the valve
stem cap is in good condition and is
positioned squarely on the top of the valve
stem. Replace the valve stem cap if it shows
significant wear.
5. Adjust the valves if necessary by loosening
the locknut and turning the adjustment screw
until the valve clearance is correct.
6. Hold the adjustment screw in place and
tighten the locknut.
Crankcase Breather Tier 1
Engine
The crankcase breather is located on top of the
rocker arm cover. The crankcase breather system
ducts crankcase gases formed in the crankcase
directly to the air intake. Harmful vapors that
would otherwise collect in the crankcase and
contaminate the oil, or escape to the outside, are
drawn back into the engine and burned. A
restrictor is placed in the breather hose to limit the
flow of gases from the crankcase to the air intake
and keep the crankcase pressure from getting too
low.
Normal crankcase pressures with a new air
cleaner are 5 to 10 in. (127 to 254 mm) H2O of
vacuum at 1450 rpm and 7 to 11 in. (178 to
279 mm) H2O of vacuum at 2200 rpm. The
vacuum will increase as the air cleaner gets dirty
and becomes more restrictive. The crankcase
breather and the breather hose should be inspected
when the air cleaner element is replaced to make
sure they are not plugged or damaged.
NOTE: The breather hose must be routed so it
slopes down from the crankcase breather to the
intake manifold. This prevents condensation
from collecting in the breather hose. The
condensation can plug the breather hose if it
collects and freezes in the hose.
2
1
aea705
3
Figure 75: Adjusting the Valve Clearance
7. Recheck the valve clearance.
8. Rotate the engine one full turn (360°) in the
normal direction of rotation (clockwise
viewed from the water pump end), and align
the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel with the
index mark in the timing mark access hole.
This is top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number four cylinder.
9. Check and adjust the exhaust valve for the
number two cylinder, the intake valve for the
number three cylinder, and both valves for the
number four cylinder.
10. Replace the rocker arm cover, the cover for
the timing mark access hole, and tighten the
fuel injection lines when finished.
6
1.
5
4
Insulation (Covers breather hose
to prevent freezing.)
2.
Restrictor
3.
Crankcase Breather
4.
Air Restriction Indicator
5.
Intake Manifold
6.
Intake Air Heater
Figure 76: Tier 1 Crankcase Breather
95
Engine Maintenance
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
(PCV) Tier 2 Engine
The following schematic illustrates the PCV
operation. In the unrestricted position, gas flow
exits the crankcase via the push rod passages and
flows past the orifice and diaphragm. Without a
PCV system, as air cleaner restriction increased,
vacuum and flow would increase in the breather
hose to lower the crankcase pressure. To prevent
this, the PCV diaphragm expands into the
passageway, restricting the flow to maintain a
constant, slightly positive crankcase pressure.
The Tier 2 engine has a Positive Crankcase
Ventilation (PCV) system. It uses a spring and
diaphragm, located in the valve cover, to maintain
a constant flow of crankcase gas regardless of the
intake manifold pressure. This results in a system
with a constantly regulated crankcase pressure
even in the presence of ring wear or a restricted
air cleaner.
1
2
Normal crankcase pressures with a new air
cleaner are approximately 1.6 to 6.7 in. (40 to
170 mm) of H2O positive pressure.
3
4
The following items can effect the crankcase
pressure readings.
8
Crankcase
Pressure
Effect
Typical Cause
Increase
Piston Rings Stuck or Worn
Decrease
Air Cleaner Dirty or Plugged
Increase
Breather Hose Plugged with Dirt or Ice
Decrease
PCV Diaphragm Torn
Increase
PCV Diaphragm Frozen to Seat in
Valve
5
6
7
1.
Diaphragm Cover 5.
Baffle Plate
2.
Spring
6.
Baffle Breather
3.
Plate
7.
Intake Manifold
4.
Diaphragm
8
Breather Hose
Figure 77: Tier 2 PCV Components
1
2
3
6
5
4
Unrestricted Position
Partially Restricted
1. Diaphragm
4.
Push Rod Passages
2. Spring
5.
Baffle Plate
3. Valve Cover
6.
To Breather Hose
Figure 78: Tier 2 PCV System
96
Fully Restricted Position
Engine Maintenance
EMI 3000 Air Cleaner
Air Restriction Indicator
The EMI 3000 air cleaner is a dry element air
cleaner used in late model units. Replace the EMI
3000 air cleaner element when the air restriction
indicator reads 25 in. of vacuum, or at 3,000 hours
or 2 years, whichever occurs first. The EMI 3000
air cleaner element has a nameplate that reads
“EMI 3000.” It cannot be interchanged with air
filters used on previous Thermo King trailer units,
however it can be retrofit on previous units by
using the EMI 3000 Air Cleaner Assembly.
Excessive restriction of the air intake system
reduces the flow of air to the engine affecting
horsepower output, fuel consumption and engine
life.
An air restriction indicator is installed in the air
intake manifold. Visually inspect the restriction
indicator periodically to assure the air filter is not
restricted. Service the air filter when the yellow
diaphragm indicates 25 in. of vacuum. Press the
reset button on the bottom of the restriction
indicator after servicing the air filter.
ARA189
aea710
Figure 79: EMI 3000 Air Cleaner Assembly
Figure 81: Air Restriction Indicator
Starters
1
ARA190
1.
Dust Ejector Must Point Down When Installed
Figure 80: EMI 3000 Air Filter Element
The Tier 1 and Tier 2 engines use different
starters. The Tier 2 engine has a more powerful
starter to ensure reliable starting in extremely cold
weather. Identify the starters by looking at the
through bolts. The Tier 2 starter has external
through bolts, but the Tier 1 starter does not. Do
not try to put a Tier 1 starter on a Tier 2 engine.
The Tier 1 starter does not fit on the Tier 2 engine
because it is too long. The Tier 2 starter does fit
on the Tier 1 engine. The Tier 2 starter requires
heavier battery cables (see “Battery Cables” in the
Electrical Maintenance chapter).
97
Engine Maintenance
Belts
Belts should be regularly inspected during unit
pre-trip inspections for wear, scuffing or cracking.
Belt tension should also be checked during
scheduled maintenance inspections. Belts that are
too loose will whip and belts that are too tight put
too much strain on the belt fibers and bearings.
Figure 82: Tier 1 Starter
Using belt tension gauge, P/N 204-427, is the best
method of checking belts for tightness. Install the
belt gauge in the center of the longest belt span.
Press the plunger so the hook will engage the belt.
Make sure the hook is on the face of the belt, not
in a notch. Release the plunger with a quick
motion and without pulling on the belt. Then read
the dial. Use an average of three readings.
NOTE: Do not attempt to remove or install belts
without loosening adjustments. Belts that are
installed by prying over pulleys will fail
prematurely due to internal cord damage.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to adjust belts
with the unit running.
1
1.
CAUTION: With the unit On/Off switch
in the On position, the unit may start
operation at any time without prior
warning. Switch the unit On/Off switch to
the Off position before performing
maintenance or repair procedures.
External Through Bolt
Figure 83: Tier 2 Starter
Alternator Belt Adjustment
The alternator belt tension should read 61 on the
belt gauge.
1. Loosen the alternator pivot bolt and the
adjusting arm bolt.
2. Move the alternator on the adjusting arm slots
to adjust the belt to 61 on the belt tension
gauge.
3. Tighten the adjusting arm bolt and alternator
pivot bolt.
98
Engine Maintenance
Upper and Lower Fan Belt
Adjustment
NOTE: If a fan belt is loose or damaged, replace
the belt (see Fan Belt Removal and Installation
procedure).
The upper fan belt should read 74 and the lower
fan belt should read 67 on the belt tension gauge.
1. Loosen the idler assembly pivot bolts and the
idler adjusting arm bolts.
NOTE: Both the upper and lower fan belts are
adjusted at the same time in one procedure.
2
3
4
1
13
5
6
7
12
8
9
9
11
10
1.
Upper Fan Belt
8.
Lower Fan Belt
2.
Condenser Fan Pulley
9.
Engine Pulley
3.
Condenser Fan
10.
Idler Adjusting Arm Bolt
4.
Condenser Inlet Ring
11.
Idler Adjusting Arm
5.
Idler Assembly Pivot Bolt
12.
Alternator Belt
6.
Idler Assembly
13
Idler Adjusting Arm Pivot Bolt
7.
Belt Guide
Figure 84: Belt Arrangement
99
Engine Maintenance
2. Push in or pull out on the idler adjusting arm
to “center” the idler assembly between the
belts and balance the tension equally between
the upper and lower belts.
2. Push the idler adjusting arm in and the idler
assembly up. The upper belt should become
slack and slip down out of the idler pulley
groove.
3. Tighten both idler adjusting arm bolts and
both idler assembly pivot bolts.
3. Pull the idler adjusting arm OUT. The upper
fan belt should slip off the idler pulley as the
idler pulley hub clears the curbside idler
mounting bracket.
NOTE: If the idler assembly binds when moving
for belt adjustment, loosen the upper idler
support bracket mounting bolts to free up the
assembly. Check the main idler retainer nut
assembly for proper alignment between the nut
and the support bracket slots.
Fan Belt Removal and Installation
NOTE: Do not attempt to remove or install the
belts without loosening the adjustments. Belts
that are installed by prying over pulleys will fail
prematurely due to internal cord damage.
Lower Fan Belt
Removal
1. Loosen both idler adjusting arm bolts and both
idler assembly pivot bolts.
4. Loosen the two condenser fan hub to the shaft
clamping bolts.
5. Tap the blower wheel with a soft hammer to
drive the blower wheel up the fan shaft to
provide 1/2 in. (13 mm) clearance between the
blower wheel and the inlet ring.
NOTE: If the condenser fan does not slide
on the fan shaft with light tapping, remove
the small access panel located on the
condenser coil header above the radiator
tank. Thread a 1/4-20 x 1 in. diameter bolt
into the end of the fan shaft. Tighten the bolt
and washer down on the condenser fan hub
to loosen the blower wheel. Drive the blower
wheel back to provide 1/2 in. (13 mm)
clearance between the blower wheel and
condenser fan inlet ring.
2. Push the idler adjusting arm IN. The lower fan
belt will come off the engine pulley. Move the
arm OUT far enough to clear the roadside
idler mounting bracket.
6. Lift the belt up over the condenser blower
wheel and remove it from the unit.
Installation
Installation
1. Slip the belt into the groove of the idler pulley.
1. Slip the belt over the condenser blower wheel
and place it in the condenser fan pulley.
2. Push the idler adjusting arm back in toward
the unit.
3. Slip the belt onto the pulley groove on the
engine.
4. Pull the idler adjusting arm back OUT and
adjust the belts to the proper tension.
5. Tighten the idler assembly pivot bolts and the
idler adjusting arm bolts.
Upper Fan Belt
Removal
1. Loosen the idler adjusting arm bolts and
remove the lower fan belt (see Lower Fan Belt
Removal).
6. Seat the upper belt in the blower wheel pulley
100
2. Drive the condenser blower wheel out toward
the condenser fan inlet ring using a soft
hammer.
3. Position the blower wheel so the edge of the
inlet ring lines up with the alignment mark on
the blower wheel.
4. Check the radial clearance between the blower
wheel and inlet ring with a gauge wire. Check
around the entire circumference to the inlet
ring and blower wheel (see Condenser and
Evaporator Fan Location under Structural
Maintenance).
5. Torque the blower hub clamping bolts to
18 ft-lb (24 N•m).
groove.
Engine Maintenance
7. Push inward on the idler adjusting arm and
slip the belt into the idler pulley groove.
8. Pull the idler adjusting arm forward and install
the lower fan belt.
1
2
3
4
AEA749
1.
Blower Wheel
2.
Inlet Ring
3.
Alignment Mark
4.
Edge of Inlet Ring
Figure 85: Condenser Blower Alignment
101
Engine Maintenance
102
Refrigeration Maintenance
NOTE: The following procedures involve
servicing the refrigeration system. Some of these
service procedures are regulated by Federal, and
in some cases, by State and Local laws.
In the USA all regulated refrigeration service
procedures must be performed by an EPA
certified technician, using approved equipment
and complying with all Federal, State and Local
laws.
The S391 screw compressor has two suction
service valves and one discharge service valve.
The main suction service valve is on top of the
compressor. The economizer suction service valve
is on the side of the compressor. When installing a
gauge manifold:
1. Connect the compound gauge line to the main
suction service valve port.
2. Connect the high pressure gauge line to the
discharge service valve port.
1
2
3
3. For some tests it is necessary to connect a
second compound gauge to the economizer
suction service valve port.
The unit is equipped with an additional access
port called the suction pressure access port. It is
used to monitor the pressure on the low side of the
system when the main suction service valve is
closed. The suction pressure access port is located
on the tube that connects the suction vibrasorber
to the suction service valve.
Suction Pressures
The unit is equipped with two different expansion
valves. The expansion valve used for the
evaporator coil is similar to the expansion valve
used on a reciprocating compressor system. The
expansion valve used for the economizer is a
Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) expansion
valve. The MOP is set at 50 psi (345 kPa). The
flow through the economizer expansion valve is
limited by the MOP. The flow through the
economizer expansion valve starts to decrease as
economizer suction pressure approaches the MOP,
and then more or less stops when the economizer
suction pressure is above the MOP.
The unit is also equipped with an electronic
throttling valve. It is located in the suction line
near outlet from the evaporator coil. The
electronic throttling valve and the MOP expansion
valve both limit the suction pressures at the
compressor.
When LV1 (economizer bypass solenoid) is
closed:
•
The suction pressure at the main suction
service valve will vary according to box and
ambient conditions.
•
The maximum economizer suction pressure at
the economizer suction serviced valve will
always be higher than the main suction
pressure, but the flow through the economizer
expansion valve is limited by its MOP.
4
AGA165
1.
Discharge—High Side Gauge
2.
Main Suction—Low Side Gauge
3.
Suction Access Port—Low Side Gauge
4.
Economizer Suction—Low Side Gauge
Figure 86: Gauge Installation
When LV1 (economizer bypass solenoid) is open:
•
The economizer suction pressure will always
be higher than the main suction pressure.
103
Refrigeration Maintenance
•
The economizer suction pressure may be
lower when LV1 is open than when LV1 is
closed.
•
The suction pressure at the main suction
service valve will normally be approximately
5 to 10 psi (34 to 69 kPa) lower than the
economizer suction pressure.
7. Under these conditions, the ball should be
floating in the receiver tank sight glass. If
refrigerant is not visible in the receiver tank
sight glass, the unit is low on refrigerant.
Testing The Refrigerant Charge With
A Loaded Trailer
1. Install a gauge manifold.
Refrigerant Charge
CAUTION: The S391 screw compressor
refrigeration system is sensitive to an
overcharge of refrigerant. It is also easy to
mistake a full charge for a low charge. Do
not add refrigerant unless you are certain
the unit is low on refrigerant. If there is
any doubt about the refrigerant charge,
recover the refrigerant, evacuate the
system, and recharge the system by
weight.
Testing The Refrigerant Charge With
An Empty Trailer
If the unit has an insufficient charge of refrigerant,
the evaporator will be “starved” and the box
temperatures will rise even though the unit is
operating. The suction pressure will drop as the
refrigerant charge decreases. Check the refrigerant
charge by looking in the receiver tank sight glass
with the following conditions established:
1. Place a test box over the evaporator.
2. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
3. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
4. Use the microprocessor to monitor the return
air temperature.
5. Run the unit on high speed cool until the air in
the box is at 0 F (-18 C). By allowing the box
to leak a small amount, you will be able to
maintain 0 F (-18 C).
6. Cover the condenser grille with a piece of
cardboard to raise the discharge pressure. The
discharge pressure must be between 300 to
400 psi (2068 to 2756 kPa) and rising.
104
2. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
3. Cool the compartment to lowest temperature
required.
4. Cover the condenser grille with a piece of
cardboard to raise the discharge pressure. The
discharge pressure must be between 300 to
400 psi (2068 to 2756 kPa) and rising.
5. Under these conditions, the ball should be
floating in the receiver tank sight glass. If
refrigerant is not visible in the receiver tank
sight glass, the unit is low on refrigerant.
NOTE: If the ball floats, there is sufficient
refrigerant in the unit for that load at that
particular temperature. This test does not
determine if the unit contains a full charge of
refrigerant.
Testing for an Overcharge
If the unit has an overcharge of refrigerant, it may
exhibit the following symptoms:
•
High discharge pressure
•
High CTMP
•
Alarm Code 10 on defrost
•
Operating in auxiliary modes
Use the following procedure to identify a unit
with an excessive refrigerant charge:
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
2. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
Refrigeration Maintenance
3. Operate the unit in high speed cool long
enough to stabilize system pressures and
reduce the box temperature to approximately
60 F (16 C) or colder.
e. Observe the suction pressure and slowly
open the gauge manifold low pressure
hand valve to allow liquid refrigerant to
flow into the main suction service valve.
4. Observe discharge pressure and cover the
condenser to increase the discharge pressure
approximately 50 psi (345 kPa) above the
observed pressure. Do not allow the discharge
pressure to go above 350 psi (2413 kPa).
f. Control the liquid flow so the suction
pressure increases approximately 20 psi
(138 kPa).
g. Maintain a discharge pressure of at least
275 psi (1896 kPa) while adding
refrigerant.
NOTE: If the ball and liquid level in the
receiver sight glass drops during step 4, the
unit is not overcharged and it is not
necessary to complete the procedure.
h. Close the hand valve on the refrigerant
tank when liquid appears in the receiver
sight glass.
5. Remove the condenser cover to rapidly reduce
discharge pressure.
4. Repeat the overcharge test.
6. Observe the receiver tank sight glass and the
unit discharge pressure.
5. Remove the gauge manifold set and cap all
service ports and valve stems when the
refrigerant level is correct.
7. By the time the discharge pressure drops
approximately 50 psi (345 kPa), the ball in the
receiver tank sight glass should begin to move
and the liquid level should drop.
Moisture Indicating Sight Glass
a. When discharge pressure stabilizes, the
ball and liquid level will rise.
b. If the ball will not begin to move or the
liquid level will not drop, the unit most
likely has an overcharge of refrigerant.
The refrigerant level should be adjusted.
To adjust the refrigerant level:
The receiver tank is equipped with a moisture
indicating sight glass. The outer edge of the sight
glass has a colored ring approximately 0.1 in. (2.5
mm) thick. The color of the ring indicates the
moisture content of the refrigerant, but it may not
be completely reliable.
•
Green = Dry
•
Chartreuse = Caution
•
Yellow = Wet
1. Stop the unit and remove some refrigerant
with an approved refrigerant recovery device.
1
2. Perform a refrigerant level check and repeat
the overcharge test.
3. If the liquid level is low, add refrigerant as
follows:
a. Connect a refrigerant tank to the gauge
manifold service line and purge the line.
b. Mid seat the main suction service valve.
c. Set the refrigerant tank for liquid removal
and open the hand valve.
d. Operate the unit in high speed cool.
2
AEA672
1.
2.
Floating Ball
Colored Ring
Figure 87: Moisture Indicating Sight Glass
A system has to run for at least 15 minutes to
change the color of the indicator ring after the
moisture content of the system has been changed.
For example, evacuating a system to remove the
moisture will not change the color of the indicator
ring until the system has been recharged and then
operated for at least 15 minutes.
105
Refrigeration Maintenance
Refrigerant Leaks
Use a reliable leak detector that is suitable for
R-404A to leak test the refrigeration system.
Inspect for signs of oil leakage which is the first
sign of a leak in the refrigeration system.
NOTE: A leak detector cannot be used to check
the compressor shaft seal. The shaft seal in this
screw compressor is designed so that if it leaks, it
will leak oil not refrigerant (some refrigerant is
dissolved in the oil). The entire shaft seal is
submerged in oil, even when the compressor is
not operating. See Compressor Shaft Seal Leak
Test.
Compressor Shaft Seal Leak Check
Consider the following items before changing a
compressor shaft seal:
•
The presence of some oil around the seal
cover is normal.
•
The mechanic must be able to differentiate
between normal oil seepage which is usually
dirty or dusty, and a fresh stream of oil which
will continue to appear and will flow until it
drips.
•
A seal can gradually leak enough refrigerant
to cause a system failure with no evidence of
heavy oil seepage.
•
The compressor shaft seal on a unit that is not
operated for extended periods of time may
leak small amounts of refrigerant. However,
the seal often recovers its normal sealing
capability after the unit is operated and
lubrication occurs.
•
•
As with other refrigerant leaks, a shaft seal
leak can be masked by the presence of oil in
the leak passage. It can take as long as 30-45
minutes for the leak to appear in a large
enough quantity to be measured.
A high quality, very accurate leak detector
such as P/N 204-712 (or an equivalent) and
the discipline to follow the proper procedures
are essential. A unit with a low refrigerant
charge should be thoroughly leak checked.
Use the following procedure to leak check the
compressor shaft seal:
106
1. Blow out the seal area to remove any residual
refrigerant and remove excess oil with
solvent.
2. Calibrate the leak detector P/N 204-712 for
the medium setting (1/2 oz per year).
3. Starting from below the seal cover, slowly
move the probe up towards the compressor
shaft seal. Avoid getting dirt or oil in the
probe.
4. If the leak detector senses a leak on the
medium setting, withdraw the probe, allow the
leak detector to stabilize, and check again.
5. Re-calibrate the leak detector for the large
setting (5 oz per year) and repeat steps 3
and 4.
6. If the leak detector senses a leak on the large
setting, the unit should be operated in high
speed cool for 10 minutes or more. Stop the
unit and blow out the seal cover area. Allow
the unit to stand for 1/2 hour.
NOTE: This time can be used to leak check
the rest of the unit.
7. Repeat steps 2, 3, 4, and 5. If the leak detector
does not sense a leak on the large setting, the
shaft seal is okay unless a fresh stream of oil
reappeared.
Oil Collection Bottle
An oil collection bottle was added to the unit in
the first quarter of 2004. The oil collection bottle
is used to monitor the amount of oil that seeps
from the compressor shaft seal. It is considered
normal for the compressor shaft seal to seep 1 oz
(30 ml) or less per 1,000 hours.
The oil collection bottle is mounted on the
compressor mounting flange. A tube connects the
oil collection bottle to the compressor shaft seal
cover. The oil that seeps from the seal collects in
the bottle. The bottle is marked in ounces (oz) on
one side and in milliliters (ml) on the other side.
Refrigeration Maintenance
1
1
2
3
2
1.
Compressor Mounting Flange
2.
Oil Collection Bottle
Figure 88: Oil Collection Bottle Location
1
1.
Top Cap
2.
O-Ring
3.
Bottle
Figure 90: Oil Collection Bottle Components
2
Shaft Seal Evaluation
New shaft seals tend to have a higher rate of
leakage until they have been run for about 6
hours. There also may be an initial high rate with
a new unit, or a new seal installation, when the oil
used during the seal installation makes its way
into the bottle.
1.
Compressor Shaft Seal Cover
2.
Tube to Oil Collection Bottle
Figure 89: Oil Collection Bottle Tube Connection
Because of this, do not try to evaluate seal leakage
in the first 6 hours of run time after a new seal is
installed or a new unit put in service. If a new unit
puts any oil in the collection bottle in the first 6
hours of operation, it can be dumped out.
If the oil bottle fills up during a period of engine
hours that is significantly shorter than 3,000
engine hours, then change the shaft seal.
A seal leaking at the highest allowed rate can fill
up a bottle in approximately 3,000 hours.
107
Refrigeration Maintenance
The following procedures should be used to make
sure the seal is not changed prematurely. These
procedures refer to the Oil Collection Data Label
shown below. This label is located on the unit
frame near the oil collection bottle. The part
number for the label is 92-3562.
Subtract the last engine hours from the current
engine hours.
Subtract the last bottle level from the current
level.
NOTE: The levels are going to be estimates
when the level is between marks. Estimate the
level to the nearest mark or quarter of a mark.
Results
•
If the level has not increased 1 oz (30 ml)
since the last entry, and the hours are less than
1,000 hours since the last entry, you do not
need to make an entry at this time.
•
If the bottle has gained a significant amount
more than 1 oz (30 ml) in 1,000 hours, the seal
can be changed. If it is at or somewhat above 1
oz (30 ml), it may need to be monitored more
closely.
•
If the bottle is more than 2oz (60 ml) full and
has over 2,000 run hours, you should empty
the bottle and mark the level column as
“emptied” (the use of MTD is acceptable) and
the current engine hours and date. Depending
on the leakage rate and hours in service, a new
label may be required.
Figure 91: Oil Collection Data Label P/N 92-3562
New Unit
The first entry on the label should be done as the
unit is put in service.
After the break-in hours are completed (usually 5
to 10 hours), the bottle should be emptied if there
is any oil from the seal break-in and an entry
made.
The entry should have “0” in the level column,
“0” in the hours column, and the date in service in
the date column.
New Seal
When a new seal is installed, the bottle should be
emptied of residual oil after seal break-in. The
level column should have “0” entered. The current
engine hours should be entered in the hours
column and the current date. A new label may
need to be placed over the existing one if the label
is filled.
Checking
The bottle can be checked during pre-trips, during
oil changes, or during annual services.
Checking Procedure
Note the last entry and the level in the bottle
shown on the label.
108
Refrigeration Maintenance
Checking Compressor Oil
The compressor oil should be checked when there
is evidence of oil loss (oil leaks) or when
components in the refrigeration system have been
removed for service or replacement. Note the
following items:
NOTE: Too much oil in the compressor can
cause low refrigeration capacity.
•
The unit must be running in high speed cool
when checking the compressor oil level. Use
Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit in
High Speed Cool.
•
The oil level should be visible in the sight
glass.
•
DO NOT operate the unit if the compressor oil
level is below the bottom of the sight glass.
NOTE: The oil level in the compressor sump
depends on the operating conditions. The oil
should be visible in the sight glass. The
compressor can handle losing up to about 0.6
qt (0.6 liters) of oil. The Oil Level Chart on
page 110 shows the relative compressor oil
levels with a total oil charge of 2.8 qt (2.7
liters).
•
If the oil level is above the top of the sight
glass, remove some oil from the compressor to
bring the oil level down to the middle of the
sight glass.
a. Close the main suction service valve, the
economizer suction service valve, and the
discharge service valve to isolate the
compressor from the system.
b. Recover the refrigerant remaining in the
compressor.
c. Carefully loosen the drain plug (see Figure
92 on page 110) and allow oil to slowly
drain from the compressor until the oil
level is at the middle of the sight glass.
d. Tighten the drain plug.
e. Backseat the service valves.
f. Check the refrigerant charge and the oil
level. Adjust as necessary.
109
Refrigeration Maintenance
Adding Compressor Oil
4. Pour the required amount of compressor oil
into the compressor. Use oil from a capped
contained. DO NOT use oil from an open
container.
NOTE: Use only Ester base refrigeration
compressor oil P/N 203-515.
1. Close the main suction service valve, the
economizer suction service valve, and the
discharge service valve to isolate the
compressor from the system.
2. Recover the refrigerant remaining in the
compressor.
3. Remove the discharge service valve, or the
small plug near the discharge service valve,
from the top of the compressor.
5. Install the service valve, or the plug, with a
new O-ring.
6. Pressurize the compressor and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the compressor.
7. Backseat the service valves.
8. Check the refrigerant charge and the oil level.
Adjust as necessary.
1
2
3
4
5
1.
Add Oil Through Discharge Port or Small Plug on Top of Sump
2.
Sight Glass
3.
1.4 Quarts (1.3 Liters) Level
4.
0.9 Quarts (0.8 Liters) Level
5.
Drain Plug
Figure 92: Checking Compressor Oil Level
Oil Level Chart
Oil In
Oil in
Compressor Compressor
Not in Sump
Sump
qts (liters)
qts (liters)
Oil Level
Viewed Through
Compressor
Sight Glasses
Box
Temp.
F (C)
Ambient
Temp.
F (C)
Oil In
System
qts (liters)
-20 to 70
(-29 to 21)
Above
50 (10)
0.1 to 1.1
(0.1 to 1.0
0.3
(0.3)
1.4 to 2.4
(1.3 to 2.3)
At or above the top
of the sight glass
-20 to 70
(-29 to 21)
Below
50 (10)
1.1 to 1.4
(1.0 to 1.3)
0.3
(0.3)
1.1 to 1.4
(1.0 to 1.3)
From the middle of the sight
glass to the top of the sight glass
110
Refrigeration Maintenance
Compressor Pump Down
NOTE: Never run the unit if the compressor oil
is not visible in the sight glass. The compressor
will not function properly if the compressor oil
level is low.
NOTE: Do not run the compressor in a vacuum
for more than 2 minutes.
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve. Attach an additional
low side gauge to the service port on the
economizer suction service valve.
2. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool.
3. Close the economizer suction service valve
and the main suction service valve while the
unit is running. The compressor should pump
down to a 25 in. Hg vacuum (-85 kPa) within
30 seconds. If the compressor does not pump
down and has the proper oil level, the
compressor is defective. The compressor
should pull a 25 in. Hg vacuum (-85 kPa)
within 30 seconds.
NOTE: If the pressure at the economizer
suction service valve is not equal to the
pressure at the main suction service valve
while the compressor pumps down, one of
the suction service valves may be leaking.
4. Shut the unit off. The pressures in the
compressor should equalize.
5. To isolate the compressor:
a. Close the discharge service valve.
NOTE: Never close (front seat) the discharge
service valve while the unit is running.
b. Recover the refrigerant in the compressor.
c. Compressor service may now be
performed. (This includes repair or
replacement of the compressor.)
6. To return the unit to service:
a. Evacuate the compressor.
b. Open the discharge, main suction, and
economizer suction service valves.
NOTE: Never close (front seat) the discharge
service valve while the unit is running.
c. Recharge the unit with the refrigerant
recovered in step 5, and verify proper
refrigerant charge level in the unit.
d. Remove the service gauges from the unit.
Low Side Pump Down
NOTE: Never run the unit if the compressor oil
is not visible in the sight glass. The compressor
will not function properly if the compressor oil
level is low.
NOTE: Do not run the compressor in a vacuum
for more than 2 minutes.
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve. Attach an additional
low side gauge to the suction access port,
which is located on the suction tube near the
main suction service valve.
2. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool.
3. Close the receiver tank outlet valve. The
compressor should pump the low side down to
a 25 in. Hg vacuum (-85 kPa).
4. To isolate the low side:
a. Close the economizer suction service
valve and the main suction service valve
while the unit is running.
b. Shut the unit Off. The pressures in the
compressor should equalize. The suction
access port gauge should remain near the
vacuum level obtained in step 3.
111
Refrigeration Maintenance
5. If the suction access port gauge was unable to
obtain an approximate 25 in. Hg vacuum (-85
kPa) in step 3, but the compressor does pump
down in step 4, at least one of the following
components is probably leaking or defective:
•
Three-Way Valve (Evaporator Side)
•
Pilot Solenoid Valve
•
Heat Check Valve
•
Receiver Tank Outlet Valve
•
External leak to the atmosphere
A gradual rise of the suction access port gauge
reading after the unit is shut down indicates a
small leak in one or more of the above
mentioned components.
6. To perform service functions on low side
components:
a. Equalize the pressure in the low side to
slightly positive.
b. Perform necessary repairs to low side
component(s) using proper EPA
procedures.
c. Evacuate the low side through the suction
access port. Evacuate the entire system if
the refrigerant was recovered because of
an external leak.
d. Open the receiver tank outlet valve, main
suction, and economizer suction service
valves.
e. Verify the proper refrigerant charge level
in the unit.
f. Remove the service gauges from the unit.
NOTE: To return the unit to service without
performing service functions on low side
components, open the receiver tank outlet
valve, main suction, and economizer suction
service valves.
High Pressure Cut In Switch
(HPCI) Test
The high pressure cut in switch (HPCI) is located
in the compressor discharge service valve. This
switch is used as backup for a failed discharge
pressure transducer. It is connected to the HPCI
and CH wires in the main wire harness. The
microprocessor only uses the input from the HPCI
to protect the compressor from high discharge
pressures when the discharge pressure transducer
fails. If the discharge pressure rises above 425 psi
(2930 kPa), the HPCI closes. This signals the
microprocessor that the discharge pressure is
high. The microprocessor may use this
information to place the unit in an auxiliary mode.
Once closed, the HPCI opens when the discharge
pressure drops below 325 psi (2241 kPa). This
signals the microprocessor that the discharge
pressure has dropped. The microprocessor may
use this information to discontinue an auxiliary
mode.
Use the following procedure to test the HPCI:
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
2. Disconnect the HPCI switch from the HPCI
and CH wires in the main wire harness.
3. Check the HPCI for continuity. It should be
open when the unit is not running.
4. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
5. Cover the condenser to raise the discharge
pressure.
6. Monitor the discharge and suction pressures.
When the discharge pressure reaches 425 ± 10
psi (2930 ± 69 kPa), the HPCI should close.
7. Uncover the condenser to lower the discharge
pressure.
8. Monitor the discharge and suction pressures.
When the discharge pressure reaches 325 ± 10
psi (2241 ± 69 kPa), the HPCI should open.
9. Replace the HPCI if it does not function
properly.
10. Reconnect the HPCI to the main wire harness
and remove the gauge manifold.
112
Refrigeration Maintenance
High Pressure Cutout Switch
(HPCO) Test
The high pressure cutout switch (HPCO) is
located in the compressor discharge service valve.
It is connected to the 8PA and 8D wires in the
main wire harness. If the discharge pressure rises
above 470 +7/-35 psi (3241 +48/-241 kPa), the
HPCO opens. This opens the 8PA-8D circuit,
which de-energizes the fuel solenoid and shuts
down the unit. The microprocessor then records
Alarm Code 10. Test the HPCO for the following
symptoms:
•
The unit shuts down and records Alarm Code
10 in heat or cool without first running in an
auxiliary mode.
•
The high pressure relief valve vents
refrigerant while the unit is running.
To test the HPCO rework a gauge manifold as
shown in the “High Pressure Cutout Manifold”
illustration (below) and use the following
procedure:
1. Connect the gauge manifold to the compressor
discharge service valve with a heavy duty,
black jacketed thick wall #HCA 144 hose with
a 900 psi (6204 kPa) working pressure rating.
2. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
3. Raise the discharge pressure of the
compressor first by blocking the condenser
coil air flow by covering the roadside
condenser grille with a piece of cardboard. If
this does not raise the discharge pressure to
the cutout level of the HPCO, increase the
engine speed by overriding the throttle
solenoid, but do not exceed 2400 rpm. (This
will cause Alarm Code 33 Check Engine
RPM.) This should increase the discharge
pressure enough to cause the HPCO to cut out.
The cut out pressure should be 470 +7/-35 psi
(3241 +48/-241 kPa).
CAUTION: If the discharge pressure
reaches 477 psi (3289 kPa), shut the unit
off immediately. Do not allow the
discharge pressure to exceed 477 psi (3289
kPa).
4. If the HPCO does not open to de-energize the
fuel solenoid and stop the engine, it must be
replaced.
Three-Way Valve Condenser
Pressure Bypass Check Valve
A three-way valve condenser pressure bypass
check valve is used in this unit. This check valve
controls the bypass flow of refrigerant gas
between the condenser inlet line and the
compressor discharge line.
The check valve is closed when the unit is running
on cool, or whenever the discharge pressure is
higher than the condenser pressure.
1.
Relief Valve (66-6543)
2.
O-Ring (33-1015)
3.
Adapter Tee Weather Head (No. 552X3)
Figure 93: High Pressure Cutout Manifold
When the unit is running on defrost or heat, if the
condenser pressure is higher than the discharge
pressure, the check valve opens and the condenser
pressure is bled off until it drops to the level of the
discharge pressure. The purpose of the valve is to
improve the three-way valve response time when
shifting from heat to cool.
113
Refrigeration Maintenance
If a three-way valve does not shift back to cool
immediately after the pilot solenoid closes, and
finally shifts to cool when the temperature rise
puts the unit into high speed, the three-way valve
end cap should be checked. See “End Cap
Checks” on page 135.
4. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool.
5. Close the receiver tank outlet valve and pump
down the low side to 20 in. Hg (-68 kPa) of
vacuum.
6. Isolate the low side by closing the economizer
suction service valve and the main suction
service valve while the unit is running.
7. Stop the unit. The pressures in the compressor
should equalize. The discharge pressure and
the pressure at the suction access port should
then remain stable, indicating no leaks.
8. Without starting the unit, shift the three-way
valve to the heat position using Service Test
Mode [LS.H] to place the unit in Low Speed
Heat. The pressure at the suction access port
will raise slightly and the discharge pressure
will drop to approximately zero as these
pressures equalize.
9. These pressures will remain at approximately
zero if the three-way valve seals properly
toward the condenser and the condenser
pressure bypass check valve seals properly.
1.
Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve
2.
Heat/Defrost Position
3.
Cool Position
Figure 94: Three-way Valve Condenser
Pressure Bypass Check Valve
To check the operation of the condenser pressure
bypass check valve:
1. Remove the condenser pressure bypass check
valve cap from the three-way valve.
2. Using a screwdriver, gently turn the check
valve stem in until the valve is front seated.
3. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve. Attach an additional
low side gauge to the suction access port,
which is located on the suction tube near the
main suction service valve.
114
10. Back seat condenser pressure bypass check
valve stem against snap ring. The pressure at
the suction access port and the discharge
pressure should both rise indicating the
condenser pressure bypass check valve is
properly releasing condenser pressure into the
discharge tube and evaporator.
11. Replace the cap on the condenser pressure
bypass check valve.
NOTE: Valve stem MUST be back seated
during normal unit operation.
12. Open the receiver tank return outlet valve, the
economizer suction service valve, the main
suction service valve, remove the gauges and
return the unit to normal operation.
Refrigeration Maintenance
Electronic Throttling Valve
(ETV)
2
1
The Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV) is a
variable position valve operated by a stepper
motor. The ETV is located in the suction line near
the evaporator outlet. The ETV system also uses
discharge and suction pressure transducers.
The ETV has two internal coils. The
microprocessor operates the valve by energizing
the coils with a variable frequency ac signal. The
valve position can be monitored with the
GAUGES key [ETV.P]. Zero (0) indicates the valve
is fully closed and 800 indicates the valve is fully
open.
The microprocessor tests the ETV every time the
unit is started. Alarm Code 89 indicates the
refrigeration system pressures did not respond as
expected during the test. This may be caused by a
malfunction of the ETV or by a refrigeration
system problem such as low refrigerant level, a
frozen expansion valve, or a restriction in suction
line. The microprocessor ignores the test results if
the box temperature or the ambient temperature is
below 10 F (-12 C). The ETV test can also be
performed using the Service Test Mode (Service
Procedure A34A in TK 51329).
Use the GAUGES key to check the operation of the
ETV during the ETV test. The valve position
[ETV.P] should be 0 at the start of the test when
the valve is fully closed, and should go to a higher
value when the valve is opened. The suction
pressure [SUC.P] should decrease while the valve
is fully closed, and should begin to increase when
the valve is opened.
Refer to Service Procedure G03A, the Electronic
Throttling Valve (ETV) Test, and Alarm Code 89
in the ThermoGuard µP-VI Microprocessor
Controller Revision 43xx Software Diagnostic
Manual TK 51329 for complete information about
the testing and operation of the ETV.
Refer to “Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV)” on
page 140 of this manual for removal and
installation procedures.
4
3
ARA168
1.
Outlet
2.
Stepper Motor
3.
Valve Body
4.
Inlet
Figure 95: Electronic Throttling Valve
Pressure Transducers
The discharge pressure transducer and the suction
pressure transducer supply pressure information
to the microprocessor. These pressures can be
monitored with the GAUGES key. [DIS.P] is the
discharge pressure. [SUC.P] is the suction
pressure. The readings can be checked by
comparing them to the readings on a calibrated
gauge manifold set attached to the compressor.
•
The suction pressure transducer reading
should within 7 psig (48 kPa) of the low side
gauge reading.
•
The discharge pressure transducer reading
should within 17.5 psig (121 kPa) of the high
side gauge reading.
•
The the suction and discharge pressure
transducer readings should be within 5 psig
(34 kPa) when the suction and discharge
pressures have been equalized.
Refer to Service Procedure D03A, the Pressure
Sensor Test, and Alarm Codes 87 and 109 in the
ThermoGuard µP-VI Microprocessor Controller
Revision 43xx Software Diagnostic Manual TK
51329 for more information about the testing and
operation of the pressure transducers.
115
Refrigeration Maintenance
Loading Valve Test
Use the following procedure to test LV1
(economizer bypass solenoid) and LV2. The
procedure first tests LV1 and then tests LV2. LV2
cannot be tested properly unless LV1 is
functioning correctly.
NOTE: If you decide to replace a solenoid valve,
check the openings in the valve holder to make
sure that a plugged opening is not causing the
valve to malfunction. Repeat the Loading Valve
Test after replacing a solenoid valve. If the
loading valve still malfunctions, its piston may
be sticking in the discharge housing and should
be inspected.
Before testing the loading valves, check the
loading valve coils to make sure they are in the
correct position and snapped on tightly. LV2
should be on top. It has a square 4-pin connector.
LV1 should be on the bottom and has a triangular
3-pin connector.
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve.
4
O-Ring
2.
Armature Tube
4.
Body
Figure 96: Exploded View of LV1 and LV2
116
5. Use Service Test Mode [LSC.P] to place the
unit in Low Cool Partial Load. This opens
LV1 (economizer bypass solenoid). The main
suction pressure should rise and the
economizer suction pressure should fall. The
main suction pressure should stabilize a
minimum of 5 psi (34 kPa) below the
economizer suction pressure.
If the pressures do not change acceptably, LV1
is not opening.
a. Check the 8F/EVBPP and EBV circuits to
LV1 for an open circuit.
b. If the 8F/EVBPP and EBV circuits are
intact, check the current draw of the LV1
coil. It should be approximately 1.5 amps.
If the coil is defective, replace it.
If the pressures do not change acceptably, LV2
is not opening.
3
3.
4. Monitor the discharge and suction pressures.
Let the unit run until the pressures stabilize
and note the pressures.
6. Use Service Test Mode [LSC.U] to place the
unit in Low Cool Unloaded. This opens LV2.
The main suction pressure and the economizer
suction pressure should both rise, and the
discharge pressure should fall. The main
suction pressure should stabilize a minimum
of 5 psi (34 kPa) below the economizer
suction pressure.
2
Coil
3. Use Service Test Mode [LS.C] to run the unit
in Low Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
c. If the LV1 coil is not defective, replace the
solenoid valve.
1
1.
2. Connect an extra compound gauge to the
economizer suction service valve.
a. Check the 8F/ULPP and UL circuits to
LV2 for an open circuit.
b. If the 8F/ULPP and UL circuits are intact,
check the current draw of the LV2 coil. It
should be approximately 1.5 amps. If the
coil is defective, replace it.
c. If the LV2 coil is not defective, replace the
solenoid valve.
Refrigeration Maintenance
Liquid Line Solenoid Test
Use the following procedure to test the LLSV
(Liquid Line Solenoid).
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve.
2. Start the unit.
3. Use Service Test Mode [LLS.T] to run the
Liquid Line Solenoid Valve Service Test.
Refer to the appropriate Diagnostic Manual
for specific information about the Service Test
Mode.
NOTE: If alarm codes 87 or 89 are active,
[LLS.T] will not appear when scrolling
through the Service Test Mode screens.
4. Approximately 30 seconds after the test starts,
the microprocessor will check the suction
pressure.
a. If the suction pressure is above -3 psi
(-21 kPa) (-5 psi [-34 kPa] in Software
Revision 4300 and 4301), the test will
continue. See step 5.
b. If the suction pressure is below -3 psi
(-21 kPa) (-5 psi [-34 kPa] in Software
Revision 4300 and 4301), the engine will
stop running and LO SP (Low Suction
Pressure) will appear in the upper display.
This indicates the main suction pressure is
lower than expected and the LLSV may be
stuck closed. Check the LLS circuit for a
short to ground, and check for other causes
of low main suction pressure. If the LLS
circuit is not shorted to ground, and there
are no other causes of low main suction
pressure, replace the LLSV.
5. The microprocessor will then energize (close)
the LLSV.
6. Approximately 2 minutes after the LLSV is
energized, the microprocessor will check the
suction pressure.
a. If the suction pressure is below -3 psi
(-21 kPa) (-5 psi [-34 kPa] in Software
Revision 4300 and 4301), the engine will
stop running and PASS will appear in the
upper display. This indicates the LLSV is
functioning properly.
b. If the suction pressure is above -3 psi
(-21 kPa) (-5 psi [-34 kPa] in Software
Revision 4300 and 4301), the engine will
stop running and FAIL will appear in the
upper display. This indicates the main
suction pressure is higher than expected
and the LLSV may not be closing.
•
Check the LLS and LLSPP circuits for
open circuits.
•
If the LLS and LLSPP circuits are
intact, check the current draw of the
LLSV coil. It should be approximately
1.5 amps. If the coil is defective,
replace it.
•
If the LLSV coil is not defective,
check for other causes of high main
suction pressure. If there are no other
causes of high main suction pressure,
replace the LLSV.
Liquid Injection Valve Test
Use the following procedure to test the LIV
(Liquid Injection Valve).
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve.
2. Use Service Test Mode [LS.C] to run the unit
in Low Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
3. Monitor the discharge and suction pressures
and let the unit run until the pressures
stabilize.
117
Refrigeration Maintenance
4. Use Service Test Mode [LIV] to place the unit
in Liquid Injection Mode. This opens and
closes the LIV at 3 seconds intervals. The
main suction pressure should rise when LIV
opens, and fall when LIV closes. Use the
Embedded Gauge Menu to see when the valve
opens and closes. Press the THERMO KING LOGO
key for approximately 3 seconds while a
gauge screen is displayed to enter the
Embedded Gauge Menu.
If the main suction pressure does not rise and
fall at 3 seconds intervals, LIV is not opening
and closing.
a. Check the LQI and LQIPP circuits to LIV
for open or short circuits.
b. If the LQI and LQIPP circuits are intact,
check the current draw of the LIV coil
when energized. It should be
approximately 1.5 amps. If the LIV coil is
defective, replace it.
c. If the LIV coil is not defective, replace the
solenoid valve.
Water Valve Test
The water valve (EWSV) is a normally closed
valve. It is located on the bulkhead above the
engine. The water valve is opened (after a 90
second delay) during heat and defrost. This
supplies hot engine coolant to the economizer,
where the heat is transferred to the refrigerant to
increase the heating capacity. Test the water valve
for the following symptoms:
•
The unit records Alarm Code 39 (Water
Valve) and the water valve circuits are not
faulty.
•
The unit records Alarm Code 26 (Check
Refrigeration Capacity) and either the heating
capacity or the cooling capacity is low.
118
1
2
1.
Coil
2.
Body
Figure 97: Water Valve
To test the water valve use the following
procedure:
1. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
2. Use the microprocessor to monitor the engine
coolant temperature.
3. Let the unit run until the engine coolant
temperature rises above 140 F (60 C).
4. Carefully check the temperature of the hose
and the copper tube attached to the water
valve by touching them. Do not grab a hose. It
may be hot enough to burn you.
5. The hoses and copper tube may be warm, but
they should not be hot. If the hoses are hot, the
water valve is probably stuck open. That
would reduce the cooling capacity of the unit.
6. Use Service Test Mode [HS.H] to place the
unit in High Speed Heat.
7. The water valve should open after a 90 second
delay.
8. Use the Embedded Gauge Menu to see when
the EWSV opens (press the THERMO KING LOGO
key for approximately 3 seconds while a
gauge screen is displayed to enter the
Embedded Gauge Menu) and use the GAUGES
key to check the engine coolant temperature.
If the EWSV is functioning properly, the
engine coolant temperature should
momentarily drop 5 to 7 F (3 to 4 C) when the
EWSV opens.
Refrigeration Maintenance
9. Carefully check the temperature of the hoses
attached to the water valve by touching them.
Do not grab a hose. It may be hot enough to
burn you.
10. The hoses should be warming up and soon get
almost as hot as the engine coolant.
a. If the hoses do not get hot, the water valve
is probably not opening. That would
reduce the heating capacity of the unit.
Check the current draw of the water valve
coil. It should be approximately 1.5 amps.
If the water valve coil is defective, replace
it. If the water valve coil is not defective,
replace the whole water valve.
b. If the hoses were already hot in step 5, and
did not get much hotter in step 10, the
water valve is probably stuck open.
Replace it.
Heat Check Valve Tests
Test for Leaking Heat Check Valve
The heat check valve prevents refrigerant from
entering the heat circuit when the unit is in cool. If
the heat check valve fails, it may leak so much
that a temperature difference across the valve is
not noticeable. This fills the heat circuit with
liquid. The liquid evaporates as it passes through
the heating bypass orifice between the hot gas line
and the suction line. This causes heavy frost
accumulation on the main suction line between
the orifice and the compressor. A leaking heat
check valve may cause the following symptoms:
•
The unit records Alarm Code 26 (Check
Refrigeration Capacity) and the cooling
capacity is low.
•
The unit shuts down and records Alarm Code
32 (Refrigeration Capacity Low).
•
Heavy frost accumulation on the main suction
line to the compressor while the unit is in cool.
•
The low side will not pump down into a deep
vacuum, but the compressor will.
•
The compressor oil looks milky.
There is no absolute test for the heat check valve.
Instead, look for a pattern of symptoms using the
following procedure:
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve.
2. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in High Speed Cool. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
3. Check for a temperature difference across the
heat check valve by feeling the tubes on both
sides of the valve. A temperature difference
indicates a small leak. A faulty heat check
valve may leak so much that a temperature
difference across the valve is not noticeable.
4. Check the refrigerant charge. A leaking heat
check valve allows liquid refrigerant to
accumulate in the heat circuit. This causes the
refrigerant charge to appear low.
5. Close the receiver tank outlet valve to pump
down the low side. A leaking heat check valve
will usually prevent the low side from
pumping down into a vacuum.
6. Open the receiver tank outlet valve and run the
unit in high speed cool.
7. Check the main suction line to the compressor.
A leaking heat check valve may cause a heavy
accumulation of frost on the main suction line
between the heating bypass orifice and the
compressor.
8. Remove the lower evaporator access panel
and check the suction line from the evaporator
to the bulkhead for frost. If the heat check
valve is leaking, this part of the suction line
should be free of frost. There may be a little
frost on the suction line right where it enters
the bulkhead. If so, it is from liquid passing
through the heating bypass orifice on the other
side of the bulkhead.
119
Refrigeration Maintenance
between heat and cool. The unit may shut
down on for Alarm Code 10 High Discharge
Pressure.
9. Assume the heat check valve is leaking if the
following symptoms were confirmed during
the test procedure:
•
Low refrigerant charge.
•
Low side will not pump down into a
vacuum.
•
Heavy frost on the main suction line
between the orifice and the compressor,
but not between the evaporator and the
orifice.
Test For Closed Heat Check Valve
If the heat check valve is stuck closed, it will not
affect the operation of the unit in cool. However,
in heat, a heat check valve that is stuck closed will
cause high discharge pressures and the unit will
go into the High Discharge Pressure Control
auxiliary mode. Use the following procedure to
test for a heat check valve that is stuck closed.
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve. Attach an additional
high side gauge to the service port on the
receiver tank outlet valve.
2. Use Service Test Mode [HS.H] to run the unit
in High Speed Heat. Refer to the appropriate
Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the Service Test Mode.
3. If the heat check valve that is stuck closed you
will see the discharge pressure rise quickly,
but the receiver tank pressure will not rise. If
the receiver tank pressure rises with the
discharge pressure, the heat check valve is not
stuck closed, but there is probably a restriction
in the liquid line. At a discharge pressure of
approximately 415 psig (2861 kPa) the unit
will shift the three-way valve to the cool
position to lower the discharge pressure. The
discharge pressure will then start to drop.
When the discharge pressure drops enough,
the unit will shift the three-way valve back to
the heat position. The discharge pressure will
rise and the cycle will be repeated with the
three-way valve shifting back and forth
120
Compressor Test
The following symptoms often occur when the
compressor is failing and its capacity is low:
•
The unit records Alarm Code 26 (Check
Refrigeration Capacity) and the heating
capacity and/or the cooling capacity is low.
•
The unit shuts down and records Alarm Code
32 (Refrigeration Capacity Low).
•
The unit records Alarm Code 81 (High
Compressor Temperature Check).
•
The unit shuts down and records Alarm Code
82 (High Compressor Temperature
Shutdown).
•
The unit shuts down and records Alarm Code
63 (Engine Stopped - Reason Unknown). This
occurs if the compressor locks up.
•
The unit records Alarm Code -67 (Liquid Line
Solenoid Circuit) and the Liquid Line
Solenoid is functioning properly.
Use the following procedure, and refer to the
Compressor Test Flowchart on pages 123 and
124, to test the compressor:
1. Download the DAS and check for the
following items. They are often associated
with a defective compressor and may indicate
a defective compressor if the rest of the
system is in good condition.
a. Alarm Codes 26, 32, 63, 81, and 82.
b. An evaporator temperature differential
(TPDF) less than -10 F (-6 C) while the
unit is running in high speed cool with a
box temperature of 35 F (2 C) and an
ambient temperature of 90 F (32 C).
NOTE: The TPDF should be negative when
the unit is running in cool. A temperature
differential less than -10 F (-6 C) means less
negative. For example, a TPDF of -9 F
(-5 C) is less than a TPDF of -10 F (-6 C).
Refrigeration Maintenance
c. Compressor temperatures (CTMP) above
250 F (121 C) while the unit is running in
high speed cool with a box temperature of
35 F (2 C) and an ambient temperature of
90 F (32 C).
2. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor
and connect an extra compound gauge to the
economizer suction service valve. Make sure
the gauge attached to the economizer suction
service valve is calibrated correctly.
3. Use the Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the
unit in high speed cool. Refer to the
appropriate Diagnostic Manual for specific
information about the Service Test Mode.
4. Check the compressor oil level and condition.
a. If compressor oil level is below the bottom
of the sight glass, add oil and recheck the
oil level and condition.
b. Light brown compressor oil indicates
slight acidity. Dark brown compressor oil
indicates acidity, copper plating, and
possible high compressor temperatures. If
the compressor oil is clear to dark brown,
go to step 5.
c. Gray compressor oil indicates metal
contamination. The compressor is
probably defective if the oil is gray. Go to
step 6.
5. Check the refrigerant charge.
a. If the refrigerant charge is low or high,
repair and recharge the unit, then go to
step 6.
b. If the refrigerant charge is correct, go to
step 6.
NOTE: For steps 6 through 9 the trailer
temperature must be warm enough to
develop over 17 psi (117 kPa) of suction
pressure at the main suction service valve.
6. Use Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the unit
in high speed cool.
7. Cover the condenser to raise the discharge
pressure to 400 psi (2758 kPa).
NOTE: If you cannot raise the discharge
pressure to 400 psi (2758 kPa), make sure
you have at least 16 psi (110 kPa) of main
suction pressure. If not, the trailer is still too
cool or the system is causing the capacity
loss. Check for another problem that causes
low main suction pressure. If you cannot
raise the discharge pressure to 400 psi
(2758 kPa) with a main suction pressure of
16 psi (110 kPa) or higher, the compressor is
probably defective.
9. With the discharge pressure at 400 psi
(2758 kPa) and the main suction pressure at
16 psi (110 kPa), close (front seat) the
economizer suction service valve. When the
economizer suction service valve is closed,
the gauge attached to it is reading the pressure
inside the compressor, not the economizer
suction pressure.
a. A pressure of 20 psi (138 kPa) or less
indicates the compressor is good and you
can stop the test.
b. A pressure of 20 to 23 psi (138 to 159 kPa)
indicates the compressor is probably good,
but you should continue the test. Go to
step 10.
c. A pressure above 23 psi (159 kPa)
indicates the compressor is probably
defective. The higher the pressure, the less
capacity the compressor has.
10. Open the main suction service valve back up
to the port position.
11. Make sure the discharge pressure is still
approximately 400 psi (2758 kPa).
12. Check and record the CTMP with the unit in
high speed cool and the box temperature as
close as possible to 20 F (-7 C).
13. Use Service Test Mode [LS.C] to run the unit
in low speed cool.
14. If necessary, adjust the cover on the condenser
to obtain a discharge pressure of
approximately 400 psi (2758 kPa).
8. Close the main suction service valve slowly to
reduce the main suction pressure to 16 psi
(110 kPa).
121
Refrigeration Maintenance
15. Check and record the CTMP after about 15
minutes with the unit in low speed cool and
the box temperature as close as possible to
20 F (-7 C).
c. Recover the refrigerant from the
compressor.
d. Disconnect the service valves from the
compressor and remove the compressor
from the unit.
16. Compare the CTMP obtained in step 12 (high
speed cool) to the CTMP obtained in step 15
(low speed cool).
e. Remove the valve holder from the
compressor.
a. If the difference between the CTMPs is
more than 60 F (16 C), the compressor is
probably defective.
f. Remove the sixteen Allen screws that
attach the sump to the compressor. Fifteen
8 X 1.25 X 35 mm screws are located in
the flange on the rotor housing. One 8 X
1.25 X 70 mm screw is located at the
bottom of the rotor housing.
b. If the difference between the CTMPs is
60 F (16 C) or less, the compressor is
probably not defective.
17. If you think the compressor is defective,
remove the compressor sump and check for
metal shavings.
g. Remove the sump and check it for metal
shavings. Shavings tend to accumulate on
the shelf in the lower part of the sump
between the oil separator and the oil filter.
Some shavings are usually present. If there
are enough shavings to cover a finger size
magnet passed around the shelf, the
compressor is defective. Repair or replace
the compressor.
a. Shut the unit off.
b. Close the main suction service valve, the
economizer suction service valve, and the
discharge service valve to isolate the
compressor from the system.
1
2
3
1.
2.
3.
Sump
Check Shelf for Metal Shavings
Valve Holder
Figure 98: Remove Sump
122
Refrigeration Maintenance
Compressor Test Flow Chart
Download DAS
Alarm Codes 26, 32, 63,
67, 81, or 82
TPDF less than -10 F (-6 C)
High CTMP
No Codes
CTMP Normal
TPDF Normal
Return Unit to Service
Continue to Monitor
Install Gauges
Run in Service Test High Speed Cool
Check the Compressor Oil Level and Condition
Oil Level OK
Oil Level Low
Check Oil Condition
Add Oil
Gray Oil
Oil Clear to Dark Brown
Pull Compressor Sump and
Check for Metal Shavings
Check Refrigerant Charge
Refrigerant Charge OK
Refrigerant Charge High or Low
Repair and Recharge
Go to Next Page
123
Refrigeration Maintenance
Compressor Test Flow Chart (Continued)
From Previous Page
Run in Service Test High Speed Cool,
Raise Discharge Pressure to 400 psig (2758 kPa),
and Partially Close Main Suction Service Valve to Obtain Suction Pressure of 16 psig (110 kPa)
Cannot Raise Discharge Pressure to 400 psig (2758 kPa)
with Main Suction Pressure of 16 psig (110 kPa)
Can Raise Discharge Pressure to 400 psig (2758 kPa)
with Main Suction Pressure of 16 psig (110 kPa)
Close Economizer Suction Service Valve and Check Pressure
on Gauge Attached to Economizer Suction Service Valve
Pressure Above 23 psig (159 kPa)
Pressure 20 to 23 psig (138 to 159 kPa)
Pressure 20 psig (138 kPa) or Less
Open Main Suction Service Valve
Run in Service Test High Speed Cool and Check CTMP
Run in Service Test Low Speed Cool and Check CTMP
Compare CTMP in High Speed Cool to CTMP in Low Speed Cool
CTMP Difference
More Than 60 F (16 C)
Pull Compressor Sump and
Check for Metal Shavings
124
CTMP Difference
60 F (16 C) or Less
Compressor Probably Not Defective. Double-check
Refrigeration System and Microprocessor
Refrigeration Service Operations
NOTE: It is generally good practice to replace
the filter drier whenever the high side is opened
or when the low side is opened for an extended
period of time.
Installation
Compressor
NOTE: The compressor drive coupling will only
side onto the coupling pins in either of two
positions, which are 180 degrees apart.
Removal
1. Close the main suction service valve, the
economizer suction service valve, and the
discharge service valve to isolate the
compressor from the system.
2. Recover the refrigerant remaining in the
compressor.
3. Remove the discharge and suction service
valves from the compressor.
4. Support the compressor and remove the
compressor mounting hardware and the top
three studs from the flywheel housing.
5. Remove the curbside main frame support
brace.
1. Slide the compressor into the unit.
2. Place the compressor in position and install
mounting bolts.
3. Install the service valves using new O-rings
soaked in compressor oil.
4. Pressurize the compressor with a test gas and
test for refrigerant leaks.
5. If no leaks are found, evacuate the
compressor.
6. Back seat the suction and discharge service
valves.
7. Operate the unit at least 30 minutes and then
inspect the oil level in the compressor. Add or
remove oil if necessary.
8. Check the refrigerant charge and add
refrigerant if needed.
6. Lift the service valves out of the way.
7. Slide the compressor to the left until coupling
pins are clear.
8. Remove the compressor from the front of the
unit. Keep the compressor ports covered to
prevent dust, dirt, etc., from falling into the
compressor.
NOTE: When the compressor is removed from
the unit, oil level should be noted, or the oil
removed from the compressor should be
measured so that the same amount of oil can be
added before placing the replacement
compressor in the unit.
CAUTION: Do not use a hammer to
pound the coupler off the compressor
shaft. This will damage the compressor.
Use drive coupling puller (P/N 204-139 or
P/N 204-991) to remove the coupler.
Compressor Coupling Removal
NOTE: The illustration on page 126 shows the
compressor coupling removal tool P/N 204-991
being used on a reciprocating compressor. The
same procedure applies to the screw compressor.
1. After the compressor has been removed from
the unit, use the appropriate Allen tool
provided with removal tool P/N 204-991 to
loosen the center bolt which holds the
coupling to the compressor shaft.
2. Attach the tool to the coupling with the
provided socket head screws and spacers. 2
sets of spacers are provided with the tool, use
the short spacers with shallow compressor
mounting flanges and the longer set for deeper
flanges. The side with the countersunk holes
should be toward the coupling.
3. To prevent the tool and crankshaft from
rotating, use one of the compressor to engine
mounting screws to pin the tool to the flange.
If a nut is used to prevent the bolt from falling
out, the nut should not be tightened.
125
Refrigeration Service Operations
not fit easily into the keyway, it will push the
tapered components apart and the reduced friction
could lead to slippage and premature failure.
4. Use the appropriate Allen tool to loosen the
coupling mounting screw.
5. Once the center screw has been loosened,
back the head against the tool and it should
push the coupling off the crankshaft as you
continuing turning the center screw in a
counter-clockwise direction. Using this tool
will prevent the coupling from popping off
because the center bolt and flatwasher will
hold it in place.
The following procedure requires the key to be
fitted after the tapers are pulled together with
20 ft-lb (27 N•m) torque. This insures that the key
cannot hold the tapers apart when the final bolt
torque is applied.
Use the following procedure to install a
compressor coupling on the compressor
crankshaft.
Compressor Coupling Installation
1. Clean the compressor shaft taper and coupling
bore taper with a solvent that leaves no oily
residue (such as naphtha, lacquer thinner,
brake cleaner or the like).
In a tapered fit joint the entire twisting load
should be handled by the friction fit between the
two tapered parts. The key is only a backup and is
used to index the parts correctly. When a taper fit
is machined and assembled properly a key is not
needed. In fact, if the key is not installed correctly
it may be worse than no key at all! If the key does
2. Inspect both mating surfaces for burrs,
oxidation and other surface imperfections.
Dress with crocus cloth if necessary and
re-clean as required.
1
2
3
8
4
5
7
6
AGA1059
1.
Coupling
5.
10 mm Allen Tool (for large shaft compressor)
2.
Long Spacers (supplied with tool)
6.
5/16 Allen Tool (for small shaft compressors)
3.
Short Spacers (supplied with tool)
7.
Coupling Removal Tool (P/N 204-991)
4.
Socket Head Bolts (supplied with Tool)
8.
Engine Mounting Flange
Figure 99: Compressor Coupling Removal Tool
126
Refrigeration Service Operations
3. Using no lubricants, set the coupling on the
crankshaft and align the keyways using the
Keyway Tool (P/N 204-972). Insert the
tapered end of the tool into the keyway and
gently move the coupling on the shaft while
pressing the tool into the keyway. This will
align the keyway in the crankshaft with the
keyway in the coupler.
8. Install the key in the keyway. As above, it
should fit with a light press fit requiring only a
minimum of light tapping. Do not install the
key into the keyway beyond the front face
of the coupling. If tapped in farther it may
cause the coupling to move off center on the
shaft.
1
2
3
AGA333
Figure 100: Keyway Tool P/N 204-972
CAUTION: If you are assembling a used
coupler or crankshaft and the tool does
not fit easily there is a problem with one of
the keyways! Do not remove the coupler
and place the key in the crankshaft
keyway and then drop the coupler on. If
the tool does not fit, the key will not fit,
and it will hold the taper in the coupler off
the taper on the shaft. Check both keyways
for burrs or corrosion. A key can be
coated with fine lapping compound and
used as a lapping tool to clean the
keyways.
4. Remove the Keyway Tool and check the fit of
the key (P/N 55-9024). It should fit into the
keyway with a light press fit requiring only a
minimum of light tapping. If the key does not
fit properly, remove the coupler and inspect
the keyways and key for burrs or other
problems. Recheck the fit as shown above.
5. When the key fits properly, remove the
coupling and key from the shaft.
6. Re-install the coupling and align the keyways
with the Keyway Tool.
7. Do not install the key at this time. Install the
flat washer and bolt and pre-torque to 20 ft-lb
(27 N•m). Remove the bolt and washer.
5
AGA1254
4
1.
Compressor Coupling or Clutch
2.
Key tapped flush with outside face of coupling.
Do not tap key any farther into keyway.
3.
Torque bolt to 90 ft-lb (122 N•m)
4.
Washer
5.
Spray this area with corrosion inhibitor after
assembling.
Figure 101: Compressor Coupling Installation
9. Re-install the bolt and heavy flat washer and
snug the bolt down by hand. Torque the bolt to
90 ft-lb (122 N•m).
10. Spray a corrosion inhibitor (such as spray
paint) on the exposed part of the shaft and the
joint between the shaft and the coupling. This
prevents moisture from wicking into the joint
and causing corrosion.
Compressor Repair
Refer to the S391 Screw Compressor Overhaul
Manual (TK 50567) for compressor repair
procedures.
127
Refrigeration Service Operations
System Clean-up Procedures
If a compressor fails, contaminants can spread
throughout the system via the compressor oil. In
order to effectively clean the system, the
contaminants must be removed and/or diluted.
Brown oil indicates slight acidity, but low
contamination levels. Gray oil, however, indicates
possible metal contamination and will require
flushing and oil filter changes.
If the oil in the failed compressor is fairly clear
and contains only a few metal chips, use the
System Clean-Up Procedure Using Internal Oil
Filter Replacement.
If the oil in the failed compressor is brown or
gray, use the System Clean-Up Procedure Using
Screw Compressor Clean-Up Kit P/N 204-920.
System Clean-Up Procedure Using
Internal Oil Filter Replacement
1. Install a new compressor and dehydrator in the
system.
NOTE: The new compressor will contain a
full charge of oil.
2. Run the unit for at least 1/2 to 1 hour in both
the heat and cool cycles. This will loosen any
oil trapped in the system.
3. Use this step to move most of the oil into the
compressor and isolate the compressor.
a. Change the setpoint to 70 F (21 C) and run
the unit for 1/2 hour.
b. Use the Service Test Mode [LS.C] to run
the unit in low speed cool. Refer to the
appropriate Diagnostic manual for specific
information about the Service Test Mode.
c. Close the main suction service valve and
the economizer suction service valve
while the unit is running.
d. Turn the unit off and close the discharge
service valve.
e. Recover the refrigerant remaining in the
compressor.
4. Remove the compressor drain plug and drain
the compressor oil. Measure the amount of oil
drained from the compressor and check the
condition of the oil.
5. Replace the internal compressor oil filter and
the dehydrator.
System Clean-Up Procedure Using
Screw Compressor Clean-Up Kit
P/N 204-920
Besides the Screw Compressor Clean-up Kit
P/N 204-920, the following replacement items
will be needed during the procedure:
•
Dehydrator P/N 66-5750
•
External Oil Filter P/N 66-4917
•
POE Compressor Oil P/N 203-515
•
Compressor Oil Filter (Internal) P/N 22-998
•
O-ring (Sump Cover) P/N 33-2347
Procedure
1. Install a new compressor and dehydrator in the
system.
NOTE: The new compressor will contain a
full charge of oil.
2. Install the Screw Compressor Clean-up Kit as
shown in the illustration on page 129.
a. Mount the oil filter bracket on the
compressor mounting flange. Position the
studs (P/N 55-1487) at one and two
o'clock. This places the oil filter at an
angle to provide clearance.
b. The inlet hose to the oil filter goes from
the compressor drain plug adapters to the
check valve at the inlet hole to the side of
the oil filter bracket.
c. The outlet hose from the oil filter goes
from the outlet hole in the center of the oil
filter bracket to the service port on the
economizer suction service valve.
d. Fill the external oil filter with compressor
oil before installing it.
3. Evacuate the air from the compressor and the
external filter.
128
Refrigeration Service Operations
4. Mid-seat the economizer suction service
valve. Open the main suction and discharge
service valves.
d. Evacuate the air from the compressor and
the external filter.
e. Mid-seat the economizer suction service
valve. Open the main suction and
discharge service valves.
5. Run the unit for at least 1/2 to 1 hour in both
the heat and cool cycles.
6. Change the external oil filter when the oil
becomes discolored. This removes the
contaminants.
7. Run the unit in high speed cool and check the
compressor oil level. Add oil if necessary.
8. Repeat steps 5 through 7 until the compressor
oil does not become discolored. This indicates
the system is clean.
a. Close the service valves to isolate the
compressor.
b. Recover the refrigerant remaining in the
compressor.
9. When system is clean replace the internal oil
filter and dehydrator, remove the clean-up kit,
and replace the studs with the original bolts.
c. Change the external oil filter.
1
2
3
4
1
3
5
8
7
1
6
11
AGA164
10
9
3
1
1.
Hose Fitting P/N 66-5076
2.
Check Valve P/N 66-5501
3.
Adapter P/N 55-459 (Use Sealant P/N 203-393)
4.
Oil Filter Bracket P/N 66-7490
5.
Mounting Stud P/N 55-1487
6.
Oil Filter P/N 66-4917 (Not Included in Kit)
7.
Refrigeration Hose P/N 67-942
8.
Economizer Suction Service Valve Service Port—From Filter Outlet (Center Hole)
9.
Bushing P/N 55-1786 (Use Sealant P/N 203-393)
10.
Drain Plug Adapter P/N 55-8817
11.
Drain Plug Opening—To Filter Inlet (Side Hole)
Figure 102: Screw Compressor Clean-Up Kit (P/N 204-920) Installation
129
Refrigeration Service Operations
In-line Condenser Check Valve
This unit uses an in-line condenser check valve.
The in-line check valve is not repairable and must
be replaced if it fails. A heat sink must be used on
the in-line check valve when it is being soldered
in place to prevent damage to the neoprene seal.
5. Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for
leaks.
6. If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
7. Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and
check the compressor oil.
Discharge Vibrasorber
Removal
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Heat the connections on the vibrasorber until
the vibrasorber can be removed.
aea648
1.
Valve
2.
Neoprene Seal
3.
Valve Seat
4.
Spring
Figure 103: Cross Section of In-line
Condenser Check Valve
Condenser Check Valve
Replacement
Removal
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Place a heat sink on the check valve.
3. Unsolder the lines and remove the check
valve.
Installation
NOTE: A heat sink must be used on the in-line
check valve when it is being soldered in place to
prevent damage to the neoprene seal.
1. Clean the tubes for soldering.
2. Place the check valve in position. The arrow
on the valve body indicates the direction of
refrigerant flow through the valve.
3. Place a heat sink on the check valve.
4. Solder the inlet and outlet connections.
130
CAUTION: Use a heat sink, P/N 204-584
or wrap the vibrasorber with wet rags to
prevent damaging the vibrasorber.
Installation
1. Prepare the vibrasorber and tubing fittings by
cleaning thoroughly.
2. Solder the vibrasorber connections.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink, P/N 204-584
or wrap the vibrasorber with wet rags to
prevent damaging the vibrasorber.
3. Pressurize the system and test for leaks. If no
leaks are found, evacuate the system.
4. Charge the unit with the proper refrigerant and
check the compressor oil level.
Receiver Tank
Removal
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Unsolder the inlet and outlet lines from the
receiver tank.
3. Remove the high pressure relief valve from
the receiver tank.
4. Unbolt the mounting brackets and remove the
receiver tank from the unit.
Installation
1. Install the high pressure relief valve in the
receiver tank.
Refrigeration Service Operations
2. Place the receiver tank in the unit and install
the mounting bolts and nuts loosely. Position
the receiver tank so that the sight glass is
clearly visible through the viewing hole in the
mounting bracket.
3. Solder the inlet and outlet lines to the receiver
tank. Use a heat sink on the bypass check
valve.
4. Tighten the receiver tank mounting hardware
securely.
5. Pressurize the refrigeration system and check
for leaks. If no leaks are found, evacuate the
system.
6. Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and
check the compressor oil level.
Filter Drier
Removal
1. Pump down and isolate the low side. Equalize
the pressure to slightly positive.
2. Disconnect the ORS nuts at the ends of the
drier.
3. Loosen the mounting hardware and remove
the drier.
Installation
1. Place the new O-rings in the ORS fittings on
the ends of the drier.
2. Install the new drier and tighten the mounting
hardware.
3. Install and tighten the inlet ORS nut. Hold the
drier with a back-up wrench on the hex behind
the ORS fitting.
4. Release a small amount of refrigerant to purge
the air through the drier. Then tighten the
outlet ORS nut.
5. Pressurize the system and inspect for leaks. If
no leaks are found, open the refrigeration
valves and place the unit in operation.
Evaporator Expansion Valve
NOTE: The evaporator expansion valve and the
economizer expansion valve are made by the
same manufacturer. It is easy to get them mixed
up. The evaporator expansion valve has the
number 3A86277G51 or 3A86277G67 stamped
on the power head. The economizer expansion
valve has the number 3A86277G59 stamped on
the power head.
Removal
1. Pump down and isolate the low side and the
liquid line. Equalize the pressure to slightly
positive.
2. Remove the upper and lower evaporator
access panels. Remove the roadside
evaporator access panel mounting channel.
3. Remove the feeler bulb from the clamp. Note
the position of the feeler bulb on the suction
line.
4. Unsolder the equalizer line, the inlet liquid
line, and distributor from expansion valve.
Make sure to use a heat sink.
5. Remove the expansion valve mounting bolt
and remove the expansion valve from the unit.
Installation
1. Install and bolt the expansion valve assembly
in the unit.
2. Solder the inlet liquid line, distributor, and
equalizer line to the expansion valve. Use low
temperature solder and place a heat sink on the
expansion valve.
3. Clean the suction line to a bright polished
condition. Install the feeler bulb clamps and
feeler bulb on the side of the suction line in
former position. The feeler bulb must make
good contact with the suction line or operation
will be faulty. Wrap with insulating tape.
4. Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no
leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
5. Replace the evaporator access mounting
channel and the upper and lower access panels
on the evaporator.
131
Refrigeration Service Operations
6. Open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation.
7. Test the unit to see that the expansion valve is
properly installed and check the expansion
valve superheat.
•
Check the evaporator expansion valve feeler
bulb to see that it is positioned properly (see
Figure 104), is making good contact with the
suction line, and is covered with insulating
tape.
Procedure
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge (must be accurate)
to the service port on the main suction service
valve. Attach the high side gauge to the
service port on the discharge service valve.
2. Install an accurate thermometer sensor on the
suction line beside the expansion valve feeler
bulb. Secure and insulate thermometer sensor.
3. Adjust the setpoint to -20 F (-29 C) and run
the unit until the return air temperature
displayed on the microprocessor approaches
-20 F (-29 C).
4. Defrost the evaporator and allow the return air
temperature to stabilize near -20 F (-29 C).
1
1.
Evaporator Expansion Valve Feeler Bulb
Figure 104: Evaporator Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb Location
Checking Evaporator
Expansion Valve Superheat
Before checking the superheat, perform the
following items and repair as necessary to make
sure the system is performing acceptably.
•
Check the refrigerant charge.
•
Check the compressor oil level.
•
Check the engine speeds.
•
Pump down the low side to check for leaks.
•
Check the loading valves. LV1 (economizer
bypass solenoid) and LV2 must be opening
and closing properly.
•
Inspect the evaporator and condenser coils to
make sure they are clean and have good
airflow.
132
5. Use the Service Test Mode [HS.C] to run the
unit in high speed cool. Refer to the
appropriate Diagnostic Manual for specific
information about the Service Test Mode.
6. Cover the condenser as needed to maintain a
discharge pressure of 275 to 300 psi (1896 to
2068 kPa).
7. Check and record the suction pressure and the
suction line temperature simultaneously. Take
four readings at 2 minute intervals.
8. Calculate the superheat for each of the four
readings.
a. Convert the suction pressure to a
temperature using a pressure/temperature
chart.
b. Subtract the converted temperature from
the suction line temperature.
Refrigeration Service Operations
Example:
Suction Pressure =
5 psi (34 kPa)
Convert to Temperature = 5 psi = -39 F
(34 kPa = -39.4 C)
Suction Line
Temperature =
-30 F (-34.4 C)
Converted Temperature = -39 F (-39.4 C)
Superheat =
-30 F - (-39 F) = 9 F
(-34.4 C - [-39.4 C] = 5 C)
9. Average the four superheat values by adding
them together and dividing the sum by four.
10. The average superheat value should be 3 to
9 F (1.7 to 5 C) at a return air temperature of
approximately -20 F (-29 C).
Evaporator Coil
Removal
1. Pump down the low side and equalize the
pressure to slightly positive.
3. Solder the suction line connection to the
evaporator circuit.
4. Solder the distributor to the expansion valve.
5. Replace and connect the sensors.
6. Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no
leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
7. Clean the suction line to a bright polished
condition. Install the feeler bulb on the side of
the suction line in its former position. The
feeler bulb must make good contact with the
suction line or operation will be faulty. Wrap
with insulating tape.
8. Replace the evaporator access panel mounting
channels.
9. Replace the evaporator access panels.
10. Open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation. Check the refrigerant charge
and compressor oil. Add as required.
2. Remove the upper and lower evaporator
access panels.
3. Remove the roadside and curbside evaporator
access panel mounting channels.
4. Disconnect the sensors.
5. Remove the feeler bulb from the suction line
clamp. Note the position of the feeler bulb on
the suction line.
6. Unsolder the distributor from the expansion
valve.
7. Unsolder the suction line from the evaporator
circuit.
8. Unsolder the hot gas inlet line and the outlet
line from the heat circuit.
9. Remove the mounting bolts, lift and slide the
coil from the housing.
Installation
1. Place the evaporator coil in the evaporator
housing and install the mounting bolts.
2. Solder the hot gas inlet line and the outlet line
to the heat circuit.
133
Refrigeration Service Operations
Three-way Valve Repair
2. Clean the exterior surface of the valve.
NOTE: The three-way valve can be repaired in
the unit if leakage or damage to the Teflon seals
should occur. There is usually enough give in
the copper tubing to separate the three sections
of the valve without unsoldering any tubes.
3. Remove the line from the three-way valve to
the pilot solenoid.
4. Loosen the four 1/4 in. Allen head screws (DO
NOT REMOVE OR CAP MAY POP OFF);
use tool P/N 204-424 to break the gasket at
each side of the center section.
CAUTION: Do not force the tool into the
brass or against the bolts.
Figure 106: Gasket Tool P/N 204-424
5. Remove the four bolts from the valve.
6. Remove the end cap and spring.
7. Remove the spring clip which secures the
stem to the piston. Slide piston off the stem.
8. Remove the seat and stem assembly.
9. Inspect the following parts for wear or
damage:
a. Bottom cap, sealing and support area.
b. Seat, sealing surface.
AEA714
c. End cap, sealing and support surface.
The following parts will be discarded:
1.
Cap
7.
Clip
2.
End Cap
8.
Seat
a. Stem assembly.
3.
Check Valve
9.
Gaskets
b. All gaskets.
4.
Spring
10.
Stem Assembly
5.
Piston
11.
Screen
6.
Seal
12.
Bottom Cap
Figure 105: Three-Way Valve
Removal/Disassembly
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
134
c. Piston seal.
10. Remove the screen. If any particles drop from
the screen into the discharge line, the
discharge line must be removed at the
compressor.
Refrigeration Service Operations
NOTE: The valve body cannot be
reconditioned. Seat positions change and
improper sealing will result.
4. Deburr the hole in the check valve piston bore.
A used drill bit can be modified to use as a
deburring tool.
1
1
5
2
1.
Number 43 Drill
Figure 108: Check Bleed Hole Diameter
Piston Bleed Orifice Check
4
3
1. Use a number 66 (0.033 inch [0.84 mm]) drill
bit to check the orifice in the bleed hole from
the gasket surface to the groove in the bottom
of the piston bore.
1.
Seal Groove in Piston
2.
Connecting Notch in Piston
3.
Internal Spring in Seal
4.
Connecting Groove in Stem
5.
Retaining Clip
2. Carefully check to see that the drill projects
down into the groove and that there are no
burrs at the end of the hole in the groove. Do
not enlarge this hole.
1
Figure 107: Piston and Stem Parts
2
End Cap Checks
All end caps, even new ones, should be checked
as follows. See Service Bulletin T&T 260 for
more information.
Check Valve Bleed Hole Diameter
1. Remove the condenser pressure bypass check
valve snap ring, stem, spring, and piston from
the end cap.
2. Use a number 43 (0.089 in. [2.26 mm]) drill
bit to check the size of the hole from the end
cap gasket face to the check valve piston bore
as shown.
3. If the drill does not go all the way into the
bore, drill the hole completely through.
1.
Number 66 Drill
2.
Check for Burr Here
Figure 109: Check Piston Bleed Orifice
Check Valve Piston Check
1. Reassemble the end cap using a new check
valve piston, spring, stem, and snap ring (Kit
P/N 60-163).
135
Refrigeration Service Operations
2. Leave the stem back seated against the snap
ring. Use a paper clip bent into a 90 degree
angle to push the check valve piston back in
its bore. Make sure you can feel the piston
working against the spring.
Assembly/Installation
3. With the piston pushed all the way back in its
bore, use a strong light to look down the
0.089 in. (2.26 mm) hole towards the back of
the piston and determine how much of the end
of the hole is covered by the piston. If the
piston covers more than three-quarters of the
hole replace the end cap.
2. Install the new stem in the bottom cap.
NOTE: When front seating a condenser bypass
check valve DO NOT over-tighten the stem!
Excessive torque will deform the piston and the
deformed piston can increase the hole blockage.
Seat (Center Section) Orifice Check
There are three 0.033 inch (0.84 mm) holes
located in the three-way valve seat (center section). Only one is used depending on how the
valve is configured. If the hole is too large the
valve will be slow to shift from heat to cool when
the condenser pressure is higher than discharge
pressure because gas will flow to the discharge
line instead of behind the piston. If the hole is too
small the valve will be slow to shift from heat to
cool when discharge pressure is higher than condenser pressure because the flow is restricted. Do
not enlarge this hole larger than 0.033 inch
(0.84 mm)! Whenever you disassemble a
three-way valve you should check that all three of
the holes are drilled cleanly.
After cleaning and inspecting all parts, reassemble
the valve.
1. Install the screen in the bottom cap.
3. Install new gaskets on both sides of the seat.
Oil the gaskets in compressor oil before
installing.
4. Use the three-way valve seal installation tool
P/N 204-1008 to install a new seal on the
piston. This prevents the seal from being
stretched and damaged.
a. Place the tapered tool over the piston.
b. Lubricate the seal with refrigeration oil.
c. Slide the seal onto the tapered tool with
the spring side facing away from the
piston.
d. Use the pipe to hand press the seal onto
the piston.
1
2
3
4
5
ARA166
1
1.
Press by Hand
4.
Tapered Tool
2.
Pipe
5.
Piston
3.
Seal
Figure 111: Seal Installation with Tool P/N 204-1008
1.
Number 66 Drill
Figure 110: Check Seat Orifice
136
5. Place the piston slot on the stem and secure
with spring clip. The open part of the clip
should be on the opposite side of the piston
slot.
Refrigeration Service Operations
6. Install the spring and end cap.
7. Line up the passageways in the cap and body.
Failure to line up the holes will result in
improper operation of the valve.
8. Install the bolts and tighten in rotating
sequence. Torque to 160 in-lb (18 N•m).
9. Install the pilot solenoid line and pressurize
the system with refrigerant to check for leaks.
10. If there are no leaks, evacuate the system and
recharge with the proper refrigerant.
6. Inspect the check valve seat in the three-way
valve.
7. If replacement parts are needed, a kit
P/N 60-163 must be used which includes the
piston, spring, O-ring, valve stem and snap
ring.
Installation
1. Coat the O-ring with compressor oil and
install it on the check valve stem.
11. Run the unit to check for proper three-way
valve operation.
2. Insert the spring into the hole in the check
valve stem and then install the piston on the
other end of the spring with the hole in the
piston towards the spring.
Three-Way Valve Condenser
Pressure Bypass Check Valve
Repair
3. Coat the entire assembly with compressor oil
and install the assembly into the check valve
seat in the three-way valve.
Removal
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
CAUTION: The piston must be inserted
with the flat side against the valve seat to
ensure proper sealing.
2. Unscrew the condenser pressure bypass check
valve cap from the three-way valve.
4. Screw the check valve stem into the three-way
valve until the snap ring can be installed.
3. Remove the snap ring.
5. Install the snap ring.
6. Unscrew (back seat) the check valve stem
against the snap ring.
NOTE: The valve stem must be back seated
during normal unit operation.
7. Coat sealing area in the cap with compressor
oil, install and tighten the cap on the
three-way valve.
8. Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for
leaks. If no leaks are found, evacuate the
system.
AEA715
1.
Piston
4.
Stem
2.
Snap Ring
5.
O-ring
3.
Cap
6.
Spring
9. Recharge the unit.
Pilot Solenoid
Figure 112: Teflon Check Valve Assembly
4. Unscrew the check valve stem by using a
screwdriver in the slot provided.
NOTE: The spring and piston are held in by
the stem. While removing the stem, use care
so the spring and piston are not lost.
5. Remove the spring and piston.
Removal
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Disconnect the wires and remove the coil from
the valve.
3. Unsolder the refrigeration lines.
137
Refrigeration Service Operations
4. Remove the mounting bolts and remove the
valve.
High Pressure Cutout and High
Pressure Cut In Switches
Installation
Removal
1. Remove the coil from the valve.
1. Use the compressor pump down procedure to
pump down and isolate the compressor.
2. Place the valve in the unit and install the
mounting bolts. The arrow on the valve
indicates the direction of flow through the
valve. Make sure that the arrow points in the
proper direction.
3. Solder the refrigeration lines to the valve.
4. Install the coil and connect the wires.
5. Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for
leaks. If no leaks are found, evacuate the
system.
6. Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant
and check the compressor oil.
2. Recover the refrigerant remaining in the
compressor.
3. Disconnect the switch wire connector from the
main wire harness, and remove the switch
from the discharge service valve.
Installation
1. Apply a refrigerant Loctite to the threads of
the switch.
2. Install and tighten the switch and reconnect
the wires.
3. Pressurize the compressor and test for leaks.
Suction Vibrasorbers
Removal
4. If no leaks are found, open the refrigeration
service valves and place the unit in operation.
1. Pump down and isolate the low side. Equalize
pressure to slightly positive.
High Pressure Relief Valve
2. Unsolder the end of the suction vibrasorber
that is not connected to the suction service
valve first, then unsolder the service valve
connection. Make sure to use a heat sink on
the vibrasorber.
Removal
Installation
Installation
1. Prepare the suction hose and tube fittings for
soldering by cleaning thoroughly.
1. Apply a refrigerant oil to the O-ring of the
high pressure relief valve.
2. Solder the vibrasorber to the suction service
valve.
2. Install and tighten the high pressure relief
valve.
3. Solder the other vibrasorber connection.
3. Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for
leaks. If no leaks are found, evacuate the
system.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap
vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent
damaging the vibrasorber.
4. Pressurize the low side and check for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
5. Open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation.
138
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Unscrew and remove the high pressure relief
valve.
4. Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant
and check the compressor oil.
Refrigeration Service Operations
Liquid Line Solenoid
6. Remove the subcooler/condenser/radiator
mounting hardware.
Removal
7. Unsolder the refrigeration line connections
and remove the subcooler/condenser/radiator
from the unit.
1. Pump down and isolate the low side. Equalize
the pressure to slightly positive.
2. Disconnect the solenoid coil wires from the
main wire harness and remove the solenoid
coil from the solenoid valve.
Installation
3. Unsolder the inlet and outlet lines from the
solenoid valve and remove it from the unit.
2. Place the subcooler/condenser/radiator in the
unit and install the mounting hardware.
Installation
1. Clean the tubes for soldering.
2. Remove the solenoid coil from the solenoid
valve.
3. Place the valve in position. The arrow on the
valve indicates the direction of flow through
the valve. Make sure that the arrow points in
the proper direction.
4. Solder the inlet and outlet connections. After
the valve cools, install the solenoid coil and
connect the wire connector to the main wire
harness.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap the
valve in wet rags to prevent damaging the
valve while doing the soldering.
5. Pressure the low side and test it for leaks.
6. If no leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
7. Open the service valves, run the unit, and
check the operation.
Subcooler/Condenser/Radiator
Removal
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Open the roadside condenser fan grille.
3. Drain the engine coolant.
4. Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
expansion tank and the
subcooler/condenser/radiator.
1. Clean the fittings for soldering.
3. Solder the refrigeration connections.
4. Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for
leaks. If no leaks are found, evacuate the
system.
5. Install the expansion tank and tighten the
mounting hardware.
6. Attach the coolant hoses to the expansion tank
and the subcooler/condenser/radiator.
7. Fill the cooling system with coolant.
8. Close the roadside condenser fan grille.
9. Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and
check compressor oil.
Discharge Pressure Transducer
Removal
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Disconnect the wires and remove the
discharge pressure transducer.
Installation
1. Apply a refrigerant Loctite to the threads of
the discharge pressure transducer.
2. Install and tighten the discharge pressure
transducer and reconnect the wires.
3. Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for
leaks. If no leaks are found, evacuate the
system.
4. Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant
and check the compressor oil.
5. Remove the expansion tank mounting
hardware and remove the expansion tank.
139
Refrigeration Service Operations
Suction Pressure Transducer
WARNING: If the ETV is stuck in the
closed position, much of the refrigerant
charge may be trapped in the evaporator.
If you hear refrigerant begin to flow
through the valve when the stepper motor
and piston assembly are loosened,
unscrew the stepper motor and piston
assembly no more than four turns and
check the suction (low side) pressure on
the gauge manifold. If the suction
pressure has increased from the pressure
to which it was equalized after the low side
pump down, refrigerant is trapped and
must be recovered. Screw the stepper
motor and piston assembly back into the
valve body. Attach a refrigerant recovery
device to the service port on the receiver
tank outlet valve. Midseat the receiver tank
outlet valve, and recover the refrigerant
charge. The stepper motor and piston
assembly may then be removed.
Removal
1. Pump down the low side and equalize pressure
to slightly positive.
2. Disconnect the wires and remove the suction
pressure transducer.
Installation
1. Apply a refrigerant Loctite to the threads of
the suction pressure transducer.
2. Install and tighten the suction pressure
transducer and reconnect the wires.
3. Pressurize the low side and check for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
4. Open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation.
Electronic Throttling Valve
(ETV)
2
1
Removal
1. Pump down the low side and equalize the
pressure to slightly positive.
3
2. Remove the evaporator access panels.
3. Remove the clip and disconnect the ETV
harness connector from the stepper motor.
4. Unscrew the large nut that attaches the stepper
motor and piston assembly to the valve body.
The torque on the nut is approximately 100
ft-lb (136 N•m). Hold the valve body with
backup wrench to prevent damage to the
refrigeration tubing.
CAUTION: Unscrew the large nut. Do not
unscrew the small nut.
4
5
ARA168
1.
Stepper Motor
4.
2.
Harness Connector 5.
3.
Clip
Large Nut
Valve Body
Figure 113: Electronic Throttling Valve
5. If the complete ETV assembly is being
replaced, unsolder and remove the valve body.
It may be necessary to unsolder the tubes
above or below the valve body to obtain
enough clearance to remove the valve body.
Note the position of the valve body so the new
one will be placed in the same position. The
140
Refrigeration Service Operations
new ETV could interfere with the evaporator
access panel if it is not placed in the same
position as the old one.
ARA167
Installation
1. If an ETV service kit (stepper motor and
piston assembly) is being installed, go to
step 2. If a complete ETV assembly is being
installed, proceed as follows:
a. Remove the stepper motor and piston
assembly from the valve body on the new
ETV assembly.
0.75 in.
(19 mm)
1
b. Clean the tubes for soldering.
c. Place the new valve body (and any tubes
that were removed) in the same position
from which the old one was removed. The
new ETV could interfere with the
evaporator access panel if it is not placed
in the same position as the old one. The
arrow on the valve body must point in the
direction of refrigerant flow from the
evaporator to the compressor.
d. Solder the tubing connections. Use a heat
sink on the valve body to prevent damage.
e. Allow the valve body to cool before
installing the stepper motor and piston
assembly.
2. Check the stepper motor and piston assembly
to make sure the piston is an open position. In
an open position the bottom edge of the piston
is 0.75 to 1.25 in. (19 to 32 mm) from the
bottom edge of the brass nut. The piston
retracts to open and extends to close.
NOTE: The ETV cannot be opened
manually. See the following CAUTION.
2
1.
Bottom Edge of Brass Nut
2.
Bottom Edge of Piston
Figure 114: Stepper Motor and Piston Assembly
with Piston in Fully Open Position
CAUTION: The ETV may stick in the
closed position if the stepper motor and
piston assembly is installed with the piston
in the closed position. In the closed
position the bottom edge of the piston is
1.5 in. (38 mm) from the bottom edge of
the brass nut. If there is any doubt about
the position of the piston, connect the
ETV harness to the stepper motor and
piston assembly and use the evacuation
[EVAC] mode in the Service Test Mode to
place the piston in the fully open position.
Refer to Service Procedure A34A, the
Service Test Mode, in the ThermoGuard
µP-VI Microprocessor Controller
Revision 43xx Software Diagnostic
Manual TK 51329 for information about
placing the unit in the evacuation [EVAC]
mode. After placing the piston in the fully
open position, disconnect the ETV
harness from the stepper motor and piston
assembly.
3. Lubricate the piston and threads on the new
stepper motor and piston assembly with
refrigeration oil.
4. Screw the new stepper motor and piston
assembly into the valve body.
141
Refrigeration Service Operations
5. Torque the nut to approximately 100 ft-lb
(136 N•m). Hold the valve body with backup
wrench to prevent damage to the refrigeration
tubing.
CAUTION: Tighten the large nut. Do not
tighten the small nut.
6. Connect the ETV harness connector to the
stepper motor. Take care when making the
connection. The connector attaches to the
ETV in only one position.
7. Install the clip and secure it with a band wrap.
8. Pressurize the low side and test for leaks.
9. If no leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
10. Install the evaporator access panels.
6. Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no
leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
7. Open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation. Check refrigerant charge
and compressor oil. Add as required.
Economizer Expansion Valve
NOTE: The evaporator expansion valve and the
economizer expansion valve are made by the
same manufacturer. It is easy to get them mixed
up. The evaporator expansion valve has the
number 3A86277G51 or 3A86277G67 stamped
on the power head. The economizer expansion
valve has the number 3A86277G59 stamped on
the power head.
Removal
11. Open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation. Check the operation of the
ETV.
1. Pump down and isolate the low side. Equalize
the pressure to slightly positive.
Economizer Heat Exchanger
2. Remove the feeler bulb from the clamp on the
suction line. Note the position of the feeler
bulb on the suction line.
Removal
1. Pump down and isolate the low side. Equalize
the pressure to slightly positive and recover
the refrigerant remaining in the low side.
2. Drain the coolant from the cooling system.
3. Disconnect the coolant hoses from the
economizer.
4. Unsolder the refrigeration lines from the
economizer.
5. Remove the economizer mounting hardware
and remove the economizer from the unit.
Installation
1. Place the economizer in the unit and loosely
fasten it in place with the mounting hardware.
2. Solder the refrigeration lines to the
economizer.
3. Tighten the mounting hardware.
4. Connect the coolant hoses to the economizer.
5. Fill the cooling system with antifreeze.
142
3. Unsolder the inlet, outlet, and equalizer line
connections, and remove the expansion valve.
Installation
1. Place the expansion valve in position on the
economizer. Make sure that all of the
refrigeration lines are aligned properly.
2. Solder the inlet, outlet, and equalizer line
connections.
3. Clean the suction line to a bright polished
condition. Install the feeler bulb clamps and
feeler bulb on the side of the suction line in
former position. The feeler bulb must make
good contact with the suction line or operation
will be faulty. Wrap with insulating tape.
4. Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no
leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
5. Open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation. Check refrigerant charge
and compressor oil. Add as required.
6. Check the economizer expansion valve
superheat and maximum operating pressure.
Refrigeration Service Operations
NOTE: It is normal for the economizer
expansion valve to have a high superheat when
the economizer suction pressure is above the
MOP of 50 psi (345 kPa). The economizer
suction pressure must be well below the MOP to
accurately check the economizer expansion
valve superheat.
Procedure
1. Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Attach the low side gauge to the service port
on the main suction service valve. Attach the
high side gauge to the service port on the
discharge service valve.
1
1.
2. Attach an additional accurate compound
gauge to the economizer suction service valve.
Economizer Expansion Valve Feeler Bulb
Figure 115: Economizer Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb Location
Checking Economizer
Expansion Valve Superheat
Before checking the superheat, perform the
following items and repair as necessary to make
sure the system is performing acceptably.
•
Check the refrigerant charge.
•
Check the compressor oil level.
•
Check the engine speeds.
•
Pump down the low side to check for leaks.
•
Check the loading valves. LV1 (economizer
bypass solenoid) and LV2 must be opening
and closing properly.
•
Inspect the evaporator and condenser coils to
make sure they are clean and have good
airflow.
•
Check the economized expansion valve feeler
bulb to see that it position properly (see
Figure 115), is making good contact with the
suction line, and is covered with insulating
tape.
3. Install an accurate thermometer sensor on the
suction line beside the economizer expansion
valve feeler bulb. Install another accurate
thermometer sensor on the tube between the
economizer expansion valve and the
economizer. Secure and insulate
thermometer sensors.
4. Use the Service Test Mode [HS.H] to run the
unit in high speed heat. Refer to the
appropriate Diagnostic Manual for specific
information about the Service Test Mode.
5. Run the unit in [HS.H] high speed heat until
the system pressures stabilize and the engine
coolant temperature is above 140 F (60 C)
(120 F [49 C] in Software Revision 4300 and
4301). The ambient temperature must be
below 100 F (38 C).
6. Check and record the economizer suction
service valve pressure and the suction line
temperature simultaneously. Take four
readings at 2 minute intervals.
7. Calculate the superheat for each of the four
readings.
a. Convert the economizer suction service
valve pressure to a temperature using a
pressure/temperature chart.
b. Subtract the converted economizer suction
service valve temperature from the suction
line feeler bulb temperature.
143
Refrigeration Service Operations
Example:
1
Economizer Suction
Service Valve Pressure = 6 psi (41 kPa)
Convert to Temperature = 6 psi = -37 F
(41 kPa = -38.3 C)
Feeler Bulb Temperature = –28 F (-33.3 C)
Converted Temperature = –37 F (-38.3 C)
Superheat =
-28 F - (-37 F) = 9 F
(-33.3 C - [-38.3 C] = 5 C)
8. Average the four superheat values by adding
them together and dividing the sum by four.
9. The average superheat value should be 7 to
12 F (3.9 to 6.7 C).
NOTE: The temperature at the tube between
the economizer expansion valve and the
economizer should be at least 10 F (5.6 C)
above the feeler bulb temperature. If the
temperatures are nearly the same, the
expansion valve is flooding. If the
temperature at the tube between the
expansion valve and the economizer is 10 F
(5.6 C) below the temperature at the feeler
bulb, the expansion valve is starving.
2
1.
Feeler Bulb Location
2.
Tube Between Economizer Expansion Valve
and Economizer
Figure 117: Economizer
Heat Check Valve Repair
Disassembly
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Remove the cap nut from the check valve and
remove the spring and seat.
1
1
2
2
3
4
5
1.
Tube Between Economizer Expansion Valve
and Economizer
2.
Feeler Bulb
AGA173
Figure 116: Economizer
1. Cap
2. Gasket
3. Spring
4. Seat
5. Body
Figure 118: Check Valve with Cap Nut
144
Refrigeration Service Operations
Reassembly
Removal
1. Inspect the inside of the check valve body for
damage or foreign particles which might
adhere to the seat and damage the new seat. If
the body is damaged, replace the check valve.
1. Pump down and isolate the low side. Equalize
the pressure to slightly positive.
2. Install the new seat and spring. Place a new
gasket on the cap and tighten the cap.
3. Pressurize the system and test for leaks.
4. If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
5. Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and
check compressor oil.
2. Disconnect the coil wires from the main wire
harness and remove the coil from the valve.
3. Unsolder the inlet and outlet lines from the
valve and remove it from the unit.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap the
valve in wet rags to prevent damaging the
valve while doing the soldering.
1
Heat Check Valve Replacement
Removal
2
1. Recover the refrigerant charge.
2. Disassemble the check valve.
3. Unsolder the lines and remove the check
valve.
Installation
3
1. Clean the tubes for soldering.
2. Place the disassembled check valve in
position. The arrow on the valve body
indicates the direction of refrigerant flow
through the valve.
3. Solder the inlet and outlet connections. After
the valve cools, reassemble the valve.
4. Pressurize the low side and test for leaks.
5. If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
6. Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and
check compressor oil.
Liquid Injection Valve
The liquid injection valve has a screen in the inlet
tube. If the valve acts like it is stuck closed, check
the screen to see if it is plugged before replacing
the valve. The valve must be removed to check
the screen.
1. Solenoid Coil
2. Inlet Tube
3. Outlet Tube
Figure 119: Liquid Injection Valve
Installation
1. Clean the tubes for soldering.
2. Remove the coil from the valve.
3. Place the valve in position. The arrow on the
valve indicates the direction of flow through
the valve. Make sure that the arrow points in
the proper direction.
4. Solder the inlet and outlet connections. After
the valve cools, install the coil and connect the
wire connector to the main wire harness.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap the
valve in wet rags to prevent damaging the
valve while doing the soldering.
5. Pressure the low side and test it for leaks.
145
Refrigeration Service Operations
6. If no leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
7. Open the service valves, run the unit, and
check the operation.
146
Structural Maintenance
Unit and Engine Mounting Bolts
Check and tighten all unit and engine mounting
bolts during scheduled maintenance inspections.
Torque the unit mounting bolts to 60 ft-lb
(81 N•m). Torque the engine mounting bolts to
150 ft-lb (203 N•m).
Unit Inspection
Inspect the unit during pre-trip inspection and
scheduled maintenance inspections for loose or
broken wires or hardware, compressor oil leaks,
or other physical damage which might affect unit
performance and require repair or replacement of
parts.
Condenser, Evaporator, And
Radiator Coils
Clean the coils during scheduled maintenance
inspections. Remove any debris (e.g., leaves or
plastic wrap) that reduces the air flow. Clean dirty
coils with compressed air or a pressure washer. Be
careful not to bend the fins when cleaning a coil.
If possible, blow the air or water through the coil
in the direction opposite the normal airflow.
Repair bent fins and any other noticeable damage.
1
Defrost Drains
Clean the defrost drains during scheduled
maintenance inspections to be sure the lines
remain open.
Unit Installation
All nuts that hold the unit to the trailer are
accessible using an impact wrench with a 10 in.
extension, ball-type swivel and a deep-well
socket.
1
1.
1
Check Bolts for Tightness
Figure 120: Unit and Engine Mounting Bolts
NOTE: The nuts for mounting the unit should
be elastic stop nuts (Nylock type).
147
Structural Maintenance
Defrost Damper
4. If necessary, adjust Distance A to the proper
dimension by loosening the locknut on the end
of the solenoid plunger and turning the eye
bolt. Tighten the locknut when Distance A is
correct.
Check the damper during scheduled maintenance
inspections for shaft wear, end play, and the
ability to stop the air flow.
Position the damper so that air flow is stopped on
the top and bottom edges with the solenoid
plunger bottomed out.
5. Connect the damper link to the eye bolt.
6. Energize the solenoid (apply 12 volts dc) and
check the damper blade to make sure that both
edges contact the damper housing. If
necessary, adjust this by loosening the
solenoid mounting bolts and moving the
solenoid. Tighten the solenoid mounting bolts
when both edges of the damper blade contact
the damper housing.
To adjust the damper:
1. Remove the damper assembly from the
evaporator.
2. Disconnect the damper link from the eye bolt.
3. Check Distance A, the distance from the
shoulder on the solenoid to the center of the
hole in the eye bolt. Distance A should be 2.75
in. (69.85 mm) with the solenoid
de-energized.
7. Adjust the damper blade stops so they contact
the edges of the damper blade. This keeps the
damper from sticking closed.
2
1
3
6
5
4
7
9
AEA719
8
1
1.
Stop
6.
Eye Bolt
2.
Mounting Bolts
7.
Round Stop
3.
Closed Position
8.
Distance A 2.75 in. (69.85 mm)
4.
Open Position
9.
Solenoid
5.
Damper Link
Figure 121: Defrost Damper Adjustment
148
Structural Maintenance
8. De-energize and energize the damper several
times to make sure that the damper operates
correctly and seals properly.
9. Make sure the damper blade rests on the round
stops when the damper is open. Adjust the
round stops if necessary.
10. Install the damper assembly in the evaporator.
Condenser and Evaporator Fan
Location
When mounting the condenser or evaporator fan
and hub assembly on the fanshaft, the blowers and
inlet orifices must be properly aligned for proper
air flow and to prevent damage to the blower.
Condenser Fan Blower
1. Loosen the condenser inlet ring (spinning) on
the condenser coil bulkhead.
2. Slide the blower towards the inlet ring until it
contacts the inlet ring. This centers the inlet
ring in the blower orifice.
3. Tighten the inlet ring securely.
4. Slide the blower away from the inlet ring.
1
5. Pass a gauge wire completely around the
blower orifice to check for uniform clearance.
6. Spin the blower by hand to check for blower
distortion.
7. Position the blower so the edge of the inlet
ring lines up with the alignment mark on the
blower.
8. Torque blower hub bolts to 18 ft-lb (24 N•m).
Evaporator Fan Blower
1. Loosen the inlet rings on the sides of the
blower housing.
2. Center the blower wheel in the blower housing
with equal overlap on both inlet rings. The
overlap on each ring should be approximately
0.15 in. (3.8 mm).
3. Tighten the hub bolts that hold the blower
wheel on the fanshaft.
4. Center the inlet rings in the blower orifices.
Tighten the inlet rings securely.
5. Check the radial clearance by passing a wire
completely around the circumference of the
inlet rings and the blower wheel.
6. Torque the blower hub bolts to 18 ft-lb
(24 N•m).
2
3
4
AEA720
1.
AEA749
1.
Blower Wheel
3.
Alignment Mark
2.
Inlet Ring
4.
Edge of Inlet Ring
Figure 122: Condenser Blower Alignment
Check Clearance with a Wire
2.
Blower Housing Sides
3.
Inlet Rings
4.
Evaporator Blower
5.
Radial Clearance
6.
Equalize Blower Inlet Overlap
Figure 123: Evaporator Fan Location
149
Structural Maintenance
Fan Shaft Assembly
2. After draining the oil from the housing,
remove the four retaining bolts from the
condenser end of the assembly.
The unit is equipped with a one-piece fan shaft
assembly that contains tapered roller bearings in a
sealed oil reservoir.
3. To remove the shaft from the assembly, tap the
opposite end of the shaft with a soft hammer.
After the shaft has been removed, clean all
parts in clean solvent.
This assembly does not require any maintenance.
There is a level plug and a fill plug, but they are
not normally used except after removal and repair
of the fan shaft assembly. The condenser and
evaporator end oil seals should be checked during
the pre-trip inspection for oil leakage. If there is
any sign of leakage, the fan shaft assembly should
be removed and repaired.
4. Using a punch, remove the oil seal from the
evaporator end of the assembly. With the seal
removed, clean the housing in clean solvent.
5. Check the condition of the vent. If it is loose
or damaged, it must be repaired or replaced.
NOTE: The fan shaft assembly requires a
special lubricant, Thermo King P/N 203-278.
6. After all the parts are cleaned, inspect the
bearings and bearing races for wear or
damage.
Fan Shaft Assembly Overhaul
7. If necessary, remove the bearings by tapping
them off the shaft with a hammer and a punch.
Be careful not to damage the shaft with the
punch.
Disassembly
1. Remove the fan shaft assembly from the unit.
Remove both oil plugs and drain the oil from
the housing.
8. The bearing races can now be driven out with
a punch and replaced in the same manner.
AEA721
1.
Cap and Shims
6.
Oil Seal
2.
Oil Plug Screw (Use Oil P/N 203-278)
7.
Shaft
3.
Breather Vent
8.
Sleeve
4.
Housing
9.
Pin
5.
Roller Bearing
10.
O-ring
Figure 124: Fan Shaft Assembly
150
Structural Maintenance
Reassembly
Idler Assembly
1. Tap the new bearings on the shaft with a pipe.
The unit is equipped with a one-piece idler
assembly that contains tapered roller bearings in a
sealed oil reservoir. This assembly does not
require any maintenance. There is a level plug and
a fill plug, but they are not normally used except
after removal and repair of the idler assembly. The
roadside end oil seal and the curbside end oil seal
should be checked during the pre-trip inspection
for oil leakage. If there is any sign of leakage, the
idler assembly should be removed and repaired.
2. Install new oil seals after replacing the bearing
races.
3. Replace the shaft in the housing. Install a new
seal in the retainer cap. Use the original shims
and replace the O-ring if needed.
4. Install the retainer cap assembly over the
shaft, then install the bolts.
5. Torque the bolts in a criss-cross pattern in
equal steps to 80 in-lb (9.04 N•m).
6. Lock the assembly in a vise and set up a dial
indicator to read end-play. To measure the
end-play, rotate the shaft while pushing in one
direction and set the dial indicator to ‘0’. Now
rotate the shaft and pull in the opposite
direction while reading the dial indicator.
End-play should be 0.001 to 0.005 in. (0.025
to 0.127 mm). If end-play is incorrect, use
different shims to obtain correct end-play.
Shims available from the Service Parts
Department
0.020 in. (0.500 mm) Thermo King P/N 99-4231
Idler Assembly Overhaul
Disassembly
1. Remove the idler assembly from the unit.
Remove both oil plugs and drain the oil from
the housing.
2. After draining the oil from the housing,
remove the four retaining bolts from the
curbside end of the assembly.
3. To remove the shaft from the assembly, tap the
opposite end of the shaft with a soft hammer.
After the shaft has been removed, clean all the
parts in clean solvent.
0.007 in. (0.177 mm) Thermo King P/N 99-2902
0.005 in. (0.127 mm) Thermo King P/N 99-2901
7. After correct end-play is obtained, add oil for
the bearings.
8. Lock the assembly in a vise with the vent
facing up. Pour the oil (P/N 203-278) through
the top plug until it runs out of the side hole.
The assembly holds approximately 2.5 oz
(75 ml). Check the condition of the O-ring
used on the plugs and replace if necessary.
Install the top and side plugs. Clean up any
spillage.
9. Place the assembly on the workbench with the
vent up. Rotate the shaft by hand. The shaft
should be free enough to rotate without having
to hold the housing.
CAUTION: When installing the fan shaft
assembly, make sure that the vent is
mounted facing up.
4. Using a punch, remove the oil seal from the
curbside end of the assembly. With the seal
removed, clean the housing in solvent.
5. Check the condition of the vent. If it is loose
or damaged, it must be repaired or replaced.
6. After all the parts are cleaned, inspect the
bearings and bearing races for wear or
damage.
7. To replace the bearings, first drive bearing off
shaft with a punch at notch in the base of the
shaft.
Reassembly
1. Install the new bearings on the shaft with a
pipe. Place the pipe over the shaft and drive
bearing down. Turn the shaft upside down,
and use the pipe to drive the other bearing
down.
2. Install a new oil seal on the curbside end of
the assembly after replacing the bearing race
and splash guard.
151
Structural Maintenance
3. Replace the shaft in the housing. Install a new
seal in the retainer cap. Use the original shims
and replace the O-ring if needed.
7. After the correct end-play is obtained, add
approximately 1.1 oz (33 ml) of oil
(P/N 203-278) for the bearings.
4. Install the retainer cap assembly over the
shaft, then install the bolts.
8. Lock the assembly in a vise with the vent
facing up. Pour the oil through the top plug
until it runs out of the side hole. Check the
condition of the O-ring used on the plugs and
replace if necessary. Install the top and side
plugs. Clean up any spillage.
5. Torque the bolts in a criss-cross pattern in
equal steps to 80 in-lb (9.04 N•m).
6. Lock the assembly in a vise and set up a dial
indicator to read end-play. To measure the
end-play, rotate the shaft while pushing in one
direction, and set the dial indicator to ‘0’.
Now rotate the shaft and pull in the opposite
direction while reading the dial indicator.
End-play should be 0.001 to 0.005 in. (0.025
to 0.127 mm). If end-play is incorrect, use
different shims to obtain correct end-play.
9. Place the assembly on the workbench with the
vent up. Rotate the shaft by hand. The shaft
should be free enough to rotate without having
to hold the housing.
CAUTION: Reinstall the assembly into
the unit, making sure the vent is mounted
facing up.
Shims available from the Service Parts
Department
0.020 in. (0.500 mm) Thermo King P/N 99-4231
0.007 in. (0.177 mm) Thermo King P/N 99-2902
0.005 in. (0.127 mm) Thermo King P/N 99-2901
AEA722
1.
Oil Seal
6.
Shaft
2.
Cap and Shims
7.
Housing
3.
O-ring
8.
Breather Vent
4.
Roller Bearing
9.
Oil Plug Screw (Use Oil P/N 203-278)
5.
Splash Guard Tube
Figure 125: Idler Assembly
152
Mechanical Diagnosis
Condition
Possible Cause
Remedy
Engine will not crank
Electrical problem
Check and repair electrical system
Defective starter solenoid
Replace solenoid
Defective starter
Repair starter
Water in cylinders
Check for hydrostatic lock. Remove
injectors and turn engine slowly
Starter motor turns but engine
does not crank
Starter clutch defective
Replace
Engine cranks but fails to start
Fuel solenoid not energized
Check 8D and 8DP circuits and fuel
solenoid pull-in relay. Check that
YAN = YES in Super Guarded
Access. Refer to appropriate
Microprocessor Diagnostic Manual.
Fuel solenoid defective or stuck
Replace
Fuel injection pump defective
Replace pump
Air heater defective
Replace
No fuel or wrong fuel
Fill with proper fuel
Fuel transfer pump defective
Replace transfer pump
Air in fuel system
Bleed air
Compression low
Overhaul engine
Injection nozzles defective
Replace nozzles
Incorrect timing
Adjust timing
Air cleaner clogged
Replace air filter
Exhaust plugged
Clean exhaust
Defective HPCO
Replace HPCO
Air in injection pump
Bleed fuel system
Fuel filter obstructed
Replace filter element
High head pressure
Eliminate cause of high head
pressure
Vent of fuel tank obstructed
Unclog vent
Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines
Clean fuel tank and fuel lines
Engine stops after starting
153
Mechanical Diagnosis
Condition
Possible Cause
Remedy
Engine does not develop full
power
Air intake system clogged
Clean air intake system
Fuel tank vent clogged
Unclog vent
Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines
Clean fuel tank and fuel lines
Speed adjustment wrong
Adjust speed
Insufficient fuel volume leaving filter
Check for dirty filter or air in system
Air cleaner clogged
Replace air filter
Delivery of fuel pump insufficient
Repair pump
Injection pump timing off
Adjusting timing
Injection nozzles defective
Repair or replace nozzles
Compression low or unbalanced
Overhaul engine
Worn injection pump plungers,
delivery valve defective, injection
rate too low, gum formations
Repair or replace pump
Misadjusted high speed solenoid
Adjust high speed solenoid
Defective injection pump
Repair injection pump
Engine fails to stop when unit is
OFF
Fuel solenoid defective
Replace
Injection pump defective
Replace pump
Engine knocks heavily
Air in system
Bleed fuel system
Injection pump not timed
Retime injection pump
Wrong fuel
Change fuel
Compression too low
Overhaul engine
Injection nozzles fouled or opening
pressure too low
Clean, repair or replace injection
nozzles
Delivery valve spring broken
Replace spring or repair injection
pump
Valve out of adjustment
Adjust valves
Fuel return line plugged
Remove return line restriction
Rod or main bearing worn
Replace rod or main bearings
Engine speed too high
154
Mechanical Diagnosis
Condition
Possible Cause
Remedy
Engine runs hot
Dirty radiator
Wash radiator
Coolant level is low
Add coolant
Cooling system heavily scaled
Cleaning cooling system
Cylinder head gasket leaks
Replace cylinder head gasket. Use
correct gasket
Faulty thermostat
Check or replace thermostat
Loose or worn water pump belt
Replace belt
Insufficient oil in pan
Add oil
Faulty oil pressure switch
Check oil pressure switch. Replace
if necessary
Oil control valve defective
Check oil pressure control valve
Worn oil pump, camshaft, main or
connecting rod bearings, loose oil
gallery plug
Repair engine
Oil leakage
Check and eliminate possible
causes at rocker arm cover, oil lines,
oil filter, front timing cover or
crankshaft seals
Damaged valve seals
Replace seals on valve stem
Worn valve stem
Replace valves
Broken piston rings or cylinder bore
worn or scored
Have engine repaired and rebored.
Replace broken piston rings
Clogged air cleaner system
Unclog air cleaner
Oil pressure low
High oil consumption
155
Mechanical Diagnosis
Engine Emits Excessive Smoke
WHITE SMOKE
BLACK SMOKE
BLUE SMOKE
Fuel is not burning
Excessive Fuel to Air Ratio
Oil Consumption
•
Air or water in fuel
•
Type of fuel used
•
Poor compression
•
Incorrect timing
•
Cold engine
•
Defective valve seals
•
Poor compression
•
Excessive load
•
Faulty injectors
•
Clogged air intake system
•
Faulty nozzles
•
Poor compression
•
Restricted exhaust
•
Faulty injection pump
156
Refrigeration Diagnosis
Refrigeration System
Diagnosis
For more complete information refer to
“Diagnosing the System” in the SB-400
Refrigeration System Manual TK 51696.
It is important that you use the alarm codes to
diagnose the system.
Alarm codes that refer to specific component
failures are called Hardware Alarm Codes.
Examples of hardware alarm codes are 04–
Discharge Air Sensor and 94–Loading Valve #1.
Alarm codes that refer to abnormal conditions in
the refrigeration system are called Condition
Alarm Codes. The following are the main
condition alarm codes that indicate problems in
the refrigeration system:
•
How long has the problem existed?
•
What codes have you seen? (or hopefully
recorded)
•
Has anybody worked on the unit recently?
If it is an owner-operator, you may get the
entire history of the unit. If it is a company
driver, he may have just picked up the trailer
and you will get no information.
2. Record any existing alarm codes.
3. Download the DAS and the microprocessor
data logger. You must use pass through mode
to get through to the data logger and bypass
the DAS. Refer to the ThermoGuard µP-VI
Microprocessor Controller Revision 43xx
Software Diagnostic Manual TK 51329 and
the WinTrac Manual for information about
downloading the DAS and the microprocessor
data logger. A whole manual could be written
on interpreting a download, but the main
things to look for are:
•
10 High Discharge Pressure
•
21 Cooling Cycle Check
•
22 Heating Cycle Check
•
23 Cooling Cycle Fault
•
When did the problem start?
•
24 Heating Cycle Fault
•
What alarm codes are set?
•
26 Check Refrigeration Capacity
•
What kind of TPDF does the unit develop.
•
32 Refrigeration Capacity Low
•
•
81 High Compressor Temperature
Is there any place on the download that the
unit performs well? How does that
compare with the problem areas?
•
82 High Compressor Temperature Shutdown
•
•
93 Low Compressor Suction Pressure
Does it occur at any special time like after
a defrost, or just after start-up?
•
99 High Compressor Pressure Ratio
Always test and repair the components specified
in any hardware alarm codes before trying to
diagnose any condition alarm codes. Refer to the
“Alarm Codes” and “Alarm Codes, Their Causes
and Corrective Actions” in the SB-400
Refrigeration System Manual TK 51696 for
information about troubleshooting the hardware
alarm codes.
Diagnostic Procedure
1. Interview the driver. Find out what the driver
knows. Assuming the driver is with the trailer
and it wasn't just dropped off in the yard, ask
the driver the following:
4. Repair any hardware alarm codes that were
recorded.
5. If any components were repaired or replaced
to correct hardware alarm codes, perform a
Pretrip Test (refer to the Diagnostic Manual or
Refrigeration System manual for detailed
information about the Pretrip Test) and test
run the unit to see if the alarm codes reappear.
6. Run the Initial Component and System
Checks (refer to “Initial Component and
System Checks” in the SB-400 Refrigeration
System Manual TK 51696) to check some
basic items.
157
Refrigeration Diagnosis
7. Repair any problems or hardware alarm codes
that were found during the Initial Component
and System Checks.
8. If any repairs were made, perform a Pretrip
Test and test run the unit to see if any
problems or alarm codes reappear.
9. Refer to the “Table of Information Recorded
in Service Test Modes” in the SB-400
Refrigeration System Manual TK 51696 and
run the unit for at least five minutes in each
Service Test Mode. Record the pressures,
temperatures, and suction line conditions in a
copy of the table.
NOTE: It is important to have this
information recorded when diagnosing the
system.
10. Refer to the flow charts in “Diagnosing the
System” and the “Component Failure
Symptoms Table” in the SB-400 Refrigeration
System Manual TK 51696 to diagnose any
remaining condition alarm codes.
Refrigeration Diagnosis Charts
The charts on the following pages show possible
causes for various symptoms. The charts should
be used along with the Diagnostic Procedure and
the Alarm Codes to diagnose problems in the
refrigeration system. Note the following items
concerning the charts:
•
The TPDF can be used as a quick check of the
cooling capacity. The minimum TPDF is -10 F
(-6 C) while the unit is running in Service Test
Mode [HS.C] high speed cool with a box
temperature of 35 F (2 C) and an ambient
temperature of 90 F (32 C).
NOTE: The TPDF should be negative when
the unit is running in cool. A temperature
differential less than -10 F (-6 C) means less
negative. For example, a TPDF of -9 F
(-5 C) is less than a TPDF of -10 F (-6 C).
•
158
The TPDF can be used as a quick check of the
heating capacity. A TPDF of 10-12 F (6-7 C)
is normal in Service Test Mode [HS.H] high
speed heat, except with low ambient
temperatures or high box temperatures. The
minimum acceptable TPDF is 4 F (2 C).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Possible Causes
• Overcharge of refrigerant
•
• Shortage of refrigerant
•
• Air through condenser too hot (ambient)
•
• Air flow through condenser restricted
•
•
Symptom
Rapid cycling between cool and heat
Unit cools in heat and defrost cycle
Unit heats in refrigeration cycle
High head pressure
Low head pressure
High main suction pressure
Low main suction pressure
High economizer suction pressure
Low economizer suction pressure
Unit operating in a vacuum
Receiver sight glass empty
Unable to pump down system
Unable to pull vacuum in low side
Noisy compressor
Low cooling capacity
Low Heating/Defrost Capacity
High CTMP
Refrigeration Diagnosis
Air through condenser too cold (ambient)
•
• Air in refrigerant system
•
• Condenser fan blades bent or broken
•
•
•
•
•
•
Air short cycling around evaporator coil
•
Air through evaporator restricted
•
•
Evaporator needs defrosting
•
Too much compressor oil in system
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Too little compressor oil in system
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Faulty compressor
•
•
•
•
Expansion valve power element lost its charge
•
•
•
•
Expansion valve feeler bulb improperly mounted
•
•
•
•
Expansion valve feeler bulb making poor contact
•
•
•
•
Expansion valve open too much
•
Expansion valve closed too much
•
•
Faulty compressor drive coupling
•
•
•
•
•
Expansion valve needle eroded or leaking
•
•
•
Expansion valve partially closed by ice, dirt or wax
•
Loading valve #1 stuck closed
•
Loading valve #2 stuck closed
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Restricted line on the low side
• Restricted line on the high side
Restricted drier
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Faulty main expansion valve
•
•
•
•
Defrost damper stuck closed
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Defrost damper stays open
• Faulty three-way valve
Faulty pilot solenoid
• Loose or broken electrical connections
• Sensor out of calibration
159
•
•
•
•
•
•
Leaky heat check valve
Leaky loading valve #1
•
Leaky liquid line solenoid
•
Liquid line solenoid not closing
•
Open loading valve #1
•
Leaky suction service valve
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
160
Leaky economizer suction service valve
•
•
Leaky condenser check valve
•
•
•
Possible Causes
Leaky receiver tank outlet valve
•
•
Symptom
Rapid cycling between cool and heat
Unit cools in heat and defrost cycle
Unit heats in refrigeration cycle
High head pressure
Low head pressure
High main suction pressure
Low main suction pressure
High economizer suction pressure
Low economizer suction pressure
Unit operating in a vacuum
Receiver sight glass empty
Unable to pump down system
Unable to pull vacuum in low side
Noisy compressor
Low cooling capacity
Low Heating/Defrost Capacity
High CTMP
Refrigeration Diagnosis
•
•
• Faulty economizer expansion valve
Closed liquid line solenoid
•
• Open water solenoid
•
Closed water solenoid
•
Restricted vent line (orifice) between heat circuit and
suction line (appears to be shortage of refrigerant)
•
•
•
Leaky loading valve #2
•
•
•
Open loading valve #2
Refrigeration Diagrams
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 126: High and Low Speed Cool
161
Refrigeration Diagrams
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 127: Modulated Cool with LV1 Open
162
Refrigeration Diagrams
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 128: Running Null
163
Refrigeration Diagrams
1.
High Pressure Gas
5.
Low Pressure Liquid
2.
High Pressure Liquid
6.
Low Pressure Gas
3.
Medium Pressure Liquid
7.
High Pressure Compressor Oil
4.
Medium Pressure Gas
8.
Engine Coolant
Figure 129: Defrost and Heat
164
Index
A
air cleaner, EMI 3000 97
air heater 68
air restriction indicator 57, 97
alarm codes 53
alternator (Australian Bosch) 63
antifreeze
changing 73
checking 73
maintenance procedure 73
audible enter prompt 57
auxiliary modes 51
wiring 167
discharge pressure transducer, replacement 139
discharge vibrasorber, replacement 130
display, microprocessor 56
E
battery 66
battery cables 66
belt adjustments 98
alternator belt 98
upper and lower fan belts 99
belt replacement
lower fan belt 100
upper fan belt 100
belt tension 18
belts 98
economizer expansion valve
checking superheat 143
replacement 142
economizer heat exchanger, replacement 142
ELC (Extended Life Coolant) 72
electronic throttling valve (ETV) 115
replacement 140
EMI 3000 70
engine change 69
engine speed adjustments 80
high speed 80
low speed 81
engine, specifications 17
enter, audible prompt 57
evaporator coil, replacement 133
evaporator expansion valve
checking superheat 132
replacement 131
C
F
cold start device 92
compressor
pump down 111
repair 127
replacement 125
shaft seal leak check 106
test 120
compressor coupling
installation 126
removal 125
compressor oil
adding 110
checking 109
sight glass 57
compressor temperature sensor (CTMP) 58
compressor temperature system 51
computer port 57
condenser check valve, replacement 130
control panel 55
cooling system, engine 72
bleeding air from 74
crankcase breather, Tier 1 engine 95
fan alignment
condenser blower 149
evaporator blower 149
fan shaft assembly 150
overhaul 150
filter drier, replacement 131
first aid 16
engine coolant 16
refrigerant 16
refrigerant oil 16
fuel filter/water separator, replacement 80
fuel line routing 75
fuel return line replacement 78
fuel solenoid 89
replacement 90
testing 89
fuel system 75
bleeding 79
maintenance 77
fuel tank, draining water from 80
fuse link 57, 68
fuses 58, 67
D
H
defrost damper, adjustment 148
defrost drains 147
diagnosis
mechanical 153
refrigeration system 157
diagrams
fuel line routing 167
refrigeration 161
heat check valve
repair 144
replacement 145
test for closed 120
test for leaking 119
tests 119
heat mode discharge superheat control 51
high pressure cut in switch (HPCI) 58
B
165
Index
replacement 138
high pressure cut in switch (HPCI) test 112
high pressure cutout switch (HPCO) 58
replacement 138
test 113
high pressure relief valve 58
replacement 138
I
idler assembly 151
overhaul 151
injection pump
reinstallation 88
removal 87
timing, Tier 1 engine 81
timing, Tier 2 engine 84
in-line condenser check valve 130
inspection, unit 147
installation, unit 147
K
keypad 56
L
liquid injection valve
replacement 145
test 117
liquid line solenoid
replacement 139
test 117
loading procedure 61
loading valve test 116
low oil level switch 58
low oil pressure 70
low side pump down 111
lubrication system, engine 70
R
receiver tank sight glass 57
receiver tank, replacement 130
refrigerant charge 104
testing for an overcharge 104
testing with a loaded trailer 104
testing with an empty trailer 104
refrigerant leaks 106
refrigeration system
clean-up procedures 128
components 36
remote status light 57
routing
wire harness 67
routing, fuel line routing 75
S
S391 screw compressor 38
safety precautions 13
battery removal 14
electrical hazards 15
general practices 13
microprocessor service precautions 15
refrigerant hazards 14
refrigerant oil hazards 14
welding precautions 15
special modes 50
specifications 17
starters 97
subcooler/condenser/radiator, replacement 139
suction pressure transducer, replacement 140
suction pressures 103
suction vibrasorber, replacement 138
T
manual pretrip inspection 58
maximum operating pressure (MOP) 38, 103
moisture indicating sight glass 105
mounting bolts, unit and engine 147
thermostat, engine 75
three-way valve condenser pressure bypass check
valve 113
repair 137
three-way valve, repair 134
transducers, pressure 115
trochoid feed pump 91
O
V
M
oil change, engine 70
oil collection bottle 106
oil filter change, engine 70
On/Off Switch 55
On/Off/Sleep Switch 56
opening front doors 23
operating modes 39
P
PCV, positive crankcase ventilation 96
pilot solenoid, replacement 137
positive crankcase ventilation, Tier 2 engine 96
post trip checks 61
preheat buzzer 58
printer port 57
166
valve clearance adjustment, engine 94
W
water valve test 118
wire harness routing 67
wiring, unit 67
Diagram Index
Drawing No.
Drawing Title
Page
1E02367
Schematic Diagram
169-171
1E02371
Wiring Diagram
172-176
Tier 1 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram
177-179
Tier 2 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram
180-182
167
Diagram Index
168
Schematic Diagram — Page 1 of 3
169
Schematic Diagram — Page 2 of 3
170
Schematic Diagram — Page 3 of 3
171
Wiring Diagram — Page 1 of 5
172
Wiring Diagram — Page 2 of 5
173
Wiring Diagram — Page 3 of 5
174
Wiring Diagram — Page 4 of 5
175
Wiring Diagram — Page 5 of 5
176
Tier 1 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram - Page 1 of 3
1.
Screw 1/4-20 X 1.0 in. 55-101
2.
Flatwasher 1/4 in. (2) 55-411
3.
Nylock Nut 1/4 in. 55-4118
4.
Screw 3/8-16 X 1.0 in. 55-529
5.
Clamp 5/8 in. Diameter 55-4203
6.
3/8 in. Inlet Line from Fuel Tank
7.
1/4 in. Return Line to Fuel Tank
177
Tier 1 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram - Page 2 of 3
1.
Fuel Filter 11-9342
2.
Return to Fuel Tank
3.
Return from Injection Pump
4.
Inlet from Fuel Transfer Pump
5.
Outlet to Injection Pump
6.
Band Wrap 4.00 Diameter (2) 56-2331
7.
Band Wrap 1.75 Diameter (5) 56-2330
8.
Clamp 1.0 in. Diameter 55-3644
9.
Screw M8 X 85 55-7394
10.
Flatwasher M8 55-4613
11.
Lockwasher M8 55-4614
12.
Clamp 3/4 in. Diameter 55-3741
178
Tier 1 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram - Page 3 of 3
1.
Return from Injection Pump to Fuel Filter
2.
Outlet from Fuel Filter to Injection Pump
3.
Injection Pump
4.
Fuel Transfer Pump
5.
Inlet from Fuel Tank to Fuel Transfer Pump
6.
Outlet from Fuel Transfer Pump to Fuel Filter
7.
Return from Fuel Filter to Fuel Tank
179
Tier 2 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram - Page 1 of 3
1.
Screw 1/4-20 X 0.75 in. 55-145
2.
Flatwasher 1/4 in. (2) 55-411
3.
Nylock Nut 1/4 in. 55-4118
4.
Clamp 1/2 in. Diameter 55-3065
5.
Band Wrap 1.75 Diameter (4) 56-2330
6.
3/8 in. Inlet Line from Fuel Tank
7.
1/4 in. Return Line to Fuel Tank
180
Tier 2 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram - Page 2 of 3
1.
Fuel Filter 11-9342
2.
Return to Fuel Tank
3.
Return from Injection Pump
4.
Inlet from Fuel Transfer Pump
5.
Outlet to Injection Pump
6.
Clamp 5/8 in. Diameter 55-3026
7.
Screw 1/4-20 X 0.75 in. 55-145
8.
Flatwasher 1/4 in. (2) 55-411
9.
Lockwasher 1/4 in. 55-366
10.
Tube Clamp 91-758
11.
Screw 1/4-20 X 2.5 in. 55-5677
12.
Clamp 1/2 in. Diameter 55-3065
13.
Clamp 5/8 in. Diameter 55-4203
14.
Grommet 33-316
15.
Clamp 3/4 in. Diameter 55-5280
16.
Flatwasher M8 55-7069
17.
Lockwasher M8 55-7727
18
Screw M8 X 110 55-5424
181
Tier 2 Engine Fuel Line Routing Diagram - Page 3 of 3
1.
Outlet from Fuel Filter to Injection Pump
2.
Return from Injection Pump to Fuel Filter
3.
Injection Pump
4.
Fuel Transfer Pump
5.
Inlet from Fuel Tank to Fuel Transfer Pump
6.
Outlet from Fuel Transfer Pump to Fuel Filter
7.
Return from Fuel Filter to Fuel Tank
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