MIG/MAG Welding Guide
MIG/MAG Welding Guide
For Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
LINCOLN
®
ELECTRIC
This booklet contains basic guidelines on
the Gas Metal Arc Process.
The basic information is from “Recommended Practices for
Gas Metal Arc Welding”, AWS C5.6-89. It has been
edited and is reprinted through the courtesy of the
American Welding Society.
Mild Steel procedures were developed by
The Lincoln Electric Company.
Aluminum procedures are from
THE ALUMINUM ASSOCIATION
Stainless Steel procedures are primarily from
JOINING OF STAINLESS STEEL
published by
American Society for Metals.
Welding Aluminum:
Theory and Practice
The Aluminum Association
Incorporated
This book has been prepared by H.L. Saunders, Consultant, Alcan (Retired), with information
and assistance from the Aluminum Association and from member companies represented on
the Technical Advisory Panel on Welding and Joining.
Mr. Saunders (BASc, Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia) has 36 years of
experience in the aluminum welding industry. He has been active in AWS, CSA, WIC and
undertaken special studies for the National Research Council and the Welding Research
Council. He was a former member and Chairman of the Aluminum Association’s Technical
Committee on Welding and Joining.
Technical Advisory Panel on Welding and Joining:
B. Alshuller, Alcan (Chairman)
P. Pollak, Aluminum Association (Secretary)
P.B. Dickerson, Consultant, Alcoa (Retired)
F. Armao, Alcoa
Eric R. Pickering, Reynolds Metals
Use of the Information
Any data and suggestions contained in this publication were compiled and/or developed by the
Aluminum Association, Inc. In view of the variety of conditions and methods of use to which
such data and suggestions may be applied, the Aluminum Association and its member
companies assume no responsibility or liability for the use of information contained herein.
Neither the Aluminum Association nor any of its member companies give any warranties,
express or implied, in respect to this information.
Third Edition • November 1997
Copyright © 1991 by The Aluminum Association, Inc.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 89-80539
GAS METAL ARC WELDING GUIDE
CONTENTS
I.
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
II.
FUNDAMENTALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
2
Principles of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III.
TRADITIONAL MODES OF METAL TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Globular Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Circuiting Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.
HIGH LEVEL MODES OF METAL TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pulsed Spray Transfer (GMAW-P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Tension Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
V.
EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VI.
PROCESS REQUIREMENTS AND APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4
Semiautomatic Welding Gun and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Wire Feed Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Welding Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Shielding Gas Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Power Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Power Supply Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Automatic Welding Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Shielding Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inert Shielding Gases, Argon and Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixtures of Argon and Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen and CO2 Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shielding Gas Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection of Process Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode of Metal Transfer and Shielding Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design and Service Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrode Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weld Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standardization and Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials Handling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deposition Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Welding Current — Wire Feed Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Welding Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrode Stickout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ii
11
12
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
18
23
VII.
PROCEDURES FOR CARBON STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Welding Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wire Feed Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arc Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shielding Gas and Gas Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Argon and Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preheat & Interpass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Fillets or Flat Butt Welds by Short Circuiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vertical Down Fillets or Square Butt Welds by Short Circuiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vertical Up Welds by Short Circuiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat and Horizontal Fillet Welds by Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat Butt Welds by Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat and Horizontal Fillet Welds by Pulsed Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vertical Up Fillet Welds by Pulsed Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
VIII.
WELDING STAINLESS STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray Arc Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Circuiting Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure Range Blue Max MIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat Butt Welds by Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat and Horizontal Fillets and Flat Butts by Spray-Arc Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Flat Fillets or Flat Butt Welds by Short Circuiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pulsed-Arc Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat and Horizontal Fillets by Short Circuit Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vertical Up Fillets by Short Circuit Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat and Horizontal Fillets by Pulsed Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
29
29
30
30
31
32
32
33
34
34
IX.
WELDING ALUMINUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Horizontal Fillets with 5356 Filler Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Fillets with 4043 Filler Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat Butt Welds with 5356 Filler Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat Butt Welds with 4043 Filler Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat and Horizontal Fillet Welds by Pulsed Spray Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.
35
36
36
37
37
SAFE PRACTICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Handling of Shielding Gas Cylinders & Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Cylinder Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Ozone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Nitrogen Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Carbon Monoxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Metal Fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Radiant Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Noise — Hearing Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Arc Welding Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-42
XI.
PRODUCT REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
The serviceability of a product or structure utilizing this type of information is and must be the sole responsibility of the
builder/user. Many variables beyond the control of The Lincoln Electric Company affect the results obtained in applying
this type of information. These variables include, but are not limited to, welding procedure, plate chemistry and temperature,
weldment design, fabrication methods and service requirements.
iii
The gun and cable assembly performs three functions. It delivers shielding gas to the arc region, guides the consumable
electrode to the contact tip and conducts electrical power to
the contact tip. When the gun switch is depressed, gas, power,
and electrode are simultaneously delivered to the work and an
arc is created. The wire feed unit and power source are normally coupled to provide automatic self-regulation of the arc
length. The basic combination used to produce this regulation
consists of a constant voltage (CV) power source (characteristically providing an essentially flat volt-ampere curve) in conjunction with a constant speed wire feed unit.
Note: The U.S. customary units are primary in this publication.
However, the approximate equivalent SI values are listed in
text and tables to familiarize the reader with the SI system of
metric units.
I. INTRODUCTION
This publication describes the basic concepts of the gas metal
arc welding (GMAW) process. It will provide the reader with
a fundamental understanding of the process and its variations.
This knowledge, combined with basic information about other
welding processes, will be helpful in selecting the best welding
process for the materials to be joined. In addition, the reader
will find specific technical data which will be a guide in
establishing optimum operation of this process.
Some GMAW equipment, however, uses a constant current
(CC) power source (characteristically providing a drooping
volt-ampere curve) plus an arc voltage-controlled wire feed
unit. With this latter combination, arc voltage changes, caused
by a change in the arc length, will initiate a response in the
wire feed unit to either increase or decrease the wire feed
speed to maintain the original arc length setting. The arc
length self-regulation produced by the constant voltage (CV)
power supply-constant speed wire feed unit combination is
described in detail in Section III.
The GMAW process was developed and made commercially
available in 1948, although the basic concept was actually introduced in the 1920’s. In its early commercial applications,
the process was used to weld aluminum with an inert shielding
gas, giving rise to the term “MIG” (metal inert gas) which is
still commonly used when referring to the process.
In some cases (the welding of aluminum, for example), it may
be preferable to couple a constant current power source with a
constant speed wire feed unit. This combination will provide
only a small degree of automatic self-regulation and can be
quite demanding in technique and set-up for semiautomatic
welding. However, some users think this combination affords
the range of control over the arc energy that is considered
important in coping with the high thermal conductivity of the
aluminum base metal.
Variations have been added to the process, among which was
the use of active shielding gases, particularly CO2, for welding
certain ferrous metals. This eventually led to the formally
accepted AWS term of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) for the
process. Further developments included the short circuiting
mode of metal transfer (GMAW-S), a lower heat energy variation of the process that permits welding out-of-position and
also on materials of sheet metal thicknesses; and a method of
controlled pulsating current (GMAW-P) to provide a uniform
spray droplet metal transfer from the electrode at a lower average
current levels.
The GMAW process uses either semiautomatic or automatic
equipment and is principally applied in high production welding. Most metals can be welded with this process and may be
welded in all positions with the lower energy variations of the
process. GMAW is an economical process that requires little
or no cleaning of the weld deposit. Warpage is reduced and
metal finishing is minimal compared to stick welding.
Shielding gas
regulator
Wire feed unit
II. FUNDAMENTALS
Control
Principles of Operation. GMAW is an arc welding process
which incorporates the automatic feeding of a continuous,
consumable electrode that is shielded by an externally
supplied gas. Since the equipment provides for automatic selfregulation of the electrical characteristics of the arc and deposition rate, the only manual controls required by the welder
for semiautomatic operation are gun positioning, guidance,
and travel speed. The arc length and the current level are
automatically maintained.
Electrode
supply
Contactor
Welding gun
Shielding gas
supply
Power source
Process control and function are achieved through these three
basic elements of equipment (See Fig. 1):
Workpiece
FIGURE 1 — Basic GMAW equipment.
1. Gun and cable assembly
2. Wire feed unit
3. Power source
1
Characteristics. The characteristics of GMAW are best
described by the five basic modes of transfer which may occur
with the process. Three traditional modes of transfer are short
circuiting, globular and axial spray. With more recent developments in power source technology, two higher level transfer
modes, pulsed spray and Surface Tension Transfer™ (STT®)
have been developed. Even though these power sources are
more expensive, the advantages enable users to easily justify
the additional cost on many applications.
The physical weld metal transfers are understood and can
be described as shown in Figure 2. Pinch force is responsible
for detaching the molten metal from the electrode and propelling it across the arc to the base metal. This momentary
necking of the liquid portion of the electrode is a result of
the current flow. Electromagnetic forces are produced and
controlled by the amount of current flowing through the
electrode to the work.
Axial spray and globular transfer are associated basically with
relatively high arc energy. With the occasional exception of
the spray mode in very small diameter electrodes, both axial
spray and globular transfer are normally limited to the flat and
horizontal welding positions with material thicknesses of not
less than 1/8 in. (3.2 mm). Pulsed spray transfer, in which the
average energy level is reduced, is another exception (see
GMAW-P). STT and traditional short circuiting transfer are
relatively low energy processes generally limited to metal
thicknesses not more than 1/8 in. (3.2mm), but is used in all
welding positions.
Electrode
Current flow (I)
Molten ball
G(Dynes/cm22) = I2 • (R2 – r2)4
G(Dynes/cm2) = 100 • ¹ • R4
G(Dynes/cm ) = 100 • ¹ • R
Weld puddle
FIGURE 2 — Metal transfer as described by the Northrup equation.
0.015 in.
(0.4 mm)
Aluminum wire
positive electrode
argon gas
1200
30
1000
0.025 in.
(0.6 mm)
30
1000
25
25
0.030 in.
(0.8 mm)
20
0.030 in.
(0.8 mm)
600
15
0.047 in.
(1.2 mm)
0.062 in.
(1.6 mm)
400
Spray
200
10
5
0.093 in.
Transition (2.4 mm)
current
0
0
100
200
Current, A
300
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
800
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
0.020 in.
(0.5 mm)
Drop
Steel wire
positive electrode
argon - 2% O2
800
20
0.035 in.
(0.9 mm)
600
15
400
Drop
200
0.045 in.
(1.1 mm)
0.052 in.
(1.3 mm)
Spray
0.062 in.
(1.6 mm)
Transition
current
0
0
400
5
0
0
100
200
300
Current, A
FIGURE 3 — Burnoff curves of aluminum and steel gas metal arc electrodes.
2
10
400
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
1200
0.020 in.
(0.5 mm)
III. TRADITIONAL MODES OF METAL TRANSFER
Spatter is minimized when using a CO2 shield by adjusting the
welding conditions so that the tip of the electrode is below the
surface of the molten weld metal and within a cavity generated by the force of the arc. The CO2 arc is generally unstable in
nature and characterized by a “crackling” sound. It presents a
weld bead surface that is rough in appearance (ripple effect)
in comparison to a bead obtained with axial spray transfer.
Since most of the arc energy is directed downward and below
the surface of the molten weld metal, the weld bead profile
exhibits extremely deep penetration with a “washing” action
at the weld bead extremities that is less than that obtained in
the axial spray transfer mode. Relative stability of the CO2 arc
can be established at higher current levels using a buried arc.
Axial Spray Transfer (gas shield with a minimum of 80 percent
argon). In this mode, metal transfer across the arc is in the
form of droplets of a size equal to or less than the electrode
diameter. The droplets are directed axially in a straight line
from the electrode to the weld puddle. The arc is very smooth
and stable. The result is little spatter and a weld bead of relatively smooth surface. The arc (plasma) energy is spread out
in a cone-shaped pattern. This results in good “wash” characteristics at the weld bead extremities but yields relatively
shallow penetration (shallow depth of fusion). Penetration is
deeper than that obtained with shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW) but less than can be obtained with the high energy
globular transfer mode of GMAW.
When helium-rich gas mixtures are used, a broader weld bead
is produced with a penetration depth similar to that of argon,
but with a more desirable profile.
The axial spray transfer mode is established at a minimum
current level for any given electrode diameter (current density).
This current level is generally termed “the transition current”
(See Figs. 3 and 4). A well defined transition current exists
only with a gas shield containing a minimum of 80 percent
argon. At current levels below the transition current the drop
size increases [larger than the diameter of the electrode (See
Figs. 4 and 5)]. The arc characteristics are quite unstable in
this operating range.
Short Circuiting Transfer. In the short circuiting, low energy
mode, all metal transfer occurs when the electrode is in contact
with the molten puddle on the work-piece. In this mode of
metal transfer, the power source characteristics control the relationship between the intermittent establishment of an arc and
the short circuiting of the electrode to the work (See Fig. 6).
Since the heat input is low, weld bead penetration is very
shallow and care must be exercised in technique to assure
good fusion in heavy sections. However, these characteristics
permit welding in all positions. Short circuiting transfer is particularly adaptable to welding thin gauge sections.
Globular Transfer (gas shield with CO2 or helium). In this
mode, metal transfer across the arc is in the form of irregular
globules randomly directed across the arc in irregular fashion
(See Fig. 5), resulting in a considerable amount of spatter.
300
4
15 x 10
Transfer
rate
10
Volume of
metal transferred
Transition
current
1/16 in. (1.6 mm) carbon
steel electrode, dcrp
Argon - 1% oxygen shielding gas
1/4 in. (6.4 mm) arc length
100
5
Short Circuiting
Region
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Volume transferred, in. 3/s
Rate of Transfer, droplets/s
Axial Spray Region
200
15
10
5
0
0
600
FIGURE 4 — Variation in volume and transfer rate of drops with welding current
(steel electrodes).
3
Volume transferred, mm 3/s
20
Axial spray transfer
Globular transfer
FIGURE 5 — Weld Metal transfer characteristics.
Current
Surface Tension Transfer™ (STT®). STT is a current controlled short circuiting transfer process. The two major differences between STT and traditional short arc are: the welding
current is based on the instantaneous requirements of the arc.
Wire feed speed and current are independent of one another.
The current is always controlled in a logical manner based on
what portion of the shorting cycle is being performed
(See Figure 7.5).
Time
Arcing period
Extinction
Voltage
Reignition
Zero
Short
Just before the wire shorts to the work (T1 - T2) and prior to
molten material separating from the wire (T3 - T5) current is
reduced to minimize spatter. High current is needed in order to
quickly neck down the wire (T2 - T3) or to reignite the arc, reestablish the proper arc length and promote good fusion (T5 - T6).
During the rest of the cycle the current is gently reduced (T6 - T7)
and held at an optimum level controlling the overall heat input
to the weld.
Zero
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
FIGURE 6 — Oscillograms and sketches of short circuiting arc metal
transfer.
V. EQUIPMENT
IV. HIGH LEVEL MODES OF METAL TRANSFER
SPRAY
The GMAW process can be used either semiautomatically or
automatically. The basic equipment for any GMAW installation consist of the following:
Pulsed Spray Transfer (GMAW-P). Pulsed spray transfer
(GMAW-P) is a variation of spray transfer where the power
source quickly pulses between a peak and background current
for a fixed period of time (See Figure 7). In doing so, there is
greater control of the metal transfer. Because of this, pulse
spray is capable of all position welding at a higher energy
level than short circuit, thus reducing the chances of cold lapping. Pulsed spray also has better arc stability at high wire
feed speeds.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Typical semiautomatic and automatic components are
illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10.
Most power sources capable of pulse welding operate as current controlled (CC) units rather than constant voltage (CV).
These high speed microprocessor controlled inverter systems
are capable of switching from peak to background at over 40
khz. This high speed switching controls the metal transfer
while low speed closed loop samples voltage to control the arc
length. This adaptive nature of the power source is more forgiving to contact tip to work changes.
Current
(Amperes DCEP)
Metal
transfer
A welding gun
A wire feed motor and associated gears or drive rolls
A welding control
A welding power source
A regulated supply of shielding gas
A supply of electrode
Interconnecting cables and hoses
Metal
transfer
Transistion current
Average current
Welding current
Background current
Time (seconds)
Note: DCEP means Direct Current Electrode Positive.
FIGURE 7 — Volt-ampere curve for pulsed current.
FIGURE 7.5 — Electrode current and voltage waveforms for a typical
welding cycle.
4
SEMIAUTOMATIC WELDING EQUIPMENT
electrical contact. The literature typically supplied with every
gun will list the correct size contact tip for each electrode size
and material. The contact tip must be held firmly by the collet
nut (or holding device) and must be centered in the shielding
gas nozzle.
Welding Gun and Accessories. The welding gun (Fig. 8) is used
to introduce the electrode and shielding gas into the weld zone
and to transmit electrical power to the electrode.
The nozzle directs an even-flowing column of shielding gas
into the welding zone. This even flow is extremely important
in providing adequate protection of the molten weld metal
from atmospheric contamination. Different size nozzles are
available and should be chosen according to the application;
i.e., larger nozzles for high current work where the weld puddle
is large, and smaller nozzles for low current and short circuiting
welding.
Different types of welding guns have been designed to provide
maximum efficiency regardless of the application, ranging
from heavy duty guns for high current, high production work
to lightweight guns for low current or out-of-position welding.
Water or air cooling and curved or straight nozzles are available for both heavy duty and lightweight guns. Air cooling
permits operation at up to 600 amperes with a reduced duty
cycle. The same current capacity is available for continuous
operation with a water-cooled gun.
The electrode conduit and liner are connected to align with
the feed rolls of the wire feed unit. The conduit and liner support, protect, and direct the wire from the feed rolls to the gun
and contact tip. Uninterrupted wire feed is necessary to insure
good arc stability. Buckling or kinking of the electrode must
be prevented. The electrode will tend to jam anywhere between
the drive rolls and the contact tip if not properly supported.
The liner may be an integral part of the conduit or supplied
separately. In either case the liner material and inner diameter
are important. A steel liner is recommended when using hard
electrode materials such as steel and copper, while nylon liners
should be used for soft electrode materials such as aluminum
and magnesium. Care must be taken not to crimp or excessively bend the conduit even though its outer surface is usually
steel-supported. The instruction manual supplied with each
unit will generally list the recommended conduits and liners
for each electrode size and material.
The following are basic accessories of these arc welding guns:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Contact tip
Gas nozzle
Electrode conduit and/or liner
Gas hose
Water hose (for water-cooled guns)
Power cable
Control switch
The contact tip, usually made of copper or a copper alloy, is
used to transmit welding power to the electrode and to direct
the electrode towards the work. The contact tip is connected
electrically to the welding power source by the power cable.
The inner surface of the contact tip is very important since the
electrode must feed easily through this tip and also make good
Solid wire
electrode
Shielding gas
IN
Current conductor
Travel
Wire guide and
contact tip
Solidified
weld metal
Gas nozzle
Arc
Shielding gas
Work
Molten weld
metal
FIGURE 8 — Typical semiautomatic air-cooled, curved-neck gas metal arc welding gun.
5
The remaining accessories bring the shielding gas, cooling
water, and welding power to the gun. These hoses and cables
may be connected directly to the source of these facilities or
to the welding control. Trailing-gas shields are available
and may be required to protect the weld pool during high speed
welding.
The LN-742 has a range of 50 to 770 inches per minute
(1.25 to 19.5 m/min.). The LN-742H has a range of 80 to
1200 inches per minute (2.00 to 30.5 m/min.).
A full line of feeders is available with special features such as
digital meters and the ability to be directly interfaced with a
robotic controller. Lincoln wire feeders can be used with most
constant voltage (CV) type power sources. See Lincoln Product
Specification Bulletins for complete details and information.
The basic gun uses a wire feeder to push the electrode from a
remote location through the conduit, a distance of typically
about 12 ft. (3.7 m). Several other designs are also available,
including a unit with a small electrode feed mechanism built
into the gun. This system will pull the electrode from a more
distant source where an additional drive may also be used to
push the electrode into the longer conduit needed. Another
variation is the “spool-on-gun” type in which the electrode feed
mechanism and the electrode source are self-contained.
Welding Control. The welding control and the wire feed motor
for semiautomatic operation are available in one integrated
package (See Fig. 9). The welding control’s main function is
to regulate the speed of the wire feed motor, usually through
the use of an electronic governor in the control. The speed of
the motor is manually adjustable to provide variable wire feed
speed, which, with a constant-voltage (CV) power supply, will
result in different welding current. The control also regulates
the starting and stopping of the electrode feed through a signal
received from the gun switch.
Wire Feed Motor. Lincoln wire feeders provide the means for
driving the electrode through the gun and to the work. The
LN-7 GMA, LN-742, LN-9 GMA, LN-10, LN-25, DH-10,
STT-10, Power Feed 10 and Power Feed 11 semiautomatic,
constant speed wire feeders have trouble-free solid state electronic controls which provide regulated starting, automatic
compression for line voltage fluctuations and instanta-neous
response to wire drag. This results in clean positive arc starting with each strike, minimizes stubbing, skipping and spatter,
and maintains steady wire feeding when welding. All components are totally contained within the feeder box for maximum
protection from dirt and weather, contributing to the low maintenance and reliable long life of these wire feeders.
Shielding gas, water, and welding power are usually delivered
to the gun through the control, requiring direct connection of
the control to these facilities and the power supply. Gas and
water flow are regulated to coincide with the weld start and
stop by use of solenoids. The control can also sequence the
starting and stopping of gas flow and energize the power supply
output. The control may permit some gas to flow before welding starts as well as a post-flow to protect the molten weld
puddle. The control is usually powered by 115 VAC from the
power source but may be powered from another source such
as the arc voltage.
Wire feed speeds on Lincoln GMA wire feeders range from 75
to 1200 inches per minute (1.9 to 30.5 m/min.). The LN-7 GMA
has a range from 75 to 700 inches per minute (1.9 to 18 m/min.)
and the LN-9 GMA and LN-9F GMA units have a range of 80
to 980 inches per minute (2 to 25 m/min.). LN-25 has a low
range of 50 to 350 inches per minute (1.2 to 8.9 m/min.), and
a high range of 50 to 700 inches per minute (1.2 to 17.8
m/min.). The LN-7 GMA, LN-9 GMA and LN-9F GMA wire
feeders feature dynamic breaking which stops the feed motor
when the gun trigger is released to minimize crater sticking
problems and simplify restriking.
Shielding Gas Regulators. A system is required to provide constant shielding gas pressure and flow rate during welding. The
regulator reduces the source gas pressure to a constant working
pressure regardless of variations at the source. Regulators may
be single or dual stage and may have a built-in flowmeter. Dual
stage regulators provide a more constant delivery pressure than
single stage regulators.
The shielding gas source can be a high pressure cylinder, a
liquid-filled cylinder, or a bulk liquid system. Gas mixtures
are available in a single cylinder. Mixing devices are used for
obtaining the correct proportions when two or more gas or
liquid sources are used. The size and type of the gas storage
source are usually determined by economic considerations
based on the usage rate in cubic feet (cubic meters) per month.
Power Source. The welding power source delivers electrical
power to the electrode and workpiece to produce the arc. For
the vast majority of GMAW applications, direct current with
positive polarity is used; therefore, the positive lead must go
to the gun and the negative to the workpiece. The major types
of direct current power supplies are the engine-generator
(rotating), the transformer-rectifier (static), and inverters.
Inverters can be used for their small size and high level
transfer modes which generally require faster changes in output current. The transformer-rectifier type is usually preferred
for in-shop fabrication where a source of electrical power is
available. The engine-generator is used when there is no other
available source of electrical power, such as in the field.
Lincoln LN-7 GMA Wire Feeder.
6
As GMAW applications increased, it was found that a constant
voltage (CV) machine provided improved operation, particularly with ferrous materials. The (CV) power supply, used in
conjunction with a constant wire feed speed, maintains a constant voltage during the welding operation. The major reason
for selecting (CV) power is the self-correcting arc length inherent in this system. The (CV) system compensates for variations in the contact tip-to-workpiece distance which readily
occur during welding by automatically supplying increased or
decreased welding current at a constant voltage to maintain an
arc length. The desired arc length is selected by adjusting the
output voltage of the power source and, normally, no other
changes during welding are required. The wire feed speed,
which also becomes the current control, is preset by the welder
or welding operator prior to welding and can be changed over a
considerable range before stubbing to the workpiece or
burning-back into the contact tip occurs. Both adjustments are
easily made.
Figure 12 schematically illustrates the self-correction mechanism. As the contact tip-to-work distance increases, the welding voltage and arc length increase and the welding current
decreases, as the volt-ampere characteristic predicts. This also
decreases the electrode burnoff (melting rate). Because the
electrode is now feeding faster than it is being burned off, the
arc will return to the preset shorter length. The converse would
occur for a decrease in the contact tip-to-work distance.
The larger change in current and burnoff rate associated with
(CV) power can be advantageous, particularly with ferrous
electrodes. Constant current (CC) supplies are very slow to
accomplish this type of correction as the ÆA for any ÆV is too
small. If a constant wire feed speed is used with the constant
current (CC) type power supply, the low-conductivity electrode materials have a tendency to stub into the workpiece or
burn back into the contact tip.
Lincoln Idealarc SP-125 Plus, SP-170T, SP-175 Plus, SP-255
and Wire-Matic 255 units (single phase power input) incorporate all wire feed and power supply welding controls in one
reliable unit. The SP series units are complete semiautomatic,
constant voltage (CV) DC arc welding machines for the
GMAW process. They are designed for use in light commercial applications such as auto body, ornamental iron, sheet
metal, fabrication, maintenance and repair. These compact and
easily portable units feature solid state controls which help hold
a constant arc voltage, a single phase transformer power
source, and a wire feeder.
Figure 11 shows the typical static output, volt-ampere characteristics of both constant current (CC) and constant voltage
(CV) power sources. The (CV) source has a relatively flat
curve. With either of the two sources, a small change in the
contact tip-to-workpiece distance will cause a change in welding voltage (ÆV)1 and a resultant change in welding current
(ÆA). For the given Æ shown, a (CV) power source will produce a large ÆA. This same ÆV causes a smaller ÆA in the constant current power source. The magnitude of ÆA is very
important because it determines the change in the electrode
burnoff and is the primary mechanism responsible for arc
self-correction.
Electrode
supply
Flow
meter
Regulator
Wire feed
unit
Shielding
gas supply
Welding
gun
Workpiece
Welding
power
Power
source
Shielding
gas
Welding
power
cable
Work cable
Control
cable
FIGURE 9 — Semiautomatic gas metal arc welding installation.
1
The Greek symbol Æ (Delta) is used to represent a change.
7
Gas
cylinder
Shielding
gas supply
Control
cable
Control
unit
Travel beam
Wire feed unit
Power supply
Power cable
Cooling water
input
Gas
cylinder
Work
cable
FIGURE 10 — Automatic gas metal arc welding installation.
Constant current (CC)
power source
Voltage, V
Constant voltage (CV) power source
Operating point
Voltage, V
Operating point
ÆV
ÆV
ÆA
ÆA
Current, A
Current, A
FIGURE 11 — Static volt-ampere characteristics.
8
Stable
condition
Instantaneous
change
in gun
position
Gun
3/4 in. (19 mm)
Gun
Gun
1 in. (25 mm)
1 in.
(25 mm)
L
L
Re-established
stable
condition
L
Arc length, L:
1/4 in. (6.4 mm)
1/2 in. (12.7 mm)
1/4 in. (6.4 mm)
Arc voltage, V:
24
29
24
Arc current, A:
250
220
250
Electrode feed
speed:
250 ipm (6.4 m/min)
250 ipm (6.4 m/min)
250 ipm (6.4 m/min)
Melting rate:
250 ipm (6.4 m/min)
220 ipm (5.6 m/min)
250 ipm (6.4 m/min)
FIGURE 12 — Arc length regulation for traditional GMAW transfer modes.
in voltage/change in current = (volts/amperes) = ohms. This
equation states that slope is equivalent to a resistance. However, the slope of a power supply is customarily defined as the
voltage drop per 100 amperes of current rise, instead of ohms.
For example, a 0.03 ohm slope can be restated as a 3 volts per
100 amperes slope.
Power Supply Variables. The self-correcting arc property of
the (CV) power supply is important in producing stable welding conditions, but there are additional adjustments necessary
to produce the best possible condition. These are particularly
important for short circuiting welding.
Voltage. Arc voltage is the electrical potential between the
electrode and the workpiece. This voltage cannot be directly
read at the power supply because other voltage drops exist
throughout the welding system. The arc voltage varies in the
same direction as the arc length; therefore, increasing or
decreasing the output voltage of the power source will increase
or decrease the arc length (See Figure 11).
The slope of Lincoln power supplies is a dynamic and virtually instant characteristic. Slope is built-in as an inherent part
of the power source design to provide optimum welding
conditions.
Anything which adds resistance to the welding system increases
slope and thus increases the voltage drop at a given welding
current. Power cables, poor connections, loose terminals,
dirty contacts, etc., add to the slope.
Slope. Figure 11 illustrates the static volt-ampere characteristics (static output) for GMAW power supply. The slant of
the curve is referred to as the “slope” of the power supply.
Slope has the dimensions of resistance since: Slope = change
9
The slope can be calculated by determining ÆV and ÆA, as
illustrated by Fig. 13. As an example, if the open circuit
voltage is 48 volts and the welding condition is 28 volts and
200 amperes, then ÆV is 10 volts and ÆA is 100 amperes; the
slope is 10 volts per 100 amperes.
When the peak short circuit current is at the correct value,
the parting of the molten drop from the electrode is smooth
with very little spatter. Typical peak short circuit currents
required for metal transfer with the best arc stability are shown
in Table 1.
The short circuit current is a function of the slope of the voltampere characteristics of the power source, as shown in Fig.
15. Although the operating voltage and amperage of these
two power sources are identical, the short circuit current of
curve A is less than that of curve B. Curve A has the steeper
slope or a greater voltage drop per 100 amperes as compared to
curve B.
TABLE 1 — Typical peak currents (short circuit) for metal transfer in
the short circuiting mode (Power source — Static characteristics)
Electrode Diameter
Electrode material
Carbon steel
Open circuit
voltage = 48 V
Voltage, V
ÆV
mm
0.030
0.8
300
Carbon steel
0.035
0.9
320
Aluminum
0.030
0.8
175
Aluminum
0.035
0.9
195
Selected
operating point
@ 28 V, 200 A
ÆA
Inductance. When the load changes on a power source, the
current takes a finite time to attain its new level. The circuit
characteristic primarily responsible for this time lag is the inductance. This power source variable is usually measured in
henrys. The effect of inductance is illustrated by the curves
plotted in Fig. 16. Curve A shows a typical current-time curve
as the current rises from zero to a final value when some inductance is added. This curve is said to have an exponential
rate of current rise. Curve B shows the path the current would
have taken if there were no inductance in the circuit.
0
0
Current, A
Slope =
in.
Short circuit
current
amperes (dcep)
ÆV
48 V - 28 V
—— = ——————
ÆA
200 A
=
20 V
———
200 A
=
10 V
———
100A
In GMAW, the separation of molten drops of metal from the
electrode is controlled by an electrical phenomenon called the
“pinch effect,” the squeezing force on a current-carrying conductor due to the current flowing through it. Figure 14 illustrates how the pinch effect acts upon an electrode during short
circuiting welding. On most Lincoln power sources the “arc
control” adjusts the inductance for the proper pinch effect.
FIGURE 13 — Calculation of the slope for a power supply.
Current (A)
The maximum amount of pinch effect is determined by the
short circuit current level. As noted earlier, this current level
is determined by the design of the power supply. The rate of
increase of the pinch effect is controlled by the rate of current
rise. This rate of current rise is determined by the inductance
of the power supply. If the pinch effect is applied rapidly, the
molten drop will be violently “squeezed” off the electrode and
cause spatter. Greater inductance will decrease the number of
short circuit metal transfers per second and increase the “arcon” time. This increased arc-on time makes the puddle more
fluid and results in a flatter, smoother weld bead. The opposite
is true when the inductance is decreased.
Electrode
P µ A2
Pinch effect force, P
FIGURE 14 — Illustration of pinch effect during short circuiting
transfer.
In spray transfer welding, the addition of some inductance to
the power supply will produce a softer, more usable start without reducing the final amount of current available. Too much
inductance will result in electrode stubbing on the start (unless
a special start circuit is built into the feeder).
Lincoln power sources adjust inductance by a “Pinch control”
or “Arc control” (depending on the machine).
10
Adjustment of Pinch Control
on Lincoln Electric Power Sources
Minimum Pinch
Curve A
Minimum Inductance
1. Use only for arc stability
when welding open gaps
2. More convex bead
3. Increased spatter
4. Colder arc
Operating point
Voltage, V
Maximum Inductance
1. More penetration
2. More fluid puddle
3. Flatter weld
4. Smoother bead
Maximum Pinch
Spatter is held to a minimum when adequate current and correct rate of current rise exists. The power source adjustments
required for minimum spatter conditions vary with the electrode material and size. As a general rule, both the amount
of short circuit current and the amount of inductance needed
for the ideal pinch effect are increased as the electrode
diameter is increased.
Curve B
Current, A
FIGURE 15 — Effect of changing slope.
AUTOMATIC WELDING EQUIPMENT
This type of welding equipment installation is effectively used
when the work can be more easily brought to the welding
station or when a great deal of welding must be done.
Production and weld quality can be greatly increased because
the arc travel is automatically controlled, and nozzle position
is more securely maintained.
Current, A
Curve B - No inductance
Basically, all of the equipment is identical to that needed in
a semiautomatic station except for the following changes
(See Fig. 10):
1. The welding gun, or nozzle, is usually mounted directly
under the wire feed unit. The electrode conduit, gun
handle, and gun switch are not used.
2. The welding control is mounted separately from the wire
feed unit and remote control boxes are used.
Curve A - Inductance added
Time, s
FIGURE 16 — Change in rate of current rise due to added inductance.
Also, equipment is needed to provide automatic arc or work
travel, and nozzle positioning.
VI. PROCESS REQUIREMENTS AND
APPLICATIONS
Examples of this equipment are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Beam carriage with motor control
Carriage motor
Positioner or manipulator
Robotics
In GMAW, by definition, coalescence of metals is produced
by heating them with an arc established between a continuous,
consumable filler metal electrode and the work. The shielding
gas and the consumable electrode are two essential requirements for this process.
When the welding equipment is moved, the carriage is
mounted on a side beam which must be parallel to the weld
joint. The electrode feed motor, electrode supply, welding
control, and travel speed control are usually mounted on the
carriage. The carriage motor supplies movement to the carriage. The speed of travel is adjusted through connections to
the travel speed control.
SHIELDING GAS
General. Most metals exhibit a strong tendency to combine
with oxygen (to form oxides) and to a lesser extent with nitrogen (to form metal nitrides). Oxygen will also react with carbon to form carbon monoxide gas. These reaction products are
all a source of weld deficiencies in the form of: fusion defects
due to oxides; loss of strength due to porosity, oxides and
nitrides; and weld metal embrittlement due to dissolved oxides
and nitrides. These reaction products are easily formed since
the atmosphere is more or less composed of 80 percent nitrogen and 20 percent oxygen. The primary function of the
shielding gas is to exclude the surrounding atmosphere from
contact with the molten weld metal.
Other types of equipment can be used for automatic travel.
These include special beams, carriages mounted on tracks, and
specially built positioners and fixtures. The welding control
regulates travel start and stop to coordinate with the weld start
and stop. Automatic welding can also be accomplished by
either mechanizing the work or welding head. Welding robots,
programmable controllers and hard automation are effective
ways to mechanize.
11
The shielding gas will also have a pronounced effect upon the
following aspects of the welding operation and the resultant
weld:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The density of argon is approximately 1.4 times that of air
(heavier) while the density of helium is approximately 0.14
times that of air (lighter). The heavier the gas the more effective it is at any given flow rate for shielding the arc and blanketing the weld area in flat position (downhand) welding.
Therefore, helium shielding requires approximately two or
three times higher flow rates than argon shielding in order to
provide the same effective protection.
Arc characteristics
Mode of metal transfer
Penetration and weld bead profile
Speed of welding
Undercutting tendency
Cleaning action
Helium possesses a higher thermal conductivity than argon
and also produces an arc plasma in which the arc energy is
more uniformly dispersed. The argon arc plasma is characterized by a very high energy inner core and an outer mantle
of lesser heat energy. This difference strongly affects the
weld bead profile. The helium arc produces a deep, broad,
parabolic weld bead. The argon arc produces a bead profile
most often characterized by a papillary (nipple) type
penetration pattern (See Fig. 17).
The Inert Shielding Gases — Argon and Helium. Argon
and helium are inert gases. These gases and mixtures of the
two are necessarily used in the welding of nonferrous metals
and also widely used to weld stainless steel and low alloy
steels. Basic differences between argon and helium are:
1. Density
2. Thermal conductivity
3. Arc characteristics
Argon
Argon-Helium
Helium
CO2
FIGURE 17 — Bead contour and penetration patterns for various shielding gases.
Argon — O2
Argon — CO2
FIGURE 18 — Relative effect of O2 versus CO2 additions to the argon shield.
12
CO2
TABLE 2 — Shielding gases and gas mixtures for GMAW
Shielding gas
Chemical behavior
Typical application
Argon
Inert
Virtually all metals except steels.
Helium
Inert
Aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys for greater heat input and to
minimize porosity.
Ar + 20-80% He
Inert
Aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys for greater heat input and to
minimize porosity (better arc action than 100% helium).
Nitrogen
Greater heat input on copper (Europe).
Ar + 25-30% N2
Greater heat input on copper (Europe); better arc action than 100 percent
nitrogen.
Ar + 1-2% O2
Slightly oxidizing
Stainless and alloy steels; some deoxidized copper alloys.
Ar + 3-5% O2
Oxidizing
Carbon and some low alloy steels.
CO2
Oxidizing
Carbon and some low alloy steels.
Ar + 20-50% CO2
Oxidizing
Various steels, chiefly short circuiting mode.
Ar + 10% CO2 +
5% O2
Oxidizing
Various steels (Europe).
CO2 + 20% O2
Oxidizing
Various steels (Japan).
90% He + 7.5%
Ar + 2.5% CO2
Slightly oxidizing
Stainless steels for good corrosion resistance, short circuiting mode.
60% to 70% He + 25 to
35% Ar + 4 to 5% CO2
Oxidizing
Low alloy steels for toughness, short circuiting mode.
TABLE 3 — Selection of gases for GMAW with spray transfer
Metal
Shielding gas
Aluminum
Argon
0 to 1 in. (0 to 25 mm) thick: best metal transfer and arc stability; least
spatter.
35% argon
+ 65% helium
1 to 3 in. (25 to 76 mm) thick: higher heat input than straight argon;
improved fusion characteristics with 5XXX series Al-Mg alloys.
25% argon
+ 75% helium
Over 3 in. (76 mm) thick: highest heat input; minimizes porosity.
Magnesium
Carbon steel
Low-alloy steel
Stainless steel
Copper, nickel
and their alloys
Titanium
Advantages
Argon
Excellent cleaning action.
Argon
+ 1-5% oxygen
Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld
puddle; good coalescence and bead contour; minimizes undercutting; permits
higher speeds than pure argon.
Argon
+ 3-10% CO2
Good bead shape; minimizes spatter; reduces chance of cold lapping; can
not weld out-of-position.
Argon
+ 2% oxygen
Minimizes undercutting; provides good toughness.
Argon
+ 1% oxygen
Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld
puddle, good coalescence and bead contour; minimizes undercutting on
heavier stainless steels.
Argon
+ 2% oxygen
Provides better arc stability, coalescence, and welding speed than 1
percent oxygen mixture for thinner stainless steel materials.
Argon
Provides good wetting; decreases fluidity of weld metal for thickness up to
1/8 in. (3.2 mm).
Argon
+ helium
Higher heat inputs of 50 & 75 percent helium mixtures offset high heat
dissipation of heavier gages.
Argon
Good arc stability; minimum weld contamination; inert gas backing is
required to prevent air contamination on back of weld area.
13
oxygen or from 3 to 10 percent CO2 (and up to 25 percent
CO2) produce a very noticeable improvement.
At any given wire feed speed, the voltage of the argon arc will
be noticeably less than that of the helium arc. As a result,
there will be less change in the voltage with respect to change
in arc length for the argon arc and the arc will tend to be more
stable than the helium arc. The argon arc (including mixtures
with as low as 80 percent argon) will produce an axial spray
transfer at current levels above the transition current. The
helium-shielded arc produces a metal transfer of large droplets
in the normal operating range. Therefore, the helium arc will
produce a higher spatter level and poorer weld bead appearance compared to the argon arc.
The optimum amount of oxygen or CO2 to be added to the
inert gas is a function of the surface condition (mill scale) of
the base metal, the joint geometry, welding position or technique, and the base metal composition. Generally, 3 percent
oxygen or 9 percent CO2 is considered a good compromise to
cover a broad range of these variables.
Carbon dioxide additions to argon also tend to enhance the
weld bead by producing a more readily defined “pear-shaped”
profile (See Fig. 18).
The more readily ionized argon gas also facilitates arc starting
and will provide superior surface cleaning action when used
with reverse polarity (electrode positive).
Carbon Dioxide. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a reactive gas widely
used in its pure form for the gas metal arc welding of carbon
and low alloy steels. It is the only reactive gas suitable for
use alone as a shield in the GMAW process. Higher welding
speed, greater joint penetration, and lower cost are general
characteristics which have encouraged extensive use of CO2
shielding gas.
Mixtures of Argon and Helium. Pure argon shielding is used
in many applications for welding nonferrous materials. The
use of pure helium is generally restricted to more specialized
areas because of its limited arc stability. However, the desirable weld profile characteristics (deep, broad, and parabolic)
obtained with the helium arc are quite often the objective in
using an argon-helium shielding gas mixture. The result is an
improved weld bead profile plus the desirable axial spray
metal transfer characteristic of argon (See Fig. 17).
With a CO2 shield, metal transfer is either of the short circuiting or globular mode. Axial spray transfer is a characteristic of the argon shield and cannot be achieved with a CO2
shield. The globular type transfer arc is quite harsh and produces a rather high level of spatter. This requires that the
welding con-ditions be set with relatively low voltage to provide a very short “buried arc” (the tip of the electrode is actually below the surface of the work), in order to minimize
spatter.
In short circuiting transfer, argon-helium mixtures of from 60
to 90 percent helium are used to obtain the higher heat input
into the base metal for better fusion characteristics. For
some metals, such as stainless and low alloy steels, helium
additions instead of CO2 additions are chosen to obtain higher
heat input, because helium will not produce weld metal
reactions that could adversely affect the mechanical properties
of the deposit.
In overall comparison to the argon-rich shielded arc, the
CO2-shielded arc produces a weld bead of excellent penetration
with a rougher surface profile and much less “washing” action
at the extremity of the weld bead due to the buried arc. Very
sound weld deposits are achieved but mechanical properties
may be adversely affected due to the oxidizing nature of the
arc.
Oxygen and CO2 Additions to Argon and Helium. Pure argon
and, to some extent, helium produce excellent results in welding nonferrous metals. However, these shielding gases in the
pure form do not produce the most satisfactory operational
characteristics in welding ferrous materials. The arc tends to be
erratic, accompanied by spatter with helium shielding, and
shows a marked tendency to produce undercutting with pure
argon shielding. Additions to argon of from 1 to 5 percent
Shielding Gas Selection. A summary for typical usage for the
various shielding gases based upon the metal being welded is
shown in Tables 2, 3 and 4.
TABLE 4 — Selection of gases for GMAW with short circuiting transfer.
Metal
Carbon steel
Shielding gas
75% argon
+25% CO2
75% argon
+25% CO2
Advantages
Less than 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) thick: high welding speeds without burn-thru;
minimum distortion and spatter.
More than 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) thick: minimum spatter; clean weld
appearance; good puddle control in vertical and overhead positions.
CO2
Deeper penetration; faster welding speeds.
Stainless steel
90% helium + 7.5%
argon + 2.5% CO2
No effect on corrosion resistance; small heat-affected zone; no
undercutting; minimum distortion.
Low alloy steel
60-70% helium
+ 25-35% argon
+ 4-5% CO2
Minimum reactivity; excellent toughness; excellent arc stability,
wetting characteristics, and bead contour; little spatter.
75% argon
+ 25% CO2
Fair toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting characteristics, and
bead contour; little spatter.
Argon & argon
+ helium
Argon satisfactory on sheet metal; argon-helium preferred on
thicker sheet material (over 1/8 in. [3.2 mm]).
Aluminum, copper,
magnesium, nickel,
and their alloys
14
ELECTRODES
range of open circuit voltage, static and dynamic characteristics, wire feed speed range, etc., must correspond to the weldment design and the electrode size selected. Also to be considered are the accessories required for the selected mode of
metal transfer and any other special requirements.
General. In the engineering of weldments, filler metals are
selected to produce a weld deposit with these basic objectives:
1. A deposit closely matching the mechanical properties and
physical characteristics of the base metal
2. A sound weld deposit, free of discontinuities
Lincoln Electric GMAW products offer a variety of basic
equipment designs and options which will produce maximum
efficiency in every welding application.
Note the first objective. A weld deposit, even one of composition identical to the base metal, will possess unique metallurgical characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of the
weldment design is to produce a weld deposit composition
having desired properties equal to or better than those of the
base metal. The second objective is achieved, generally,
through use of a filler metal electrode that was formulated to
produce a relatively defect-free deposit.
When new equipment is to be purchased, some consideration
should be given to the versatility of the equipment and to
standardization. Selection of equipment for single-purpose or
high volume production can generally be based upon the requirements of that particular application only. However, if
multiples of jobs are to be performed (as in job shop operation), many of which may be unknown at the time of selection,
versatility is very important. Other equipment already in use at
the facility should be considered. Standardizing certain components and complementing existing equipment will minimize
inventory requirements and provide maximum efficiency of
overall operation.
Composition. The basic filler metal composition is designed to
be compatible with one or more of the following base metal
characteristics:
1. Chemistry
2. Strength
3. Ductility
4. Toughness
Mode of Metal Transfer and Shielding Gas. The characteristics
of the mode of metal transfer are very important in analysis of
the process application. Characteristics such as weld bead
profile, reinforcement shape, spatter, etc., are relevant to the
weldment design. The following major considerations reflect
the importance of these characteristics.
Alternate or additional consideration may be given to other
properties such as corrosion, heat-treatment responses, wear
resistance, color match, etc. All of these considerations, however, are secondary to the metallurgical compatibility of the
base metal to the filler metal.
Design and Service Performance. Product design, as well as
specific weld joint design, requires consideration of penetration and reinforcement profiles. Both static and dynamic service performance requirements may dictate the need for
additional strength (in the form of penetration) or minimal
stress concentration (good “wash” characteristics). The shielding gas selected is very important in determining these basic
characteristics.
American Welding Society (AWS) specifications have been
established for filler metals in common usage. Table 5 provides a basic guide to some typical base-metal to filler-metal
combinations along with the applicable AWS filler metal specification. Other filler metal compositions for special applications, such as for high-strength steels, are available.
Process Control. Material thickness may require using the low
energy short circuit transfer mode rather than either the spray
or globular transfer mode with their inherently higher energy
input. Joint fit-up tolerances (gap) and weld size and length
may also be a major influence in selection of the process mode
to be used.
Formulation. The electrode must also meet certain demands of
the process regarding arc stability, metal transfer behavior, and
solidification characteristics. Deoxidizers or other scavenging
agents are always added to compensate for base metal reactions
with oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen from the surrounding atmosphere or the base metal. The deoxiders most frequently
used in steel are silicon and manganese. Some steel electrodes may also use aluminum for additional deoxidation, as
well as titanium and zirconium for denitriding. Nickel alloy
electrodes generally use titanium and silicon for deoxidation
and copper alloys will use titanium and silicon or phosphorus
for the same purpose.
The designed weld bead profile (including reinforcement,
fusion pattern, and penetration) can be controlled by the
shielding gas selection. Proper shielding gas selection can be
an important factor to assure, for instance, good fusion characteristics when a welder may be “extended” to reach a difficult
location and unable to maintain his gun in an optimum
position.
Selection of Process Variables. Many process variables must
be considered for complete application of GMAW. These
variables are found in the following three principle areas:
Appearance. The appearance of the weldment is not of technical concern but may be important. Smooth and spatter-free
weld beads on a product in an area highlighted in the purchaser’s view are cited as a sales factor in many instances. The
spray arc and the short circuiting modes of metal transfer will
produce the smoothest and neatest-appearing welds. Smooth
and spatter-free areas adjacent to GMAW welds may also be
required to assure proper fits in subsequent final assembly
operations.
1. Equipment selection
2. Mode of metal transfer and shielding gas
3. Electrode selection
(These three areas are very much interrelated.)
Equipment Selection. Welding equipment must meet the
requirements of every application. Range of power output,
15
TABLE 5 — Recommended filler metals for GMAW
Recommended electrode
Base
metal
type
Aluminum
and
aluminum
alloys
Magnesium
alloys
Copper
and
copper
alloys
Nickel
and nickel
alloys
Titanium
and
titanium
alloys
Austenitic
stainless
steels
Steel
Material
type
1100
3003, 3004
5052, 5454
5083, 5086, 5456
6061, 6063
AZ10A
AZ31B, AZ61A,
AZ80A
ZE10A
ZK21A
AZ63A, AZ81A
AZ91C
AZ92A, AM100A
HK31A, HM21A
HM31A
LA141A
Silicon Bronze
Deoxidized
copper
Cu-Ni alloys
Aluminum bronze
Phosphor bronze
Electrode
classification
ER1100 or ER4043
ER1100 or ER5356
ER5554, ER5356,
or ER5183
ER5556 or ER5356
ER4043 or ER5356
ERAZ61A, ERAZ92A
A5.19
ERCu
ERCuNi
ERCuA1-A1, A2 or A3
ERCuSn-A
Use a filler
metal one or two
grades lower
ERTi-0.2 Pd
ERTi-5A1-2.5Sn
or comm. pure
ER308
ER 308
ER308L
ER310
ER316
ER321
ER347
A5.7
A5.14
2
3
Higher strength
carbon steels
and some low
alloy steels
mm
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.4
3.2
Current range
Amperes
50-175
90-250
160-350
225-400
350-475
0.040
3
/64
1
/16
3
/32
1
/8
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.4
3.2
150-3002
160-3202
210-4002
320-5102
400-6002
0.035
0.045
1
/16
3 32
/
0.020
0.030
0.035
0.045
1
/16
0.030
0.035
0.045
0.9
1.2
1.6
2.4
0.5
0.8
0.9
1.2
1.6
0.8
0.9
1.2
150-300
200-400
250-450
350-550
—
—
100-160
150-260
100-400
—
—
—
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.045
1
/16
5
/64
3
/32
7
/64
1
/8
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.045
0.052
1
/16
5
/64
3
/32
1
/8
0.035
0.045
1
/16
5
/64
3
/32
1
/8
5
/32
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.2
1.3
1.6
2.0
2.4
3.2
0.9
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
3.2
4.0
—
—
75-150
100-160
140-310
280-450
—
—
—
—
—
—
40-220
60-280
125-380
260-460
275-450
—
—
—
60-280
125-380
275-450
—
—
—
—
A5.16
A5.9
ER70S-3 or ER70S-1
ER70S-2, ER70S-4
ER70S-5, ER70S-6
A5.18
Steel
in.
0.030
3
/64
1
/16
3
/32
1
/8
EREZ33A
EREZ33A
ERCuSi-A
Commercially
pure
Hot rolled or
cold-drawn
plain carbon
steels
Electrode diameter
ERAZ92A
ERAZ92A
ERNiCu-7
ERNiCrFe-5
Type 201
Types 301, 302,
304, & 308
Type 304L
Type 310
Type 316
Type 321
Type 347
A5.10
ERAZ61A, ERAZ92A
ERAZ61A, ERAZ92A
ERAZ61A, ERAZ92A
Monel3 Alloy 400
Inconel3 Alloy 600
Ti-0.15 Pd
Ti-5A1-2.5Sn
AWS
filler metal
specification
(use latest
edition)
ER80S-D2
ER80S-Ni1
ER100S-G
A5.28
Spray Transfer Mode
Trademark-International Nickel Co.
16
Electrode selection. The selection of the welding electrode
should be based principally upon matching the mechanical
properties and the physical characteristics of the base metal
(See Table 5). Secondary considerations should be given to
items such as the equipment to be used, the weld size (deposition rates to be utilized), existing electrode inventory, and
materials handling systems.
Standardization and Inventory. Evaluation of each welding job
on its own individual merit would require an increasingly
larger inventory with an increasing number of jobs. Minimizeing inventory requires a review of overall welding requirements in the plant, with standardization of the basic electrode
com-position and sizes as well as the electrode packages as the
objective. This can be accomplished readily with minimum
compromise since quite broad and overlapping choices are
available.
Lincoln Electric offers a choice of electrode compositions.
For welding mill steel with the GMAW process, L-50 is the
preferred electrode. It has excellent feedability through gun
and cable systems. L-50 conforms to AWS classification
ER70S-3.
Materials Handling Systems. The electrode package size should
also take into account the requirements for handling. Generally
speaking, one individual can be expected to change an electrode package weighing up to 60 lb (27 kg) without assistance.
However, some systems are designed so that an individual can
handle the larger reels up to 1000 lb (454 kg) without additional
assistance. The larger packages necessitate a handling system
(lift truck or similar) capable of moving the electrode package
from storage to the welding station when required for changing,
or additional space is needed to accommodate at least two
packages in order to avoid delays.
L-54 is designed for improved operation versus L-50 for welding over small amounts of rust and dirt, but still not as much
as L-56. L-54 conforms to AWS classification ER70S-4.
L-52 is triple deoxidized with aluminum, titanium, and zirconium in addition to manganese and silicon. It produces less
fluid weld metal which makes it ideal for welding out-ofposition and for welding small diameter pipe. L-52 conforms
to AWS classification ER70S-2.
Lincoln electrodes are available in various package
arrangements to facilitate individual production and handling
requirements.
For best performance on rusty or dirty surfaces, L-56 is the
preferred choice. It conforms to AWS classification ER70S-6.
Consult your local Lincoln office or distributor for complete
electrode type and packaging information.
L-50B, L-54B and L-56B are non-copper coated versions of
each respective electrode, and are recommended for applications where non-coated electrodes are preferred.
Operating Conditions. After selecting the basic process variables, the basic operating conditions to be met are as follows:
LA-75 is designed for use on applications requiring excellent
low temperature impacts and on weathering steels. It conforms to AWS classification ER80S-Ni1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
LA-90 is designed for welding on high strength steels where
weld tensile strengths of 90,000 psi (620 mPa) or higher are
required. LA-90 conforms to AWS ER80S-D-2 and ER90S-G
classification per A5.28.
Deposition rate — travel speed
Wire feed speed (welding current)
Welding voltage
Electrode extension (stickout)
Deposition Rate. The deposition rate is defined as the actual
amount of weld metal deposited per unit of time (generally in
terms of pounds (kilograms) per hour). It is necessary to balance the deposition rate against the travel speed, since proper
balance achieves an optimum rate of metal deposition for the
weld joint design. This is particularly important in semiautomatic welding when weld quality depends upon the physical
movement capability of the welder. The following factors
affect this balanced relationship:
LA-100 electrode is designed for welding high strength, low
alloy steels. LA-100 conforms to ER100S-G per A5.28 and
also meets the requirements of ER110S-G. It is also approved
as an MIL-100S-1 classification.
For gas metal arc welding of stainless steels, Lincoln Electric
offers Blue Max MIG 308LSi, 309LSi and 316LSi. All are
classified per AWS A5.9. For further information on these
electrodes consult Lincoln bulletin C6.1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
In addition, there are numerous other Lincoln electrodes to satisfy the specific requirements of other welding applications.
Consult your local Lincoln distributor for detailed information.
Equipment. The electrode package size should be compatible
with the available handling equipment. The package size
should be determined by a cost evaluation that considers product volume, change time versus the consideration of available
space, inventory cost, and the materials handling system.
Weld Size. The electrode diameter should be chosen to best fit
the requirements of the weld size and the deposition rate to
be used. In general, it is economically advantageous to use
the largest diameter possible.
17
Weld size
Weld joint design
Number of weld passes
Physical limitation of the welder (in semiautomatic welding) to retain control of the weld puddle as travel speed is
increased to keep weld metal from “overrunning” the arc.
This maximum limitation is typically around 25 in./min
(.6 m/min) although in many reported instances the travel
speed may reach as high as 150 in./min (3.8 m/min). In
general, these higher rates of travel speed are attainable
when the weld size is very small, the weld length is very
short, the weld is along a straight line, or when optimum
weld appearance is not a factor.
results in a change in the electrical characteristics of the balanced system, as determined by the resistivity of the electrode
length between the contact tip and the arc (See Fig. 19). In
essence, as the contact tip-to-work distance is increased the I2R
heating effect is increased, thus decreasing the welding current
(I) required to melt the electrode (in effect, increasing the
deposition rate for a given current level). Conversely, as the
contact tip-to-work distance is decreased, the I 2R effect is
decreased, thus increasing the welding current requirements
for a given wire feed speed (in effect, decreasing the deposition rate for a given current level). This point emphasizes the
importance of maintaining proper nozzle-to-contact tip distance in welding gun maintenance, as well as the importance
of maintaining good welding techniques through proper gun
positioning.
Welding Current — Wire Feed Speed. After determining the
optimum deposition rate for the application, the next step is
to determine the wire feed speed at required stickout, and the
related welding current to achieve that deposition rate. In a
practical application, the deposition rate is more accurately
set, maintained, and reproduced by measurement of the wire
feed speed rather than the welding current value.
Welding Voltage. The welding voltage (related to the proper
arc length) is established to maintain arc stability at the chosen
electrode feed speed or welding current level and to minimize
spatter.
Electrode Extension (Stickout). The basic control setting for
low conductivity electrode metals are very much dependent
upon the electrode stickout. Variation in electrode stickout
Nozzle
Contact tip
Electrode
stickout
Nozzle-towork distance
Contact tipto-work
distance
Arc length
FIGURE 19 — Electrode stickout.
0
100
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
300
400
500
600
700
200
800
16
900
)
m
.(
5
04
6
)
mm
5
0.0
m)
8m
.
. (0
4
in
30
8
0.0
3
6
2
4
1
2
0
0
0
5
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
20
FIGURE 20 — Typical melting rates for plain carbon steel.
18
Melting rate, kg/h
1.
2
m
3m
in
9
(0.
n.
i
35
0.
52
in.
in.
10
0.0
0.0
62
12
Melting rate, lb/h
(1.
(1.6
14
m)
mm
)
7
0.0
30
in.
(0.8
mm
)
0.0
35
in.
( 0.
9m
m)
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
700
600
500
15
)
m
400
5
.04
in.
0
300
2
(1.
10
)
m
3m
n.
2i
5
0.0
m
)
(1.
62
0.0
1.6
n. (
mm
i
5
200
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
20
800
100
0
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Welding current A (DCEP)
FIGURE 21 — Typical welding currents vs. wire feed speeds for carbon steel electrodes at a fixed stickout.
Note: DCEP means Direct Current Electrode Positive.
200
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
300
400
500
600
700
(2.
)
93
in.
14
62
0.0
12
900
7
4m
16
Melting rate, lb/h
800
in.
6
(1.
mm
0.0
6
5
10
m)
8
45
0.0
6
in.
3
mm)
in. (0.9
0.035
m)
. (0.8 m
0.030 in
4
2
0
4
m
(1.2
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
20
FIGURE 22 — Typical melting rates for aluminum electrodes.
19
Melting rate, kg/h
100
m)
0
m
m
)
m
0.
03
5
500
2
1.
m
.(
400
5
04
in
0.
300
2
.06
in.
6
(1.
10
)
mm
0
200
0.093
)
.4 mm
in. (2
5
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
)
mm
15
in
.(
600
0.
9
0.0
30
in.
(0.
8
700
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
20
)
800
100
0
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Welding current A (DCEP)
FIGURE 23 — Welding currents vs. wire feed speed for ER4043 aluminum electrodes at a fixed stickout.
20
.(
1.
2
0.0
m
35
m
)
in.
15
in
500
0.
04
5
)
400
2
.06
in.
6
(1.
mm
10
0
300
0.093
200
)
.4 mm
in. (2
5
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
9m
(0.
(0.8
in.
30
600
0.0
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
700
m)
mm
)
800
100
0
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Welding current A (DCEP)
FIGURE 24 — Welding currents vs. wire feed speed for ER5356 aluminum electrodes at a fixed stickout.
20
0
100
200
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
16
m
in
.(
1.
2
in.
5
.03
m
9m
(0.
5
0
m)
8m
0
.03
8
.
. (0
4
in
0
3
6
2
4
1
2
0
Melting rate, kg/h
10
6
)
0.
04
5
12
m
0.0
62
in.
(1.6
mm
)
14
Melting rate, lb/h
)
7
0
0
5
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
20
FIGURE 25 — Typical melting rates for 300 series stainless steel electrodes.
20
(0.
m
m
2
1.
.(
in
0.
0
45
500
15
)
in.
0.0
30
35
in.
600
400
10
)
300
62
0.0
200
1.6
n. (
mm
i
5
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
9m
mm
(0.8
700
0.0
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
)
m)
800
100
0
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Welding current A (DCEP)
FIGURE 26 — Typical welding currents vs. wire feed speeds for 300 series stainless steel electrodes at a fixed stickout.
21
2
mm
)
1.
900
in
.(
9
04
5
n.
5i
(0.
)
mm
6
3
0.
0.0
5
10
4
8
3
6
Melting rate, kg/h
(1.6
in.
62
12
800
7
0.0
0.093
14
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
300
400
500
600
700
m
m
)
200
in. (2.
16
Melting rate, lb/h
100
4 mm
)
0
2
4
1
2
0
0
0
5
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
20
FIGURE 27 — Typical melting rates for ERCu copper electrodes.
800
9m
(0.
)
n.
600
35
i
500
15
m
2
1.
0.0
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
700
m
.(
45
in
0
0.
400
10
m)
.6 m
. (1
300
in
062
0.
200
m)
. (2.4 m
0.093 in
5
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
m)
20
100
0
0
0
100
200
300
400
Welding current A (DCEP)
500
FIGURE 28 — Welding currents vs. wire feed speed for ERCu copper electrodes at a fixed stickout.
22
800
900
1.
2
m
m
)
7
.(
m)
9m
5
in
.
. (0
35
6
in
0.0
5
10
4
8
3
6
4
2
2
1
0
0
0
5
10
15
Wire feed speed, meters per minute
20
FIGURE 29 — Typical melting rates for ERCuSi-A copper electrodes.
Guidelines for Operating Conditions. Figures 20 through
29 illustrate the basic concept of and provide basic information for establishing “deposition-rate to wire-feed-speed”
relationships. The distinction should be made between the
melting rate (rate of melting of the electrode) and the deposition rate (rate of actual metal deposited). The two are not the
same, due to arc and spatter loss, but are related by the arc
transfer efficiency. Also note that the relationship between
wire feed speed and welding current can be altered by the
wire extension or stickout (not shown in these figures).
23
Melting rate, kg/h
Melting rate, lb/h
12
Wire feed speed, inches per minute
300
400
500
600
700
0.
04
0.093 in.
14
200
m)
(2.4 mm
)
16
100
0.0
62
in.
(1.6
m
0
VII. PROCEDURES FOR CARBON STEELS
(WFS). The procedure pages list the primary settings in WFS
in./min (m/min) and the resulting current when the proper
electrical stickout is used.
WELDING RECOMMENDATIONS
ARC VOLTAGE
When welding with short circuiting transfer, use a drag or push
angle as shown.
Arc voltage, as referred to in the procedure pages, is the voltage measured from the wire feeder gun cable block to work.
Arc voltages listed are starting points.
DRAG ANGLE
SHIELDING GAS AND GAS MIXTURES
15 - 20°
Travel
15 - 20°
Travel
Carbon Dioxide. Carbon Dioxide is a reactive gas and can be
used to shield gas metal arc welds on carbon and low alloy
steels in the short circuit mode of transfer.
Vertical Down
Horizontal
Typical characteristics are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Travel
0-5°
Best penetration
Low cost
Harsh arc — high spatter
Will not support axial spray transfer
Out-of-Position capability
Argon. Argon is an inert gas and generally cannot be used
alone as a shielding gas for gas metal arc welds on carbon or
low alloy steels. Oxygen or carbon dioxide is added to stabilize the arc. Without the addition of oxygen or carbon dioxide
the arc will be erratic.
Vertical Up
FIGURE 30 — Drag angles for short circuit transfer.
Argon and Carbon Dioxide. Argon with 20-50% carbon dioxide gas mixtures are used to shield gas metal arc welds on
carbon and low alloy steels in the short circuiting mode of
transfer.
ELECTRICAL STICKOUT FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TRANSFER MODE
Typical characteristics are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Good bead shape
Less penetration than straight carbon dioxide shielding
Weld puddle not as fluid with carbon dioxide shielding
Colder weld puddle — possible cold lapping
Minimum argon mixture to support axial spray is 80%
argon, 20% carbon dioxide
6. Can weld out-of-position
Contact Tip
Extension 0 - 1/8”
(0 - 3.2 mm)
/ - / ” (6-13 mm) Electrical Stickout
1 4 1 2
ARGON WITH 3 TO 10% CARBON DIOXIDE
OR 1 TO 5% OXYGEN
Mixture of 3 to 10% carbon dioxide or 1 to 5% oxygen are
most often used for axial spray transfer mode welding. The
lower the percentage of argon in a shielding gas mixture, the
higher the arc voltage needed to develop an arc length long
enough to support axial spray transfer.
The contact tip should be flush with the end of the nozzle or extend a maximum
of 1/8” (3.2 mm) as shown.
FIGURE 31 — Stickout for short circuiting transfer.
Typical characteristics are:
WIRE FEED SPEED [WFS(IN/MIN)]
AND RESULTING CURRENT (AMPS)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Deposition rate measured in lbs/hr (kg/hr) is directly related
to wire feed speed measured in inches/minute (m/min). Accurate weld settings can be made by setting wire feed speed
24
Good bead shape
Minimum to no spatter
Best mixtures to eliminate cold spatter
Cannot weld out-of-position
Best process for thick plate
PREHEAT AND INTERPASS TEMPERATURE
When welding with spray transfer use a slight push angle as shown below.
Preheat and interpass temperature control are recommended
for optimum mechanical properties, crack resistance and hardness control. This is particularly important on multiple pass
welds and heavier plate. Job conditions, prevailing codes,
high restraint, alloy level, and other considerations may also
require preheat and interpass temperature control. The following minimum preheat and interpass temperatures are recommended as starting points. Higher or lower temperatures may
be used as required by the job conditions and/or prevailing
codes. If cracking occurs, higher preheat and interpass temperature may be required.
5 - 10°
Travel
To weld with spray transfer it is necessary to use a gas mixture containing
at least 80% argon. It is also necessary to remove mill scale from plates
being welded.
FIGURE 32 — Drag angle for spray transfer.
Plate Thickness
in. (mm)
Recommended
Minimum Preheat
Temperature, °F (°C)
Recommended
Minimum Interpass
Temperature, °F (°C)
The contact tip should be
recessed 1/8” (3.2 mm)
inside the nozzle
as shown.
Contact Tip
Recessed
1/8” (3.2 mm)
Up to
3
/4
(19)
/4-11/2
(19-38)
11/2-21/2
(38-64)
Over
21/2
(64)
70
(21)
150
(66)
150
(66)
225
(107)
70
(21)
150
(66)
225
(107)
300
(149)
3
3/4 - 1” (19 - 25 mm)
Electrical Stickout
FIGURE 33 — Electrical stickout for spray transfer mode.
Because design, fabrication, erection and welding variables affect the results obtained in applying this type of information, the
serviceability of a product or structure is the responsibility of the user. Variations such as plate chemistry, plate surface condition
(oil, scale), plate thickness, preheat, quench, joint fit-up, gas type, gas flow rate, and equipment may produce results different than
those expected. Some adjustments to procedures may be necessary to compensate for unique individual conditions. When possible,
test all procedures, duplicating actual field conditions.
Argon - O2
Argon - CO2
FIGURE 34 — Effects of blended gases.
25
CO2
TABLE 6 — Procedures for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel — Short Circuiting Transfer Horizontal Fillets or Flat Butt Joint
CO2 Gas Shield
R = 0 - 1/16”
(0 - 1.6 mm)
Plate Thickness, (mm)
24 ga
(.6)
20 ga
(.9)
16 ga
(1.5)
14 ga
(1.9)
10 ga
(3.4)
3
/16"
(4.8)
1
/4"
(6.4)
Electrode Size, in. (mm)
.025
(.6)
.030
(.8)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.045
(1.1)
.045
(1.1)
.045
(1.1)
WFS, in./min (m/min)
100
(2.5)
75
(1.9)
125
(3.2)
100
(2.5)
175
(4.4)
150
(3.8)
225
(5.7)
175
(4.4)
275
(7.0)
225
(5.7)
300
(7.6)
250
(6.4)
125
(3.2)
150
(3.8)
200
(5.0)
35
35
55
80
80
120
100
130
115
160
130
175
145
165
200
10
(.25)
10
(.25)
14
(.35)
13
(.33)
13
(.33)
20
(.50)
18
(.45)
18
(.45)
20
(.50)
20
(.50)
17
(.43)
20
(.50)
18
(.45)
15
(.38)
13
(.33)
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
Amps (Approx)
Travel Speed, in./min
(m/min)
Voltage4 (DCEP)
Gas Flow, cfh (L/min)
Electrical Stickout,
in. (mm)
4
12 ga
(2.6)
18-20 19-21 20-22
25-35 (12-17)
1/ -1/
4 2
(6-12)
Decrease 2 Volts for Ar/CO2 Mix.
Because design, fabrication, erection and welding variables affect the results obtained in applying this type of information, the
serviceability of a product or structure is the responsibility of the builder/user.
TABLE 7 — Procedures for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel — Short Circuiting Transfer Vertical Down Fillets or Square Butt Joint
CO2 Gas Shield
R
R = 0 - 1/16”
(0 - 1.6 mm)
Plate Thickness, (mm)
24 ga
(.6)
18 ga
(1.2)
14 ga
(1.9)
3
/16"
(4.8)
1
/4"
(6.4)
Electrode Size, in. (mm)
.025
(.6)
.030
(.8)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.030
(.8)
.035
(.9)
.045
(1.1)
.045
(1.1)
.045
(1.1)
WFS, in./min (m/min)
100
(2.5)
75
(1.9)
150
(3.8)
125
(3.2)
225
(5.7)
175
(4.4)
300
(7.6)
250
(6.4)
125
(3.2)
150
(3.8)
200
(5.0)
35
35
70
100
100
130
130
175
145
165
200
10
(.25)
10
(.25)
15
(.38)
19
(.48)
20
(.50)
20
(.50)
20
(.50)
20
(.50)
20
(.50)
17
(.43)
17
(.43)
17
17
18
18
20
20
22
22
19
20
21
Amps (Approx)
Travel Speed, in./min
(m/min)
Voltage5 (DCEP)
Gas Flow, cfh (L/min)
25-35 (12-17)
Electrical Stickout,
in. (mm)
5
10 ga
(3.4)
1/ -1/
4 2
Decrease 2 Volts for Ar/CO2 Mix.
26
(6-12)
TABLE 8 — Procedures for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel — Short Circuiting Transfer Vertical Up Fillets
75% Ar/25% CO2 Gas Shield
Welder Prequalification Recommended For This Job
Technique:
Use Vee Weave or
Triangle Weave
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
5
/16 (7.9)
3
Leg Size, in. (min)
1
5
/8 (9.5)
/4 (6.4)
/16 (7.9)
Electrode Dia., in. (mm)
.035 (.9)
.045 (1.1)
.035 (.9)
.045 (1.1)
WFS, in./min (m/min)
225 (5.7)
150 (3.8)
250 (6.4)
150 (3.8)
160
165
175
165
Amps (Approx)
Voltage (DCEP)
Travel Speed, in./min (m/min)
18
19
20
19
5-6 (.13-.15)
4-5 (.10-.13)
4-4.5 (.10-.11)
4-5 (.10-.11)
Gas Flow, cfh (L/min)
25-35 (12-17)
1
/4-1/2 (6-12)
Electrical Stickout, in. (mm)
Because design, fabrication, erection and welding variables affect the results obtained in applying this type of information, the
serviceability of a product or structure is the responsibility of the builder/user.
TABLE 9 — Procedures for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel — Spray Transfer Flat and Horizontal Fillets
90% Argon/10% CO2
Technique:
Use Push Angle
Plate Thickness, (mm)
3
Leg Size, in. (mm)
5/
32
1
/16 (4.8)
(4.0)
5
/4 (6.4)
3/
16
(4.8)
/16 (7.9)
3
1/
4
5/
16
.0357
1/
16
(9.5)
.045
(1.1)
.035
(.9)
.045
(1.1)
.052
(1.3)
(1.6)
(.9)
.045
(1.1)
(1.6)
.052
(1.3)
1/
16
(1.6)
WFS, in./min (m/min)
3756
(9.5)
4006
(10)
350
(8.9)
500
(12.7)
375
(9.5)
320
(8.1)
235
(6.0)
600
(15.2)
475
(12)
235
(6.0)
485
(12.3)
235
(6.0)
Amps (Approx)
195
200
285
230
300
320
350
275
335
350
430
350
Voltage (DCEP)
23
24
27
29
28
29
27
30
30
27
32
27
Travel Speed, in./min
(m/min)
24
(.6)
19
(.48)
25
(.63)
14
(.35)
18
(.45)
18
(.45)
19
(.48)
10
(.25)
13
(.33)
12
(.30)
13
(.33)
9
(.23)
6.0
(2.7)
6.4
(2.9)
9.2
(4.2)
8.0
(3.6)
9.9
(4.5)
11.5
12.0
(5.2)
(5.4)
3/ -1 (19-25)
4
9.6
(4.4)
12.5
(5.7)
12.0
(5.4)
17.1
(7.8)
12.0
(5.4)
Deposit Rate, lb/hr (kg/hr)
1/
16
/2 (12)
3/
8
(7.9)
.035
(.9)
Gas Flow, cfh (L/min)
35-45 (17-21)
Electrical Stickout, in. (mm)
7
(6.4)
.035
(.9)
Electrode Size, in. (mm)
6
1
/8 (9.5)
Not a True Spray Transfer.
Flat Position Only.
27
TABLE 10 — Procedures for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel — Spray Transfer Flat Butt Joints
90% Argon/10% CO2
60°
45°
Technique:
Use Push Angle
1/2”
Arc
gouge
T2
(12 mm)
1/2 - 1”
(12 - 25 mm)
60°
1/4”
(6.4 mm)
3/16-1/4”
(4.8 - 6.4 mm)
Arc
gouge
/ and up”
3 4
(19 mm)
60°
Electrode Diameter, in. (mm)
WFS, in./min (m/min)
.035 (.9)
.045 (1.1)
.052 (1.3)
1
/16 (1.6)
500-600 (12.7-15.2)
375-500 (9.5-12.7)
300-485 (7.6-12.3)
210-290 (5.3-7.4)
Amps (Approx)
230-275
300-340
300-430
325-430
Voltage (DCEP)
29-30
29-30
30-32
25-28
10-15 (.25-.38)
12-18 (.30-.45)
14-24 (.35-.6)
14-23 (.35-.58)
Travel Speed, in./min (m/min)
Gas Flow, cfh (L/min)
40-45 (19-21))
Deposit Rate, lb/hr (kg/hr)
Electrical Stickout, in. (mm)
8.0-9.6 (3.6-4.4)
9.9-13.2 (4.5-6.0)
3/ -1
4
10.6-17.1 (4.8-7.8)
(19-25)
10.7-14.8 (4.8-6.7)
Because design, fabrication, erection and welding variables affect the results obtained in applying this type of information, the
serviceability of a product or structure is the responsibility of the builder/user.
TABLE 11 — Procedures for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel — Pulsed Spray Transfer
Flat or Horizontal Fillets
(For Use with Lincoln Idealarc Pulse Power 500)
Mode Selector 66/67
Electrical Stickout, 3/4-1" (19-25 mm)
Gas Flow, 30-40 cfh (17-19 L/min)
Use Push Angle
45°
45 - 50°
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
1
/4 (6.4)
5
/16 (7.9)
3
Leg Size, in. (mm)
3
/16 (4.8)
1
5
/4 (6.4)
Electrode Size, in. (mm)
8
Argon +5% CO2
Argon +10% CO28
Argon +20-25% CO2
Travel Speed, in./min (m/min)
Deposit Rate, lb/hr (kg/hr)
8
/16 (7.9)
.045 (1.1)
Wire Feed Speed, in./min (m/min)
Volts
(DCEP)
/8 (9.5)
300 (7.6)
325 (8.3)
375 (9.5)
23-24
24-25
27-28
24.5-25.5
25.5-26.5
28-29
28-29
28.5-30
30-31
13-14 (.33-.36)
14-15 (.35-.38)
10-11 (.25-.28)
8.1 (3.6)
8.8 (4.0)
10.1 (4.5)
For use on descaled plates only.
28
TABLE 12 — Procedures for Carbon and Low Alloy Steel — Pulsed Spray Transfer
Vertical Up Fillets
Power Wave 455
Mode Selector 73-74
Electrical Stickout,
1 -3
/2 /4" (13-19 mm)
Gas Flow,
30-40 cfh (17-19 L/min)
Use Push Angle
First
Pass
Second
Pass
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
3
1
Leg Size, in. (mm)
5
Electrode Size, in. (mm)
.045 (1.1)
.045 (1.1)
Wire Feed Speed, in./min (m/min)
125 (3.2)
130-145 (3.3-3.7)
/8 (9.5)
/2 (12.5) and up
Pass 2 and up
/16 (7.9)
Trim Value1
Deposition Rate, lbs/hr (kg/hr)
1
Trim nominally set at 1.0
3.4 (1.5)
3.5-3.9 (1.6-1.8)
Trim can be a function of travel speed, weld size and quality of work connection. Adjusting the Trim Value controls the arc length, thus values set
below 1.0 produce shorter arc lengths than those above 1.0.
VIII. WELDING STAINLESS STEELS WITH THE
GAS METAL-ARC PROCESS
When welding with the semiautomatic gun, push angle techniques are beneficial. Although the operators hand is exposed
to more radiated heat, better visibility is obtained.
Stainless steels may be welded by the gas metal-arc process,
using either spray-arc, short-circuiting, or pulsed-arc transfer.
For welding plate 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) and thicker, the gun should
be moved back and forth in the direction of the joint and at the
same time moved slightly from side to side. On thinner
metal, however, only back and forth motion along the joint is
used. Tables 14 and 15 summarize the welding procedures
normally used for the spray-arc welding of stainless steel.
Copper backup strips are necessary for welding stainless-steel
sections up to 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) thick. Backup is also needed
when welding 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) and thicker plate from one side
only.
No air must be permitted to reach the underside of the weld
while the weld puddle is solidifying. Oxygen and nitrogen
will weaken molten and cooling stainless steel. If the jig or
fixture members permit an appreciable quantity of air to contact the underside of the weld, argon backup gas should be
used.
SHORT-CIRCUITING TRANSFER
SPRAY ARC TRANSFER
The shielding gas recommended for short-circuiting welding
of stainless steel contains 90% helium, 7.5% argon, and 2.5%
carbon dioxide. The gas gives the most desirable bead contour
while keeping the CO2 level low enough so that it does not
influence the corrosion resistance of the metal. High inductance in the output is beneficial when using this gas mixture.
Power-supply units with voltage, and inductance (pinch) controls are recommended for the welding of stainless steel with
short-circuiting transfer. Inductance, in particular, plays an
important part in obtaining proper puddle fluidity.
Electrode diameters as great as 3/32 in. (2.4 mm), but usually
around 1/16 in. (1.6 mm), are used with relatively high currents
to create the spray-arc transfer. A current of approximately
300-350 amperes is required for a 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) electrode,
depending on the shielding gas and type of stainless wire being
used. The degree of spatter is dependent upon the composition
and flow rate of the shielding gas, wire-feed speed, and the
characteristics of the welding power supply. DCEP (Direct
Current Electrode Positive) is used for most stainless-steel
welding. A 1 or 2% argon-oxygen mixture is recommended
for most stainless-steel welding.
Single-pass welds may also be made using argon/CO2 gas.
The CO2 in the shielding gas will affect the corrosion resistance of multipass welds made with short-circuiting transfer.
Wire extension or stickout should be kept as short as possible.
Drag technique welding is usually easier on fillet welds and
will result in a neater weld. Push technique welding should
be used for butt welds. Outside corner welds may be made
with a straight (no weave) motion.
On square buttwelds, a backup strip should be used to prevent
weld metal dropthrough. When fit-up is poor or copper backing cannot be used, dropthrough may be minimized by
short-circuiting transfer welding the first pass.
Recommended procedure ranges for Lincoln Blue Max MIG
stainless electrode are shown in Table 13.
29
TABLE 13 — Procedure Range Blue Max MIG ERXXXLSi
Short Circuit Transfer
Diameter, in (mm)
Polarity, Electrical Stickout
Shielding Gas, Electrode
Weight, lbs (grams)
.035” (.9 mm)
DC(+)
1/2” (13 mm) ESO
90% He/7-1/2% Ar/21/2% CO2
.035” .279 lbs/1000”
(.9 mm) 5.11 g/m
.045” (1.1 mm)
DC(+)
1/2” (13 mm) ESO
90% He/7-1/2% Ar/21/2% CO2
.045” .461 lbs/1000”
(1.1 mm) 7.63 g/m
.035” (.9 mm)
DC(+)
1/2” (13 mm) ESO
96% Ar/2% O2
.035” .279 lbs/1000”
(.9 mm) 5.11 g/m
.045” (1.1 mm)
DC(+)
3/4” (19 mm) ESO
98% Ar/2% O2
.045” .461 lbs/1000”
(1.1 mm) 7.63 g/m
1/16”
(1.6 mm)
DC(+)
3/4” (19 mm) ESO
98% Ar/2% O2
.062” .876 lbs/1000”
(1.6 mm) 16.14 g/m
Approximate
Current
(amperes)
Wire Feed Speed
(in/min)
m/min
120
150
180
205
230
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
100
125
160
175
220
250
275
Arc
Voltage
(volts)
(lbs/hr)
(kg/hr)
19-20
19-20
19-20
19-20
20-21
20-21
20-21
20-21
21-22
21-22
22-23
22-23
19-20
19-20
21
21
22
22-23
22-23
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.4
3.9
4.6
5.0
5.4
5.9
6.3
6.7
7.1
2.8
3.5
4.2
4.8
6.1
6.9
7.6
0.9
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
1.1
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.6
2.9
3.2
3.0
55
3.8
75
4.6
85
5.2
95
5.8
105
6.9
110
7.6
125
8.3
130
8.9
140
9.5
150
10.2
160
10.8
170
2.5
100
3.2
120
3.8
135
4.4
140
5.6
170
6.4
175
7.0
185
Spray Arc Transfer
Deposition Rate
400
425
450
475
10.2
10.8
11.4
12.1
180
190
200
210
23
24
24
25
6.7
7.1
7.5
8.0
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
240
260
300
325
360
6.1
6.6
7.6
8.3
9.1
195
230
240
250
260
24
25
25
26
26
6.6
7.2
8.3
9.0
10.0
2.8
3.0
3.5
3.8
4.2
175
200
250
275
300
4.4
5.1
6.4
7.0
7.6
260
310
330
360
390
26
29
29
31
32
9.2
10.5
13.1
14.4
15.8
4.3
4.9
6.2
6.8
7.4
TABLE 14 — Gas Metal-Arc Welding (Semiautomatic) General Welding Conditions for Spray-Arc Transfer
AISI 200 and 300 Series Stainless Steels
Gas-Argon + 1% Oxygen.
Gas Flow, 35 cfh (17 L/min)
60°
60°
1/8”
(3.2 mm)
1/16”
1/4”
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
1/8
Electrode Size, in. (mm)
1/16
Passes
Current DCEP
Wire Feed Speed, in./min (m/min)
Arc Speed, in./min (m/min)
Electrode Required, lb/ft (kg/100m)
(6.4 mm)
(3.2)
1/4
(1.6)
1/16
3/8
(1.6 mm)
- 1/2” (9.5 - 12 mm)
(6.4)
3/8-1/2
(1.6)
1/16
(9.5-12)
(1.6)
1
2
2
225
275
300
140 (3.6)
175 (4.4)
235 (6.0)
19-21 (.48-.53)
15 (.38)
20 (.51)
0.075 (1.0)
0.189 (2.6)
0.272 (3.8)
Data from Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 6 — Welding, Brazing and Soldering, page 330, American Society for Metals, 1983.
30
TABLE 15 — Suggested Procedures for Stainless Steel — Spray-Arc Transfer
for Horizontal and Flat Fillets and Flat Butts
(Using BLUE MAX MIG Stainless Steel Electrode)
Gas-90% Argon + 2% Oxygen.
Electrode Push Angle 5”
45°
45 - 50°
Plate Thickness, in (mm)
Electrode Size, in (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (m/min)
Voltage, DCEP
Current Amps, approx.
Travel Speed, in/min (m/min)
Electrical Stickout, in (mm)
Gas Flow Rate, cfh (L/min)
3/16
.035
400-425
23-24
180-190
18-19
1/2
30
Plate Thickness, in (mm)
Electrode Size, in (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (m/min)
Voltage, DCEP
Current Amps, approx.
Travel Speed, in/min (m/min)
Electrical Stickout, in (mm)
Gas Flow Rate, cfh (L/min)
3/16
.045
240-260
24-25
195-230
17-19
3/4
40
Plate Thickness, in (mm)
Electrode Size, in (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (m/min)
Voltage, DCEP
Current Amps, approx.
Travel Speed, in/min (m/min)
Electrical Stickout, in (mm)
Gas Flow Rate, cfh (L/min)
3/16
1/16
175
26
260
19-23
3/4
40
.035” (0.9 mm) Electrode
(4.8)
1/4
(6.4)
(.9)
.035
(.9)
(10.2-10.8)
450-475
(11.4-12.1)
(23-24)
24-25
(24-25)
(180-190)
200-210
(200-210)
(.46-.48)
11-12
(.28-.30)
(13)
1/2
(13)
(14)
30
(14)
.045” (1.1 mm) Electrode
(4.8)
1/4
(6.4)
(1.1)
.045
(1.1)
(6.1-6.6)
300-325
(7.6-8.3)
(24-25)
25-26
(25-26)
(195-230)
240-250
(240-250)
(.43-.48)
15-18
(.38-.46)
(19)
3/4
(19)
(19)
40
(19)
1/16” (1.6 mm) Electrode
(4.8)
(1.6)
(4.4)
(26)
(260)
(.48-.58)
(19)
(19)
1/4
1/16
200-250
29
310-330
23-25
3/4
40
(6.4)
(1.6)
(5.1-6.4)
(29)
(310-330)
(.58-.64)
(19)
(19)
5/16 & Up
.035
475
25
210
10-11
1/2
30
(7.9)
(.9)
(12.1)
(25)
(210)
(.25-.28)
(13)
(14)
5/16 & Up
.045
360
26
260
14-15
3/4
40
(7.9)
(1.1)
(9.1)
(26)
(260)
(.36-.38)
(19)
(19)
5/16
1/16
275
31
360
16
3/4
40
(7.9)
(1.6)
(7.0)
(31)
(360)
(.41)
(19)
(19)
3/8 & Up
1/16
300
32
390
16
3/4
40
(9.5)
(1.6)
(7.6)
(32)
(390)
(.41)
(19)
(19)
These procedures were developed using a shielding gas blend of 98% Argon 2% Oxygen. Other proprietary blends may require small voltage adjustments.
31
TABLE 16 — Gas Metal-Arc Welding (Semiautomatic) General Welding Conditions for Short-Circuiting Transfer
AISI 200 and 300 Series Stainless Steels
Arc Voltages listed
are for Helium, + 71/2%
Argon, + 21/2% CO2
1/16
- 1/8”
(1.6 - 3.2 mm)
For Argon + 2% Oxygen
reduce voltage 6 volts
For Argon + 25% CO2
reduce voltage 5 volts
1/16 - 5/64”
(1.6 - 2.0 mm)
Gas Flow, 15 to 20 cfh
(7 to 9.5 L/min)
Electrode, 0.030 in. (.8 mm) dia.
1/16
- 1/8”
(1.6 - 3.2 mm)
Plate Thickness, in (mm)
Electrode Size, in. (min)
Current, DCEP
Voltage
Wire Feed Speed,
in/min (m/min)
Arc Speed, in./min (m/mm)
Electrode Required
lb/ft (kg/100m)
1/16 (1.6)
0.030 (.8)
85
21
184
(4.7)
17-19
(.43-.48)
0.025
(.35)
5/64 (2.0)
0.030 (.8)
90
22
192
(4.9)
13-15
(.33-.38)
0.034
(.47)
3/32 (2.4)
0.030 (.8)
105
23
232
(5.9)
14-16
(.36-.41)
0.039
(.54)
1/8 (3.2)
0.030 (.8)
125
23
280
(7.1)
14-16
(.36-.41)
0.046
(.64)
1/16 (1.6)
0.030 (.8)
85
22
184
(4.7)
19-21
(.48-.53)
0.023
(.32)
5/64 (2.0)
0.030 (.8)
90
22
192
(4.9)
11.5-12.5
(.29-.32)
0.039
(.54)
Data from Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 6 — Welding, Brazing and Soldering, page 330, American Society for Metals, 1983.
A slight backward and forward motion along the axis of the
joint should be used. Tables 16, 17 and 18 summarize the
welding procedures normally used for the short-circuiting
transfer welding of stainless steel.
source supplies a “peak” current for forcing the drop from the
electrode to the workpiece. The peaking current is usually
halfwave DC. If it is tied into line frequency, drops will be
transferred 60 or 120 times/sec (Fig. 35). The Power Wave
455 and other pulsed-arc power sources are capable of providing a pulse rate of various frequencies
Short-circuiting transfer welds on stainless steel made with a
shielding gas of 90% He, 71/2% A, 21/2% CO2 show good corrosion resistance and coalescence. Butt, lap, and single fillet
welds in material ranging from .060 in. (1.5 mm) to .125 in.
(3.2 mm) in 321, 310, 316, 347, 304, 410, and similar stainless
steels can be successfully made.
Wire diameters of .035 in. (.9 mm) and .045 in. (1.1 mm) are
most common with this process for stainless electrodes. Gases
for pulsed-arc transfer are similar to spray-arc welding, namely
argon plus 2% oxygen.
PULSED-ARC TRANSFER
Table 19 summarizes the welding procedures normally used
for pulsed spray welding of stainless steel.
The pulsed-arc process is, by definition, a spray transfer process wherein spray transfer occurs in pulses at regularly spaced
intervals rather than at random intervals. In the time between
pulses, the welding current is reduced and no metal transfer
occurs.
1
Pulsed-arc transfer is obtained by operating a power source
between low and high current levels. The high current level or
“pulse” forces an electrode drop to the workpiece. The low
current level or “background” maintains the arc between
pulses (Fig. 35).
2
3
4
Amp
Pulse peak current
The pulsing operation is obtained by combining the output of
two power sources working at two current levels. One acts
as a “background” current to preheat and precondition the
advancing continuously fed electrode; the other power
Pulse
transition
current 1
5
Spray transfer
current range
3
2
4
5
Background current
Time
FIGURE 35 — Pulsed-arc transfer.
32
Globular
transfer
current range
TABLE 17 — Suggested Procedures for Stainless Steel — Short Circuit Transfer
Horizontal, Flat and Vertical Down Fillets
(Using BLUE MAX MIG Stainless Steel Electrode)
Electric Stickout, 1/2” (13mm)
Gas Flow, 30 cfh (14 L/min)
90% Helium + 7-1/2% Argon +
2-1/2% CO2
Electrode Drag Angle 5-20°
45°
45 - 50°
45°
Plate Thickness, in (mm)
Electrode Size, in (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (m/min)
Voltage, DCEP
Current Amps, approx.
Arc Speed, in/min (m/min)
18 ga
.035
120-150
19-20
55-75
10-16
Plate Thickness, in (mm)
Electrode Size, in (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (m/min)
Voltage, DCEP
Current Amps, approx.
Arc Speed, in/min (m/min)
12 ga
.035
300-325
20-21
125-130
15-21
Plate Thickness, in (mm)
Electrode Size, in (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (m/min)
Voltage, DCEP
Current Amps, approx.
Arc Speed, in/min (m/min)
12 ga
.045
100-125
19-20
100-120
14-21
.035” (0.9 mm) Electrode
(1.2)
16 ga
(1.5)
(.9)
.035
(.9)
(3.0-3.8)
180-205
(4.6-5.2)
(19-20)
19-20
(19-20)
(55-75)
85-95
(85-95)
(.25-.41)
15-22
(.38-.56)
14 ga
.035
230-275
20-21
105-110
18-21
(1.9)
(.9)
(5.8-7.0)
(20-21)
(105-110)
(.46-.53)
(2.7)
10 ga
(3.5)
(.9)
.035
(.9)
(7.6-8.3)
300-325
(7.6-8.3)
(20-21)
20-21
(20-21)
(125-130)
125-130
(125-130)
(.38-.53)
14-20
(.36-.51)
.045” (1.1 mm) Electrode
3/16
.035
350-375
21-22
140-150
18-22
(4.8)
(.9)
(8.9-9.5)
(21-22)
(140-150)
(.46-.56)
1/4
.035
400-425
22-23
160-170
12-13
(6.4)
(.9)
(10.2-10.8)
(22-23)
(160-170)
(.30-.33)
(2.7)
(1.1)
(2.5-3.2)
(19-20)
(100-120)
(.36-.53)
3/16
.045
220-250
22
170-175
20-21
(4.8)
(1.1)
(5.6-6.4)
(22)
(170-175)
(.51-.53)
1/4
.045
250-275
22-23
175-185
13-14
(6.4)
(1.1)
(6.4-7.0)
(22-23)
(175-185)
(.33-.36)
10 ga
.045
150-175
21
135-150
19-20
33
(3.5)
(1.1)
(3.8-4.4)
(21)
(135-140)
(.48-.51)
TABLE 18 — Suggested Procedures for Stainless Steel —
Short Circuit Transfer for Vertical Up Fillets
(Using BLUE MAX MIG Stainless Steel Electrode)
Electrical Stickout, 1/2” (13mm)
Gas Flow, 30 cfh (14 L/min)
90% Helium 7-1/2% Argon +
2-1/2% CO2
Electrode Drag Angle 5-10°
Steel Thickness, in (mm)
1/4
(6.4)
Electrode Size, in (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in/min (m/min)
Voltage, DCEP
Current Amps, approx.
Arc Speed, in/min (m/min)
.035
175
21.5
90
4
(.9)
(4.4)
(21.5)
(90)
(.10)
TABLE 19 — Procedures for Stainless Steel — Pulsed Spray Transfer
Flat or Horizontal Fillets
(For use with Power Wave 455)
Electrical Stickout, 3/8”-1/2” (9.5-13 mm)
Gas Flow, 25-40 cfh (12-19 L/min)
Argon + 2% Oxygen
Use Push Angle
45°
45 - 50°
Plate Thickness, in. (mm)
Leg Size, in. (mm)
14 ga (1.9)
12 ga (2.6)
—
—
150 (3.8)
180 (4.6)
Electrode Size, in. (mm)
Wire Feed Speed, in./min (m/min)
(4.8)
—
Trim Value
200 (5.0)
(6.4)
5/16
(7.9)
3/16
(4.8)
1/4
(6.4)
275 (7.0)
300 (7.6)
66
67
7.6 (3.4)
8.3 (3.8)
Trim nominally set at 1.0
62
63
65
Electrical Stickout, in. (mm)
3/8-1/2
Gas Flow Rate, cfh (L/min)
25-40 (12-19)
Drag Angle (deg)
Deposition Rate, lbs/hr (kg/hr)
1/4
.045 (1.1)
1
Mode Selector
3/16
(9.5-13)
0-5 Push
4.2 (1.9)
5.0 (2.3)
5.5 (2.5)
These procedures were developed using 98% argon 2% oxygen shielding gas.
For out-of-position welding start with settings for one gauge or thickness smaller.
1
Trim can be a function of travel speed, weld size and quality of work connection. Adjusting the Trim Value controls the arc length, thus values set
below 1.0 produce shorter arc lengths than those above 1.0.
34
IX. WELDING ALUMINUM
Where intermittent welding is to be used, one deviation from
the regular pattern of torch travel is recommended. GMAW
(MIG) welding of aluminum normally leaves a crater at the
end of the weld, as illustrated in Fig. 36. This crater is prone
to cracking which, in turn, could initiate fracture in the
intermittent weld.
Principal factors for consideration in the GMAW (MIG) welding of aluminum are thickness of plate, alloy, and type of equipment available. Typical procedures for GMAW (MIG) welding
of various joint designs in aluminum sheet and plate are given
in Tables 20 through 24. The data supplied is approximate and
is intended to serve only as a starting point. For each application, an optimum set of welding conditions can be established
from these procedures.
One method of avoiding this problem is to reverse the direction
of welding at the end of each tack or intermittent weld, so that
the crater is filled, as shown in Fig. 37. Other techniques for
eliminating problems of cracking of the crater area are:
It is considered good practice to prepare prototype weldments
in advance of the actual production so that welding conditions
can be determined on the prototype. It is further recommended
that welders practice beforehand under simulated production
conditions. This helps avoid mistakes caused by lack of
experience.
1. Use run-on and run-off tabs
2. Break the arc and restrike it to fill the crater
3. Use special circuitry and power source control to produce
a specific rate of arc decay
FIGURE 36 — The finish of a MIG weld in aluminum leaves a crater
that is very susceptible to cracking.
FIGURE 37 — Doubling back at the end of a MIG weld eliminates the
crater and the cracking problems that usually accompany it.
JOINT GEOMETRY
SETTING A PROCEDURE
Typical joint geometrics for semiautomatic MIG welding are
shown in Fig 38. Factors affecting the choice of the joint
geometry include metal thickness, whether backing is to be
used (and if so, what kind), the welding position and whether
welding is to be done from one side of the joint, mostly from
one side, or about equally from both sides.
For semiautomatic welding, the welding speed and other variables, such as gun angle and gun-to-work distance, are under
the continuous control of the welder. However, gas flow,
current and arc length must be preset. Gas flow can be set
easily because it is independent of the other variables.
However, the welder has two machine settings to concern him,
one for arc length and one for arc current.
The two basic power source types, drooper and CV, are opposites in the adjustment of current and voltage. With a drooper,
the current is set by adjusting the power source, just as it
would be for shielded metal arc (stick electrode) welding. The
arc length is set by adjusting the electrode wire feed speed.
Conversely, with a CV machine, the arc length is set by
adjusting the output voltage of the power source and the
current is set by adjusting the electrode wire feed speed.
35
Joint Spacing
Joint Spacing
t
(B)
Temporary
Backing
2t
t/4
(A)
60° - 90°
or
110°
60° - 90°
/ ”
3 16
Joint Spacing
Joint Spacing
/ ” - 3/32”
1 16
(D)
(C)
60°
90°
Joint Spacing
t
/ ” - 3/32”
1 16
Temporary
Backing
Joint Spacing
/”
1 2
(E)
/ ” - 3/32”
1 16
(F)
60°
Joint Spacing
/ ”
1 16
t
t
11/2”
11/2”
t up to / ”
3/8” for t> 3/8”
3 8
t up to 3/8”
3/8” for t> 3/8”
t/4
Permanent
Backing
Permanent
Backing
(H)
(G)
60°
t
t2
(J)
(K)
(I)
FIGURE 38 — Typical Joint Geometries for Semiautomatic MIG Welding Aluminum.
36
TABLE 20 — Typical Semiautomatic MIG Procedures for Groove Welding Aluminum
Metal
Thickness
(Inches)
Weld
Passes
Electrode
Diameter
(Inches)
DC (EP)3
(Amps)
Arc
Voltage3
(Volts)
Argon
Gas Flow
(cfh)
Arc
Travel
Speed
(ipm/pass)
Approx.
Electrode
Consump.
(lb/100 ft.)
Weld
Position1
Edge
Preparation2
Joint
Spacing
(Inches)
1/16
F
F
A
G
None
3/32
1
1
.030
.030
70-110
70-110
15-20
15-20
25
25
25-45
25-45
1.5
2
3/32
F
F, V, H, O
A
G
None
1/8
1
1
.030-3/64
.030
90-150
110-130
18-22
18-23
30
30
25-45
25-30
1.8
2
1/8
F, V, H
F, V, H, O
A
G
0-3/32
3/16
1
1
.030-3/64
.030-3/64
120-150
110-135
20-24
19-23
30
30
24-30
18-28
2
3
3/16
F, V, H
F, V, H
O
F, V
H, O
B
F
F
H
H
0-1/16
0-1/16
0-1/16
3/32-3/16
3/16
1F, 1R
1
2F
2
3
.030-3/64
3/64
3/64
3/64-1/16
3/64
130-175
140-180
140-175
140-185
130-175
22-26
23-27
23-27
23-27
23-27
35
35
60
35
60
24-30
24-30
24-30
24-30
25-35
4
5
5
8
10
1/4
F
F
V, H
O
F, V
O, H
B
F
F
F
H
H
0-3/32
0-3/32
0-3/32
0-3/32
1/8-1/4
1/4
1F, 1R
2
3F, 1R
3F, 1R
2-3
4-6
3/64-1/16
3/64-1/16
3/64
3/64-1/16
3/64-1/16
3/64-1/16
175-200
185-225
165-190
180-200
175-225
170-200
24-28
24-29
25-29
25-29
25-29
25-29
40
40
45
60
40
60
24-30
24-30
25-35
25-35
24-30
25-40
6
8
10
10
12
12
3/8
F
F
V,H
O
F, V
O, H
C-90°
F
F
F
H
H
0-3/32
0-3/32
0-3/32
0-3/32
1/4-3/8
3/8
1F, 1R
2F, 1R
3F, 1R
5F, 1R
4
8-10
1/16
1/16
1/16
1/16
1/16
1/16
225-290
210-275
190-220
200-250
210-290
190-260
26-29
26-29
26-29
26-29
26-29
26-29
50
50
55
80
50
80
20-30
24-35
24-30
25-40
24-30
25-40
16
18
20
20
35
50
3/4
F
F
V, H, O
F
V, H, O
C-60°
F
F
E
E
0-3/32
0-1/8
0-1/16
0-1/16
0-1/16
3F, 1R
4F, 1R
8F, 1R
3F, 3R
6F, 6R
3/32
3/32
1/16
1/16
1/16
340-400
325-375
240-300
270-330
230-280
26-31
26-31
26-30
26-30
26-30
60
60
80
60
80
14-20
16-20
24-30
16-24
16-24
50
70
75
70
75
1 F = Flat; V = Vertical; H = Horizontal; O = Overhead.
2 See joint designs in Figure 38.
3 For 5xxx series electrodes use a welding current in the high side of the range and an arc voltage in the lower portion of the range. 1xxx, 2xxx, and 4xxx series electrodes would use the
lower currents and higher arc voltages.
TABLE 21 — Typical Semiautomatic MIG Procedures for Fillet and Lap Welding Aluminum
DC (EP)4
(Amps)
Arc
Voltage4
(Volts)
Argon
Gas Flow
(cfh)
Arc
Travel
Speed
Approx.
Electrode
Consumption3
(lb/100 feet)
0.030
100-130
18-22
30
24-30
1.8
1
1
1
0.030-3/64
0.030
0.030-3/64
125-150
110-130
115-140
20-24
19-23
20-24
30
30
40
24-30
24-30
24-30
2
2
2
F
V, H
O
1
1
1
3/64
0.030-3/64
0.030-3/64
180-210
130-175
130-190
22-26
21-25
22-26
30
35
45
24-30
24-30
24-30
4.5
4.5
4.5
1/4
F
V, H
O
1
1
1
3/64-1/16
3/64
3/64-1/16
170-240
170-210
190-220
24-28
23-27
24-28
40
45
60
24-30
24-30
24-30
7
7
7
3/8
F
H, V
O
1
3
3
1/16
1/16
1/16
240-300
190-240
200-240
26-29
24-27
25-28
50
60
85
18-25
24-30
24-30
17
17
17
3/4
F
H, V
O
4
4-6
10
3/32
1/16
1/16
360-380
260-310
275-310
26-30
25-29
25-29
60
70
85
18-25
24-30
24-30
66
66
66
Metal
Thickness1
(Inches)
Weld
Passes3
Electrode
Diameter
(Inches)
Weld
Position2
3/32
F, V, H, O
1
1/8
F
V, H
O
3/16
1
2
3
4
Metal thickness of 3/4 in. or greater for fillet welds sometimes employs a double vee bevel of 50 deg. or greater included vee with 3/32 to 1/8 in. land thickness on the abutting member.
F = Flat; V = Vertical; H = Horizontal; O = Overhead.
Number of weld passes and electrode consumption given for weld on one side only.
For 5xxx series electrodes use a welding current in the high side of the range given and an arc voltage in the lower portion of the range. 1xxx, 2xxx and 4xxx series electrodes would use
the lower currents and higher arc voltages.
37
Nitrogen Dioxide. Some test results show that high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide are found only within 6 in. (152 mm)
of the arc. With normal natural ventilation, these concentrations are quickly reduced to safe levels in the welder’s breathing
zone, so long as the welder keeps his head out of the plume of
fumes (and thus out of the plume of welding-generated gases).
Nitrogen dioxide is not thought to be a hazard in GMAW.
X. SAFE PRACTICES
Introduction. The general subject of safety and safety practices
in welding, cutting, and allied processes is covered in ANSI
Z49.18, “Safety in Welding and Cutting,” and ANSI Z49.29.
“Fire Prevention in the Use of Welding and Cutting
Processes.” The handling of compressed gases is covered in
CGA P-110.
Carbon Monoxide. Carbon dioxide shielding used with the
GMAW process will be dissociated by the heat of the arc to
form carbon monoxide. Only a small amount of carbon monoxide is created by the welding process, although relatively high
concentrations are formed temporarily in the plume of fumes.
However, the hot carbon monoxide oxidizes to carbon dioxide
so that the concentrations of carbon monoxide become insignificant at distances of more than 3 or 4 in. (76 or 102 mm)
from the welding plume.
Personnel should be familiar with the safe practices discussed
in these documents, equipment operating manuals, and
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for consumables.
In addition to the hazards discussed in the Arc Welding Safety
Precautions following this section, be familiar with the safety
concerns discussed below.
Safe Handling of Shielding Gas Cylinders and Regulators.
Compressed gas cylinders should be handled carefully and
should be adequately secured when in use. Knocks, falls, or
rough handling may damage cylinders, valves, or fuse plugs
and cause leakage or accident. Valve protecting caps, when
supplied, should be kept in place (handtight) until the
connecting of container equipment.
Under normal welding conditions there should be no hazard
from this source. When the welder must work with his head
over the welding arc, or with the natural ventilation moving
the plume of fumes towards his breathing zone, or where welding is performed in a confined space, ventilation adequate to
deflect the plume or remove the fumes and gases must be
provided. Because shielding gases can displace air, use special
care to insure that breathing air is safe when welding in a confined space. (See ANSI Z49.1.)
Cylinder Use. The following should be observed when setting
up and using cylinders of shielding gas:
Metal Fumes. The welding fumes generated by GMAW can be
controlled by general ventilation, local exhaust ventilation, or
by respiratory protective equipment as described in ANSI
Z49.1. The method of ventilation required to keep the level
of toxic substances within the welder’s breathing zone below
acceptable concentrations is directly dependent upon a number
of factors. Among these are the material being welded, the
size of the work area, and the degree of the confinement or
obstruction to normal air movement where the welding is being
done. Each operation should be evaluated on an individual
basis in order to determine what will be required. Acceptable
levels of toxic substances associated with welding, and designated as time-weighted average threshold limit values (TLV)
and ceiling val-ues, have been established by the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
and by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA). Compliance with these acceptable levels can be
checked by sampling the atmosphere under the welder’s helmet or in the immediate vicinity of the helper’s breathing
zone. The principle composition or particulate matter (welding
fume) which may be present within the welder’s breathing
zone are listed in Table 22. Sampling should be in accordance
with ANSI/ AWS F1.1, Method for Sampling Airborne
Particulates Generated by Welding and Allied Processes.
1. Properly secure the cylinder.
2. Before connecting a regulator to the cylinder valve, the
valve should momentarily be slightly opened and closed
immediately (opening) to clear the valve of dust or dirt that
otherwise might enter the regulator. The valve operator
should stand to one side of the regulator gauges, never in
front of them.
3. After the regulator is attached, the adjusting screw should
be released by turning it counter-clockwise. The cylinder
valve should then be opened slowly to prevent a too-rapid
surge of high pressure gas into the regulator.
4. The source of the gas supply (i.e., the cylinder valve) should
be shut off if it is to be left unattended.
Gases. The major toxic gases associated with GMAW welding
are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Phosgene
gas could also be present as a result of thermal or ultraviolet
decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbon cleaning agents located in the vicinity of welding operations, such as trichlorethylene and perchlorethylene. DEGREASING OR OTHER
CLEANING OPERATIONS INVOLVING CHLORINATED
HYDROCARBONS SHOULD BE SO LOCATED THAT VAPORS FROM THESE OPERATIONS CANNOT BE
REACHED BY RADIATION FROM THE WELDING ARC.
Ozone. The ultraviolet light emitted by the GMAW arc acts
on the oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere to produce
ozone, the amount of which will depend upon the intensity
and the wave length of the ultraviolet energy, the humidity,
the amount of screening afforded by any welding fumes, and
other factors. The ozone concentration will generally be increased with an increase in welding current, with the use of
argon as the shielding gas, and when welding highly reflective
metals. If the ozone cannot be reduced to a safe level by ventilation or process variations, it will be necessary to supply
fresh air to the welder either with an air supplied respirator or
by other means.
38
8
ANSI Z49.1 is available from the American Welding Society, 550
N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126.
9
ANSI Z49.2 is available from the American National Standards
Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036.
10
CGA P-1 is available from the Compressed Gas Association, Inc.,
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 501, Arlington, VA 22202.
TABLE 22— Particulate matter with possible significant fume
concentrations in the welder’s breathing zone11
Material being welded
Aluminum and aluminum alloys
Magnesium alloys
Particulate
matter
Al, Mg, Mn, Cr
Mg, Al, Zn
Copper and copper alloys
Cu, Be, Zn, Pb
Nickel and nickel alloys
Ni, Cu, Cr, Fe
Titanium and titanium alloys
11
TABLE 24— Lincoln GMAW Product Bulletins
EQUIPMENT
SP-100T
SP-125 Plus
SP-170T
SP-175 Plus
SP-255
115V Single Phase Wire Feeder Welder
115V Single Phase Wire Feeder Welder
230V Single Phase Wire Feeder Welder
230V Single Phase Wire Feeder Welder
230V Single Phase Wire Feeder Welder
BULLETIN
E7.10
E7.20
E7.30
E7.35
E7.61
V300-Pro
DC-400
DC-655
Multiprocess Power Source
Multiprocess Power Source
Multiprocess Power Source
E5.90
E5.20
E5.46
CV-250
CV-300
CV-400
CV-655
Constant Voltage MIG Power Source
Constant Voltage MIG Power Source
Constant Voltage MIG Power Source
Constant Voltage MIG Power Source
E4.10
E4.20
E4.30
E4.40
Ti
Austenitic stainless steels
Cr, Ni, Fe
Carbon steels12
Fe, Cu, Mn
See AWS F1.3, “Evaluating Contaminants in the Welding
Environment, A Sampling Strategy Guide”.
For plated, coated, or painted materials, also Cd, Zn, Pb, and Hg.
STT-II
Surface Tension Transfer
Power Wave 455 Synergic Pulse Power Source
E4.52
E5.160
Ranger 8
Ranger 9
Ranger 275
Ranger
300D/DLX
Engine Driven Welder/Aux. Power Source
Engine Driven Welder/Aux. Power Source
Engine Driven Welder/Aux. Power Source
Engine Driven Welder/Aux. Power Source
E6.90
E6.100
E6.105
E6.115
Commander 300 Engine Driven Welder/Aux. Power Source
Commander 400 Engine Driven Welder/Aux. Power Source
S&W
E6.205
E6.210
The minimum suggested filter glass shades for GMAW, as
presented in ANSI Z49.1 as a guide, are:
LN-7 GMA
LN-742
LN-9 GMA
Industry Standard Wire Feeder
42 VAC
Rugged Wire Feeder
E8.10
E8.20
E8.50
TABLE 23— Minimum suggested Filter Glass Shades
LN-10
LN-25
DH-10
Heavy Duty Wire Feeder
Portable Wire Feeder
Double Header Wire Feeder
E8.200
E8.100
E8.200
STT-10
Power Feed 10
Power Feed 11
STT-II Wire Feeder
Bench/Boom Wire Feeder
Suitcase Wire Feeder
E8.190
E8.260
E8.261
ELECTRODES
L-50, L-50B
Automatic Welding Electrode ER70S-3
L-52
Automatic Welding Electrode ER70S-2
L-54, L-54 B
Automatic Welding Electrode ER70S-4
L-56, L-56B
Automatic Welding Electrode ER70S-6
LA-90
Automatic Welding Electrode ER80S-D2
LA-100
Automatic Welding Electrode MIL-100S.1
LA-75
ER80S-Ni l
Blue Max
MIG Electrodes
C4.10
C4.10
C4.10
C4.10
C4.10
C4.10
C4.10
C6.1
12
Radiant Energy. The total radiant energy produced by the
GMAW process can be higher than that produced by the
SMAW process, because of the significantly lower welding
fumes and the more exposed arc. Generally, the highest ultraviolet radiant energy intensities are produced when using an
argon shielding gas and when welding on aluminum.
Shades13
When welding ferrous (steel) material
When welding nonferrous (Al, Brass, etc.)
Flash goggles
13
12
11
2
The choice of a filter shade may be made on the basis of visual
acuity and may therefore vary from one individual to another, particularly under different current densities, materials, and welding
processes. However, the degree of protection from radiant energy
afforded by the filter plate or lens when chosen to allow visual acuity
will still remain in excess of the needs of eye filter protection.
Dark leather or wool clothing (to reduce reflection which cause
ultraviolet burns to the face and neck underneath the helmet)
is recommended for GMAW. The greater intensity of the
ultraviolet radiation will cause rapid disintegration of cotton
clothing.
Noise — Hearing Protection. Personnel must be protected
against exposure to noise generated in welding and cutting
processes in accordance with paragraph 1910.95 “Occupational Noise Exposure” of the Occupational Safety and Health
Standards, Occupational Safety and Health Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor.
XI. PRODUCT REFERENCES
These Lincoln products are available for Gas Metal Arc Welding. Further information may be obtained by writing for the
specification bulletins shown. Application assistance is
available from your local Lincoln Distributor.
39
i
i
SAFETY
WARNING
CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNINGS
The engine exhaust from this product contains
chemicals known to the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm.
The Above For Gasoline Engines
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
The Above For Diesel Engines
ARC WELDING CAN BE HAZARDOUS. PROTECT YOURSELF AND OTHERS FROM POSSIBLE SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH.
KEEP CHILDREN AWAY. PACEMAKER WEARERS SHOULD CONSULT WITH THEIR DOCTOR BEFORE OPERATING.
Read and understand the following safety highlights. For additional safety information, it is strongly recommended that you
purchase a copy of “Safety in Welding & Cutting - ANSI Standard Z49.1” from the American Welding Society, P.O. Box
351040, Miami, Florida 33135 or CSA Standard W117.2-1974. A Free copy of “Arc Welding Safety” booklet E205 is available
from the Lincoln Electric Company, 22801 St. Clair Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44117-1199.
BE SURE THAT ALL INSTALLATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PROCEDURES ARE
PERFORMED ONLY BY QUALIFIED INDIVIDUALS.
FOR ENGINE
powered equipment.
1.h. To avoid scalding, do not remove the
radiator pressure cap when the engine is
hot.
1.a. Turn the engine off before troubleshooting and maintenance
work unless the maintenance work requires it to be running.
____________________________________________________
1.b.Operate engines in open, well-ventilated
areas or vent the engine exhaust fumes
outdoors.
ELECTRIC AND
MAGNETIC FIELDS
may be dangerous
____________________________________________________
1.c. Do not add the fuel near an open flame
welding arc or when the engine is running.
Stop the engine and allow it to cool before
refueling to prevent spilled fuel from vaporizing on contact with hot engine parts and
igniting. Do not spill fuel when filling tank. If
fuel is spilled, wipe it up and do not start
engine until fumes have been eliminated.
____________________________________________________
1.d. Keep all equipment safety guards, covers and devices in
position and in good repair.Keep hands, hair, clothing and
tools away from V-belts, gears, fans and all other moving
parts when starting, operating or repairing equipment.
____________________________________________________
2.a. Electric current flowing through any conductor causes
localized Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF). Welding
current creates EMF fields around welding cables and
welding machines
2.b. EMF fields may interfere with some pacemakers, and
welders having a pacemaker should consult their physician
before welding.
2.c. Exposure to EMF fields in welding may have other health
effects which are now not known.
2.d. All welders should use the following procedures in order to
minimize exposure to EMF fields from the welding circuit:
1.e. In some cases it may be necessary to remove safety
guards to perform required maintenance. Remove
guards only when necessary and replace them when the
maintenance requiring their removal is complete.
Always use the greatest care when working near moving
parts.
___________________________________________________
1.f.
Do not put your hands near the
engine fan. Do not attempt to override the governor or idler by pushing on the throttle control rods
while the engine is running.
2.d.1. Route the electrode and work cables together - Secure
them with tape when possible.
2.d.2. Never coil the electrode lead around your body.
2.d.3. Do not place your body between the electrode and
work cables. If the electrode cable is on your right
side, the work cable should also be on your right side.
2.d.4. Connect the work cable to the workpiece as close as
possible to the area being welded.
___________________________________________________
1.g. To prevent accidentally starting gasoline engines while
turning the engine or welding generator during maintenance
work, disconnect the spark plug wires, distributor cap or
magneto wire as appropriate.
2.d.5. Do not work next to welding power source.
Mar ‘95
40
ii
ii
SAFETY
ARC RAYS can burn.
ELECTRIC SHOCK can
kill.
4.a. Use a shield with the proper filter and cover
plates to protect your eyes from sparks and
the rays of the arc when welding or observing
open arc welding. Headshield and filter lens
should conform to ANSI Z87. I standards.
3.a. The electrode and work (or ground) circuits
are electrically “hot” when the welder is on.
Do not touch these “hot” parts with your bare
skin or wet clothing. Wear dry, hole-free
gloves to insulate hands.
4.b. Use suitable clothing made from durable flame-resistant
material to protect your skin and that of your helpers from
the arc rays.
3.b. Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulation.
Make certain the insulation is large enough to cover your full
area of physical contact with work and ground.
4.c. Protect other nearby personnel with suitable, non-flammable
screening and/or warn them not to watch the arc nor expose
themselves to the arc rays or to hot spatter or metal.
In addition to the normal safety precautions, if welding
must be performed under electrically hazardous
conditions (in damp locations or while wearing wet
clothing; on metal structures such as floors, gratings or
scaffolds; when in cramped positions such as sitting,
kneeling or lying, if there is a high risk of unavoidable or
accidental contact with the workpiece or ground) use
the following equipment:
• Semiautomatic DC Constant Voltage (Wire) Welder.
• DC Manual (Stick) Welder.
• AC Welder with Reduced Voltage Control.
FUMES AND GASES
can be dangerous.
5.a. Welding may produce fumes and gases
hazardous to health. Avoid breathing these
fumes and gases.When welding, keep
your head out of the fume. Use enough
ventilation and/or exhaust at the arc to keep
fumes and gases away from the breathing zone. When
welding with electrodes which require special
ventilation such as stainless or hard facing (see
instructions on container or MSDS) or on lead or
cadmium plated steel and other metals or coatings
which produce highly toxic fumes, keep exposure as
low as possible and below Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
using local exhaust or mechanical ventilation. In
confined spaces or in some circumstances, outdoors, a
respirator may be required. Additional precautions are
also required when welding on galvanized steel.
3.c. In semiautomatic or automatic wire welding, the electrode,
electrode reel, welding head, nozzle or semiautomatic
welding gun are also electrically “hot”.
3.d. Always be sure the work cable makes a good electrical
connection with the metal being welded. The connection
should be as close as possible to the area being welded.
3.e. Ground the work or metal to be welded to a good electrical
(earth) ground.
5.b. Do not weld in locations near chlorinated hydrocarbon vapors
coming from degreasing, cleaning or spraying operations.
The heat and rays of the arc can react with solvent vapors
to form phosgene, a highly toxic gas, and other irritating
products.
3.f. Maintain the electrode holder, work clamp, welding cable and
welding machine in good, safe operating condition. Replace
damaged insulation.
3.g. Never dip the electrode in water for cooling.
5.c. Shielding gases used for arc welding can displace air and
cause injury or death. Always use enough ventilation,
especially in confined areas, to insure breathing air is safe.
3.h. Never simultaneously touch electrically “hot” parts of
electrode holders connected to two welders because voltage
between the two can be the total of the open circuit voltage
of both welders.
5.d. Read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions for this
equipment and the consumables to be used, including the
material safety data sheet (MSDS) and follow your
employer’s safety practices. MSDS forms are available from
your welding distributor or from the manufacturer.
3.i. When working above floor level, use a safety belt to protect
yourself from a fall should you get a shock.
3.j. Also see Items 6.c. and 8.
5.e. Also see item 1.b.
41
Mar ‘95
iii
iii
SAFETY
WELDING SPARKS can
cause fire or explosion.
CYLINDER may explode
if damaged.
6.a. Remove fire hazards from the welding area.
If this is not possible, cover them to prevent
the welding sparks from starting a fire.
Remember that welding sparks and hot
materials from welding can easily go through small cracks
and openings to adjacent areas. Avoid welding near
hydraulic lines. Have a fire extinguisher readily available.
7.a. Use only compressed gas cylinders
containing the correct shielding gas for the
process used and properly operating
regulators designed for the gas and
pressure used. All hoses, fittings, etc. should be suitable for
the application and maintained in good condition.
7.b. Always keep cylinders in an upright position securely
chained to an undercarriage or fixed support.
6.b. Where compressed gases are to be used at the job site,
special precautions should be used to prevent hazardous
situations. Refer to “Safety in Welding and Cutting” (ANSI
Standard Z49.1) and the operating information for the
equipment being used.
7.c. Cylinders should be located:
• Away from areas where they may be struck or subjected to
physical damage.
6.c. When not welding, make certain no part of the electrode
circuit is touching the work or ground. Accidental contact
can cause overheating and create a fire hazard.
• A safe distance from arc welding or cutting operations and
any other source of heat, sparks, or flame.
7.d. Never allow the electrode, electrode holder or any other
electrically “hot” parts to touch a cylinder.
6.d. Do not heat, cut or weld tanks, drums or containers until the
proper steps have been taken to insure that such procedures
will not cause flammable or toxic vapors from substances
inside. They can cause an explosion even though they have
been “cleaned”. For information, purchase “Recommended
Safe Practices for the Preparation for Welding and Cutting of
Containers and Piping That Have Held Hazardous
Substances”, AWS F4.1 from the American Welding Society
(see address above 1.a. [Safety]).
7.e. Keep your head and face away from the cylinder valve outlet
when opening the cylinder valve.
7.f. Valve protection caps should always be in place and hand
tight except when the cylinder is in use or connected for
use.
7.g. Read and follow the instructions on compressed gas
cylinders, associated equipment, and CGA publication P-l,
“Precautions for Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in
Cylinders,” available from the Compressed Gas Association
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202.
6.e. Vent hollow castings or containers before heating, cutting or
welding. They may explode.
6.f. Sparks and spatter are thrown from the welding arc. Wear oil
free protective garments such as leather gloves, heavy shirt,
cuffless trousers, high shoes and a cap over your hair. Wear
ear plugs when welding out of position or in confined places.
Always wear safety glasses with side shields when in a
welding area.
FOR ELECTRICALLY
powered equipment.
8.a. Turn off input power using the disconnect
switch at the fuse box before working on
the equipment.
6.g. Connect the work cable to the work as close to the welding
area as practical. Work cables connected to the building
framework or other locations away from the welding area
increase the possibility of the welding current passing
through lifting chains, crane cables or other alternate
circuits. This can create fire hazards or overheat lifting
chains or cables until they fail.
8.b. Install equipment in accordance with the U.S. National
Electrical Code, all local codes and the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
8.c. Ground the equipment in accordance with the U.S. National
Electrical Code and the manufacturer’s recommendations.
6.h. Also see item 1.c.
Mar ‘95
42
LINCOLN NORTH AMERICA
DISTRICT OFFICE AND SALES AGENT LOCATIONS
USA
ILLINOIS
CHICAGO 60521-5629
(630) 920-1500
PEORIA 61607-2046
(309) 697-8240
ALABAMA
BIRMINGHAM 35124-1156
(205) 988-8232
MOBILE 36693-4310
(334) 666-6524
INDIANA
EVANSVILLE 47710-4514
(812) 428-3225
FT. WAYNE 46825-5547
(219) 484-4422
SOUTH BEND 46530-0577
(219) 277-8619
INDIANAPOLIS 46038-9459
(317) 845-8445
ALASKA
Contact SEATTLE
District Office
(206) 575-2456
ARIZONA
PHOENIX 85260-1768
(602) 348-2004
IOWA
CEDAR RAPIDS 52402-3160
(319) 362-6804
MOLINE, ILL 52806-1344
(319) 386-6522
DES MOINES 50265-6218
(515) 224-4121
ARKANSAS
LITTLE ROCK 72116-7034
(501) 771-4842
CALIFORNIA
FRESNO 93722-3949
(209) 276-0110
LOS ANGELES 90670-2936
(562) 906-7700
SACRAMENTO 95677-4729
(916) 630-1885
SAN DIEGO 92108-3911
(619) 208-9001
SAN FRANCISCO 94550-9657
(925) 443-9353
KANSAS
KANSAS CITY 66214-1625
(913) 894-0888
WICHITA 67037
(316) 788-7352
KENTUCKY
LOUISVILLE 40203-2906
(502) 636-5125
COLORADO
DENVER 80112-5115
(303) 792-2418
LOUISIANA
BATON ROUGE 70809-2256
(504) 922-5151
SHREVEPORT 71108-2521
(318) 869-3531
CONNECTICUT
NORTH HAVEN 06238
(860) 742-8887
WASHINGTON DC
HERNDON, VA 20170-5227
(703) 904-7735
MARYLAND
BALTIMORE 21045-2565
(410) 720-5232
FLORIDA
JACKSONVILLE 32259-4396
(904) 287-9595
MIAMI 33014-6719
(305) 556-0142
TAMPA 33619-4480
(770) 475-0955
MASSACHUSETTS
BOSTON 02154-8414
(781) 899-2010
MICHIGAN
DETROIT 48034-4005
(248) 353-9680
FLUSHING 48433-1855
(810) 487-1310
GRAND RAPIDS 49512-3924
(616) 942-8780
GEORGIA
ATLANTA 30076-4914
(770) 475-0955
SAVANNAH 31401-5140
(912) 231-9604
MINNESOTA
MINNEAPOLIS 55447-5435
(612) 551-1990
HAWAII
See SEATTLE
District Office
(206) 575-2456
MISSISSIPPI
JACKSON 39212-9635
(601) 372-7679
MISSOURI
KANSAS CITY (KS) 66214-1625
(913) 894-0888
ST. LOUIS 63146-3572
(314) 993-5465
MONTANA
Contact SEATTLE
District Office
(206) 575-2456
NEBRASKA
OMAHA 68046-2826
(402) 339-1809
NEW JERSEY
EDISON 08837-3939
(732) 225-2000
LEBANON 08833-0700
(888) 427-2269
NEW MEXICO
ALBUQUERQUE 87111-2158
(505) 237-2433
NEW YORK
ALBANY 12205-5427
(518) 482-3389
BUFFALO 14225-5515
(716) 681-5554
NEW YORK CITY
(888) 269-6755
EAST SYRACUSE 13057-1040
(315) 432-0281
NORTH CAROLINA
CHARLOTTE 28273-6200
(704) 588-3251
RALEIGH 27604-8456
(919) 231-5855
OHIO
CINCINNATI 45215-1187
(513) 772-1440
CLEVELAND 44143-1433
(216) 289-4160
COLUMBUS 43221-4073
(614) 488-7913
DAYTON 45439-1254
(937) 299-9506
TOLEDO 43528-9483
(419) 867-7284
OKLAHOMA
OKLAHOMA CITY 73119-2416
(405) 686-1170
TULSA 74146-1622
(918) 622-9353
OREGON
PORTLAND 97230-1030
(503) 252-8835
VIRGINIA
HERNDON 20170-5227
Washington, D.C.
(703) 904-7735
ROANOKE 24153-1447
(540) 389-4032
WILLIAMSBURG 23602-7048
(757) 881-9762
PENNSYLVANIA
BETHLEHEM 18020-2062
(610) 866-8788
ERIE 16506-2979
(814) 835-3531
JOHNSTOWN 15905-2506
(814) 535-5895
PHILADELPHIA 19008-4310
(610) 543-9462
PITTSBURGH 15275-1002
(412) 787-7733
YORK 17404-1144
(717) 764-6565
WASHINGTON
SEATTLE 98188-7615
(206) 575-2456
SPOKANE 99005-9637
(509) 468-2770
SOUTH CAROLINA
FLORENCE 29505-3615
(803) 673-0830
GREENVILLE 29612-0126
(864) 967-4157
CANADA
SOUTH DAKOTA
SIOUX FALLS 57108-2609
(605) 339-6522
TENNESSEE
KNOXVILLE 37923-4506
(423) 693-5513
MEMPHIS 38115-5946
(901) 363-1075
NASHVILLE 37210-3816
(615) 316-9777
TRI-CITIES 37604-3338
(423) 928-6047
TEXAS
CONROE 77304-1524
(409) 588-1116
DALLAS 76051-7602
(817) 329-9353
HOUSTON 77060-3143
(281) 847-9444
SAN ANTONIO 78133-3502
(830) 964-2421
WEST VIRGINIA
CHARLESTON 25526-9796
(304) 757-9862
WISCONSIN
GREEN BAY 54302-1829
(920) 435-1012
MILWAUKEE 53186-0403
(414) 650-9364
ALBERTA
CALGARY T2H 2M3
(403) 253-9600
EDMONTON T6H 2K1
(403) 436-7385
WINNIPEG R3N 0C7
(204) 488-6398
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VANCOUVER V3H 3W8
(604) 306-0339
MARITIMES
NOVA SCOTIA
(902) 434-2725
B2X 3N2
MANITOBA
WINNIPEG R3N 0C7
(204) 488-6398
ONTARIO
TORONTO M4G 2B9
(416) 421-2600
QUEBEC
MONTREAL J5Y 2G3
(514) 654-3121
UTAH
MIDVALE 84047-3759
(801) 233-9353
LINCOLN INTERNATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
22801 St. Clair Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44117-1199 USA
Phone: (216) 481-8100 • Fax: (216) 486-1363 • Website: www.lincolnelectric.com
Contact International Headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio
for Specific Locations of over 120
International Distributors Worldwide
LINCOLN
®
ELECTRIC
THE
LINCOLN ELECTRIC
COMPANY
Local Sales and Service through Global
Subsidiaries and Distributors
Cleveland, Ohio 44117-1199 U.S.A
TEL: 216.481.8100
FAX: 216.486.1751
WEB SITE: www.lincolnelectric.com
MIG
C4.200 9/98
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