Fire Detection Consultants Guide
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
Fire Detection
Consultants Guide
Issue 1.2
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
contents
About this manual
Purpose
Readership
Electronic Format
Acknowledgments
1
3
4
4
Section One: Guide to
Design of
Fire Systems
1.
Introduction
1.1
Planning the System
1.1.1
The role of fire risk assessment and fire engineering
1.1.2
Variations from BS 5839-1
1.1.3
Type of system
1.1.4
Servicing
arrangements
1.1.5
Planning
flowchart
2.
Selecting the category of protection and coverage
2.1
Category M – manual
2.2
Category L5 – life
2.3
Category L4 – life
2.4
Category L3 – life
2.5
Category L2 – life
2.6
Category L1 – life
2.7
Category P2 – property
2.8
Category P1 – property
3.
Detector zones and alarm zones
3.1
The meaning of a detection zone and alarm zone
3.2
The purpose of detection zones
7
10
11
12
13
13
16
17
18
18
19
19
20
21
21
22
23
23
23
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
contents
3.3
Detection zone configuration guidelines
3..4
Detection zone safeguards
4
Which type of fire detection and alarm system?
4.1
Conventional
systems
4.1.1
Detection
zones
4.1.2
Detectors and call points
4.2
Addressable
systems
4.2.1
Operation of addressable systems
4.2.2
Detectors and call points
4.2.3
Output
devices
4.3
Digital addressable systems
4.3.1
Operation of analogue addressable detectors
4.3.1.1
Detector pre–alarm warning
4.3.1.2
Detector alarm threshold compensation
4.3.1.3
Detector condition monitoring
4.3.1.4
Detector sensitivity setting
5.
Detector
suitability
5.1
General fire system engineering principles
5.2
Detector selection for a particular area
5.2.1
Smoke
detectors
5.2.2
Heat
detectors
5.2.3
Heat-enhanced Carbon monoxide fire detectors
5.2.4
Flame
detectors
5.2.5
Optical beam detectors
5.2.6
Aspirating
detectors
5.2.7
Duct probe unit
6.
Detector
coverage
6.1
Spacing under flat ceilings
6.2
Spacing under pitched ceilings
6.3
Spacing in corridors
6.4
Stairways
6.5
Lift shafts and other flue-like structures
6.6
Obstructions
section one guide to design of fire systems
24
25
29
29
29
30
30
31
31
33
34
34
36
37
38
39
41
41
43
43
44
47
49
52
56
58
60
60
62
63
63
64
64
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
contents
6.7
Honeycomb ceilings
6.8
Closely spaced structural beams and floor joists
6.9
Ceiling
heights
6.10
Walls and partitions
6.11
Voids
6.12
Perforated
ceilings
6.13
Ventilation
6.14
Lantern-lights
7.
Manual “break glass” call points
7.1
General
information
7.2
Siting of manual call points
8.
Limitation of false alarms
8.1
Role of the designer
8.2
Categories of false alarm
8.3
Requirements for service technicians
8.4
False alarm ‘rates’
8.5
Causes of false alarms
8.6
Practical measures to limit false alarms
8.6.1
Siting and selection of manual call points
8.6.2
Selection and siting of automatic fire detectors
8.6.3
Selection of system type
8.6.4
Protection against electromagnetic interference
8.6.5
Performance monitoring of newly commissioned systems
8.6.6
Filtering
measures
8.6.7
System
management
8.6.8
Servicing and maintenance
8.6.9
New non compliances
9.
Means of giving warning to occupants
9.1
Sound pressure level
9.2
Discrimination and frequency
9.3
Sound
continuity
9.4
Audible alarms in noisy areas
9.5
Alarm
zones
9.6
External fire alarm devices
66
67
69
71
71
72
72
73
74
74
74
77
77
80
80
81
84
85
86
87
89
90
91
92
96
97
97
98
98
101
101
101
102
103
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
contents
9.7
Voice alarm systems and voice sounders
9.8
Fire alarm warnings for deaf people
10.
Control and indicating equipment
10.1
Siting of control and indicating equipment
10.2
Location of origin of the fire
10.3
Security of control equipment
10.4
Networked control panels
11.
Power
supplies
11.1
Mains
supply
11.2
Standby
supply
11.2.1
Life protection (category M and L systems)
11.2.2
Property protection (category P systems)
11.2.3
Calculation of standby battery capacity
12.
Cabling
considerations
12.1
Recommended cable types
12.2
Cable
suitability
12.3
Conductor
sizes
12.4
Segregation
12.5
Cable colour coding
12.6
Joints in cables
12.7
Cable
support
12.8
Mechanical protection of cables
13.
Communication with the fire service
13.1
Automatic transmission of alarm signals
13.1.1
Category L systems
13.1.2
Category P systems
13.2
Methods of automatic transmission
13.3
Standards for Alarm Receiving Centres (ARCs)
section one guide to design of fire systems
103
104
105
105
106
106
107
108
108
109
109
110
110
113
113
114
117
117
118
119
119
120
121
121
122
123
123
123
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
contents
14.
System installation
14.1
Siting of equipment
14.2
Installation
work
14.3
Inspection and testing
14.4
Commissioning and handover
15.
Documentation
124
125
125
126
127
16.
Maintenance
16.1
Routine
testing
16.2
Servicing
133
133
134
17.
136
Responsibilities of user
131
guide to design of fire systems section one
section two
An introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
contents
Section Two:
Introduction
Control and Indicating equipment
Fire alarm devices - sounders
Power supply equipment
Heat detectors - point detectors
Smoke detectors
Flame detectors
Manual call points
Smoke detectors - line type
Compatibility assessment of system components
Voice alarm control and indicating equipment
Short circuit isolators
Input /output devices
Aspirating smoke detectors
Alarm transmission and fault warning routing equipment
Fire alarm devices - visual alarm devices
Components of voice alarm systems - loudspeakers
Components using radio links
Carbon monoxide detectors - point detectors
Multi sensor fire detectors - point detectors using
both smoke and heat detection
Multi- sensor fire detectors point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of smoke, carbon monoxide and heat
sensors
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
Intrinsic safety “I”
Fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
141
151
156
161
166
173
178
182
188
192
195
201
205
208
214
218
224
229
232
238
243
250
257
263
section two guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire systems in non domestic premises
page1
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
about this manual
Purpose
The Code of Practice for fire detection
and alarm systems for buildings (BS
5839- 1) is a detailed and comprehensive document which requires careful
reading to fully understand its’ requirements and latest approach to ensuring the safety of buildings and their
occupants from the ever present threat
of fire.
The purpose of this manual is to provide a step–by–step approach to the
necessary guidelines described in BS
5839-1, so that users can achieve
maximum benefit from the recommendations. This should assist in the
task of choosing the best options,
help in preparing the specification of
the fire protection system and assist
architects, designers and electrical
engineers in providing the most cost
effective system solution that meets
the needs of the user.
This manual is a consultants guide to
the contents and usage of the British
Standard Code for the design, installation and maintenance of fire detection and alarm systems for buildings
(BS 5839-1). Throughout the manual,
where it was necessary to reference
this long title, we will simply refer to it
as ‘the Code’.
The Code is divided into seven sections. The first section is intended to be
of general interest to all users, the second is intended to be of interest to the
system designer, architect or electrical
engineer. The third section attempts
to address one of the major problems
plaguing fire detection systems in Britain today, that of false and unwanted
alarms. This section offers advice and
best practices for the successful management of false alarms. The fourth section is for the installer with a link to section five which covers commissioning
and handover of the system. Section
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
about this manual
six recognises the importance of good
planned maintenance and the seventh
section is for the user. Each section contains commentary followed by recommendations. It is the recommendations
that are used to audit a system.
In practice, more than one organisation
or company is usually involved in the
design of the system and its installation.
The Code recognises these different responsibilities and takes a modular approach to the process of contracting when
installing a fire alarm system. Furthermore, the Code recognises that, in most
cases, the user is unlikely to buy a copy
of the Code in order to learn about his
responsibilities. In fact, the Code recommends that the installer should instruct
the user on his responsibilities.
It is often a requirement that individual
organisations or individual persons
need to be familiar with all aspects of
the Code. In this manual, therefore, we
section one guide to design of fire systems
follow through the design phase, the
installation phase and use of the system phase without strictly following
the Code as sectionalised.
This manual is a guideline to the Code only
and as such it is important to read this manual in conjunction with the Code so that
all aspects can be fully understood.
This manual is not a replacement for
the Code.
The manual consists of two sections.
Section 1: Guide to Design of Fire
Systems
This section contains information taken
from the planning and design guidelines described in BS 5839-1.
page 3
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
about this manual
Section 2: An introduction to the
suite of EN54 standards
This section contains an overview of all
relevant EN54 standards in common
usage throughout the UK fire manufacturing and buyers base.
EN54 standards are common across
European member states and exist to
provide test criteria for the vigorous
and comprehensive functionality and
performance testing of critical life safety / property protection products, used
in the design and installation of fire detection and alarm systems.
Such products are regulated by this
set of standards referenced EN54
and these standards are harmonised,
which means they become law under
the Construction Products Regulation
(CPR). Proof of compliance is by CE
marking.
The aim of Section 2 is to provide an
overview of each of the current harmonised standards. Approvals, whilst being mandatory
within the EU also proves reliability and
longevity as well as sensitivity which
together are some of the most essential components of both life safety and
property protection systems.
Readership
This manual has been prepared for use
by architects, designers and electrical
engineers responsible for the design,
specification and installation of fire protection and alarm systems intended for
use in medium to large size buildings,
for example, schools, hotels, hospitals,
office complexes, shopping precincts,
supermarket stores, airports, warehouses, etc.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
contents
The information provided herein is intended specifically for the use of appropriately qualified and experienced
persons as stipulated in the Foreword to
BS 5839-1.
Electronic Format
This document is available for download in PDF format. Section 2 of this
manual is a sample specification for digital addressable fire detection systems,
which is also downloadable in Word format from www.tycoemea.com
Acknowledgements
We gratefully acknowledges the use of
certain extracts taken from the Code
and thanks the British Standards Institution for allowing the use of some of
its material.
section one guide to design of fire systems
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
Section one
Guide to design installation, commissioning and
maintenance of fire systems
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
page 7
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
1.
Introduction
Fire detection and alarm systems are designed to provide warning to the outbreak
of fire, so allowing evacuation and appropriate fire fighting action to be taken before
the situation gets out of control. Systems
may be designed primarily to protect property or life, or to protect against interruption to a client’s business from fire; some
systems may be designed to achieve any
combination of these objectives. It is essential that the designer understands the
objective(s) of the system. This places a
great responsibility on the designer because each building will present a different set
of problems in relation to satisfying the objective. Each fire detection and alarm system therefore must be specifically designed to meet the requirements of the client
for each building.
Once the objective(s) has been defined, in
designing a system, particular consideration must be given to the type of building,
its construction and the purpose for which
it is being used, so that in the event of a fire,
the fire detection system, combined with
appropriate fire prevention procedures,
will keep fire risk to a minimum.
The information provided herein is intended to help and enable appropriately qua-
lified designers to plan and design fire detection and alarm systems suitable for use
in any type of building or installation.
As mentioned above, the designer of a
fire detection and alarm system bears a
great responsibility because the safety of
personnel, property and the continuing
operation of the business rests with him.
Occasionally, particular problems may occur which are not covered in this manual.
In such cases it is most important that you
seek specialist advice at an early stage.
When designing a fire detection and alarm
system, in addition to deciding the type of
system, detectors, call points and sounders to be used etc., there are also other
aspects which need to be considered.
These include measures to limit false and
unwanted alarms, method of installation,
materials required during installation, user
training, routine maintenance procedures,
and service agreement. For any system to
function reliably and provide problem free
service throughout the life of the system,
all of these aspects must be considered in
the overall system design and plan.
What is the BAFE Modular Scheme?
The British Approvals for Fire Equipment
(BAFE) modular scheme, SP203, was
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
launched in 2002 and has been prepared for the third party certification of companies involved in the:
• Design
• Installation
• Commissioning and handover
• Maintenance of fire detection and alarm
systems and/or fixed fire suppression
systems.
The scheme has four modules in recognition of the fact that a different company
may undertake each module. Thus, for
example, a consulting engineer can be
certificated under the scheme for design
of fire detection and alarm systems, whereas fire alarm contractors will normally be
certificated for all four modules. An electrical contractor, on the other hand, could
be certificated purely for the installation
module. The scheme is, therefore, designed to reflect the way in which fire alarm
contracts actually operate, and it parallels
BS 5839-1, which is divided into separate
sections containing recommendations for
design, installation, commissioning/ handover and maintenance.
A BAFE certificate of compliance is issued
to the completed system, provided firms
certificated under the scheme have been
responsible for, and issued certificates for,
section one guide to design of fire systems
design, installation and commissioning.
Before the BAFE certificate of compliance can be issued, however, an additional
process, known as ‘verification’, must be
carried out. This essentially ensures that
the design drawn up at the beginning of
the process remains valid at the end of
the process.
What is LPS 1014?
LPS 1014 is a standard against which
the Loss Prevention Certification Board
(LPCB) assesses the ability of companies
to design, install, commission and service fire detection and alarm systems.
This scheme has also been adopted by
BAFE.
By specifying a company which is certificated to LPS 1014, you can be confident
that your fire detection and alarm system
will be installed competently to the codes
of practice that you specify (e.g. BS 58391) and that the company can provide the
necessary maintenance service required
to maintain a valid LPS 1014 Certificate of
Conformity.
For a company to be LPS 1014 Certificated
it must fulfil the following requirements:
page 9
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
• Have two years continuous experience
in design, installation, commissioning
and servicing of systems.
• Have randomly selected installations
inspected by the LPCB every six months
against the specified contract
requirements. Certificates must reliably
identify any variations from the
Installation Rules applied.
• Have the resources to support systems in
case of a break down with 8–hour emergency call out service.
• Be competently capable of performing
the planned servicing of installations.
• Have suitably trained and experienced
staff.
• Operate a BS EN ISO 9000 quality
system.
When an LPS 1014 approved company
completes each installation contract, the
client is issued with a Certificate of Conformity. Copies of these certificates are also
forwarded to the LPCB. The LPCB use their
copies of the certificates to choose randomly which installations to inspect.
An installation designed, installed, commissioned and maintained by a firm certificated under LPS 1014 will be likely to
meet the statutory requirements of the fire
brigade and satisfy your insurance com-
pany, provided their requirements have
been taken into account in the design.
Environmental Issues :
Restriction on the use of Hazardous
materials, (RoHS)
From 2014 RoHS is mandatory and a level
set which manufacturers will not be able
to exceed. Those seeking to install systems or specify a particular manufacturers
systems and products should satisfy themselves that these requirements are met.
Registration, Evaluation,Authorisation
and Restriction of Chemicals, (REACH)
This is an EU Regulation of December
2006 which addresses the production
and use of chemical substances and their
potential impacts on health and the environment. Key dates for compliance, based
upon tonnage manufactured or imported were 2010, 2013 and going forward
2018. Manuafacturers and suppliers
should be able to demonstrate compliance
when requested.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
Inventory of Hazardous Materials
(Green Passport)
Green passport is a marine requirement
which was introduced to ensure that all
materials used in the construction of a ship
are safe. Despite this any materials which
are confirmed as safe will provide the
same green benefits to all parties, manufacturers, installers, maintainers and users
irrespective of whether the system is installed on dry land or in a marine environment.
An inventory of Hazardous materials is a
list of hazardous materials, waste and stores. Once the IHM has been developed a
Statement of Compliance is required. SOC
or Green passport as it is known is a self
certification process.
Products should be independently assessed in order to ensure compliance and to
support the issuing of a Green passport.
The use of safe “Green Passport certified” products are to be encouraged in all
situations.
1.1
Planning the System
This task is probably the most important of all because mistakes made here
may have a fundamental effect on the
category and operation of fire detection
and alarm system. The specification and
section one guide to design of fire systems
associated documentation which form
the invitation to tender will indicate any
weaknesses, errors or omissions in the
design. The specification of the system
therefore should be prepared with great
care, thus ensuring that all requirements
of the system are covered.
Clause 6 of BS 5839-1 defines the responsibilities of the designer of the system, particularly in terms of exchange of
information and consultation with other
parties.
The key parties with whom the designer
needs to consult are the user or purchaser
of the system and any relevant consultants, including architects, M&E consultants and fire engineering consultants.
Before design begins, the designer should
ensure that he understands the objectives
of the system. Is it merely to satisfy legislative requirements for the protection of life?
Instead, or in addition, is it to protect property, perhaps in order to satisfy insurers’
requirements? Is it intended to minimize
disruption to the business in the event of
fire? It is the responsibility of the user or
purchaser of the system (or a consultant
acting on their behalf) to consult with
the relevant enforcing authorities (e.g.
building control and the fire authority)
page 11
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
and, where relevant, the insurers to determine their requirements. These requirements should then be passed on to the
designer. Where the designer is in any
doubt, he should endeavour to clarify
the requirements by discussion with the
user or purchaser, and he should make
clear to the client the nature and objectives of the protection that he proposes
to design.
The design of the system should be ‘driven’
by the fire safety strategy for the building,
including the required evacuation procedures. For example, to support the procedures, a two-stage alarm might be necessary. It is too late to develop fire procedures
once the system has been designed. The
designer needs to understand the client’s
intended fire procedures to ensure that
these can be supported by the system. On
the other hand, at the time of initial design,
sufficient information is not always available. In such cases, the consultant may need
to leave some flexibility for amendment of
the design to suit the final procedures and
the particular system that is supplied.
1.1.1
The Role of Fire Risk
Assessment and
Fire Engineering
The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) order
2005, introduced in October 2006, sim-
plified the law on fire safety by replacing
over 70 separate pieces of fire safety
legislation. The order now placed those responsible for fire safety in business
( ‘responsible persons’ ) to carry out a fire
risk assessment, and the findings must
be documented if the employer employs
five or more employees. This requirement
applies even if the premises have been
accepted by enforcing authorities under
other fire safety legislation, such as the
Fire Precautions Act. The ‘Responsible
Person’ needs to identify the fire precautions that should be taken by means of
a fire risk assessment. The designer of a
fire alarm system for an existing building
needs to be aware of any relevant findings
of the fire risk assessment.
Most buildings will need a manual fire
alarm system to protect occupants. Where
people sleep in the building, comprehensive coverage by fire detection will also be
necessary. The fire risk assessment might
also identify the need for fire detection in
specified areas of a building in which no
one sleeps. Sometimes, the fire detection
is necessary to compensate for shortcomings in other fire precautions, in which
case the fire risk assessment should identify the level of coverage required.
The fire precautions, such as means of
escape, in many complex modern buildings
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
do not necessarily follow the guidance in
traditional ‘prescriptive’ codes of practice.
Instead, a ‘fire engineering solution’ is adopted, whereby a package of integrated fire
protection measures achieve a standard of
fire safety that is, at least, equivalent to the
safety offered by the prescriptive code. Often, automatic fire detection is one of the
measures included in the package. The designer of the fire alarm system should take
great care, in this case, to ensure that the
system meets the needs of the fire engineering solution. This might necessitate consultation with the fire engineer responsible for
the fire engineering solution.
1.1.2
Variations from BS 5839-1
BS 5839-1 is a code of practice, rather than
a rigid standard. It contains recommendations that will be suitable in most circumstances, rather than inflexible requirements.
This means that the consultant may adopt
‘variations’ from the recommendations
of the code to suit the particular needs of
the building.
This does not mean that the recommendations should be ignored. They should
always be considered and, normally,
followed. However, the designer might
adopt a variation on the basis of a fire risk
assessment or his engineering judgement,
practical considerations arising from insta-
section one guide to design of fire systems
llation difficulties, to achieve a cost effective design, etc. A variation could be as
simple as a small departure from some
dimension specified in the code (e.g. maximum distance of travel to the nearest
manual call point) or as significant as the
omission of fire detectors from an area
that is judged to be of such low hazard as
to make fire detection unnecessary.
Care should be taken to ensure that the recommendations of the code regarding variations are followed exactly. The specific
recommendations in question are that:
• The variations should be clearly identi
fied, so that they are obvious to all interested parties, such as the user, purchaser, enforcing authority or insurer.
• Any variations identified or proposed
during the installation or commissioning
of the system, but not at the design
stage, should be documented for
subsequent agreement , as described
above.
• The variations should be agreed by all the
interested parties.
All variations should be listed in the design
certificate that is issued by the consultant.
page 13
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
1.1.3
Type of System
Early in the planning of the system, the
consultant needs to consider what type of
system is appropriate. For example, consideration should be given to whether the
system should be conventional or digital
addressable. The two types of system are
compared and contrasted in Section 4.
As a general rule, conventional systems
are appropriate only in buildings of limited size and complexity, where a simple
indication of the zone in which there is a
fire will be sufficient. In other buildings,
an indication of the exact location of the
detector(s) that has responded to a fire,
provided by an addressable system, will
be of value.
Digital addressable systems are recognised as having a lower potential for false
and unwanted alarms than conventional
systems. The code recommends that systems with a high number of smoke detectors (e.g. more than 100 detectors) should
be of the digital addressable type.
Early consideration of the type of detectors
to be used will also be needed. Heat detectors will be the most immune to false and
unwanted alarms in most circumstances,
but will not generally provide as early a
warning of fire as smoke detectors or
multisensor fire detectors. In some circumstances, multisensor fire detectors
can provide early warning of fire with
less potential for false and unwanted
alarms than smoke detectors. Flame detectors may be appropriate for special
risks, such as areas in which there are
flammable liquids.
1.1.4
Servicing Arrangements
Servicing arrangements are important because they represent a hidden cost to the
user. Some systems may require regular
attendance by a service engineer in order
to maintain the system at a high efficiency
level. Not only does the engineer have to
be paid for, but his presence may also cause disruption to the day–to–day operation
of the business. The latter element may actually be much more important to the end
user than the service cost.
Section 6 of the code specifies recommendations for maintenance. This includes
weekly tests and periodic inspection and
servicing. Clause 45.3 states that, if some
of the functions are tested automatically
then the manufacturer can specify that
some periodic testing can be omitted. This
can pay off in servicing requirements since
the end user can see the financial advantages of such a system. It should be noted
that, if servicing requirements are included,
it means that the quotation should also include the costs of the recommended system maintenance.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
fig 1. Fire Planning and Design Flowchart (section1)
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 15
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
fig 1. Fire Planning and Design Flowchart (section2)
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
introduction
1.1.5
Planning Flowchart
To assist with designing and specifying a
typical fire alarm system the planning flowchart shown in Figure 1 on pages 14 and
15, has been produced to provide a logical
guide.This flowchart maps the main activities that should be considered when planning and designing a fire detection and
alarm system. The side notes added to certain activity boxes are included for the purpose of directing the reader to relevant sections of this manual, where further detailed
information can be found.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 17
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
selecting the category of protection and coverage
2.
Selecting the Category of
Protection and Coverage
After initially consulting with all interested
parties, the first decision to be made when
designing a fire detection and alarm system is a simple choice of establishing the
purpose of the system, that is whether it
is for protecting the building, its contents
and business continuity (Property Protection) or enhancing the safety of the occupants (Life Protection). British Standard BS
5839-1 categorises systems according to
their purpose and the extent of protection
to be afforded.
If it is determined that there should be no
automatic detection, a simple system comprising sounders and break glass call points
alone might suffice. This type of system is
described as a Category M system.
• Manual (Category M)
Category M
A manual system, incorporating no automatic fire detectors.
Clause 5 of the code divides systems that
incorporate automatic fire detection into
two main Categories, according to whether the objective is life safety (Category
L) or property protection (Category P).
The two Categories are then further subdivided, according to the extent of coverage by automatic fire detection.
• Life Protection (Category L)
This classification provides for the protection of life, that is the safety of the occupants. It caters for the detection of a
fire, initiates an alarm of fire, and provides
sufficient time for the occupants to escape
from the building.
Category L5
The protected area and/or the location of
detectors is designed to satisfy a specific
fire safety objective. This may be defined
in a fire engineering solution or from a fire
risk assessment.
Category L4
Covers those parts of the escape routes
comprising circulation areas and circulation spaces, such as corridors and airways.
Category L3
Covers escape routes and rooms opening onto escape routes (detectors may be situated adjacent to the door onto the
escape route).
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
selecting the category of protection and coverage
Category L2
Covers the areas protected by Category
3 system plus other areas where it is considered that there is a high fire hazard and/
or fire risk.
Category L1
Total coverage throughout the building.
• Property Protection (Category P)
This classification provides for the protection of property and its contents. It caters
for the automatic detection of a fire, initiates an alarm of fire, and results in summoning of the fire brigade (which may be by
a means of automatic transmission of fire
signals to an Alarm Receiving Centre).
Category P2
Covers areas of high fire hazard or high
risk to property or business continuity
from fire.
Category P1
Total coverage throughout the building.
2.1
Category M – Manual
This is the simplest form of fire alarm system. It provides basic protection by break
glass call points and sounders only. As this
type of system has no automatic detection
section one guide to design of fire systems
devices, in the event of fire, it has to be manually initiated by activating a call point.
2.2
Category L5 - Life
Often the design of a Category L5 system
is based on a fire risk assessment or arises from a fire engineering solution. The
system may be provided to compensate
for some departure from the normal recommendations of prescriptive fire protection codes, such as those dealing with
means of escape. A Category L5 system
may also be provided as part of the operating system for a fire protection system
(e.g. a smoke control system).
The Category L5 system could be as simple
as one that incorporates a single automatic
fire detector in one room, but a Category L5
system could also comprise comprehensive fire detection throughout large areas of
a building in which, for example, structural
fire resistance is less than that normally
specified in the circumstances.
The protection afforded by a Category L
system might, or might not, incorporate
that provided by a Category L2, L3 or
L4 system.
page 19
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
selecting the category of protection and coverage
2.3
Category L4 - Life
In a Category L4 system, automatic fire
detection is only provided within escape
routes comprising circulation areas and
circulation spaces, such as corridors and
stairways. A Category L4 system will not
necessarily provide significant time for
all occupants to escape before smoke
occurs in significant quantities within the
escape routes. This level of protection
will not, therefore, normally satisfy the
requirements of legislation in buildings in
which people sleep.
The objective of a Category L4 system
is to enhance the safety of occupants by
providing warning of smoke within escape routes. This may be satisfactory in a
building in which legislation would not,
in any case, require automatic fire detection. Although the need for a Category L4
system might be identified in a fire risk assessment, care should be taken to ensure
that the absence of detectors within rooms
opening onto escape routes (as would be
found in a Category L3 system) is satisfactory to ensure the safety of occupants.
There is, of course, nothing to prevent the
installation of detectors in certain additional areas over and above the minimum
necessary for compliance with the recommendations for a Category L4 system.
Detectors installed within the escape
routes can be optical, CO or multisensor
detectors.
2.4
Category L3 - Life
The purpose of a Category L3 system is
to provide warning to occupants beyond
the room in which fire starts, so that they
can escape before escape routes, such as
corridors and staircases, are smoke-logged.
However, research has shown that fire gases passing through the cracks around doors can produce smoke sufficiently dense
and cool for a corridor to become smokelogged before adequate warning can be
given by detectors in the corridor itself.
For this reason, in a Category L3 system,
optical smoke detectors, or a mixture of
optical smoke detectors, CO and or multisensor fire detectors, should be sited within the escape routes, while smoke, heat
or carbon monoxide detectors should be
installed in all rooms that open onto the
escape routes. (Rooms opening onto corridors of less than 4m in length need not,
however, be protected, providing fire resisting construction, including doors, separates these short corridors from any other
section of the escape route.)
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
selecting the category of protection and coverage
An open plan area of accommodation,
in which occupants will quickly become
aware of a fire, need not be protected in a
Category L3 (or L4) system unless the area
forms part of the escape route from other
areas (e.g. an enclosed office). However,
in a Category L3 system, detection should
be installed on the accommodation side
of any door within the open plan area that
opens into the escape routes (subject to
the exception for the short lengths of corridor described above).
2.5
Category L2 - Life
The objective of the Category L2 system is identical to that of a Category L3
system, with the additional objective of
giving early warning of a fire that occurs in
specified areas of high fire hazard (i.e. where the outbreak of fire is likely) and/or areas
of high fire risk (i.e. where the likelyhood of
fire in combination with the possible consequences of fire warrants protection).
It is for the designer to specify which rooms
or areas of the building warrant protection,
over and above the protection provided in
a Category L3 system. It should not be left
to the fire alarm contractor to guess the intention of the designer in this respect.
section one guide to design of fire systems
Upgrading Category L3 protection to Category L2 protection might not only involve provision of detectors in additional rooms or areas. It might involve a change in
detector type and/or siting. For example,
many building control and fire authorities
accept heat detection within bedrooms
of hotels, as they consider the purpose of these detectors is only to provide
a warning of fire to occupants of other
bedrooms, rather than the occupant of
the room in which fire starts. Since this
is effectively Category L3 protection,
these detectors may also be wall-mounted on the walls of the bedrooms. However, in the case of a dormitory, this would
be insufficient, and smoke detection
would normally be required throughout
the dormitory. Also, if any bedrooms are
intended for use by disabled people, earlier warning of fire within the bedroom
is necessary to provide additional time
for escape. Again, in these bedrooms,
the authorities would require smoke detectors (or, possibly, carbon monoxide
fire detectors), and the detectors would
be conventionally mounted on the ceiling. These smoke or carbon monoxide
multisensor detectors, intended to protect the occupants of the room in which
fire starts, are effectively part of a Category L2 system.
page 21
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
selecting the category of protection and coverage
2.6
Category L1 - Life
A Category L1 system provides the highest
standard of protection of life. Fire detectors
are installed in all rooms and areas of the
building, except that the following rooms
or areas need not be protected if they are
of low fire risk:
•Toilets, shower rooms and bathrooms;
• Stairway, lobbies and toilet lobbies;
• Small cupboards (typically, less
than 1m2);
• Small risers (typically,
less than 1m2), if there is a fire
resisting floor and ceiling
within the riser.
• Some shallow voids (less than 800mm in
depth).
In a Category L1 system, the detectors within escape routes should be optical smoke
detectors, or multisensor fire detectors.
2.7
Category P2 - Property
A Category P2 system involves automatic fire detection in only specified areas
of the building. The areas in which detection should be provided are those
that are judged to have a high probability of fire and those in which the consequences of fire would be serious. In
considering the consequences of fire,
account should be taken of both direct
damage to property and the effect of fire
on business continuity. As in the case of
a Category L2 system, the specification
should indicate the areas in which automatic fire detection is to be provided. It
should not be left for the fire alarm installer to guess the designer’s intent in this
respect. The designer should, therefore,
determine the requirements of the purchaser, who in turn should consult with
the property insurers.
Points to consider in determining the need
for protection in any area include:
• How probable is the likelihood of detec tion by people in the building?
• What sources of ignition are present?
• How combustible are the contents?
• How valuable are the contents?
• What is the likelihood of fire spreading from unprotected areas to areas with valuable contents or areas on which
business continuity depends?
• What are the costs of extending the protection to all areas?
Usually, some form of balance has to be
struck between cost and level of protection. BS 5839-1 gives no detailed advice in
this respect, and so great care needs to be
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
selecting the category of protection and coverage
taken to ensure that the system will satisfy
the objectives of the purchaser or user.
2.8
Category P1 - Property
A Category P1 is very similar to a Category
L1 system, in that all areas of the building
are protected, other than the exceptions
described for Category L1. Thus, a Category P1 system provides the highest form
of protection of property and protection
against interruption to a business. It is,
therefore, the most ideal system from the
point of view of the property insurer.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 23
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
how to configure detector zones and alarm zones
within premises
3.
Detector zones and alarm zones
3.1 The Meaning of a Detection
Zone and Alarm Zone
BS 5839-1 defines a detection zone as
‘a subdivision of the protected premises
such that the occurrence of a fire within
it will be indicated by a fire alarm system
separately from an indication of fire in
any other subdivision’. The code notes
that a detection zone will usually consist
of; an area protected by several manual
call points and/or detectors, and is separately indicated to assist in location of the
fire, evacuation of the building and firefighting. In earlier versions of BS 5839-1,
a detection zone was described simply as
a ‘zone’.
The code defines an alarm zone as ‘a geographical sub-division of the premises, in
which the fire alarm warning can be given separately, and independently, of a fire alarm
warning in any other alarm zone.’ Thus,
alarm zones do not occur in buildings in
which there is single phase (simultaneous)
evacuation of the entire building when the
fire alarm system is operated. Alarm zones
only occur in buildings in which there is a
two (or more) stage alarm.
3.2
The Purpose of Detection Zones
The main reason for sub-dividing the premises into detection zones is to indicate the
location of a fire as precisely as possible at
the control and indicating equipment (CIE).
This aids those responding to the fire alarm
signal, particularly the fire service.
In conventional systems, each detection
zone is connected to the CIE by a separate
circuit. In addressable systems, however,
one circuit may serve a large number of
manual call points and detectors, grouped
into several detection zones. In either case,
each detection zone will have a separate
number and visual indicator at the CIE. In
the event of a fire condition, the visual indicator will illuminate, thus assisting people
to identify the location of the fire by means
of a zone plan, which should be mounted
adjacent to the CIE.
Addressable systems are able to identify
exactly which detector or call point is in
the alarm condition, so pinpointing the
exact location of the fire. Not withstanding
this major benefit of being able to locate
precisely the origin of the fire, the building
needs to be sub-divided into detection zones in accordance with clause 13 of the
code. In general, the code states that the
primary indication of the origin of the alarm
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
how to configure detector zones and alarm zones
within premises
should be an indication of the detection
zone of origin.
tion zone that are common to both conventional and addressable fire systems:
A display giving information only relating to
the whereabouts of a particular detector in
alarm (for example, CIRCUIT 2 DETECTOR
7 WORKS OFFICE) is useful, but in isolation may not provide an obvious indication
of the spread of fire as further detectors go
into alarm. The display of individual detectors in alarm should, therefore, be secondary to the light emitting visual indication
of detection zone.
1. The maximum floor area of a detec tion zone should not exceed 2,000m2.
(However, in large, open plan areas, such as warehouses, if the
detection zone only contains manual
call points, this may be increased to 10,000m2.)
To satisfy this recommendation, a separate and continuous visible indication for
each detection zone in which a detector
or call point has operated will need to be
given on the control and indicating equipment, or on a separate indicator panel
connected to it.
A diagrammatic representation of the building showing the detection zones should
be provided adjacent to the control and indicator panel, as defined in Clauses 3 and
23 of BS5839-1.
3.3
Detection Zone Configuration
Guidelines
There are several recommendations regarding the size and configuration of a detec-
section one guide to design of fire systems
2.
The search distance, that is the distance that has to be travelled by a searcher within a detection zone in order
to determine visually the position of
the fire (not reach the fire), should
not exceed 60m. (Search distance
need not be applied to addressable
systems if a suitable display of location
would enable fire-fighters to go
straight to the fire.)
3.
If the total floor area of a building
is less than 300m2, then the building
need only be one detection zone, re
gardless of the number of floors.
4.
If the total floor area of a building is
greater than 300m2, then each floor
should be a separate detection zone
(or set of detection zones, if the floor
area is large enough).
page 25
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
how to configure detector zones and alarm zones
within premises
5. 3.4
A single, vertical detection zone
should be provided for fire detectors
within an enclosed stairwell, lift
shaft or similar enclosed flue-like
structure. However, any manual call
point on the landing of a stairwell
should be incorporated within the detection zone that serves the adjacent accommodation on the same
level as the landing.
Detection Zone Safeguards
It is possible for addressable detectors to
share one circuit all round the building,
thereby having several detection zones
served by the same two–wire circuit. For
conventional detectors, each individual detection zone is served by its own dedicated
two–wire circuit.
To ensure that an addressable system does
not have a lower level of integrity than a
conventional system, the code makes
various recommendations that limit the
effects of faults.
1.
A single fault occurring on an automatic fire detector circuit should not disable protection within an area of more
than 2,000m2, nor on more than one
floor of the building plus a maximum of
five devices on the floor immediately
above and five devices on the floor immediately below that floor.
In conventional systems this will normally be achieved as a matter of course, since an open or short circuit
condition will only affect the individual detection zone circuit concerned (See
Figure 2). The detection zone will be
no more than 2,000m2 in area and,
other than in very small buildings,
will serve no more than one floor.
In addressable systems where a number of zones share the same ring circuit
or loop (See Figure 3), an open circuit
is not too much of a problem (just so
long as the fault is reported) since the
loop can be driven in both directions.
The case of a short circuit however is
far more serious since this condition
could prejudice every device (up to
250) on the circuit. Short circuit
protection is therefore required in all
loop circuits. This is achieved by
placing line isolator devices at
appropriate locations in the loop
circuit, so that the area protected by detectors between any two line
isolators is no greter than 2,000m2 and these detectors are on the same
floor level.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
how to configure detector zones and alarm zones
within premises
For example, with reference to the circuit shown in Figure 3, if a short circuit
were to occur in detection zone 2, the
two line isolators X and Y would operate and create two breaks in the circuit at points X and Y. The loop would
Visual Alarm
Combined Sounder/Visual Alarm
fig 2. Conventional System Circuit
section one guide to design of fire systems
then drive in both directions, that is, detection zone 1 in one direction
and zones 5, 4 and 3 in the other direction. The line isolators would again automatically become passive after the
short circuit has been repaired.
page 27
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
how to configure detector zones and alarm zones
within premises
Circuit 1 to 4; 250 points per circuit
fig 3. Addressable Loop System Circuit
fig 4. Addressable Loop System Circuit with Spurs.
Where detectors and ancillaries have integral line
isolators, additional isolators are not required.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
how to configure detector zones and alarm zones
within premises
In addressable systems where detectors are connected on a ‘spur’ off a
loop, (see Figure 4), to comply with
the recommendation of the code then
the spur should not serve more than
one floor or an area of greater
than 2,000m2.
2. Two faults should not remove protec tion from an area greater than
10,000m2. This recommendation im poses a maximum area of coverage for
a single loop in an addressable loop
system (see Figure 3). No loop in the
system therefore should ever serve
an area of coverage greater than
10,000m2. If the area to be protected
exceeds this maximum limit, then an
additional loop(s) should be used.
3. Open circuit and short circuit faults
should be reported at the control panel
within 100 seconds of occurrence
This limitation will be satisfied if control
equipment conforms to BS EN 54-2.
section one guide to design of fire systems
When you have established the detection
zone arrangement for the building, the
next step in the design process is to decide
which type of fire alarm system should be
used, see section 4 (Which Type of Fire Detection and Alarm System?).
page 29
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
4.
Which Type of Fire Detection and
Alarm System?
Three types of fire alarm detection systems
are available and covered by the code.
These types are broadly defined as:
• Conventional Systems
• Addressable Systems
• Digital Addressable Systems
Irrespective of which type of system is selected, the guidelines set out in Sections 2
and 3 still apply.
In premises where the evacuation of personnel is more difficult, such as in residential care; The importance of providing
accurate and unambiguous information,
such as can be provided only by addressable systems, is strongly recommended.
Clause 4 of BS5839 refers
Conventional systems provide a number of
two wire circuits onto which conventional
detectors and call points are connected.
Similarly, separate two wire circuits are
also provided for the purpose of connecting sounders (or alarm bells) to the system
(see Figure 2 in Section 3).
The primary function of the control and indicating equipment (CIE) is to indicate the
location of a fire as precisely as possible.
To achieve this objective, detectors are
grouped into detection zones, with each
detector zone being connected to the CIE
by a separate circuit, which also has a separate indicator on the control panel.
In the following subsections, we compare
and contrast the differences between the
three types of systems.
Each detector includes an integral LED
(light emitting diode) indicator which illuminates when the device is in the fire alarm
condition. If an indicator on the CIE indicates a fire in a detection zone, the detection
zone must be physically searched until the
detector with the illuminated LED is found.
Detectors installed out of view normally
have a remote LED indicator.
4.1
4.1.1
Conventional Systems
A conventional or two–state detector
is a detector which gives one of two
states relating to either normal or fire
alarm conditions.
Detection Zones
If zoning were to be extended to the limit,
each circuit would have only one detector connected, and the exact location of
the fire could be established at the CIE
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
without the need to physically search
the zone. To do this with conventional
detectors and a conventional control panel would be prohibitively expensive because of the number of detection zones
required on the CIE and the large amount
of installation work involved.
In conventional systems, all the detectors
on a detection zone circuit continuously
communicate with the CIE. When one
detector goes into the fire alarm state, the
voltage on the circuit drops and all other
detectors on that detection zone become
disabled. During this period no further signals from other detectors in the detection
zone can be received at the CIE.
4.1.2
Detectors and Call Points
Point smoke detectors used in conventional
systems must conform to the requirements
of BS EN 54-7. Similarly, point heat detectors must conform to the requirements of
BS EN 54-5. Flame detectors must conform
to the requirements of BS EN 54-10.
Manual break glass call points must conform to the requirements of BS EN 54-11.
The code recommends the use of ‘Type A’
manual call points, which require only one
action to operate them (i.e. breaking the
glass automatically sets off the fire alarm
section one guide to design of fire systems
system). However, if manual call points
are likely to be subject to casual malicious
operation (e.g. in some schools,mstudent
residences, public entertainment premises, etc), a variation might be accepted by
the building control and fire authorities,
whereby on next time a hinged plastic cover is fitted to each call point. The cover
then has to be lifted before the glass can
be broken.
The code states that the removal of a detector on a circuit should not prevent the
operation of any break glass call point. In
a conventional system, unless the system
is designed in such a way that removal of
every detector from a detection zone circuit does not disable other devices that
remain connected, it will be necessary to
either connect manual call points on a separate circuit from fire detectors or to install all call points as the first devices on the
circuit, with any automatic fire detectors
‘downstream’ of these.
4.2
Addressable Systems
An addressable system is one using
addressable detectors and/or call points,
signals from which are individually identified at the control panel.
page 31
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
In a simple addressable system, the CIE
can provide a number of two wire circuits
onto which addressable detectors and call
points may be connected. The two wire
circuit should be connected to form a loop
in order to provide circuit integrity. In addition to this, line isolators should be distributed around the loop to ensure compliance
with the code.
4.2.1
Operation of Addressable
Systems
In an addressable system, multiplex
communication techniques allow each
detector to independently signal its status back to the control panel. Since each
detector has its own identity (or address)
the control panel, in addition to providing
the normal detection zone, may also be
configured to give a customer defined
character message to each detector. This
is especially useful to any observer who
is not familiar with the layout of the site.
The customised messages are usually
displayed on a text and/or graphical display alongside the visual detection zone
indicators.
In operation, the control panel sends out
the first address and then waits a pre–
set time for a reply. Each detector compares the address sent out by the control
panel with its own pre–set address and
the one that matches the address sends
back its status. If a particular detector
address is not found within the pre–set
time because the device has been either
disconnected or removed, the control
panel indicates a fault. Similarly, if the
detector address is found but the device
fails to operate correctly (that is, reply)
within the pre–set time then the control
panel also indicates a fault.
The control panel then sends out the next
address, and so on until all devices have
been addressed, and then it repeats the
whole cycle again.
Clearly it is possible for many detectors on
the same circuit to be in alarm at the same
time and for the CIE to recognise this. This
means that much more information about
the spread of fire within a zone can be obtained. Because of the communication techniques involved, the detectors do not have to
be arranged on the circuit in address order,
hence circuit wiring can take the most economical route. This method obviates the
necessity of accurate installation drawings.
4.2.2
Detectors and Call Points
Addressable detectors and manual call
points must conform to the same standards (i.e. the same BS EN) as conventional devices.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
fig 5. Addressable Loop System Circuit with Conventional Spur and Addressable Output Modules.
Where detectors and ancillaries have integral line isolators, additional isolators are
not required
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 33
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
The removal of a detector on a circuit will
not prevent the operation of any break
glass call point. This is achieved in an
addressable system because removal of a
detector does not cause any break in the
circuit. The removal of the detector in sensed by the absence of a ‘reply’ when the
detector is polled by the CIE.
A contact monitor module is another device which can be used on an addressable
system. This device is used for monitoring
very simple items that provide a closing or
opening volt free contact, for example a
sprinkler flow valve.
4.2.3
Output Devices
Besides handling input devices, that is,
detectors and call points, addressable systems can also handle output devices on the
addressable loop. This is possible because
part of the address message from the control panel can be a command instruction
to an output device, signalling it to turn its
output ON or OFF. A typical application of
this would be a sounder module used to
drive a number of sounders (or bells), and /
or visual alarm devices, or a plant interface
module used to shut down a piece of electrical plant. All command instructions sent to
output devices are ignored by input devices
on the circuit (see Figure 5).
It is also acceptable to connect interface
modules to conventional circuits. These
modules allow conventional detectors on
spur detector circuits to be connected to
an addressable zone circuit and monitor
the status of typically 20 conventional
detectors. The conventional detectors on
the spur communicate with the interface
module and should any detector go into
alarm, the interface module signals to
the control panel that an alarm condition
has occurred. These modules are also
often used to upgrade old conventional
systems, by utilising the existing wiring,
although new wiring should always be
used where possible.
In order to provide short circuit protection
and comply with the requirements of the
code, isolators must be fitted at appropriate positions on an addressable loop (see
Section 3.4).
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
4.3
Digital Addressable Systems
In practice all addressable systems are
of the analogue type. A digital system is
one which uses analogue addressable
detectors, each of which give an output signal representing the value of the
sensed phenomenon. The output signal
may be a truly digital signal or a digitally
encoded equivalent of the sensed value.
The decision as to whether the signal
represents a fire or not is made at the CIE.
Apart from the way in which analogue
addressable detectors operate, and the
CIE communication principles employed,
all system design elements of addressable systems (see Section 4.2) also apply to
analogue addressable systems.
Conventional and two state addressable
detectors can signal only two output states, normal and fire alarm.
Consequently, with these detectors it is
impossible to ever establish how close the
device is to an alarm condition, or whether
the localised environmental conditions
(which probably contain dust and dirt)
are causing deteriorating changes in the
detector’s sensitivity, thereby adversely
affecting its performance. However, an
addressable system can offer a number
section one guide to design of fire systems
of system performance improvements
over both conventional and simple (nonanalogue) addressable type systems,
details of which are highlighted in the following subsections.
4.3.1
Operation of Analogue
Addressable Detectors
The output of an addressable detector
is variable and is a proportional representation of the sensed effect of fire,
that is smoke, heat, carbon monoxide
or flame (see Figure 6). Transmission of
this output from the detector is usually
in the form of an analogue current. In
digital systems however this output is
expressed and transmitted in data bits
, using zeros and ones. The communication of the data is made more secure using FSK, thereby ensuring a high
level of discrimination between these
different bit values. When the detector is
interrogated or addressed by the control
panel, the analogue detector responds
with an output value rather than a status value as in the case of conventional
detectors. In an analogue addressable
system therefore, the analogue addressable detectors are simply acting as transducers which relay information (back to
the control panel) concerning temperature, smoke density, etc. Microproces-
page 35
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
sor based circuitry in the control panel
interprets the data received and decides
whether or not to indicate an alarm,
pre–alarm, normal or fault condition.
In order that the system raises an alarm in
the event of a fire, the analogue value output from the detector must be in the alarm
condition (that is, above the alarm threshold) for a period equal to the time taken
to complete three successive address sequences, typically fifteen seconds. This
technique of scanning the sensor three
times before raising an alarm is a useful
way of helping to reduce false alarms
from short term electrical or physical transients, without causing an excessive delay
in actual alarm transmission.
As the output from each detector is an
analogue value, the alarm threshold level can be controlled (or set) by software
within the CIE. This software is usually
stored in non–volatile memory (EEPROM)
when the system is being configured during installation.
fig 6. Graph showing the Output of an Analogue Detector Responding to a Fire
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
4.3.1.1
Detector Pre–Alarm Warning
Quite often in the early stages of a smouldering fire there is a slow build up of smoke
before open burning takes place. With an
analogue addressable smoke detector, the
analogue value rises as the smoke builds
up in the detector’s sampling chamber. At
a certain threshold level, that is the pre–
alarm level (see Figure 7), the control panel
can give a visual indication and audible
warning of this pre–alarm condition before a full–scale evacuation of the building is
required and before the fire service are called. This situation allows the possible cause of the pre–alarm to be investigated prior
to a full alarm condition. It also allows for
primary fire fighting procedures (using portable extinguishers) to be put into effect.
The pre-alarm signal also provides an opportunity to filter out false alarms.
fig 7. Analogue Addressable Detector Typical Pre-Alarm Threshold Level
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 37
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
4.3.1.2
Detector Alarm Threshold
Compensation
As detectors age and become contaminated with dust and dirt their performance
begins to deteriorate such that their potential to go into an alarm condition is that
much higher, thus resulting in false alarms.
The nuisance factor caused by false alarms
is a serious problem for users and fire services alike.
Since the output analogue value of each
detector is continually checked by the
control panel, the slow build up of conta-
minants in the detector is reflected by a
slow increase in the analogue value. As
this occurs, the control panel can alter the
alarm (and pre–alarm) threshold in order
to compensate for this phenomenon (see
Figure 8).
This feature maintains the system at
an optimum performance level and extends the life of each analogue addressable detector.
fig 8. Analogue Addressable Detector Alarm Threshold Compensation
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
The threshold compensation is not adjusted every time there is a minor fluctuation in
the detectors sampling chamber. However,
the control panel does take an average of
the analogue value over the preceding hour
and alters the threshold level accordingly.
be applied due to the dynamic range of
the analogue signal. When this occurs,
the control panel senses that the detector has reached the end of its operational
life, and indicates a detector condition
monitoring fault.
4.3.1.3 Detector Condition Monitoring
When a detector condition monitor fault is
indicated, the detector must be replaced
by a new one and the threshold compensation for the detector’s address is automatically reset. Typically this point will only be
reached after several years of operation.
In accordance with the threshold compensation (see subsection 4.3.1.2), there
comes a time in the life of a detector when
threshold compensation can no longer
fig 9. Analogue Addressable Detector Condition Monitoring Threshold
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 39
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
Unlike conventional or addressable fire
detectors where the sensitivity is fixed,
each analogue addressable detector can
be made to emulate a normal, low or high
sensitivity smoke detector by simply selecting the appropriate threshold settings for
each address in the software configuration
at the CIE. Likewise, the sensitivity of heat
detection can be selected in the software
configuration at the CIE.
pied you might want to reduce the sensitivity level of detectors in selected zones.
This feature allows the settings to be manually switched to low sensitivity for those
zones and then switched back to normal
sensitivity when the premises are again
unoccupied (see Figure 10). There may be
many reasons why you might want to do
this, one being that you want to reduce the
possibility of a false alarm occurring during
the working day, but you want full protection at all other times.
The option of being able to change the sensitivity settings of detectors can be useful
in many situations. For example, at certain
times of the day when the building is occu-
The choice of alarm level sensitivities, plus
any time delay which may be deliberately
introduced, determine the overall system
response to fire conditions. The alarm level
4.3.1.4 Detector Sensitivity Setting
fig 10. Analogue Addressable Detector Alarm Sensitivity Level Setting Range
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
which type of fire detection system
and time delay can in theory be allocated
any value, but in practice the sensitivity
range must be within the limits necessary
to ensure compliance with the relevant
part of BS EN 54.
When you have determined the type of
fire detection and alarm system to use
in the building, that is, conventional or
addressable, the next step in the design
process is to decide which type of detectors should be used in the different areas
(zones) to be protected, see section 5
(Detector Suitability).
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 41
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
5.
Detector Suitability
Once you have decided upon the type of
fire detection and alarm system to use in
the building, that is conventional, addressable or digital addressable, you now need
to choose which type of detectors are to be
used to protect the different areas within
the premises.
There are several types of detector spread
across the range, each of which responds
to a different product of combustion
(smoke, heat, etc.). Manual call points are
used to provide a means for people in the
building to raise the alarm.
The different detector types available are
as follows:
• Multisensor
• High Performance Optical Smoke
Detector
• Optical Smoke Detector
• Infra–Red Flame Detector
• Optical Beam Detector
• Aspirating Detector
• Linear Heat Detector
• Duct Probe Unit
5.1
General Fire System
Engineering Principles
As each type of detector responds to a
particular fire product, the relative speed
of response of the detectors is therefore
dependent upon the type of fire being
detected. As smoke is normally present
at an early stage in most fires, smoke
detectors (Ion Chamber, Optical, High
Performance Optical or Multi-sensor) are
considered the most useful type available
for giving early warning.
Most fires, in their later stages, emit detectable levels of heat. Therefore in areas
where rapid fire spread is unlikely and environmental conditions preclude the use
of smoke detectors, heat detectors (Rate
of Rise or Fixed Temperature) are a general purpose alternative, but these should
not be used in the escape routes of a Category L system.
Fires tend to produce carbon monoxide,
particularly in situations in which there is
insufficient ventilation to enable fire to burn
rapidly. Accordingly, carbon monoxide fire
detectors provide useful warning of such
fires. The carbon monoxide fire detector is
well suited to provide early warning of slow
smouldering fires. Slowly developing and
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
smouldering fires produce large quantities of carbon monoxide before detectable smoke aerosols and particulates
reach smoke detectors in sufficient quantities to detect the fire. These detectors
can often be used in applications in which
heat detectors are insufficiently sensitive, but smoke detectors may cause false
alarms from sources such as steam from
a shower or smoke from burnt toast.
In situations where a burning liquid, for
example alcohol, paint thinner, etc. is
likely to be the prime source of a fire, and
flame is most likely to be the first indication a fire has started, then an Infra–Red
Flame detector should be incorporated
into the system.
Although heat, smoke and carbon monoxide detectors are suitable for use
inside most buildings, flame detectors
may be used to supplement these where necessary. Flame detectors need an
unobstructed line of sight, their greatest use being for such special applications as the supervision of an outdoor
storage area or an area where petro–
chemical processes are taking place,
for example offshore oil platforms. Infrared flame detection can also be used to
protect very high spaces, such as cathe-
section one guide to design of fire systems
drals, where the height is such that point
smoke detectors cannot be used.
Also available are specialised detectors
which have been specifically designed for
use in applications where point and line–
type detectors cannot be used. Two types
are available, namely the Aspirating detector and Duct Probe Unit.
The Aspirating type detector comprises a
small pump which draws a sample of air
through holes in a pipe that is connected
into a detector element. The detector element of the Aspirating detector is usually
very much more sensitive than conventional point detectors to allow for the
effects of dilution of smoke. This type of
detector is normally used for protecting
such areas as computer suites, clean rooms, or the interior of historic buildings
where point or line–type detectors would
look out of place. For further information
also see subsection 5.2.6.
The Duct Probe Unit has been designed
for use in situations where smoke, heat
and flame type detectors cannot be
used. It is primarily used for detecting the
presence of smoke or combustion products in ventilation ducting systems. The
detector has a small probe which protrudes into the duct and draws air from
page 43
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
the duct into the detector. For further
information also see subsection 5.2.7.
5.2
Detector Selection for a
Particular Area
The ability of any particular detector to
respond to the various types of fire within
different types of environment depends
upon a number of factors, such as the operating principle, the sensitivity of the detector and the type of fire that occurs (e.g.
smouldering or flaming).
The decision as to whether the detector is
conventional or analogue addressable is
a separate issue because the principle of
the detection method remains the same.
The dirtier the environment is, the more
preferable the analogue addressable
system becomes. Also the more cellular
the space within a building is, the more
preferable the addressability of analogue
systems becomes.
In planning and designing the fire system,
you may find the detector suitability selection chart shown in Table 1 below useful in
determining the detector type(s) best suited for the specific environment into which
the system is to be installed.
5.2.1
Smoke Detectors
To understand exactly how smoke detectors operate, you first need to know
a little about the composition of smoke.
Most fires produce smoke from their earliest stages, but the density and colour
of the smoke depends very much upon
the material that is burning and the conditions of combustion.
The differences between various types
of smoke are caused by the variation in
the size of the particles that make up the
smoke. As a general rule, the hotter the
fire the greater the number of very small
(invisible) smoke particles. Conversely, a
fire with low temperature decomposition
produces proportionally more larger (visible) smoke particles.
Ion Chamber Smoke Detectors: These
detectors are slowly being phased out due
to a number of factors. Firstly they contain
a small radioactive cell (americium) which
is the alpha particle source used to create
the detection chamber. This is not clean technology and creates problems and costs
when disposing of these.
Secondly technology has, with the
introduction of multi sensor detectors,
provided better fire detection which
covers those fire types previously suited
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
to Ionisation smoke detectors, without
any of the disadvantages.
Optical Smoke Detectors: These detectors
respond quickly to large smoke particles
but are less sensitive to small particles that
do not constitute visible smoke. They
detect the visible particles produced in
fire by using the light scattering properties of the particles.
The detectors comprise an optical system
which consists of an emitter and a sensor,
each of which have a lens in front, and are
so arranged that their optical axes cross in
the sampling chamber. The emitter produces a beam of light which is prevented
from reaching the sensor by a baffle.
When smoke is present in the sampling
chamber, a proportion of the light is scattered and some reaches the sensor. The light
that reaches the sensor is proportional to
the smoke density.
High Performance Optical (HPO) Smoke
Detectors: HPO detectors respond to
smoke in the same way as standard optical detectors, but, when there is a rapid
rate of rise in temperature, their sensitivity is increased so that they also respond
to very small smoke particles, more like
the Ion Chamber type detectors.
section one guide to design of fire systems
5.2.2
Heat Detectors
Heat detectors are normally used where
the speed of operation of smoke detectors
is not required or where, for environmental
or other such reasons, smoke detectors
cannot be used in the system. In such circumstances, heat detectors can provide
an acceptable, though less sensitive alternative. Three types are available. These are
the Rate of Rise detector, the Fixed Temperature detector and the Line Type detector.
Careful consideration should be given to
the type of heat detectors that are to be
used in certain areas. Rate of Rise type detectors, for example, should not be used in
areas where large sudden changes in temperature are normal (such as in a kitchen),
otherwise false alarms will occur.
The upper limit response times for the different types of heat detectors, as prescribed in BS EN 54-5, are shown in Table 4.
It should be noted that Class A1 heat detectors are more sensitive (and hence will
respond quicker) than Class A2 detectors.
For this reason, Class A1 detectors can be
used at a greater ceiling height than Class
A2 detectors (see Section 6). Class B - G
detectors are only used where the ambient
temperature is higher than normal.
Rate of Rise Heat Detectors Of the three
heat detector types available, these are the
page 45
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
preferred type. These detectors react to abnormally high rates of change of temperature and provide the fastest response over
a wide range of ambient temperatures. A
fixed temperature limit is also incorporated in these detectors.These detectors
are ideally suitable for use in areas where
a large change in ambient temperature is
likely to occur by the stage at which it is
necessary to detect a fire.
Fixed Temperature (Static) Heat Detectors
These detectors are similar to the Rate of
Rise type detectors except that they react
at a pre–determined temperature rather
than a rate of rise temperature. These detectors are ideally suitable for use in areas
where sudden large changes in temperatures are considered normal, for example
in kitchens and boiler rooms.
Line–Type Heat Detectors. These detectors
are not commonly used however they offer
advantages in some applications. Point type
detectors such as the rate of rise and Fixed
Temperature types are designed to sense
the conditions near a fixed point. Where
more than a single detector is required , detectors are spaced in accordance with the
standard so as to effectively cover the area.
Line–Type detectors, however, come
in the form of a length of wire or tube,
and are designed to sense the condi-
tions anywhere along its entire length.
This makes them ideally suited for such
applications as cable tunnels, cable trays
and risers, high rack storage areas, transformer bays, thatched roofs, building services, subways and ducts, aircraft hangers,
etc. Two versions are available, non-integrating and integrating.
The non-integrating Line–Type heat detector usually consists of an electric cable, with
insulation of fixed melting point, which is
suspended over the area to be protected.
If one small section of the wire is heated up
(due to fire) and the temperature of the section is greater than or equal to the melting
point of the wire, the melting of the insulation results in a short circuit and causes the
system to go into alarm.
The integrating Line–Type heat detector
is similar to the non–integrating version
except here the insulation does not melt.
Its electrical resistance is temperature dependent. In effect, the average temperature is taken over the whole length of the
wire rather than just sections of it. Consequently, a large amount of heat in a small
area would need to be generated in order
to create an alarm.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
To allow for easy location of alarm or
fault conditions, it is recommended that
the maximum length of the sensing wire
used with Line–Type detectors be limited to 200 metres. Lengths of up to 500
metres are available for special requirements. High resistance sensor wire is also
available for use in areas with high ambient temperatures, that is, temperatures
greater than 50 °C.
Fibre Optic heat sensor
Fibre optic sensor is used to detect temperature differentials, by using pulsed
lasers. The temperature change is measured by analysing back scattered light
resulting from the effects of the heat
source. The location of the heat source
is pinpointed by using a pulse echo technique (RADAR). The system is many
times more sensitive than either of the
two previous linear sensors. Sensor cable
can be run over distances of up to 8km
and heat sources pinpointed to within a
1 metre length of fibre. Alarm criteria can
be set using 3 different measurements,
by exceeding the defined maximum temperature, by exceeding the defined maximum temperature rise, by exceeding the
defined maximum difference from the
average zone temperature. Multiple zones can be created within a single fibre
section one guide to design of fire systems
with different alarm criteria set for each
zone. Suitable applications are as defined
for the two previous linear sensors but
essentially fibre is preferred where long
runs are required together with accurate
alarm data, such as critical processes, cable tunnels, road and rail tunnels etc. The
sensor operates within a range of -10oC
to +60oC.
page 47
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
5.2.3
Heat-enhanced Carbon
Monoxide Fire Detectors
Heat-enhanced carbon monoxide fire
detectors use an electrochemical cell to
detect the build up of carbon monoxide generated by fires. The cell operates by oxidizing carbon monoxide on a platinum sensing
electrode. Within the electrochemical cell
the ions produced by this reaction result in a
Rate of Rise
of Air Temperature
Class A1
(mins, seconds)
Class A2 or
Classes B - G (mins, seconds)
30°C/min
1, 40
2, 25
20°C/min
2, 20
3, 13
10°C/min
4, 20
5, 30
5°C/min
8, 20
10, 0
3°C/min
13, 40
16, 0
1°C/min
40, 20
46, 0
Maximum Static
response temperature
65ºC
70 - 160ºC
depending on class
Max. Ambient Temp.
50ºC
50º - 140º,
depending on class
table4. Upper limit response times for heat detectors
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
current flow between electrodes. The electrical output of the cell is directly proportional to the carbon monoxide concentration.
The performance of the detector is relatively unaffected by changes in temperature,
pressure or airflow. The electrochemical
cell typically has a life of around five years,
after which it should be replaced.
Tyco heat-enhanced carbon monoxide fire
detector can be set in a digital system to
provide high, normal and low sensitivity.
When set to normal sensitivity, an alarm
signal will be given at a carbon monoxide concentration of 40 parts per million.
For comparison purposes, background
carbon monoxide levels generally remain
well below 10 parts per million, with excursions of up to around 15 parts per million under unusual atmospheric conditions. Even in rooms with heavy smokers,
or close to a source of air pollution, ambient levels of carbon monoxide generally remain below the 40 parts per million
level at which a carbon monoxide fire detector operating at normal sensitivity will
give an alarm signal.
Although, in the areas that BS 5839-1 accepts the use of carbon monoxide fire detectors, the detectors should be sited and
spaced following the same recommenda-
section one guide to design of fire systems
tions as applicable to smoke detectors, in
practice, carbon monoxide detectors are
likely to be more tolerant of position relative
to the seat of the fire, than smoke detectors.
As carbon monoxide is a gas, it diffuses
to create a uniform concentration within
the space in which it is generated. Thus,
it is likely that carbon monoxide fire
detectors will be less affected by obstructions and heat barriers than smoke
detectors. In addition, carbon monoxide
fire detectors in corridors may detect
fire in an adjacent room before a smoke
detector in the corridor, as carbon monoxide will diffuse evenly throughout
the corridor, whereas smoke will tend to
cool to an extent that there is insufficient
buoyancy to remain at the level at which
smoke detectors are installed.
Heat-enhanced carbon monoxide fire
detectors are particularly suitable for detecting smouldering fires and fires within
confined spaces, such as bedrooms
within a sleeping risk. In the latter application, carbon monoxide fire detectors
will provide a higher standard of protection for sleeping occupants than heat
detectors, but are less likely to produce
false alarms than smoke detectors. The
addition of a heat sensor to enhance the
sensitivity of the carbon monoxide sen-
page 49
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
sor enables heat-enhanced carbon monoxide detectors to respond to a wider
spectrum of fires that generate heat as
well as CO.
Carbon monoxide fire detectors are not
suitable for fires that generate little or no
carbon monoxide. Such fires include the
early stages of electrical cable decomposition, where the HPO detector or aspirating
fire detector is more suitable. Carbon monoxide fire detectors are also unsuitable
for protection of areas where fast burning
chemical fires represent the main hazard.
In this case, ion chamber or flame detectors are more suitable.
Although heat-enhanced carbon monoxide fire detectors respond to BS EN 54-7
Test Fires, they do not detect smoke. It
should be noted that these Test Fires do
not represent all real fires, nor are they intended to do so. In particular, they tend not
to produce carbon monoxide in the early
stages of the fire. Real fires, particularly
those of a smouldering nature, may actually produce carbon monoxide before they
produce sufficient smoke of high enough
temperature to operate smoke detectors.
The detector can detect smouldering fires
at levels below that of a single channel
smoke detector but with the benefit of
sampling combustion gas, heat and smoke
build up as part of its analysis. All of which
provides for a more accurate assessment
of the question , Fire or false alarm.
This detector can , in addition to the two
modes described above, also be configured as, a Heat detector, a High performance optical smoke detector or a Carbon
Monoxide toxic gas detector. In all there
are seven selectable operating modes.
5.2.4
Flame Detectors
Infra-Red flame detectors, unlike smoke
and heat detectors, do not rely on convection current to transport the fire products
to the detector, nor do they rely on a ceiling
to trap the products. They detect electromagnetic radiation, which travels from a
flame at the speed of light. They respond
only to the short wavelengths of very high
temperatures such as that present in flames. The radiation from flames is characterised by a flicker at a frequency in the range
of 5 to 30 cycles per second.
To safeguard against false alarms, these
detectors have inbuilt features which inhibit them from responding to phenomena such as the long wavelength radiation
given off by hot or over-heated bodies, or
the steady radiation given off from hot objects where there is no fire (even if the radiation is of the same wavelength as that
of a flame). They also contain circuitry to
prevent false alarms from momentary
effects. The flickering shortwave infra-red
radiation must be maintained for a period
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
of time (depending on its magnitude) before an alarm is given.
Flame detection- options
Infra Red Flame detectors all detect the
same thing, i.e radiation which is released
by hot CO2 molecules within the flame.
What differs however is the sensor technology used and the number of sensors
employed within a detector, all of which
determine its limitations and range of
applications.
Single channel detectors, such as point
type detectors employ just a single IR sensor and although solar blind, do not filter
background radiation and therefore are
restricted for use in internal areas . The single channel device relies mainly on the flame flicker analysis to detect fire and is less
immune to other sources if similar flicker
content is present.
Dual channel sensors are designed with an
additional sensor which is set to a different
frequency in order to detect and eliminate
background radiation, (black body).
A triple channel sensor, is designed to
monitor the Infra red spectrum at three
chosen frequencies, the CO2 band and one
either side, in order to detect and eliminate
background radiation. The triple channel
section one guide to design of fire systems
IR detector is therefore more reliable and is
frequently used outdoors and in more extreme conditions such as found offshore.
Recent developments in triple IR technology has extended the detectors range from
50 to 65 metres in addition to providing
outputs allowing connection into third party systems using 4-20mA , modbus and
other protocols. It is also now possible to
include a CCTV camera within the detector
housing which connects over twisted pair
to a proprietary CCTV system and which
transmits live images of the detectors field
of view.
Flame Detectors- Array based flame
detectors use a different technology to
those previously described.
The detector uses an array of 256 sensitive infra-red sensors to view the protected
area. The IR array is combined with 2 other
optical sensors to provide 3 highly sensitive optical channels. Powerful algorithms
running on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP)
are tuned to the characteristics of a fire and
analyse the signals from these 3 channels
to reliably identify fires. The detector offers
sensitive flame detection over a long range
with a wide and consistent field of view.
Unlike some detectors the sensitivity of
the array does not attenuate across its 900
field of view eliminating the need to over-
page 51
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
lap detector coverage, thereby reducing
the number of detectors required compared to other types. It also has excellent
immunity to false alarms. Masking within
a filed of view allows known hotspots to be
removed eliminating potential false alarm
sources.
This capability can be further enhanced
by the inclusion, within the detectors housing, of a CCTV camera which will connect
over a twisted pair to a proprietary CCTV
system and which transmits live images of
the detectors field of view.
These detectors can be used to protect
large open areas without sacrificing speed
of response to flaming fires. In order to ensure full coverage however, flame sensors
do require direct line of sight to all parts of
the area to be protected.
Fig. 11 Flame detector typical response
characteristics (centre line range
against petrol flames)
The detectors are designed to respond
rapidly to fires that involve clean burning
fuels such as alcohol or methane, that is
fires that would not be detected by the use
of smoke detectors or carbon monoxide
fire detectors (see Table 1).
For flaming fires, flame sensors are probably the most sensitive. The sensitivity
of flame detectors can vary considerably.
Normally they should be able to detect a
15cm high flame at a range of between
five and ten metres. They will detect a
0.1m2 petrol fire at 27m on the centre
line, within approximately 10 seconds. An
0.2 m, fire is detectable at 30 metres and
an 0,4m2 fire at 47 metres. The flame
height is roughly proportional to the range
(see Figure 11).
Fig 11a Coverage of point type flame
detector
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
As infra–red flame detectors cannot
respond until there is flame, it is considered practical to also use smoke detectors or carbon monoxide fire detectors
in conjunction with flame detectors in
areas where the contents are likely to
smoulder in the event of fire. In the case
of smouldering fires, smoke and carbon
monoxide is very often produced long
before flaming occurs. Consequently,
the smoke or carbon monoxide detectors should cause the system to go
into alarm before flaming can start.
Conversely, if the contents are highly
flammable, the flame detectors should
cause the system to go into alarm
before the smoke detectors or carbon
monoxide detectors can detect the fire.
5.2.5
Optical Beam Detectors
Optical beam detectors must conform with
the requirements of BS EN 54-12.
Optical beam detectors consist of two
units, a Transmitter and a Receiver, which
are displaced some distance apart (10 metres to 100 metres).
Alternatively the transmitter and reciever
are combined into a single unit and a reflector is used to bounce the transmitted
beam back to the reciever.
This type of detector is specifically designed
for interior use in large open–type areas,
such as warehouses, manufacturing plants,
fig 12. Beam detector deflection characteristics (Vertical plane view)
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 53
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
aircraft hangers, workshops, etc. where the
installation of point–type detectors would
be difficult. They are also ideally suitable for
installation in art galleries, cathedrals, etc.
where, due to ornate and historic ceilings,
point–type detectors and their associated
wiring would be unsuitable.
During operation, the transmitter unit projects a modulated infra–red light beam directly at the receiver unit. The receiver unit
converts the received light beam into a signal which is continuously monitored by the
detector. If fire breaks out in an area protected by these detectors, smoke particles
rising upward interrupt or partly deflect
the light beam thus reducing the strength of beam received by the receiver unit
(see Figures 12). If the signal in the receiver
unit, which proportionally represents the
strength of received light beam, is reduced
by between 40 and 90 % for a period greater than five seconds (approximately), it
causes the system to go into alarm.
For correct operation the transmitter and
receiver units must be mounted in the roof
space or just below the ceiling, whichever
is applicable.
Each detector is capable of protecting an
area 7.5 metres each side of the beam centre line for a distance of up to 100 metres,
thus providing a total coverage of up to
1500 square metres (see Figure 13).
fig 13. Beam detector coverage characteristics ( Horizontal Plane View )
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
The transmitters and receivers shall be
mounted on solid construction that will not
be subject to movement, otherwise fault
signals or false alarms can occur.
Where reflective type beam detectors are
used, the preferred beam type smoke detector would have an integral auto aligning
feature, designed to realign the unit with
its reflector if due to building movements
the two components are misaligned. The
feature is also an aid to the initial installation and commissioning
Sometimes in buildings with very high spaces, such as an atrium, optical beam detectors are mounted much lower than the
highest point within the space. The reason
for this is that, as the plume of smoke rises,
it cools and will level out when it reaches
ambient temperature. This effect, which is
known as stratification, may occur well below the highest point within a tall space, so
seriously delaying operation of a detector
at the highest point.
Unfortunately, it is never possible to predict exactly where stratification will occur.
If the beam of an optical beam detector
runs at a much lower level than that at
which stratification does occur, the relatively narrow rising plume of smoke may
by-pass the beam. For this reason, the low
section one guide to design of fire systems
level beam detectors should only be regarded as supplementary to detection at the
highest point in the space.
BS 5839-1 gives guidance on the sitting
of these supplementary beam detectors,
taking into account that the plume does
spread out as it rises. Accordingly, the
code recommends that the width of the
area protected on each side of a supplementary optical beam should be regarded
page 55
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector suitability
as 12.5% of the height of the beam above
the highest likely seat of fire. For example,
if the supplementary beam detectors were
mounted 10m above the base of an atrium,
optical beam detectors would need to be
sited every 2.5m across the width of the
atrium (see Figure 14).
fig 14. Sitting of supplementary optical beam detectors
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
Atria and other similar roof spaces present
particular challenges for smoke detection.
Some of the challenges that designers
face are
• Difficult access for detector installation,
maintenance, testing and replacement
• Exposure to direct sunlight
• Multiple reflective surfaces causing false
alarms
• Building movement
• Multi-level detection
• Aesthetics
Open Area Smoke Detection Imaging
(OSID) overcomes the weaknesses of
some beam detectors due to its aesthetics
and multi-emitter capability, providing 3D
coverage of the area.
A system can consist of up to seven Emitters and one Imager placed on opposite
walls, roughly aligned with one another.
Emitters are battery-powered or wired and
can be placed at different heights, adjusting easily to modern design of atria. Three
Emitters will cover an area of up to 600m2;
five Emitters and up to 2,000m2 all using
just a single 80-degree Imager. In addition,
OSID offers many advantages over traditional beam smoke detectors, the primary
one being the use of dual light frequencies.
Ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) waveleng-
section one guide to design of fire systems
ths assist in the identification of real smoke
compared to larger objects such as insects
and dust,thus reducing false alarms. Furthermore, OSID is equipped with a CMOS
imaging chip with many pixels rather than
a single photo-diode. This concept allows
the Imager to provide simple alignment as
well as excellent tolerance to building movement and vibration, without the use of
moving parts.
OSID’s provide new levels in stability and
sensitivity while providing greater immunity to high-level lighting variability, allowing
OSID to provide extra stability in sunlit
areas like atria.
Optical beam detectors must conform
with the requirements of BS EN 54-20.
5.2.6
Aspirating Detectors
Aspirating detectors comprise a small
pump which draws samples of the room
air through holes in the system pipework
into a detector element. The tube can
be split into several smaller tubes (each
drawing samples of air from different
locations) or have several holes and
through which air samples can be drawn
(see Figure 15).
page 57
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
To allow for the effects of dilution of smoke,
the detector element of an aspirating de-
can indicate that smoke is present in the
air (30% of the detectors range), and the
fig15. Aspirating detector ceiling mounted pipework
tector is usually up to 100 times more
sensitive than that of conventional point
and line–type detectors. The air being sampled is often passed through a filter before
being analysed for the presence of smoke.
The detector provides a number of outputs, each of which relate to a different
density of smoke contained in the air being
sampled. It is normal practice to monitor at
least two outputs from each detector. One
other that fire is present (60% of the detectors range). These outputs can be reported
on separate zones of a conventional fire
system control panel but it is more appropriate for the outputs to be connected to
two address points in an addressable fire
system.
These detectors are particularly useful for
protecting computer suites and clean rooms. The use of aspirating systems for this
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
purpose is discussed in BS 6266.Commonly, in this situation, the aspirating system is not used to provide the general fire
detection throughout the space (which
often takes the form of normal point
smoke detectors), but the system is used
to monitor the return flow to air conditioning units in the protected space. The intention is to detect the very small amounts
of combustion products transported within the conditioned air within the room.
These are also used for the protection
of historic buildings where point or linetype detectors would look out of place.
In this case, the pipework can be concealed above a ceiling, and small sampling
tubes are dropped through small holes
in the ceiling to provide virtually invisible
fire detection.
A more recent development in some
aspirating systems is the introduction of
gas detection through the same system
of pipe work as that used for the fire detection. The system is designed to detect a
range of flammable, toxic and oxygen gas
hazards and can provide a greater area of
coverage than fixed point gas detection
systems. The system is for use indoors
in non ‘Hazardous’ classified areas only.
The gas detector(s) have a sensor cartridge containing 1 or 2 gas sensors using
section one guide to design of fire systems
industry proven electrochemical & catalytic sensors. Amongst the detectable
gases are, Carbon Monoxide,Nitrogen Dioxide, Ammonia,Oxygen,Sulphur Dioxide,
Hydrogen Sulphide, Hydrogen, Methane
and Propane. Other gases can be added
on request. The system can be integrated
to third party systems as there are various
protocols available, including 4-20mA and
modbus. As gas detectors require regular
calibration the system incorporates an advanced warning that this is due. All detectors have a finite life depending upon their
structure which may vary between 18
months and 5 years. Typical applications
are, where aspiration systems are normally
used for fire detection and where gas detection may also be required these would
include UPS and battery charging rooms,
cable tunnels and vaults, service tunnels,
underground parking and loading bays.
The Fire Industry Association (FIA) publish
a detailed code of practice for aspirating
detection systems.
5.2.7
Duct Probe Unit
The duct probe unit is a detector which has
been designed for use in situations where
the standard smoke, heat and flame types
cannot be used. Primarily, it is used for detecting the presence of smoke or combus-
page 59
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
tion products in extract ventilation ducting systems. The detector operates in a
similar way to aspirating detectors except
it does not contain a pump. Instead, it is
designed to operate on the venturi effect
in the sampling pipe providing optimum
airflow through the smoke detector. (see
Figure 16).
The unit is especially recommended for
installations in ducts with low airflow. The
system fulfils all the requirements for safe
fire detection with airflow speeds from 0,5
m/s to 20 m/s.
fig16. Duct probe unit installed in return air duct
The length of the venturi pipe shall be
choosen based upon how wide the ventilation duct is. The venturi pipe is available
in 3 lengths; 0,6, 1,5 and 2,8 m. When
the ventilation duct is wider than 0,6 m,
the venture pipe should penetrate the
whole duct. The probe is flow direction
sensitive and must be fitted accordingly.
The air in the sampling chamber is analysed for the presence of smoke particles,
and if found, the unit signals this condition to the control panel.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
6.
Detector Coverage
Clause 22 of the code describes where detectors should be sited and what spacing
should be used. Most of the recommendations of clause 22 are common for all Categories of system. In a few cases, however,
a recommendation varies, according to the
Category of system.
6.1
Spacing Under Flat Ceilings
In open spaces under flat horizontal ceilings, every point should lie within a horizontal distance of 7.5m from a smoke detector
Beam Detector Spacing
section one guide to design of fire systems
or 5.3 m from a heat detector [22.3 a)]. In
simple terms, this means that each point within the protected area must be covered by
at least one detector; the coverage of a detector is a circle centred on the detector and
having a radius of 7.5m for smoke detectors
and 5.3 m for heat detectors. For beam detectors, the horizontal distance should be
taken to the nearest point on the infra–red
light beam, and the coverage should be
taken as extending to that distance on both
sides of the centre line of the beam see
Figure 17 below).
page 61
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
The sensitive elements of smoke detectors should normally lie within the range of
25mm to 600mm from the ceiling, and for
heat detectors within the range of 25mm
to 150mm.
fig 17. Detector coverage and spacing under flat ceilings
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
6.2
Spacing Under Pitched Ceilings
If the ceiling is pitched, sloping or north–
light, and the difference in height between any apex and an adjacent valley or
low point of the ceiling exceeds 600mm
for smoke detectors or 150mm for heat
detectors, then detectors should be placed in or near the apex. (A detector may
be regarded as ‘near’ the apex if the vertical distance from the apex to the detector
fig18. Detector coverage for pitched
section one guide to design of fire systems
is not greater than the above figures.) If
the differences are less than that quoted,
then the ceiling can be considered as flat.
For the row of detectors mounted in or
near the apex, the radius of cover can be
increased by 1% for each degree of slope
up to a maximum of 25% [22.3 b)] (see
Figure 18 below).
For a semi cylindrical arch or a hemispherical dome, the radius of cover of a de-
page 63
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
tector in the centre can be calculated as
8.93m for a smoke detector and 6.31m
for a heat detector.
6.3
Spacing in Corridors
In the past, designers have often applied
the recommendations for the maximum
distance between any point and the nearest detector with unnecessary accuracy,
so that, for example, the 7.5m dimension
was deemed to be the maximum distance between any point on the ceiling adjacent to the wall of the corridor and the
nearest detector. This led to unnecessarily complex tables for spacings between
detectors in corridors, according to the
corridor width.
Since fires do not constitute point sources and the plume of gases spreads as it
rises, this approach is now regarded by
BS 5839-1 as unnecessarily purist. Accordingly, in corridors of no more than 2m in
width, the code considers only the distance between points close to the centre line
of the corridor and the nearest detector.
The effect of this is that, in these corridors,
smoke detectors can be spaced 15m apart,
while heat detectors (e.g. in a Category P
system) can be spaced 10.6m apart. In
corridors wider than 2m, the approach
to detector spacing should be the same
as that adopted in other areas, namely
that the maximum distance between
any point (along the boundary wall of
the corridor) and the nearest detector
should be no more than 7.5m in the
case of smoke detectors and 5.3m in
the case of heat detectors.
6.4
Stairways
In enclosed stairways, fire detectors should
be sited at the top of the stairway and on
each main landing.
An open stairway forms a path for vertical
spread of smoke and fire. It is desirable to
detect products of combustion before
they pass up the stairway and as they pass
out of the stairway. For this reason, a fire
detector should be sited at the top and,
on each level, within approximately 1.5m
of the floor penetration. This protection
is, however, only required in the areas
protected by the Category of system in
question. It is not necessary in the case
of a Category L4 system and may not be
required in the case of a Category L5 or
P2 system, although the designer should
always consider the provision of these
detectors in the latter two systems.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
6.5
Lift Shafts and Other
Flue-like Structures
Shafts for lifts, escalators or hoists, and any
enclosed chutes, should be treated like
open stairways. Thus, again, in areas protected by the Category of system in question, a detector should be sited at the top
of the shaft or enclosure and, on each level,
within approximately 1.5m of the penetration of the floor. Although not necessary in
fig 19. Ceiling Obstructions Treated as Walls
section one guide to design of fire systems
a Category L4 system, this form of protection should be considered by the designer
in the case of a Category L5 or P2 system,
albeit that it may not always be necessary.
6.6
Obstructions
Ceiling obstructions, such as structural
beams, deeper than 10% of the overall
ceiling height should be treated as walls.
The area on each side of the obstruction
page 65
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
should, therefore, be regarded as a separate area for the purpose of protection. The
same applies in the case of partitions or
storage racks that extend within 300mm
of the ceiling (See Figures 19 and 20).
Where structural beams, ductwork,
lighting fittings or other fixings to
ceilings, not greater than 250mm in
depth, create obstacles to the flow of
smoke, detectors should not be mounted closer to the obstruction than twi-
ce the depth of the obstruction. (See
Figure 21) Where obstructions, such
as structural beams and ductwork,
are greater than 250mm in depth, detectors should not be mounted within
500mm of the obstruction.
fig 20. Partitions or Storage on Racks
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
fig 21. Proximity of Detectors to Ceiling Fittings
6.7
Honeycomb Ceilings
Where a horizontal ceiling comprises a
series of small cells, often referred to as a
honeycomb ceiling, detector spacing and
siting should be in accordance with Table
4. (See Figure 22) .
fig 22. Horizontal ceiling comprising a series of small cells
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 67
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
table 4. Spacing and Siting of Detectors
6.8
Closely Spaced Structural
Beams and Floor Joists
Where there are a number of closely
spaced structural beams, such as floor
joists, a series of reservoirs for smoke,
which BS 5839-1 refers to as ‘cells’,
occur. Provided that the longer dimension of the cells is no more than L, then
across the shorter cell dimension, the
spacing, M, between detectors should
be as given in Table 5. The spacing for
the end detector to the end wall is half
M. Detectors should be in the centre of
the cells. If the longer dimension of the
cells is more than L (see below), then
the cell should be stopped to the depth
of the beam and at no more than L. If
this is impractical, detection should be
installed in every cell. See Figure 23.
L = 10.6m for smoke detectors.
L = 7.5m for heat detectors.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
table5. Spacing and siting of detectors on ceilings with closely
spaced structural beams or joists.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 69
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
fig 23. Cells formed from joists
6.9
Ceiling Heights
Detectors should not generally be mounted on ceilings higher than those listed
under in column one in Table 6 below.
However, if small sections of ceiling, not
exceeding in total 10% of the ceiling area
within the protected area, exceed these
limits, these higher sections are adequately protected provided that the ceiling
height does not exceed the limits in column two Table 6.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
Table 3 Limits of ceiling height
Column 2 Max
ceiling height
for 10% of
ceiling area
Point smoke detectors (BS EN 54-7)
Carbon monoxide detectors (BS EN 54-26)
Optical beam smoke detectors (BS EN 54-12)
Normal sensitivity 25.0
28.0
40.0 (See Note1)
43.0 (See Note1)
Enhanced
sensitivity (alarm
at 35% attenuation or less)
Aspirating smoke detection systems (BS EN 54-20)
General limit
Class C with at
least 5 holes
10.5
15.0
12.5
18.0
Class C with at
least 15 holes
25.0
28.0
Class B with at
least 15 holes
40.0 (See Note2)
43.0 (See Note2)
Other fire detectors As specified by the manufacturer
NOTE 1 The use of supplemental detection is recommended [see 22.5d)] unless the risk
(i.e. probability × consequence) of stratification is minimal.
NOTE 2 The use of multilevel sampling is recommended [see 22.7c)] unless the risk (i.e.
probability × consequence) of stratification is minimal.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 71
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
6.10
Walls and Partitions
A wall has two effects on the movement of
smoke under a ceiling:
1. It slows down its movement towards
the wall.
2. It deflects it in a direction parallel to
the wall.
Because of the slowing down effect, there tends to be dead spots near the wall.
The code therefore states that detectors
should not be mounted within 500mm
of any wall or partition. (Sections of the
optical beam of an optical beam detector
closer than 500mm to a wall or partition
should be discounted from providing fire
detection).
Detectors within rooms that open onto
escape routes in a Category L3 system
may be sited in the normal manner.
However, as a special relaxation for these
detectors only, the detectors may be sited
on a wall, close to any door that opens onto
an escape route. Wall mounted detectors
should be sited such that the top of the detection element is between 150mm and
300mm below the ceiling, and the bottom
of the detection element should be above
the level of the door opening. However, in
rooms with a high ceiling (e.g. exceeding
4m in height), a variation might need to
be considered, so that the detector will
operate before the door is under serious
attack by fire.
6.11
Voids
Ceiling and under–floor voids 800mm or
more in height should also be protected by
detectors. (Occasionally, however, a variation, whereby detectors are omitted, might
be considered in the case of voids in which
the fire risk is low and the void is not a route
for fire spread beyond the room of origin).
Any void less than 800mm in height need
not be protected unless extensive spread
of fire or its products, particularly between
rooms or compartments, can take place
within it before detection or, on the basis
of a fire risk assessment, protection is considered to be warranted.
Where it is considered necessary to install
detectors in shallow voids having poor
ventilation, for example under–floor service voids, special care should be taken with
the positioning of the detectors. As the
initial smoke layer in a fire usually takes up
the top 10% of the void height, in shallow
voids this may be small compared with the
dimensions of the detector. Care should
therefore be taken to ensure that the sensing element of the detector lies within
the top 10% of the void’s height or the top
125mm, whichever is greater.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
6.12
Perforated Ceilings
Detectors above a perforated false ceiling
may be used for protection of the area below the false ceiling if:
1)
The perforations are substantially
uniform, appear across the comple
te ceiling and throughout they
make up more than 40% of the
surface; and
2) The minimum dimension of each
perforation in
any direction is 10mm; and
3) The thickness of the ceiling is not
greater than three times the mini
mum dimension of each
perforation.
In all other cases, detectors should be
mounted below the false ceiling, and if
protection of the void above the false ceiling is necessary, further detectors should
be installed on the true structural ceiling
within the void.
6.13
Ventilation
Ventilation systems in buildings should
also be taken into account when designing
fire systems because air movements in a
space can have a number of effects on the
operation of the devices.
section one guide to design of fire systems
Extraction systems can draw the fire products away from normally sited detectors,
and fresh air inlets can stop clean air passing over detectors even when the room
air is smoky. Increased air turbulence can
give increased dilution of the smoke, and,
in the case of ionization smoke detectors,
clean air can cause a false alarm if it is
moving fast enough.
All heat and smoke detectors depend on
the movement of fire products from the
fire to the detector. Movement of air in the
building may be due to many causes, all of
which can have an effect on the movement
of the fire gases. As the fire gets bigger its
convective effects gradually overpower all
other causes of air movement. This, however, is not of much use to us as we need to
detect fires when they are small.
Computer Suites are a case of special importance lies in the protection of computer
suites. These usually combine a high financial value with high ventilation rates; just
when we need to detect fires particularly
quickly, the ventilation makes things especially difficult! BS 6266 (Code of practice
for fire protection for electronic equipment
installations) should be consulted here.
Ventilated Rooms the code provides useful
advice on installation of detectors in venti-
page 73
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
detector coverage
lated rooms 22.3m. Detectors should not
be mounted directly in the fresh air input
from air conditioning systems. In general,
a spacing of not less than 1m between the
detector and the air inlet should be maintained. Where the air inlet is through a perforated ceiling, the ceiling should be non
perforated for a radius of at least 600mm
around each detector.
Smoke Detectors in Ventilation Ducts Sometimes, smoke detectors are installed
within air extraction ducts. These detectors
cannot give adequate protection of the
area from which air is extracted, as the extraction system may be shut down at certain times. However, they are sometimes
installed as supplementary protection
(e.g. to shut down recirculation of air).
The detector may be mounted outside the
duct, with a probe (see 5.2.7) extending
into the duct itself. The smoke detectors
or probes should be installed in straight
stretches of ductwork, at a distance from
the nearest bend, corner or junction, of
at least three times the width of the duct.
Only detectors deemed suitable for this
application by the manufacturer should
be used. Normally, a duct probe should
cover the wider dimension of the duct,
and the length of the probe should be at
least two-thirds of that dimension.
6.14
Lantern-lights
A lantern-light or cupola can form a reservoir for smoke. If it is used for ventilation,
it also forms a chimney, through which
smoke will flow. BS 5839-1 recommends
that if any lantern-light within a protected
area is 800mm or more in depth, or is used
for ventilation, a fire detector should be
sited in the lantern-light.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
manual “break glass” call points
7.
7. 1
Manual “Break Glass” Call Points
General Information
All Category L1, L2, L3 and L4 systems
must include call points, so that, in the
event of a fire, people can raise the alarm
immediately. In practice, usually Category
L5, P1 and P2 systems also incorporate
manual call points, unless these are provided in a separate system. Manual call
points should conform to BS EN 54-11.
‘Type A’ call points, in which only a single
action is necessary to raise the alarm (i.e.
breaking the glass) should be used. However, subject to the agreement of the enforcing authority, a hinged, transparent cover
may be used if the call points are likely to
be subject to casual malicious operation.
(See Section 8).
All call points in the installation must have
the same method of operation unless
there is a special reason for differentiation.
A system in which some call points require
impact by a hammer and others just require thumb pressure is not acceptable.
The delay between operation of a call point
and the sounding of the alarm should not
exceed three seconds.
section one guide to design of fire systems
Normal break glass call points might not
be acceptable in food preparation areas or
areas where particularly explosive atmospheres are likely to be present. If installed
in food preparation areas, breaking the
frangible element may result in glass fragments getting into food.
7.2
Siting of Manual Call Points
The basic principle of manual call point
siting is that no one should be able to
leave a building, or a storey of a building,
without passing a manual call point. BS
5839-1 recommends that manual call points should be located on escape routes
and, in particular, at all storey exits and all
exits to open air. Note that, in the case of
exits to open air, these may, or may not
actually be designated as fire exits.
In the case of manual call points located at
storey exits, the code offers a choice of siting. The manual call points may either be
located on the staircase landings or within
the accommodation, adjacent to the door
to the stairway. However, in a multi-storey
building with phased evacuation, the two
options for manual call point siting are not
given by the code; in this case, manual call
points should not be located on stairway
landings. Where horizontally adjacent
areas may be evacuated separately in
page 75
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
manual “break glass” call points
a building with phased evacuation, the
code recommends that additional manual call points are provided to ensure
that one manual call point is located at
every designated exit from an alarm zone;
unless this recommendation is satisfied,
the appropriate areas might not be evacuated in the first phase.
The code sets a limit on the maximum
distance that anyone should have to
travel to reach the nearest manual call
point. Generally, this figure is 45m, but the
figure is reduced to 25m where processes
in the area result in the likelihood of rapid
fire development (e.g. as a result of the
presence of highly flammable liquids or flammable gases) or where a significant proportion of occupants have limited mobility
and it can reasonably be anticipated that
one of these occupants will first operate
the fire alarm system in the event of fire.
At the design stage of the system, it may be
difficult to actually measure, on drawings,
the maximum distance that anyone will
have to travel to reach a manual call
point. For example, the final fit-out or
layout of partitions, equipment, etc may
not be known. In this case, the code recommends that sufficient manual call points
be provided to ensure that the maximum
straight line distance between any point in
a storey and the nearest manual call point
does not exceed 30m (or 16m in situations
in which the maximum distance of travel
to a manual call point is limited to 25m).
Ultimately, on completion of a system,
however, it is the actual distance of travel
to a manual call point, measured along the
route that a person would actually follow,
that matters; at that stage, the straight line
distance does not matter.
Once the above criteria are satisfied, for
compliance with the code the designer
will need to ensure that, where specific
equipment or activities result in a high
fire hazard, a manual call point is sited in
close proximity. Examples of such areas
given in the code are kitchens or cellulose paint spray areas. As it happens, in
both these cases, further special requirements might apply to the manual call points. For example, the cellulose spraying
area might require the use of equipment
certified for use in potentially explosive
atmospheres. Within kitchens, it is possible that call points with non-glass frangible elements are necessary, although,
in practice, such call points are more
usually limited to food processing factories and the like.
The code recommends that manual call
points are fixed at a height of 1.4m above fi-
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
manual “break glass” call points
nished floor levels, at easily accessible, well
illuminated and conspicuous positions free
from potential obstruction. A ‘tolerance’ of
200mm in mounting height is permitted
under the code without the need for it to
be treated, or recorded, as a variation. The
measurement should be made between
the finished floor level and the centre point
of the frangible element. Call points should
be sited against a contrasting background
to assist in easy recognition.
A mounting height lower than 1.4m is acceptable in circumstances where there is a
high likelihood that the first person to raise
an alarm of fire will be a wheelchair user.
Manual call points may be flush mounted
in locations where they will be seen readily.
However, where they will be viewed from
the side, they should be surface mounted
or only semi-recessed, such that the front
face is proud of the mounting surface (e.g.
the wall of a corridor) by at least 15mm.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 77
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
8.
8.1
Limitation of False and
Unwanted Alarms
Role of the Designer
Section 3 of BS 5839-1 is devoted to limitation of false alarms. In the code, the
designer is considered to be the key player in the limitation of false alarms. It is a
specific recommendation of the code that
the system designer should ensure that
the system design takes account of the
guidance contained in Section 3 of the
code. The certificate of compliance that
the designer must complete not only certifies that the design complies with Section
2 of the code, it also certifies that account
has been taken of the guidance in Section
3. More specifically, the design certificate
contains various tick boxes that the designer must consider and tick as appropriate
to indicate which of various specific actions have been taken within the design to
ensure that false alarms are limited. A further informative annex sets out in schematic form the thought processes involved in
ensuring that system design is sufficiently
immune to false alarms (See Figure 24).
The code considers the role of the installer in limiting false alarms as much less
significant. The logic is that the role of the
installer is simply to install the system in
accordance with the requirements of the
designer. However, the code recommends
that a special check is carried out as part
of the commissioning process to ensure
that there is no obvious potential for an
unacceptable rate of false alarms. Within
the model certificate of commissioning,
the commissioning engineer is specifically
required to record that, taking into account
the guidance in Section 3 of the code, no
obvious potential for an unacceptable rate
of false alarms has been identified.
The code suggests that it should be confirmed, before design begins, that automatic
fire detection will be of a value that outweighs the potential for false alarms. In general, of course, this will be the case, but, in
the case of some simple small buildings in
which all areas are occupied on a 24 hour
basis, automatic detection may be of little
benefit to fire safety. Other than in such
rare cases, it will, of course, be inappropriate to avoid fire detection as the means of
limiting false alarms.
However, the code does advocate that,
at the design stage, the designer makes
at least a qualitative judgement as to the
likely frequency of false alarms. In the case
of very large systems with many smoke
detectors, it might even be appropriate for
the designer to provide the user with gui-
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
dance on the approximate rate at which
false alarms could occur. This might then
identify the need for incorporation of measures within the design to limit the number
of false alarms; an example might be ‘filtering measures’, which are discussed later
in this Section.
This quite onerous duty on the designer
might, at first sight, appear somewhat theoretical, academic and idealistic. Certainly,
it will hardly be appropriate for the designer of a fire alarm system for a small shop,
which might comprise only two or three
manual call points, half a dozen detectors
and a few bells, to engage in dialogue with
the user regarding the anticipated number
of false alarms and special design measures for their avoidance! However, this guidance in the code is practical and sensible
in the very large installations to which the
guidance refers.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 79
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
fig 24. Schematic for design against false alarms
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
8.2
Categories of False Alarm
The code recognizes four different categories of false alarm, albeit that the generic
term ‘false alarm’ is used in the code to
describe any fire signal resulting from a
cause(s) other than fire.
The four categories of false alarms are described and defined as follows:
Unwanted alarms, in which a system has
responded, either as designed or as the technology may reasonably be expected to
respond, to any of the following:
A fire-like phenomenon or environmental influence (e.g.
smoke from a nearby bonfire,
dust or insects, processes that produce smoke or flame,
or environmental effects that can
render certain types of detector
unstable, such as rapid
air flow);
Accidental damage;
Inappropriate human action (e.g. operation of a system for test or maintenance purposes
without prior warning to building
occupants and/or an alarm
receiving centre);
section one guide to design of fire systems
Equipment false alarms, in which the
false alarm has resulted from a fault in
the system;
Malicious false alarms, in which a person
operates a manual call point or causes a
fire detector to initiate a fire signal, whilst
knowing that there is no fire;
False alarms with good intent, in which
a person operates a manual call point
or otherwise initiates a fire signal in the
belief that there is a fire, when no fire
actually exists.
8.3
Requirements for Service
Technicians
The code recommends that, at the time of
every service visit, the system false alarm
record should be checked carefully. The
code identifies three matters that should
be brought to light by this check.
Firstly, the rate of false alarms during the
previous twelve months, expressed as
number of false alarms per 100 detectors
per annum, should be determined by the
service technician. Secondly, it should be
determined whether, since the time of the
previous service visit, two or more false
alarms, other than false alarms with good
intent, have arisen from any single manual
page 81
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
call point or fire detector (or detector location). Thirdly, it should be determined whether any persistent cause of false alarms
can be identified from a study of the false
alarm log. As part of the service work, a
preliminary investigation should be carried
out if any one or more of four circumstances is found to apply, namely:
1)
The rate of false alarms over the
previous twelve months has exceeded one false alarm per 25
detectors per annum.
2)
More than eleven false alarms have occurred since the time of the previous service visit (i.e.
typically, within the previous
six months).
3)
Two or more false alarms (other
than false alarms with good
intent) have arisen from any single manual call point or fire
detector (or detector location) since the time of the last
service visit.
4)
Any persistent cause of false
alarms is identified.
8.4
False Alarm ‘Rates’
The code advises that systems in which the
parties responsible have not taken adequate care to limit false alarms, and systems
that produce unacceptably high rates of
false alarms, need to be regarded as noncompliant with the code. Such a non-compliance could bring with it civil liability and
implications for insurance of the property,
as well as possible enforcement action
by enforcing authorities. Indeed, the code
notes that, in the future, it is possible that a
fire authority will take appropriate action if
a fire alarm system consistently produces
false alarms at unacceptable rates.
This, therefore, introduces the concept of
an ‘acceptable’ rate of false alarms. The
code is realistic enough to acknowledge
that, while any false alarm is undesirable,
it must be accepted that, particularly in installations that incorporate a large number
of automatic fire detectors, complete elimination of false alarms is impossible. The
best that can be expected is that the rate
of false alarms from any installation falls
within limits defined as ‘acceptable’.
Factors that will affect the number of false
alarms include the environment (including
the electromagnetic environment), activities in the building, the level of occupation
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
of the building and the standard of management in the building, the latter of which
will affect matters such as control over
third parties, (e.g. contractors), and the potential for malicious operation of manual
call points.
However, the code suggests that a key
factor will be the number of automatic fire
detectors in the installation. Thus, the code
advises that the number of false alarms
that can be anticipated is virtually proportional to the number of automatic fire detectors installed.
This is because each detector can be considered as a potential generator of false
alarms as a result of environmental factors
and activities within the area of the detector, as well as, of course, the possibility of a
detector fault. The code notes that the ratio
of false alarms to number of detectors in
the installation will depend on the extent to
which smoke detectors are used; systems
that are purely manual, or in which heat
detectors are used, should not normally
produce many false alarms.
As a guide, the code suggests that, in a relative benign environment, in which there
is no tendency for dust, fumes or insects to
occur, and in which there is a good standard
of management, false alarm rates equal to,
section one guide to design of fire systems
or less than, one false alarm per 100 detectors per annum are possible. While this figure is not intended as a norm or ‘average’,
it might, therefore, be regarded as an ideal
target for false alarm management under
ideal conditions. A more realistic expectation on industrial sites with shift working
is suggested by the code to be one false
alarm per 75 detectors per annum.
The code does not, however, suggest
that the above figures are easily achievable. On the other hand, it does suggest
that, in general, false alarm rates of one
false alarm per 50 detectors per annum
can be readily achievable with modern
technology systems, unless there are
severe environmental challenges for automatic fire detection. There is a tentative suggestion in the code that this rate
might, therefore, be quite reasonable
and ‘acceptable’ on an industrial site with
processes that create an unfavourable
environment for automatic fire detectors.
On the other hand, it is suggested that
this rate might not be ‘acceptable’ in a
controlled environment, such as a computer room.
These figures now provide the user with
some form of target, however imprecise it
might be, at which to aim in any initiative
page 83
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
to reduce false alarms. However, the lack
of precision in these figures, and the number of variables that will affect the actual
false alarm rate in any specific installation,
are such that it would not be reasonable
to deem the rate of false alarms as unacceptable simply because these particular
figures are not reached. Nevertheless, since the code introduces the concept of an
‘unacceptable rate of false alarms’, there
must be some (much higher) rate of false
alarms that does not simply fall short of
the possible target ideal, but that is quite
positively unacceptable.
The code defines such a level. The advice
given is that, in general, in systems with
more than 40 automatic fire detectors, a
rate of more than one false alarm per 20
detectors per annum is never to be regarded as acceptable, particularly if the false
alarms result in evacuation of the premises or summoning of the fire service. In
premises with 40 automatic fire detectors
or less, more than two false alarms per
annum is to be regarded as unacceptable.
It is these figures that are, therefore, used
as the basis for the ‘trigger’ at which an indepth investigation by suitable specialists
should be carried out.
Specifically, the code recommends that, in
systems that incorporate more than 40 au-
tomatic fire detectors, the user should instigate an in-depth investigation by suitable
specialists if, in any rolling period of twelve
months, either:
1)
The average rate of false alarms
exceeds one false alarm per 20
detectors per annum; or
2) If three or more false alarms are
initiated by any single manual
call point or automatic fire
detector (or detector location).
In systems that incorporate 40 or less automatic fire detectors, the in-depth investigation should be instigated by the user if,
in any rolling twelve month period, three or
more false alarms occur.
In 2010 CFOA (Chief Fire Officers Association) reintroduced a new policy for the
reduction of false alarms and unwanted
fire signals. The aim of this policy was to
reduce the number of false alarms generated by fire detection and alarm system,
and to reduce the number of UWFS (Unwanted Fire Signals) sent to F&RS (Fire
and Rescue Systems).
The CFOA policy calls for a considerably better performance from automatic
fire detectors than required by the code,
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
in respect of false alarms. It also recommends that the types of Call Filtering be
adopted to help reduce false alarms calling the F&RS.
The policy also outlines methods of registering a fire detection alarm system together
with possible reductions in F&RS attendance levels to repeat false alarm offenders
Full details on the policy can be found at
www.cfoa.org.uk
8.5
Causes of False Alarms
The code lists 20 recognised causes of false alarms. These are as follows:
• Fumes from cooking processes (inclu
ding toasting of bread);
• Steam (from bathrooms, shower rooms and industrial processes);
•
Tobacco smoke;
• Dust (whether built up over a period
of time or released from an industrial
process);
• Insects;
• Aerosol spray (e.g. deodorants and
cleaning fluids);
• High air velocities;
• Smoke from sources other than a fire
in the building (e.g. from an external
bonfire);
section one guide to design of fire systems
• Cutting, welding and similar
“hot work”;
• Processes that produce smoke or
flame (e.g. flambéing of food);
• Cosmetic smoke (e.g. in discotheques
and theatres);
• Incense;
• Candles;
• Electromagnetic interference;
• High humidity;
• Water ingress;
• Substantial fluctuation in
temperature;
• Accidental damage (particularly to
manual call points);
• Testing or maintenance of the
system, without
appropriate disablement of the
system or warning to building
occupants and/or an alarm
receiving centre;
• Pressure surges on water mains
serving automatic sprinkler systems
that are interfaced with the fire
alarm system.
The code acknowledges that most of
these causes can be minimized by appropriate choice of detection system and suitable management arrangements.
Equipment false alarms, associated with
faults in equipment, can, on the other
page 85
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
hand, be minimized by choice of good
quality equipment that satisfies the appropriate product standards. Third party certification of the equipment provides a form
of warranty of compliance. Once the equipment has been installed, regular servicing
is important to ensure continuing satisfactory operation.
As noted in the code, the third category
of false alarms, namely malicious false
alarms, most commonly occur in certain
public buildings, such as shopping centres,
places of entertainment, certain public
houses, public car parks and sports centres, and in educational establishments,
such as universities and schools. These
false alarms generally involve operation of
manual call points.
The fourth category of false alarms, namely
false alarms with good intent, is difficult
to prevent and is, in any case, unlikely to
present a significant problem. Moreover,
it is generally undesirable to attempt to
minimize false alarms with good intent,
since the principles of fire safety dictate
that it is entirely appropriate for people to
raise the alarm, by operating a manual call
point, if they suspect that there might be a
fire. The code notes, therefore, that it is important that people are never discouraged
from doing so.
8.6
Practical Measures to
Limit False Alarms
One entire clause (clause 35) of Section 3
of the code is devoted purely to measures
to limit false alarms. Clause 35 contains no
less than 30 specific recommendations
for consideration by the relevant parties.
The measures advocated are divided into
eight groups, namely:
• Siting and selection of manual
call points.
• Selection and siting of automatic
fire detectors.
• Selection of system type.
• Protection against electromagnetic
interference.
• Performance monitoring of newly
commissioned systems.
• Filtering measures.
• System management.
• Regular servicing and maintenance.
The 30 specific recommendations are not
intended to constitute definitive ‘rules’. On
the other hand, they cannot be ignored if
the various stages in system evolution and
use are to comply with the code. Thus, the
code recommends that the 30 recommendations in question be taken into account
by any parties responsible for specification, design, commissioning or verification
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
of a fire alarm system, and by maintenance
organizations at the time of consideration
of false alarm problems.
8.6.1
Siting and Selection of Manual
Call Points
The recommendations for suitable siting
and selection of manual call points relate
primarily to avoidance of exposure of call
points to accidental damage and malicious operation. Principally, this involves
care in siting within certain high risk areas.
As examples of areas in which there might
be exposure to accidental damage, the
code quotes areas in which trolleys or forklift trucks are used, and sports halls and
gymnasia, in which ball sports are played.
As examples of areas in which there is significant potential for malicious operation
of call points, the code suggests shopping malls, some public houses, cinemas,
theatres, nightclubs, schools, universities,
certain public entertainment premises and
public car parks.
In the case of shopping malls, the code recommends that manual call points should
not be located within the malls themselves.
In certain of the public premises described
above, the code recommends that, subject
to the agreement of all relevant enforcing
authorities, it might be appropriate either
section one guide to design of fire systems
to omit manual call points from areas accessible to the public or to site them so
that they are accessible only to authorized
persons, provided there is adequate surveillance of the entire premises by people
or CCTV and that manual call points are
provided at suitably staffed locations. For
example, it is not uncommon, in the case
of certain public houses, to locate manual
call points behind the bar.
Where mechanical damage is likely, the
code refers to the use of guards. Hinged
covers are also advocated for consideration as a form of guard and as a measure to limit malicious false alarms in the
case of schools, universities, certain public entertainment premises and public
car parks. Again, however, this would
require the agreement of all relevant
enforcing authorities, as the manual call
points would not then conform to the requirements of BS EN 54-11 for Type A
manual call points, and agreement of a
variation from the normal recommendations of the code would be necessary. In
the case of public car parks, the code suggests that consideration might also be
given to the use of a suitable emergency
voice communication system (e.g. emergency telephones or an intercom system) in lieu of manual call points. This
would also require approval of enfor-
page 87
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
cing authorities, and it would be appropriate for such a system to comply with
BS 5839-9.
Ingress of moisture into a manual call point
can cause malperformance of the device.
In the case of an addressable system, such
an event can cause various random fault
and fire signals. Accordingly, the code recommends that, in areas in which manual
call points are exposed to moisture, suitably
moisture-resistant devices should be used.
In practice, the performance would be
specified by means of a relevant IP rating
(e.g. IP X5). As examples of such areas, the
code gives external locations, wet areas of
industrial buildings, food-processing areas
that are subject to periodic washing down
and certain kitchens. A practical example
would be the case of breweries, where
there are often ‘wet’ areas. In many kitchens, ingress of water is not a recognized
problem, but it is not unknown for condensation to create problems for manual call
points, and water could, of course, occur in
wash-up areas.
8.6.2
Selection and Siting of
Automatic Fire Detectors
In the case of automatic fire detectors, the
code refers to ‘selection and siting’, whereas, in the case of manual call points, the
term used was ‘siting and selection’. This
reversal of words is not accidental. In the
case of manual call points, the code regards the siting of the devices as the critical
factor, whereas, in the case of automatic
fire detectors, greater emphasis is placed
on selection.
However, as discussed above, if it is known
that the provision of automatic fire detectors is likely to result in a high level of
unwanted alarms, the first question that
the designer should ask is whether, in fact,
the provision of automatic fire detection
is actually necessary. In this context, the
‘necessity’ will depend on the objectives
of the fire alarm system, which should be
clearly understood by the designer.
Over the last two decades, because of its
greater sensitivity, smoke detection has
become something of the ‘default’ form
of fire detection, with heat detection
specified only if it is obvious that smoke
detectors would result in false alarms.
However, the code recommends that,
for systems complying with the 2002
version, consideration should be given to
the use of heat detection, before smoke
detection is specified. Thus, the code recommends that it should be confirmed
that the use of heat detectors would
not satisfy both the objectives of the fire
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
alarm system and the recommendations
of the code.
Unless there is an equipment fault, if heat
detectors do generate false alarms, it is
likely that the reason is either a high ambient temperature or rapidly fluctuating
ambient temperatures. To avoid such false alarms, the code provides guidance on
the ‘headroom’ that should exist between
ambient temperatures and the temperature of operation of heat detectors. Rate of
rise heat detectors should not be installed
in locations in which rapid fluctuations in
temperature may occur. Examples given in
the code comprise kitchens, boiler rooms,
loading bays with large doors to open air
and lantern-lights.
A common perplexity to face designers is
the type of smoke detector that should be
specified (i.e. optical or ionization chamber). Clause 35 of the code provides guidance on considerations in respect of
false alarms that should be taken into account in selecting point and optical beam
smoke detectors.
section one guide to design of fire systems
Most aspirating smoke detection systems are considerably more sensitive
than normal point-type smoke detectors.
Indeed, the high sensitivity of these devices is the most common reason for them
to be specified (e.g. in critical electronic
equipment rooms). However, the code
advocates that special consideration is
given to ensure that the high sensitivity
does not result in unwanted alarms. In
this connection, aspirating smoke detection is sometimes specified in circumstances in which its advantage is not so
much its high sensitivity, but the opportunity to install relatively ‘invisible’ fire detection that will not affect the ambience
of, say, a stately home.
In these circumstances, high sensitivity is not required in order to satisfy the
objective of the system. Accordingly, in
such cases, the code advocates the use of
aspirating systems that can be arranged
to provide sensitivity equivalent to that of
point smoke detectors conforming to BS
EN 54-7, since, were it not for the visual
impact of point detectors, they might well
have satisfied the fire safety objective quite
adequately. This is possible with the VESDA aspirating detection system.
page 89
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
Carbon monoxide fire detectors are sometimes specified in situations where false
alarms might arise from smoke detectors
and to provide much more sensitive detection than could be afforded by heat
detectors. However, it is important to take
account of circumstances that might result
in unwanted alarms from CO detectors.
Normally, such circumstances will be those in which carbon monoxide is generated,
such as badly ventilated kitchens, areas in
which vehicle or other exhaust fumes occur and some laboratories.
Similarly, it is a simple truism that infrared and ultraviolet flame detectors should
not be located in areas in which sources
of infra-red or ultraviolet radiation create
the potential for unwanted alarms.The
mere presence of infra-red radiation itself,
however, does not necessarily generate
potential for unwanted alarms, as various
techniques can be adopted to prevent this
(e.g. generation of fire alarm signals from
infra-red flame detectors only if the infrared radiation sensed has the characteristic flicker frequency of a diffusion flame).
Accordingly, the code recommends that
the guidance of the manufacturer of the
detector, in respect of sensitivity of detectors to other non-fire sources of radiation,
should be taken into account.
8.6.3
Selection of System Type
Digital fire detection systems are regarded
as less prone to unwanted alarms than
conventional fire detection systems. Even
the simple pre-alarm warning incorporated
within digital systems provides an opportunity for the user to investigate a situation
that, had it been permitted to continue,
would have resulted in a false alarm.
The code recommends that, unless there
are overriding considerations, systems that
incorporate a high number of smoke detectors should be of the digital type. It is for the
designer to determine what constitutes a
high number of smoke detectors, but a relatively tentative suggestion within the code
is that a high number might be regarded as
more than 100 detectors.
Arguably, the future for reduction of false
alarms lies in the use of multi-sensor detection systems that incorporate measures to filter out false alarms from environmental influences that principally affect
only one of the sensors incorporated within each detector. It should, however, be
noted that not all multi-sensor detection
systems incorporate such measures; some
multi-sensor detectors use the multi-sensor
feature primarily to offer good sensitivity to
a broader spectrum of fires.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
However, the code recommends that,
in systems that incorporate a very high
number of automatic fire detectors
(other than heat detectors), the use of
systems that include multi-sensor fire
detectors and incorporation of suitable
measures to minimize the potential for
unwanted alarms should be considered
at the design stage. Again, only tentative advice on what constitutes a ‘very
high number’ of detectors is offered in
the code; more than 1,000 detectors is
suggested as constituting a very high
number. However, looking to the future,
the code suggests that, as standards for
multi-sensor fire detection systems are
produced, and more proprietary systems
become available, more definitive advice might be given and the definition of
‘very high number’ might be reduced, if
evidence of significant improvements in
unwanted alarm immunity can be established for these systems.
8.6.4
Protection Against
Electromagnetic Interference
Modern fire alarm systems are less susceptible to electromagnetic interference than
the systems of 10 - 20 years ago. However, the code recognizes electromagnetic
interference as a potential cause of unwanted alarms. Clause 28 of the code provides
section one guide to design of fire systems
some practical guidance on avoiding false
alarms as a result of electromagnetic interference. In addition, it is recommended
that the designer should take into account the likely sources of electromagnetic radiation in the building. These include
mobile telephones, two-way radios, mobile telephone base stations (which are
often found now within buildings) and
other high power transmitters.
In some cases, very high electromagnetic
field strengths might occur. Examples are
radio transmitter sites, airport terminals
and radar stations. In these cases, the
code recommends that guidance should
be sought from the system manufacturer,
so that special measures, such as the provision of filters on external circuits, can be
incorporated to reduce the potential for
unwanted alarms. In the case of an existing building, where unusually high field
strengths occur, the code recommends
that information be provided to the system
manufacturer regarding the field strengths
that exist. This, effectively, implies that actual measurements should be carried out
in these cases.
page 91
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
8.6.5
Performance Monitoring of
Newly Commissioned Systems
Sometimes, false alarms occur in the early
life of a system. This can arise from ‘infant
mortality’ of components, poor siting of detectors that was not identified before handover, and environmental influences that
were not appreciated prior to handover.
These early problems are sometimes attributed to ‘settling in’ of the system, but
are really more accurately the result of
previously undetected problems. In order
to prevent these problems causing actual
false alarms, the code recommends that,
in the case of systems incorporating more
than 50 automatic fire detectors, a ‘soak
period’ should follow commissioning.
A soak period is defined in the code as a
period after a fire alarm system has been
commissioned, but prior to handover, during which the system’s performance in
relation to false alarms and faults is monitored. Thus, other than in the case of small
systems, handover, as envisaged in the
code, is not complete until completion of
the soak period.
The code recommends that the duration
of the soak period should be at least one
week, but the actual period should be defined by the designer and incorporated
within any tender specification. Within
the model design certificate, the designer
is required to indicate whether no soak
test is required, based on the number of
automatic fire detectors, or to define the
period for the soak test. Where a soak test
is required, since it will immediately follow
commissioning, the model certificate of
commissioning also contains a space in
which the period of any required soak test
should be recorded.
Obviously, until successful completion of
the soak test, the system should not be
regarded as the means of giving warning
of fire in the building. Thus, during this period, each manual call point should bear
an indication that it is not to be used. In
practice, this means that, in the programme for a new building project, allowance
would have to be made for the soak period
before occupation of a building. Where an
existing fire alarm system is being replaced by a new system, strip out of the old
system clearly should not begin until the
completion of the new system’s soak test.
Practical difficulties may, however, arise in
complying with the code if the new system
uses the wiring of the old system.
The code defines the criteria for successful
completion of the soak test, namely that:
1) During the soak period, no false alarm
occurred; or
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
2)
Investigation of all false alarms that
occurred, by the supplier of the
system, has identified the cause of
every false alarm and enabled any
relevant measures to be taken to
minimize potential for similar false
alarms to occur in the future.
8.6.6
Filtering Measures
Even if all the above recommendations
for limitation of false alarms are dutifully
followed, the code acknowledges that
the rate of false alarms (e.g. expressed
as one false alarm per n detectors per annum), or the sheer number of false alarms,
might be unacceptable. The code envisages that the unacceptable extent of false
and unwanted alarms might actually be
anticipated at the design stage or that it
might only come to light after operational experience. For example, if there is a
large number of automatic fire detectors,
the number of false alarms that might be
anticipated by the designer, even at the
initial design stage, might be regarded by
the user as unacceptable, even though
the actual rate is well within the definition
of acceptability given in the code.
Under these circumstances, the code
suggests that ‘filtering’ measures might
be appropriate, particularly in installations
with a very large number of automatic fire
detectors, which the code suggests might
be, for example, more than 1,000 detecsection one guide to design of fire systems
tors. Two forms of ‘filtering’ are described
in the code.
The first (and, in practice, the less common) form of filtering is the use of a ‘time
related system’. In such a system the
form of protection varies on a time related basis. For example, smoke detectors
may be disabled automatically during
normal working hours, so that, in effect,
the system is Category M during working
hours and Category P outside normal
working hours. This technique could not,
of course, be applied if the function of the
automatic fire detection were life safety,
as it would, obviously, be needed when
people were present.
Other forms of time related system include
those in which detector sensitivity is reduced at certain times, such as during working
hours, and multi-sensor systems in which
one of the sensors is disabled (or reduced
in sensitivity) at certain times. In the latter
case, if, say, smoke sensors are disabled during normal working hours, but protection at
these times by heat detectors is still
required, the detector spacing should
follow that recommended for heat
detectors, rather than that recommended for smoke detectors.
In all of the above examples, the actual
causes of false and unwanted alarms are
page 93
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
not eliminated or reduced; it is merely that
the false alarms are ‘filtered out’ by preventing response to the causes of false and
unwanted alarms at certain times of day.
It goes without saying, however, that the
modified form of response, and associated
reduction in the level of protection, needs
to be understood by, and be acceptable to,
the relevant interested parties.
The second form of filtering involves the
use of a ‘staff alarm’. The code defines a
staff alarm as a restricted alarm, following
the operation of a manual call point or automatic fire detector, given to certain staff
in the premises to permit investigation
prior to evacuation.
Secondly, although the definition refers
to a delay in evacuation, quite often the
summoning of the fire service (whether via
the public emergency call system or via an
alarm receiving centre) is also delayed, so
that summoning of the fire service does
not occur unless and until an evacuation
is initiated. It might actually be preferable
to delay the summoning of the fire service
until the expiry of the investigation period if
the fire brigade attendance time is less than
the investigation period; otherwise, in these
circumstances, at the time of arrival of the
fire service, investigation is still underway,
the premises are still fully occupied and no
audible fire alarm signal is sounding. The
arrival of the fire service under these circumstances may not only be unwarranted,
but it may cause confusion.
Staff alarms are becoming quite common in
large, complex buildings that are protected
by a high number of automatic fire detectors, particularly smoke detectors. The use
of a staff alarm does, however, necessitate
a good standard of management. There
must be sufficient staff to investigate, and
manage the situation thereafter, at all times
that the staff alarm arrangement applies,
and there must never be any suggestion
that staff might simply endeavour to cancel
the alarm during the investigate period and
then investigate at leisure.
In practice, the staff alarm normally applies
at all times, but there is no reason why, in
certain premises, it should not only apply
at certain times of the day, such as normal
working hours, in which case the system is
also a time-related system.
Although filtering should, arguably, always
be considered at the design stage in systems with very large numbers of smoke
detectors, filtering measures should not
be regarded as an ‘easy’ option to mask
shortcomings in system design that could
be improved by other means. The code recommends that filtering measures should
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
only be adopted under the following circumstances:
1)
After consultation and agreement with all relevant enforcing
authorities; and
2) In the case of Category P systems in
which it is proposed to incorporate
an investigation period prior to the
summoning of the fire service,
after consultation with the insurers;
and
3)
Where it is considered that either the
rate of false and unwnated alarms (expressed as number of false alarms per 100 detectors per annum) or
the actual number of false alarms,
cannot be limited to a level
acceptable to the user and the fire
service by other means; and
4)
Where it is considered that the
incorporation of filtering measures
does not negate the objectives of the system in terms of protection of
life, property, business continuity or
the environment.
Point 4) above cannot be stressed strongly enough. The natural concern on the
part of users to avoid the effects of false
section one guide to design of fire systems
and unwanted alarms sometimes blinds
them to the need for a strategy that will
be robust in ensuring the safety of people
in the event of an actual fire. A good false
alarm strategy is not necessarily a good fire
safety strategy!
Even so, properly designed filtering measures do incorporate safeguards to ensure that potential delays in implementing
fire procedures in the event of fire are
minimized. For example, the code recommends that filtering should not be applied
to signals initiated by manual call points.
Thus, during the investigation period, if
anyone in the building, including those
investigating the alarm signal, discover
a fire, the alarm can be raised quickly
by use of any nearby manual call point.
(A staff alarm is sometimes accepted as
the response to operation of a manual call
point in public entertainment premises,
but this is not primarily for the purpose of
filtering out false alarms, but to enable predetermined staff actions to be put in place
to assist the public with evacuation.) Staff
alarms should only be used where staff,
including any night staff, are sufficient in
number and fully trained in the action they
are to take in the event of fire.
A further common safeguard incorporated within staff alarm arrangements
page 95
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
is coincidence detection. When this
arrangement applies, although only a
staff alarm results from the operation of a
single automatic fire detector, operation
of any two detectors will result in a full fire
alarm condition. The value of coincidence
detection is acknowledged in the code,
albeit that it is not specifically recommended that it should always be incorporated
within a staff alarm arrangement.
If the fire service is not summoned immediately at the start of any investigation period associated with a staff alarm,
it is essential that they are summoned
immediately on expiry of this period. In
residential care premises summoning of
the fire service is paramount and should
be immediate upon the staff alarm operating , even when there may be a delay
in sounding the general alarm. A note in
the code acknowledges that reliability
and compliance with this recommendation can be aided by the use of facilities to
transmit signals automatically to an alarm
receiving centre on expiry of the investigation period. Some fire authorities actually make this a requirement for acceptance of a staff alarm arrangement.
Filtering of alarm signals at the alarm
receiving centre, in the form of a telephone call to the protected premises
to verify that the alarm is genuine, is
commonly used in respect of intruder
alarm signals. It is uncommon for this
to apply to fire alarm signals, but such
an arrangement is not precluded. Care
would, however, be necessary to ensure that filtering did not occur at the protected premises and also, subsequently,
at the alarm receiving centre, as this
would be likely to cause an unacceptable delay in transmission of signals to
the fire service.
Automatic sprinkler systems are not prone to false alarms. False alarms as a result
of actual water discharge from sprinkler
heads is extremely rare, and, when it does
occur, it is normally the result of significant
events, such as mechanical damage (e.g.
by forklift trucks), corrosion of heads in
aggressive environments, freezing of unheated pipework, etc. However, unwanted
alarms do sometimes occur in systems that
are supplied from water mains, as opposed
to the now more common form of supply,
namely a water storage tank and pumps.
In systems supplied directly from towns
mains, the pressure in the main may rise
at night as a result of low demand. This
increase in pressure can lift the clack of
the alarm valve, permitting water to flow
through the pipework that serves the hydraulic alarm gong. The normal means
of providing a signal from a sprinkler system to a fire alarm system comprises a
pressure switch within this pipework.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
Accordingly, a false alarm can arise under
these circumstances.
Where a signal from an automatic sprinkler
system that is supplied from water mains
is used as an input to the fire alarm system, there should be liaison with the organization responsible for installing or maintaining the sprinkler system to minimize
potential for unwanted alarms as a result
of water pressure surges. In practice, this
is usually achieved by a hydraulic or electronic time delay facility, and consideration of these measures is recommended
by the code under such circumstances.
An electronic time delay, which is probably more common, is usually achieved by
use of a pressure switch that incorporates
a variable time delay (for which the pressure sensed must exist) within the switch;
a similar arrangement could be applied at
the fire alarm control equipment, but it is
normally at the sprinkler installation that
the matter is addressed.
8.6.7
System Management
The code also makes recommendations
for ongoing management of the fire alarm
system by the user. As the user is unlikely
to possess, or read, the code, it is important that the designer and supplier of the
system inform the user regarding these
section one guide to design of fire systems
recommendations. The recommendations
in question are intended to ensure that, for
example, contractors are properly appraised of the measures necessary to minimize
false and unwanted alarms during building
work; various measures that are appropriate during such work are recommended in the code. The code also highlights
the importance of ensuring that staff in
the building are aware of the presence of
automatic fire detection, so that they can
avoid actions that could cause false and
unwanted alarms. Staff also need to be
informed when routine testing or maintenance work might cause the occurrence of
a fire alarm signal. More generally, the building, and any plant in the building, should
be adequately maintained to ensure that
leaking roofs, steam leaks, etc do not cause unwanted alarms.
When false and unwanted alarms do
occur, the code recommends that suitable
action should be taken by the user. Relevant actions are discussed in the code, but
it should be stressed that, at the very least,
this should comprise recording of the false
and unwanted alarm and all relevant associated information in the system log book.
page 97
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
limitation of false and unwanted alarms
8.6.8
Servicing and Maintenance
In order to limit false and unwanted
alarms, servicing and maintenance of the
system should be carried out by a competent organization. Generally, a contract
for periodic servicing and emergency call
out should be set up before the system
becomes operational.
8.6.9
New non compliances
It is accepted that it is not the responsibility of those carrying out the maintenance
of the system to identify non compliances
with the design standard; although if any
are discovered they should be reported to
the relevant person/system designer.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
means of giving warning to occupants
9.
Means of Giving Warning to
Occupants
Category M and Category L systems must
be capable of giving an audible warning
of fire throughout the building, as the principal purpose of these systems is to warn
occupants in the event of fire, so that
they can evacuate the building. In theory,
a Category P system does not have to
provide an audible warning throughout
the building, since its purpose is purely to
ensure that fire- fighting action is taken,
and this might not necessitate an audible
warning to all occupants of the building.
In practice, a Category P system is usually combined with a Category M system,
in which case the recommendations for
audible alarm signals applicable to a Category M system will take precedence
and be more onerous.
Strictly, nevertheless, the code only recommends that, in the case of a Category P system, the recommendations
regarding audible alarm signals need
only be applied in areas where such audible alarm signals are required. Thus,
for example, in a building with an existing Category M system, a separate, supplementary Category P system could
meet the recommendations of the code
without a facility to provide an audible
section one guide to design of fire systems
warning throughout the building when
detectors operate.
When designing fire alarm systems, careful consideration must be given to the
positioning of sounders. The audibility of
sounders can differ quite significantly depending upon where they are located. It
should be ensured that sufficient, suitably
located sounders are provided to ensure
adequate audibility in all relevant areas of
the premises.
9.1
Sound Pressure Level
The code recommends that, generally,
the minimum sound pressure level produced by sounders in all accessible areas of
the building should be at least 65dB(A) or
5dB above any other noise likely to persist
for longer than 30 seconds, whichever is
the greater [16.2.1]. There are, however,
a number of relaxations from this recommendation, and these are set out below:
• The minimum figure of 65dB(A) is
reduced to 60dB(A) in:
•stairways;
• enclosures of no more than approxima tely 60m² in area (e.g. cellular offices);
page 99
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
means of giving warning to occupants
•
specific points of limited extent. (This
means that, although the designer
should endeavour to achieve the minimum sound pressure level of
65dB(A), the system is still acceptable
if, at one or more points of limited
extent, the sound pressure level
measured is between 60dB(A) and 65dB(A)).
•
No minimum sound pressure level
applies to habitable enclosures of less
than 1m² in area.
•
No measurement of sound pressure
level need be carried out within
500mm of any walls or partitions,
other than within rooms in which the
fire alarm system is intended to rouse
people from sleep.
•
If any area is specifically designated as
that from which the fire service will be
summoned in the event of fire (e.g. a
telephone operator’s room), the code
does not specify a minimum sound
pressure level, but it needs to be ensured that the fire alarm signal is not so
loud as to interfere with telephone speech. If, however, the sound pressure level of background noise in this
area is greater than 60dB(A), the
sound pressure level of the fire alarm
signal should be 5dB above the sound
pressure level of the back ground
noise. (Care should also be taken to
ensure that sounder frequencies can
not confuse tone dialling systems,
leading to failure of the
emergency call).
If the fire alarm system is intended to rouse
people from sleep, the code recommends
that the sound pressure level at the bedhead, within rooms in which people sleep,
should be at least 75dB(A). In practice, this
will necessitate the provision of a fire alarm
sounder within each room in question.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
means of giving warning to occupants
Table 9 below shows the typical sound
pressure level produced by various types of
sounder at different distances. It should be
notedthat,inthecaseofelectronicsounders,
the figures quoted relate to sound pressure
SOUNDER PRESSURE LEVEL dB ( A )
SOUNDER TYPE
6” Bell
level measured along the axis of the sounder. Electronic sounders are directional in
output, and a lower sound pressure level
will be achieved at points off the axis of the
sounder. In such cases, the manufacturer’s
data sheet should be consulted.
@ 1 Metre
@ 2 Metre
@ 4 Metre
@ 8 Metre
@ 12 Metre
91
85
79
73
67
95
89
83
77
71
Small electronic Sounder
103
97
91
85
79
Large electronic Sounder
113
107
101
95
89
Bedhead Sounder
96
90
84
78
72
Base Sounder
85
79
73
67
-
8” Bell
table 9. Typical sound pressure level at various distances
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 101
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
means of giving warning to occupants
9.2
Discrimination and Frequency
Two important factors relating to any
sounders used in fire alarm systems are
Discrimination and Frequency.
Discrimination The type, number and
location of fire alarm sounders should be
such that the alarm sound is distinct from
all the background noise. The note of the
fire alarm sounders should also be distinct
from any other alarm sounds that are likely
to be heard.
All fire alarm sounders within the building
should have similar sound characteristics,
unless particular conditions, such as an
area of high background noise make this
impracticable. In this case, other types of
fire alarm device may also be used, such as
flashing coloured beacons [17.2].
Frequency Young persons are most sensitive to sounds at frequencies between
500 Hz and 8,000Hz. Age and hearing
damage reduce the sensitivity of the ear,
particularly to frequencies above 2,000
Hz. Partitions, dividing walls and doors
attenuate sound; in general, the higher
the frequency of the sound, the greater
the attenuation.
Because of this, fire alarm sounders should
therefore ideally lie in the range 500 Hz
to 1,000 Hz [16.2.1b)]. However, if the
frequency of background noise is within
this frequency range, and the level of background noise is such that the sound of fire
alarm sounders producing 500 - 1,000Hz
could be ‘masked’ by the background noise, the use of fire alarm sounder frequencies outside this range is acceptable.
9.3
Sound Continuity
The code states that the sound of the fire
alarm should be continuous, although
the frequency and amplitude may vary
(for example, as in a warbling note) to indicate the need for evacuation or other
urgent response.
9.4
Audible Alarms in Noisy Areas
In areas of a building where there are noisy
machines, the power requirements of high
powered sounders needed to comply with
the recommendations of the code (see
9.1 above) may place excessively high
demands on the power capacity of the fire
alarm system. In such cases, the primary
sounders may be reinforced by secondary
sounders operated directly from the mains
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
means of giving warning to occupants
supply and without standby supplies,
provided the following conditions apply
[16.2.1e)]:
1.
The mains powered sounders are
operated from the same final circuit(s)
as the noisy machines, so that
failure of the supply to these
secondary sounders also results in the
silencing of the noisy machines.
2.
When the machine noise ceases and
the secondary sounders are out of
service, the primary sounders meet the sound levels recommended
in the code (see 9.1 above).
In premises designed for public entertainment, retail and similar premises, in
which the sound pressure level of music
is likely to be greater than 80dB(A), the
music should be muted automatically
when a fire alarm signal is given. (If the
sound pressure level of the music is likely
to be between 60dB(A) and 80dB(A), the
sound pressure level of the fire alarm signal should, of course, still be 5dB above
the level of the music.
section one guide to design of fire systems
9.5
Alarm Zones
In many buildings, the fire alarm system
is so arranged that, when any manual call
point or fire detector operates, fire alarm
sounders operate throughout the building, so that the entire building is evacuated simultaneously.
In larger, more complex buildings, it may
be the case that, in the event of an alarm
signal in one area, occupants in other
areas are given only an ‘alert’ signal to
warn them of the possible need for evacuation at a later stage. This occurs in
buildings with phased evacuation, which
is often used in tall buildings; in such cases, usually only two or more floors are
evacuated at any one time.
In these cases, the premises are divided into
‘alarm zones’. An evacuation signal can then
be given in one alarm zone without giving an
evacuation signal in other alarm zones; normally an ‘alert’ signal is given in these other
alarm zones. Such an arrangement should
only be used with the agreement of the building control and fire authorities. Care needs
to be taken that overlap of signals between
alarm zones does not result in confusion of
occupants. It should be ensured that no occupant can clearly hear both an ‘evacuate’
signal and an ‘alert’ signal.
page 103
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
means of giving warning to occupants
Where there is more than one alarm zone
in the building, a separate evacuation control should be provided for each part of the
premises in which an evacuation signal
needs to be given simultaneously. However, in buildings with phased evacuation,
sometimes there is inadequate staircase
capacity to evacuate the entire building
simultaneously. In the latter case, no single control that will result in an evacuation
signal throughout all alarm zones simultaneously should be provided; such a control
should, however, be provided in all other
buildings with two or more alarm zones.
In a building with two or more separate
alarm zones, ‘alert’ signals may stop automatically after 30 seconds, provided that,
at periods not exceeding three minutes,
the signal is restored for a period of at least
ten seconds until it is manually silenced.
While provision of this automatic silencing
is not mandatory for compliance with BS
5839-1, the arrangement prevents unnecessary disruption of occupants until they
are required to evacuate.
9.6
External Fire Alarm Devices
There is no need to provide external fire
alarm sounders in order to comply with
BS 5839-1. However, if the fire service
consider that there would be a need for,
or benefit from, external alarm devices to
direct them to the appropriate building or
appropriate entrance to a building, such
sounders may be provided. However, the
code recommends that any such external fire alarm sounders in Category L and
Category P systems should silence automatically after 30 minutes, unless the
premises are continuously occupied, so
enabling manual silencing by occupants
at any time.
External indication may, instead, be given
by a visual alarm device, such as a flashing
beacon. In this case, the visual device can
continue until appropriate manual action
is taken (e.g. silencing sounders and/or
resetting the system (para 9.8 refers)).
9.7
Voice Alarm Systems
and Voice Sounders
Instead of using fire alarm sounders, audible alarms may comprise voice messages
generated by a voice alarm system. A
voice alarm system is a specially designed sound distribution system (i.e. public
address system), which, in the event of
fire, broadcasts an alarm warning tone followed by a voice message. Voice alarm
systems are commonly used instead of
conventional fire alarm sounders in premises occupied by a large number of mem-
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
means of giving warning to occupants
bers of the public (e.g. shopping centre,
transport terminal, large places of public
entertainment, etc) and in buildings with
phased evacuation. Voice alarm systems
should comply with BS 5839-8.
In buildings in which it is not considered
that a full voice alarm system is necessary,
voice sounders can be used as an enhancement over conventional fire alarm sounders. Voice sounders are fire alarm sounders, connected to conventional fire alarm
circuits, that generate and broadcast digitally recorded speech messages. Whereas,
in a voice alarm system, there is normally a
facility to override pre-recorded messages
and transmit ‘live’ speech, this is not possible in a system that uses voice sounders.
Guidance on the use of voice sounders is
given in Annex E of BS 5839-8.
9.8
Fire Alarm Warnings for
Deaf People
There is a need to warn deaf people in the
event of fire, in which case additional facilities shall be provided. Where deaf people
sleep in the building, vibrating devices, wired into fire alarm device circuits, can be
placed under pillows or mattresses. Where
deaf people have a need to move around a
building, vibrating pagers can be given to
each deaf person.
section one guide to design of fire systems
Visual alarm devices, complying with
EN54-23, should be installed in places
where audible devices alone would be ineffective, or where they are simply undesirable. Visual alarm devices should also be
used in order to provide warning to hearing impaired personnel. BS5839-1 (17)
refers to the Loss Prevention Code of Practice, CoP 0001 in respect of the design and
installation of systems incorporating such
devices.
Systems using vibrating pagers must be
specially designed to satisfy the recommendations of BS 5839-1. This includes
the provision of monitoring facilities, standby power supplies, etc, as recommended
by BS 5839-1.
page 105
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
control and indicating equipment
10.
Control and Indicating
Equipment
The control and indicating equipment
used in all fire detection and alarm systems should comply with BS EN 54-2.
Confidence of compliance can be obtained by the use of equipment that is
approved by the Loss Prevention Certification Board. Vds or other European accredited EN54 product test house.
Although we describe the features and
operation of different types of fire detection and alarm systems in section 4, there
are also other factors which should also
be considered when designing a system,
namely Siting of Control and Indicating
Equipment, Location of Origin of the Alarm
and Security of Control Equipment. Each
of these topics is described below.
10.1
Siting of Control and
Indicating Equipment
The sitting of the control and indicating
equipment should satisfy a number of recommendations:
1.
Since the control equipment is
essentiental for the operation
of the system, it should be
placed in an area of low fire hazard
[23.2.1e)]. In a complex building with
multiple entrances, it may be necessary to provide repeat indicator panel(s) at the building entry point(s) to be used by the fire brigade.
2.
Indicating equipment, in conjunction
with suitable manual controls
should be sited at an appropriate location for both staff and fire-fighters
responding to a fire signal. This
should normally be an area on the
ground floor close to the entrance of
the building likely to be used by the
fire service, or a suitably sited, continuously manned control room.
3.
The ambient light level in the vicinity
of all control and indicating equipment
should be such that individual
indications can be clearly seen,
controls easily operated and any
instructions or legends easily read.
4.
In Category L and Category P systems,
the area in which the equipment is
sited should be protected by
automatic fire detection. However,
this recommendation does not
apply if:
(I) The fire hazard level in the area in
which the equipment is sited is
negligible and there is an adequate
degree of fire separation between
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
control and indicating equipment
this area and any area in which the fire
hazard is not negligible; or
(II) The area in which the equipment is
sited is continuously manned in the
case of Category P systems, or
continuously manned when the
building is occupied by any person in
the case of Category L systems.
5.
Noise or other sound levels in the
vicinity of the control equipment
should not dilute the audible
alarm given by the control
equipment [23.2.1d)].
6.
In multi–occupancy buildings with
communal areas, control and
indicating equipment should be sited
within a communal area. Otherwise, it
should be sited in an area to which
access is possible at all times when the building is generally occupied.
10.2
Location of Origin of the Fire
Although addressable systems can precisely locate the position of the fire, all fire detection and alarm systems (whether conventional or addressable) should provide
zonal indication, in at least one prominent
location (e.g. a matrix of LEDs or illuminated mimic diagram) to show the detection
section one guide to design of fire systems
zone(s) from which there are alarm signals.
This provides the fire brigade with a simple
overview of all detection zone(s) in which
fire has been detected, without the need to
scroll through a display.
If the zone indicators simply provide an
indication of detection zone number, there will be a need for a plan of the building,
adjacent to the indicating equipment, to
show diagrammatically the locations of all
detection zones.
However, if the zone indicators take the
form of an illuminated mimic (an example
of which is shown in Figure 25), this combines the function of zonal indication and
geographic representation of the detection zone(s) from which alarm signals are
being given.
10.3
Security of Control Equipment
The code recommends that the operation
of certain controls be limited to authorised personnel only. Where the restriction
is not provided on the control equipment,
for example by means of a key switch, the
code allows for security of the equipment
to be provided by restricting access to it.
page 107
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
control and indicating equipment
10.4
Networked Control Panels
In a large building, it is possible to network a number of control panels together, to form a ‘networked system’. Generally, the network cables may need to be
fire resisting and monitored, as they may
form part of the critical signal path.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
power supplies
11.
Power Supplies
Virtually all systems will be powered from
the public mains supply, with a secondary
standby supply being provided by rechargeable batteries (sometimes in conjunction
with a standby generator). If the standby
batteries are supplemented by an automatically started generator, it is permissible to
reduce the standby battery capacity of Category M and L systems [25.4e)].
Both the primary mains supply and the secondary standby supply must be able to
provide the maximum load independently
of each other. The alarm load of the fire
alarm system is the maximum load which
the power supply must provide under fire
conditions. This includes power drawn during simultaneous operation of the control
and indicating equipment, all sounders,
all detectors, all manual call points and
transmission of signals to an alarm receiving centre.
11.1
Mains Supply
Connection of all systems to the public
mains supply should be in accordance
with the recommendations outlined in BS
7671 (Requirements for Electrical Installations – IEE Wiring Regulations, Seventeenth Edition). The mains supply for the
section one guide to design of fire systems
system should be connected via an isolating switch–fuse or circuit breaker used
solely for the purpose of the fire detection
and alarm equipment. Any switch (other
than the main isolator for the building)
that disconnects the mains supply to the
fire alarm system should be clearly labelled ‘FIRE ALARM: DO NOT SWITCH OFF’.
Any protective device (such as a fuse) that
serves only the fire alarm circuit should be
labelled ‘FIRE ALARM’.
The supply to the fire alarm system should
be supplied from the load (‘dead’) side of
the main isolating device for the building.
Since this isolates all supplies in the building, it does not need to be labelled with
a warning that it isolates the supply to the
fire alarm system.
The circuits supplying the fire alarm system should not be protected by residual
current devices, unless this is necessary to
comply with BS 7671. When a residual current device is necessary for electrical safety, a fault on any other circuit or equipment
in the building should not be capable of resulting in isolation of the supply to the fire
alarm system; the RCD for the fire alarm
system should be independent.
page 109
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
power supplies
To facilitate local isolation during maintenance, a double pole switch should be
provided in the vicinity of the control and
indicating equipment (and any other mains
supply equipment forming part of the fire
alarm system) so that maintenance technicians can isolate the mains supply to the
fire alarm system locally to the equipment
that the mains supply serves. The switch
should be lockable to present unauthorised operation.
The presence of the normal or the standby
supply should be indicated by a green indicator at the main control and indicating
equipment, to show that power is being
supplied to the system (whether from the
mains supply or the standby supply).
11.2
Standby Supply
The provision of a standby supply is a requirement of the Health and Safety (Safety
Signs and Signals) regulations.
The standby supply should be provided
by secondary batteries with an automatic
charger. The batteries should have an expected life of at least four years; the code
specifically disallows the use of car–starting type batteries. In order that the full life
of the batteries is achieved, it is important
to ensure that the characteristics of the
charger match those of the batteries being
used. The charger should be capable of
charging fully discharged batteries in 24
hours.
In the event of a mains supply failure, the
capacity of the standby supply must be
likely to provide protection until the normal mains supply has been restored. The
minimum requirements for the different
system types and conditions are described
in the following subsections.
11.2.1
Life Protection
(Category M and L Systems)
The capacity of the standby batteries should
be sufficient to operate the system for 24
hours normal operation, and also have sufficient capacity remaining at the end of this
period to provide an evacuation signal
throughout the building for 30 minutes.
If the building is provided with an automatically started standby generator that serves the fire alarm system (usually in conjunction with other essential supplies in the
building), the capacity of the standby batteries should be sufficient to maintain the
system in operation for at least six hours,
after which sufficient capacity should remain to provide an ‘evacuate’ signal in all
alarm zones for at least 30 minutes.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
power supplies
11.2.2
Property Protection
(Category P Systems)
The capacity of the standby batteries required for property protection systems is
dependent on whether or not a mains supply failure will be immediately recognised
within the building or via a remote link to
an alarm receiving centre.
The capacity of the standby batteries required for property protection systems is
identical to that required for Category M
and Category L systems (i.e. sufficient to
operate the system for 24 hours and provide an evacuation signal for 30 minutes
thereafter) PROVIDED:
1.
The building is continuously manned,
so that staff in the building would be
aware of a power supply fault
indication on the system within no
more than six hours of its
occurrence; or
2.
The building is inspected outside
normal working hours such that staff
would be aware of a power supply
fault indication within no more than
six hours of its occurrence; or
3. Power supply fault signals are
transmitted automatically to an alarm
section one guide to design of fire systems
receiving centre, instructed to notify
a keyholder immediately on receipt of
a fault indication from the premises.
In all other circumstances, the battery capacity should be sufficient to maintain the system in operation for at least 24 hours longer
than the maximum period for which the premises are likely to be unoccupied, or for 72
hours in total, whichever is less, after which
sufficient capacity should remain to operate all fire alarm devices for at least 30 minutes. If the building is likely to be unoccupied
for more than the duration of the standby
battery capacity at any time, and there is
a facility for transmission of fire signals to
an alarm receiving centre (as there normally will be in a Category P system - see
Section 13), power supply fault signals
should also be automatically transmitted
to the alarm receiving centre, for immediate notification of a key holder. It should
be noted that, in the case of Category P
systems, there is no relaxation in standby
battery capacity if an automatically started standby generator is provided.
11.2.3
Calculation of Standby
Battery Capacity
For systems designed in accordance
with BS 5839-1, compliance with the
code requires that the battery capacity of
page 111
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
power supplies
valve regulated lead acid batteries should
be calculated in accordance with the
following formula:
in which the alarm current is sufficiently
high to reduce the effective capacity below its nominal value.
The formula in question is:
CMIN = 1.25 (T1 I1 + DI2 /2)
Where CMIN/20 will be equal to or greater than I2, it can be assumed that D = 1.
When CMIN/20 is less than I2, the value of
D should either be based on the battery
manufacturer’s data or should be 1.75.
where:
CMIN = minimum capacity of the battery
when new at the 20 hour discharge rate
and at 20ºC (in ampere-hours).
T1 = total battery standby period in hours.
I1 = total battery standby load in amperes.
I2= total battery alarm load in amperes.
D = a de-rating factor.
1.25 is a factor to allow for battery ageing.
The de-rating factor is intended to take
into account the fact that the effective capacity of a battery depends on the rate at
which it is discharged. Battery capacity is
normally quoted at the 20 hour discharge rate. Thus, a 20 amperes hour battery
would be capable of providing one amp
for 20 hours. However, it would not be
capable of providing 20 amperes for one
hour. The de-rating is needed in cases
Example 1: Category M or Category
L System
Consider premises that are unoccupied
from 6.00 pm Friday until 9.00 am Monday. Assume the normal operating current
of the system is 350mA and the maximum
alarm load is 2.0A. The capacity of the
standby batteries would be:
1.25(24x0.35+1.75 x 2 ÷2)=12.7
The next highest available capacity size
should be used.
If, however, the circuit serving the fire
alarm system is served by an automatically started standby generator, the capacity can be reduced to:
1.25 (6 x 0.35 + 1.75 x 2 ÷ 2) = 4.8Ah
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
power supplies
Example 2: Category P System
As the premises are unoccupied for 63
hours, a battery having capacity to operate the system for 72 hours is required.
Accordingly, the required battery capacity would be:
1.25 (72 x 0.35 + 1.75 x 2 ÷ 2) = 33.7Ah.
Again, the next highest available size
should be used.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 113
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
12.
Cabling Considerations
Correct operation of a fire alarm system
depends on the interconnections between the control equipment, detectors,
call points and sounders. Unless these
interconnections operate correctly when
required, the system will not fulfil its intended functions.
The components of most fire detection
and alarm systems are connected by cables. For specialised applications where
cabling cannot be used, fibre optics and/
or radio links are used. Clause 27 of BS
5839-1 covers radio-linked systems.
These systems are ‘wireless’, in that all
communications between control equipment and devices (manual call points,
detectors and sounders) is carried out
using radio transmission. Where fibre
optic cables are used they should provide
at least the same integrity and reliability
as cables recommended for the same
purpose.
When selecting cables for a fire alarm system due consideration should be given to
the following:
1.
2.
3.
Resistance to fire
Current carrying capacity.
Voltage drop under maximum
current conditions.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Insulation characteristics.
Mechanical robustness, resistance
to corrosion and rodent attack, etc.
Screening (where applicable).
Suitability for carrying data
(where applicable).
Although a wide variety of different cables could be used in various parts of a
fire alarm system, many may be restricted in their suitability because of their
varying abilities to resist both fire and
mechanical damage. All cables used in
fire detection and alarm systems (including those serving the mains supply to
the system) must be fire resisting. The
recommended cable types are described
in the following subsection.
12.1
Recommended Cable Types
The type of cable, its routing and its physical and electrical protection characteristics
should be specified for each particular installation. Wiring, in general, must comply
with the latest issue of BS 7671 Requirements for Electrical Installations - IEE Wiring Regulations (currently Seenteen Edition). Wiring for specific systems should
also conform to BS 5839-1 : section 26.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
Cables used throughout the system (including that used for the final circuit providing mains voltage to the system) should
comprise only one of the following types
of cable:
other approvals appropriate to that specific cable type would be in addition to the
aforementioned tests.
1)
2)
3)
4)
For some applications, such as those listed
below, the code recognizes that the level
of fire resistance described as ‘enhanced’
is desirable:
Mineral insulated copper
sheathed cables. Conforming to BSEN 60702-1 and BSEN 60702-2
Proprietary fire resisting cables that
conform to BS 7629 (these are
sometimes described as ‘soft skinned’ fire resisting cables).
Armoured fire resisting cables con
forming to BS 7846.
Cables rated at 300/500V (or
greater) and that provide the same degree of safety to that afforded by cables complying with BS 7629.
BS 5839-1 divides fire resisting cables into
two categories, described as standard fire
resisting cables and enhanced fire resisting cables.
Cables used for the installation of fire alarm
systems, including those for the electrical
supply,should whatever their design properties, have been independently tested
and approved to BS EN 50200 PH30/60
for standard fire resistance or PH 120
BS8434-2 for enhanced fire resistance. All
section one guide to design of fire systems
12.2
Cable Suitability
1)
in unsprinklered buildings (or parts of
buildings) in which the fire
strategy involves evacuation of occu
pants in four or more phases;
2)
in unsprinklered buildings of greater
than 30m in height;
3)
in unsprinklered premises and sites in
which a fire in one area could affect
cables of critical signal paths
associated with areas remote from
the fire, in which it is envisaged
people will remain in occupation
during the course of the fire.
Examples may be large hospitals with
central control equipment and progressive horizontal evacuation
arrangements, and certain large
industrial sites;
page 115
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
4)
in any other buildings in which the
designer, specifier or regulatory
authority, on the basis of a fire risk
assessment that takes fire
engineering considerations into
account, considers that the use of
enhanced fire resisting cables
is necessary.
It should be noted that, in the first three
specific cases, sprinkler protection would
obviate the need for use of cables of enhanced fire resistance. It is considered
that, in a sprinklered building, the fire risk,
the likelihood of fire development and the
likely exposure of cables to fire make the
use of cables of standard fire resistance
acceptable. However, for the purpose of
this recommendation, a building should be
regarded as sprinklered only if an automatic sprinkler installation is provided throughout the building.
The reason for the use of enhanced fire
resisting cables in unsprinklered buildings in which there is evacuation in four
or more phases is simply that, in these
situations, occupants will be expected to
remain in the building for some time after fire is detected. It is therefore essential
that the system is capable of reliably giving warning to occupants during the very
last phase of the evacuation. It is also im-
portant that there is a high reliability and
that indication from other automatic fire
detectors of fire spread can be given at the
control and indicating equipment.
In a large building with phased evacuation, a networked fire alarm system might
be provided, with several control panels
interconnected by a data network. In this
case, individual, self-contained fire alarm
systems might serve parts of the building
that are evacuated in less than four phases,
even though the entire building is evacuated in four or more phases. In these cases,
cables of enhanced fire resistance need
not be used for the systems themselves,
but there may be a need to use cables of
enhanced fire resistance for the network.
However this may not be necessary if the
network is configured in a loop, with diverse routing of incoming and outgoing
circuits, and if the loop is designed in such
a way that there will be no loss of communication to any sub-panel in the event of a
single open or short circuit on the loop.
The recommendation for cables of enhanced fire resistance in unsprinklered
buildings of greater than 30m in height
simply reflects the greater risk associated
with tall buildings. In those cases, phased
evacuation is often used, and the recommendation relating to phased evacuation
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
will already apply. It should also be noted
that legislation normally requires new
buildings of greater than 30m in height
to be sprinklered, unless the buildings are
of a residential or institutional nature (i.e.
flats, hospitals, residential care premises,
hotels, hostels, etc). It is, nevertheless,
important that the recommendation for
use of cables of enhanced fire resistance
in unsprinklered buildings of greater than
30m in height be borne in mind when
retrofitting fire alarm systems that might
not have required sprinkler protection at
the time of construction.
The third situation, in which cables
of enhanced fire resistance are specified above, often occurs in hospitals.
In a hospital, the principle of progressive
horizontal evacuation applies. This means
that, in the first stages of a fire, patients
are moved horizontally, through a set of
fire resisting doors, into an adjacent ‘subcompartment’. Only if the fire continues to
grow and threaten this adjacent fire compartment will these patients be further evacuated. Similarly, patients in the remainder
of the hospital will not be evacuated unless
they are threatened by the fire.
Progressive horizontal evacuation differs
from phased evacuation in that, in a pha-
section one guide to design of fire systems
sed evacuation, the intention is to evacuate all occupants in a number of discrete
phases. In progressive horizontal evacuation, the intention is, if safe to do so, not
to evacuate. If, subsequently, evacuation
is necessary, cables required for this purpose must remain undamaged.
A similar situation to that described for
hospitals can apply in complex (generally
low rise) interconnected buildings. It may
be unnecessary to evacuate the areas
most remote from a fire, but, equally, there
may be a need for a facility to do so at an
advanced stage in the fire if this becomes
necessary. However, if the buildings were
served by a networked system, and each
of the independently evacuated sections
were self-contained fire alarm system,
cables of enhanced fire resistance would
not be necessary except, possibly, in the
case of the networked cables. If communication between buildings was required.
Thus, the considerations applicable to networked systems, described for phased evacuation buildings, apply in this situation.
What then of a large site, with many separate buildings, all served by a single fire
alarm system, with cables for one or more
buildings running through other buildings?
This situation is not clearly addressed in
page 117
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
the code. However, in fire safety design,
account is not normally taken of a situation
in which two independent fires occur at
the same time. Accordingly, pragmatism
would seem to dictate that, if the separation between buildings is such that, in the
event of fire in one building evacuation of
other buildings could not be anticipated,
even at an advanced stage of the fire, the
use of cables of enhanced fire resistance
would seem to be unnecessary.
With regard to the fourth example in which
the code recommends that cables of enhanced fire resistance should be used, the
reason is that, in some fire engineering
solutions, a reduction in the normal level
of other fire protection measures may
be acceptable to an enforcing authority, providing an automatic fire detection
system is installed. In such a case, clearly
the reliability of the automatic fire detection system must be of the highest order,
since normal provisions for means of escape may have been relaxed. In such circumstances, the code leaves it to the enforcing authority to determine whether,
as part of the fire engineering solution,
cables of enhanced fire resistance will be
necessary to satisfy legislation.
12.3
Conductor Sizes
When selecting conductor sizes, regard
should be paid to physical strength and
the limitations imposed by voltage drop.
Voltage drop in a cable should not be
such as to prevent devices from operating
within their specification limits. Consideration should also be given to possible
future extensions and some additional capacity left. For mechanical strength, cable
conductors should have a cross–sectional
area of not less than 1mm².
12.4
Segregation
There are four main reasons why fire
alarm cables need to be segregated from
the cables of other circuits. Firstly, breakdown of cable insulation of other circuits,
from which fire alarm cables are not segregated, might affect the fire alarm system.
Secondly, a fault on another circuit could
cause the cables of that circuit to catch
fire, resulting in damage to the fire alarm
cables. Thirdly, electromagnetic interference from other circuits, from which there is inadequate separation distance and/
or screening, could affect the operation of
the fire alarm system. Finally, strip out of
other cable could result in mechanical damage to the fire alarm cables.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
Generally, the insulation of the cables
specified for use in fire alarm systems
(see 12.1) provides adequate insulation
against mains voltage. Also, all acceptable
cable types are fire resisting, preventing
immediate damage from a fire in adjacent
cables, and the cables used for fire alarm
systems provide a relatively good degree
of screening. Accordingly, it may be acceptable to run fire alarm cables that comply with all the above recommendations
on, for example, common cable tray with
mains voltage cables.
However, where practicable, fire alarm cables should not run unnecessarily long distances (e.g. more than 35m in aggregate),
in close proximity to high current carrying
cables, particularly if these serve high inductive loads. This is more important in the
case of addressable systems than conventional systems. In order to minimize the extent to which separation from other cables
is not maintained, fire alarm cables should
always cross the cables of other services at
right-angles.
It should also be ensured that there can
be no interference between the mains
voltage cables serving the fire alarm
system and the lower voltage fire alarm
circuits. In particular, the mains supply
cable to any control, indicating or power
supply equipment should not enter the
section one guide to design of fire systems
equipment through the same cable entry as cables carrying extra-low voltage.
Within the equipment, low voltage and
extra-low voltage cables should be kept
separate to the extent practicable.
Where fire alarm cables share common
trunking with the cables of other services,
a compartment of the trunking, separated
from other compartments by a strong,
rigid and continuous partition, should be
reserved solely for fire alarm cables.
12.5
Cable Colour Coding
Having segregated the fire alarm circuits
from other circuits and, in the case of
trunking, kept the fire alarm cables within
a separate compartment from other circuits, it is important that this situation is
maintained. It is also important that there
is no interference with fire alarm circuits
as a result of confusion between these
circuits and other circuits. Accordingly,
the code recommends that all fire alarm
cables should be of a single, common colour that is not used for cables of general
electrical services in the building. While a
note in clause 26 of the code states that
the colour red is preferred, it would be
possible to comply with the code by using
another colour, provided the same colour
is not used for cables of other electrical s
vices in the building.
page 119
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
12.6
Joints in Cables
To ensure the integrity of the fire alarm circuits, the code recommends that cables
should be installed without external joints
wherever practicable. Where jointing of
cables is necessary, other than in the case
of joints within components of the system, the terminals used to joint the cables
should be constructed of materials that
will withstand a similar temperature and
duration of temperature to that of the cable itself. This recommendation precludes
the use of certain plastic terminal blocks.
The joints should be enclosed within
junction boxes, labelled with the words
‘FIRE ALARM’, to assist in the identification
of fire alarm circuits.
12.7
Cable Support
Consideration should be given to the
type of fixings used to support and/
or secure fire detection and alarm system cabling and wiring. Primarily, it is
the material in which the fixings are
manufactured, i.e. plastic or metal,
that is of importance. There would be
little point in securing alarm system
cables to a wall or the underside of a
tray with plastic fixings if, in the event
of a fire, these were to melt and allow
the cables to fall and become damaged
preventing the alarm condition being
given. In general, plastic cable fixings
should only ever be used for fixing cables run in or on top of horizontal trays.
Metal type cable fixings should be used in
all other situations. The type of fixings recommended for use in various situations
are as follows:
Cables in/on Horizontal Trays
Where cables run in (or on top of) horizontal trays they should be neatly and securely
fixed at suitable intervals with either plastic
or metal cable ties.
Cables under Horizontal Trays
Where cables are run along the underside of horizontal trays, metal cable ties or
metal P clips should be used to neatly and
securely fix the cables at suitable intervals
(plastic fixings must not be used).
Cables in Vertical Ducts or Shafts
Cables run in vertical ducts or shafts should
be neatly and securely fixed at suitable
intervals with metal cable ties or metal
P clips. For long ducts and shafts, cables
should be secured to staggered fixing pins
so as to prevent them from stretching under their own weight.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
cabling considerations
Cables in Walls
Cables run along walls should be neatly and
securely fixed at suitable intervals to metal
wall brackets with metal P clips. In all other
respects, the installation of cabling and
wiring should be undertaken generally in
accordance with BS 7671 (Requirements
for Electrical Installations - IEE Wiring Regulations, Seventeenth Edition).
12.8
Mechanical Protection
of Cables
Mineral insulated copper sheathed cables
and steel wire armoured cables may be
used throughout all parts of the system
without additional mechanical protection,
except in particularly arduous conditions.
The code recommends that other cables
should be given mechanical protection
in any areas in which physical damage or
rodent attack is likely. More specifically,
other than in relatively benign environments in which cable is clipped directly
to robust construction, mechanical protection should be provided for these other
cables in all areas that are less than 2m
above floor level.
The term ‘relatively benign environments’ is
not specifically defined, but, since the code
gives the example of offices, shops and similar premises, in many situations, other than
section one guide to design of fire systems
certain factories, warehouses and similar
premises,it will be possible to install the socalled ‘soft-skinned’ cables without additional mechanical protection. However,
where the environment is not ‘relatively benign’, additional protection to these cables
will be necessary, at least, everywhere that
cables run less than 2m above floor level;
it should be noted that this will include at
least part of each ‘drop’ to a manual call
point, since the latter devices are generally
installed around 1.4m above floor level.
For the purposes of the above recommendation, additional protection may be provided by running the cable on cable tray,
‘chasing in’ within the building structure,
or by installation of the cables in conduit,
ducting or trunking. If, however, particularly arduous conditions might be experienced (such as impact by forklift trucks
or goods trolleys), additional, robust protection is recommended by the code in
the form of burying the cable in the structure of the building or installation in metal
conduit or trunking.
page 121
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
communication with the fire service
13.
Communication with the
Fire Service
When a fire occurs in an occupied building, the most important initial action
is to provide a warning to all occupants.
However, the immediate summoning of
the fire service is also important. Accordingly, clause 15 of BS 5839-1 is concerned purely with communication with the
fire service.
The code recommends that, in occupied
buildings, the primary means of summoning the fire service should always
comprise a call to the fire service by
occupants using the public emergency
call system. This manually dialled call
will usually be sufficient in the case of a
Category M system, since, by definition,
there must be occupants in the building
in order for the alarm to be raised.
Equally, even if there is a means for transmitting alarm signals automatically to an
alarm receiving centre (ARC), from where the fire brigade are then summoned, if
the building is occupied a manually dialled
emergency call to the fire service should
still be made. In some areas of the country
this manually dialled call has an additional
benefit, as some fire brigades dispatch
more fire appliances to a confirmed fire
than to a call from an ARC.
The code recommends that the emergency call be made by a person, rather than
by automatic systems that transmit a prerecorded message direct to the fire service
by the public emergency call system. In
practice, the use of the now very old-fashioned ‘tape 999 diallers’, and even more
modern equipment with digitally recorded
messages, is uncommon. In any case, use
of such equipment would not now comply
with the code.
Often, it is pre-determined that a switchboard operator or receptionist will summon the fire brigade in the event of operation of the fire alarm system. If it is the case
that an area, such as a telephone switchboard or reception desk, is specifically designated as that from which the fire service
will be summoned, the code recommends
that the fire alarm signal in this area should
not be so loud as to interfere with telephone speech. Thus, in this area, the normal recommendations in respect of sound pressure level (see Section 9) do not apply.
13.1
Automatic Transmission
of Alarm Signals
Having made suitable arrangements for
immediate summoning of the fire service
in the event of fire when the building is
occupied, consideration should always be
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
communication with the fire service
given to whether there is then a need for
additional automatic means of transmission of alarm signals to an ARC. Accordingly, the code recommends that the designer should determine from the purchaser
or user whether such a facility is required.
It should be noted that the designer has
not complied with the recommendations
of the code unless a specific enquiry regarding the requirement for this facility is
made of the purchaser or user.
Such a facility will not normally be necessary in the case of a Category M or
Category L system, since the purpose of
this system is purely to facilitate evacuation in the event of fire. However, there may be circumstances in which the
safety of occupants does indeed depend
on the early arrival of the fire service. An
example of this is a hospital. The early arrival of the fire service is vital to minimise the
need to evacuate patients. This may also
apply to residential care premises.
The code recommends that, if the early
summoning of the fire service is considered critical to the safety of occupants,
the primary means shall be by occupants
using the 999 (or 112) public emergency
call systems, even where automatic transmission of the alarm exists. The decision as
to whether the early summoning of the fire
service is critical to occupants’ safety will
often arise from a fire risk assessment.
section one guide to design of fire systems
13.1.1
Category L Systems
In the case of Category L systems, if the
premises are unoccupied at certain times it
can represent a missed opportunity, in respect of property protection, if no means for
automatic transmission of alarm signals is
provided. Certainly, under these circumstances, the cost of the facility in relation
to the additional protection provided will
often clearly point towards the value of the
automatic transmission facility.
In some commercial premises in multiple
occupation (e.g. an office building occupied by various tenants, or a small retail
park with a common internal service corridor) there is no continuously manned
reception or similar facility, occupied by
someone who can be made responsible
for summoning the fire service. The reliability of the arrangements for summoning
the fire service might then be less than perfect. Accordingly, the code recommends
that, in non-domestic premises in multiple
occupation, Category L systems should
incorporate an automatic means for transmission of alarm signals to an ARC, unless
there are arrangements in place for summoning the fire service by occupants of the
building at all times that the premises are
occupied (or partly occupied).
page 123
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
communication with the fire service
13.1.2
Category P Systems
Since the purpose of a Category P system
is to protect property, one of the primary
purposes of the system is to summon the
fire service. Accordingly, the code recommends that, except in the case of continuously occupied premises, all Category
P systems should incorporate a means for
automatic transmission of fire signals to an
ARC. It should be stressed, therefore, that
failure of a Category P system to incorporate such a facility constitutes a non-compliance with the code (or, if agreed with all
parties, a ‘variation’), unless the premises
are continuously occupied.
13.2
13.3
Standards for Alarm Receiving
Centres (ARCs)
BS 5839-1 recommends that any ARC to
which fire alarm signals are relayed should
comply with the recommendations of BS
5979 Code of practice for remote centres
receiving signals from security systems.
Methods of Automatic
Transmission
BS 5839-1 expresses a preference for
systems in which the transmission path
is continuously monitored, so that failures
can be identified and the ‘down time’ is minimized. This implies a preference for fully
monitored systems (e.g. British Telecom
RedCARE) over systems that use the public switched telephone network (e.g. digital communicators). Since this preference
is only expressed within the commentary,
and there is not a corresponding recommendation, compliance with the code
does not actually necessitate the use of
monitored systems.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
system installation
14.
System Installation
Installation is the subject of an entirely independent section of BS 5839-1, namely
Section 4. Thus, Section 4 is addressed
primarily to the installer of the system.
The actual responsibilities imposed on
the installer by the code are relatively
minimal, at least in comparison with the
responsibilities placed on all other relevant parties, namely the designer, the
commissioning engineers and the maintenance organization.
The code stresses that it is not, in general,
the responsibility of the installer to check
or verify whether the design of the system
complies in full with the recommendations
of the code, unless, of course, the installer
is also the designer. It is, therefore, very
important that responsibilities for design,
installation and commissioning are clearly
defined and documented before an order
is placed for the system.
In practice, compliance with a number of
the design recommendations of the code
impact on installation, and compliance
may, therefore, be delegated by the designer to the installer. However, this needs
to be made clear in any specification or
contract, so that the installer accepts responsibility for the issues in question, and
section one guide to design of fire systems
it is necessary for the installer to be competent to address the issues in question.
Such issues will, therefore, often be limited
to matters that it is reasonable to expect
any competent electrical contractor to
address. An example is cable routes; often,
these are not determined by the designer,
but are left to the installer to determine. Under these circumstances, in a specification,
the designer may refer to the relevant clause of the code, which could reasonably be
imposed, in part, on the installer.
At the design stage, it can be very difficult
for the designer to ensure compliance with
all relevant recommendations of the code.
The obvious example in this respect concerns sound pressure levels, and it might
be reasonable, within a specification, to
require that the installer carry out measurements of sound pressure level, before
commissioning, so that any additional
sounders required can be installed before the somewhat late stage in a project at
which commissioning is carried out.
Even so, the code considers, in effect, that
the designer should not glibly assume that
the installer of the system will have expertise in the design of fire alarm systems.
Therefore, it is the responsibility of the
designer to provide sufficient information
and guidance to the installer to enable the
page 125
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
system installation
installer to satisfy the relevant recommendations of Section 2 of the code (which covers design).
14.1
Siting of Equipment
The installer will be responsible for fixing
control, indicating and power supply
equipment. The code recommends that
all such equipment that is likely to need
routine attention for maintenance should
be sited in readily accessible locations
that facilitate safe maintenance. It is further recommended in the code that all
metallic parts of the installation, including conduit, trunking, ducting, cabling
and enclosures, should be well separated
from any metalwork forming part of a
lightning protection system.
14.2
Installation Work
With regard to the actual installation work,
the code expects little more than that the
installer should conform to the requirements of BS 7671, albeit that, where any
conflict between BS 5839-1 and BS 7671
exists (which is unlikely), BS5839-1 should
take precedence. Particular conventional
good practices that are highlighted in clause 37 of the code, include proper fixing of
cables, so that, for example, they do not
rely on suspended ceilings for their sup-
port, avoidance of unnecessary joints, proper arrangements for earthing, with care
taken to ensure the electrical continuity of
electromagnetic screens, including metallic sheaths of cables.
Recommendations are also given in clause
37 for fire stopping of penetrations for cables, conduits, trunking or tray, and for fire
stopping within ducts, trunking, shafts, etc
that pass through floors, walls, partitions or
ceilings. Recommendations are also given
to ensure that cables are not damaged as
they pass through penetrations in construction and that penetrations in external
walls are suitably sleeved.
Clause 37 recommends consideration of
some of the recommendations in Section
2 of the code. However, once again, these
are primarily recommendations that relate to practical installation considerations,
such as segregation, protection of cables
against mechanical damage and support
of cables, rather than matters of fundamental design, such as whether cables should
be of standard or enhanced fire resistance;
the latter issue is purely one for the designer to specify.
Generally, it is responsibility of the installer
to provide ‘as fitted’ drawings of the system,
showing the locations of equipment, cable
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
system installation
routes, cable sizes and types, etc. The view
taken in the code is that, by default, unless
it has been agreed that the preparation of
‘as fitted’ drawings is to be the responsibility of others, it is the responsibility of the
installer to supply these to the purchaser
or user of the system. On completion of
installation work, the installer should also
issue a certificate of installation. Annex G
of the code contains a model certificate for
this purpose.
An electricity supply from a card or coin
meter is unacceptable.
14.3
Inspection and Testing
Clause 38 of BS 5839-1 deals with inspection and testing of wiring. This clause is
included within Section 4 of the code (‘Installation’) because, of course, this work is
normally carried out by the installer.
In practice, any competent contractor who
installs electrical wiring, whether as part of
a fire alarm installation or any other form
of electrical installation, will ‘megger’ test
the wiring to confirm that the insulation
resistance is adequate. The code recommends that insulation testing should be
carried out at 500 V d.c., unless the cables
are not rated for mains voltage; in practice,
cables used within the system will be ra-
section one guide to design of fire systems
ted for mains voltage, albeit that fire alarm
systems operate at extra low voltage. This
initial 500 V test is useful in identifying incipient defects that might not come to light
from testing at a much lower voltage and
that might not be identified by the system’s
fault monitoring; problems might, however, arise during the lifetime of the system.
The code recommends that insulation resistance be measured between conductors, between each conductor and earth,
and between each conductor and any
screen. In practice, when such a test is
carried out on newly installed wiring, a reading of infinity will be obtained, or, at least,
the meter will indicate a higher resistance
than the 100 MΩ that is often the maximum
value that the meter can accurately read.
Although this will invariably be achieved
with properly installed and undamaged
cable, such high resistance is not actually
necessary for operation of the system. A
certificate covering the mains supply installation should be provided.
The code recommends that the insulation
resistance measured in these tests should
be at least 2 MΩ. In practice, if such low
insulation resistance is found in newly
installed cables, it almost implies the existence of a potential fault that might result
in instability in the degree of insulation
page 127
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
system installation
resistance afforded. Moreover, the code
does contain a ‘health warning’ in the
form of a note that draws attention to the
fact that, in large systems, the insulation
resistance would need to be much higher
if control and indicating equipment has
a means for sensing resistance between
conductors and earth, otherwise nuisance fault indications might result. On the
other hand, for a small non-addressable
system of up to about four zones, 2 MΩ
might be acceptable.
Since the installation is an electrical installation to which BS 7671 applies, obviously, further tests should be carried
out to ensure compliance with BS 7671.
Thus, the code draws attention to the need
for earth continuity testing and, in the case
of mains supply circuits, for measurement
of earth fault loop impedance.
Since the insulation resistance tests need
to be carried out with equipment disconnected, further tests might need to be
carried out on the final completion of the
system. The code makes the installer responsible for carrying out these tests, unless there is specific agreement that they
will be carried out as part of the commissioning process. In the case of an addressable system, would specify a maximum
resistance for any loop. Thus, one of the
further tests recommended by the code
is measurement of the resistance of any
circuit for which a maximum circuit resistance is specified. As a final ‘catch all’, the
code also recommends that the installer
carry out any other tests specified by the
manufacturer of the system, unless, again,
there is specific agreement that these tests
will be carried out as part of the commissioning process.
The results of all tests described above,
should be recorded and made available to
the commissioning engineer. Thus, completion of the model installation certificate
contained in Annex G of the code requires
that the installer confirm that wiring has
been tested in accordance with the recommendations of clause 38 and that test
results have been recorded. The model
certificate contains space for the installer
to record the person to whom these test
results have been provided.
14.4
Commissioning and Handover
Commissioning and handover are the
subject of Section 5 of the code. In practice the code tends to regard commissioning as merely setting the system
to work and verifying that it operates
correctly in the manner designed. The
commissioning engineer is also expec-
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
system installation
ted to ensure that installation workmanship is generally of an adequate standard
and that all relevant documentation has
been handed over to the user.
However, the code acknowledges that
it is not, in general, the responsibility
of the commissioning engineer to verify compliance of the design, or of the
installation work, with the recommendations of the relevant sections of the
code (i.e. Sections 2 and 4 respectively).
Equally, the code recognizes that, as in
the case of installation, it may be difficult to ensure that the system complies
in full with certain recommendations of
Section 2 until the time of commissioning; adequacy of sound pressure levels
is an obvious example (unless adequacy
of sound pressure levels throughout the
building has been carefully checked during the installation process). Similarly,
information about structural features of
the building, or final layout, might not
have been available to the designer.
Commissioning is, in effect, the final
‘safety net’ for obvious shortcomings in
design to be identified.
In order to commission the system properly, the commissioning engineer will
need to be furnished with the specification
for the system. The commissioning engi-
section one guide to design of fire systems
neer should also have a basic knowledge
and understanding of Section 3 of the
code, and the recommendations it makes
in respect of limiting false alarms, so that
he can verify compliance with, at least, the
principles discussed in Section 3.
The code sets out a list of 27 matters that
are to be checked during the commissioning process. These, obviously, include
testing all devices in a suitable manner
and confirming that the system’s ‘cause
and effect’, as specified by the designer,
is correctly programmed and demonstrated as compliant with the specification; thus, it should be confirmed that,
for example, every manual call point and
automatic fire detector, on operation,
results in the correct zone indication, correct text display (if the system is addressable), and that all plant shutdowns, etc
operate correctly.
The code also recommends that sound
pressure levels throughout all areas of the
building are checked for compliance with
the recommendations of the code. If the
installation incorporates a voice alarm system, it should be confirmed that intelligibility is satisfactory. Visual alarms should be
checked to ensure compliance with clause
17 of BS5839-1; that there are sufficient
numbers to be visible, distinguishable and
page 129
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
system installation
operating within a compliant flash rate in
accordance with EN54-23. A check is also
necessary to ensure that no changes to the
building, since the time of original design,
have compromised the compliance of the
system with the code (e.g. by a final fit out
that affects the adequacy of device siting).
engineer confirm that standby power
supplies comply with the recommendations of the code for these supplies.
This will require actual measurement of
quiescent and alarm currents, and the
use of the formula given in Annex D of
the code (see Section 11).
As in the case of the installer, the commissioning engineer is not expected to
confirm that the siting of all devices meets
the detailed design recommendations of
the code. For avoidance of doubt as to the
commissioning engineer’s responsibilities
in this respect, the code specifies the particular recommendations within Section 2
that should be verified at commissioning.
The recommendations that are cited relate primarily to practical considerations,
such as proximity of detectors to walls,
partitions, obstructions and air inlets. Similar practical considerations in the siting of
control, indicating and power supply equipment are recommended for verification,
along with a check that a suitable zone
plan is displayed.
A check should also be carried out to ensure, as far as is reasonably practical, that the
correct cable type has been used throughout the system and that installation workmanship complies with the relevant recommendations of the code. It should be
noted that, at commissioning, very little
of the cable may be visible, and certainly
it will be difficult to confirm that every length of cable is suitably supported.
The commissioning engineer is also expected to inspect the mains power supplies, as far as is reasonable practicable,
to ensure compliance with the recommendations of the code. The code also
recommends that the commissioning
Often, batteries are not fitted until the
time of commissioning. Accordingly, the
code recommends that labels, visible
when batteries are in their normal position, should be fixed to batteries, indicating the date of installation.
While it is not the responsibility of the
commissioning engineer to verify or certify compliance of system design with
the code, the code does recommend that
the commissioning engineer confirm that
there are no obvious shortcomings in compliance with Section 2 of the code. Thus,
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
system installation
it would be expected that the commissioning engineer identify the existence of unprotected areas within a Category L1 or P1
system, or obvious errors in the spacing or
siting of detectors.
The code recommends that the commissioning engineer confirm that adequate
records of insulation resistance, earth continuity and, where appropriate, earth loop
impedance tests exist. It is also recommended that the commissioning engineer confirm that all relevant documentation has
been provided to the user or purchaser; the
nature of this documentation is discussed
in the next section of this guide.
On completion of commissioning, a commissioning certificate should be issued.
Completion of the model certificate contained in Annex G of the code requires that
the commissioning engineer confirm that
the system has been commissined in accordance with the code, other than any recorded variations from the recommended
commissioning process. Completion of
the certificate also requires that it be confirmed that all equipment operates correctly,
installation work is, as far as can be reasonably ascertained, of an acceptable standard, that there is no any obvious potential
for an unacceptable rate of false alarms
and that the required documentation has
section one guide to design of fire systems
been provided to the user. The certificate
should also record an appropriate period
for which a soak test should be carried out
(see Section 8). There is also space on the
commissioning certificate for the commissioning engineer to record potential causes
of false alarms that, while not warranting
specific action at the time of commissioning, should be considered at the time of
the next service visit to determine whether
false alarm problems are arising.
page 131
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
documentation
15.
Documentation
In a highly modular contract, in which
design, installation, supply and commissioning are undertaken by a number of
different parties, more than one party may
be involved in provision of the documentation recommended by BS 5839-1. To
address this point, the responsibility for
provision of documentation needs to be
defined before an order for the system is
placed. In addition, the organization to
which each form of documentation is provided needs to be defined in any contract
for design, supply, installation and commissioning of the system. For example,
some documentation might be provided
to a main contractor (e.g. by an installation
sub-contractor), rather than directly to the
user or purchaser. Therefore, as noted in
Section 14, at commissioning it needs to
be ensured that, either the documentation
has been provided to the relevant parties,
or that any absent documentation is identified for appropriate action.
The documentation recommended by
BS 5839-1 comprises the following:
•
•
Certificates for design, installation and
commissioning of the system.
An adequate operation and maintenance (O&M) manual for the system.
• As fitted’ drawings.
• A log book.
• A record of any agreed variations from
the original design specification.
• Such other records as are required by
any purchase specification.
Separate certificates may exist for design, installation and commissioning (i.e.
if each of these processes is undertaken
by a different party). If more than one of
these three processes, including all three
of them, are undertaken by a single party, it would be reasonable, and probably
more convenient for the recipient in any
case, to provide a single certificate that
covers the processes for which the signatory has been responsible.
The O&M manual should provide information, specific to the system in question, and
the information provided should include
the following:
1. The equipment provided and its
configuration.
2. Use of all controls.
3.
Recommendations for investigation of
a fire alarm or fault signal after the
incident is over and the building is
declared safe for re-occupation.
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
documentation
(This is not, however, intended to be
the emergency or evacuation plan,
which is the responsibility of the
occupant to formulate.)
10. The importance of ensuring that
changes to the building, such as
relocation of partitions, do not affect
the standard of protection.
4. Recommendations for investigation in
the event of a false alarm.
11. Other user responsibilities described
within Section 7 of the code.
5. Routine weekly and monthly testing of
the system by the user or his
appointed agent.
The minimum information that should
be provided on all ‘as fitted’ drawings
comprises:
6. Service and maintenance of the system
in accordance with Section 6 of
the code.
1. The positions of all control, indicating
and power supply equipment.
7. Avoidance of false alarms (based on
the information contained in Section 3
of the code).
2. The positions of all manual call
points, fire detectors and fire
alarm devices.
8. The need to keep a clear space around
all fire detectors and manual
call points.
3.
The positions of all equipment that
may require routine attention or
replacement (the obvious example
is short circuit isolators).
9. The need to avoid contamination of
detectors during contractors’ activities.
4. The type, sizes and actual routes
of cables.
Cable routes shown need to comprise a
reasonable representation of the route
followed, such as to enable a competent
person to locate the cable in the event of a
fault or need for modification or extension
of the system.
section one guide to design of fire systems
page 133
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
maintenance
16.
Maintenance
Once the system is handed over to the user,
there will be a need for it to be maintained,
so that it continues to provide the protection that it was designed to give. This will
necessitate regular testing by the user and
periodic servicing by specialists.
16.1
Routine Testing
The routine testing recommended in BS
5839-1 is not intended to overlap significantly with the benefits afforded by system monitoring. The testing that is recommended is very basic in nature, and it can
be implied from the recommendations of
the code that it really only has two principal functions.
The first of these is to ensure that the system has not suffered some form of catastrophic failure, such as total power failure
or major circuit failure. In pursuit of this
confirmation, the code recommends that,
every week, just one manual call point
should be operated. The purpose of this
test is only to ensure that the control equipment is capable of processing a fire alarm
signal, if one occurs, and can provide an
output to fire alarm sounders. If there is a
facility for transmission of fire alarm signals to an alarm receiving centre, it should
also be ensured that the signal is correctly
received at the alarm receiving centre. To
avoid any confusion between the weekly
test and a genuine fire alarm signal, the
code now recommends that the duration
for which fire alarm sounders should operate at the time of the weekly test should
not normally exceed one minute.
The second, but more subsidiary, objective
of the weekly test is to make occupants
familiar with the fire alarm signal. For this
reason, the code specifically recommends
that the weekly test should be carried out
during normal working hours. It is also recommended in the code that the test be
carried out at approximately the same time
each week. In systems with staged alarms,
incorporating an ‘Alert’ and an ‘Evacuate’
signal, the two signals should be operated,
where practicable, sequentially in the order
that they would occur at the time of a fire.
This is to minimize the chance of confusion
between the ‘Alert’ and ‘Evacuate’ signals.
In some premises, certain occupants may
work only at times other than that at which
the fire alarm is tested. An example would
be permanent night shift workers. To ensure that these employees are also made familiar with the sound of the fire alarm system, the code recommends that, in such
cases, an additional test(s) be carried out
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
maintenance
at least once a month to ensure the familiarity of these employees with the fire alarm
signal(s).
one hour, after which fuel tanks should be
left filled, and oil and coolant levels should
be checked and topped up as necessary.
While the objective of the weekly test is
not to test all manual call points at any
particular frequency, as a form of ‘bonus’,
the code recommends that a different manual call point should be used at the time
of every weekly test. The purpose of this
is to capitalize on the test to give some opportunity to identify a defective manual call
point. Since, however, this is merely something of a bonus, the code acknowledges
that, for example, in a system with 150 manual call points, each manual call point will
only be tested by the user every 150 weeks. To ensure the rotation in testing manual
call points, the code recommends that the
identity of the manual call point used in the
weekly test should be recorded in the system log book.
If vented batteries are used as a standby
power supply, a monthly visual inspection of the batteries and their connections
should be carried out. In particular, electrolyte levels should be checked. In practice,
the use of vented batteries in fire alarm systems is now uncommon, but occasionally
it occurs in premises that contain large battery banks for other purposes (e.g. some
power stations).
If an automatically started emergency
generator is used as part of the standby
power supply for the fire alarm system
(i.e. the relaxation in battery capacity offered by the code is adopted), there will be
a need for routine testing of the generator.
The code recommends that, in this case,
the generator is started up once each month by simulation of failure of normal power
supply and operated on-load for at least
section one guide to design of fire systems
16.2
Servicing
Periodic inspection and servicing are necessary so that unrevealed faults are identified, preventive measures taken, false
alarm problems identified and addressed,
and that the user is made aware of any
changes to the building that affect the protection afforded by the system. The last of
these points is particularly important.
The periodic inspection and servicing of
the system needs to be carried out by a
competent person with specialist knowledge of fire detection and alarm systems. BS
5839-1 advises that this should include
knowledge of the causes of false alarms.
The person carrying out the work should
page 135
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
maintenance
have sufficient information regarding the
system and adequate access to spares.
also recommends that these values be
checked every twelve months).
BS 5839-1 recommends simply periodic
inspection and testing of the system, rather than specifying an exact frequency
at which this should be carried out. The
code recommends that the period between successive inspection and servicing visits should be based upon a risk
assessment, taking into account the type
of system installed, the environment in
which it operates and other factors that
may affect the long term operation of
the system. However, the code does recommend that the period between successive inspection and servicing visits
should not exceed six months. If the risk
assessment shows the need for more
frequent inspection and servicing visits,
the code recommends that all interested
parties should agree the appropriate inspection and servicing schedule.
If quarterly servicing is adopted, 25% of all
detectors can be tested at the time of each
quarterly visit, so that all detectors are tested on an annual basis. If six monthly servicing is adopted, either all detectors will
need to be tested at the time of each alternate visit, or 50% of the detectors would
need to be tested at each service visit.
The code provides recommendations on
other measures that should be carried
out on a twelve monthly basis, including
a visual inspection to confirm that all readily accessible cable fixings are secure
and undamaged, and confirmation that
the entire ‘cause and effect’ program of
the system is correct.
BS 5839-1 recommends annual testing
of all manual call points and automatic
fire detectors. The test recommended
for each type of detector is a functional
test. For example, it would not be sufficient to rely purely on measurement of
digital values at the control equipment of
an addressable system (although the code
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
responsabilities of user
17.
Responsibilities of User
It is not expected that the typical user will
purchase a copy of BS 5839-1. However, in the code, it is recommended that
appropriate information be provided to
the purchaser or user. The organization
responsible for the provision of documentation needs to be identified in the
fire alarm contract.
BS 5839-1 recommends the appointment
of a ‘responsible person’. This term is defined in the code as the person having
control of the building and/or premises,
whether as occupier or otherwise, or any
person delegated by the person having
control of the building and/or premises
to be responsible for the fire alarm system
and the fire procedures. The code recommends that this person be given sufficient
authority to carry out the duties described
in the code, and that this person should
normally be the keeper of the documentation recommended in the code. The primary duty of the responsible person is to
ensure that:
• The system is tested and main tained properly.
• Appropriate records are kept.
• Relevant occupants in the
premises are aware
section one guide to design of fire systems
of their roles and responsibilities
in connection with the fire
alarm system.
• Necessary steps are taken to avoid situations that are
detrimental to the standard of
protection afforded by the system.
• Necessary steps are taken to
ensure that the level of false
alarms is minimized.
The implications of these objectives relate
to testing, maintenance, keeping of documentation and proper system management. The responsible person should also
ensure that the control and indicating equipment is checked at least once every 24
hours to confirm that there are no faults
on the system. It is also the responsibility
of the responsible person to ensure that
suitable spare parts for the system are held
within the premises; the code gives guidance on the nature of these.
The user should also ensure that the system receives non-routine attention (usually
by specialists) as appropriate.
page 137
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
responsabilities of user
This includes:
• A special inspection by any new servicing organisation when
they take over responsibility for
servicing the system.
• Repair of faults.
• Action to address any
unacceptable rate of
false alarms.
• Inspection and test of the system
following any fire.
• Inspection and test of the system following long periods of
disconnection.
• Modification of the system as
required (e.g. to take account of changes to the building).
guide to design of fire systems section one
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
responsabilities of user
Section two
An Introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part one guide to design of fire systems
section one
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
page 141
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Overview
The Harmonisation of Standards for the
design and manufacture of Fire Alarm
and Detection Equipment.
Introduction
The European Committee for Standardisation, (CEN) is the organisation covering trade , welfare and the environment
and who develop and maintain specifications and standards, the latter which
when harmonised become law under the
CPR. The CPR relates to products used in
the course of construction. Proof of compliance is the CE marking.
Products for use as Fire Detection and
Fire alarm systems are regulated by a set
of standards referenced EN54. Standards
that are in the process of being written
are prefixed with the letters pr. Once written and agreed it becomes a harmonised
standard, which under the EU Regulation
applies in all EU member states and therefore has the status of being a national
standard within that country. Annex ZA
of each standard deals with the clauses
of the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU construction products regulation.
All products built to EN54 standards are
tested by independent third party organisations, of which there are several, across
various member state countries. The
testing of products is vigorous and comprehensive as will be seen from the individual standards. Approval whilst being
mandatory within the EU also proves reliability and longevity as well as sensitivity which together are some of the most
essential components of both life safety
and property protection systems.
The aim of the following document is to
provide an overview of each of the current harmonised standards, whilst not
negating the need to consult, at times,
both the full EN54 standard document together with other supporting documents,
such as the ISO/IEC 6000 series of publications.
Foreword
These standards replace all previous
versions and have the status of being national standards in all EU member states
and therefore support the essential requirements of the EU regulations.
All devices should be clearly labelled
with the manufacturers name or logo,
part number, electrical connection detail
and any further information which provides a means to identify the place and
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
date of manufacture, batch and software
versions. For detachable units both parts
should be labelled. All labelling should
use symbols or abbreviations which are
in common use, otherwise such information should be explained in supporting
documentation. The labelling should be
permanent and clearly visible at all times.
Documentation shall be provided, prior
to testing, which provides an aid to both
installer, maintainer and user, giving a general description, detail of the device and
which will support any compatibility assessment to be undertaken, as detailed in
EN54-1, including power requirements,
input/output ratings, transmission paths,
battery capacities, current and internal
resistance levels. Information relative to
the connecting cables, environmental
protection, and mounting and connection detail together with operating and
maintenance instruction shall also be
provided.
tool and shall only be possible when the
device is taken out of normal service.
If on site adjustment of the device’s response type is provided, the data shall
clearly indicate the classification, means
of adjustment or programming instructions.
Operational performance and functional tests are to show the call point’s ability to withstand small forces when applied
to the frangible element and to operate
correctly and only when an appropriate
force is applied, all without damage to
the test and reset functions which are
also tested.(EN54-11)
Configuration data relevant to the compliance with a standard shall be stored in
non-volatile memory and access shall be
password protected or by use of a special
section two fire detection and alarm systems
EN54- description of Test Schedules
Operational performance, to prove that
the specified sound levels can be achieved across the voltage range, and that
the maximum sound level does not exceed 120 dB(A) at 1 m. (EN54-3)
Additional testing for voice sounders,
to verify that the output level of the broadcast message in relation to that of the
alert signal is sufficient. To verify the timing between the alert signal, the silence
before and after the message and before
the next alert signal, is within the limits
set in table C1 of appendix C of EN54-3.
Durability, to show that the sound level
does not change significantly after prolonged operation.
page 143
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Dry heat (operational), to establish the
equipment functions correctly at high
ambient temperatures for short periods
Dry heat (endurance), to establish the
equipment can withstand long-term
ageing effects.
Cold (operational), to establish the equipment functions correctly at low ambient
temperatures
Damp heat, cyclic (operational), is to prove the immunity of the equipment where
high relative humidity exists and where condensation may occur on the device.
Damp heat, cyclic/steady state (endurance), is to establish the equipment’s ability to withstand the longer-term effects of
high humidity and condensation.
Damp heat, steady state testing demonstrates the ability of the equipment
to function at high relative humidity
(without condensation), for short periods
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) corrosion (endurance), to establish the sounder can
withstand the corrosive effect of sulphur
dioxide as an atmospheric pollutant.
Shock (operational), is to establish the
immunity of the equipment to infrequent
mechanical shocks.
Impact test is to demonstrate the immunity of the equipment to mechanical
impacts.
Vibration, sinusoidal (operational), is to
display the equipment’s immunity to normal levels of vibration.
Vibration, sinusoidal (endurance), is to
display the equipment’s ability to withstand the long-term effects of vibration
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC),
immunity tests (operational), tests are
carried out in accordance with EN501304 and include electrostatic discharge,
radiated electromagnetic fields, induced
effects from electromagnetic fields, fast
transient bursts and slow high energy
voltage surges.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC),
Immunity tests are designed to demonstrate immunity to electrostatic discharges caused by personnel, who may have
become charged, touching the equipment or other adjacent equipment.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC),
is to show the manual call points ability to
comply with the EMC immunity requirements in its normal service environment.
(EN54-11)
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Enclosure protection, to establish that the
degree of protection provided by the enclosure of the fire alarm equipment, meets the
minimum requirements for its type.
Repeatability, demonstrates a detectors
stable sensitivity, during multiple alarms.
Directional dependence, to prove that
performance is not dependent upon a
specific airflow
Directional dependence, to demonstrate that the detector is sensitive to detecting radiation across its entire field of
view (EN54-10)
Fire sensitivity, to prove that the detector has sufficient sensitivity to fire, and
to determine a classification based on its
detection range (EN54-10)
Reproducibity: to demonstrate that response times are within the specified limits and that the response times do not
vary significantly during repeat testing.
Variation in supply parameters: to prove that within the equipment’s specified
voltage range the performance /response times are reasonably constant.
Air movement, is to demonstrate that
the sensitivity of a detector does not sig-
section two fire detection and alarm systems
nificantly change in an air flow, and is not
prone to false alarms in draughts or in
short gusts.
Dazzling, is to demonstrate that the sensitivity of a detector does not significantly
change when close to artificial light sources. (Applies only to optical detectors).
Fire sensitivity, is to demonstrate a detectors sensitivity to a broad spectrum of
smoke types as required for general application in fire detection systems. (EN54-7)
Test Fires. The detectors shall be subjected to four test fires TF2 to TF5 (as
detailed in Annexes G to J). The procedures are described for each test fire, along
with the end of test condition and the
required profile curve limits. The test fire
numbers have been retained from EN 549. All detectors shall generate an alarm
signal, in each test fire. (EN54-7).
Note: In the UK all EN standards are prefixed with BS, e.g. BS EN54-2
Note: all standards are referenced with a
date and suffix to any amendments and
corrigenda which have been issued since
the original standard was published.
page 145
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Foreword
This standard replaces all previous versions and has the status of being a national
standard in all EU member states and therefore supports the essential requirements
of the EU directive(s).
Introduction
The EN54 standard, part 1 explains the
use of each part of the EN54 suite of standards. The standards apply to systems
used for the early detection of fires in buildings, including providing warnings both
locally and remote and operating other fire
precautions, such as water or gaseous suppression systems. Consideration should be
given if these standards are used for systems installed in other than building applications, as to their suitability.
Each standard covers the requirements,
test and performance criteria, for measuring the reliability of the system component parts which together form the
complete system. The tests are designed
to prove their performance under varying
conditions which they are likely to be subjected to during their lifetime.
Some standards listed below are published as harmonised standards. However
some are relatively new and others are still
in the process of preparation and some
may not be EN54 standards.
Parts 16, 24 and 32 refer to voice alarm
equipment which may form a separate and
sub system to the fire alarm and detection
system, but which when interconnected
will effectively work as a complete system.
Part 32 is a guide to installation which, in
the UK, would not replace BS5839-8
EN54-22 and 28 are draft standards covering line type heat detectors and resettable
types.
Part 23 covers visual alarm devices which
may be installed to compliment audible devices in noisy areas or to provide a warning
to hearing impaired personnel.
Part 26, covers CO fire detectors, i.e.. detectors which detect the presence of the
combustion gas, Carbon Monoxide, from
a fire. It is anticipated that all conflicting
national standards will be withdrawn by
2019.
Part 27, covers duct smoke detectors. It
is anticipated that all conflicting national
standards will be withdrawn by 2019.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Parts 29, 30 and 31 cover multi sensor
detection devices which may detect different fire phenomena providing a wider
spectrum of detection capability than a
standard single technology device. The
various detection channels of these devices can be combined in software to provide either more resilience or increased
sensitivity dependent upon the risk and
environment. Currently ISO 7240- 8 and
15 and CEA 4021 are all published documents covering some types of multi
sensors. It is anticipated that all conflicting
national standards will be withdrawn by
2019.
Part 13 of the standard assesses the compatibility of components, which although
individually approved to the relevant standard, have been assessed when working
together as a system. This standard, whilst
being the only published standard is not
harmonised and is therefore not enforced
under the Construction Product Regulation. It does however offer sound practical
guidance to building networked systems.
Clause 4 of this Standard specifies both
input and output functions associated with
the fire detection and fire alarm system.
Table A.1 (below), gives examples of products that fulfil these functions and references these to the applicable published
standards
section two fire detection and alarm systems
Annexes to EN54-1
A- Functions, examples and relevant standards, Clause 4 of this European Standard specifies functions and equipment
of the fire detection and fire alarm system and associated systems. Table A.1
in Annex A gives examples of products
that carry out the specified functions and
gives information on relevant published
standards applicable to these products
and systems.
page 147
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Table A.1 — Examples of products and systems carrying out the functions of
FDAS and associated systems and applicable relevant standards
Reference
A
Functions
Automatic
fire detection
function
Example of product carrying the
function
Fire detectors such as:
Smoke detectors (point detectors)
Line smoke detectors using optical
beam
Aspirating smoke detectors
Duct smoke detectors
Heat detectors (point detectors)
Line type heat detectors)
Line type heat detectors,
non-resettable
Flame detectors (point detectors)
Carbon monoxide fire detectors
(point detectors)
Multi-sensor fire detectors:
Point detectors using a combination of
smoke and heat sensors
Point detectors using a combination of
carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Point detectors using a combination of
smoke, carbon monoxide and
optionally heat sensors
Input device for auxiliary detection
functions such as:
Sprinkler activated input
Input device for connection of
secondary detection circuit to a
Primary detection circuit
Relevant
standards
EN54-7
EN54-12
EN54-20
EN54-27
EN54-5
EN54-22
EN54-28
EN54-10
EN54-26
EN54-29
EN54-30
EN 54-31
EN 54-18a
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Table A.1 — Examples of products and systems carrying out the functions of
FDAS and associated systems and applicable relevant standards
Reference
Functions
Example of product carrying the
function
Relevant
standards
Control and
indication
function
Control and indicating equipment
(CIE), in conjunction with:
Networked control and indicating
equipment’s Fire brigade panel
EN 54-2
B
Fire alarm
function
Voice alarm loudspeakers
Fire alarm devices such as:
Fire alarm sounders
Visual alarms
Tactile alarm devices
EN 54-24
C
EN 54-13
EN 54-3
EN 54-23
D
Manual
initiating
function
Manual call points
EN 54-11
E
Fire alarm
routing
function
Fire alarm routing equipment (alarm
transmission routing equipment)
EN 54-21
F
Fire alarm
receiving
function
Fire alarm receiving centre
EN 50518
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 149
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Table A.1 — Examples of products and systems carrying out the functions of
FDAS and associated systems and applicable relevant standards
Reference
Functions
Example of product carrying the
function
Relevant
standards
G
Control
function
for fire
protection
system or
equipment
Output device to trigger fire protection
equipment
Output to fire protection equipment
EN 54-18a
H
Fire
protection
system or
equipment
Duct mounted fire dampers
Electrically controlled hold-open device
for fire/smoke doors
Smoke and heat control systems
Fixed fire fighting systems: gas
extinguishing systems
Fire fighting systems: sprinkler or water
spray systems
Other fire protection measures
EN 54-2
EN 15650
EN 14637
EN 12101
series
EN 12094
series
EN 12259
series
Fault warning Fault warning routing equipment
routing
function
EN54-21
J
Fault warning Fault warning receiving centre
receiving
function
EN50518
K
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
introduction
Table A.1 — Examples of products and systems carrying out the functions of
FDAS and associated systems and applicable relevant standards
Example of product carrying the
function
Reference
Functions
L
Power supply Power supply equipment (PSE)
function
M
Control and
indication
function
for alarm
annunciation
Voice alarm control and indicating
equipment (VACIE)
Control for other fire evacuation
measures
Ancillary
input or
output
function
Data communication interface
Ancillary
management
function
Visualization system
Building management system
Exchange of
information
between
functions
Short-circuit isolators
Components using radio links
Alarm transmission systems such as:
series
LAN/WAN
PSTN
GSM
GPRS
N
O
Relevant
standards
EN54-4
EN 54-16
EN 54-17
EN 54-25
EN 50136
EN 54-18 does not include detailed functional requirements for the input/output devices but requires
that their function is sufficiently specified by the manufacturer and that the CE attestation of conformity
assesses that they function correctly in accordance with the manufacturer’s specification
a
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 151
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
Part 2 control and indicating equipment
Introduction
The standard covers both mandatory and
optional functionality with regards to the
system control and indicator equipment.
The “optional functions” allows for specific functions associated with requirements which may not be standard but
still allows the products to comply.
The options covered in annex B are those already used by some member states
and have therefore been included in this
standard and may also form part of their
local national standard.
Requirements
The control and indicating equipment
shall be capable of being in, and also displaying indication appropriate to, Fire,
Fault, disablement, and where provided,
test. The rules governing alphanumeric
displays are also listed. An indication of
external power shall be provided. Any
other kind of indication may be displayed,
however all indications must be clear and
unambiguous.
Audible indication, indicating a change of
state shall be provided within the control
and indicating equipment and shall be capable of being silenced, but not automatically. The audible alarm should resound
for each subsequent event.
A reset function shall be provided and
be used for both fire and fault, with the
current status of the system, including
points not reset being displayed within
20 seconds.
Output of the fire alarm condition may be
signalled to numerous devices, including
audible alarms, visual alarms, transmission equipment and other fire protection
systems, with at least one output being
mandatory.
Time constraints are detailed in this section, being 10 seconds, if no delays are
programmed. Delays and coincidence
are recognised as being acceptable in
some cases with delay timers being programmable up to a maximum of 10 mins.
The rules relating to these functions are
detailed within the standard. The equipment may include provision to record the
number of fire alarm events.
Fault recognition and indication is covered
in respect of the various categories of fault
which could occur. These include faults
within and external to the control and indication equipment. These are prioritised into
three groups, faults in specified functions,
power loss and system faults. The implications of each can be quite different. Faults
shall be processed and their status indicated within 100 secs.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
control and indicating equipment
In the event of a mains power loss, the
equipment shall have the ability to recognise if the standby supply is capable of
providing at least the mandatory system
function, otherwise an audible indication
shall be sounded for a period of at least
1 hour.
Disablements may be applied to inputs
and outputs, such as zones, audible and
visual devices and signal transmission
paths. Such disablement should only
affect those linked indications and outputs and not be global. Indications of disablements shall be provided both generally and for specific disablements.
Indication of a Test Condition shall be displayed whenever any part of the system
is under test. Those parts of the system
under test must be clearly displayed and
all mandatory indications from those
parts of the system not under test will
still be provided. Tests must be started
and ended manually. Outputs from those
zones under test will not be triggered by
the test.
The Input/output Interface is an approved method of communicating between
the main control and indicator panel
and a sub panel capable of performing
functions associated with the cause and
section two fire detection and alarm systems
effect, such as operating a fire protection system or communicating with the
fire brigade. The sub panel is not a part
of the main control and indicator panel
under this standard; however the minimum functional requirements regarding
the interface are clearly detailed. Where
the sub panel is a fire brigade panel and
because requirements vary from country to country, the specified interface
functions negate the need for the panel
specification to be harmonised under this
standard. Most panels will be approved
locally.
Design Requirements for the control and
indicator panel are listed in clause 12 of
the standard. Not all panel functionality
can be tested therefore manufacturers
are required to confirm compliance in
accordance with the standard by way of
documentation. Both electrical and mechanical details are included in the standard as is the integrity of its transmission
paths, the accessibility of indicators and
controls, the specification for indicator
lights, including colours, alphanumeric
displays, and audible indications. The
panel’s software and software processing methods together with the means
of storing both programmes and data are
also detailed.
page 153
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
control and indicating equipment
The panel will be clearly labelled, including the ref to the standard, the manufacturers logo and model number.
Testing of the main control and indicator
panel is carried out in a test environment
with a specimen configuration loaded
into the panel. The test objectives are to
prove the operation of the equipment and
to enable this; a test schedule is drawn up
prior to testing. Testing will prove the fire
alarm, fault and disabled conditions. Environmental tests are carried out in accordance with table 1, below.
Table 1. Environmental tests
Test
Sub-clause
Operational
or endurance number
Cold
Operational
15.4
Damp heat, steady state
Operational
15.5
Impact
Operational
15.6
Vibration, sinusoidal
Operational
15.7
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) immunity test
Operational
15.8
Supply voltage variations
Operational
15.13
Damp heat, steady state
Operational
15.14
Vibration, sinusoidal
Operational
15.15
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
control and indicating equipment
Table B.1 Optional functions
Option
See clause
Indications:
Fault signals from points
Total loss of power supply
Alarm counter
8.3
8.4
7.13
Controls:
Dependency on more than one alarm signal
Delays to outputs
Disablement of each address point
Test condition
7.12
7.11
9.5
10
Outputs:
Fire alarm device(s)
Fire alarm routing equipment
Automatic fire protection equipment
Fault warning routing equipment
Standardized I/O interface
7.8
7.9
7.10
8.9
11
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 155
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
control and indicating equipment
Annexes to EN54-2
Annex A- Explanation of Access Levels,
defines these for all mandatory functions
detailed within the standard.
Annex B (informative) Optional functions
with requirements and alternatives.
As described earlier this standard confirms those mandatory functions necessary to comply together with some
optional functions which might also be
provided. The optional functions described in this standard which have already
been adopted by some countries are listed in table B1 below.
Annex C; refers to the processing of signals, where appropriate, from a fire detector to a point in the process where a
decision is made.
Annex F; covers the recognition and processes when dealing with faults.
Annex G; explains the requirements for
the interfacing of the input/output equipment such as fire brigade panels.
Annex H; refers to the integrity of transmission paths to limit the effects caused
by faults.
Annex I is specific to control and indication equipment which requires software.
Annex ZA; deals with the clauses of the
standard in respect of their compliance
with the mandate of the EU construction
products regulation.
Annex D; provides an explanation of the
zones and their appropriate indications,
together with the limitations regarding
device loading.
Annex E; explains the process of delaying outputs when processing signals
from both detectors and manual call
points.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 3 fire alarm devices - sounders
Introduction
This standard covers the requirements
for the construction and performance of
sounders and their performance under
climatic, mechanical and electrical interference conditions. Sounders are classified as indoor (A) and outdoor (B). In fire
detection and fire alarm systems, voice
sounders are also used for warning the
occupants of a building of the outbreak
of fire, using a combination of signal and
voice message(s).The requirements, test
methods and performance criteria specified in this standard for sounders are also
applicable to voice sounders. Additional
requirements specific to voice sounders
are incorporated in Annex C.
Requirements
The sounder may produce different
sound levels under different conditions,
e.g., when operating on different voltage ranges or with different sound patterns. When appropriate the sound level
of each unit may be measured for each
sound pattern when tested. Alternatively
the sounder will be tested using an output deemed to consume max current and
produce the maximum sound output.
The sounder shall produce A-weighted
sound levels of at least 65 dB in one di-
section two fire detection and alarm systems
rection and not exceeding 120 dB in any
direction.
(A- weighted sound level sound pressure
expressed in dB, characteristics are given
in IEC 60651).
Sounders can produce different frequencies and sound patterns and, therefore,
this standard does not specify a minimum
and maximum for either. These may also
vary from country to country; therefore
local standards need to be consulted.
Access to the device shall be restricted
by the use of special screws or tools and
it should not be possible to change the
manufacturer’s settings without use of
the same or by breaking a seal.
If on site adjustment of the device settings is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this standard,
should be clearly displayed for each and
should only be accessible to change with
a password or special tool.
Sounders shall be rated for a minimum
of 100 hours which will not affect their
ability to cycle on and off as required as
part of the compliance testing. This requirement does not apply to the capacity of
any integral batteries used as a means of
providing local standby power. The capa-
page 157
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices - sounders
city and charging requirements of such
batteries should meet the requirement
of the system.. The degree of protection
provided by the enclosure of fire alarm
sounders shall be in accordance with
EN60529, IP21 for type A and IP33 for
type B. The attached labelling, will provide, reference to this standard, type A or B.
Voice Sounders are audible devices for
generating and broadcasting recorded
voice messages. The voice sounder shall
meet all of the requirements applicable
to audible fire alarm devices. To prevent
acoustic interaction between adjacent
voice sounders the provision for synchronising the alert signal and message sequence with that of other devices of the
same type may be necessary. In this case,
the requirements of the test described in
appendix C shall be met.
Tests, are carried out to prove the sound
levels specified by the manufacturer are
achievable within the specified voltage
range and do not deviate by more than
6dB for each direction. The maximum
sound level must provide an output greater than 65dB (A) in at least one direction,
and not exceed 120dB (A) in any direction,
at 1 metre. Sound levels are required to be
at the specified level for each of the angles
specified by the manufacturer, through a
semi -circular arc in front of the device).
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices - sounders
Table 1 — Schedule of tests
Test
Subclause
Reproducibility
5.2
Operational performance
5.3
Durability
5.4
Dry heat (operational)
5.5
Dry heat (endurance)
5.6
Cold (operational)
5.7
Damp heat, cyclic (operational)
5.8
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.9
Damp heat, cyclic (endurance)
5.10
SO2 corrosion (endurance)
5.11
Shock (operational)
5.12
Impact (operational)
5.13
Vibration (operational)
5.14
Vibration (endurance)
5.15
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 159
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices - sounders
Table 1 — Schedule of tests
Test
Subclause
Electrostatic discharge (operational)
5.16
Radiated electromagnetic fields
(operational)
5.16
Conducted disturbances induced by
electromagnetic fields (operational)
5.16
Voltage transients, fast transient
bursts (operational)
5,16
Voltage transients, slow high energy
voltage surge (operational)
5.16
Enclosure protection
5.17
1) Where after one of the test specified in 5.5 to 5.16 the A-weighted sound level of
the specimen being tested differs from that measured during the reproducibility test by
more than 6 dB, a new specimen shall be used for the next test on the schedule for that
specimen. The sound level shall be first measured as specified in 5.2.
2) The EMC tests specified in 5.16 are not required for sounders which do not rely on
active electronic components for their operation.
3) The tests on an individual specimen may be carried out in any order except that
the reproducibility test (5.2) shall be performed first on all specimens and the tests on
specimens 1 and 2 shall be carried out in the order listed (i.e. 5.17 last).
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices - sounders
Annexes to EN54-3
Annex A- Sound level test
Annex B- Comparative sound test
Annex C- Voice Sounders
Annex ZA; deals with the clauses of the
standard in respect of their compliance
with the mandate of the EU construction
products regulation.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 161
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 4 power supply equipment
Introduction
This standard covers the requirements,
test procedures and performance of
power supplies used with fire alarm and
detection systems in buildings, both internal and external to the control and indicating equipment.
General requirements
The requirements for meeting this standard are detailed in clauses 4-8 and
testing is as detailed in clause 9 of this
standard. The power supply unit will operate from an incoming mains supply and
incorporate at least one rechargeable
standby battery. The unit will be capable
of maintaining a fully charged battery.
Each source of power shall be capable
of supplying the specified output or for
an integral power supply, the equipment
into which it is integrated.
The incoming mains supply should be
solely for the fire detection and alarm system and its standby batteries. The battery
should automatically supply the system
in the event of an incoming power failure
and revert to standby when the supply is
restored. Failure of an integrated power
supply incoming mains shall be transparent other than to operate any power war-
ning indicators. Any known interruptions
during changeover of power source shall
be detailed by the manufacturer. Failure
of one power source shall not render the
unit inoperative such that no power is delivered to the system.
Functionality
The power supply shall be capable of
delivering full power to the system irrespective of the standby battery condition,
including when recharging a discharged
standby battery. The standby battery
charging current can be reduced when
the power supply is required to supply
maximum current to the system. The
standby battery should also be capable
of supplying the systems demands when
the incoming mains supply is disconnected. The power supply shall be fully
monitored, including incoming mains,
battery supply, and battery high resistance. The power supply shall signal a fault
condition within 30 minutes of the fault
occurrence. If the power supply unit is an
integral part of the control and indicating
equipment such faults shall be signalled
in accordance with EN54-2.
The design, electrical and mechanical,
shall be in accordance with section 6 of
the standard. If the power supply is de-
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
power supply equipment
signed for use with the control and indicating equipment but external to, then
duplicate connections should be made
ensuring that a single short circuit cannot
result in a loss of power.
The standby battery will be suitably labelled indicating its age and type and if
integral to other components of the fire
alarm and detection system, shall be of
the sealed type. The batteries output voltage should be monitored and outputs
turned off if that voltage falls below the
specified level.
The battery charger will charge the battery
automatically and when discharged to its
final voltage be recharged to 80% of its capacity within 48 hours. The charger shall
be designed and operate within the battery
manufacturers temperature limits. Other
than for monitoring purposes the battery
shall not discharge through the charger,
when a potential difference exists.
If required to operate during the testing
the power supply equipment shall be
connected to both mains and a suitable
battery. The output shall be connected
to suitable cable and tested under a full
load. Fully functional tests are as detailed
in section 9 and carried out in accordance with table 1. However the procedu-
section two fire detection and alarm systems
re and requirements do vary between
integrating and non-integrating power
supply equipment.
page 163
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
power supply equipment
Table 1-Functional tests
Test
Mains supply
voltage
Condition of battery
Loading
condition
Duration of
test
1
Vna + 10 %
Discharged b
I max. a
4h
2
Vn 15 %
Discharged b
I max. a
4h
3
Vn 15 %
Discharged b
I max. b
Manufacturer’s
specification
with a
minimum
of 5 min
4
Disconnected
Discharging c
I max. b
5
Vn 15 %
Replaced by short circuit d
I max. a
6
Vn 15 %
Replaced by short circuit e
I max. a
7
Vn + 10 %
Disconnected
I max. b
8
Vn 15 %
Disconnected
I max. b
9
Vn + 10 %
Fully charged f
I min
a Vn is nominal voltage of the public electricity supply or equivalent.
b A battery of max specified capacity discharged to its final voltage as described in 9.3.1.1. The
battery is allowed to charge during the test.
c In this test the battery may be replaced by a laboratory power supply capable of supplying the
required output current. The output voltage of the power supply shall be gradually reduced from the
fully charged voltage of the battery to the voltage at which the PSE output(s) switch off as in 5.2.3.
d Mains shall be applied after having replaced the battery by a short circuit.
e Replace the battery by a short circuit after the mains is applied.
f A battery charged to its fully charged voltage
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
power supply equipment
Environmental tests are carried out in accordance with table 2 below. If the power
supply unit is housed within other equipment for which there is a different standard, then testing in accordance with
that standard shall apply. (e.g. EN54-2).
However functional tests, required by
this standard, to be undertaken after environmental testing, shall also take place.
If the power supply is housed separately
or in an enclosure for which there is no
standard then table 2 shall apply.
Table 2 — Environmental tests
Test
Operational or
endurance
Clause number
Cold
Operational
9.5
Damp heat, steady state
Operational
9.6
Impact
Operational
9.7
Vibration, sinusoidal
Operational
9.8
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
immunity tests
Operational
9.9
Damp heat, steady state
Endurance
9.14
Vibration, sinusoidal
Endurance
9.15
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 165
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
power supply equipment
Annexes to EN54-4
Annex A- Laboratory procedure for testing compliance with the requirements of
5.2.1 and 5.4.c
Annex ZA- Deals with the clauses of the
standard in respect of their compliance
with the mandate of the EU construction
products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 5 heat detectors - point detectors
Scope
This standard specifies the requirements
for point type heat detectors. Typical application temperature is the temperature of
the environment into which the detector is
placed and which exists for most of the time
in a none fire situation as detailed in table
1.Maximum application temperature is that
which the detector may be subjected to for
short periods of time, in a non-fire situation
as detailed in table 1.
Static response temperature is that at
which the detector would be in an alarm
state if subjected to a vanishingly small rate
of rise temperature, typically 0.2K min -1
Classification
Detectors shall conform to one or more
of the following classes, as shown in the
attached table, column 1, according to
the requirements of the detailed tests.
Table 1 Detector Classification temperatures
Detector
Class
Typical
Application
Temperature°C
Maximum
Application
Temperature °C
Minimum Static
Response
Temperature °C
Maximum Static
Response
Temperature °C
A1
25
50
54
65
A2
25
50
54
70
B
40
65
69
85
C
55
80
84
100
D
70
95
99
115
E
85
110
114
130
F
100
125
129
145
G
115
140
144
160
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 167
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
heat detectors - point detectors
Manufacturers may add the suffix S,
(Static) or R, (Rate of Rise) to the detector data. Detectors which provide only
a static response do not respond below
their minimum response temperature
irrespective of the rate of rise in temperature. Detectors incorporating a rate of
rise characteristic will meet the response requirements shown in table 4, even
when installed where temperatures are
significantly lower than the typical application temperature.
Individual alarm indication shall be provided for class A1, A2, B, C or D detectors
via a red visual indicator which shall be
extinguished when the detector is reset.
Where conditions other than fire are indicated these shall be clearly distinguishable other than when the detector is in
service mode. For detachable detectors
the indicator may be in the head or the
base and should be visible at a distance
of 6 metres directly below the detector in
ambient light levels of up to 500 lux.
Classes E, F or G detectors shall contain
either an integral red indicator or some
other means of indicating its alarm state.
Monitoring of detachable detectors shall
be provided by which removal of the
detector from its base without some form
of indication is not possible.
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password, special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal. If on
site adjustment of the detectors response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this standard,
should be clearly displayed for each detector and should only be accessible to
change with a password or special tool
or by the removal of the detector from its
base.
Any settings which are not compliant
with this standard shall only be accessible by the same means and it should be
clearly displayed, either on the detector or in data format, the detector does
not comply with this standard. The adjustments may be carried out either at
the detector or via the control and indicator equipment.
Configuration data relevant to the compliance with a standard shall be stored in
non-volatile memory and access shall be
password protected or by use of a special
tool and shall only be possible when the
device is taken out of normal service.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
heat detectors - point detectors
Detectors are subjected to the
following Test Schedules.
as detailed in table 4, between the upper
and lower levels.
Directional dependence: to prove that
performance is not dependent upon a
specific airflow
Cold (operational): to prove the detector
operates correctly in low temperature
environments. The detectors, (resettable) response when subjected to a rise
in temperature of 3 Kmin-1 shall not be
less than 7min 13s. At a temperature
rise of 20 Kmin-1 the response time
shall not be less than 30s for Class A1
and 1min for other classes. For non- resettable detectors the response times
shall be those shown in table 4, between
the upper and lower times for the relevant class.
Static response temperature: to confirm
the detectors response to a slow rate of
rise in temperature. Static type detectors
may also be subjected to further testing
to ensure they do not respond below
their stated response temperature relative to their class.
Response times from typical application
temperature: to prove the detectors response, (table 1) to a range of rate of rise
air temperatures. The response times
should lie between the upper and lower
levels shown in table 4, relative to its
class.
Variation in supply parameters: to prove
that within the detectors specified voltage range the response times are reasonably constant
Reproducibity: to show that response
times are within the specified limits and
for resettable detectors that the response times do not vary significantly during
repeat testing. Response times shall be
section two fire detection and alarm systems
Dry heat (endurance): proves the performance of detectors in classes C, D, E, F
and G when installed in high ambient
temperatures. The tests are at temperatures indicated in table 1. The detectors,
(resettable) response when subjected to
a rise in temperature of 3 Kmin-1 shall
not be less than 7min 13s. At a temperature rise of 20 Kmin-1 the response time
shall not be less than 1min. For non- resettable detectors the response times
shall be those shown in table 4.
Damp heat, cyclic and steady: These
tests prove the detectors ability to exist
in humid conditions and where there
page 169
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
heat detectors - point detectors
may be condensation present, for short
and long durations. The detectors shall
remain fault free and their response (for
resettable) when subjected to a rise in
temperature of 3 Kmin-1 will not be less
than 7min 13s. At a temperature rise of
20 Kmin-1 the response time shall not
be less than 30s for Class A1 and 1min
for other classes. For non- resettable detectors the response times shall be those
shown in table 4
Corrosion (SO2) will demonstrate the detectors resistance to corrosive atmospheres. The detector should remain fault free
and respond, (resettable) to a rise in temperature of 3 Kmin-1 within 7min 13s. At
20 Kmin-1 the response time shall not
be less than 30s for Class A1 and 1min
for other classes. For non- resettable detectors the response times shall be those
shown in table 4,
rature of 3 Kmin-1 within 7min 13s. At
20 Kmin-1 the response time shall not
be less than 30s for Class A1 and 1min
for other classes. For non- resettable detectors the response times shall be those
shown in table 4,
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC):
tests are carried out in accordance with
EN50130-4. The detector should respond, (resettable) to a rise in temperature
of 3 Kmin-1 within 7min 13s. At 20 Kmin1 the response time shall not be less than
30s for Class A1 and 1min for other classes. For non- resettable detectors the
response times shall be those shown in
table 4.
Shock, Impact and Vibration: these tests
are designed to prove the detectors immunity to mechanical shocks, impact
and short and long term vibration. The
shock test procedure is that described
in the IEC document 60068-2-27. long
term vibration tests are conducted in accordance with IEC document 60068-2-6.
The detector should remain fault free and
respond, (resettable) to a rise in tempe-
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
heat detectors - point detectors
Table 4 Response time limits
Rate of rise
of air
temperature
Class A1 detectors
Lower limit of response time
Upper limit of response time
K min - 1
Min
S
Min
S
1
29
0
40
20
3
7
13
13
40
5
4
9
8
20
10
1
0
4
20
20
30
2
20
30
20
1
40
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 171
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
heat detectors - point detectors
Table 4 Response time limits
Rate of rise
of air
temperature
Class A2, B, C, D, E, F and G detectors
Lower limit of response time
Upper limit of response time
K min - 1
Min
S
Min
S
1
29
0
46
0
3
7
13
16
0
5
4
9
10
0
10
2
0
5
30
20
1
0
3
13
40
2
25
30
Response times from high ambient temperature: proves the detectors ability to perform correctly in a high temperature
environment. The detectors response time should fall between those indicated below in table 5.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
heat detectors - point detectors
Table 5 Response time limits for maximum application temperature
Detector
class
Lower limit of response time at air temperature rise of
3K min-1
20K min-1
Min
S
A1
1
20
12
All other
1
20
12
Detector
class
Min
S
Upper limit of response time at air temperature rise of
3K min-1
20K min-1
Min
S
Min
S
A1
13
40
2
20
All other
16
0
3
13
Annexes to EN54-5
Annex A - Heat tunnel for response time and response temperature measurements
Annex B - Information concerning the construction of the heat tunnel
Annex C - Derivation of upper and lower limits of response times
Annex D - Apparatus for impact test
Annex ZA - Clauses of this European Standard addressing essential requirements or other
provisions of EU construction products regulation.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 173
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 7 smoke detectors
Scope, the standard specifies the requirements, test methods and performance criteria for point type smoke
detectors, both optical and ionisation, including smoke detectors with
more than one sensor. Ionisation
detectors are not permitted in certain countries therefore local codes
should be consulted.
Requirements
Compliance, for the detector to meet
the requirements of this clause shall be
verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment, tested as described in
clause 5 and, for detectors with more
than one smoke sensor, shall meet the
requirements of the tests detailed in
Annex N.
Individual alarm indication shall be provided via a red visual indicator which
shall be extinguished when the detector is reset. Where conditions other
than fire are indicated these shall be
clearly distinguishable other than when
the detector is in service mode. For detachable detectors the indicator may
be in the head or the base and should
be visible at a distance of 6 metres directly below the detector in ambient
light levels of up to 500 lux. Where there is a connection to remote indicators,
control relays etc., failures of these connections shall not prevent the correct
operation of the detector.
Monitoring of detachable detectors
shall be provided by which removal
of the detector from its base without
some form of indication is not possible.
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password, special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal.
If on site adjustment of the detectors
response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this
standard, should be clearly displayed
for each detector and should only be
accessible to change with a password
or special tool or by the removal of the
detector from its base.
Any settings which are not compliant
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
smoke detectors
with this standard shall only be accessible by the same means and it should be
clearly displayed, either on the detector or in data format, the detector does
not comply with this standard. The adjustments may be carried out either at
the detector or via the control and indicator equipment.
The detector shall be designed to restrict the access of insects into its sensitive parts without restricting smoke
entry. In order to achieve this it may
be necessary to take other precautions
against false alarms due to the entry of
small insects.
The provision of “drift compensation”
to counter the effects of a build-up
of dirt in the detector shall not significantly reduce the detector’s sensitivity to slowly developing fires. To verify
this, an assessment of the detector’s
response to slow increases in smoke
density shall be made. The detector
shall meet the requirements of clause
4.8 if its response times falls within those specified.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
Testing a detectors response with very
slow increases in smoke density is impractical and therefore assessment is
made of the detectors response by a
combination of test and simulations
together with analysis of the software.
The detectors performance is measured against formulae designed to confirm a response within 100 seconds
when the increase in smoke density is
greater than one fourth of the detector
threshold value multiplied by 1.6. This
ensures the detectors response value
does not increase by more than a factor of 1.6 before an alarm condition is
reached. A detectors response should
fall between a maximum sensitivity of
1.5% and a minimum of 6% obscuration per metre when tested.
page 175
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
smoke detectors
Test schedule
Test
Clause
Repeatability
5.2
Directional dependence
5.3
Reproducibility
5.4
Variation in supply parameters
5.5
Air movement
5.6
Dazzling 1)
5.7
Dry heat (operational
5.8
Cold (operational)
5.9
Damp heat, steady state (operational)
5.10
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.11
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) corrosion (endurance)
5.12
Shock (operational)
5.13
Impact (operational)
5.14
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
smoke detectors
Test schedule
Test
Clause
Vibration, sinusoidal (operational)
5.15
Vibration, sinusoidal (endurance)
5.16
Electrostatic discharge (operational)
5.17
Radiated electromagnetic fields (operational)
5.17
Conducted disturbances induced by electromagnetic
fields (operational)
5.17
Fast transient bursts (operational)
5.17
Slow high energy voltage surge (operational)
5.18
Fire sensitivity
1)
This test only applies to detectors using scattered or transmitted light.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 177
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
smoke detectors
Annexes to EN54-7
Annex A - Smoke tunnel for response
threshold value measurements
Annex B - Test aerosol for response
threshold value measurements
Annex C - Smoke measuring instruments
Annex D - Apparatus for dazzling test
Annex E - Apparatus for impact test
Annex F - Fire test room
Annex G -Smouldering (pyrolysis)
wood fire (TF2)
Annex H -Glowing smouldering cotton
fire (TF3)
Annex I - Flaming plastics (polyurethane) fire (TF4)
Annex J - Flaming liquid (n-heptane)
fire (TF5)
Annex K - Information concerning the
construction of the smoke tunnel
Annex L - Information concerning
the requirements for the response to
slowly developing fires
Annex M - Information concerning the
construction of the measuring ionization Chamber
Annex N - Additional requirements and
test methods for smoke detectors with
more than one smoke sensor
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 10 flame detectors
Scope This European Standard specifies the requirements, test methods
and performance criteria for point-type,
resettable flame detectors that operate
using radiation from a flame for use in
fire detection systems.
Requirements
Compliance is for the detector to be
verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment and successfully tested as described in clause 5. Detectors
will be classified, when responding to
fires within 30 secs as: Class 1, up to
25metres, Class, 2 up to 17 metres or
Class 3, up to 12 metres. Below 12metres detectors will not be classified.
Individual alarm indication shall be
provided via a red visual indicator
which shall be extinguished when the
detector is reset. Where conditions
other than fire are indicated these shall
be clearly distinguishable other than
when the detector is in service mode.
For detachable detectors the indicator
may be in the head or the base. Where
there is a connection to remote indica-
section two fire detection and alarm systems
tors, control relays etc., failures of these connections shall not prevent the
correct operation of the detector.
Monitoring of detachable detectors
shall be provided by which removal
of the detector from its base without
some form of indication is not possible.
The manufacturer’s settings should
not be accessible to change without
the need for a password, special tool
or by the breaking or removal of a seal
and for each setting. For those settings
which the manufacturer claims compliance with this standard, each shall
have achieved a classification corresponding to that marked on the detector
for that setting;
If on site adjustment of the detectors
response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this
standard, should be clearly displayed
for each detector and should only be
accessible to change with a password
or special tool or by the removal of the
detector from its base.
page 179
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
flame detectors
Any settings which are not compliant
with this standard shall only be accessible by the same means and it should be
clearly displayed, either on the detector or in data format, the detector does
not comply with this standard. The adjustments may be carried out either at
the detector or via the control and indicator equipment.
Technical data regarding both installation and maintenance should be provided with each detector or in the case
of supporting documentation, document references should be provided.
If on site adjustment of the detectors
response type is provided, the data
shall clearly indicate the classification,
means of adjustment or programming
instructions.
detector to radiation from a suitable flame source and establishing the maximum distance at which the detector
will reliably enter the alarm condition
within a time of 30 s. The test apparatus shall be as described in annex A, B
and C. When testing, the radiation source is modulated in accordance with the
manufacturer’s specification. Tests are
conducted using methane, n-heptane,
and methylated spirit.
For detectors which are software control controlled then the documentation, design, and storage of programs
and data will meet the requirements of
4.9.2, 4.9.3 and 4.9.4.
The Principle of testing is to measure
the response point when exposing the
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
flame detectors
Table 1 — Test Schedule
Test
Clause
Reproducibility
5.2
Repeatability
5.3
Directional dependence
5.4
Fire sensitivity
5.5
Dazzling (operational)
5.6
Dry heat (operational)
5.7
Cold (operational)
5.8
Damp heat cyclic (operational)
5.9
Damp heat steady state (endurance)
5.10
Sulphur dioxide (SO2 ) corrosion (endurance)
5.11
Shock (operational)
5.12
Impact (operational)
5.13
Vibration, sinusoidal (operational)
5.14
Vibration, sinusoidal (endurance)
5.15
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 181
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
flame detectors
Table 1 — Test Schedule
Test
Clause
Variation in supply parameters (operational)
5.16
Electrostatic discharge (operational)
5.17
Radiated electromagnetic fields (operational)
5.17
Conducted disturbances induced by
electromagnetic fields (operational)
5.17
Fast transient bursts (operational)
5.17
Slow high energy voltage surge (operational)
5.17
Annexes to EN54-10
Annex A - Optical Bench Response test
Annex B - Methane Burner
Annex C - Test Fires
Annex D - Dazzle test
Annex E - Impact test apparatus
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 11 manual call points
Scope
This standard specifies the requirements and methods of test for both
indoor and outdoor manual call points
and includes the appearance and operation for both types A (single action)
and B (dual action). It covers simple
devices, those fitted with electronic
components (e.g. resistors, diodes) and
addressable units. This Standard does
not cover manual call points for use
as intrinsically safe or for in hazardous
conditions, where such applications require further requirements or tests. The
Colours of various parts of the call point
shall be in accordance with 4.7.2.3
Compliance is for the manual call point
which shall be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment
and successfully tested as described in
clause 5.
and whether indoor or outdoor version.
The normal condition of the call point
shall be recognizable by the appearance of the operating face as detailed in
4.7.which shall be flat and shall not be
broken, deformed or displaced?
Change from the normal to the alarm
condition, will be by the following
methods
For type A manual call points, breaking
and/or displacing the frangible element together with changing the appearance of the operating face.
For type B manual call points: as above
plus manually activating the operating
element.
Requirements
It shall be possible to see that the
operating element is in the activated
position but not possible to activate it
without breaking or displacing the frangible element [see 4.3.2 b)] or without
the use of a special tool (see 4.6).
Each manual call point should be
clearly labelled providing information
regarding the relevant standard, type,
A transparent flap may be fitted over
the call point to protect against accidental operation of a type A call point.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 183
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
manual call points
If Individual alarm indication is provided it shall be positioned on the front
of the call point, be red and shall be extinguished when the call point is reset.
It shall be visible from a distance of 2 m
directly in front of the manual call point
in an ambient light intensity up to 500
lx. Where conditions other than fire
are indicated these shall be clearly distinguishable other than when the call
point is in service mode. The call point
shall be marked with the appropriate
symbols as detailed in paragraph 4.7.3.
The manual call point shall be reset after operation as follows:
a) for non-resettable frangible elements, by inserting a new element;
b) for resettable frangible elements, by
resetting the frangible element.
Furthermore for type B manual call
points, it shall only be possible to return
it to its normal condition by means of a
special tool.
cial tool to simulate an alarm condition
by activating the operating element,
allowing the manual call point to be reset without breaking the frangible element. Operating the frangible element
shall not cause injury to the operator.
For type B manual call points the actuation force of the operating element
shall meet the requirements of EN 8943:2000.
For manual call points which are software control controlled then the documentation, design, and storage of
programs and data will meet the requirements of 4.8.2, 4.8.3 and 4.8.4.
The alarm signal shall respond to the
required test, indicated at the supply
and monitoring equipment (see 5.1.2)
within 10 s after the operating element
has been activated.
The manual call point shall incorporate
a test facility, which will require a spe-
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
manual call points
Table 2 — Test Schedule
Test
Clause
number
Variation of supply parameters
5.6
Dry heat (operational)
5.7
Dry heat (endurance)
5.8
Cold (operational)
5.9
Damp heat, cyclic (operational)
5.10
Damp heat, cyclic (endurance)
5.11
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.12
SO2 corrosion (endurance)
5.13
Shock (operational)
5.14
Impact (operational)
5.15
Vibration (operational)
5.16
Vibration (endurance)
5,17
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 185
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
manual call points
Table 2 — Test Schedule
Test
Clause
number
Electromagnetic compatibility
(operational)a; i.e.
a) electrostatic discharge
b) radiated electromagnetic fields
c) conducted disturbances induced by
electromagnetic fields
d) voltage transient, fast transient bursts
e) voltage transient, slow high-energy
voltage surge
5.18
Enclosure protection
5.19
a)
Test only for manual call points with active electronic components.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
manual call points
Table 2 — Test Schedule
Test
Indoor
use
Outdoor
use
Variation of supply parameters
x
x
Dry heat (operational)
x
x
Dry heat (endurance)
x
Cold (operational)
x
x
Damp heat, cyclic (operational)
x
x
Damp heat, cyclic (endurance)
x
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
x
x
SO2 corrosion (endurance)
x
x
Shock (operational)
x
x
Impact (operational)
x
x
Vibration (operational)
x
x
Vibration (endurance)
x
x
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 187
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
manual call points
Table 2 — Test Schedule
Test
Indoor
use
Outdoor
use
Electromagnetic compatibility
(operational)a; i.e.
a) electrostatic discharge
b) radiated electromagnetic fields
c) conducted disturbances induced by
electromagnetic fields
d) voltage transient, fast transient bursts
e) voltage transient, slow high-energy
voltage surge
x
x
Enclosure protection
x
Annexes to EN54-11
Annex A- Test apparatus
(for operation)
Annex B - Test apparatus
(for non-operation)
Annex C- Test apparatus for
impact test
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 12 smoke detectors - line type
Scope
This European Standard specifies requirements, test methods and performance criteria for line type smoke detectors utilising the attenuation of an
optical beam, for use in fire detection
systems. The detector will consist of a
transmitter and a receiver and may include reflector(s).
If on site adjustment of the detectors
response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this
standard, should be clearly displayed
for each detector and should only be
accessible to change with a password
or special tool or by the removal of the
detector from its base.
Compliance, for the detector to meet
the requirements of this clause, shall
be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment and successfully
tested as described in clause 5.
Any settings which are not compliant
with this standard shall only be accessible by the same means and it should be
clearly displayed, either on the detector or in data format, the detector does
not comply with this standard. The adjustments may be carried out either at
the detector or via the control and indicator equipment.
Individual alarm indication shall be provided via a red visual indicator which
shall be extinguished when the detector is reset.
Monitoring of detachable detectors
shall be provided by which removal
of the detector from its base without
some form of indication is not possible.
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password, special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal.
A fire alarm signal shall have priority
over faults resulting from a rapid change in obscuration or by a result of the
limit of compensation being reached.
Requirements
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 189
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
smoke detectors - line type
Configuration data relevant to the compliance with a standard shall be stored
in non-volatile memory and access
shall be password protected or by use
of a special tool and shall only be possible when the device is taken out of
normal service.
change significantly over the stated
minimum and maximum optical path
length.
Tests are conducted ensuring its sensitivity to a broad spectrum of fires likely
to be encountered in various types of
buildings and applications.
The detectors shall be tested in accordance with the test schedule in Table
1 and include the following test which
are applicable to linear) beam) type
smoke detectors.
Directional dependence, whereby the
detector is tested to show that small
inaccuracies in alignment do not affect
its performance.
Slow changes in attenuation whereby
the detector is tested to ensure that it
can detect a slowly smouldering fire
despite any sensitivity compensation
applied to counter the effects of contamination of the optical components.
Optical path length dependence, whereby the detector is tested to show
that the response threshold does not
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
smoke detectors - line type
Table 1 — Test Schedule
Test
Clause
Reproducibility
5.2
Repeatability
5.3
Directional dependence
5.4
Variation of supply parameters
5.5
Rapid changes in obscuration
5.6
Slow changes in obscuration
5.7
Optical path length dependence
5.8
Fire sensitivity
5.9
Stray light
5.10
Dry heat (operational)
5.11
Cold (operational)
5.12
Damp heat, steady state (operational)
5.13
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.14
Vibration (endurance)
5.15
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 191
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
smoke detectors - line type
Table 1 — Test Schedule
Test
Clause
Electrostatic discharge (operational)
5.16
Radiated electromagnetic fields (operational)
5.16
Conducted disturbances induced by electromagnetic fields
(operational)
5.16
Fast transient bursts (operational)
5.16
Slow high energy voltage surges (operational)
5.16
Sulphur dioxide SO2 corrosion (endurance)
5.17
Impact (operational)
5.18
Annexes to EN54-12
Annex A - Smoke test for response
threshold value measurements
Annex B – Fire test room
Annex C – Smouldering pyrolysis
wood fire TF2
Annex D – Glowing Smouldering Cotton TF3
Annex E – Flaming Plastic (polyurethane) fire TF4
Annex F – Flaming liquid (n-heptane)
fire TF5
Annex G –Stray light test set up
Annex H - Glowing smouldering cotton
fire (TF3)
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 13 compatibility assessment of system components
Scope
This document specifies the requirements for the compatibility and connectability of system components that
comply with the requirements of EN
54 or with their specification in the
absence of an EN 54 standard and includes system requirements only when
these are necessary for compatibility
assessment. It also specifies requirements for the integrity of the fire detection and fire alarm system when connected to other systems.
Requirements
Compliance with this standard requires
the system design and compatibility of
its components to meet the requirements of this clause. This shall be verified by assessment (5.1) with regard
to the documentation (4.7), and shall
be successfully tested (if necessary) as
described in 5.2 to 5.5. System requirements can also be stated in national
application guidelines /codes of practice. Suppliers of components must ensure that they meet the requirements
section two fire detection and alarm systems
of this document and the relevant part
of EN 54 and also the requirements of
the application guidelines of the countries where the components are
intended to be used.
Networked systems
A fault in a single fire alarm control panel shall not affect other control units.
A single fault on a transmission path
connecting control panels shall not adversely affect the functionality of the
network. Where more than a single
fault results in control panels being disconnected it shall be clearly displayed
which panels are affected. All faults
shall be indicated. Where there is justification, e.g. a high life risk the standard
suggests that at each control panel
there be a facility to communicate with
the fire brigade, should 2 simultaneous
transmission faults occur, disconnecting a panel from the network and the
main control panel.
A fire alarm condition shall be indicated
on the main control panel within 20 s
and a fault within 120s.
page 193
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
compatibility assessment of system components
The means provided for minimizing the
effect of a fault on a transmission path
shall complete the restoration within
300 s. The main control panel shall at
least indicate general conditions as defined in EN 54-2.
such a device must in no way jeopardise the operation of the system.
At the main control panel it shall be
possible to identify the panel from
which the signal originated.
Assessment methods and tests
At the main panel, it may be possible
to operate controls which are found on
the individual panels, but only with the
same affects. Any software that is used
for networking shall conform to EN 542:1997, Clause 13.
Input and output devices for connection to a fire protection system are considered as type 1.
A theoretical analysis to assess the
compatibility of components when interconnected will take place and the
outcome will indicate whether a physical test is required. (Annex C provides
an example). EMC testing will be carried out if thought necessary.
Functional test for compatibility
Compatibility can be achieved if essential components (type 1) operate
within the specified limits in the relevant part of EN54, whereas essential
components not covered by an EN54
standard shall conform to EN54-1,
clause 4 and meet the EMC immunity requirements of EN50130-4. For
a non-essential component (type 2),
such as a printer, to be connected, then
This test is to prove compliance of
components in a specified configuration provided by the manufacturer and
in accordance with the relevant EN54
part.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
compatibility assessment of system components
Annexes to EN54-13
Annex A - Function of a Fire Detection
and Alarm System
Annex B – Classification of component
types 1 and 2
Annex C – Example methodology for
theoretical assessment
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 195
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 16 voice alarm control and indicating equipment
Introduction
This standard covers the requirements
for the construction and performance
for voice alarm control and indicating
equipment for use in fire detection and
fire alarm systems where the audible
signal is in the form of tone(s) and/or
voice message(s).Those parts of the
system concerning audibility and intelligibility, are not covered in this standard. Consideration should be given to
the requirements of an overall system
that may affect the design and which
may be specified in another part of EN
54, in national legislation, codes and
standards or in contractual documents.
Requirements
A voice alarm system, when forming
part of the fire detection and fire alarm
system provides an audible fire alarm
signal. Such a system will require voice
alarm control and indication in order to
react to an incoming alarm and subsequently generate and broadcast a message. The two systems may share an integrated form of control or be separate.
This standard being similar in structure
to part 2 stipulates those functions that
are mandatory, as well as those which
are optional. As in part 2 the optional
functions may be specific to certain
applications
When the systems are truly integrated
they may share common indications,
manual controls and outputs (see Annex F); however a single fault affecting
the control and indicator panel shall
not affect the mandatory functions of
the voice alarm system. The indications and manual control(s) of the voice
alarm condition shall be clearly identifiable.
The system power supply equipment
may be common to both systems but
must comply with the requirements of
EN 54-4.
The voice alarm control and indicator
shall be capable of clearly displaying
the following, a quiescent condition;
voice alarm condition; fault warning
condition and a disablement condition
.The control shall be capable of displa-
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
voice alarm control and indicating equipment
ying, on different alarm zones at the
same time, a voice alarm condition;
fault warning condition and a disablement condition.
Where specified, all mandatory indications shall be clearly identified and
where alpha numeric displays provide additional information for different
functional conditions these may be
displayed at the same time. Information should be grouped and separated
for each condition. A separate power
on indicator shall be provided on each
enclosure, where they exist. Where
further indication is provided it shall
be distinguishable and not override
the primary indicators. A system normal display may be provided but must
not conflict with the above. The voice
alarm control shall be capable of receiving and processing alarm signals and
generating the appropriate voice alarm
outputs within 3s or on the expiry of
any delay period.
Annex E provides additional information concerning the interface between
the voice alarm and the fire alarm con-
section two fire detection and alarm systems
trollers. The voice alarm control shall
provide a fault warning within 100 s of
the occurrence of a fault, unless specified differently in this European Standard or in other parts of EN 54. The
voice alarm control may have provision
for at least one spare power amplifier
which should replace the faulty equipment within 10 secs of the fault being
detected. The spare should be supervised when not in use.
A common fault warning shall be provided if there is a condition relating to
any short circuit or interruption in a voice alarm transmission path, including
the microphone and loudspeakers,
even where the fault does not affect
the operation of loudspeakers; and to
any fire alarm devices when used, and
the failure of any power amplifier.
The mandatory indications and/or outputs shall not be corrupted by multiple
alarm signals when received simultaneously, either automatically or manually. Where the voice and fire alarm
systems are separate, failure of the
transmission path between the two
page 197
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
voice alarm control and indicating equipment
shall not result in any loss of control
or change of state of the voice alarm,
without indication being provided.
The audible alarm (message) may be
delayed, up to a maximum of 10 minutes but may be over-ridden manually.
Delays can be turned on/off manually
or automatically, with the applicable
level of access and a separate and discreet indicator or display shall be visible when an alarm occurs when the
delay is turned on. The display will be
cancelled when the alarm message is
broadcast. The system can be configured for phased warning broadcasts,
which can be switched on and off with
the applicable level of access.
Where the voice alarm condition has
been triggered from the fire alarm control, the message broadcast may be silenced and reset from the same control
panel; incomplete messages will be
completed before being silenced. The
silence function should be reversible
and messages rebroadcast when required. Any parts of the system which
remain in alarm after rest shall be redisplayed within 20 secs.
In addition to the voice alarm outputs
the control may have provision for the
automatic transmission of fire signals
to other devices such as beacons and
tactile devices. It shall be possible to
deactivate and reactivate these with
the appropriate level of access, but not
automatically.
The alarm broadcast may be manually
activated, zone by zone, or in groups
of zones with the appropriate access
level. Manual activation will activate all
mandatory inputs and outputs. Indication that a voice alarm condition exits
in each zone shall be provided and may
be via a led and/or LCD display. Fault
and disablement conditions can be displayed in similar fashion.
The voice alarm control may be interfaced to external control device(s)
such as those required by local regulations; such interfaces shall provide
only limited access and the mandatory
functions of the voice alarm control
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
voice alarm control and indicating equipment
shall not be overridden. Any faults in
the transmission path between the two
shall not prevent the operation of the
mandatory functions, and shall display
a warning if such a fault occurs.
The external control devices should
comply with available local codes, European Standards or national
standards.
All mandatory Indicators shall be visible at 3 m distance for general indications and the supply of power and at 0,
8 m distance for others. If flashing indications are used, both the on and off
periods shall be a minimum of 0,25 s,
and the flash frequency shall be a minimum of 1 Hz for voice alarm indications
and 0,2 Hz for fault indications.
The voice alarm control may contain
emergency microphones which shall
have priority over all inputs, including
pre-recorded messages. Access will be
by an appropriate level. Where a prealarm tone precedes the activation of
the microphone an adjacent indicator
will display when the microphone becomes active.
If the same led’s are used for the indication of faults and disablements, fault
indications shall flash and disablement
shall be steady. Mandatory indications
on an alphanumeric display shall be legible for at least one hour following the
display of a new indication of an alarm
and 5 min for fault or disablement conditions, at 0,8 m distance, in ambient
light of 5 lux to 500 lux. The colours of
the general and specific led’s shall be
red for alarms, yellow for fault, and disablements and green for power. Where voice alarm automatic message status indicators are provided, it might be
advantageous to differentiate between
evacuation and alert message with red
for emergency messages and yellow
for alert messages.
When the emergency microphone is in
use any audible indication that causes
any interference shall be automatically
muted. Where multiple microphones
are provided they shall be configured
via appropriate access level and only a
single microphone can be in use at any
one time. Pre-recorded messages shall
be stored in non-volatile memory.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 199
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
voice alarm control and indicating equipment
Table 1 — Test schedule on voice alarm control equipment
a)
Test
Subclause
number
Output power
16.4
Signal-to-noise ratio
16.5
Frequency response of Voice alarm control without
microphone(s)
16.6
Frequency response of Voice alarm control with
microphone(s)
16.7
Cold (operational)
16.8
Damp heat, steady state (operational) Operational 16.9
16.9
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
16.10
Impact (operational)
16.11
Vibration, sinusoidal (operational)
16.12
Vibration, sinusoidal (endurance)
16.13
Supply voltage variation (operational)
16.14
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Immunity tests
(operational)
16.15a
Visible and audible indications of purely transitory nature are allowed during the application
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
voice alarm control and indicating equipment
Annex to EN54-16
Annex A - Explanation of Access levels
Annex B – Optional functions
Annex C – Design Requirements for
software controlled systems
Annex D – General Information
Annex E – Interface between Fire and
Voice Alarm controls
Annex F – Common Indications, controls and outputs in combined systems
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 201
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 17 short circuit isolators
Introduction
The purpose of a short-circuit isolator
is to limit the consequences of faults in
fire alarm circuits, both loops and spurs.
Sections of these circuits are separated
by installing short circuit isolators at
strategic locations, and where applicable in accordance with the national
standard of the country of installation
where such a standard exists, or where
there is no country standard then to the
European standard, CEN/TS54-14, or
ISO 7240-14.
In addition the short circuit isolators
should be installed in accordance with
the system manufacturers design limitations to ensure that circuits are not
overloaded such as to create volt drop
which is also likely to cause similar problems and jeopardise the correct operation of components.
Scope
This standard specifies the requirements and methods of test for short
circuit isolators, for use in fire detection
and fire alarm systems. Compliance
shall be verified by visual inspection
or engineering assessment and successfully tested as described in clause
5. However, for short circuit isolators
which are integrated into other devices
already covered by an existing European Standard the environmental conditioning shall be performed in accordance with that EN.
Requirements
If the short-circuit isolator incorporates
an integral status indicator then this
shall not be red.
Where it provides protection to ancillary devices, failures of these connections shall not prevent the correct
operation of the short circuit isolator.
If the isolating device is detachable
(i.e. it is attached to a mounting base),
then a means shall be provided to detect the removal of the device from
the base in order to give a fault signal.
It shall not be possible to change the
manufacturer’s settings or provide for
on-site adjustment of the short-circuit
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
short circuit isolators
isolator without the use of a code or
special tool. For each setting the short
circuit isolator shall comply with the requirements of this European Standard.
The functional testing is to verify operation within the manufacturer’s specification and to test each condition claimed to cause it to operate and at the
maximum specified current. The isolator should open circuit when detecting
a short circuit condition and /or excess
current causing a volt drop below a level at which the devices will function
correctly.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 203
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
short circuit isolators
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Reproducibility
5.2
Variation in supply voltage
5.3
Dry heat (operational)
5.4
Cold (operational)
5.5
Damp heat, cyclic (operational)
5.6
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.7
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) corrosion (endurance)
5.8
Shock (operational)
5.9
Impact (operational)
5.10
Vibration, sinusoidal (operational)
5.11
Vibration, sinusoidal (endurance)
5.12
Electrostatic discharge (operational)
5.13
Radiated electromagnetic fields (operational)
5.13
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
short circuit isolators
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Conducted disturbances induced by electromagnetic
fields
5.13
Fast transient bursts (operational)
5.13
Slow high energy voltage surge (operational)
5.13
Annex to EN54-17
Annex A – Examples of testing
procedure
Annex B – Impact Test
Annex ZA -- deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 205
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 18 input/output devices
Scope
Introduction
This Standard specifies the requirements,
test methods and performance criteria for
input/output devices connected to a fire
detection and fire alarm system, which
may transmit and/or receive signals
which are, necessary for the operation of
the fire detection and fire alarm system
and/or fire protection system.
The term input/output devices cover a
wide range of different types of devices
whose applications are different. These
may include, digital inputs, monitored
inputs for voltage, together with relay
outputs, voltage outputs or solid state
drivers to switch external devices.
An input/output device may be physically separate or its function may be
integrated into another device. Control
and indicating equipment and ancillary
control and indicating equipment (e.g.
repeater panels and fire brigade panels) are not covered by this Standard.
Compliance
In order to comply with this Standard,
the input/output devices shall be verified by inspection and engineering
assessment and shall be successfully
tested as described in Clause 5. If the
input/output device is detachable then
a means shall be provided to detect the
removal of the device from its base in
order to give a fault signal.
This Standard does not therefore include detailed functional requirements for
the devices themselves but requires
that their function is sufficiently specified by the manufacturer and that they
function correctly in accordance with
that specification.
Devices shall be supplied with sufficient
data to ensure their correct installation
and operation. This data shall include
the parameters necessary to define the
input and/or output functions (e.g. output voltage and current ratings, alarm
and fault trip levels and logic levels).
For devices which rely on software control, these shall meet the requirements
of 4.5.2, 4.5.3 and 4.5.4.
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
input/output devices
Table 1 — Test schedule for input/output devices
Test
Clause
Performance and variation of supply parameters
5.2
Dry heat (operational)
5.3
Cold (operational)
5.4
Damp heat, cyclic (operational)
5.5
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.6
SO2 corrosion (endurance)
5.7
Shock (operational)
5.8
Impact (operational)
5.9
Vibration (operational)
5.10
Vibration (endurance)
5.11
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), immunity tests
5.12
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 207
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
input/output devices
Annex to EN54-18
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 20 aspirating smoke detectors
Scope
Requirements
This Standard specifies the requirements, test methods and performance
criteria for aspirating smoke detectors
for use in fire detection and fire alarm
systems.
Individual alarm indication shall be
provided outside of the detector via a
red visual indicator which shall be extinguished when the detector is reset.
Where conditions other than fire are
indicated these shall be clearly distinguishable other than when the detector is in service mode.
Aspirating smoke detectors are used
for the protection of more special and
specific risks.
There are some aspects of the detectors functionality therefore not covered
by this standard.
An aspirating smoke detector is one
in which air and aerosols are drawn
through a sampling device and carried
to one or more smoke sensing elements by an integral fan or pump.
To comply with this standard the detector shall meet the requirements of this
clause, which shall be verified by inspection and engineering assessment, and,
when successfully tested in accordance
with those described in Clause 6.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
The response of an aspirating smoke
detector is dependent upon both the
sensitivity settings of the smoke sensing element and the design of the
sampling device; e.g. pipework and
sampling points. In some detectors the
smoke sensing sensitivity can be adjusted in order to suit the application and
sampling device.
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password, special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal. The
adjustments may be made at the detector or at the control and indicating
equipment.
page 209
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
aspirating smoke detectors
Changing the sensitivity settings can
affect the classification of the installed
detector. If it is possible to reconfigure
the detector such that it no longer complies with the standard, then this shall
be clearly marked on the detector or
in the associated data. The provision
of “drift compensation” to counter the
effects of a build-up of dirt in the detector, and /or the provision of algorithms
to suit an environment shall not significantly reduce the detector’s sensitivity
to slowly developing fires.
The sampling pipes and fittings shall
have adequate mechanical strength
and temperature resistance in accordance with EN 61386-1 to at least
Class 1131. Pipes which are not classified by the manufacturer of the detector shall either be tested, as part of the
approval, or be supported by evidence
that the requirements of this standard
are met.
to detect leakage or obstruction of the
sampling device or pipework sampling
point(s). This time is additional to any
delay between signalling the fault and
its indication at the control panel and is
to allow for spurious short term flow variations which would otherwise cause
unwanted fault signals.
The power for the aspirating detector
shall be supplied by a separate power
supply complying with EN 54-4 which
may be within the main control and indicating equipment.
Aspirating Smoke Detector systems
are classified based upon the sensitivity setting as shown in the table below. The method used for determining
the classification is likely to take into
account the sizes and number of sampling points, their position along the
sampling device/pipe, the sensitivity of
the detector and the sampling device/
pipework arrangement and its length.
An airflow fault signal will be generated, within 300secs, when the flow is
outside the manufacturer’s operational
limits. The airflow shall be monitored
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
aspirating smoke detectors
Classification table for aspirating smoke detectors
Class
Description
Example application(s)
A
Aspirating smoke detector
providing very high sensitivity
Very early detection: the
detection of very dilute
smoke for example entering
air conditioning ducts to
detect the extremely dilute
concentrations of smoke
that might emanate from
equipment in the environmentally controlled area
such as a clean room.
B
Aspirating smoke detector
providing enhanced
sensitivity
Early detection: for example
special fire detection within
or close to particularly
valuable, vulnerable or critical items such as computer
or electronic equipment
cabinets.
C
Aspirating smoke detector
providing normal sensitivity
Standard detection: general
fire detection in normal
rooms or spaces, giving, for
example, at least an equivalent level of detection as a
point or beam type smoke
detection system.
The detectors shall be tested according to the test schedule in the following table.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 211
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
aspirating smoke detectors
Test schedule
Test
Clause
Repeatability
6.2
Reproducibility
6.3
Variation of supply voltage
6.4
Dry heat (operational)
6.5
Cold (operational)
6.6
Damp heat, Steady State (operational)
6.7
Damp heat, Steady State (endurance)
6.8
SO2 corrosion (endurance)
6.9
Shock (operational)
6.10
Impact (operational)
6.11
Vibration (operational)
6.12
Vibration (endurance)
6.13
Electromagnetic compatibility, Immunity tests
6.14
Fire sensitivity
6.15
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
aspirating smoke detectors
Fire test requirements for multi-class detectors
Detector Class
Combination of
configurations
Configuration
to be used
Test fires to be applied
(see Annexes B to H)
A only
Config A
Config A
TF2A, TF3A, TF4, TF5A
B only
Config B
Config B
TF2B, TF3B, TF4, TF5B
B only
Config C
Config C
TF2, TF3, TF4, TF5
B and C
Config B = Config C
Config B/C
TF2B, TF3B, TF4, TF5B
B and C
Config B ≠ Config C
Config B
Config C
TF2B, TF3B, TF5B
TF2, TF3, TF4, TF5
A, B and C
Config A = Config B = Config C
Config A/B/C
TF2A, TF3A, TF4, TF5A
A, B and C
Config A = Config B ≠ Config C
Config A/B
Config C
TF2A, TF3A, TF4, TF5A
TF2, TF3, TF4, TF5
A, B and C
Config A ≠ Config B = Config C
Config A
Config B/C
TF2A, TF3A, TF5A
TF2B, TF3B, TF4, TF5B
A, B and C
Config A ≠ Config B ≠ Config C
Config A
Config B
Config C
TF2A, TF3A, TF5A
TF2B, TF3B, TF5B
TF2, TF3, TF4, TF5
“Config A” means the worst case configuration for the Class A testing;
“Config B” means the worst case configuration for the Class B testing;
“Config C” means the worst case configuration for the Class C testing;
“=” means that configurations are the same (e.g. Config A = Config B means that the same
configuration is used for the Class A testing as for the Class B testing);
“≠” means that configurations are different (e.g. Config B ≠ Config C means that a different
configuration is used for the Class B testing than for the Class C testing).
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 213
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
aspirating smoke detectors
Annex to EN54-20
Annex A – Response threshold values
Annex B – Test Fire TF2
Annex C - Test Fire TF2A and B
Annex C - Test Fire TF2A and B
Annex D - Test Fire TF3
Annex E - Test Fire TF3A and B
Annex F - Test Fire TF4
Annex G - Test Fire TF5
Annex H - Test Fire TF5A and B
Annex I – Fire test room
Annex J – Slow developing Fires
Annex K – Air Flow test
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 21 alarm transmission and fault warning
routing equipment
Scope
This Standard specifies the requirements, test methods and performance
criteria for fire alarm and fault routing
transmission equipment for use with
fire detection and fire alarm systems.
If functions other than those specified
in this Standard are provided, they
shall not jeopardize the functionality
required for compliance. Transmission
equipment can be type 1 where a dedicated alarm path exists and type 2 for a
digital communicator using the public
switched telephone network, both in
accordance with EN50136-1-1.
Requirements
The alarm transmission routing equipment shall be capable of receiving fire
alarm signals from the Control and indicator panel and faults from the transmission network which together with
acknowledgements from the alarm receiving centre will be transmitted to the
control and indicator panel. It shall also
be capable of transmitting fire alarm
signals to the alarm receiving centre.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
The fault warning routing equipment
shall be capable of receiving fault warning signal from the control and indicator panel and from the transmission
network and transmitting faults to both
the control and indicator panel and the
alarm receiving centre.
Indication of signals shall be provided at
the transmission equipment, via led’s,
or at the control and indicator equipment for both the received acknowledgement signal from the alarm receiving
centre as defined in EN 50136-2-1 and
at least one common fault warning be
used to indicate the following:
1) if the acknowledgement signal is
not received at the routing equipment
within 100 s for type 1 and 240 s for
type 2 of the initiation of the transmitted fire alarm.
2) a failure within the routing equipment (e.g. power supply failure).
3) a failure within the alarm transmission network.
page 215
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
alarm transmission and fault warning routing equipment
4) where the routing equipment and
the fire alarm control panel are in separate enclosures and where a fault
exists on the interconnection path, a
fault signal shall be indicated locally
and transmitted to the alarm receiving
centre.
The routing equipment enclosure shall
be of robust construction, consistent
with the recommended installation
method and shall be a minimum of
IP30 of EN 60529.
All light emitting indicators shall be
clearly labelled with the information
being legible at 0, 8 m distance in an
ambient light intensity from 100 lux
to 500 lux. If flashing indications are
used, the on off-periods shall be a minimum of 0, 25 s and the flash frequency not less than 0, 2 Hz for fault indications. The light-emitting indicators
shall be yellow for fault and red for the
indication of the acknowledgement. All
terminals and fuses shall be clearly labelled.
If the processing and transmission of
fire and fault signals is achieved in se-
parate equipment then both can operate simultaneously. If the signals are
combined in a single piece of equipment then the fire signal shall take priority. A fault in any transmission path
between the routing equipment and
the transmission network (as defined
in EN 50136-1-1) shall not affect the
routing equipment or any other transmission path.
The power supply for the transmission
equipment shall be in accordance with
EN54-4. If the power supply is within
a separate enclosure then duplicate
paths will be arranged so that failure
in one does not isolate the transmission equipment. The change over from
the primary to standby power supply
shall not affect any indications other
than those specifically associated with
power supplies. Any provision for disconnecting or adjusting the power
supply to the equipment will not be readily accessible, without the required
access.
Access shall be provided on the routing
equipment, from level 1 (most acces-
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
alarm transmission and fault warning routing equipment
sible) to level 4 (least accessible). Manual controls and other functions shall
be grouped on the appropriate access
level, as specified in EN 54-2.
Environmental tests
Test
Clause number
Cold
10.4
Damp heat, steady state, (operational)
10.5
Impact
10.6
Vibration, sinusoidal, (operational)
10.7
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
immunity tests
10.8
Supply voltage variations
10.9
Damp heat, steady state, (endurance)
10.10
Vibration, sinusoidal, (endurance)
10.11
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 217
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
alarm transmission and fault warning routing equipment
Annex to EN54-21
Annex A – Performance requirements
for type 1 and 2 systems
Annex B – Verification of performance
requirements
Annex C – Design requirements for
software
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 23 fire alarm devices – visual alarm devices
Introduction
This Standard specifies the requirements, test methods and performance
criteria for visual alarm devices in a fire
detection and alarm system which are
intended to signal a warning of a fire.
It applies only to pulsing or flashing visual alarm devices, such as xenon or
rotating beacons.
In order to comply devices shall meet
the requirements of Clause 4, which
shall be verified by visual inspection
or engineering assessment and shall
be successfully tested as described in
Clause 5.
Requirements
The purpose of a visual fire alarm device is to warn persons within, or close
to a building of the outbreak of a fire.
This Standard allows manufacturers to
specify devices in terms of the range at
which the required illumination is met.
Three categories are defined; for ceiling
and wall mounted devices and an open
category. The maximum range of the
section two fire detection and alarm systems
visual alarm device is tested by measuring its light output in the surrounding
hemisphere. As the light output can
vary over time a test is made to check
that any variation is acceptable. This
Standard gives common requirements
for the construction as well as for their
performance under varying conditions
Devices are classified as Type A, indoor
and Type B, outdoor. The degree of protection provided by the enclosure shall
be IP21 for Type A and IP33 for type B,
in accordance with EN 60529.
The device shall be rated for a minimum of 100 hours which will not affect
its ability to cycle on and off as required
as part of the compliance testing. This
requirement does not apply to the capacity of any integral batteries used
as a means of providing local standby
power. The capacity and charging requirements of such batteries should
meet the requirement of the system.
Access to the device shall be restricted
by the use of special screws or tools
and it should not be possible to change the manufacturer’s settings without
page 219
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices – visual alarm devices
use of the same or by breaking a seal.
If on site adjustment of the device
settings is provided, then the factory
setting, which complies with this standard, should be clearly displayed for
each. Any settings which are not compliant with this standard shall only be
accessible by the same means and it
should be clearly displayed, either on
the device or in data format that the
device does not comply with this standard. The adjustments may be carried
out either at the device or via the control and indicator equipment.
Visual alarm devices shall meet the requirement for coverage as either a ‘C’,
ceiling mounted, or ‘W’, wall mounted,
or ‘O’, open class device.
Category C devices shall be further specified as C-x-y where: x is either 3, 6 or 9
and is the maximum ceiling mounting
height in metres and y is the diameter,
in metres, of the coverage. e.g. C-3-12
would represent a 12 metre diameter
coverage when mounted at 3 metres
Category W devices shall be further
specified as W-x-y where x is the maxi-
mum wall mounting height in metres,
with a minimum value of 2.4 m; and y
is the width of a square room, in metres
covered by the device. e.g. W-2,4-6 represents a device mounted at a height
of 2.4m in a room measuring 6mx6m.
For category O devices the coverage
volume in which the required illumination is achieved shall be specified.
The visual alarm device shall produce
either red or white light of at least 1
candela for 70 % of all measurement
points and shall not exceed 500 cd
for any measurement points. The flash
rate shall be between 0.5 and 2 Hz
measured at 10 % of the peak values of
consecutive leading edges of the first
pulse of each flash. The maximum on
time, measured between the leading
and trailing edge shall not exceed 0.2 s.
The light temporal pattern and frequency of flashing may vary in different countries and therefore reference needs to
be made to local regulations.
Flashing lights may require synchronization to prevent the possibility of
a flash frequency/temporal pattern;
that could adversely affect some occu-
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices – visual alarm devices
pants inducing epileptic fits when multiple devices are within a field of view.
In such cases, devices shall meet the
requirements of the test described in
5.3.7.
Technical data regarding both installation and maintenance should be provided with each device or in supporting
documentation.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 221
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices – visual alarm devices
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test c
Clause
Reproducibility
5.1.7
Duration of operation
5.2.1
Enclosure protection
5.2.4
Coverage volume
5.3.1
Variation of light output
5.3.2
Synchronization
(option with requirements)
5.3.7
Dry heat (operational)
5.4.1.1
Dry heat (endurance)
5.4.1.2
Cold (operational)
5.4.1.3
Damp heat, cyclic (operational)
5.4.2.1
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.4.2.2
Damp heat, cyclic (endurance)
5.4.2.3
Shock (operational)
5.4.3.1
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices – visual alarm devices
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test c
Clause
Impact (operational)
5.4.3.2
Vibration (operational)
5.4.3.3
Vibration (endurance)
5.4.3.4
SO2 corrosion (endurance)
5.4.4
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC),
immunity (operational):
• Electrostatic discharge
• Radiated electromagnetic fields
• Conducted disturbances induced by
electromagnetic fields
• Voltage transients fast transient
bursts
• Voltage transients slow high energy
voltage surge
5.4.5b
The EMC tests specified in 5.4.5 are not required for devices which do not rely on active
b
electronic components for their operation.
The tests on an individual specimen may be carried out in any order except that the reproduc
cibility test (5.1.7) shall be performed first on all specimens and the tests on specimen 2 shall
be carried out in the order listed, except for the enclosure protection test, 5.2.4, which shall be
conducted last.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
fire detection and alarm systems section two
page 223
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fire alarm devices – visual alarm devices
Annexes to EN54-23
Annex A – Measuring light distribution
Annex B – Comparative light output
measurement
Annex C – Light test chamber
Annex D – Flammability test requirements
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 24 components of voice alarm systems - loudspeakers
Introduction
Requirements
This Standard specifies the requirements, test methods and performance
criteria for voice alarm loudspeakers for
use with fire detection and fire alarm
systems .For compliance, voice alarm
loudspeakers shall be verified by visual
inspection or engineering assessment
and shall be successfully tested as described in Clause 5.
This standard recognizes that the performance of voice alarm loudspeakers
will vary according to the nature of the
space into which they are installed. It
therefore specifies the minimum requirements and a common method for
testing their operational performance
against parameters specified by the
manufacturer.
The purpose of a voice alarm loudspeaker is to provide intelligible warning
to person(s) of a fire, whilst at the same
time advising appropriate methods of
evacuation. Providing such information
speeds up a person’s response time
to an incident, removes uncertainty,
allowing evacuation times to be reduced. Voice alarm loudspeakers need
to achieve a minimum acoustical performance, as well as constructional
and environmental requirements, to be
suitable for use in fire detection and fire
alarm systems.
As the types of loudspeaker included
are electromechanical devices without
sensitive electronics, electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC) tests are excluded.
Loudspeakers are suitable for either indoor, type A or outdoor, type B, applications as specified. Type B loudspeakers
can be beneficial in some indoor situations where high temperature and/or
humidity are present. For type A the
degree of protection required is to IP21
and for type B, IP33 of EN 60529.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
Loudspeakers suitable for special applications or hazardous areas are not covered by this standard.
page 225
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
components of voice alarm systems - loudspeakers
The voice alarm loudspeaker shall be
rated for a minimum of 100 hours operation at the rated noise power specified by the manufacturer. Access to the
device will be limited and require special tools, codes, or be restricted by the
use of hidden screws or seals.
Voice alarm loudspeakers shall be
clearly marked and in addition to the
standard data, detailed in the overview
shall contain information relative to the
rated noise voltage for transformercoupled loudspeakers; the rated impedance for direct-coupled loudspeakers;
the rated noise power at the highest
power setting; and the various power
settings (e.g. transformer tapping options for transformer-coupled loudspeakers).
Some loudspeakers are a combination
of one or more housings together with
a termination box and an interconnecting cable. The housing(s), cable(s) and
terminal box should be considered to
be ‘the loudspeaker’ for the purposes
of this Standard. Examples include:
pendant types and
those with adjustable orientation such
as horn or column loudspeakers and
loudspeaker arrays.
The maximum sound pressure level
is expressed in dB and measured at a
distance of 4 metres from the reference point on the reference axis over a
period of at least 30s. The loudspeaker
shall be deemed to conform to the rated sound pressure test if the sound
pressure level is greater or equal to the
value specified by the manufacturer.
The loudspeakers shall be constructed
using materials capable of withstanding the tests detailed in clause 5.
Plastic materials shall conform to
EN60695-11-10 when operating on a
voltage ≤ 30V RMS or 42.4 V dc with
less than 15 watts of power, or, EN
60695-11-20 when operating on a voltage ≥ 30V RMS or 42.4 V dc with less
than 15 watts of power.
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
components of voice alarm systems - loudspeakers
Table 1 — Schedule of tests
Test c
Subclause
Reproducibility
(frequency response / sensitivity)
5.2
Rated impedance
5.3
Horizontal and vertical coverage
angles
5.4
Maximum sound pressure level
5.5
Rated noise power (durability)
5.6
Dry heat (operational)
5.7
Dry heat (endurance)
5.8
Cold (operational)
5.9
Damp heat, cyclic (operational)
5.10
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.11
Damp heat, cyclic (endurance)
5.12
SO2 corrosion (endurance)
5.13
Shock (operational)
5.14
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 227
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
components of voice alarm systems - loudspeakers
Table 1 — Schedule of tests
Test c
Subclause
Impact (operational)
5.15
Vibration, sinusoidal (operational)
5.16
Vibration, sinusoidal (endurance)
5.17 7
5.17
Enclosure protection
5.18
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
components of voice alarm systems - loudspeakers
Annexes to EN54-24
Annex A – Acoustical Measurements
Annex B – Rated noise power
Annex C – Physical references
Annex ZA; deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 229
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 25 components using radio links
Introduction
Scope
The purpose of this Standard is to define additional requirements to other
parts of EN 54 that allow compliant
radio fire detection systems and components to be at least as efficient and
stable as approved wired fire detection
systems. Systems and components
are covered because it is difficult to
describe the components separately.
Limitations with respect to the use of
radio components may be specified in
national technical rules or guidelines
and consideration should be given to
the frequencies, bands and channels
used by radio based systems. The requirements in this standard shall apply
together with those in other parts of
EN54 where the component has the
same function as that covered in the
other standard, and when not specifically covered in this standard. e.g. A
heat detector installed on a wireless
system will comply with EN54-5
This Standard specifies the requirements, test methods and performance criteria for both systems and components used in fire alarms systems
which use radio frequency links to
communicate. Compliance with this
standard requires the components to
meet these requirements which shall
be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment, and successfully
tested as described in Clause 8.
Where combined wired and radio
systems are used the relevant part of
EN54 together with this standard will
both apply. The requirements for wired
systems are superseded or modified by
this standard. This document does not
cover those issues which relate to national regulations which may vary from
country to country, and which may
include frequencies, power and limitations of losses on circuits or radio links.
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
components using radio links
Requirements
The manufacturer shall provide a safeguard to ensure any attenuation, which
may be caused by differing influences
on site, does not affect the radio link in
such a way as to prevent communication between components. The limits
will be at least 10dB for frequencies
up to 10MHz and as defined in Annex
B for frequencies greater than 10MHz.
The system shall use a secure transmission protocol which ensures that signals are not lost. Each component will
be marked individually as an indication
that they belong to the same system
and components belonging to different
systems should not be compatible.
The system should demonstrate immunity to its own radio influences and
others on the spectrum. Those produced as a result of electromagnetic
affects are covered by those guidelines
in EN50130-4. Influences as a result of
a direct attack is not covered or required in the EN54 standards. Where two
or similar systems from the same manufacturer are operating within range it
section two fire detection and alarm systems
shall be ensured that they do not affect
each other. The manufacturer shall
also ensure that signal transmission is
possible, without causing interference,
even if other users are working in the
same band. Interference to a single
receiver shall not cause alarm or fault
messages at the control equipment. If
any radio linked component is unable
to transmit a message to the CIE within
EN 54-2 defined periods it shall be indicated in less than 100 s.
Power supplied to the components
shall be via a primary battery or an external power supply unit complying
with EN54-4. Components powered by
the independent power source shall be
contained within the same enclosure.
The battery shall have a minimum life
of 3 years. The system requirements
shall not cause the battery to discharge
below 85% by end of life. The remaining 15 % of the rated capacity takes
account of self-discharge of the power
source.
All components powered from the
independent power source shall be
page 231
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
components using radio links
capable of transmitting a fault signal
(low power) before the power source
fails whilst still functioning.
Annexes to EN54-25
Annex A – Radio frequency shielded
test
Annex B – Immunity to attenuation
Annex C - Autonomous power supply
Annex ZA; deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 26 carbon monoxide detectors - point detectors
Scope
The standard specifies the requirements, test methods and performance
criteria for point type carbon monoxide
fire detectors for use in fire detection
and fire alarm systems. This standard
applies only to those detectors sensing
CO and not those combining other elements, sensing different fire phenomena. The tests are designed for standard
detectors and do not cover those which
might be construed as special, incorporating non-standard features.
Requirements
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of
the incomplete combustion of carbonbased materials. CO fire detectors can
provide a faster response than other
types because CO is dispersed by convection and diffusion. CO fire detectors
might also be less prone to unwanted
alarms than other fire detection techniques due to the absence of CO in most
dusts and vapors.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
The objective of this standard is to prove that the sensitivity and reliability fall
within acceptable parameters and that
such a detector is suitable for use in systems protecting life and/or property.
CO detectors may not be suitable for
the early detection of certain classes of
fires, typically electrical fires and those
likely to flame rather than smoulder. It
is recommended that a risk assessment
is carried out to ensure the suitability of
CO detectors as they should not be considered a direct replacement for smoke
detectors, either optical or ionisation.
CO sensing techniques may vary but
may be affected by other gases and
phenomena. The test schedule for
such detectors therefore includes an
assessment of their ability to ignore
substances that may co-exist in the detectors environment.
CO detectors are beneficial in detecting smouldering fires and therefore
the test schedule include test fires TF2
and 3, (EN54-7) only. Both tests have
added criterion to enhance their suitability for this type of detector.
page 233
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
carbon monoxide detectors - point detectors
Compliance for the detector to meet
the requirements of this standard shall
be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment, or tested as described in clause 5.
Individual alarm indication shall be
provided via a red visual indicator
which shall be extinguished when the
detector is reset. Where conditions
other than fire are indicated these shall
be clearly distinguishable other than
when the detector is in service mode.
For detachable detectors the indicator
may be in the head or the base and
should be visible at a distance of 6
metres directly below the detector in
ambient light levels of up to 500 lux.
Where there is a connection to remote
indicators,control relays etc., failures of
these connections shall not prevent the
correct operation of the detector.
Monitoring of detachable detectors
shall be provided by which removal
of the detector from its base without
some form of indication is not possible.
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password,special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal.If on
site adjustment of the detectors response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this
standard, should be clearly displayed
for each detector and should only be
accessible to change with a password
or special tool or by the removal of the
detector from its base. Any settings
which are not compliant with this standard shall only be accessible by the
same means and it should be clearly
displayed, either on the detector or in
data format,that if these are used the
detector does not comply with this
standard. The adjustments may be carried out either at the detector or via the
control and indicator equipment.
The response of the detector may depend upon the rate of change of CO in
the vicinity. Any form of compensation
allowing the detector to discriminate
between normal CO levels and those
indicative of a fire, shall not significantly
reduce the detectors ability to detect
fire nor make it more susceptible to
unwanted alarms.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
carbon monoxide detectors - point detectors
The provision of “drift compensation”
to counter the effects of ageing of the
detector shall not significantly reduce the detector’s sensitivity to slowly
developing fires. To verify this, an assessment of the detector’s response to
slowly developing fires shall be made
as specified in 5.2.3.
The detector will demonstrate its stability after a number of alarm conditions
as specified in clause 5.2.5. Multiple
detectors shall demonstrate similar
degrees of sensitivity, as specified in
5.2.6.
Those detectors whose performance
is tied to software shall conform to the
requirements of 4.3.5.2, 3 and 4.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 235
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
carbon monoxide detectors - point detectors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Repeatability
5.2.4
Directional dependance
5.2.5
Reproducibility
5.2.6
Air movement
5.2.7
Long term stability
5.3.6
Variations in supply parameters
5.4.1
Dry heat (operational)
5.6.1.1
Dry heat (endurance)
5.6.1.2
Cold (Operational)
5.6.1.3
Damp heat,cyclic (operational)
5.6.2.1
Damp heat, steady state (operational)
5.6.2.2
Damp heat, steady state (endurance)
5.6.2.3
Low humidity, steady state(operational)
5.6.2.4
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
carbon monoxide detectors - point detectors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Sulphur dioxide SO2corrosion(endurance)
5.6.3
Shock (operational)
5.6.4.1
Impact (operational)
5.6.4.2
Vibration, sinusoidal(operational)
5.6.4.3
EMC, immunity tests (operational)
5.6.5.1a
- Electrostatic discharge
- Radiated electromagnetic fields
- Conducted disturbances induced by electromagnetic
fields
- Fast transient bursts
- Slow high energy voltage surge
Exposure to high levels of carbon monoxide
5.6.6.1
Exposure to chemical agents at environmental
concentrations
5.6.6.2
Fire sensitivity
5.5.1
In the interests of test economy , it is permitted to use the same specimen for more than 1 EMC test. In
that case intermediate functional test(s) on the specimen(s) used for more than one test can be deleted
and the functional test conducted at the end of the sequence of tests. However it should be noted that
in the event of a failure, it may not be possible to identify which test exposure caused the failure. (see EN
50130-4:2011,clause 4).
a)
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 237
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
carbon monoxide detectors - point detectors
Annexe to EN54-26
Annexe A - Gas Test Chamber spec
Annexe B - CO and Smoke measuring
instruments
Annexe C - Fire Test room
Annexe D - Establishing exposure level
of chemical agents
Annexe E - Smouldering (pyrolysis)
wood fire test (TF2)
Annexe F - Glowing smouldering cotton fire test (TF3)
Annexe G - Construction of Gas test
chamber
Annexe H - Apparatus for impact test
Annexe ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect
of their compliance with the mandate
of the EU Construction product Regulation
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 29 multi sensor fire detectors - point detectors using
both smoke and heat detection
Scope
Requirements
Multi-sensor fire detectors combining
both smoke, (optical or ionisation) detection and heat detection technology
and in compliance with this document
are classed as general purpose fire detectors. Such detectors can detect both
a wider range of fire types whilst being
less prone to generating unwanted
alarms. For multisensor type devices,
additional environmental tests are carried out in order to demonstrate increased stability. Special detectors for
special applications are not covered by
this standard.It should be noted that in
certain countries the use of ionisation
detectors is banned due to their being
a radioactive source present.
Compliance for the detector to meet
the requirements of clause 4 of this
standard shall be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment, or
tested as described in clause 5.
Individual alarm indication shall be
provided via a red visual indicator
which shall be extinguished when the
detector is reset. Where conditions
other than fire are indicated these shall
be clearly distinguishable other than
when the detector is in service mode.
For detachable detectors the indicator
may be in the head or the base and
should be visible at a distance of 6
metres directly below the detector in
ambient light levels of up to 500 lux.
Fire tests include TF1, 2, 5 and 8 in order for the detector to demonstrate its
response to the wider range of fires.
The detection channels do not individually need to satisfy the requirements
of the relevant heat and smoke detection standards, in addition to meeting
the requirements of this standard.
Where there is a connection to remote
indicators,control relays etc., failures of
these connections shall not prevent the
correct operation of the detector.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
Monitoring of detachable detectors
shall be provided by which removal
of the detector from its base without
some form of indication is not possible.
page 239
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi sensor fire detectors - point detectors using both
smoke and heat detection
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password,special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal.If on
site adjustment of the detectors response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this
standard, should be clearly displayed
for each detector and should only be
accessible to change with a password
or special tool or by the removal of the
detector from its base. Any settings
which are not compliant with this standard shall only be accessible by the
same means and it should be clearly
displayed, either on the detector or in
data format, that if used the detector
does not comply with this standard.
The adjustments may be carried out
either at the detector or via the control
and indicator equipment.
slowly developing fires shall be made as
specified in 5.2.2.
The provision of “drift compensation”
to counter the effects of contamination
of the detector shall not significantly reduce the detector’s sensitivity to slowly
developing fires. To verify this, an assessment of the detector’s response to
Those detectors whose performance
is tied to software shall conform to the
requirements of 4.3.6.2, 3 and 4.
The detector will demonstrate its stability after a number of alarm conditions as
specified in clause 5.2.3.The sensitivity
of the detector to both heat and smoke
shall not be unduly dependent upon airflow and in this respect will be assessed
in accordance with 5.2.4 and 5.
The heat detectors sensitivity in isolation shall not exceed that stated in
EN54-5-2000, with amendments,
which shall be assessed as detailed
in 5.2.6. Detectors used for testing
shall demonstrate similar sensitivities,
(5.2.7/8) and optical type smoke detectors will not be affected when in
close proximity to artificial light as assessed in 5.2.9.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi sensor fire detectors - point detectors using both
smoke and heat detection
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Repeatability of smoke response
5.2.3
Directional dependance of smoke response
5.2.4
Directional dependance of heat response
5.2.5
Lower limit of heat sensitivity
5.2.6
Reproducibility of smoke response
5.2.7
Reproducibility of heat response
5.2.8
Air movement
5.2.9
Dazzling
5.4.1
Fire sensitivity
5.5.1
Dry heat (operational)
5.6.1.1
Cold (operational)
5.6.1.2
Damp heat cyclic (operational)
5.6.2.1
Damp heat steady (endurance)
5.6.2.2
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 241
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi sensor fire detectors - point detectors using both
smoke and heat detection
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Shock (operational)
5.6.3.1
Impact (operational)
5.6.3.2
Vibration , sinusoidal (operational)
5.6.3.3
Vibration , sinusoidal (endurance)
5.6.3.4
Electrostatic discharge (operational)
5.6.4.1a
Radiated magnetic fields (operational)
Conducted disturbances induced by electromagnetic
fields (operational)
Fast transient bursts (operational)
Slow high energy voltage surge (operational)
Sulphur dioxide SO2corrosion (endurance)
5.6.5.1
a In the interests of test economy , it is permitted to use the same specimen for more than 1 EMC test.In
that case intermediate functional test(s) on the specimen(s) used for more than one test can be deleted and
the functional test conducted at the end of the sequence of tests. However it should be noted that in the
event of a failure, it may not be possible to identify which test exposure caused the failure. (see EN 501304:2011, clause 4).
a)
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi sensor fire detectors - point detectors using both
smoke and heat detection
Annexe to EN54-29
Annexe A - Smoke tunnel specification
Annexe B - Test Aerosol for smoke detector response
Annexe C - Smoke measuring instruments
Annexe D - Heat tunnel specification
Annexe E - Apparatus for Dazzling test
Annexe F - Apparatus for impact test
Annexe G - Fire test room
Annexe H Open wood fire (TF1)
Annexe I - Smouldering (pyrolysis)
wood fire (TF2)
Annexe J - Glowing smouldering cotton fire (TF3)
Annexe K - Open plastic(polyurethane)
fire (TF4)
Annexe L - Liquid (heptane) fire (TF5)
Annexe M - Low temperature black
smoke(declane) liquid fire (TF8)
Annexe N - Construction of the smoke
tunnel
Annexe O - Construction of the heat
tunnel
Annexe P - Test procedures and requirements for the response to slow developing fires
Annexe Q - Construction and measurement of ionisation chamber
section two fire detection and alarm systems
Annexe ZA - deals with the clauses
of the standard in respect of their
compliance with the mandate of
the EU Construction product Regulation
page 243
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 30 multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors
using a combination of carbon monoxide and
heat sensors
Scope
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of
the incomplete combustion of carbonbased materials. CO fire detectors can
provide a faster response than other
types because CO is dispersed by convection and diffusion. CO fire detectors
might also be less prone to unwanted
alarms than other fire detection techniques due to the absence of CO in most
dusts and vapors.
Multi-sensor fire detectors combining
both carbon monoxide and heat detection technologies and in compliance
with this document are classed as general purpose fire detectors. Such detectors can detect both a wider range
of fire types whilst being less prone to
generating unwanted alarms.
Detectors incorporating CO and heat
detection technologies will be more
responsive to fires producing flame/
heat and less CO than that required to
activate a CO detector, as the two detection channels combine,effectively
increasing the sensitivity of the CO
channel.
For multisensor type devices, additional environmental tests are carried
out in order to demonstrate increased
stability. Special detectors for special
applications are not covered by this
standard.
Fire tests include TF1, 2, 5 and 8 in order for the detector to demonstrate its
response to the wider range of fires.
The detection channels do not individually need to satisfy the requirements
of the relevant heat and smoke detection standards, in addition to meeting
the requirements of this
standard.
Requirements
Compliance for the detector to meet
the requirements of clause 4 of this
standard shall be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment, or
tested as described in clause 5.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Individual alarm indication shall be provided via a red visual indicator which
shall be extinguished when the detector is reset. Where conditions other
than fire are indicated these shall be
clearly distinguishable other than when
the detector is in service mode. For detachable detectors the indicator may
be in the head or the base and should
be visible at a distance of 6 metres directly below the detector in ambient
light levels of up to 500 lux. Where there is a connection to remote indicators,
control relays etc., failures of these connections shall not prevent the correct
operation of the detector.
Monitoring of detachable detectors
shall be provided by which removal
of the detector from its base without
some form of indication is not possible.
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password, special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal. If on
site adjustment of the detectors response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this
standard, should be clearly displayed
section two fire detection and alarm systems
for each detector and should only be
accessible to change with a password
or special tool or by the removal of the
detector from its base. Any settings
which are not compliant with this standard shall only be accessible by the
same means and it should be clearly
displayed, either on the detector or in
data format, that if used the detector
does not comply with this standard.
The adjustments may be carried out
either at the detector or via the control
and indicator equipment.
The provision of “drift compensation”
to counter the effects of contamination
of the detector shall not significantly reduce the detector’s sensitivity to slowly
developing fires. To verify this, an assessment of the detector’s response to
slowly developing fires shall be made
as specified in 5.2.3.
The detector will demonstrate its stability after a number of alarm conditions
as specified in clause 5.2.4. The sensitivity of the detector to both heat and CO
shall not be unduly dependent upon
airflow and in this respect will be asses-
page 245
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
sed in accordance with 5.2.5 and 6.
The heat detectors sensitivity in isolation shall not exceed that stated in
EN54-5,which shall be assessed as detailed in 5.2.7.
Those detectors whose performance
is tied to software shall conform to the
requirements of
4.3.6.2,3and 4.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Repeatability of CO response
5.2.4
Direction dependance of CO response
5.2.5
Direction dependance of heat response
5.2.6
Lower limit of heat response
5.2.7
Reproducibility of CO response
5.2.8
Reproducibility of heat response
5.2.9
Air movement
5.2.10
Long term stability (operational)
5.3.6
Tolerance to supply voltage , variations in supply
parameters
5.4
Dry heat (operational)
5.6.1.1
Dry heat (endurance)
5.6.1.2
Cold (operational)
5.6.1.3
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 247
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Damp heat cyclic (operational)
5.6.2.1
Damp heat steady-state (operational)
5.6.2.2.
Damp heat steady-state (endurance)
5.6.2.3
Low humidity steady state (operational)
5.6.2.4
Shock (operational)
5.6.4.1
Impact (operational)
5.6.4.2
Vibration, sinusoidal (operational)
5.6.4.3
Vibration, sinusoidal (endurance)
5.6.4.4
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) , immunity tests
(operational)
5.6.5a
Radiated electro magnetic fields (operational)
Conducted disturbances induced by electromagnetic
fields (operational)
Fast transient bursts (operational)
Slow high energy voltage surge (operational)
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Sulphur dioxide SO2 corrosion (endurance)
5.6.3
Exposure to high levels of carbon monoxide
5.6.6.1
Exposure to chemical agents at environmental
concentrations
5.6.6.2
Fire sensitivity
5.5.3a
In the interests of test economy, it is permitted to use the same specimen for more than one EMC test. In
that case , intermediate functional test on the specimens used for more than one test can be deleted, and
the functional test conducted at the end of the sequence of tests. However it should be noted that in the
event of a failure , it may not be possible to identify which test exposure caused the failure.(see
EN 50130-4:2011, clause 4).
a)
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 249
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Annexe to EN54-30
Annexe A - Gas chamber specification
Annexe B - Fire Test Room
Annexe C - CO measuring instrument
Annexe D - concentration of chemical
agent for test gases
Annexe E - Heat tunnel specification
Annexe F - Smouldering (pyrolysis)
wood fire (TF2)
Annexe G - Glowing smouldering cotton fire (TF3)
Annexe H - Open plastics (polyurethane) fire (TF4)
Annexe I - Liquid (heptane) fire (TF5)
Annexe J - Construction of gas test
chamber
Annexe K - Construction of the heat
tunnel
Annexe L - Impact test apparatus
Annexe ZA -deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
Construction product Regulation
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
part 31: multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a combination of smoke, carbon monoxide and
heat sensors
Scope
Multi-sensor fire detectors combining
smoke, carbon monoxide and heat detection technologies and in compliance with this document are classed as
general purpose fire detectors. Such
detectors can detect both a wider range of fire types whilst being less prone
to generating unwanted alarms.
Detectors are categorised as M/N
(without heat sensor) and MT/NT (with
heat sensor).These are introduced in
order to distinguish between different
detector behavior and to identify detectors or settings including the output of
an optional heat detector.
For multisensor type devices, additional environmental tests are carried
out in order to demonstrate increased
stability. Special detectors for special
applications are not covered by this
standard.
Fire tests include TF1, 2, 5 and 8 in order for the detector to demonstrate its
response to the wider range of fires.
The detection channels do not indivi-
section two fire detection and alarm systems
dually need to satisfy the requirements
of the relevant heat and smoke detection standards, in addition to meeting
the requirements of this
standard.
Requirements
Compliance for the detector to meet
the requirements of this standard shall
be verified by visual inspection or engineering assessment, or tested as described in clause 5. Category M and N
signifies those without a heat sensor
output. Category M are designed not to
alarm in the presence of a single high
channel output whilst those in an N category will. Categories MT and NT signifies detectors which have an output
from a heat channel with the former
being, as an M and the latter as an N in
their response to a single channel high
output.The requirements of 4.8.1 and 2
apply to category M detectors with an
additional category 4.8.3 also applying
to MT detectors. Both category N and
NT are exempt from the requirements
of 4.8.
page 251
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of smoke, carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Individual alarm indication shall be provided via a red visual indicator which
shall be extinguished when the detector is reset. Where conditions other
than fire are indicated these shall be
clearly distinguishable other than when
the detector is in service mode. For detachable detectors the indicator may
be in the head or the base and should
be visible at a distance of 6 metres directly below the detector in ambient
light levels of up to 500 lux. Where there is a connection to remote indicators,
control relays etc., failures of these connections shall not prevent the correct
operation of the detector.
Monitoring of detachable detectors
shall be provided by which removal
of the detector from its base without
some form of indication is not possible.
The manufacturer’s settings should not
be accessible to change without the
need for a password, special tool or by
the breaking or removal of a seal. If on
site adjustment of the detectors response type is provided, then the factory setting, which complies with this
standard, should be clearly displayed
for each detector and should only be
accessible to change with a password
or special tool or by the removal of the
detector from its base. Any settings
which are not compliant with this standard shall only be accessible by the
same means and it should be clearly
displayed, either on the detector or in
data format, that if used the detector
does not comply with this standard.
The adjustments may be carried out
either at the detector or via the control
and indicator equipment.
The provision of “drift compensation”
to counter the effects of contamination
of the detector shall not significantly reduce the detector’s sensitivity to slowly
developing fires. To verify this, an assessment of the detector’s response to
slowly developing fires shall be made
as specified in 5.2.2.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of smoke, carbon monoxide and heat sensors
The detector will demonstrate its stability after a number of alarm conditions
as specified in clause 5.2.4. and 6.
The sensitivity of the detector to both
smoke and CO shall not be unduly dependent upon airflow and in this respect will be assessed in accordance
with 5.2.5 and 7. For category MT and
NT detectors the same conditions shall
apply to the heat channel as specified
in 5.2.8., detectors will not be affected when in close proximity to artificial
light as assessed in 5.2.14.
The heat detectors sensitivity in isolation shall not exceed that stated in
EN54-5-2000, with amendments,
which shall be assessed as detailed in
5.2.9.
Those detectors whose performance
is tied to software shall conform to the
requirements of 4.3.6.2,
3 and 4.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 253
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of smoke, carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Repeatability of smoke response
5.2.4
Directional dependance of smoke response
5.2.5
Repeatability of CO response
5.2.6
Directional dependance of CO response
5.2.7
Directional dependance of heat response
5.2.8a
Lower limit of heat response
5.2.9a
Reproducibility of smoke response
5.2.10
Reproducibility of CO response
5.2.11
Reproducibility of heat response
5.2.12a
Air movement
5.2.13
Dazzling
5.2.14
Long term stability
5.3.7
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of smoke, carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Variations in supply parameters
5.4.1
Fire sensitivity
5.5.1
Dry heat (operational)
5.6.1.1
Dry heat (endurance)
5.6.1.2
Cold (operational)
5.6.1.3
Damp heat cyclic (operational)
5.6.2.1
Damp heat steady state (operational)
5.6.2.2
Damp heat steady state (endurance)
5.6.2.3
Low humidity steady state (operational)
5.6.2.4
Shock (operational)
5.6.3.1
Impact (operational)
5.6.3.2
Vibration , sinusoidal (operational)
5.6.3.3
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 255
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors - point detectors using a
combination of smoke, carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Table 1 — Test schedule
Test
Clause
Vibration , sinusoidal (endurance)
5.6.3.4
Electrostatic discharge (operational)
5.6.4.1
Radiated magnetic fields (operational)
Conducted disturbances induced by electromagnetic
fields (operational)
Fast transient bursts (operational)
Slow high energy voltage surge (operational)
Sulphur dioxide SO2corrosion (endurance)
5.6.5.1
Exposure to high levels of carbon monoxide
5.6.5.2
Exposure to chemical agent at environmental concentrations.
5.6.5.3
Sensitivity to smoke
5.7.1
Sensitivity to carbon monoxide
5.7.2
Sensitivity to heat
5.7.3
In the interests of test economy , it is permitted to use the same specimen for more than 1 EMC test.In that
case intermediate functional test(s) on the specimen(s) used for more than one test can be deleted and the
functional test conducted at the end of the sequence of tests. However it should be noted that in the event
of a failure, it may not be possible to identify which test exposure caused the failure. (see EN 50130-4:2011,
clause 4).
a)
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
multi- sensor fire detectors point detectors using a
combination of carbon monoxide and heat sensors
Annexe to EN54-31
Annexe A - Smoke tunnel for smoke
response values
Annexe B - Test Aerosol for smoke detector response
Annexe C - Gas test chamber
Annexe D - Heat tunnel specification
Annexe E - Apparatus for Dazzling test
Annexe F - Measuring instruments for
CO
Annexe G - Exposure level of chemical
agents
Annexe H - Dazzling test
Annexe I - Impact test equipment
Annexe J - Fire test room
Annexe K Open wood fire (TF1)
Annexe L - Smouldering (pyrolosis)
wood fire (TF2)
Annexe M - Glowing smouldering cotton fire (TF3)
Annexe N - Open plastic(polyurethane)
fire (TF4)
Annexe O - Liquid (heptane) fire (TF5)
Annexe P - Low temperature black
smoke(declane) liquid fire (TF8)
Annexe Q - Construction of the smoke
tunnel
section two fire detection and alarm systems
Annexe R - Construction of the gas test
chamber
Annexe S - Construction of the heat
tunnel
Annexe T - Test procedures and requirements for the response to slow developing fires
Annexe U - Construction and measurement of ionisation chamber
Annexe ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
Construction product Regultion. (in
planning).
page 257
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
Intrinsic safety ‘I’
BS EN 50020
Scope
This European standard was approved by CENELEC whose members are
bound to comply. This gives this standard, with conditions, the status of a
national standard.
The Standard specifies the construction and testing of intrinsically safe circuits, apparatus and associated apparatus for use in potentially explosive
atmospheres. It applies to electrical
apparatus in circuits which are safe
and incapable of causing an explosion.
The standard also applies to apparatus
located outside the potentially hazardous area, or which are protected by
another type of protection listed in EN
50014, where the intrinsic safety of
the circuit may depend upon the apparatus itself.
Where intrinsically safe apparatus is required to be Category 1 G in accordance with EN 50284 it must also comply
with the requirements in this standard.
Where it is required to be Category
M1 equipment in accordance with EN
50303 it must also comply with the requirements of this standard.
Note:The former EN54 standard ceased to have harmonised status under
the ATEX directive and was replaced
by EN 60079-0. (Equipment in Explosive atmospheres). EN 50284 Equipment for use in Group II category 1G
(general) EN50303 Equipment for use
in Group I category M1 (mining)
Requirements
The requirements of this standard
apply to both levels of Intrinsically safe
apparatus protection “ia” and “ib,
unless otherwise stated, and In the determination of the level, failure of components and connections shall be considered in accordance with 7.6.
When the maximum voltage is applied
to the intrinsically safe circuits and
apparatus of level “ia”, it shall not be
capable of causing ignition in normal
operation when up to two countable
and a number of none countable faults,
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
Intrinsic safety ‘I’
which present the most difficult conditions, are present.
When the maximum voltage is applied
to the intrinsically safe circuits and
apparatus of level “ib”, it shall not be
capable of causing ignition in normal
operation when up to one countable
and a number of none countable faults,
which present the most difficult conditions, are present.
(Note: non countable faults are those
in non-conforming components of the
apparatus known as the associated
apparatus; countable faults are those in components which conform to
the constructional requirement of this
standard, known as intrinsically safe
apparatus. The application for ia covers
all zones whereas ib devices are only
approved for use in zone 1 and 2.
Simple apparatus can be defined as
being a passive component such as a
switch, or one where sources of stored
energy are within defined parameters,
for example capacitors, or where components can only generate very low
section two fire detection and alarm systems
levels of energy, which is also within
the defined parameters, for example
photocells. When simple apparatus is
located in the hazardous area, it shall
be temperature classified.
Where simple apparatus is to be located in a Category 1 G or M1, then the
apparatus shall also comply with the requirements of EN 50284 or EN 50303
as applicable.
Temperature classification, (T1-6) defines the maximum surface temperature
of any surface exposed to the atmosphere and ensures it remains below the
ignition temperature.
Intrinsically safe and associated apparatus require an adequate enclosure so
as to secure the method of protection,
which for Group II is IP20 in normally
benign environments and for Group I
is IP 54, in accordance with EN 60529,
(degree of protection provided by enclosures).
page 259
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
Intrinsic safety ‘I’
The maximum current in any insulated
cable shall not exceed that specified by
the manufacturer.
Terminals for intrinsically safe circuits
shall be separated from non-intrinsically safe circuits including where
intrinsic safety can be impaired by
disconnected external wiring coming
into contact with conductors or components. Terminals should be suitably
arranged that components will not be
damaged when connections are made
and where separation is achieved by
distance then the clearance between
terminals shall ensure any bare conducting parts are at least 50mm apart
and unlikely to come into contact, even
if dislodged.
When separation is accomplished by
locating terminals for intrinsically safe
and non-intrinsically safe
circuits in separate enclosures by use
a partition and a single cover, the
partitions separating terminals shall
extend to within 1,5 mm of the enclosure walls, or shall provide a minimum
distance of 50 mm between the bare
conducting parts of the external conductors. Metal partitions shall be earthed and have sufficient strength and
rigidity to prevent any damage during
the connection of field wiring. The clearance between the terminals of separate intrinsically safe circuits is given
in Table 4 of the standard. In addition,
the clearances between the bare conducting parts of connected external
conductors shall be at least 6 mm and
between any conducting parts of external conductors and earthed metal shall
be 3 mm.
Plugs and sockets used for connection
of external intrinsically safe circuits
shall be separate from and non-interchangeable with those for non-intrinsically safe circuits.
Protection shall be provided within intrinsically safe apparatus to prevent the
reversal of the polarity of supplies including within a battery where this could
occur. For this purpose, a single diode
shall be acceptable.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
Intrinsic safety ‘I’
Where a relay coil is connected to an
intrinsically safe circuit, the contacts in
normal operation shall not exceed their
manufacturer’s rating and shall not
switch more than 5 A. or 250 V or100
VA. When the values exceed these but
do not exceed 10 A or 500 VA, the values in Table 4 for the relevant voltage
shall be doubled. For higher values, all
circuits shall be connected to the same
relay only if they are separated by a
suitable earthed metal or insulating barrier. Where a relay has some contacts
in intrinsically safe and others in nonintrinsically safe circuits, the contacts
shall be separated by an insulating or
earthed metal barrier in addition to Table 4. The relay shall be designed such
that a broken or damaged contact cannot impair the integrity of the separation.
Where earthing of enclosures and equipment is required to maintain the type
of protection (ia or ib), the cross-sectional area of any conductors, connectors
and terminals used shall be rated to carry the maximum possible continuous
current under the conditions specified
section two fire detection and alarm systems
in clause 5. Components shall also conform to clause 7.Where a connector
carries a conductor such as an earth
connection on which intrinsic safety
depends, the connector shall incorporate at least three independent connecting elements for “ia” circuits and two
for “ib” circuits and be rated to carry the
maximum possible current.
Where a casting compound is used to
exclude a potentially explosive atmosphere from components and intrinsically safe circuits, it shall conform to
6.4.4, and where used to reduce the
ignition capability of hot components
its profile shall reduce the maximum
surface temperature of the casting
compound to the desired value.
In both normal operation and fault conditions, any remaining components on
which the type of protection depends,
shall not operate at more than twothirds of their rating. These maximum
rated values shall be the normal commercial ratings specified by the manufacturer of the component.
Connectors shall be designed such that
page 261
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
Intrinsic safety ‘I’
interchangeability with others in the
same apparatus is impossible unless it
does not result in an unsafe condition
or the connectors are easily identified.
any connection which may be at earth
potential, the diode type barrier shall
have a connection to earth through a
4mm(min) insulated wire.
Where an explosion could adversely
affect intrinsic safety, the use of cells
and batteries, capable of exploding,
under certain conditions must be confirmed as being safe for use in intrinsically safe and associated apparatus for
both ia and ib applications. They shall
be of a type where leakage onto components is not possible and preferably
should be sealed. Batteries which are
not sealed shall be tested in accordance with 10.9.2
Intrinsically safe and associated apparatus shall be marked in accordance
with EN 50014.
The diodes and resistors within a safety barrier limit the voltage and current
applied to an intrinsically safe circuit.
These assemblies are used as interfaces between intrinsically safe and nonintrinsically safe circuits, and shall be
subjected to the routine test of 11.1.
The requirements of Table 4 shall also
apply except that lines 5, 6 and 7 do
not apply to opto-coupled barriers;
e.g. galvanic isolators. In addition to
For associated apparatus, the symbol
EEx ia or EEx ib shall be enclosed in
square brackets.
Connection facilities including terminal boxes, plugs and sockets shall be
clearly marked and identifiable
and where colour coded, it shall be
light blue.
The documentation required by 23.2 of
EN 50014 shall include the electrical
parameters for the apparatus, power
sources: output data; power receivers:
input data, any special requirements
for installation and use; the maximum
voltage (ac/dc) which may be applied
to non-intrinsically safe circuits or associated apparatus; special conditions
relating to the type of protection, con-
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres
Intrinsic safety ‘I’
formance or otherwise with insulation
values (6.4.12); the designation of the
surfaces of any enclosure where relevant to intrinsic safety and the environment for which the apparatus is suitable.
Appendix to EN50200
Annex A – Assessment of intrinsically
safe circuits
Annex B – Spark test equipment
Annex C – Measurement of creepage,
clearances and separation distances
Annex D – Encapsulation
Annex E – Certification for torches
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 263
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
EN 12094-1, Requirements and test
methods for electrical automatic
control and delay devices
Scope
This Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for electrical
automatic control and delay devices
(device) for use with automatic fire
detection and fire alarm systems and
CO2-, Inert Gas- or Halocarbon Gas-Fire
Extinguishing Systems. The standard
specifies both compulsory and optional functions. Additional functions associated with fire extinguishing can be
provided, but are not covered by this
standard.
Requirements
The electric auto control and delay may
be an independent unit or an integral
part of a control and indicator panel.
If the devices are integral to a control
panel and use the same indication and
controls as that as the fire detection
and alarm system then the requirements for this standard and EN54-2
shall both be fulfilled. The power supply
requirements shall be in accordance
with EN54-4 and there shall be duplicate paths between the two if the power
supply is not integral to the automatic
control and delay device.
The functionality of the device shall be
in accordance with clauses 4, 5, 6 and
9.3 of this standard. Testing is as detailed in section 9.
The device shall be classified for one of
the following based upon the intended
ambient conditions:
Class A: temperature range of - 5 °C to
+ 40 °C;
Class B: temperature range of – 20 °C
to + 50 °C;
Class C: temperature range of - 5 °C
to + 40 °C and corrosive atmosphere
class 3C4 of EN 60721-3-3;
Class D: temperature range of - 20 °C
to + 50 °C and corrosive atmosphere
class 3C4 of EN 60721-3-3.
The device shall receive and process
all the necessary functions associated
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
with the electrical control of the extinguishing system and indicate signals
for each flooding zone, within 3 secs of
the input being received. The compulsory functions to be performed by the
device shall include receiving inputs
from both the fire detection system and
a manual station connected directly to
the device. On receipts of input signals,
a signal to the release mechanism and
to a distinctive continuous alarm sounder, which shall only be silenced by
an appropriate access level and after
confirmation of a discharge occurring,
shall occur within 1 further sec unless
a delay is incorporated within the programme. The activation of an emergency hold button, will be displayed on the
device, both audibly and visually, and
if occurring during the pre-discharge
warning time will affect a change to
the signal from the alarm devices in
the protected area. Faults affecting the
emergency hold device shall be recognised and indicated within 2secs and
prevent the transmission of the extinguishing signal. Any delay time shall be
adjustable between 0 and 60 sec.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
The device shall be capable of displaying all conditions including device
activated, fault and extinguishing system gas released. The released condition can be established upon receipt
of a signal indicating a flow of the gas,
(both audibly and visually), or upon the
triggering of the extinguishing signal
output.
The monitoring of components such as a
loss of gas will in the event of an abnormal condition indicate a fault, clearly displaying the nature of the condition and
within 100s of its occurrence.
If a signal is sent to an external signalling unit, separate indication will be
provided to that affect.
National guidelines can require other/
different functionality, e.g. a separate
indicator per flooding zone or a maximum number of monitored components per indicator.
Where an alphanumeric display is used
to provide the required information,
additional led’s for the “Activated”, “Re-
page 265
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
leased”, “Fault”, “Disabled” and “Blocked” conditions shall be provided.
The display should be capable of indicating all released flooding zones simultaneously. If it has insufficient numbers
of fields the zones shall be indicated by
separate light emitting indicators.
A field shall consist at least of 16 characters, where it cross refers to other
information or 40 characters, where
the display provides a full description.
Faults signals shall be displayed for
any open, short circuit or earth fault
associated with all input and output devices, including monitoring circuits, disablement devices, signal transmission
equipment and power supplies, both
AC and DC; or if there is a fault affecting the operating program in any software controlled device. In which case
not more than one flooding zone shall
be affected except where a room and
its void are subdivided into two zones.
Optional functions which may be performed by the device can include,
delaying the signal to the release mechanism whilst providing a distinct
intermittent pre-discharge warning,
which shall not be interrupted, shortened or reset by a signal from the
emergency hold button. To provide
indication of a flow of agent together
with the monitoring and control of valves and other associated components.
If an emergency hold button is fitted it
shall signal its status to the device together with any other mechanical parts
capable of disabling the extinguishing
system. The device shall receive and
display any changeover from a manual
to an automatic status.
If a controlled discharge of extinguishing agent is required this will be performed by the device as will the initiating of any secondary discharges. A
secondary discharge will result from a
second manual input, after the initial
discharge and whilst the sounders in
the area are still operating.
Signals to pilot cylinders, spare cylinders, optical devices, doors, ventilation
plant, required as part of the cause and
effect will be performed by the device.
If the information is transmitted to an
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
external centre this shall be indicated
by a separate light emitting indicator
and/or by an alphanumeric display. If
a device is intended to control the flooding time, it shall be adjustable from a
minimum time specified by the manufacturer up to at least 300 s.
In some European countries there are
regulations stipulating that the activated condition can only be established
after the receipt of two input signals,
from independent circuits, one from
the fire detection and alarm system
and a further signal from the device.
The first input must be both audibly
and visually indicated and outputs such
as plant shutdown may be triggered. If
the same indicator is used for both inputs, the first input shall be indicated
with a flashing light, changing to a
steady light when the second input is
received.
The processing of the input signal shall
have the highest priority unless a signal
from an emergency hold or abort button
is present; a fault exists within its circuit or
if the gas discharge is disabled.
section two fire detection and alarm systems
If the processing of the input signal has
started, the disablement of any gas
zone is prohibited.
Following a reset command the activated, released and fault conditions will
be reset and the display will provide
indication of the current status, including any not normal conditions, within
20 s. Provision shall be made to inhibit
the reset , either for a period up to 30
seconds or until an end of discharge
signal is received. Disablements shall
not be removed by the reset function.
Annexes to EN12094-1
Annex A – Summary of Indications
Annex B – Software controlled device
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
page 267
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
Part 3: Requirements and test
methods for manual triggering and
stop devices
Scope
This standard specifies the requirements and test methods for manual triggering and stop devices of CO2-, Inert
Gas- or Halocarbon Gas fire extinguishing systems.
Requirements
Electrical triggering devices shall comply , generally, with the requirements
of EN 54-11 type B with clear indication of the function marked on the front
face with ”MANUAL RELEASE - Gas extinguishing system” (or in the national
language(s) acceptable in the country
of use) ). The colour of the component
shall be yellow. A suitable yellow colour is specified in ISO 3864.
- Gas extinguishing system”, (or in the
national language(s) acceptable in the
country of use2)). The colour of the
component shall be blue. A suitable
blue colour is specified in ISO 3864.
Triggering and stop devices, which do
not follow the design requirements of
EN 54-11, shall have the same electrical function, performance and marking
as specified above.
The pressurized parts of components,
except seals, shall be made of metal
with the working pressure specified by
the manufacturer. The device will be
marked as suitable for wall and/or machine mounting.
Electrical stop devices shall comply,
generally, with EN 54-11 with clear indication of the function marked on the
front face with ”EMERGENCY STOP
fire detection and alarm systems section two
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
For triggering devices the tests shall be in accordance with EN 54-11
Non-electrical triggering devices - Test samples and order of tests
Tests
Sub Clause
Compliance
5.2.3
Pressure
5.2.4
Strength
5.2.5
Function
5.2.6
Temperature
5.2.7
Operational reliability
5.2.8
Corrosion
5.2.9
Stress corrosion
5.2.10
Vibration
5.2.11
section two fire detection and alarm systems
page 269
section two
an introduction to the suite of EN54 standards
fixed firefighting systems - components for gas
extinguishing systems
Marking
Each component shall be marked in a
permanent and legible manner with
the name or logo of the manufacturer/
supplier, the model (type / environment category as defined in EN 54-11,
the installation detail, relevant data
by which, at least, the date or batch
and place of manufacture and the
version number(s) of any software can be
ascertained together with the working
pressure for manual triggering devices
and associated pipework.
Where the CE marking give the same
information as above, the requirements
of this clause 6 have been met.
Annex ZA - deals with the clauses of
the standard in respect of their compliance with the mandate of the EU
construction products regulation.
fire detection and alarm systems section two
guide to design, installation,commissioning and maintenance of fire
systems in non domestic premises
Printed 2017 · TYCENCLASSCONS (1/17)
section one
Issue 1.2 CGFC-02 , 2017
Issue 1.2 CGFC-02, 2017 EMEA Version
FireClass and any other product names listed above are marks and/
or registered marks. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited.
Copyright © 2016 Tyco Fire Products LP. All rights reserved.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement