Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Xerox® Device Agent

Security and Evaluation Guide

November 2014

Version 5.1

©2014 Xerox Corporation. All rights reserved.

Xerox® and Xerox and Design®, WorkCentre®, and Phaser® are trademarks of Xerox

Corporation in the United States and/or other counties.

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VMware® is a registered trademark of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions.

Changes are periodically made to this document. Changes, technical inaccuracies, and typographic errors will be corrected in subsequent editions.

Table of Contents

i

1

 

Overview and How to Use this Guide .............................. 1-1

 

Goals and Objectives ................................................................................ 1-1 

Intended Audience .................................................................................... 1-1 

Using This Guide ....................................................................................... 1-1 

Limits to this Guide .................................................................................... 1-2 

2

 

Introduction to Xerox® Device Agent ............................... 2-3

 

Product Overview ...................................................................................... 2-3 

Deployment Requirements ........................................................................ 2-4 

Xerox® Device Agent System Component Architecture .................. 2-4 

Recommended Hardware and Operating System Requirements .... 2-5 

Unsupported Configurations ............................................................. 2-6 

Database Requirements ................................................................... 2-6 

Browser Requirements ..................................................................... 2-6 

Printer Requirements ................................................................................ 2-6 

Network Printer Discovery/Monitoring Requirements ....................... 2-6 

Direct Printer Requirements ............................................................. 2-7 

3

 

Security ............................................................................ 3-8

 

Application ................................................................................................. 3-8 

Install ................................................................................................ 3-8 

Licensing .......................................................................................... 3-8 

Post Install Normal Operation ........................................................... 3-9 

Network Printer .......................................................................................... 3-9 

SNMP v1-v2 Security ....................................................................... 3-9 

SNMP v3 Security ............................................................................ 3-9 

Xerox Back Office Integration .................................................................. 3-10 

Device Information Communicated to Xerox .................................. 3-11 

Xerox® Device Agent Site Information Sent to Xerox .................... 3-12 

Xerox® Services Manager Initiated Remote Commands to Xerox®

Device Agent .................................................................................. 3-12 

Xerox® Device Agent Remote Configuration ................................. 3-12 

Corporation Security Mode ............................................................. 3-13 

4

 

Network Impact .............................................................. 4-14

 

Discovery ................................................................................................. 4-15 

Device Discovery Method ............................................................... 4-15 

Discover SNMP v3 Devices ............................................................ 4-16 

Queue-based Discovery ................................................................. 4-18 

Xerox® Print Agent Integration ....................................................... 4-18 

Managing Discovery ................................................................................ 4-18 

Discovery Network Data Calculations ............................................ 4-18 

Manufacturer Applicability .............................................................. 4-20 

Xerox® Services Manager Integration .................................................... 4-21 

Registration .................................................................................... 4-21 

Device List Import ........................................................................... 4-22 

Site Settings Export ........................................................................ 4-22 

Site Settings Import ........................................................................ 4-22 

Site Status Export ........................................................................... 4-22 

Device Information Export .............................................................. 4-22 

Remote Command Check ....................................................................... 4-22 

Auto Update ............................................................................................ 4-23 

Version Check ................................................................................ 4-23 

Update Download ........................................................................... 4-23  ii

Tables and Figures

Figure 1 Typical Xerox® Device Agent Deployment ...................................................................... 2-4  

Table 1 Printer Data Communicated to Xerox ............................................................................. 3-11

Table 2 Xerox® Device Agent Site Information Sent to Xerox ..................................................... 3-12

Table 3 Remote Configuration ..................................................................................................... 3-13

 

 

Table 4 Xerox® Device Agent Ports ............................................................................................ 4-14

Table 5 Data Sizes ...................................................................................................................... 4-19

Table 6 Data Gathering Frequencies ........................................................................................... 4-19

 

 

 

  iii

1 Overview and How to Use this Guide

Goals and Objectives

Network and data security are one of the many challenges that businesses face on a daily basis.

Recognizing this, Xerox continues to engineer and design all of its products to ensure the highest level of security possible.

This document provides additional background on the Xerox® Device Agent software capabilities, and specifically focuses on the software’s security aspects. This document covers all Xerox® Device Agent configurations, and some items may not apply to the version you have. This document will help you better understand how the application functions and will help you feel confident that it transmits device data in a secure and accurate manner. This guide will help you certify, evaluate, and approve the deployment of Xerox® Device Agent in support of your contract. It includes information on the application’s potential impact on security and network infrastructure as well as calculations of theoretical network traffic.

We recommend that you read this document in its entirety and take appropriate actions consistent with your information technology security policies and practices. You have many issues to consider in developing and deploying a security policy within your organization. Since these requirements will vary from customer to customer, you have the final responsibility for all implementations, re-installations, and testing of security configurations, patches, and modifications.

Intended Audience

It is expected that this guide will be used by your network administrator before installing Xerox® Device

Agent. In order to get the most from this guide, you should have an understanding of:

• the network environment where you will install Xerox® Device Agent,

• any restrictions placed on applications that are deployed on that network, and

• the Microsoft Windows® operating system

Using This Guide

There are two main scenarios for using this guide: if you are a customer who does not have acceptance and evaluation procedures for this type of software or if you are a customer who has defined guidelines.

In both cases, the three identified areas of concern are security, impact to the network infrastructure, and what other resources might be required to install, use, and support Xerox® Device Agent.

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Use this guide to gather information about these areas and determine if you need to investigate Xerox®

Device Agent further. This document is divided into these areas:

• An introduction to Xerox® Device Agent

• Potential security-related impacts to a typical customer environment including:

– Security information, implications, and recommendations

– Roles and permission requirements of Xerox® Device Agent users

• Information about features that impact the network, which may include estimates of generated traffic, changes to the network infrastructure, or other required resources.

Limits to this Guide

This guide is meant to help you evaluate this application, but it cannot be a complete information source for all potential customers. This guide proposes a hypothetical customer printer environment; if your network environment differs from the hypothetical environment, your network administration team and

Xerox Support Representative must understand the differences and decide on any certification modifications and/or future steps. Additionally:

• This guide only describes those features within the application that have some discernible impact to the overall customer network environment, whether it be the overall network, security, or other customer resources.

• The guide’s information is related to the application's current release. Although much of this information will remain constant through the software’s life cycle, some of the data is revision-specific, and will be revised periodically. IT organizations should check with the Xerox Support Representative to obtain the appropriate version.

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2 Introduction to Xerox®

Device Agent

Product Overview

Xerox® Device Agent discovers and monitors printing devices, specifically office printers and multifunction devices.

The application features a built-in alert detection system and has the capability to send an e-mail message to an appropriate user when certain conditions exist in the monitored devices. It also provides clear and concise status of all networked printers.

You can do the following from Xerox® Device Agent:

• Monitor printers for status and alert conditions

• Notify users via e-mail when faults occur

The application supports industry-SNMP MIBs for network printers; however, the amount and type of management that it can provide is dependent on the printer’s level of conformance to those standards.

The following features conform to these standards:

• Printer identity (i.e. model, serial number, manufacturer, etc.)

• Printer properties (i.e. input trays, output bins, serial number, etc.)

• Printer status including overall state, detailed status, UI messages, etc.

• Consumables and levels (toner, fuser, print cartridge and device unique parts)

• Supported print protocols (LPD, HTTP, Port 9100)

• TCP/IP protocol suite (SNMP, TCP, UDP, IP, NIC details)

Note:

A single instance of Xerox® Device Agent supports a maximum of 2000 network print devices.

Consumers with more than 2000 network print devices will install the application on a different server or

PC to support the remaining networked print devices.

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Deployment Requirements

To deploy the application, install it on a desktop computer or server that has internet access and shares the network with those printers that you want to monitor.

Note:

The scheduled events for meter reads and alert activity may be affected by the software's connectivity.

Xerox® Device Agent System Component Architecture

This diagram shows a typical configuration that a customer may deploy within their network. In this example, Xerox® Device Agent runs on a networked computer that can access the printers through the local network.

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Figure 1 Typical Xerox® Device Agent Deployment

Recommended Hardware and Operating System Requirements

Operating System (32-bit and 64-bit)

• Windows Server® 2003 with Service Pack 2

• Windows Server® 2008 with Service Pack 1and 2008 R2 with Service Pack 1

• Windows Server® 2012, 2012 R2

• Windows® 8, Windows® 8 Pro, Windows®8 Enterprise, Windows® 8.1

• Windows® 7 Professional, Enterprise, Ultimate, Home Basic and Home Premium

• Windows Vista® Service Pack 2 Ultimate, Business, and Enterprise

Memory

• Minimum 512 MB RAM (1 GB RAM Recommended) for Windows Server® 2003

• Minimum 2 GB RAM (3 GB RAM Recommended) for Windows Vista®, Windows® 7, Windows® 8, and Windows Server® 2008 and 2008 R2, 2012, 2012 R2

Processor:

1.7 GHz processor or better

Microsoft®.NET framework 3.5 with Service Pack 1 installed

Hard Disk:

minimum free space is approximately 100 MB for the application and up to 500 MB for the

Microsoft®.NET framework, if not previously installed.

Minimum Resolution:

1024x768

Permissions:

You must install the software on the client machine using the administrative account or an account with administrative privileges.

Internet connection:

Required

Notes:

• We recommend that you update your host computers with the latest critical patches and service releases from Microsoft Corporation.

• The Network Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) must be loaded and operational.

• Requires SNMP-enabled devices and the ability to route SNMP over the network. It is not required to enable SNMP on the computer where Xerox® Device Agent will be installed or any other network computers.

• You must install Microsoft®.NET 3.5 with Service Pack 1 before you install the application.

• The application should not be installed on a PC where other SNMP-based applications or other Xerox printer management tools are installed, since they may interfere with each other’s operation.

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Unsupported Configurations

• Installation of the application on a computer with another Xerox device management application, such as Xerox® Services Manager.

• Any Windows system running an existing version of SQL Server, as it will interfere with the SQL

Server Compact Edition required by Xerox® Device Agent.

• Any version of Macintosh® operating system, Unix® operating systems, Windows NT® 4.0,

Windows® Media Center, Windows® XP, and Windows® 2000.

• This application has only been tested on VMware® Lab Manager™/Workstation/vSphere

Hypervisor™ environments. This application may work on other virtual environments; however, these environments have not been tested.

Database Requirements

Xerox® Device Agent installs Microsoft SQL Server® Compact 3.5 SP2 database engine and database files that store printer data and application settings within the installation directory. No additional licensing is required by the customer for the installation of this software product.

Browser Requirements

Although Xerox® Device Agent is a Windows® application that does not require a Web browser, when accessing back office systems that may be web-based (e.g., Xerox® Services Manager) a Web browser may be required.

Printer Requirements

Network Printer Discovery/Monitoring Requirements

For successful management by the application, all SNMP-based printer devices should support the mandatory MIB elements and groups as defined by the following standards:

• RFC 1157 (SNMP Version 1)

• RFC 1213 (MIB-II for TCP/IP-based Internet)

• RFC 2790 (Host Resources MIB v1/v2)

• RFC 1759 (Printer MIB v 1)

• RFC 3805 (Printer MIB v 2)

• RFC 3806 (Printer Finishing MIB)

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Direct Printer Requirements

• Queue-based discovery depends on user permissions on domain and/or across computers, NetBIOS

File and Printer Sharing, Network Discovery, and WMI.

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services. Gathering direct printer data via integration with Xerox® Print Agent depends on deployment of Xerox® Print

Agent on each computer with a direct printer. For additional details regarding the integration with

Xerox® Print Agent, please refer to the Xerox® Print Agent Security and Evaluation Guide.

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3 Security

Since security is an important consideration when evaluating tools of this class, this section provides information about the security methods used by Xerox® Device Agent.

Application

Xerox® Device Agent is compatible with the security features built into the Windows® operating systems.

It relies on a background Windows® service running under the local system account credentials to enable proactive monitoring of printers, gathering of data, and submission to Xerox® Services Manager. The user interface that displays the gathered data is accessible only to the power users and administrators who have login access to the Windows® operating system.

Install

The installer requires administrator privileges. A single Windows® service, “Xerox Device Agent Service” is installed and configured to run under the local system Windows® account. No special system level configuration change is required or made by the installer. Xerox® Device Agent is compatible with the security features built into the Windows® operating system including:

• User authentication and authorization

• Group policy deployment and management

• Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) including:

– Security logging settings

Note:

Make sure that the PC or server that is running Xerox® Device Agent is continuously powered on during core business hours to prevent interruption of automatic communications between Xerox® Device

Agent and Xerox.

Licensing

The customer must accept the End User License Agreement (EULA) that is presented upon Xerox®

Device Agent installation. No additional licensing is required by the customer for installation of the

Microsoft SQL Server® Compact 3.5 SP2 database.

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

To successfully operate Xerox® Device Agent, you must have a Xerox services contract and an account on Xerox® Services Manager. During the software configuration process, you will need to pair Xerox®

Device Agent with a Xerox® Services Manager account in order to activate Xerox® Device Agent. For this reason, you are required to use a Xerox® Services Manager registration key supplied by Xerox or

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your service provider. Depending on your account, you may also be required to use a secondary registration key.

Post Install Normal Operation

The Xerox® Device Agent Windows® service runs as a background process even when no user is logged in. This enables the application to monitor the devices on the network and generate alerts proactively. If you are a power user or an administrator authenticated by Windows® and you log in to the system, then you have access to the Xerox® Device Agent’s user interface. You can monitor the printers, view printer data, and change settings. The Xerox® Device Agent user interface verifies that you are a power user or you have administrative privilege as you attempt to run the application. If you are not an administrator,

Xerox® Device Agent will display a message that states you need administrative privileges in order to run the application.

Network Printer

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the most widely-used-network-management tool for communication between network management systems and the networked printers. The application utilizes SNMP during discovery operations to retrieve detailed data from output devices detected on the network. After discovery, SNMP is used to monitor printers for alerts, changes in status, configuration changes, and to support printer troubleshooting. Xerox® Device Agent supports SNMP version 1\2 and version 3 protocols. The following application properties will help you better understand the impact to printer security:

• it does not modify the settings on the printer; it only reads them.

• it does not register for SNMP traps.

• it does allow the printer to be reset (this requires that devices support printer reset via SNMP).

SNMP v1-v2 Security

In its current form, SNMP's security is limited to three methods of access: read-only, write-only, and readwrite. Access from Xerox® Device Agent to the devices is granted by the use of community name strings.

Although usually referred to as the password, for SNMP operations, the community name provides a very simple level of authentication for all Protocol Data Unit (PDU) operations. Theoretically, you can assign community names to every subnet on a network. Every printer on a local subnet will have the same community name. You can assign printers on a different subnet to a different community name. By default, Xerox® Device Agent uses the community name string of public, which is the printer manufacturer’s default setting. You can elect to change this setting on the printers and you have the ability to change the community name string that Xerox® Device Agent uses to match the settings for the configured printers.

SNMP v3 Security

SNMP, however, is being expanded in version 3 to include security and administration. The SNMP V3 framework supports multiple security models, which can exist simultaneously within an SNMP entity.

Messages in SNMP V3 contain a field in the header that identifies which security model must process them. To ensure some form of interoperability, a User-based Security Model (USM) is implemented to

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide defend against unauthorized modification of managed elements and spoofing. Although SNMP V3 is a huge step forward in secure manageability, it cannot prevent denial-of-service attacks. In addition, its security system must stand alone, meaning every device must have a database of users/passwords. In companies that do not support a standalone security system all devices are left at risk.

Xerox Back Office Integration

The application communicates with Xerox® Services Manager and our billing systems on a periodic basis. It is important to recognize that Xerox® Services Manager is hosted in an ISO 27001-compliant facility. The data exchanged during such communications is compressed and encrypted. The security of this communication is protected by several mechanisms.

• You must configure Xerox® Device Agent with a valid account registration key, which is provided by a

Xerox representative.

• The Xerox® Device Agent to Xerox infrastructure communication method is further secured by the use of the HTTPS protocol (with 128-bit encryption). HTTPS is HTTP using a Secure Socket Layer

(SSL).

• Xerox® Device Agent initiates all contact with Xerox and no special firewall configuration on the site is required to enable communication.

• Xerox® Device Agent will require a valid proxy if one is required for Internet communication.

• The Xerox® Services Manager data store and administrative services sit behind a secure firewall and are not accessible from the Internet.

• Xerox® Services Manager user interface access requires authentication. Xerox® Device Agent information is stored in an account specific to the customer site. Access to that account data in

Xerox® Services Manager is restricted to the Xerox® Services Manager account managers.

• Here is the list of top-level items exchanged during periodic communication with Xerox and their frequency:

– Printer Data Export: Default once per day. User configurable via Synchronize settings.

– List Import: Default once per day. User configurable via Synchronize settings.

– Site Status Export: Default once per day. User configurable via Synchronize settings.

– Site Settings Import: Default once per day. User configurable via Synchronize settings.

– Check for a remote command is performed once every minute. The data traffic generated from this check is negligible. (See the Network Impact section for more information).

• Here is the list of top-level items exchanged on a as needed basis:

– Site Settings Export: Every time the Xerox® Device Agent settings are changed.

– Commands and settings from Xerox® Services Manager.

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– Export of printers on an as needed basis on request from Xerox® Services Manager via Remote

Command.

• All communication instances are logged and can be viewed either in the Settings>Log screen or in the PC’s Xerox DM (Device Management) event log.

Device Information Communicated to Xerox

The data that is sent to Xerox is printer-specific, which is mostly billing counters, supply levels, and printer alerts. Here is the list of printer fields or multi-function device (MFD) attributes published by Xerox®

Device Agent:

Printer Data

2-Sided Percentage Advanced Finishing

Supported

Advanced Status Update

Date

Analog Fax Capable

Analog Fax Description

Can Manage

Console Country

IP Default Gateway

Discovery Date

Duplex Capable

Hard Disk Size MB

Last Known IP Address

Machine Up Time

Marking Technology

(Device)

Model

Scan to Internet Fax

Capable

Scanner Installed

Services Supported

Supplies (Paper Trays,

Output Bins, Finisher,

Imaging)

Target Volume

Utilization Percentage

Analog Fax Modem

Installed

Color Capable

Console Language

Discovery Method

Fax Status

IP Address Changed

Last Status Attempt

Status

Marking Technology

Scanner Status

Status Date

System Contact

Traps Enabled

Xerox Asset Number

Table 1 Printer Data Communicated to Xerox

Analog Fax Phone Number Black Rated PPM

Color Rated PPM

Customer Asset Number Device Time Zone

Discovery Type

Finishing Options

IP Address (Device)

Location

Managed State

Manage Request Date

Physical Memory Total MB Queue Name

Scan to Server Fax Capable Scan to E-Mail Capable

Serial Number (Device)

Subnet Address

System Name

Type

Usage Counters

Compliance Level

Hard Disk Present

Firmware Level

Icon

MAC Address (Device)

Manufacturer (Device)

MIB Country

Scan to File Capable

Scanner Description

Serial Number Scrubbed

Subnet Mask

Traps Supported

Update Date

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Xerox® Device Agent Site Information Sent to Xerox

This table lists the attributes published to Xerox at predetermined intervals. The attributes only relate to the server or PC on which the application is installed. Neither Personal Identifiable Information (PII) nor business intellectual data is ever transmitted to Xerox.

Note:

This information is a subset of what is collected during the registration process.

Site Information

Xerox® Device Agent machine DNS name

Operating system name

Memory Size / available

Xerox® Device Agent machine IP address

Number of In Scope printers Number of Out Of Scope printers

Xerox® Device Agent site name

Xerox® Device Agent database size (in MB)

Xerox® Device Agent software build version

Xerox® Device Agent discovery database size (in

MB)

Hard disk size / free space Operating system type (32bit or 64-bit)

Processor

Time Zone Discovery Version Discovered Device Count

Table 2 Xerox® Device Agent Site Information Sent to Xerox

Xerox® Services Manager Initiated Remote Commands to Xerox®

Device Agent

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

The Remote commands capability allows account administrators within Xerox® Services Manager or

Xerox Operations Center personnel (depending upon contract specifications) to request Xerox® Device

Agent to execute a number of commands on behalf of Xerox® Services Manager. Xerox® Services

Manager does not tunnel into a customer’s IT network firewall. Xerox® Device Agent periodically polls its corresponding account within Xerox® Services Manager to see if the account administrator has posted a command request to Xerox® Device Agent. This polling is a Web interface interrogation by Xerox®

Device Agent. The network bandwidth loading for the customer’s IT network is a function of the performed operation. Once the command request has been fetched from Xerox® Services Manager and executed by Xerox® Device Agent, any operations results will be sent back to the Xerox® Services Manager server for the account manager to review.

Default frequency for remote command check is one minute. Xerox® Services Manager can be used to configure the remote command check polling interval. When it is configured for instant remote commands,

Xerox® Device Agent will make an immediate connection to Xerox® Services Manager for remote commands, and the session will be left open until a command is posted or the session times out. When a command is posted, Xerox® Device Agent will execute the command and return to Xerox® Services

Manager with the results, and then reopen a new session. If there is a timeout, a new session will be established with Xerox® Services Manager within 60 seconds. In this configuration, we can get real-time responses to commands, reducing the time those operations centers wait for information.

Xerox® Device Agent Remote Configuration

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

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Xerox® Device Agent supplies device information to, and requests remote commands from, Xerox®

Services Manager. This ability to query Xerox® Services Manager for commands allows you to modify some of the application's settings remotely. It is important to recognize the fact that Xerox® Services

Manager does not push commands to Xerox® Device Agent; rather, this information is queued and

Xerox® Device Agent will poll Xerox® Services Manager for it. You can configure the polling interval in

Xerox® Device Agent.

Settings Description

Device

Discovery

Xerox® Services Manager can issue a request to Xerox® Device Agent for a specific IP Sweep discovery, which can include individual DNS or IP addresses, IP address ranges, and lists of subnets.

The definition for the IP Sweep specified by Xerox® Services Manager is stored locally within Xerox®

Device Agent’s built-in Xerox Services Manager Sweep. Using the results of this sweep, Xerox®

Device Agent will automatically upload any new discovered printer information and a results summary, so that the Xerox® Services Manager account manager can review it.

Data

Export

Within Xerox® Services Manager, you can configure when the devices are exported to Xerox® Services

Manager.

Network You can use Xerox® Services Manager to change the default number of retries and timeout for printer communication, how often to retrieve status from both managed and unmanaged printers, and the

SNMP “SET” and “GET” community strings names that are used when communicating with a printer.

Auto

Update

Within Xerox® Services Manager, you can configure when Xerox® Device Agent checks for updates and the Update Preference setting (Automatic, Prompt or Never).

Table 3 Remote Configuration

Corporation Security Mode

Within the Synchronize>Change Settings feature, there is a configuration item for Corporation Security

Mode. The two modes that exist are Normal and Locked Down. In Normal mode, Xerox® Device Agent contacts Xerox® Services Manager daily. Settings can be remotely changed without the need for on-site visits, even when the polling schedules are switched off. In Locked Down mode, besides printer-related data synchronization, there is no communication with Xerox® Services Manager and settings have to be changed on-site. Additionally, the Xerox® Device Agent machine and printer’s IP addresses are not reported to Xerox® Services Manager.

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4 Network Impact

Company network guidelines will typically enable or disable specific network ports on routers and/or servers. Your IT department will mostly be concerned with the ports used by the application for outgoing traffic. Disablement of specific ports may impact the functionality of the application. Refer to the table below for specific ports used by the application processes. If the application is required to scan across

multiple network segments or subnets, routers must allow the protocols associated with these port numbers.

Port Number

161 (typical)

Port Name

SNMP

In/Outbound

Out

1

C

omment

Network printer discovery, retrieve device capabilities/status/usage counters, single device configuration

80 (typical)

515, 9100, 2000, 2501 TCP/IP

23800

HTTP

Custom Port

Out

2

Out

1

In

Windows Remote Procedure Calls (RPC)

Get printer image and link to the printer’s webpage

Secure Xerox® Device Agent-to-Host Xerox®

Services Manager data transfer, Auto Upgrade

Troubleshoot, Print Test Page, Printer Upgrade

Network Printer Discovery, Troubleshoot

Default port used for integrating with Xerox®

Print Agent. User has ability to specify a different port.

Default port used for DNS-based device searches

Table 4 Xerox® Device Agent Ports

1 Communication within the Xerox® Device Agent installed local network.

2 Communication outside the Xerox® Device Agent installed local network.

3 Communication location depends on configuration.

For example, if the ping requests cannot be routed through the environment between the Xerox® Device

Agent machine and the printers managed by Xerox® Device Agent, the following features will not function or will show significant performance degradation:

• Network Printer Discovery

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

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– When Xerox® Device Agent is not integrated with Xerox® Print Agent, it does not require any incoming ports to be opened up on the installed machine. This means that the firewall on the machine does not require any modification.

– When Xerox® Device Agent is integrated with Xerox® Print Agent, then the firewall on the machine will require modification to allow traffic on the port configured in Xerox® Device Agent and Xerox® Print Agent.

– When Queue-based discovery is used in Xerox® Device Agent, it relies on the following

Windows® services for some of its operations: Remote Procedure Calls, Windows

Management Instrumentation (WMI), File and Printer Sharing API, and NetBIOS.

Discovery

The discovery function allows the application to search for network printers on a customer’s intranet.

Printer discovery is a crucial part of the application because it is the main method to identify networkedconnected devices and store them in the local database. It involves the generation and querying of network addresses (via SNMP) for printer type and general configuration information. Since this operation uses the network resources, you should consider what you want to detect and then configure the discovery to achieve this goal with a minimum of network contention. If there are specific addresses that should not be scanned, they can be entered into an exclusion list and Xerox® Device Agent will not try to contact that address.

Device Discovery Method

After you install the application onto a networked computer, select what subnet(s) to scan (default is local subnet), and the application will begin to automatically discover network printers according to these settings. Depending upon network configuration, this initial discovery could identify all of the network printers within the customer’s environment. A method known as IP Sweep is used to perform this local subnet network printer discovery. Xerox® Device Agent also allows the network administrator to perform the discovery beyond the local subnet. For this purpose, the network administrator can specify individual

IP addresses or DNS addresses of the printers, a range of addresses, or subnets that will be searched.

Note:

As a rule of thumb, each discovered printer might generate as much as 50 KB (maximum) of network message traffic including device capabilities, usage counters, and an alert table.

IP Sweep Operation

IP Sweep Discovery method is the preferred method of accurately discovering printers on a network. A packet is sent to every IP address in the user-defined address or address range list. The address list should be known and provided before running the discovery.

Specifically:

• A single packet is sent to each IP address contained within each subnet or address range defined within the current IP address for the current IP Sweep. In this packet, Xerox® Device Agent requests a value for a single SNMP-based RFC 1213 Object Identifier (OID).

• For each device that responds to the RFC 1213 OID, Xerox® Device Agent will add the IP address of the response packet into its list of live IP addresses.

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

• Xerox® Device Agent then queries those devices with live IP addresses for two more OIDs: one RFC

1213 OID and one RFC 3805 OID. This enables Xerox® Device Agent to identify printing devices from non-printing devices. Both groups of devices are stored within the Xerox® Device Agent database, however, only printing devices are exposed via the Xerox® Device Agent UI.

– For those printer devices that respond to the RFC 3805 OID query, Xerox® Device Agent flags them as printers.

– For those devices that do not respond to the RFC 3805 OID query, Xerox® Device Agent then checks an RFC 1213 OID value against database values to determine if the device is in fact a known printer. This is necessary because some printing devices (i.e. printers using external print server boxes, older printers, etc.) do not support RFC 3805 – the Printer MIB.

• The database contains RFC 1213 values for several known supported and unsupported printers.

• Xerox® Device Agent then queries all live IP addresses for three RFC 1213 OIDs and one RFC 2790

OID.

• For those devices identified as printers, Xerox® Device Agent queries three more RFC 2790 OIDs and four more RFC 3805 OIDs to obtain some basic attributes of the printer.

• Based upon the identity of each printing device, Xerox® Device Agent then queries the appropriate vendor-specific OID and an OID from the Printer MIB in order to obtain the printer’s serial number.

• Xerox® Device Agent then queries 3 RFC 3805 OIDs in order to display the printing device’s rated speed in pages per minute (PPM).

• Based upon the identity of each printing device, Xerox® Device Agent then queries the appropriate

OID(s) to obtain the printing device’s software/firmware level.

Network Impact

The amount of network traffic generated by a sweep-based discovery is minimized because the requests are directed to specific IP addresses.

Accuracy

The IP Sweep method produces a controlled and orderly flow of data between the printers and the server, reducing network packet collisions that can introduce errors in the printer information.

Discover SNMP v3 Devices

As accounts become more security-conscious, some of them are deciding to enable SNMP v3. Xerox®

Device Agent can discover and manage these devices. To discover SNMP V3 devices, use one of two authentication modes as well as a set of keys or passwords. It is important to understand what the device settings are before setting up a SNMP v3 Discovery.

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To discover SNMP v3 devices:

1. In the Search Setting dialog box, select Specified Search.

2. In the Printer Search section, select the SNMP v3 button on the top.

3. Select . (This is the only supported option for SNMP v3 searches.)

Note:

To download a sample CSV file, select Export Template and add the relevant SNMP V3 data in the file. If you need directions on how to format the CSV file, select the instruction link to display a dialog box showing the possible format for the rows in the CSV file or see the directions below.

1. When you are ready to import the CSV file containing the discovery settings, click Select File, and then browse to and select choose the file.

2.

Click OK to import the settings.

 

CSV File Format Overview:

The bullets below explain the fields within the CSV file.

Note:

It’s important that the fields be listed in the same order as below.

• DNS Name: If using the DNS name to discover the printer then enter it here.

• IP Address: If using the IP Address to discover the printer then enter it here.

• Start IP Address: When doing a range of IP addresses this is the start address of the range.

• End IP Address: When doing a range of IP addresses this is the end address of the range.

• Subnet Mask: The subnet mask for the subnet the printer is on and must be filled in.

• "Comment": An optional comment.

• Prefix: the IP v6 prefix for the device.

• User Name: This is the SNMP v3 user name and can be found on the SNMP v3 page on the printer.

Most Xerox devices use Xadmin for this value.

• Context Name: This is the SNMP v3 context name and can be found on the SNMP v3 page on the printer. Note: Not all printers use this, so if it is not found on the “Prints” page leave this value blank.

• Authentication Mode: This is how to authenticate to the device and will be MD5 or SHA1. If the printer doesn’t allow this to be changed it will be displayed on the printers SNMP v3 page.

• Authentication Type: This field will be the word “password” or “key”. If on the device it asks you to enter an Authentication Password and Privacy Password then put “password” in this field.

• Authentication Key/Password: This is the same information that you entered in the Authentication field on the printer and is case sensitive.

• Privacy Key/Password: This is the same information that you entered in the Privacy field on the printer and is case sensitive.

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Queue-based Discovery

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

Queue-based discovery is used to identify directly connected printers. Only information available on the queue is detected and reflected within the application. Proper network administrator credentials or the credentials of the computers with direct printers are necessary to obtain access to the queues.

Xerox® Print Agent Integration

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

This application provides the ability to integrate with Xerox® Print Agent. The integration is necessary when direct printers’ meter counts, supplies, and status are required. You can configure the application to communicate with Xerox® Print Agent on a specified port. The application’s host machine will need to have the configured port number opened in order for Xerox® Print Agent to communicate successfully.

Managing Discovery

The discovery process can be managed in a number of ways.

• The discovery schedule is configurable. The IP addresses, DNS addresses, and subnets are configurable.

• It can be controlled by the use of SNMP community name strings to query certain network printers over others.

• The discovery will provide active status on its progress.

• Device timeout and retry parameters are pre-defined with a setting of five seconds for attempt timeout and one retry allowed to get print information from slower network subnets on a customer’s network.

You can modify this information on the Advanced Settings screen.

Discovery Network Data Calculations

As mentioned earlier, each discovered printer could create as much as 50KB of discovery-based traffic.

IP Sweep discovery sweeps all of the addresses in the ranges supplied.

Device Discovery Data Set Magnitudes on Typical Printers

The amount of data transferred during an operation, such as discovery or status polling, is a function of the device’s capabilities. Measurements made on typical devices show the variability of these parameters. It is highly unlikely that any one network would be populated with only one device type.

Instead, the typical case is a variety of devices that are dependent upon the particular needs of individuals or groups on the network. Here are three printer examples to demonstrate the variability in both the amount of collected data and the data transfer rate for typical devices.

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Machine Model

Xerox WorkCentre® Pro 245

Xerox Phaser® 8560 DN

HP LaserJet 4345 MFP

Average

Table 5 Data Sizes

Discovery

49.2 KB

15.3 KB

29.1 KB

31 KB

Status Polling

19 KB

14 KB

6 KB

13 KB

You also need to consider the frequency at which you will perform these operations. For purposes of this document, the following schedule for device data retrieval and their data set size will be assumed to be:

Operation Type Frequency Average Data Set Size

Status Polling

Table 6 Data Gathering Frequencies

Hourly 13 KB

Assuming that Xerox® Device Agent will discover and monitor a thousand network devices on the network and each device discovery data set size is 31 KB and its status polling data set size is approximately 13 KB, this set of devices is expected to retrieve the following printer-based discovery data over the network each month

• 4 discovery cycles/month x 1,000 printers x 31 KB/printer (Discovery data set size) is approximately

124 MB/month

Network Impact Considerations of Status Polling

Xerox® Device Agent communicates with the printers under management regularly. Each transaction consists of a series of SNMP queries with the device, first checking for a response then progressively asking for more information until the transaction purpose is complete.

Status polling assumptions:

• Status polling traffic averages 13 KB per transmission

• Status polling occurs every day, once per hour (24x7)

• 1000 printers are being monitored

The expected amount of data to be retrieved from this set of devices over the network for printer-based discovery over one month is:

1000

printers x 24 hours x 30 days x 13 KB is approximately 9.4 GB per month

Total Xerox® Device Agent Data Transfer Calculations

The next traffic calculation example shows totals for an exaggerated network data transfer size during a one-month period. The total includes the use of regularly scheduled discovery and status polling.

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

The calculation is inflated to show an above-the-limits traffic estimate. It assumes that every network printer discovery requires:

• 50 KB of traffic to complete (except non-printer discovery),

• 19 KB for status, and

• The organization is active 30 days per month in order to demonstrate the extreme upper limits for a network with 1,000 print devices being monitored monthly.

Discovery Total

4 cycles/month x 1,000 printers x 50 KB/printer = 200,000 KB ≈ 0.19 GB/month

Discovery Traffic to Non-print Devices during a Sweep

4 cycles/month x 65,534 IP Address x 1 KB/printer = 262,136 KB ≈ 0.25 GB/month

Status Polling Total

30 days x 24 polls/day x 1,000 printers x 19 KB/printer = 13,680,000 KB/month ≈ 13 GB/month

Overall (Exaggerated) Total

0.19 GB + 0.25 GB + 13 GB ≈ 13.44 GB/month

Manufacturer Applicability

You can configure Xerox® Device Agent to support only Xerox network printers (Xerox and Fuji Xerox) or all printers (any discoverable Xerox or non-Xerox network printer) that communicate via SNMP. This configuration is governed by policies configured in the application. This setting affects non-Xerox printers in three ways: discovery, export of discovered printers to Xerox® Services Manager server, and scheduled export of meters for found printers. When you configure manufacturer applicability, the scheduled device discovery will attempt to find all Xerox and non-Xerox network printers and will send printer information and meters to the Xerox® Services Manager server.

Additionally, the policies configured in Xerox® Services Manager may allow you to change this value within Xerox® Device Agent. If Xerox® Device Agent is configured to allow for this setting change, it may be set to restrict discovery of non-Xerox printers. To do so, manufacturer applicability must be set to Only

Xerox Network Printers.

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

Manufacturer Applicability does not apply to directly connected printers. Printers of all manufacturers will be discovered when you use queue-based discovery or Xerox® Print Agent integration.

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Xerox® Services Manager Integration

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

The application communicates directly to Xerox through the Internet, transferring associated printer and device information through a secure Web services transfer mechanism automatically. (Refer to the

Security section for more information.) Xerox uses this device information to update device status and meter reads. The data exchange between Xerox® Device Agent and Xerox is compressed to conserve bandwidth.

The interaction with Xerox can be broken down into the following categories:

• Data exchange as part of the Startup Wizard

– Registration

– Site status export

– In Scope device list import

– Export devices that have been newly discovered

• Daily synchronization operation (the frequency is user-configurable)

– Device list import

– Export of devices

– Site status export

– Site Settings import

• Remote command check

• Check for commands on Xerox® Services Manager

– Process and send results

Registration

Xerox® Device Agent is required to register with Xerox® Services Manager. This involves a Web servicebased transaction in which Xerox® Device Agent sends a unique Xerox® Device Agent install/site identifier and the Xerox® Services Manager registration key. This data packet is negligible (< 2 KB) and is performed only when the Startup Wizard is run to register Xerox® Device Agent with Xerox® Services

Manager.

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Xerox® Device Agent Security and Evaluation Guide

Device List Import

At the end of the Startup Wizard and during the synchronize operation, Xerox® Device Agent imports the list of printers from Xerox® Services Manager. This is a simple transaction with the identifiers for all printers. The data packet is approximately <5 KB for 100 devices.

Site Settings Export

Xerox® Device Agent sends its settings to Xerox® Services Manager at the end of the Startup Wizard and every time the settings are changed by the user. This includes the discovery settings, synchronization and other schedules, SNMP timeout/retry settings, and SNMP community names. The data size is dependent of the discovery setting, i.e. the number of IP addresses and subnets. This settings packet can be up to 5KB or more in size.

Site Settings Import

Xerox® Device Agent imports the site settings stored on Xerox® Services Manager as part of the synchronize operation. The data size and the data size variability rules are for the most part the same as that for the Site Settings Export. This import data packet also includes alert profiles.

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

The count of alert profiles can vary, so the size of this packet can be 5 KB or more.

Site Status Export

Xerox® Device Agent sends the site status information to Xerox® Services Manager to indicate its health.

This includes the application’s database size and the count of devices. The data size is approximately 3

KB.

Device Information Export

Xerox® Device Agent exports device information to Xerox via Web services. The device information includes device identity information, status information, and usage information. The data packet size is roughly 35 KB per 100 devices.

Remote Command Check

Note:

This section only applies to Xerox Print Services and Xerox Partner Print Services.

Periodically, Xerox® Device Agent will query Xerox® Services Manager if there are any remote commands to execute. Remote commands can be requests for status or reboot for example. Complete list of commands is listed in the Security section.

• Data content will be a negligible if there are no commands to execute. If there is a command to execute, then the response information about the Remote Command will be sent to Xerox® Services

Manager.

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• Data size depends on the command and number of commands. Just for the check, the packet size will be approximately 2 KB. For example, a troubleshoot device command will result in a response with a transmission size of approximately 9 KB.

• If an Upgrade Device command is queued, XDA will also retrieve the firmware file from Xerox®

Services Manager. Firmware files can be more than 100 MB.

• Default frequency for the command check is once per minute.

Auto Update

Xerox® Device Agent supports automatic update. When a newer version of Xerox® Device Agent is released, it is loaded on the Auto Update Server available for Xerox® Device Agent to connect to.

There are two actions that utilize network resources to accomplish the Xerox® Device Agent Auto Update function. The two actions include:

• Checking to determine if a newer version of Xerox® Device Agent is available for download.

• Downloading a newer version of Xerox® Device Agent for installation.

Xerox® Device Agent makes changes only on the PC on which it is installed; it does not require network resources like SQL server during the update.

Version Check

When Xerox® Device Agent queries the Auto Upgrade Server to determine if a newer version of Xerox®

Device Agent is available for download, ~2.1 K of network traffic is generated. This check is performed once a week at the day and time configured in Xerox® Device Agent.

Summary: Monthly total network impact: ~ 8.4K. Add 2.1K for every time update check is initiated manually.

Update Download

When a newer version of the application is available for download, a composite package of download manager, application installer, and supporting files totaling approximately 30 MB is downloaded to the client machine where the application is currently installed. This is a single download that occurs only if the user elects to upgrade the installation to the newer version or if the system is set to always auto upgrade. Once the download is complete, all installation work is done on the client, and no additional network traffic is generated.

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