Blackberry Forensics DFIR Online Dec 2012

Blackberry Forensics DFIR Online Dec 2012

Blackberry Forensics

NIST Mobile Forensics Workshop June 2014

Shafik G. Punja

Cindy Murphy

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

SPEAKER BACKGROUND

-

Shafik G. Punja

-

-

-

-

-

Active duty LE, performing digital forensics since Nov 2003

Instructor for Teel Technologies US and Canada

Senior Technical Officer – QuByte Logic Ltd

Private sector work involves R n D partnerships with various LE colleagues, digital forensics training, data analytics and consulting services.

Shameless plug: Course developer and primary instructor for Advanced BlackBerry Forensics Class: http://www.teeltech.com/tt3/blackberry4.asp?cid=16

Contact: [email protected]

or [email protected]

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

SPEAKER BACKGROUND

-

Cindy Murphy

-

-

-

-

-

-

Detective, City of Madison, WI Police Department since

1985.

Involved in DFIR since 1999

MSc Forensic Computing and CyberCrime Investigation from Dublin in 2011

Part time DFIR Instructor at Madison College

Shameless plug: SANS 585 Advanced Smartphone

Forensics Instructor http://www.sans.org/event/for585-advanced-smartphonemobile-device-forensics

Contact: [email protected]

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Coverage

Locked BlackBerry’s: access options

BES and BlackBerry

Unlocked BlackBerry’s: Physical versus Logical

Backup IPD, BBB v1, BBB v2 formats

BlackBerry Messenger (BBM)

BlackBerry Artifacts

Malware/Spyware on BlackBerry devices

BlackBerry 10

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

BlackBerry 7 (and lower)

Developed by Research In Motion (now called BlackBerry) based out of Waterloo, ONT Canada.

Device software design evolved from C++ to Java.

Uses proprietary OS designed through JVM (Java Virtual Machine).

The operating system is a collection of .cod files. You will not see a true file system in any analysis tool.

Security of device rests with its relationship with the hardware.

In Java based BB devices, BootROM is trust anchor.

BlackBerry applications come packaged either as .COD files or JAD files which is associated to either OTW or OTA application installation.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry

- Option 1: If BES attached unlock via BES.

- Option 2:Attack info.mkf file on memory card if this is present.

(

http://blog.crackpassword.com/2011/09/recovering-blackberry-devicepasswords/ )

- Option 3: Chipoff (maybe JTAG which might work on older model devices).

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry

-

Password is

NOT stored on computer used by device owner for backup of

NOT present in the backup IPD file or any other version of the backup

- According to BlackBerry there is no backdoor into the device

- BlackBerry, may or may not help you in accessing the data on a locked BlackBerry device.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry

- Large Padlock lower right on handset screen = password locked

- Large Padlock lower right

AND

smaller padlock upper left =

password locked and encrypted

-

- Less secure passwords are rejected by the smartphone, such as those composed of identical characters, or characters that consist of natural sequences (i.e. 1234).

If the device is locked

AND

you see the device prompting you to type the word “blackberry”, this means that half the password attempts have already been used.

- If a password is entered incorrectly ten consecutive times, this will automatically

wipe

all of the data on the

BlackBerry.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry - BES

- BES (BlackBerry Enterprise Server): runs in server environment.

- A single BES can host as many as 500 BB devices.

- If a device is BES attached a password reset can be pushed from the BES Management Console.

- Password Reset does not affect the user data on the device.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – BES 2

1. Open the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Management console.

2. Right-click the user account that requires a password change.

3. Click IT Admin > Set Password and Lock.

4. In the Set Handheld Password and Lock window, type the new password into the New Password and New Password Again fields.

5. Click OK.

Note: It takes approximately 30 minutes for the new IT Policy to be sent to the device.

6. When the device receives the IT Policy, the following message is displayed:

New IT Policy Changed Over The Air. Would you like to accept?

7. Click OK. The user can now use the new password on the device.

Source: http://www.blackberrycool.com/2005/10/23/changing-handheld-password-from-blackberry-enterprise-server/

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – BES 2

-

-

-

You remembered to ask the friendly BES admin for the BES daily log files right?

BES stores daily logs in folders under default path

C:\Program

Files\Research in Motion\BlackBerry Enterprise Server\Logs\

- grab them all and don’t forget the email container which is stored separately.

Depending upon BES version there may be over 15 or so different types of logs: SMS logs, PhoneCall logs, PINLog and BBM logs

By default only PhoneCall logs are enabled on BES 5 and lower. In

BES 10 and higher, it is believed that SMS, PhoneCall, PIN and BBM data is logged.

SMS, PIN, PhoneCall and BBM are stored in CSV format contain both content and sender, receiver information

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – info.mkf file

-

-

Non BES device, commonly referred to as BlackBerry Internet

Service (BIS) device.

If BlackBerry is locked AND if memory card is encrypted with either option 2: Security Password or option 3: Security

Password and Device (default encryption is off)

-

Then a hidden file info.mkf on the memory card at

/BlackBerry/system/ will be found.

EPPB attacks/exploits this file to obtain the password to the

BlackBerry device

*Source: http://blog.crackpassword.com/2011/09/recovering-blackberry-device-passwords/

-

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – info.mkf file

-

/

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – info.mkf file

- When an upper case character is introduced, the english dictionary word list attack will always fail as it only examines lower case.

- So it might be worth while obtaining a keyword list from other related electronic exhibits which can be imported into EPPB or attempting a mutation attack.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – Chipoff

-

-

Option 1 and 2 are not available then only recourse is a chipoff.

Consists of device disassembly, chip removal, chip cleaning, and chip reading with a chip programmer.

This is destructive process to the device: you cannot power on the device to validate the parsing of the binary NAND/NOR dump.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – Chipoff

Best and currently the only tool that will decode a BlackBerry chipoff

NAND dump obtained through a chip programmer is UFED Physical

Analyzer (UFED PA)!

If BlackBerry device is attached to a BES, and you don’t have access to the BES, chip off is pointless as the data cannot be decrypted by any commercial tool at this time. Real world scenario: hostile BES,

BlackBerry seized and is usually PGP encrypted then you are at a dead end, even with chipoff.

Want to decode the device password from the chipoff NAND dump?

Remember this password may also unlock other devices!

Look at Trace Log and find SHA1 hash value; hash can be decrypted using these two links: http://www.stringfunction.com/sha1-decrypter.html

http://www.md5decrypter.co.uk/sha1-decrypt.aspx

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Locked BlackBerry – SHA1 Password

• The hash value is 40 characters in length, which is typically indicative of SHA1 value.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Encrypted AND Locked BlackBerry

This applies to

non-BES devices

, that just use the provided encryption (also called Content Protection options) for the device memory.

Take the SHA1 value and decode the hash with links presented previously, enter the password into the field and UFED PA will decrypt the data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices - Physical

Only tool that will obtain a physical read of the NAND over USB is UFED Classic or UFED Touch.

This is done using a bootloader injection, into the

RAM of the device.

This is the only way to obtain deleted artifacts and non saved BBM chat.

Resulting BIN file is opened in UFED PA for analysis.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices - Physical

- Process that I recommend typically is

UFED physical extraction, followed by

UFED file system (creation of IPD/backup) and UFED Logical parsed.

- Reason: to limit wear leveling functions on the NAND do physical first if UFED supports it then proceed to other extraction methods

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices – Physical – OOOPS!

BUT……This could happen to you if you go after the physical first and not logical:

So what happened to our unfortunate DFIR colleague?

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices – Physical – OOOPS!

Possible Scenarios:

1.

The BlackBerry device must be turned and unlocked for the UFED boot loader injection process to occur.

• Was it radio isolated, or did it briefly initiate a wireless connection?

2. If the device is attached to a BES, there is a BES IT policy that will initiate a device wipe if the BlackBerry device cannot receive an IT policy update or

IT administration commands, after a specified period of time between 2 and

720 hours.

• If the device is radio isolated then it cannot connect to the BES which could invoke the wipe IF this policy is enforced/enabled.

3. Could the bootloader injection have inadvertently triggered a device wipe?

• In the non-volatile (NV) memory store the device sets the

Device

Under Attack

flag. Once this bit is set,

nothing will clear this flag

except completion of the wipe.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices – Physical – OOOPS!

What actually happened (cited from the listserve email):

- No “factory reset.” What happened, I would call it “wipeout”, and

Cellebrite prefers calling it “cache memory reset”.

- Blackberry 9630, on Enterprise network, not used for more than half a year, and arrived in with the battery totally discharged.

- Connected to a charger, and as soon as it came to life, disabled

Wireless and Bluetooth (both were seen as enabled first).

- Close to the end of the process Cellbrite displayed a message, something along the following lines “Cellebrite is completing the physical extraction by rebooting/resetting (?) the phone”.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices – Physical – OOOPS!

What actually happened (cited from the listserve email):

- Post physical extraction: device checked, almost all the data was gone. Also, in the settings window “Connections” “Verizon

Wireless” was replaced with “Mobile Network”.

- …good news is that all the data was collected by Cellebrite, before it was lost.

- Cellebrite’s explanation: Cellebrite installs a client on the phone for the extraction, and needs to remove it when the extraction is completed. On Blackberry 9.x and earlier versions the phone has to be rebooted and this is what triggers “cache memory reset” and loss of data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices - Logical

-

-

For BlackBerry devices logical data extraction and parsing:

-

-

UFED Classic or Touch.

Oxygen Forensic Suite Analyst USB version.

XRY (Microsystemation)

-

Don’t forget about using BlackBerry Desktop

Software for Window or Mac in making a logical backup IPD file

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

-

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices – Other Tools

-

-

-

-

-

These tools connect to BlackBerry over

USB and extract the logical data structure:

EnCase 7

FTK MPE+

Secure View 3

Final Mobile (Final Data)

May be other tools, that are not listed here.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Unlocked BlackBerry Devices – Parsing Tools

-

These tools parse BlackBerry backup formats IPD and BBBv1:

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

UFED PA

Oxygen Forensic Suite Analyst

XRY

FTK 3.x and higher with FTK MPE

Elcomsoft BlackBerry Explorer (EBBE)

EnCase 7

EnCase 6 – with script from Yogesh Khatri: www.swiftforensics.com

Secure View 3

Final Mobile (Final Data)

BlackBerry Backup Explorer (Reincubate) – this will do IPD, BBBv1 and BBBv2 phoneMiner

Rubus (CCL Forensics, this is FREE): this allows deconstruction of backup file into its raw structure; does not parse into clean reporting format

MagicBerry (FREE): does NOT support decoding of all database structures

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Backup Formats

IPD File([email protected]ctive Pager Backup): This is a collection of the data structures called databases all coagulated into one unique backup file.

BBB File: v1 created by Mac version of BlackBerry

Desktop Software, IPD file contained within .bbb file which has a PK header signature (zip file)

BBB File: v2 created by Windows version of

BlackBerry Desktop Software v7.1.x and higher; the backup is contained within the .bbb file but each data structure is stored as individual .DAT file

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

-

BlackBerry Backup Formats

The IPD structure is not how the data exists on the BlackBerry device at a physical level: Logical versus physical of same record

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Backup Formats

-

-

BBB v2 backup format

The number of DAT files present in the Databases folder should match the number of databases listed in the Manifest.xml; this file is found within the root of the BBB compressed archive.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Date Formats

3 different date formats identified, and documented by Yogesh Khatri; http://www.swiftforensics.com/2012/03/blackberry-date-formats.htm

1. Phone Call Log, SMS, Phone History

• 8-byte length Java date value, which represents the timestamp in milliseconds, and is similar to Unix time values (which are 4 bytes).

• Also applies to BBM and PIN messages; dates in BE order (when data is viewed in BBM.db file or BBM Conversations file)

• The Win Hex/X-Ways Forensics Manual (1995-2006 Stefan Fleischmann), page

8, describes Java date as “a 64-bit integer value that specifies the number of milliseconds since January 1, 1970. Principally stored in big endian, which is the typical byte order in Java.”

• Unix timestamp (4 bytes, converted into their decimal equivalent) * 1000 = Java

Date.

• Java Date/1000 = Unix Timestamp

• This is also referred to as the BlackBerry® Date

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Date Formats

3 different date formats identified, and documented by

Yogesh Khatri; http://www.swiftforensics.com/2012/03/blackberry-dateformats.htm

2. Calendar

Calendar date values use number of minutes since 1 Jan

1900 0:0:0.

• Precision to only the number of minutes.

Yogesh Khatri cites this formula to obtain the unix time value:

• UnixTimestamp = (CalendarDate – 36816480) * 60

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Date Formats

3 different date formats identified, and documented by Yogesh Khatri; http://www.swiftforensics.com/2012/03/blackberrydate-formats.htm

3. Email

• Sent and Received dates are stored as a 2 byte date and 2 byte time value.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Endian Order

There is no real clear direction from BlackBerry in any official technical specifications on how to read the byte order of the data and also whether the byte order is signed or unsigned.

In the IPD structure both BE and LE ordering are used. -

The only fields that are identified by BlackBerry documentation, for the IPD/DAT file backup is the following as LE byte order:

-

-

-

record length database version database handle record type

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – BBM

-

-

BlackBerry devices that cannot use BlackBerry Messenger

5.0 or higher = take pictures; there is no backup mechanism

BBM Chat History: If save chat history option is enabled chat is saved in CSV format and stored in one of 2 locations:

memory card

or

content store data structure

on the device:

-

-

Paths:

-

/store/home/im/BlackBerry Messenger/<pinnumber>

/SDCard/BlackBerry/im/BlackBerry

Messenger/<pinnumber>

These locations will store CSV, .CON and .BAK files; CON and BAK files is the device user’s BBM contact list and the

BAK is the backup of the contact (CON) file.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – BBM Chat CSV

BBM Chat CSV File: Date/Time is 21 digit numeric value which, YYYYMMDD (first 8 digits reading from the left) followed by remainder 13 decimal values are actually the unix DATE AND TIME stamp numeric values in millisecond

Example: 20100129 1264804385552

-

-

Parsing CSV files: bbmessenger.py (Python 3 required)

https://sites.google.com/site/slosleuth/ (John Lehr)

Parsing CON/BAK files: ConParse (Java based)

https://github.com/sheran/bb-tools (Sheran

Gunasekera)

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts BBM

-

-

Using BBM 5.0 but no chat history save enabled;

Must do a physical extraction with UFED

Touch/Classic in order to obtain BBM chat data.

Enabling the save chat history feature will not work on chat conversations currently on the device; only affects new chat from the date the option was enabled.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – BBM.db

-

-

-

-

Found in BBM 6 and higher running BB OS 6.

BBM database file: bbm.db.

Proprietary database that contains BBM chat

even if option of saving chat history was NOT enabled

.

Also contains data similarly found in the CON and BAK files.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – BBM.db

A bbm.db file that is not encrypted can, generally, be divided into several areas:

• Device owner information

• BBM contacts

• Device owner time zone

• BBM chat content

Only one tool currently parses this right now – UFED

PA; OFS may also do this, but not tested.

• bbm.db is only observed to retain chat based on BBM app or OS upgrade/downgrade; meaning that there may be chat present on device that is not stored in the bbm.db file.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – BBM Conversations

• This was discovered by a colleague on examination of a BlackBerry 9900 running OS 7.x.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – BBM Conversations

• This file appears not much different than BBM.db and follows similar structure (grouped by PINs/Chats etc.) like the bbm.db file.

• It has only been observed on devices running OS 7.x.

• It contains the BBM contacts, and chat history, believed to be saved regardless of whether BBM save chat history option is enabled.

• The BBM Conversations folder can be obtained with a logical file system extraction.

• Tools that do parse the BBM Conversations structure:

• BlackBerry Backup Explorer (Reincubate)

• Tools that might or will likely parse the BBM Conversations structure:

UFED PA?

Oxygen Forensic Suite?

XRY?

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

iOS and Android BBM

• BBM for iOS is only supported for iOS 6 and 7.

• BBM for Android is only supported for Android OS (AOS) 4.0 and later.

• A BlackBerry Messenger ID is required.

• The Android or iOS device will be assigned a unique PIN, 8 characters long, randomly generated.

• Observed by both Sheran Gunasekera (aka Gunny), and Jose Garcia, the iOS and Android BBM app uses SQLite database to store its data.

• BBM 10 for also offers voice and video, which connects over Wi-Fi.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

iOS and Android BBM

Icons related to BBM 10 for Android, and iPhone cited from:

http://helpblog.blackberry.com/2013/10/getting-started-with-bbm-onandroid-and-iphone/

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

iOS and Android BBM

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts BBThumbs.dat

-

-

-

-

-

BBThumbs.dat:

Thumbnail cache of pictures currently or previously stored on the BlackBerry device or its associated memory card; typically observed in OS

5.x and older (pre OS 6.x)

Magic String/File Header: /x24/x05/x20/x03/

Paths:

• SDCard/BlackBerry/foldername/BBThumbs.dat store/home/user/foldername/BBThumbs.dat

The “foldername” referred to in the path can be videos, pictures, voicenotes, and likely also audiobooks, documents, music, podcasts and ringtones.

Records the file names of all files stored within that specific directory even if that file has been deleted.

BBThumbs.dat file related to the pictures directory only stores pictures (PNG,

JPG, GIF) inside it; for video BBThumbs.dat only filename is present, no image.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts BBThumbs.dat

Parsing BBThumbs.dat

1. bbt.py

(Python 2): https://github.com/sheran/bb-tools (Sheran

Gunasekera) can be used to parse the key/dat pair files and the older

BBThumbs.dat files. bbt.py will extract all the records in the BBThumbs.dat file.

If the record is a picture, then it extracts the thumbnail that is stored inside the BBThumbs.dat file and saves it.

Script output will show the filename, time stamp local to the device time and the SHA1 hash value for the record.

If the record inside BBThumbs.dat is not a picture file, then bbt.py will extract the metadata from the file. In this case the BBThumbs.dat file is from another folder such as video or voicenotes. The SHA1 will be for this record.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts key/dat

thumbsXXxXX.key/thumbsXXxXX.dat:

- Instead of BBThumbs.dat, for OS 6.x, the files come in

.key and .dat pairs named by the image size of the pictures that it is cataloguing – ONLY FOR PICTURES

Paths:

• SDCard/BlackBerry/system/media/thumbsXXxXX.dat

• store/appdata/rim/media/thumbsXXxXX.dat

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts key/dat

-

thumbsXXxXX.key/thumbsXXxXX.dat:

It is believed based on examination of multimedia content that the dat/key files only store metadata related to images and picture images present on the BlackBerry® device.

The KEY file is like an index table that contains byte values that provide indication of where the records exist with the DAT file:

The record in the DAT file contains images and other meta-data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts key/dat Parsing

-

Parsing thumbsXXxXX.key/thumbsXXxXX.dat:

-

1. bbt.py

(Python 2): https://github.com/sheran/bb-tools (Sheran

Gunasekera) can be used to parse the key/dat pair files and the older BBThumbs.dat files.

-

2. bbt.exe

(Windows executable): Based on

Sheran Gunasekera’s work, Detective John

Thompson (Special Investigations Section -

Technical Services Unit, Lakeland Police

Department) wrote a Windows based command line EXE that will work very similar to bbt.py.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts key/dat Parsing

-

Parsing thumbsXXxXX.key/thumbsXXxXX.dat:

-

3. BBThumbs EnScript

:

For those that use EnCase 6.x, a fellow colleague and very good friend, Special Constable

Jeremy Dupuis (Ontario Provincial Police) has developed an

EnScript that will run against thumbsXX and thumbsXX files with a DAT extension. Using the script: Blue checkmark one to multiple thumbs??x??.dat files and run script.

-

4. Commerical Tools:

UFED PA, Oxygen Forensic Suite

Analyst, Final Mobile etc – don’t forget to check these tools, as they do handle either the BBThumbs.dat variant and/or the

KEY/DAT files.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts art.dat files

-

xxxx

art.dat files (OS 6.x and higher):

-

Other multi-media content such as video, podcasts, music are stored in files that end with DAT; the file name is typically

xxxx

art.dat where xxxx represents the name of the type of multimedia content that it is referencing.

The xxxxxart.dat files are SQLite format 3 database files

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Voicenotes

-

Voicenotes metadata strangely is still stored in the BBThumbs.dat format.

Parsing videoart.dat files (OS 6.x and higher):

-

-

bbvideo.py:

we can parse the videoart.dat file and extract the BLOB data in from the SQLite database file. http://linuxsleuthing.blogspot.com

(John Lehr)

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts EXIF Pictures and Movies

Exif Data:

To understand how EXIF data is stored within multimedia content, refer to the

JEITA CP-3451 Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: Exif Version

2.2. pictures: can contain geotag data along with traditional date/time values, and make/model values.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

-

BlackBerry – Artifacts EXIF Pictures and Movies

Exif Data:

-

movies: no geo tagging or make/model embedded within movie files; usual time stamps values for media creation and embedded within the video file; and also the encoder value called “rimm” will be observed . voicenotes: none observed. -

BEST Exif Analysis Tool of Choice: ExifTool by Phil Harvey, does a great job!!!

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

EXIF Geo Data

For Geo Data to be written to a device created picture/image the following conditions must be present:

-

-

-

Device GPS Services must be enabled.

AND

The Camera GPS function must be enabled, by default it is disabled.

AND

Device must be capable of receiving GPS data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

EXIF Geo Data: Which Picture/Image Contains Geo Data?

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

EXIF DATA INCORRECT TIMESTAMPS IN

BLACKBERRY DEVICES

One critical observation made by a fellow research colleague, Sam

Brothers, Department of Homeland Security about EXIF values regarding BlackBerry® devices:

“Wrong EXIF data gets written for the 1 st

picture every time the phone goes to sleep or the screensaver goes on! So, EXIF in a BB cannot be relied upon. This has been validated on (2) devices thus far.”

It is unknown if the behavior described by Sam Brothers is consistent for every BlackBerry® device, across every OS iteration.

But this has been observed on BlackBerry OS 4, 5, 6 and 7 devices.

Blog Post where Steve Zenone also observes the same behavior: http://blog.zenone.org/2009/01/forensics-blackberry-curve-8310-and.html

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts REMF

-

-

-

-

REMF observed in file header? (Depending on your perspective

REMF could also mean Rear Echelon..ahemmm….…well…I am sure you get the rest!).

The .rem extension denotes an encrypted file, which can only be decrypted by the device that encrypted the files.

Another method is to use the latest version of UFED PA, or

Elcomsoft Phone Password Breaker and see if the .rem files can be decrypted.

The metadata files (like .dat, .key or BBThumb.dat) do not appear to be affected by the encryption despite having a .rem at the end of these files.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts REMF

• Looking at the file header of a rem encrypted JPG image we can see the header in ASCII is "REMF", or

52 45 4D 46h .

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

-

-

Event Logs: Similar to Windows Event Logs, the

BlackBerry® handheld device keeps event logs where applications and the BlackBerry® operating system can log information such as recently run events and system processes.

To view the event log, press ALT and press key sequence LGLG from the main (home) screen, which should work on all BB devices with a QWERTY keyboard.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

Event Logs:

The main purpose of these logs is to assist developers with debugging applications or services on the

BlackBerry® handheld device.

-

-

-

However, unintentionally, the Event Logs may also serve as a potential source of previously untapped digital evidence.

There has been no official documentation released by

BlackBerry® that the author can find, regarding how to interpret or read the event log data.

This data is volatile in that logs can roll over within 24-48 hours depending upon device usage and maximum log size limit.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

-

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

Easiest way to get the event logs from a device is using

BlackBerry Desktop Software:

Then access Support tools from:

Help (?) -> Support Resources -> Support Tools -> Generate

Support Log

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

-

-

-

-

In doing research with fellow colleague, Sheran

Gunasekera, we discovered that event logs retained call history data even after user deleted it from their device Phone Call app. http://chirashi.zenconsult.net/you-want-theblackberry-event-log-beg-damnit/

Only forensic tool that allows event log extraction during its logical stage is Oxygen Forensic Suite

UFED will obtain this only through a physical dump, which is later parsed by UFED PA; the BlackBerry

Event Log plugin must be run in order to review this data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

-

-

-

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

The date/time values are local to the device user’s time zone, in this case, Mountain Time (-7) GMT

The application that generated the event log will be preceded by the value “app:”, followed by the name of the application.

GUID: 16 alphanumeric characters associated to an event or occurrence.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

-

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

The first two lines have consistently been observed by the author in all event log extractions on a BlackBerry® Bold 9700

(OS 5.0.0.862, Bundle 1446, Platform 5.1.0.175).

• guid:0x97C9F5F641D25E5F time: Wed Dec 31 17:00:00

1969 severity:0 type:2 app:System data:JVM:INFOp=33759974, a='5.0.0.862' , o='5.1.0.175' , h=4001507

-

-

-

-

The PIN # of device in hexadecimal is identified as p=33759974

OS version: a='5.0.0.862'

Platform: o='5.1.0.175'

Hardware ID: h=4001507

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

Evidence of call history in BlackBerry 9700 device event log

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:

StartCall: Raw Num

guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:

PHONE: connecting 4032068645

guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:StartCall,"4032068645",0 guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:Conf t+1 guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:Ret,1 guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:

EV_CALL_INITIATED(1)

guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:CallName,1,"false","" guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:sAct guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:53:56 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:

phone: audio source on

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:00 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:CallName,1,"false","" guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:00 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:CallName,1,"false","" guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:02 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:Delivered,1 guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:03 2010 severity:0 type:2 app: PhoneApp data:endcallbyuser 1 guid:0xE68C69BA0F2EBC4D time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:03 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:CC data:StopCall,1 guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:03 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:dAct guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:03 2010 severity:0 type:2 app: PhoneApp data:callsmpt; switchbg=false guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:03 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:PHONE: callId 1 stops listening. guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:03 2010 severity:0 type:2 app:PhoneApp data:uAct guid:0xDDA0BC913B6AAEEC time: Thu Dec 02 20:54:03 2010 severity:0 type:2 app: PhoneApp data:EV_CALL_DISCONNECTED(1)

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

BlackBerry Event log timestamps from a physical memory acquisition are stored as 4 byte length (32 bytes total), LE order

01 E1 FF FF 56 05 00 00 3B 00 DD 9A 61 4D 00 4D BC 2E

0F BA 69 8C E6 47 65 74 43 61 6C 6C 4E 75 6D 62 65 72

2C 38 2C 22 66 61 6C 73 65 22 2C 22 34 30 33 38 37 35

36 37 36 36 22 FF 2C 00 00 00 00 00 FF FF

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

01 E1 FF FF 56 05 00 00 3B 00 DD 9A 61 4D 00 4D BC 2E

0F BA 69 8C E6 47 65 74 43 61 6C 6C 4E 75 6D 62 65 72

2C 38 2C 22 66 61 6C 73 65 22 2C 22 34 30 33 38 37 35

36 37 36 36 22 FF 2C 00 00 00 00 00 FF FF

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

Real world example:

• A Bluetooth (BT) device has been paired with

BlackBerry device. Question – ‘Are you aware of any timestamp information related to the TIME the device was in use recorded on a BB?’

• Answer: Check the event log – but I don’t know what event log strings identify BT activity, as I have not had an opportunity to test this. Run the

UFED PA plugin for BlackBerry event log.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry – Artifacts Event Logs

Real world example:

• Results: LE entity had a UFED Physical memory acquisition of BlackBerry device and they found……

Bluetooth pairing is always logged! And in this case, the BT pairing was not observed, hence BT was not used during vehicular operation

Device in hand of driver while two calls were being manually placed 17 minutes before the 911 call.

Event log recorded the device has been manually slid open by the user (only certain types of BlackBerry 7 devices came in a slider form factor).

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware

2006:

First known BlackBerry® malware (August 2006), developed by security researcher, Jesse D'Aguanno, called BBProxy, which exploits the link of a BES connected device via its email server.

A BES connected BlackBerry® has a constant connection to its corporate Local Area Network (LAN) which was used in this exploit, also making it difficult to detect the compromise into the corporate network as the data traffic is going through RIM’s encrypted tunnel between the BlackBerry® and its BES network.

2009: “spyware” that was pushed to Etisalat users as update, in the

UAE by its telecommunications provider.

2010: Zeus: malware Trojan targeting the BlackBerry® and Symbian series 60 devices designed to capture banking credential login data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware

Infection Vectors (IV):

Can be grouped into two overall categories:

1.

Wired: Memory Card, Synchronization between computer/laptop and device.

2.

Wireless: BT, IR, SMS, MMS, IM, Email,

PIN to PIN.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware

Commercial Spy Ware:

• There are numerous commercial spy ware programs that promote themselves as monitoring software (parental control, employee monitoring, GPS tracking):

• MobiStealth

• FlexiSpy

• Mobile-Spy

• eBlaster Mobile

• Spy Bubble

• Neo-Call

• eStealth

• Spyera

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware: Installation/Infection

Requirements

• As tested by the author on a BES and non BES device using eBlaster Mobile.

• BES connected BlackBerry installation was unsuccessful, due to the BES and device policies in effect = VERY

SECURE!

• Need to have physical control of device.

If device is password protected, need to know the password.

BlackBerry OS 5, 6, 7 , there is a setting for having the device prompt the device user on application install; default is No .

• Installation of spyware is either OTA or OTW.

• The spyware will likely use a keystroke combination to invoke the application settings and configuration.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware: Detection Measures/Steps

Start simple and work your way through the continuum:

1.

2.

Device battery draining quicker than usual which cannot be attributed to battery or device malfunction. Device overheating may also be another symptom that presents along with battery exhaustion. This was experienced by Etilsalat compromised devices.

Review of device owner’s carrier billing records indicates a sudden data spike in data usage that is outside of the normal data usage over a given time period.

3.

4.

Does review of data traffic logs from carrier point to specific external IP address, email address or phone number?

Receipt of unusual emails from unknown recipients or presence of SMS and PIN messages not identifiable by the device owner; this data may represent control channel messages, which are control commands sent to the malware application.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware: Detection Measures/Steps

Data Analytics:

1.

BlackBerry Event Log: may or may not present signs that device is infected. Applications are not required to write to the device event log.

2.

Device running, dormant and hidden processes: May need to place device into EScreen or Engineering

Screen mode in order to obtain this information.

3.

Extraction and Review of System COD Modules and

Files: A malware application can cause itself to be hidden from view. The FLAG_HIDDEN bit must be set to false in order for an application to hide itself from view in the applications list.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware: Detection Measures/Steps

Data Analytics:

4 . Extraction and analysis of device physical memory (if possible), IPD (backup file), as well as any associated memory and/or SIM card.

5 . Review of each applications permission categories.

6 . Device Malware Scan: may or may not be successful. Either through on device installation of a scanner or scan of acquired data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

• MobiStealth infected device: Screenshot of data resident from an Blackberry 9550 IPD file:

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Observation 1:

What we are observing within the orange rectangle is device downloads from the internet for

BlackBerry® Messenger (BBM).

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Observation 2:

• What we are observing within the orange rectangle is device downloads from the internet for BlackBerry®

Messenger (BBM).

• Due to the large size of the file (and restrictions upon maximum file size for COD files) we see at least 27

COD files, based on RIM-COD-Size-27, related to

BBM that vary in size from 65 KB to 72 KB.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Observation 3:

We see access from the device to a number of resources from URL link: http://mobistealth.com/asset/new/

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Observation 4:

To verify if the resources still reside at the specific URL’s visit http://mobistealth.com/asset/new/EmailSystemClient.

cod ;

Result: total of three COD files that make up the entire

MobiStealth application for this specific device:

• EmailSystemClient.cod

• EmailSystemClient-1.cod

• EmailSystemClient-2.cod

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Observation 5: Artifact Identification:

Multiple COD filenames that identify the actual name of the rogue software that should also be observed on the infected host.

Creation Times in Unix epoch time format

SHA1 hash values of COD files

IMEI value of host device (sanitized in the screenshot)

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Observation 5: Artifact Identification:

Multiple COD filenames that identify the actual name of the rogue software that should also be observed on the infected host.

Creation Times in Unix epoch time format

SHA1 hash values of COD files

IMEI value of host device (sanitized in the screenshot)

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Investigator also provided this snippet to me:

• Keyword search in EnCase 6.x of hard drive image for “mobistealth” shows hits in unallocated space (of the suspect hard drive) that appear like the following:

··

GET /bbchat_history.php?cmd=search

HTTP/1.1

Host: www.mobistealth.com

User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0

(Windows ; U; Windows NT 6.1; en-US; rv:1.9.2.13)

Gecko/20101203 Firefox/3.6.13

Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+ xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8 Accept-Language: enus,en;q=0.5 Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate Accept- Charset:

ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7 Keep-Alive: 115 Connection: keepalive

Referer: http://www.mobistealth.com/sms_history.php?cmd= search Cookie: PHPSESSID=1c1aq7t5pu8l9c450ta9duh4i6;

MobistealthVisitor=32c06 ffa5972c8cc8e00b0b86a1257cc;

SERVERID=web2

;

__

utma=192346166.1897014666.1297088891.1297088891.1297088891.1;

__utmb=192346166.4.10.1297088891; __utmc=192346166;

__utmz=192346166.1297088891.1.1.utmcsr

=(direct)|utmccn=( direct)|utmcmd=(none) ö£n;an·€··hn»t·ì·f–ØŠ¸õ˜

›óçKÉ:ηý|·,é>9·¹DœXð|Q_‘×·œ5¶%•¼û9?·P·ð¾ ñ)·Sm ƒðÕZ3¸æã‡EÂè·ù

>·zHÂéš¡¹‡”æÊ L =ÎÃPÝz!›rÓo1ª·™´·4 Ö? qÆÝ·· Ë

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

• GET request using likely a Mozilla type browser; user has logged into mobistealth user account and is accessing sms history and bbm chat.

··

GET /bbchat_history.php?cmd=search

HTTP/1.1

Host: www.mobistealth.com

User-

Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows ; U; Windows NT

6.1; en-US; rv:1.9.2.13) Gecko/20101203

Firefox/3.6.13

Accept:

Referer: http://www.mobistealth.com/sms_his tory.php?cmd=search Cookie:

PHPSESSID=1c1aq7t5pu8l9c450ta9duh4i6;

MobistealthVisitor=32c06 ffa5972c8cc8e00b0b86a1257cc; SERVERID=web2

;

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

• UTM = Urchin Tracking Module

• Google Cookie Data:

• various types of utm values: utm[a|b|c|z]

• Anatomy of _umta:

• __utma=<domain hash>.<unique visitor id>.<timstamp of first visit>.<timestamp of previous

(most recent) visit>.<timestamp of current visit>.<visit count>

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

• __utma=<

domain hash

>.<

unique visitor id

>.<

timstamp of first visit

>.<

timestamp of previous (most recent) visit>.<timestamp of current visit

>.

<visit count>

• __utma=

192346166

.

1897014666

.

1297088891 .1297088891.1297088891

.

1

;

__utmb=192346166.4.10.1297088891; __utmc=192346166;

__utmz=192346166.1297088891.1.1.utmcsr=(direct)|utmccn=( direct)|utmcmd=(none)

<domain hash>.192346166

<unique visitor id>.1897014666

<timstamp of first visit>.1297088891 = Mon, 07 February 2011 14:28:11.

UTC = date of visit to Mobistealth

<timestamp of previous (most recent) visit>.1297088891

<timestamp of current visit>. 1297088891

<visit count> 1

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Malware Case Study: MobiStealth Infection

Summary

1. Suspect’s computer hard drive contains a BlackBerry backup IPD file of the victim’s BlackBerry device, which shows her device accessing and downloading (OTA install) the mobistealth software as segmented files.

2.Suspect’s computer hard drive shows, that computer was used to login to a mobistealth user account where the BBM chat and SMS history web pages were accessed.

3. If the ‘infected’ device has been analyzed, it should show the presence of the EmailSystemClient.cod file.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Safe Mode/JVM Error Codes

Safe mode:

can be used to prevent third-party applications from running automatically.

Safe mode is designed to allow troubleshooting or remove any unwanted applications. only works on OS 4.6 and higher.

Steps to enabling safe mode:

Remove and reinsert the BlackBerry® smartphone battery.

When the red light-emitting diode (LED) light goes out, press and hold the

Escape key as the BlackBerry® smartphone is loading. See KB05470 for the location of the Escape key.

When the dialog box appears, click OK.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Safe Mode/JVM Error Codes

JVM Error Codes

• It is possible for JVM Errors to occur when interacting with the underlying BlackBerry® smartphone hardware that is no longer operating as expected.

• An example of such a failure would be the corruption of the physical flash memory.

• JVM errors may also occur as a result of software related issues.

• Reloading BlackBerry® Device Software is not option for a device that is considered to have evidence on it.

• Safe Mode may help you resolve Java Errors

• If Safe Mode does not work, then your only recourse is a chip off solution (no guarantee of success).

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry: SIM Number Spoofing

Could one edit the phone number assigned to the SIM and spoof’s one number to appear as something different through the Edit Phone

Number feature?

The author did perform some limited testing on a BlackBerry Bold 9700; OS

6.0.0.448; Platform 6.6.0.124 in May 2012.

In OS 6 this is found under: Options -> Device -> Advanced System

Settings -> SIM Card.

Shows SIM ICCID and Phone Number assigned to SIM.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry: SIM Number Spoofing

Press Menu key to invoke the context options window: Access the

Edit SIM Phone Number function: Options -> Device -> Advanced

System Settings -> SIM Card -> Menu Key -> Edit SIM Phone

Number

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry: SIM Number Spoofing

Phone number is changed by 1 digit: from +14039096120 to

+14039096121

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry: SIM Number Spoofing

New message indicator also appears after edit of SIM phone number.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry: SIM Number Spoofing

In the call history screen what appears on the author's private

BlackBerry® device as My Number is: +1 403 909 6121 and not the carrier assigned number of +1 403 909 6120.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry: SIM Number Spoofing

A screenshot from a SIM extraction performed only with Cellebrite

UFED shows the MISDN value as +1 403 909 6121. This shows that the Edit SIM Phone Number function, through the device, will cause a write to occur to the SIM.

Connecting the device (with SIM in the device) to BlackBerry Desktop

Software, it shows the edited phone number of +1 403 909 6121.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry: SIM Number Spoofing

Calls from this number spoofed device, show up as the original number!

The device event log was extracted, and shows that a phone number change did take place.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10

• First released in January 2013 as a Z10; this was followed by Q10 (keyboard) and then

Z30.

• The BB 10 device essentially comes with

16GB internal flash memory, 2GB RAM and accepts up to a 32GB memory card and contains the same basic hardware infrastructure commonly observed in smartphones.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 - Hardware

• The Z10 model is touch screen, and comes in several sub-variants for its baseband configurations.

• STL100-[1-4]

• The STL100-1, which is non-LTE, uses the ST-

Ericsson Thor chipset with TI OMAP; this uses a

PowerVR SGX 544 GPU.

• The STL100-[2-4] variants, which are all LTE, use the Qualcomm MSM8960 (Qualcomm Snapdragon

S4 Plus) chipset which are dual core 1.5GHz and contain an Adreno 225 GPU.

Source: Ralf-Philipp Weinmann., BlackBerry 10 OS from a security perspective, University of Luxembourg, black hat USA 2013 Presentation.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 - OS

• Runs the QNX (Unix) based operating system and is considered a micro kernel architecture for embedded systems in comparison to the Monolithic Android

Kernel.

• The function of the micro kernel

• handle execution of processes passed to it by the process manager; it does not deal with the file system and does not contain device drivers.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 - OS

*Image Source:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/OS-structure.svg/450px-OS-structure.svg.png

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microkernel

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 - OS

• Within the logical file system, QNX is mounted at /pps.

• A number of different functions are running on top of kernel and user land [4]:

• PIM (Personal Information Manager) certain parts of the

PIM are written in Python.

Adobe Air and QT are used in some of the apps like

Weather app.

*Sources:

Android 2.3 Java runtime is present: but you need to convert APK files into BAR files in order to run Android app in BB OS 10.

1. Antukh, A., BlackBerry Z10 Research Primer: Dissecting BlackBerry 10 – An initial analysis, SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab, Vienna, 05/2013, V 1.0 Whitepaper

2. Plasket, A., Is BlackBerry Dead? An Introduction to Blackberry 10 Security (BB10 - QNX), MWR InfoSecurity, PowerPoint Presentation

3. Lanier, Z., & Nell, B., Voight-Kampff'ing The BlackBerry PlayBook, Intrepidus Group Mobile Security, PowerPoint Presentation

Blog: http://blog.n0where.org/2012/04/voight-kampff-blackberry-playbook.html

4. Ralf-Philipp Weinmann., BlackBerry 10 OS from a security perspective, University of Luxembourg, black hat USA 2013 Presentation.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 - OS

QNX firmware contains the following unique artifacts from analysis perspective [1,2]:

File header: mfcq (ASCII), 6d 66 63 71h

Partition header: qcfp (ASCII), 71 63 66 70h

• There are a number of partitions that follow the follow the file header; in the BlackBerry

Playbook for example, 5 QCFP partitions are observed in the firmware.

Sources:

1. Antukh, A., BlackBerry Z10 Research Primer: Dissecting BlackBerry 10 – An initial analysis, SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab, Vienna, 05/2013, V 1.0 Whitepaper

2. Lanier, Z., & Nell, B., Voight-Kampff'ing The BlackBerry PlayBook, Intrepidus Group Mobile Security, PowerPoint Presentation

Blog: http://blog.n0where.org/2012/04/voight-kampff-blackberry-playbook.html

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – OS Permissions

• Permissions in QNX in BB OS 10 are handled by 'authman' which is located at /etc/authman/sys.acl [2,3,4].

• Applications are installed to /apps and they cannot read another application's code or data; this is controlled by

'authman' [2].

• Application permissions are handled by authman: permission categories allow, prompt and deny [2,3].

• Allow: identified apps can use the permission assigned to them.

• Prompt: the app must prompt the user first.

• Deny: the app cannot use a capability.

Sources:

2. Plasket, A., Is BlackBerry Dead? An Introduction to Blackberry 10 Security (BB10 - QNX), MWR InfoSecurity, PowerPoint Presentation

3. Lanier, Z., & Nell, B., Voight-Kampff'ing The BlackBerry PlayBook, Intrepidus Group Mobile Security, PowerPoint Presentation

Blog: http://blog.n0where.org/2012/04/voight-kampff-blackberry-playbook.html

4. Ralf-Philipp Weinmann., BlackBerry 10 OS from a security perspective, University of Luxembourg, black hat USA 2013 Presentation.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Security

1. The BlackBerry device contains the same foundation of security feature as observed in BB OS 7:

• Password Protection

Encryption for device and/or memory card

• Device wipe for device and/or memory card

2. BlackBerry ID: The device user is asked to create or sign in with their BlackBerry ID before they can go any further into the device on first setup.

3. BlackBerry Protect: This comes installed as part of the operating system and a BlackBerry ID is required for this feature to work. This allows device geo location, device wiping, and device backup/restore.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Security

4. Application Permissions: This lets the user control what an application can access. Permissions settings for applications are located in:

Settings -> Security and

Privacy -> Application Permissions

.

5. If the device is attached to a BES 10, the BlackBerry

Balance feature can be applied to the BlackBerry 10 device allowing separation of work and personal areas.

This separation allows the BES administrator to easily remove the data from the workspace without affecting the personal space.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Security

6. From an operating system security perspective the

BlackBerry 10 has the following exploit mitigation measures

[4]:

• DEP/XN (Data Execution Prevention)

• ASRL (Address Space Randomization Layout),

• PIE (Position Independent Execution),

• full RELRO (RELocation Read Only): see this link for an explanation about RELRO http://tkblog.blogspot.ca/2009/02/relro-not-so-well-knownmemory.html

• But no heap hardening.

Source: 4. Ralf-Philipp Weinmann., BlackBerry 10 OS from a security perspective, University of Luxembourg, black hat USA 2013 Presentation.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: Picture Password

Picture Password:

• Introduced in in OS 10.2.1.

• Uses a number combination of 0-9 and a picture to lock and unlock the device.

• Requires a device password to be set in case you forget your Picture Password or if you need to access your device from a computer using BlackBerry Link.

• After five failed attempts to unlock your device using

Picture Password you’ll be prompted for your device password instead.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: Picture Password

Source: http://n4bb.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Picture-Password.jpg

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: Picture Password

To unlock the device you drag the number you have chosen, to the specific point on the picture you have chosen.

You do not need to tap the number. The number is moved by sliding the number grid so the number you have chosen is in the correct place on the picture.

Difficult to ascertain what your password is as the numbers and size of the grid varies each time.

Image Source: https://encryptedtbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTDqcTcNqszN1lNz

OEt4k3DiQ8SOd9winkCQfeDPHASWEZ4hSNe

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EScreen

• BlackBerry 10 also has an engineering screen, or

EScreen which is invoked in a very similar manner to its predecessors.

• Several websites that show how to do this: one is

http://crackberry.com/how-access-engineeringscreen-blackberry-10

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EScreen

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EScreen

• One interesting aspect of the engineering screen is

Remote Log Collection.

• On the device user first has to manually enable diagnostic and usage data collection under

Settings-

>Privacy & Security -> Diagnostics

.

• The feature ‘Send diagnostics and usage data’ is set to ‘Off’ by default. The data collected by this function is tied to the settings that are enabled in the QUIP

Remote Log Collection.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EScreen

A screenshot shows the QUIP Remote Collection features. By default this is not enabled and what you are seeing are not default settings.

*Image Source:

Ralf-Philipp Weinmann., BlackBerry 10 OS from a security perspective, University of Luxembourg, black hat USA 2013

Presentation.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EScreen

With Diagnostics enabled in the Settings-

>Privacy & Security -> Diagnostics

AND

• Remote Diagnostics and Log Capture turned on , different types of data can be collected which includes:

screen captures, raw memory dumps, audio, video, and GPS location

.

*Image Source:

Ralf-Philipp Weinmann., BlackBerry 10 OS from a security perspective, University of Luxembourg, black hat USA 2013 Presentation.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• When a password protected BlackBerry 10 device connects to the computer, regardless of operating system, the user will be prompted to enter the password in BlackBerry Link.

• The total number of password attempts is 5. In contrast BB OS 7 and lower devices with

BlackBerry Desktop Software are allowed 10 attempts.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• BlackBerry 10 devices can be accessed over Wi-

Fi using BlackBerry Link software on Windows or

Mac; this allows the ability to sync multi-media content, and documents between the device and computer over Wi-Fi instead of USB.

By default the option to connect the

BlackBerry device to BlackBerry Link over Wi-

Fi is enabled

. Disabling this feature within

BlackBerry Link does not affect the Wi-Fi settings on the device.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• Within the BlackBerry Z10 device specifically under

‘Storage and Access’

the device can be accessed using

Wi-Fi through either a Windows or Mac OS X computer.

• This is disabled by default on the device and is different than the Wi-Fi access via BlackBerry Link. If this is enabled on the device, the user will be prompted to create a Password Wi-Fi Storage Access.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

Image Source: http://helpblog.blackberry.com/2013/03/copy-z10-files-wifi/

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• When a BlackBerry Z10 device connects to a Windows machine, two network drive locations were mounted on the author's machine; they are recognized as NTFS file systems by Windows 7.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• If the device is password protected, the password must be entered on the first instance of connecting, within

BlackBerry Link, before the volumes will be mounted.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• Using the BlackBerry Device Manager Properties,

Connected Devices tab, we can see that Volume Z is internal memory and Volume Y is the Removable SD card.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• The internal volume (Z:) contains two more folders: misc and print.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

When a BB 10 device connects to this Mac OS X the following volumes are mounted:

• media, dtm and if the device contains a removable SD card this too will be mounted.

In terminal the 'mount' command was run which identifies the mounted volumes, which shows 3 volumes mounted in Mac OS X.

//[email protected]/removable_SDCARD on

/Volumes/removable_SDCARD (smbfs, nodev, nosuid, mounted by qubyte)

//[email protected]/media on /Volumes/media (smbfs, nodev, nosuid, mounted by qubyte)

//[email protected]/dtm on /Volumes/dtm (smbfs, nodev, nosuid, mounted by qubyte)

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Connected to Windows 7 or Mac OS X

• The 'smbfs' indicates Samba file system which is accessed over a network path a smb://169.254.251.197/volumename.

• Because it recognized as a network share, even though it contains an NTFS file system, the Mac OS X system can also write to it. If this were mounted as block device, the user would not be able to write to either drive natively because contains an NTFS file system.

• Backup files on a Mac OS X are stored to the following location:

• /volumename/Users/username/Documents/BlackBerry

Backups

A synchronization folder for multimedia content will also be created usually in the same path location:

/volumename/Users/username/Documents.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: Log Files

• BlackBerry 10 log files can be collected using the

BlackBerry Link Software:

• Checking the ‘Gather extra log information’ requires the

BlackBerry 10 or Blackberry Playbook to be connected to

BlackBerry Link. This is how event logs are obtained from these devices.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: Log Files

• The log file (from a BlackBerry Playbook) is stored in a

ZIP archive format to the desktop of the computer in this case.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: Log Files

• Device717264340-201310211249.pb archive contents.

• The filenames are prefixed with a UNIX epoch time value in decimal and contain an 'aes' extension, which is likely indicative of AES encryption

.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Backups

BlackBerry 10 device backups can be created ONLY using BlackBerry Link for Windows and Mac (this does not include any third party tools capable of creating backups).

For the BlackBerry Playbook, both BlackBerry

Desktop Software and BlackBerry Link for Windows and Mac can be used.

The resultant files are identified with a ‘.bbb’ extension.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – BBB Files

The BBB files are ZIP archives that contain two child files and one child folder called ‘Archive’.

Two files: these two files do not get encrypted during the backup process, at the present time.

PkgInfo:

Contents of this file can also be viewed in a text or notepad type editor as shown below.

BlackBerryBackupFormatV2.0.0

Research In Motion http://www.blackberry.com/ http://www.rim.com

1726dfe6f5336a9f1a3da1ceb11ecb69

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – BBB Files

• Manifest.xml for a BlackBerry Playbook:

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<BlackBerry_Backup>

<Client platform = "windows" osversion = "Microsoft Windows NT 6.0.6002 Service Pack 2" dtmversion = "6.1.0.35" />

<Version> 2.0

</Version>

<Encryption type = "RIM_AES_CBC" version = "1.0" Salt = "" />

<SourceDevice pin = "500F54B8" hwid = "6001A06" >

<Platform type = "QNX" version = "1.0.7.2670" />

</SourceDevice>

<QnxOSDevice>

<Archives>

<Archive id = "app" name = "Application Data" count = "51" bytesize = "541257216" />

<Archive id = "media" name = "Media" count = "11" bytesize = "1728000" />

<Archive id = "settings" name = "Settings" count = "994" bytesize = "1368064" />

</Archives>

</QnxOSDevice>

</BlackBerry_Backup>

BlackBerry 10 – BBB Files

• Manifest.xml for a BlackBerry 10

:

• Note the ‘keyid=‘ value, which is the BlackBerry 10 user’s BlackBerry ID value as an email address

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – BBB Files

Within the ‘Archive’ folder three TAR files are present: apps.tar, media.tar and settings.tar.

The contents of these files are encrypted regardless of which BlackBerry backup software was used and regardless of the device being password protected or not.

The decryption of the BBB cannot be disabled from within the software or the device.

The TAR files headers differ between the Playbook and BlackBerry Z10.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Playbook TAR Header

• File Header: This consistently appears in all three TAR files regardless of software used or the OS platform the BBB is generated on.

51 4E 58 00 30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 31 38

36 61 h

'QNX 0 186a' in ASCII; the gap between the '0' and the start of '186' is separated by 7 null values or 0x00.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Playbook TAR Header

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Z10 TAR Header

• File Header: This consistently appears in all three TAR files regardless of software used or the OS platform the

BBB is generated on.

50 45 52 00 31 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

31 38 36 61 30h

'PER 1 186a0' in ASCII; the gap between the '0' and the start of '186' is separated by 7 null values or 0x00.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Z10 TAR Header

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: Data Extraction/Analysis

Oxygen Forensics has a solution in place for the BlackBerry 10 backups.

UFED can acquire limited amount of data at this time. This may improve in future versions.

A chip off dump of the BB 10 device is encrypted at the chip level, as discovered by

Bob Elder.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10: BBB Backup File

Oxygen Forensic Suite (OFS) Analyst 6.1.x and higher can parse a BlackBerry 10 backup file:

provided you know the password to the device owner's BlackBerry ID account

(which may or may not be the same as the device password).

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Files with OFS

• Import the BBB file using either File -> Import or the

Oxygen Forensic Extractor.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Files with OFS

Once you have selected the backup file, OFS will identify the email account used by the device owner to access his/her

BlackBerry ID account. The password to the BlackBerry ID account will be required in order for OFS to decrypt the backup and subsequently parse the data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Files with OFS

OFS decrypting BBB TAR files with QBEK Key.

The QBEK Key is associated to the urn:bbid:backupandrestore key [7,8]:

• urn = uniform resource name

• The remainder of URN syntax consists of the namespace-identifier

(NID), separated by a colon, and then the namespace-specific string (NSS).

The BlackBerry ID is associated to the encryption of the BlackBerry

10 backup.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Files with OFS

• End result of decryption and parsing

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Files with OFS

• The File Browser feature allows you to export the folders/files out of OFS for use in other forensic tools like

UFED PA or XWF.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Structure

The BlackBerry logical file system data consists of the following types:

SQLite databases in .db and .dat format

XML files

INI files

BIN files

And various other types of files whose contents are in plain text such as .conf files.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Structure

The three TAR files when decrypted consist of three folders: app, media and settings:

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Structure

app Folder

This folder contains the applications that are on the device, containing folders with long names.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Structure

app Folder

• Naming convention follows as:

• com.XXXX.gYABG string

• sys.XXXX.gYABG string

• The XXXX = resource or application name then followed by a gYABg, which appears to an obfuscated string of alphanumeric characters.

• Expanding the folder structure shows that in almost all, if not all, folder sub paths, there is an folder structure as:

• /com.resrouce.gYABg string/appdata/data

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Structure

media Folder

This folder contains the storage areas for user created content, and downloaded content as shown below.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Structure

• Be cognizant that all BlackBerry 10 smart phone devices come with an microSD memory card, which will contain a similar directory structures as shown below.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 Backup Structure

settings Folder

This folder contains the storage areas for the user account, system/device settings and var (variable data) folders with subfolders.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 PIM Data

• Refers to personal information organized in a range of different application functions such as calendar, emails, address/contact book, tasks, and reminders.

/app: subfolders contained in various sub-folders, is found under the following sys.pim folders.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 PIM Data

/settings/accounts/1000/sysdata/pim

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 PIM Data - Calendar

• 1-pim.db located at:

\settings\accounts\1000\sysdata\pim\db.

• CalendarEvent table

• Time values: two time stamp columns in human readable time, stored relative to

UTC/GMT.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 PIM Data - Contacts

• 2-pim.db located at

\settings\accounts\1000\sysdata\pim\ db.

• The information related to a contact is spread across these various tables.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 PIM Data - Call History/Call Log

8-pim.db located at

\settings\accounts\1000\sysdata\pim\db.

Two tables, 'Call' and 'CallDetail' contain similar records; both tables should be analyzed and cross-referenced to detect differences in the data contained therein.

• Time values stored in human readable time, stored relative to UTC/GMT.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 PIM Data – Tasks/Reminders

• 18-pim.db located at

• \settings\accounts\1000\sysdata\pim\db.

On the BlackBerry device this data is classified under the 'Remember' application.

• Time values stored in human readable time, are presumed to be stored relative to UTC/GMT.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 - SMS/MMS

messages.db located at

• \settings\var\db\text_messagingsettings\.

Message content in the Attachments table.

• Timestamp values in Messages table under timeStamp and creationDate columns are stored as 13 character decimal value, which is a Unix epoch time stamp.

• the inbound fields in the Messages table:0 = sent message, and 1 = received message. the senders name address for sent messages are empty, and the sendersid value is negative integer, -1.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – BBM

the master.db located at

• \sys.bbm.gYABgLOJBR2Vz7FzS.kdgJchuag\appdata\ data.

BBM avatar picture resides the in the photos subdirectory, and is named using the BlackBerry PIN value of the device.

Timestamp field is a 10 character decimal value

(compared to the 13 digits for text messages), which is

Unix epoch time.

Because BBM allows voice and video chat, these events are also stored in the messages.db; the CallEventId field assigns an incremental decimal value for the start and end of each voice or video chat.

IsInbound value: 0 = sent message, and 1 = received message

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – BlackBerry Hub (BBH)

The BlackBerry Hub includes: call log, voicemail notification, email, sms, mms, social networking notifications, BBM, instant messaging, BBM calendar events, and notifications.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – BlackBerry Hub (BBH)

BBH unintentionally acts as timeline of activity of the

BlackBerry 10 device, as it includes data from a number of application areas.

Path:

\sys.pim.messages.gYABgJ8jn83Ok_NEWYplPYozt5

w\appdata\data\unfied.db

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – BlackBerry Hub (BBH)

The unified.db database holds some excellent artifacts such as:

• Type: identifies the application such as callog, whatsapp, sms, notification, bbm.

• TimeStamp: 13 character decimal value, Unix epoch time.

• IconPath: indicates the status of the data such as

• sms_read phone_missed phone_outgoing phone_incoming bbm_read notification_read

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

The Internet history artifacts are stored in several areas within the backup structure.

Internet Artifacts Location 1:

\app\sys.browser.gYABgJYFHAzbeFMPCCpYWBtHAm0\appdata\data\ chrome\database\Databases.db

• This file identifies the name of three databases, so next we examine the database files listed in the path field, which are all stored in the same sub directory structure.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Carrier bookmarks = 0000000000000001.db: this contains the carrier provided website bookmarks.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Bookmarks and History = 0000000000000002.db: this contains the device user's Internet history and user bookmarks:

• The history table, urlKey field, is related to the urls table id field

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Permissions = 0000000000000003.db: this database contains permissions that are assigned to it by the device user.

• In this case, it appears as though the Google Maps URL has been given permission to access the device, based on the allow value of 1. The value of 0 = not allowed.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Internet Artifacts Location 2:

• The next file of interest is the local__0.localstorage SQLite file located at:

\app\sys.browser.gYABgJYFHAzbeFMPCCpYWBtHAm0\appdata\data\chro me

This contain the browser settings in the local__0.localstorage SQLite file.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Internet Artifacts Location 3:

• The areas of interest are the files and folders stored in the path at:

\app\sys.browser.gYABgJYFHAzbeFMPCCpYWBtHAm0\appdata\da ta\webviews

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Internet Artifacts Location 4:

• Browser cache files are stored at the path:

• \app\sys.browser.gYABgJYFHAzbeFMPCCpYWBtHAm0\appdat a\data\webviews\cache

• \app\sys.browser.gYABgJYFHAzbeFMPCCpYWBtHAm0\appdat a\data\webviews\cache\[data_1|data_2|data_3]

The cache can also include Google Map tiles that are cached when accessing Google Maps for location and map information from the device.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Cache Example

: this google map tile shows an area of northwest

Edmonton AB along the ring road, Anthony Henday Dr.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

The file system time stamps from XWF 17.5 SR6 show that the file was created on 2013-09-30 07:44:53 -6. During that week the author (along with another colleague) was in Edmonton, attending an X-Ways Forensics Class!

• By looking at the remainder of the google map tile files, and the proximity of the time stamps for the surrounding google map tiles, an inference can be drawn as to where the device (and possibly the device owner/user) was.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Examining the subfolder below the cache, which is the data_1

(and the remaining ‘data_X’ folders, we can see that it contains search query strings.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Internet Artifacts Location 5:

• This location path contains cached web based email content, stored in SQLite databases.

• Path:

\app\sys.browser.gYABgJYFHAzbeFMPCCpYWBtHA

m0\appdata\data\webviews\database

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

In the root of the database folder there is a

Databases.db which identifies the email account relative to its corresponding database file.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

0000000000000001.db:

• The tables contain time values as Unix epoch time, from 13 – 16 decimal characters in length.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Internet

Internet Artifacts Location 6:

• This path location contains the visited URL's accessed by the device.

• Path

\app\sys.browser.gYABgJYFHAzbeFMPCCpYWBtHAm0

\sharewith\search

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Pictures

Several categories of pictures that can be found on the

Blackberry 10 device.

1. First category is user created pictures taken with the

BlackBerry 10 device:

• Under 'Camera Settings' if the 'Save on Media Card is 'On' then device created pictures are saved to the memory card under the path /sdcard/camera.

• If the 'Save on Media Card' is set to 'Off' then the device created pictures are saved to the device memory at /media/camera.

• Under 'Camera Settings' if the 'Geotag Pictures' is 'On' this will add the device's GPS location to the pictures, provided that it can receive the GPS signal.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Pictures

2. Second category is device created screenshots.

This refers to the device user taking a screenshot of the contents being displayed on the BlackBerry 10 device by pressing the Volume Up AND Volume Down buttons.

There is no EXIF data present in a BlackBerry 10 PNG screenshot picture.

The image is saved as a PNG file in the \media\camera, NOT the memory card regardless of the 'Camera Settings' -> 'Save on Media Card is 'On' feature.

• The PNG file name will be IMG_YYYYMMDD_XXXXX.PNG and contains the date and time the PNG file was created.

YYYYMMDD = 4 decimal values to represent year, 2 decimal values to represent, 2 decimal values to represent day.

X = time in 24 hour format down to seconds.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Pictures

3. Third category is pictures stored in /sdcard/photos or /media/photos.

The author has observed the /media/photos folder location will store pictures transferred, during an upgrade from an older BlackBerry device that contains pictures, to a BlackBerry 10 device.

The file name convention of a WA image contains a date value as

YYYMMDD followed by WAXXX, where the XXX is a 3 digit numeric sequence.

The date value will match the date the picture is received by the device.

The images are stripped of any of the usual EXIF data.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EXIF Pictures

EXIF Summary

1. BlackBerry 10 software 10.2.1.2141:

• Embeds the date and time value, local to device time, within the file name of the picture created using the Camera application of the device.

Now adds the Model value of BlackBerry Z10 within the EXIF, which was not done prior to 10.2.1.2141.

• If the BlackBerry 10 device OS was

less than

10.2.1.214, the file name convention DOES NOT contain date or time value. It is formatted as IMG_ XXXXXXXX.JPG, where XXXXXXXX equals an

8 character, sequential numeric value.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EXIF Pictures

EXIF Summary

2. Regardless of the BlackBerry 10 OS version, within the EXIF, there is a unique string value, 'RIM0RD00' in pictures created with the camera application. I refer to this as the ‘

MNUT Value

’.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EXIF Pictures

EXIF Summary

3. Pictures, taken with a BlackBerry Z10, viewed on the memory card, through the device, under the camera folder, appear to show a

Modified Date value with wrong offset calculation being applied.

As an example we are going to look at file properties of the following files as displayed by the BlackBerry Z10:

• IMG_20140314_215602.jpg: As the filename indicates, the picture was taken with a BlackBerry Z10 on 2013-03-14,

21:56:02, local device time.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EXIF Pictures

EXIF Summary

3. The 'Modified Date' value is shown with a

minus 6 hour difference

in time relative to the filename time value.

• offset should be 6 hours (plus 6 hours) ahead of the filename time value, so the Modified Date value should show as Mar 15, 2014 at 3:56:02 AM.

• offset is being calculated in the wrong direction, if the intent is to show the Modified Date value in

UTC.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EXIF Pictures

EXIF Summary

3. ExifTool 9.56 output of IMG_20140314_215602.jpg.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EXIF Pictures

EXIF Summary

4. The time values that are within the EXIF data of pictures created with BlackBerry Z10 device contain the time values of picture creation relative to the device's local time.

5. GPS data is present in EXIF so long as that option is enabled in the Camera settings and the device can receive the GPS signal. In the screens shots below the GPS Lat and Long values have been sanitized.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Movies

There are several categories of movies that can be found on the

Blackberry 10 device.

1. First category is user created movies taken with the BlackBerry

10 device:

• Under 'Camera Settings' if the 'Save on Media Card is 'On' then device created movies are saved to the memory card under the path /sdcard/camera.

• If the 'Save on Media Card' is set to 'Off' then the device created pictures are saved the device memory at /media/camera.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Movies

2. Second category is movies stored in /sdcard/videos or

/media/videos.

• These locations are believed to contain content downloaded by the device or sent by messaging to the device.

• Note the file naming convention difference between first and second file indicates the MP4 files were created with two different BlackBerry 10 operating system versions. This follows the same pattern as was noted with the pictures.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Movies

VID_20140315_101232.mp4

This movie file was created on 2014:03:15 10:12:54 -06:00.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – EXIF Movies

EXIF Movie Summary

File format or file type is mp4.

The EXIF time values are stored in UTC relative to the local device time zone offset.

• There is no indication the movie files are created with a

BlackBerry device compared to BlackBerry 7 and lower where movie files had a string value in the EXIF called 'rimm'.

• Naming convention, in BlackBerry 10 device lower than

10.2.1.214, will not include the date and time local to the device in the file name.

• No geo-data is present in a movie file created with the

BlackBerry 10.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: BBM PROFILE CORE

The profile file stores the device user's BBM profile information.

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\bbmcore\profile

• The 'registrationId' value is 12 decimal characters in length.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings:

BP2P DEVICES

This stores the devices the BlackBerry 10 has connected with.

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\bp2p\devices

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings:

IMSI VALUE

IMSI value is found in the status_private file:

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\cellular-voice service\status_private

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: TIMEZONE

Time Zone Artifact 1:

Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\clock\status

Time Zone Artifact 2:

Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\confstr\ _CS_TIMEZONE

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: DATE & TIME

Stores the device date & time settings

.

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\network-time

The status file, shown in the above screenshots contains the settings for:

• auto_time value = Set Date and Time Automatically is set to 'On' in Date and

Time settings on the device.

• auto_zone value = Auto Update Time Zone is set to 'On' in Date and Time settings on the device.

• The last_update value is a 10 character decimal value, Unix epoch time.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: HOSTNAME

Contains the device name.

Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\confstr\ _CS_HOSTNAME

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: PHONE NUMBER

Phone number used by BlackBerry 10 through its SIM.

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\phone\

• This folder path contains 3 sub folders each contain files with names ‘vchat’ and ‘cellular’.

• The path shown below contains vchat and cellular files.

\settings\pps\services\phone\private\lines

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: PHONE NUMBER

• vchat file contains the PIN number.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: PHONE NUMBER

cellular file contains a number of interesting artifacts, which includes the phone number, voicemail passcode, and the value that caller identify is restricted.

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: NETWORK NAME

There are two files that contain the network operator name: navigator_status and status_public.

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\services\rum\csm

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: CAMERA

The status file stores save location of the data created using the Camera application, and also records the filename of the last captured file.

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\system\camera

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry 10 – Settings: DEVICE MODEL NAME

AND MODEL NUMBER

The device properties file stores the device model name and model number information.

• Artifact Path: \settings\pps\system\restricted

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

BlackBerry Forensics - CONCLUSION

BlackBerry 7 and lower versus BlackBerry 10/BlackBerry

Playbook: Two different schisms.

BB7 (proprietary JVM) has no real file system from a physical level perspective compared to its BB10 (QNX) successor.

BB 10 backup files are encrypted by default using

BlackBerry Link.

Remember to validate what you have observed in this presentation, as there is no official support from BlackBerry on the interpretation of any BB7 or BB10 artifacts.

And finally – thanks for your patience and looking through all the slides!

June-19-14

Copyright © QuByte Logic Ltd

Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement