WaveLab Elements - Operation Manual

WaveLab Elements - Operation Manual
Operation Manual
Cristina Bachmann, Heiko Bischoff, Christina Kaboth, Insa Mingers, Sabine Pfeifer,
Benjamin Schütte
This PDF provides improved access for vision-impaired users. Please note that due to the
complexity and number of images in this document, it is not possible to include text descriptions
of images.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. The software described by
this document is subject to a License Agreement and may not be copied to other media except
as specifically allowed in the License Agreement. No part of this publication may be copied,
reproduced, or otherwise transmitted or recorded, for any purpose, without prior written
permission by Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. Registered licensees of the product
described herein may print one copy of this document for their personal use.
All product and company names are ™ or ® trademarks of their respective holders. For more
information, please visit www.steinberg.net/trademarks.
© Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2013.
All rights reserved.
Release Date: June 18, 2013
Table of Contents
6
6
7
8
8
Introduction
The Help System
About the Program Versions
Typographical Conventions
How You Can Reach Us
9
9
9
10
10
13
14
Setting Up Your System
Connecting Audio
About Audio Cards and Background
Playback
About Latency
Defining VST Audio Connections
CD/DVD Recorders
Remote Devices
20
20
21
23
28
28
29
30
32
32
WaveLab Elements Concepts
General Editing Rules
Basic Window Handling
Selecting Audio
Sliders
Renaming Items in Tables
File Browser
Tab Groups
Peak Files
Companion Files
34
34
35
37
38
43
43
45
46
53
54
56
Program Overview
Command Bars
Status Bar
Context Menus
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Value Editing
Drag Operations
Undoing and Redoing
Zooming
Managing Tabs
Presets
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
58
58
58
61
65
66
67
67
68
70
File Operations
Recently Used Files
Save and Save As
Templates
File Renaming
Deleting Files
Special Menu
Temporary Files
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
Setting the Focus on the Current File
71
71
72
72
73
73
73
74
About Workspaces
Elements of a Workspace
Audio Files Workspace
Audio Montage Workspace
Podcast Workspace
Opening Files in a Workspace
Organizing Workspace Windows
About Tool Windows
78
78
92
93
93
94
95
96
Playback
Transport Bar
Playing Back Only One Channel
Starting Playback From the Ruler
Using the Play Tool
Playback Scrubbing
Scroll During Playback
About Playback in the Audio Montage
Workspace
97 Audio File Editing
97 Wave Window
101 File Handling in the Audio Files
Workspace
123 Changing the Audio Properties
125 Meta-Data
128 Silence Generator Dialog
130 Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
131 Audio Analysis
131 Global Analysis
141 3D Frequency Analysis
3
144
144
145
145
147
148
149
150
150
151
153
154
Offline Processing
Applying Processing
Gain Dialog
Normalize Level Dialog
Fades in Audio Files
Crossfades
Inverting the Audio Phase
Reversing Audio
DC Offset
Time Stretching
Pitch Shift
Resample
156
156
157
159
160
161
199
202
203
203
205
Audio Montage
Basic Terminology
Montage Window
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
Creating an Audio Montage from an
Audio File
Import Options for Audio Montages
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
Assembling the Audio Montage
Rearranging Clips
Clip Editing
Track Activity Indicator
Envelopes for Clips
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio
Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master
Output
About the CD Window
About Cloning Audio Montages
Mixing Down - The Render Function
Loudness Meta Normalizer
Notes Window
206
206
207
208
Recording
Setting Up the Recording Dialog
Dropping Markers During Recording
Recording Dialog
214
215
226
231
235
236
Master Section
Master Section Window
Rendering
Saving a Master Section Preset
About Monitoring Background Tasks
About Dropouts
161
162
163
169
171
180
180
185
189
237
237
238
241
244
245
245
245
246
247
247
248
Markers
Marker Types
Markers Window
About Creating Markers
Deleting Markers
Moving Markers
Navigating to Markers
Hiding Markers of a Certain Type
Renaming Markers
About Selecting Markers
Selecting the Audio Between Markers
Binding Markers to Clips in the Audio
Montage
248 How Marker Information is Stored
249
249
249
250
250
253
254
Metering
Metering Window
About Meter Settings
Resetting the Meters
Level Meter
Spectroscope
Oscilloscope
255
255
257
258
261
265
Writing Operations
Write Audio CD Dialog
Erase Optical Media Dialog
About Writing Audio Montages
Data CD/DVD Projects
About Audio CD Formats
269
269
270
280
Loops
Basic Looping
About Refining Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable
Audio
283 About Sample Attributes
285
286
290
291
291
292
4
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Searching Track Names on the internet
About Ultra-Safe Mode
Converting Audio CD Tracks to an
Audio Montage
293
294
299
299
300
300
301
302
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Global Podcast Options
Creating a Podcast
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
Publishing a Podcast
FTP Site Dialog
Checking the Podcast
303 Customizing
303 Customizing the Wave Window and the
Montage Window
312 About Customizing Shortcuts
316 Plug-ins Organization
324
324
332
334
335
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Settings Management
Multi-User Settings
337
337
342
361
369
369
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Sonnox Restoration Toolkit
Legacy Plug-ins
Dithering Plug-ins
371 Index
5
Introduction
The Help System
The detailed help system of WaveLab Elements makes it easy to look
up interface features and get information from within the program.
Three main types of help are available:
•
The help provides detailed information on the features and
functionality of WaveLab Elements. You can set bookmarks, and
use the search function and index to quickly find information.
•
“What’s This” tooltips give detailed information on the functionality
of a specific user interface element.
•
The status bar at the bottom of each workspace window gives
detailed information on menu items when moving the mouse over
an item.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, the status bar shows what kind
of editing can be performed when using the mouse and modifier
keys.
Accessing the Help System
There are several ways of accessing the help system.
•
To open the WaveLab Elements help, select Help > Contents.
•
To open the manual in PDF format, browse to the installation
folder. The documents are located in the Documentation folder.
•
To show tooltips, move the mouse over an interface icon.
•
To open the help for the active dialog, click the question mark icon
on the title bar (Windows) or in the dialog (Mac OS) to show the
Help button, and then click the Help button, or press [F1]
(Windows) or [Command]-[?] (Mac OS).
6
Introduction
About the Program Versions
•
To use the menu help, move the mouse over a menu item. The help
text is displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the workspace
window.
•
To see information on what kind of editing can be performed when
using the mouse and modifier keys in the audio montage window,
move the mouse over the montage window. The help text is
displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the workspace
window.
•
To activate/deactivate the help texts on the status bar, select
Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global preferences >
Display tab, and in the Workspaces section, select Display
status bar.
To open the “What’s This” help, you have the following possibilities:
•
In any workspace, press [Shift]-[F1], and move the mouse over an
interface item, or select Help > What is this?.
•
In a dialog, select the question mark icon on any title bar
(Windows) or in the dialog (Mac OS), and move the mouse over
an interface item or a menu option.
•
Some “What’s this” tooltips have a different background color to
indicate that a dedicated help topic is available in the WaveLab
Elements help. Click the link in the tooltip to open the
corresponding information in the help.
About the Program Versions
The documentation covers two different operating systems, Windows
and Mac OS X. Some features and settings are specific to one of the
operation systems.
This is clearly stated in the applicable cases. If nothing else is said, all
descriptions and procedures in the documentation are valid for all
WaveLab Elements versions for both Windows and Mac OS X.
The screenshots are taken from the English Windows version of
WaveLab Elements.
7
Introduction
Typographical Conventions
Typographical Conventions
Many of the default key commands in WaveLab Elements use modifier
keys, some of which are different depending on the operating system.
For example, the default key command for Undo is [Ctrl]-[Z] on
Windows and [Command]-[Z] on Mac OS X.
When key commands with modifier keys are described in this manual,
they are shown with the Windows modifier key first, in the following way:
•
[Win modifier key]/[Mac modifier key]-[key]
For example, [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Z] means “press [Ctrl] on Windows or
[Command] on Mac OS X, then press [Z]”.
Similarly, [Alt]/[Option]-[X] means “press [Alt] on Windows or [Option]
on Mac OS X, then press [X]”.
NOTE
This manual often refers to right-clicking, for example, to open context
menus. If you are using a Mac with a single-button mouse, hold down
[Ctrl] and click.
How You Can Reach Us
On the Help menu in WaveLab Elements, you find items linking to
additional information.
The menu contains links to various Steinberg web pages. Selecting a
menu item automatically launches your browser and opens the page. On
these pages, you can find support and compatibility information,
answers to frequently asked questions, information about updates and
other Steinberg products, etc. This requires that you have a web
browser installed on your computer, and a working internet connection.
8
Setting Up Your System
Before you start working, you need to make some settings.
IMPORTANT
Make sure that all equipment is turned off before making any
connections.
Connecting Audio
Your system setup depends on many different factors, for example, the
kind of project that you want to create, the external equipment that you
want to use, or the computer hardware available to you.
About Audio Cards and Background
Playback
When you activate playback or recording in WaveLab Elements, other
applications cannot access the audio card. Likewise, if another
application uses the audio card, WaveLab Elements is unable to play
back. The Windows MME driver is an exception from this.
You can run WaveLab Elements together with other applications and
always give the active application access to the audio card.
To do so, select Options > VST Audio Connections, and on the
Options tab, activate Release driver when WaveLab is in
background.
9
Setting Up Your System
About Latency
About Latency
Latency is the delay between when audio is sent from the program and
when you actually hear it. While a very low latency can be crucial in a
real-time DAW application such as Steinberg Nuendo or Cubase, this
is not strictly the case with WaveLab Elements.
When working with WaveLab Elements, the important issues are
optimum and stable playback and editing precision. You should not try
to reach the lowest possible latency figures.
The latency in an audio system depends on the audio hardware, its
drivers, and settings. In case of dropouts, crackles, or glitches during
playback, raise the Buffer Number setting on the VST Audio
Connections dialog, or increase the buffer size in the ASIO control
panel, specific to the audio card.
Defining VST Audio Connections
To be able to play back and record audio in WaveLab Elements, you
must specify how the internal input and output channels in WaveLab
Elements are connected to your sound card and which device you
intend to use for audio playback and recording.
You can define the buffer settings for your device as well as set up
connections to external gear, such as external effects units. You should
select at least two channels for stereo playback and recording.
If you have no third-party audio card, you can select the Windows MME
driver or Built-in Audio (Mac) options. You can also use MME with most
third party audio cards, with the advantage that you can record and play
at different sample rates. However, Windows MME drivers do not allow
audio monitoring in the Recording dialog or multichannel operation, and
other drivers generally offer better sound quality and performance.
10
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
Selecting an ASIO Driver
Audio Stream Input/Output (ASIO) is a computer device driver protocol
for digital audio specified by Steinberg. It provides a low-latency and
high fidelity interface between a software application and the soundcard
of a computer.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> VST Audio Connections.
2.
From the Audio Device menu, select your ASIO driver.
The ASIO plug-ins tab and the Control panel button are activated.
3.
Optional: Click the Control panel button and make your settings.
4.
On the ASIO plug-ins tab, select the audio ports that are used for
recording and monitor input of the ASIO plug-ins.
5.
Click OK.
Selecting a Windows MME Driver
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> VST Audio Connections.
2.
From the Audio Device menu, select the Windows MME driver.
3.
On the Playback tab, select the audio ports that are used for
playback.
4.
On the Recording tab, select the audio ports that used for
recording and monitor input.
5.
Click OK.
VST Audio Connections Dialog
This dialog allows you to specify how the internal input and output
channels in WaveLab Elements are connected to your sound card and
which device you want to use for audio playback and recording.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
VST Audio Connections.
11
Setting Up Your System
Defining VST Audio Connections
Global Settings
Audio device
Here, select the audio device that you want to use for playback and
recording audio. If you do not have a third-party audio card, you
can select the Windows MME driver or Built-in Audio (Mac)
options.
Control panel
When you select an ASIO driver, the Control panel button is
activated. Click the button to open the settings application of your
sound card, which is usually installed with the sound card.
Depending on your sound card and driver, this provides settings
for buffer size, digital formats, additional I/O connections, etc.
Refresh
This button causes audio devices to be evaluated again to reflect
device changes.
Playback Tab
This tab allows you to select and name audio ports that are used for
playback.
Recording Tab
This tab allows you to select and name your audio ports that are used
for recording and input monitoring. The inputs that you define here are
then available in the Recording dialog.
Options Tab
This tab allows you to specify the number of buffers and the control
driver functionality.
Buffer Number
Increasing this value improves the elasticity of audio streaming to
avoid dropouts.
12
Setting Up Your System
CD/DVD Recorders
MME Specific - Buffer size
Increasing this value improves the elasticity of audio streaming to
avoid dropouts. This is only available when an MME driver is
selected.
Initialize streaming engine at first use
Initializes the audio streaming engine when playback or recording
are used for the first time. If this option is deactivated, the audio
streaming engine is initialized at program startup.
Reset driver when changing sample rate
Resets the driver when sample rate is changed. When playback or
recording must be set to a new sample rate, certain audio device
drivers must be fully reset to work properly. This operation takes
some time.
Perform short fade-in/out when starting/stopping playback
Performs a short fade-in when starting playback and a short
fade-out when stopping playback. This avoids clicks that are
caused by waveforms that are not starting on a zero-crossing
point.
Release driver when WaveLab Elements is in background
Closes the audio device when WaveLab Elements is no longer the
front application. This allows other audio applications to use the
same audio device.
CD/DVD Recorders
For general instructions on installing internal or connecting external
recorders via USB or Firewire, please refer to the instruction manual for
your computer or your recorder.
Make sure to have the latest firmware version installed on your recorder
unit. For CD recorders, the existing firmware must support disc-at-once
mode. In addition, running a unit with older firmware can prevent you
from writing sub-index markers into the tracks, for example.
13
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Remote Devices
You can use remote devices to remote-control WaveLab Elements.
Several commands can be controlled with knobs and sliders of your
remote control device.
Remote Devices Dialog
This dialog allows you to select a device to remote-control WaveLab
Elements, and see the control map of MIDI control devices.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Remote devices.
Device Editing Tab
This tab lets you select a MIDI control device and see the control map.
Active
Activates the selected device and scans the MIDI ports.
In-Port/Out-Port
Select the MIDI input/output ports of the device that you want to
use.
Name
Lets you enter a map name.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree of the control map.
14
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
WaveLab Elements action list
This folder tree lists the parameters that you can remote-control.
The top folder represent contexts. The related parameters can only
be controlled if the context is active. For example, if an audio file is
active.
A remote control can be used in several contexts if these are
exclusive. For example, parameters that can be used for an active
audio file or an active audio montage.
The Global folder contain the parameters that can always be
controlled.
Options Tab
This tab lets you use the MIDI Learn function to assign a control of a
MIDI remote control device to a function.
Emulate mouse wheel
If this option is activated, the AI knob acts as a mouse wheel in the
WaveLab Elements user interface, except for plug-ins.
Edit focused numeric field
If this option is activated, the AI knob can be used to edit the
focused numeric field that you find in many WaveLab Elements
windows and dialogs.
CC121 Advanced Integration Controller
You can use Steinberg's CC121 Advanced Integration Controller to
control WaveLab Elements.
This section describes the WaveLab Elements factory preset for the
CC121. For detailed information on how to use the controller, refer to
the manual that came with the CC121. Note that the CC121 was
originally designed for Cubase. The following mapping combines the
WaveLab Elements functionality with the CC121 controls. The controls
that are not listed in the following paragraph are not assigned to a
parameter.
Channel Section
You can use all controls of the CC121 channel section, except the
fader, to control the elements of the selected track in a WaveLab
Elements audio montage. You can use the fader for the Master Section.
15
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Fader
Controls the Master Section fader.
PAN knob
Controls the gain of the selected track.
Mute
Mutes/unmutes the selected track.
Solo
Activates/deactivates solo for the selected track.
CHANNEL SELECT
Selects the previous/next track in the audio montage.
To move the cursor to the previous/next clip edge in the audio
montage, hold [Alt]/[Option]. To move the cursor to the
previous/next region edge, hold [Shift]. To move the cursor to the
previous/next marker in the Audio Files workspace, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command].
EQ Section
With the EQ section you can easily control the Steinberg Studio EQ
plug-in.
If the EQ TYPE button is activated on the CC121, you can adjust the
parameters of the focused Studio-EQ. All necessary EQ parameters,
such as Q/F/G of each band, EQ TYPE selection, and ALL BYPASS
on/off can be set. You can switch to WaveLab Elements navigation
mode by turning off the EQ TYPE button. In WaveLab Elements
navigation mode, you get access to alternative functions, such as
scrolling, zooming, and switching between workspaces.
EQ Type activated:
Bandwidth knobs (Q)
Adjusts the Q (bandwidth) of each EQ band.
Frequency knobs (F)
Adjusts the center frequency of each EQ band.
Gain knobs (G)
Adjusts the gain of each EQ band
ON
Activates/deactivates the EQ bands.
ALL BYPASS
Activates/deactivates bypass for all plug-ins in the Master Section.
16
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
EQ Type deactivated:
LOW ON
Opens the Audio Files workspace.
LOW-MID ON
Opens the Audio Montage workspace.
HIGH-MID ON
Opens the Batch Processors workspace.
HIGH ON
Opens the Control Window.
EQ-1 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Scrolls left/right on the timeline.
EQ-2 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Adjusts the horizontal zoom on the timeline.
EQ-3 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Adjusts the vertical zoom on the timeline.
EQ-4 knob for the EQ Gain (G)
Scrolls tracks on the Audio Montage workspace or scrolls
vertically on the Audio Files workspace.
EQ-1 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Scrolls left/right on the overview timeline of the Audio Files
workspace.
EQ-2 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Horizontally zooms in/out on the overview timeline of the Audio
Files workspace.
EQ-3 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Vertically zooms in/out on the overview timeline of the Audio Files
workspace.
EQ-4 knob for the EQ Frequency (F)
Vertically scrolls on the overview timeline of the Audio Files
workspace.
Transport Section
In this section you can control the transport functions of WaveLab
Elements.
Previous button
Moves the cursor position to the beginning of the project.
17
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
Rewind button
Rewind
Forward button
Forward
Next button
Moves the cursor position to the end of the project.
Cycle button
Activates/deactivates Cycle mode.
Stop button
Stops playback. Press again to move the cursor to the previous
start position. Press a third time to move the cursor to the
beginning of the project.
Play button
Starts playback.
Record button
Press once to open the Recording window. Press again to start
the recording. Press a third time to stop recording. The recorded
file opens in the Audio Files workspace.
Function Section
In this section, you can adjust certain functions, such as fades and
envelope level, by using the VALUE knob.
VALUE knob/button
Rotate this knob to adjust the assigned function. Press the knob to
reset the parameter to its default value.
FUNCTION button 1
Adjusts the fade-in settings of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 2
Adjusts the fade-out settings of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 3
Adjusts the envelope level of the focused clip.
FUNCTION button 4
The element clicked last on the Edit > Nudge menu in the Audio
Montage workspace is assigned to this button.
18
Setting Up Your System
Remote Devices
AI Knob Section
WaveLab Elements can be controlled with the AI knob of Steinberg’s
CC121, CI2+, and CMC-AI controllers. With the AI knob, you can
control the parameter that the mouse points to.
NOTE
The AI knob only works on parameters that are automatable.
In this section you can control parameters via the AI knob.
AI KNOB
Controls the VST 3plug-in parameters, emulates the mouse wheel,
for example, for scrolling, and lets you edit a focused numeric field.
To control a parameter with the AI knob, move the mouse cursor
over the parameter that you want to control, and move the AI knob.
You can activate/deactivate the emulation of the mouse wheel and
the editing of the focused numeric field in the Options tab.
LOCK
When the mouse cursor points to a parameter, press LOCK to
control this parameter regardless of the position of the mouse
cursor.
CUBASE READY Indicator
The CUBASE READY indicator has no function in WaveLab Elements.
Foot Switch Section
The foot switch has the same function as [Shift]. Press and hold the foot
switch while turning the AI knob to fine tune parameters.
19
WaveLab Elements Concepts
This chapter describes general concepts that you will use when
working with WaveLab Elements. Getting accustomed with these
procedures allows you to work more effectively with the program.
General Editing Rules
The common editing operations can be used in any Steinberg product.
•
To select and move interface items, and to select ranges, click and
drag with the mouse.
•
Use the keys of your computer keyboard to enter numeric values
and text, to navigate lists and other selectable interface items, and
to control the transport functions.
•
Common operations like cut, copy, paste, or the selection of
multiple items can be performed using standard keyboard
shortcuts.
NOTE
The behavior of your product is also governed by your preference
settings.
RELATED LINKS:
“Global Preferences Dialog” on page 324
20
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Basic Window Handling
Basic Window Handling
WaveLab Elements follows the basic guidelines for the Windows/Mac
OS interface, which means that Windows/Mac OS standard
procedures apply.
Closing Windows
•
To close a tabbed window, click the “X” button of the
corresponding tab or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[W].
•
To close a tabbed window without saving your changes, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift], and click the “X” button. This avoids
having to confirm a warning message whenever you want to close
an unsaved window.
•
To close all tabbed windows at once, right-click a tab, and select
Close all.
•
To close all tabbed windows but the selected tabbed window,
right-click a tab, and select Close all but this one.
•
To individually select the tabbed windows that you want to close,
right-click a tab, and select Select files to close. This opens the
Files to close dialog, where you can select the files that you want
to close.
RELATED LINKS:
“Files to Close Dialog” on page 53
“Managing Tabs” on page 53
Switching Between Files
You can have multiple files open and switch between them.
•
To bring a file to the front, click the corresponding tab.
•
To cycle between all open files in a workspace, hold
[Ctrl]/[Command], and press [Tab] continuously.
•
To cycle back and forth between the last two active files, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Tab]. Between each step you have to release
all keys.
•
To cycle backwards, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift]-[Tab].
21
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Basic Window Handling
Window Switcher
The window switchers let you easily switch between workspaces,
create new workspaces, or open existing projects. There are two types
of window switchers: The central switcher bar and the floating window
switcher.
The floating window switcher behaves like the central switcher bar, but
takes less room and floats above other windows.
•
To activate/deactivate the central switcher bar, in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace
> Command bars > Central switcher bar.
Using the Central Switcher Bar
You can use the central switcher bar to navigate through your
workspaces.
•
To copy a file from one workspace to another, drag it to the button
of the workspace that you want to open, wait until the workspace
becomes active, and release the file where you want.
•
To create a new file in any workspace, press [Ctrl]/[Command],
and click a workspace button.
•
To open the Open window to select a file, press [Shift], and click
a workspace button.
•
To display a menu listing the files that have recently been used in
a particular workspace, right-click any workspace icon.
•
To create a new file or open a file, right-click any workspace icon,
and select New or Open. While left-clicking activates a
workspace, right-clicking does not activate a workspace.
22
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Selecting Audio
Customizing the Central Switcher Bar
You can customize the central switcher bar using the settings menu.
To open the settings menu, right-click an empty part of the central
switcher bar.
Hide
Hides the central switcher bar.
Fold
Minimizes the central switcher bar to a thin line. To unfold the bar,
click the thin line.
Left side/Top/Right side/Bottom
Determines the location of the central switcher bar.
Large/Medium/Small size
Determines the size of the central switcher bar.
Workspace buttons
Determines which workspace buttons are visible on the central
switcher bar.
Selecting Audio
Almost all types of editing and processing that you perform in WaveLab
Elements operate on the audio selection. There are numerous ways to
make an audio selection.
To select the whole audio file, double-click it. If the audio file contains
markers, triple-click it.
23
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Selecting Audio
Selecting a Range by Dragging
The standard way to select a range in a wave window is to click and
drag.
If you drag all the way to the left or right side of the window, it scrolls
automatically, allowing you to select larger sections than what can be
shown in the window. The speed of the scrolling depends on how far
from the window edge you are.
Audio Range Selection in an Audio File
You can edit, process, or play back selection of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Select time range.
All
Selects the entire waveform.
Toggle
Toggles the current audio selection on/off.
Extend to start of file
Extends the selection to the start of the audio file. If there is no
selection, a selection is created from the edit cursor position.
Extend to end of file
Extends the selection to the end of the audio file. If there is no
selection, a selection is created from the edit cursor position.
Extend to previous marker
Extends the left edge of the selection to the nearest marker to the
left or the start of the audio file. If there is no selection, a selection
is extended until the edit cursor position.
Extend to next marker
Extends the right edge of the selection to the nearest marker to the
right or the end of the audio file. If there is no selection, a selection
is extended until the next marker position.
Extend to cursor
Extends the selection to the edit cursor position.
From start of file until cursor
Selects the range between the start of the audio file and the edit
cursor position.
24
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Selecting Audio
From cursor to end of file
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the end of
the audio file.
From cursor to previous marker
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the nearest
marker to the left or the start of the audio file.
From cursor to next marker
Selects the range between the edit cursor position and the next
marker or the end of the audio file.
Playback position => Selection start
Creates a selection range from the playback position to the end of
the audio file. If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit
cursor is used.
Playback position => Selection end
Creates a selection range from the playback position to start of the
audio file. If no playback is taking place, the position of the edit
cursor is used.
Double length
Doubles the length of the current selection range.
Halve length
Halves the length of the current selection range.
Extend to all channels
Extends the current selection range to all channels.
Left channel only
Reduces the current selection range to the left channel only.
Right channel only
Reduces the current selection range to the right channel only.
Loop region
Selects the range between the two loop markers that encompass
the edit cursor.
Generic region
Selects the range between the two generic markers that
encompass the edit cursor.
25
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Selecting Audio
Selecting in Stereo Files
If you are working on stereo material in the Audio Files workspace, you
can apply an operation to one channel only or to the entire stereo
material.
Which channel is selected when you click and drag in the wave window
depends on where you position the mouse cursor, as indicated by the
pointer shape. The pointer shape indicates which channel will be
affected.
The following pointer shapes are available:
Pointer
Shape
Description
Clicking in the upper half of the left channel selects the left
channel.
Clicking in the middle area between the left and the right channel
selects both channels.
Clicking in the lower half of the right channel selects the right
channel.
Switching the Selection Between Channels
You can switch the selection that you have made for a channel to all
channels or switch the selection to the other channel.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace’s wave window, make a selection
range.
2.
Select Edit > Select time range, and select Extend to all
channels, Left channel only, or Right channel only, or press
[Tab] to cycle between the different channel selections.
Selecting in the Overview of the Audio Files Workspace
The selection ranges that you make in the overview of the Audio Files
workspace also apply to the main view.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace’s wave window, hold down
[Ctrl]/[Command], and click and drag in the overview.
26
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Selecting Audio
Moving a Selection Range
If a selection range is the right length, but at the wrong position, you can
move it.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, hold down [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift].
2.
Click in the middle of the selection and drag to the left/right.
Extending and Reducing the Selection
You can resize a selection range in the wave window without having to
make a new one.
There are several ways to extend/reduce the selection:
•
Make a selection range, [Shift]-click outside the selection range,
and drag to the left/right, or click and drag the edges of the
selection range to the left/right.
•
To extend the selection to the previous/next boundary (marker or
start/end of file), press [Shift] and double-click the non-selected
area between the boundaries.
Extending and Reducing the Selection Using the Cursor Keys
•
To move the start/end of a selection in the wave window to the
left/right, hold down [Shift] and press the left/right cursor keys. To
move it in bigger steps, press the [Page Up]/[Page Down] keys.
•
To extend a selection to the previous/next boundary in the wave
window (marker or start/end of the audio file), hold down
[Ctrl]/[Command]+[Shift] and press the left/right cursor keys.
Deleting Selections
There are several options for deleting a selected time range.
Audio Files Workspace
The following options can be found on the Edit menu:
Trim
Removes the data outside the selection.
27
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Sliders
Remove
Removes the selection. The audio to the right of the selection is
moved to the left to fill the gap.
Sliders
At various places in WaveLab Elements, slider controls are available to
change parameters. There are a number of ways to change the value of
a slider.
•
Position the mouse over the slider and use the mouse wheel (no
click is required). Hold [Ctrl]/[Command] while using the mouse
wheel to scroll faster. This modifier also applies to the zoom
wheels. To move the button of a slider, click and drag it.
•
To move the slider handle directly to a position, click the slider at
any position.
•
To move the slider handle in smaller steps, right-click or below the
handle. Keep the mouse button pressed to automatically step to
the next value.
•
To reset the slider to the default value, if available,
[Ctrl]/[Command]-click the slider, or click using the third mouse
button, or double-click the handle.
Renaming Items in Tables
You can rename items in tables in the Markers window, and in the CD
window.
•
To rename an item, double-click it or select it, and press [Return],
and enter the new name.
•
To rename the previous/next item, press [Arrow Up] or [Arrow
Down] instead of [Return]. This way you move the focus on the
previous/next item, while staying in the edit mode.
28
WaveLab Elements Concepts
File Browser
File Browser
The File Browser window in the Audio Files workspace and the Audio
Montage workspace allows you to browse files directly from within
WaveLab Elements. It can be very useful in speeding up the process of
auditioning sound files.
The File Browser window provides you with all the standard browsing
functions as well as additional controls to audition audio files and any
marker defined regions. You can use it to open or insert files or regions
of files by dragging them onto an open workspace.
You can also choose to only view certain types of files.
File Browser Window
In this window, you can browse files and open them in WaveLab
Elements.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Workspace > Specific tool windows > File Browser.
You can add your favorite folders to the left pane by dragging them from
the middle pane.
The following options are available in the File Browser windows:
Look in
Lets you select a file location to browse and lists the recently used
locations.
Back/Forward/Parent Directory
Let you navigate through the list and file hierarchy.
List View
Shows only the file name in the file list.
29
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Tab Groups
Detail View
Shows the file name, size, type, and modification date in the file list.
File name
Shows the file name of the selected file.
File format list
Lets you select which file format to display.
The following options are only available in the File Browser window in
the Audio Montage workspace:
Select Audio Files
Shows only audio files.
Select Audio Montages
Shows only audio montages.
Auto-Play mode
Starts playback automatically for the selected file.
Play selected audio file
Plays the selected audio file.
Tab Groups
With tab groups, you can view the content of different files and meters
at the same time, without having to navigate through different windows.
2 empty tab groups in the Audio Montage workspace
30
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Tab Groups
You can have two tab groups. Each tab group has its own content and
title bar. In the Audio Files workspace, each tab contains an audio file.
In the Audio Montage workspace, each tab contains an audio montage.
2 tab groups with audio montages in the Audio Montage workspace
Using Tab Groups
Tabs are used differently depending on the type of window.
•
To add a tab group, select Workspace > Add Tab Group at right
or Workspace > Add Tab Group below.
•
To remove an empty tab group, activate the tab group, and select
Workspace > Remove active Tab Group.
•
To use one of the tab group layout presets, select Workspace >
Tab Group presets, and select a layout.
•
To reorder tabs, drag the tab to a new position on the tab bar.
•
To move a tab to another workspace, drag the tab to another
workspace.
•
To paste the content of a tab into an audio file, drag the tab onto
the waveform. The tab is inserted at the cursor position.
•
To create an empty file inside a tab group, double-click an empty
part of the tab bar. The created file uses the active file as template.
31
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Peak Files
Peak Files
A peak file (extension “.gpk”) is automatically created by WaveLab
Elements each time an audio file is modified or opened in WaveLab
Elements for the first time. The peak file contains information about the
waveform and determines how it is drawn in the wave window or the
montage window.
Peak files speed up the time it takes to draw the corresponding
waveform.
By default, the peak file is stored in the same location as the audio file.
Rebuilding Peak Displays
Normally, peak files are automatically updated when the peak file’s date
is older than the audio file’s date. However, it can happen that the date
of the audio file is wrong and therefore not automatically updated. In this
case you can force a rebuild of the peak file.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select View > Rebuild peak
display.
Companion Files
Companion files (extension “.vs”) store Master Section presets and view
settings for audio files. If this feature is activated when you save a file,
the stored settings are recreated the next time that you load the file.
Companion files are only available in the Audio Files workspace.
The following view settings are included in companion files:
•
Window size and position
•
Zoom level
•
Scroll position
32
WaveLab Elements Concepts
Companion Files
Storing Companion Files in Another Location
By default, companion files are stored in the same location as the audio
file. However, you can select another file location.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Folders.
2.
Select Companion files, and specify another file location.
33
Program Overview
Command Bars
Commonly used tools, shortcuts, and commands are represented by
command buttons. Related buttons are grouped into various
Command bars.
Command bars in the Audio Files workspace
You can dock Command bars to any window edge or open them in a
separate window, and rearrange them freely. Each workspace has an
appropriate set of command bars that can be displayed. All the
commands that are represented by the command buttons are also
available on the menus.
Hiding and Showing Command Bars
You can hide command bars that are irrelevant for your project.
•
To view a list of available command bars, in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, right-click an empty
part of the top edge of the workspace, or select Workspace >
Command bars.
34
Program Overview
Status Bar
Docking Command Bars
Command bars can either be used as separate floating windows or
docked at the top, bottom, left, or right side of the workspace window.
•
To make a command bar floatable, right-click the bar, and select
Floatable. Then click the dots on the left side or the top of the
command bar to drag the bar to another location.
•
To dock a floating command bar, right-click the bar, and select
Floatable. Then click the dots on the left side of the command bar
to drag the bar to the top, bottom, left, or right side of the
workspace window.
Status Bar
The status bar at the bottom of the screen of the Audio Files workspace
and the Audio Montage workspace shows information about the active
window using the units specified in the rulers.
The information displayed on the status bar is updated depending on
the cursor position and on the audio selection that you have made.
Time/Level (dB)
Displays the time of the audio file at the mouse cursor position. In
the Audio Files workspace, it also displays the level.
Audio information at edit cursor
Displays the time at the position of the edit cursor. This information
changes when you reposition the cursor.
•
To define the cursor position, click the indicator to open the
Cursor position dialog.
•
To focus the cursor position, right-click the indicator.
Audio selection indicator (Audio Files workspace)
In the Audio Files workspace, this displays the length of the current
selection, or the total length of the audio file if no selection has
been made.
35
Program Overview
Status Bar
When you have zoomed in, you can right-click the indicator to
display the selected audio range, the focused clip, or the whole file.
Left-click the indicator to open the Audio Range dialog, where you
can define or refine a selection.
Zoom indicator
Displays the current zoom factor.
•
To open a pop-up menu, where you can make additional zoom
settings, click the indicator.
•
To open the Zoom factor dialog, where you can edit the zoom
factor, right-click the indicator.
Sampler key indicator (Audio Files workspace only)
Indicates the key of the current audio file (if defined). Click the
indicator to open the Sample Attributes window.
Audio properties indicator
In the Audio Files workspace, this displays the bit resolution and
the sample rate. It also indicates whether the audio file is mono or
stereo. Click the indicator to open the Audio properties dialog.
In the Audio Montage workspace, this displays the number of
audio channels and the sample rate of the audio montage. Click
the indicator to open the Audio Montage properties dialog.
Play through Master Section
If this button is activated, the audio is played through the Master
Section. If the button is deactivated, the Master Section is ignored.
Document button (drag and drop)
Allows you to drag the current file into another file, for example, an
audio file to the Audio Montage workspace. This is equivalent to
dragging the file tab.
Background information
The status bar shows the progress of some background
operations, such as rendering an effect. The operation can be
paused or canceled using the provided buttons.
36
Program Overview
Context Menus
Context Menus
Throughout WaveLab Elements, various context menus are available.
These menus group the commands and/or options that are specific to
the current working window.
The context menus appear when you right-click certain areas and are
useful for speeding up your workflow.
For example, right-click a file tab to open a context menu with some
relevant file options. Right-click the ruler of the waveform window brings
up the Time Ruler context menu that allows you to access a number of
options for changing the time ruler display format.
You can find most context menu commands in the main menus, but
some commands are only available in context menus. When you search
for a function, right-click the current working window to check if it has a
context menu.
Context menu in the montage window
37
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
In the Audio Files workspace, you can display a time and a level ruler in
the wave window. In the Audio Montage workspace, you can display a
time ruler in the montage window.
You can also determine which time and level units the rulers show.
Level ruler
(Audio Files workspace only)
Time ruler
Time Ruler and Level Ruler Options
You can specify the time and level (amplitude) formats for each ruler in
each wave window and the time formats for each ruler in the montage
window separately by right-clicking the ruler, and selecting a format
from the pop-up menu.
Time Ruler Menu
Timecode
Displays a list of frames per second for various SMPTE timecodes
and for CD resolution.
Clock
Displays time units.
Samples
Positions are shown as number of samples. The number of
samples per second depends on the sample rate of the audio file.
For example, at 44.1 kHz, there are 44100 samples per second.
Bars and beats
If this is selected, the ruler is linear relative to the meter position.
38
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
File size (Audio Files workspace only)
Shows positions in MegaBytes. Decimals represent KiloBytes.
Show grid (Audio Montage workspace only)
Displays vertical lines in the montage window, aligned with time
ruler marks.
Time format
Opens the Time format dialog, where you can edit the
appearance of the time ruler formats.
Save current settings as default
If this option is activated, the time ruler uses the current time format
in all new wave windows or montage windows.
Set ruler’s origin to start of file
If this option is activated, the ruler’s zero position is set to the
beginning of the first sample.
Set ruler’s origin at cursor
If this option is activated, the ruler’s zero position is set to the
current cursor position.
Set ruler’s origin to BWF reference (Audio Files workspace only)
If this option is activated, the first sample matches the BWF time
reference, provided that the time reference is available.
Level Ruler Menu (Audio Files workspace only)
dB
Sets the level format to decibels.
+-100 %
Sets the level format to percentage.
Normalized +1/-1
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 32-bit
float audio.
16-bit range
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 16-bit audio.
24-bit range
Sets the level format to a ruler gradation corresponding to 24-bit audio.
Save current settings as default
If this option is activated, the level ruler uses the current level
format in all new wave windows.
39
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Time Format Dialog
In this dialog, you can customize the time format. The time format of the
ruler is also used in various time fields, for example, the status bar and
certain dialogs.
In the Audio Files workspace, depending on whether you want to set the
time format for the overview display or the main view display, select
View > Overview display > Time ruler > Time format or View >
Main view display > Time ruler > Time format.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select View > Time ruler > Time
format.
Timecode Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Timecode option.
Frames per second
List of standard frame rates. From the drop-down menu, select
Other to enter a custom frame rate. You can also choose which
frames/units are displayed.
Show absolute frames
Shows the time format as a number of frames, without other time
elements.
Show quarter frames
Adds the quarter frame number to the time format.
Show hundredth frames
Adds the number of a hundredths of a frame to the time format.
Show units
Adds time units to the time format of the ruler.
40
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Clock Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Clock option.
Show Units
Adds time units to the time format of the ruler.
Compact
Shows the time without unit indicators.
Meter Tab
On this tab, you can configure the appearance of the Bars and beats
option.
Time signature
Lets you edit the time signature used to display the time
represented as a musical notation.
Tempo
Lets you edit the tempo used to display the time represented as a
musical notation.
Ticks per quarter note
Lets you edit the number of ticks per quarter note that are used to
display times that are compatible with your sequencer.
41
Program Overview
Time Ruler and Level Ruler
Setting the Cursor Position
Many operations, such as playback and selection, depend on the
current cursor position. For example, playback often starts at the cursor
position. The current cursor position is indicated by a vertical flashing
line.
There are various ways to move the cursor:
•
Click somewhere in the wave window, the montage window, or the
time ruler. If you have made a selection, click the time ruler to
prevent deselecting.
•
Click and drag in the time ruler.
•
Use the transport controls.
•
Select View > Move cursor to, and select an option.
•
Use the cursor keys.
•
Double-click a marker.
Working With a Meter-Based Display
If your working material is tempo-based, you can select the meter format
(bars, beats, and ticks) for the ruler legend. This makes it easier to find
musically related cutting points.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window or the montage window, right-click the time
ruler, and select Bars and beats.
2.
Right-click the time ruler, and select Time format.
3.
On the Meter tab, set the Time signature and Tempo to values
that match your audio file.
4.
Set the Ticks per quarter note setting to a number that you feel
comfortable with.
For example, this can be the same value that is used by your MIDI
sequencer.
5.
Click OK.
42
Program Overview
Value Editing
Value Editing
At various places in the program, numerical values can be edited by
using a combination of text fields and spin controls.
These values are sometimes composed of several parts, for example,
12 mn 30 sec 120 ms. Each value can be edited by using any of the
following methods:
•
To change a value, click in a value field and type a new value, or
click the small arrows in the value field.
•
To change the value by one unit at a time, press the [Left Arrow]
and [Right Arrow] keys.
•
To change the value by several units, press the page up and page
down keys.
•
To change the value using the mouse wheel, position the mouse
cursor over a value, and spin the mouse wheel, or use the AI knob
of your MIDI controller.
•
To change the value with the mouse, click a value and drag the
mouse up or down.
•
To jump to the maximum and minimum values, press the [Home]
and [End] keys.
•
To move from one part of the value to another, press the [Left
Arrow] and [Right Arrow] keys.
Drag Operations
WaveLab Elements makes much use of drag-and-drop techniques to
perform various operations, some of which cannot be performed otherwise.
These are referred to as drag operations in this documentation.
•
To drag an object, click and hold with the mouse when positioned
on the object and drag it. Drop the object by releasing the button.
Many types of objects can be dragged between different source and
destination locations including files, text, clips, items in a list, and markers.
NOTE
It is also possible to drag and drop files from WaveLab Elements to
Steinberg’s Nuendo.
43
Program Overview
Drag Operations
Drag objects within and between workspaces to perform the following
operations:
•
To dock a tool window, drag its title bar to any side of the
workspace, beside or above another tool window.
•
To move a command bar, drag the bar grip at the left-hand end of
a command bar and reposition it.
•
To reorder a tab within its own tabbed group, drag horizontally. To
move a tab to another workspace, drag vertically.
•
To drag any object to another workspace, use the Central
Switcher bar. Drag the object over the corresponding workspace
icon in the Central Switcher bar, wait until the new workspace
becomes active, and drag the tab in the target workspace.
•
To open a file, drag a compatible file from the File Browser
window of WaveLab Elements, from the file browser of the
operation system, or from another application to the tab bar.
•
To create a copy of a file, drag its tab vertically to another position
of the tab bar, then press [Ctrl]/[Option], and release the mouse
button.
Dragging in the Audio Files Workspace and Audio Montage
Workspace
•
To insert an audio file in another audio file, drag the title bar tab or
document button of the file onto the waveform area of another file.
You can also drag an audio file directly from the File Browser
window, the file browser of your system, or from another
application into the Audio Files workspace.
•
To move a marker, drag it along the time ruler.
•
To create a copy of this marker, press [Shift], and drag it to another
position on the time ruler.
•
To delete a marker, drag it above the time ruler.
•
To copy an audio selection, drag a selected region of audio onto
the waveform area of the same file or another file.
•
To change the extent of a selection range, position the edit cursor
at the start/end of the selection range, and drag to the left or right.
•
To move the edit cursor without losing the current selection, and
to snap it to an anchor, press [Shift], and move the mouse near the
audio file/montage cursor. The mouse cursor shape changes and
you can drag the cursor left and right.
44
Program Overview
Undoing and Redoing
•
To move the edit cursor without changing or losing the current
selection, press [Shift], click the edit cursor, and drag it to another
position.
•
To scroll the waveform horizontally, click the bar above the time
ruler and drag left or right. You can also click anywhere on the
waveform using the 3rd mouse button, and drag left or right.
•
To create a generic marker from a selected text, drop text that you
have selected in an external application onto the time ruler. The text
becomes the marker’s name.
•
To create a stereo copy of a mono file, or a mixed copy of a stereo file,
drag a tab to another position of the tab bar, press [Ctrl]-[Alt]
(Windows) or [Options]-[Ctrl] (Mac), and release the mouse button.
Dragging in the Podcast Workspace
•
To reorder episodes in the episodes list, drag them to another position.
Dragging in the Master Section
•
To change the order of processing, drag effects between different
effects slots.
Undoing and Redoing
You can undo and redo as many steps as you like. The only limitation is
the available hard disk space.
By default, when undoing or redoing any operation in the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, the zoom factor, cursor
position, scroll position, clip selection status, and time range are
restored to the state before the operation occured.
•
To undo a step, in the Audio Files workspace or Audio Montage
workspace, select Edit > Undo.
•
To redo a step, in the Audio Files workspace or Audio Montage
workspace, select Edit > Redo.
45
Program Overview
Zooming
Zooming
There are several zooming functions in the Audio Files workspace and
Audio Montage workspace.
Horizontal Zooming
•
When you zoom out as far as possible, the entire file fits in the
window.
•
When you zoom in as far as possible, each sample occupies
several pixels on the screen. This allows for single
sample-accurate editing of waveforms.
Vertical Zooming
•
When you zoom out as far as possible, the height of the wave fits
in the window.
•
As you progressively zoom in, the display only shows a part of the
total height. The vertical scrollbars lets you adjust exactly which
section is shown. Check the ruler to see which part of the
waveform is currently shown in the display.
•
To optimize the vertical zoom of the waveform, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], click and hold the time ruler, and move the
mouse up or down.
High Zoom Level
•
When the zooming level is very high, each sample is shown with a
step and a bullet. The steps show the real digitized state, while the
bullets make it easier to see the samples, especially for zeroed
samples.
•
The curve also represents an estimation of the analog
reconstructed signal to give hints on true peaks.
46
Program Overview
Zooming
Zooming in the Overview and Main View Sections
(Audio Files Workspace Only)
•
You can have different zoom levels in the overview and main view
section. In the overview, a range indicator on the time ruler
indicates which section of the file is currently displayed in the main
view. The range indicator is only shown if the option Sync with
other view is deactivated.
•
To adjust the zoom level, drag the edges of the range indicator.
•
To scroll in the main view, drag the range indicator.
Range indicator at the top of the overview display
•
To adjust the zoom level using the scrollbar, drag the edges of the
scrollbar.
47
Program Overview
Zooming
Zooming Using the Zoom Controls
Both the main view and the overview have horizontal and vertical zoom
controls.
•
To zoom horizontally, click the Horizontal zoom control, and drag
left or right, or use the mouse wheel.
•
To zoom vertically, click the Vertical zoom control, and drag up or
down, or use the mouse wheel.
•
To fully zoom-out, double-click the zoom controls.
Zooming Using the Magnifying Glass Tool
The Magnifying Glass tool is used to zoom in a specific section of the
waveform so that is occupies the entire wave window. This is only
available in the Audio Files workspace.
Using the Magnifying Glass Tool in the Main View
The selection that you make in the main view of the wave window is
magnified and fills up the entire main view.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, activate the Magnifying Glass tool by
doing one of the following:
•
Click the Magnifying Glass icon.
•
Hold down [Ctrl]/[Command].
In the main view of the wave window, click and drag left or right,
and release the mouse button.
The selected part of the wave now occupies the entire main window.
48
Program Overview
Zooming
Using the Magnifying Glass Tool in the Overview
The selection that you make in the overview of the wave window is
displayed in the main view.
PROCEDURE
•
In the overview of the wave window, click and drag left or right, and
release the mouse button.
RESULT
The selected range of the waveform is shown in the main view.
Zooming Using the Mouse
With the mouse, you can change the zoom factor by clicking and
dragging or by scrolling the mousewheel.
•
To zoom horizontally, in the wave window or the montage window,
position the mouse cursor over the time ruler, click, and drag up or
down.
•
To zoom horizontally while maintaining the cursor position, position
the mouse cursor over the time ruler, press [Shift], and drag up or
down.
•
To zoom horizontally using the mousewheel, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], point at a waveform, and move the
mousewheel.
•
To zoom vertically using the mousewheel, press [Shift], point at a
waveform, and move the mousewheel.
Audio Files Workspace Only
•
To zoom vertically, in the wave window, position the mouse cursor
over the level ruler, click, and drag left or right.
•
To reset the vertical zoom to 0 dB, double-click the level ruler.
•
To set the vertical zoom to the best value that is the current
minimum and maximum displayed samples, make sure that the
level ruler is set to 0 dB, and double-click the level ruler.
49
Program Overview
Zooming
Zooming Using the Keyboard
A quick way to zoom the active wave or montage window is to use the
arrow keys on the computer keyboard.
•
To zoom horizontally in the active wave window or montage
window, press [Arrow Up] or [Arrow Down].
•
To zoom vertically in the active wave/montage window, hold [Shift],
and press [Arrow Up] or [Arrow Down].
•
To zoom vertically to fit the available height, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[Shift]-[Arrow Up].
•
To zoom out fully, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Arrow Down]. To zoom
in fully, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Arrow Up].
Zoom Menu
The zoom menu allows you to quickly access various zoom settings.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
View > Zoom.
View all
Zooms out as far as possible.
Zoom in on 1 minute/30 seconds/10 seconds/.../500 ms
Adjusts the zoom to display the selected time range.
Zoom in 1:1
Zooms in so that one pixel on the screen represents one sample.
Microscope
Zooms in as far as possible.
Zoom selection
Zooms the window so that the current selection occupies the
entire wave/montage window.
Zoom in on selected clips (Audio Montage workspace only)
Zooms in to display all selected clips in the wave/montage
window.
Zoom in audio
Zooms in in small steps.
Zoom out audio
Zooms out in small steps.
50
Program Overview
Zooming
Edit
Opens the Zoom factor dialog, where you can edit the zoom
factor.
•
Samples per screen point allows you to specify how many audio
samples are summarized in each screen point.
•
Screen points per sample allows you to specify how many
screen points are used to represent a single audio sample.
Reset vertical zoom to 1:1
Adjusts zoom to display audio levels up to 0 dB.
Optimize vertical zoom
Changes the vertical zoom factor so that the peaks are clearly
visible. This adjustment is done according to the section of the
wave that is currently visible in the wave/montage window.
Optimize vertical zoom (Audio Files workspace only)
Zooms in to display all audio peaks in the wave window.
Zoom to -12 db/-24 db/.../-96 db
Adjusts the zoom to only display samples below the selected dB
value.
Zoom in vertically
Zooms in to show waveforms with a lower level.
Zoom out vertically
Zooms out to show waveforms with a higher level.
51
Program Overview
Zooming
About Zooming in the Audio Montage Workspace
Zooming options in the Audio Montage workspace are almost similar to
those in the Audio Files workspace. However, there are additional
zooming options for tracks and the Zoom window for displaying a
close-up view of the beginning of the focused track.
Zoom Buttons in the Audio Montage Workspace
The zoom buttons in the Audio Montage workspace allow you to apply
zoom presets.
•
To only display the focused track, or also the tracks below and/or
above the focused track, click the corresponding buttons.
•
To set the zoom setting to fit the focused clips in 25 %, 50 %, or
100 % of the available space, click the corresponding buttons.
•
To select a certain area, click [Ctrl]/[Command], and drag the
rectangle over the tracks and clips that you want to zoom in.
Displaying More or Less Tracks
The number of tracks that are displayed in the Audio Montage
workspace can be changed with the magnification controls in the lower
right corner of the montage window.
•
To display more tracks, click the smaller magnifying glass icon.
•
To display less tracks, click the larger magnifying glass icon.
52
Program Overview
Managing Tabs
•
To make a single track fit the whole montage window, click the
numbered button to the left of a track, and select Zoom from the
pop-up menu. You can also right-click the lower area of a track,
and select Whole clip from the pop-up menu.
Managing Tabs
A tab is a container for a file in WaveLab Elements. You can open
several tabs, but only one can be active at a time. The Tabs menu allows
you to sort and close tabs and navigate between the tabs.
Close/Close all but active/Close all
Closes the active tab, all tabs except the active tab, or all tabs.
Select files to close
Opens a dialog in which you can specify the files to be closed.
Sort
Lets you sort the tabs by name, date, or modification date. If
several tab groups exist, only the active tab group is sorted.
Activate next/previous
Selects the next/previous tab.
Pick list
Opens a list of all open tabs. To open a tab, double-click it.
Files to Close Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which files you want to close.
In any workspace, except the Control Window workspace, select Tabs
> Select files to close.
53
Program Overview
Presets
Files list
Displays all open files. You can set a checkmark for the files that
you want to close. By default, only the active file will remain open
and all other files will be closed.
Select all
Select all files in the list.
Select none
Deselects all files in the list.
Close files
Closes the files.
Presets
You can create presets to save commonly used settings. WaveLab
Elements provides a selection of presets that can be used by most
dialogs.
You can save customized presets. The next time that you load the
program, the presets are available.
Presets are saved as single files and can be organized in subfolders.
The root folder of the preset is different for each type of preset and
cannot be changed.
Saving a Preset
Saved presets can be used to apply commonly used settings to dialogs
or plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and modify the parameters.
2.
Select the Preset menu, and select Save as.
3.
Optional: Click the folder icon, and select a name for a subfolder
in which you want to save the preset.
4.
Type in a name, and click Save.
54
Program Overview
Presets
Loading Presets
To apply a saved preset to a dialog or plug-in, you must load the preset.
PROCEDURE
•
Inside a dialog, click the Presets menu, and select the preset that
you want to apply to the dialog.
Modifying a Preset
You can modify a preset and save the changes.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and load the preset that you
want to modify.
2.
Modify the parameters of the dialog.
3.
Click the Preset menu, and select Save.
Deleting a Preset
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use and select the preset that you
want to delete.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and select Organize presets.
3.
In the Explorer window, select the preset file that you want to
delete, and press [Delete].
55
Program Overview
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
Storing and Restoring Temporary Presets
Some dialogs allow you to save and load up to 5 temporary presets. This
is useful if you want to quickly test and compare different settings.
Storing Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog that you want to use, and make your settings.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and from the Store temporarily
submenu, select a slot.
Restoring Presets
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the dialog in which you have saved a preset.
2.
Click the Presets menu, and from the Restore submenu, select a
preset.
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
You can save a picture of the active window in the BMP, JPG/JPEG, or
PNG file format, or copy it to the clipboard.
NOTE
Plug-in windows are not included in the picture.
PROCEDURE
1.
Click in the window for which you want to save a picture.
For example, click in the wave window or the montage window.
56
Program Overview
Saving a Picture of the Active Window
2.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
select View > Save picture of active window.
The Save picture of active window dialog opens.
3.
4.
In the Save picture of active window dialog, you have the
following options:
•
To copy the picture to the clipboard, activate Copy to clipboard.
•
To save the picture in a specified file format, activate Save as file.
Optionally, you can activate Open picture after saving.
Click OK.
•
If you have activated Copy to clipboard, the picture is copied to
the clipboard.
•
If you have activated Save as file, the Save as dialog opens where
you can specify the file location, file format, and file name. Click
Save to confirm your settings.
If you have set the montage window as the active window, the resulting picture
could look like this.
57
File Operations
Recently Used Files
All files that you have recently used in WaveLab Elements are saved in
a list. This helps you to gain fast access to recent projects. You can
open recently used files via the File menu.
Setting the Number of Recently Used Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) >
Global preferences > Display.
2.
In the Miscellaneous options section, set the maximum number
of items that you want to list in the following areas:
3.
•
Recent file menus
•
Recent file manager
•
Recent folders menu
Click OK.
Save and Save As
•
When you save a file for the first time, it does not matter whether
you select Save or Save as.
•
Once a file has been saved, select File > Save, or press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[S] to update the file and make the changes
permanent.
•
If you want to specify a new name, location, and/or file format,
select File > Save as.
58
File Operations
Save and Save As
•
In the Audio Files workspace, all save operations except Save
Copy clear the undo history, which means that after saving you
cannot undo or redo.
About Tab Colors
Tab colors give information on whether a file is saved or not.
The following colors can be shown:
Orange
The file is saved.
Green (Audio Files workspace only)
The file uses a decoded file format and is saved.
Purple
A new file that is not empty but has not been saved yet. For
example, when creating a new file and pasting content into it.
Red
The file has been modified and changes have not been saved yet.
Unsaved Changes Indicator
When you have made changes to a file, an asterisk is displayed next to
the file name until you save the file and the tab changes its color.
59
File Operations
Save and Save As
Save Multiple Files at Once
You can save some or all open files at once.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Save
all.
2.
Select the files that you want to save.
3.
Click Save.
Reverting to Saved File
You can revert the file you are working on back to its last saved state.
This undoes all the changes made to the file since it was last saved.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File >
Revert to saved.
2.
In the warning dialog, click Yes to revert to the last saved state.
RESULT
The last saved version of the file is loaded from disk.
Automatic Backups
Backups are created automatically if a file with the same name already
exists.
For example, if you select Save As and specify a file name already used
in that folder, you will be asked if you want to back up the existing file
first. If you click Yes, the backup name will be the original name, with
“.bak” added at the end.
60
File Operations
Templates
About Saving Audio Montages
The saving operations for audio montages are the same as for audio
files. However, there are things to note when saving audio montages.
•
Audio montage files only contain references to audio files. If you
want to rename audio files referenced by audio montages, use the
Rename dialog. All clip references are updated automatically.
•
If the audio montage contains clips that refer to untitled audio files,
save these audio files before saving the audio montage.
Templates
You can create a template from an active audio montage, audio file,
Podcast, or batch processor document and use it as a basis for newly
created files.
Creating a Template
Templates are useful when creating new audio files, audio montages,
Podcasts, or batch processes.
PREREQUISITE
Set up the audio file, audio montage, Podcast, or batch processor file
properties.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select File > Export > Template.
2.
In the Save Template dialog, do one of the following.
3.
•
To create a new template, select New, enter a name, and click OK.
•
To update an existing template, select Update.
When saving or updating an audio file template or an audio
montage template, you can make additional settings.
•
When saving an audio file template, the Audio File Template
Parameters dialog opens. Here, select whether WaveLab
Elements should propose a specific audio file configuration with
optional meta-data when saving an audio file.
61
File Operations
Templates
•
4.
When saving an audio montage template, the Audio Montage
Template Parameters dialog opens. Here, select whether to
include track plug-ins, clips, and/or markers. Also select whether
WaveLab Elements should propose a specific audio file configuration
with optional meta-data when rendering an audio montage.
Click OK.
Audio File Template Parameters Dialog
This dialog displays the audio properties of the audio file template that
you are creating. You can also specify whether to always propose a
specific audio file configuration with optional meta-data when creating
an audio file template or not.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Template.
When saving, always propose a specific audio file configuration
(with optional meta-data)
If this option is activated, whenever you open the Render or Save
as dialogs, the audio file configuration specified below is proposed
by default.
Audio Montage Template Parameters Dialog
In this dialog, you can set various options when creating an audio
montage template.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Template.
62
File Operations
Templates
Include track and master plug-ins
If this option is activated, track plug-ins and master plug-ins are
saved in the template.
Include clips
If this option is activated, clips are saved in the template.
Include markers
If this option is activated, markers are saved in the template.
When saving, always propose a specific audio file configuration
(with optional meta-data)
If this option is activated, whenever you open the Render dialog,
the audio file configuration specified below is proposed by default.
Setting a Template as Default
You can set a template as default template.
PREREQUISITE
Create a template with the settings that you want to use as default
settings for a file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New
from.
2.
From the templates list, select the template that you want to use as
the default template.
3.
Click Set as default.
4.
Click OK.
RESULT
When you select New, a file based on the selected template is created.
To remove the default template setting, click the Do not set as default
button.
63
File Operations
Templates
Creating a File From a Template
You can create a file from a template to use its settings.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New
from.
2.
From the list of the available templates, select the template that you
want to take as the basis of the new file.
3.
Click Open.
Create From Template Dialog
This dialog shows all templates. Here, you can open and delete them,
and set a default template.
In the any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > New
from. If no template exists, the dialog will not open.
List of the available templates
Lists all saved templates.
Use template name as default document name
If this option is activated, the new file uses the name of the template.
If this option is deactivated, the name of the new file is “untitled”.
Set as default
Saves the selected template as default template.
Open
Creates a new file from the selected template.
None
Creates a new file without any reference to a template.
64
File Operations
File Renaming
Explore
Opens the folder where the template files are located. Here, you
can delete templates.
File Renaming
The Rename function allows you to rename a file and update all
references automatically. For example, if you rename an audio file named
“India” to “Sitar”, all currently open files that reference the file “India” are
updated to reference the file as “Sitar”.
Audio files, peak, and marker files are also renamed accordingly.
Renaming a File
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the file that you want to rename.
2.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File >
Rename.
3.
Enter the new name and/or a new file location.
4.
Select a file suffix from the drop-down list.
5.
Click OK.
Rename File Dialog
In this dialog, you can choose a new file name, file extension, and folder
location for the active file.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Rename.
65
File Operations
Deleting Files
Name
Type in the new name.
File extension drop-down list
Select a case for the file extension.
Change folder
If this option is activated, you can change the folder location of the
file.
NOTE
This is only possible within the same drive partition.
Keep as default
If this option is activated, the same path is selected next time you
open the dialog. This is useful if you need to move several files
successively.
Deleting Files
You can delete the currently active file from within WaveLab Elements.
PREREQUISITE
The file that you want to delete is not copied to the clipboard, is not
pasted into another file that is open, and is not open in another
application.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the file that you want to delete.
2.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File >
Delete.
3.
Click OK.
RESULT
The file including its peak and marker files, is deleted.
66
File Operations
Special Menu
Special Menu
From this menu you can select various file related options, for example,
you can add the active file to a Data CD/DVD, or Podcast.
In any workspace, except the Control Window, select File > Special.
Depending on the workspace, not all options are available.
Information
Displays information about the active file.
Add to Data CD/DVD
Adds the active file and all the related files to a Data CD/DVD.
Add to Podcast
Adds the active file to a Podcast.
Reveal in Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder
Opens the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder to show the location
of the active file.
Copy to clipboard
Opens a menu, from which you can select which information about
the active file you want to copy to the clipboard.
Create a file link on the desktop (Windows only)
Creates a file link on the desktop. The link opens the file with the
default application associated with the file type.
Temporary Files
Temporary files are used for certain operations, such as the undo/redo
functions. You can specify where WaveLab Elements saves its
temporary files.
For example, if your source files are located on the C: drive, you could
specify D:\temp and E:\temp as temporary folders. This improves the
performance and reduces disc fragmentation.
RELATED LINKS:
“Specifying Folders” on page 68
67
File Operations
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
WaveLab Elements distinguishes between two types of folders: work
folders and document folders.
In work folders, temporary files are stored. Document folders contain
WaveLab Elements-specific files, such as wave files, audio montages,
etc.
Specifying Folders
You can specify which folder should open when you perform any open
or save operation (document folder). You can also specify up to three
folders for temporary files (work folder).
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the workspace for which you want to specify document
folders.
2.
Select Options > Folders.
3.
Click the type of folder for which you want to specify a location.
4.
Specify a location in the Folder field.
5.
Optional: Depending on the selected type of folder, you can make
additional settings.
6.
Click OK.
Folders Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify default document folders and work folders
for each workspace.
In any workspace, select Options > Folders.
68
File Operations
Work Folders vs. Document Folders
In the list to the left, you specify the folder type that you want to make
settings for. The following options are available:
Folder for temporary files
Specify a folder for storing temporary files.
Companion files
Specify a folder for storing the companion files, that is Master
Section presets and view settings for audio files.
Cache folder
Activating Use cache folder for decoded files allows you to
specify a cache folder. The cache folder contains wave files that
are created when you are working with files in compressed file
formats, such as MP3 files. To prevent the cache folder to grow
indefinitely, WaveLab Elements checks the date of each file in this
folder and deletes files that were created before a certain number
of days.
When Use cache folder for decoded files is deactivated, the
compressed files are decoded each time they are opened.
Audio File - Open Folder/Save Folder
The default open and save folders for audio files.
Audio Montage - Open folder/Save folder
The default open and save folders for audio montage files.
Depending on the selected item, different settings are available on the
right side of the dialog:
Current Folder
In this field, the folder that is currently used as default is displayed.
You can click the folder button to the right to navigate to a folder,
or to create a new folder.
Keep last used
Uses the last folder for saving or opening files of the selected type.
Change when save-folder/open-folder changes
Updates the default open folder when you change the default save
folder, and vice versa. Activate this option for both the save folder
and the open folder for a specific file type to use the same folder
for saving and for opening this type of file.
On opening the application, revert to this folder
Activate this option to restore a specific folder each time you open
WaveLab Elements. This way changes to save/open folders are
only temporary and reset when you restart WaveLab Elements.
69
File Operations
Setting the Focus on the Current File
Setting the Focus on the Current File
If you are editing inside a floating window or a tool window and want to
switch back the focus to a wave/montage window, you can use the Set
focus on current file option.
PROCEDURE
•
In any workspace, press [Win]/[Ctrl]-[ESC], to set the focus on the
wave/montage window.
70
About Workspaces
A workspace provides an editing and playback environment for a
particular audio file type. Each type of workspace has functions for its
specific file types.
In WaveLab Elements, each file type has its own workspace designed
for a specific purpose:
•
Audio Files workspace for viewing and editing audio files.
•
Audio Montage workspace for assembling and editing audio
montages.
•
Podcast workspace for preparing and uploading Podcasts.
A workspace is highly customizable to match your workflow. A
workspace can appear as a simple window with a single menu or as a
sophisticated arrangement of command bars, tool windows, tab
groups, and active meters.
When a file is opened from a given workspace, it is added to the active
tab group of this workspace.
You can drag files between workspaces if their formats are compatible.
For example, you can drag an audio file from the Audio Files workspace
to the Audio Montage workspace by using its tab bar or its document
button.
Elements of a Workspace
The center of the workspace is about the data that you want to edit, and
all the menus, command bars, tool windows, controls, and tools to help
you with that.
Each workspace contains the following elements:
•
A menu bar. Each workspace has a different menu bar, but certain
menus are common for all workspaces and each menu can be
customized in various ways. The workspace menu has a submenu
to show/hide the available Command bars and tool windows.
71
About Workspaces
Audio Files Workspace
•
One or more Command bars with buttons for instant access to
functions. Command bars can be customized extensively.
•
Tab groups to host the files to edit. This is the central part of the
workspace. You can move a tab to another workspace, create a
new empty tab, display the file path, and access other functions by
right-clicking.
•
A set of Specific tool windows. Which tools are available
depends on the workspace. They can be activated/deactivated
individually.
•
A set of Shared tool windows. The shared tools vary according
to the workspace, and can be turned on or off individually. A shared
tool window is a global window that is located in one workspace
at a time.
Audio Files Workspace
This workspace provides tools and functions for sample-accurate audio
editing, high-quality analysis, and processing. It is the environment
commonly known as an audio editor.
It includes various metering tools.
The wave window gives you a graphical representation of the audio file
and allows you to view, play back, and edit the file.
Audio Montage Workspace
In this workspace, you assemble audio clips into a montage. You can
arrange, edit, and play back clips on both stereo or mono tracks.
Features include both track- and clip-based effects, volume and pan
automation, and wide-ranging fade and crossfade functions.
You can place any number of clips, on an audio track. A clip contains a
reference to a source audio file on your hard disk, as well as start and
end positions in the file.
The montage window gives you a graphical representation of clips on
tracks. In it you can view, play back, and edit the tracks and clips.
72
About Workspaces
Podcast Workspace
Podcast Workspace
In this workspace, you assemble, define, and publish your Podcast to
the internet.
RELATED LINKS:
“Podcasts” on page 293
Opening Files in a Workspace
You can open files in the workspace that you are working in and in any
other workspace, without having to switch workspaces first.
•
To open a file in a workspace, select File > Open. From the file
browser, select the workspace file that you want to open, and click
Open.
•
On the Central switcher bar, click a workspace icon, and select
Open. From the file browser, select the file that you want to open,
and click Open.
Organizing Workspace Windows
For working with several workspace windows, WaveLab Elements
offers functions to organize the windows.
•
To lock a workspace layout, activate Workspace > Lock layout.
This prevents you from moving or closing tool windows.
•
To automatically move the shared tool windows to the newly
activated workspace, every time you switch between workspaces,
activate Workspace > Auto move shared tool windows.
•
To activate full screen view, select Workspace > Full screen
view.
•
To specify the workspace position on the screen, select
Workspace > Position on screen, and select an option.
•
To bring all workspace windows to front, select Workspace >
Bring all to front.
73
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
•
To cascade all workspace windows, select Workspace >
Cascade all.
•
To switch between the previously selected workspace window
and the active workspace window, select Workspace > Switch to
previous workspace, or press [F5].
•
To close the active workspace, select Workspace > Close.
About Tool Windows
Throughout WaveLab Elements there are various tool windows available
that allow you to view, analyze, and edit the active file.
Generally, the content of a tool window is synchronized with the active
file, with the exception of the audio meters which displays the audio file
being played back. Tool windows can be docked and undocked, and
saved in your custom layouts. There are two types of tool windows
available:
•
Specific tool windows
•
Shared tool windows
The tool windows can be accessed via the Workspace menu.
Specific Tool Windows
Specific tool windows are windows that are specific to the current
workspace. The following specific tool windows are available:
Audio Files
workspace
Audio Montage
workspace
74
Podcast
workspace
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
Shared Tool Windows
The difference between specific and shared tool windows is that there
can only be a single instance of a shared window in WaveLab Elements.
For example, a single Master Section, or a single level meter.
When you open a shared tool window in another workspace it undocks
and moves from its original workspace, if this option is activated. An
empty tab container with a title bar remains in its previous workspace.
You can set the moving behavior by activating/deactivating Workspace
> Auto move shared tool windows.
A shared tool window, if docked, can only appear in a single workspace
at a time. To retrieve a shared tool window from another workspace,
click the tool window. For example, if you have the Level Meter displayed
in the Audio Montage workspace and you want to display it in the Audio
Files workspace, click the icon in the Level Meter window of the Audio
Files workspace.
The following shared tool windows are available:
Audio Files workspace and Audio Montage workspace
Opening and Closing Tool Windows
You can close all tool windows you do not need for your project.
•
To open or close a specific tool window, select Workspace >
Specific tool windows, and select a tool window, or use the
Specific Tool Windows command bar.
•
To open or close a shared tool window, select Workspace >
Shared tool windows, and select a tool window, or use the
Shared Tool Windows command bar.
•
To close a tool window, move the mouse on the left side or the top
of the window, and on the toolbar that appears, click Close.
75
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
Tool Windows Command Bar
On the Specific Tool Windows and Shared Tool Windows command
bars you can quickly switch tool windows on and off, without having to
navigate through a menu.
To open or close the Shared Tool Windows command bar, select
Workspace > Command bars > Shared Tool Windows.
Shared Tool Windows command bar in the Audio Montage workspace
To open or close the Specific Tool Windows command bar, select
Workspace > Command bars > Specific Tool Windows.
Specific Tool Windows command bar in the Audio Montage workspace
Docking and Undocking Tool Windows
Tool windows can be used as docked windows or as floating windows.
They can be freely dragged around and docked at various locations.
Command bars can also be freely moved around and docked along the
edges of most windows.
To dock/undock a tool window, use one of the following methods:
•
Double-click the title bar, located on the left or the top of the tool
window.
•
Click the double window icon at the top left corner of the window.
•
Drag the tool window title bar of a specific tool window. To dock
the tool window, drag it by its title bar to another position.
To prevent an undocked tool window from docking, use one of the
following methods:
•
Hold down [Ctrl]/[Command] before dragging the tool window.
•
Activate the Floating versus docking priority icon on the left or
the top of the tool window.
76
About Workspaces
About Tool Windows
Differences Between Windows and Mac OS
Floating windows behave slightly different on Windows and Mac OS.
•
On Windows systems, a floating window is hidden when its
dependent workspace is minimized or covered by another window.
If WaveLab Elements is not the active application, all its
independent floating windows are hidden.
•
On Mac OS X systems, a tool window is always on top of all other
windows and a floating window remains visible even if its
dependent workspace is not active or is minimized. If WaveLab
Elements is not the active application, all its floating windows are
hidden.
77
Playback
WaveLab Elements offers numerous playback functions.
There are 4 playback modes available:
•
Traditional playback, with playback starting from the cursor
position and stopping anywhere when stopping playback.
•
Play range, where playback starts from a given point and stops at
another point of interest.
•
Play from anchor, where playback starts from a specific point of
interest.
•
Play until anchor, where playback starts anywhere but stops at a
given point of interest.
RELATED LINKS:
“Playback Shortcuts” on page 89
Transport Bar
With this command bar you can control playback of an audio file or
audio montage, navigate between various positions in an audio file or
audio montage, and open the Recording dialog.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Workspace > Command bars > Transport bar.
Transport bar in the Audio Files workspace
Transport bar in the Audio Montage workspace
Presets
Lets you save and apply transport bar presets.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Skip range
If this option is activated, playback skips the selected range and
any region surrounded by exclusion markers.
On stop, move cursor back
If this option is activated, the edit cursor jumps back to the start
position when playback stops. If you want to activate this option for
the options Play from anchor, Play until anchor, and Play range,
right-click this button, and activate On alternate playback stop,
move cursor back to start.
Perform pre-roll
Activates pre-roll for the commands Play from anchor, Play until
anchor, and Play range.
Right-click the button to select the pre-roll length and to specify to
which commands you want to apply pre-roll to. To edit the pre-roll
times, select Edit pre/post-roll.
Perform post-roll
Activates post-roll for the commands Play from anchor, Play until
anchor, and Play range.
Right-click the button to select the post-roll length and to specify
to which commands you want to apply post-roll to. To edit the
post-roll times, select Edit pre/post-roll.
Auto selection
If this option is activated, the anchor and/or range are automatically
selected according to the editing actions. Right-click to open a
menu with related options and auto selection modes.
Ranges
Lets you select one of the following ranges:
•
Selected time range
•
Marked region where edit cursor is located
•
Range of focused clip (audio montage only)
•
Crossfade range (audio montage only)
•
Fade-in range (audio montage only)
•
Fade-out range (audio montage only)
Play range
Plays the selected range. Post-roll and Pre-roll settings are taken
into account.
79
Playback
Transport Bar
Anchors
Lets select which anchor to use as reference for the commands
Play from anchor and Play until anchor. When there are multiple
possibilities, for example, multiple markers, the last selected item
is taken into account as a reference anchor or the closest marker
near the edit cursor position if no marker is selected.
You can select one of the following anchors:
•
Start of file
•
Start of selected time range
•
End of selected time range
•
Any marker
•
Region start marker
•
Region end marker
•
Clip start (audio montage only)
•
Clip end (audio montage only)
•
Selected envelope point in focused clip (audio montage only)
When an anchor is detected, for example, a region marker pair, this
is indicated by a green anchor marker.
Play from anchor
Plays from anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account.
Play until anchor
Plays until anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account.
Move cursor to previous/next anchor
Moves the edit cursor position to the previous/next anchor. To set
the type of anchor, right-click the next anchor button and select an
option from the menu. If you click during playback, playback
continues from the anchor position.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Move playback position backwards/forwards
Moves the edit cursor position to the left/right. If you click during
playback, playback jumps to the new edit cursor position.
To move the edit cursor to the start/end of the file, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], and click the Move playback position
backwards/forwards button.
Loop
Activates the loop mode. Right-click the loop button to select
whether to loopforever or only a few times.
Stop
Stops the audio being played. If playback is already stopped, the
edit cursor is moved to the previous start position.
Play
Starts playing the active audio file or audio montage from the edit
cursor position.
If the audio being played back is not the active audio file, the Play
button has a different color. This happens if you switch to another
workspace during playback, for example.
The playback button when playing back in the active window (left) and when playing
in another window or workspace (right).
Record
Opens the Recording dialog.
Time display
Displays the edit cursor or playback position. Click to select
another time unit.
Fold bar
Minimizes the transport bar. To unfold the transport bar again, click
the thin line where the transport bar was located.
Settings
Opens layout menu of the transport bar and lets you edit shortcuts
for the transport bar. You can also right-click the transport bar to
open this menu.
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Playback
Transport Bar
Transport Bar in the Podcast Workspace
In the Podcast workspace, a simplified transport bar allows you to play
back the selected Podcast episode.
Play Button
Clicking the Play button on the transport bar starts playing back the
active audio file or audio montage from the edit cursor position.
You can also use the Space bar or the Enter key on your keyboard to
start playback. Pressing the Space bar during playback stops playback,
while pressing Enter during playback makes playback restart from the
last start position.
When loop is activated, the audio selection is looped, if available.
Otherwise, the region defined by loop markers is looped, if available. If
there are no selection ranges or loop markers, the entire file is looped.
The standard Play command is not influenced by the Play range, Play
from anchor, and Play to anchor options.
Stop Button
The result of clicking the Stop button or on the transport bar or [0] on
your numeric keypad depends on the current situation.
•
If you trigger Stop in stop mode, the edit cursor moves either to
the previous Playback start marker, or to the selection start
(whatever is closer), until the start of the file is reached.
•
If there is no selection or if the edit cursor is positioned to the left
of the selection, it is moved to the beginning of the file instead.
Playing Back Audio Ranges
You can play back audio ranges using the Ranges options on the
transport bar.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, select the type of range that you want to play
back.
2.
Optional: Activate pre-roll and/or post-roll.
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Playback
Transport Bar
3.
Position the edit cursor inside the range that you want to play back
or make a selection range.
This selected range and, if activated, the pre-roll and post-roll times are
displayed on the time ruler.
4.
To play back the selected range, click the Play range button on the
transport bar or press [F6].
RESULT
The selected range is played back. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are
taken into account. When the Loop mode is active, pre-roll is used
before the first loop only, and post-roll is only used after the last loop.
Playing Back From an Anchor or Until an Anchor
You can play back audio from an anchor or until a specified anchor using
the Anchor options on the transport bar.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, select an anchor type
If nothing is selected and you use the Play from anchor button, the edit
cursor is the default anchor.
2.
Depending on the selected anchor type, position the edit cursor in
the wave window or montage window inside the range that you
want to play back.
For example, if you have selected Region start marker, click somewhere
in the area of the region marker pair from which you want to play back
from/to. The green anchor marker jumps to the selected anchor.
3.
Optional: Activate pre-roll and/or post-roll.
4.
To play back from the anchor marker, click the Play from anchor
button on the transport bar or press [F7]. To play back until the
anchor marker, click the Play until anchor button on the transport
bar or press [F8].
83
Playback
Transport Bar
RESULT
Play back starts from the anchor/until the anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll
settings are taken into account.
About the “Play From Anchor” and “Play Until Anchor”
Functions
You can play back audio from an anchor or until an anchor using the
Play from anchor or Play until anchor functions on the transport bar.
These playback functions behave differently depending on the pre-roll
and post-roll settings.
Play from anchor
•
If post-roll is selected, playback starts at the anchor position and
stops after the post-roll time. If no post-roll is selected, playback
continues until the end of the audio file or audio montage.
•
If pre-roll is selected, playback starts from the selected anchor,
minus the pre-roll time.
•
If pre-roll and post-roll are selected, playback starts from the
selected anchor, minus the pre-roll time and stops after the anchor
point plus the post roll time.
•
If the loop mode is activated, the pre-roll and post-roll settings are
taken into account. This way you can play a loop around the edit
cursor position, without having to make further range settings.
Play until anchor
•
Playback starts from the cursor, and stops at the selected anchor.
If the cursor is beyond the selected anchor, playback starts at the
selected anchor. If pre-roll is activated, it is taken into account.
•
If pre-roll is selected, playback starts from the selected anchor
minus the pre-roll time, until the selected anchor.
•
If there is no selected anchor, Play until anchor is disabled.
•
The loop settings have no effect.
84
Playback
Transport Bar
Using the Auto Selection Mode
You can use the auto selection mode in combination with the playback
shortcuts to play back audio ranges or anchors, without needing to
interact with the transport bar. This makes it easy to monitor your editing
actions.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, activate Auto selection mode.
2.
In the wave window or the montage window, do one of the
following:
•
Make a selection range.
•
Click inside the area of a marker pair.
•
Click a fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade.
•
Click anywhere in the wave/montage window.
•
Drag a marker.
Depending on your action, the most appropriate range, or anchor is
selected. For example, if you click inside a marker pair, this region is
selected as playback range.
The time ruler shows the selected range or anchor.
NOTE
In Auto selection mode, you can still change some range and anchor
options in the transport bar to play a different range/anchor. However,
the range/anchor will be reselected when you starting editing again with
the mouse.
3.
Use the playback shortcuts to start playback.
•
To play back the selected audio range, press [F6].
•
To play back from an anchor, press [F7].
•
To play back until an anchor, press [F8].
You can also use the Play range, Play from anchor, and Play to anchor
buttons on the transport bar.
RESULT
The selection range is played back, or play back starts from the
anchor/until the anchor. Pre-roll and post-roll settings are taken into
account.
NOTE
A selection range has priority over any other range. To allow other
ranges to be auto-selected, deselect the selection range.
85
Playback
Transport Bar
Using Auto Replay While Editing
You can have playback automatically re-triggered while editing audio
with the mouse. This is useful if you want to monitor the adjustment of a
selection boundary, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, right-click the Auto selection mode icon,
and activate Auto replay while editing.
2.
In the wave window or the montage window, make a selection
range and hold the mouse button pressed.
3.
Start playback by using one of the following shortcuts:
4.
•
To play back the selected audio range, press [F6].
•
To play back from an anchor, press [F7].
•
To play back until an anchor, press [F8].
Drag the cursor to the right or left.
The selection range is adjusted and played back until you release the
mouse button. When playback ends, the new selection range is played
back.
Automated Selection Mode Settings
You can select whether the automated selection mode should select
only ranges, only anchors, or both. To use the selected settings, activate
Auto selection of anchor and range, based on editing actions.
To open the automated selection mode settings menu, right-click the
Auto selection of anchor and range, based on editing actions icon
on the transport bar, and make your selection.
Auto replay while editing
If this option is activated, playback is automatically restarted when
you hold down the mouse button while editing ranges or anchors,
and used the shortcuts to trigger playback. This is useful to find a
loop, for example.
This option works even when the automated selection mode is
deactivated.
86
Playback
Transport Bar
Solo track when editing
If this option is activated, when holding down the mouse button
when editing ranges or anchors in the montage window, the track
is soloed when playing back via the shortcuts for Play range, Play
from anchor, or Play until anchor. This option is only available in
the Audio Montage workspace.
This option works even when the automated selection mode is
deactivated, because it is independent from this mode.
Auto select range and anchor
If this option is activated, ranges and anchors are automatically
selected.
Auto select range
If this option is activated, ranges are automatically selected.
Auto select anchor
If this option is activated, anchors are automatically selected.
Skipping Sections During Playback
You can automatically skip a selected audio range during playback. This
way, you can audition what the material would sound like with certain
sections cut out.
PROCEDURE
1.
On the transport bar, activate Skip range.
2.
Activate Use Pre-Roll and Use Post-Roll.
3.
If you want to use the Play range function, activate one of the
Ranges modes.
4.
Depending on the Ranges mode, do one of the following:
•
If you have activated Selected audio range, make an audio
selection in the wave window.
•
If you have activated Marked region where edit cursor is
located, click the section between a marker pair.
The audio range that will be skipped is displayed on the time ruler along
with the pre-roll and post-roll times.
87
Playback
Transport Bar
5.
Select Play range, or press [F6]
RESULT
The selected range is skipped during playback.
You can also use the factory preset for skipping selections during
playback. Activate Skip range, make an audio selection, and press
[Shift]-[F6].
NOTE
This mode also works with the standard Play button, if there is a time
selection or if exclusion start and end markers are set. In this case, the
pre-roll and post-roll times are ignored.
About Loops
Loop points are updated continuously during playback. If you change
the loop start or end during playback, the loop changes. This way you
can audition selection points for rhythmic material.
If you loop a section in an audio montage, playback loops within the
boundaries of the current selection range. This selection range may be
on any track, even if empty. The vertical position of the selection range
is of no relevance for loop playback, only the left and right selection
boundaries matter.
Pre-Roll and Post-Roll
You can start playback slightly before a specific position (pre-roll) and
stop playback slightly after another position (post-roll). This gives you a
brief context if you are auditioning a clip, for example.
The position can be an anchor or the start or end of a range. The pre-roll
and post-roll times are displayed in the time ruler.
To activate pre-roll and/or post-roll, activate the Use Post-Roll and Use
Pre-Roll buttons on the transport bar.
88
Playback
Transport Bar
When right-clicking the pre-roll or post-roll icon on the transport bar,
you can select a pre-roll/post-roll time. Here, you can also select which
play option you want to apply the pre-roll/post-roll to, and you can open
the Edit Times dialog.
Pre-Roll and Post-Roll Times Dialog
This dialog allows you to define a short, an average, and a long pre-roll
and post-roll time. These settings are global to WaveLab Elements.
In the wave window or the montage window, on the transport bar,
right-click the pre-roll or post-roll icon, and select Edit pre/post-roll.
Playback Shortcuts
In addition to the buttons on the transport bar, there are shortcuts that
can be used even when the wave window or montage window is not the
active window.
Space bar
Start/stop playback.
0 on numeric keypad.
Stop. If the program is stopped and you trigger Stop again, the
edit cursor moves either to the previous Playback start marker, or
to the selection start (whatever is closer), until the start of the file
is reached. This is the same as clicking the Stop button on the
transport bar.
89
Playback
Transport Bar
Enter
Starts playback. If pressed during playback, playback restarts from
the previous start position. This is the same as clicking the Play
button on the transport bar.
[F6]
Starts playback of the selected range, depending on the selected
option in the Ranges section of the transport bar.
[F7]
Starts playback from the selected anchor, depending on the
selected option in the Anchors section of the transport bar.
[F8]
Starts playback until the selected anchor, depending on the
selected option in the Anchors section of the transport bar.
Save Transport Bar Presets Dialog
In this dialog, you can save a transport bar setup as preset.
On the transport bar, click the preset icon, and select Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac
OS Finder. Here, you can create subfolders for your presets.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
90
Playback
Transport Bar
Name
Lets you specify a name for your preset.
When preset is selected with shortcut
This lets you assign a customized playback command to a
shortcut. For example, you can set a shortcut to play a range with
a short pre-roll/post-roll, and another shortcut to play a range
without a pre-roll/post-roll.
On stop, restore previous settings
If this option is activated, the settings are restored as they were
before playback start. This is useful to trigger a special play task,
and automatically switch back to the standard settings, as soon as
playback is finished.
Transport Bar Settings
In the transport bar settings menu, you can customize the transport bar.
This is useful to optimize the transport bar according to the available
screen space.
To open the settings menu, right-click the transport bar, or click the
Settings button on the transport bar.
Hide
Hides the transport bar. To make it visible again, select
Workspace > Command bars > Transport bar.
Fold
Minimizes the transport bar. To unfold the transport bar again, click
the thin line where the transport bar was located.
Top/Bottom
Aligns the transport bar at the top/bottom of the wave window or
the montage window.
Large transport buttons/Small transport buttons
Determines the size of the transport bar buttons.
Align buttons left/Align buttons right/Center button
Moves the transport bar buttons to the corresponding position.
Show time display
Shows/hides the time display.
91
Playback
Playing Back Only One Channel
Show alternate play buttons
Shows/hides the alternate play buttons in the Ranges and
Anchors section of the transport bar.
Show all Range and Anchor buttons
Shows/hides the full range of Ranges and Anchors buttons. If this
option is deactivated, only one range and one anchor button is
visible. The other buttons can be accessed via shortcuts or when
you right-click this button.
Show Preset button
Shows/hides the Presets button.
Show Skip button
Shows/hides the Skip mode button.
Edit shortcuts
Opens the Customize commands dialog, where you can edit the
shortcuts for the transport bar commands.
Playing Back Only One Channel
You can choose to play only the left or the right channel of an audio file
in the Audio Files workspace.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options, and
activate/deactivate Play left channel and/or Play right channel.
92
Playback
Starting Playback From the Ruler
Starting Playback From the Ruler
You can use the ruler to quickly jump to a position and start playback
from there.
•
Double-clicking the ruler starts playback from that position.
Playback continues until you click Stop or until the end of the audio
file or audio montage.
•
To set the playback position to a certain position, click the ruler
during playback. This also applies for clicking the time rulers of
another audio file or audio montage, which allows you to quickly
switch playback between audio files or audio montages.
•
To start playback from a marker position, press [Ctrl]/[Command]
and double-click a marker.
Using the Play Tool
This tool allows you to play back from any position on one or both stereo
channels.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Play tool from the Edit
tools command bar, or press and hold [Alt]/[Option].
2.
In the wave window, click at the position where you want playback
to start.
The cursor shape indicates whether the left (L), the right channel (R), or
both channels are played back.
RESULT
Playback continues for as long as you keep the mouse button pressed,
or until the audio file ends. After playback has stopped, the cursor is
moved to the playback start position.
93
Playback
Playback Scrubbing
Playback Scrubbing
Playback scrubbing helps you find a certain position in an audio file, by
restarting playback repeatedly when you click and drag on the time ruler
during playback or use the Play tool.
Scrubbing Using the Play Tool
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the Play tool from the Edit
tools command bar, or press and hold [Alt]/[Option].
2.
Click in the wave window, or click and drag the time ruler.
If you click in the wave window, playback starts at the position where you
clicked. If you click and drag in the time ruler, the audio is played back
from the edit cursor position and a small section is looped once.
Scrubbing Using the Time Ruler
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: In the Audio Files workspace, activate Options > Stop
after playback scrubbing, to stop playback after scrubbing.
The edit cursor then jumps back to the start position.
2.
Start playback.
3.
Click the time ruler and hold the mouse button pressed, and drag
left or right.
4.
When you are done scrubbing, release the mouse button.
94
Playback
Scroll During Playback
Playback Scrubbing Preferences
You can define the behavior of the Play tool in the Audio file editing
preferences.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences > Editing tab.
•
If Restrict to Play Tool is activated, scrubbing is not available
when you click and drag on the time ruler during playback.
•
The Sensitivity setting determines the length of the audio loop that
is played once when click and drang on the time ruler with the Play
tool activated.
Scroll During Playback
You can determine how the view should be scrolled in Play mode.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
View > Scroll during playback.
The following options are available:
Immobile view
Disables scrolling.
View follows cursor
The view automatically changes to keep the playback cursor
visible.
Scroll view (partial)
The view only scrolls when necessary to keep the playback cursor
visible.
Scroll view (always)
Scrolls the view to keep the playback cursor centered.
NOTE
If you get dropouts during playback, do not use the scroll options.
95
Playback
About Playback in the Audio Montage Workspace
About Playback in the Audio Montage
Workspace
Playback in the Audio Montage workspace works the same way as in the
Audio Files workspace. However, there are some things to note.
Mute and Solo Tracks
You can mute or solo tracks in an audio montage by using the
corresponding buttons in the track control area.
•
When a track is muted, the mute button is yellow.
•
When atrack is soloed, the solo button is red.
•
Solo can only be activated for one track at a time. However, you
can unmute other tracks when Solo is active if you want to listen
to a combination of tracks.
Playing Back Individual Clips
You can play back an individual clip on a track. Overlapping clips or clips
on other tracks are muted.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the lower part of the
clip that you want to play back.
2.
On the menu, select one of the following play options:
•
To play back the clip, select Play focused clip.
•
To play back the clip with pre-roll, select Play focused clip with
pre-roll.
96
Audio File Editing
Audio file editing refers to opening, editing, and saving audio files.
Wave Window
The wave window displays audio files graphically. Here, you view, play
back, and edit individual audio files.
The wave window consists of two displays. You can use one display as
an overview to navigate through the project and the other as the main
view for editing.
You can synchronize the waveform displays so that they display the
same part of the audio file, by clicking the Sync with other view button.
97
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Magnetic Bounds in Audio Files
Certain positions, such as markers or selection edges, can be defined
as magnetic. Dragged elements can snap to these positions. This makes
it easier to position items accurately.
For example, when you move a marker and it gets close to one of the
magnetic bounds, the marker snaps to this position. A label is displayed,
indicating the snap position.
Magnetic Bounds Menu
On this menu, you can specify which positions should be magnetic.
When Snap to magnetic items is activated, items that you move snap
to these positions.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Magnetic bounds.
You can let items snap to the following positions:
Start/End of file
Moved elements snap to the start/end of the file when they are
moved near these positions.
Time ruler marks
Moved elements snap to the time ruler grid when they are moved
near these positions.
Markers
Moved elements snap to marker positions when they are moved
near these positions.
Selection edges
Moved elements snap to the selection edges when they are moved
near these positions.
Cursor
Sets the edit cursor magnetic when moved near this position.
98
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Zero Crossing
A zero crossing is a point where the waveform crosses the zero level
axis.
If you cut out a portion of a wave and paste it in somewhere else, there
often is discontinuity where the two waves are joined. This discontinuity
results in a transient in the wave, which is perceived as a click or bump
in the sound.
To avoid this, you must make the splice at a zero crossing, especially if
you do not use crossfades.
If you activate Options > Snap selection to zero crossings, the
selections that you make are always adjusted so that they start and end
at the nearest zero crossing.
WaveLab Elements can automatically search for zero crossings and
extend the selection outwards so that it begins and ends at a zero
crossing. This helps avoid clicks, pops, and bumps.
When you perform editing operations, such as cutting, pasting, or
dragging, make sure that the material is inserted at a zero crossing.
99
Audio File Editing
Wave Window
Setting Up the Zero Crossing Detection
You can let selection edges automatically snap to the nearest zero
crossing point when making a selection. In the Audio file editing
preferences dialog, you can specify whether to allow snap at high zoom
factors, and specify the scan range for the zero crossing detection.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Snap selection
to zero crossing.
2.
Select Options > Audio file editing preferences.
3.
On the Editing tab, fill out the Snap selection to zero crossing
options.
4.
Click OK.
Moving the Cursor Position to the Closest Zero Crossing
You can automatically move the cursor position to the closest zero
crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, position the cursor in the waveform.
2.
Select View > Move cursor to > Snap position.
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Audio File Editing
File Handling in the Audio Files Workspace
File Handling in the Audio Files
Workspace
About Mono/Stereo Handling
WaveLab Elements is very flexible in its handling of stereo. All editing
operations can be performed on either one channel or on both.
Supported File Formats
WaveLab Elements can open and save audio files in a number of file
formats.
The following table gives you some basic information about the formats:
Format
Description
Wave (.wav)
The following bit resolutions are supported: 8 bit, 16 bit,
20 bit, 24 bit, and 32 bit (float)
AIFF (.aif, .aiff, .snd)
Audio Interchange File Format, a standard defined by
Apple Computers Inc.. The following bit resolutions are
supported: 8 bit, 16 bit, 20 bit, and 24 bit
MPEG-1 Layer 3
(.mp3)
The most common audio compression format. The major
advantage of MPEG compression is that the file size is
significantly reduced, while there is little degradation of
sound quality. WaveLab Elements can both open and save
files in this format.
NOTE: When you open an MPEG compressed file in
WaveLab Elements, the file is converted to a temporary
wave file. On saving, the temporary wave file is converted
back to MP3.
MPEG-1 Layer 2
(.mp2, .mpa, .mpg,
.mus)
MP2 (sometimes referred to as “Musicam files”) is a
common file format in the broadcast industry. With regard
to file sizes, the same applies for MP3 files.
Original Sound
Quality (.osq)
This is the proprietary lossless compressed audio format of
WaveLab Elements. By saving files in this format, you can
save considerable disk space without compromising audio
quality.
Sound Designer II
(.sd2)
This audio file format is used by Digidesign applications
(such as Pro Tools). The following bit resolutions are
supported: 8 bit, 16 bit, and 24 bit
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Format
Description
U-LAW (.ulaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique
supported by Windows and Web phones, using 8 bit
resolution. The U.S. telephone system uses U-law
encoding for digitization.
A-LAW (.alaw, .vox)
This is an audio encoding and compression technique for
telephony, using 8-bit resolution. The EU telephone system
uses A-law encoding for digitization.
Sun/Java (.snd, .au)
This is an audio file format used on Sun and NeXT
computers. The following bit resolutions are supported:
8 bit, 16 bit, and 24 bit
ADPCM –
Microsoft/Dialogic
(.vox)
This is a format commonly used for games and telephony
applications. It offers a lower bit rate than linear PCM and
thus requires less storage space/bandwidth.
Ogg Vorbis (.ogg)
Ogg Vorbis is a compressed file format that is open,
patent-free, and creates very small audio files maintaining
comparatively high audio quality.
Text/Excel (.txt)
This is a text representation of a waveform. By saving an
audio file as a text file and then opening it in a spreadsheet
application such as Excel, you can view it in textual,
decimal form, and edit the sample values. When you open
a text file representing a waveform in WaveLab Elements, it
is decoded and opened as an audio file. Note that these
files are not compressed in any way, so they become get
very large. Note that when using 32-bit float files, the .txt
format is not 100 % lossless. This is because it is not
possible to express a binary floating point value in textual
decimal form without some precision loss.
Windows Media
Audio (.wma, .asf)
Microsoft’s own compressed format. WaveLab Elements
lets you import/export audio in this format (Windows only).
To import/export audio in WMA surround format, Windows
Media Player 9 or later must be installed on your system.
Ensoniq Paris (.paf)
Used by the Ensoniq Paris™ system. The following bit
resolutions are supported: 16 bit and 24 bit
FLAC (.fla)
Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is a codec which
allows digital audio to be losslessly compressed.
Apple formats
(.aac, .m4a, .mp4,
.m4b, .caf, .3gp,
.3g2, .caf)
If Quicktime is installed on your system, these formats are
available (read-only and only on 32-bit Windows or MAC
systems).
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NOTE
The “$$$” file type is a temporary file format of WaveLab Elements. In
case you experience a computer, crash you may restore some of your
work by opening any stray “$$$” files on your hard disk.
About 20-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit Float Files
You do not need a 20-bit or 24-bit audio card to take advantage of the
fact that WaveLab Elements can handle 20-bit and 24-bit audio files.
Any processing or editing performed on the files is always done at full
resolution (32-bit float), even if your card does not support the full
resolution.
For playback, WaveLab Elements automatically adapts to the card that
you have installed.
Creating a New Audio File
You can create an empty audio file, to assemble material from other
audio files, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > New.
2.
In the dialog, specify the audio properties, and click OK.
Saving an Audio File
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, do one of the following:
•
To save an audio file that has never been saved before, select File
> Save as.
•
To save an audio file that has been saved before, click the Save
button, or select File > Save.
2.
In the Save Audio File dialog, specify a file name and location.
3.
Set up the available options:
4.
•
Keep this format for next time
•
Save copy
•
Open standard file selector before this dialog
Click Save.
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Saving in Another Format
You can change the file format, sampling frequency, bit resolution, and
stereo/mono status when saving.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Specify the file name and location.
3.
Click in the Output Format field.
4.
In the Audio File Format dialog, set the file format and specify the
properties.
5.
Click OK.
6.
Click Save.
RESULT
A new file is created. The original file is not affected by the operation.
Audio File Format Dialog
In this dialog, you can change various file settings when saving.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as, and click the
Output Format field. This dialog can also be opened from various other
locations in WaveLab Elements.
Type
Select an audio file type. This affects the options available on the
Audio format menu.
File extension
Select a file extension compatible with the current file type.
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Audio format
Select an audio format compatible with the current file type.
Channels
Specify the number of audio channels for the files to be created.
For multichannel audio montages, you can create multiple files.
Sample rate
Select a sample rate for the audio file. If you change this setting, a
sample rate conversion takes place.
IMPORTANT
Use this only for simple conversions. For professional results, use the
Resample plug-in to add limiting and dithering.
Bit resolution
Select a bit resolution for the audio file. This option is only available
for certain file types.
IMPORTANT
Reducing the bit resolution is only advised for simple conversions. For
professional results, it is recommended to add dithering in the Master
Section.
Meta-data
Lets you make meta-data settings that are saved with the file. This
option is only available for certain file types.
The following options are available:
•
When Do not save anything is selected, no meta-data are saved
with the file.
•
When Inherit from source file is selected, the meta-data of the
source file are used. If this option is selected and the source
meta-data is empty, the default meta-data will be used, if available.
•
When selecting Specific to this configuration, you can edit the
meta-data, or replace it with a meta-data preset. To edit the
meta-data, open the meta-data pop-up menu again, and select
Edit.
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About Changing the Format
When changing the sample rate, bit resolution, and number of channels
of an audio file, several operations are performed.
Property
Action
Sample rate
If a new sample rate is specified, a sample rate conversion is
performed.
Bit
resolution
If a different bit resolution is specified, the file is either “truncated”
down to 8 bits, or “padded” up to 24 bits. If you are converting to a
lower bit resolution, you should consider adding dithering.
Mono/
Stereo
If the file is converted from mono to stereo, the same material is
used in both channels. If the conversion is from stereo to mono, a
mix of the two channels is created.
•
If you only want to change the bit resolution, you can do this
directly in the Edit > Audio properties dialog instead, and then
save the audio file.
•
For high quality mastering purposes, it is not recommended to
change the sample rate and number of channels using the Audio
properties dialog, but instead use plug-ins and functions of the
Master Section.
•
For the available compressed file formats (MP3, MP2, WMA, and
Ogg Vorbis), you can specify various options, such as bit rate and
compression method, and also enter text tags for the file.
Saving as OSQ File
OSQ (Original Sound Quality) is a lossless audio compression format,
which can significantly reduce the audio file size without affecting the
audio quality.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Specify the file name and location.
3.
Click in the Output Format field.
4.
In the Audio File Format dialog, set the type to Original Sound
Quality (OSQ) and specify the properties.
5.
Click OK.
6.
Click Save.
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Saving a Selection as an Audio File
You can save a selection in the currently open audio file as a new audio
file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection range.
2.
Select File > Export > Selected time range.
3.
Specify a file name, location, and output format.
4.
Click Save.
Saving Left/Right Channel as Audio File
You can save each channel individually into a separate file. Use this
option when you have been editing dual mono files, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Left channel
or Right channel.
2.
Specify a file name, location, and output format.
3.
Click Save.
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Encoding Audio Files
Audio can be stored in different formats. The process of converting
audio to another format is called encoding. When saving audio files, you
can specify various encoding options for some file formats.
MP3 Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an MP3 audio file.
You can open the MP3 encoding dialog from most places where you
can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select
MPEG-1 Layer 3 (MP3) as type, click the Encoding field, and select
Edit.
Encoder
Lets you select the encoder (Fraunhofer or Lame).
Constant/Variable Bit Rate
The bit rate is related to the quantity of data used to encode the
audio signal. The higher the value, the better the quality, but the
larger the output file. If you choose Variable Bit rate, the rate
changes, according to the complexity of the audio material.
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Highest quality (slowest)/Fastest
Select the quality that you want to achieve. The higher the quality,
the more resources and time are required to analyze and compress
the audio signal.
NOTE
When selecting Highest quality (slowest), this can enforce a certain
sample rate for the audio file. If this is the case and the sample rate is
different from the input sample rate, a message is displayed.
When using the Lame encoder, additional settings can be made on the
Advanced tab.
Allow intensity stereo coding
Decreases the bit rate by reorganizing the intensity information
between the channels.
Specify as “Original Recording”
Marks the encoded file as the original recording.
Write private bit
This is a custom flag.
Write copyright flag
Marks the the encoded file as copyright protected.
Write check-sum
Allows other applications to check the integrity of the file.
Create long frames
Saves space by writing fewer headers in the file (not compatible
with all decoders).
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MPEG-1 Layer 2 Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an MPEG-1 Layer 2
(MP2) audio file.
You can open the MPEG-1 Layer 2 encoding dialog from most places
where you can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio
Files workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field,
select MPEG-1 Layer 2 as type, click the Encoding field, and select
Edit.
Bit rate
Lets you select the bit rate. The bit rate is related to the quantity of
data used to encode the audio signal. The higher the value, the
better the quality, but the larger the output file.
Stereo encoding - Standard
In this mode, the encoder does not use the correlation between
channels. However, the encoder can take space from a channel
that is easy to encode and use it for a complicated channel.
Stereo encoding - Joint
In this mode, the encoder uses existing correlations between the
two channels to increase the ratio quality/space.
Stereo encoding - Dual
In this mode, both channels are independently encoded. This
mode is recommended for signals with independent channels.
Specify as “Original Recording”
Marks the encoded file as the original recording.
Write private bit
This is a custom flag.
Write copyright flag
Marks the encoded file as copyright protected.
Write check-sum
Allows other applications to check the integrity of the file.
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Encode peaks (ancillary data)
This must be activated for compatibility with certain system, for
example, DIGAS.
FLAC Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save a FLAC audio file.
You can open the FLAC Encoding dialog from most places where you
can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select
FLAC as type, click the Encoding field, and select Edit.
Compression level
Lets you specify the compression level. The more compression,
the slower the encoding.
Ogg Vorbis Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save an Ogg Vorbis audio
file.
You can open the Ogg Vorbis dialog from most places where you can
select an output file format. For example, in the Audio Files workspace,
select File > Save as, click the Output Format field, select Ogg Vorbis
as type, click the Encoding field, and select Edit.
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Average bit rate
If this option is activated, the average bit rate in the file remains
constant during encoding. Because the file size is proportional to
time, the localization of a given point is easier, but it can result in a
lower quality compared to the Variable bit rate option.
Variable bit rate
If this option is activated, the bit rate in the file will vary during
encoding, depending on the complexity of the material. This can
give a better quality/size ratio in the resulting file.
In the Quality field, select the quality. Lower quality settings result
in smaller files.
Windows Media Audio Encoding Dialog
You can edit the encoding options when you save a Windows Media
Audio (WMA) audio file. This dialog is only available in on Windows
systems.
You can open the Windows Media Audio dialog from most places
where you can select an output file format. For example, in the Audio
Files workspace, select File > Save as, click the Output Format field,
select Windows Media Audio (WMA) as type, click the Encoding field,
and select Edit.
Encoder
Lets you select the encoder.
Output sample rate
Lets you specify the output sample rate of the encoded file. The
higher the sample rate, the higher the quality, but the larger the
output file.
Output bit resolution
Lets you specify the output bit resolution of the encoded file. This
parameter is not available for all encoders.
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Channels and bit rate
The available items here depend on the selected encoding method
and the output sample rate.
VBR (Variable bit rate)
If this option is activated, the bit rate in the file will vary during the
encoding, depending on the complexity of the material. This can
produce a better quality/size ratio in the output file.
In the Quality field, select the quality. Lower quality settings result
in smaller files.
Two-pass encoding (better, but twice as long)
If this option is activated, the encoding quality increases, but the
process takes twice as long.
Constrained bit rate
This option is available when the VBR and Two-pass encoding
options are activated. This is used to maintain the bit rate within
limits to avoid peaks. This is recommended for certain media, such
as CD or DVD.
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio File
You can export audio files to an audio montage, including all markers
that you have set in the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to use a certain time range of the audio
file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Create
audio montage from active file.
3.
Select whether to export the whole file or the selected time range.
4.
Optional: Decide if you want to perform any of the following marker
operations:
5.
•
Transcribe markers
•
Split at generic region markers
Click OK.
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Inserting Audio Files into Another Audio File
You can assemble an audio file from several audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file in which you want
to insert another audio file.
2.
If you want to insert an audio file at the edit cursor position, select
View > Move cursor to > Snap position.
The edit cursor snaps to the nearest zero crossing. This avoids glitches.
3.
Select File > Import and choose one of the following options:
•
Insert audio file at start
•
Insert audio file at end
•
Insert audio file at cursor position
When you select Insert audio file at cursor position, the audio file is
cut at the insert position. The part after the cut is moved to the right.
4.
Select the audio file that you want to insert, and click Open.
Turning Selections Into New Files
You can turn selections into new files via dragging, or by using the Edit
menu.
Turning Selections Into New Files By Dragging
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection in the wave
window.
2.
Drag the selection to the WaveLab Elements tab bar, and release
the mouse button.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
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Turning Selections Into New Files Using the Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection in the wave
window.
2.
Select Edit > Copy selection to new window > As is.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Special File Format Dialog
When opening files via the Unknown audio file option, you can specify
how to interpret the format of the audio file that you want to open.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Import > Unknown audio
file.
Sample format
Specifies the binary representation of the samples in the file.
Byte order
Specifies the order in which bytes should be interpreted. This only
applies for 16 bit or more.
Channels
Specifies the number of audio channels in the audio file.
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Data to ignore (number of bytes)
Specifies how many bytes WaveLab Elements should ignore at the
start and end of the audio file.
Sample rate
Specifies the sample rate of the audio file.
File extension
Specifies the default file name extension for the audio file. When
the file selector opens after closing this dialog, only the file with this
extension is displayed.
Converting From Stereo to Mono and From Mono to Stereo
You can convert audio files from mono to stereo and from stereo to
mono. Converting a mono file into a stereo file produces an audio file
that contains the same material in both channels, for example for further
processing into real stereo.
Converting a Selection From Stereo to Mono Using the Menu
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a stereo selection in the wave
window.
2.
Select one of the following options:.
•
To mix the left and right stereo channels when converting to mono,
select Edit > Copy selection to new window > Convert to Mono
(Mix).
•
To mix the left channel with the inverse of the right channel when
converting to mono, select Edit > Copy selection to new window
> Convert to Mono (Subtract right channel from left channel).
The resulting mono wave contains the difference between the
channels. For example, this allows you to verify that a wave file
really is a true stereo file rather than a mono file converted to stereo
format.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
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Converting From Stereo to Mono While Saving
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Save as.
2.
Click in the Output Format field.
The Audio File Format dialog opens.
3.
From the Channels menu, select one of the mono settings.
For example, when selecting Mono (Mix -3 dB), the resulting audio file is
attenuated by 3 dB. Because mixing two channels into mono can
introduce clipping. These two settings can be used to remedy this.
4.
Click OK.
5.
Click Save.
Converting a Selection From Mono to Stereo
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a mono selection in the wave
window.
2.
Select Edit > Copy selection to new window > Convert to
Stereo.
RESULT
The selection appears in a new stereo window.
Swapping Channels in a Stereo File
You can move the audio in the left channel to the right channel, and vice
versa.
•
To swap the channels of the whole audio file in the Audio Files
workspace, select Edit > Swap stereo channels.
•
To swap only a selected range of the audio file, make a selection
range in the wave window, and select Edit > Swap stereo
channels.
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Special Paste Operations
On the Paste special menu, you find additional paste options.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Paste special.
Overwrite
Overwrites data in the destination file, rather than moving data to
make room for the inserted audio. How much is overwritten
depends on the selection in the destination file:
•
If there is no selection in the destination file, a section with the
same length as the pasted selection is overwritten.
•
If there is a selection in the destination file, the pasted selection
replaces that selection.
Append
Adds the pasted audio after the end of the file.
Prepend
Adds the pasted audio before the beginning of the file.
Multiple copies
Opens a dialog in which you can enter the number of copies that
you want to create.
Mix
Blends two files into each other, starting at the selection or, if there
is no selection, at the cursor position.
•
When you select the Mix option, a dialog opens, allowing you to
specify the gain for the audio on the clipboard and at the
destination.
•
All the data on the clipboard is always mixed in, regardless of the
length of the selection.
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Moving Audio
You can rearrange the order of audio in a file by dragging, and cutting
and pasting.
Moving Audio by Dragging
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Click in the middle of the selection.
3.
Drag to a position outside the selection in the same file, or to
another wave window.
4.
Release the mouse button.
Moving Audio Using Cut and Paste
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Use one of the following copy methods:
3.
4.
•
Select Edit > Cut.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[X].
•
Drag the selection onto the Cut icon.
Select how you want to insert the selection:
•
If you want to insert the audio, click once at the position in the same
file or in another file.
•
If you want to replace a section of audio, select it.
Select Edit > Paste or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
RESULT
The selection is removed from its original position and inserted where
you drop it.
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NOTE
To completely undo a move between two files you must first undo the paste
in the destination window and then undo the cut in the source window.
Moving Audio by Nudging
The Nudge left/right tools can be used to move the audio in small steps
within a file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection.
2.
Depending on whether you want to nudge the selection to the left
or to the right, select one of the following tools:
3.
•
Select Edit > Tools > Nudge left, or click the Nudge left icon on
the toolbar.
•
Select Edit > Tools > Nudge right, or click the Nudge right icon
on the toolbar.
Click the selection.
Pressing [Shift] switches nudge left to nudge right and vice versa.
4.
To exit the nudge tool mode, click anywhere outside of the
selection.
RESULT
The audio is moved one pixel. Exactly how much this is depends on how
far you are zoomed in. For example, if the status bar displays x1:256, the
selection is moved 256 samples. The moved section overwrites the
audio at that position.
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Copying Audio
You can copy sections of audio within the same file or between audio
files.
Stereo/Mono Handling
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you drag between files:
Dragged
section
Drop wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
The dragged audio is always inserted into
both channels.
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is inserted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on the vertical
drop position. This is indicated by the
cursor shape. The selection can be
inserted into only one of the channels, or
the same material can be inserted into
both channels.
Stereo/mono is handled as follows when you copy and paste files:
Copied section
Paste wave
Action
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor extends across both
channels of the destination file, the
material is inserted into both channels.
Stereo
Stereo
If the wave cursor is only in one channel,
the audio is only pasted in that channel.
Material from the left channel is pasted in
the left channel and vice versa.
Stereo
Mono
Only the left channel is pasted.
Mono
Stereo
What happens depends on whether the
wave cursor is in one channel or both. The
audio is either pasted in one of the
channels, or the same material is inserted
into both channels.
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Sample Rate Conflicts
If you copy or move audio from one window to another, and the sample
rates of the two files are not the same, the copied/moved sound plays
back at the wrong pitch (speed). The program warns you if this is about
to happen.
While mixing sample rates can be used as an effect, it is most often not
intended. There are two ways to get around this:
•
Convert the sample rate of the source file to the same rate as the
destination file before editing.
•
Convert the sample rate of the destination file to the same rate as
the source file before adding the audio.
Copying Audio Using Copy and Paste
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Use one of the following copy methods:
3.
4.
•
Select Edit > Copy.
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
•
Drag the selection onto the Copy icon.
Select how you want to insert the selection:
•
If you want to insert the audio, click once at the position in the same
file or in another file.
•
If you want to replace a section of audio, select it.
Select Edit > Paste, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
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Changing the Audio Properties
Copying Audio by Dragging
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to use Snap selection to zero-crossing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Click the middle of the selection, and drag it to a position outside
the selection in the same file, or to another wave window.
3.
Release the mouse button.
RESULT
The selection is inserted at the indicated point. The audio that previously
began at that point is moved to the right.
Information About the Active Audio File
You can open a dialog that shows the name, file location, size, date, and
file format of the active audio file.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Special > Information.
Changing the Audio Properties
You can change the declared sample rate and sample accuracy of audio
files.
Changing these values does not process the audio file in any way (in
contrast to using Save as). However, the following rules apply:
•
If you change the sample rate, the file plays back at a new pitch.
•
If you change the bit resolution, the file is converted to the new
resolution the next time you save it.
NOTE
There is no undo for this. If you save with a lower bit resolution, the file
is converted permanently.
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Changing the Audio Properties
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open an audio file.
2.
Select Edit > Audio properties.
3.
Specify a new Sample rate and/or Accuracy.
4.
Click OK.
Audio Properties Dialog
This dialog reports the audio properties of the active audio file. It allows
you to change the number of audio samples per second (sample rate)
and the accuracy of samples in the audio stream (bit rate).
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Audio properties.
Channels
The number of audio channels (mono/stereo).
Sample rate
The number of audio samples per second.
Accuracy
The accuracy of samples in the audio stream.
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
Meta-Data
Meta-data consists of attributes that describe the audio contents, for
example, the title of the track, the author, and the date the track was
recorded. Depending on the file format of the selected audio file, this
data varies.
When opening an audio file or audio montage, the meta-data found in
the file is loaded. You can also create different meta-data presets for
audio files and audio montages. When creating a new file from a
template, this file can inherit the meta-data of the preset, if available.
A preview of the meta-data is displayed in the Meta-data window. To
view the complete meta-data of the file and edit the meta-data, select
Edit > Meta-data, or click the Edit button in the Meta-data window.
Not all file formats can store meta-data. Depending on the output file
format, all meta-data or only part of the meta-data will be stored in the
audio file. The following file formats can contain meta-data:
•
.wav
•
.mp3
•
.ogg
•
.wma
•
.flac
For MP3, the following meta-data types are available:
•
ID3 v1 and ID3 v2, including picture support
For WAV, the following meta-data types are available:
•
RIFF
•
BWF
•
CART (AES standard, dedicated to broadcast needs)
•
ID3 v2, including picture support
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
When saving or recording an audio file in the Audio File Format dialog,
you can specify whether not to use any meta-data, inherit the meta-data
from the source file, or edit the meta-data of the file.
Meta-data can be entered manually or generated automatically.
The following options can be generated automatically:
•
Time markers (CART)
•
USID (BWF, Basics tab)
(*) These options cause a file analysis while the file is written, which
means that the file writing process can take longer.
WaveLab Elements includes several meta-data presets. They are used
as examples and can be customized for your needs. You can load
meta-data presets from the Meta-data presets pop-up menu in the
Audio File Format dialog, or from the Meta-data dialog.
RELATED LINKS:
“Audio File Format Dialog” on page 104
Meta-Data Dialog
This dialog allows you to define the meta-data to be embedded in your
audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Edit > Meta-data. Depending on the workspace, the meta-data is
handled differently.
When opening the Meta-data dialog in the Audio Files workspace, you
can edit the meta-data that is stored in the audio file. This meta-data is
saved to disk later.
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Audio File Editing
Meta-Data
When opening the Meta-data dialog in the Audio Montage workspace,
you can edit the meta-data for the audio files when rendering the audio
montage. If you render to WAV or MP3 formats, the meta-data will be
be associated to these files.
Meta-data dialog for a WAV file
Meta-data dialog for a WMA file
Meta-Data Presets
In the Meta-data dialog, you can save meta-data presets and apply
these presets to other files. Meta-data presets can be applied to WAV
and MP3 files.
The Use as default for new .wav files option allows you to define a set
of meta-data as default.
127
Audio File Editing
Silence Generator Dialog
When you create a new file, and do not add any meta-data, this default
meta-data is applied to the file when saving it. For example, you can save
or record WAV files with BWF meta-data and automatically add a
Unique Material Identifier.
To edit the default meta-data preset, select Load default, and edit the
preset.
About CART and Markers
WaveLab Elements reads the CART markers, if any, and merges them
with the existing markers of the file.
The CART standard can contain up to 8 markers. WaveLab Elements
stores them if their names obey the CART standard.
When Generate time markers is activated in the CART tab of the
Meta-data dialog, the markers are generated if at least one CART text
field has content. Otherwise the CART data is meant to be unused.
When rendering a file, the render option Copy markers must be
activated in the Render dialog.
Silence Generator Dialog
This dialog allows you to insert silence or background noise in an audio
file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Silence (advanced).
Silence Duration - As selection
Uses the duration of the active audio selection as the duration of
the silent section. Specify the duration of the silent section in the
value field below.
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Audio File Editing
Silence Generator Dialog
Edges - Fade-in/out
Performs a crossfade at the start and end of the silent section for
smoother transitions. Specify the fade time in the value field below.
Destination - Replace selection
Replaces the current audio selection with the silent section.
Destination - Insert at cursor
Inserts the silent section at the cursor position.
Destination - From end of file until cursor
Extends the audio file with silence up to the cursor position.
Activating this option also defines the silence duration and ignores
the Silence Duration setting.
Replacing a Selection with Silence
You can replace a section of an audio file with silence.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Select Edit > Silence (advanced).
3.
Set the silence duration to As selection, and the destination to
Replace selection.
4.
Click Apply.
Inserting Silence
You can insert a specified length of silence at any position of the audio
file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, set the cursor where you want the
inserted silence to begin.
2.
Select Edit > Silence (advanced).
3.
Deactivate As selection, and specify the length.
4.
Set the destination to Insert at cursor.
5.
Click Apply.
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Audio File Editing
Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
Fast Muting a Selection
The Fast mute function replaces the selection with true silence without
needing to write any audio sample to the media.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection, and select Edit >
Fast mute.
Waveform Restoration with the Pen Tool
The Pen tool allows you to redraw the waveform directly in the wave
window. This can be used to quickly repair waveform errors.
The Pen tool can be used if the zoom resolution is set to 1:8 (one pixel
on the screen equals 8 samples) or higher.
•
To redraw the waveform, select the Pen tool, click in the waveform,
and draw the new waveform.
•
To redraw the waveform of both channels at once, press [Shift]
during the drawing process.
130
Audio Analysis
WaveLab Elements provides you with a comprehensive set of tools for
analyzing your audio and for detecting any errors.
For example, you can use the suite of audio meters, or the 3D
Frequency Analysis. There are also several tools that help you examine
any sample of your audio for errors or anomalies.
Global Analysis
In WaveLab Elements you can perform advanced analysis on your audio
to identify areas with specified properties. This helps you find problem
areas such as glitches or clipped samples. You can also check general
information, such as the pitch of a sound.
When you analyze a section of an audio file, WaveLab Elements scans
the section or the audio file and extracts information which is displays
in the dialog. WaveLab Elements also marks sections of the file that
meet specific characteristics, for example, sections that are very loud or
almost silent. You can then browse between these points, set markers,
or zoom in on markers. On most of the tabs, you find settings that
determine exactly how the analysis is performed. Each tab focuses on
a particular analysis area.
You perform the global analysis in the Global Analysis dialog. This
dialog consists of the following tabs that provide different analysis
types:
•
The Peaks tab lets you find individual samples with very high
values.
•
The Loudness tab lets you find sections with high intensity.
•
The Pitch tab lets you find the exact pitch of a sound or section.
•
The Extra tab provides information about DC offsets and the
significant bit resolution.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
•
The Errors tab lets you find glitches and sections where the audio
has been clipped.
Most of the analysis types provide a number of positions in the file that
indicate peaks, glitches, etc. These points are called “hot points”.
Opening the Global Analysis Dialog
The Global Analysis dialog provides various analysis options.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select a range in the audio file that
you want to process.
If you want to analyze the entire file, press [Ctrl]/[Command]-A. If
Process whole file if there is no selection is activated in the Audio file
editing preferences dialog, the whole file is processed automatically
provided that no selection has been made.
2.
Select Analysis > Global analysis.
RELATED LINKS:
“Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog” on page 332
Choosing the Analysis Type
Several types of analysis can be performed. Each of them takes some
time, so make sure that only the types that you need are included in the
analysis.
Select the analysis types by activating them in the corresponding tabs.
•
To include the Peaks analysis, activate Find Peaks.
•
To include the Loudness analysis, activate Analyze Loudness.
•
To include the Pitch analysis, activate Find Average Pitch.
•
To include the Extra analysis, activate Find DC Offset.
•
To include the Errors analysis, activate Find Possible Glitches
and Find Clipped Samples.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Global Analysis - Peaks Tab
This tab is used to find digital peak values in the audio, that is, single
samples with very high values.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Peaks tab.
Find Peaks
Enables peak analysis.
Digital
Displays the highest peak in the analyzed section. When you click
this value, the number of peaks that are found in the selection is
shown in the Number of hot points section in the lower left corner
of the dialog. You can use the hot points to move the cursor
between the peaks.
At cursor
Displays the level at the current audio file cursor position at the
time of the analysis.
Maximum number of peaks to report
Restricts the number of reported peaks. For example, setting this
to “1” reports only the highest peak.
Minimum time between 2 peaks
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too
close to each other. For example, setting this to “1 s” ensures that
there is always at least one second between reported points.
Results of the Analysis
The Find Peaks fields show the highest peak in the analyzed section
and the level of the sample at the wave cursor position at the time of the
analysis.
133
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Global Analysis - Loudness Tab
This tab is for finding sections that are perceived by the human ear as
louder or weaker in volume. To find sections that the ear perceives as
significant in volume, you must look at a longer section of audio.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Loudness tab.
Loudness Settings
Analyze Loudness
Enables RMS loudness analysis.
Average
Displays the overall loudness of the analyzed selection.
Maximum
Displays the level of the loudest section in the analyzed selection.
Clicking this value displays the number of loud sections found
within the selection, in the Number of hot points section in the
lower left corner of the dialog.
Minimum
Displays the level of the quietest section in the analyzed selection.
Clicking this value displays the number of weak sections that are
found within the selection in the Number of hot points section in
the lower left corner of the dialog. This provides adequate
information about the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the audio
material.
Around cursor
Displays the loudness at the audio file cursor position at the time
of the analysis.
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Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Resolution
The length of audio to be measured and averaged. If this value is
lowered, short passages of loud/weak audio are detected. When
it is raised, the sound must be loud/weak for a longer period to
result in a hot point.
Threshold (for the average)
Ensures that the average value is calculated correctly for
recordings with pauses. The value that you set here determines a
threshold below which any found audio is considered to be
silence, and is therefore excluded from average value calculations.
Maximum number of loudness points to report
Restricts the number of reported hot points. The highest points are
reported. For example, setting this to “1” reports only the loudest
section or one of the sections with the same highest value.
Minimum time between 2 points
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too
close to each other. For example, setting this to “1 s” ensures that
there is always at least one second between reported points.
Global Analysis - Pitch Tab
This tab is for finding the average pitch of an audio section.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Pitch tab.
You can use this tab to gather information for pitch shifting, for example,
to get one sound in tune with another. The display shows the pitch for
each channel, both in Hertz (Hz) and as semitones and cents
(hundredths of a semitone). Since the display shows an overall value for
the entire analyzed section, the hot point controls in the lower section of
the dialog are not used on this tab.
Usage guidelines for the Pitch tab:
•
The result is an average value for the whole selection.
•
The method only works on monophonic material, not on chords or
harmonies.
•
The algorithm assumes that the analyzed section has a reasonably
stable pitch.
135
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
•
The material must be relatively well isolated from other sounds.
•
It is preferable to analyze the sustain portion of a sound rather than
the attack. The pitch is usually not “stable” during the attack.
•
Some synthetic sounds may have a weak fundamental (first
harmonic) which can irritate the algorithm.
Global Analysis - Extra Tab
This tab shows the average DC Offset of the analyzed section and the
Apparent Bit Resolution.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Extra tab.
The Apparent Bit Resolution attempts to detect the actual resolution
in the audio. This is useful, for example, if you want to check, whether a
24-bit file really uses 24 bits or if it was actually recorded with 16-bit
resolution and then expanded to 24 bits.
Errors Detection
You can detect errors, such as glitches and sections where the audio
has clipped.
Glitches
•
These are disruptions in the audio. Glitches may occur after
problematic digital transfers, after careless editing, etc. They
manifest themselves as “clicks” or “pops” in the audio.
136
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Clipping
•
A digital system has a finite number of levels that it can represent
properly. When recorded sound levels are too high or when the
system cannot handle levels that have been raised by digital
processing, hard clipping occurs that you can hear as strong
distortion.
A sine waveform before clipping and after.
Result of the Analysis
This reports the number of glitches and clipping instances that have
been found.
Global Analysis - Errors Tab
This tab helps you find glitches and sections where the audio has
clipped.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the Errors tab.
Maximum number of error points to report
Allows you to restrict reported numbers of hot points.
Minimum time between 2 points
Controls the distance between points, so they do not appear too
close to each other. For example, setting this to “1 s” ensures that
there is always at least one second between reported points.
137
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Find possible glitches
Enables glitch analysis.
Find possible glitches - Threshold
Sets the value at which a change in level is considered to be a
glitch. The higher the value, the less sensitive the detection.
Find possible glitches - Sensitivity
Length value that represents the length of time in which the
waveform must exceed the threshold to be reported as a glitch.
The higher the value, the less sensitive the detection.
Find possible glitches - Output format
Displays the number of clipping occurrences that are found by the
analysis. Clicking this value displays the number of clips in the
Number of hot points section in the lower left corner of the
dialog.
NOTE
Make sure that the points that are found by the algorithm are real
glitches. Zoom in and play back to check whether the found points really
indicate a problem.
Find clipped samples
Enables clipping analysis.
Find clipped samples - Threshold
Checks for a number of consecutive samples at full value, to
determine whether clipping has occurred. The Threshold setting
determines the exact number of these consecutive samples that
must occur for the program to report clipping.
Find clipped samples - Output format
Displays the number of clipping occurrences that are found by the
analysis. Clicking this value displays the number of clips in the
Number of hot points section in the lower left corner of the
dialog.
138
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
Performing a Global Analysis
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
select the tab that you want to include in the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, set up the parameters.
Most of the tabs have settings that determine how the analysis should be
performed.
2.
If the Peak or Loudness tab is selected, move the cursor to the
position that you want to analyze.
The Peak and Loudness tabs report values specifically for the position of
the cursor.
3.
Click Analyze.
Results of the Global Analysis
Depending on the analysis type, one or several values are returned for
the analyzed audio.
For the Pitch and Extra analyses, only one value is returned. The other
analysis types provide a number of positions in the file that indicate
peaks, glitches, etc. These points are called “hot points”.
Checking the Results of the Global Analysis
The results of the global analysis are marked with hot points. You can
browse through these points to see the results of the analysis.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
perform the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, click the tab that represents the
values that you want to check.
2.
Check the display for maximum/minimum values in the entire
analyzed section.
3.
Decide which of these values you want to browse.
4.
Click the button that currently displays this value.
139
Audio Analysis
Global Analysis
5.
Check the Number of hot points value at the bottom of the dialog.
The value shows the number of positions that were found by the analysis.
6.
Use the scrollbar below the Number of hot points value to
browse between the found positions.
The edit cursor shows the position in the wave window.
7.
To browse another property, click the corresponding tab, and then
the value button.
NOTE
The result of the analysis is saved until you close the dialog or click
Analyze again.
Creating Markers at Hot Points
Creating markers at hot points simplifies browsing the results of the
global analysis.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
perform the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Global Analysis dialog, select the analysis type for which
you want to create markers at hot points.
You can add markers for only one channel at a time.
2.
Click the Create markers at hot points button.
Temporary markers are added at all hot points.
RESULT
The markers are named using the following principle: “Hot point number
(Channel)”. For example, a marker at the third hot point in the left
channel would be labeled “3 (L)”.
140
Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
Focusing Hot Points
After a global analysis, you can focus the display on a certain hot point.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > Global Analysis, and
perform the analysis.
PROCEDURE
1.
Use the Number of hot points scroll bar to move the position
indicator to the position in which you are.
2.
Click the Focus button.
The wave window zooms in on the selected point. The Global Analysis
dialog is reduced to the bottom part.
3.
To return to the unzoomed view and return to the full view of the
Global Analysis dialog, click the Focus button again.
3D Frequency Analysis
Using the 3D Frequency Analysis, you can view an audio file in the
frequency domain.
Use the 3D Frequency Analysis to:
•
See how the frequency spectrum is distributed in a mix.
•
Identify which frequencies to reduce or boost as a basis for
equalizing.
•
See which parts of the frequency spectrum are occupied by a
certain background noise that you want to filter out.
A wave display (time domain) informs you about the start and end of a
sound in a file, but lacks information about the timbral contents of the file
that a frequency graph (frequency domain) provides. The graph that is
used in WaveLab Elements is often referred to as an FFT (Fast Fourier
Transform) plot. If you select a stereo recording, a mix of the two
channels is analyzed.
141
Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
The wheel control allows you to view the frequency spectrum from
different angles. For example, you can open several 3D Frequency
Analysis windows, each with a different perspective. This allows you to
get a better view of an otherwise crowded graph.
Creating a Graph for 3D Frequency Analysis
The length of the selected audio affects the accuracy of the analysis. For
short selections, the result is more detailed. Consider making a separate
analysis of the attack in which the most drastic variations occur.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the section of the file that you
want to analyze.
If you make no selection, the whole audio file is analyzed.
2.
Select Analysis > 3D Frequency Analysis.
The audio is analyzed.
3.
To edit the analysis parameters, click the 3d analysis options
button.
4.
Adjust the parameters, and click OK.
The audio is re-analyzed.
142
Audio Analysis
3D Frequency Analysis
3D Analysis Options
In the options dialog of the 3D Frequency Analysis dialog, you can
define which frequency range is analyzed and modify the appearance of
the graph for the 3D frequency analysis.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Analysis > 3D Frequency
Analysis, and click the 3D analysis options button.
Top/Bottom frequency
Specifies the highest/lowest frequency of the range.
Logarithmic ruler (octaves)
Divides the frequency ruler in equally spaced octaves.
Amplitude
Select whether you want the peaks to be proportional to their
amplitude (Linear) or to their power (Logarithmic with decibel
scale).
Colors
Defines the color scheme of the graph.
Background
Defines the background color.
143
Offline Processing
Offline processes are useful for a variety of editing purposes and
creative effects. For example, when the computer is too slow for
real-time processing or when the editing requires more than one pass.
After the processing the audio file is permanently altered.
Applying Processing
Processing can be applied to a selection or to a whole file. For certain
operations processing the entire file is necessary.
NOTE
If Process whole file if there is no selection is activated in the
Options > Audio file editing preferences > Editing tab, the whole file
is automatically processed if no selection exists.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, make a selection
2.
Select the type of processing that you want to apply from the
Process menu.
3.
If a dialog appears, make the settings.
4.
Click Apply to render the effect to file.
144
Offline Processing
Gain Dialog
Gain Dialog
In this dialog, you can apply a gain to change the level of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Gain.
Click Find current peak level to obtain a report on the peak level of the
audio selection, or the whole file if there is no selection. This is useful if
you want to calculate how much you can increase the overall gain of a
file without clipping (exceeding 0 dB), for example.
This processor also lets you add clipping. Clipping is when the gain is
raised to a point where distortion is added. While this is normally not
wanted, mild clipping can add some punch, for example, to accentuate
the attack of a drum sound.
Normalize Level Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the peak level of an audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Level Normalizer.
Peak level
Enter the peak level (in dB) that you want the audio selection to
have.
Stereo Link
Applies the gain to both channels.
145
Offline Processing
Normalize Level Dialog
Mix to Mono
Mixes the left and the right channel. The resulting mono file will
have the specified peak level. This ensures a mix without clipping.
Find current peak value
Creates a report on the peak level of the current audio selection,
or the whole audio file if there is no selection.
Basic Envelope Operations
By adding points to the envelope curve you can create an envelope
curve that changes the volume of the material over time. When you point
the mouse in the display or move a point, the current position and level
change is shown in the field above the display.
•
To add a point, double click the envelope curve.
•
To select a point, click it.
•
To select several points, click and drag the selection rectangle.
•
To move a point, click and drag it. If more than one point is
selected, all points are moved.
•
To move the whole curve up or down, click the envelope curve, and
drag up or down.
•
To move the curve segment between selected points, select the
points, click the envelope curve between the points, and drag up
or down.
•
To move two points horizontally, press [Shift], click the curve
segment between two points, and drag left or right.
•
To move the segment between 2 points vertically, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], click the segment, and drag up or down.
146
Offline Processing
Fades in Audio Files
Fades in Audio Files
A fade-in is a gradual increase in level and a fade-out is a gradual
decrease in level.
You can create fades by selecting an individual fading type for each
fade-in/fade-out, or by using the Easy Fade function.
Creating a Fade-In and Fade-Out
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, make a selection.
2.
Depending whether you want to create a fade-in or a fade-out,
select one of the following:
3.
•
To create a fade-in, select Process > Fade-in.
•
To create a fade-out, select Process > Fade-out.
Select the type of fade that you want to create.
A graph in the waveform indicates the resulting shape.
Applying Easy Fades
The Easy Fade function allows you to quickly apply a default fade-in or
fade-out to an audio file.
The shape of the fade is governed by the default fade/crossfade setting
in the Options > Audio file editing preferences > Editing tab, in the
Default fade/crossfade section.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, make one of the following selections:
•
From the start of the audio file to where you want the fade-in to end.
•
From the position where you want the fade-out to start to the end
of the audio file.
Select Process > Easy Fade.
147
Offline Processing
Crossfades
Crossfades
A crossfade is a gradual fade between two sounds, where one is faded
in and the other faded out. You can automatically create a crossfade
when pasting an audio section into another.
Creating Crossfades
The material that you want to crossfade can either be in two different
sections of the same audio file, or in two different audio files.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the section that you want to
fade-in.
2.
Select Edit > Copy, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-C.
3.
Select the section that you want to fade-out.
The length of this selection determines the length of the actual crossfade
(check the length on the status bar). The section can be within the
selected audio file or in another wave window. However, the selection
must not be longer than the selection that you just copied.
4.
Select Edit > Paste and crossfade, and select one of the
crossfade types.
5.
Play back the file and adjust the crossfade if necessary.
RESULT
The crossfade is created. Any material that originally appeared after the
selection in the file into which you paste, is moved so that it now appears
after the pasted material.
Any excess material in the copied selection appears after the fade at full
level.
NOTE
If both files already have full level sections in the crossfade area (for
example, if you have normalized both files), clipping and distortion might
occur. If this happens, reduce the amplitude of both files by 3 to 6 dB
and try again.
148
Offline Processing
Inverting the Audio Phase
Paste and Crossfade Options
These options allow you to select a crossfade type for pasting.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Edit > Paste and crossfade.
Linear (equal gain)
Level changes linearly.
Sinus (equal power)
Level changes according to a sine curve, the power of the mix
remains constant.
Square-root (equal power)
Level changes according to the square-root curve, the power of
the mix remains constant.
Inverting the Audio Phase
Inverting the phase turns the signal upside down. The most common use
for this function is to fix a stereo recording where one of the channels
has been recorded out of phase with the other.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to invert the phase for a certain time
range of the audio file, create a selection range in the wave
window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Invert phase.
An inverted phase is indicated by an icon in the wave window.
149
Offline Processing
Reversing Audio
Reversing Audio
You can reverse an audio file or a part of an audio file as if playing a tape
backwards.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to reverse a certain time range of the
audio file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Reverse.
DC Offset
A DC offset is when there is too large a DC (direct current) component
in the signal. This most often appears due to mismatches between
various types of recording equipment.
A DC offset is problematic for the following reasons:
•
It affects where the zero crossing positions.
•
Certain processing options do not give optimal results when
performed on files with a DC offset.
Removing DC Offset
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file that you want to
check for DC offset and fix.
2.
Select Process > Remove DC offset.
A dialog appears, stating the amount of DC offset in the audio file. You
can also create a selection range in the wave window and then select
this option, to only show the DC offset in the selection range.
NOTE
This function should be applied to whole files, since the problem is
normally present throughout the entire recording.
3.
Click OK to remove the DC offset.
150
Offline Processing
Time Stretching
Time Stretching
Time stretching is an operation that allows you to change the length of
a recording without affecting its pitch.
With time stretching you can make audio material longer or shorter. This
function is most often used to make a section of audio fit in with some
other material. You select the material to be stretched and use the
options in the Time stretching dialog to find a stretch factor. This is
done by specifying a length or a tempo, according to what the situation
requires.
Time Stretching Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the duration of an audio selection, usually
without changing its pitch. You can stretch a selection to a specified
duration (in minutes, seconds, and milliseconds), tempo (in bpm), or
stretch factor (as percentage).
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Time stretching.
Source (Audio Selection)
Duration - Edit tempo
If this option is activated, you can change the tempo of the audio
source. The number of bars and beats and the stretch factor is
updated automatically.
Duration - Edit bars
If this option is activated, you can set the number of bars and beats
and the signature for the audio source. The source tempo and
according the stretch factor is automatically updated.
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Offline Processing
Time Stretching
Result
Target duration
If this option is activated, the audio source changes its duration.
Target tempo
If this option is activated, the audio changes its tempo. For this to
work, you must specify the original tempo or the number of bars
and beats.
Target stretch factor
Lets you see how much the audio duration changes. This
parameter is automatically updated when you edit the other
parameters, but you can also activate this option to edit it manually.
Reset
Resets the stretch factor to 100 % (no stretch).
Method
Preserve pitch
If this option is activated, the pitch of the audio material is not
affected when you apply time stretch. If this option is deactivated,
the pitch changes proportionally with the time stretch ratio.
Quality pop-up menu
Select whether you want to use the Standard quality or the Quick
process.
Time Stretching Limitations
Time stretch is a complicated Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
operation, that always affects the sound quality to some extent.
•
For speech, stretch factors within a ±30 % limit provide good
results.
•
For composite music, try to limit the range to ±10 %.
•
For sensitive material, like solo piano, try to limit the range to ±3 %.
152
Offline Processing
Pitch Shift
About the DIRAC Time Stretching Processor
The DIRAC engine is a high quality time stretcher. It produces the best
quality results possible, but takes longer to process.
Pitch Shift
Pitch shift allows you to detect and to change the pitch of a sound, with
or without affecting its length. This is useful for fixing an off-key vocal
note in a live recording, or tuning the pitch of a kick drum sample to fit a
particular song, for example.
Pitch Shift Dialog
In this dialog, you can change the pitch of a sound.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Pitch shifting.
Amount of Shift - Semitones
Specifies the amount of pitch change in semitones.
Amount of Shift - Cents
Specifies the amount of pitch change in cents.
Find current pitch of audio selection
Analyzes the pitch of the selected audio and displays it below.
According to the current pitch, compute the required shift to match
the key hereafter
Click to adjust Amount of Pitch parameters automatically, based
on the currently detected pitch and the pitch specified in the value
field below this button.
153
Offline Processing
Resample
Pitch field
Specifies the resulting pitch.
Length preservation
Specifies how the length of the selection is affected by the
operation:
•
A setting of 100 means that the length of the audio remains
unchanged.
•
A setting of 0 means that the program behaves like a tape
recorder, when the speed of its tape is changed. For example, if
you raise the pitch by one octave, the audio is half as long.
•
Intermediate values give results in between these two extremes.
For large transposition values, the lower this setting, the better the
quality of the effect.
Quality pop-up menu
Select whether you want to use the Standard quality or the Quick
process.
Correct formants
If this option is activated, changing the pitch of vocal material gives
a more realistic result. When processing non-vocal material you
should leave this option deactivated, since it uses a slightly slower
processing algorithm.
NOTE
This Algorithm might cause a noticeable increase in signal level.
Resample
You can change the sample rate of a recording. This is useful if the file
that you want to use in a certain audio system was recorded at a sample
rate that this system does not support.
Note the following:
•
Sample rate conversion from a low frequency upwards does not
improve the sound quality. The high frequencies that were lost
cannot be restored by a conversion.
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Offline Processing
Resample
•
When you resample to a lower frequency, high frequency material
is lost. Therefore, converting down and then up again leads to a
degradation in sound quality.
NOTE
Using the Crystal Resampler in the quality mode High to change the
sample rate results in the same quality as when using Process >
Resample in the Audio Files workspace. However, that is only the case
if the sample rate in the Sample rate dialog exists in the values of the
Crystal Resampler Sample rate menu. If you choose a custom sample
rate, another algorithm is used, which results in a lower quality of what
the Crystal Sampler can achieve.
Converting a Sample Rate
NOTE
Sample rate conversion is always applied to the entire file.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Resample.
2.
In the Sample Rate dialog, select a sample rate from the pop-up
menu.
3.
Click OK.
155
Audio Montage
The audio montage is a multitrack non-destructive editing environment,
which allows you to arrange, edit, play back, and record audio clips on
multiple tracks.
Non-destructive means that when you delete or change a part of an
audio file, the audio is not deleted or permanently changed. Instead, a
set of pointers keeps track of all the edits, so these can be readily
reversed. WaveLab Elements provides comprehensive facilities for
non-destructive editing.
Features include both track- and clip-based effects, volume and pan
automation, and wide-ranging fade and crossfade functions.
The audio montage is a great tool for Audio CD creation, mastering,
multimedia work, radio spot production, etc.
Basic Terminology
Audio montages can contain up to 3 stereo or mono audio tracks. You
can use them to structure the work graphically, but do not see them as
virtual tape tracks.
On an audio track, you can place any number of clips. These are
containers for the audio, and include a number of settings and functions
such as volume and pan curves, fades, etc.
A clip contains a reference to a source audio file on your hard disk, as
well as start and end positions in the file (allowing clips to play back
smaller sections of their source audio files). Any number of clips can
reference the same source file.
156
Audio Montage
Montage Window
Montage Window
The montage window in the Audio Montage workspace is where you
assemble your audio montage. This is where you view, play back, and
edit audio montages.
The montage window gives you a graphical representation of the tracks
and clips.
Track Control Area
The track control area offers several options regarding the track.
Fold/Unfold
Folds/unfolds the track.
Mute
Mutes the track.
Solo
Solos the track.
FX
Opens the Effects menu in which you can select effects for the
track. A blue icon indicates that a track has track effects.
Track menu
Opens the track menu that contains track-related options.
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Audio Montage
Montage Window
Track name
Opens the Track name dialog where you can enter a name for the
track.
Track Menu
This menu contains all track-related options. In the Audio Montage
workspace, open the Track menu, or click the number button of a track.
Add stereo track
Adds a stereo track below the active track.
Add mono track
Adds a mono track below the active track.
Move track up
Moves the track one position up in the track list.
Move track down
Moves the track one position down in the track list.
Remove track
Deletes the active track.
Mute
Mutes the active track.
Solo
Solos the active track.
Route to Master Section
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the Master Section
input.
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Audio Montage
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
Route to Master Section and upper track
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the Master Section
input and to the modulation input of the Ducker plug-in.
Route to upper track only
Routes the audio signal of the active track to the modulation input
of the Ducker plug-in.
Lock
If this option is activated, you cannot edit the track.
Zoom
Shows the active track in the full available height.
Color
Opens a submenu where you can select a color for the active
track.
Signal Flow in the Audio Montage
The audio signal flow goes through the various sections of WaveLab
Elements in a certain way.
•
Read audio clip samples
•
Clip envelope
•
Clip effects
•
Clip pan
•
Clip individual gain (CD window)
•
Clips are mixed into the track slot (for example, overlapping clips)
•
Track effects
•
Track leveling
•
Each track is mixed into a stereo bus
•
This stereo channel is processed through the plug-ins of the
master output
•
This stereo bus is then sent to the Master Section input
Master Section:
•
Channels/sample rate might change at each plug-in slot
•
Master Section meters
159
Audio Montage
Creating a New Audio Montage
•
Master Section Dithering slot
•
Independent meters
•
Playback or file format rendering
Creating a New Audio Montage
You can add tracks and clips to your new audio montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > New.
2.
In the Audio montage properties dialog, select a Sample rate.
3.
Click OK.
Audio Montage Properties Dialog
In this dialog, you can set the sample rate of the audio montage.
This dialog open when you create a new audio montage.
To change the settings for the currently opened audio montage, select
Edit > Audio montage properties.
Alternative Ways of Creating a New Audio Montage
There are several ways to create a new audio montage.
•
Import audio CD tracks to an audio montage
•
Convert wave files to an audio montage
•
File > Clone
•
Press [Ctrl]/[Option], and drag a montage tab on the tab bar
•
Double-click an empty section of the tab bar
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Audio Montage
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio File
Creating an Audio Montage from an Audio
File
You can export audio files to an audio montage, including all markers
that you have set in the audio file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: If you only want to use a certain time range of the audio
file, create a selection range in the wave window.
2.
In the Audio Files workspace, select File > Export > Create
audio montage from active file.
3.
Select whether to export the whole file or the selected time range.
4.
Optional: Decide if you want to perform any of the following marker
operations:
5.
•
Transcribe markers
•
Split at generic region markers
Click OK.
Import Options for Audio Montages
You can import audio files and Audio CD tracks into your audio
montage.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Import. The following
import options are available:
Insert audio files
Opens the file browser where you can select one or more audio
files to insert at the edit cursor position on the focused track.
Audio CD
Opens the Import Audio CD dialog where you can browse for
audio CD tracks to extract.
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Audio Montage
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
Missing Files in Audio Montage Dialog
This dialog opens when you open an audio montage, and some audio
files that the audio montage refers to could not be found. You can then
search for the files or select a replacement.
Missing files list
Lists the files that could not be found. Each file can be replaced by
an existing file. To search replacements for multiple files, select the
files and specify a new path in the Where to search field.
A file with a green checkmark is associated with a valid
replacement. A file with a red checkmark is not yet associated with
a valid replacement, but there are possible replacement
candidates available at the bottom of this dialog.
Find files with the same name
Instructs WaveLab Elements to find all files with the same name in
the folder specified in the Where to search field.
Replace selected files with
Replaces the missing files with a single specific file.
Reset
Removes all possible replacements for the selected missing files.
Where to search
Lets you specify a location for searching files. Click Find files with
the same name to start the search.
Replacement list
Lists the files that can be used as a replacement. You can also
drag a file into the list from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS Finder.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
You assemble your audio montage by adding tracks and clips.
In the audio montage, only one track can be focused at a time. This
focused track has a different color for the header. Certain WaveLab
Elements functions are always applied to the focused track.
About Tracks
Tracks are the structure used to organize clips. They can be mono or
stereo audio tracks.
•
Audio tracks allow you to add clips to an audio montage.
Adding Tracks
You can add stereo tracks and mono tracks.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of a
track to open the Track menu, and then select the type of track that
you want to add to your audio montage.
NOTE
By default, the new track is added below the focused track. If you want
to place it above the focused track, press [Ctrl]/[Command] when
adding the new track.
Moving Tracks in the Track View
You can change the order of the tracks in the montage window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click a track’s number button.
2.
Select Move track up/Move track down.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Removing Tracks
Removing a track with clips also removes the clips. However, the audio
files to which the clips refer are not affected.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the number button of the
track that you want to remove.
2.
Select Remove track.
Folding and Unfolding Tracks
To save screen space in the Audio Montage workspace, you can fold
tracks that do not need to be visible.
•
To fold a track, click the arrow button at the top left corner of the
track control area.
•
To unfold a folded track, click the button again, or double-click
anywhere in the folded track.
Locking and Unlocking Tracks
You can lock tracks to prevent them from being accidentally moved,
edited, or deleted.
•
To lock a track, click the number button of the track, and activate
Lock. The waveform is marked with stripes to indicate that the
track is locked.
•
To unlock a track, click the locked track, and confirm the dialog, or
click the number button of the track, and deactivate Lock.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
About Clips
A clip contains a reference to a source audio file on your hard disk as
well as start and end positions in the file, volume and pan curves, fades,
etc. This allows clips to play back smaller sections of their source audio
files.
Any number of clips can reference the same source file. Since a clip only
references to the original source file, it contains no audio data. Any
number of clips can reference the same source file.
You can also use envelopes and effects on clips.
You can see the clips of the active audio montage in the CD window.
3 clips on a track
Adding Audio Clips to the Audio Montage
You create clips by copying audio selections into the audio montage.
There are several ways to do this.
NOTE
You cannot add a mono clip to a stereo track or vice versa.
Dragging from the Wave Window
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window of the Audio Files workspace, select the audio
section that you want the clip to refer to.
2.
Drag the selection on a track of the audio montage.
If you want to add the whole audio file, drag the tab on a track.
RESULT
A clip is created, named after the original file.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Inserting From Open Wave Windows Using the Insert Menu
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio files that you want to insert
as clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click an empty part of a
track.
2.
From the pop-up menu, select the audio file that you want to insert
as clip.
Using Copy and Paste
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window of the Audio Files workspace, select the audio
section to which you want the clip to refer to.
2.
Select Edit > Copy, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[C].
3.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the track where you want
to insert the clip.
The clip insert position is indicated by the edit cursor.
4.
Select Edit > Paste, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[V].
5.
Select an insert option from the pop-up menu.
Dragging Audio Files From the File Browser Tool Window
NOTE
The following can also be done from the Windows Explorer/Mac OS
Finder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the File Browser window.
2.
Select the audio files to which you want the clip to refer, and drag
them on a track, or double-click the file to insert it.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Dragging Regions From the File Browser Tool Window
If you have defined marker regions in an audio file, you can drag these
regions directly from the File Browser onto a track.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the File Browser window.
2.
Select the audio file to which you want the clip to refer.
On the right side of the File Browser window, a list shows the available
audio regions of the selected file.
3.
Drag any region to the track.
Importing Audio Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the track on which you
want to put the clip.
The clip insert position is indicated by the edit cursor.
2.
Right-click an empty area on the track, and select Insert audio
files from the pop-up menu.
3.
Select the audio files that you want to import as clips, and click
Open.
Copying Clips From Another Audio Montage
If you have opened more than one audio montage, you can copy clips
from one audio montage to another, either by using drag and drop or by
using copy and paste.
Mismatched Sample Rates When Inserting Audio Files
When inserting audio files with a different sample rate than the sample
rates of the audio montage, WaveLab Elements can create and use
resampled versions of the files.
The resampled file versions are created in the implicit folder that is
defined in the Audio montage preferences. The name of the file is the
name of the original file name with the new sample rate as suffix. If the
resampled file already exists, it is not recreated. However, you can also
activate the option Recreate resampled files in the Mismatched
sample rates dialog.
The created file is a 32-bit float file without any dithering process.
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Audio Montage
Assembling the Audio Montage
Mismatched Sample Rates Dialog
This dialog opens when you insert an audio file with a different sample
rate than the sample rate of the audio montage. This dialog lets you
create a resampled copy of the audio file.
Resampling quality
This option allows you to select the resampling quality.
Recreate resampled files
If this option is activated and a resampled file exists, it is recreated.
Otherwise, the existing version is used. Activate this option if the
original audio file has been modified and you want to recreate its
resampled version.
168
Audio Montage
Rearranging Clips
Rearranging Clips
You can freely arrange clips in the montage window.
About Selected and Focused Clips
There is a distinction between selected and focused clips. Some editing
functions can only be processed on an individual clip or focused clip,
while others can be processed on multiple clips or selected clips.
•
A selected clip is a clip that you have selected using any of the
selecting clips procedures. Several clips can be selected at the
same time. This allows you to edit multiple clips at the same time
using functions such as copy, delete, move, etc. Selected clips
have a different background color. Right-clicking a clip opens the
Clip selection menu.
•
A focused clip is the clip that you selected, clicked, or edited last.
Only one clip can be focused at a time. By default, the focused clip
is distinguished by a highlighted name label. There are certain
functions that can only be processed on a focused clip.
Right-clicking a clip opens the Focused Clip menu. More options
for the focused clip are available in the Focused Clip window.
Magnetic Bounds in Audio Montages
Certain positions, such as markers or the start and end of a clip, can be
defined as magnetic.
When you move or resize, for example, a clip, and its edges or its cue
point get close to one of the magnetic bounds, the clip snaps to this
position. A label is displayed, indicating to what the clip snaps. This
makes it easier to position items accurately.
169
Audio Montage
Rearranging Clips
Activating Snapping to Magnetic Items
To make use of the magnetic bounds function, Snap to magnetic items
must be activated.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Snap to
magnetic items, or click the Snap to magnetic items icon.
Selecting Clips
You can edit multiple selected clips at once.
•
To select a clip, click it. Selected clips are displayed in a different
color.
•
To select multiple clips, [Ctrl]/[Command]-click in the bottom clip
areas.
•
To select a range of clips, [Shift]-click them.
Clip Context Menus
Many editing functions for clips can be accessed via the clip context
menus. Depending on where you right-click the clip, different context
menus are available.
1)
Fade-in section: Opens the Fade-in menu where you can edit the
fade-in.
2)
Any part of a clip: Opens the Focused clip menu where you can
edit the focused clip.
3)
Sustain section: Opens the Envelope menu where you can edit
the envelope.
4)
Fade-out section: Opens the Fade-out menu where you can edit
the fade-out.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
Clip Editing
All currently used clips are displayed in the CD window in the Audio
Montage workspace. In this window, you can edit and rearrange clips
and drag them in the audio montage.
The currently focused clip is highlighted in bold in the clips list.
RELATED LINKS:
“CD Window” on page 199
Focused Clip Window
This window allows you to edit the focused clips using various tools. For
example, you can edit the cue points, envelope curves, fade-in/fade-out,
and colors of clips.
In the Audio Montage, select Workspace > Specific tool window >
Focused Clip.
Edit
Edit plug-ins
Opens the plug-ins used by the focused clip.
Edit audio
Opens the clip’s source file in the related workspace.
Zoom
Adjusts the view to display mainly the focused clip.
Play focused clip
Plays the focused clip from start to end.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
Play focused clip with pre-roll
Plays the focused clip with a pre-roll. The amount of pre-roll is
defined in the transport bar.
Split at cursor position
Splits the focused clip into two new clips, at the edit cursor or
playback cursor position.
Cut to clipboard
Cuts the focused clip to the clipboard.
Copy to clipboard
Copies the focused clip to the clipboard.
Delete clip
Deletes the focused clip.
Split at silences
Opens a dialog, in which you can specify how to split clips at
silences.
Shortcuts
Opens the Customize commands where you can define
shortcuts for all the commands that are found in the Focused clip
window.
Cue Points
Cue point - Set at cursor
Sets the cue point at a fixed position from the start of the clip.
Cue point - Follows fade-in end point
Sets the cue point to be the fade-in end point.
Cue point - Follows fade-out start point
Sets the cue point to be the fade-out start point.
End cue point - Custom offset
Sets the end cue point at a custom position from the end of the
clip. This option allows you to edit the gap individually for each clip.
If this option is deactivated, the default gap defined in the Audio
Montage Preferences is used.
Envelope
Envelope type menu
Sets the type of envelope. Depending on the selected type,
different options are available.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
Reset all
Resets the envelope to its neutral form.
Delete selected points
Deletes the selected envelope points.
Deselect
Resets the selection status of all envelope points.
Reset level to 0 dB
Replaces the segments between the fade-in and fade-out points
to a single neutral segment.
Reset selected points to 0 dB
Resets the selected points to their default level.
Pan menu
Lets you select a pan mode.
Fade-in/Fade-out
Zoom
Adjusts the view to display mainly the fade-in/fade-out part of the
focused clip.
Linear
Changes level linearly.
Sinus (*)
Changes level according to a sine curve. When used in a
crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the
transition.
Square-root (*)
Changes level according to the square-root curve. When used in
a crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the
transition.
Sinusoid
Changes level according to the sine curve.
Logarithmic
Changes level logarithmically.
Exponential
Changes level exponentially.
Exponential+
Changes level strongly exponentialy.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
Set time
Sets the clip fade-in/fade-out time to the specified value.
Colors
On this panel, you apply the custom colors that you have set in the
Audio Montage Colors dialog (Options > Colors).
Re-ordering Clips in the Audio Montage By Dragging
In the CD window, you can re-order clips by dragging them to another
position in the list.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the CD window.
2.
In the clip list, drag a clip to another position in the list.
You can move more than one clip at the same time, by selecting multiple
clips and dragging them. If more than one clip is selected, all clips
between the leftmost selected clip and the rightmost selected clips are
moved.
About Moving and Crossfading Clips
You can let clips overlap other clips, move clips to another location, and
create crossfades between clips.The Options menu in the Audio
Montage workspace provides several options for defining the behavior
when inserting, moving, and crossfading clips.
Moving Clips
NOTE
You cannot move mono clips to stereo tracks and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
Select the clips that you want to move.
2.
Click the lower clip area, and move the clips in any direction.
While dragging, the info line displays the current start position of the clip
that you are dragging.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
About Overlapping Clips
You can move clips so that they overlap each other.
Note the following:
•
The tracks in the audio montage are polyphonic, which means that
each track can play back several overlapping clips at the same
time. Overlapping clips are transparent, allowing you to see the
underlying clips and their waveforms.
•
There are crossfading options that automatically adjust the volume
envelope curves when you overlap clips.
Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips
The Options menu provides you with options that help you when moving
and crossfading clips.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options.
Auto-shift clips on the right (on same track)
Moves all clips that are located on the right of the edited clip to the
right. This option is taken into account when moving or resizing
clips, and when inserting or pasting more than one clip at the same
time.
Auto-shift clips on the right (on all tracks)
Moves all clips that are located on the right of the edited clip to the
right. This option is taken into account when moving or resizing
clips, and when inserting or pasting more than one clip at the same
time.
Create default fades in new clips
If this option is activated, all new clips get the default fade-in and
fade-out shape and length. For clips that are created by splitting a
clip, only the default fade time is used.
Automatic crossfading -- free overlaps
If this option is activated, automatic crossfades are created when
a clip overlaps the edge of another clip on the same track. The
length of the overlap determines the length of the crossfade.
Snap to magnetic items
If this option is activated, moved elements such as clip edges, time
selection edges, cursor, and markers snap to the magnetic items
that are activated in the Magnetic bounds submenu.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
Duplicating Clips
NOTE
You cannot copy mono clips to stereo tracks and vice versa.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select one or more clips.
2.
Click the upper clip area and drag the clips in any direction.
While you are dragging the clips, a dotted line indicates where the first
of the copied clips will be placed. The position is also indicated on the
info line.
Clip Resizing
In this context, resizing usually means moving the start and end points
of a clip so that more or less of the original audio file is revealed.
To resize a clip, click the left or right edge of the clip, and move the start
or end point to the left or to the right. You cannot drag the edge of a clip
past the start or end point of the audio file it refers to.
If you press [Alt]/[Option] when resizing, all selected clips are resized by
the same amount.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
Splitting a Clip
You can split a clip in two.
PREREQUISITE
Decide whether you want to automatically create crossfades between
the left and right clip by activating/deactivating Options > Create
default fades in new clips.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the position where you
want to split the clip.
2.
Position the mouse cursor on the edit cursor position in the top clip
area.
The cursor takes on the shape of a pair of scissors.
3.
Double-click.
RESULT
The clip is split in two. The two clips have the same name and settings.
Envelopes and fades are converted so that the two clips play back as if
they were still one clip.
To split clips on all track, select Edit > All tracks > Split at cursor
position.
Split Clip at Silences Dialog
You can remove silent clip parts and create a new clip at the cut
position.
In the Focused clip window, open the Edit pane, and select Split at
silences.
A clip has a duration of at least
Sets the minimum length of the resulting regions after splitting.
Non-silent sections shorter than this length will not become split
regions.
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Clip Editing
Minimum silence between regions
Sets the minimum length of a silent region. Silent regions shorter
than this length will not cause additional split regions to be
created.
Silence is defined as a signal below (RMS)
Lets you manually set the treshold level for silence detection.
Levels below this value will be considered as silence.
Automatic level detection (two-stage analysis, slower)
If this option is activated, the file will be analyzed and automatically
split where WaveLab Elements detects silence. This process
takes longer because the file is read twice.
Separate resulting clips by a fixed gap
If this option is activated, the resulting clips are separated from
each other using the default gap duration. If this option is
deactivated, the gaps between the resulting clips are determined
by the amount of removed silence.
Deleting Clips
There are two principal ways to delete a clip:
•
Right-click a clip, and select Delete.
•
Select a clip, and press [Delete].
About Clips and Cue Points
A cue point is a defined position marker that belongs to a clip. It may be
positioned within or outside the clip. Cue points are displayed as dotted
vertical lines.
When you move a clip, its cue point is magnetic to any edges, markers,
or positions. There are several uses for this:
•
To set the cue point at a relevant position in the audio, and use it
to align the clip with other clips, etc.
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Audio Montage
Clip Editing
•
To set the cue point before the start of a clip to position clips in a
row with pre-defined spaces.
•
To set the cue point at the fade-in or fade-out point of a clip,
making it easy to maintain defined fade lengths when crossfading.
NOTE
Each clip can only have one cue point. If you select another cue point
insert option, the cue point is moved to a new position.
Using Cue Points
You can add one cue point for each clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, click the clip position where you
want to set a cue point.
2.
Open the Focused clip window, and on the Cue points panel,
select one of the following options:
3.
•
Set at cursor
•
Set at default pregap position
Decide if you want to activate the following options:
•
Follows fade-in end point
•
Follows fade-out start point
•
End cue point
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Audio Montage
Track Activity Indicator
Track Activity Indicator
The track activity indicator shows the volume level for audio tracks. It is
located on the right side of the track control area in the Audio Montage
workspace.
Instead of exact level readings the track activity indicator provides an
overview of which tracks are currently playing back audio at what
approximate level.
Envelopes for Clips
For clips in the audio montage, you can create envelopes for volume and
fades and for panning.
You can create an independent volume envelope curve to automate
volume, to create fades and crossfades, and to mute clip sections.
You can also draw pan envelopes to automate pan settings for clips. For
mono clips, pan governs the left/right position in the stereo field. For
stereo clips, pan sets the left/right balance.
Edit the envelope settings in the Focused clip window, or by
right-clicking an envelope curve. The settings menu is different,
depending on whether you click the fade-in part, the fade-out part, or
the sustain part.
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Envelopes for Clips
How the Envelope is Displayed
By default, all clips display a volume envelope curve. You can view the
envelope as three separate envelopes: the fade-in part, the sustain part,
and the fade-out part.
The points on the left and right side of the curve are the fade-in and
fade-out junction points that separate the fade parts from the sustain
part.
The envelope curve indicates if points, fade-ins, or fade-outs have been
defined. In addition to the curve, changes in the volume envelope are by
default also reflected in the waveform.
Selecting the Envelope
You can switch between volume/fade envelopes and pan envelopes.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a clip, and open the
Focused clip window.
2.
On the Envelope panel, select which envelope to edit from the
menu at the top.
Hiding the Envelope Curves
All clips display envelopes by default. You can hide these envelopes.
However, hidden envelopes are still active.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select a clip, open the Focused
clip window, and on the Envelope panel, select Hide all.
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Audio Montage
Envelopes for Clips
Clip Envelope Editing
Curve points allow you to create volume curves, pan curves, and fade
curves for a clip. You can edit the envelope curve by adding and moving
curve points.
Editing Curve Points
Many of the editing operations that are commonly used in the context of
your computer operating system can be applied when editing curve
points. On top of these, a number of specific procedures apply.
•
To add a curve point, double-click the envelope curve.
•
To delete a curve point, double-click the curve point. The curve
point between the sustain and fade parts of the envelope cannot
be deleted.
•
To delete several curve points, select the curve points that you
want to delete, right-click one of the points, and select Delete
selected points.
•
To select a range of points, [Alt]/[Option]-click and drag to create
a selection rectangle.
•
To move all selected points, click one of the selected points and
drag.
•
To raise or lower the value of two consecutive curve points,
[Ctrl]/[Command]-click the segment between the points and drag
up or down.
•
To change the time position of two consecutive curve points,
[Shift]-click the segment between the points and drag left or right.
•
To raise or lower the entire envelope curve, make sure that no
curve point is selected, click the envelope curve, and drag up or
down. Do not drag a segment that is delimited by selected points.
•
To adjust the envelopes in all selected clips, hold down
[Alt]/[Option], and drag any envelope curve up or down. This is a
quick way to adjust the level or pan of several clips at the same
time and also to adjust both sides of a stereo envelope
simultaneously.
•
To move a fade-in/fade-out point vertically, [Ctrl]/[Command]-click
and drag the fade point.
•
To change the level or the fade in/out time of multiple envelopes at
the same time, select the clips that you want to edit, then press
[Alt]/[Option], and edit the envelope with the mouse.
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Envelopes for Clips
Resetting Curve Points
You can reset curve points to the default level.
•
To reset a single point to 0 dB, right-click the point, and select
Reset selected points to 0 dB.
•
To reset the whole envelope curve to default, right-click the
envelope curve, and select Reset level to 0 dB.
Changing the Overall Volume Envelope of a Clip
The default envelope curve contains no volume envelope points. In this
condition, you can still use the curve to change the overall volume for a
clip.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, place the mouse cursor on the
envelope curve.
The mouse cursor takes on the shape of a circle with two arrows that
point up and down.
2.
Click and drag the curve up or down to change the clip envelope
volume.
About Pan Modes
The power of the sum of the channels drops by about 3 dB if a signal is
panned hard left or right, compared to the same signal being panned
center. This can be compensated with pan modes.
Experiment with the modes to see which fits best. The pan modes can
be set for tracks, clips, and the master output.
•
To set the pan modes for clips, use the pan modes menu in the
Focused clip window on the Envelope panel, or use the pan
modes menu and knob in the Effects window.
•
To set the pan modes for tracks and the master output, use the pan
modes menu and knob in the Effects window.
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Audio Montage
Envelopes for Clips
The following pan modes are available:
Pan Mode
Description
Channel damp
(0 dB/mute)
This mode does not compensate for power loss at all. If a
signal is panned hard left or right, the power of the sum of the
channels drops by 3 dB.
Constant power
(+3 dB/mute)
This is the default mode. Regardless of the pan position, the
power of the sum of the channels remains constant.
Channel boost
(+4.5 dB/mute)
If this mode is selected and a signal is panned hard left or
right, the power of the sum of the channels is higher than with
a signal-panned center.
Channel boost
(+6 dB/mute)
If this mode is selected and a signal is panned hard left or
right, the power of the sum of the channels is higher than with
a signal-panned center. This is the same as the previous
option, but with even greater power boost.
About Modulating Audio With Other Audio
You can use the audio signal of one track to modulate the compression
factor of another track. The signal of the upper audio track (clip) is
usually called the carrier signal, because it contains the audio to be
transmitted.
The Ducker plug-in is used for this purpose as it lowers the volume of
one signal whenever another signal is present.
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Audio Montage
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio
Montage
A fade-in is a gradual increase in level and a fade-out is a gradual
decrease in level. A crossfade is a gradual fade between two sounds,
where one is faded in and the other faded out.
Creating Fades
By default, all clips display a fade-in and a fade-out junction point. These
can be dragged horizontally to create a fade-in or fade-out for a clip.
You can add envelope points to a fade just as with volume envelopes.
•
To create a fade-in, click the fade-in point at the beginning of a clip,
and drag it to the right.
•
To create a fade-out, click the fade-out point at the end of a clip,
and drag it to the left.
•
To move a fade-in/fade-out point vertically, press
[Ctrl]/[Command] while dragging.
•
To create a crossfade, move a clip onto another. A crossfade is
automatically created at the junction point.
The resulting linear fade-in/fade-out curve is displayed in the clip, and
the fade is also reflected in the waveform. If you position the mouse over
the fade-in point, a label appears, showing the fade-in time in seconds
and milliseconds and the volume in dB.
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Audio Montage
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Editing Fades Menu
In this menu, you can select various preset fade curves and other
fade-related options.
In the Audio Montage workspace, right-click the fade-in or fade-out
point to open the Fade-in/Fade-out menu. This menu is a subset of the
Focused clip window.
Fade-in region/Fade-out region
Adjusts the view to mainly display the fade-in/fade-out part of the
focused clip.
Linear
Changes level linearly.
Sinus (*)
Changes level according to the first quarter period of the sine
curve. When used in a crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains
constant during the transition.
Square-root (*)
Changes level according to the square-root curve. When used in
a crossfade, the loudness (RMS) remains constant during the
transition.
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Audio Montage
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Sinusoid
Changes level according to a half period part of the sine curve.
Logarithmic
Changes level logarithmically.
Exponential
Changes level exponentially.
Exponential+
Changes level strongly exponential.
Set fade-in time/Set fade-out time
Sets the fade-in time/fade-out time to the value that you have
specified in the Focused clip window on the Fade-in/Fade-out
panel.
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Audio Montage
Fades and Crossfades in the Audio Montage
Applying Default Fades to New Clips
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Create
default fades in new clips.
RESULT
All new clips that are imported or recorded in the audio montage get the
default fade-in and fade-out shape and length if Create default fades
in new clips is active. In this case, the default crossfade shapes are
used. This also applies to clips that are created through splitting clips.
Crossfade Editing
You can create crossfades with independent shapes and lengths for the
fade-in and fade-out curves.
The default automatic crossfade is linear. It uses the same shape and
fade lengths for fade-in and fade-out. In most cases, an unaltered linear
or sine crossfade produces the intended result. The following rules
apply:
•
A crossfade includes fade-in and fade-out.
•
You can edit the fade-in and fade-out curves in crossfades in the
same way as fades.
•
To resize the crossfade time symmetrically, press [Shift], click the
crossfade area, and drag left and right.
•
To move the crossfade region while keeping its length, press
[Ctrl]/[Command], click the crossfade area, and drag left and right.
•
When you move a clip so that it overlaps another clip to create a
crossfade, and neither clip has a defined fade in the overlap, a
default crossfade is created.
•
When moving a clip with a defined fade curve so that it overlaps
the adjacent edge of another clip (without a defined fade), the
unmoved clip automatically gets the same fade shape as the
moved clip (but as a corresponding opposite fade), with amplitude
compensation. This only applies if the fade-out length of the
unmoved clip is set to zero.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
•
If both clips have different defined fade curves at their adjacent
edges when creating a crossfade, this creates an asymmetrical
crossfade, based on the defined fade curves.
The Options menu provides additional options that affect crossfades.
RELATED LINKS:
“Options for Moving and Crossfading Clips” on page 175
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master
Output
You can add VST effect plug-ins to individual clips, tracks, or the master
output of an audio montage. Clip effects affect individual clips only, track
effects affect all clips on a track, and the master output affects the whole
audio montage.
Only VST 2 and VST 3 plug-ins can be used in the audio montage. Each
clip, audio track, and the master output can be independently processed
by up to 2 VST effect plug-ins.
Effects are configured as follows:
•
As inserts, when all sound is processed by the effects
•
As send effects (split mode), where the balance between the
unprocessed sound and the effect send level can be adjusted or
controlled by effect envelope curves (clip effects and certain
VST 2 plug-ins only)
An icon in front of a clip name indicates that effects are applied to a clip.
Hovering over a clip name shows the effects that are used for the clip.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
NOTE
Only clip effects for clips that are active at the current playback position
consume CPU power. Track and master output effects are always active.
NOTE
The first time that you play an audio montage after is has been opened
or copied, the program has to load all effects into memory. If you have
many effects, this can result in a short silence before the playback starts.
NOTE
Effects that are used for tracks must support stereo audio, even if the
audio track is mono.
About the Master Output Effects
You can add master output effects to an audio montage. While the
Master Section is shared among all audio montages, the master output
effects are local to each montage. This allows you to have a fully
embedded project, without needing to use the Master Section.
The master output effects are located at the output of the audio
montage.
NOTE
If you want to use a dithering plug-in, place it in the master output.
Effects Window
In this window, you can add effect plug-ins to tracks, clips, and the
master output, and edit pan and gain settings.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Effects.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Menu
Clip effects
Displays the plug-ins of the focused clip.
Track effects
Displays the plug-ins of the focused track.
Master effects
Displays the plug-ins of the master output.
Add slot
Adds a slot into which an audio plug-in can be inserted.
Remove
Removes the selected plug-in.
Close all
Closes all plug-in windows that relate to this audio montage.
Copy
Copies the selected plug-in and its settings to the clipboard.
Paste
Replaces the selected plug-in with the plug-in that was copied to
the clipboard. If no slot has been added, a new slot is created.
Plug-in map
Opens the Plug-in Map dialog, that displays all plug-ins that are
used in the audio montage and the clips and tracks that are using
them.
Customize commands
Opens the Customize commands dialog in which you can set up
shortcuts for the Effects window.
Effects List
The effects list displays the effect plug-ins of the selected track, clip, or
master output. In the list, you can select new effects for the existing
effect plug-ins, change the effect order, and edit the Tail of effects.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
The following options are available:
Plug-in window icon
Opens the plug-in window.
Effect name
Shows the effect name. Clicking an effect name opens the
Plug-ins menu where you can select a new effect.
Preset
Shows the last preset that was loaded for the plug-in.
Latency
Shows the latency (delay) in the audio path. Certain plug-ins must
analyze the sound before passing it on. However, real-time
changes, such as turning an effect knob, are delayed according to
the maximum latency that is found among all clips. Plug-ins with
latency cannot be used for adjusting the send level.
Tail (clip effects only)
Effects, such as reverb and delay, produce audio tails. This means,
for example, that the effect sound continues after the clip sound
ends. For example, if you add echo to a clip without specifying a
tail value, the echo effect is muted as soon as the clip ends. Set
the tail length so that the effect is allowed to decay naturally. If you
add another plug-in to the clip that also produces a tail, there is no
need to set a separate tail value for this plug-in, unless you want
the decay to sum up. The overall tail length for the clip is the sum
of the tail of each plug-in. The maximum tail setting is 30 seconds.
Gain/Pan Section
In this section, you can edit gain and pan settings for each clip and track.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Global Gain Section
In this section, you can set the global gain for the active audio montage.
This gain can be applied before (pre) or after (post) the master output,
depending on the setting of the pre/post button on the left of this
section. Pre is the default setting.
RELATED LINKS:
“About Pan Modes” on page 183
Adding Effects to a Track, Clip, or Master Output
You can add effect plug-ins to every track and clip of the audio montage,
and to the master output of the audio montage.
Adding Effects Via the Effects Window
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the clip section, track section, or master output section.
3.
Click the Add slot button.
4.
In the Effect name column, select the added slot.
5.
Select a plug-in.
RESULT
The selected effect opens in a window.
NOTE
You can add effects during playback. However, if you add an effect with
a latency larger than zero it is better to stop and restart playback to avoid
timing discrepancies. In addition, a small number of VST plug-ins may
change latency depending on parameter settings. If that is the case,
make sure to stop and restart playback after the latency is changed.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Additional Ways of Adding Effects
•
To add an effect to a track, click the FX button in the track control
area, select Add effect, and select an effect from the menu.
•
To add an effect to a clip, in the montage window, right-click the
clip name, select Add effect, and select an effect from the menu.
Removing Effects from Tracks, Clips, or the Master Output
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the clip section, track section, or master output section.
3.
Click the effect that you want to remove, and select None.
RESULT
The effect is removed from the slot. You can either select a new effect
for the slot or leave the slot unused.
Copying Effect Settings to Other Tracks, Clips, or the Master
Output
You can copy the effect and its settings of a track, clip, or master output
to other tracks, clips, or the master output of the same or another audio
montage.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select the effect from which you want to copy the settings.
3.
Select Menu > Copy.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
4.
Decide if you want to paste the effect settings to a new slot or
replace an existing effect.
•
To paste the effect settings to a new slot, add a new slot, and
select Menu > Paste.
•
To replace an existing effect, select the effect, and select Menu >
Paste.
Undoing Effect Changes
You can undo/redo changes to the effect settings. However, WaveLab
Elements only registers the changes when the Effects window loses
focus.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the plug-in window, click another window to lose focus of the
plug-in in which you want to undo the settings.
2.
Go back to the plug-in in which you want to undo the settings.
3.
Press [Ctrl]/[Command]-[Z] to undo the settings.
Setting the Pan and Gain for Effects
You can set the pan and gain of the effects for each clip and track
individually.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the Effects window.
2.
Select a clip or track.
3.
Adjust the pan and gain using the controls on the left of the Effects
window.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Setting the Global Gain for Effects
You can set a global gain for the master output effects of your audio
montage and apply it before (pre) or after (post) the master output
effects.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select the Effects window.
2.
Select the master output.
3.
Adjust the global gain using the fader on the left of the Effects
window.
4.
Click the pre/post button on the left of the global gain fader.
If you use a dithering plug-in, set the gain to be pre-master.
Plug-in Window
In this window, you can display the effect plug-ins that are used for a
track, clip, or the master output.
Single plug-in window
When you add a new effect plug-in to a track, clip, or master output, the
plug-in window opens automatically. In the plug-in window, the effects
are displayed in a plug-in chain by default. To change the processing
order of the effects, you can drag each effect to a new position in the
chain.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Opening the Plug-in Window
You can open the plug-in window from different locations in the Audio
Montage workspace.
•
To open the plug-in window from the Effects window, in the
effects list, click the plug-in window icon to the left of a plug-in.
•
To open the plug-in window for a clip from the montage window,
right-click a clip, and select Edit plug-ins. You can also right-click
the clip name and select a plug-in.
•
To open the plug-in window for a track, click the FX button in the
track control area.
•
To open the plug-in window for a focused clip, in the Focused clip
window, on the Edit panel, select Edit plug-ins.
Adding Effects From Within the Plug-in Window
Effects that are added to a clip, track, or the master output in the Effects
window are automatically displayed in the plug-in window. However,
you can also add effects to a track or a clip directly from within the
plug-in chain window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the plug-in window for the
clip, track, or master output to which you want to add an effect.
2.
In the plug-in chain window, click the Add plug-in button.
3.
Select an effect from the menu.
The effect is added at the end of the plug-in chain. The added effect is
also displayed in the Effects window.
4.
Optional: If you want to move the added effect in the plug-in chain,
drag it to another position.
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Audio Montage
Effects for Tracks, Clips, and the Master Output
Changing Effects From Within the Plug-in Window
When displaying effect plug-ins in the plug-in window, you can change
plug-ins to change the processing.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the plug-in window for the
clip, track, or master output for which you want to change an effect.
2.
Click the plug-in menu icon, and select an effect from the menu.
The changed effect is also displayed in the Effects window.
3.
Optional: If you want to move the changed effect in a plug-in chain
window, drag it to another position.
Switching Between Clip, Track, and Master Output Effects in the Plug-in
Windows
In the plug-in window, you can quickly switch between the effect chain
of clips, tracks, and the master output.
•
To skip through the clips, tracks, and the master output of the
active audio montage, use the left and right arrow icons.
•
When using one plug-in window for both clips and tracks of an
audio montage, you can switch between the plug-ins of the
focused clip or the track which displays the focused clip by
clicking the Show Clip Plug-ins or Show Track Plug-ins icons.
•
To lock a plug-in window, activate Lock Window. If this option is
activated, and you select another track or clip, another plug-in
window opens. If this option is deactivated, and you select another
track or clip, the effects are displayed in the same plug-in window.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
Closing All Plug-in Windows
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, open the Effects window.
2.
Select Menu > Close all.
About the CD Window
The CD window displays the clips of the currently active audio montage,
and lets you write the audio montage to an audio CD.
NOTE
Each clip in the audio montage is a CD track.
You can also adjust pauses between clips, check the conformity to the
Red Book standards, add and edit CD-Text, and add UPC/EAN and
ISRC codes. When selecting a clip in the montage window, the
corresponding clip is highlighted in the CD window.
You can reorder CD tracks in the CD track list with drag and drop.
CD Window
In this window, you can create an audio CD.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > CD.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
Track List
You can edit tracks directly from the track list in the CD window.
Playback triggers
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
You can also hold [Ctrl]/[Command] and double-click a CD track
start marker triangle to start playback from the marker position.
Name
Shows the track name. To change the name, double-click in the
corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
FX
Displays whether the corresponding clip uses effects.
Pause
Shows the pause between two tracks.
Start
Shows the start position of the track.
End
Shows the end position of the track.
Length
Shows the time value from the CD track start position to the
corresponding end or splice marker.
Gain
Lets you set the gain for the clip.
ISRC
Lets you enter an ISRC code. To change the code, double-click
the corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
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Audio Montage
About the CD Window
CD-Text
Lets you specify the CD-Text. To change the CD-Text,
double-click the corresponding cell, and enter a new value.
Comment
Allows you to enter a comment. To enter a comment, double-click
a cell.
CD Menu
Write Audio CD
Opens a dialog from which you start writing a CD.
Check CD conformity
Verifies that the settings for the audio montage are in accordance
with the Red Book standard.
Adjust pauses between clips
Opens a dialog, where you can adjust the pauses between clips.
The following options are available:
•
Set specific pause time
•
Round existing pauses to closest second.
Edit CD-Text
Opens the CD-Text editor that allows you to enter descriptive text
for the tracks that are written on CD.
Assign UPC/EAN code
Opens a dialog, in which you can assign a UPC/EAN code to a
clip.
Select Menu
This menu allows you to select clips. The following options are available:
•
Select all clips
•
Select clips located before the cursor, on the focused track
•
Select clips located after the cursor, on the focused track
•
Deselect all clips
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Audio Montage
About Cloning Audio Montages
Creating Audio CD Tracks From Clips
You can use the Check CD conformity option to check whether the
audio montage is ready for writing to audio CD.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Montage workspace, make sure that the audio
montage contains the material that you want on the audio CD.
CD tracks must have a length of at least 4 seconds.
2.
Audition the tracks in the CD window, and make corrections if
necessary.
3.
In the CD window, select CD > Check CD conformity.
•
If a warning message appears, make corrections and check the CD
conformity again.
•
If no warning message appears, the audio montage is ready to
write to audio CD.
About Cloning Audio Montages
When you clone an audio montage, you create a copy.
Clone copies the audio montage and lets the new clips reference to the
original audio files. This is useful if you want to create several versions
of the audio montage, for example, to experiment with variations.
However, any processing or editing that you apply to the actual audio
files are reflected in both audio montages.
Cloning Audio Montages
This creates a copy of the audio montage in which the new clips
reference to the original audio files.
PROCEDURE
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select File > Clone, or press
[Ctrl]/[Command], drag a tab, and drop it on the tab bar.
RESULT
A copy of the audio montage opens in another tab.
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Audio Montage
Mixing Down - The Render Function
Mixing Down - The Render Function
The render function in the Master Section allows you to mix down the
whole audio montage or a region of it to a single audio file.
A mixdown is necessary to produce an audio file from the audio montage.
RELATED LINKS:
“Rendering” on page 226
Loudness Meta Normalizer
This tool is a key mastering component to ensure that all songs get the
same loudness and to prevent clipping. It allows you to adjust the
loudness of each clip in the audio montage so that they all have the
same loudness. It is also possible to adjust the loudness of the audio
montage mix down as well as the loudness at the Master Section output.
This tool operates on gains. It does not affect the underlying audio files
or use any audio compressor.
If it is not possible to match the loudness in a given clip without clipping,
the level of the other clips is reduced so that all clips still achieve the
same loudness. This does not happen if the Ignore peaks option is
selected.
To avoid clipping at the Master Section stage, you can limit the mixdown
output of the audio montage before it goes into the Master Section
and/or the Master Section output.
NOTE
The audio path in the audio montage uses 32-bit floating point
processing. You can therefore overload it, for example, use levels above
0 dB in clips, without causing clipping in the signal path. The only
section of the audio path that can introduce clipping is the output of the
Master Section or the output of the audio montage. Both of these issues
can also be solved by the Loudness Meta Normalizer.
NOTE
Since loudness requires several seconds of audio to be correctly
computed, this tool is not adapted for very short clips (under 3
seconds).
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Audio Montage
Loudness Meta Normalizer
Loudness Meta Normalizer Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the loudness of each clip in the audio
montage so that they get the same loudness. You can also adjust the
whole output.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Edit > Loudness Meta
Normalizer.
Clips, Master Section Output, and Audio Montage Output
•
When Clips is activated, the gain settings of all clips in the audio
montage are adjusted individually so that all clips play back at
equal loudness.
•
When Audio montage output is activated, the general gain
setting of the audio montage is modified so that the audio montage
mixdown matches a given loudness and optionally does not clip.
•
When Master section output is activated, the Master Section
gain is adjusted so that the audio montage mixdown that is
processed through all Master Section plug-ins matches a given
loudness and optionally does not clip. The audio montage itself is
not modified by this operation.
The following options are available for the gain settings of clips, the
audio montage output, and the Master Section output.
Match loudness menu
Select whether the audio montage output should match a given
loudness or not. The following options are available:
•
Do not change loudness
•
Match loudest clip
•
Match focused clip
204
Audio Montage
Notes Window
Peaks menu
Select whether WaveLab Elements should limit the sample values
(digital peaks), or ignore the peaks.
This setting is less important for clips, as the whole audio montage
mixdown can be further reduced.
Maximum peak
Determines the maximum peak value that is not to be exceeded.
Additional Options
Exclude audio montage effects
If this option is activated, audio montage effects are not taken into
account when you use the Loudness Meta Normalizer for
processing.
Only selected clips
If this option is activated, only selected clips are processed with
the Loudness Meta Normalizer.
Notes Window
This window allows you to keep notes about the current audio montage
session.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace > Specific tool
windows > Notes.
You can type into the window and use the standard HTML text editor
controls to format your text, add images, and lists. The notes are saved
with the audio montage file.
205
Recording
You can record audio in the Audio Files workspace and in the Audio
Montage workspace.
Setting Up the Recording Dialog
Before you start recording, set up the Recording dialog.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace,
click the Record button, or press [*] on the numeric key pad.
2.
In the File to create section, open the pop-up menu, and select
whether you want to record a named file or a temporary file.
3.
In the File to create section, select a file name and the location
where you want to store your file.
4.
Select the audio format by doing one of the following:
5.
•
Click the down arrow button to select a preset audio format.
•
Click the audio format text to open the Audio File Format dialog,
select the format, and click OK.
Select whether you want to record to an audio file or an audio
montage track, by selecting one of the following options:
•
Create new audio file window
•
Add to active audio file
•
Add to focused track of montage
6.
Select whether you want the Level or the Spectrum display.
7.
Optional: Make further settings in the Options section, and on the
Options and the Values tabs.
206
Recording
Dropping Markers During Recording
8.
Click Record, to start recording.
If you have selected one of the Auto-start options, the recording goes
into Pause mode, until the specified Auto-start criteria are met.
The background of the Recording dialog turns red to indicate that you
are recording.
9.
Optional: You can pause the recording by clicking the Pause
button.
10. Optional: You can drop markers in the file during recording by
clicking the drop marker buttons.
11. When you have finished recording, click Stop.
12. Optional: If you want to record another take, click Record again.
Dropping Markers During Recording
When you are recording, you can click the marker buttons to add a
marker to the recorded file.
PROCEDURE
1.
Open the Recording dialog.
2.
Make your settings and start recording.
3.
Select the type of marker that you want to drop.
•
To drop a numbered generic marker, click the yellow marker
button, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-M.
•
To drop numbered generic region start and end markers, click the
white buttons, or press [Ctrl]/[Command]-L/[Ctrl]/[Command]-R.
RESULT
The markers are dropped each time that you click the marker button.
NOTE
If you insert two or more region start markers in a row with no region end
markers in between, only the last of these start markers is kept. The
same applies for region end markers.
207
Recording
Recording Dialog
Recording Dialog
In this dialog, you can make recording settings and start recording an
audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, click the
Record button or select Transport > Record.
Main Buttons
Record
Starts recording. Depending on the recording options, the Pause
mode is activated.
Pause
Pauses recording.
Stop
Stops recording.
Discard
Stops recording and deletes anything recorded so far.
Method Tab
On this tab, you can define options for starting, stopping, and pausing
the recording automatically. You can select an input device and choose
to start a recording at a specific time or stop if after a specific duration.
File to create
Specify whether you want to record a temporary file to be saved
later, or record to a file with a specific name and location.
208
Recording
Recording Dialog
Auto number from
If this option is activated, increasing numbers are added to the file
names of the successively saved files.
Name
The name of the file to be written, without the path. When typing, all
files in the selected folder that start with the same letters are
displayed. To display all files in the selected folder, click the list icon.
Where
Specifies the folder where you want to save the recording.
Audio File Format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can specify the
file format.
Location of the Recording
Specifies where the audio is recorded:
•
In a new audio file window.
•
In an existing audio file is inserted at the edit cursor position (if
none exists, a new one is created).
•
In an existing audio montage is inserted at the edit cursor position
(if none exists, a new one is created).
Auto-start if sound detected
If this option is activated, recording starts when the audio input
level exceeds the threshold level specified on the Values tab.
Auto-start at given time
If this option is activated, recording starts at a specified time
according to the computer clock. Specify the time on the Values
tab.
Auto-stop after given duration
If this option is activated, recording stops automatically after the
duration specified on the Values tab.
Auto-stop if silence
If this option is activated, recording automatically stops when the
audio input level drops below a specified threshold level and stays
there for a certain amount of time. Specify the level and the
duration on the Values tab.
Auto-pause if silence
If this option is activated, recording automatically pauses when the
audio input level drops below a specified threshold level and stays
there for a certain amount of time. Specify the level and the
duration on the Values tab.
209
Recording
Recording Dialog
Options Tab
On this tab, you can make additional settings for the recording process.
Activate monitoring when opening record window
If this option is activated, the meters are activated when the
Recording dialog opens. If this option is deactivated, the meters
and the audio thru are displayed when pressing Record or
activating Monitor.
Stop playback when monitoring or recording
If this option is activated, playback stops before monitoring or
recording starts.
Add markers when inserting recording in audio file
If this option is activated and a recording is inserted into an audio
file, markers are added encompassing the new samples.
After recording, move edit cursor at the end
When recording into an audio file or montage, it is often convenient
to move the cursor to the end of the recording.
Values Tab
On this tab, you can define values for the various recording options.
Auto-start on sound - Threshold (RMS)
Specify the average sound level that is sufficient to trigger
recording.
210
Recording
Recording Dialog
Auto-start on sound - Record previous samples
Allows you to include a short section of audio before the start
point, to capture attacks, for example. It is only relevant when the
option Auto-start if sound detected is activated.
Silence Detection - Threshold (RMS)/Silence duration required
The threshold value used for the options Auto-stop if silence and
Auto-create markers at silence points. It is used in conjunction
with the Silence duration required setting, so that recording is
stopped or a marker is added if the input level stays below the
threshold value for the specified duration.
Recording programming - Start
Determines the time at which recording starts when the option
Auto-start at specific time is activated.
Recording programming - On tomorrow
If this option is activated, you can specify a time on the next day.
Recording programming - Duration
Determines the length of the recording when the option Auto-stop
after specific duration is activated.
Pause memory
This is a safety buffer when you are using the Pause button. When
you resume recording, this buffer is used to restore the last short
section of audio before you deactivated the pause button. This
way, you can resume recording even if you deactivated the Pause
button a bit too late.
Meter Display
Level/Spectrum
Specifies which meter to display.
Settings
Opens the LeveL/Pan Meter Settings dialog, where you can
customize the meter settings.
Reset
Resets the peak values.
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Recording
Recording Dialog
Monitor
If this option is activated, the audio input is also sent to the output
ports (not available if Windows MME drivers is used).
Mix with playback
If this option is activated and the same audio ports are selected for
monitoring and for playback (in the VST Audio Connections
dialog), the signals are mixed. If this is not activated, the monitoring
signal has priority.
This allows you to toggle between the auditioning of the recorded
signal and the playback signal, and to have full control over the
monitor outputs.
Next marker name
Edit the name of the next marker to insert.
Meter Display
In the lower part of the Recording dialog, you find a meter display. This
is useful for checking the input level and the frequency spectrum of the
input signal.
The meters in the Recording dialog are miniature versions of the Level,
Spectrum in the meter windows. Activate the meters, by activating the
Monitor checkbox.This is done automatically, if the option Activate
monitoring when opening record window is activated on the Options
tab in the Recording dialog.
To reset the meters, click the Reset button.
Level Meter
In the Level meter, horizontal bars show the peak level (outer bars) and
average loudness (VU, inner bars) of each channel. Values are also
shown numerically. When clicking the Settings button, the Level/Pan
Meter Settings dialog opens.
Spectrum Meter
The Spectrum Meter shows a bar diagram, providing a continuous
graphical representation of the frequency spectrum. From the Settings
pop-up menu you can choose whether to restrict to high audio levels, or
to include medium or low audio levels.
212
Recording
Recording Dialog
Disk Capacity Indicator
This indicator at the bottom of the Recording dialog indicates the
approximate amount of available disk space on the hard disk specified
in the File to create section, or the hard disk that you have selected for
temporary files.
NOTE
When there is less than 30 seconds of available hard disk space left, the
disk capacity indication is displayed in red.
213
Master Section
The Master Section is the final block in the signal path before the audio
is sent to the audio hardware, to an audio file, or to the audio meters.
This is where you adjust master levels, add effects, and apply dithering.
The settings and effects in the Master Section are taken into account
in the following cases:
•
When playing back an audio file in the wave window.
•
When playing back an audio montage. Note that the Master
Section effects are global for all clips and tracks in an audio
montage, as opposed to the individual clip or track effects.
•
When using the Render function.
•
When writing a CD from the audio montage.
By default, the Master Section is active. You can turn it off for each file
individually by deactivating the Play through Master Section button at
the bottom of the wave/montage window.
To turn the Master Section off globally, deactivate the Playback goes
through Master Section button at the bottom right of the Master
Section.
214
Master Section
Master Section Window
Master Section Window
In this window you can apply effect plug-ins, adjust the master level,
apply dithering, and render the audio file or audio montage.
To open the Master Section window, in any workspace, select Global
> Master Section.
The Master Section consists of the Effects pane, the Master Level
pane, and the Dithering pane.
215
Master Section
Master Section Window
Signal Path
The three panes in the Master Section window correspond to the three
processing blocks of the Master Section: Effects, Master Level, and
Dithering.
The signal passes through these blocks from top to bottom, as shown
in the following figure:
In the Master Section, the signal goes through all plug-ins, even when
some plug-ins are soloed. However, the sound is not affected by this
because the muted plug-ins are bypassed from the playback process
stream.
When removing the bypass, the process signal is immediately available
without latency. This allows you to quickly switch between different
solo/mute settings.
Effects Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to add up to 4 effect
plug-ins in series, and manage them.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Workspace > Shared tool windows > Master Section.
216
Master Section
Master Section Window
Rearrange
Rearranges the Master Section according to the sample rate and
channel configuration of the active audio file. The internal bus of
the Master Section and any active plug-ins are configured
accordingly.
This operation is performed automatically before playback or
rendering. It is sometimes helpful to manually rearrange the Master
Section, because some plug-ins do not accept a mono or stereo
signal as input, or a given sample rate. In that case, clicking the
button informs you about any problems, before playback or
rendering.
This operation has no effect if playback is already in progress or if
there is no active audio file.
Show one more slot
Makes one more slot visible.
Hide bottom slot
Hides the bottom slot.
Fold/unfold section
Expands or collapses the Effects pane.
Bypass during playback
Bypasses the plug-in during playback and optionally for a
rendering operation. The signal is still processed by the plug-in,
but is not injected in the audible stream.
Solo (bypass)
Bypasses all plug-ins except this one during playback.
Effect plug-in slot
Slot where you can insert an effect plug-in.
Presets menu
Lets you store and restore preset settings. The Presets menu
offers additional options to save and load default banks and
effects.
Plug-in visibility
Activates/deactivates the plug-in window.
Switch effect on/off
Excludes the plug-in from both playback and rendering, and
rearranges the bus without this effect.
217
Master Section
Master Section Window
Supported Effect Plug-in Formats
WaveLab Elements supports different plug-in standards. WaveLab
Elements-specific plug-ins, VST 2 plug-ins and VST 3 plug-ins, and
plug-ins that adhere to the Microsoft DirectX standard.
WaveLab Elements-specific Plug-ins
Some specific plug-ins are included in WaveLab Elements, for example,
the Crystal Resampler plug-in.
VST Plug-ins
Steinberg’s VST plug-in format is supported by a lot of programs and
plug-in manufacturers. You find a number of VST plug-ins included with
WaveLab Elements. Other plug-ins can be purchased separately from
Steinberg or other manufacturers, or in some cases downloaded from
the internet.
NOTE
If you have Cubase installed on your computer, you can use the effects
that are included with Cubase in WaveLab Elements. See the Cubase
documentation for details.
Plug-ins that Adhere to the Microsoft DirectX Standard
These are known as DirectX or DX plug-ins and are also widely available.
Setting Up Effects
The number of effects available depends on which plug-ins you have
installed.
•
To select an effect plug-in for a slot, click the slot, and select an
effect from the pop-up menu. When you have selected an effect, it
is automatically activated, and its control panel opens.
•
To turn off an effect, click its Switch effect on/off button. To
activate the effect, click again.
•
To remove an effect plug-in, click the slot, and select None.
•
To hide the control panel of an effect, click its Plug-in visibility
button.
•
To solo an effect, click the Solo button to the left of the effect slot.
This allows you to check the sound of that effect only. You can also
bypass effects in their control panels.
•
To change the order of the slots, and thus the order in which the signal
passes through the effects, click a slot, and drag it to a new position.
218
Master Section
Master Section Window
Master Section Plug-in Window
In the plug-in windows of the Master Section, you can make settings for
a Master Section effect plug-in, such as bypass, solo, render in place,
monitoring, or presets.
In the Master Section’s Effects pane, click an effect’s Plug-in visibility
button to open the corresponding plug-in window for the effect.
Bypass during playback
If this option is activated, this plug-in is bypassed during playback,
and optionally for a rendering operation. To deactivate an effect
when rendering, use the Switch effect on/off buttons in the
Master Section’s Effects pane.
Solo (bypass)
If this option is activated, all plug-ins except this one are bypassed
during playback.
Render in place
Processes the audio in place without any intermediary step.
Bypassed plug-ins are excluded and rendered audio is crossfaded
at boundaries.
Switch effect on/off
If you deactivate the plug-in, it is excluded from both playback and
rendering.
Presets
Opens a menu to save/load presets for this plug-in.
Effect Plug-in Presets
With WaveLab Elements comes a number of factory presets for the
included effect plug-ins that you can select and use as is, or use as a
starting point for your own settings.
Third-party plug-ins can provide their own factory presets. To access
the presets for an effect, click the Preset button in its control panel
window. The available functions depend on the type of plug-in.
219
Master Section
Master Section Window
Presets for VST 3 Plug-ins
Applying and saving presets for WaveLab Elements specific plug-ins
works exactly as with any other preset, apart from the fact that there are
no preset tabs or menu items as in dialogs. Instead, clicking the Preset
button opens a separate Preset dialog.
The options in this dialog are the same as for dialogs with Preset tabs.
The file format is compatible with Cubase.
Presets for VST 2 Plug-ins
VST 2 plug-ins have their own preset handling. When you click the
Preset button for this type of effect, a pop-up menu with the following
options opens:
Load/Save Bank
Loads and saves complete sets of presets. The file format is
compatible with Cubase.
Load/Save Default Bank
Load the default set of presets or saves the current set of presets
as the default bank.
Load/Save Effect
Loads or saves a preset. This is also compatible with Cubase.
Edit name of current program
Allows you to define a name for the preset.
Preset List
Allows you to select one of the currently loaded presets.
Presets for DirectX Plug-ins
For DirectX plug-ins, the same functionality is provided as for WaveLab
Elements plug-ins. In addition, you can import native presets created for
the plug-in.
220
Master Section
Master Section Window
Master Level Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to control the master level of
the active audio file.
Faders
The faders in the Master Level pane govern the final output level. Use
the faders to optimize the level of the signal that is sent to the audio
hardware.
NOTE
It is important to avoid clipping, especially when mastering. Clipping is
indicated by the clip indicators of the Master Section.
Meters
The Master Section meters show the signal level of the signal before
dithering or any other plug-in that you have applied post-master fader.
Use these to get an overview of the signal levels. The numeric fields
above the faders show the peak levels for each channel. The peak
indicators turn red whenever the signal clips. If this happens, you should
lower the faders, reset the clip indicators by clicking the Reset peaks
button, or clicking the values, and play back the section again until no
clipping occurs.
221
Master Section
Master Section Window
Mono Button
The Mono button sums two channels to mono. The output level is
automatically reduced by -6 dB, to avoid clipping. The Mono button is
useful for checking mono compatibility of stereo mixes, etc.
If the Mono button is activated, the red indicator for the Master Level
pane is lit, even if the master level is not adjusted. This helps you avoid
accidentally leaving the Mono button activated.
Unlink Button
Determines whether the faders should be individually adjustable or
ganged.
If Unlink is deactivated, moving one fader also moves the other by the
same amount. Activating Unlink allows you to correct improper stereo
balancing by adjusting the channels’ levels individually.
•
If you offset the faders with Unlink activated and then deactivate
Unlink again, you can adjust the overall level without changing the
level offset between the channels.
•
Fader offsets are not preserved at the end of the range of
movement or once the mouse button is released.
About Dithering
Dithering is the technique of adding small quantities of noise to a signal
to reduce the audibility of low level distortion in a digital recording. A
small amount of random noise is added to the analog signal before the
sampling stage, reducing the effect of quantization errors.
In the case of WaveLab Elements, dithering is applied when reducing
the number of bits in a recording, for example, when moving from 24 to
16 bits, and when applying processing.
Dithering largely depends on the type of material. When making the
dithering settings we recommend that you experiment and let your ears
be the final judge.
During low level passages, only a few bits are used to represent the
signal, which leads to audible quantization errors and distortion. This is
perceived as graininess during low level passages in a recording.
When truncating bits, as a result of moving from, for example, 24- to
16-bit resolution, such quantization noise is added to an otherwise
immaculate recording.
222
Master Section
Master Section Window
By adding a special kind of noise at an extremely low level, the
quantization errors are minimized. The added noise can be perceived as
a very low-level quiescent hiss added to the recording. However, this is
hardly noticeable and preferred to the distortion that occurs otherwise.
The Noise Shaping options allow to filter this noise to a frequency area
less sensitive to the human ear.
NOTE
Dithering should always be applied after the output bus fader stage, and
after any kind of audio process.
Selecting Dithering Algorithms
WaveLab Elements comes with an internal dithering plug-in. However,
you can also add other dithering plug-ins.
•
To select and activate a dithering algorithm in the Master Section,
click the dithering plug-in slot in the Dithering pane, and select
one of the options from the pop-up menu.
•
To deactivate the dithering algorithm, open the dithering pop-up
menu, and select None.
Adding Other Plug-ins to the Dithering Pane
If you want to use another dithering plug-in than the internal dithering,
you can add it to the Dithering pane.
NOTE
The meters in the Master Section monitor the signal before the
Dithering pane. To avoid clipping, check the Level/Pan Meter and
adjust the output level setting of the plug-in, if available.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Plug-in settings.
2.
Open the Organize tab.
3.
Locate the plug-in that you want to add to the Dithering pane in the
list, and activate the checkbox in the Post column for the plug-in.
4.
Click OK.
223
Master Section
Master Section Window
RESULT
The plug-in appears on the pop-up menu in the Dithering pane, and can
be inserted after the Master Level faders. The plug-in is still available for
selection as a regular pre-master effect if the corresponding entry in the
Post column in the Plug-in settings dialog is activated.
When to Apply Dithering
The basic rule is that you should dither when moving to a lower bit
resolution. One instance of this is when converting an audio file to a
lower resolution. For example, preparing a 24-bit file for mastering to
CD, that uses 16-bit format.
However, even if you are playing back or rendering a 16-bit or 24-bit file
to the same resolution, you need to dither if you are using any
processing in WaveLab Elements. The reason for this is that WaveLab
Elements works with an internal resolution of 32 bit (floating point) for
supreme audio quality. This means that as soon as you perform any kind
of processing, the audio data is treated at this high resolution instead of
the original 16 bits or 24 bits, thus making dithering necessary.
Examples of real-time processing include level adjustments, any effects,
mixing of two or more clips in a Montage, etc. The only time when a
16-bit file is played back at 16-bit resolution is if you play it without any
fades or effects, and with the Master Faders set to 0.00 (no level
adjustment – Master level indicator turned off).
NOTE
To make sure whether you need to dither or not, use the Bit Meter to
check the actual resolution of your audio signals.
Dithering Pane
This pane in the Master Section allows you to add dithering to the
signal before it is sent to the audio hardware or saved as a file on a disk.
Fold/unfold section
Expands or collapses the Dithering pane.
Bypass during playback
Bypasses the plug-in during playback, and optionally for a
rendering operation.
224
Master Section
Master Section Window
Effect plug-in slot
Slot where you can insert an effect plug-in.
Presets menu
Lets you store and restore preset settings. The Presets menu of
the top slot offers additional options to save and load default banks
and effects.
Plug-in visibility
Activates/deactivates the plug-in window.
Switch effect on/off
Excludes the plug-in from both playback and rendering.
Noise type
Lets you set one of the available noise types that are added to the
signal. This is only available if Internal dither is activated.
Noise shaping
Lets you select the type of filtering for improving the apparent
signal-to-noise ratio of the output. This is only available if Internal
dither is activated.
Number of bits
Lets you select the number of bits that the signal should be
quantized to. This is only available if Internal dither is activated.
Master Section Tools
The tools and options at the bottom pane of the Master Section window
allow you to make various settings before rendering the file, make
bypass settings, and decide whether the playback goes through the
Master Section or not.
Bypass all effects
Bypasses any kind of processing in the effect panel during
playback, and optionally when rendering.
Reset all
Removes all the active effects from the effects slots and sets the
master output to 0 dB.
Setting menu
Opens the Master Section settings menu.
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Master Section
Rendering
Render
Clicking opens the Render dialog. Right-clicking opens a menu
where you can select whether you want to open the Render
dialog, render using the last settings, or use in-place rendering.
Playback goes through Master Section
If this option is deactivated, the Master Section is ignored during
playback of any file, freeing up resources. However, rendering to
file is still possible. If playback is activated when you change this
option, it stops and restarts.
Rendering
By rendering the effects in the Master Section, they become a
permanent part of a file, rather than using them in real-time to test a set
of effects on a file. So instead of performing all processing in real-time
during playback, you can save the audio output to a file on disk.
This is done with the Render function of the Master Section.
Writing the outputs of the Master Section to a file on disk allows you to
apply Master Section processing to an audio file, or mix down an audio
montage to an audio file.
There are several uses for rendering:
•
Mix down a complete audio montage to an audio file.
•
Process a file and save a file to a new audio file, including Master
Section effects, dithering, and other settings. You can choose the
format of the new audio file, which allows you to create an MP3 file
and add effects at the same time, for example.
•
Process a region of an audio file in place.
Rendering Files
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Master Section, make your settings.
2.
On the bottom of the Master Section, click the Render button.
3.
In the Render dialog, make your rendering settings.
4.
When you have set up the rendering process, click OK.
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Master Section
Rendering
RESULT
The file is rendered.
NOTE
Several rendering operations can be run at the same time when using
different files.
In-Place Rendering
In the Audio Files workspace, you can process a section of an audio file
or the whole audio file directly from within a plug-in window, without any
intermediary step. This is a quick way to process several audio sections
in an audio file, or test the effect of different plug-ins on an audio file.
When using this function, the following render settings are always
active:
•
Fade-in/out at boundaries
•
Exclude bypassed plug-ins
NOTE
Once an audio section has been processed, there is no automatic
bypass of plug-ins or the Master Section.
An example for using in-place rendering:
Let’s say that you are restoring a file and have 3 favorite plug-ins, for
example, 3 DeClicker plug-ins. Now you want to use the one that gives
the best results.
1)
Load all 3 plug-ins in the Master Section.
2)
Select a region, solo plug-in #1, and play the region.
3)
Solo plug-in #2, and play the region.
4)
Solo plug-in #3, and play the region.
5)
Solo the plug-in that you think sounded the best, and click the
Render in place button, or press [Alt]/[Option]-[A].
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Master Section
Rendering
Rendering an Audio Selection In-Place
You can render the plug-ins of a section of an audio file or the whole
audio file.
PREREQUISITE
In the Audio Files workspace, open the audio file that you want to render,
and set up the Master Section.
PROCEDURE
1.
If you only want to process a section of the audio file, in the wave
window, select the audio section that you want to process.
2.
Open the plug-in window.
3.
Optional: If you only want to use some plug-ins of the Master
Section, solo the plug-ins that you want to use.
4.
Do one of the following:
•
In the plug-in window, click the Render-in place button.
•
In the Master Section, right-click the Render button, and select
In-place rendering.
RESULT
The audio section or the audio file is processed.
Render Dialog
This dialog allows you to select what parts of an audio file to render, and
into which format.
To open the Render dialog, click the Render button in the Master
Section.
The following options are available for both rendering in the Audio Files
workspace and in the Audio Montage workspace:
Audio range - One region
Processes and renders a time range specified using region
markers. In the drop-down menu below this option, select the
region you want to render.
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Master Section
Rendering
Create named files
If this option is activated, you can set name of the rendered file.
Otherwise, the file is named “untitled”.
Name
Enter a name for the rendered file. Clicking the arrow icon opens a
menu that offers you several automatic naming options.
Auto naming
When rendering multiple sources, you can activate this option to
add a numeric prefix to all rendered files.
Where
Select a folder where the file is rendered to.
File format
Opens the Audio File Format dialog, where you can select the file
format.
Copy markers
If this option is activated, markers included in the range to process
are copied to the rendered file.
Bypass Master Section on resulting audio file
If this option is activated, playback of the resulting audio file
bypasses the entire Master Section after rendering. This setting
can be toggled by clicking on the button at the bottom right of the
wave window or montage window.
NOTE
It is recommended to have this option activated, because you do not
want to monitor this new file through the effects again when the effects
have been applied to a file.
No tail
If this option is activated, the audio tail produced by effects such
as reverbs is not included in the rendered file.
Some plug-ins do not provide a tail duration to WaveLab
Elements. In this case, this option has no effect. For such plug-ins,
you could add the Silence plug-in to add extra samples at the end
of the file. An audio tail appears in this space.
Upload to SoundCloud
If this option is activated, the rendered file is uploaded to
SoundCloud, after the rendering process is finished.
Bypass Master Section
If this option is activated, the plug-ins and gain of the Master
Section are bypassed when rendering.
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Master Section
Rendering
Exclude bypassed plug-ins
If this option is activated, the plug-ins that are bypassed during
playback are not used for rendering.
This applies to the bypass states managed by WaveLab Elements,
not any bypass state that is under the control of the plug-ins.
Open resulting audio file
If this option is activated, each rendered file is opened in a new
window.
Render Dialog in the Audio Files Workspace
The following options in the Render dialog are exclusive to the Audio
Files workspace:
Time range - Whole file
Processes and renders the whole audio range.
Time range - Selection
Processes and renders the selected audio range.
Process in place
If this option is activated, the rendered audio range replaces the
source audio range. Otherwise, a new file is created.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Render Dialog in the Audio Montage Workspace
The following options in the Render dialog are exclusive to the Audio
Montage workspace:
Time range - Whole montage
Processes and renders the whole audio range.
Saving a Master Section Preset
You can turn all settings currently made in the Master Section into a
preset. This includes which processors are used, what settings are
made for each one of them, and dithering options.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up the Master section as you want it.
2.
Click the presets button at the bottom of the Master Section, and
select Save as.
3.
Optional: In the Save Master Section Preset dialog, click the path
name, enter a name, and click OK to create a new subfolder in the
Master Section preset folder.
4.
Enter a name for the preset in the Name field.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
5.
6.
Decide, whether you want to include one or several of the following
options in the preset:
•
To include the plug-ins from the Effects pane, activate Save
Effects plug-ins.
•
To include the settings made in the Master Level pane, activate
Save Master Level settings.
•
To include the plug-in from the Dithering pane, activate Save
Dithering plug-in.
•
To exclude locked plug-ins, activate Exclude locked plug-ins.
Click Save.
Save Master Section Preset Dialog
In this dialog, you can save a Master Section setup as preset and define
which parts of the current Master Section you want to include in the
preset.
In the Master Section, click the Presets button at the bottom, and select
Save as.
Path name
Opens the root folder of the preset in the Windows Explorer/Mac
OS Finder. Here, you can create subfolders in which presets can
be stored.
Presets list
Lists all existing presets.
Name
Lets you specify the name of the preset to save.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Save Effects plug-ins
If this option is activated, the effect plug-ins are saved with the
preset.
Save Master Level settings
If this option is activated, the Master Level settings are saved with
the preset.
Save Dithering plug-in
If this option is activated, the dithering plug-in is saved with the
preset.
Exclude locked plug-ins
If this option is activated, locked plug-ins are not saved as part of
the Master Section preset.
Loading a Master Section Preset
You can load a previously saved Master Section presets, a temporarily
stored Master Section preset, or import WaveLab Elements 4/5/6
presets.
Open the Presets menu on the bottom of the Master Section window.
•
To load a preset that has been previously saved in the
Presets\Master Section folder, select a preset from the Presets
menu.
•
To load a preset from any location, select Open from any
location, select a preset, and click Open.
•
To load a temporarily saved preset, open the Restore submenu,
and select a preset.
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Master Section
Saving a Master Section Preset
Load Master Section Preset Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify which parts of a saved Master Section
preset to load when opening it.
This dialog only opens if it is activated in the Master Section’s Presets
menu. Open the Presets menu at the bottom of the Master Section
window, and activate Open option box when selecting preset.
Now, when restoring a temporarily saved preset or opening a saved
preset a dialog with the following options opens:
Name
Displays the name of the preset.
Load/Replace effect plug-ins
If this option is activated, the active effect plug-ins are removed,
and any new plug-ins are inserted from the top slot.
Insert effect plug-ins from focused slot (keep existing plug-ins)
If this option is activated, the present effect plug-ins are kept, and
any new plug-ins are inserted from the top slot.
Load/Reset Master Level settings
If this option is activated, the present Master Level settings are
reset, and any new settings are loaded.
Load/Replace Dithering plug-in
If this option is activated, the present Dithering plug-in is removed,
and the new plug-in is loaded.
Master Section Preset Menu
This menus offers several options for saving, managing, and restoring
Master Section presets.
To open the Preset menu of the Master Section, click the preset icon
on the bottom of the Master Section window.
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Master Section
About Monitoring Background Tasks
Save
Saves the changes you have made to an existing preset.
Save as
Opens a dialog where you can select a name for the preset and
choose a location.
Organize presets
Opens the Preset folder of the Master Section, where you can
rename or delete presets.
Open from any location
Selects any Master Section preset located anywhere, not just in
the default root folder. For example, this is useful if you want to load
a preset provided by another source that is not located in your
default root folder.
You can also navigate to any other location where you have stored
presets.
Open option box when selecting preset
If this option is activated, a dialog opens that allows you to choose
how to load the preset you select.
Store temporarily
Lets you select one of the slots to temporarily store a preset.
Restore
Lets you restore a previously stored preset.
List of saved presets
Lists the presets that are stored in the Preset folder of the Master
Section.
About Monitoring Background Tasks
When rendering you can monitor the process, and pause or cancel
tasks.
A status bar below the wave window and the montage window shows
the progress of the current rendering process. You can cancel or pause
the rendering with the provided buttons.
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Master Section
About Dropouts
About Dropouts
A dropout most likely occurs when your computer does not have the
processing power to handle all effect processors you have inserted.
To avoid dropouts, try the following:
•
Use fewer effects.
•
Consider rendering the processing rather than running it in real
time. Then master from the processed file without any effects.
Dropouts never occur when rendering to a file.
•
Do not process any files in the background.
•
If neither of the above helps, check the audio card preference
settings. You might need to adjust the audio buffer settings. If a
dropout occurs during a real-time mastering process we
recommend that you re-master. Stop playback, click the dropout
indicator to reset it, and try again.
236
Markers
Markers allow you to save and name certain positions in a file. Markers
are useful for editing and playback, for example, to indicate cue points
or absolute time locations, to highlight problem sections, and to visually
separate tracks.
For example, markers can be used to:
•
Set the wave cursor to a specific position.
•
Select all audio between two positions.
•
Loop sections in an audio file.
There is no limit to the amount of markers that you can have in a file.
NOTE
The functions in the Markers window of the Audio Files workspace and
the Audio Montage workspace are the same. However, the Markers
window of the Audio Montage workspace offers additional options
regarding clips.
Marker Types
The following marker types are available:
Generic markers
Allow you to locate positions and select all the audio between two
points, for example. They can be created during recording.
Region start and end markers
Define start and end points for generic regions. They can be
created during recording and are used in pairs.
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Markers
Markers Window
Loop start and end markers
Are used to define loop points and are required to access loop
editing functions on the Process menu of the Audio Files
workspace. They are connected to the Loop mode when playing
back audio. These markers are useful for editing and creating
loops before transferring a sound to a sampler. Loop markers are
used in pairs.
Markers Window
In this window, you can create, edit, and use markers while working on
an audio waveform or audio montage.
If the window is not already visible, do the following: In the Audio Files
workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select Workspace >
Specific tool window > Markers.
Markers List
The Markers window contains a list of all markers of the active file along
with their details and controls. You can create and edit markers directly
from the markers list.
Numbers
Clicking the number of a marker scrolls the waveform to reveal the
corresponding marker.
Playback triggers
The following playback buttons are available:
Playback from start with a pre-roll.
-[Alt]/[Option]
Playback from start with a long pre-roll.
Playback from start.
Marker type
Shows the marker type. To change the marker type, click the
marker icon and select another marker type from the pop-up list.
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Markers
Markers Window
Name
Shows the marker name. To change the name, double-click in the
corresponding cell and enter a new value.
Time
Shows the marker position on the time ruler. To change the time
position, double-click in the corresponding cell and enter a new
value.
Length
Shows the time value from the marker start position until the
corresponding end.
•
To zoom on the region between a start and end marker, in the
Length column, click the corresponding cell.
•
To select the region between a start and end marker, in the Length
column, double-click the corresponding cell (Audio Files
workspace only).
Lock
Allows you to lock markers. Locking markers prevents them from
being accidentally dragged to a new position in the wave window
or the montage window. To lock a marker, activate the checkbox
for the markers that you want to lock.
Clip reference (Audio Montage workspace only)
A marker can be attached to the left or right edge of a clip, and to
its waveform. When such reference moves, the marker moves
along. The clip reference column shows the name of the clip.
Offset (Audio Montage workspace only)
Shows the distance between the marker and the reference point.
Insert Menu
On this menu, you can select the marker type that you want to insert at
the edit or playback cursor position.
Functions Menu
The options on this menu differ depending on the workspace. The
following options are available in the Audio Files workspace and the
Audio Montage workspace:
Select all
Selects all markers in the markers list.
239
Markers
Markers Window
Select in time range
Selects the markers located in the selection range in the wave
window (Audio Files workspace only).
Deselect all
Deselects all markers.
Delete selected markers
Deletes all markers that are selected.
Lock selected marker
Locks the selected marker. If this option is activated, the marker
cannot be moved or deleted.
Customize commands
Opens a dialog where you can customize marker-related menus
and shortcuts.
The following options of the Functions menu are only available in the
Audio Montage workspace:
Bind selected marker to start of focused clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the start of the focused clip.
When the start of this clip moves, the marker moves, too.
Bind selected marker to end of focused clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the end of the focused clip.
When the end of this clip moves, the marker moves, too.
Detach selected marker from its associated clip
Makes the marker’s position relative to the start of the audio
montage.
Full clip attachment
Attaches markers to a clip so that they are copied or deleted when
the clip is copied or deleted.
Filter Menu
Use the Filter menu to toggle which types of markers are displayed in
the markers list and on the timeline.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
About Creating Markers
Markers can be created during playback or in stop mode. You can mark
a selection range, for example.
You can create specific markers if you already know what you want to
mark, or create generic markers. Creating markers is done in the same
way in the Audio Files workspace and the Audio Montage workspace.
Creating Markers
You can create markers in the wave window and montage window in
stop mode or during playback.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
Start playback.
•
In the wave/montage window, set the cursor to the position where
you want to insert the marker.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Markers window, click a marker button, or select a marker
from the Insert menu.
•
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name marker,
enter a name and select a marker type, and click Create or Create
and close.
•
Right-click the upper part of the time ruler, and select a marker
from the context menu.
•
Press [Insert]/[M]. This creates a generic marker.
Create Marker Dialog
This dialog allows you to create and name a marker in stop mode and
during playback.
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name marker.
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Markers
About Creating Markers
Name
Lets you enter the name of the marker.
When clicking the icon to the right of the name field, a default
name is generated. To edit the default names, in the Markers
window, select Functions > Default names.
Type
Lets you select the type of marker.
Toggle start/end markers
If this option is activated, and you create a region start or end
marker, the related end or start marker is created when you click
the Create or Create and close button again.
Create and close
Creates the defined markers and closes the dialog.
Create
Creates the defined markers while leaving the window open
allowing you to create more markers.
RELATED LINKS:
“Default Marker Names Dialog” on page 246
Creating Markers at Selection Start and End
You can mark a selection for looping or review, for example.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave window, create a selection range.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
In the Markers window, click a marker pair button, or open the
Insert menu and select one of the marker pairs.
•
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name region
from selection, enter a name for the start and end marker, select
a region type, and click Create or Create and close.
•
In the wave window, make a selection range, right-click it, and
select one of the marker pairs.
•
In the wave window or the montage window, create a selection
range, right-click the time ruler, and select one of the marker pairs.
242
Markers
About Creating Markers
Create Region Dialog
This dialog allows you to create and name a start and end marker from
a selection during stop mode and during playback.
In the Markers window, select Insert > Create/Name region from
selection.
Region name
Lets you enter the name of the start and end marker. If nothing is
entered, a generic name is created.
When clicking the icon to the right of the name field, a default
name is generated. To edit the default names, in the Markers
window, select Functions > Default names.
Set a different name for the closing marker
If this option is activated, you can enter a different name for the
closing marker. If this option is deactivated, the name of the start
marker is also used for the end marker.
Region type
Lets you select the type of region marker.
Create and close
Creates the defined markers and closes the dialog.
Create
Creates the defined markers and leaves the window open allowing
you to create more markers.
RELATED LINKS:
“Default Marker Names Dialog” on page 246
243
Markers
Deleting Markers
Duplicating Markers
This is a quick way to create a marker from an existing marker.
PROCEDURE
•
In the wave window or the montage window, hold down [Shift],
click a marker, and drag.
Deleting Markers
Markers can be deleted in the wave window or the montage window,
and in the Markers window.
Deleting Markers in the Wave/Montage Window
Individual markers can easily be deleted in the wave window.
•
In the wave/montage window, right-click a marker, and select
Delete.
•
Drag and drop a marker icon above the time ruler.
Deleting Markers in the Markers Window
This is useful if your project has many markers or if the marker that you
want to delete is not visible in the wave/montage window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, select one or several markers.
You can also select Functions > Select all.
2.
Click the Delete selected markers button, or select Functions >
Delete selected markers.
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Markers
Moving Markers
Moving Markers
You can adjust marker positions in the wave window and the montage
window.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the wave/montage window, drag a marker to a new position on
the time ruler.
If Magnetic bounds is activated, the marker snaps to the cursor position,
or the beginning/end of a selection or waveform.
Navigating to Markers
You can jump to the previous or next marker using the corresponding
marker buttons.
•
To jump to the previous/next marker, on the View command bar,
click the Previous marker/Next marker button.
•
To set the wave cursor to a marker position, in the wave window or
the montage window, double-click a marker triangle.
Hiding Markers of a Certain Type
For a better overview, you can hide marker types.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Markers window, select Filter.
2.
Deactivate the marker type that you want to hide.
You can make the markers visible again by activating the corresponding
marker type.
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Markers
Renaming Markers
Renaming Markers
You can change the automatically generated names of markers.
•
To rename a marker in the wave window or the montage window,
right-click a marker, select Rename, and enter a new name.
•
To rename markers in the Markers window, double-click a marker
name in the Name column, and enter a new name.
•
To edit the default names, in the Markers window, select
Functions > Default names.
Default Marker Names Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify the default marker names.
In the Markers window, select Functions > Default names.
Marker type
Lets you select the type of marker to which you want to assign a
default name.
Default name for this type of marker
Lets you specify the default name for the selected marker type.
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Markers
About Selecting Markers
About Selecting Markers
There are several ways to select markers.
•
In the wave window or the montage window, click a marker.
•
In the Markers window, click in a cell. The corresponding marker
is selected.
•
Use [Ctrl]/[Command] and [Shift] to select multiple markers.
The marker icon changes its background, to indicate the selected
marker.
Selecting the Audio Between Markers
You can quickly select the audio between two adjacent markers or
between any two markers. This allows you to select a section that has
been marked.
•
To select the audio between two adjacent markers, double-click
between two adjacent markers.
•
To select several regions between two adjacent markers,
double-click between two adjacent markers, and after the second
click, drag to select the adjacent regions.
•
To select the audio between a region marker pair, hold down
[Shift], and double-click a region marker.
•
To extend the selection until the end of a marker region, in the
wave/montage window, hold down [Shift], and double-click in the
marker region that you want to select.
•
To activate the Markers window and display further information
about a certain marker, hold down [Alt]/[Option], and double-click
a marker.
247
Markers
Binding Markers to Clips in the Audio Montage
Binding Markers to Clips in the Audio
Montage
In the Audio Montage workspace, you can bind markers to clips. By
doing this, the marker remains in the same position relative to the clip
start/end, even if the clip is moved in the audio montage or resized.
You can find the options regarding clips and markers in the Functions
menu of the Markers window, and when right-clicking a marker.
RELATED LINKS:
“Markers Window” on page 238
How Marker Information is Stored
WaveLab Elements uses MRK files to have a file format independent
way to store information. However, to make marker information
exchangeable between applications to a certain extent, WaveLab
Elements also stores optionally some information in the Wave headers.
This makes saving files quicker if only a marker settings has been
changed. However, this only applies when Write markers in WAV file
header is deactivated in the Audio File editing preferences on the File
tab. By default, both MRK files are created and information are stored in
the Wave headers.
•
When you import a file for the first time, any loop points are
imported and displayed as loop markers.
•
When you save the file in the Wave format, the loop points are
saved both as part of the actual file and in the MRK file.
•
When you open a file that includes markers that were added in
WaveLab Elements, and markers that were added in another
application, all markers are displayed when reopening the file in
WaveLab Elements.
248
Metering
WaveLab Elements contains a variety of audio meters that you can use
when monitoring and analyzing audio. Meters can be used to monitor
audio during playback, rendering, and recording. Furthermore, you can
use them to analyze audio sections when playback is stopped.
Metering Window
Audio Meters can be used in the Audio Files workspace and in the
Audio Montage workspace.
They can be used as following:
•
A docked window in a workspace
•
An independent floating window. In this mode, it can be useful to
select Window > Hide frame, to save screen space. In this case,
the whole menu is accessed by right-clicking.
There can only be one instance of each audio meter.
The axis of most audio meters can be rotated, to view the graphics
horizontally or vertically. For some meters, you can also style and
customize parameters via a settings dialog.
About Meter Settings
You can set up most meters according to your needs in the
corresponding settings dialogs. For example, you can adjust the
behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
•
To open the settings dialog for a meter, select Functions >
Settings.
249
Metering
Resetting the Meters
•
To check the results after changing the settings without closing
the settings dialog, click Apply.
•
To close the settings dialog and discard any changes that you have
made, even if you have clicked the Apply button before, click
Cancel.
Resetting the Meters
You can reset the display of some meters, for example, the values of the
Level Meter.
PROCEDURE
•
In the meter window, click the Reset icon, or select Functions >
Reset.
RESULT
All meters and numerical indicators are reset.
Level Meter
The Level Meter displays the peak and average loudness/decibel level
of your audio file.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Analysis > Level Meter.
250
Metering
Level Meter
Level Meters
The Level Meter shows the peak level and average loudness in the
following way:
•
The Peak Level meters display the peak levels of each channel,
graphically and numerically.
•
The VU meters measure the average loudness (RMS) of each
channel. These meters have a built-in inertia, evening out loudness
variations over a user-defined time span. If you are monitoring
playback or the audio input, you can see two vertical lines following
each VU meter bar. These lines indicate the average of the most
recent minimum RMS values (left line) and the average of the most
recent maximum RMS values (right line). To the left, the difference
between the minimum and maximum average values is displayed.
This gives you an overview of the dynamic range of the audio
material.
•
The maximum peak and loudness values are displayed to the right
of the meter bars. The numbers in brackets to the right of the
maximum peak values indicate the number of times that clipping
occurs (0 dB signal peaks). Values between 1 and 2 clips are
acceptable, but if you get a larger number, you should lower the
master level to avoid digital distortion.
•
Recording levels should be set so that they only rarely clip. If the
master level is set too high, the sound quality and frequency
response are compromised at high recording levels, with
unwanted clipping effects. If the level is set too low, noise levels
can be high relative to the main sound being recorded.
Level Meter Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the behavior, scale, and color of the meters.
In the Level Meter window, select Functions > Settings, or click the
tool icon.
Peak Meter Section
Ballistics - Release rate
Determines how fast the peak level meter falls after a peak.
Ballistics - Peak hold time
Determines how long a peak value is displayed. The peak can be
displayed as a line or a number. If the meter's height is too narrow,
only the line is displayed.
251
Metering
Level Meter
Top/Middle/Low zone
The color buttons allow you to select colors for the low, middle,
and top zones of the level meter. You can define the range for the
top and middle zones by changing the corresponding values.
VU Meter (Loudness) Section
VU Meter (Loudness)
Activates/deactivates the VU meter.
Ballistics - Resolution
Sets the time that is used for determining the loudness. The
smaller this value, the more the VU meter behaves like the Peak
meter.
Ballistics - Range inertia
Sets the time that is used for determining the recent minimum and
maximum value lines, and therefore determines how quickly these
respond to changes in loudness.
Global Colors Section
In this section, you select colors for the meter background, marks (scale
units), and grid lines.
Global Range (Peak and VU Meter) Section
In this section, you specify the minimum and maximum values of the
displayed level range. Typically, you want to create a preset showing the
full level range, and other presets for a detailed view of a smaller range.
252
Metering
Spectroscope
Spectroscope
The Spectroscope shows a graphical representation of the frequency
spectrum, analyzed into 60 separate frequency bands, represented as
vertical bars.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Analysis > Spectroscope.
Peak levels are shown as a horizontal lines above the corresponding
bands, indicating recent peak/maximum values. The Spectroscope
offers a quick spectrum overview. For a more detailed analysis of the
audio spectrum, use the Spectrometer.
On the Functions menu, you can specify whether only high audio levels
are displayed, or whether medium and low levels are also shown.
253
Metering
Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope
The Oscilloscope offers a highly magnified view of the waveform around
the playback cursor position.
In the Audio Files workspace or the Audio Montage workspace, select
Analysis > Oscilloscope.
If you are analyzing stereo audio, the Oscilloscope normally shows the
separate levels of the two channels. However, if you activate Show sum
and subtraction on the Options pop-up menu, the upper half of the
Oscilloscope shows the mix of the two channels and the lower half
shows the subtraction.
Oscilloscope Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can adjust the display colors, and activate/deactivate
Auto-zoom. When Auto-zoom is activated, the display is optimized so
that the highest level reaches the top of the display at all times and even
small signals are visible.
In the Oscilloscope window, select Functions > Settings.
254
Writing Operations
This chapter describes the CD/DVD writing processes in WaveLab
Elements. This chapter assumes that the preparations have been
completed, and that you are ready to run the actual writing process.
Write Audio CD Dialog
In this dialog, you can write your audio montage to an audio CD.
•
When you want to write audio montages to an audio CD, in the
Audio Montage workspace, open the CD window, and select CD
> Write Audio CD.
Device
Here, select the disc writer that you want to use.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab
Elements. Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating
system and is not available for WaveLab Elements.
255
Writing Operations
Write Audio CD Dialog
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done
automatically, when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after
you insert a new blank media to update the Speed menu.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab Elements.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab Elements.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected device
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information
about the selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is
a rewritable media.
Bypass Master Section
If this option is activated, the audio signal is not processed through
the Master Section before being written to the media.
Speed
Lets you select the writing speed. The highest speed depends
both on the capabilities of your writing device and of the media
present in the device.
Copies
Lets you enter the number of copies that you want to write.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of
writing the CD. If this test is passed, the real write operation will
succeed. If the test fails, try again at a lower writing speed.
Render to temporary file before writing
If this option is activated, a disk image is created before writing,
which eliminates the risk of buffer underruns. This is useful if your
project uses many audio plug-ins while writing. It is activated
automatically when writing multiple copies. While this option
makes the writing operation longer, it may allow you to select an
higher writing speed.
CD-Extra compatible (new session possible)
If this option is activated, the resulting audio CD is compatible with
the CD-Extra format.
256
Writing Operations
Erase Optical Media Dialog
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
Erase Optical Media Dialog
In this dialog, you can quickly or fully erase the disc before writing.
In the Write Audio CD dialog, click the eraser icon.
Quick erase
Erases the table of contents of the disc.
Full erase
Erases all parts of the disc.
Force erasing even if a disk appears to be blank
If this option is activated, the disc is erased, even if it is declared
as blank. Use this option to make sure that discs that were partially
or minimally erased are fully erased.
257
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
About Writing Audio Montages
You can write audio montages to an audio CD.
Writing an Audio Montage to an Audio CD
PREREQUISITE
Set up your audio montage, and make your CD writing settings in the
Global preferences.
NOTE
On the Mac, insert a media in the drive after opening WaveLab
Elements. Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating
system and is not available for WaveLab Elements.
PROCEDURE
1.
Optional: Check the audio montage to make sure that all starts,
ends, and transitions are as intended.
2.
Optional: In the CD window, select Functions > Check CD
conformity, to check that all settings conform to the Red Book
standard.
3.
Insert an empty CD into your drive.
4.
In the CD window, select Functions > Write Audio CD.
5.
From the Device pop-up menu, select the writing device that you
want to use.
6.
If you want to bypass the Master Section, activate Bypass Master
Section.
7.
Select the writing speed from the Speed pop-up menu.
8.
Select the number of copies that you want to write.
When you want to write more than one copy, it is recommended to
activate Render to temporary file before writing.
258
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
9.
Optional: Activate one or several of the following options:
•
Activate Test only, do not write, if you want to test if the writing
operation would be successful.
•
Activate Render to temporary file before writing, if your audio
montage uses many plug-ins. This way, the audio data is sent to
the CD writer fast enough.
•
Activate CD-Extra compatible (new session possible), if you want
the resulting audio CD to be compatible with the CD-Extra format.
•
Activate Eject after completion, if you want the disc to be
automatically ejected after the writing operation.
10. Click OK.
RESULT
The writing operation starts.
RELATED LINKS:
“Write Audio CD Dialog” on page 255
About CD-Text
CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book Compact Disc standard and
allows you to store text information such as title, songwriter, composer,
and disc ID on an audio CD.
The text data is then displayed by CD players that support the CD-Text
format. The CD-Text can also be included in the audio CD report.
CD-Text Editor Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify information such as track title, performer,
and songwriter, that is written onto the CD as CD-Text.
You can add information about the disc itself and each individual track.
This information is entered in the text fields that scroll horizontally. There
is one pane of fields for the disc itself and a pane for each track.
259
Writing Operations
About Writing Audio Montages
In the Audio Montage workspace, in the CD window, select the track for
which you want to edit the CD-Text, and select Functions > Edit
CD-Text.
Copies the name of the CD track start marker to this field.
Copies the name of each CD track start marker to the title field of
each CD track.
Copies the text to all tracks located after the current one.
Scrollbar
Use the scrollbar to navigate across all CD-Texts. The first position
corresponds to the whole CD, other positions to individual tracks.
Language selection
Here, select how characters should be encoded on the CD.
NOTE
If a character is not CD-Text compatible, it is displayed as a ? character.
Restrict to ASCII
To ensure the maximum compatibility with CD players, it is
recommended to restrict the characters to ASCII when using the
Western European option. If this option is activated, and you type
a non-compatible character, a ? character is displayed.
Enable CD-Text writing
If this option is activated, the CD-Text is written onto the CD.
260
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Data CD/DVD Projects
A data CD/DVD project can be used to compile and write a data-only
CD, DVD, Blu-ray, or to write to ISO image. You can enter a name for
your disc and change the disc file structure before writing your data to
a CD, DVD, Blu-ray, or ISO image.
Creating a Data CD/DVD Project
A data CD/DVD project can be used to compile and write a data-only
CD, DVD, Blu-ray, or to write to ISO image.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Global > Data CD/DVD.
2.
Add files to the project, using one of the following methods:
3.
•
Drag the files from the WaveLab Elements file browser or from the
Explorer/Finder into the Data CD/DVD window.
•
Drag a tab from any workspace into the Data CD/DVD window.
•
In any workspace, select File > Special > Add to Data CD/DVD,
to add the open file to the Data CD/DVD project.
Optional: Click the New Folder icon, specify a folder name, and
arrange the files by dragging.
Writing a Data CD/DVD Project
PREREQUISITE
Open the Data CD/DVD dialog, and add the files that you want to write
to a data CD/DVD.
PROCEDURE
1.
Click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
2.
Select a writing device.
3.
•
When you select ISO Image, specify a file name and file location.
•
When you select a CD/DVD writer, specify the writing speed and
make further settings.
Click OK.
261
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Data CD/DVD Dialog
In this dialog, you can create a data CD/DVD project, and write it to CD,
DVD, Blu-ray, or ISO image.
In any workspace, select Global > Data CD/DVD.
Media
Select the media type you want to write. If the media size that you
want to use is not listed, select the media type that offers a size
closest to your requirements.
Volume name
Specify the volume name of the CD/DVD.
Open Explorer/Finder
Opens the Explorer/Finder to show the location of the selected file.
Remove selected files and folders
Removes the selected files and folders from the CD/DVD project.
New folder
Creates a folder. You can also create sub-folders.
Write Data CD/DVD dialog
Opens the Write Data CD/DVD dialog from which you can write
the media.
Data CD/DVD list
Shows the contents of the CD/DVD project, and the size and
creation date of the files.
Available space on media
Indicates how much space is used on the media. The total size of
the data CD/DVD project is shown below the data CD/DVD list.
262
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
Reset
Removes all files from the data CD/DVD project.
Write Data CD/DVD Dialog
In this dialog, you can write a data CD/DVD project to CD/DVD or ISO
file.
In the Data CD/DVD dialog, click the Write Data CD/DVD icon.
Device
Here, select the disc writer you want to use, or select ISO Image
to write a file on the hard drive. Writing an ISO image creates a
copy of a future optical media.
NOTE
On the Mac, open WaveLab Elements without a media in the drive.
Otherwise, the drive is under the control of the operating system and is
not available for WaveLab Elements.
Refresh
Scans the system for connected optical devices. This is done
automatically, when this dialog opens. Click the update icon after
you insert a new blank media, to update the speed menu.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the optical medium present in the selected drive.
Information about selected drive
Opens the Device information dialog, that shows information
about the selected device.
Erase optical disc
Erases the optical disc present in the selected drive, provided it is
a rewritable media. If ISO Image is selected, clicking the button
erases the existing ISO file.
263
Writing Operations
Data CD/DVD Projects
ISO file name
When ISO Image is selected in the Device menu, specify the file
name and file location of the ISO file in the text field.
Speed
Here, select the writing speed. The highest speed depends both
on the capabilities of your writing device and of the media present
in the device.
Test only, do not write
If this option is activated, clicking OK initiates a simulation of
writing the CD. If this test is passed, the real write operation will
succeed. If the test fails, try again at a lower writing speed.
Create CD-Extra session
If this option is activated, the data is written in a new session, after
the audio tracks. This creates a CD Extra, also known as Enhanced
CD and CD Plus. For this to work, the CD in the drive must have
audio tracks on it, written with the CD Extra option. Otherwise the
operation fails.
Verify after write
If this option is activated, the data on the medium is automatically
verified after the writing process.
Eject before verifying
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected and retracted before
the verification process, to force the drive out of the write state.
This is only possible if the disc can be retracted automatically.
Eject after completion
If this option is activated, the disc is ejected after the write process.
264
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
About Audio CD Formats
This chapter provides you with background information on the CD
format, to help you better understand how to create your own CDs.
This documentation can only give basic information on this subject. For
more information, try a text-book on the subject, or search the internet.
Basic CD Formats
There are a number of different formats for the contents of a CD disc.
For example, audio CDs, CD-ROMS, and CD-I. These are all slightly
different.
The audio CD specification is called Red Book. It is this standard to
which WaveLab Elements conforms.
NOTE
Red Book CD is not a real file format. All the audio on the CD is stored
in one big file. This is different from hard disks, for example, where each
file is stored separately. Keep in mind that all the audio is in fact one long
stream of digital data.
CD-Extra Support
CD-Extra is a format that allows for the writing of both audio and data
on a single CD, just like Mixed Mode CDs. When writing an audio CD,
you can prepare it for CD-Extra support (also known as Enhanced CD
or CD Plus).
The difference is that when Mixed Mode CDs are written with the audio
placed on the last tracks of the CD, for CDs in the CD-Extra format the
audio is contained in the first tracks of the CD, and the data follows
subsequently.
All features of the Red Book audio CD are possible with CD-Extra,
unlike with Mixed Mode CDs. After an audio CD has been written with
CD-Extra support, the data can be added to the CD in a separate
session, by creating and writing a Data CD Project.
NOTE
Some computer CD drives may not recognize CDs in the CD-Extra
format.
265
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
Types of Events on an Audio CD
There are three types of events that can be used to specify various
sections of audio on the CD.
Event
Description
Track start
There can be up to 99 tracks on one CD. Each is identified by
its start point only.
Track sub-index
On advanced CD players, a track can be divided into
sub-indexes (sometimes called only indexes). These are used
to identify important positions within a track. There can be 98
sub-indexes in each track. However, since it is difficult and
time-consuming to search for and locate to a sub-index, many
CD players ignore this information.
Pause
A pause appears before each track. Pauses can be of
variable lengths. Some CD players indicate the pauses
between tracks on their displays.
About Frames, Positions, Small Frames, and Bits
The data on an audio CD is divided into frames.
A frame consists of 588 stereo samples. 75 frames make up one second of
audio. This is because 75 x 588 = 44100, and since the sampling
frequency of the CD format is 44100 Hz (samples per second), this equals
one second of audio. When you specify positions on the CD, in WaveLab
Elements, you do it in the format mm:ss:ff (minutes:seconds:frames). The
frame values go from 0 to 74, since there are 75 frames to a second.
Technically, there is no way to specify something smaller than a frame
on a CD. One effect of this is that if the sample length of a track on the
CD does not equal a perfect number of frames, some blank audio must
be added at the end. Another effect of this is that when you play the CD,
you can never locate to anything closer than a frame. If you need some
data in the middle of a frame, you still have to read the whole frame.
Again, this is unlike a hard disk, where you can retrieve any byte on the
disk, without reading the surrounding data.
But frames are not the smallest block of data on a CD. There is also
something called “small frames”. A small frame is a container of 588 bits.
98 small frames together make up one regular frame. In each small frame
there is only room for six stereo samples, which means that a lot of space is
left for data other than the actual audio. There is information for encoding,
laser synchronization, error correction, and the PQ data to indentify the
track boundaries. This PQ data is of major importance to anyone who wants
to create their own CD, and handled effortless in WaveLab Elements.
266
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
ISRC Codes
International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an identification that
is only used on CDs intended for commercial distribution. WaveLab
Elementsallows you to specify an ISRC code for each audio track.
These codes are provided by your publisher or clients.
The ISRC code is structured as follows:
•
Country Code (2 ASCII characters)
•
Owner Code (3 ASCII characters or digits).
•
Recording Year (2 digits or ASCII characters)
•
Serial Number (5 digits or ASCII characters)
The groups of characters are often presented with hyphens to make
them easier to read, but hyphens are not part of the code.
UPC/EAN Codes
UPC/EAN code - the Universal Product Code/European Article
Number, is a catalog number for an item (such as a CD) intended for
commercial distribution. On a CD, the code is also called the Media
Catalog Number and there is one such code per disc. These codes are
provided by your publisher or clients.
UPC is a 12-digit barcode widely used in the USA and Canada.
EAN-13 is a 13-digit barcoding standard (12 + a checksum digit)
defined by the GS1 standards organization. EAN is now renamed as
International Article Number, but the abbreviation has been retained.
Pre-Emphasis
CD pre-emphasis refers to process designed to increase, within a band
of frequencies, the magnitude of some (usually higher) frequencies
compared to the magnitude of other (usually lower) frequencies in order
to improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio by lowering the frequencies
during reproduction.
Pre-emphasis is commonly used in telecommunications, digital audio
recording, record cutting and in FM broadcasting transmissions. The
presence of pre-emphasis on a track is sometimes indicated by a tick in
the
column on the Import Audio CD dialog.
267
Writing Operations
About Audio CD Formats
Disc-At-Once - Writing CD-Rs for Duplication Into Real CDs
WaveLab Elements only writes audio CDs in Disc-at-Once mode.
•
If you want to create a CD-R to use as a master for a real CD
production, you must write the CD-R in Disc-At-Once mode. In
this mode, the entire disc is written in one pass. There are other
ways of writing a CD, namely Track-At-Once and Multi-Session. If
you use these writing formats, the link blocks created to link the
various recording passes together will be recognized as
uncorrectable errors when you try to master from the CD-R. These
links can also result in clicks when playing back the CD.
•
Disc-At-Once mode provides more flexibility when specifying
pause lengths between tracks.
•
Disc-At-Once is the only mode that supports sub-indexes.
Writing On The Fly vs. CD Images
WaveLab Elements writes a CD on the fly, that is, it does not create a
CD image before writing. This method makes writing CDs/DVDs faster
and requires less disc space. However, you can also create an image
prior to writing a CD/DVD.
268
Loops
This chapter describes various operations that are related to looping.
Looping is used to simulate the infinite or at least very long sustain of
many instrumental sounds. WaveLab Elements has tools for creating
smooth loops, even for the most complex types of sounds.
Basic Looping
Looping a sound allows you to repeat a section of the sample
indefinitely in order to create a sustain of unlimited length. Instrumental
sounds in samplers rely on looping. An example of this would be an
organ sound.
Without looping, you can only play audio as long as the original
recording. With looping, audio can be of any length. In WaveLab
Elements, loops are defined by loop markers. Loop markers are added,
moved, and edited such as any other type of marker.
To ensure that you find a good loop point note the following:
•
There are only two types of loops: very long and very short loops.
Loops of intermediate lengths usually do not provide good results.
•
A long loop sounds the most natural and should be used
whenever possible. However, if the sound does not have a stable
section in the middle (an even sustain part), it might be hard to find
a good long loop. For example, a piano note which decays
continuously is hard to loop since the start point of the loop is
louder than the end point. A flute is much simpler, because the
sound in the sustain section is very stable.
•
Very short loops that cover only a few cycles or periods can almost
always be found but may sound static and unnatural.
•
A loop should start shortly after the attack portion, that is, when
the sound has stabilized to a sustaining note.
•
If you set up a long loop, it should end as late as possible but
before the sound starts decaying to silence.
269
Loops
About Refining Loops
•
Short loops are difficult to position within the sound. Try to position
them near the end.
NOTE
More information about looping in general, and the exact capabilities of
your sampler in particular can be found in the manual of the sampler.
Creating a Basic Loop
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the audio section that you
want to loop.
2.
Right-click the top of the ruler, and select Create loop from
selection.
3.
On the Transport bar, activate Loop.
4.
Play back the loop and adjust the position of the markers to change
the loop.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
Dragging markers to various positions does not necessarily lead to good
loops. Most often, you hear a click or an abrupt change in timbre at the
turning point.
We suggest you only use this method for setting up the basic length of
the loop and then use the Loop Tweaker and Loop Tone Uniformizer
for optimizing.
About Refining Loops
The Loop Tweaker tool allows you to refine a region of audio for
seamless looping. Use the Loop Tweaker to tweak an existing loop
selection so that it loops perfectly or use it to create a loop from material
which does not naturally repeat.
You can automatically detect loop points by scanning the area between
two loop markers. You can specify parameters that determine how
accurate the program should be when suggesting loop points.
270
Loops
About Refining Loops
If the automatic search for loop points is not successful, you can
process the waveform to allow for smoother loops by crossfading areas
of the waveform close to the loop start and end points.
To use the Loop Tweaker, you must first define a loop using a pair of
loop markers.
Loop Points Adjustment Tab
Use the Loop Points Adjustments tab in the Loop Tweaker dialog to
manually refine a loop selection by dragging on the waveform left/right
or by using the automatic search buttons to find the nearest good loop
point. The aim is to align the waveforms so that they meet at a
zero-crossing point where the waveforms match as closely as possible.
When you adjust your loop start and end points within the dialog, the
start and end loop markers in the main waveform window adjust
accordingly. Note that this movement may or may not be visible
depending on how much you move the markers and on the zoom factor
that you have selected.
It may be helpful to loop the transport during playback so that you can
hear the difference when you adjust the loop markers within the dialog.
Note that if you are not using a crossfade or post-crossfade, you do not
need to click Apply when tweaking loop points. You can also leave this
dialog window open and manually adjust the position of the markers in
the main waveform windows.
Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to apply a crossfade of the end of a loop with a copy
of the beginning of the loop. This can be useful to smooth the transition
between the end of a loop and its beginning, especially when you use
material that does not naturally loop. Use the envelope drag points or
value sliders to adjust the crossfade envelope. Click Apply to process
the crossfade.
Post-Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to cross fade the loop back into the audio behind the
end of the loop by mixing a copy of the loop back into the audio. Use the
envelope drag points or value sliders to adjust the crossfade envelope.
Click Apply to process the post crossfade.
271
Loops
About Refining Loops
Refining Loops
You can refine loops using the Loop Tweaker tool.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a basic loop.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the loop that you want to
refine by clicking between its loop start and loop end marker.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
Refine your loop using the settings in the Loop Tweaker tool.
4.
Click Apply.
Moving Loop Points Manually
If your loop still has glitches or bumps at the turning points, you can use
the Loop Tweaker tool to move the points in small steps to remove the
glitch.
This is similar to moving the loop points in the wave display, but with a
visual feedback to facilitate finding good loop points.
There are two ways of moving the loop points manually on the Loop
points adjustment tab in the Loop Tweaker dialog:
•
Drag the waveform to the left and right.
•
Use the green arrows below the waveform to nudge the audio to
the left and right. Each click moves the loop point by a single
sample.
The following applies when moving the loop points manually:
•
To move the end point to a later or earlier position, move the left
part of the display.
•
To move the start point to a later or earlier position, move the right
part of the display.
•
To move the start and end points simultaneously, activate Link
start and end points. This way, when adjusting a loop point, the
length of the loop stays the same, but the entire loop is moved.
•
You can also adjust the loop markers in the wave window.
272
Loops
About Refining Loops
Automatically Detect Good Loop Points
The Loop Tweaker tool can automatically search for good loop points.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, select the loop that you want to
refine by clicking between its loop start and loop end marker.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
On the Loop points adjustment tab, make sure that Link start
and end points is deactivated.
4.
In the Automatic search section, specify the Aimed
correspondence and the Search accuracy.
5.
Click the yellow arrow buttons to start the automatic search for a
good loop point.
WaveLab Elements scans from the current point forwards or backwards,
until it finds a point that matches. You can stop at any time by clicking the
right mouse button. The program then jumps back to the best found
match.
6.
Check the loop by playing it back.
7.
Optional: If you think there might be a better loop point, continue
with the search.
Temporarily Storing Loop Points
Temporarily saving and restoring loop points allows you to quickly
compare different loop settings.
PREREQUISITE
Set up a basic loop and open the Loop Tweaker tool.
NOTE
There are five slots for temporarily saving loop point settings per wave
window and montage window, not one per set of loop points. This
means that if you have several sets of loops in your file, you must be
careful to not recall the wrong set.
NOTE
Only loop positions are temporarily saved.
273
Loops
About Refining Loops
PROCEDURE
1.
On the Loop points adjustment tab, in the Temporary
memories section, select M.
2.
Select one of the five memory slots.
About Crossfades in Loops
Crossfading is useful to smooth the transition between the end of a loop
and its beginning, especially when using material that does not naturally
loop.
Sometimes it is impossible to find a loop that does not cause any
glitches. This is especially true for stereo material, where you might be
able to find a perfect candidate for only one channel.
In this case crossfading smears the material around the end loop point
so that it loops perfectly. This is achieved by mixing material from before
the loop start with material that is located before the loop end.
Note that this technique alters the waveform and therefore changes the
sound. However, normally you can find settings that minimize this
problem.
Creating a Crossfade
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, create a good a loop as you can.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tweaker.
3.
Decide if you want to create a crossfade or a post-crossfade:
•
If you want to create a crossfade, click the Crossfade tab.
•
If you want to create a post-crossfade, click the Post-Crossfade
tab.
4.
Make sure that Crossfade audio at end of loop with audio
before loop (Crossfade tab) or Crossfade audio after loop with
audio of loop start (Post-Crossfade tab) is activated.
5.
Decide on a length for the crossfade either by dragging the length
handle or by adjusting the Length value below the graph.
6.
Decide on a crossfade shape by dragging the shape handle or by
adjusting the Shape (from equal gain to equal power) value.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
7.
Click Apply.
The sound is processed. Each time that you click Apply, the previous
loop process is automatically undone. This allows you to try out many
settings quickly.
NOTE
Do not move the loop points after you have performed a crossfade. The
waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
•
You can check the crossfade visually by opening the Loop points
adjustment tab and activating Display processed audio. When
this is activated, the display shows a preview of the crossfaded
waveform. When the option is deactivated, the display shows the
waveform original. Switching back and forth allows you to compare
the two.
About Post-Crossfades
Post-crossfading means crossfading the loop back into the audio after
the end of the loop so that there is not glitch when playback continues
after the loop. This is done by mixing a copy of the loop back into the
audio.
The post-crossfade can be set up on the Post-Crossfade tab of the
Loop Tweaker dialog.
The post-crossfade analyzes the part of the waveform that occurs just
after the loop start and processes a certain area that begins at the end
of the loop. The length parameter adjusts the size of this area. Everything
else is identical with regular crossfading.
Loop Tweaker Dialog
This dialog allows you to adjust the loop start and end points, and
crossfade the loop boundaries.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loop Tweaker.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
The Loop Tweaker dialog consists of the following tabs:
Loop Points Adjustment Tab
The top of this dialog shows the beginning and the end of the waveform
between the loop markers. The bottom of this dialog offers the following
options:
Loop End - Green Arrows
Move the loop end points to the left/right.
Loop End - Yellow Arrows
Invokes an automatic search for the nearest good loop point to the
left/right of the loop end point and moves the end point to that
position.
Loop Start - Green Arrows
Moves the loop start points to the left/right.
Loop Start - Yellow Arrows
Invokes an automatic search for the nearest good loop point to the
left/right of the loop start point, and moves the start point to that
position.
Stereo merge
If this option is activated for a stereo file, the two waveforms are
overlayed, otherwise they are shown in two separate sections.
276
Loops
About Refining Loops
Overlap
If this option is activated, the waveforms of both halves are
continued in the other half. This shows how the waveform looks like
right before and after the loop.
Display processed audio
If this option is activated, the display shows a preview of the
waveform after crossfading. If deactivated, you see what the
waveform looks like without crossfading. This option only makes
sense after you have set up a crossfade and clicked Apply.
Automatic vertical zooming
If this option is activated, the vertical magnification is adjusted so
that the waveform always fills the entire display vertically.
Zoom
Sets the zoom factor.
Current correspondence
Indicates how well the waveforms near the loop points match one
another. The left value estimates the similarity across several wave
cycles, while the right value estimates the similarity of the few
samples near the loop points. The higher the values, the better the
match.
Aimed correspondence (0-1000)
Sets up the automatic search for good loop points. This defines
how well the found section must resemble the section to which it
is compared, in order to be considered a match. The higher the
value, the more precise the resemblance must be. A value of 1000
most likely fails, since it requires a 100 % perfect match.
Search accuracy
Determines how many samples should be taken into account by
the auto-find analysis. Higher values result in greater accuracy, but
also in longer processing times.
Link start and end points
If this option is activated, both the start and end points move
simultaneously when you adjust the loop points manually. That is,
the loop length is exactly the same, but the entire loop moves.
Temporary memories
Allows you to save up to five different sets of loop points which you
can later recall. This allows you to try out several different loop
settings. To store a set, click this button, then on one of the buttons
1-5.
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Loops
About Refining Loops
Crossfade Tab
Crossfade audio at end of loop with audio before loop
To enable crossfading, activate this checkbox. The crossfade is
applied when you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the
crossfade. Generally, you want the crossfade to be as short as
possible, with an acceptable result:
•
Using a long crossfade smoothens the loop. However, more of the
waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not as
smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the crossfade. Generally, use low values
for simple sounds and high values for complex sounds.
278
Loops
About Refining Loops
Post-Crossfade Tab
Crossfade audio after loop with audio of loop
To enable crossfading, activate this checkbox. The crossfade is
applied when you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the
crossfade. Generally, you want the post-crossfade to be as short
as possible, with an acceptable result:
•
Using a long post-crossfade smoothens the loop. However, more
of the waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter post-crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not
as smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the post-crossfade. Generally, use low
values for simple sounds and high values for complex sounds.
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Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable
Audio
Sounds that constantly decay in level or continuously change in timbre
are difficult to loop. The Loop Tone Uniformizer allows you to create
loops from sounds that seem unloopable.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer applies processing to the sound that
evens out changes in level and timbral characteristics in order for a
sound to loop properly. For example, this is useful for creating looped
samples for a softsynth or hardware sampler.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer includes a crossfade facility so that the
original sound fades into the processed sections as playback
approaches the loop start.
To use the Loop Tone Uniformizer, you must have a loop defined using
a pair of loop markers. The original length of the loop is not changed.
Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, set up a basic loop.
2.
Select Process > Loop Tone Uniformizer.
3.
Make sure that either Slice mixing or Chorus smoothing is
activated and make the settings.
4.
Optional: Open the Pre-Crossfade tab, and set up a crossfade.
5.
Click Apply.
The sound is processed. Each time that you click Apply, the previous
loop process is automatically undone. This allows you to try out many
settings quickly.
NOTE
Do not move the loop points after you have performed a crossfade. The
waveform has been processed specifically for the current loop settings.
AFTER COMPLETING THIS TASK:
After using the Loop Tone Uniformizer, the transition from the end of
the loop to the end of the file is in many cases not very natural. This can
be fixed by creating a post-crossfade using the Loop tweaker.
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Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Loop Tone Uniformizer Dialog
This dialog allows you to create sounds that loop from audio that seems
unloopable. These are normally sounds that constantly decay in level or
continuously change in timbre.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Process > Loop Tone
Uniformizer.
The Loop Tone Uniformizer dialog consists of the following tabs:
Uniformizers Tab
This tab allows you to specify the methods that are used to even out the
sound that you want to loop.
For slice mixing, you must experiment to see how many slices are
needed. Generally, the more slices you use, the more natural the sound
will be.
Slice Mixing
Cuts the loop in slices, which are then mixed together to uniformize
the sound.
For slice mixing, you need to determine the number of slices. Only
experimentation can tell how many slices are needed, but
generally, the more slices you have, the more natural the sound (to
a certain extent). However, the program puts a restriction on the
number of slices, so that each one is never shorter than 20 ms.
For example, if you specify eight slices, the loop is cut up into eight
sections of equal length. These sections are then overlapped and
mixed together as one sound which is repeated eight times. This
new piece of audio replaces all audio inside the loop in a smart way
so that no harmonic cancelation due to phase offsets occurs.
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Loops
About Looping Seemingly Unloopable Audio
Slice Mixing - Number of slices
The more slices you have, the more the sound changes.
Chorus smoothing
This processor uses a method known as phase vocoding to filter
the harmonics. This method is recommended for looping ensemble
and choir sounds and can drastically change the timbre.
Chorus smoothing - Timbre
Governs the amount by which the timbral characteristics of the
sample should be evened out. The higher the value, the more
pronounced the effect.
Chorus smoothing - Chorusing
Determines the depth of the chorus effect.
Chorus smoothing - Enhance Warmth
Creates a smoother, warmer sounding effect.
Chorus smoothing - Stereo Expansion
Increases the width of the sample in the stereo sound image.
Pre-Crossfade Tab
This tab allows you to crossfade the end of the loop with the start of the
newly processed section so that transition into the newly looped section
is smoother during playback. Use the envelope drag points or value
sliders to adjust the cross fade.
You need to use this feature since the Loop Tone Uniformizer itself
changes the timbre only inside the loop. This means that the transition
into the loop is not as smooth as expected unless you apply crossfading.
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Loops
About Sample Attributes
Crossfade audio before loop with audio of end of loop
Enables crossfading, which is applied when you click Apply.
Length
Determines the section length of the audio file to be used in the
crossfade. Generally, you want the post-crossfade to be as short
as possible, with an acceptable result:
•
A long crossfade produces a smoother loop. However, more of the
waveform is processed, which changes its character.
•
A shorter crossfade affects the sound less, but the loop is not as
smooth.
Shape (from equal gain to equal power)
Determines the shape of the crossfade. Generally, use low values
for simple sounds and high values for complex sounds.
About Sample Attributes
Sample attributes allow you to define settings for an audio sample
before loading it into a hardware or software sampler.
Sample attributes do not process the sample, they just provide the file
properties that the receiving sampler can use. This includes information
about the pitch of the sample, which can be detected automatically, the
key range that the sample should span, and the velocity range to
occupy. For WAV and AIFF files, this information is stored in the header
of the file. By default, there are no sample attributes in an audio file.
NOTE
Depending on your sampler and the protocol that you use for
communicating, the sample attributes may not be supported.
Editing Sample Attributes
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Audio Files workspace, open the Sample Attributes
window.
2.
In the Sample Attributes window, select Create.
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Loops
About Sample Attributes
3.
Optional: If you want to automatically detect the pitch of an audio
selection, select an audio range, and select Detect from audio
selection.
4.
Specify the sample attributes.
5.
Save the audio file to store the sample attributes settings in the
audio file.
The sample attribute is only saved in WAV and AIFF files.
Sample Attributes Window
In this window, you can create sample attributes for an audio sample.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Workspace > Specified tool
windows > Sample Attributes.
Create/Remove
Creates/Removes sample attributes for the active audio file.
Tune - Key
Specifies which key plays back the sound at its basic pitch.
Tune - Detune
Specifies whether the sample should be played back at a slightly
different pitch. The range is ±50 % of a semitone, which translates
into a quarter tone in each direction.
Detect from audio selection
Detects the pitch from an audio selection. Make sure that the audio
selection contains a clearly defined pitch.
Key range - High/Low
Specifies the key range for the sample if the sample is part of a
multi-sample key map.
Velocity range - High/Low
Specifies the velocity range for the sample if the sample is part of
a multi-sample key map with velocity-switchable samples.
284
Importing Audio CD Tracks
You can read audio tracks from regular CDs and save them as a digital
copy in any audio format on your hard disk.
Although WaveLab Elements supports a large number of CD drives,
there are some restrictions you need to be aware of:
•
There are a number of different protocols for retrieving audio from
a CD-ROM/CD-R drive. WaveLab Elementssupports as many of
these methods as possible, but there are no guarantees that it
works with any particular drive. This applies for CD-Text and
ISRC.
•
Observe and respect any copyright notices on the CDs from
which you are importing tracks.
When importing tracks, they are named “Track XX” by default, where
XX is a number starting at 01. The numbering scheme can be changed.
NOTE
Importing audio CD tracks is technically more complicated than reading
files from a CD-ROM or hard disk, because audio sectors can be hard
to detect. Some CDs which do not conform completely to the CD
standard may cause problems, especially when being copy protected.
285
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Import Audio CD Dialog
In this dialog, you can import one or more tracks from an audio CD.
In any workspace, select File > Import > Audio CD.
Menus
Functions - CD Info
Displays the CD length and the UPC/EAN code, if available.
Functions - Extract ISRC codes
Reads the ISRC codes and displays them in the track list.
Depending on your CD drive, this can take a while.
Functions - Examine CD-Text
Opens the CD-Text dialog where you can view the CD-Text. Not
all CD drives support CD-Text.
Functions - Extract CD-Text
Extracts the CD-Text and displays a summary in the track list.
Rename tracks - Name
Renames the tracks according to the selected renaming scheme.
Rename tracks - Search track names on the internet (FreeDb)
Searches track names from an internet database. If the album is
found, the CD track list is updated.
Convert - Convert to audio montage (all)
Extracts all audio CD tracks and uses them to create an audio
montage.
Convert - Convert to audio montage (selected tracks)
Extracts the selected audio CD tracks and uses them to create an
audio montage.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Actions Tab
Source
Select the CD drive from which you want to import audio CD
tracks.
Speed
Here, you select the writing speed. The highest speed depends on
the capabilities of your writing device and of the media present in
the device.
Refresh
If you insert a CD while the Import Audio CD dialog is open, you
need to click this button to show the contents of that CD in the list.
Eject optical medium
Ejects the medium of the selected drive.
Track list
Shows the tracks on the CD.
Range - Start/Length
Use the Range Start and Length fields to define a start point and
length if you want to import only a section of a track.
Output - Where
Here, you define an output location.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Output - File Format
Here, you define an output file format.
Select All
Selects all CD tracks in the track list.
Play
Plays back the selected CD track.
Options Tab
Trim silence
If this option is activated, silence between imported tracks is
removed. Only digital silence is removed, that is, samples with a
zero level.
Automatically refresh on CD change
If this option is activated, WaveLab Elements checks for the
presence of a new CD in the drive several times a second. If a new
CD is found, the track list display is refreshed.
Automatically extract ISRC codes
If this option is activated, ISRC codes are automatically extracted
when a CD is inserted.
Automatically extract CD-Text
If this option is activated, CD-Text is automatically extracted when
a CD is inserted.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Import Audio CD Dialog
Automatically search track names on the internet
If this option is activated, track names are automatically searched
on the internet when a CD is inserted.
Grab pause before first track, if any
If this option is activated, when a section of audio is located before
the first track, it is extracted together with the first track. This
usually corresponds to a hidden bonus track.
Use a Japanese CD-Text decoder
If this option is activated, CD-Text is interpreted as Japanese the
next time it is extracted.
Create Peak File
If this option is activated, a peak file is created together with the
rendered files.
Show times with CD frame units
If this option is activated, times are shown in CD frame units. There
are 75 CD frames per second.
Playback through Master Section
If this option is activated, the audio track signal goes through the
Master Section when playing back.
Convert titles and CD-Text to meta-data
If this option is activated when importing tracks into an audio
format supporting meta-data (for example, MP3 and WMA), the
titles of the tracks and the CD-Text are automatically added to the
file header.
Ultra-Safe Mode (slow)
If this option is activated, each CD track is read several times until
the same result is found (checksums are used). Specify the
number of times that a track should be read with the same result
before it is saved to disk.
Real audio before and after tracks
You can ensure that entire tracks are imported properly by defining
how much audio should be read before and after a CD track.
289
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Importing Audio CD Tracks
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
In the Source section, select the drive from which you want to
read, as well as the read speed.
4.
Optional: Rename the files and adjust the numbering scheme.
The tracks must have unique names if you want to import them all.
5.
Optional: On the Options tab, in the Read audio before and after
tracks section, define how much audio should be read before and
after a CD track.
6.
In the track list, select the tracks that you want to import.
7.
Optional: If you have only selected one file, in the Range section,
you can define a Start and Length, to import just a part of the
track.
8.
In the Output section, click the folder icon, and select an output
location.
You can also drag one or more CD tracks onto an audio montage track.
9.
In the Output section, click the file format field, and select a file
format for the imported audio files.
10. Click Save.
RESULT
The tracks are retrieved.
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Importing Audio CD Tracks
Searching Track Names on the internet
Searching Track Names on the internet
You can search for information about your CDs, using the FreeDb
database of CD information.
PREREQUISITE
You need to be connected to the internet to use the FreeDb function.
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Select Rename tracks > Search track names on the internet
(FreeDb), or click the corresponding icon.
About Ultra-Safe Mode
Sometimes, a small bit of a CD track is not properly retrieved. This
depends on the quality of your CD drive. This can result in unpleasant
clicks and pops. To solve this issue, you can activate the Ultra-Safe
Mode in the Import Audio CD dialog options.
When this option is activated, you can specify how many times each CD
track is read with the same result, before it is saved to disk.
291
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Converting Audio CD Tracks to an Audio Montage
Converting Audio CD Tracks to an Audio
Montage
PROCEDURE
1.
Insert a CD into the CD-ROM/CD-R device.
2.
Select File > Import > Audio CD.
3.
Optional: On the Options tab, select which information you want
to extract from the Audio CD when converting.
4.
Decide whether to convert only selected tracks or all tracks.
•
To convert only selected tracks, select Convert > Convert to
Audio Montage (selected tracks).
•
To convert all tracks, select Convert > Convert to Audio
Montage (all).
RESULT
When the conversion is finished, the imported files open in the Audio
Montage workspace.
292
Podcasts
Podcasting is a method of distributing multimedia files over the internet,
for example, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers.
A Podcast can be downloaded automatically, using software that is
capable of reading RSS feeds. RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a
standard for distributing news and other information via the internet. An
RSS news feed sends short messages on a certain topic from a
specific web site. In order to read the messages, the user employs a
program that has the ability to monitor multiple feeds and automatically
download new messages on a regular basis. This can be special feed
readers or an internet browser, for example.
A Podcast is an RSS feed including data content, such as audio or
video files. This can be a show of which new episodes are released
regularly. The file formats .mp4a, .mp3, and .ogg are commonly used for
podcasts.
293
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Podcast Workspace
The Podcast workspace is divided into two panes. The upper pane
shows the information for the feed or an episode, depending on the item
that is selected in the list below. This is where you can add files, internet
links, or textual information to the Podcast feed and its episodes. The
lower pane shows an item list of the basic feed and all episodes that are
included in the Podcast.
Episodes Menu
In the Episodes menu, you can create, delete, and move individual
Podcast episodes.
New
Adds a new untitled episode without any information present.
Duplicate selected
Adds a new episode, copying all the information from the existing
episode to the new one.
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Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Delete selected
Deletes the selected episode. Alternatively, you can exclude an
Episode from the Podcast by deactivating the Enabled box.
Cut/Copy/Paste
Cuts, copies, and pastes the selected episode.
Move up/Move down
Moves the selected episode one position up or down in the item
list. Alternatively, use drag and drop.
Publish Menu
In the Publish menu, you can define where your Podcast is going to be
uploaded via FTP.
Update all items on FTP
Uploads/updates the XML Podcast file on the FTP server. It also
uploads all media files of the item, but only if they are not yet
available on the FTP server. This is the most common function to
upload and update your Podcast.
Update selected item on FTP
Uploads/updates the XML Podcast file on the FTP server. It also
uploads the media file of the selected item in the list, but only if it
is not yet available on the FTP server.
Upload/Replace all items on FTP
This is the same as above, but it always uploads/replaces all of the
media files belonging to the item. This is useful if you have changed
the audio data, for example.
Upload/Replace selected items on FTP
This is the same as above, but it always uploads/replaces the
media file of the selected item in the list. This is useful if you have
changed the audio data, for example.
View published Podcast
Opens your Podcast (via the URL specified in your FTP site
settings) using your default browser.
View XML source code
Opens an XML editor to display the source code of the Podcast.
FTP site
Edit the FTP settings that are related to this Podcast.
295
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Options Menu
On the Options menu, you can set additional options that are valid for
all Podcast windows.
Options
Edit the automatic picture resizing, set a time offset with
Greenwich Mean Time, and specify the path of the HTML editor.
Folders
Edit the default folders where to open and save files.
Main Tab
On the Main tab, you can assign parameters to your Podcast. The
available parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed
or an episode. Field labels in bold letters mark fields that are mandatory
to fill.
Title
Sets the title of the feed, for example, the topic of your Podcast.
Description
Gives space for a further description of the feed content.
Internet link (URL)
The main link of the feed that the user sees. Use this to direct
people to a certain web site that is related to your feed. Clicking
the world icon opens the specified URL in your default internet
browser.
Picture (only available for feeds)
According to the RSS standard, this picture may not be larger than
144 x 400 pixels, so the picture is automatically resized. Clicking
the sunglasses icon opens the specified picture in your default
image viewer of your system.
Publication date and time
Sets the publication date and time of the feed or episode. Clicking
the Now button transfers current date and time of your system.
As most recent episode (only available for feeds)
If As most recent episode is activated, the date and time of the
most recent episode are automatically matched.
Import HTML file (only available for episodes)
Lets you browse for an HTML document that replaces the
description.
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Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
Audio file (only available for episodes)
This sets the path to the audio file that you want to add to the
episode. The audio file can be any file type that is supported by the
media reader of your browser. An .mp3 file provides best
compatibility. Click the icon to list the audio files that are already
open in WaveLab Elements. Select one for your episode.
Alternatively, you can drag the list icon of an audio file into the
audio file pane. Click the play icon to open the specified file in the
default media player or viewer of your system, for previewing or
checking purposes.
Extra Tab
In the Extra tab, you can assign parameters to your Podcast. The
available parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed
or an episode.
The following parameters are available when a feed is selected:
•
Webmaster (email address)
•
Editor (email address)
•
Copyright
•
Category
•
Related domain (URL)
•
Language
•
Frequency of updates
•
Skip hours (0 to 23, separate each one with a comma)
•
Time to live (number of minutes)
The following parameters are available when an episode is selected:
•
Author (email address)
•
Comments (URL)
•
Category
•
Related domain (URL)
•
Title
•
Original domain (URL)
297
Podcasts
Podcast Workspace
iTunes Tab
In the iTunes tab, you can activate the iTunes extension, that allows you
to specify additional feed and episode information. The available
parameters change, depending on whether you select a feed or an
episode.
The following parameters are available when a feed is selected:
•
Subtitle
•
Summary
•
Categories
•
Keywords (separate them with a comma)
•
Author
•
Owner name
•
Picture
•
New URL of Feed
•
Hide in iTunes
•
Explicit material
The following parameters are available when an episode is selected:
•
Subtitle
•
Summary
•
Keywords (separate them with a comma)
•
Author
•
Duration
•
Hide in iTunes
•
Explicit material
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Podcasts
Global Podcast Options
Global Podcast Options
You can set some additional options that are valid for all Podcast
windows.
In the Podcast workspace, select Options > Options.
Automatic picture resizing (not for iTunes)
Defines what to do if specified pictures exceed the maximum size
allowed by the RSS standard. If pictures need resizing, the original
images on your hard disk is not modified.
Time offset with GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)
The displayed dates and times are local. If your system is properly
set, WaveLab Elements automatically adjusts the time offset in
relation to GMT. However, if you want to have time and date
relative to a different time zone, adjust the value with this option.
HTML Editor
Sets the path to the external HTML editor that is launched when
clicking the Pen button in the Import HTML file section.
Creating a Podcast
There are several ways to create a new Podcast feed or episode.
•
To create a new podcast, in the Podcast workspace, select File >
New.
•
To create a new podcast from the selected audio file, in the Audio
Files workspace, select File > Export > Create Podcast from
active file.
•
To add an audio file to an existing podcast, in the Audio Files
workspace, select File > Special > Add to Podcast.
•
To add a new untitled episode to a podcast, in the Podcast
workspace, select Episodes > New.
•
To duplicate an episode, in the Podcast workspace, select
Episodes > Duplicate. This adds a new episode, and copies all
information from the existing episode to the new one.
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Podcasts
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
Setting Up a FTP for Podcast Publishing
To be able to upload a Podcast to your FTP server, you must enter the
FTP server details first.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Podcast workspace, select Publish > FTP site.
2.
Enter the following details:
3.
•
The log-in details for your FTP server.
•
The relative path and file name of the Podcast (extension .xml).
•
Your web site address including the path to the feed.
Click OK.
Publishing a Podcast
You can upload a Podcast from within WaveLab Elements directly to
your FTP server.
PREREQUISITE
Set up your FTP settings within WaveLab Elements.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
In the Podcast workspace, select the Publish menu, and select
one of the following options:
•
Update all items on FTP
•
Update selected item on FTP
•
Upload/Replace all items on FTP
•
Upload/Replace selected items on FTP
Check if the FTP settings are correct, and click OK.
RESULT
The Podcast is uploaded to your FTP site.
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Podcasts
FTP Site Dialog
FTP Site Dialog
In the FTP site dialog, you can manage all required information for the
Podcast upload process.
In the Podcast workspace, select Publish > FTP site.
Host
The host name or IP address of the FTP server.
User name
The login name to your FTP server.
Password
The password to the login.
Use Passive Mode
Keep this activated and only change this if you experience
problems with the FTP connection.
Feed file name (with path)
The Podcast file name that is displayed on your FTP server
(extension .xml), including the relative path. File name and path are
part of the final public internet address of the Podcast, so you may
want to avoid long names.
Associated web site (URL)
Your own web site address including the path to the feed.
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Podcasts
Checking the Podcast
FTP Site Dialog Example
•
Your FTP host address is "ftp.MyPage.com", your public web site
address is "www.MyPage.com".
•
The feed file name setting is "podcasts/fantastic-cast.xml", the
associated web site setting is "www.MyPage.com/podcasts".
•
The media files of the Podcast will be uploaded to the FTP server
at "ftp.MyPage.com/podcasts".
•
The Podcast file itself and the internet address to be distributed
will be found at "www.MyPage.com/podcasts/fantastic-cast.xml".
Each Podcast saves its own complete FTP site information. It is also
possible to save and recall FTP site presets using the Preset functions
at the bottom of the dialog.
Checking the Podcast
After creating and publishing a Podcast, you can check if the upload
was successful.
•
To visualize the contents of the feed XML file in your default XML
editor, in the Podcast workspace, select Publish > View XML
source code.
•
To open your default internet browser and receive the Podcast that
you have just published from the internet, in the Podcast
workspace, select Publish > View published Podcast.
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Customizing
Customizing means making settings so that the program behaves and
looks the way that you want it to.
Customizing the Wave Window and the
Montage Window
You can style the wave/montage window to your liking, by adjusting
colors of waveforms, background, cursor lines, etc., and changing the
look of the ruler and other window details. This helps you find your way
through the audio file or audio montage.
Customizing can be done in the following ways:
•
By changing the default style.
•
By assigning different styles, according to specific conditions. For
example, a certain file type or a certain file name.
Default colors are provided, but you can also define custom colors. You
can copy and paste colors to transfer colors between various parts of
the wave/montage.
Assigning Custom Colors to the Wave Window or the Montage
Window
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
Depending on whether you want to customize the colors of the
wave window or the montage window, do the following:
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
Select the part from the Parts list.
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Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
3.
Specify a color using the color picker or the RGB fields.
4.
Click OK.
Assigning Custom Colors According to Conditions
You can have different color schemes automatically applied to different
clips, according to their names or properties of their audio files.
IMPORTANT
If you redefine colors, be careful not to choose colors that cause some
elements to disappear. For example, when having black marker lines on
a black background.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
Depending on whether you want to customize the colors of the
wave window or the montage window, do one of the following:
•
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
•
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Color.
Depending on the workspace you are in, do one of the following:
•
In the Audio file editing preferences dialog, on the Style tab,
select one of the Conditional options from the menu at the top of
the dialog.
•
In the Audio montage colors dialog, in the Parts list, select one
of the Custom entries.
3.
Specify a color using the color picker or the RGB fields.
4.
In the This style is used if these conditions apply section,
specify the conditions.
5.
Click OK.
Copying Color Settings
You can copy the color settings of one part, or all parts of a custom color
schema.
•
To copy a color setting, select the part from which you want to
copy the color, and select Copy color. Then select the part to
which you want to copy the color, and select Paste.
•
To copy all color settings of a custom color setting, drag the name of
a custom color setting onto another custom color name, and click OK.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Audio Montage Colors Dialog
In this dialog, you can specify custom colors to clips and parts of a clip
in the montage window.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
Parts list
Shows parts that can be colorized. Click a part to edit the color.
Undo all
Undoes all changes that have been made since this dialog was
opened.
Undo
Undoes the last change.
Hide
Hides the selected part.
Change both channels
It is possible to make separate color settings for the left and the
right side of stereo clips. If this option is activated, settings for the
left side of a clip are automatically mirrored on the right side, and
vice versa.
Color picker
Lets you select the color for the selected part. Click the
surrounding circle to select the hue. Click in the triangle to adjust
the saturation and lightness.
Red/Green/Blue
Lets you specify the red, green, and blue components of the RGB
color spectrum.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Copy color
Copies the current color to the clipboard.
Paste
Pastes the color from the clipboard.
This style is used if these conditions apply
Lets you define conditions under which a certain color style is
applied.
File extension is any of
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips
referencing a file with the specified extension. Separate extensions
with a “;” character.
Name contains any of these keywords
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips with certain
keywords in their name. Separate keywords with a “;” character.
Sample rate is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips
referencing a file having a sample rate within the specified range.
Bit resolution is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips
referencing a file having a bit resolution within the specified range.
Number of channels is
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to clips having
the specified number of channels.
Color Elements in the Audio Montage Workspace
You can assign custom colors to various elements of the Audio Montage
workspace.
In the Audio Montage workspace, select Options > Colors.
Clip Colors
The following clip types are available:
Crossfade region
Allows you to set the background color for overlapping clip sections.
Default
The default colors, used for clips for which you have not selected
any specific color.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Locked
The colors used for all fully locked clips.
Muted
The colors used for all muted clips.
Custom
These options correspond to the items on the color submenus.
These can be renamed, and you can also set up conditions for
when these should be automatically applied.
The following color elements are available:
Background top/bottom
The background colors of the clip. The resulting display
backgrounds are gradient fades from the top colors to the bottom
colors.
Waveform (normal/selected)
The waveform color for selected and unselected clips.
Waveform outline (normal/selected)
The color of the waveform outline for selected and unselected
clips.
Edge
The left and right edge of the clip.
Edge (selected)
The left and right edge if the clip is selected.
Axis (level zero)
The color of the horizontal dotted line in the middle of a clip,
indicating zero level.
Axis (half level)
The color of the horizontal dotted lines halfway up and down from
the middle of a clip, indicating 50 % level.
Channel separator (stereo clip)
The line dividing the two sides in a stereo clip.
Clip name
The name label of the clip.
Focused clip name
The name label of the focused clip.
Focused clip name background
The name label background of the focused clip.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Miscellaneous
Background top/bottom
The background colors of the track view for area without a clip.
Background (selected range) top/bottom
The background colors in selected ranges.
Cursor (edit)/Cursor (edit, no focus)/Cursor (playback)
The color of the corresponding cursor.
Marker line
The color of the marker lines in the audio montage.
Cue point line/End cue point line
The color of the vertical dotted cue point lines and end cue point
lines.
Time grid lines
The color of the time grid if activated in the menu of the time ruler.
Audio Files Colors Dialog
This tab in the Audio file editing preferences dialog allows you to
specify custom colors to parts of the wave window.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
Styles list
Lets you select the default style and conditional styles.
Parts list
Shows parts that can be colorized. Click a part to edit the color.
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Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Hide (for certain parts only)
Hides the selected part.
Dotted line (for certain parts only)
Changes the line to a dotted line.
Transparency (for certain parts only)
Lets you edit the degree of transparency of the selected element.
Element size (for certain parts only)
Lets you edit the size of the selected element.
Change both channels
Allows you to make separate color settings for the left and the right
side of stereo file. If this option is activated, settings for the left side
of a file are automatically mirrored on the right side, and vice versa.
Change both main view and overview
Allows you to make separate color settings for the main view and
the overview. If this option is activated, settings for the main view
are automatically mirrored on the overview, and vice versa.
Color picker
Lets you select the color for the selected part. Click the
surrounding circle to select the hue. Click in the triangle to adjust
the saturation and lightness.
Red/Green/Blue
Lets you specify the red, green, and blue components of the RGB
color spectrum.
Copy color
Copies the current color to the clipboard.
Paste
Pastes the color from the clipboard.
This style is used if these conditions apply
Lets you define conditions under which a certain color style is
applied.
File extension is any of
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files with the
specified extension. Separate extensions with a “;” character.
Name contains any of these keywords
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files with
certain keywords in their name. Separate keywords with a “;”
character.
309
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Sample rate in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having a
sample rate within the specified range.
Bit resolution is in the range
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having a
bit resolution within the specified range.
Number of channels is
If this option is activated, the color style is applied to files having
the specified number of channels.
Color Elements in the Audio Files Workspace
You can assign custom colors to various elements of the Audio Files
workspace. Depending on the selected element, additional settings can
be made for transparency, appearance, or whether a line should be
dotted, for example.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences, and select the Style tab.
Left/Right Channel
Waveform
The waveform color.
Waveform (selected)
The waveform color of the selected part of the waveform.
Waveform outline
The outline color of the waveform.
Waveform outline (selected)
The outline color of the selected part of the waveform.
Background top
The color of the background top.
Background top (selected)
The color of the selected part of the background top.
Background bottom
The color of the background bottom.
Background bottom (selected)
The color of the selected part of the background bottom.
310
Customizing
Customizing the Wave Window and the Montage Window
Waveform main axis
The color of the waveform main axis and its style.
Waveform 50 % axis
The color of the waveform 50 % axis and its style.
Waveform Elements
Channel separator
The color of the channel separator line.
Cursor (edit)
The color of the edit cursor, its width, and transparency.
Cursor (edit, no focus)
The color of the edit cursor for a file that does not have the focus.
Cursor (play)
The color of the cursor during playback.
Marker line
The color of the marker lines and an optional transparency.
End of file indicator
The color of the end of the file indicator.
Time ruler style
The color of the time ruler and its style.
Time ruler font
The color of the font on the time ruler and the font size.
Level ruler style
The color of the level ruler, its style, and transparency.
Level ruler font
The color of the font on the level ruler and the font size.
311
Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
About Customizing Shortcuts
In WaveLab Elements, you can control many functions via shortcuts to
speed up your workflow. You can edit existing shortcuts, and create new
shortcuts.
Most shortcuts are restricted to a specific context, so you can reuse the
same shortcut combination in different workspaces. The exception is the
Master Section where all shortcuts are global to the application.
Shortcuts that cannot be edited are grayed out. The shortcuts that you
created are displayed in blue in the editor.
You can create a new shortcut by specifying a key sequence of between
one to three keys that must be pressed in a certain order to invoke the
operation.
Editing Shortcuts
You can see the list of all shortcuts in the Customize commands
dialog, and edit and assign shortcuts in the Shortcut Definitions dialog.
NOTE
The Customize commands dialog provides a different command set
for each menu or dialog.
•
To open the Shortcut Definitions dialog, where you can edit the
shortcuts, double-click the shortcut text or its placeholder, or
select a command and click Edit shortcut.
•
You can define one key shortcut per command. Each shortcut can
be a sequence of up to four keystrokes.
•
To reset some or all types of shortcuts to their factory defaults use
the Reset button.
312
Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Defining Key Sequences
You can define key sequences for a keyboard.
PREREQUISITE
On Mac, commands for the main menus must be of a single key
command.
When using multiple key stroke commands, make sure that the key
commands do not interfere with each other. For example, when you have
one shortcut [Shift]+L, M and define another to be [Shift]+L, the second
shortcut has no effect.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or
select Customize commands when available in tool windows or
other places in WaveLab Elements.
2.
In the customize commands list, select the command for which you
want to define a key sequence, and click Edit shortcut, or
double-click the Key sequence column of the corresponding
command.
3.
In the Shortcut Definitions dialog, click in the 1st key stroke
field, and press the buttons that you want to use as the key
sequence.
4.
Optional: Define up to 4 key sequences for the command.
5.
Click OK.
RESULT
When you now press the keys/buttons specified in the dialog, the
corresponding operation is performed. The key strokes must be
executed one after the other.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Customizing Menus and Command Bars
You can individually decide whether to hide or show command bar
icons. This way you can customize command bars by removing
unwanted commands.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or
select Customize commands when available in tool windows or
other places in WaveLab Elements.
2.
To show a certain command in the command bar, activate the
checkbox in the Bar column for corresponding command.
3.
Click OK.
Generating a List of All Shortcuts
You can generate an HTML file or print out a list that contains all
shortcuts for the active command set.
PREREQUISITE
When you want to print out the list, make sure a printer is connected to
your system.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or
select Customize commands when available in tool windows or
other places in WaveLab Elements.
2.
Click Summary, and select one of the following options:
•
To open the Print preview dialog, from which you can print out the
list of all shortcuts, select Print preview. For Print preview to be
available, a printer must be connected.
•
To open the list of all shortcuts in the HTML file format in the
standard browser, select HTML report.
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Customizing
About Customizing Shortcuts
Customize Commands Dialog
This dialog allows you to customize your own shortcuts for WaveLab
Elements. It shows a list of already assigned shortcuts for WaveLab
Elements commands and menu options.
In any workspace, select Options > Customize commands, or select
Customize commands when available in tool windows or other places
in WaveLab Elements.
Search by
Allows you to select the part of the commands list in which the
search is performed.
Search field
Allows you to search for a command.
Use wildcards
If this option is activated, the wildcard characters “*” and “?” can
be used.
“*” substitutes zero or more characters, and “?” substitutes any
character.
For example, if Search by keyboard shortcut is selected, type “*”
to display all the commands already associated with a shortcut.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Commands list
Shows all commands and their shortcuts for the active command set.
Reset
Resets the commands to the factory setting.
Summary
Opens a menu from which you can generate a list of all commands
and their shortcuts either in HTML or as a print out.
Edit shortcut
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog where you can edit the
shortcuts of the selected command.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Shortcut Definitions Dialog
This dialog allows you to define your own customized shortcuts for a
particular function. These custom shortcuts can speed up your workflow
in WaveLab Elements.
In the Customize commands dialog, select a command, and click Edit
shortcut.
Key Sequence
1st key stroke
Lets you select the first key of an optional sequence of up to 4 keys.
Set the focus in the key stroke field, then press the key combination.
If nothing is displayed, a key is not allowed in this context.
2nd/3rd/4th key stroke (optional)
Lets you select additional keys that have to be triggered to execute
the command. The command is only executed if this key event
happens after the first one.
Clear
Erases all key event fields.
Plug-ins Organization
WaveLab Elements comes with various plug-ins, and additional plug-ins
can be added. To remain an overview about the plug-ins that are
relevant to your project, you can organize your plug-ins in groups.
In the Organize tab of the Plug-in settings, you can organize how your
plug-ins appear on menus in the program. In the plug-ins list, you find
subfolders, representing groups of plug-ins.
How you organize your effects is up to you, but initially, they are categorized
by vendor, category, favorite plug-ins, and recently used plug-ins.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
In case 32 bit and 64 bit versions of WaveLab Elements are used on the
same system, their settings are shared. An exception to this rule are the
following options in the Plug-in settings dialog:
•
Additional VST plug-in folders
•
Ignore plug-ins located in the following subfolders
This is because 32-bit plug-ins cannot be used in WaveLab Elements
64 bit and reciprocally.
Deactivating Plug-ins
You can deactivate plug-ins. This is useful if you have plug-ins installed
that you do not want to use in WaveLab Elements.
Many of the DirectX plug-ins, for example, do not apply to audio and are
of no relevance to WaveLab Elements. By disabling these, you make it
easier to find the plug-ins that you want to use in WaveLab Elements.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the Organize tab.
3.
In the plug-ins list, navigate to the plug-in that you want to
deactivate, or use the search field.
4.
Deactivating the checkbox in for the corresponding plug-in.
•
When selecting multiple plug-ins, you can deactivate all of them
with a single click.
•
To deactivate the plug-in from the plug-in selection menus,
deactivate the checkbox in the Effect column.
•
To deactivate the plug-in in the Dithering panel of the Master
Section, deactivate the checkbox in the Post column.
Adding Plug-ins to the Favorites Menu
You can add plug-ins that you are using regularly to the Favorites menu
of the plug-in selection menu.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the Organize tab.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
3.
In the plug-ins list, navigate to the plug-in that you want to add to
the favorites, or use the search field.
4.
Specify whether to add or remove a plug-in from the favorites, by
activating/deactivating the checkbox in for the corresponding
plug-in in the Favorites column.
NOTE
If the Favorites menu is empty, it does not appear in plug-in selection menus.
Customizing Plug-in Groups
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Plug-in settings, and open the Organize tab. Here, you can customize
the appearance and sorting of plug-ins.
•
To update the tree with the following changes, click the Show
changes button.
•
The category labels used to create the hierarchy are supplied by
the plug-in manufacturers. To change the category name, in the
Category renaming table, click in the Original column, and select
the category that you want to rename. Then click in the Modified
column, and enter a new name.
•
To change the sorting of plug-in groups, in the Customize section,
in the sorting menu, select whether to sort by category or by
vendor. If a plug-in does not publish a vendor name or category,
the name of the enclosing plug-in folder on disc is used as vendor
name or category, if it is not the VST plug-in root folder.
•
To group all plug-ins that start with the same prefix in one
submenu, activate Create submenus based on prefixes, and
specify the number of plug-ins that must start with the same prefix.
Only if this number is reached, a submenu is created.
•
To group plug-ins in a single submenu if their number is below a
specified value, activate Compress hierarchy, and specify the
threshold. A tree is flattened to a single submenu if the number is
below the threshold. This prevents having small submenus.
•
To activate the Recently used category, activate Submenu with
recently used plug-ins, and specify the maximum number of
recently used plug-ins that should be displayed in this category.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
•
You can make the Recently used category global to all places or
individual for each context, for example, for the Master Section,
audio montage track, audio montage clip, or batch processors. To
make the Recently used category individual for each context,
activate Independent for each context.
Adding Additional VST Plug-ins
You can specify folders where additional VST plug-ins can be found.
This is useful if you are using third-party VST plug-ins that you do not
want to store in the standard VST folder.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the General tab.
3.
In the Additional VST plug-in folder (WaveLab specific) section,
click the folder icon, and navigate to the folder that contains the
VST plug-ins that you want to add.
4.
Click OK.
Excluding Plug-ins
You can specify a list of plug-ins that WaveLab Elements does not
open.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options
> Plug-in settings.
2.
Select the General tab.
3.
In the Do not load the following plug-ins section, type in the
name of the plug-in that you do not want to open:
4.
•
Enter the exact file name, without path and without file extension.
•
Enter one name per line.
•
If you put * in front of the name, any plug-in that contains the name
is ignored.
Click OK.
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Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Replacing Missing Plug-ins
When opening an audio montage and some plug-ins for tracks or clips
are missing, you can select plug-ins to replace the missing plug-ins.
PROCEDURE
1.
In the Missing plug-ins dialog, click the Replacement column,
and select a replacement for the plug-in displayed in the Original
column.
2.
If you want the settings to be persistent for the future, activate
Save the replacements as default.
3.
Click OK.
Plug-in Settings Dialog
In this dialog, you can access a number of options for managing your
VST plug-ins.
You can specify where WaveLab Elements should search for your VST
plug-ins and which ones it should ignore. It also allows you to choose
how your VST plug-in knobs respond to mouse interactions and how
frequently graphics are updated.
If you use your own file structure to organize and store VST plug-ins, this
dialog allows you to have full control over which ones are loaded or not.
This is useful if you want to disable a particular plug-in that you suspect
of not functioning properly, or if you want to ignore certain plug-ins you
never want to use with WaveLab Elements.
In any workspace, except the Podcast workspace, select Options >
Plug-in settings.
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Plug-ins Organization
General Tab
Search standard VST plug-in shared folders
If this option is activated, WaveLab Elements searches VST
plug-ins in the default VST plug-in folders.
Information about the searched folders
Clicking on the info icon opens a window in which you can see in
which folders WaveLab Elements searched for plug-ins when it
was launched. When you cannot find a plug-in in WaveLab
Elements, this helps you to determine whether you have specified
the correct folder, for example.
Additional VST plug-in folders (WaveLab Elements specific)
Lets you specify additional folders where VST plug-ins can be
found.
Ignore plug-ins located in the following subfolders (separate folder
names with a semicolon)
Lets you specify folder names, that WaveLab Elements skips when
searching VST plug-ins.
Do not load the following plug-ins
Lets you specify plug-ins that WaveLab Elements does not open.
Enter the file names, without path and without file extension. Write
each plug-in on a new line.
If you put the character * in front of the name, any plug-in that
contains the name is ignored.
Force plug-in detection at next launch
Analyzes the plug-ins when launching WaveLab Elements the next
time. To reduce the start time of WaveLab Elements, the plug-ins
are not analyzed every time WaveLab Elements is started.
However, WaveLab Elements keeps a list of plug-ins and updates
this automatically when a date or size change is detected.
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Plug-ins Organization
Keep plug-ins in memory until WaveLab Elements ends
If this option is activated, the plug-ins are kept in memory even
when no longer used. This results in a faster reopening of plug-ins.
However, if you use many plug-ins, too much memory could be
used after a certain time, which slows down the application.
Faster graphics refreshing (consumes more computer power)
Refreshes the graphics of VST plug-ins more quickly.
VST plug-in knobs
Lets you set the mode for using knobs in plug-ins. You can set the
mode to Circular, Circular with relative movement, and Linear.
Organize Tab
Plug-ins list
Displays the hierarchy of the plug-ins in WaveLab Elements. Here,
you can specify whether a plug-in should be available from the plug-in
selection menus and/or the Dithering panel of the Master Section.
You can add plug-ins to the Favorites list, create shortcuts for
plug-ins, specify custom categories, and decide whether to use the
generic user interface or the plug-in specific user interface.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Search field
The search field allows you to filter the plug-ins list for names.
•
Click in the search field, and enter the text that you want to search for.
•
To switch the focus from the search field to the plug-ins list, press
the arrow down key.
•
To switch the focus from the plug-ins list to the search field, press
[Ctrl]/[Command]-[F].
Only show new plug-ins
If this option is activated, only the recently detected plug-ins are
displayed.
Clear “new” status
Resets the “new” status of the recently detected plug-ins.
Display changes
Regenerates the plug-in tree according to the current settings.
Sorting
Determines how the plug-ins should be primarily hierarchized. The
other parameters act on that hierarchy.
322
Customizing
Plug-ins Organization
Compress hierarchy
Merges all items into a single submenu if a submenu and all its
submenus contain less than a certain number of plug-ins (Threshold).
Compress hierarchy - Threshold
Represents the minimum number of items that are needed to
compress the hierarchy.
Create submenus based on prefixes
Creates a submenu that is labeled as the prefix, when several items
in a submenu start with the same prefix.
Create submenus based on prefixes - Threshold
Represents the minimum number of items that must start with the
same prefix that are needed to create submenus that are labeled
as the prefix.
Merge single submenus
Merges submenus that contain another submenu with only a single
item in it.
Category renaming
The category labels used to create the hierarchy are supplied by
the plug-in manufacturers. In this section you can change the
category name. This can also be useful to merge two categories
into one, by renaming these two categories with the same name.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins
Toggles if the Recently used submenu is shown or hidden.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins - Maximum size
Determines the maximum number of plug-ins in the Recently used
submenu.
Submenu with recently used plug-ins - Independent for each context
Determines whether the Recently used submenu is global to all
places where plug-ins can be selected, or if it is local to each context.
Ignored plug-ins
Opens the Ignored Plug-ins dialog, where you can see the
plug-ins that were not loaded. This dialog lets you instruct
WaveLab Elements to rescan these plug-ins at the next launch.
This is fast than a full rescan.
Number of plug-ins
Shows the number of plug-ins that are available in WaveLab
Elements.
323
Configuring the Software
You can configure WaveLab Elements according to your needs.
About Global Preferences
Global preferences are preferences that apply throughout WaveLab
Elements. Before starting to work with WaveLab Elements, edit these
preferences to set up WaveLab Elements according to your needs.
Global Preferences Dialog
This dialog allows you to view and change options that are common
throughout WaveLab Elements.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) > Global
preferences.
324
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
General Tab
This tab allows you to change the location of settings files and the user
interface language. You must restart the application for changes to take
effect.
Language
Allows you to select the user interface language.
Setting location - Common for all users
Shares the preferences settings with all users on this computer.
Setting location - Independent for each user
Lets each user on this computer make their own preferences
settings.
Setting location - In the application folder (portable installation)
Saves settings in the application directory. Use this option to install
the application on a portable device.
Setting location - Specific folder
Allows you to save the settings in a specified folder.
Setting location - Open active setting folder
Opens the folder that is currently used to save settings. This way
you know where the settings are stored and you can back up the
settings.
Synchronization settings - Master folder
Lets you specify where the reference settings are saved.
325
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Synchronization settings - Synchronize at every launch
If this option is activated, the settings are synchronized whenever
WaveLab Elements is launched.
Synchronization settings - Synchronize at next launch
If this option is activated, the settings are synchronized the next
time that WaveLab Elements is launched.
Synchronization settings - Preferences handling
Determines how to synchronize the preferences, that is, all settings
except the presets. You can either ignore or mirror the
preferences.
Synchronization settings - Preset handling
Determines how to synchronize the presets that are saved in the
master folder. The following options are available:
•
Ignore presets: the presets are not synchronized.
•
Mirror presets: the presets will be restored from the master folder,
regardless of their time stamp. Any additional local presets are
deleted.
•
Import new presets: the presets in the master folder that are
unavailable on the computer are imported.
•
Update old presets: as above, but existing presets are
overwritten if a newer version is found in the master folder.
Ignore the following preset folders (separate them with a
semicolon)
Lets you specify which preset folders you want to ignore when
synchronizing the settings. For example, to ignore the VST Audio
Connection settings, add "VST Audio Connections" to the field.
Synchronization settings - Update master
If you click this button, the settings that were used when launching
WaveLab Elements are used to update the master folder.
IMPORTANT
This procedure should only be run by the system administrator if multiple
WaveLab Elements stations are used.
326
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Display Tab
This tab allows you change many aspects of the user interface that apply
across the whole application. These options provide useful information
and usability functions but can be deactivated to streamline the
interface.
Style
Overall style
Changes the overall look of the application.
Button size in main command bars
Increases the button size in the command bars, but not in the tool
windows.
Window transparency
Sets the degree of transparency for windows that have this option
activated.
Use textured background for non-blocking windows
If this option is activated, you can easily determine whether a
dialog is modal or not.
Show icons in menus
If this option is activated, icons are displayed in textual menus.
Miscellaneous options
Maximum number of items in Recent File menus
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in menus.
327
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Maximum number of items in Recent File Manager
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in the Recent File
Manager.
Maximum number of items in the Recent Folders menu
Sets the maximum number of files that are listed in the Recent
Folder menus.
Show tips when mouse stays over buttons
If this option is activated, tooltips are displayed when you move the
mouse cursor over markers or command bar buttons.
When available, tips have a link to “What is this” information
If this option is activated, tooltips contain “What is this” information
if available.
Hide top level windows when the application is not active.
(Windows only)
If this option is activated, all floating windows are automatically
hidden when another application becomes active. When
deactivated, floating windows remain on top of other application
windows.
Workspaces
Tab Groups - Show tab if there is a single window
If this option is activated, the tabs are always visible, even if there
is only one active file.
Tab Groups - When closing the active tab
Determines the behavior of the program when closing the active
tab.
Docked Tool Windows - Auto-fold title bars of tabbed
windows/Auto-fold title bars of isolated windows
If these options are activated, the title bar of docked tool windows
is partially hidden to provide slightly more space to the contents
area. A thin bar remains visible.
To unfold a title bar, simply move the mouse cursor over the thin
bar.
Display active file path in title bar
Displays the file path of the active file in the title bar of the
workspace.
Display status bar
If this option is activated, a status bar is displayed at the bottom of
each workspace. The status bar is used to show hints, for example,
when moving the mouse in a menu.
328
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Formats tab
This tab allows you to adjust settings for some of the audio formats and
units that WaveLab Elements uses.
Use AES17 standard for RMS values
Determines how RMS values are reported.
•
If this option is activated, the displayed level for a full scale sine
audio file is 0 dB. This follows the AES17 standard.
•
If this option is deactivated, the displayed level for a full scale sine
audio file is -3 dB.
Pitch of A3 (used in frequency-to-note conversions)
Sets the reference pitch in WaveLab Elements. The
frequency-to-note conversions take this pitch into account.
MIDI note display
The options in this section allow you to choose whether to display
the different key values in WaveLab Elements with the pitch or the
MIDI note number of the key. In musical notation, keys are denoted
according to their pitch. For example, C3 means the note C in the
third octave.
Each key corresponds to a MIDI note number from 0 to 127. For
example, key C3 corresponds to the MIDI note number 48. MIDI
note numbers make it possible for samplers to automatically map
samples to the correct keys.
MIDI note display - Numeric style
Determines the format for MIDI notes that are displayed as
numbers.
MIDI note display - Middle C (note #60)
Determines the key convention for the MIDI note range (0-127).
MIDI note display - Display
Determines how MIDI notes are displayed throughout the
application.
329
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
CD Writing tab
This tab allows you to set a number of parameters for CD writing.
Use burnproof
Fixes possible buffer underrun errors automatically, provided the
CD writer supports this technology.
Allow disc overflow
Allows WaveLab Elements to attempt writing more data (max. 2
minutes) than the official capacity of the disc.
Maximum Audio CD size
Allows you to specify the maximum length for a CD. A warning
message will appear if the project exceeds this length.
The standard maximum length is 74 minutes.
Options Tab
This tab allows you to control application-wide start-up options. You
can also reset the default message boxes.
Show logo screen on start-up
Determines whether the WaveLab Elements logo is displayed
during initialization.
Reset default answers
Resets all message box options to their default settings. For
example, the “Do not show again” options are cleared.
330
Configuring the Software
About Global Preferences
Global Shortcuts Tab
This tab allows you edit key sequences for shortcuts that are available
across all workspaces.
Search by
Allows you to select the part of the commands list in which the
search is performed.
Search field
Allows you to search for a command.
Use wildcards
If this option is activated, you can use the wildcard characters “*”
and “?” for searching.
“*” substitutes zero or more characters, and “?” substitutes any
character.
For example, if Search by keyboard shortcut is selected, type “*”
to display all the commands that are already associated with a
shortcut.
Expand/Collapse
Expands/collapses the folder tree.
Commands list
Shows all commands and their shortcuts.
Reset
Resets the commands to their default setting.
Summary
Opens a menu from which you can generate a list of all commands
and their shortcuts either in HTML or as a print out.
331
Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Edit shortcut
Opens the Shortcut Definitions dialog where you can edit the
selected shortcut.
RELATED LINKS:
“About Customizing Shortcuts” on page 312
“Multi-User Settings” on page 335
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
This dialog allows you to define settings for editing in the Audio Files
workspace. However, these settings also effect other parts of WaveLab
Elements. You can choose defaults for editing and playback, adjust the
visual appearance of the waveform displays, and determine how
WaveLab Elements works with audio and peak files.
In the Audio Files workspace, select Options > Audio file editing
preferences.
Editing Tab
Save view settings in companion file
If this option is activated, zoom settings, ruler settings, and
optionally the Master Section preset that is associated with the
audio file are saved in a companion file. When the audio file is
reopened, these settings are reused. Deleting a companion file
does not alter the audio contents.
Save in an independent folder
If this option is activated, the companion file is not saved in the
same folder as the related audio file but in a specific folder that you
can choose.
Edit
Opens the Folders dialog, where you can specify where to save
the companion files.
Open new audio file windows with overview
If this option is activated and you open an audio file, the overview
is also displayed.
332
Configuring the Software
Audio File Editing Preferences Dialog
Overview: passive range indicator also covering the waveform
If this option is activated, the range indicator that is displayed in the
time ruler of the overview also covers the waveform area. Unlike the
time ruler indicator, it is passive and cannot be modified.
Auto zoom for overviews
If this option is activated on opening a file, the zoom of the overview
is set to display the whole file.
Display file extension on tabs
If this option is activated, tabs display file names with their
extension. For example, “piano.mp3” instead of “piano”.
Number of seconds to display on opening
Lets you specify how much time to display when opening an audio
file for the first time. WaveLab Elements converts this time to the
appropriate zoom factor.
Whole audio file
If this option is activated, the horizontal zoom is set to display the
whole file.
Select all channels with the mouse
If this option is activated when you select a range with the mouse
in a stereo file, both channels are selected. To select the channels
individually, press [Shift] while selecting. To switch from one
channel selection to the other, press [Tab].
Process whole file if there is no selection
If this option is activated and a process is to be applied to an audio
file, the whole file is processed if there is not audio selection. In the
same situation, if the option is deactivated, a warning appears.
Playback scrubbing - Restrict to Play Tool
If this option is activated, this function only works if the Play Tool is
used.
Playback scrubbing - Sensitivity
Lets you set the micro audio loop duration that is performed when
you move the mouse cursor over the time ruler.
Snap selection to zero-crossing - Do not snap at high zoom factors
If this option is activated, snapping does not occur if the waveform
is displayed at a high zoom factor.
Snap selection to zero-crossing - Scan range
Lets you define how far WaveLab Elements can search a
zero-crossing point in the left and right direction.
333
Configuring the Software
Settings Management
File Tab
Default sample rate for files without header
Lets you specify the sample rate of audio files that do not have a
header describing this property.
Style Tab
This tab allows you to specify custom colors to parts of the wave
window.
Settings Management
You can make some reference settings available to other WaveLab
Elements installations. These settings can then be used by other
WaveLab Elements stations to keep the settings in sync on different
computers.
PROCEDURE
1.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) >
Global preferences, and select the General tab.
2.
In the Setting location section, specify where to store the
settings.
3.
Click OK.
334
Configuring the Software
Multi-User Settings
Multi-User Settings
If you use multiple WaveLab Elements stations in your studio, in your
school, as administration, etc., you can set up one WaveLab Elements
station to be the master station. The shared preferences and presets of
this station can then be used by other slave stations.
These settings can be stored on the local network, for example.
If the administrator updates these settings, the different WaveLab
Elements stations can synchronize with the master settings. You can
also use this feature for single computers to back up a reference setting
and revert to this if necessary.
The settings in the General tab of the Global preferences dialog are
not synchronized. These are stored for each user in the startup.ini
(Windows) or startup.plist (Mac).
IMPORTANT
Settings cannot be synchronized between PC and Mac.
RELATED LINKS:
“Global Preferences Dialog” on page 324
Setting Up a Multi-User Setup
You can use the settings that you have made on a master WaveLab
Elements station for other slave WaveLab Elements stations.
PROCEDURE
1.
Set up a WaveLab Elements station with all settings and presets
that you want to use on other WaveLab Elements stations.
2.
Assign read-only access to the settings folder of the master
WaveLab Elements station.
3.
Open WaveLab Elements on another station for which you want to
use the master settings.
4.
In any workspace, select Options (WaveLab menu on Mac) >
Global preferences, and select the General tab.
5.
In the Synchronization settings section, set up the Master
folder, specify when the settings should be synchronized, and
specify whether to include the preferences and/or presets.
6.
Click OK, and close WaveLab Elements.
335
Configuring the Software
Multi-User Settings
7.
Copy the startup.ini (Windows) or startup.plist (Mac) of the slave
WaveLab Elements station to the settings folder of the other
WaveLab Elements stations, except the master WaveLab
Elements station.
This avoids having to make the above procedure on each slave station.
RESULT
All slave WaveLab Elements stations use the settings of the master
WaveLab Elements station.
336
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg created Virtual Studio Technology (VST) to allow effect
plug-ins to be integrated with audio editors, such as WaveLab
Elements. VST uses Digital Signal Processing (DSP) to closely
simulate the effects of familiar recording studio hardware in software.
A vast number of plug-ins are available, from freeware to high-end
commercial products.
The order of processing is significant. You can change the order in
which effects are processed by moving the effect icons by dragging
them between slots. WaveLab Elements provides slots for up to ten
plug-ins.
Most plug-ins provide a custom GUI, often displaying controls similar to
the physical switches and knobs of audio hardware. Other plug-ins rely
on the host application for their UI.
Built-in Plug-ins
These plug-ins use a plug-in format of WaveLab Elements, and cannot
be used with other applications.
•
WaveLab Elements specific plug-ins can only be used in the
Master Section. However, some WaveLab Elements effects are
also included as VST plug-ins, available as track or clip effects in
audio montages.
•
You can specify which plug-ins should be available in the Effects
pane and Dithering pane of the Master Section by using the
Plug-in settings dialog.
•
Only certain built-in plug-ins can be used as master effects when
a multichannel configuration is used in the audio montage. Note
that all channels in the Master Section are affected equally.
337
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Crystal Resampler
This plug-in is a professional sample rate converter providing
exceptional transparency and preservation of the frequency content. It is
only available in the Master Section.
NOTE
This plug-in is very CPU consuming, especially in high quality modes.
Sample rate (6-384 kHz)
Defines the output sample rate while the input sample rate is
determined by the sample rate of the active audio file or audio
montage.
Quality
Defines the quality of the algorithm that is used (Preview (fast) or
Standard).
Ducker
This plug-in lets you control (modulate) the volume of clips placed on a
track with the signal of one or more clips placed on the next adjacent
track below it. The Ducker plug-in can only be used as a clip effect in
the audio montage.
It uses the Route to... options that can be found on the Track menu. You
can use mono or stereo tracks for both the modulating and the upper
track.
338
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Threshold
Sets the loudness threshold that triggers the Ducker. Clips on the
modulator track with levels above the threshold will cause the level
of a clip on the upper track to be lowered.
Damping
Sets the amount of level reduction that is applied to the clip on the
upper track.
Fall time
Sets the time it takes for the level to change from 0 dB to the set
damping level.
Hold time
When the modulating signal falls below the set threshold, this
setting determines how long the level will stay reduced before it
starts rising to normal level again.
Rise time
Sets the time after which the reduced level rises to the normal level
when the modulating signal falls below the set threshold (after the
Hold time).
Mix mode
If this is activated, the Ducker outputs a mix of the two tracks. This
is only useful if the Route to upper track only option has been
activated for the modulating track. Then this feature can be used
for processing several clips through the same plug-in chain if more
plug-ins have been assigned after the Ducker on the upper track.
Note that the mixed output is controlled by the upper track. If this
is not playing a clip, both of the tracks will be silent.
339
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Leveler
This plug-in is useful for correcting an imbalance or adjusting levels
between stereo channels, or for mixing down to mono.
Volume Left/Volume Right (-48 dB to 12 dB)
Governs how much of the signal is included in the left and/or right
channel of the output bus.
Stereo Link (OFF or LINKED)
When set to LINKED, Volume Right delivers the gain that is set
for Volume Left.
Mix to Mono (OFF or ON)
When set to ON, a mono mix of the stereo channels is delivered to
the output bus.
Peak Master
This is a basic plug-in that minimizes peaks in your audio file, allowing a
louder mix without clipping. It is useful in taming dynamic instruments.
It is primarily used as a brickwall limiter. For example, you can limit audio
peaks without altering the rest of the audio signal. In this case, set Input
Gain to 0 dB and Out Ceiling to 0 dB, to achieve a clip-free audio signal.
When used in this way, Peak Master is an excellent plug-in to succeed
a resampler plug-in, and to proceed a dithering plug-in.
Input Gain
Values range from -12 dB to 24 dB.
340
Plug-in Reference
Built-in Plug-ins
Out Ceiling
This is the maximum level of the output signal. Values range from
-18 dB to 0 dB.
Softness
This governs the speed at which the signal becomes unaffected
after limiting has been triggered on some samples. Values range
from -5 to +5.
Silence
This plug-in provides a simple way of inserting a precise period of
silence at the start or at the end of an audio file. Use this plug-in to add
silence at the end of a file, so that the tail of a reverb plug-in does not
cut immediately at the end of the file.
Start
Use the slider to insert from 0 to 60,000 ms of silence at the start
of the file.
End
Use the slider to insert from 0 to 60,000 ms of silence at the end
of the file.
Stereo Expander
This plug-in is a stereo width enhancer that makes a stereo signal sound
wider. It gives better results from real stereo material, as opposed to
mono channels panned to different positions in the stereo image.
Width (0 to 100 %)
Higher values result in a greater stereo width. Usually, you set
Width to values between 0 % and 20 %. Higher values can be used
for special effects.
341
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
In WaveLab Elements there is no limitation to the use of VST plug-ins.
They can be used wherever plug-ins can be inserted.
•
You can specify which VST plug-ins should be available in the
Effects pane and Dithering pane of the Master Section by using
the Plug-in settings dialog.
•
VST plug-ins have their own preset handling. You can save or load
effect programs (presets).
AutoPan
This plug-in is a simple auto-pan effect. It can use different waveforms
to modulate the left-right stereo position (pan), using manual modulation
speed settings.
Rate
Sets the auto-pan speed from 0.1 to 10, by rotating the knob by
dragging, or using the mouse wheel.
Width
Sets the depth of the auto-pan effect, that is, how far out to the
left/right speaker the sound should move, from 0 % to 100 %.
Waveform Shape selector
Allows you to select the modulation waveform. Sine produces a
smooth sweep. Triangle creates a ramp, that is, a sweep from one
speaker to the other and then a quick jump back.
342
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Brickwall Limiter
This plug-in ensures that the output level never exceeds a set limit.
Due to its fast attack time, Brickwall Limiter can reduce even short audio
level peaks without creating audible artifacts. Brickwall Limiter features
separate meters for input, output, and the amount of limiting. Position
this plug-in at the end of the signal chain, before dithering.
Threshold (-20 to 0 dB)
Only signal levels above the set threshold are processed.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to its original level when
the signal drops bellow the threshold level. If the Auto button is
activated, Brickwall Limiter automatically finds the optimal release
setting, depending on the audio material.
Link button
If this option is activated, Brickwall Limiter uses the channel with
the highest level to analyze the input signal. If the Link button is
deactivated, each channel is analyzed separately.
Detect Intersample Clipping
If this option is activated, Brickwall Limiter detects and limits signal
level between two samples to prevent distortion when converting
digital signals to analog signals.
NOTE
Brickwall Limiter is designed for the reduction of occasional peaks in the
signal. If the Gain Reduction meter indicates constant limiting, try raising
the threshold or lowering the overall level of the input signal.
343
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Chorus
This plug-in is a single stage chorus effect. It works by doubling
whatever is sent into it with a slightly detuned version.
Rate
The sweep rate can be set with the Rate knob, without sync to
tempo.
Width
Determines the depth of the chorus effect. Higher settings
produce a more pronounced effect.
Spatial
Sets the stereo width of the effect. Turn clockwise for a wider
stereo effect.
Mix
Sets the level balance between the dry signal and the wet signal.
If Chorus is used as a send effect, this should be set to the
maximum value as you can control the dry/effect balance with the
send.
Waveform Shape selector
Allows you to select the modulation waveform, altering the
character of the chorus sweep. A sine and triangle waveform are
available.
Delay
Affects the frequency range of the modulation sweep by adjusting
the initial delay time.
Filter Lo/Hi
Allow you to roll off low and high frequencies of the effect signal.
344
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Compressor
This plug-in reduces the dynamic range of the audio, making softer
sounds louder or louder sounds softer, or both.
Compressor features separate controls for threshold, ratio, attack, hold,
release, and make-up gain parameters. It also features a separate
display that graphically illustrates the compressor curve shaped
according to the Threshold and Ratio parameter settings. A Gain
Reduction meter shows the amount of gain reduction in dB, Soft
knee/Hard knee compression modes, and a program-dependent auto
feature for the Release parameter.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where Compressor kicks in. Signal levels
above the set threshold are affected, but signal levels below are
not processed.
Ratio (1:1 to 8:1)
Sets the amount of gain reduction applied to signals over the set
threshold. A ratio of 3:1 means that for every 3 dB the input level
increases, the output level increases by only 1 dB.
Soft Knee button
If this button is off, signals above the threshold are compressed
instantly according to the set ratio (hard knee). When Soft Knee
is activated, the onset of compression is more gradual, producing
a less drastic result.
Make-up (0 to 24 dB or Auto mode)
Compensates for output gain loss, caused by compression. If the
Auto button is activated, the knob becomes dark and the output is
automatically adjusted for gain loss.
Attack (0.1 to 100 ms)
Determines how fast Compressor responds to signals above the
set threshold. If the attack time is long, more of the early part of the
signal (attack) passes through unprocessed.
345
Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Hold (0 to 5000 ms)
Sets the time the applied compression affects the signal after
exceeding the threshold. Short hold times are useful for DJ-style
ducking, while longer hold times are required for music ducking, for
example, when working on a documentary film.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to the original level when
the signal drops below the threshold. If the Auto button is
activated, Compressor automatically finds an optimal release
setting that varies depending on the audio material.
Analysis (0 to 100) (Pure Peak to Pure RMS)
Determines whether the input signal is analyzed according to peak
or RMS values or a mixture of both. A value of 0 is pure peak and
100 pure RMS. RMS mode operates using the average power of
the audio signal as a basis, whereas Peak mode operates more on
peak levels. As a general guideline, RMS mode works better on
material with few transients such as vocals, and Peak mode works
better for percussive material with a lot of transient peaks.
Live button
When this button is activated, the look-ahead feature of
Compressor is disengaged. Look ahead produces more accurate
processing, but adds a certain amount of latency as a trade-off.
When Live mode is activated, there is no latency, which might be
better for live processing.
Distortion
This plug-in adds crunch to your tracks.
Boost
Increases the distortion amount.
Feedback
Feeds part of the output signal back to the effect input, increasing
the distortion effect.
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Plug-in Reference
Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Tone
Lets you select a frequency range to which to apply the distortion
effect.
Spatial
Changes the distortion characteristics of the left and right channel,
thus creating a stereo effect.
Output
Raises or lowers the signal going out of the effect.
Steinberg Gate
Gating, or noise gating, silences audio signals below a set threshold. As
soon as the signal level exceeds the set threshold, the gate opens to let
the signal through.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where Gate is activated. Signal levels above
the set threshold trigger the gate to open, and signal levels below
the set threshold close the gate.
State LED
Indicates whether the gate is open (LED lights up in green), closed
(LED lights up in red) or something in between (LED lights up in
yellow).
Filter buttons (LP, BP, and HP)
When the Side-Chain button is activated, you can use these
buttons to set the filter type to either low-pass, band-pass, or
high-pass.
Side-Chain button
(Below the Center knob.) Activates the side-chain filter. The input
signal can then be shaped according to set filter parameters.
Internal side-chaining can be useful for tailoring how the Gate
operates.
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Center (50 to 20000 Hz)
When the Side-Chain button is activated, this sets the center
frequency of the filter.
Q-Factor (0.01 to 10000)
When the Side-Chain button is activated, this sets the resonance
of the filter.
Monitor button
Allows you to monitor the filtered signal.
Attack (0.1 to 1000 ms)
Sets the time after which the gate opens after being triggered.
Deactivate the Live button to make sure that the gate is already
open when a signal above the threshold is played back. Gate
manages this by looking ahead in the audio material, checking for
signals loud enough to pass the gate.
Hold (0 to 2000 ms)
Determines how long the gate stays open after the signal drops
below the threshold.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gate closes (after the set hold time).
If the Auto button is activated, Gate will find an optimal release
setting, depending on the audio material.
Analysis (0 to 100) (Pure Peak to Pure RMS)
Determines whether the input signal is analyzed according to peak
or RMS values, or a mixture of both. A value of 0 is pure Peak and
100 pure RMS. RMS mode operates using the average power of
the audio signal as a basis, whereas Peak mode operates more on
peak levels. As a general guideline, RMS mode works better on
material with few transients such as vocals, and Peak mode better
for percussive material, with a lot of transient peaks.
Live button
When this button is activated, the look-ahead feature of Gate is
disengaged. Look ahead produces more accurate processing, but
adds a certain amount of latency as a trade-off. When Live mode
is activated, there is no latency, which is better for live processing.
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Steinberg VST 3 Plug-ins
Limiter
This plug-in is designed to ensure that the output level never exceeds a
set output level, to avoid clipping in following devices.
Limiter can adjust and optimize the Release parameter automatically
according to the audio material, or it can be set manually. Limiter also
features separate meters for the input, output and the amount of limiting
(middle meters).
Input (-24 to 24 dB)
Adjusts the input gain.
Output (-24 to 6 dB)
Determines the maximum output level.
Release (0.1 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the amount of time it takes for the gain to return to its original
level. If the Auto button is activated, Limiter automatically finds an
optimal release setting that varies depending on the audio material.
Mono Delay
This is a mono delay effect using freely specified delay time settings.
Delay
Sets the base note value for the delay from 0.1 to 5000 ms.
Feedback
Sets the number of repeats for the delay.
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Filter Lo
Affects the feedback loop of the effect signal and allows you to roll
off low frequencies from 10Hz up to 800 Hz. The button below the
knob activates/deactivates the filter.
Filter Hi
Affects the feedback loop of the effect signal and allows you to roll
off high frequencies from 20 kHz down to 1.2 kHz. The button
below the knob activates/deactivates the filter.
Mix
Sets the level balance between the dry signal and the wet signal.
If MonoDelay is used as a send effect, set this to the maximum
value as you can control the dry/effect balance with the send.
RoomWorks SE
RoomWorks SE is a lite version of the RoomWorks plug-in. This plug-in
delivers high quality reverberation, but has fewer parameters and is less
CPU demanding than the full version.
Pre-Delay
Controls how much time passes before the reverb is applied. This
allows you to simulate larger spaces by increasing the time it takes
for first reflections to reach the listener.
Reverb Time
Allows you to set the reverb time in seconds.
Diffusion
Affects the character of the reverb tail. Higher values lead to more
diffusion and a smoother sound, while lower values lead to a
clearer sound.
Hi Level
Affects the decay time of high frequencies. Normal room reverb
decays quicker in the high- and low-frequency range than in the
mid-range. Lowering the level percentage causes high frequencies
to decay quicker. Values above 100 % cause high frequencies to
decay more slowly than the mid-range frequencies.
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Lo Level
Affects the decay time of low frequencies. Normal room reverb
decays quicker in the high- and low-frequency range than in the
mid-range. Lowering the level percentage causes low frequencies
to decay quicker. Values above 100 % cause low frequencies to
decay more slowly than the mid-range frequencies.
Mix
Determines the blend of dry (unprocessed) signal to wet (processed)
signal. When using RoomWorks SE inserted in an FX channel, you
most likely want to set this to 100 % or use the wet only button.
StereoDelay
StereoDelay has two independent delay lines with freely specified delay
time settings.
Delay 1 & 2
This is where you specify the base note value for the delay time in
milliseconds.
Feedback 1 & 2
Set the number of repeats for each delay.
Filter Lo 1 & 2
Affect the feedback loop of the effect signal and allow you to roll
off low frequencies up to 800 Hz. The buttons below the knobs
activate/deactivate the filter.
Filter Hi 1 & 2
Affect the feedback loop and allow you to roll off high frequencies
from 20 kHz down to 1.2 kHz. The buttons below the knobs
activate/deactivate the filter.
Pan 1 & 2
Set the stereo position for each delay.
Mix 1 & 2
Set the level balance between the dry signal and the wet signal. If
StereoDelay is used as a send effect, set these controls to the maximum
value (100%) as you can control the dry/effect balance with the send.
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StereoEnhancer
This plug-in expands the stereo width of (stereo) audio material. It
cannot be used with mono files.
Width
Controls the width or depth of the stereo enhancement. Turn
clockwise to increase the enhancement.
Delay
Increases the amount of differences between left and right
channels to further increase the stereo effect.
Color
Generates additional differences between the channels to
increase the stereo enhancement.
Mono button
Switches the output to mono, to check for possible unwanted
coloring of the sound which sometimes can occur when enhancing
the stereo image.
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StudioEQ
Studio EQ is a high-quality 4-band parametric stereo equalizer with two
fully parametric mid-range bands. The low and high bands can act as
either shelving filters (three types), or as a Peak (band-pass), or Cut
(low-pass/high-pass) filter.
Band 1 Gain (-20 to +24 dB)
Sets the amount of attenuation/boost for the low band.
Band 1 Inv button
Inverts the gain value of the filter. Use this button to filter out
unwanted noise. While looking for the frequency to omit, it
sometimes helps to boost it in the first place (set the filter to
positive gain). After you have found it, you can use the Inv button
to cancel it out.
Band 1 Freq (20 to 2000 Hz)
Sets the frequency of the low band.
Band 1 Q-Factor (0.5 to 10)
Controls the width or resonance of the low band.
Band 1 Filter mode
For the low band, you can select between three types of shelving
filters, a Peak (band-pass), and a Cut (lowpass/high-pass) filter.
When Cut mode is selected, the Gain parameter is fixed.
•
Shelf I adds resonance in the opposite gain direction slightly above
the set frequency.
•
Shelf II adds resonance in the gain direction at the set frequency.
•
Shelf III is a combination of Shelf I and II.
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Band 2 Gain (-20 to +24 dB)
Sets the amount of attenuation/boost for the mid 1 band.
Band 2 Inv button
Inverts the gain value of the filter. See also the description of the
Invert button for Band 1.
Band 2 Freq (20 to 20000 Hz)
Sets the center frequency of the mid 1 band.
Band 2 Q-Factor (0.5 to 10)
Sets the width of the mid 1 band: the higher this value, the
narrower the bandwidth.
Band 3 Gain (-20 to +24 dB)
Sets the amount of attenuation/boost for the mid 2 band.
Band 3 Inv button
Inverts the gain value of the filter. See also the description of the
Invert button for Band 1.
Band 3 Freq (20 to 20000 Hz)
Sets the center frequency of the mid 2 band.
Band 3 Q-Factor (0.5 to 10)
Sets the width of the mid 2 band: the higher this value, the
narrower the bandwidth.
Band 4 Inv button
Inverts the gain value of the filter. See also the description of the
Invert button for Band 1.
Band 4 Gain (-20 to +24 dB)
Sets the amount of attenuation/boost for the high band.
Band 4 Freq (200 to 20000 Hz)
Sets the frequency of the high band.
Band 4 Q-Factor (0.5 to 10)
Controls the width or resonance of the high band.
Band 4 Filter mode
For the high band, you can select between three types of shelving
filters, a Peak, and a Cut filter. When Cut mode is selected, the
Gain parameter is fixed.
•
Shelf I adds resonance in the opposite gain direction slightly below
the set frequency.
•
Shelf II adds resonance in the gain direction at the set frequency.
•
Shelf III is a combination of Shelf I and II.
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Output (-24 to +24 dB)
This knob on the top right of the plug-in panel allows you to adjust
the overall output level.
Auto Gain button
When this button is activated, the gain is automatically adjusted,
keeping the output level constant regardless of the EQ settings.
Spectrum button
Shows the spectrum before and after filtering.
Reset button
Resets the EQ settings.
Using Modifier Keys
When using the mouse to change the parameter settings, modifier keys
can be used. When no modifier key is pressed and you drag an EQ point
in the display, the Gain and Frequency parameters are adjusted
simultaneously.
[Shift]
When you keep the [Shift] key pressed and drag the mouse the
Q-factor of the corresponding EQ band is changed.
[Alt]/[Option]
When you keep the [Alt]/[Option] key pressed and drag the mouse
the frequency of the corresponding EQ band is changed.
[Ctrl]/[Command]
When you keep the [Ctrl]/[Command] key pressed and drag the
mouse the gain value of the corresponding EQ band is changed.
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Tube Compressor
This versatile compressor with integrated tube-simulation allows you to
achieve smooth and warm compression effects. The VU meter shows
the amount of gain reduction. Tube Compressor features an internal
side-chain section that lets you filter the trigger signal.
Drive (1.0 to 6.0)
Controls the amount of tube saturation.
Input (-24.0 to 48.0)
Determines the compression amount. The higher the input gain
setting, the more compression is applied.
Limit button
Increases the ratio of the compressor for a limiting effect.
Output (-12.0 to 12.0)
Sets the output gain.
Attack (0.1 to 100.0)
Determines how fast the compressor responds. If the attack time
is long, more of the initial part of the signal (attack) passes through
unprocessed.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to the original level. If the
Auto button is activated, Tube Compressor automatically finds an
optimal release setting that varies depending on the audio material.
Mix (0 to 100)
Adjusts the mix between dry and wet signal preserving the
transients of the input signal.
In/Out Meters
Show the highest peaks of all available input and output channels.
VU Meter
Shows the amount of gain reduction.
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Side-chain button (if supported)
Activates/deactivates the internal side-chain filter. The input signal
can then be shaped according to set filter parameters. Internal
side-chaining is useful for tailoring how the compressor operates.
Filter section (LP, BP, and HP)
When the Side-Chain button is activated, you can use these
buttons to set the filter type to low-pass, band-pass, or high-pass.
Side-Chain section: Center
Sets the center frequency of the filter.
Side-Chain section: Q-Factor
Sets the resonance or width of the filter.
Side-Chain section: Monitor
Allows you to monitor the filtered signal.
VSTDynamics
VSTDynamics is an advanced dynamics processor. It combines three
separate processors: Gate, Compressor, and Limiter, covering a variety
of dynamic processing functions.
The window is divided into three sections, containing controls and
meters for each processor. Activate the individual processors using the
buttons at the bottom of the plug-in panel.
Gate Section
Gating, or noise gating, is a method of dynamic processing that silences
audio signals below a set threshold. As soon as the signal level exceeds
the set threshold, the gate opens to let the signal through. The Gate
trigger input can also be filtered using an internal side-chain.
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The following parameters are available:
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where Gate is activated. Signal levels above
the set threshold trigger the gate to open, and signal levels below
the set threshold close the gate.
State LED
Indicates whether the gate is open (LED lights up in green), closed
(LED lights up in red) or something in between (LED lights up in
yellow).
Side-Chain button
Activates the internal side-chain filter. You can use this to filter out
parts of the signal that might otherwise trigger the gate in places
you not want it to, or to boost frequencies you want to accentuate,
allowing for more control over the gate function.
LP (low-pass), BP (band-pass), HP (high-pass)
These buttons set the basic filter mode.
Center (50 to 22000 Hz)
Sets the center frequency of the filter.
Q-Factor (0.001 to 10000)
Sets the resonance or width of the filter.
Monitor (On/Off)
Allows you to monitor the filtered signal.
Attack (0.1 to 100 ms)
Sets the time after which the gate opens after being triggered.
Hold (0 to 2000 ms)
Determines how long the gate stays open after the signal drops
below the threshold level.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gate closes (after the set hold time).
If the Auto button is activated, Gate will find an optimal release
setting, depending on the audio material.
Input Gain Meter
Shows the input gain.
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Compressor Section
The compressor reduces the dynamic range of the audio, making softer
sounds louder or louder sounds softer, or both. It works like a standard
compressor with separate controls for threshold, ratio, attack, release,
and make-up gain. The compressor features a separate display that
graphically illustrates the compressor curve shaped according to the
Threshold, Ratio, and Make-Up Gain parameter settings. It also
features meters for input gain and gain reduction and a
program-dependent Auto feature for the Release parameter.
Threshold (-60 to 0 dB)
Determines the level where the compressor kicks in. Signal levels
above the set threshold are affected, but signal levels below are
not processed.
Ratio (1:1 to 8:1)
Determines the amount of gain reduction applied to signals above
the set threshold. A ratio of 3:1 means that for every 3 dB the input
level increases, the output level increases by only 1dB.
Make-Up (0 to 24 dB)
Compensate for output gain loss, caused by compression. When
the Auto button is activated, gain loss is being compensated
automatically.
Attack (0.1 to 100 ms)
Determines how fast the compressor responds to signals above
the set threshold. If the attack time is long, more of the early part of
the signal (attack) passes through unprocessed.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the amount of time after which the gain returns to the original
level when the signal drops below the threshold. If the Auto button
is activated, the compressor automatically finds an optimal release
setting that varies depending on the audio material.
Graphical display
Use the graphical display to graphically set the Threshold and
Ratio values. To the left and right of the graphical display you find
two meters that show the amount of gain reduction in dB.
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Limiter Section
The limiter ensures that the output level never exceeds a set threshold,
to avoid clipping in following devices. Conventional limiters usually
require very accurate setting up of the attack and release parameters to
prevent the output level from going beyond the set threshold level. The
limiter adjusts and optimizes these parameters automatically according
to the audio material. You can also adjust the Release parameter
manually.
Output (-24 to 6 dB)
Determines the maximum output level. Signal levels above the set
threshold are affected, but signal levels below are left unaffected.
Soft Clip button
If this button is activated, the limiter acts differently. When the
signal level exceeds -6dB, Soft Clip starts limiting (or clipping) the
signal softly, at the same time generating harmonics which add a
warm, tube-like characteristic to the audio material.
Release (10 to 1000 ms or Auto mode)
Sets the time after which the gain returns to the original level when
the signal drops below the threshold. If the Auto button is
activated, the limiter automatically finds an optimal release setting
that varies depending on the audio material.
Meters
The three meters show the input gain (IN), the gain reduction (GR)
and the output gain (OUT).
Module Configuration Button
Using the Module Configuration button in the bottom right corner of the
plug-in panel, you can set the signal flow order for the three processors.
Changing the order of the processors can produce different results, and
the available options allow you to quickly compare what works best for
a given situation. Simply click the Module Configuration button to
change to a different configuration. There are three routing options:
•
C-G-L (Compressor-Gate-Limit)
•
G-C-L (Gate-Compressor-Limit)
•
C-L-G (Compressor-Limit-Gate)
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Sonnox Restoration Toolkit
Sonnox Restoration Toolkit
The Sonnox Restoration Toolkit consists of the De-Clicker, De-Noiser,
and De-Buzzer tools. The tools are for restoring old material, removing
clicks, pops, buzzes, and background noise that can occur in new
recordings.
Sonnox DeBuzzer
Sonnox DeBuzzer allows you to remove hum and buzz noises from audio
material.
Sonnox Menu Options button
Opens a menu where you can select the following options:
•
Duration of the input/output meter clip lights hold (indefinitely, 2 s,
5 s)
•
Knob behavior
•
Information about the version number and build date
Input Level meter
This meter is designed to give exactly 1 dB per LED for the top
18 dB of dynamic range, and 2 dB per LED thereafter. This gives a
clear and intuitive impression of the working headroom.
Trim Input Level
Allows you to adjust the input signal level by up to ±12 dB.
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Frequency Knob and touch pad (Hz)
The DeBuzzer has an active frequency range for the buzz
fundamental of between 20 and 440 Hz. In Auto mode, this knob
sets the frequency from which the buzz detection circuit starts to
hunt for buzz components. In Freeze mode, this knob sets the
exact frequency of the buzz fundamental. The knob is graduated
around the circumference, and clicking on any labeled graduation
sets the frequency to that graduation.
Fine Adjust button
Enables fine tuning of the buzz frequency control. The graduations
around the circumference of the frequency knob re-draw to a finer
scale, and scrolling the touch pad enables very quick fine tuning of
a hunt frequency. Scrolling past an end-stop continues to scroll
the frequency and the marked graduations re-draw appropriately.
Fine Adjust mode forces Freeze, so that the selected frequency
can be specified exactly, without the Auto circuitry hunting for a
stronger fundamental. If entering Fine Adjust mode from Auto, the
Freeze button flashes and the plug-in reverts to Auto when Fine
Adjust mode is exited.
Tone On button
Enables an audible tone generator, which can be used to aid
location of the buzz fundamental. While the Tone button is on, a
touch pad appears above the button and becomes a Tone level
control. It defaults to -18 dB, and has a range of -6 dB to -96 dB.
Sensitivity knob and touch pad (%)
Controls the sensitivity of the buzz detection circuit. Fully sensitive
might allow the detection circuit to lock to inaudible and possibly
undesirable frequencies. Stronger buzzes, which typically would
be removed first, require a less sensitive setting.
Hum/Buzz Mode button
Control switches between Hum mode and Buzz mode. In Hum
mode the bandwidth limit for harmonic removal is 0 to 800 Hz. In
Buzz mode the bandwidth limit for harmonic removal is 0 to
4000 Hz. Hum mode is less damaging, and should be used when
possible.
Enable button
Enables the buzz removal processing. It allows glitch-less
comparisons with and without the buzz removal. When Enable is
deactivated, the buzz detection circuit is still enabled and the
Detect display still shows the degree of buzz detection.
Reduction display
Indicates the level of audio that is being removed from the signal.
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Attenuation knob and touch pad (dB)
Determine the level of attenuation that the buzz removal circuit
apply, up to a maximum of 96 dB. Generally this should be set so
that the buzz is just inaudible. Excessive use of attenuation can
degrade the signal unnecessarily.
Auto button
Enables Auto mode for the buzz detection circuit. In this mode the
buzz detection is continually calculated and a slow drift in the buzz
fundamental frequency automatically follows. This mode is useful
for material with a time-varying buzz component. In this mode the
removal filters follow the detected frequency.
Freeze button
Enables Freeze mode for the buzz detection circuit. In this mode
the buzz fundamental is fixed to the frequency shown in the touch
pad window. This mode is useful for material with fluctuating buzz
level, but with a constant buzz frequency. In this instance, Auto
mode would suffer when the buzz level drops and would typically
re-hunt for a different buzz fundamental. In this mode the removal
filters follow the nominal frequency.
Detect display
Indicates the degree of detection that the buzz detection circuit
has achieved.
Output Level meter (dB)
This meter is designed to give exactly 1 dB per LED for the top
18 dB of dynamic range, and 2 dB per LED thereafter. There is a
peak-hold feature that holds the highest peak, helping to give a
better impression of the working dynamic range.
Trim Output Level
Allows you to reduce the output level by up to 12 dB. Dithering is
applied after output gain control, so it may be necessary to reduce
this value by a small amount to avoid clipping.
Using the Sonnox DeBuzzer
•
Find the nominal frequency. Start with Sensitivity and Attenuation
controls at the default positions (90 % and -48 dB).
•
If you know the rough frequency of the nominal, select that
frequency using either the knob or by typing into the touch pad.
•
In Auto mode, allow the detector time to drift towards the actual
fundamental. The Detect display indicates confidence of hum
detection. Auto mode should be used if the fundamental drifts over
time.
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•
Freeze mode should be used to select a specific frequency that
might be variable in strength. Fine Adjust (which forces Freeze
mode) can be used to increase the resolution of selecting the
fundamental.
•
If you are still having difficulty finding the fundamental, use the
Tone control.
•
The Hum mode removes harmonics up to 800 Hz. If you can hear
harmonics that are higher in frequency, select Buzz mode, which
removes harmonics up to 4000 Hz. If there are no harmonics above
800 Hz, be sure to use Hum mode to preserve as much original
audio as possible.
•
In order to cause as little damage to the audio as possible, back off
the attenuation until you can just hear the buzz, then increase it
until the buzz is inaudible.
•
Then reduce the sensitivity until the buzz is inaudible.
Sonnox DeClicker
Sonnox DeClicker allows you to remove clicks from audio material.
Sonnox Menu Options Button
Opens a menu where you can select the following options:
•
Duration of the input/output meter clip lights hold (indefinitely, 2s,
5s)
•
Information about the version number and build date
Input Level Meter
Gives exactly 1 dB per LED for the top 18 dB of dynamic range,
and 2 dB per LED thereafter. This gives a clear and intuitive
impression of the working headroom.
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Trim Input Level
Allows you to adjust the input signal level by up to ±12 dB.
Sensitivity Fader and Touch Pad (%) (DePop, DeClick, DeCrackle)
Controls the sensitivity of the detection circuits. Fully sensitive
might allow the detection circuit to react to low level signals and
possibly mis-classify programme as pops or clicks. Stronger pops
and clicks require a less sensitive setting.
In Button (DePop, DeClick, DeCrackle)
Enables the pop, click or crackle removal processing. When In is
deactivated, the pop, click, or crackle detection circuit is still
enabled and the detect display still shows the degree of event
detection.
Detect Meter Display (DePop, DeClick, DeCrackle)
Combines two indications. The main rising column indicates the
sum of the energy of events that have been detected. With the In
button de-selected (i.e. the repair circuit disabled), this column is
colored orange/red. With the repair circuit active the column is
colored blue. The bottom segment of the meter is an indication of
each individual detected event.
Output Level Meter (dB)
Gives exactly 1 dB per LED for the top 18 dB of dynamic range,
and 2 dB per LED thereafter. There is a peak-hold feature that
holds the highest peak, helping to give a better impression of the
working dynamic range.
Trim Output Level
Allows you to reduce the output level by up to 12 dB. Dithering is
applied after output gain control, so it can be necessary to reduce
this value by a small amount to avoid clipping.
Using the Sonnox DeClicker
•
We recommend repair the larger and more energetic events first.
•
If there are large displacement events in the programme material,
enable the DePop section and raise the sensitivity fader until the
largest events are detected and repaired.
•
For clicks, enable that section and raise the sensitivity fader until
they are detected and repaired.
•
Finally, if there is crackle left, enable that section and raise its fader
to remove the crackle.
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•
There is necessarily some degree of overlap in the detection
circuits of clicks and crackle. Decreasing the DeClick sensitivity
can increase the apparent detection of crackle and increasing the
DeClick sensitivity can indicate less crackle. Best results are likely
if the two controls are balanced.
Sonnox DeNoiser
Sonnox DeNoiser removes wide-band noise from audio material.
Sonnox Menu Options button
Opens a menu where you can select the following options:
•
Duration of the input/output meter clip lights hold (indefinitely, 2 s,
5 s)
•
Knob behavior
•
Information about the version number and build date
Graphical display
Shows the real-time frequency/gain curve of the program material.
It is graduated from 0 to 20 kHz and from 0 to -144 dB. The yellow
line is the calculated noise spectrum level, and in Adapt mode
continually follows the noise in real time. Everything below this
contour is assumed to be noise, and everything above the line is
program signal.
Input Level meter
This meter is designed to give exactly 1 dB per LED for the top
18 dB of dynamic range, and 2 dB per LED thereafter. This gives a
clear and intuitive impression of the working headroom.
Trim Input Level
Allows you to adjust the input signal level by up to ±12 dB.
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Sensitivity fader and Trim touch pad (dB)
The sensitivity fader defaults to 0.0 dB, which is the midpoint of its
travel. It adjusts the sensitivity of the noise detection circuit, and
the visible effect of this is to move the yellow noise contour line up
and down. The sensitivity level can be changed by up to ±18 dB.
To reduce the sensitivity and make the DeNoiser less reactive to
the noise component, move the fader down. The noise contour
displaces downwards, showing less noise component in the
detection circuit. If the sensitivity is set too low, little noise
reduction occurs.
To increase the sensitivity and make the DeNoiser more reactive to
the noise component, move the fader up. The noise contour
displaces upwards, showing more noise component in the
detection circuit. The default setting is for the noise contour to lie
just below the peaks of the signal. Making the detection circuit
more sensitive to noise decreases the signal component, possibly
pushing the contour up towards the peaks of the signal. In this
case, it is likely that processing artifacts are heard, as the noise
removal circuit acts on the signal component as well as the noise
component.
Adapt button
Enables Adapt mode for the noise detection circuit. In this mode
the noise fingerprint is continually calculated and updated. This
mode is useful for material with a time-varying noise component.
Freeze button
Enables Freeze mode for the noise detection circuit. In this mode
the noise fingerprint is calculated. This mode is useful for material
with a constant noise component, and would typically be sampled
when the signal is absent and only the noise component is present.
In button
Enables the noise removal processing. It allows glitch-less
comparisons with and without the noise reduction. When In is
deactivated, the noise detection circuit is still enabled and the
graphical display still shows the real-time frequency display and
the noise contour line.
HF Limit knob and touch pad (Hz)
Displays and controls the frequency beyond which the attenuation
is applied nondynamically. Scrolling the frequency down from the
default of 22 kHz shows a red region in the frequency display that
has a fixed attenuation. To the left of the HF Limit line the noise
removal circuit behaves as normal. To the right the signal is
attenuated by a fixed amount set by the attenuation fader. This
mode is useful for band-limited program material.
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A good example is a low bitrate encoded signal, which might be
band limited to 12 kHz. Due to the sharp discontinuity, the noise
removal circuit can introduce audible artifacts around the band
limit, and setting the HF Limit frequency slightly lower than the
band limit removes those artifacts.
Attenuation fader and touch pad (dB)
Determine the level of attenuation that the noise removal circuit
applies in the range 0 to -18 dB. Generally this should be set so
that the noise reduction is pleasing. Excessive use of attenuation
can degrade the signal unnecessarily.
Output Level meter (dB)
This meter is designed to give exactly 1 dB per LED for the top
18 dB of dynamic range, and 2 dB per LED thereafter. There is a
peak-hold feature that holds the highest peak, helping to give a
better impression of the working dynamic range.
Trim Output Level
Allows you to reduce the output level by up to 12 dB. Dithering is
applied after output gain control, so it can be necessary to reduce
this value by a small amount to avoid clipping.
Using the Sonnox DeNoiser
•
Start with Sensitivity and Attenuation controls at the default
positions (0.0 dB and -4.5 dB).
•
Select Adapt mode if the noise varies in time. Select Freeze for a
defined and static noise fingerprint.
•
Adjust the Sensitivity to find the correct balance between being
too low (not enough noise is removed) and too high (too much
signal is removed).
•
Adjust the Attenuation to find the most pleasing audio. Too much
attenuation can impair the audio, either by reducing brightness or
by introducing low-level distortion.
You might be working with bandwidth-limited material, possibly as a
result of sample rate conversion or lossy compression (for example,
limited at around 10 kHz). If you experience distortion around the limit try
reducing the HF Limit control. Adjust until it lies just to the lower
frequency side of the limit (around 9.5 kHz in our example).
368
Plug-in Reference
Legacy Plug-ins
Legacy Plug-ins
Under Windows, a set of plug-ins is provided for compatibility with
audio projects that referenced these effects when using earlier versions
of WaveLab Elements. An audio montage which referenced these
plug-ins would otherwise require cumbersome user intervention to
open, for example.
Their use with new audio projects is not recommended and they are not
documented.
Dithering Plug-ins
Dithering plug-ins add small quantities of noise to a signal to reduce the
audibility of low level distortion in a digital recording. A small amount of
random noise is added to the analog signal before the sampling stage,
reducing the effect of quantization errors.
Internal Dithering
This is a built-in plug-in that provides a simple way of adding a small
amount of noise to the rendered signal to improve the apparent
signal-to-noise ratio of the output.
The following parameters are available when selecting Internal.
Noise Type
Sets the noise type for adding to the signal.
•
In No Noise mode, no dithering is applied.
•
The Noise Type 1 mode is the most all-round method.
•
The Noise Type 2 mode emphasizes higher frequencies more
than Noise Type 1.
Noise Shaping
Increases the apparent signal to noise ratio by altering the
spectrum of the low-level audio signal which results from lowering
the number of bits. The higher the number you select here, the
more the noise is moved out of the ear’s mid-range.
369
Plug-in Reference
Dithering Plug-ins
Bit Resolution
Allows you to specify the intended bit resolution for the final audio,
after dithering, regardless of whether you want to render the
settings or play back in real-time.
Dithering changes the sample resolution, but not the sample size.
For example, when dithering 24 bit to 16 bit, the file will still be
24 bit in size, although only 16 bits of information will have
significance. When rendering to a 16-bit file, specify the file
resolution to avoid wasting space.
370
Index
A
AIFF 101
Analysis 131, 141, 249, 253
Attributes 125, 126, 283
Audio File Format 101, 104, 115
Audio Files 101
Audio Montage 72, 156, 157, 159
Audio selection 23, 107, 114, 228
B
Backup 60
BWF 125
Effects 189, 190, 216, 219
Envelope 180, 182
Equalizer 353
N
F
Ogg 101, 111
Oscilloscope 254
Fades 147, 148, 185
File browser 29
FLAC 101, 111
Focused clip 169, 171
FTP 300, 301
Full screen view 73
G
C
Group 30, 318
CART 125, 128
CC121 14, 15
CD 13, 199, 265
CD import 285
CD writing 199
CD-Text 259
Clipping 203, 221
Clips 96, 156, 165, 169, 171, 189
Colors 59, 303, 305, 308
Command Bars 34, 76, 78
Compare 56
Compressor 345, 357
Context menu 37
Control window 30
Convert 116, 154, 292
Correction 153
Crossfades 148, 149, 185, 188,
274, 275
Cue-point 178
Customizing 54, 303, 312, 315,
316, 318
H
D
Data CD/DVD 261
DC Offset 150
DDP 258
DIRAC 153
Dither 222, 224, 369
Dock 35, 76
Drag-and-drop 43
DVD 261
E
EBU R-128 134, 203
Help 6
I
ID3 125
Image 258, 261, 268
Import 161, 285
ISO 268
ISRC 267
iXML 125
K
Key commands 8, 312, 313
L
Latency 10
Level Meter 250
Limiter 343, 349
Loop 88, 248, 269, 280
Loudness 134, 203
M
Magnetic bounds 98, 169
Marker 128, 140, 207, 237
Master Output 190
Master Section 214
Master Section presets 231
Meta-data 125
Meter 212, 249, 250, 253, 254
MIDI 14, 312
Monitor 235
Montage window 157, 303
MP2 101, 110
MP3 101, 108
MPEG 101
371
Normalize 145, 203
O
P
Pan 180, 183
Peak 32, 340
Picture 56, 125
Pitch 135, 153
Playback 78, 82, 94, 96
Plu g-ins 190
Plug-in 196, 318
Plug-ins 189, 190, 218, 219, 316,
337, 342, 369
Podcast 73, 293, 294, 299
Post-roll 88, 89
Preferences 324, 332
Pre-roll 88, 89
Presets 54, 90, 127, 335
R
Recently used files 58
Recording 206
Redo 45
Remote Devices 14, 15
Renaming 65, 246
Rendering 203, 226
Resample 154
Resampler 338
Restoration 130, 361
RF64 101
Ruler 38
S
Sample rate 154, 155, 167, 338
Shortcuts 312
Silence 128, 129, 177, 341
Snapping 98, 99, 169
Sonnox 361
Spectroscope 253
Splitting 177
Switcher 22
T
Tab groups 30, 31
Tabs 31, 53, 59
Template 61
Time stretching 151, 153
Tool windows 74
Tracks 163
Transport bar 78
True Peaks 133, 145, 203, 250
U
Undo 45
UPC/EAN 267
V
Value editing 43
VST 342, 357
VST Audio Connections 9, 10, 11
W
Wave window 303
Waveform 130
WMA 101, 112
Workspace 71, 72, 73, 294
Writing Operations 255, 258, 259,
261, 265
Z
Zoom 46, 50
372
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