Network Security Platform 8.1 Best Practices Guide

Network Security Platform 8.1 Best Practices Guide
Best Practices Guide
Revision A
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Applicable for the following countries only: India, China
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2
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
Contents
Preface
5
About this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Find product documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
5
6
Introduction
7
Pre-installation checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2
Cabling best practices
9
3
Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2003
1
11
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Install a desktop firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Harden the MySQL installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove test database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove local anonymous users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove remote anonymous users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secure MySQL remote access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to roll back your changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removal of debug shell at port 9001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other best practices for securing Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2008
15
Pre-installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disable non-required services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set system policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set user policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set the desktop firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure audit events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
13
14
Large Sensor deployments
15
15
16
16
16
17
17
18
19
Staging Sensors prior to deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Recommendations for large Sensor deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Using active fail-open kits
21
Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Effective policy tuning practices
22
23
Analyzing high-volume attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing exception objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Learning profiles in DoS attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
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23
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Best Practices Guide
3
Contents
8
Response management
25
Sensor response actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9
How to create rule sets
27
Best methods for rule set creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10
Working with firewall policies
29
11
How to handle asymmetric networks
31
12
SSL best practices
33
SSL
SSL
SSL
SSL
SSL
SSL
13
only traffic — throughput: I-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
only traffic — throughput: I-series and M-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: I-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: M-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
only traffic - throughput: NS-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: NS-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensor HTTP response processing deployment
Tests for enabling HTTP response traffic . .
HTTP response processing results for
HTTP response processing results for
HTTP response processing results for
4
33
33
34
35
36
36
39
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NS-series Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
40
40
41
14
Sensor performance with Layer 7 Data Collection
43
15
Sensor capacity by model number
45
Index
47
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
Preface
Contents
About this guide
Find product documentation
About this guide
This information describes the guide's target audience, the typographical conventions and icons used
in this guide, and how the guide is organized.
Audience
McAfee documentation is carefully researched and written for the target audience.
The information in this guide is intended primarily for:
•
Administrators — People who implement and enforce the company's security program.
•
Users — People who use the computer where the software is running and can access some or all of
its features.
Conventions
This guide uses these typographical conventions and icons.
Book title, term,
emphasis
Title of a book, chapter, or topic; a new term; emphasis.
Bold
Text that is strongly emphasized.
User input, code,
message
Commands and other text that the user types; a code sample; a displayed
message.
Interface text
Words from the product interface like options, menus, buttons, and dialog
boxes.
Hypertext blue
A link to a topic or to an external website.
Note: Additional information, like an alternate method of accessing an
option.
Tip: Suggestions and recommendations.
Important/Caution: Valuable advice to protect your computer system,
software installation, network, business, or data.
Warning: Critical advice to prevent bodily harm when using a hardware
product.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
5
Preface
Find product documentation
Find product documentation
After a product is released, information about the product is entered into the McAfee online Knowledge
Center.
Task
6
1
Go to the McAfee ServicePortal at http://support.mcafee.com and click Knowledge Center.
2
Enter a product name, select a version, then click Search to display a list of documents.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
1
Introduction
®
McAfee® Network Security Platform [formerly McAfee® IntruShield ] is a combination of network
appliances and software, built for the accurate detection and prevention of intrusions and network
misuse.
We recommend that you follow some of the best techniques and tips to use McAfee Network Security
Platform most effectively. This can save considerable time during the installation and tuning process of
the system.
Following chapters outline the best practices for Network Security Platform.
Pre-installation checklist
There are some important tasks that you should consider before McAfee® Network Security Manager
[formerly McAfee® IntruShield Security Manager] software installation. For more information, see
Planning for installation, McAfee Network Security Platform Troubleshooting Guide.
®
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
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1
Introduction
Pre-installation checklist
8
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
2
Cabling best practices
It is a common practice to physically cable the monitoring ports, only after the McAfee® Network
Security Sensor (Sensor) has been fully configured.
In other words, most administrators cable the console and management ports, use those connections
to configure the solution, and only physically introduce the Sensor into the scanning process once the
proper scanning policies are in place, the monitoring ports have been configured, the latest signature
set has been downloaded, and so on.
Also, in the most security-conscious environments, or those with congestion problems, a private
network is often used to connect the Sensor management ports to the McAfee® Network Security
Manager (Manager). This is another best practice in terms of cabling the Sensors.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
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2
Cabling best practices
10
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
3
Hardening the Manager Server for
Windows 2003
This section describes methods for hardening your McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager)
server.
Contents
Introduction
Install a desktop firewall
Harden the MySQL installation
Other best practices for securing Manager
Introduction
Manager implementation varies between environments. The Manager server's positioning in the
network, both physically and logically, may influence specific remote access and firewall configuration
requirements.
The following best practices are intended to cover the configurable features that can impact the
security of Manager. This information should be used in combination with the McAfee® Network
Security Platform Release Notes and the rest of the documentation set.
McAfee's recommendations, at a high level:
•
Install a desktop firewall on the server and open the proper ports
•
Harden the MySQL installation
•
Harden the Manager host
Install a desktop firewall
It is recommended that you operate a desktop firewall on the Manager server. Certain ports are used
within the McAfee Network Security Platform. Some of these required for Manager -- Network Security
Sensor (Sensor) and Manager client-server communication. All remaining unnecessary ports should be
closed. The ports used by Network Security Platform are listed in Install a desktop firewall.
Harden the MySQL installation
Ensure the cmd window used for making changes to database tables in the "mysql" database stays
opened in the mysql shell until validation is completed.
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Best Practices Guide
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3
Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2003
Harden the MySQL installation
This is necessary to enable you to rollback the changes in case you need to. Rollback procedures are
shown at the end of this section.
Use another cmd window, where necessary, to validate hardening changes you have made.
Remove test database
Remove the 'test" database from the server.
1. Start My SQL.
mysql> use mysql;
2. Backup db table to do dbbackup before changing it.
mysql> create table
db_backup as select * from
db;
3. Validate that the backup table was created and row count
matches that of the mysql.db table.
mysql> select count(*) from
db_backup;
4. Check all the databases on the Manager server.
mysql> show databases;
5. Remove the test db, Keep only the MYSQL and Network Security mysql> drop database test;
Platform (for example, lf) databases.
6. You should see only two databases (MYSQL and LF) if you are
using the default Network Security Platform installation of MySQL.
mysql> show databases;
Remove local anonymous users
To remove local anonymous users:
1. Look for blank entries for user.
mysql> select host,db,user
from db;
2. Remove anonymous access to databases
mysql> update db set
host="localhost" where
user="";
3. Remove anonymous/blank accounts
mysql> flush privileges;
4. Validate that "localhost" replaced % entry under the host
column. You will also notice you will now need to qualify
username and password on the local machine to get into mysql
shell from the mysql.exe CLI.
Remove remote anonymous users
To remove remote anonymous users, you harden mysql.exe CLI access by forcing the requirement for
a username and password to get into the mysql shell as follows.
12
Start MySQL.
mysql> use mysql;
Back up the user table to user_backup before
changing it.
mysql> create table user_backup as
select * from user;
Validate that the backup table was created and row
count matches that of the mysql.db table.
mysql> select count(*) from
user_backup;
List all users and hosts.
mysql> select user,host from user;
Remove anonymous/blank accounts.
mysql> delete from user where user="";
Validate that rows with blank user columns have been
removed.
mysql> select user,host from user;
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2003
Harden the MySQL installation
3
Secure MySQL remote access
This section provides two options for removing remote access.
•
Remove individual users' remote access
•
Remove ALL remote access (Recommended)
Removal of individual user's remote access
Do ONE of the following:
•
Remove admin (Network Security Platform user) remote access
mysql> delete from user where host!='localhost' and user='admin';
(The admin user cannot login remotely; however Manager root can. Use second cmd window to
validate.)
mysql>flush privileges;
•
Remove root remote access (Recommended minimum action)
mysql> delete from user where host!='localhost' and user='root';
This ensures that the root user cannot login remotely; however Manager user can log in remotely.
Use second cmd window to validate.
mysql>flush privileges;
Remove ALL remote access
mysql> delete from user where host!='localhost'.
ALL user access is disabled including Manager users from remote host(s).
Use another cmd window to validate; you can ONLY log in to the MySQL CLI on the Manager server by
qualifying username, password and db. For example: mysql -uadmin -pXXX lf.
How to roll back your changes
If you need to roll back your changes, use the following commands:
To roll back changes made to the mysql.db table from the mysql.db_backup table:
mysql> rename table db to db_1;
mysql> rename table db_backup to db;
mysql> flush privileges;
To roll back changes made to the "mysql.user" table from mysql.user_backup table:
mysql> rename table user to user_1
mysql> rename table user_backup to user;
mysql> flush privileges;
Removal of debug shell at port 9001
In addition to denying traffic over port 9001 and 9002 (as per Install a desktop firewall), the
debugging shell that runs on port 9001 can be disabled by modifying the value of the
iv.policymgmt.RuleEngine.BSH_Diagnostics_Port record in the iv_emspropertiestable. To disable the port, set the
value in the field called "value" = -1
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
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3
Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2003
Other best practices for securing Manager
See also
Install a desktop firewall on page 11
Other best practices for securing Manager
•
Use a clean, dedicated machine for the Manager server and perform a fresh install of the Manager
software, including the installation of the embedded MySQL database. No other software should be
available on the server, with the exception of a host-based firewall as described in Install a desktop
firewall.
•
Make sure the PC is in an isolated, physically secure environment
•
Disallow access to the directory clumsily and all its sub-directories to anyone other than authorized
administrators. Use Microsoft Knowledge Base article # 324067 to accomplish this procedure.
Disallow the following permissions:
•
•
Read
•
Modify
•
Write
•
List folder contents
•
Read and Write
•
Full control
Disable HTTP TRACE request. It can be disabled with the following mod_rewrite syntax in the
Apache Server's httpd.conf file (available in the "<Network Security Platform installation
directory>/Apache/conf" directory).
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^TRACE
RewriteRule .* - [F]
See also
Install a desktop firewall on page 11
14
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
4
Hardening the Manager Server for
Windows 2008
Implementation of Manager varies from environment to environment. The Manager's physical and
logical position in the network influences specific remote access and firewall configuration
requirements. The following best practices on managing configurable features on Manager impacts the
security of Manager.
Contents
Pre-installation
Installation
Post-installation
Pre-installation
Use a dedicated machine for the Manager server and then install Manager and the embedded MySQL
database. Other than the host-based firewall, no other software should be installed on the server.
Before installation of Manager do the following:
•
Ensure that the server is located in a physically secure environment.
•
Connect the server on a protected or isolated network.
•
If the hard disk is old, use fdisk (a command line utility) to remove all partitions and create new
partitions.
Installation
Installation of Manager should be performed as follows:
•
Install the US version of Windows Server 2008.
•
Use NTFS on all partitions.
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Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2008
Post-installation
Post-installation
After installation of Manager perform the following installations:
•
Install the latest Windows Server 2008 patches, service packs, and hot fixes from Microsoft.
•
Install a Virus Scanner and update the signatures.
Exclude "McAfee® Network Security Manager (Manager)" and "MySQL" directories from being
scanned.
Also keep a check on the following:
•
Minimize the number of Windows roles and features that are installed.
•
Uninstall applications that are not necessary.
Disable non-required services
Disable the following services:
•
DHCP Client
•
FTP
•
Print spooler
•
Remote access auto connection manager
•
Remote procedure call locator
•
Remote registry
•
Server
•
TCP/IP NetBIOS helper service
•
Telephony service.
Enable these services only if it is absolutely required.
Set system policies
Ensure to set the following system policies:
16
•
Implement the System key and strong encryption of the password database by running
SYSKEY.EXE
•
Use Microsoft security compliance toolkit or set local security policy
•
Display legal notice at during interactive logon window.
•
Do not display username that was earlier used to login.
•
Disable Posix
•
Clear virtual memory page file during shutdown
•
Disable autorun
•
Disable LMHOSTS lookup while setting the advanced TCP/IP settings.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2008
Post-installation
4
Set user policies
Make sure to set the following user policies:
•
Rename the administrator account.
•
Disable guest account.
•
Passwords should be at least 8 ASCII characters.
•
Enable locking of screensaver.
Set the desktop firewall
It is recommended that a desktop firewall operates on the Manager server. The following ports are
required for Manager-Sensor communication.
Ensure that there are no other open ports using a scanning tool such as McAfee Vulnerability Manager.
Port Description
Communication
80
HTTP port
Client to Manager
443
HTTPS
Client to Manager
3306 MySQL database
Open only while using external SQL database
8500 Command channel(UDP)
Manager to Sensor
8501 Install channel (TCP) (1024-bit)
Sensor to Manager
8502 Alert channel (TCP) (1024-bit)
Sensor to Manager
8503 Packet log channel (TCP) (1024-bit)
Sensor to Manager
8504 File transfer channel (TCP)
Sensor to Manager
8506 Install channel (TCP) (2048-bit)
Sensor to Manager
8507 Alert channel (TCP) (2048-bit)
Sensor to Manager
8508 Packet log channel (TCP) (2048-bit)
Sensor to Manager
8509 Bulk file transfer channel for 2048-bit
certificates.
Sensor to Manager
8510 Bulk file transfer channel for 1024-bit
certificates.
Sensor to Manager
8555 Alert viewer (TC)
Client to Manager
When email notification or SNMP forwarding is configured on Manager and there is firewall between
Manager and SNMP Server, ensure that the following ports are allowed through firewall.
Port
Description
Communication
25
SMTP port
Manager to SMTP server
162
SNMP forwarding
Manager to SNMP server
If you have McAfee ePO™ integration configured on Manager, and there is firewall between Manager
and the McAfee ePO™ Server, ensure the following port is also allowed through firewall.
Port
Description
Communication
8443
McAfee ePO communication port
Manager to McAfee ePO™ server
™
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
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4
Hardening the Manager Server for Windows 2008
Post-installation
Configure audit events
Set the following events to be audited:
18
•
Audit account logon events
•
Audit policy change (Success)
•
Audit account management
•
Audit privilege use (Failure)
•
Audit logon events
•
Audit system events (Success)
•
Audit object access (Failure)
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
5
Large Sensor deployments
When you consider large McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) deployments, (where the number
of Sensors deployed range from 36 to 100) there are some important tasks which should be
considered, before deployment.
McAfee recommends that you have a good understanding on the best techniques required to
accomplish these tasks in your deployment scenario, prior to the deployment.
•
Concurrent Signature Set and Sensor Software downloads — In 6.0.7.x and above, the
Manager provides an option for parallel processing of Sensor software and signature set updates.
In earlier releases of 6.0, when multiple Sensors are configured to your Manager, any software
update on the Sensors had to be performed individually. If you are using 5.1, then note that this
option is available on Manager version 5.1.17.2 and above.
This enhancement is applicable only for Sensor updates in the parent domain. The Sensor updates
in the child admin domain is performed in the same method as the earlier releases.
•
Sensor Software Updates— All Sensor software updates do require a reboot. A reboot can take
up to 5 minutes. You can schedule this process though you can't reboot the Sensor automatically.
But any update from the Manager Server causes the process to take place sequentially, one Sensor
at-a-time. You can instead use the TFTP method for updating the Sensor image, which helps you to
load concurrent images on the Sensor via the Sensor's CLI, at a much faster rate.
For more information, see Upgrading Sensor software via a TFTP server, McAfee Network Security
Platform CLI Guide.
•
Central Manager deployment — If you have a large Sensor deployment of 200 Sensors for
example, which are deployed across various geographic locations, then consider using a Central
Manager at your organization's headquarters and deploy a dedicated Manager for each region. Each
Manager will then handle the daily device operations for all Sensors configured to it. Note that
when you use a Central Manager, your regional/local Managers can add their own region-specific
rules, but cannot modify any configuration established by the Central Manager. Configuration
updates to the Sensors must be applied through the local Managers. See McAfee Network Security
Platform Manager Administration Guide for details.
•
Usability — Depending on the number of VIDS and Admin Domains defined in your deployment,
the Manager Resource Tree can become very crowded, which makes it difficult to locate the
resource you require at any point of time. It can also lead to confusion if you have not provided
unique, recognizable names for your Sensors and any VIDS you create. Note that the resource
names appear both in the Resource Tree of the Manager as well as in Alert data and Reports. Your
VIDS names should also be clear and easy for everyone maintaining the network to recognize at a
glance. For example, compare a worldwide deployment where Sensors are named "4010-1"
through "4010-25" as opposed to "UK-London-sens1," "India-Bangalore-sens1," and so on.
•
Alert Traffic — Take note of the volume of alerting in your Sensors. Depending on the policies
deployed on your system, there is potential to starve Manager resources since the resulting alerts
are passed to the Manager. As the volume of alerting increases, more data is passed into the
Manager. The Manager can handle short bursts of high alert volume but on an average, the
Manager can handle a total of 1500 alerts per minute from all the Sensors configured to it.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
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5
Large Sensor deployments
Staging Sensors prior to deployment
•
Start-up load on the Manager— When the Manager starts, establishing connections with all
Sensors can be time consuming as Sensors continue to collect alerts. If the communication with
the Manager is lost, each Sensor must pass its alert data to the Manager when connectivity is
re-established. So, it is required to account for the start-up load on the Manager.
•
Concurrent processes— Be aware of the time periods in which your scheduled processes (such
as database backup or report generation) occur, and try not to attempt other tasks during that time
period, as this can lead to process locking. This includes having many users logged into the system
simultaneously.
Contents
Staging Sensors prior to deployment
Recommendations for large Sensor deployment
Staging Sensors prior to deployment
With large or very large deployments, and/or if you are planning to release Sensors to various
geographical regions or remote locations, you will have to consider staging your Sensors before you
release them to their final destination.
For example, use the McAfee® Network Security Manager in a lab environment to push Sensor
software to the Sensor, make sure that the Sensor is working as expected, and then box the
configured Sensor and send it to its final destination. For more information, see Updating the
configuration of a Sensor, McAfee Network Security Platform IPS Administration Guide.
Or you might use the TFTP feature to load the Sensor image at one location, before shipping the
Sensor to another. For more information, see Upgrading Sensor software via a TFTP server, McAfee
Network Security Platform Installation Guide.
Very large Sensor deployments mean that the number of Sensors deployed is more than 100. Large
Sensor deployments have Sensors numbering between 36 and 100+.
Recommendations for large Sensor deployment
Most McAfee Network Security Platform customers begin their deployment in their lab environment.
Here they test the Sensor functionality, familiarize themselves with the Manager, and create an initial
policy. Once they are comfortable with the product, they deploy the Sensor in a live environment.
McAfee provides a few recommendations for this process:
20
•
Spend time creating effective policies before actual deployment. Availability of more information
makes the tuning process easier. But policies like the McAfee Network Security Platform provided
All-Inclusive policy can overwhelm you with data, if every Sensor in a large deployment is running
it without any customization.
•
Stagger your Sensor deployment in phases. As each new batch of Sensors provides you with more
data points, you can tune your policies more effectively, and become more aggressive in the
number of Sensors you deploy in the next phase.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
6
Using active fail-open kits
McAfee supports the following types of passive and active fail-open kits:
•
10/100/1000 Gigabit Copper Passive Fail-Open Bypass Kit
•
1 Gigabit Optical Passive Fail-Open Bypass Kit
•
10 Gigabit Optical Passive Fail-Open Bypass Kit
•
10/100/1000 Copper Active Fail-Open Bypass Kit
•
10/100/1000 Copper Active Fail-Open Bypass Kit with SNMP monitoring
•
1 Gigabit Optical Active Fail-Open Bypass Kit
•
10 Gigabit Optical Active Fail-Open Bypass Kit
Fail-open kits can be deployed in production networks for the following reasons:
•
Reduce the network downtime to seconds during any Sensor reboot or Sensor failure
•
Protect your network during link failure on the Sensor
•
Bypass the traffic when troubleshooting network issues. This will help you identify or eliminate the
Sensor as the cause of network issues
In the passive fail-open kit, if the Sensor goes down, the link has to be renegotiated again between
the peer devices and this causes the link to go down for some time. In case of an active fail-open kit,
a physical link will be established between the active fail-open kit and the two peer devices even when
the Sensor is active. There would not be any link flap even when the Sensor goes down. McAfee
recommends deploying active fail-open kits for protection of mission critical networks.
For Virtual IPS Sensors, only 10/100/1000 Copper Active Fail-Open Bypass Kit and 10/100/1000
Copper Active Fail-Open Bypass Kit with SNMP monitoring are supported. For more information, see
Virtual IPS Sensor deployment section in the IPS Administration Guide.
Passive Fail-open
In passive fail-open kits, during normal Sensor in-line, fail-open operation, the Fail-Open Controller or
built-in Control port (depending on which controls the Bypass Switch) supplies power and a heartbeat
signal to the Bypass Switch.
If this signal is not presented within its programmed interval, the Fail-Open Bypass Switch removes
the Sensor from the data path, and moves into bypass mode, providing continuous data flow with little
network interruption. While the Sensor is in bypass mode, traffic passes directly through the switch,
bypassing the Sensor. When normal Sensor operation resumes, you may or may not need to manually
re-enable the monitoring ports from the Manager interface, depending on the activity leading up to the
Sensor's failure.
Active Fail-open
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Using active fail-open kits
Considerations
In case of active fail-open kits, during normal Sensor in-line fail-open operation, the built-in
monitoring sends a heartbeat signal (1 every second) to the Bypass Switch. If the Sensor does not
receive 3 heart beat signals within its programmed interval, the Fail-Open Bypass Switch removes the
Sensor from the data path, and moves it into the bypass mode, providing continuous data flow.
When the Bypass Switch loses power, traffic continues to flow through the network link, but is no
longer routed through the Bypass Switch. This allows network devices to be removed and replaced
without network downtime. Once power is restored to the Bypass Switch, network traffic is seamlessly
diverted to the monitoring device, allowing it to resume its critical functions.
Considerations
This section discusses the generic requirements and notes that you need to consider with respect to
active fail-open kits:
•
The currently supported active fail-open kits are not plug and play devices. Initial configuration/
setup is required before you begin.
•
The following default options are fixed in McAfee active fail-open kits and cannot be changed:
•
LFD is set to On
•
Bypass Detection is set to Off
Even if you change the configuration for these options using the NetOptics Web Manager or System
Manager, the settings of these options on the McAfee active fail-open kit hardware cannot be changed.
22
•
The management port on the active fail-open bypass kits cannot be configured.
•
The parameters for the monitoring port must be set to Auto-Negotiate based on the speed, that is,
10/100/1000 Mbps. McAfee recommends that you set the Speed to 100 Mbps full Duplex with
Auto-Negotiate enabled to improve performance.
•
Unlike passive fail-open kits, an active fail-open kit moves into the bypass mode only when it does
not receive the heart beat signals within its programmed interval. When the Sensor monitoring port
is manually disabled or the cable is pulled out for example, the Manager displays the port status as
AUK (Active Unknown) under Device List / Sensor_Name > Physical Sensor > Port Settings page.
•
If you are planning to use the 10/100/1000 copper active fail-open kit with SNMP monitoring, then
note that
•
Network Security Platform currently supports only SNMP v1 on active fail-open kits.
•
You can configure only a single SNMP Manager. The option to configure a secondary SNMP Manager
is currently not available.
•
The active fail-open kits do not provide any CLI option to view the serial and model numbers of the
kits.
•
If your network architecture is such that it requires you to remotely manage the active fail-open
kits in your deployment, then you can consider one of the following options:
•
Use a terminal server to connect to the system console and then connect using a remote login
[interoperability issues might be seen while using UPLOGIX Terminal Server]
•
Pre-configure the kit with the required settings before shipping.
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7
Effective policy tuning practices
All Network Security Sensors (Sensors) on initial deployment, have the 'Default Inline IPS' policy
loaded on all interfaces. McAfee recommends that you use the default inline IPS policy as a starting
point, then customize the policies based on your organization's requirements. The customized policies
can be either cloned versions of the default pre-configured policies or custom-built policies that
employ custom rule sets. An appropriately tuned policy will reduce false positives.
Though each network environment has unique characteristics, the following best practices can make
tuning more efficient and effective.
As you interact with Network Security Platform policies, you encounter the term "attack", not
"signature." Network Security Platform defines an attack as being comprised of one or more signatures,
thresholds, anomaly profiles, or correlation rules, where each method is used to detect an attempt to
exploit a particular vulnerability in a system. These signatures and checks may contain very specific
means for identifying a specific known exploit of the vulnerability, or more generic detection methods
that aid in detecting unknown exploits for the vulnerability.
Contents
Analyzing high-volume attacks
Managing exception objects
Learning profiles in DoS attacks
Analyzing high-volume attacks
Take attacks that are generating the most alerts (use Consolidated View in Threat Analyzer ) and investigate
their legitimacy. For more information, see Consolidated View, McAfee Network Security Platform
Manager Administration Guide.
Many of the top alerts seen on the initial deployment of a Sensor will be common false positives seen
in many environments. Typically, at the beginning of the tuning process, it will be evident that your
network or security policy will affect the overall level of alerts. If, for instance, AOL IM is allowed traffic
on the network, then there might not be a need to alert on AOL IM setup flows.
Managing exception objects
When a particular alert is declared as a false positive, the next decision is whether to disable the
corresponding attack altogether OR apply a particular exception object to that attack that will disable
alerting for a particular IP address or range of IP addresses. In almost all cases, it is a best practice to
implement the latter.
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Effective policy tuning practices
Learning profiles in DoS attacks
For instance, an SMS server may be generating the alert Netbios: Copy Executable file attempt during the
legitimate transfer of login scripts. Rather than disable the alert altogether, and cancel the possibility
of finding a real attack of this nature, we recommend that you create an exception object for the SMS
server and apply it to the attack.
Every exception object created is globally stored, so that the filter can be applied to any Exploit or
Reconnaissance attack.
It is also a best practice to document all your tuning activities. The Report section can be used to
assist the documentation process. The IPS Sensor configuration report will deliver reports that list
exception objects that have been applied and attacks that have been otherwise customized.
For more information, see Managing Exception Objects and Attack Responses, McAfee Network Security
Platform IPS Administration Guide.
Learning profiles in DoS attacks
It is a best practice to let the Sensors learn the profiles of the particular segments they are
monitoring, before tuning DoS attacks. This is Learning Mode operation. The learning process takes
two days. During this period it is not unusual to see DoS alerts associated with normal traffic flows (for
example, DoS SYN flood alerts reported outbound on a firewall interface to the Internet). After a
profile has been learned, the particulars of the profile (number of SYNS, ACKS, and so on) can be
viewed per Sensor.
DoS detection can also be implemented using the Threshold Mode. This involves setting thresholds
manually for the type of segment characteristics that are learned in Learning Mode. Implementing this
mode successfully is critically dependent on detailed knowledge of the segments that the particular
Sensors are monitoring.
It is a best practice to have the Sensor re-learn the profile when there is a network change (that is,
you move the Sensor from a lab or staging environment to a production environment) or a
configuration change (that is, you change the CIDR block of a sub-interface) that causes a significant
sudden traffic change on an interface. If the Sensor does not re-learn the new environment, it may
issue false alarms or fail to detect actual attacks during a time period when it is adapting to the new
network traffic conditions. There is no need to re-learn a profile when network traffic increases or
decreases naturally over time (for example, an e-Commerce site that is getting more and more
customers; thus its Web traffic increases in parallel), since the Sensor can automatically adapt to it.
For more information, see Managing DoS Learning Mode profiles on a Sensor, McAfee Network Security
Platform IPS Administration Guide.
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8
Response management
When McAfee® Network Security Sensor (Sensor) detects an activity which violates a configured
security policy, a preset response from the Sensor is integral to the protection or prevention process.
Proper configuration of responses is crucial to maintaining effective protection. Critical attacks like
buffer overflows and DoS attacks require responses in real time, while scans and probes can be logged
and researched to determine compromise potential and the source of the attack.
Developing a system of actions, alerts, and logs based on specific attacks or attack parameters (such
as severity) is recommended for effective network security. For example, since McAfee® Network
Security Platform can be customized to protect any zone in a network, knowing what needs to be
protected can help to determine the response type.
If the Sensor is monitoring the network outside of the firewall in inline mode, preventing DoS attacks
and attacks against the firewall is crucial. Other suspicious traffic intended for the internal network,
such as scans and low-impact well-known exploits, are best logged and analyzed as the impact is not
immediate. In this case, a better understanding of the potential attack purpose can be determined.
Thus, if you are monitoring outside of a firewall in in-line mode, it is important not to set the policies
and responses so fine that they disrupt the flow of traffic and slow down the system.
Remember that response actions are decoupled from alerting. Pay particular attention to this with the
Recommended For Blocking (RFB) category of attacks, lest you enable blocking for an attack, but
disable alerting, causing the attack to be blocked without your knowledge.
When there are multiple attempts to login to a specific web server from a client, the Sensor detects a
reconnaissance Brute force attack (Attack ID 0x40256b00) and raises an alert. Brute force attacks are
used by programs, such as password crackers, to try many different passwords in order to guess the
correct one. The alerts raised are threshold based. The Sensor may generate an alert even in
scenarios, where a legitimate user keeps on retrying to login to the web server simply because he has
forgotten his password. Instances of someone mistyping a password or username on the login are also
common. In such cases, valid traffic flow would be blocked or subject to unnecessary responses from
the Sensor, leading to a false positive. Consequently, the traffic might be dropped.
When such alerts are seen in high volume, there may be multiple reasons for it, like, a dictionary
attack against the web server, or network monitoring systems (like WebSense) not updated with a
user password change, and so on.
McAfee® Network Security Platform recommends that while configuring a Reconnaissance policy, you
to edit and set optimum threshold values to suit your particular environment. This avoids unnecessary
responses from the Sensor and hindrance to the traffic flow.
For example, if you have a web-server farm behind the Sensor so there are more HTTP logins seen on
this segment, in such a scenario you require to set higher thresholds. The default values are good for
most environments.
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Response management
Sensor response actions
Sensor response actions
There are multiple Sensor actions that are available for configuration per attack. These include:
•
Dropping Alert Packets— Only works in in-line mode. Will drop a detected attack packet and all
subsequent packets in the same flow.
•
Quarantine— Sensor will quarantine or remediate a host as per the configurations in McAfee® Network
Security Manager and the Sensor monitoring ports. Quarantine can be enabled per attack in the
Policy Editors.
For more information, see McAfee Network Security Platform IPS Administration Guide.
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How to create rule sets
A rule set is configured based on attack category, operating system, protocol, application, severity,
and benign trigger probability options. Each rule in a set is either an include rule or an exclude rule.
An include rule (which should always start a rule set) is a set of parameters that encompass a broad
range of well-known attacks for detection. An exclude rule removes elements from the include rule in
order to focus the policy's rule set.
Proper creation of rule sets is essential for eliminating false positives and ensuring maximum
protection on your network. These best practices can assist while creating rules sets in the McAfee®
Network Security Manager.
Best methods for rule set creation
There are two best practice methods employed for creating rule sets.
•
General-to-specific rule creation — The first method is general-to-specific. Start with an include
rule that covers a broad range of operating systems, applications and protocols. After this, create
one or more exclude rules to strip away specific operating systems, protocols, et cetera, thus
focusing the rule set on the environment where it will be enforced. For example, start with an
include rule for all Exploit category attacks. Follow this with multiple exclusion rules that strip away
protocols, applications, severities, et cetera, that are rarely or never seen in a zone of your
network.
•
Collaborative rule creation — The second method is collaboration: Create multiple include rules
within one rule set for each category, operating systems, et cetera, combination that needs to be
detected. Each criterion must be matched in order for an alert to be triggered. For example, create
the first rule in the set with the Exploit category, Unix as the OS, Sendmail as the application, and
SMTP as the protocol. Next, create another include rule for Exploit, Windows 2000, WindMail, and
so forth in the same manner. Each include rule added, broadens the scope of the detection.
For more information, see Managing Rule Sets, McAfee Network Security Platform IPS
Administration Guide.
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9
How to create rule sets
Best methods for rule set creation
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Working with firewall policies
Review the following points while working with Firewall policies:
•
You cannot set explicit access rules for protocols that negotiate ports dynamically, with the
exception of FTP, TFTP, and RPC services. Protocols such as H.323 and Netmeeting, which negotiate
the data channel separately from the control channel, or negotiate ports that do not follow a
standard, are not supported. However, you can explicitly deny these protocol instances by denying
the fixed control port. However, you can configure access rules to explicitly deny these protocol
instances by denying the fixed control port.
•
For RPC services, you can configure explicit permit and deny rules for RPC as a whole, but not its
constituents, such as statd and mountd.
•
Protocols or services, such as instant messaging and peer-to-peer communication, that use
dynamic ports, are not supported.
•
An alternative option for denying protocols that use dynamic ports is to configure IDS policies to
drop the attacks that are detected in such transmissions. Network Security Platform detects use of
and attacks in such programs as Yahoo Messenger, KaZaA, IRC, and so on.
•
There is a limit on the number of access rules that can be supported by various Sensor models.
For more information, see McAfee Network Security Platform IPS Administration Guide
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Working with firewall policies
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11
How to handle asymmetric networks
Traffic that uses a different path for the request vs. response is termed as asymmetric traffic. There
are chances of having asymmetric traffic within a network, when networks increase in size.
If there are chances of asymmetric traffic in your network, consider the following options:
•
Install IPS Sensors at a location where the traffic is symmetric.
•
Implement a port clustering configuration for asymmetric traffic. Port clustering [referred to as
Interface groups in the Manager] enables multiple ports on a single Sensor to be grouped together
for effective traffic monitoring. Asymmetric networks are common in load balancing and active/
passive configurations, and a complete transmission may be received on one segment, but depart
on another. Thus keeping state of asymmetric transmissions is essential for successfully monitoring
the traffic. Interface groups normalize the impact of traffic flows split across multiple interfaces,
thus maintaining state to avoid information loss.
•
Place an IPS Sensor each on the request and the response path of the asymmetric traffic and
create a failover pair to sync up the traffic flow between the two Sensors.
•
If you are using a failover pair to monitor asymmetric traffic where the TCP traffic is going through
two geographically different data centers, connect the Sensors using dark fiber. In this option, both
the Sensors will have full state.
•
When the distance between the two IPS Sensors is such that a failover pair cannot be created,
consider enabling Stateless Inspection. In Stateless Inspection, the Sensor detects attacks without
requiring a valid TCP state. This option should be used only when Sensors are placed in a network
where the Sensors do not see all packets of a TCP flow like in an asymmetric network
configuration.
When Stateless Inspection is enabled: - ACLs and syn cookie protection cannot be enabled. - HTTP
redirection to the Remediation Portal may or may not work depending on your network deployment
scenario for example, in a setup where SYN+ACK packets cannot be sent from the Sensor to the
client
The diagram below explains about HTTP traffic flow in an asymmetric network between User A and the
University Admin server. The outgoing connection flow from User A is through Switch 1, Switch 2,
Network Security Sensor 1, Router 1, Internet Service Provider 1, to the Internet connection. The
return path for the packet however, is through Internet Service Provider 2, Router 2 etc. If traffic flows
by the Sensor in an asymmetric manner as described above, all packets of a TCP flow are not visible
to a single Sensor.
In such a scenario, if Stateless Inspection is enabled, the Sensor will inspect packets without having
the valid state for the TCP connection. Consequently, it might generate false positives that is, when a
single communication flow is divided across paths, each interface will receive and analyze part of the
conversation and therefore be susceptible to false positives and false negatives.
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How to handle asymmetric networks
When you enable Stateless Inspection, there are chances of false positives, and the detection accuracy
will be lower compared to when the Sensor sees all traffic. McAfee recommends that you use this
feature only when network configuration does not allow the Sensor to be placed in locations where it
could see all traffic.
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SSL best practices
Note that there is a performance impact when using the SSL decryption feature. If there is a lot of
outbound SSL traffic from the client to the internet as well, it consumes SSL flows. Therefore, to
enable the Sensor to effectively utilize the SSL decryption feature, it is recommended to bypass these
outbound SSL traffic using ACL IGNORE rules.
Refer to the following sections for the SSL throughput measurements and test methodologies.
Contents
SSL
SSL
SSL
SSL
SSL
SSL
only traffic — throughput: I-series Sensors
only traffic — throughput: I-series and M-series Sensors
traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: I-series Sensors
traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: M-series Sensors
only traffic - throughput: NS-series Sensors
traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: NS-series Sensors
SSL only traffic — throughput: I-series Sensors
•
Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections
•
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 5K response each
•
128-bit ARC4
I-2700
I-3000
I-4000
I-4010
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
325
600
800
1200
Throughput (Mbps) - 1024 bit key length
85 Mbps
155 Mbps
200 Mbps
310 Mbps
Throughput (Mbps) - 2048 bit key length
65 Mbps
115 Mbps
125 Mbps
250 Mbps
SSL only traffic — throughput: I-series and M-series Sensors
•
Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections
•
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each
•
128-bit ARC4
I-2700
I-3000
I-4000
I-4010
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
300
400
800
800
Throughput (Mbps) - 1024 bit key length
150 Mbps
200 Mbps
400 Mbps
400 Mbps
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SSL best practices
SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: I-series Sensors
M-2750
M-2850
M-2950
M-3050
M-4050
M-6050
M-8000
Max. SSL Connections / Sec. 550
750
1300
2700
4500
8500
Throughput (Mbps) - 1024
bit key length
250 Mbps
400 Mbps 600 Mbps 1200 Mbps 2 Gbps
Throughput (Mbps) - 2048
bit key length
200 Mbps
320 Mbps 320 Mbps 550 Mbps
3.8 Gbps
600 Mbps 1.2 Gbps
SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: I-series Sensors
•
Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections
•
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 5K response each
•
1024-bit RSA
•
128-bit ARC4
I-2700
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
100
200
SSL Throughput
25 Mbps
50 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
475 Mbps
350 Mbps
Total Throughput
500 Mbps
400 Mbps
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
200
400
SSL Throughput
50 Mbps
105 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
860 Mbps
475 Mbps
Total Throughput
910 Mbps
580 Mbps
I-3000
I-4000
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
400
800
SSL Throughput
100 Mbps
200 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
1550 Mbps
780 Mbps
Total Throughput
1650 Mbps
980 Mbps
I-4010
34
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
400
800
SSL Throughput
100 Mbps
200 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
1740 Mbps
860 Mbps
Total Throughput
1840 Mbps
1060 Mbps
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SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: M-series Sensors
12
SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: M-series Sensors
•
Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections
•
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 5K response each
•
128-bit ARC4
M-2750 / M-2850
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
110
110
SSL Throughput
50 Mbps
40Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
500 Mbps
500 Mbps
Total Throughput
550 Mbps
540 Mbps
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
180
180
SSL Throughput
80 Mbps
60 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
900 Mbps
900 Mbps
Total Throughput
980 Mbps
960 Mbps
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
220
220
SSL Throughput
100 Mbps
90 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
1.2 Gbps
1.2 Gbps
Total Throughput
1.3 Gbps
1.1 Gbps
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
440
440
SSL Throughput
200 Mbps
150 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
2.5 Gbps
2.5 Gbps
Total Throughput
2.7 Gbps
2.6 Gbps
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
880
880
SSL Throughput
440 Mbps
400 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
4 Gbps
3.9 Gbps
Total Throughput
4.4 Gbps
4.3 Gbps
M-2950
M-3050
M-4050
M-6050
M-8000
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SSL best practices
SSL only traffic - throughput: NS-series Sensors
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
1750
1750
SSL Throughput
800 Mbps
700 Mbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
8 Gbps
7.9 Gbps
Total Throughput
8.8 Gbps
8.6 Gbps
SSL only traffic - throughput: NS-series Sensors
•
Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections
•
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each
•
128-bit ARC4
NS 9100
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
17000
13600
SSL Throughput
8 Gbps
5.5 Gbps
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
22000
15400
SSL Throughput
10 Gbps
6 Gbps
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
44000
30800
SSL Throughput
20 Gbps
12 Gbps
NS 9200
NS 9300
SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: NS-series Sensors
•
Session resumption for 4 out of 5 TCP connections
•
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each
•
128-bit ARC4
NS 9100
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
2300
2300
SSL Throughput
1 Gbps
1 Gbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
9 Gbps
9 Gbps
Total Throughput
10 Gbps
10 Gbps
NS 9200
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SSL best practices
SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: NS-series Sensors
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
4600
4600
SSL Throughput
2 Gbps
2 Gbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
18 Gbps
18 Gbps
Total Throughput
20 Gbps
20 Gbps
1024 bit key length
2048 bit key length
Max. SSL Connections / Sec.
9200
9200
SSL Throughput
4 Gbps
4 Gbps
HTTP 1.1 Throughput
36 Gbps
36 Gbps
Total Throughput
40 Gbps
40 Gbps
12
NS 9300
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SSL best practices
SSL traffic mixed with HTTP 1.1 traffic: NS-series Sensors
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Sensor HTTP response processing
deployment
HTTP response processing is disabled by default. You can enable it for each traffic direction on an
interface pair. To minimize the potential performance impact on the McAfee® Network Security Sensor
(Sensor), we recommend that you enable HTTP response processing on the minimum number of ports
and in only the required directions to achieve your protection goals.
Some examples of HTTP response processing deployment:
•
You want to protect a bunch of clients on your internal network - enable HTTP response processing
for inbound traffic only.
•
You are serving Web content to external clients, and do not wish to serve attacks embedded in
HTTP response traffic - enable HTTP response processing for outbound traffic only.
•
You want to protect both internal clients as well as the Web content you are serving to external
clients- enable HTTP response processing in both directions.
Tests for enabling HTTP response traffic
The test results provided in the next two sections illustrate potential impact of enabling response
processing traffic.
The things to note about the test are given below.
•
The test involves only HTTP traffic. Changing the HTTP response processing setting does not
change the Sensor performance for any other protocol. Therefore, changes in aggregate Sensor
performance will depend on the proportion of HTTP traffic to other traffic on the link being
monitored.
•
The test sends equal HTTP request and response loads in both directions through the Sensor.
Typical real-world deployments do not have equal amounts of HTTP request traffic and response
traffic in both directions through the Sensor. Usually, there is significant amount of request traffic in
one direction and response traffic in the opposite direction. Since HTTP requests are typically <=
1/10th of the response size, the combined HTTP request and response traffic processed by Sensors
in real deployments is typically less than that shown in the tests.
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Sensor HTTP response processing deployment
Tests for enabling HTTP response traffic
•
The test sends HTTP request continuously at maximum load. Real-world networks are typically
loaded, occasionally peaking at maximum capacity, but typically running at significantly lower
throughput. The test results reflect performance at sustained load. When not running at maximum
load, the Sensor can absorb larger bursts without significant impact.
•
The test environment was created to illustrate the likely worst-case performance impact, expected
to occur in deployments protecting large Web server farms. In these deployments, HTTP response
processing typically provides little value because all HTTP response traffic is sourced from trusted
servers, which do not usually transmit hostile content due to the security measures taken. In these
environments, customers can consider selectively enabling HTTP response processing to better
optimize their network.
The net result of all of these factors is that in typical networks, the impact of enabling HTTP response
processing is not noticed. The exact impact is, of course, dependent on the traffic being inspected and
some environments could see a reduction in performance as significant as the test results indicate.
The factors to take into account include:
•
proportion of HTTP traffic to other protocols
•
relative amount of HTTP requests and responses in each direction and,
•
size of a response page sent to the client by the sites or applications that are typically accessed.
For Sensor performance numbers under the following conditions:
•
HTTP response processing enabled/disabled and
•
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each sent in one direction,
HTTP response processing results for I-series Sensors
Refer to the following table for I-series Sensor performance numbers with HTTP response processing:
Model No. HTTP Response Scanning Disabled
HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for
outbound direction
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP
connection with a 10K response each
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP
connection with a 10K response each
I-4010
2 Gbps
1 Gbps
I-4000
1.78 Gbps
1 Gbps
I-3000
1 Gbps
680 Mbps
I-2700
550 Mbps
430 Mbps
I-1400
195 Mbps
160 Mbps
I-1200
97 Mbps
75 Mbps
HTTP response processing results for M-series Sensors
Refer to the following table for M-series Sensor performance numbers with HTTP response processing:
Model No. HTTP Response Scanning Disabled
40
HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for
outbound direction
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP
connection with a 10K response each
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP
connection with a 10K response each
M-8000
10 Gbps
5.4 Gbps
M-6050
5 Gbps
2.8 Gbps
M-4050
3 Gbps
2 Gbps
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
Sensor HTTP response processing deployment
Tests for enabling HTTP response traffic
Model No. HTTP Response Scanning Disabled
HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for
outbound direction
M-3050
1.5Gbps
1 Gbps
M-2950
1.0 Gbps
850 Mbps
M-2850
600 Mbps
500 Mbps
M-2750
600 Mbps
500 Mbps
M-1450
200 Mbps
200 Mbps
M-1250
100 Mbps
100 Mbps
13
HTTP response processing results for NS-series Sensors
Refer to the following table for NS-series Sensor performance numbers with HTTP response
processing:
Model No.
HTTP Response Scanning Enabled for outbound direction
5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10K response each
NS9300
40 Gbps
NS9200
20 Gbps
NS9100
10 Gbps
The NS-series performance numbers when HTTP response is disabled will be higher. For example, the
NS9100 performance with HTTP response scanning disabled will be higher than 10 Gbps.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
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13
Sensor HTTP response processing deployment
Tests for enabling HTTP response traffic
42
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
14
Sensor performance with Layer 7 Data
Collection
The Layer 7 Data Collection feature is available on M-series and NS-series Sensors on version 7.0 and
above. Turning on this feature does affect Sensor performance.
The factors to take into account include:
•
HTTP Response Scanning setting
•
Proportion of HTTP traffic to other protocols
•
Relative amount of HTTP requests and responses in each direction
•
Size of a response page sent to the client by the sites or applications that are typically accessed
This section provides the performance details in a test environment.
•
The test environment used 5 HTTP 1.1 get page requests per TCP connection with a 10 K response,
each sent in one direction.
•
When Advanced Traffic Inspection is enabled, in a deployment with 90 percent of traffic without
evasions and 10 percent of traffic with evasions, the overall Sensor throughput would further drop
by an additional five percent approximately. For example , if you get 1 Gbps throughput with Layer
7 Data Collection enabled, you would see 950 Mbps if Advanced Traffic Inspection is also enabled.
Table 14-1
Sensor performance details with respect to Layer 7 Data Collection
Sensor model Layer 7 Data Collection setting
HTTP Response
Scanning setting
Observed
throughput
Disabled
5 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
2.8 Gbps
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 5
Disabled
4.5 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
2.2 Gbps
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 100
Disabled
4.4 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
2.1 Gbps
Disabled
Disabled
3 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
2 Gbps
Disabled
2.7 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
1.3 Gbps
Disabled
M-8030
M-6030
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 5
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
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14
Sensor performance with Layer 7 Data Collection
Table 14-1
Sensor performance details with respect to Layer 7 Data Collection (continued)
Sensor model Layer 7 Data Collection setting
M-4030
M-3030
44
HTTP Response
Scanning setting
Observed
throughput
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 100
Disabled
2.6 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
1.2 Gbps
Disabled
Disabled
1.5 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
1 Gbps
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 5
Disabled
1.4 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
0.7 Gbps
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 100
Disabled
1.3 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
0.6 Gbps
Disabled
Disabled
1 Gbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
850 Mbps
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 5
Disabled
921 Mbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
446 Mbps
Percentage of flows that capture
L7 data: 100
Disabled
891 Mbps
Enabled for outbound
direction
431 Mbps
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
15
Sensor capacity by model number
Maximum Type
M-8030
M-6030
M-4030
M-3030
Aggregate Performance
10 Gbps
5 Gbps
3 Gbps
1.5 Gbps
Maximum throughput with
test equipment sending UDP
packet size of 1518 bytes
Up to 10 Gbps
Up to 5 Gbps
Up to 3 Gbps
Up to 1.5 Gbps
Concurrent connections
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
750,000
Connections established per
sec.
60,000
36,000
18,000
15,000
Default number of supported 400,000
UDP Flows
100,000
50,000
50,000
Supported UDP Flows
1,500,000
750,000
375,000
375,000
Latency
< 100 micro
seconds
< 100 micro
seconds
< 100 micro
seconds
< 100 micro
seconds
200,000
150,000
75,000
25,000
Number of SSL keys that can 256
be stored in Sensor
256
256
256
IPS Quarantine rules per
Sensor
1000 IPv4 500
IPv6
1000 IPv4
1000 IPv4
1000 IPv4
500 IPv6
500 IPv6
500 IPv6
Virtual Interfaces (VIDS) per
Sensor
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
VLAN / CIDR Blocks per
Sensor
3,000
3,000
3,000
300
VLAN / CIDR Blocks per
Interface
254
254
254
254
Customized attacks
100,000
100,000
100,000
100,000
Exception objects
262,144
262,144
262,144
131,072
Number of attacks with
exception objects
128,000
100,000
100,000
100,000
DoS Profiles
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
SYN cookie rate (64-byte
packets per second)
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
800,000
ACL Rules
1000
1000
1000
1000
Device Profile Limits
100,000
50,000
25,000
15,000
(Average UDP per packet
Latency)
SSL Flow count maximum
The number of supported SSL flows on a Sensor directly impacts the number of TCP flows that can be
processed simultaneously.
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
45
15
Sensor capacity by model number
46
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
Index
A
M
about this guide 5
active fail-open kits 21
asymmetric networks 31
Manager server hardening; Windows 2003 11
installing desktop firewall 11
Manager server hardening; Windows 2008 15
installation 15
pre-installation 15
McAfee ServicePortal, accessing 6
monitoring ports; cabling 9
MySQL installation hardening; Windows 2003 11
removing local anonymous users 12
C
conventions and icons used in this guide 5
D
documentation
audience for this guide 5
product-specific, finding 6
typographical conventions and icons 5
DoS attacks profiles; learning 24
E
P
policy tuning practices 23
post-installation; Windows 2008 16
pre-installation checklist 7
exception objects 23
R
F
response management 25, 26
rule sets 27
firewall policies 29
H
high-volume attacks; analyzing 23
HTTP response processing deployment 39
HTTP response traffic 39
processing results; I-series Sensors 40
processing results; M-series Sensors 40
S
ServicePortal, finding product documentation 6
SSL best practices 33
T
technical support, finding product information 6
L
large Sensor deployments 19, 20
McAfee® Network Security Platform 8.1
Best Practices Guide
47
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