Operating instructions NORTHSTAR EXPLORER 657

You can read the recommendations in the user guide, the technical guide or the installation guide for NORTHSTAR EXPLORER
657. You'll find the answers to all your questions on the NORTHSTAR EXPLORER 657 in the user manual (information,
specifications, safety advice, size, accessories, etc.). Detailed instructions for use are in the User's Guide.
User manual NORTHSTAR EXPLORER 657
User guide NORTHSTAR EXPLORER 657
Operating instructions NORTHSTAR EXPLORER 657
Instructions for use NORTHSTAR EXPLORER 657
Instruction manual NORTHSTAR EXPLORER 657
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Manual abstract:
@@@@@@has been translated from, another language (Translation). In the event of any conflict between any Translation of the Documentation, the
English language version of the Documentation will be the official version of the Documentation. This manual represents the Explorer 657 as at the time of
printing. Brunswick New Technologies Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates reserve the right to make changes to specifications without notice. Copyright ©
2006 Brunswick New Technologies Inc. NorthstarTM is a registered trademark of Brunswick New Technologies Inc WARNING CAUTION CAUTION
DISCLAIMER: It is the owner's sole responsibility to install and use the instrument and transducers in a manner that will not cause accidents, personal injury
or property damage. The user of this product is solely responsible for observing safe boating practices. BRUNSWICK NEW TECHNOLOGIES INC. AND ITS
SUBSIDIARIES AND AFFILIATES DISCLAIM ALL LIABILITY FOR ANY USE OF THIS PRODUCT IN A WAY THAT MAY CAUSE ACCIDENTS,
DAMAGE OR THAT MAY VIOLATE THE LAW.
Governing Language: This statement, any instruction manuals, user guides and other information relating to the product (Documentation) may be translated
to, or FCC Statement Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC
Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a normal installation. This equipment generates, uses and
can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures: Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver. Connect the equipment into an output on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected. Consult the dealer or an experienced technician for help. A shielded cable must be used when connecting a peripheral to the serial ports.
Important The choice, location, angle and installation of the instrument & transducers are critical to performance of the system as intended.
Follow instructions in this manual carefully. If in doubt, consult your Northstar dealer. Ensure that any holes cut are in a safe position and will not weaken
the boat's structure. If in doubt, consult a qualified boat builder. Do not install plastic through hull transducers in solid wooden hulls. Leaking through the
hull may result. Do not install bronze transducers in metal hulls. This will cause electrolytic corrosion that may result in damage to the hull or transducer.
Sonar Performance: The accuracy of the sonar depth display can be affected by many factors, including the type and location of the transducer and water
conditions. Ensure that the transducer is located and used correctly.
Global Positioning System: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is operated by the US Government which is solely responsible for its operation, accuracy
and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment anywhere in the world
including the 657. Whilst the Northstar 657 is a precision navigation instrument, it can be misused or misinterpreted, which can result in its use being unsafe.
To reduce the risk of misusing or misinterpreting the 657, the user must read and understand all aspects of this Installation and Operation manual. We also
suggest that the user practice all operations using the built in simulator before using the 657 at sea. Electronic Chart: The electronic chart used by the 657 is
an aid to navigation and is designed to supplement the use of official government charts not replace them. Only official government charts supplemented by
notices to mariners contain the information required for safe and prudent navigation. Always supplement the information provided by the 657 with other
plotting sources such as observations, depth soundings, radar and hand compass bearings. Should the information not agree then the discrepancy must be
resolved before proceeding any further. Sonar fishfinder: The accuracy of the sonar depth display can be limited by many factors, including the type of the
transducers, the location of the transducers and water conditions.
It is the user's responsibility to ensure the 657 transducers are installed and used correctly. AIS: The AIS features on this chart-plotter are designed as a
safety aid only and do not guarantee safety at sea. AIS transmission is mandatory on some, but not all, vessels. You should check your local laws and
regulations for requirements in your area. As a result of different legal requirements, different vessel sizes and uses, you should not assume that your AIS
equipped chart-plotter will show the location of ALL vessels in your area.
Careful prudence, judgement, and safe navigation practices should always be exercised. AIS should be used to complement radar, but AIS is not a substitute
for radar. Fuel Computer: Fuel economy can alter drastically depending on the boat loading and sea conditions. The fuel computer should not be the sole
source of information concerning available fuel onboard and the electronic information should be supplemented by visual or other checks of the fuel load.
This is necessary due to possible operator induced errors such as forgetting to reset the fuel used when filling the tank, running the engine with the fuel
computer not switched on or other operator controlled actions that may render the device inaccurate.
Always ensure that adequate fuel is carried onboard for the intended trip plus a reserve to allow for unforeseen circumstances. Failure to adhere to these
warnings may lead to death, serious injury or property damage. Northstar disclaims all liability for installation or use of this product that causes or
contributes to death, injury or property damage or that violates any law. The 657 is set up with default units of feet, °F (Fahrenheit), US gallons and knots. To
change the units, see section 17-10. Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 3 Contents 1 Introduction .....
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..7 1-1 Overview . . .
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. . . . . 8 1-2 Cleaning and maintenance . . . . .
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8 1-3 Plug-in cards . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . 8 1-4 Removing and replacing the display unit .
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9 2 Basic Operation.....
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.. 10 2-1 Using the keys . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . 10 2-2 Turning on and off / auto power .
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. . . 11 2-3 Backlight and night mode . .
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. . . 12 2-4 Man overboard (MOB) . .
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. . 12 2-5 Alarms. . .
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. . . . . . . 13 2-6 Simulate mode . . .
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. . . 13 2-7 The main windows . . . . . . .
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. . . . . 14 3 Navigation: Chart.....
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.... 19 3-1 Introduction to navigating.
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. . . . . . . . . 19 3-2 Chart window .
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. 21 3-3 Distance and bearing calculator . . . .
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. . . . .23 3-4 Projected course . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . .23 3-5 Tracks and tracking .
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.24 4 Navigation: Highway window ....
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. 24 5 Navigation: Waypoints.........
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.. 25 5-1 Waypoints window . . . . . . . .
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. . . .25 5-2 Managing waypoints . . . . . .
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. . . .26 6 Navigation: Routes ......
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27 6-1 Routes window . . . . .
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.28 6-2 Managing routes . . . .
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28 7 Satellites ..........
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. 30 7-1 Satellite window . . . .
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. 31 8 Sonar fishfinding: Introduction ....
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... 31 8-1 Using the 657 . . . . . . .
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. 31 8-2 Interpreting the display. . . .
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. . . . . . . . .32 8-3 Single and Dual frequency fishfinding .
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. .34 4 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 8-4 Fish detection and display . . . . . . . .
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. . 37 8-5 Range . . .
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. .38 8-6 Gain and threshold . . . . . . . .
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. . . .39 9 Sonar fishfinding: Displays ......
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........40 9-1 Sonar history display - no split . .
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. . .40 9-2 Sonar Zoom and Full Screen Zoom displays . .
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. . . . . 41 9-3 Sonar Bottom display. . . . .
. . . . . . .66 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 5 17-5 Setup > Fuel . . .
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. . . .66 17-6 Setup > Track .
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.68 17-7 Setup > AIS . . . . . . . . .
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69 17-8 Setup > Logs . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . .69 17-9 Setup > Alarms . . .
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. .70 17-10 Setup > Units . . .
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. . . 71 17-11 Setup > Comms . .
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. 71 17-12 Setup > Calibrate . . . . . . . . .
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. . .72 17-13 Setup > Time . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . .73 17-15 Setup > Simulate .
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74 18 Installation ..........
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74 18-1 Installation: What comes with the 657 . . . . .
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75 18-3 Installation: The display unit . . . . .
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. .77 18-4 Installation: Power/data cable . . . . . . . .
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. .78 18-5 Installation: GPS antenna . . . . . . . .
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.79 18-6 Installation: Sonar transducer . . . .
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. . . . . .80 18-7 Installation: Northstar petrol/gasoline sensors . . . .
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80 18-8 Installation: SmartCraftTM . . . . .
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. . . . . 81 18-9 Installation: Other NavBus instruments . . . . .
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. 81 18-10 Installation: Other NMEA instruments . . . .
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. . . . . . .82 18-11 Installation: Setup and test . . .
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. . . .83 Appendix A - Specifications .
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.84 Appendix B - Troubleshooting ....
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.........86 B-1 General problems .
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. .86 B-2 GPS navigation problems. . .
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. . . . . . . .87 B-3 Fuel consumption problems. .
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.87 B-4 Sonar fishfinding problems . . . . . . . . .
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. . . .88 Appendix C - Glossary and navigation data......
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........90 6 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 1 Introduction Quick reference to the built-in and optional features: Feature General
Type How to use the keys and displays Troubleshooting Simulate mode Glossary of special names Specifications MOB Navigation Man overboard key
Overview of how to navigate Finding the boat's position on the chart Navigate to any point or to a waypoint Navigate along a route Projected course: An
estimate of progress Tracks: records of where the boat has been GPS receiver status Saving and loading data with a user card Chart data Chart features
(built in world chart) Chart details Tides at a port AIS Alarms Built in alarms SmartCraftTM engine alarms Boat data Data at top of main displays Compass
at top of main displays Dedicated data window Fuel Fuel computer, petrol/gasoline engine Fuel computer, SmartCraftTM engines What to do when you add
or remove fuel Sounder Overview of the depth sounder Depth, bottom features, water features Fishfinder Other boats Track your buddy, polling other boats
Distress calls See 2 Appendix B 2-6 Appendix C Appendix A 2-4 3-1 3-2 3-1 3-1 3-4 3-5 7 14 3-2 3-2-4 & 5 11 15 2-5 1-1 2-7-3 2-7-4 11 12 12 12-1 8 8 8 16
16 Sounder Sounder Sounder DSC VHF DSC VHF Fuel sensors SmartCraftTM SmartCraftTM C-MAPTM chart C-MAPTM chart User card GPS fix Requires
Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 7 1-1 Overview The Northstar 657 is a compact, rugged, highly integrated marine chartplotter
and fishfinder. It is easy to use and has an easy to read color display.
Complex functions can be performed with a few key presses, taking the hard work out of boating. The available functions, displays and setup menus depend on
the optional sensors and instruments that are installed: Sonar functions require a sonar transducer to be installed Fuel functions require one or more
petrol/gasoline or diesel fuel sensors to be installed. SmartCraftTM engine functions require a SmartCraftTM system to be installed. For information on using
SmartCraftTM, see the SmartCraftTM Gateway Installation and Operation Manual. DSC/Buddy track functions require a Northstar DSC VHF radio with
Buddy track support to be installed.
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The 657 can send data to other instruments, such as an autopilot, and receive data from other instruments. AIS functions require an optional AIS receiver to
be installed. For information on installing options, see section 18-2. This manual describes how to install and operate the 657. Special terms are explained in
Appendix C.
For maximum benefit, please read this manual carefully before installing and using the unit. For more information on this instrument and other Northstar
products, go to our website, www.northstarnav.com. 1-2 Cleaning and maintenance The 657 screen is covered by a proprietary anti-reflection coating.
To avoid damage, clean the screen only with a damp cloth and mild detergent when dirty or covered in sea salt. Avoid abrasive cleaners, petrol or other
solvents. If a plug-in card gets dirty or wet, clean it with a damp cloth or mild detergent. Cover or remove a transom-mounted transducer when repainting the
hull. If painting over a through hull transducer with antifouling paint, use only one coat of paint.
Remove the previous coat of antifouling paint by sanding it lightly. To optimize performance, avoid walking on or jamming cables and connectors. Keep the
transducer free of weed, paint and debris. Do not use a high pressure water blast on a speed sensor paddlewheel as it may damage the bearings. Push the
dust cover over the display when the 657 is turned off. 1-3 Plug-in cards The 657 can use two kinds of plug-in card: 1 C-MAPTM chart cards have chart
details required for navigating in a particular region. When a chart card is plugged in, the extra details automatically appear on the 657 chart window. The
657 can use NT, NT+ and NT-MAX cards. NT-MAX cards have much more chart information than earlier cards, including photos of points of interest. 2 CMAPTM user cards are used to store navigation data.
Each user card expands the 657 memory and allows the data to be transferred to another 657 easily. (see section 14). Note: The older 5 volt user cards are
not supported. 8 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual Changing the plug-in card Gold contacts under here 1 2 3 Card 4 Holder
CAUTION Handle plug-in cards carefully. Keep them in their protective cases when not plugged into the 657. Keep the holder in place in the 657 at all times
to prevent moisture from entering the card compartment. Turn the 657 off (see section 2-2). Pull the card holder out of the 657 and pull any card out of
holder. Put the card in its case. Push new card into holder.
Ensure the gold contacts are on the outer edge and underneath (see above). Keep the card's case. Push card holder fully into 657 1-4 Removing and replacing
the display unit If the display unit is bracket mounted then the display unit can easily be removed and replaced for security or protection. Removing the
display unit: 1 2 3 Turn the display unit off (see section 2-2) and put the dust cover on. Loosen the knob on the mounting bracket and lift the unit off the
bracket.
Unplug the connectors from the display unit; turning each locking collar anticlockwise until you can pull the plug out. Push the attached dust covers over the
exposed ends of the connectors. Store the display unit in a dry clean place, such as the optional Northstar carry bag. Remove the dust covers from the
connectors. Plug the connectors into the back of the display unit: Match the connector's color to the socket color.
Knob 2 Insert each connector and turn the locking collar clockwise until it is finger tight. Nothing will be damaged if a cable is plugged into the wrong socket
by mistake. Hold the display unit in place on the mounting bracket. Adjust the tilt of the display for best viewing, then hand tighten the knob on the mounting
bracket. Remove the dust cover. 4 5 Replacing the display unit 1 Mounting bracket Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 9 2 Basic
Operation Overview of the keys ESCAPE - Go back to an earlier menu or display. In chart mode, centres chart at boat's position. DISPLAY - Show a menu of
the main displays. To go to a display, select it from the menu (see section 2-7). CURSOR KEYS - to move the cursor or the selection highlight.
MENU - Show a menu of the options for the current window. again to display the Setup menu (see section 17). ENTER - Start an action or accept a change.
ZOOM - Chart window: Zoom in or out to display different areas and detail on the chart. Sonar window: Change the depth range displayed. FAVORITES Allows you to quickly switch between your saved favorite displays. MOB - (Man Overboard, see section 2-4). POWER - Turn 657 on and off (see section 2-2);
adjust the backlighting (see section 2-3). Press 2-1 Using the keys In this manual: Press means to push the key for less than a second. Hold means to hold the
key down.
The internal beeper beeps when a key is pressed (to disable or enable the beep, see section 17-1). Selecting a submenu A after a menu item indicates a
submenu, for example Chart . Press or to move the highlight to the submenu, then press . Starting a command Press or to move the highlight to the command,
for example Goto cursor, then press . Using the menus Operate the 657 by selecting items from menus.
Items can be submenus, commands or data. 10 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual Changing data or to move the highlight to the First
press data to change, then: a) To change a tick box means On or Yes means Off or No. Press 1 Press or to change the tick box. b) To select an option to
display the menu of options. c) To change a name or number: 1 2 Press to display the name or number: or to select a letter or digit to Press change.
Press or to change the letter or digit. Repeat this to change other letters or numbers. 3 Press to accept the new value. Or press to ignore the changes. to
increase d ) To change a slider value to decrease the value or Press the value. 2 Press or to move the highlight to the option you want, then press . 2-2
Turning on and off / auto power Turning on manually If the 657 is not wired for auto power, press to turn the unit on. If necessary, adjust the display to be
easy to read (see section 2-3). Note: If the 657 is not wired for auto power then the 657 does not record engine hours and might not record fuel consumption
(see section 18-4). · · · Auto power If the 657 is wired for auto power (see section 18-4), then: The 657 automatically turns on when you turn the boat's
ignition switch on.
You can not turn the 657 off while the ignition switch is on. If Auto power off (see section 17-1) is , the 657 automatically turns off when you turn the boat's
ignition switch off. If Auto power off (see section 17-1) is , the 657 stays on when you turn the boat's ignition switch off. You can now turn the 657 off
manually. Turning off manually If the 657 is not wired for auto power or if the ignition switch is off, hold down until the display turns off.
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· Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 11 2-3 Backlight and night mode To go to the Backlight display, press briefly. Night mode Night
mode sets the palette for all displays. Normal palette, for daytime A palette optimised for night time. To change mode, highlight Night mode, then press or . To
change only the chart palette, see section 17-2.
Backlight The display and keys are backlit. To change the backlight level, highlight select Backlight, then press to dim or to brighten. When you have finished,
press Tip: Press twice to give the brightest screen, with maximum backlight and Night mode off. 2-4 Man overboard (MOB) The MOB feature saves the boat's
position and then navigates back to this point. If the NMEA output (autopilot) is on, the 657 asks if the autopilot is active.
Select: No: Use the 657 to manually navigate to the destination MOB waypoint (see sections 3-1-1 and 3-1-2). Yes: The 657 asks if the boat is to go to the
MOB waypoint. Select: Yes: to immediately start navigating to the MOB waypoint. ! WARNING MOB will not work if the 657 does not have a GPS fix. 1
Press .
The 657 stores the boat's position as a waypoint called MOB. 2 The 657 changes to the chart window, with the MOB waypoint at the center of the chart. The
chart zooms in for accurate navigation. If the chart can not show the required small scale, the 657 changes to plotter mode (a white display with
crosshatching and no chart details, see section 17-2). 3 The 657 sets the MOB waypoint to be the destination to navigate to. If the NMEA output (autopilot) is
off (see section 17-11) use the 657 to manually navigate to the destination MOB waypoint (see sections 3-1-1 and 3-1-2). ! WARNING This might result in a
sudden and dangerous turn. No: disengage the autopilot; then use the 657 to manually navigate to the destination MOB waypoint (see sections 3-1-1 and
3-1-2). To cancel MOB or set another MOB 1 2 Press again to display a menu. Select an option from the menu.
Tip: The MOB waypoint remains on the chart after the MOB has been cancelled. To delete the MOB waypoint, see section 5-2-5. 12 Northstar Explorer 657
Installation and Operation Manual 2-5 Alarms When the 657 detects an alarm condition, it displays a warning message on the display, the internal beeper
sounds and any external beepers or lights operate. Press to clear the alarm. The alarm will sound again if the alarm condition occurs again. The 657 has user
settable alarms (see section 17-9). 2-6 Simulate mode In Simulate mode, the 657 ignores data from the GPS antenna and other transducers and sensors and
the 657 generates this data itself. Otherwise, the 657 functions normally. There are two simulate modes: · · Normal: Allows a user to become familiar with the
657 off the water. Demo: Simulates a boat moving along a route and automatically displays different 657 functions.
To start and stop Simulate mode, and for more information, see section 17-15. In simulate mode, Simulate or Demo flashes at the bottom of the display. !
WARNING Never have Simulate mode on when the 657 is navigating on the water. Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 13 2-7 The
main windows The display menu allows quick access to the main windows. Full-screen Chart and Sonar are at the top of the menu.
Other windows are available from the More... sub menu. Note 1 The windows available depend on the optional sensors and instruments that are installed (see
section 1-1).
Set up commonly used windows as favorites and press to switch between windows (see section 2-7-2). 2 14 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation
Manual Note: The windows below the menu divider can only be shown full screen without a data header. (see section 2-7-3). Northstar Explorer 657
Installation and Operation Manual 15 2-7-1 Multi window displays The 657 can show two windows at once. Changing window size 1 2 Press and select Split
ratio. Press or to change the height of the windows. Note: Some windows are fixed in size. Press Press window. . twice to change the active 3 1 2 Exchanging
two windows on the display Press , select Replace and select the second window.
The 657 exchanges the two windows. Replacing a window on the display 1 2 Adding a window to the display Press , select Add window and select a window
to add. The 657 automatically rearranges the display to show the new window. Press window. twice to change the active Press , select Replace and select a
new window that is not currently visible. Note: When some windows are small then not all the data is shown. The active window If there is more than one
window displayed, the active window is indicated by a red border. Press twice to change the active window. Pressing will display the options menu for the
active window. Chart is active Red border Sonar is active Red border 16 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 2-7-2 Favorite displays
The 657 has a list of commonly used displays, called favorite displays.
There can be up to six favorite displays. Sonar, Gauges, Fuel, Data, and Tanks windows can be combined in a display. Each of these displays can have a data
header (see section 2-7-3) and a compass (see section 2-7-4). Selecting a favorite display To select another favourite, press one or more times. For example,
with six favourites: Deleting a favorite display from the list 1 2 Press twice then select Favorites.
Highlight the display to delete, press and select Delete. Adding a favorite display to the list 1 Set up the display with the window or windows you want in the
new favorite (see section 2-7). Press and select Save this display. The 657 displays the favorites list. Select where in the list to add the new favorite.
If you select an existing favorite display then the new favorite will replace the existing favorite in the list. Changing the order of the favorites list 1 2 Press
twice then select Favorites. Highlight the display to move, press and select Move up or Move down. 2 3 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation
Manual 17 2-7-3 Data header The displays can show data at the top, called the data header. Favorites displays and data headers To set a data header for a
favorites display, follow the steps to add a favorite (see section 2-7-2 - Adding a favorite display to the list). In step 1, set the data header for the favorite as
described above. 2-7-4 Compass When you select a window from the display menu (see section 2-7) the 657 displays an appropriate data header for the
window. Each favorite display (see section 2-7-2) has its own data header. When you press to recall a favorite display, the 657 recalls the favorite displays
data header. Setting the data header for a display 1 2 Press i ii 3 i ii 4 i and select Data header.
To turn the data header on or off: Select Data. Select or . The chart, sonar and highway displays can show a compass at the top of the window.
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The compass always shows the boat's course over ground (COG), a black symbol in the middle. When the boat is navigating to a point, the compass also
shows bearing to the destination (BRG), a red symbol. In this example, BRG is 332°M and COG is 341°M. To turn the compass off or on: 1 2 Press and select
Data header. or . Set Compass to To select the size of the data: Select Size. Select the size to display.
To change the data displayed: Select Data setup. ii Change a data field: a b c Press the cursor keys to highlight the field. Press to display a menu of data
items. Select a data item that is available on your system or select None to leave the field empty. iii Repeat the above step to set the other data fields.
Tip: If all fields in a line are None then the line will not be displayed and the data header will take less space on the display. 5 Press . Tip: The data header
will change when you select another display. To set a data header that you can recall later, set the header as part of a favorites display (see below). 18
Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 3 Navigation: Chart The chart window shows the chart, the boat's position course and navigation
data.
3-1 Introduction to navigating The 657 has two ways of navigating, going straight to a point or following a route. 3-1-2 Going to a waypoint or to a point on
the chart A waypoint is a position that you can set on the 657 chart, for example a fishing spot or a point on a route (see section 5). Going to a waypoint from
the chart window 1 2 Go to the chart window. Move the cursor to the waypoint: either use the cursor keys or use Find (see section 3-2-5). Press and select
Goto. 3-1-1 Navigating to a point When the 657 is navigating to a point, the chart and highway displays show navigation data: A B C The boat position . The
destination point marked with a circle. The boat's plotted course to the destination. D Two CDI lines, parallel to the boat's plotted course, which indicate the
maximum expected deviation from the plotted course. D C B 3 Going to a waypoint from the waypoints window 1 2 3 1 Go to the waypoints window.
Press goto. Press or to highlight the waypoint to and select Goto. A D Going to a point on the chart Switch to a chart window. Move the cursor to the
destination point: either use the cursor keys or use Find (see section 3-2-5). 2 For more information, see appendix C. If the 657 is connected to an autopilot,
the 657 will send data to the autopilot to steer the boat to the destination. Start the autopilot before starting to navigate to the point. If the 657 has no
autopilot, steer the boat manually: a b c use the boat position and destination on the chart or highway displays or use navigation data displayed on the data
header (see section 2-7-3) or use COG and BRG on the compass (see section 2-7-4). If the XTE alarm is enabled, an alarm will sound if the boat deviates too
much from its intended course (see section 17-9). If the arrival radius alarm is enabled, then an alarm will sound to show that the boat has reached the
destination (see section 17-9).
! WARNING Make sure the course does not pass over land or dangerous waters. 3 Press and select Goto cursor. Navigating The 657 navigates to the point as
described in section 3-1-1. Cancelling navigating Go to a Chart window, press Cancel goto. and select Note: 1 2 Tip: Before starting, create waypoints at
points of interest.
Create a waypoint at the start of the trip for you to navigate back to (see section 5-2-1). Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 19 3-1-3
Following a route Preparing A route is a list of waypoints that the boat can follow (see section 6). To create waypoints before creating the route, see section
5-2-1. To create a route, see section 6-2-1. Starting a route from the chart window: 1 2 3 4 Go to the chart window.
Press or Press follow. Press and select Start Route to highlight the route to . Skipping a waypoint To skip a waypoint, go to a chart window, press and select
Skip. The 657 starts navigating straight towards the next waypoint on the route. ! WARNING Skipping a waypoint with the autopilot on might result in a
sudden course change. Cancelling a route When the boat has reached the final waypoint, or to stop the boat following the route at any time, cancel the route.
Go to a chart window, press and select Cancel route. The 657 asks for the direction to traverse the route. Select Forward (the order the route was created) or
Reverse. The 657 displays the chart with the route marked and starts navigating from the start of the route.
Go to the routes window. Then follow step 3 as in starting a route from the chart window above. 5 Starting a route from the routes window: 1 2 Navigating
The 657 navigates to each waypoint on the route in turn as described in section 3-1-1. The 657 stops navigating to the waypoint at the end of the current leg
and starts the next leg of the route: a b c when the boat comes within 0.025 nm of the waypoint or when the boat passes the waypoint or if you skip the
waypoint. 20 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 3-2 Chart window To go to the Chart window, press select Chart. A typical chart
window shows: A B C then F D E H I J K G A B C D E F G H I J K Data header. To turn the data off or on or to change what data is displayed, see section
2-7-3 Compass (see section 2-7-4) Chart scale (see section 3-2-3) Boat position (see section 3-2-1) Boat track (see section 3-5) Boat course and CDI lines
(see Appendix C, CDI). Distance and bearing of cursor from boat Land Sea The cursor (see section 3-2-1) A typical waypoint (see section 5) Note: To change
the types of information displayed on the chart, see section 17-2. To change to a perspective view of the chart, see section 3-2-6.
Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 21 3-2-1 Chart modes The Chart has two modes: Center on boat mode To switch to center on boat
mode in the chart window, press . The boat is at the center of the chart. As the boat moves through the water, the chart automatically scrolls to keep the boat
in the center of the chart. The cursor (see below) is turned off. Cursor mode The keys and are called cursor keys.
To switch to cursor mode in the chart window, hold down a cursor key. The cursor appears and moves away from the boat: Press the key which points in the
direction that the cursor will move, for example press to move the cursor down. Press midway between two of the cursor keys to make the cursor move
diagonally. Hold a cursor key down to make the cursor move continuously across the display. In Cursor mode: The distance ( DST) and bearing ( BRG) of the
cursor from the boat are displayed at the bottom corner of the display.
The chart does not scroll as the boat moves. If the cursor reaches the edge of the display, the chart will scroll. For example, hold down to move the cursor to
the right side of the display and the chart will scroll to the left.
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3 ! WARNING When reading the boat position, make sure the position is not the cursor position. 3-2-3 Chart scale Press to zoom in and display a smaller
area of the chart in more detail. Press to zoom out and display a bigger area in less detail. The chart scale is displayed at the top left of the chart: 3-2-4 Chart
symbols and information The chart shows many kinds of symbols, such as waypoints, ports, marinas, buoys and beacons. If or to choose a chart necessary,
press or scale where the symbol is displayed. To see stored information about a symbol: 1 Either move the cursor to the symbol on the chart and wait two
seconds or use Find to move the cursor to a symbol for a port or service (see section 3-2-5). 2 A window appears at the bottom of the display with some
information about the symbol.
To see more detail about a symbol or a list of associated items for the symbol, press : i Select an item to display. If there are more items than will fit on the
display, press or to scroll up or down. Select a camera icon to display a photo of the item. If the photo is too big to fit on the display, press , , or to scroll the
photo. Select Tide Station to display a tide chart for the position (see section 13). ii Select other items or press return to the chart. to 3-2-2 Latitude and
longitude Latitude and longitude can be displayed in the data header. The display is degrees and minutes to three decimal places, about 2 m (6 ft) resolution.
Normally the position is the boat's position, and the latitude and longitude has a boat symbol to show this: 36° 29.637' N or S 175° 09.
165' E or W Latitude Longitude If the cursor has been moved in the last ten seconds, then the position is the cursor's position, and the latitude and longitude
has a cursor symbol to show this: 36° 29.841' N or S 175° 09.012' E or W 22 To see stored information about nearby symbols press and select Chart info.
Then follow step 3 above. Latitude Longitude Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 3-2-5 Finding a chart symbol To find and display a
chart symbol: 1 2 Press and select Find.
Select the type of symbol: Waypoints, Routes, Ports by name, Ports & services, Tide stations or AIS Vessels. For Ports & services: select the type of service to
find. For Ports by name: press , , or to enter a name or letters contained in the port name, then press . 4 A list of items is displayed. If there are more items
than will fit on the display, press or to page up and down.
5 For Ports by name: to search for a different . change the name, port name, press then press . Select the item and press . The chart window changes to show
the item in the middle of the display. To see stored information about the item, press (see section 3-2-4). 3 3-2-6 Perspective view Perspective view shows the
chart from an angle instead of from straight above. To turn perspective view on or off, press and set Perspective to or . 3-3 Distance and bearing calculator
The distance and bearing calculator can plot a course of one or several legs and show the bearing and length of each leg, as well as the total distance along
the course. The completed course can be converted into a route. To use the distance and bearing calculator: 1 2 Select the Chart window.
Press select Distance. and 4 5 6 To remove the last leg from the course, press and select Remove. Repeat the above two steps to enter the whole course. To
save the new course as a route, press and select Save. This also saves any new points on the course as new waypoints, with default names. If necessary, edit
the route later (see section 6-2-2) and edit any new waypoints later (see section 5-2-3). Finally, press window. to return to the chart Move the cursor to the
start of the first leg. It does not matter if this point is a waypoint or not. Press .
To add a leg to the course, move the cursor to the end of the leg. It does not matter if this point is a waypoint or not. The display shows the bearing and length
of the leg, as well as the total distance along the course. Press . 7 3 3-4 Projected course If Projected course is turned on, then the 657 will display the
projected position based on the course over ground (COG), speed and a specified time.
To turn Projected course on and off and to set the time, see section 17-2. A B C Projected position Boat's projected course Boat position A B C Northstar
Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 23 3-5 Tracks and tracking Tracking records the boat's position to memory at regular intervals, which can
be: Time intervals. Or distance intervals. The track of where the boat has been can be displayed on the chart. The 657 can display one track while recording
another.
To work with tracks, see section 17-6. The 657 can store five tracks: Track 1 can hold up to 2000 points and is intended to record the normal progress of the
boat. Tracks 2, 3, 4 and 5 can hold up to 500 points each and are intended to record sections to be retraced accurately, for example entering a river mouth.
Tip: Record a reference tracks and then use the track to help navigate the same trip later. For example, record a reference track as you leave harbour. Then if
you return to harbour and visibility is poor, select the chart and navigate manually along the reference track back into the harbour. Record reference tracks
in good conditions. When recording is on and the track becomes full then recording continues and the oldest points in the track are deleted. The maximum
length of a track depends on the selected track interval: a small interval will give a shorter, more detailed track and a long interval will give a longer, less
detailed track, as shown in these examples: Time intervals Interval Track 1 Track 2, 3, 4 or 5 1 sec 10 sec 33 minutes 5.5 hours 8 minutes 1.
4 hours 8 hours Track 2, 3, 4 or 5 5 500 5,000 1 min 33 hours Distance intervals Interval Track 1 0.01 1 10 20 2,000 20,000 The track lengths are in the
current distance units, for example nm. 4 Navigation: Highway window A B C The highway window has a bird's eye view of the boat's course to a destination:
To go to the highway window, press select More, then select Highway. The highway window shows: A D B C E Optional data header (see section 2-7-3)
Optional compass (see section 2-7-4) Destination waypoint CDI lines, parallel to the boat's plotted course (see Appendix C, CDI). The CDI lines are like a
highway over the water where the boat will move. CDI scale , D Boat's plotted course to destination E F G F G The boat position is at the bottom, center of
the display. ! WARNING The highway window does not show land, dangerous waters or chart symbols. 24 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation
Manual 5 Navigation: Waypoints A waypoint is a position that you can set on the 657 chart, for example a fishing spot or a point on a route. The 657 can
have up to 3000 waypoints. A waypoint can be created, changed or deleted.
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A waypoint has: A name (up to eight characters). An icon showing what kind of waypoint it is. The available icons are: A type: Normal: A normal waypoint
can be navigated to or included in a route. Danger: A danger waypoint is a point to avoid. If the boat comes within the danger radius of a danger waypoint
the unit can sound an alarm.
(see section 17-9). A display option: Controls how the waypoint is displayed when the Waypoints setup option is set to Selected (see section 17-2): Off: The
waypoint is not displayed. Icon: The waypoint icon is displayed. I+N (Icon and Name): The waypoint icon and name are displayed. If there are many
waypoints, use this feature to select which waypoints are displayed on the chart.
A position. A color for the waypoint symbol and name on the chart. Note: The other choices for Waypoints are Hide all and Show all (see section 16-2). 5-1
Waypoints window To go to the waypoints window, press select More, then select Waypoints. , The waypoints window is a list of the waypoints that have been
entered, each with waypoint symbol, name, latitude and longitude, distance and bearing from the boat, type and display option. If there are more waypoints
than will fit on the display, press or to scroll up or down a page at a time. Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 25 5-2 Managing
waypoints ! WARNING 2 3 When the waypoint data is displayed, press . Change the waypoint data (see section 5-2-7). Do not create a navigation waypoint
on land or in dangerous water. 5-2-1 Creating a new waypoint Creating and editing a new waypoint from the chart window 1 To create a waypoint at the
boat position, to switch the chart to center on press boat mode.
Or, to create a waypoint at a different point, move the cursor to that point on the chart. 2 3 4 Press . A new waypoint, with the default name and data is
created. Change the waypoint data if necessary (see section 5-2-7). Editing a waypoint from the waypoints window 1 or In the waypoints window, press
highlight the waypoint to edit. Press and select Edit. to Creating a new waypoint from the waypoints window 1 2 3 In the waypoints window, press select
Create. and 2 Change the waypoint data (see section 5-2-7). A new waypoint, with a default name and data, is created at the boat position. Change the
waypoint data if necessary (see section 5-2-7).
5-2-4 Displaying a waypoint on the chart This goes to the chart window, and shows the selected waypoint at the center of the window. 1 In the waypoints
window, press or to highlight the waypoint to display. Press and select Display. Or, in the Chart window, press , select Find, then select Waypoints. Select a
waypoint from the list.
2 The 657 switches to the chart window, with the selected waypoint at the center of the chart. Note: Waypoints can also be created when a route is created
(see section 6-2-1). 5-2-2 Moving a waypoint Moving a waypoint from the chart window 1 2 3 In the chart window, move the cursor to the waypoint to move.
Press and select Move. Move the cursor to the new position and press .
5-2-5 Deleting a waypoint A waypoint can not be deleted if the boat is navigating to it or if the waypoint is used in more than one route. A waypoint that is
used in one route can be deleted. Moving a waypoint from the waypoints window To move a waypoint from the waypoints window, edit the waypoint (see
section 5-2-3) and change the latitude and longitude. ! WARNING 5-2-3 Editing a waypoint Editing a waypoint from the chart window 1 26 In the chart
window, move the cursor to the waypoint to edit. When a waypoint is deleted from a route, check that the changed route does not cross land or dangerous
waters. Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual Deleting a waypoint from the chart window 1 2 3 In the chart window, move the cursor to
the waypoint to delete. Press and select Delete. Select Yes to confirm. 2 3 If necessary, repeat the above step to change other data. Select Save.
5-2-8 Sort Waypoints To change how the waypoints list is displayed: 1 2 Press and select Sort by. Select how to display the list: Name: In alphabetical order
by name. Icon: Grouped by icon type. Distance: In order of distance from the boat. An arrow at at the top of a column indicates how the waypoints are sorted.
Deleting a waypoint from the waypoints window 1 In the waypoints window, press or to highlight the waypoint to delete. Press and select Delete. Select Yes to
confirm. In the waypoints window and press and select Delete all. Select Yes to confirm.
2 1 2 5-2-6 Deleting all waypoints 5-2-9 Navigating to a waypoint See section 3-1-2. 5-2-7 Changing a waypoint's data To change the waypoint data when it
is displayed in a window: 1 Select the data to change. Press Press . . Use the cursor keys to change the data.
6 Navigation: Routes A route is a list of waypoints that the boat can navigate along. Routes can be created, changed and deleted. The 657 can have up to 25
routes. Each route can have up to 50 waypoints. A route can: Start and stop at the same waypoint .
Include waypoints more than once. The 657 can navigate along a route in either direction. Waypoints on the route can be skipped. Routes are a powerful
feature when the 657 is connected to an autopilot, allowing the vessel to be automatically guided along the route. ! WARNING Make sure the course does not
pass over land or dangerous waters. Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 27 6-1 Routes window The routes window is a list of the
routes that have been entered, each with route name, start waypoint, end waypoint, number of legs and total distance. To go to the routes window, press
More, then select Routes. , select If there are more routes than will fit on the display, press or to scroll up or down a page at a time. 6-2 Managing routes !
WARNING 3 i ii i ii Change the name if necessary. Select OK.
Move the cursor to the start of the route and press . A waypoint is created with a default name. to save this waypoint press enter, to edit the waypoint refer to
5-2-7 After creating or changing a route, display the route on the chart and check that it does not cross land or dangerous water. To enter the legs of the
route: 6-2-1 Creating a new route A. Creating a new route from the chart window While creating the route: Press or to change the range; scroll the chart by
moving the cursor to the edge of the chart. A data box at the bottom left of the display shows the route name and total distance. If the cursor is near a leg, it
shows the length and bearing of the leg as well. The legs of a route must start and end at waypoints. If a leg does not start or end at an existing waypoint then
a new waypoint will be created automatically (to change the new waypoint data, see section 5-2-7). You can not use a Danger waypoint in a route.
1 2 28 iii Press a dotted leg line is displayed from the cursor to the previous waypoint iv Move the cursor to the end of the first leg and press .
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v Repeat i to iv until the last waypoint in the route is placed and saved to complete the route vi Press 1 2 Menu options while creating a route: To add a
waypoint to the route i Press and select Add. To insert a waypoint in the route by breaking one leg into two: i ii Move the cursor to the leg you want to break.
Press and select Insert. In the chart window, press New route.
The route is given a default name: and select iii Move the cursor to where the new route waypoint will be. Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation
Manual iv Press 3 i ii . ii To move a waypoint in the route: Move the cursor to the waypoint to move. Press and select Move. 5 Press .
A list of waypoints is displayed. Select the waypoint to use. iii Move the cursor to where the waypoint will be. iv Press 4 i ii . To remove a waypoint from the
route: Move the cursor to the waypoint to remove from the route. Press and select Remove. The waypoint is removed from the route, but the waypoint is not
deleted. Press Press Press and select Start and select End As waypoints are inserted, the distance and bearing of each leg is shown automatically. If the route
has more waypoints than will fit on the display, press or to see them. To remove a waypoint from the route: i ii 6 7 8 Select the waypoint to remove.
Press . and select Remove. Repeat this process until the route is finished. Press Display the route on the chart (see section 6-2-3) and check that the route
does not cross land or dangerous water. 5 6 7 To start navigating the route i i i ii To end creating the route To delete the route and select Delete Select yes to
confirm. 6-2-2 Editing a route Editing a route from the chart 1 2 3 In the routes window, select the route to edit. Press and select Edit on chart. The selected
route is displayed on the chart, with a circle around the first waypoint. Edit the route as described in section 6-2-1 A, starting at step 4. In the routes window,
press or highlight the route to edit.
Press select Edit. to and Tip: The distance and bearing calculator can also be used to enter a course and save it as a route (see section 3-3). B. Creating a
new route from the routes window 1 2 3 In the routes window, press select Create. and Editing a route from the routes window 1 2 3 The selected route is
displayed: the route name and a list of the waypoints.
Edit the route as described in section 6-2-1 B, starting at step 3. A new route, with a default name and no waypoints, is displayed. To change the route name: i
ii Select the route name at the top of the display and press . Change the name if necessary. .
6-2-3 Displaying a route on the chart To view the selected route at the center of the display: 1 In the routes window, press or to highlight the route to display.
Press and select Display. Or, in the Chart window, press , select Find, then select Route. Select a route from the list. 2 The 657 displays the selected route on
the chart. iii Press 4 i To insert a waypoint in the route: Select where the waypoint will be: To insert the first waypoint in a new route, select Leg 1. To insert a
waypoint at the end of the route, select the unused leg at the end of the list of waypoints. Otherwise, select the waypoint to insert the new waypoint in front of.
Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 29 6-2-4 Deleting a route 1 In the routes window, press or highlight the route to delete. Press and
select Delete.
Select Yes to confirm. to 6-2-5 Deleting all routes 1 2 In the routes window, press select Delete all. Select Yes to confirm. and 2 6-2-6 Navigating a route See
section 3-1-3. 7 Satellites GPS worldwide navigation The US Government operates the GPS system. Twenty-four satellites orbit the earth and broadcast
position and time signals. The positions of these satellites are constantly changing. The GPS receiver analyses the signals from the closest satellites and
calculates exactly where it is on earth. This is called the GPS position. The accuracy of the GPS position is typically better than 10 m (33 ft) for 95% of the
time.
A GPS antenna can receive signals from the GPS satellites when it is almost anywhere on earth. Differential beacon DGPS Differential beacons are land
based radio transmitters that broadcast correction signals that can be received by a special receiver on the boat. Differential beacons are usually only
installed near ports and important waterways, and each beacon has a limited range. The accuracy of the corrected GPS position is typically better than 2 to 5
m (6 to 16 ft). GPS receiver Northstar GPS units have a sensitive 12-channel receiver, which tracks signals from all GPS satellites visible above the horizon
and uses measurements from all satellites more than 5° above the horizon to calculate the position.
Each time a GPS receiver is turned on, it normally takes about 50 seconds before it outputs the first position. Under some circumstances it will take up to two
minutes or longer. DGPS A DGPS system uses correction signals to remove some of the errors in the GPS position. The 657 can use one of two types of DGPS
system: WAAS and EGNOS DGPS WAAS and EGNOS are two satellite based DGPS systems. The correction signals are broadcast by satellites and are
received by the 657's standard GPS antenna.
The accuracy of the corrected GPS position is typically better than 5 m (15 ft) for 95% of the time. WAAS covers all of the USA and most of Canada. EGNOS
will cover most of Western Europe when it becomes operational. 30 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 7-1 Satellite window The
satellite window has information about the GPS satellites and GPS position. To go to the satellite window, press select More, then select Satellite. The
satellite window shows: A B C F G , B A Status of GPS antenna, for example Acquiring, GPS fix, No GPS. If the unit is in Simulate mode it displays Simulate
(see section 2-6). Time and date from GPS satellites. Time is local time (UTC [GMT] plus local offset, see section 17-13) HDOP: The error in the GPS
position caused by satellite geometry. A low value indicates a more precise fix, a high value a less precise fix C D Signal strengths of up to twelve visible GPS
satellites.
The higher the bar the stronger the signal E F Boat position Positions of visible GPS satellites: Outer circle is horizon Inner circle is 45° elevation Center is
directly above North is at top of display D E G If the boat is moving, COG is a line from center 8 Sonar fishfinding: Introduction Sonar functions require an
optional sonar transducer to be installed and set up. This section explains how to interpret the sonar displays, when and why to use the different frequencies
and how fish are detected and displayed. It also describes Gain and Range and shows examples of some of the different sonar displays. 8-1 Using the 657 The
657 uses a sonar transducer attached to the hull. The transducer generates an ultrasonic pulse (sound that is above the hearing range of the human ear),
which travels down towards the bottom at a speed of about 4800 ft/sec (1463 m/sec), spreading out into a cone shape.
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When the pulse meets an object, such as a fish or the bottom, it is partly reflected back up towards the boat as an echo. The depth of the object or bottom is
calculated by the 657 by measuring the time taken between sending a pulse and receiving the echo. When an echo has been returned, the next pulse is sent.
The 657 converts each echo into an electronic signal, displayed as a vertical line of pixels. The most recent echo appears on the extreme right of the display,
with the older echoes being scrolled towards the left, eventually disappearing off the display.
Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 31 The scroll speed depends upon the water depth and scroll speed setting. See sections 17-3 and
section 8-2, for more information. The appearance of echoes displayed are affected by: · · · · Fishing mode: Use this when fishing. The 657 automatically
adjusts its settings to compensate for water clarity and to best display fish, the bottom and other details. Manual mode: Use this to fine-tune the 657 settings
by hand.
Best results are often achieved in manual mode, but practice and experience are required to obtain the optimum settings for different conditions. · the 657
settings (see sections 17-3, 8-5 and 8-6) echoes (different fish types, different bottom types, wrecks and seaweed; see section 8-2) noise (water clarity and
bubbles; see section 8-2). For more information about modes, see sections 8-5 and 8-6. Cruising, Fishing and Manual Modes The 657 has three sonar
operating modes: · ! WARNING Cruising mode: Use this when on the move. The 657 automatically adjusts its settings to compensate for water clarity and to
display the bottom.
Use the automatic Cruising or Fishing modes when learning to use the 657 or when travelling at speed. 8-2 Interpreting the display The sonar displays do not
show a fixed distance travelled by the boat; rather, they display a history, showing what has passed below the boat during a certain period of time. The
history of the sonar signal displayed depends the depth of the water and the scroll speed setting. In shallow water, the echoes have a short distance to travel
between the bottom and the boat. In deep water, the history moves across the display more slowly because the echoes take longer to travel between the bottom
and the boat. For example, when the scroll speed is set to Fast, at depths over 1000 ft (300 m) it takes about 2 minutes for the data to move across the display,
whereas at 20 ft (6 m) it takes only about 25 seconds. The scroll speed can be set by the user to display either a longer history with less fish information or a
shorter history with more fish details (see section 17-3). If the boat is anchored, the echoes all come from the same area of bottom. This produces a flat
bottom trace on the display. The screen shot shows a typical sonar display with the Fish symbols turned Off.
Strength of echoes The colours indicate differences in the strength of the echo. The strength varies with several factors, such as the: · · · Size of the fish, school
of fish or other object. Depth of the fish or object. Location of the fish or object. (The area covered by the ultrasonic pulse is a rough cone shape and the
echoes are strongest in the middle.) Clarity of water. Particles or air in the water reduce the strength of the echo. Composition or density of the object or
bottom. · · Note: Planing hulls at speed produce air bubbles and turbulent water that bombard the transducer. The resulting ultrasonic noise may be picked up
by the transducer and obscure the real echoes.
32 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual A B C A B C D A B C Single fish Large school of fish Small school of fish A B C Kelp / Weed
Soft bottoms such as mud, weed and sand show as narrow bands Hard bottoms such as rock or coral show as wide bands D Bottom Bottom types Mud, weed
and sandy bottoms tend to weaken and scatter the sonar pulse, resulting in a weak echo. Hard, rocky or coral bottoms reflect the pulse, resulting in a strong
echo. Frequency and cone width The sonar pulse generated by the 657 transducer travels down through the water, spreading outwards in a cone shape. The
cone width is dependent upon the frequency of the pulse; at 50 kHz it is approximately 45°, and at 200 kHz it is approximately 11°. The differences in the cone
width affect what is displayed.
See section 8-3. Water Depth 25 50 100 150 200 300 400 600 800 1000 Cone width at 50 kHz 20 40 80 130 170 250 330 500 660 830 Cone width at 200 kHz
5 10 20 30 40 60 80 120 150 190 45° cone 11° cone Northstar Explorer 657 Installation and Operation Manual 33 Shadows Shadows are created around
areas where the ultrasonic beam cannot `see'. These areas include hollows on the bottom or beside rocks and ledges, where the strong echoes returned off the
rocks obscure the weak echoes of the fish and may also create a double bottom trace. See following for an example of the sonar display in such an
environment. A double bottom trace is shown on the display.
When looking for fish with the wide angled 50 kHz frequency, be aware of increased shadows. Use the high frequency 200 kHz in areas that have rocks and
ledges because this frequency reduces the shadow effect considerably. Example of shadows Sonar display of same area A A B B A B A Fish is visible on the
display Fish is hidden by the strong echoes off the bottom and is not shown on the display A 8-3 Single and Dual frequency fishfinding Sonar frequencies The
657 has two sonar frequencies, 200 kHz and 50 kHz. To select the sonar frequency to use: 1 2 Go to a sonar display (see section 9). Press , select Frequency
and select 200 kHz, 50 kHz,or Mixed. discrimination capability and is particularly good at showing individual fish, including bottom dwellers. When to use 50
kHz The 50 kHz frequency is particularly suitable for use in deep water, typically greater than 500 ft (150 m). At 50 kHz, the cone covers an area of water
about four times wider than the 200 kHz cone and penetrates to a greater depth with minimal loss of the return signal. However, it produces a lower definition
display with more shadow compared to the 200 kHz frequency. This means that a group of small fish, for example, could be displayed as a single item, while
any fish very close to the bottom may not be found at all.
When to use 200 kHz The 200 kHz frequency is especially suitable for use in shallow and medium depth water, typically less than 500 ft (150 m) and while
running at speed. At 200 kHz, the narrow cone reduces any noise caused by air bubbles. The 200 kHz frequency generates a higher definition pulse which
produces little shadow and returns excellent detail over a small area of bottom. Therefore, it gives excellent bottom 34 Northstar Explorer 657 Installation
and Operation Manual This frequency is useful for getting a deep, wide overview of the area so that any areas of interest can be identified and then examined
in detail with the 200 kHz frequency.
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