HP 4155A/4156A Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer

About this Manual
We’ve added this manual to the Agilent website in an effort to help you support
your product. This manual is the best copy we could find; it may be incomplete
or contain dated information. If we find a more recent copy in the future, we will
add it to the Agilent website.
Support for Your Product
Agilent no longer sells this product. Our service centers may be able
to perform calibration and repair if necessary, but no other support from
Agilent is available. You will find any other available product information on the
Agilent Test & Measurement website, www.tm.agilent.com.
HP References in this Manual
This manual may contain references to HP or Hewlett-Packard. Please note that
Hewlett-Packard's former test and measurement, semiconductor products and
chemical analysis businesses are now part of Agilent Technologies. We have
made no changes to this manual copy. In other documentation, to reduce
potential confusion, the only change to product numbers and names has been in
the company name prefix: where a product number/name was HP XXXX the
current name/number is now Agilent XXXX. For example, model number
HP8648A is now model number Agilent 8648A.
Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer
User's Task Guide
c Copyright Hewlett-Packard
Company 1993 - 1995
All Rights Reserved.
Reproduction, adaptation, or
translation without prior written
permission is prohibited, except as
allowed under the copyright laws.
HP Part Number
04155-90010
Printing History
First edition, February 1994
Second edition, December 1994
Third edition, November 1995
Printed in Japan
MS-DOS R is U.S. registered
trademark of Microsoft
Corporation.
Lotus 1-2-3 is U.S. registered
trademark of Lotus Development
Corporation.
PageMaker is a trademark of
Aldus Corporation.
Product Warranty
Limitation of Warranty
This Hewlett-Packard product is warranted against
defects in material and workmanship for a period of
one year from date of shipment. During the warranty
period, Hewlett-Packard will, at its option, either repair
or replace products which prove to be defective.
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects
resulting from improper or inadequate maintenance by
Buyer, Buyer-supplied software or interfacing,
unauthorized modications or misuse, operation outside
of the environment specications for the products, or
improper site preparation or maintenance.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be
returned to a service facility designated by
Hewlett-Packard. Buyer shall prepay shipping charges
to Hewlett-Packard and Hewlett-Packard shall pay
shipping charges to return the product to Buyer.
However, Buyer shall pay all shipping charges, duties,
and taxes for products returned to Hewlett-Packard
from another country.
No other warranty is expressed or implied.
Hewlett-Packard specically disclaims the implied
warranties of merchantability and tness for a
particular purpose.
Exclusive Remedies
The remedies provided herein are the Buyer's sole and
exclusive remedies. Hewlett-Packard shall not be liable
for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or
consequential damages, whether based on contract,
tort, or any other legal theory.
Hewlett-Packard warrants that its software and
rmware designated by Hewlett-Packard for use with
an instrument will execute its programming
instructions when properly installed on that instrument.
Hewlett-Packard does not warrant that the operation Assistance
of the instrument, or software, or rmware will be
Product maintenance agreements and other customer
uninterrupted or error free.
assistance agreements are available for
Hewlett-Packard products.
For any assistance, contact your nearest
Hewlett-Packard Sales Oce.
Certication
Hewlett-Packard Company certies that this product
met its published specications at the time of shipment
[from the factory]. Hewlett-Packard further certies
that its calibration measurements are traceable to the
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST), to the extent allowed by the Institute's
calibration facility, and to the calibration facilities of
other International Standards Organization members.
Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard, Ltd.
9-1, Takakura-Cho, Hachioji-Shi,
Tokyo, 192 Japan
Safety Summary
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all
phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to
comply with these precautions or with specic warnings elsewhere in
this manual may impair the protection provided by the equipment. In
addition it violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended
use of the instrument. Hewlett-Packard Company assumes no liability for
customer's failure to comply with these requirements.
NOTE
HP 4155A/4156A comply with INSTALLATION CATEGORY II and
POLLUTION DEGREE 2 dened in IEC 1010-1.
HP 4155A/4156A are INDOOR USE products.
GROUND THE INSTRUMENT
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must
be connected to an electrical ground. The power terminal and the
power cable must meet International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC) safety standards.
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of ammable gases
or fumes. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an
environment constitutes a denite safety hazard.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS
Operation personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component
replacement and internal adjustments must be made by qualied
maintenance personnel. Do not replace components with power cable
connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may exist
even with the power cable removed. To avoid injuries, always
disconnect power and discharge circuits before touching them.
DO NOT SERVICE OR ADJUST ALONE
Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person,
capable of rendering rst aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY INSTRUMENT
Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not
install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modication to
the instrument. Return the instrument to a Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service Oce for services and repair to ensure that safety
features are maintained.
DANGEROUS PROCEDURE WARNINGS
Warnings, such as example below, precede potentially dangerous
procedures throughout this manual. Instructions contained in the
warnings must be followed.
WARNING
Dangerous voltages, capable of causing death, are present in this
instrument. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and adjusting.
Safety Symbols
L
K
The general denitions of safety symbols used on equipment or in
manuals are listed below.
A
F
Instruction manual symbol: the product will be marked
with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to
refer to the instruction manual in order to protect
against damage to the instrument.
Indicates dangerous voltage (terminals fed from the
interior by voltage exceeding 1000 volts must be so
marked).
Indicates earth (ground) terminal.
Frame or chassis terminal. A connection to the frame
(chassis) of the equipment which normally includes all
exposed metal structures.
Alternating current.
Direct current.
ON (Supply).
Herstellerbescheinigung
OFF (Supply).

GEAUSCHEMISSION
<
WARNING
The warning sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to
a procedure, practice, condition or the like, which, if
not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
injury or death to personnel.
CAUTION
The caution sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to Manufacturer's Declaration
an operating procedure, practice, condition or the like,
ACOUSTIC NOISE EMISSION
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could
result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the
Lpa
70 dB
product.
operator position
normal operation
per ISO 7779
Lpa
70 dB
am Arbeitsplatz
normaler Betrieb
nach DIN 45635 T. 19
<
Introduction
HP 4155A/4156A is an electronic instrument for measuring and analyzing the
characteristics of semiconductor devices. This one instrument allows you to
perform both measurement and analysis of measurement results.
highly accurate measurements.
HP 4155A/4156A has four highly accurate source/monitor units (SMUs), two
voltage source units (VSUs), and two voltage measurement units (VMUs).
The HP 4156A is designed for Kelvin connections and has high-resolution
SMUs (HRSMUs), so HP 4156A is especially suited for low resistance and low
current measurements. You can measure voltage values with a resolution of
0.2 V by using the dierential measurement mode of VMUs.
reliability testing.
HP 4155A/4156A can perform stress testing. That is, can force a specied dc
voltage or current for the specied duration.
Also, you can force ac stress by using pulse generator units (PGUs), which are
installed in HP 41501A SMU/Pulse Generator Expander. The HP 41501A is
attached to HP 4155A or HP 4156A, and can be equipped with a ground unit
(GNDU), high power SMU (HPSMU), two medium power SMUs (MPSMUs), or
two PGUs.
data storing and printing.
HP 4155A/4156A can print and store, in addition to performing measurement
and analysis. You can store measurement setup information, measurement
data, and instrument setting information on a 3.5-inch diskette inserted into
the disk drive of HP 4155A/4156A. And you can print the setting information
and measurement results on a plotter or printer that is connected to
HP 4155A/4156A.
remote control.
HP 4155A/4156A can be controlled by an external controller via HP-IB by
using remote control commands. These commands are based on Standard
Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI), so you can easily develop
measurement programs.
HP 4155A/4156A has internal HP Instrument BASIC, so you can develop and
execute measurement programs by using the HP 4155A/4156A only, without
using an external controller.
ix
In This Manual
This manual gives step-by-step instructions for performing common HP
4155A/4156A tasks, and consists of the following chapters:
NOTE
If you have never used the HP 4155A/4156A or HP 4145A/B, read the HP 4155A/4156A Quick Start
Guide rst before reading this manual. The Quick Start Guide gives you an overview of the product
and a brief introduction, which is a good rst step for beginners.
x
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
This chapter is an overview of the HP 4155A/4156A.
Installation
This chapter describes how to install HP 4155A/4156A, accessories, and
peripherals.
Making a Measurement
This chapter describes device connections, making a sweep measurement,
knob sweep measurement, and sampling measurement, and forcing stress.
Analyzing Measurement Results
This chapter describes how to analyze measurement results manually and
automatically.
Filer and Hardcopy
This chapter describes how to print or plot out measurement results or
measurement setups.
If You Have a Problem
This chapter provides problem-solving information that you may encounter.
Manual Changes Depending on ROM Version
Index
Other Manuals.
Also the following manuals about HP 4155A/4156A are available:
User's Dictionary Reference
This manual is a dictionary reference for all parts and functions of the HP
4155A/4156A, and consists of the following chapters:
Measurement Units
Measurement Mode
Measurement Functions
Page Organization
Print/Plot Function
Data Variable and Analysis Function
Softkey Maps and External Keyboard
Specications
Accessories and Options
Manual Changes Depending on ROM Version
Index
Programmer's Guide
This manual provides information about controlling the HP 4155A/4156A
by remote command via HP-IB interface and HP Instrument BASIC, and
consists of the following chapters:
Using HP Instrument BASIC
Reference: HP Instrument BASIC
Getting Started on Programming the HP 4155A/4156A
HP 4155A/4156A SCPI Programming
Running HP 4145A/B Program Directly on HP 4155A/4156A
Sample Application Programs
Manual Chages Depending on ROM Version
HP-IB Command Reference
This manual is a complete reference of HP-IB commands, and consists of
the following chapters:
SCPI Commands
HP 4145B Syntax Commands
Manual Changes Depending on ROM Version
Index
Quick Start Guide
xi
This manual is mainly for beginners and provides brief instructions about
using HP 4155A/4156A.
Text Conventions.
The following text conventions are used in this manual:
4Front-panel key5
Represents a key physically located on HP 4155A/4156A
or external keyboard.
Represents a softkey that appears on screen of
Softkey
HP 4155A/4156A.
Screen Text
Represents text that appears on screen of
HP 4155A/4156A.
Italic
Refers to a related document, or is used for emphasis.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
xii
Contents
1. Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A . . . . . . . . . .
Conguration of HP 4155A/4156A and HP 41501A
Front View of HP 4155A/4156A . . . . . . . . .
Rear View of HP 4155A/4156A . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front and Rear View of HP 41501A . . . . . . . . .
1-11
1-12
L
L
L
L
. . . . . . . . . . . .
An Overview of Functions . . . . .
Operation and Control . . . . . .
Measurements and Results Display
Graphical Analysis . . . . . . .
Data Storage . . . . . . . . . .
Plotting and Printing . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1-13
1-19
1-20
1-22
1-25
1-26
1-27
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ventilation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up HP 4155A/4156A . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Inspect HP 4155A/4156A and Accessories . . . . .
To Install HP 41501A SMU/Pulse Generator Expander
To Check HP 4155A/4156A Operation . . . . . . . .
Installing Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Install Connector Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Connect Interlock Terminal . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-8
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-12
2-13
2-17
L
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
2. Installation
Contents-1
Change 1
To Connect Connector Plate and DUT . . . . . . . .
To Install HP 16442A Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . . .
To Install HP 16441A R-Box . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Install HP 16440A SMU/Pulse Generator Selector .
To Connect HP 16440A Selector to HP 4155A/56A . .
3. Making a Measurement
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT) . . . . . . . .
To Mount a DUT on Test Fixture . . . . . . . . . .
To Make Connections to Reduce Leakage Current . . .
To Make Connections to Measure Low Resistance (For
HP 4156A Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweep Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Dene Sweep Measurement Units . . . . . . . . .
To Set up Primary Sweep Source . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up Secondary Sweep Source . . . . . . . . .
To Set up Synchronous Sweep Source . . . . . . . .
To Set up Constant Output . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up SMU Pulsed Output . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up PGU Pulsed Output . . . . . . . . . . .
To Output Same Value Before and After Measurements
To Dene a User Function . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up Graphical Display of Measurement Results .
To Set up List Display of Measurement Results . . . .
To Execute or Stop Measurement . . . . . . . . . .
To Control R-Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Knob Sweep Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Execute Knob Sweep Measurement . . . . . . . .
To Stop Knob Sweep Measurement . . . . . . . . .
Sampling Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Dene Sampling Measurement Units . . . . . . .
To Set up Sampling Parameters . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up Constant Output . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Dene Measurement Stop Conditions . . . . . . .
Stress Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up Stress Source Channels . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up Stress Condition/Timing . . . . . . . . .
To Set up AC (Pulse) Stress . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Set up DC Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Force Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Control Selector for Switching SMU and PGU . . .
Contents-2
2-22
2-29
2-35
2-38
2-45
3-3
3-4
3-6
3-8
3-10
3-12
3-14
3-16
3-18
3-20
3-21
3-24
3-27
3-28
3-30
3-32
3-33
3-34
3-37
3-38
3-42
3-43
3-45
3-47
3-49
3-51
3-53
3-55
3-57
3-60
3-62
3-64
3-66
Change 1
4. Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Specify a Measurement Point on Curve . . . .
To Specify between Measurement Points on Curve .
To Display or Move Cursor . . . . . . . . . . .
To Adjust Display Range to Measurement Curve
Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Zoom the Display Range . . . . . . . . . .
To Center Display at Cursor Location . . . . . .
To Draw Line through Two Specied Points . . .
To Draw Line through Specied Point with Specied
Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Draw Tangent to Specied Point of Measurement
Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Draw Regression Line for Specied Region . . .
To Display and Select a Line . . . . . . . . . .
To Display Grid on the Graph . . . . . . . . .
To Change Data Variable on Graph . . . . . . .
To Change Range of X or Y Axis Scale . . . . . .
To Change Variable Assigned to X, Y1, or Y2 Axis
To Overlay an Internal Memory Measurement Curve
onto Plotting Area . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Scroll the LIST Page . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Display or Move Marker on LIST Page . . . .
To Change Variables of LIST page . . . . . . . .
Automatic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Draw Line by Specifying Two Points . . . . .
To Draw Line by Specifying Gradient and One Point
To Draw Tangent to Specied Measurement Point .
To Draw Regression Line by Specifying Two Points
To Display Marker at Specied Point . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4-3
4-4
4-6
4-8
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
. .
4-15
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4-17
4-19
4-22
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-26
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4-27
4-29
4-30
4-32
4-33
4-34
4-36
4-38
4-40
4-43
File Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To List File Names Stored on Diskette . . . . . . .
To Store Setup or Result Data onto Diskette . . . .
To Store Setup or Result Data into Internal Memory .
To Store Result Data in Spreadsheet Format . . . .
To Load Setup or Result Data from Diskette . . . .
To Load Setup or Result Data from Internal Memory
To Rename a File on Diskette . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5-3
5-5
5-7
5-9
5-11
5-13
5-16
5-18
5. Filer
Contents-3
Change 1
To Remove a File from Diskette . . . . . . . . . . .
To Copy File on Diskette to Another Diskette . . . . . .
To Copy Setup or Result Data from Internal Memory to
Diskette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Initialize a Diskette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Backup a Diskette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. If You Have A Problem
When You Install the HP 4155A/4156A . . . . . . . .
If HP 4155A/4156A cannot be Powered on . . . . . .
If Measurement Units of HP 41501A are not Displayed
on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION Page
If External Keyboard does not Work . . . . . . . . .
If Display Page does not Appear after Applying Power .
If HP 16442A Test Fixture is not Stable . . . . . . .
When You Make A Measurement . . . . . . . . . . .
If Measured Value Oscillates when Measuring
High-Frequency Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If Measured Value Oscillates when Measuring Negative
Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If Noise Aects the Measured Values . . . . . . . . .
If Measured Voltage has some Error when Forcing a
Large Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If Large Current Causes High Temperature (Thermal
Drift) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If Measurement Takes More Time than Specied . . .
If Measurement Damages the Device under Test . . . .
If You Get Unexpected Data when Performing Sampling
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If Errors Occur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If Errors Occur when You Perform Self-calibration or
Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If an error occurs when you operate HP 4155A/4156A .
If a Measurement Data Status is Displayed. . . . . . .
7. Manual Changes Depending on ROM Version
Change 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index
Contents-4
5-19
5-21
5-23
5-24
5-26
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-12
6-13
6-13
6-14
6-14
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-25
6-40
7-3
Figures
1-1.
1-2.
1-3.
1-4.
1-5.
1-6.
1-7.
1-8.
2-1.
2-2.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1-5
1-9
1-12
1-14
1-15
1-16
1-17
1-18
2-5
.
2-14
.
2-15
.
.
.
.
2-16
2-20
2-20
2-21
1-1. Conguration of HP 41501A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1. Connectors on Connector Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4
2-15
2-3.
2-4.
2-5.
2-6.
2-7.
Front View of HP 4155A/4156A . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear View of HP 4155A/4156A . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front and Rear View of HP 41501A . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear View of HP 41501A Option 402 . . . . . . . . . .
Rear View of HP 41501A Option 410 . . . . . . . . . .
Rear View of HP 41501A Option 412 . . . . . . . . . .
Rear View of HP 41501A Option 420 . . . . . . . . . .
Rear View of HP 41501A Option 422 . . . . . . . . . .
Power Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensions of Connector Plate for HP 4155A
(HP Part Number: 04155-60006) . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensions of Connector Plate for HP 4156A
(HP Part Number: 04156-60002) . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensions of Connector Plate for HP 41501A
(HP Part Number: 41501-60004) . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimensions of Interlock Switch (HP part number 3101-0302)
Dimensions of Interlock Switch (HP part number 3101-3241)
Dimensions of LED (HP part number 1450-0641) . . . . .
Tables
Contents-5
Contents
1
Introducing the HP
4155A/4156A
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
The HP 4155A semiconductor parameter analyzer and HP 4156A precision
semiconductor parameter analyzer are made for use in semiconductor
laboratories and factories. The HP 4155A/4156A can measure device
characteristics. The HP 4155A/4156A can do the following:
Perform measurements.
Graph the device characteristics.
Extract device parameters.
Perform go, no-go evaluation.
Perform reliability (stress test) evaluation.
The HP 4155A/4156A is easy to operate and can perform automatic graphical
analysis like the HP 4145B. In addition, the HP 4155A/4156A is also easy to
use in a system, which expands areas of application to quality assurance and
in-line monitoring.
In this chapter.
This chapter provides a view of front and rear panels of the HP 4155A/4156A
and its accessories, and briey describes the HP 4155A/4156A functions.
1-2
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
HP 4155A/4156A is a box type electronic measurement instrument with CRT
display, exible disk drive, operation keys, and interface connectors.
You can connect a keyboard (HP C1405B) to the HP 4155A/4156A. So, you
can operate this instrument by using a keyboard or the front-panel keys.
HP 16442A is the test xture for HP 4155A/4156A. You can mount your DUT
on the HP 16442A, and measure the device characteristics.
HP 41501A SMU and pulse generator expander contains PGUs and additional
SMUs. HP 41501A is attached to and controlled by HP 4155A/4156A.
HP 16441A R-Box contains accurate 10 k
, 100 k
, and 1 M
resistors, and
connection of these resistors is controlled by the HP 4155A/4156A. The HP
16441A is used to measure negative resistance and to prevent DUT damage
when performing breakdown measurements.
HP 16440A SMU/pulse generator selector contains two switching circuits
to connect the DUT to either an SMU or PGU. You can attach another HP
16440A to add two more switching circuits.
1-3
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Conguration of HP 4155A/4156A and HP 41501A
HP 4155A, HP 4156A, and HP 41501A are frames that contain the
measurement units. The measurement units are installed before the product
is shipped from factory. User cannot recongure the installed units.
HP 4155A conguration:
four medium power source monitor units (MPSMUs).
two voltage source units (VSUs).
two voltage monitor units (VMUs).
HP 4156A conguration:
four high resolution source monitor units (HRSMUs).
two voltage source units (VSUs).
two voltage monitor units (VMUs).
HP 4156A has higher measurement resolution. For details about
measurement range and resolution, refer to \Measurement Units" in HP
4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
HP 41501A conguration:
HP 41501A is attached to the HP 4155A/4156A at your site. See Chapter 2
on how to install the HP 41501A.
The HP 41501A contains a ground unit (GNDU). In addition, you specify an
option number according to desired units as follows:
Table 1-1. Conguration of HP 41501A
Unit
One GNDU
Two PGUs
Two MPSMUs
One HPSMU1
1
1-4
402
HP 41501A Option . . .
410
412
420
HPSMU: high power source monitor unit
422
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Front View of HP 4155A/4156A
Figure 1-1. Front View of HP 4155A/4156A
LINE switch.
Use the LINE switch to turn analyzer on and o.
Flexible disk drive (FDD).
Use 3.5 inch diskette to load or store the analyzer settings and measurement
data.
Keyboard connector.
You can use an IBM PC/AT compatible keyboard (HP C1405B) to operate
the HP 4155A/4156A. See \Softkey Maps and External Keyboard" in HP
4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
1-5
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
PAGE CONTROL key group.
Page Control keys are used to change the pages.
4Chan5
Moves to CHANNELS page group. You dene channels, user
functions, and user variables.
4Meas5
Moves to MEASURE page group. You set the output parameters,
measurement parameters, and so on.
4Display5
Moves to DISPLAY page group. You set the result display
format, auto analysis denitions, and so on.
4Graph/List5
Moves to GRAPH/LIST page group. This softkey toggles between
GRAPH and LIST pages.
4Stress5
Moves to STRESS page group. You dene the stress channels,
set the stress parameters, and monitor the stress forcing.
4System5
Moves to SYSTEM page group. You operate on diskette les,
set up plotting and printing environment, dene colors of the
display, and so on.
MARKER/CURSOR key group.
Rotary knob and arrow keys of the Marker/Cursor key group are used to
move the marker and cursor.
Rotary knob Moves the marker, or increases or decreases setup value.
4(5, 4)5,
Moves eld pointer or cursor.
4*5, and 4+5
4Fast5
Moves the marker or cursor faster. When you rotate the rotary
knob or press the arrow keys with holding 4Fast5 key down, the
marker or cursor moves faster.
1-6
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
MEASUREMENT key group.
Measurement keys control the measurement, stress, and integration time.
4Single5
Executes the measurement once, then returns to the idle state
(or standby state if standby is enabled for the channel) after the
measurement is nished. Measurement data is updated, so data
of previous measurement is lost. Pressing the green key, then
4Single5 key starts knob sweep measurement.
4Repeat5
Starts and repeats the measurement continuously. Measurement
data is updated, so data of previous measurement is lost. To
stop the measurement, press 4Stop5 key.
4Append5
Executes the measurement once, then returns to idle state
(or standby state if standby is enabled for the channel) after
measurement is nished. Measurement data is appended to data
of previous measurement.
4Stop5
Stops the measurement or stress. Standby enabled channels
return to standby state, and other channels return to idle state.
4Standby5
Toggles between the standby enabled (Standby indicator is lit)
and disabled states. If Standby indicator is lit, then STBY ON
channels change to standby state (instead of idle state) when
measurement or stress nishes. 4Stop5 key has no aect on
standby state.
4Stress5
Forces the specied stress. The guide around this key prevents
you from accidently pressing the 4Stress5 key.
4Short5,
Sets the integration time to SHORT, MEDIUM, or LONG,
4Medium5,
respectively.
and 4Long5
MEASUREMENT indicator.
This indicator lights when HP 4155A/4156A is in the measurement state.
HIGH VOLTAGE indicator.
This indicator lights when a unit forces more than 40 V.
Standby indicator.
This indicator lights when the HP 4155A/4156A is standby enabled, which
means that the channels that are standby enabled (STBY ON) will return to
the standby state after the measurement is nished.
1-7
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
IBASIC key group.
IBASIC keys control the IBASIC program execution.
4Run5
Starts the IBASIC program that is in memory. The indicator is
on during program execution.
4Pause5
Pauses the IBASIC program execution.
4Display5
Toggles between the IBASIC screen and measurement screen.
Run indicator.
When an IBASIC program is running, this indicator lights.
ENTRY key group.
You enter or modify data such as output values, comments, and variable
names.
Character keys
Are used to enter alphanumeric and special characters.
4Enter5
After you enter desired characters into the data entry
eld, press this key. The characters are entered at the
eld pointer location.
Also, you can use the green key to calculate the value of
the data entry eld. For example, if you press 445 4*5 465
greenkey 4Enter5, the result (24) appears.
Blue key
Changes entry mode to blue-key shift mode, and lights
the indicator. In this mode, you can enter the blue
characters that are printed above the keys. Pressing blue
key again changes to normal mode. Indicator turns o.
Green key
Changes entry mode to green-key shift mode. This mode
is eective for the next pressed key, then changes back to
normal mode.
Edit keys
Are used to edit the characters in the data entry eld.
User File keys
Are used to operate quickly on a diskette le. Pressing
4Save5 moves into the ler's SAVE function, and pressing
4Get5 moves into the ler's GET function.
4Help5
key.
Pressing 4Help5 displays the help pages.
4Plot/Print5
key.
Pressing 4Plot/Print5 prints the setup information and measurement results to
your plotter, printer, or diskette le. If you press green key and 4Plot/Print5,
the screen image is dumped to plotter, printer, or diskette le.
1-8
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Rear View of HP 4155A/4156A
Figure 1-2. Rear View of HP 4155A/4156A
1-9
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
To R-Box terminal.
\To R-Box" terminal is a 10-pin connector. To use R-Box, connect this
terminal to control terminal of HP 16441A R-Box.
VSU terminals.
VSU output terminals are BNC connectors. To use VSUs, connect these
terminals to VSU terminals of HP 16442A or connector plate.
L
WARNING
VMU terminals.
VMU input terminals are BNC connectors. To use VMUs, connect these
terminals to VMU terminals of HP 16442A or connector plate.
) and Frame ground (
Circuit Common (
) terminals.
For oating measurement, remove the shorting bar (HP part number
5000-4206).
Do not oat the Circuit Common terminal at voltages greater than 642 V
referenced to frame ground. Failure to heed this warning may result in
damage to HP 4155A/4156A.
Serial number.
You need this serial number when using the telephone assistance program
(HP HelpLine).
Voltage selector.
Voltage selector must be in proper position. Line voltage and position are:
L
Line Voltage
Position
90|132 Vac
198|264 Vac
left
right
Fuse.
Use the following fuse:
Line
100/120 Vac
220/240 Vac
Fuse type
UL/CSA T 8A, 250 Vac
UL/CSA T 4A, 250 Vac
LINE input receptacle.
HP part number
2110-0383
2110-0014
AC power cable is connected to this receptacle.
1-10
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
SMU terminals.
HP 4155A has four triaxial connectors. HP 4156A has eight triaxial
connectors, and you can use Kelvin connections. When you use HP 16442A
test xture and Kelvin connections, up tp 3 SMUs can be connected to HP
16442A test xture.
To Expander Box Interface.
When you use HP 41501A, you insert the board for HP 41501A into this
interface.
Zero Check terminal.
Ground reference point of the HP 4155A/4156A.
Ext Trig terminals.
L
Intlk terminal.
WARNING
Dangerous voltage of up to the maximum voltage of SMUs may be present
at force, guard, and sense terminals if the interlock terminal is shorted.
Two BNC connectors: one for trigger input, and one for trigger output.
Used in conjunction with interlock function of HP 4155A/4156A. If the Intlk
terminal is open, maximum SMU output is limited to 640 V. Be sure to
connect this terminal to HP 16442A test xture or connector plate before
performing measurement. If you use connector plate, you must install
interlock circuit. For details on how to install the interlock circuit, see \To
Connect Interlock Terminal" in Chapter 2.
Serial Interface connector.
9-pin female connector for RS-232-C serial communication.
HP-IB connector.
Use HP 10833A/B/C/D HP-IB cable.
1-11
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Front and Rear View of HP 41501A
Figure 1-3. Front and Rear View of HP 41501A
LINE switch.
Use the LINE switch to turn HP 41501A on and o. You must turn on the HP
41501A before turning on the HP 4155A/4156A.
1-12
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
L
Fuse.
Use the following fuse:
Line
100/120 Vac
220/240 Vac
Fuse type
UL/CSA T 8A, 250 Vac
UL/CSA T 4A, 250 Vac
HP part number
2110-0383
2110-0014
Voltage Selector.
Voltage selector must be in proper position. Line voltage and position are:
Line Voltage
Position
90|132 Vac
198|264 Vac
left
right
LINE input receptacle.
AC power cable is connected to this receptacle.
Serial number.
The HP 41501A has its own serial number. You need this serial number
when using the telephone assistance program (HP HelpLine).
GNDU connector.
The GNDU connector is a triaxial connector: inner conductor is sense, middle
conductor is force, and outer conductor is circuit common.
1-13
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Option 402
HP 41501A Option 402 has two PGUs.
Figure 1-4. Rear View of HP 41501A Option 402
PGU output terminals.
BNC connectors. Inner conductor is force and outer conductor is circuit
common.
Ext Pulse Generator Trig Out terminal.
Trigger pulses synchronized with PGU pulses are output. This trigger is
used to synchronize the PGU pulse outputs with external pulse generators.
You cannot change the parameters of this trigger. For details about PGU
trigger, see \Measurement Functions" in HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary
Reference.
To SMU/Pulse Generator Selector Interface.
D-SUB 15-pin connector is used to control the HP 16440A SMU/pulse
generator selector.
1-14
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Option 410
HP 41501A Option 410 has one HPSMU.
Figure 1-5. Rear View of HP 41501A Option 410
HPSMU terminals.
There are two triaxial connectors for Kelvin connections: one is for force and
the other is for sense.
1-15
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Option 412
HP 41501A Option 412 has one HPSMU and two PGUs.
Figure 1-6. Rear View of HP 41501A Option 412
HPSMU terminals.
There are two triaxial connectors for Kelvin connections: one is for force and
the other is for sense.
PGU output terminals.
BNC connectors. Inner conductor is force and outer conductor is circuit
common.
Ext Pulse Generator Trig Out terminal.
Trigger pulses synchronized with PGU pulses are output. This trigger is
used to synchronize the PGU pulse outputs with external pulse generators.
You cannot change the parameters of this trigger. For details about PGU
trigger, see \Measurement Functions" in HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary
Reference.
To SMU/Pulse Generator Selector Interface.
D-SUB 15-pin connector is used to control the HP 16440A SMU/pulse
generator selector.
1-16
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Option 420
HP 41501A Option 420 has two MPSMUs.
Figure 1-7. Rear View of HP 41501A Option 420
MPSMU terminals.
Two MPSMUs are installed and each MPSMU has a triaxial connector. But
these connectors are not designed for Kelvin connections.
1-17
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
Overview of HP 4155A/4156A
Option 422
HP 41501A Option 422 has two MPSMUs and two PGUs.
Figure 1-8. Rear View of HP 41501A Option 422
MPSMU terminals.
Two MPSMUs are installed and each MPSMU has a triaxial connector. These
connectors are not designed for Kelvin connections.
PGU output terminals.
BNC connectors. Inner conductor is force and outer conductor is circuit
common.
Ext Pulse Generator Trig Out terminal.
Trigger pulses synchronized with the PGU pulses are output. This trigger is
used to synchronize the PGU pulse outputs with external pulse generators.
You cannot change the parameters of this trigger. For details about PGU
trigger, see \Measurement Functions" in HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary
Reference.
To SMU/Pulse Generator Selector Interface.
D-SUB 15-pin connector is used to control the HP 16440A SMU/pulse
generator selector.
1-18
An Overview of Functions
HP 4155A/4156A has the following useful functions.
Operation and control
Measurements and results display
Graphical analysis
Data storage
Plotting and printing
1-19
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
Operation and Control
You operate HP 4155A/4156A from the front-panel keys. Also, you can attach
a keyboard (HP C1405B) to HP 4155A/4156A, and operate it from keyboard.
See \Softkey Map and External Keyboard" in HP 4155A/4156A User's
Dictionary Reference.
HP 4155A/4156A is operated by a \form ll-in" method. That is, the
user-interface consists of setup and results pages, and you ll in elds
on appropriate pages to select a measurement mode, set measurement
parameters and conditions, set results display mode, and so on. After you
execute the measurement, measurement results are displayed on result pages.
When you operate from the front panel, the basic page ow is as follows:
1. channel denition
2. source setup
3. display setup
4. results display
Also, HP 4155A/4156A can be controlled via HP-IB by external controller,
such as an HP 9000 computer. To control HP 4155A/4156A, you create a
control (measurement) program by using a programming language such as HP
BASIC. The measurement program uses remote control commands of the HP
4155A/4156A. These are easy-to-understand commands based on Standard
Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI).
1-20
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
The HP 4155A/4156A has a built-in HP Instrument BASIC (IBASIC)
environment. You can create a measurement program using IBASIC to control
the HP 4155A/4156A instead of using an external controller. This eliminates
the need for an external controller, so required working space is reduced.
When you develop measurement programs using the built-in HP Instrument
BASIC environment of the HP 4155A/4156A, you use the HP 4155A/56A
remote commands. See the HP 4155A/4156A Programmer's Guide and HP-IB
Command Reference.
1-21
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
Measurements and Results Display
You set up the elds on the setup pages of HP 4155A/4156A, then perform
the measurement. After measurement, you can display the measurement
results on the GRAPHICS or LIST page.
Measurement.
The HP 4155A/4156A can perform two types of measurements: sweep
measurement and sampling measurement. These two types of measurements
cannot be executed at the same time.
Sweep measurement
For sweep measurements, an SMU or a VSU can become a primary sweep
source, secondary sweep source, synchronous sweep source, or constant
source.
For example, you can perform sweep measurements to get an Ic-Vce curve
of a bipolar transistor as in the following example:
In the example above, a primary source (Vce) and a secondary source
(Ib) are dened. After primary sweep source nishes each sweep, the
secondary sweep source outputs the next value.
1-22
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
Sampling measurements
For sampling measurements, the source units output constant values, and
measurements are executed by each unit at the specied intervals.
For example, you can get an integration curve of an RC integrator by
sampling measurement as follows:
In the example above, measurements by the monitor unit start when the
source unit outputs the specied value.
1-23
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
Setup pages.
You set the measurement mode, parameters, and conditions by lling in the
blank elds on the appropriate pages. You can enter variable names for the
output and measurement values, and you can dene more complex variables
called user functions. For example, you can specify a variable name for the
forward current, such as \If", and refer to this variable on other pages
instead of the unit name.
Results display.
You can display measurement results on the screen in graphics or list style.
When measurement starts, the results page appears according to the display
setting information that you set. Of course, the HP 4155A/4156A plots or
displays the results as the measurement progresses. You can also modify
the measurement parameters and conditions on the results page without
returning to the setup page.
Knob sweep.
For knob sweep measurement, you can vary the sweep range by rotating
the rotary knob. The knob sweep function is useful when you need to
quickly make a rough measurement of your DUT characteristics. You only
need to dene the channel assignments, then you can start the knob sweep
measurement. You can also change parameters and conditions by using
secondary softkeys on the knob sweep page, and you can easily copy these
changes so that they will be used in the normal sweep mode.
Stress.
HP 4155A/4156A can force stress to your DUT for a specied duration. You
can set the stress force parameters and channels independently from the
measurement channels. And the stress duration is controlled accurately.
You can force dc stress, and also ac stress because the HP 41501A can be
equipped with pulse generators. You can perform reliability evaluations by
repeating the stress-measurement cycle.
1-24
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
Graphical Analysis
You can analyze the measurement results graphically by using a marker and
two lines. The marker can move on the measurement curve only, so you can
read the measurement values by reading the marker coordinates. You can
draw up to two lines on plotting area by following methods:
Normal line:
through two points that are specied by cursors.
Gradient line:
through one point specied by cursor with specied
gradient.
Tangent line:
tangent to point specied by marker on measurement
curve.
Regression line:
regression line for area specied by two cursors.
X/Y intercept values and gradient of each line are automatically displayed, so
you can get values such as threshold voltage (Vth) and Early voltage (VA ).
Also, you can setup the auto-analysis page to position marker and lines at
desired location automatically after measurement nishes. For example, you
can automatically nd threshold voltage (Vth) as follows:
p
p
1. Vg versus Id curve, and Vg versus @V@ g Id curve are drawn.
p
2. Maximum @V@ g Id is found, and marker is moved to corresponding point
p
on Id curve.
p
3. Tangent is drawn to marker on Id curve.
4. X intercept value of this tangent is Vth.
1-25
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
Data Storage
The HP 4155A/4156A can store data on a 3.5-inch diskette. You can
store the measurement setup information, measurement data, and HP
4155A/4156A system setup information on the diskette. You can also easily
R ASCII format to your diskette
save measurement result data in MS-DOS
by using print/plot function. (For details, see \To Store Result Data in
Spreadsheet Format" in Chapter 5.)
Also, you can load information from the diskette to the HP 4155A/4156A.
R and HP LIF. The MS-DOS
R format
The allowable disk formats are MS-DOS
is the most popular disk format, which allows you to use the diskette in many
types of computers.
The HP 4155A/4156A is upwardly compatible with the HP 4145B, so you can
load setting information that was created by the HP 4145B.
You can also use internal memory for temporary data storage. You can save
up to four les in internal memory. You can quickly move information
between the internal memory and HP 4155A/4156A working memory.
1-26
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
Plotting and Printing
You can print setup data, measurement results, and screen images on a
plotter or printer that is connected to the HP 4155A/4156A. Setup data and
list results are printed as a list report, and the graphics results page is plotted
as a graphics report. You can also plot or print the screen image.
You can connect your plotter or printer to the HP 4155A/4156A via serial
interface or HP-IB interface. See Chapter 2 for information about installing
your plotter or printer.
Also, you can store setup data, measurement results, and screen images on
diskette les. The stored data les can be read by other computers.
So you can create reports that include measurement curves or data by using
R 1-2-3
R or by using desktop publishing
spreadsheet software such as Lotus
TM
R
software such as PageMaker . For details about saving data in MS-DOS
ASCII format, refer to \To Store Result Data in Spreadsheet Format" in
Chapter 5.
1-27
Introducing the HP 4155A/4156A
An Overview of Functions
2
Installation
Installation
This chapter describes requirements to install HP 4155A/4156A and the tasks
for installation, and is organized into the following four sections:
Requirements
Setting up HP 4155A/4156A
Installing Accessories
L
WARNING
The HP 4155A/4156A can force dangerous voltages (200 V for HPSMU,
and 100 V for HRSMU and MPSMU) at the force, guard, and sense
terminals. To prevent electric shock hazard, the following safety
precautions must be observed during the use of the HP 4155A/4156A.
Use a three-conductor ac power cable to connect cabinet (if used) and
HP 4155A/4156A to an electric ground (safety ground).
If you do not use HP 16442A Test Fixture, make sure to connect the
INTLK terminal to a switch that turns o when the shielding box access
door is opened.
Conrm periodically that INTLK function works normally.
Before touching the connections of the force, guard, and sense
terminals, turn the HP 4155A/4156A o and discharge any capacitors
whenever possible. If you do not turn the HP 4155A/4156A o,
complete all of the following items, regardless of any HP 4155A/4156A
settings.
Set the SMU output switches to o.
Conrm that HIGH VOLTAGE indicator is not lit.
Open the shielding box access door (open the INTLK terminal).
Discharge any capacitors if the capacitance is connected to an SMU.
Warn workers around the HP 4155A/4156A about dangerous conditions.
2-2
Requirements
This section describes the following requirements
Power requirements
Power cable
Ventilation requirements
Operating environment
2-3
Installation
Requirements
Power Requirements
CAUTION
Before applying ac line power to the HP 4155A/4156A or HP 41501A, ensure
that the correct line fuse is installed in the fuse holder and the correct power
cable is used.
Line Voltage Fuse
CAUTION
Line
Fuse Type
HP Part Number
100/120 Vac
UL/CSA T 8A, 250 Vac
2110-0383
220/240 Vac
UL/CSA T 4A, 250 Vac
2110-0014
Use only replacement fuses of the correct current rating and of the specied
type. Do not use repaired fuses, and do not short circuit the fuse holder.
The HP 4155A/4156A can operate from any single-phase ac power source
supplying 100 { 120 V or 220 { 240 V in the frequency range from 50 to 60
Hz. The maximum power consumption is 600 VA for HP 4155A/4156A, and
450 VA for HP 41501A. For details, see \Specications" in HP 4155A/4156A
User's Dictionary Reference.
The line voltage selector switch is set at the factory for your area. But, you
had better check the voltage selector setting before applying ac line power
to the HP 4155A/4156A or HP 41501A. The line voltage selector switch is
located on the rear panel of the HP 4155A/4156A and HP 41501A.
Line Voltage Selector setting
2-4
Line Voltage
Position
90-132 Vac
left
198-264 Vac
right
Installation
Requirements
Power Cable
In accordance with international safety standards, this instrument is equipped
with a three-wire power cable. When connected to an appropriate ac power
outlet, this cable grounds the instrument frame. The type of power cable
shipped with each instrument depends on the country of destination. Refer to
Figure 2-1 for the part numbers of the power cables available.
Plug: BS 1363A, 250 V
Cable: HP 8120-1351
Plug: NZSS 198/AS C112, 250 V
Cable: HP 8120-1369
Plug: CEE-VII, 250 V
Cable: HP 8120-1689
Plug: NEMA 5-15P, 125 V, 15 A
Cable: HP 8120-1378
Plug: NEMA 6-15P, 250 V, 15 A
Cable: HP 8120-0698
Plug: SEV 1011.1959-24507 Type 12, 250 V
Cable: HP 8120-2104
Figure 2-1. Power Cables
2-5
Installation
Requirements
Plug: DHCR 107, 220 V
Cable: HP 8120-2956
Plug: JIS C 8303, 125 V, 15 A
Cable: HP 8120-4753
Plug: SABS 164, 250 V
Cable: HP 8120-4211
Power Cables (continued)
If the plug on the cable does not t the power outlet, or the cable is to be
attached to a terminal block, cut the cable at the plug end and re-wire it.
This work should be performed by a qualied electrician|all local electrical
codes being strictly observed.
The color coding used in the cable will depend on the cable supplied. If a
new plug is to be connected, it must meet local safety requirements and
include the following features:
Adequate load-carrying capacity (see table of \Specications" in HP
4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference).
Ground connection.
Cable clamp.
WARNING
For protection from electrical shock, the power cable ground must not be
defeated.
2-6
Installation
Requirements
Ventilation Requirements
The HP 4155A/4156A has one cooling fan, and HP 41501A has two cooling
fans. To ensure adequate airow, make sure that there is adequate clearance
around the cooling fans: 6 inches (150 mm) behind, 3 inches (70 mm) sides,
and 0.5 inch (12 mm) above and below.
If the airow is restricted, the internal operating temperature will be
higher, reducing the instrument's reliability or causing the instrument's
thermal-protection circuits to automatically switch o the instrument.
Operating Environment
The HP 4155A/4156A and HP 41501A must be operated within the following
environmental conditions:
Temperature:
5 C to 40 C (41 F to 104 F)
Humidity:
15% to 80% RH at 40 C (104 F)
Cleaning
To prevent electrical shock, never use a wet cloth when cleaning the
HP 4155A/4156A. Always use a slightly damp or dry cloth to clean HP
4155A/4156A.
2-7
Setting up HP 4155A/4156A
This section describes what you do when you receive the HP 4155A/4156A
and accessories.
Briey, you must do the following:
1. Inspect HP 4155A/4156A and accessories.
2. Install HP 41501A with HP 4155A/4156A, if needed.
3. Check HP 4155A/4156A operation after supplying ac line power.
To satisfy the specications of HP 4155A/4156A and HP 41501A measurement
accuracy, perform calibration and adjustment every year.
To Inspect HP 4155A/4156A and Accessories
Inspect the following items when the HP 4155A/4156A and accessories arrive
at your site, and when you open the boxes that contain the HP 4155A/4156A
and accessories:
When the HP 4155A/4156A and accessories arrive at your site, and before
unpacking any components, inspect all boxes for any signs of damage that
might have occurred during shipment such as:
Dents
Scratches
Cuts
Water marks
If you suspect damage, notify your local HP sales oce.
When you open the boxes that contain the HP 4155A/4156A and
accessories, check the components against the contents lists that are
attached to the boxes.
If anything is missing, notify your local HP sales oce.
2-8
Installation
Setting up HP 4155A/4156A
To Install HP 41501A SMU/Pulse Generator Expander
WARNING
1. Put the HP 41501A on your workbench.
2. Put the HP 4155A/4156A on the HP 41501A.
3. Remove the blank panel labeled \To Expander Box
Interface" from the rear panel of the HP 4155A/4156A.
4. Insert the interface board from the HP 41501A into the
HP 4155A/4156A, then attach it with the thumbscrews.
The HP 4155A/4156A together with the HP 41501A weighs about 40 kg
(88.4 lb). The HP 4155A/4156A is just placed on top of the HP 41501A
without attaching it securely. So, be very careful when handling.
2-9
Installation
Setting up HP 4155A/4156A
To Check HP 4155A/4156A Operation
1. Make sure that the line switches are set to o.
2. On the HP 4155A/4156A, make sure that the Circuit Common terminal
is tied to frame ground terminal by shorting-bar. If not, a potential shock
hazard exists.
3. Connect the power cable between the HP 4155A/4156A and outlet at your
site. If the HP 41501A is also installed, connect the power cable between
the HP 41501A and the outlet.
4. If the HP 41501A is installed, press the LINE button to switch on.
5. Press the LINE button to switch on the HP 4155A/4156A. The initialization
screen appears on the CRT of the HP 4155A/4156A.
6. After initialization nishes, the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page
appears as follows:
7. Make sure the units displayed in the UNIT column (on the CHANNELS:
CHANNEL DEFINITION page) match the units that are actually installed.
The following table shows the displayed units in the UNIT column:
2-10
Installation
Setting up HP 4155A/4156A
HP 4155A
HP 4156A
SMU1:MP
SMU2:MP
SMU3:MP
SMU4:MP
VSU1
VSU2
VMU1
VMU2
SMU1:HR
SMU2:HR
SMU3:HR
SMU4:HR
VSU1
VSU2
VMU1
VMU2
1
HP 41501A
GNDU
HPSMU Installed1
MPSMU Installed1
PGU Installed1
SMU5:HP
SMU5:MP
SMU6:MP
PGU1
PGU2
These are labeled on the rear panel of the HP 41501A.
8. If HP 41501A units are not displayed in UNIT column, turn o the HP
4155A/56A and HP 41501A, then make sure that interface board of
HP 41501A is rmly inserted into HP 4155A/56A. Turn on HP 41501A,
then turn on HP 4155A/56A.
9. Press 4System5 front-panel key, then select MISCELLANEOUS primary
softkey. Conrm that POWER LINE FREQUENCY eld is correct frequency
for your site. If not, select the correct secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If problems occur, see Chapter 6.
2-11
Installing Accessories
This section describes how to install the HP 4155A/4156A and accessories at
your site. Refer to \Ventilation Requirements" when considering the proper
location at which to install the HP 4155A/4156A.
This section describes how:
To install connector plate
To connect interlock terminal
To install HP 16442A Test Fixture
To install HP 16441A R-Box
To install HP 16440A SMU/Pulse Generator Selector
To connect HP 16440A to HP 4155A/4156A
When you install a keyboard (HP C1405B), connect the connector of the
keyboard to the keyboard interface on the front-panel before switching on the
HP 4155A/4156A. The HP 4155A/4156A recognizes the keyboard during the
power-on self-test.
2-12
Installation
Installing Accessories
To Install Connector Plate
1. Before installing connector plate, make sure that HP 4155A/4156A and
HP 41501A are turned o.
2. Create proper openings and screw holes on your shielding box that match
the size of connector plate. See Figure 2-2, Figure 2-3, or Figure 2-4 for
dimensions of the connector plates.
3. Attach the connector plates with screws, nuts, and washers.
4. To prevent electric shock, make sure to install interlock circuit. (See \To
Connect Interlock Terminal".)
5. Connect the furnished cables between the HP 4155A/4156A and connector
plates.
For details about connections between HP 4155A/4156A and the terminals
on the connector plates, refer to \To Install HP 16442A Test Fixture" in
this chapter. Connections to connector plate are similar to connections to
test xture.
The proper connector plates are furnished with HP 4155A, HP 4156A, and
HP 41501A.
The screws, nuts, and washers are not furnished. Each connector plate has
four screw holes (3.0 mm in diameter).
2-13
Installation
Installing Accessories
If you do not use the HP 16442 test xture (for example, you use a wafer
prober or your own test xture), you need to perform measurements in a
shielding box because of the following:
To prevent the operator from receiving an electric shock from the output
voltage or current of the HP 4155A/4156A.
To minimize the eects of environmental noise and ambient light.
For details on how to connect terminals of connector plate and DUTs, refer to
\Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)" in Chapter 3.
Figure 2-2.
Dimensions of Connector Plate for HP 4155A
(HP Part Number: 04155-60006)
2-14
Installation
Installing Accessories
Table 2-1. Connectors on Connector Plate
Connector
HP Part Number
Triaxial
1250-1906
for SMU, GNDU
Coaxial (BNC)
1250-0083
for VSU, VMU, PGU
Interlock
1252-1419
Figure 2-3.
Dimensions of Connector Plate for HP 4156A
(HP Part Number: 04156-60002)
2-15
Installation
Installing Accessories
Figure 2-4.
Dimensions of Connector Plate for HP 41501A
(HP Part Number: 41501-60004)
2-16
Installation
Installing Accessories
To Connect Interlock Terminal
When you use a shielding box, you must install an interlock circuit to prevent
electric shock. When you use the HP 16442A test xture, you do not have to
install an interlock circuit because the HP 16442A has a built-in interlock
circuit.
The upper part of the following shows the interlock circuit you need to make
in your shielding box, and the lower part shows the pin assignments of the
interlock connector on the connector plate.
2-17
Installation
Installing Accessories
interlock (Intlk) terminal.
To prevent an operator from receiving an electric shock from high voltage
(more than 640 V), you connect the interlock (Intlk) terminal (of the
connector plate) to a switch that turns on when the shielding box door is
closed, and that turns o when the shielding box access door is opened. For
safety, use two switches in series.
If the door is open (the interlock terminals are open), the SMU cannot force
more than 640 V. If the door is opened while the SMU output is more than
640 V, the HP 4155A/4156A immediately drops the outputs of all units to 0 V.
Conversely, if the door is closed (interlock terminals are shorted), this
function is disabled. So, you can force more than 640 V.
WARNING
Dangerous voltages of up to the maximum voltage of SMUs may be
present at force, guard, and sense terminals when the interlock terminals
are shorted.
HP 16435A Interlock Cable Adapter.
If you already have a connector plate or test xture that has a BNC coaxial
connector for interlock (such as the HP 16088B test xture), you can use HP
16435A Interlock Cable Adapter to connect the test xture.
To connect:
1. Connect interlock (Intlk) terminal on the rear panel of the HP
4155A/4156A to the interlock cable adapter by using the following
interlock cable.
HP Part Number
Description
04155-61613
Interlock cable 3 m
04155-61614
Interlock cable 1.5 m
2. Connect the interlock cable adapter to the connector plate or test xture
by using the coaxial cable furnished with HP 16435A.
2-18
Installation
Installing Accessories
Warning Indicator on HP 16088B Test Fixture
The high voltage warning indicator on this test xture is designed only for HP 41423A High Voltage
Source/Monitor Unit for HP 4142B.
This warning indicator is not valid when you use the HP 16088B test xture with the HP
4155A/4156A by using HP 16435A interlock cable adapter.
LED terminal.
When more than 640 V is forced from an SMU, the LED lights to indicate
high voltage output.
recommended parts.
You can get the following parts from Hewlett-Packard:
HP Part Number
Description
3101-3241
switch
3101-0302
switch
1450-0641
LED (VF = 2.1 V @ IF = 10 mA)
2-19
Installation
Installing Accessories
Figure 2-5. Dimensions of Interlock Switch (HP part number 3101-0302)
Figure 2-6. Dimensions of Interlock Switch (HP part number 3101-3241)
2-20
Installation
Installing Accessories
Figure 2-7. Dimensions of LED (HP part number 1450-0641)
To Perform Interlock Circuit Test
To conrm that interlock circuit test, do as follows:
1. Connect the Intlk terminal of HP 4155A/4156A to your interlock circuit.
2. Press 4System5 front-panel key, then select CALIB/DIAG primary softkey to display the
SYSTEM: SELF-CALIBRATION/DIAGNOSTICS page.
3. In the CALIB/DIAG eld, select DIAG secondary softkey.
4. In the CATEGORY eld, select I/O & PERIPH secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Move pointer to the 403 (INT.) Interlock & LED eld.
6. Select EXECUTE secondary softkey.
7. Conrm the following:
LED turns on within 1 sec from when interlock circuit is shorted.
LED turns o within 1 sec from when interlock circuit is open.
8. To stop the interlock test, select STOP secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2-21
Installation
Installing Accessories
To Connect Connector Plate and DUT
CAUTION
GNDU connections
Do not use the HP 16493C triaxial cable of the SMU to connect the GNDU to a
DUT. The GNDU can sink up to 1.6 A, and the maximum current rating of the
cable is 1 A.
Kelvin connections
Use a low-noise coaxial cable (part number: 8120-3674) from the
connector plate to DUT as shown in the following gure. To cancel the
eects of cable resistance, connect the sense line as close as possible to
the terminal of the DUT.
2-22
Installation
Installing Accessories
non-Kelvin connections
Short sense and force at the connector plate as shown. Use AWG
22 single-strand insulated wire (part number: 8150-2639) from the
connector plate to the DUT. Measurement results include the residual
resistance of the connection wire.
To easily connect GNDU for a measurement in which the accuracy is not
important, connect only force to the DUT, without shorting sense and
force.
2-23
Installation
Installing Accessories
WARNING
CAUTION
SMU connections
The SMU forces dangerous voltages of up to 6100 V (6200 V for HPSMU)
at the force, sense, and guard terminals.
To prevent electric shock, do not expose these lines.
Before turning the HP 4155A/4156A on, connect the Intlk terminal to a
switch that turns o when the shielding box access door is opened.
Before you touch connections of these terminals, turn HP 4155A/56A o,
disconnect power cable, and discharge any capacitors.
Never connect the guard terminal to any output, including circuit common,
chassis ground, or the guard terminal of any other unit. Doing so may result
in an emergency condition.
Kelvin connections
Use low-noise coaxial cable (part number: 8120-4461) from connector
plate to DUT as shown in following gure. To cancel eects of cable
resistance, connect sense line as close as possible to DUT terminal. To
prevent oscillations, do not use cables longer than 1.5 m. For highly
accurate current forcing and measurements while minimizing leakage,
surround all force and sense lines from SMU by a guard as far as
possible, and make cables stable by taping.
2-24
Installation
Installing Accessories
non-Kelvin connections
Connections are shown in following gure. Measurement results include
residual resistance from the connection wire. To enable highly accurate
current forcing and measurements while minimizing leakage, surround all
force lines from SMU by a guard as far as possible.
2-25
Installation
Installing Accessories
NOTE
When you make a connection by using low-noise coaxial cable (part number: 8120-4461), shave the
Conductive layer and the Insulator(clear) by knife so that the Center Conductor is insulated from the
Conductive layer. Refer to following gure.
2-26
Installation
Installing Accessories
VSU and VMU connections
The following gure shows an example of a connection between VSU1,
VSU2, VMU1, or VMU2 and a DUT. Use AWG 24 single-strand insulated
wire (part number: 8150-0447) to connect the connector plate and the
DUT.
2-27
Installation
Installing Accessories
PGU connections
Regardless of output impedance setting, use a low-noise coaxial cable (part
number: 8120-0102) from the connector plate to the DUT as shown in the
following gure. If you use HP 16440A selector, use a low-noise coaxial
cable (part number: 8120-4461).
2-28
Installation
Installing Accessories
To Install HP 16442A Test Fixture
Before performing the following procedure, make sure that HP 4155A/4156A
and HP 41501A are turned o.
When you use HP 16442A test xture without HP 16441A R-Box or HP
16440A selector, you can make HP 16442A stable by using stabilizers as
shown in the following gure.
1. Put a stabilizer on both sides of test xture.
2. Screw a athead screw into hole of each stabilizer.
2-29
Installation
Installing Accessories
Connecting HP 4155A and HP 16442A test xture
1. To prevent shock, be sure to connect following by 3.0m or 1.5m Intlk
cable: Intlk terminal (HP 4155A) () Intlk terminal (HP 16442A)
2. Connect the following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m coaxial cables:
VSU terminals (HP 4155A) () VSU terminals (HP 16442A)
3. Connect the following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m coaxial cables:
VMU terminals (HP 4155A) () VMU terminals (HP 16442A)
4. Connect the following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m triaxial cables:
MPSMU terminals (HP 4155A) () SMU terminals (HP 16442A)
WARNING
MPSMUs force dangerous voltage of up to 6100 V at the Force, Sense, and
Guard terminals. To prevent electric shock, do not expose these lines.
CAUTION
Never connect Guard terminal to any output, including circuit common, frame
ground, or other guard terminal. Doing so will damage SMU.
2-30
Installation
Installing Accessories
Connecting HP 4156A and HP 16442A test xture
1. To prevent shock, be sure to connect following by 3.0m or 1.5m Intlk
cable: Intlk terminal (HP 4156A) () Intlk terminal (HP 16442A)
2. Connect the following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m coaxial cables:
VSU terminals (HP 4156A) () VSU terminals (HP 16442A)
3. Connect the following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m coaxial cables:
VMU terminals (HP 4156A) () VMU terminals (HP 16442A)
4. Connect the following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m Kelvin triaxial cables:
HRSMU terminals (HP 4156A) () SMU terminals (HP 16442A)
WARNING
HRSMUs force dangerous voltage of up to 6100 V at the Force, Sense, and
Guard terminals. To prevent electric shock, do not expose these lines.
CAUTION
Never connect guard terminal to any output, including circuit common,
chassis ground, or other guard terminal. Doing so will damage SMU.
2-31
Installation
Installing Accessories
Connecting HP 41501A and HP 16442A test xture
1. To prevent electric shock, make sure that Intlk terminal of HP
4155A/4156A is connected to Intlk terminal of HP 16442A.
2. Connect the following by using a 3.0 m or 1.5 m GNDU cable:
GNDU terminal (HP 41501A) () GNDU terminal (HP 16442A)
3. If the HP 41501A is equipped with two PGUs, connect the following by
using 3.0 m or 1.5 m coaxial cables:
PGU terminals (HP 41501A) () PGU terminals (HP 16442A)
4. Do the following:
If the HP 41501A is equipped with two MPSMUs, connect the
following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m triaxial cables:
MPSMU terminals (HP 41501A) () SMU terminals (HP 16442A)
If the HP 41501A is equipped with HPSMU, connect the following by
using 3.0 m or 1.5 m Kelvin triaxial cable:
HPSMU terminal (HP 41501A) () SMU terminal (HP 16442A)
2-32
Installation
Installing Accessories
WARNING
Do not use the HP 16493C triaxial cable for SMUs to connect GNDU to a
test xture or a connector plate. The GNDU cable can sink up to 1.6 A,
but the maximum current rating of the HP 16493C is 1 A.
WARNING
HPSMU forces dangerous voltage of up to 6200 V at the Force, Sense, and
Guard terminals. To prevent electric shock, do not expose these lines.
CAUTION
Never connect the Guard terminal to any output, including circuit common,
chassis ground, or other guard terminal. Doing so will damage SMU damage.
Installing HP 16442A test xture with other accessories.
The HP 16442A test xture can be installed with an HP 16441A R-box,
HP 16440A selector, or both. The following gure shows how to attach the
HP 16442A to other accessories.
2-33
Installation
Installing Accessories
Installing HP 16088B Test Fixture
You can easily install HP 16088B test xture by using HP 16434A Kelvin Triaxial Cable and HP 16435A
Interlock Cable Adapter.
To install HP 16088B:
1. Connect the following by using:
3.0m or 1.5 m kelvin triaxial cables (When connecting HP 4156A or HPSMU of HP 41501A):
HRSMU or HPSMU terminals (HP 4156A/HP 41501A) () SMU terminals (HP 16088B)
3.0 m or 1.5 m triaxial cables (When connecting HP 4155A or MPSMUs of HP 41501A):
MPSMU terminals (HP 4155A/HP 41501A) () SMU terminals (HP 16088B)
2. To prevent electric shock, be sure to connect Intlk terminal (HP 4155A/4156A) and INTLK
terminal (HP 16088B) as follows:
a. Connect the following by using 3.0 m or 1.5 m Intlk cable furnished with HP 4155A/4156A:
Intlk terminal (HP 4155A/4156A) () 16435-61001 INTLK CABLE ADAPTER
b. Connect the following by using coaxial cable furnished with HP 16435A:
16435-61001 INTLK CABLE ADAPTER () INTLK terminal (HP 16088B)
For more information about the HP 16435A interlock cable adapter and the
HP 16088B test xture, see \To Connect Interlock Terminal" in this chapter.
2-34
Installation
Installing Accessories
To Install HP 16441A R-Box
Before installing HP 16441A R-Box, make sure that HP 4155A/4156A and
HP 41501A are turned o.
1. Connect the following by using a 3.0 m or 1.5 m control cable:
To R-Box terminal (HP 4155A/4156A) () Control terminal (HP 16441A)
2. Connect the following by using:
3.0 m or 1.5 m triaxial cables (when connecting HP 4155A or MPSMUs
of HP 41501A):
MPSMU terminals (HP 4155A/HP 41501A) () Input Force terminals
(HP 16441A)
3.0 m or 1.5 m Kelvin triaxial cables (when connecting HP 4156A or
HPSMU of HP 41501A):
HRSMU or HPSMU terminals (HP 4156A/HP 41501A) () Input
terminals (HP 16441A)
2-35
Installation
Installing Accessories
3. Connect the following by using:
40 cm triaxial cables (when connecting HP 4155A or MPSMUs of HP
41501A):
Output Force terminals (HP 16441A) () SMU terminals (HP 16442A or
connector plate)
40 cm triaxial cables (when connecting HP 4156A or HPSMU of HP
41501A):
Output Force terminals (HP 16441A) () SMU terminals (HP 16442A or
connector plate)
Output Sense terminals (HP 16441A) () SMU terminals (HP 16442A or
connector plate)
Installing HP 16441A R-box with other accessories.
You can attach the HP 16441A R-box to the HP 16442A test xture or to your
shielding box. The following gures show how to attach the HP 16441A
R-box.
Attaching HP 16441A R-Box to HP 16442A Test Fixture
2-36
Installation
Installing Accessories
Attaching HP 16441A R-Box to Shielding Box
2-37
Installation
Installing Accessories
To Install HP 16440A SMU/Pulse Generator Selector
Note that to use the HP 16440A, the HP 4155A/4156A must be equipped with
an HP 41501A SMU/Pulse Generator Expander that has two PGUs.
Attaching your HP 16440A selector to HP 16442A test xture
1. Put the HP 16440A selector on your workbench.
2. Put the HP 16442A test xture on top of HP 16440A
selector.
3. Put a plate on both sides.
4. Screw the three furnished athead screws into each plate.
2-38
Installation
Installing Accessories
If you do not use an HP 16440A SMU/Pulse Generator Selector expander, skip the following steps:
5. Put the HP 16440A selector expander on your workbench.
Then, put the HP 16440A selector and HP 16442A test
xture (that were attached in the previous steps) on top
of the HP 16440A selector expander.
6. Put a plate on both sides.
7. Screw the three furnished athead screws into each plate.
2-39
Installation
Installing Accessories
You can also attach an HP 16441A R-Box to the HP 16442A test xture and
HP 16440A selector as follows:
Attaching R-Box to Test Fixture and Selector
2-40
Installation
Installing Accessories
Attaching HP 16440A selector to a shielding box
The following gure shows the spacing of the HP 16440A screw holes. You
need to prepare four screws and nuts to match the screw holes.
2-41
Installation
Installing Accessories
If you also use an HP 16440A selector expander with the HP 16440A
selector, connect the selector expander as follows before connecting to the
shielding box:
1. Put the selector expander on your workbench.
2. Put the selector on top of selector expander.
3. Put a plate on both sides.
4. Screw the three furnished athead screws into each plate.
2-42
Installation
Installing Accessories
Connect selector (and selector expander if connected by previous
procedure) to shielding box as follows:
1. Attach an angle to both sides of HP 16440A by using the furnished screws.
2. Put the HP 16440A(s) on the side panel of your shielding
box.
3. Put four nuts on the inside panel of your shielding box.
4. Screw four athead screws into the side panel.
2-43
Installation
Installing Accessories
You can also attach an HP 16441A R-Box to the HP 16440A selector on the
shielding box as follows:
Attaching HP 16441A R-Box
2-44
Installation
Installing Accessories
To Connect HP 16440A Selector to HP 4155A/56A
Connecting HP 16440A selector to HP 16440A selector expander
If you use selector expander, connect selector to selector expander by
using 40 cm control cable as follows:
CONTROL Output terminal (selector) () CONTROL Input terminal
(selector expander)
2-45
Installation
Installing Accessories
Connecting HP 16440A selector to HP 4155A/4156A
Before connecting, turn o HP 4155A/4156A and HP 41501A.
1. Connect the following by using a 3.0 m or 1.5 m control cable:
CONTROL Input terminal (selector) () To SMU/Pulse Generator
Selector Interface terminal (HP 41501A).
Repeat following steps for desired channels of selector (or expander)
2. Connect the following by using a 3.0 m or 1.5 m triaxial cable:
Input SMU terminal (selector) () SMU terminal (HP 4155A/56A or HP
41501A)
3. Connect the following by using a 3.0 m or 1.5 m coaxial cable:
Input PGU terminal (selector) () PGU terminal (HP 41501A).
4. Connect the following by using a 40 cm triaxial cable:
Output Selected terminal (selector) () SMU terminal (connector plate
or HP 16442A test xture).
2-46
3
Making a Measurement
Making a Measurement
To make a measurement, mount your device under test (DUT), set up your
HP 4155A/4156A for the measurement, then execute the measurement. The
HP 4155A/4156A can execute sweep and sampling measurements. The HP
4155A/4156A can also force stress to your DUT.
This chapter describes the tasks for making measurements, and is organized
into the following four sections:
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
Sweep Measurements
Knob Sweep Measurements
Sampling Measurements
Stress Force
For details about how to enter or input setup data, refer to \Page
Organization" in HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
To satisfy the specications of HP 4155A/4156A and HP 41501A measurement
accuracy, perform calibration and adjustment every year and allow HP
4155A/4156A and HP 41501A to warm-up for a minimum of 40 minutes
before you begin performing measurements.
3-2
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
This section describes how to connect your DUTs to the HP 4155A/4156A.
Only the basic operations for connecting are described.
If the HP 4155A/4156A is not congured with a test xture or your wafer
prober yet, see \Setting up HP 4155A/4156A" in Chapter 2, Test Fixture
User's Guide, and your wafer prober manuals.
This section covers the HP 16442A test xture only. For operating your wafer
prober, see your wafer prober manuals.
Note that you must set the HP 4155A/4156A to the idle state when
connecting or disconnecting your DUTs. If not, the DUTs may be damaged. To
set to idle state, press 4Stop5 key and make sure Standby indicator is o.
The HP 4156A is designed for Kelvin connections. See \To Make
Connections to Measure Low Resistance (For HP 4156A Only)" for Kelvin
connection theory.
In this Section.
This section has the following task descriptions:
To mount a DUT on test xture
To make connections to reduce leakage current
To make connections to measure low resistance (for HP 4156A only)
3-3
Making a Measurement
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
To Mount a DUT on Test Fixture
CAUTION
CAUTION
1. Set your HP 4155A/4156A to idle state by pressing 4Stop5 key in the
MEASUREMENT key group. If the standby indicator is lit, press the
4Standby5 key to turn o the standby indicator.
2. Select a proper socket module for your DUT, then set the module on the
test xture.
3. Mount your DUT on the socket module.
4. Connect the terminals of the socket module to the terminals of the test
xture by using the proper cables.
5. Close the lid of the test xture, if necessary.
When the HP 4155A/4156A forces more than 640 V, close the lid of the test
xture. Otherwise, the interlock function will stop the HP 4155A/4156A
output.
Do not connect or disconnect your DUT and HP 4155A/4156A while the HP
4155A/4156A is forcing voltage or current. Otherwise, your DUT may be
damaged.
To connect the DUT on the test xture, you can use cables that have the
following connectors:
Miniature banana|miniature banana
Miniature banana|pin plug
Miniature banana|miniature clip
Do not touch the contact part of the connection cables. Oil, perspiration,
and dirt prevent good electrical contact, deteriorate insulation, and degrade
measurement accuracy.
3-4
Making a Measurement
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
Connections for High Current Measurement (HP 4156A Only)
When you force or measure a large current, you may want to use a Kelvin (4-wire) connection
to eliminate the residual resistance eects of test leads and contacts. For example, you can use the
following connections as Kelvin connections on the test xture:
Examples: Kelvin Connection
To cancel the eects of the residual resistance, test leads must be connected as close as possible to
the DUT.
3-5
Making a Measurement
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
To Make Connections to Reduce Leakage Current
Connect the terminals of the connector plate to the probing needles by
using coaxial cables.
Connect coaxial center conductor to force terminal (of connector plate) and
tail of the probing needle.
Connect coaxial outer conductor to guard terminal (of connector plate).
To reduce the leakage current, extend the guard conductor as close as
possible to the DUT.
WARNING
CAUTION
Example
Do not touch the guard terminal with bare hands because you may be
shocked by high voltage. The potential of the guard terminal is equal to
the output voltage.
Never connect the guard terminal to any other output, including circuit
common, frame ground, or the guard terminal of any other unit. Doing so
may damage the unit.
The following example connection can be used to reduce the leakage current.
Extend the outer conductor as close as possible to the probing needle. This
also reduces the induced noise.
3-6
Making a Measurement
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
Guarding
Guarding reduces the leakage current between the measurement points and instrument. This is
important when you measure low current.
The following gure shows the theory of guarding. The buer amplier (21) keeps the potential of
the guard conductor at the same potential as the force conductor, so current does not ow between
the force and guard conductors. Therefore, the current measured by SMU is same as current at
measurement point because no current is leaked.
3-7
Making a Measurement
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
To Make Connections to Measure Low Resistance (For
HP 4156A Only)
Connect force and sense terminals of SMU as close as possible to the DUT.
When you measure a low resistance, high current ows through the DUT.
This high current increases the measurement error caused by the residual
resistance of cables and contacts. To cancel the eect of this resistance, you
can use Kelvin connections (4-wire), which means the force and sense lines
are extended separately to the DUT.
Example
The following example connection can be used to measure low resistance.
The sense point of the voltage measurement is at the contact pad, so the
voltage due to the residual resistance between the instrument and the sense
point is canceled.
To reduce the leakage current, use coaxial cables to connect the connector
plate to the probing needle.
3-8
Making a Measurement
Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)
Kelvin Connection
Kelvin connections give good measurement results when you force high-current. The following gure
shows the equivalent circuits for Kelvin and non-Kelvin connections.
For the non-Kelvin connection, the voltmeter measures the voltage drop of resistances rF1 ,
RDUT , and rF2 .
For the Kelvin connection, the voltmeter measures the voltage drop of resistance RDUT only. The
impedance of the voltmeter is very high, so the voltage drop of resistances rS1 and rS2 is very
small.
The Kelvin connection is eective even when forcing voltage. The voltage drop due to the residual
resistance of the force line wiring is fed back to the voltage source via a comparator in the sense line,
thereby ensuring the specied voltage output at the sense point (point where force and sense lines
intersect). The input impedance of comparator is high, so current ow into the sense line is very low.
Therefore, output error is not signicant if the sense line wiring has a residual resistance of 10
or
less.
3-9
Sweep Measurements
This section describes the sweep measurement tasks.
Basic Procedures for Sweep Measurements.
The basic procedure to test your DUT is as follows:
1. Connecting your DUT to the HP 4155A/4156A. See
\Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)" for procedures.
2. Dening measurement mode and measurement units that you
use to make measurement. The following tasks are described:
3-10
To Dene Sweep Measurement Units
To Dene a User Function
To Control R-Box
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
3. Setting the source parameters of the units. The following
tasks are described:
4. Setting the display mode to show measurement results. The
following tasks are described:
To
To
To
To
To
To
Set
Set
Set
Set
Set
Set
up
up
up
up
up
up
Primary Sweep Source
Secondary Sweep Source
Synchronous Sweep Source
Constant Output
SMU Pulsed Output
PGU Pulsed Output
5. Executing the measurement. The following tasks are
described:
To Set up Graphical Display of Measurement Results
To Set up List Display of Measurement Results
Results. For example, displayed graphically.
To Output Same Value Before and After Measurements
To Execute or Stop Measurement
3-11
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Dene Sweep Measurement Units
1. Press 4Chan5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select CHANNEL DEF primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the MEASUREMENT MODE area, select SWEEP secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the VNAME column, enter a unique name for voltage variable. For
example, enter Vce for collector-emitter voltage. If channel does neither V
force nor V measurement, you can omit VNAME.
5. In the INAME column, enter a unique name for current variable. For
example, enter \Ic" for collector current. If channel does neither I force
nor I measurement, you can omit INAME.
6. In the MODE column, select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
V secondary softkey for voltage output mode (SMU, VSU, and PGU,
and grounded voltage measurement mode of VMU).
NNNNNNNNNNN
I secondary softkey for current output mode (SMU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
VPULSE secondary softkey for pulsed voltage output mode (SMU and
PGU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
IPULSE secondary softkey for pulsed current output mode (SMU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
COMMON secondary softkey for circuit common mode (SMU and GNDU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DVOLT secondary softkey for dierential voltage measurement mode
(VMU).
7. In the FCTN column, select:
3-12
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CONST for constant output function (SMU, VSU, and PGU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
VAR1 for primary sweep output function (SMU and VSU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
VAR2 for secondary sweep output function (SMU and VSU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
VAR1' for synchronous sweep output function (SMU and VSU).
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
You can use VNAME and INAME names in user function denitions or for
analysis on the GRAPHICS/LIST pages. These names must be 6 or less
alphanumeric characters. First character must be alphabet character.
For details about STBY and SERIES RESISTANCE elds, see \CHANNELS:
CHANNEL DEFINITION page" in \Page Organization" or \Types of Operation
State" in \Measurement Functions" of HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary
Reference.
To disable a unit.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Move the pointer to the row of the unit, then select the DELETE ROW
secondary softkey. The settings in the row are deleted.
Example
The following settings show an example for measuring an n-p-n transistor's
I-V characteristics. SMU1 is connected to base, SMU2 is connected to
collector, and SMU3 is connected to emitter. SMU1 is set to current source (I
mode) and secondary sweep (VAR2) function. SMU2 is set to voltage source
(V mode) and primary sweep (VAR1) function. SMU3 is set to COMMON.
Example Channel Denition: Sweep Measurement
3-13
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up Primary Sweep Source
1. Dene VAR1 unit as described in \To Dene Sweep Measurement Units".
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select SWEEP SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the SWEEP MODE eld of the VAR1 column, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SINGLE secondary softkey to set single sweep mode.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DOUBLE secondary softkey to set double sweep mode.
5. In the LIN/LOG eld of the VAR1 column, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LINEAR secondary softkey to set linear step mode.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOG XX secondary softkey to set logarithmic step mode. XX is 10, 25, or
50, which species the number of steps per decade.
6. In the START eld of the VAR1 column, enter the start value.
7. In the STOP eld of the VAR1 column, enter the stop value.
8. In the STEP eld of the VAR1 column, enter the step value.
The NO OF STEP is automatically calculated from the start, stop, and step
values.
If you select LOG for LIN/LOG, the polarity of start and stop values must be
the same.
NNNNNNNNNNN
To change the compliance value of VAR1.
Enter desired compliance value into COMPLIANCE eld of VAR1 column.
To modify the UNIT and NAME elds.
Modify the UNIT and NAME elds on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page.
3-14
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following example shows the primary sweep conditions (VAR1
parameters):
3-15
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up Secondary Sweep Source
1. Dene VAR2 unit as described in \To Dene Sweep Measurement Units".
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select SWEEP SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the START eld of the VAR2 column, enter the start value.
5. In the STEP eld of the VAR2 column, enter the step value.
6. In the NO OF STEP eld of the VAR2 column, enter the number of steps.
To output secondary sweep source, you also need to set up primary sweep
source. For details of how to set up primary sweep source, refer to \To Set up
Primary Sweep Source".
For secondary sweep source, the following is always set automatically:
SWEEP MODE is set to SINGLE, and LIN/LOG is set to LINEAR. You cannot
modify the SWEEP MODE and LIN/LOG elds for the secondary sweep source.
The STOP value is automatically calculated from the start value, step value,
and the number of steps.
To change the compliance value of VAR2.
Enter desired compliance value into COMPLIANCE eld of VAR2 column.
To modify the UNIT and NAME elds.
Modify the UNIT and NAME elds on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page.
3-16
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following example shows the secondary sweep conditions (VAR2
parameters):
3-17
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up Synchronous Sweep Source
1. Dene VAR1' unit as described in \To Dene Sweep Measurement Units".
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select SWEEP SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the OFFSET eld of the VAR1' column, enter the oset value.
5. In the RATIO eld of the VAR1' column, enter the ratio value.
The output value of VAR1' is calculated by the following equation:
V AR10 = V AR1 2 RAT IO + OF F SET
To output synchronous sweep source, you also need to set up primary sweep
source VAR1. For details of how to set up VAR1, refer to \To Set up Primary
Sweep Source". VAR1 and VAR1' must both be voltage output mode or both
current output mode. For example, if VAR1 is V output mode, then VAR1'
must be V or VPULSE output mode.
To change the compliance value of VAR1'.
Enter desired compliance value into COMPLIANCE eld of VAR1' column.
To modify the UNIT and NAME elds.
Modify the UNIT and NAME elds on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page.
3-18
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following example shows the synchronous sweep conditions (VAR1'
parameters):
3-19
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up Constant Output
1. Dene CONST units as described in \To Dene Sweep Measurement
Units".
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select SWEEP SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the SOURCE eld of the desired unit in the CONSTANT area, enter the
desired output value.
To modify the UNIT, NAME, and MODE elds.
Modify the UNIT, NAME, and MODE elds on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL
DEFINITION page.
Example
The following example shows the constant output conditions:
3-20
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up SMU Pulsed Output
1. Dene SMU to be VPULSE or IPULSE mode as described in \To Dene
Sweep Measurement Units".
For pulsed sweep source, specify SMU FCTN to be VAR1, VAR2, or
VAR1'.
For pulsed constant source, specify SMU FCTN to be CONST.
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select SWEEP SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Set as follows:
For pulsed sweep source, set up VAR1, VAR2, or VAR1' area.
For pulsed constant source, set up CONSTANT area.
5. In the PERIOD eld of the SMU PULSE area, enter the pulse period value.
6. In the WIDTH eld of the SMU PULSE area, enter the pulse width value.
7. In the BASE eld of the SMU PULSE area, enter the pulse base value.
On the CHANNEL DEFINITION page, you can set only one SMU to be a
pulsed source. Then, you set the pulse parameters in the SMU PULSE area of
the SWEEP SETUP page.
The relation between the PERIOD, WIDTH, and BASE values are as shown in
the following gures.
For gure (a), the SMU is set on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page as follows:
MODE: VPULSE or IPULSE
FCTN: VAR1, VAR2, or VAR1'
For gure (b), the SMU is set on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page as follows:
MODE: VPULSE or IPULSE
FCTN: CONST
3-21
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
The pulse peak values depend on the values you set in the VAR1, VAR1',
VAR2, or CONSTANT area.
To modify the UNIT and NAME elds.
Modify the UNIT and NAME elds on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page.
3-22
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following shows an example setup of SMU pulsed output on the
MEASURE: SWEEP SETUP page.
3-23
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up PGU Pulsed Output
1. Dene PGU to be VPULSE and CONST as described in \To Dene Sweep
Measurement Units".
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select PGU SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
In the PERIOD eld of PGU1, enter the pulse period value.
In the WIDTH eld of desired PGU column, enter the pulse width value.
In the DELAY TIME eld of desired PGU column, enter delay time value.
In the PEAK VALUE eld of desired PGU column, enter pulse peak value.
In the BASE VALUE eld of desired PGU column, enter pulse base value.
In the LEADING TIME eld of desired PGU column, enter the
leading-edge transition time.
10. In the TRAILING TIME eld of desired PGU column, enter the
trailing-edge transition time.
11. In the IMPEDANCE eld of desired PGU column, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOW secondary softkey for approximately zero ohm output
impedance.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
50 ohm
secondary softkey for 50 ohm output impedance.
12. In the PULSE COUNT eld, do one of the following:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select FREE RUN secondary softkey to force the pulse continuously.
Or enter the number of pulses to output (for sampling measurement
only).
For the pulse period and pulse count values, the values you set for PGU1 are
also used for PGU2.
3-24
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
The following gure shows the relation between pulse waveform and setup
parameters.
You cannot set compliance for a PGU, which has a 100 mA current limit.
To modify the UNIT and NAME elds.
Modify the UNIT and NAME elds on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page.
Using PGUs as Constant Voltage Source
To use a PGU as a constant voltage source, set the desired PGU as follows:
V in MODE column on the CHANNEL DEFINITION page
Desired output voltage value in SOURCE eld on MEASURE: PGU SETUP page.
3-25
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following example shows setup of PGU pulsed output on the MEASURE:
PGU SETUP page.
3-26
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Output Same Value Before and After Measurements
1. Press 4Chan5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select CHANNEL DEF primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the STBY column of the desired unit, select STANDBY ON secondary
softkey.
4. Press 4Standby5 key in the MEASUREMENT key group.
The indicator above the 4Standby5 key shows whether the Standby function
is enabled. If this indicator is ON, then for the units that you selected
STANDBY ON , the units have the following output value during the Standby
state (that is, before and after measurements or stress):
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Function of a Unit
Output during Standby State
VAR1
VAR1 Start value
VAR1'
Ratio
VAR2
VAR2 Start value
CONSTANT
2 Start + Oset
Output value
For sampling measurements, only the CONSTANT function is available.
From Standby state, you can execute measurements or force stress by
pressing 4Single5, 4Repeat5, 4Append5, or 4Stress5 key. After measurement or
stress, the STANDBY ON units are returned to same output value as before
measurement or stress.
If Standby indicator is ON, then pressing the 4Standby5 key disables the
Standby function, and Standby output stops. Pressing the 4Stop5 key has no
aect on the Standby state.
3-27
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Dene a User Function
1. Press 4Chan5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select USER FCTN primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the NAME column, enter the user function name.
4. In the UNIT column, enter the units.
5. In the DEFINITION column, enter the user function denition.
The user function name must be 6 or less alphanumeric characters. First
character must be alphabet character. Name must be unique. Name is case
sensitive. For example, HFE is dierent from Hfe.
In the user function denition, you can enter an expression that consists of
any of the following:
VNAME and INAME names that you entered on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL
DEFINITION page.
Other user functions.
Numerical operators.
Built-in functions such as DELTA and SQRT.
For details about expressions, numerical operators, and built-in functions,
refer to \Data Variable and-Analysis Function" in HP 4155A/4156A User's
Dictionary Reference.
3-28
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to dene Hfe.
3-29
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up Graphical Display of Measurement Results
1. Press 4Display5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the DISPLAY MODE eld, select GRAPHICS secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the Xaxis column, enter variable name, select axis scale, and enter
minimum and maximum values.
5. In the Y1axis column, enter variable name, select axis scale, and enter
minimum and maximum values.
6. If you use Y2 axis, enter variable name, select axis scale, and enter
minimum and maximum values in Y2axis column.
When the pointer is in the NAME row, the allowable variable names appear
in the secondary softkey area. To set a variable name, select the desired
secondary softkey. The allowable names are names that you already set up
on the CHANNEL DEFINITION, USER FUNCTION, and USER VARIABLE
pages.
To display a grid on the plotting area.
NNNNNNNN
In GRID eld, select ON secondary softkey.
To remove the grid.
NNNNNNNNNNN
In GRID eld, select OFF secondary softkey.
To control display of line parameters on GRAPHICS page.
NNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
In LINE PARAMETER eld, select ON to display or OFF to not display. Line
parameters are the X and Y intercepts and gradient of the analysis lines.
To set up variable to be displayed on the GRAPHICS page.
In DATA VARIABLES elds, select secondary softkey for desired variable.
3-30
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following gure shows an example to set up both Y1 and Y2 axes, and to
set grid to ON.
3-31
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Set up List Display of Measurement Results
1. Press 4Display5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the DISPLAY MODE eld, select LIST secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the LIST area, select the secondary softkey of the variables for which
you want to list the measurement results.
When the pointer is in the NAME row, the allowable variable names appear
in the secondary softkey area. To set a variable name, select the desired
secondary softkey. The allowable names are names that you already set up
on CHANNEL DEFINITION, USER FUNCTION, and USER VARIABLE pages.
To set up variable to be displayed on the LIST page.
In DATA VARIABLES elds, select secondary softkey for desired variable.
Example
Following gure is an example setup to display VE, IC, and IB on LIST page.
3-32
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Execute or Stop Measurement
To execute a measurement, press:
4Single5 key in the MEASUREMENT key group for single measurement.
4Repeat5 key in the MEASUREMENT key group for repeat measurement.
4Append5 key in the MEASUREMENT key group for append measurement.
To stop a measurement, press 4Stop5 key in the MEASUREMENT key group.
Single, Repeat, and Append Measurement
There are three measurement execution modes as follows:
Single measurement
Clears GRAPHICS or LIST page, then executes measurement one
time. Measurement results are displayed on GRAPHICS or LIST
page.
Repeat measurement
Executes measurements continuously. Before each measurement
is executed, the GRAPHICS or LIST page is cleared. Most recent
measurement results are displayed on GRAPHICS or LIST page.
Append measurement
Executes measurement one time. Does not clear GRAPHICS or LIST
page. That is, measurement results are added to the existing
results.
3-33
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Control R-Box
1. Connect HP 16441A R-Box to HP 4155A/4156A and to HP 16442A
Test Fixture or connector plate on your shield box. For details about
connections, refer to \Connections" in HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary
Reference.
2. Press 4Chan5 front-panel key of the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select CHANNEL DEF primary softkey to display the CHANNELS:
CHANNEL DEFINITION page.
4. In the SERIES RESISTANCE elds, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
0 ohm secondary softkey to connect 0 resistance.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
10k ohm secondary softkey to connect 10 k
resistance.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
100k ohm secondary softkey to connect 100 k
resistance.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1M ohm secondary softkey to connect 1 M
resistance.
Resistance is switched just before and just after measurement state. In the
standby state, the stress force state, and the idle state, 0 is connected.
HP 4155A/4156A automatically compensates for the resistance values.
For the following SMUs, you can set 0 only:
SMU that is set to ON in the STBY eld.
SMU that is set to COMMON in the MODE eld.
You can set resistance values for the following SMUs.
If HP 41501A SMU/Pulse Generator Expander is not installed or does not
have an HPSMU
SMU1 (to CH1 terminal of R-Box)
SMU2 (to CH2 terminal of R-Box)
If HP 41501A has an HPSMU
SMU1 (to CH1 terminal of R-Box)
SMU5 (to CH2 terminal of R-Box)
3-34
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to connect 10 k
resistance to
SMU1 and SMU2.
3-35
Making a Measurement
Sweep Measurements
To Measure Negative Resistance Characteristics
HP 16441A R-Box allows SMUs to measure current-controlled negative resistance ( 1 M
)
characteristics.
Connect the resistance of HP 16441A as shown in following gure.
3-36
Knob Sweep Measurements
This section covers the following tasks about knob sweep measurements.
To execute knob sweep measurement
To stop knob sweep measurement
The knob sweep function is useful in the following cases:
when you want to determine a parameter value for normal sweep
when you want to quickly make a rough measurement of a DUT
characteristics
The following gure shows the KNOB SWEEP page.
3-37
Making a Measurement
Knob Sweep Measurements
To Execute Knob Sweep Measurement
1. Dene the measurement units on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page as described in \To Dene Sweep Measurement Units".
2. Set the sweep information on the MEASURE: SWEEP SETUP page.
For details, refer to the following:
\To Set up Primary Sweep Source"
\To Set up Secondary Sweep Source"
\To Set up Constant Output"
3. Set the MEASURE: PGU SETUP page (if you use PGUs).
4. Press the green key. Then, press 4Single5 front-panel key to display the
KNOB SWEEP page.
5. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey to display DISPLAY SETUP
secondary key group.
6. Select X-AXIS REGION secondary softkeys to set the desired X axis
display region. Selecting the X-AXIS REGION secondary softkey toggles
as follows:
+ 0! - 0! +/- 0! +
7. Select Y-AXIS REGION secondary softkeys to set the desired Y axis
display region. Selecting the Y-AXIS REGION secondary softkey toggles
as follows:
+ 0! - 0! +/- 0! +
8. Rotate the rotary knob to stretch or shrink the measurement curve.
If you set constant outputs or PGU output in step 2 or 3, the outputs start
immediately after you perform step 4.
During measurements, self-test, or forcing stress, step 4 is ignored.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3-38
Making a Measurement
Knob Sweep Measurements
Note the following restrictions:
CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page
MEASUREMENT MODE eld
In the MEASUREMENT MODE eld, be sure to set SWEEP. If you select
SAMPLING MODE, you cannot execute knob sweep measurement.
MODE eld
Pulsed SMU (VPULSE and IPULSE) are not available for knob sweep
measurement.
FCTN eld
VAR1' is not available for knob sweep measurement.
MEASURE: SWEEP SETUP page
You cannot use the power compliance function for knob sweep
measurement.
To change the variable assigned to y axis.
Do as follows:
1. Press 4Stop5 front-panel key.
2. Select Y-AXIS ASSIGN primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Select a secondary softkey to assign the desired variable name to y axis.
The available variables are the variables you entered in the INAME and
VNAME columns of the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page. You
cannot use user functions or user variables.
To copy setups on the knob sweep page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select SETUP COPY primary softkey to copy setups on this page to the
MEASURE: SWEEP SETUP and DISPLAY: DISPLAY SETUP pages.
3-39
Making a Measurement
Knob Sweep Measurements
If you ignore restrictions for knob sweep setup
If CHANNELS or MEASURE page group have settings that are not available for knob sweep
measurements, a warning message is displayed, then the following primary softkeys are displayed.
STOP
CONT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If you select CONT softkey, HP 4155A/4156A performs knob sweep measurement as follows:
If VAR1' is set in the FCTN eld on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page:
The channel that is set to VAR1' set to CONST (output value: VAR1' start). So synchronous
measurement is not performed.
If an SMU is set to VPULSE or IPULSE the MODE eld on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION
page:
Non-pulsed sweep measurement is performed.
If the POWER COMP elds are set on the MEASURE: SWEEP SETUP page:
The specied values are ignored. Measurement is performed the same as if OFF is selected.
If you select STOP softkey, the incorrect setting is highlighted, and you can correct it.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3-40
Making a Measurement
Knob Sweep Measurements
Example
The following gure shows an example to set both X axis and Y axis display
regions to positive.
3-41
Making a Measurement
Knob Sweep Measurements
To Stop Knob Sweep Measurement
Press 4Stop5 front-panel key.
If you execute knob sweep measurement from the idle state, pressing 4Stop5
front-panel key returns to the idle state.
If you execute knob sweep measurement from the standby state, pressing
4Stop5 front-panel key returns to the standby state.
Starting knob sweep again after pressing 4Stop5 front-panel key
If you stop knob sweep measurement, then start the measurement again, the measurement start point
depends on how you start the measurement.
started by 4Single5 front-panel key only
If you press the 4Single5 front-panel key, the knob sweep measurement starts from the point
where it was stopped by 4Stop5 front-panel key.
started by green key and 4Single5 front-panel key
If you press the green key, then press 4Single5 front-panel key, the knob sweep measurement
starts from 0 V or 0 A.
3-42
Sampling Measurements
This section covers the tasks for sampling measurements.
Basic Procedures for Sampling Measurements.
The basic procedure to test your DUT is as follows:
1. Connecting your DUT to the HP 4155A/4156A. See
\Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)" for procedures.
2. Dening measurement mode and measurement units that you
use to make measurement. The following tasks are described:
To Dene Sampling Measurement Units.
To Dene a User Function (see previous section)
To Control R-Box (see previous section)
3-43
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
3. Setting the source parameters of the units. The following
tasks are described:
4. Setting the display mode to show measurement results. The
following tasks are described:
To
To
To
To
Set up Sampling Parameters
Set up Constant Output
Dene Measurement Stop Conditions
Set up PGU Pulsed Output (see previous section)
5. Executing the measurement. The following tasks are
described:
To Output Same Value Before and After Measurements
(see previous section)
To Execute or Stop Measurement (see previous section)
3-44
To Set up Graphical Display of Measurement Results
(see previous section)
To Set up List Display of Measurement Results
(see previous section)
Results. For example, displayed graphically.
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
To Dene Sampling Measurement Units
1. Press 4Chan5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select CHANNEL DEF primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the MEASUREMENT MODE area, select SAMPLING secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the VNAME column, enter a unique name for voltage variable. For
example, enter Vce for collector-emitter voltage. If channel does neither V
force nor V measurement, you can omit VNAME.
5. In the INAME column, enter a unique name for current variable. For
example, enter \Ic" for collector current. If channel does neither I force
nor I measurement, you can omit INAME.
6. In the MODE column, select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
V secondary softkey for voltage output mode (SMU, VSU, and PGU,
and grounded voltage measurement mode of VMU).
NNNNNNNNNNN
I
secondary softkey for current output mode (SMU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
VPULSE secondary softkey for pulsed voltage output mode (PGU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
COMMON secondary softkey for circuit common mode (SMU and GNDU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DVOLT secondary softkey for dierential voltage measurement mode
(VMU).
7. In the FCTN column, select CONST secondary softkey for all source units.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
You can use VNAME and INAME in user function denitions or for analysis
on the GRAPHICS/LIST pages. These names must be 6 or less alphanumeric
characters. First character must be alphabet character.
For details about STBY and SERIES RESISTANCE elds, see \CHANNELS:
CHANNEL DEFINITION page" in \Page Organization" or \Types of Operation
State" in \Measurement Functions" of HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary
Reference.
3-45
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
To disable a unit.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Move the pointer to the row of the unit, then select the DELETE ROW
secondary softkey. The settings in the row are deleted.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to dene sampling measurement
units.
3-46
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
To Set up Sampling Parameters
1. Conrm that SAMPLING is set in the MEASUREMENT MODE eld on the
CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page. If SAMPLING is not set, select
SAMPLING secondary softkey in the MEASUREMENT MODE eld.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select SAMPLING SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the MODE eld of SAMPLING PARAMETER, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LINEAR secondary softkey for equally spaced sampling intervals.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOG XX secondary softkey for logarithmically spaced sampling intervals.
XX is 10, 25, or 50 sampling points per decade.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
THINNED-OUT secondary softkey for reduced sampling interval of more
recent samples (by thinning less recent samples).
For details about sampling mode, see \Measurement Mode" in HP
4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
5. In the INITIAL INTERVAL eld, enter a value for the rst sampling
interval.
6. In the NO. OF SAMPLES eld, enter the number of points at which to
sample.
If you set the TOTAL SAMP. TIME to AUTO, the HP 4155A/4156A takes
NO. OF SAMPLES samples, then sampling stops. If you set a value for
TOTAL SAMP. TIME, see \Measurement Mode" or \Page Organization" in HP
4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
The following gure shows the relation between the sampling parameters and
sampling measurement.
3-47
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
You can set a hold time by entering a number (units: seconds) in the HOLD
TIME eld.
Example
The following gure shows example setup of the sampling parameters.
3-48
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
To Set up Constant Output
1. Dene CONST units as described in \To Dene Sampling Measurement
Units".
2. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
3. Select SAMPLNG SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the SOURCE eld of the desired unit in the CONSTANT area, enter the
desired output value.
To modify the UNIT, NAME, and MODE elds.
Modify the UNIT, NAME, and MODE elds on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL
DEFINITION page.
To set up compliance value for constant output.
Set desired value in the COMPLIANCE eld of the CONSTANT table. For
details about compliance, see \Compliance" in HP 4155A/4156A User's
Dictionary Reference.
3-49
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
Example
The following example shows the constant output conditions:
3-50
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
To Dene Measurement Stop Conditions
1. Press 4Meas5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select SAMPLNG SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the ENABLE/DISABLE eld of the STOP CONDITION area, select
ENABLE secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In NAME eld of STOP CONDITION area, select the secondary softkey for
the desired variable name or user function name to be used for EVENT
comparison.
5. In THRESHOLD eld of STOP CONDITION area, enter the threshold value
for the name selected in the previous step.
6. In EVENT eld of STOP CONDITION area, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Val > Th secondary softkey to stop the sampling when the sampled
value is greater than the threshold value.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Val < Th secondary softkey to stop the sampling when the sampled
value is less than the threshold value.
|Val| > |Th| secondary softkey to stop the sampling when the
absolute sampled value is greater than the absolute threshold value.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
|Val| < |Th| secondary softkey to stop the sampling when the
absolute sampled value is less than the absolute threshold value.
If you set the stop condition to DISABLE, the sampling measurement
continues until:
4Stop5 key in the MEASUREMENT key group is pressed.
Specied total sample time has elapsed.
The HP 4155A/4156A receives HP-IB command to stop sampling.
An emergency condition occurs on HP 4155A/4156A.
Interlock terminal opens due to high voltage. (See \To Connect Interlock
Terminal" in Chapter 2.)
3-51
Making a Measurement
Sampling Measurements
You can set an EVENT NO., which species the sampling to stop when
EVENT occurs EVENT NO. times.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup of stop condition.
3-52
Stress Force
This section covers the tasks for stress forcing.
Stress Forcing with HP 4155A/4156A.
Two types of stress can be forced by the HP 4155A/4156A:
dc stress
Dc voltage stress can be forced from SMUs, VSUs, or PGUs.
Dc current stress can be forced from SMUs.
ac stress (also called pulsed stress)
Ac voltage stress can be forced from PGUs.
Ac current stress cannot be forced from the HP 4155A/4156A.
Basic Procedure for Stress Forcing.
The following illustrates the basic procedures for stress forcing.
3-53
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
1. Connecting your DUT to the HP 4155A/4156A. See
\Connection to Device Under Test (DUT)" for procedures.
2. Dening the stress units and constant output units. The
following tasks are described:
3. Setting the stress forcing parameters and constant output
value. The following tasks are described:
To Set up Stress Conditions/Timings
To Set up DC Stress
To Set up AC (Pulse) Stress
3-54
To Set up Stress Source Channels
To Control Selector for Switching SMU and PGU
4. Executing the stress forcing. The following task is described:
To Force Stress
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
To Set up Stress Source Channels
1. Press 4Stress5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select CHANNEL DEF primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the MODE eld of desired unit in CHANNELS area, select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
V secondary softkey for dc voltage stress forcing mode (SMU, VSU,
and PGU).
NNNNNNNNNNN
I
secondary softkey for dc current stress forcing mode (SMU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
VPULSE secondary softkey for ac voltage stress forcing mode (PGU).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
COMMON secondary softkey for circuit common (SMU and GNDU).
4. In the NAME eld of desired unit in the CHANNELS area, enter the stress
channel name.
5. In the FCTN eld of units that will be stress force channels, select SYNC
secondary softkey.
The stress channel name is only used for reference on the STRESS SETUP
page, not on any results page. So, you can omit the name if desired.
In the FCTN column, you can set up to four units to SYNC. At least one
unit must be set to SYNC in the FCTN column. The SYNC (stress force)
units all start forcing stress at the same time. The NSYNC (non-stress force
units) channels start forcing stress in sequence when state changes to stress
force state. For this timing, see \Stress Force Sequence" in \Measurement
Function" of HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
If the row of a unit does not have settings, the unit is not used.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To disable a unit.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
In the row of the unit, select the DELETE ROW secondary softkey. The
settings in the row are deleted.
3-55
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
To set up non-stress output channels.
Perform the following procedure.
1. Perform rst 3 steps described above.
2. In the FCTN eld, select NSYNC secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If you use two PGUs as pulsed sources (VPULSE), both must be SYNC or both
NSYNC.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to set two PGUs to ac stress
source.
3-56
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
To Set up Stress Condition/Timing
1. Press 4Stress5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select STRESS SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the MODE eld of the STRESS MODE area, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DURATION secondary softkey to specify how long to force stress.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
PULSE COUNT secondary softkey to specify how many pulses to output
for force stress (for ac stress only).
4. In the DURATION or PULSE COUNT eld, enter the duration or pulse
count. You can select FREE RUN secondary softkey to output stress
continuously.
5. In the STRESS
Status eld, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CONT AT ANY secondary softkey to continue forcing the stress even if
an abnormal status occurs.
STOP AT ANY ABNORM secondary softkey to stop forcing the stress
when any abnormal status occurs.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STOP AT COMPLIANCE secondary softkey to stop forcing the stress only
when SMU reaches its compliance setting.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STOP AT ANY ABNORM and STOP AT COMPLIANCE secondary softkeys
are displayed only when specied duration is more than 10 s. If you set
pulse count mode, these secondary softkeys are displayed only when
pulse period 2 pulse count is more than 10 s.
Stress stop function is not eective until stress has been forced for 10 s.
In the duration mode, you set time (in seconds) for stress forcing. In the
pulse count mode, you set an integer to specify how many pulses to output
for stress forcing.
3-57
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
Abnormal status means the following:
SMU reaches its compliance setting.
Current of VSU exceeds 6100 mA.
SMU or VSU oscillates.
A/D converter overow occurs.
Average current of PGU exceeds 6100 mA.
To set hold time.
In the HOLD TIME eld, set desired value. For the meaning of hold time, see
\Stress Force Sequence" in \Measurement Function" of HP 4155A/4156A
User's Dictionary Reference.
3-58
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
Example
The following gure shows an example setup of stress condition.
Setting the Accumulated Stress Time
The ACCUMULATED STRESS eld shows the total stress that has been forced. If necessary, you can
change the value in this eld. If so, the ACCUMULATED STRESS eld on the STRESS: STRESS FORCE
page also changes to the new value.
3-59
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
To Set up AC (Pulse) Stress
1. Press the 4Stress5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group. Conrm that the
following is set on the STRESS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page for the PGUs
that you want to set up for ac stress:
VPULSE is set in the MODE eld.
SYNC is set in the FCTN eld.
2. Select STRESS SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the PERIOD eld, enter the pulse period.
4. In the WIDTH eld, enter the pulse width.
5. In the DELAY TIME eld, enter the delay time, which is the time from the
stress start to the beginning of the pulse leading edge. See following gure.
6. In the PEAK VALUE eld, enter the pulse peak value.
7. In the BASE VALUE eld, enter the pulse base value.
8. In LEADING TIME eld, enter the leading-edge transition time of pulse.
9. In TRAILING TIME eld, enter the trailing-edge transition time of pulse.
The same period you set for PGU1 is also used for PGU2. For the other
parameters, you can set dierent values for PGU1 and PGU2.
To set other areas of the STRESS: STRESS SETUP page, see \To Set up Stress
Condition/Timing".
To modify the UNIT and NAME elds.
Modify UNIT and NAME elds on STRESS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page.
To set output impedance of PGU1 or PGU2.
In the IMPEDANCE eld, select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
LOW secondary softkey to set output impedance to low (approximately
zero).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
50 ohm secondary softkey to set output impedance to 50 .
3-60
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
The following gure shows the meaning of delay time.
Example
The following gure shows an example to set up ac stress.
3-61
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
To Set up DC Stress
1. Press 4Stress5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group. Conrm that the
following is set on the STRESS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page for the units
that you want to set up for dc stress:
V or I is set in the MODE eld.
SYNC is set in the FCTN eld.
2. Select STRESS SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the SOURCE eld for the desired unit in the CONSTANT area, enter the
desired dc stress value.
4. In the COMPLIANCE eld in the CONSTANT area, enter the compliance
value.
The non-stress (NSYNC) constant units also appear in the CONSTANT area.
You can set SOURCE and COMPLIANCE values for these units the same way
as you set the dc stress units.
To set other areas of the STRESS: STRESS SETUP page, see \To Set up Stress
Condition/Timing".
To modify the UNIT, NAME, and MODE elds.
Modify the UNIT, NAME, and MODE elds on the STRESS: CHANNEL
DEFINITION page.
3-62
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to set source (SMU1) to 5.00 V
and compliance (SMU1) to 1.00 mA.
3-63
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
To Force Stress
Press 4Stress5 key in the MEASUREMENT key group.
The STRESS area shows the specied stress duration time. Even if you set
STRESS MODE to PULSE COUNT, the stress duration time is calculated and
shown in seconds.
The ACCUMULATED STRESS area shows the total stress that has already
been forced.
To change the stress time (duration mode).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CHANGE DURATON secondary softkey, then enter desired value.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The CHANGE DURATON secondary softkey is displayed only if the DURATION
mode is selected on the STRESS: STRESS SETUP page.
To change pulse count (pulse count mode).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CHANGE PLS CNT secondary softkey, then enter desired value.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The CHANGE PLS CNT secondary softkey is displayed only if the PULSE
COUNT mode is selected on the STRESS: STRESS SETUP page.
To reset STATUS value to 0 s and 0 %.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select RESET STATUS secondary softkey.
To reset ACCUMULATED STRESS value to 0s.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select RESET ACCUM STRESS secondary softkey.
To change ACCUMULATED STRESS value.
On the STRESS: STRESS SETUP page, enter the desired value in the
ACCUMULATED STRESS eld.
3-64
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
Example
The following gure shows an example of STRESS: STRESS FORCE page.
3-65
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
To Control Selector for Switching SMU and PGU
1. Press 4Stress5 key in the PAGE CONTROL key group.
2. Select CHANNEL DEF primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the MEASURE eld of the desired channel in the SMU/PG SELECTOR
area, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SMU secondary softkey to connect SMU to DUT during measurement
state.
PGU secondary softkey to connect PGU to DUT during measurement
state.
OPEN secondary softkey to disconnect SMU, PGU, and DUT during
measurement state.
PGU OPEN secondary softkey to disconnect PGU from DUT by
semiconductor switch during measurement state.
4. In the STRESS eld of the desired channel in the SMU/PG SELECTOR
area, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SMU secondary softkey to connect SMU to DUT during stress force
state.
PGU secondary softkey to connect PGU to DUT during stress force
state.
OPEN secondary softkey to disconnect SMU, PGU, and DUT during
stress force state.
PGU OPEN secondary softkey to disconnect PGU from DUT by
semiconductor switch during stress force state.
The selector has two types of switches: relay switch and semiconductor
switch.
Normally, the relay switch has three states: SMU is connected to DUT, PGU
is connected to DUT, and neither is connected to DUT. The semiconductor
switch, which is in the PGU line, is used for high-speed switching.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3-66
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
Example
Following shows an example setup that connects two SMUs to DUT during
measurement state, and connects two PGUs to DUT during stress force state.
3-67
Making a Measurement
Stress Force
4
Analyzing Measurement
Results
Analyzing Measurement Results
HP 4155A/4156A can analyze measurement results of the GRAPH/LIST page
group by using lines, markers, and cursors. You can perform manual or
automatic analysis.
For automatic analysis function, you set up the DISPLAY: ANALYSIS SETUP
page before starting measurements. Then, after the measurements are
performed, the lines and markers are positioned automatically according to
the setup.
The information about these functions is organized into the following two
sections:
Manual Analysis
Automatic Analysis
For details about line modes and specifying points, refer to \Data Variable
and Analysis Function" in HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
Also, see \GRAPH/LIST Page Group" in HP 4155A/4156A User's Dictionary
Reference.
4-2
Manual Analysis
You can position lines, markers, and cursors by using front-panel keys, rotary
knob, and softkeys.
This section covers the following manual analysis tasks:
To specify a measurement point on curve
To specify between measurement points on curve
To display or move cursor
To adjust display range to measurement curve automatically
To zoom the display range
To center display at cursor location
To draw line through two specied points
To draw line through specied point with specied gradient
To draw tangent to specied point of measurement curve
To draw regression line for specied region
To display and select a line
To display grid on the graph
To change data variable on Graph
To change range of X or Y axis scale
To change variable assigned to X, Y1, or Y2 axis
To overlay an internal memory measurement curve onto plotting area
To scroll the LIST page
To display or move marker on LIST page
To change variables of LIST page
4-3
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Specify a Measurement Point on Curve
1. Select MARKER/CURSOR primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set MARKER secondary softkey to ON. Marker and marker coordinates are
displayed. Selecting MARKER secondary softkey toggles between ON and
OFF.
3. (if both Y1 and Y2 axis are set up) Select the desired marker (axis) by
using AXIS primary softkey. The selected marker is highlighted. Selecting
AXIS primary softkey toggles between Y1 and Y2.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Rotate the rotary knob to move the marker to desired measurement point.
If both Y1 and Y2 axis are set up, a circle marker () is displayed on
measurement curve of Y1 axis, and an asterisk marker (3) is displayed on
measurement curve of Y2 axis.
The MARKER coordinate elds indicate the location of markers. The rst,
second, and third elds are X, Y1, and Y2 coordinates, respectively. X and Y1
indicate location of marker on Y1 curve. X and Y2 indicate location of marker
on Y2 curve.
To turn o markers.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Set MARKER secondary softkey to OFF.
To move marker to maximum or minimum value of measurement
curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select MARKER MIN/MAX secondary softkey. The marker searches for
minimum or maximum value in measurement order from the present location
every time you select the MARKER MIN/MAX secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move marker to next VAR2 step or append curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select MARKER SKIP secondary softkey. Marker moves to next VAR2 step
curve or next append curve every time you select MARKER SKIP secondary
softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move marker fast.
Press 4Fast5 front-panel key of the MARKER/CURSOR key group while rotating
rotary knob.
4-4
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to move marker to desired
measurement point and to set the Y1 axis marker to active.
4-5
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Specify between Measurement Points on Curve
1. Select MARKER/CURSOR primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set MARKER secondary softkey to ON. Marker and marker coordinates are
displayed. Selecting MARKER toggles between ON and OFF.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. (if both Y1 and Y2 axis are set up) Select the desired marker (axis) by
using AXIS primary softkey. The selected marker is highlighted. Selecting
AXIS primary softkey toggles between Y1 and Y2.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Set INTERPOLATE secondary softkey to ON. Selecting INTERPOLATE
secondary softkey toggles between ON and OFF.
5. Rotate rotary knob to move the marker to desired measurement point.
If both Y1 and Y2 axis are set up, a circle marker () is displayed on
measurement curve of Y1 axis, and an asterisk marker (3) is displayed on
measurement curve of Y2 axis.
The MARKER coordinate elds indicate the location of markers. The rst,
second, and third elds are X, Y1, and Y2 coordinates, respectively. X and Y1
indicate location of marker on Y1 curve. X and Y2 indicate location of marker
on Y2 curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To turn o markers.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Set the MARKER secondary softkey to OFF.
To move marker to maximum or minimum value of measurement
curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select MARKER MIN/MAX secondary softkey. The marker searches for
minimum or maximum value in measurement order from the present location
every time you select the MARKER MIN/MAX secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move marker to next VAR2 step or append curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select MARKER SKIP secondary softkey. Marker moves to next VAR2 step
curve or next append curve every time you select MARKER SKIP .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4-6
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To move marker fast.
Press 4Fast5 front-panel key of the MARKER/CURSOR key group while rotating
rotary knob.
Example
The following gure shows an example to move marker to points between
measurement points by setting INTERPOLATE softkey to ON.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4-7
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Display or Move Cursor
1. Select MARKER/CURSOR primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set CURSOR secondary softkey to SHORT or LONG. Short or long cursor and
cursor coordinates are displayed. Selecting CURSOR secondary softkey
toggles as follows:
OFF ! SHORT ! LONG ! OFF
3. Move the cursor by using arrow keys of the MARKER/CURSOR key group.
The CURSOR coordinate elds indicate the location of cursor. The rst,
second, and third elds are X, Y1, and Y2 coordinates, respectively.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move cursor diagonally.
Press two adjacent arrow keys of the MARKER/CURSOR key group
simultaneously.
To turn o cursor.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Set CURSOR secondary softkey to OFF.
To move cursor fast.
Press arrow keys and 4Fast5 key of the MARKER/CURSOR key group
simultaneously.
4-8
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to display a short cursor.
4-9
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Adjust Display Range to Measurement Curve Automatically
1. Select SCALING primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. (if both Y1 and Y2 axis are set up) Select desired measurement curve by
using AXIS primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Select AUTO SCALING secondary softkey. Scale is changed automatically
to t the selected measurement curve.
When you set VAR2 parameter, or when you perform append measurement,
the scale is changed so that all measurement curves can be displayed.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To cancel auto scaling.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CANCEL SCALING secondary softkey.
4-10
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Zoom the Display Range
1. Position the cursor at the center of area that you want to zoom. (For
details about displaying and moving cursor, see \To Display or Move
Cursor".)
2. Select SCALING primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Select:
ZOOM IN secondary softkey to decrease the display range to half the
present range.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ZOOM OUT secondary softkey to increase the display range to double the
present range.
The display range is increased or decreased, and cursor is moved to the
center of the plotting area.
If no cursor is displayed before step 3, performing step 3 displays a long
cursor at the center of the plotting area, then zoom is performed.
To return to original scaling.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CANCEL SCALING secondary softkey.
4-11
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Center Display at Cursor Location
1. Position cursor at the point where you want to center the plotting area.
(For details about displaying and moving cursor, see \To Display or Move
Cursor".)
2. Select SCALING primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. (if both Y1 and Y2 axis are set up) Select desired measurement curve by
using AXIS primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Select CENTER AT CURSOR secondary softkey. The plotting area is
centered around the cursor location.
If no cursor is displayed before step 4, performing step 4 displays a long
cursor at the center of the plotting area.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To return plotting area to original position.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CANCEL SCALING secondary softkey.
4-12
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Draw Line through Two Specied Points
1. Select LINE primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set LINE SELECT softkey to 1 or 2. Selecting this softkey toggles the
setting.
3. Set LINE secondary softkey to ON. A line and two cursors are displayed.
Selecting LINE secondary softkey toggles as follows:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OFF ! ON ! OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The line mode should be normal. So ( GRAD MODE , TANGENT MODE , or
REGRESS MODE ) softkeys should not be highlighted. If one of these
softkeys is highlighted, turn o by pressing the softkey.
4. Move cursors to desired locations by using arrow keys of the
MARKER/CURSOR key group. To select the cursor you want to move, use
the SELECT CURSOR secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If it seems that only one cursor is displayed, the cursors are at the same
location.
When lines are displayed and when ON is set in the LINE PARAMETER eld
on the DISPLAY: DISPLAY SETUP page, their X and Y intercepts and gradients
are also displayed in the plotting area.
To turn o the line intercept and gradient display.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey, then set LINE PRMTRS secondary
softkey to OFF.
To turn o the data variable display area.
Use the following procedure:
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set DATA VAR secondary softkey to OFF.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move the selected cursor to the selected marker position.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CURSOR TO MARKER secondary softkey.
4-13
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to draw a line through two specied
points.
4-14
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Draw Line through Specied Point with Specied
Gradient
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1. Select LINE primary softkey.
2. Set LINE SELECT softkey to 1 or 2. Selecting this softkey toggles the
setting.
3. Set LINE secondary softkey to ON. A line and two cursors are displayed.
Selecting LINE secondary softkey toggles as follows:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OFF ! ON ! OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Select GRAD MODE secondary softkey if it is not highlighted. Softkey
becomes highlighted. One cursor disappears (if there are two cursors
in the plotting area before this step). Selecting GRAD MODE secondary
softkey toggles between highlighted and not highlighted.
5. Move the cursor to desired location by using arrow keys of the
MARKER/CURSOR key group.
6. Select GRAD VALUE secondary softkey, then enter gradient value. The line
goes through the cursor with specied gradient.
When lines are displayed and when ON is set in the LINE PARAMETER eld
on the DISPLAY: DISPLAY SETUP page, the X and Y intercepts and gradients
of selected line are also displayed in the plotting area.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To turn o the line intercept and gradient display.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey, then set LINE PRMTRS secondary
softkey to OFF.
To turn o the data variable display area.
Use the following procedure:
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
2. Set DATA VAR secondary softkey to OFF.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move the selected cursor to the selected marker position.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CURSOR TO MARKER secondary softkey.
4-15
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to draw a line through specied point
with specied gradient.
4-16
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Draw Tangent to Specied Point of Measurement
Curve
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1. Press LINE primary softkey.
2. Set LINE SELECT softkey to 1 or 2. Selecting this softkey toggles the
setting.
3. Set LINE secondary softkey to ON. A line and two cursors are displayed.
Selecting the LINE secondary softkey toggles as follows:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OFF ! ON ! OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Select TANGENT MODE secondary softkey if it is not highlighted. Softkey
becomes highlighted. The cursors disappear and marker appears. Selecting
TANGENT MODE toggles between highlighted and not highlighted.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Move marker to the desired measurement point by rotating rotary knob.
When lines are displayed and when ON is set in the LINE PARAMETER eld
on the DISPLAY: DISPLAY SETUP page, the X and Y intercepts and gradients
of selected line are also displayed in the plotting area.
To move marker to next VAR2 or next append curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select MARKER SKIP secondary softkey. Marker moves to next VAR2 step
curve or next append curve every time you press MARKER SKIP .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To turn o the line intercept and gradient display.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey, then set LINE PRMTRS secondary
softkey to OFF.
To turn o the data variable display area.
Use the following procedure:
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set DATA VAR secondary softkey to OFF.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move marker between two adjacent measurement points.
See \To Specify between Measurement Points on Curve".
4-17
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to draw a tangent to a specied
measurement point.
4-18
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Draw Regression Line for Specied Region
1. Select MARKER/CURSOR primary softkey, then set the MARKER secondary
softkey to ON.
2. Select the desired axis for regression calculation by selecting AXIS
primary softkey (if both Y1 and Y2 axis are set up). Then, if necessary,
move marker to desired measurement curve by selecting MARKER SKIP
secondary softkey.
3. Select LINE primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Set LINE SELECT softkey to 1 or 2. Selecting this softkey toggles the
setting.
5. Set LINE secondary softkey to ON. A line and two cursors are displayed.
Selecting LINE secondary softkey toggles as follows:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OFF ! ON ! OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Select REGRESS MODE secondary softkey if it is not highlighted. Softkey
becomes highlighted. Selecting REGRESS MODE secondary softkey toggles
between highlighted and not highlighted.
7. Move cursors to specify range of regression calculation. (Use arrow keys of
the MARKER/CURSOR key group to move cursors to desired location.)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To select the cursor you want to move, use the SELECT CURSOR
secondary softkey.
The range used for calculating the regression line is dened by the position of
the two cursors as shown in the following gure.
4-19
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
If it seems that only one cursor is displayed, the cursors are at the same
location.
When regression lines are displayed and when ON is set in the LINE
PARAMETER eld on the DISPLAY: DISPLAY SETUP page, the X and Y
intercepts and gradient of selected line are also displayed in the plotting area.
To turn o the line intercept and gradient display.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey, then set LINE PRMTRS secondary
softkey to OFF.
To turn o the data variable display area.
Use the following procedure:
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
2. Set DATA VAR secondary softkey to OFF.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move selected cursor to the selected marker position.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CURSOR TO MARKER secondary softkey.
4-20
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to draw a regression line for the
specied region.
4-21
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Display and Select a Line
1. Select LINE primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set LINE SELECT softkey to 1 or 2. Selecting this softkey toggles the
setting.
3. Set LINE secondary softkey to ON. Selected line and two cursors are
displayed. Selecting the LINE secondary softkey toggles as follows:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OFF ! ON ! OFF
To select line to analyze.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Set LINE SELECT secondary softkey to desired line (1 or 2). Selected line is
highlighted.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Selecting LINE SELECT secondary softkey toggles as follows:
1 ! 2 ! NONE ! 1
The following are independent for each line. So, changing the active line also
changes the following:
locations of marker and cursors
X and Y intercepts and gradient
4-22
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Display Grid on the Graph
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set GRID secondary softkey to ON. Grid is displayed. Selecting GRID
secondary softkey toggles between ON and OFF.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To turn o grid.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Set GRID secondary softkey to OFF.
4-23
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Change Data Variable on Graph
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Select RE-SETUP GRAPH secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Move the pointer to desired data variable eld by using the arrow keys,
then select secondary softkey to enter the desired variable name.
4. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit the RE-SETUP GRAPH mode.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To exit without changing data variable.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CANCEL primary softkey.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to change the data variable to
be displayed.
4-24
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Change Range of X or Y Axis Scale
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Select RE-SETUP GRAPH secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Move pointer to maximum or minimum value eld of X or Y axis scale by
using the arrow keys, then edit the setup value by using ENTRY keys or
rotary knob.
4. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit RE-SETUP GRAPH mode.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To exit without changing range of X or Y axis scale.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CANCEL primary softkey.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to change maximum value of Y1
axis.
4-25
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Change Variable Assigned to X, Y1, or Y2 Axis
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Select RE-SETUP GRAPH secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Move pointer to variable eld of X, Y1, or Y2 axis by using arrow keys,
then select secondary softkey to set the desired variable.
4. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit RE-SETUP GRAPH mode.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To exit without changing variable assigned to X, Y1, or Y2 axis.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CANCEL primary softkey.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to change the variable that is
assigned to Y1 axis.
4-26
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Overlay an Internal Memory Measurement Curve
onto Plotting Area
This section explains how to overlay a measurement curve (that was stored
into an internal memory) onto plotting area. To store a measurement curve
into an internal memory, refer to \To Store Setup or Result Data into Internal
Memory" in Chapter 5.
1. Select DISPLAY SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set OVERLAY PLANE secondary softkey to the desired memory number.
Selected measurement curve is overlaid onto plotting area. Selecting
OVERLAY PLANE secondary softkey toggles as follows:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OFF ! 1 ! 2 ! 3 ! 4 ! OFF
To display information of overlay measurement curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select SHOW OVERLAY INFO secondary softkey. The following information of
overlay measurement curve overwrites the information of the present curve.
axis names and axis scales
cursor and marker coordinates
data variables
To display information of original curve again, select the EXIT primary
softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To change the present scale to the same scale as overlay curve.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select SCALE TO OVERLAY secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To return to the original scale, you need to select SCALING primary softkey,
then select CANCEL SCALING secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4-27
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to overlay a measurement curve (that
is stored in internal memory 1) onto the presently displayed measurement
curve.
4-28
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Scroll the LIST Page
Press an arrow key of the MARKER/CURSOR key group. List scrolls in
direction of selected arrow.
List can be scrolled even while performing measurements.
When marker is displayed, marker does not move during scrolling.
To scroll list fast.
Press 4Fast5 key of the MARKER/CURSOR key group while pressing an arrow
key of the MARKER/CURSOR key group.
4-29
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Display or Move Marker on LIST Page
1. Select MARKER primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Set MARKER secondary softkey to ON. The marker is displayed. Selecting
MARKER secondary softkey toggles between ON and OFF.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Rotate rotary knob to move the marker to desired measurement point.
To turn o marker.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Set MARKER secondary softkey to OFF.
To move marker to next VAR2 step.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select MARKER SKIP secondary softkey. Marker moves to next VAR2 step
data or next append data every time you select MARKER SKIP secondary
softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To move marker to next append data.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select NEXT APPEND secondary softkey. Marker moves to next append data
every time you select NEXT APPEND secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4-30
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example to display marker.
4-31
Analyzing Measurement Results
Manual Analysis
To Change Variables of LIST page
1. Select RE-SETUP primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Move pointer to desired column variable or data variable eld by using
arrow keys, then select secondary softkey of desired variable.
3. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit RE-SETUP LIST mode.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To exit without changing LIST variables.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select CANCEL primary softkey.
Example
The following gure shows an example to change the LIST variables.
4-32
Automatic Analysis
You set up automatic analysis before the measurement by using the DISPLAY:
ANALYSIS SETUP page. Then, after measurement is performed, the marker
and lines are automatically positioned according to automatic analysis setup.
This section covers the following automatic analysis tasks:
To draw line by specifying two points
To draw line by specifying gradient and one point
To draw tangent to specied measurement point
To draw regression line by specifying two points
To display marker at specied point
4-33
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
To Draw Line by Specifying Two Points
1. Press 4Display5 front-panel key.
2. Conrm that ON is set on the LINE secondary softkey on the
GRAPH/LIST: GRAPHICS page.
3. Select ANLYSIS SETUP primary softkey. The DISPLAY: ANALYSIS SETUP
page is displayed.
4. In eld (1), select NORMAL secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. In eld (2), select secondary softkey to specify desired axis.
6. In eld (3), select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
BY X-Y COORDINATE secondary softkey to specify a point by X-Y
coordinate mode. (Go to step 6.)
BY DATA CONDITION secondary softkey to specify a point by data
condition mode. (Go to step 7.)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. If you selected BY X-Y COORDINATE secondary softkey:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
a. In the X eld, enter desired expression to specify X coordinate.
b. In the Y eld, enter desired expression to specify Y coordinate.
c. Go to step 8.
8. If you selected BY DATA CONDITION secondary softkey:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
a. In eld (4), select secondary softkey to set desired data variable name.
b. In eld (5), enter desired expression.
c. In eld (6), select:
AFTER secondary softkey if you want to set a search start condition
for nding specied point.
DISABLE secondary softkey to disable (clear) the AFTER settings.
d. If you selected AFTER , select secondary softkey to enter desired data
variable in eld (7).
e. If you selected AFTER , enter desired expression in eld (8).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9. Specify the other point by step 5, then step 6 or 7.
4-34
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
Data condition mode species a point related to the measurement curve.
So, if no measurement data satisfy the specied condition, the nearest
measurement point is used.
For the meaning of expression that you can enter in step 6 or 7, see
\Expression" in \Data Variable and Analysis Function" in HP 4155A/4156A
User's Dictionary Reference.
To specify a point between two measurement points.
Set Interpolate eld to ON.
To disable (clear) the settings.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Move the pointer to eld (1), then select DISABLE secondary softkey. Setup
elds disappear.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to automatically draw a line
through two specied points. One point is specied by X-Y coordinate mode
and other point is specied by data condition mode.
4-35
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
To Draw Line by Specifying Gradient and One Point
1. Press 4Display5 front-panel key.
2. Conrm that ON is set on the LINE secondary softkey on the
GRAPH/LIST: GRAPHICS page.
3. Select ANLYSIS SETUP primary softkey. The DISPLAY: ANALYSIS SETUP
page is displayed.
4. In eld (1), select GRAD secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. In eld (2), select secondary softkey to specify desired axis.
6. In eld (3), select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
BY X-Y COORDINATE secondary softkey to specify a point by X-Y
coordinate mode. (Go to step 6.)
BY DATA CONDITION secondary softkey to specify a point by data
condition mode. (Go to step 7.)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. If you selected BY X-Y COORDINATE secondary softkey:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
a. In the X eld, enter desired expression to specify X coordinate.
b. In the Y eld, enter desired expression to specify Y coordinate.
c. Go to step 8.
8. If you selected BY DATA CONDITION secondary softkey:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
a. In eld (4), select secondary softkey to set desired data variable name.
b. In eld (5), enter desired expression.
c. In eld (6), select:
AFTER secondary softkey if you want to set a search start condition
for nding specied point.
DISABLE secondary softkey to disable (clear) the AFTER settings.
d. If you selected AFTER , select secondary softkey to enter desired data
variable in eld (7).
e. If you selected AFTER , enter desired expression in eld (8).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9. In the Gradient eld, enter gradient expression.
4-36
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
Data condition mode species a point related to the measurement curve.
So, if no measurement data satisfy the specied condition, the nearest
measurement point is used.
For the meaning of expression that you can enter in step 6 or 7, see
\Expression" in \Data Variable and Analysis Function" in HP 4155A/4156A
User's Dictionary Reference.
To specify a point between two measurement points.
Set Interpolate eld to ON.
To disable (clear) the settings.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Move the pointer to eld (1), then select DISABLE secondary softkey. Setup
elds disappear.
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to automatically draw a line
through the specied point with the specied gradient.
4-37
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
To Draw Tangent to Specied Measurement Point
1. Press 4Display5 front-panel key.
2. Conrm that ON is set on the LINE secondary softkey on the
GRAPH/LIST: GRAPHICS page.
3. Select ANLYSIS SETUP primary softkey. The DISPLAY: ANALYSIS
SETUP page is displayed.
4. In eld (1), select TANGENT secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5.
6.
7.
8.
In eld (2), select secondary softkey to specify desired axis.
In eld (3), select secondary softkey to select desired data variable name.
In eld (4), enter desired expression.
In eld (5), select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
AFTER secondary softkey if you want to set a search start condition for
nding specied point.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DISABLE secondary softkey to disable (clear) the AFTER settings.
9. If you selected AFTER , select secondary softkey to enter desired data
variable in eld (6).
10. If you selected AFTER , enter desired expression in eld (7).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Data condition mode species a point related to the measurement curve.
So, if no measurement data satisfy the specied condition, the nearest
measurement point is used.
For the meaning of expression that you can enter in step 6 and 9, see
\Expression" in \Data Variable and Analysis Function" in HP 4155A/4156A
User's Dictionary Reference.
To specify a point between two measurement points.
Set Interpolate eld to ON.
To disable (clear) the settings.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Move the pointer to eld (1), then select DISABLE secondary softkey. Setup
elds disappear.
4-38
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to automatically draw a tangent
line to a specied measurement point.
4-39
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
To Draw Regression Line by Specifying Two Points
1. Press 4Display5 front-panel key.
2. Conrm that ON is set on the LINE secondary softkey on the
GRAPH/LIST: GRAPHICS page.
3. Select ANLYSIS SETUP primary softkey. The DISPLAY: ANALYSIS SETUP
page is displayed.
4. In eld (1), select REGRESSION secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. In eld (2), select secondary softkey to specify desired axis.
6. In eld (3), select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
BY X-Y COORDINATE secondary softkey to specify a point by X-Y
coordinate mode. (Go to step 6.)
BY DATA CONDITION secondary softkey to specify a point by data
condition mode. (Go to step 7.)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. If you selected BY X-Y COORDINATE secondary softkey:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
a. In the X eld, enter desired expression to specify X coordinate.
b. In the Y eld, enter desired expression to specify Y coordinate.
c. Go to step 8.
8. If you selected BY DATA CONDITION secondary softkey:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
a. In eld (4), select secondary softkey to set desired data variable name.
b. In eld (5), enter desired expression.
c. In eld (6), select:
AFTER secondary softkey if you want to set a search start condition
for nding specied point.
DISABLE secondary softkey to disable (clear) the AFTER settings.
d. If you selected AFTER , select secondary softkey to enter desired data
variable in eld (7).
e. If you selected AFTER , enter desired expression in eld (8).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9. Specify the other point by step 5, then step 6 or 7.
4-40
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
Regression calculation is performed in the range dened by the two specied
points as shown in the following gure.
Data condition mode species a point related to the measurement curve.
So, if no measurement data satisfy the specied condition, the nearest
measurement point is used.
For the meaning of expression that you can enter in step 6 and 7, see
\Expression" in \Data Variable and Analysis Function" in HP 4155A/4156A
User's Dictionary Reference.
To specify a point between two measurement points.
Set Interpolate eld to ON.
To disable (clear) the settings.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Move the pointer to eld (1), then select DISABLE secondary softkey. Setup
elds disappear.
4-41
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to automatically draw a
regression line. The range for the regression calculation is specied by two
points. One point is specied by X-Y coordinate mode and other point is
specied by data condition mode.
4-42
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
To Display Marker at Specied Point
1. Press 4Display5 front-panel key.
2. Select ANLYSIS SETUP primary softkey. The DISPLAY: ANALYSIS SETUP
page is displayed.
3. Move pointer to eld (1), then select secondary softkey to set desired data
variable name.
4. In eld (2), enter desired expression.
5. In eld (3), select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
AFTER secondary softkey if you want to set a search start condition for
nding specied point.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DISABLE secondary softkey to disable (clear) the AFTER settings.
6. If you selected AFTER in eld (4), select secondary softkey to set desired
data variable.
7. If you selected AFTER in eld (5), enter desired expression.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The marker can be displayed on the measurement curve only. So, if no
measurement data satisfy the specied condition, the nearest measurement
point is used.
For the meaning of expression that you can enter in step 4 and 7, see
\Expression" in \Data Variable and Analysis Function" in HP 4155A/4156A
User's Dictionary Reference.
To specify a point between two measurement points.
Set Interpolate eld to ON.
4-43
Analyzing Measurement Results
Automatic Analysis
Example
The following gure shows an example setup to automatically display marker
at specied point.
4-44
5
Filer
Filer
HP 4155A/4156A has le, print, and plot functions. The information about
these functions is organized into the following two sections:
File Operation
Hardcopy
5-2
File Operations
This section covers the following le operation tasks:
To list le names stored on diskette
To store setup or result data onto diskette
To store setup or result data into internal memory
To store result data in spreadsheet format
To load setup or result data from diskette
To load setup or result data from internal memory
To rename a le on diskette
To remove a le from diskette
To copy le on diskette to another diskette
To copy setup or result data from internal memory to diskette
To initialize a diskette
To backup a diskette
You can use these le operations on internal memory and disk memory of HP
4155A/4156A.
You can perform le operations as follows:
Selecting softkeys on the SYSTEM: FILER page. All le operations can be
performed.
Selecting the front-panel keys (4Get5 and 4Save5) of the User File key group.
Only store and load le operations can be performed.
5-3
Filer
File Operations
SYSTEM: FILER page.
All le operations can be performed by selecting the secondary softkeys on
the SYSTEM: FILER page. The SYSTEM: FILER page is displayed by pressing
4System5 front-panel key, then selecting FILER primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
On SYSTEM: FILER page, you cannot enter lowercase characters for le
names. If you do, an error occurs. Following gure shows SYSTEM: FILER
page.
The SYSTEM: FILER page has the following areas:
(1) FILE CATALOG area
Lists names of les stored on diskette and other information.
(2) FUNCTION eld
Displays the le function selected by secondary softkey.
(3) FUNCTION setup area
Displays the setup elds for the selected le function.
Front panel keys of User File key group.
You can also perform the store operation by selecting the 4Save5 key. And can
perform the load function by selecting the 4Get5 key.
5-4
Filer
File Operations
To List File Names Stored on Diskette
1. Insert a diskette into exible disk drive.
2. Press 4System5 front-panel key.
3. Select FILER primary softkey to display the SYSTEM: FILER page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Select FILE CATALOG secondary softkey. File names are listed in the
FILE CATALOG area.
For details about information displayed in the FILE CATALOG area, refer to
\SYSTEM: FILER page" in \Page Organization" of HP 4155A/4156A User's
Dictionary Reference.
To move the pointer in the FILE CATALOG area, rotate the rotary knob. If all
the le names cannot be displayed in the FILE CATALOG area, you can scroll
the le names by rotating the rotary knob.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To display le comments.
Select one of the following:
For selected le: select READ COMMENT secondary softkey.
For all les: select READ COMMENT ALL secondary softkey.
To exit le catalog.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select EXIT FILE CATALOG secondary softkey.
To search for a desired le name.
Enter an alphanumeric character. Field pointer moves to rst le name that
starts with entered character.
5-5
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows example that displays le catalog.
5-6
Filer
File Operations
To Store Setup or Result Data onto Diskette
1. Insert a diskette into exible disk drive.
2. Press 4Save5 front-panel key to display SAVE setup elds. Or press the
4System5 front-panel key, select FILER primary softkey, then select the
SAVE secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. In the NAME eld, enter the le name in which you want to store data:
maximum characters for HP LIF le: 6 (You cannot set \ " for the last
character.)
maximum characters for DOS le: 8
4. In the TYPE eld, select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
MES secondary softkey for measurement setup data.
NNNNNNNNNNN
STR secondary softkey for stress setup data.
NNNNNNNNNNN
DAT secondary softkey for measurement setup and result data.
NNNNNNNNNNN
CST secondary softkey for customized system data.
5. (Optional) In COMMENT eld, enter a comment. Maximum characters: 16
The specied comment will be displayed in the COMMENT eld of the
FILE CATALOG area.
6. Select EXECUTE primary softkey. Specied data is saved to diskette.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit SAVE function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To list le names on diskette.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select FILE CATALOG secondary softkey. You can ll in the NAME and TYPE
elds by rotating the rotary knob to move to the desired le name, then
selecting the SELECT softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5-7
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows an example that stores the present measurement
setup data onto a diskette.
Situations when you Cannot Store Files
front-panel key is available from any page. However, pressing 4Save5 is ignored for the
following conditions:
during measurement or forcing stress
when error message is displayed
when the PRINT/PLOT setup area is displayed by 4Plot/Print5 front-panel key
when the HELP page is displayed
when the KNOB SWEEP page is displayed
4Save5
5-8
Filer
File Operations
To Store Setup or Result Data into Internal Memory
1. Press 4Save5 front-panel key to display SAVE setup elds. Or press
4System5 front-panel key, select FILER primary softkey, then select SAVE
secondary softkey.
2. In the NAME eld, select secondary softkey for the memory to which you
want to store data.
3. In the TYPE eld, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
MES secondary softkey to store measurement setup data
NNNNNNNNNNN
STR secondary softkey to store stress setup data
NNNNNNNNNNN
DAT secondary softkey to store measurement setup and result data
4. (Optional) In COMMENT eld, enter a comment. Maximum characters: 16
The specied comment will be displayed on the label (2nd and 3rd lines) of
secondary softkey for internal memory.
5. Select EXECUTE primary softkey. The specied data is stored into the
internal memory. If any data is presently stored in the internal memory,
the data will be lost.
6. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit SAVE function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5-9
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows an example that stores the present measurement
setup and result data into internal memory.
Situations when you Cannot Store Files
front-panel key is available from any page. However, pressing 4Save5 is ignored for the
following conditions:
during measurement or forcing stress
when error message is displayed
when the PRINT/PLOT setup area is displayed by 4Plot/Print5 front-panel key
when the HELP page is displayed
when the KNOB SWEEP page is displayed
4Save5
5-10
Filer
File Operations
To Store Result Data in Spreadsheet Format
1. Insert a diskette into exible disk drive.
2. Display result data on the GRAPH/LIST: LIST page.
To display GRAPH/LIST: LIST page, press 4Graph/List5 front-panel key.
If displayed page is GRAPH/LIST: GRAPHICS page, press 4Graph/List5
front-panel key again to display GRAPH/LIST: LIST page.
3. Select SPREAD SHEET softkey to display ASCII SAVE setup window.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In NAME eld, enter name of le (without extension) in which you want
to save data.
5. In OUTPUT DATA eld, enter the range of result data you want to save
(corresponds to NO. column of LIST page).
left eld: upper limit
right eld: lower limit
NNNNNNNNNNN
Select ALL secondary softkey to specify all result data.
6. In UNIT eld, select:
NNNNNNNN
ON secondary softkey to save units (such as V or ms) with result data.
NNNNNNNNNNN
OFF secondary softkey to not save units.
If UNIT is ON, result data will be treated as string data, not numeric data.
Ineective value (----) is treated as string, even if you set this eld to
OFF.
7. In the DELIMITER eld, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SPACE softkey to specify space to be data delimiter.
NNNNNNNNNNN
TAB softkey to specify tab to be data delimiter.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
COMMA softkey to specify comma to be data delimiter.
5-11
Filer
File Operations
8. In the STRING MARK eld, select:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NONE softkey to specify no string marker.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
"
" softkey to specify " " to be string marker.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
'
' softkey to specify ' ' to be string marker.
9. Select EXECUTE primary softkey. The result data is saved to specied
le, and .TXT extension is automatically added.
10. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit ASCII SAVE window.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To list le names on diskette.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select FILE CATALOG secondary softkey.
For details about output format, see \GRAPH/LIST: LIST page" in HP
4155A/4156A User's Dictionary Reference.
Example 1
The following gure shows example setup to save result data in a format that
R.
can be used in Lotus 1-2-3
Example 2
The following gure shows example setup to save result data in a format that
R Excel
R.
can be used in Microsoft
5-12
Filer
File Operations
To Load Setup or Result Data from Diskette
1. Insert a diskette into exible disk drive.
2. Press 4Get5 front-panel key to display GET setup elds. Or press 4System5
front-panel key, select the FILER primary softkey, then select GET
secondary softkey.
3. Select FILE CATALOG secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Move the pointer to the desired le name by using rotary knob.
5. Select SELECT secondary softkey. This sets the NAME and TYPE entries.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Select EXECUTE primary softkey. The specied le is loaded.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit GET function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
See following page for what occurs if setup le does not match present
conguration:
5-13
Filer
File Operations
If Setup File does not Match Present Conguration
If the measurement unit conguration of setup le on diskette diers from conguration of present
system, HP 4155A/4156A may change automatically the setup values when loading the setup le.
Refer to the following conditions:
When source le setup has HPSMU, but present system has HRSMU or MPSMU instead:
Measurement Range
Setup le Changes to
200 V
100 V
1 A
100 mA
When source le setup has HRSMU, but present system has HPSMU or MPSMU instead:
Measurement Range
Setup le Changes to
5-14
10 pA
1 nA
100 pA
1 nA
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows an example that loads measurement setup and
result data from a diskette.
Situations when you Cannot Get Files
front-panel key is available from any page. However, pressing 4Get5 is ignored for the following
conditions:
during measurement or forcing stress
when error message is displayed
when the PRINT/PLOT setup area is displayed by 4Plot/Print5 front-panel key
when the HELP page is displayed
when the KNOB SWEEP page is displayed
4Get5
5-15
Filer
File Operations
To Load Setup or Result Data from Internal Memory
1. Press 4Get5 front-panel key to display GET setup elds. Or press 4System5
front-panel key, select FILER primary softkey, then select GET secondary
softkey.
2. In the NAME eld, select secondary softkey for desired memory. This sets
the NAME entry.
3. Select EXECUTE primary softkey. Data from the specied memory is
loaded.
4. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit GET function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Example
The following gure shows an example that loads data from an internal
memory.
5-16
Filer
File Operations
Situations when you Cannot Get Files
front-panel key is available from any page. However, pressing 4Get5 is ignored for the following
conditions:
during measurement or forcing stress
when error message is displayed
when the PRINT/PLOT setup area is displayed by 4Plot/Print5 front-panel key
when the HELP page is displayed
when the KNOB SWEEP page is displayed
4Get5
5-17
Filer
File Operations
To Rename a File on Diskette
1. Insert a diskette into exible disk drive.
2. Press 4System5 front-panel key.
3. Select FILER primary softkey to display the SYSTEM: FILER page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Select RENAME secondary softkey to display RENAME setup elds.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Select FILE CATALOG secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Move the pointer to the le name to be changed by using rotary knob,
then select SELECT SOURCE secondary softkey. This sets the NAME and
TYPE entries.
7. In the NEW NAME eld, enter a new name.
maximum characters for HP LIF le: 6
maximum characters for DOS le: 8
To enter a name from FILE CATALOG area, move to desired name, then
select SELECT TARGET .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. Select EXECUTE primary softkey. The lename is changed to the specied
new name.
9. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit RENAME function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Example
The following gure shows an example that renames a measurement setup
and result le.
5-18
Filer
File Operations
To Remove a File from Diskette
1. Insert a diskette into exible disk drive.
2. Press 4System5 front-panel key.
3. Select FILER primary softkey to display the SYSTEM: FILER page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Select PURGE secondary softkey to display PURGE setup elds.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Select FILE CATALOG secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Move the pointer to the le name to be removed by using rotary knob,
then select SELECT secondary softkey. This sets the NAME and TYPE
entries.
7. Select EXECUTE primary softkey. A conrmation message is displayed.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. Select as follows:
YES primary softkey to remove the le.
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNN
NO primary softkey to cancel removing.
9. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit the PURGE function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5-19
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows an example that removes a measurement setup
and result le from a diskette.
Removing multiple les
After step 6, if you select * secondary softkey in the TYPE eld, an asterisk (3) appears in the TYPE
eld instead of the extension. When you execute the next steps, all le names with name indicated in
the NAME eld are deleted.
For example, if NAME eld is MOS1 and TYPE eld is 3, then the following les are deleted if they
exist:
MOS1.MES
MOS1.STR
MOS1.DAT
MOS1.CST
MOS1.PRO
NNNNN
5-20
Filer
File Operations
To Copy File on Diskette to Another Diskette
1. Insert the diskette that has the source le into exible disk drive.
2. Press 4System5 front-panel key.
3. Select FILER primary softkey to display the SYSTEM: FILER page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Select COPY secondary softkey to display COPY setup elds.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Select FILE CATALOG secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Move the pointer to the desired le name by using rotary knob, then
select SELECT SOURCE secondary softkey. This sets the SOURCE NAME
and TYPE entries.
7. In the TARGET NAME eld, enter the target le name.
maximum characters for HP LIF le: 6
maximum characters for DOS le: 8
8. In the TARGET DISK eld, select the OTHER softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9. Select EXECUTE primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
10. After Insert Source Diskette message is displayed, make sure the
source diskette is inserted, then select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
YES primary softkey to copy the le.
NNNNNNNN
NO primary softkey to cancel copying.
11. After Insert Target Diskette message is displayed, insert the target
diskette, then select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
YES primary softkey to copy the le.
NNNNNNNN
NO primary softkey to cancel copying.
12. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit the COPY function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5-21
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows an example that copies a measurement setup and
result le on the diskette to another diskette.
5-22
Filer
File Operations
To Copy Setup or Result Data from Internal Memory
to Diskette
1. Press 4System5 front-panel key.
2. Select FILER primary softkey to display the SYSTEM: FILER page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Select COPY secondary softkey to display the COPY setup elds.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the SOURCE NAME eld, select the secondary softkey of the internal
memory that you want to copy.
5. In the TARGET NAME eld, enter a target le name.
maximum characters for HP LIF le: 6
maximum characters for DOS le: 8
6. Make sure target diskette is inserted, then select EXECUTE primary
softkey.
7. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit the COPY function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Example
The following gure shows an example that copies data from the desired
internal memory to a diskette.
5-23
Filer
File Operations
To Initialize a Diskette
1. Press 4System5 front-panel key.
2. Select FILER primary softkey to display the SYSTEM: FILER page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Select DISK OPERATION secondary softkey to display setup elds.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the DISK OPERATION eld, select DISK INIT secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. In the FORMAT eld, select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
DOS secondary softkey to set DOS format.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
HP LIF secondary softkey to set HP LIF format.
6. (Optional) In the VOLUME NAME eld, enter a volume name.
7. Select EXECUTE primary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. After a conrmation message is displayed, insert the diskette to initialize
into the exible disk drive, then select:
NNNNNNNNNNN
YES primary softkey to initialize the diskette.
NNNNNNNN
NO primary softkey to cancel initializing.
9. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit the DISK INITIALIZE function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The PROGRESS STATUS eld shows what percent the initialization is
completed.
5-24
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows an example that initializes a diskette with DOS
format.
5-25
Filer
File Operations
To Backup a Diskette
1. Press 4System5 front-panel key.
2. Select FILER primary softkey to display the SYSTEM: FILER page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Select DISK OPERATION secondary softkey to display setup elds.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. In the DISK OPERATION eld, select DISK COPY secondary softkey.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Insert the source diskette, then select EXECUTE primary softkey, then
select:
YES primary softkey to execute disk copy.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNN
NO primary softkey to cancel disk copy.
6. After the target diskette message is displayed, remove the source diskette,
conrm that target diskette is initialized, insert the target diskette, then
select:
YES primary softkey to execute disk copy.
NNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNN
NO primary softkey to cancel disk copy.
Note that source and target diskettes must be same format and size.
7. Select EXIT primary softkey to exit the DISK COPY function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The PROGRESS STATUS eld shows what percent the disk copy is completed.
The internal memory capacity may not be sucient to perform the entire disk
copy. If so, swap the source and target disks every time the swap message is
displayed.
5-26
Filer
File Operations
Example
The following gure shows an example that backs up a diskette.
5-27
Filer
File Operations
6
If You Have A Problem
If You Have A Problem
This chapter explains how to solve a problem or how to read status and error
codes, if you encounter some problem.
This chapter is organized into the following sections:
When you install the HP 4155A/4156A
This section explains how to solve the problems that may occur when
installing the HP 4155A/4156A.
When you make a measurement
This section explains how to solve the problems that may occur when
making a measurement.
If errors occur
This section lists error codes and messages that may be displayed when
operating HP 4155A/4156A. Also, this section describes how to read data
status.
6-2
If You Have A Problem
File Operations
To Get Help Information
To start help function, press the 4Help5 front-panel key. Then, you can select one of the following
primary softkeys.
OVERVIEW
Briey explains each help softkey.
PAGE MAP
Shows a map of all pages, highlights the present page name, and gives a brief description of
the highlighted page name. You can use the arrow keys to highlight another page name, then
can display the page by selecting the SELECT secondary softkey.
FIELD INFO
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Describes eld where the pointer is located on the page, how to setup the eld, and the setting
restrictions. This softkey is not displayed for GRAPHICS, LIST, KNOB SWEEP, or STRESS FORCE
page.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DATA STAT
Shows how to read data status, which is displayed at the bottom of GRAPHICS, LIST, KNOB
SWEEP, or STRESS FORCE page. This softkey is displayed only for these pages.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INPUT AID
Displays variable names, mathematics functions, and read-out functions, and describes the
highlighted name or function. This softkey is not displayed for GRAPHICS, LIST, KNOB SWEEP,
or STRESS FORCE page.
You can enter desired variable or function into the selected setup eld of a page by selecting
ENTER secondary softkey, then pressing 4Enter5 front-panel key.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6-3
When You Install the HP 4155A/4156A
This section covers the following basic problems that you may encounter
when you install the HP 4155A/4156A, and the solutions.
If HP 4155A/4156A cannot be powered on
If measurement units of HP 41501A are not displayed on the CHANNELS:
CHANNEL DEFINITION page
If external keyboard does not work
If display page does not appear after applying power
If HP 16442A test xture is not stable
6-4
If You Have A Problem
When You Install the HP 4155A/4156A
If HP 4155A/4156A cannot be Powered on
Check that the power cable is rmly connected to HP 4155A/4156A and to
power outlet.
Check that the front-panel LINE switch is on.
Check that the voltage selector switch is set properly.
The voltage selector switch is located in the lower-right corner of the rear
panel. The following table shows the line voltage selector setting.
Line Voltage
Position
90|132 Vac
198|264 Vac
left
right
Check that the fuse is good.
The fuse holder is located in the lower-right corner of the rear panel.
1. Turn the HP 4155A/4156A o, then disconnect the power cable from the
power outlet.
2. Unscrew the fuse holder on the rear panel.
3. Inspect that the correct fuse is installed, and wire inside the fuse is not
broken by using a tester.
Line
100/120 Vac
220/240 Vac
Fuse type
UL/CSA T 8A, 250 Vac
UL/CSA T 4A, 250 Vac
HP part number
2110-0383
2110-0014
4. Replace the fuse, if necessary. Then, screw in the fuse holder.
5. Turn the HP 4155A/4156A on.
6-5
If You Have A Problem
When You Install the HP 4155A/4156A
If Measurement Units of HP 41501A are not Displayed
on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL DEFINITION Page
Check that the power cable is rmly connected to HP 41501A and to power
outlet.
Check that the LINE switch of HP 41501A is on.
Check that the voltage selector switch is set properly.
The voltage selector switch is located in the lower-right corner of the rear
panel. The following table shows the line voltage selector setting.
Line Voltage
Position
90|132 Vac
198|264 Vac
left
right
Check that the fuse is good.
The fuse holder is located in the lower-right corner of the rear panel.
1. Turn the HP 4155A/4156A and the HP 41501A o.
2. Unscrew the fuse holder on the rear panel.
3. Inspect that the correct fuse is installed, and wire inside the fuse is not
broken by using a tester.
Line
100/120 Vac
220/240 Vac
Fuse type
UL/CSA T 8A, 250 Vac
UL/CSA T 4A, 250 Vac
HP part number
2110-0383
2110-0014
4. Replace the fuse, if necessary. Then, screw in the fuse holder.
5. Turn on the HP 41501A rst, then turn on the HP 4155A/4156A.
Check that the interface board of HP 41501A is rmly connected to
\To Expander Box Interface" of HP 4155A/4156A rear panel.
6-6
If You Have A Problem
When You Install the HP 4155A/4156A
If External Keyboard does not Work
Connect keyboard rst, then turn on HP 4155A/56A.
Turn o HP 4155A/4156A, then check that the connector of keyboard is
rmly connected into keyboard connector of HP 4155A/4156A front panel.
Execute the External Key Controller diagnostics test on the SYSTEM:
SELF-CALIBRATION/DIAGNOSTICS page. If error occurs, write down the
displayed error codes and contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and
Service oce.
If Display Page does not Appear after Applying Power
If HP 41501A is installed, rst turn on the HP 41501A, then turn on HP
4155A/4156A.
If the self-test fails, see \If Errors Occur when You Perform Self-calibration
or Diagnostics" in this chapter.
If HP 16442A Test Fixture is not Stable
Install stabilizers on the HP 16442A. For this procedure, see Chapter 2.
If you use the HP 16442A test xture with HP 16440A selector or HP
16441A R-Box, attach HP 16442A to HP 16440A or HP 16441A by using
plates and screws. For this procedure, see Chapter 2.
6-7
When You Make A Measurement
This section covers the following basic problems that you may encounter
when you making a measurement, and the solutions.
If measured value oscillates when measuring high-frequency devices
If measured value oscillates when measuring negative resistance
If noise aects the measured values
If measured voltage has some error when forcing a large current
If large current causes high temperature (thermal drift)
If measurement takes more time than specied
If measurement damages the device under test
If you get unexpected data when performing sampling measurement
6-8
If You Have A Problem
When You Make A Measurement
If Measured Value Oscillates when Measuring HighFrequency Devices
When measuring parameters of high-frequency devices, such as GaAs
MESFETs or high-frequency bipolar transistors, oscillation may cause
measurement problems. Normal measurement cannot be performed because
of oscillation.
To solve this problem:
For FETs, add resistive ferrite beads as close as possible to the gate.
For bipolar transistors, add resistive ferrite beads as close as possible to the
base or emitter.
Make connection cables as short as possible. Long wires cause oscillation
because of their large inductance.
6-9
If You Have A Problem
When You Make A Measurement
If Measured Value Oscillates when Measuring Negative
Resistance
If the DUT has negative resistance characteristics, SMUs may oscillate.
Because SMUs operate as negative feedback amplier.
To solve this problem:
For voltage controlled negative resistance device
Connect G in parallel with your DUT to cancel negative resistance. To
obtain an output I-V curve, use the following equation.
IY = I 0 G 3 V
6-10
If You Have A Problem
When You Make A Measurement
For current controlled negative resistance device
Connect R in series with your DUT to cancel negative resistance. To
obtain an output I-V curve, use the following equation.
VZ = V 0 R 3 I
If the resistance of the DUT is less than 1 M
, you can use R-Box.
6-11
If You Have A Problem
When You Make A Measurement
If Noise Aects the Measured Values
When you measure low current of a DUT, the measured values may not be
stable.
To solve this problem:
Use guarding to reduce the leakage current between your prober and HP
4155A/4156A. Note that long wires cause oscillation because of their large
inductance. For details about connections, refer to \To Make Connections to
Reduce Leakage Current" in Chapter 3.
If some high-power electric machines are operating around HP
4155A/4156A, turn o the machines, then perform the measurements. The
machines aect the power line waveform.
Shut the lid of test xture or shield box to prevent eects of light.
If these are vibrations due to nearby machines or due to air ow, put
cushioning material under prober, cable, and HP 4155A/4156A; install
stabilizer on the prober; and make the cables stable by taping.
Wait several minutes after connecting cables or moving probe needles.
Because these operations cause electromotive force.
If you use only Force terminal and triaxial cables for HRSMUs or HPSMU,
connect an open cap to sense terminal.
Keep constant temperature in the room when you use HP 4155A/4156A.
Shift of 1 C may shift the measurement values. Temperature change
causes the following.
Oset current in HP 4155A/4156A.
Thermoelectromotive force in DUT, which causes low current.
Expansion and contraction of cables, which causes noise.
6-12
If You Have A Problem
When You Make A Measurement
If Measured Voltage has some Error when Forcing a
Large Current
Voltage measurement may have some error because of the eects of the cable
resistance when forcing a large current.
To solve this problem:
Use Kelvin connections between SMUs and DUT. To cancel the eects of
cable resistance, connect the sense line as close as possible to the terminal
of the DUT.
For details of Kelvin connections, see \Connection to Device Under Test
(DUT)" in Chapter 3.
If Large Current Causes High Temperature (Thermal
Drift)
If a large current is forced to a DUT, the temperature of the DUT may
increase, which may cause characteristics to drift.
To solve this problem:
Use the pulse output mode of the SMU.
For large currents, the SMU should be set to pulse output mode. This
decreases the average power output to prevent temperature rise of DUT.
6-13
If You Have A Problem
When You Make A Measurement
If Measurement Takes More Time than Specied
When measuring current that is 10 A or less, SMUs may take longer time
to measure than the specied integration time. When measuring in a low
current range, the SMUs automatically take longer integration time to perform
accurate and stable measurements.
To solve this problem:
Measure current using a xed range that is more than 10 A. The
measurement will be performed in the specied integration time.
If you set many measurement channels, measurement takes a longer time.
To solve this problem:
Decrease measurement channels to reduce measurement time.
Note that the number of measurement channels automatically increases if
you do both the following: force voltage from channels that are connected
to R-Box and display the voltage values or use voltage values in user
functions. The channels automatically measure current, which is used to
compensate the voltage values.
If Measurement Damages the Device under Test
When performing breakdown measurements, DUTs may be damaged.
When voltage is forced from an SMU, the current is limited by the compliance
setting, which prevents the DUT from being damaged by a large current. But
when the current rapidly increases, the current limiter in the SMU cannot
follow the rapid current increase, so a large amount of current may ow
through the DUT for a moment, which may damage the DUT.
To solve this problem:
Insert a protecting resistor as close as possible to DUT. You can also use a
resistor of the HP 16441A R-Box.
6-14
If You Have A Problem
When You Make A Measurement
If You Get Unexpected Data when Performing Sampling Measurement
If initial interval is set to a short time and if FILTER ON is set, you may get
unwanted data. FILTER ON causes a slower rise time, so short initial interval
will sample during this rise time.
To solve this problem:
Set FILTER eld to OFF if you set initial interval to a short time.
Some data may be skipped because measurement takes a long time.
Measurement takes a long time if measurement is performed in a low current
range, if many measurement channels are set up, or if analysis, such as
moving a marker, is performed during measurements.
To solve this problem:
Measure current using a xed range that is more than 10 A. For
measurement ranges 10 A or less, measurement takes longer than the
specied integration time.
Decrease measurement channels to reduce measurement time.
Note that the number of measurement channels automatically increases if
you do both the following: force voltage from channels that are connected
to R-Box and display the voltage values or use voltage values in user
functions. The channels automatically measure current, which is used to
compensate the voltage values.
Do not perform analysis operation during measurement state
6-15
If Errors Occur
If HP 4155A/4156A is not operated correctly, or if diagnostics or calibration
fails, error codes and error messages are displayed.
If measurement or forcing stress are not performed correctly, measurement
data status is displayed at bottom of GRAPHICS, LIST, KNOB SWEEP, or
STRESS FORCE page.
This section describes the following:
If errors occur when you perform self-calibration or diagnostics
If error occurs when you operate HP 4155A/4156A
If measurement data status is displayed.
6-16
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
If Errors Occur when You Perform Self-calibration or
Diagnostics
The following are the error codes that are displayed at the bottom of the
SYSTEM: SELF-CALIBRATION/DIAGNOSTICS page if errors occur when you
perform self-calibration or diagnostics.
If errors occur, write down the displayed error codes and contact the nearest
Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service oce. Up to seven error codes can be
displayed at the bottom of the SYSTEM: SELF-CALIBRATION/DIAGNOSTICS
page. To display the error codes, move pointer to a desired test item.
Error codes for measurement unit.
The following are the error codes for measurement units. Error codes are
5-digit numbers.
1xxyy
xx: measurement unit
00: VSU1,2 and VMU1,2
01 to 06: SMU1 to SMU6
07: PGU1,2
08: GNDU
09: AD converter
yy: error number
1xx05
AD converter failed ROM or RAM self-test. Measurement unit failed AD
converter test as a pretest for calibration or self-test.
1xx06
Successive approximation AD converter failed. Measurement unit failed AD
converter test as a pretest for calibration or self-test.
1xx07
Integrating type AD converter failed. Measurement unit failed AD converter
test as a pretest for calibration or self-test.
6-17
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
1xx08
AD converter test reached timeout. Measurement unit failed AD converter
test as a pretest for calibration or self-test.
1xx11
Overvoltage occurred for a measurement unit.
1xx12
Overcurrent occurred for a measurement unit.
1xx15
Measurement units that are not supported are detected.
1xx19
Emergency occurred but the cause is unknown. This is displayed, for
example, when unit is known but cause is unknown.
1xx90
AD converter test reached timeout during calibration or self-test for a
measurement unit.
1xx91
FIFO (rst-in, rst-out) for AD converter overowed because SMU controller
takes long time to read measurement data.
1xx92
Calibration or diagnostics was aborted by an emergency or *RST command.
1xx94
HP 4155A/4156A was turned on before HP 41501A.
1xx97
Communication failed between HOST controller and SMU controller. Or
calibration/diagnostics was performed, but HOST controller couldn't receive
the result from SMU controller.
10030
VSUs and VMUs failed default test of calibration.
10031
VSUs and VMUs failed function check.
10032
VSUs failed gain or oset calibration.
10033
VMUs failed gain or oset calibration.
6-18
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
10034
VMUs failed dierential mode 2 V range gain or oset calibration.
10035
VSUs failed gain and oset calibration, VMUs failed gain and oset calibration,
or VMU failed dierential mode 2 V range gain and oset calibration.
10036
VMUs failed dierential mode 0.2 V range gain or oset measurement.
10037
VMUs failed dierential mode 0.2 V range gain and oset calibration.
10038
VMUs and VSUs failed CMR (Common Mode Rejection) amp adjustment.
10040
VSU1 and VMU1 failed 620 V measurement self-test in 20 V range.
10041
VSU2 and VMU2 failed 620 V measurement self-test in 20 V range.
10042
VSU1 and VMU2 failed 620 V measurement self-test in 20 V range.
10043
VMU2 and VMU1 failed 620 V measurement self-test in 20 V range.
10044
VSU1 and VMU1 failed 62 V measurement self-test in 2 V range.
10045
VSU2 and VMU2 failed 62 V measurement self-test in 2 V range.
10046
VSU1 and VMU2 failed 62 V measurement self-test in 2 V range.
10047
VSU2 and VMU1 failed 62 V measurement self-test in 2 V range.
10048
VMUs and VSUs failed dierential 2 V range self-test. This test measures
62 V by VMUs in dierential mode. (VSU1 is connected to VMU1, and VSU2
is connected to VMU2. VSU1 forces 0 V. VSU2 forces 2 V).
10049
VMUs and VSUs failed dierential 2 V range self-test. This test measures 0
V by VMUs in dierential mode. (VSU1 is connected to VMU1, and VSU2 is
connected to VMU2. VSU1 forces 0 V.)
6-19
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
10050
VMUs and VSUs failed dierential 0.2 V range self-test. This test measures 0
V by VMUs in dierential mode. (VSU1 is connected to VMU1, and VSU2 is
connected to VMU2. VSU1 forces 0 V.)
10051
VMUs and VSUs failed dierential 2 V range self-test. This test measures 0 V
by VMUs in dierential mode. (VSU2 is connected to VMU1 and 2, and forces
0 V.)
10052
VMUs and VSUs failed dierential 0.2 V range self-test. This test measures
0 V by VMUs in dierential mode. (VSU2 is connected to VMU1 and 2, and
forces 0 V.)
10x20
SMU failed function check.
10x21
SMU failed CMR (Common Mode Rejection) amp calibration.
10x22
SMU failed oscillation detector test.
10x23
SMU failed V set and V measure calibration.
10x24
SMU failed I set and I measure calibration.
10x25
SMU failed I bias test.
10x26
SMU failed V switch test.
10760
PGU1 failed pulse gain calibration.
10761
PGU2 failed pulse gain calibration.
10762
PGU1 failed pulse oset calibration.
10763
PGU2 failed pulse oset calibration.
6-20
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
10764
PGU1 failed voltage calibration of base value.
10765
PGU2 failed voltage calibration of base value.
10766
PGU1 failed leading time calibration.
10767
PGU2 failed leading time calibration.
10768
PGU1 failed trailing time calibration.
10769
PGU2 failed trailing time calibration.
10770
PGU1 failed slope oset calibration.
10771
PGU2 failed slope oset calibration.
10772
PGU1 failed slope sampling calibration.
10773
PGU2 failed slope sampling calibration.
10875
GNDU failed oset calibration.
10905
AD converter failed ROM or RAM self-test.
10906
Successive approximation AD converter failed calibration or self-test.
10907
Integrating type AD converter failed calibration or self-test.
10908
AD converter reached timeout. AD converter did not return completion
status within certain time after sending calibration or self-test command.
6-21
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
Error code for CPU and peripherals.
The following are the error codes for CPU and peripherals. Error codes are
5-digit numbers.
2wwwz
www: test item number (on SYSTEM: SELF-CALIBRATION/DIAGNOSTICS
page).
z: test number
23010
Host DRAM failed self-test.
23021
Host ROM failed checksum test.
23022
Host SRAM failed read and write test.
23023
EEPROM failed read and write test.
23030
Real-time clock failed timer test.
23040
HP-IB controller failed self-test. This test sets some settings, then checks the
status.
23050
Serial interface controller failed self-test. This test sets some settings, then
checks the status.
23061
Host controller sends a command and does not receive acknowledge from
SMU controller.
23062
Host controller failed receiving response from SMU controller by sending a
command.
23071
SMU controller ROM failed checksum test.
23072
SMU controller on-board SRAM failed read and write test.
6-22
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
23073
SMU controller internal SRAM failed read and write test.
23074
SMU controller internal timer failed self-test.
23075
SMU controller timer does not operate with correct frequency.
23076
SMU controller failed power on self-test.
23077
SMU controller test gets timeout.
23080
Access to graphics system processor failed read and write test.
23091
Graphic memories (DRAM) failed read and write test.
23092
Graphic memories (VRAM) failed read and write test.
24011
Serial interface failed write test.
24012
Serial interface test gets timeout on write test.
24013
Serial interface controller is not functioning properly for CTS (clear to send).
24014
Serial interface failed read test.
24015
Serial interface test gets timeout on read test.
24016
Serial interface controller is not functioning properly for DCD (data carrier
detect).
24021
Trigger output test failed or reached timeout.
24022
Trigger input test failed.
6-23
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
24041
Flexible disk drive controller test failed.
24042
Flexible disk drive 5 V power line test failed.
24051
Flexible disk drive failed diskette change test.
24052
Flexible disk drive failed read and write test.
24061
65 V source on post regulator is not output.
24062
12 V source on post regulator is not output.
24071
A front-panel key is stuck in pressed position.
24072
Front key assembly may be disconnected.
24073
Front-panel key controller is not functioning properly.
24100
External key controller failed self-test.
24120
Selector test reached timeout.
24130
R-Box test reached timeout.
6-24
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
If an error occurs when you operate HP 4155A/4156A
The following are the error codes and their messages that may occur when
you operate HP 4155A/4156A. The error codes and messages are displayed in
a message window or in the message display area at the bottom of the page.
1
Syntax error. Input should be integer number.
3
Syntax error. Input should be real number.
4
Syntax error. Unrecognized parameter.
5
Illegal setup. The parameter is out of range.
6
DATA buffer full. Too many APPEND.
7
DATA buffer full. Too many points.
8
Cannot define more than 6 User Vars.
9
Syntax error. First char should be Alphabet.
10
Syntax error. Must be alphanumeric.
12
Syntax error. Unknown variable name.
13
System error. HOSTC received invalid data.
HP 4155A/4156A may be broken. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service oce.
14
System error. Unable to communicate with SMUC.
HP 4155A/4156A may be broken. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service oce.
6-25
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
15
System error. Illegal command to SMUC.
HP 4155A/4156A may be broken. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service oce.
16
Illegal operation. Too many LIST data.
17
Unable to display data list. Not enough memory.
18
Device I/O error. Unable to print out.
HP 4155A/4156A, printer, or plotter may be broken. Contact the nearest HP
sales and service oce.
19
Filer error. File name is required.
20
Filer error. File Type is required.
21
System error. Realtime clock has problem.
HP 4155A/4156A may be broken. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service oce.
22
Not 4155A/4156A file.
23
File was created by old revision.
24
File may be corrupt.
25
Zero offset meas failed for <unit name>.
Oset value is too large, so Zero oset measurement is aborted.
26
Too big offset for 10 pA Range of <unit name>.
Oset value is too large, so oset cannot be canceled perfectly.
27
System busy. Measuring.
6-26
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
28
System busy. Forcing stress.
29
System error. EEPROM write error.
HP 4155A/4156A may be broken. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service oce.
30
Fixture open. Measurement aborted.
31
Auto calibration was aborted.
32
Auto calibration failed.
33
No data in internal memory.
34
Illegal data. File may be corrupt.
35
System busy. Unable to save/get when MEAS/STR.
36
System busy. Unable to change Y-axis.
37
System error. SMUC lost data.
HP 4155A/4156A may be broken. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service oce.
38
Buffer overflowed. Aborted.
39
Syntax error. Undisplayable character.
40
Illegal setup. One unit assigned several CH.
41
Illegal disk. Revision mismatch.
42
Read error occurred.
6-27
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
43
File name is not LIF type.
44
File name is not DOS type.
45
File name is not LIF/DOS type.
46
Volume label is not LIF type.
47
Volume label is not DOS type.
48
Incorrect memory number.
49
Source and Target are same.
50
Unable to copy. Memory full.
51
Unable to copy. SRC and TGT mem num is same.
You cannot specify same memory number in both SOURCE and TARGET
name elds.
52
Illegal suffix.
53
System busy. Emergency handling.
54
System busy. Measuring.
55
System busy. Executing cal/diag.
56
System busy. Executing auto calibration.
57
System busy. Printing out hard copy.
6-28
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
58
Unable to copy HP4145 data file to memory.
100
VAR1 is not assigned.
101
VAR1 assigned to multiple Channels.
102
VAR2 assigned to multiple Channels
103
VAR1' assigned to multiple Channels.
104
VAR1 and VAR1' must be same MODE.
105
Cannot set multiple SMUs to pulse mode
106
Cannot use VAR when SAMPLING.
107
Cannot use SMU pulse when SAMPLING.
108
Duplicate variable names exist.
109
The setup is not finished.
110
Standby chan cannot use R-BOX resistor
For standby channel, you cannot use R-Box resistor.
111
Common chan cannot use R-BOX resistor.
For common mode channel, you cannot use R-Box resistor.
112
VAR1 step number is out of range.
113
START and STOP have different sign.
6-29
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
115
SMU pulse Period must be >= Width+4ms.
116
VAR1 output power too large for unit.
117
VAR1' output power too large for unit.
118
VAR2 output power too large for unit.
119
TOT SMP TM=AUTO is for LINEAR only.
AUTO can be specied for total sampling time only when LINEAR sampling
mode is selected.
120
Only LINEAR when init int <= 480 s.
When initial interval is set to 480 s or less, you cannot specify LOG or
THINNED-OUT sampling mode.
121
For LINEAR set AUTO if init int<=480s
When initial interval is set to 480 s or less and when LINEAR sampling
mode is set, AUTO must be set in TOTAL SAMP. TIME eld.
122
TOT SP TM must be>=INIT INT2(NOofSMP01)
Total sampling time must be set in the following range:
total sampling time initial interval 2 (number of samples 0 1)
123
STOP CONDITION NAME is not set.
124
PGU pulse Period must be > Width.
125
PGU pulse Period must be >= Delay.
126
PG leading/trailing must be same range
PGU leading and trailing time must be set in the same range. For details
about the ranges, see \Measurement Units" in HP 4155A/4156A User's
Dictionary Reference.
6-30
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
127
PGU Leading must be <= 0.82WIDTH.
Leading time must satisfy the following equation.
leading time pulse width 2 0.8
128
PGU Trailing must be <= 0.82(Peri-Wid).
Trailing time must satisfy the following equation.
trailing time (pulse period - pulse width) 2 0.8
129
SMU I range must be <= Compliance range.
130
SYNC channel is not assigned.
At least one SYNC channel must be specied.
131
Assigned more than 4 SYNC channels.
132
Set INIT INT>=2ms for multi-CH MEAS.
When you perform multi-channel measurements, initial interval must be 2 ms
or more.
133
Use FIXED range when INIT INT<2ms.
When you use auto ranging or limited auto ranging measurement, you must
set initial interval to 2 ms or more.
134
Cannot disable STBY-ON ch in Stress.
On STRESS: CHANNEL DEFINITION page, you cannot disable (delete entries
in row) channels that are set to STBY ON on the CHANNELS: CHANNEL
DEFINITION page.
135
Undefined symbol in user function.
136
Syntax error in user function.
137
Too few arguments in user function.
6-31
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
138
Too many arguments in user function.
139
User function area is full.
140
Recursive call in user function.
141
User function is undefined.
142
Stack overflow in user function.
143
COMMON channel FCTN must be CONST.
144
COMMON channel FCTN must be NSYNC.
145
System busy. Unable to change page when MEAS.
146
System busy. Unable to change page when STRS.
147
Ineffective page in this setup.
148
X axis is not assigned.
149
Y1 axis is not assigned.
150
ENABLE DELAY must be <= 327672INIT INT
For sampling measurements, when stop condition is set to ENABLE, enable
delay must be initial interval 2 32767 or less.
151
No unit is set to STANDBY ON.
152
System busy. MEASURING (or 4145 USER MODE).
153
MIN, MAX have different sign in LOG.
6-32
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
154
Can do such operation only for USER VAR.
155
Illegal setup. The name was already used.
156
User variable is used in user function.
If a user variable is used in user functions, the user variable cannot be
deleted.
157
AUTO Analysis is undefined.
158
TOT SAMP TIME must be<=INIT INT232767.
Total sampling time must be initial interval 2 32767 or less and 121011 or
less.
159
Measure channel is not assigned.
160
Unable to find approximate data.
161
Illegal graph scale setup.
163
The Sweep/Pulse Polarity is not same.
164
SYNC can not be set for standby CH.
165
Set value is too small for range.
For LOG sweep measurement, start and stop value must be equal or more
than setup resolution. For sweep measurement, step value of VAR1 and VAR2
must be equal or more than setup resolution.
166
PGU Peak/Base difference must be <= 40V
170
Use Sweep/Bias instead of SMU Pulse.
6-33
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
171
Knob Sweep sets VAR1' to CONST.
If you set VAR1' for knob sweep measurement, the VAR1' channel forces a
constant value equal to START value. VAR1' cannot be a sweep source for
Knob Sweep measurement.
172
Cannot do SAMPLING when Knob Sweep.
173
jSTEPj must be <= |STOP-START|.
174
Cannot set CONT AT ANY if PCOMP is ON.
When you set power compliance, you cannot select CONT AT ANY secondary
softkey.
175
CONST setup must be<=unit output range.
176
Pulse BASE must be <= unit output range.
177
PGU pulse WIDTH must be >= setup res.
Pulse width of PGUs must be greater than or equal to unit setup resolution.
178
TRIG OUT DELAY is too long.
Trigger out delay must be 32.7 ms or pulse width you specied, whichever is
shorter.
179
Cannot ENABLE stop if INIT INT < 2 ms.
When initial interval is set to less than 2 ms, you cannot set stop condition.
180
Illegal setup. Target module is not installed.
181
Illegal setup. Invalid command.
182
Cannot define more than 6 User functions.
183
Cannot define more than 8 data vars in lists.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6-34
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
184
Cannot define more than 2 display data vars.
185
Ascii format does not allow block transfer.
186
Block size mismatched with data format.
187
Y2 axis is not assigned.
188
List name is not assigned.
189
The specified name is not list name.
190
Illegal file type is requested.
191
System busy. Printing out hard copy.
192
Unable to set. Another controller is on bus.
193
Unable to specify this name here.
194
PGU Pulse DELAY must be >= setup res.
PGU pulse delay time must be setup resolution.
195
Cal/Diag failed. Cannot use unit.
196
Compliance too low to force pulse.
197
Compliance too high to force pulse.
198
Two VPULSE PGUs must be same STBY.
199
Two VPULSE PGUs must be same FCTN.
6-35
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
201
System error. Filer memory overflow.
202
Filer error. Integer overflow.
204
Filer error. File type is wrong.
205
Filer error. EOF found.
206
Filer error. EOR found.
211
Trigger ignored.
213
Filer error. DISK record is not found.
215
Filer error. DISK record data error.
220
Filer error. Undefined I/O path.
221
Filer error. Permission denied.
224
Filer error. The directory is not empty.
225
Filer error. No DISK in the drive.
226
Filer error. Initialization failed.
227
Filer error. Invalid DISK volume label.
229
Filer error. DISK is not initialized.
230
Filer error. Checkread error.
231
Filer error. Bad HFS DISK.
6-36
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
232
Filer error. DISK is full.
233
Filer error. Directory is full.
234
Filer error. File name is undefined.
235
Filer error. File name is wrong.
236
Filer error. The file name is already used.
237
Filer error. Bad device type.
238
Filer error. Unable to use wildcard.
239
Filer error. Operations failed.
241
Filer error. The target type is wrong.
242
Filer error. The file is protected.
243
Filer error. DISK is protected.
244
System error. Unable to verify.
245
Filer error. Unable to copy between LIF/DOS.
246
Filer error. Reason Unknown.
265
HOLD TM must be>=0 when INIT INT>=2ms.
280
VAR1' output value is out of range.
6-37
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
284
Sampling range must be <= 11decades.
286
Cannot execute cal/diag after power fail.
Turn on HP 4155A/4156A again to perform calibration or diagnostics.
288
MEAS not finished. Incomplete data deleted.
If you press 4Stop5 front-panel key before the specied measurement nishes,
incomplete measurement data is deleted.
289
STBY ON ch MODE(MEAS/STR) must be same
290
Cannot use unit after power fail.
292
VAR1' parameters must be >= output res
Start, stop, and step value of VAR1' channel must be unit output resolution or
more.
293
Cal/Diag aborted (failed on some units).
Calibration or diagnostics was aborted by receiving *RST command. So, some
units maybe failed.
300
Over voltage is detected.
301
Over Current is detected.
302
Power failure at Main Frame.
Turn on HP 4155A/4156A again. You can use ler functions after selecting OK
secondary softkey (except when this error occurs during power-on test).
303
Power failure at Expander Box.
Turn on HP 4155A/4156A again. You can use ler functions after selecting OK
secondary softkey (except when this error occurs during power-on test).
305
Cannot shutdown Main Frame.
6-38
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
306
Emergency. Reason unknown.
An emergency occurred on an empty slot. Or an emergency occurred on an
existing slot, but the reason is unspecied.
307
Cannot shutdown Power Supply.
Turn on HP 4155A/4156A again. You can use ler functions after selecting OK
secondary softkey (except when this error occurs during power-on test).
308
Unknown emergency (SMUC time out).
Perform 305: HOSTC <--> SMUC I/F test on the SYSTEM: SELFCALIBRATION/DIAGNOSTICS page. If this test fails, HP 4155A/4156A may be
broken. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service oce.
309
The SMU AND PULSE GENERATOR EXPANDER is not turned on.
Turn on the expander, then cycle mainframe power.''
310
Unsupported unit detected in Slot ##. Turn off the power and
remove the unit.
The displayed unit must be changed. Contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard
Sales and Service oce.
400
System error. Undefined method. System bug.
401
System bug. Invalid parameter.
402
System bug. Inconsistency.
6-39
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
If a Measurement Data Status is Displayed.
If measurement or stress force cannot be performed correctly, the
measurement data status is displayed at the bottom of the GRAPHICS, LIST,
KNOB SWEEP, or STRESS FORCE page. The status indicates hardware and
calculation errors.
The status format depends on the displayed page as follows:
GRAPH/LIST: GRAPHICS and KNOB SWEEP page.
Status is displayed in following format:
STATUS: AB AB AB ( A A A A A A A A C )
AB AB AB is for X, Y1, and Y2 axis respectively. No Y2 for KNOB SWEEP.
A A A A A A A A C is for SMU1 to SMU6, VMU1, VMU2, and PGU1/2
respectively.
Where, A, B, and C mean as follows:
A
hardware status error. If multiple errors occur, numbers are added
and displayed as a hexadecimal number.
1 : AD converter overow.
2 : Oscillation
4 : Other channel reached compliance limit.
8 : This channel reached compliance limit.
B
data error. If multiple errors occur, numbers are added and displayed
as a hexadecimal number.
1 : stack register overow
2 : calculation error
4 : only one data for delta measurement. At least 2 data needed.
C
PGU status
1 : PGU average output current exceeds 100 mA.
For non-measurement channels, \ " is displayed.
6-40
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
GRAPH/LIST: LIST page.
Status on GRAPH/LIST: LIST page is displayed in following format:
STATUS: AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB ( A A A A A A A A C )
AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB is for the up to 8 LIST variables that can be
set up.
A A A A A A A A C is for SMU1 to SMU6, VMU1, VMU2, and PGU1/2
respectively.
Where, A, B, and C mean as follows:
A
hardware status error. If multiple errors occur, numbers are added
and displayed as a hexadecimal number.
1 : AD converter overow.
2 : Oscillation
4 : Other channel reached compliance limit.
8 : This channel reached compliance limit.
B
data error. If multiple errors occur, numbers are added and displayed
as a hexadecimal number.
1 : stack register overow
2 : calculation error
4 : only one data for delta measurement. At least 2 data needed.
C
PGU status
1 : PGU average output current exceeds 100 mA.
For non-measurement channels, \ " is displayed.
6-41
If You Have A Problem
If Errors Occur
STRESS: STRESS FORCE page.
Status on STRESS: STRESS FORCE page is displayed in following format:
STATUS: A C
Where, A and C mean as follows:
A
hardware status error. If multiple errors occur, numbers are added
and displayed as a hexadecimal number.
2 : Oscillation.
4 : Some channel has reached compliance limit.
C
PGU status
1 : PGU average current exceeds 100 mA.
6-42
7
Manual Changes
Depending on ROM Version
Manual Changes Depending on ROM Version
HP 4155A/4156A may vary slightly, depending on the version of the
ROM based rmware. The information in this manual applies to an HP
4155A/4156A with the following ROM version.
Manual Applies to this ROM Version
ROM ROM Version
HOSTC
01.02
ROM version
To conrm your ROM version, check the SOFTWARE REVISION eld on the SYSTEM:
CONFIGURATION page.
This chapter contains information for customizing this manual so that it is
correct for the HP 4155A/4156A that you are using.
To customize this manual for your HP 4155A/4156A, refer to the following
table, and make the manual changes depending on the ROM version of your
HP 4155A/56A.
Manual Changes by ROM version
ROM version Make Manual Changes
(HOSTC)
7-2
01.00
1
01.01
1
Change 1
Hardcopy
COLOR / B/W eld (Page 5-29)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
FIX CLR secondary softkey and xed color mode are not available.
RESOLUTION eld (Page 5-30)
HP 4155A/4156A does not set the resolution of your PCL printer to
the value specied in the RESOLUTION eld. You need to set the
RESOLUTION eld to the same value as actual printer resolution setting.
OUTPUT REGION table (Page 5-45)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STORE REGION secondary softkey and RECALL REGION secondary
softkey to store and recall the output region settings into internal
memory are not available.
7-3
Manual Changes Depending on ROM Version
Change 1