DE2-70 User Manual

Altera DE2-70 Board
Version 1.03
Copyright © 2008 Terasic Technologies
Altera DE2-70 Board
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 DE2-70 Package ...............................................................................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3
Package Contents .................................................................................................................1
The DE2-70 Board Assembly ..............................................................................................2
Getting Help.........................................................................................................................3
Chapter 2 Altera DE2-70 Board .......................................................................................................4
2.1
2.2
2.3
Layout and Components ......................................................................................................4
Block Diagram of the DE2-70 Board ..................................................................................5
Power-up the DE2-70 Board................................................................................................9
Chapter 3 DE2-70 Control Panel.................................................................................................... 11
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
Control Panel Setup ........................................................................................................... 11
Controlling the LEDs, 7-Segment Displays and LCD Display .........................................13
Switches and Buttons .........................................................................................................15
SDRAM/SSRAM/Flash Controller and Programmer........................................................16
USB Monitoring.................................................................................................................18
PS2 Device.........................................................................................................................19
SD CARD ..........................................................................................................................20
Audio Playing and Recording ............................................................................................21
Overall Structure of the DE2-70 Control Panel .................................................................23
Chapter 4 DE2-70 Video Utility......................................................................................................25
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Video Utility Setup.............................................................................................................25
VGA Display......................................................................................................................26
Video Capture ....................................................................................................................27
Overall Structure of the DE2-70 Video Utility ..................................................................28
Chapter 5 Using the DE2-70 Board................................................................................................30
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
Configuring the Cyclone II FPGA .....................................................................................30
Using the LEDs and Switches............................................................................................32
Using the 7-segment Displays............................................................................................36
Clock Circuitry...................................................................................................................38
Using the LCD Module......................................................................................................40
Using the Expansion Header..............................................................................................41
Using VGA ........................................................................................................................45
Using the 24-bit Audio CODEC ........................................................................................48
RS-232 Serial Port .............................................................................................................49
PS/2 Serial Port ..................................................................................................................49
Fast Ethernet Network Controller ......................................................................................50
ii
Altera DE2-70 Board
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
TV Decoder........................................................................................................................52
Implementing a TV Encoder..............................................................................................54
Using USB Host and Device..............................................................................................55
Using IrDA.........................................................................................................................56
Using SDRAM/SRAM/Flash.............................................................................................57
Chapter 6 Examples of Advanced Demonstrations ......................................................................66
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
DE2-70 Factory Configuration ..........................................................................................66
TV Box Demonstration......................................................................................................67
TV Box Picture in Picture (PIP) Demonstration................................................................69
USB Paintbrush..................................................................................................................72
USB Device........................................................................................................................74
A Karaoke Machine ...........................................................................................................76
Ethernet Packet Sending/Receiving ...................................................................................78
SD Card Music Player........................................................................................................80
Music Synthesizer Demonstration .....................................................................................83
Audio Recording and Playing ............................................................................................87
Chapter 7 Appendix .........................................................................................................................90
7.1
7.2
Revision History ................................................................................................................90
Copyright Statement ..........................................................................................................90
iii
DE2-70 User Manual
Chapter 1
DE2-70 Package
The DE2-70 package contains all components needed to use the DE2-70 board in conjunction with
a computer that runs the Microsoft Windows software.
1.1 Package Contents
Figure 1.1 shows a photograph of the DE2-70 package.
Figure 1.1. The DE2-70 package contents.
1
DE2-70 User Manual
The DE2-70 package includes:



The DE2-70 board
USB Cable for FPGA programming and control
DE2-70 System CD containing the DE2-70 documentation and supporting materials,
including the User Manual, the Control Panel utility, reference designs and demonstrations,
device datasheets, tutorials, and a set of laboratory exercises

CD-ROMs containing Altera’s Quartus® II Web Edition and the Nios® II Embedded Design
Suit Evaluation Edition software.

Bag of six rubber (silicon) covers for the DE2-70 board stands. The bag also contains some
extender pins, which can be used to facilitate easier probing with testing equipment of the
board’s I/O expansion headers


Clear plastic cover for the board
12V DC wall-mount power supply
1.2 The DE2-70 Board Assembly
To assemble the included stands for the DE2-70 board:

Assemble a rubber (silicon) cover, as shown in Figure 1.2, for each of the six copper stands
on the DE2-70 board

The clear plastic cover provides extra protection, and is mounted over the top of the board
by using additional stands and screws
Figure 1.2. The feet for the DE2-70 board.
2
DE2-70 User Manual
1.3 Getting Help
Here are the addresses where you can get help if you encounter problems:

Altera Corporation
101 Innovation Drive
San Jose, California, 95134 USA
Email: university@altera.com

Terasic Technologies
No. 356, Sec. 1, Fusing E. Rd.
Jhubei City, HsinChu County, Taiwan, 302
Email: support@terasic.com
Web: DE2-70.terasic.com
3
DE2-70 User Manual
Chapter 2
Altera DE2-70 Board
This chapter presents the features and design characteristics of the DE2-70 board.
2.1 Layout and Components
A photograph of the DE2-70 board is shown in Figure 2.1. It depicts the layout of the board and
indicates the location of the connectors and key components.
Ethernet 10/100M Port
USB Device Port
USB Blaster Port
Mic in
USB Host Port
Line In Line Out
VGA Out
RS-232 Port
Video In 1 Video In 2
TV Decoder (NTSC/PAL) X2
12V DC Power Supply
Connector
PS2 Port
VGA 10-bit DAC
Power ON/OFF Switch
Ethernet 10/100M Controller
USB Host/Slave
Controller
Audio CODEC
50Mhz Oscillator
Altera USB Blaster
Controller chipset
Expansion Header 2
Altera EPCS16
Configuration Device
Expansion Header 1
RUN/PROG Switch for
JTAG/AS Modes
SD Card Slot
Lock
(SD Card Not Included)
Altera Cyclone II
FPGA with 70K LEs
16x2 LCD Module
IrDA Transceiver
7-Segment Displays
8Mbyte Flash Memory
8 Green LEDs
18 Red LEDs
SMA Extemal Clock
18 Toggle Switches
32Mbyte SDRAMx2
28Mhz Oscillator
2Mbyte SSRAM
4 Push-button Switches
Figure 2.1. The DE2-70 board.
The DE2-70 board has many features that allow the user to implement a wide range of designed
circuits, from simple circuits to various multimedia projects.
The following hardware is provided on the DE2-70 board:

Altera Cyclone® II 2C70 FPGA device


Altera Serial Configuration device - EPCS16
USB Blaster (on board) for programming and user API control; both JTAG and Active Serial
4
DE2-70 User Manual
(AS) programming modes are supported



















2-Mbyte SSRAM
Two 32-Mbyte SDRAM
8-Mbyte Flash memory
SD Card socket
4 pushbutton switches
18 toggle switches
18 red user LEDs
9 green user LEDs
50-MHz oscillator and 28.63-MHz oscillator for clock sources
24-bit CD-quality audio CODEC with line-in, line-out, and microphone-in jacks
VGA DAC (10-bit high-speed triple DACs) with VGA-out connector
2 TV Decoder (NTSC/PAL/SECAM) and TV-in connector
10/100 Ethernet Controller with a connector
USB Host/Slave Controller with USB type A and type B connectors
RS-232 transceiver and 9-pin connector
PS/2 mouse/keyboard connector
IrDA transceiver
1 SMA connector
Two 40-pin Expansion Headers with diode protection
In addition to these hardware features, the DE2-70 board has software support for standard I/O
interfaces and a control panel facility for accessing various components. Also, software is provided
for a number of demonstrations that illustrate the advanced capabilities of the DE2-70 board.
In order to use the DE2-70 board, the user has to be familiar with the Quartus II software. The
necessary knowledge can be acquired by reading the tutorials Getting Started with Altera’s DE2-70
Board and Quartus II Introduction (which exists in three versions based on the design entry method
used, namely Verilog, VHDL or schematic entry). These tutorials are provided in the directory
DE2_70_tutorials on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM that accompanies the DE2-70 board and can
also be found on Altera’s DE2-70 web pages.
2.2 Block Diagram of the DE2-70 Board
Figure 2.2 gives the block diagram of the DE2-70 board. To provide maximum flexibility for the
user, all connections are made through the Cyclone II FPGA device. Thus, the user can configure
the FPGA to implement any system design.
5
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 2.2. Block diagram of the DE2-70 board.
Following is more detailed information about the blocks in Figure 2.2:
Cyclone II 2C70 FPGA







68,416 LEs
250 M4K RAM blocks
1,152,000 total RAM bits
150 embedded multipliers
4 PLLs
622 user I/O pins
FineLine BGA 896-pin package
Serial Configuration device and USB Blaster circuit



Altera’s EPCS16 Serial Configuration device
On-board USB Blaster for programming and user API control
JTAG and AS programming modes are supported
6
DE2-70 User Manual
SSRAM



2-Mbyte standard synchronous SRAM
Organized as 512K x 36 bits
Accessible as memory for the Nios II processor and by the DE2-70 Control Panel
SDRAM



Two 32-Mbyte Single Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic RAM memory chips
Organized as 4M x 16 bits x 4 banks
Accessible as memory for the Nios II processor and by the DE2-70 Control Panel
Flash memory



8-Mbyte NOR Flash memory
Support both byte and word mode access
Accessible as memory for the Nios II processor and by the DE2-70 Control Panel
SD card socket


Provides SPI and 1-bit SD mode for SD Card access
Accessible as memory for the Nios II processor with the DE2-70 SD Card Driver
Pushbutton switches



4 pushbutton switches
Debounced by a Schmitt trigger circuit
Normally high; generates one active-low pulse when the switch is pressed
Toggle switches


18 toggle switches for user inputs
A switch causes logic 0 when in the DOWN (closest to the edge of the DE2-70 board)
position and logic 1 when in the UP position
Clock inputs



50-MHz oscillator
28.63-MHz oscillator
SMA external clock input
7
DE2-70 User Manual
Audio CODEC




Wolfson WM8731 24-bit sigma-delta audio CODEC
Line-level input, line-level output, and microphone input jacks
Sampling frequency: 8 to 96 KHz
Applications for MP3 players and recorders, PDAs, smart phones, voice recorders, etc.
VGA output




Uses the ADV7123 140-MHz triple 10-bit high-speed video DAC
With 15-pin high-density D-sub connector
Supports up to 1600 x 1200 at 100-Hz refresh rate
Can be used with the Cyclone II FPGA to implement a high-performance TV Encoder
NTSC/PAL/ SECAM TV decoder circuit





Uses two ADV7180 Multi-format SDTV Video Decoders
Supports worldwide NTSC/PAL/SECAM color demodulation
One 10-bit ADC, 4X over-sampling for CVBS
Supports Composite Video (CVBS) RCA jack input
Supports digital output formats : 8-bit ITU-R BT.656 YCrCb 4:2:2 output + HS, VS, and
FIELD

Applications: DVD recorders, LCD TV, Set-top boxes, Digital TV, Portable video devices,
and TV PIP (picture in picture) display.
10/100 Ethernet controller






Integrated MAC and PHY with a general processor interface
Supports 100Base-T and 10Base-T applications
Supports full-duplex operation at 10 Mb/s and 100 Mb/s, with auto-MDIX
Fully compliant with the IEEE 802.3u Specification
Supports IP/TCP/UDP checksum generation and checking
Supports back-pressure mode for half-duplex mode flow control
USB Host/Slave controller





Complies fully with Universal Serial Bus Specification Rev. 2.0
Supports data transfer at full-speed and low-speed
Supports both USB host and device
Two USB ports (one type A for a host and one type B for a device)
Provides a high-speed parallel interface to most available processors; supports Nios II with a
Terasic driver

Supports Programmed I/O (PIO) and Direct Memory Access (DMA)
8
DE2-70 User Manual
Serial ports




One RS-232 port
One PS/2 port
DB-9 serial connector for the RS-232 port
PS/2 connector for connecting a PS2 mouse or keyboard to the DE2-70 board
IrDA transceiver





Contains a 115.2-kb/s infrared transceiver
32 mA LED drive current
Integrated EMI shield
IEC825-1 Class 1 eye safe
Edge detection input
Two 40-pin expansion headers

72 Cyclone II I/O pins, as well as 8 power and ground lines, are brought out to two 40-pin
expansion connectors


40-pin header is designed to accept a standard 40-pin ribbon cable used for IDE hard drives
Diode and resistor protection is provided
2.3 Power-up the DE2-70 Board
The DE2-70 board comes with a preloaded configuration bit stream to demonstrate some features of
the board. This bit stream also allows users to see quickly if the board is working properly. To
power-up the board perform the following steps:
1. Connect the provided USB cable from the host computer to the USB Blaster connector on
the DE2-70 board. For communication between the host and the DE2-70 board, it is
necessary to install the Altera USB Blaster driver software. If this driver is not already
installed on the host computer, it can be installed as explained in the tutorial Getting
Started with Altera's DE2-70 Board. This tutorial is available in the directory
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
DE2_70_tutorials on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM.
Connect the 12V adapter to the DE2-70 board
Connect a VGA monitor to the VGA port on the DE2-70 board
Connect your headset to the Line-out audio port on the DE2-70 board
Turn the RUN/PROG switch on the left edge of the DE2-70 board to RUN position; the
PROG position is used only for the AS Mode programming
Turn the power on by pressing the ON/OFF switch on the DE2-70 board
9
DE2-70 User Manual
At this point you should observe the following:






All user LEDs are flashing
All 7-segment displays are cycling through the numbers 0 to F
The LCD display shows Welcome to the Altera DE2-70
The VGA monitor displays the image shown in Figure 2.3.
Set the toggle switch SW17 to the DOWN position; you should hear a 1-kHz sound
Set the toggle switch SW17 to the UP position and connect the output of an audio player to
the Line-in connector on the DE2-70 board; on your headset you should hear the music
played from the audio player (MP3, PC, iPod, or the like)

You can also connect a microphone to the Microphone-in connector on the DE2-70 board;
your voice will be mixed with the music played from the audio player
Figure 2.3. The default VGA output pattern.
10
DE2-70 User Manual
Chapter 3
DE2-70 Control Panel
The DE2-70 board comes with a Control Panel facility that allows users to access various
components on the board from a host computer. The host computer communicates with the board
through an USB connection. The facility can be used to verify the functionality of components on
the board or be used as a debug tool while developing RTL code.
This chapter first presents some basic functions of the Control Panel, then describes its structure in
block diagram form, and finally describes its capabilities.
.
3.1 Control Panel Setup
The Control Panel Software Utility is located in the “DE2_70_control_pane/SW” folder in the
DE2-70 System CD-ROM. To install it, just copy the whole folder to your host computer. Launch
the control panel by executing the “DE2_70_Control_Panel.exe”.
Specific control codes should be downloaded to your FPGA board before the control panel can
request it to perform required tasks. The control codes include one .sof file and one .elf file. To
download the codes, just click the “Download Code” button on the program. The program will call
Quartus II and Nios II tools to download the control codes to the FPGA board through
USB-Blaster[USB-0] connection. The .sof file is downloaded to FPGA. The .elf file is downloaded
to either SDRAM-U2 or SSRAM, according to the user option.
To activate the Control Panel, perform the following steps:
1. Make sure Quartus II and NIOS II are installed successfully on your PC.
2. Connect the supplied USB cable to the USB Blaster port, connect the 12V power supply,
and turn the power switch ON
3. Set the RUN/PROG switch to the RUN position
4. Start the executable DE2_70_control_panel.exe on the host computer. The Control Panel
user interface shown in Figure 3.1 will appear.
5. Select the target memory, SDRAM-U2 or SSRAM, on the control panel. Note. The .elf file
will be downloaded to the target memory and the memory will be read-only in later
memory access operation.
6. Click Download Code button. Note, the Control Panel will occupy the USB port until you
11
DE2-70 User Manual
close that port; you cannot use Quartus II to download a configuration file into the FPGA
until you close the USB port.
7. The Control Panel is now ready for use; experiment by setting the value of some LEDs
display and observing the result on the DE2-70 board.
Figure 3.1. The DE2-70 Control Panel.
The concept of the DE2-70 Control Panel is illustrated in Figure 3.2. The “Control Codes” that
performs the control functions is implemented in the FPGA board. It communicates with the
Control Panel window, which is active on the host computer, via the USB Blaster link. The
graphical interface is used to issue commands to the control codes. It handles all requests and
performs data transfers between the computer and the DE2-70 board.
12
DE2-70 User Manual
7-SEG Display
16x2
LCD
USB
Blaster
SDRAM
Flash
SSRAM
Control
Codes
PS/2
USB
Device
SD Card
Soket
LEDs
Figure 3.2. The DE2-70 Control Panel concept.
The DE2-70 Control Panel can be used to light up LEDs, change the values displayed on 7-segment
and LCD displays, monitor buttons/switches status, read/write the SDRAM, SSRAM and Flash
Memory, monitor the status of an USB mouse, read data from a PS/2 keyboard, and read SD-CARD
specification information. The feature of reading/writing a word or an entire file from/to the Flash
Memory allows the user to develop multimedia applications (Flash Audio Player, Flash Picture
Viewer) without worrying about how to build a Memory Programmer.
3.2 Controlling the LEDs, 7-Segment Displays and LCD Display
A simple function of the Control Panel is to allow setting the values displayed on LEDs, 7-segment
displays, and the LCD character display.
Choosing the LED tab leads to the window in Figure 3.3. Here, you can directly turn the individual
LEDs on or off by selecting them or click “Light All” or “Unlight All”.
13
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.3. Controlling LEDs.
Choosing the 7-SEG tab leads to the window in Figure 3.4. In the tab sheet, directly use the
Up-Down control and Dot Check box to specified desired patterns, the 7-SEG patterns on the board
will be updated immediately.
Figure 3.4. Controlling 7-SEG display.
14
DE2-70 User Manual
Choosing the LCD tab leads to the window in Figure 3.5. Text can be written to the LCD display by
typing it in the LCD box and pressing the Set button.
Figure 3.5. Controlling LEDs and the LCD display.
The ability to set arbitrary values into simple display devices is not needed in typical design
activities. However, it gives the user a simple mechanism for verifying that these devices are
functioning correctly in case a malfunction is suspected. Thus, it can be used for troubleshooting
purposes.
3.3 Switches and Buttons
Choosing the Button tab leads to the window in Figure 3.6. The function is designed to monitor the
status of switches and buttons in real time and show the status in a graphical user interface. It can be
used to verify the functionality of the switches and buttons.
Press the Start button to start button/switch status monitoring process, and button caption is
changed from Start to Stop. In the monitoring process, the status of buttons and switches on the
board is shown in the GUI window and updated in real time. Press Stop to end the monitoring
process.
15
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.6. Monitoring switches and buttons.
The ability to check the status of button and switch is not needed in typical design activities.
However, it provides users a simple mechanism for verifying if the buttons and switches are
functioning correctly. Thus, it can be used for troubleshooting purposes.
3.4 SDRAM/SSRAM/Flash Controller and Programmer
The Control Panel can be used to write/read data to/from the SDRAM, SSRAM, and FLASH chips
on the DE2-70 board. We will describe how the SDRAM-U1 may be accessed; the same approach
is used to access the SDRAM-U2, SRAM, and FLASH. Click on the Memory tab and select
“SDRAM-U1” to reach the window in Figure 3.7. Please note the target memory chosen for
storing .elf file is read-only. Also, please erase the flash before writing data to it.
16
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.7. Accessing the SDRAM-U1.
A 16-bit word can be written into the SDRAM by entering the address of the desired location,
specifying the data to be written, and pressing the Write button. Contents of the location can be
read by pressing the Read button. Figure 3.7 depicts the result of writing the hexadecimal value
06CA into location 200, followed by reading the same location.
The Sequential Write function of the Control Panel is used to write the contents of a file into the
SDRAM as follows:
1. Specify the starting address in the Address box.
2. Specify the number of bytes to be written in the Length box. If the entire file is to be
loaded, then a checkmark may be placed in the File Length box instead of giving the
number of bytes.
3. To initiate the writing of data, click on the Write a File to Memory button.
4. When the Control Panel responds with the standard Windows dialog box asking for the
source file, specify the desired file in the usual manner.
The Control Panel also supports loading files with a .hex extension. Files with a .hex extension are
ASCII text files that specify memory values using ASCII characters to represent hexadecimal
values. For example, a file containing the line
0123456789ABCDEF
defines four 8-bit values: 01, 23, 45, 67, 89, AB, CD, EF. These values will be loaded consecutively
17
DE2-70 User Manual
into the memory.
The Sequential Read function is used to read the contents of the SDRAM-U1 and place them into a
file as follows:
1. Specify the starting address in the Address box.
2. Specify the number of bytes to be copied into the file in the Length box. If the entire
contents of the SDRAM-U1 are to be copied (which involves all 32 Mbytes), then place a
checkmark in the Entire Memory box.
3. Press Load Memory Content to a File button.
4. When the Control Panel responds with the standard Windows dialog box asking for the
destination file, specify the desired file in the usual manner.
Users can use the similar way to access the SSRAM and Flash. Please note that users need to erase
the flash before writing data to it.
3.5 USB Monitoring
The Control Panel provides users a USB monitoring tool which monitors the real-time status of a
USB mouse connected to the DE2-70 board. The movement of the mouse and the status of the three
buttons will be shown in the graphical and text interface. The mouse movement is translated as a
position (x,y) with range from (0,0)~(1023,767). This function can be used to verify the
functionality of the USB Host.
Follow the steps below to exercise the USB Mouse Monitoring tool:
1. Choosing the USB tab leads to the window in Figure 3.8.
2. Plug an USB mouse to the USB HOST port on the DE2-70 board.
3. Press the Start button to start the USB mouse monitoring process, and button caption is
changed from Start to Stop. In the monitoring process, the status of the USB mouse is
updated and shown in the Control Panel’s GUI window in real-time. Press Stop to
terminate the monitoring process.
18
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.8. USB Mouse Monitoring Tool.
3.6 PS2 Device
The Control Panel provides users a tool to receive the inputs from a PS2 keyboard in real time. The
received scan-codes are translated to ASCII code and displayed in the control window. Only visible
ASCII codes are displayed. For control key, only “Carriage Return/ENTER” key is implemented.
This function can be used to verify the functionality of the PS2 Interface. Please follow the steps
below to exercise the PS2 device:
1. Choosing the PS2 tab leads to the window in Figure 3.9.
2. Plug a PS2 Keyboard to the FPGA board. Then,
3. Press the Start button to start PS2Keyboard input receiving process; Button caption is
changed from Start to Stop.
4. In the receiving process, users can start to press the attached keyboard. The input data will
be displayed in the control window in real time. Press Stop to terminate the monitoring
process.
19
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.9. Reading the PS2 Keyboard.
3.7 SD CARD
The function is designed to read the identification and specification of the SD card. The 1-bit SD
MODE is used to access the SD card. This function can be used to verify the functionality of
SD-CARD Interface. Follow the steps below to exercise the SD card:
1. Choosing the SD-CARD tab leads to the window in Figure 3.10. First,
2. Insert a SD card to the DE2-70 board, then press the Read button to read the SD card. The
SD card’s identification and specification will be displayed in the control window.
20
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.10.
Reading the SD card Identification and Specification.
3.8 Audio Playing and Recording
This interesting audio tool is designed to control the audio chip on the DE2-70 board for audio
playing and recording. It can play audio stored in a given WAVE file, record audio, and save the
audio signal as a wave file. The WAVE file must be uncompressed, stereo (2 channels per sample),
and 16-bits per channel. Its sample rate must be either 96K, 48K, 44.1K, 32K, or 8K. Follow the
steps below to exercise this tool.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Choosing the Audio tab leads to the window in Figure 3.11.
To play audio, plug a headset or speaker to the LINE-OUT port on the board.
Select the “Play Audio” item in the com-box, as shown in Figure 3.11.
Click “Open Wave” to select a WAVE file. The waveform of the specified wave file will be
displayed in the waveform window. The sampling rate of the wave file also is displayed in
the Sample Rate Combo-Box. You can drag the scrollbar to browse the waveform. In the
waveform window, the blue line represents left-channel signal and green line represents
right-channel signal.
5. Click “Start Play” to start audio play. The program will download the waveform to
SDRAM-U1, configure the audio chip for audio playing, and then start the audio playing
process. You will hear the audio sound from the headset or speaker. To stop the audio
playing, simply click “Stop Play”.
21
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.11. Playing audio from a selected wave file
To record sound using a microphone, please follow the steps below:
1. Plug a microphone to the MIC port on the board.
2. Select the “Record MIC” item in the com-box and select desired sampling rate, as shown in
Figure 3.12.
3. Click “Start Record” to start the record process. The program will configure the audio chip
for MIC recording, retrieve audio signal from the MIC port, and then save the audio signal
into SDRAM-U1.
4. To stop recording, click “Stop Record”. Finally, audio signal saved in SDRAM-U1 will be
uploaded to the host computer and displayed on the waveform window. Click “Save Wave”
to save the waveform into a WAV file.
22
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 3.12.
Audio Recording and Saving as a WAV file.
To record audio sound from LINE-IN port, please connect an audio source to the LINE-IN port on
the board. The operation is as same as recording audio from MIC.
3.9 Overall Structure of the DE2-70 Control Panel
The DE2-70 Control Panel is based on a NIOS II system running in the Cyclone II FPGA with the
SDRAM-U2 or SSRAM. The software part is implemented in C code; the hardware part is
implemented in Verilog code with SOPC builder, which makes it possible for a knowledgeable user
to change the functionality of the Control Panel. The code is located inside the
DE2_70_demonstrations directory on the DE2 System CD-ROM.
To run the Control Panel, users must first configure it as explained in Section 3.1. Figure 3.13
depicts the structure of the Control Panel. Each input/output device is controlled by the NIOS II
Processor instantiated in the FPGA chip. The communication with the PC is done via the USB
Blaster link. The NIOS II interprets the commands sent from the PC and performs the
corresponding actions.
23
DE2-70 User Manual
SEG7 Controller
7-SEG Display
SDRAM Controller
SDRAM U1
SDRAM Controller
SDRAM U2
LCD Controller
LCD
USB Controller
USB Mouse
PS2 Controller
PS2 Keyboard
PIO Controller
LED/Button/
Switch/ Seg7/
SD- Card
FPGA/ SOPC
NIOS II
JTAG
Blaster
Hardware
JTAG
System Interconnect Fabric
TIMER
Avalon- MM
Tris tate Bridge
Flash
Controller
Flash
Avalon- MM
Tri state Bridge
SSRAM
Controller
SSRAM
Figure 3.13. The block diagram of the DE2-70 control panel.
24
Nios II
Program
Nios II
Program
DE2-70 User Manual
Chapter 4
DE2-70 Video Utility
The DE2-70 board comes with a video utility that allows users to access video components on the
board from a host computer. The host computer communicates with the board through the
USB-Blaster link. The facility can be used to verify the functionality of video components on the
board, capture the video sent from the video-in ports, or display desired pattern on the VGA port.
This chapter first presents some basic functions of the Video Utility control panel, then describes its
structure in block diagram form, and finally describes its capabilities.
4.1 Video Utility Setup
The Video Utility is located in the “DE2_70_video utility/SW” folder in the DE2-70 System
CD-ROM. To install it, just copy the whole folder to your host computer. Launch the Video Utility
by executing the “DE2_70_VIDEO.exe”.
Specific configuration files should be downloaded to your FPGA board before the Control Panel
can request it to perform required tasks. The configuration files include one .sof file and one .elf file.
To download the codes, simply click the “Download Code” button on the program. The program
will call Quartus II and Nios II tools to download the control codes to the FPGA board through
USB-Blaseter[USB-0] connection. The .sof file is downloaded to FPGA. The .elf file is downloaded
to SDRAM-U1.
To activate the Video Utility, perform the following steps:
1. Make sure Quartus II and Nios II are installed successfully on your PC.
2. Connect the supplied USB cable to the USB Blaster port, connect the 12V power supply,
and turn the power switch ON
3. Set the RUN/PROG switch to the RUN position
4. Start the executable DE2_70_VIDEO.exe on the host computer. The Video Utility user
interface shown in Figure 4.1 will appear.
5. Click the “Download Code” button. The Control Panel will occupy the USB port until you
close that port; you cannot use Quartus II to download a configuration file into the FPGA
until you close the USB port.
6. The Video Utility is now ready for use.
25
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 4.1. The DE2-70 Video Utility window.
4.2 VGA Display
Choosing the Display tab in the DE2-70 Video Utility leads to the window shown in Figure 4.2.
The function is designed to download an image from the host computer to the FPGA board and
output the image through the VGA interface with resolution 640x480.
Please follow the steps below to exercise the Video Utility:
1. Connect a VGA monitor to the VGA port of the board.
2.
Click Load button and specify an image file for displaying. It can be a bitmap or jpeg file.
The selected image file will be displayed on the display window of the Video Utility.
3.
Select the desired Image Positioning method to fit the image to the VGA 640x480
display dimension.
4.
5.
Click Display button to start downloading the image to the DE2-70 board.
After finish downloading, you will see the desired image shown on the screen of the VGA
monitor.
26
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 4.2. Displaying selected image file on VGA Monitor.
4.3 Video Capture
Choosing the Capture tab leads to the window in Figure 4.3. The function is designed to capture an
image from the video sources, and sent the image from the FPGA board to the host computer. The
input video source can be PAL or NTSC signals.
Please follow the steps below to capture an image from a video source:
1. Connect a video source, such as a VCD/DVD player or NTSC/PAL camera, to VIDEO IN
1 or VIDEO IN 2 port on the board.
2.
3.
Specify Video Source as VIDEO IN 1 or VIDEO IN 2.
Click Capture button to start capturing process. Then, you will see the captured image
shown in the display window of the Video Utility. The image dimension of the captured
image is also displayed.
4.
Users can click Save button to save the captured image as a bitmap or jpeg file.
27
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 4.3. Video Capturing Tool.
4.4 Overall Structure of the DE2-70 Video Utility
The DE2-70 Video Utility is based on a NIOS II system running in the Cyclone II FPGA with the
SDRAM-U2 or SSRAM. The software part is implemented in C code; the hardware part is
implemented in Verilog code with SOPC builder, which makes it possible for a knowledgeable user
to change the functionality of the Video Utility. The code is located inside the
DE2_70_demonstrations directory on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM.
Figure 4.4 depicts the block diagram of the Video Utility. Each input/output device is controlled by
the NIOS II Processor instantiated. The communication between the DE2-70 board and the host PC
is via the USB Blaster link. The NIOS II processor interprets the commands sent from the PC and
performs the appropriate actions.
28
DE2-70 User Manual
FPGA
NIOS II
Program
SOPC
TIMER
JTAG
Blaster
Hardware
JTAG
SDRAM
Controller
System Interconnect Fabric
NIOS II
SDRAM
Controller
SDRAM-U1
SDRAM-U2
VGA
Controller
VGA
Multi - Port
SSRAM
Controller
SSRAM
VIDEO-In
Controller
VIDEO IN
Avalon
MM Slave
Figure 4.4. Video Capture Block Diagram.
The control flow for video displaying is described below:
1. Host computer downloads the raw image data to SDRAM-U2.
2. Host issues a “display” command to Nios II processor.
3. Nios II processor interprets the command received and moves the raw image data from
the SDRAM to SSRAM through the Multi-Port SSRAM controller.
4. VGA Controller continuously reads the raw image data from the SSRAM and sends them
to the VGA port.
The control flow for video capturing is described below:
1. Host computer issues a “capture” command to Nios II processor.
2. Nios II processor interprets the command and controls Video-In controller to capture the
raw image data into the SSRAM. After capturing is done, Nios II processor copies the raw
image data from the SSRAM to SDRAM-U2.
3. Host computer reads the raw image data from the SDRAM-U2
4. Host computer converts the raw image data to RGB color space and displays it.
29
DE2-70 User Manual
Chapter 5
Using the DE2-70 Board
This chapter gives instructions for using the DE2-70 board and describes each of its I/O devices.
5.1 Configuring the Cyclone II FPGA
The procedure for downloading a circuit from a host computer to the DE2-70 board is described in
the tutorial Quartus II Introduction. This tutorial is found in the DE2_70_tutorials folder on the
DE2-70 System CD-ROM. The user is encouraged to read the tutorial first, and to treat the
information below as a short reference.
The DE2-70 board contains a serial EEPROM chip that stores configuration data for the Cyclone II
FPGA. This configuration data is automatically loaded from the EEPROM chip into the FPGA each
time power is applied to the board. Using the Quartus II software, it is possible to reprogram the
FPGA at any time, and it is also possible to change the non-volatile data that is stored in the serial
EEPROM chip. Both types of programming methods are described below.
1. JTAG programming: In this method of programming, named after the IEEE standards Joint
Test Action Group, the configuration bit stream is downloaded directly into the Cyclone II
FPGA. The FPGA will retain this configuration as long as power is applied to the board;
the configuration is lost when the power is turned off.
2. AS programming: In this method, called Active Serial programming, the configuration bit
stream is downloaded into the Altera EPCS16 serial EEPROM chip. It provides
non-volatile storage of the bit stream, so that the information is retained even when the
power supply to the DE2-70 board is turned off. When the board's power is turned on, the
configuration data in the EPCS16 device is automatically loaded into the Cyclone II
FPGA.
The sections below describe the steps used to perform both JTAG and AS programming. For both
methods the DE2-70 board is connected to a host computer via a USB cable. Using this connection,
the board will be identified by the host computer as an Altera USB Blaster device. The process for
installing on the host computer the necessary software device driver that communicates with the
USB Blaster is described in the tutorial Getting Started with Altera's DE2-70 Board. This tutorial is
available on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM.
30
DE2-70 User Manual
Configuring the FPGA in JTAG Mode
Figure 5.1 illustrates the JTAG configuration setup. To download a configuration bit stream into the
Cyclone II FPGA, perform the following steps:


Ensure that power is applied to the DE2-70 board
Connect the supplied USB cable to the USB Blaster port on the DE2-70 board (see Figure
2.1)

Configure the JTAG programming circuit by setting the RUN/PROG switch (on the left side
of the board) to the RUN position.

The FPGA can now be programmed by using the Quartus II Programmer module to select a
configuration bit stream file with the .sof filename extension
USB Blaster Circuit
Quartus II
Programmer
USB
MAX
3128
PROG/RUN
"RUN"
JTAG Config Signals
JTAG UART
Auto
Power-on Config
JTAG Config Port
EPCS16
Serial
Configuration
Device
FPGA
Figure 5.1. The JTAG configuration scheme.
Configuring the EPCS16 in AS Mode
Figure 5.2 illustrates the AS configuration set up. To download a configuration bit stream into the
EPCS16 serial EEPROM device, perform the following steps:


Ensure that power is applied to the DE2-70 board
Connect the supplied USB cable to the USB Blaster port on the DE2-70 board (see Figure
2.1)

Configure the JTAG programming circuit by setting the RUN/PROG switch (on the left side
of the board) to the PROG position.

The EPCS16 chip can now be programmed by using the Quartus II Programmer module to
select a configuration bit stream file with the .pof filename extension

Once the programming operation is finished, set the RUN/PROG switch back to the RUN
31
DE2-70 User Manual
position and then reset the board by turning the power switch off and back on; this action
causes the new configuration data in the EPCS16 device to be loaded into the FPGA chip.
USB Blaster Circuit
Quartus II
Programmer
AS Mode
USB
PROG/ RUN
AS Mode
Config
MAX
3128
"PROG"
Auto
Power-on Config
JTAG Config Port
EPCS16
Serial
Configuration
Device
Figure 5.2. The AS configuration scheme.
In addition to its use for JTAG and AS programming, the USB Blaster port on the DE2-70 board
can also be used to control some of the board's features remotely from a host computer. Details that
describe this method of using the USB Blaster port are given in Chapter 3.
5.2 Using the LEDs and Switches
The DE2-70 board provides four pushbutton switches. Each of these switches is debounced using a
Schmitt Trigger circuit, as indicated in Figure 5.3. The four outputs called KEY0, KEY1, KEY2, and
KEY3 of the Schmitt Trigger devices are connected directly to the Cyclone II FPGA. Each switch
provides a high logic level (3.3 volts) when it is not pressed, and provides a low logic level (0 volts)
when depressed. Since the pushbutton switches are debounced, they are appropriate for use as clock
or reset inputs in a circuit.
Figure 5.3. Switch debouncing.
32
DE2-70 User Manual
There are also 18 toggle switches (sliders) on the DE2-70 board. These switches are not debounced,
and are intended for use as level-sensitive data inputs to a circuit. Each switch is connected directly
to a pin on the Cyclone II FPGA. When a switch is in the DOWN position (closest to the edge of
the board) it provides a low logic level (0 volts) to the FPGA, and when the switch is in the UP
position it provides a high logic level (3.3 volts).
There are 27 user-controllable LEDs on the DE2-70 board. Eighteen red LEDs are situated above
the 18 toggle switches, and eight green LEDs are found above the pushbutton switches (the 9th
green LED is in the middle of the 7-segment displays). Each LED is driven directly by a pin on the
Cyclone II FPGA; driving its associated pin to a high logic level turns the LED on, and driving the
pin low turns it off. A schematic diagram that shows the pushbutton and toggle switches is given in
Figure 5.4. A schematic diagram that shows the LED circuitry appears in Figure 5.5.
A list of the pin names on the Cyclone II FPGA that are connected to the toggle switches is given in
Table 5.1. Similarly, the pins used to connect to the pushbutton switches and LEDs are displayed in
Tables 5.2 and 5.3, respectively.
RN33
1
2
3
4
100K
8
7
6
5
VCC33
U8
KEYIN0
KEYIN1
KEYIN2
KEYIN3
BUTTON1
BUTTON0
BUTTON2
BUTTON3
4
3
4
3
4
3
4
3
C13
C14
C15
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1u
1u
1u
TACT SW
TACT SW
TACT SW
TACT SW
C16
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1u
1
20
VCC33
GND
OE
10
19
B8
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
RN34
8
7
6
5
120
1
2
3
4
KEY0
KEY1
KEY2
KEY3
DIR
VCC
74HC245
SW0
SW1
4
1
2
3
5
GND
VCC33
SW0
GND
GND
SW2
4
1
2
3
5
GND
VCC33
SW1
GND
GND
SLIDE SW
SLIDE SW
SW8
GND
VCC33
SW8
GND
GND
GND
VCC33
SW9
GND
GND
SW14
SLIDE SW
GND
VCC33
GND
GND
GND
VCC33
SW10
GND
GND
SLIDE SW
GND
VCC33
GND
GND
GND
VCC33
SW4
GND
GND
GND
VCC33
SW11
GND
GND
GND
VCC33
SW5
GND
GND
4
1
2
3
5
SLIDE SW
SW12
4
1
2
3
5
SW6
SW5
4
1
2
3
5
SLIDE SW
SLIDE SW
SW16
4
1
2
3
5
GND
VCC33
SW3
GND
GND
SW11
4
1
2
3
5
SLIDE SW
SW15
4
1
2
3
5
SW4
4
1
2
3
5
SLIDE SW
SW10
4
1
2
3
5
SLIDE SW
SLIDE SW
GND
VCC33
SW2
GND
GND
SLIDE SW
SW9
4
1
2
3
5
SW3
4
1
2
3
5
SW7
4
1
2
3
5
GND
VCC33
SW6
GND
GND
SLIDE SW
SLIDE SW
GND
VCC33
GND
GND
4
1
2
3
5
GND
VCC33
SW12
GND
GND
GND
VCC33
4
1
2
3
5
R50
GND
GND
SLIDE SW
SLIDE SW
GND
VCC33
GND
GND
RN35
8
7
6
5
120
1
2
3
4
KEY[0..3]
SW17
SW16
SW15
SW14
SW[0..17]
SLIDE SW
Figure 5.4. Schematic diagram of the pushbutton and toggle switches.
33
SLIDE SW
SW13
4
1
2
3
5
SW17
4
1
2
3
5
4
1
2
3
5
120 SW13
GND
VCC33
SW7
GND
GND
DE2-70 User Manual
LED[0..26]
LED0
LED1
LED2
LED3
LED4
LED5
LED6
LED7
RN10
1
2
3
4
RN11
1
2
3
4
330
8
7
6
5
330
8
7
6
5
LEDR0
LEDR
LEDR1
LEDR
LEDR2
LEDR
LEDR3
LEDR
LEDR4
LEDR
LEDR5
LEDR
LEDR6
LEDR7
LED8
LED9
LED18
RN12
1
2
3
4
330
8
7
6
5
LED10
LED11
LED12
LED13
LED14
LED15
LED16
LED17
RN14
1
2
3
4
330
8
7
6
5
330
8
7
6
5
RN15
1
2
3
4
330
8
7
6
5
LEDG0
LEDG
LEDG1
LEDG
LEDG2
LEDG
LEDG3
LEDG
LEDR
LEDR8
LEDR
LEDR9
LEDR
LEDG8
RN13
1
2
3
4
LEDR
LED19
LED20
LED21
LED22
LEDG
LEDR10
LEDR
LEDR11
LEDR
LEDR12
LEDR
LEDR13
LEDR
LEDR14
LEDR
LEDR15
LEDR
LEDR16
LEDR
LEDR17
LEDR
LED23
LED24
LED25
LED26
RN16
1
2
3
4
330
8
7
6
5
LEDG4
LEDG
LEDG5
LEDG
LEDG6
LEDG
LEDG7
LEDG
Figure 5.5. Schematic diagram of the LEDs.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
SW[0]
PIN_AA23
Toggle Switch[0]
SW[1]
PIN_AB26
Toggle Switch[1]
SW[2]
PIN_AB25
Toggle Switch[2]
SW[3]
PIN_AC27
Toggle Switch[3]
SW[4]
PIN_AC26
Toggle Switch[4]
SW[5]
PIN_AC24
Toggle Switch[5]
SW[6]
PIN_AC23
Toggle Switch[6]
SW[7]
PIN_AD25
Toggle Switch[7]
SW[8]
PIN_AD24
Toggle Switch[8]
SW[9]
PIN_AE27
Toggle Switch[9]
SW[10]
PIN_W5
Toggle Switch[10]
SW[11]
PIN_V10
Toggle Switch[11]
SW[12]
PIN_U9
Toggle Switch[12]
SW[13]
PIN_T9
Toggle Switch[13]
SW[14]
PIN_L5
Toggle Switch[14]
SW[15]
PIN_L4
Toggle Switch[15]
34
DE2-70 User Manual
SW[16]
PIN_L7
Toggle Switch[16]
SW[17]
PIN_L8
Toggle Switch[17]
Table 5.1. Pin assignments for the toggle switches.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
KEY[0]
PIN_T29
Pushbutton[0]
KEY[1]
PIN_T28
Pushbutton[1]
KEY[2]
PIN_U30
Pushbutton[2]
KEY[3]
PIN_U29
Pushbutton[3]
Table 5.2. Pin assignments for the pushbutton switches.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
LEDR[0]
PIN_AJ6
LED Red[0]
LEDR[1]
PIN_ AK5
LED Red[1]
LEDR[2]
PIN_AJ5
LED Red[2]
LEDR[3]
PIN_AJ4
LED Red[3]
LEDR[4]
PIN_AK3
LED Red[4]
LEDR[5]
PIN_AH4
LED Red[5]
LEDR[6]
PIN_AJ3
LED Red[6]
LEDR[7]
PIN_AJ2
LED Red[7]
LEDR[8]
PIN_AH3
LED Red[8]
LEDR[9]
PIN_AD14
LED Red[9]
LEDR[10]
PIN_AC13
LED Red[10]
LEDR[11]
PIN_AB13
LED Red[11]
LEDR[12]
PIN_AC12
LED Red[12]
LEDR[13]
PIN_AB12
LED Red[13]
LEDR[14]
PIN_AC11
LED Red[14]
LEDR[15]
PIN_AD9
LED Red[15]
LEDR[16]
PIN_AD8
LED Red[16]
LEDR[17]
PIN_AJ7
LED Red[17]
LEDG[0]
PIN_W27
LED Green[0]
LEDG[1]
PIN_ W25
LED Green[1]
LEDG[2]
PIN_ W23
LED Green[2]
LEDG[3]
PIN_ Y27
LED Green[3]
LEDG[4]
PIN_ Y24
LED Green[4]
LEDG[5]
PIN_ Y23
LED Green[5]
LEDG[6]
PIN_ AA27
LED Green[6]
35
DE2-70 User Manual
LEDG[7]
PIN_ AA24
LED Green[7]
LEDG[8]
PIN_ AC14
LED Green[8]
Table 5.3. Pin assignments for the LEDs.
5.3 Using the 7-segment Displays
The DE2-70 Board has eight 7-segment displays. These displays are arranged into two pairs and a
group of four, with the intent of displaying numbers of various sizes. As indicated in the schematic
in Figure 5.6, the seven segments are connected to pins on the Cyclone II FPGA. Applying a low
logic level to a segment causes it to light up, and applying a high logic level turns it off.
Each segment in a display is identified by an index from 0 to 6, with the positions given in Figure
5.7. In addition, the decimal point is identified as DP. Table 5.4 shows the assignments of FPGA
pins to the 7-segment displays.
HEX0_D[0..6]
HEX0_D0
HEX0_D1
HEX0_D2
HEX0_D3
HEX0_D4
HEX0_D5
HEX0_D6
HEX0_DP
RN17
1
2
3
4
RN18
1
2
3
4
1K
8
7
6
5
1K
8
7
6
5
HEX0
A0
B0
C0
D0
10
9
8
5
4
2
3
7
E0
F0
G0
DP0
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
dp
VCC33
CA1
CA2
1
6
7Segment Display
Figure 5.6. Schematic diagram of the 7-segment displays.
0
5
6
4
1
2
DP
3
Figure 5.7. Position and index of each segment in a 7-segment display.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
HEX0_D[0]
PIN_AE8
Seven Segment Digit 0[0]
HEX0_D[1]
PIN_AF9
Seven Segment Digit 0[1]
HEX0_D[2]
PIN_AH9
Seven Segment Digit 0[2]
36
DE2-70 User Manual
HEX0_D[3]
PIN_AD10
Seven Segment Digit 0[3]
HEX0_D[4]
PIN_AF10
Seven Segment Digit 0[4]
HEX0_D[5]
PIN_AD11
Seven Segment Digit 0[5]
HEX0_D[6]
PIN_AD12
Seven Segment Digit 0[6]
HEX0_DP
PIN_AF12
Seven Segment Decimal Point 0
HEX1_D[0]
PIN_ AG13
Seven Segment Digit 1[0]
HEX1_D[1]
PIN_ AE16
Seven Segment Digit 1[1]
HEX1_D[2]
PIN_ AF16
Seven Segment Digit 1[2]
HEX1_D[3]
PIN_AG16
Seven Segment Digit 1[3]
HEX1_D[4]
PIN_AE17
Seven Segment Digit 1[4]
HEX1_D[5]
PIN_AF17
Seven Segment Digit 1[5]
HEX1_D[6]
PIN_AD17
Seven Segment Digit 1[6]
HEX1_DP
PIN_ AC17
Seven Segment Decimal Point 1
HEX2_D[0]
PIN_AE7
Seven Segment Digit 2[0]
HEX2_D[1]
PIN_AF7
Seven Segment Digit 2[1]
HEX2_D[2]
PIN_AH5
Seven Segment Digit 2[2]
HEX2_D[3]
PIN_AG4
Seven Segment Digit 2[3]
HEX2_D[4]
PIN_AB18
Seven Segment Digit 2[4]
HEX2_D[5]
PIN_AB19
Seven Segment Digit 2[5]
HEX2_D[6]
PIN_AE19
Seven Segment Digit 2[6]
HEX2_DP
PIN_AC19
Seven Segment Decimal Point 2
HEX3_D[0]
PIN_P6
Seven Segment Digit 3[0]
HEX3_D[1]
PIN_P4
Seven Segment Digit 3[1]
HEX3_D[2]
PIN_N10
Seven Segment Digit 3[2]
HEX3_D[3]
PIN_N7
Seven Segment Digit 3[3]
HEX3_D[4]
PIN_M8
Seven Segment Digit 3[4]
HEX3_D[5]
PIN_M7
Seven Segment Digit 3[5]
HEX3_D[6]
PIN_M6
Seven Segment Digit 3[6]
HEX3_DP
PIN_M4
Seven Segment Decimal Point 3
HEX4_D[0]
PIN_P1
Seven Segment Digit 4[0]
HEX4_D[1]
PIN_P2
Seven Segment Digit 4[1]
HEX4_D[2]
PIN_P3
Seven Segment Digit 4[2]
HEX4_D[3]
PIN_N2
Seven Segment Digit 4[3]
HEX4_D[4]
PIN_N3
Seven Segment Digit 4[4]
HEX4_D[5]
PIN_M1
Seven Segment Digit 4[5]
HEX4_D[6]
PIN_M2
Seven Segment Digit 4[6]
HEX4_DP
PIN_L6
Seven Segment Decimal Point 4
37
DE2-70 User Manual
HEX5_D[0]
PIN_M3
Seven Segment Digit 5[0]
HEX5_D[1]
PIN_L1
Seven Segment Digit 5[1]
HEX5_D[2]
PIN_L2
Seven Segment Digit 5[2]
HEX5_D[3]
PIN_L3
Seven Segment Digit 5[3]
HEX5_D[4]
PIN_K1
Seven Segment Digit 5[4]
HEX5_D[5]
PIN_K4
Seven Segment Digit 5[5]
HEX5_D[6]
PIN_K5
Seven Segment Digit 5[6]
HEX5_DP
PIN_K6
Seven Segment Decimal Point 5
HEX6_D[0]
PIN_H6
Seven Segment Digit 6[0]
HEX6_D[1]
PIN_H4
Seven Segment Digit 6[1]
HEX6_D[2]
PIN_H7
Seven Segment Digit 6[2]
HEX6_D[3]
PIN_H8
Seven Segment Digit 6[3]
HEX6_D[4]
PIN_G4
Seven Segment Digit 6[4]
HEX6_D[5]
PIN_F4
Seven Segment Digit 6[5]
HEX6_D[6]
PIN_E4
Seven Segment Digit 6[6]
HEX6_DP
PIN_K2
Seven Segment Decimal Point 6
HEX7_D[0]
PIN_K3
Seven Segment Digit 7[0]
HEX7_D[1]
PIN_J1
Seven Segment Digit 7[1]
HEX7_D[2]
PIN_J2
Seven Segment Digit 7[2]
HEX7_D[3]
PIN_H1
Seven Segment Digit 7[3]
HEX7_D[4]
PIN_H2
Seven Segment Digit 7[4]
HEX7_D[5]
PIN_H3
Seven Segment Digit 7[5]
HEX7_D[6]
PIN_G1
Seven Segment Digit 7[6]
HEX7_DP
PIN_G2
Seven Segment Decimal Point 7
Table 5.4. Pin assignments for the 7-segment displays.
5.4 Clock Circuitry
The DE2-70 board includes two oscillators that produce 28.86 MHz and 50 MHz clock signals.
Both two clock signals are connected to the FPGA that are used for clocking the user logic. Also,
the 28.86 MHz oscillator is used to drive the two TV decoders. The board also includes an SMA
connector which can be used to connect an external clock source to the board. In addition, all these
clock inputs are connected to the phase lock loops (PLL) clock input pin of the FPGA allowed users
can use these clocks as a source clock for the PLL circuit.
The clock distribution on the DE2-70 board is shown in Figure 5.8. The associated pin assignments
for clock inputs to FPGA I/O pins are listed in Table 5.5.
38
DE2-70 User Manual
GPIO_0
GPIO_1
2
2
2
SD Card
2
SMA
Connector
4
50-MHz
Oscillator
4
PS/2
2
Cyclone II
FPGA
28-MHz
Oscillator
AUDIO
CODEC
TV
decoder 1
Ethernet
TV
decoder 2
VGA
DAC
SDRAM
1
SDRAM
2
SSRAM
Figure 5.8. Block diagram of the clock distribution.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
CLK_28
PIN_E16
28 MHz clock input
CLK_50
PIN_AD15
50 MHz clock input
CLK_50_2
PIN_D16
50 MHz clock input
CLK_50_3
PIN_R28
50 MHz clock input
CLK_50_4
PIN_R3
50 MHz clock input
EXT_CLOCK
PIN_R29
External (SMA) clock input
Table 5.5. Pin assignments for the clock inputs.
39
FLASH
DE2-70 User Manual
5.5 Using the LCD Module
The LCD module has built-in fonts and can be used to display text by sending appropriate
commands to the display controller, which is called HD44780. Detailed information for using the
display is available in its datasheet, which can be found on the manufacturer's web site, and from
the Datasheet/LCD folder on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM. A schematic diagram of the LCD
module showing connections to the Cyclone II FPGA is given in Figure 5.9. The associated pin
assignments appear in Table 5.6.
8050
Q1
Q2
8550
C6
VCC5
R34
VCC43
680
LCD_ON
R35
680
1u
Q3
8050
VCC43
8550
Q4
VCC43
R38
1K
LCD_D[0..7]
680
R37
Q5
8050
680
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
LCD_BLON
LCD_BL
LCD_D7
LCD_D6
LCD_D5
LCD_D4
LCD_D3
LCD_D2
LCD_D1
LCD_D0
LCD_EN
LCD_RW
LCD_RS
LCD_CONT
LCD_VCC
R36
GND
BL
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
EN
RW
RS
CONT
VCC
GND
DIS1
2 X 16 DIGIT LCD
LCD-2x16
Figure 5.9. Schematic diagram of the LCD module.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
LCD_DATA[0]
PIN_E1
LCD Data[0]
LCD_DATA[1]
PIN_E3
LCD Data[1]
LCD_DATA[2]
PIN_D2
LCD Data[2]
LCD_DATA[3]
PIN_D3
LCD Data[3]
LCD_DATA[4]
PIN_C1
LCD Data[4]
40
R39
47
DE2-70 User Manual
LCD_DATA[5]
PIN_C2
LCD Data[5]
LCD_DATA[6]
PIN_C3
LCD Data[6]
LCD_DATA[7]
PIN_B2
LCD Data[7]
LCD_RW
PIN_F3
LCD Read/Write Select, 0 = Write, 1 = Read
LCD_EN
PIN_E2
LCD Enable
LCD_RS
PIN_F2
LCD Command/Data Select, 0 = Command, 1 = Data
LCD_ON
PIN_F1
LCD Power ON/OFF
LCD_BLON
PIN_G3
LCD Back Light ON/OFF
Table 5.6. Pin assignments for the LCD module.
Note that the current LCD modules used on DE2/DE2-70 boards do not have backlight. Therefore
the LCD_BLON signal should not be used in users’ design projects.
5.6 Using the Expansion Header
The DE2-70 Board provides two 40-pin expansion headers. Each header connects directly to 36
pins of the Cyclone II FPGA, and also provides DC +5V (VCC5), DC +3.3V (VCC33), and two
GND pins. Among these 36 I/O pins, 4 pins are connected to the PLL clock input and output pins of
the FPGA allowing the expansion daughter cards to access the PLL blocks in the FPGA.
The voltage level of the I/O pins on the expansion headers can be adjusted to 3.3V, 2.5V, or 1.8V
using JP1. Because the expansion I/Os are connected to the BANK 5 of the FPGA and the VCCIO
voltage (VCCIO5) of this bank is controlled by the header JP1, users can use a jumper to select the
input voltage of VCCIO5 to 3.3V, 2.5V, and 1.8V to control the voltage level of the I/O pins. Table
5.7 lists the jumper settings of the JP1. The pin-outs of the JP1 appear in the Figure 5.10.
Finally, Figure 5.11 shows the related schematics. Each pin on the expansion headers is connected
to two diodes and a resistor that provide protection from high and low voltages. The figure shows
the protection circuitry for only two of the pins on each header, but this circuitry is included for all
72 data pins. Table 5.8 gives the pin assignments.
IO Voltage of Expansion
JP1 Jumper Settings
Supplied Voltage to VCCIO5
Headers (J4/J5)
Short Pins 1 and 2
1.8V
1.8V
Short Pins 3 and 4
2.5V
2.5V
Short Pins 5 and 6
3.3V
3.3V
Table 5.7. Voltage level setting of the expansion headers using JP1.
41
DE2-70 User Manual
1.8V 2.5V 3.3V
2
4
6
1
3
5
JP1
Figure 5.10. JP1 pin settings.
VCCIO5
VCCIO5
(GPIO 0)
J4
D14
D12
1
1
3
3
GPIO_D0
IO_CLKINn0
IO_CLKINp0
IO_A2
IO_A4
IO_A6
GPIO_D1
2
2
BAT54S
BAT54S
VCC5
GPIO_D0
GPIO_D1
R51
R52
47
47
IO_A0
IO_A1
(protection registors and diodes
not shown for other ports)
VCC33
1
3
5
7
9
11
IO_A8
13
IO_A10
15
IO_A12
17
IO_CLKOUTn019
IO_CLKOUTp021
IO_A16
23
IO_A18
25
IO_A20
27
29
IO_A22
31
IO_A24
33
IO_A26
35
IO_A28
37
IO_A30
39
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
IO_A0
IO_A1
IO_A3
IO_A5
IO_A7
IO_A9
IO_A11
IO_A13
IO_A14
IO_A15
IO_A17
IO_A19
IO_A21
IO_A23
IO_A25
IO_A27
IO_A29
IO_A31
BOX Header 2X20M
VCCIO5
VCCIO5
1
1
(GPIO 1)
D50
D48
J5
3GPIO_D33
3GPIO_D32
2
2
GPIO_D32
GPIO_D33
IO_CLKINn1
IO_CLKINp1
IO_B2
IO_B4
IO_B6
BAT54S
BAT54S
R60
R61
47
47
VCC5
IO_B0
IO_B1
(protection registors and diodes
not shown for other ports)
VCC33
1
3
5
7
9
11
IO_B8
13
IO_B10
15
IO_B12
17
IO_CLKOUTn119
IO_CLKOUTp121
IO_B16
23
IO_B18
25
IO_B20
27
29
IO_B22
31
IO_B24
33
IO_B26
35
IO_B28
37
IO_B30
39
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
BOX Header 2X20M
Figure 5.11. Schematic diagram of the expansion headers.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
IO_A [0]
PIN_C30
GPIO Connection 0 IO[0]
IO_A [1]
PIN_C29
GPIO Connection 0 IO[1]
IO_A [2]
PIN_E28
GPIO Connection 0 IO[2]
42
IO_B0
IO_B1
IO_B3
IO_B5
IO_B7
IO_B9
IO_B11
IO_B13
IO_B14
IO_B15
IO_B17
IO_B19
IO_B21
IO_B23
IO_B25
IO_B27
IO_B29
IO_B31
DE2-70 User Manual
IO_A [3]
PIN_D29
GPIO Connection 0 IO[3]
IO_A [4]
PIN_E27
GPIO Connection 0 IO[4]
IO_A [5]
PIN_D28
GPIO Connection 0 IO[5]
IO_A [6]
PIN_E29
GPIO Connection 0 IO[6]
IO_A [7]
PIN_G25
GPIO Connection 0 IO[7]
IO_A [8]
PIN_E30
GPIO Connection 0 IO[8]
IO_A [9]
PIN_G26
GPIO Connection 0 IO[9]
IO_A [10]
PIN_F29
GPIO Connection 0 IO[10]
IO_A [11]
PIN_G29
GPIO Connection 0 IO[11]
IO_A [12]
PIN_F30
GPIO Connection 0 IO[12]
IO_A [13]
PIN_G30
GPIO Connection 0 IO[13]
IO_A [14]
PIN_H29
GPIO Connection 0 IO[14]
IO_A [15]
PIN_H30
GPIO Connection 0 IO[15]
IO_A [16]
PIN_J29
GPIO Connection 0 IO[16]
IO_A [17]
PIN_H25
GPIO Connection 0 IO[17]
IO_A [18]
PIN_J30
GPIO Connection 0 IO[18]
IO_A [19]
PIN_H24
GPIO Connection 0 IO[19]
IO_A [20]
PIN_J25
GPIO Connection 0 IO[20]
IO_A [21]
PIN_K24
GPIO Connection 0 IO[21]
IO_A [22]
PIN_J24
GPIO Connection 0 IO[22]
IO_A [23]
PIN_K25
GPIO Connection 0 IO[23]
IO_A [24]
PIN_L22
GPIO Connection 0 IO[24]
IO_A [25]
PIN_M21
GPIO Connection 0 IO[25]
IO_A [26]
PIN_L21
GPIO Connection 0 IO[26]
IO_A [27]
PIN_M22
GPIO Connection 0 IO[27]
IO_A [28]
PIN_N22
GPIO Connection 0 IO[28]
IO_A [29]
PIN_N25
GPIO Connection 0 IO[29]
IO_A [30]
PIN_N21
GPIO Connection 0 IO[30]
IO_A [31]
PIN_N24
GPIO Connection 0 IO[31]
IO_CLKINN0
PIN_T25
GPIO Connection 0 PLL In
IO_CLKINP0
PIN_T24
GPIO Connection 0 PLL In
IO_CLKOUTN0
PIN_H23
GPIO Connection 0 PLL Out
IO_CLKOUTP0
PIN_G24
GPIO Connection 0 PLL Out
IO_B [0]
PIN_G27
GPIO Connection 1 IO[0]
IO_B [1]
PIN_G28
GPIO Connection 1 IO[1]
IO_B [2]
PIN_H27
GPIO Connection 1 IO[2]
IO_B [3]
PIN_L24
GPIO Connection 1 IO[3]
43
DE2-70 User Manual
IO_B [4]
PIN_H28
GPIO Connection 1 IO[4]
IO_B [5]
PIN_L25
GPIO Connection 1 IO[5]
IO_B [6]
PIN_K27
GPIO Connection 1 IO[6]
IO_B [7]
PIN_L28
GPIO Connection 1 IO[7]
IO_B [8]
PIN_K28
GPIO Connection 1 IO[8]
IO_B [9]
PIN_L27
GPIO Connection 1 IO[9]
IO_B [10]
PIN_K29
GPIO Connection 1 IO[10]
IO_B [11]
PIN_M25
GPIO Connection 1 IO[11]
IO_B [12]
PIN_K30
GPIO Connection 1 IO[12]
IO_B [13]
PIN_M24
GPIO Connection 1 IO[13]
IO_B [14]
PIN_L29
GPIO Connection 1 IO[14]
IO_B [15]
PIN_L30
GPIO Connection 1 IO[15]
IO_B [16]
PIN_P26
GPIO Connection 1 IO[16]
IO_B [17]
PIN_P28
GPIO Connection 1 IO[17]
IO_B [18]
PIN_P25
GPIO Connection 1 IO[18]
IO_B [19]
PIN_P27
GPIO Connection 1 IO[19]
IO_B [20]
PIN_M29
GPIO Connection 1 IO[20]
IO_B [21]
PIN_R26
GPIO Connection 1 IO[21]
IO_B [22]
PIN_M30
GPIO Connection 1 IO[22]
IO_B [23]
PIN_R27
GPIO Connection 1 IO[23]
IO_B [24]
PIN_P24
GPIO Connection 1 IO[24]
IO_B [25]
PIN_N28
GPIO Connection 1 IO[25]
IO_B [26]
PIN_P23
GPIO Connection 1 IO[26]
IO_B [27]
PIN_N29
GPIO Connection 1 IO[27]
IO_B [28]
PIN_R23
GPIO Connection 1 IO[28]
IO_B [29]
PIN_P29
GPIO Connection 1 IO[29]
IO_B [30]
PIN_R22
GPIO Connection 1 IO[30]
IO_B [31]
PIN_P30
GPIO Connection 1 IO[31]
GPIO_CLKINN1
PIN_AH14
GPIO Connection 1 PLL In
GPIO_CLKINP1
PIN_AG15
GPIO Connection 1 PLL In
GPIO_CLKOUTN1
PIN_AF27
GPIO Connection 1 PLL Out
GPIO_CLKOUTP1
PIN_AF28
GPIO Connection 1 PLL Out
Table 5.8. Pin assignments for the expansion headers.
44
DE2-70 User Manual
5.7 Using VGA
The DE2-70 board includes a 16-pin D-SUB connector for VGA output. The VGA synchronization
signals are provided directly from the Cyclone II FPGA, and the Analog Devices ADV7123 triple
10-bit high-speed video DAC is used to produce the analog data signals (red, green, and blue). The
associated schematic is given in Figure 5.12 and can support resolutions of up to 1600 x 1200 pixels,
at 100 MHz.
4.7K
560
R9
R8
R7
R6
R5
R4
R3
R2
R1
R0
PSAV E
RSET
G0
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
G7
G8
G9
BLANK
SYNC
ADV7123
VAA
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
CLOCK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
VREF
COMP
IOR
IOR
IOG
IOG
VAA
VAA
IOB
IOB
GND
GND
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
BC47
BC48
0.1u
0.1u
J7
VGA_R
VGA_G
VGA_B
VGA_VCC33
R82
R83
R84
75
75
75
VGA_HS
VGA_VS
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
VGA_G0
VGA_G1
VGA_G2
VGA_G3
VGA_G4
VGA_G5
VGA_G6
VGA_G7
VGA_G8
VGA_G9
VGA_BLANK_n
VGA_SYNC_n
U10
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
RSET
VGA_R[0..9]
VGA_G[0..9]
VGA_B[0..9]
R85
R86
47
47
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
6
1
11
10
5
15
VGA_B0
VGA_B1
VGA_B2
VGA_B3
VGA_B4
VGA_B5
VGA_B6
VGA_B7
VGA_B8
VGA_B9
VGA_CLOCK
16
VGA
17
VGA_R9
VGA_R8
VGA_R7
VGA_R6
VGA_R5
VGA_R4
VGA_R3
VGA_R2
VGA_R1
VGA_R0
VGA_VCC33
R80
R81
BC49 0.1u
VGA_VCC33
Figure 5.12. VGA circuit schematic.
The timing specification for VGA synchronization and RGB (red, green, blue) data can be found on
various educational web sites (for example, search for “VGA signal timing”). Figure 5.13 illustrates
the basic timing requirements for each row (horizontal) that is displayed on a VGA monitor. An
active-low pulse of specific duration (time a in the figure) is applied to the horizontal
synchronization (hsync) input of the monitor, which signifies the end of one row of data and the
start of the next. The data (RGB) inputs on the monitor must be off (driven to 0 V) for a time period
called the back porch (b) after the hsync pulse occurs, which is followed by the display interval (c).
During the data display interval the RGB data drives each pixel in turn across the row being
displayed. Finally, there is a time period called the front porch (d) where the RGB signals must
again be off before the next hsync pulse can occur. The timing of the vertical synchronization (vsync)
is the same as shown in Figure 5.13, except that a vsync pulse signifies the end of one frame and the
start of the next, and the data refers to the set of rows in the frame (horizontal timing). Table 5.9 and
5.10 show, for different resolutions, the durations of time periods a, b, c, and d for both horizontal
and vertical timing.
Detailed information for using the ADV7123 video DAC is available in its datasheet, which can be
45
DE2-70 User Manual
found on the manufacturer's web site, or in the Datasheet/VGA DAC folder on the DE2-70 System
CD-ROM. The pin assignments between the Cyclone II FPGA and the ADV7123 are listed in Table
5.11. An example of code that drives a VGA display is described in Sections 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4.
Figure 5.13. VGA horizontal timing specification.
VGA mode
Horizontal Timing Spec
Configuration
Resolution(HxV)
a(us)
b(us)
c(us)
d(us)
Pixel clock(Mhz)
VGA(60Hz)
640x480
3.8
1.9
25.4
0.6
25
(640/c)
VGA(85Hz)
640x480
1.6
2.2
17.8
1.6
36
(640/c)
SVGA(60Hz)
800x600
3.2
2.2
20
1
40
(800/c)
SVGA(75Hz)
800x600
1.6
3.2
16.2
0.3
49
(800/c)
SVGA(85Hz)
800x600
1.1
2.7
14.2
0.6
56
(800/c)
XGA(60Hz)
1024x768
2.1
2.5
15.8
0.4
65
(1024/c)
XGA(70Hz)
1024x768
1.8
1.9
13.7
0.3
75
(1024/c)
XGA(85Hz)
1024x768
1.0
2.2
10.8
0.5
95
(1024/c)
1280x1024(60Hz)
1280x1024
1.0
2.3
11.9
0.4
108
(1280/c)
Table 5.9. VGA horizontal timing specification.
VGA mode
Configuration
Vertical Timing Spec
Resolution
(HxV)
a(lines)
b(lines)
c(lines)
d(lines)
VGA(60Hz)
640x480
2
33
480
10
VGA(85Hz)
640x480
3
25
480
1
SVGA(60Hz)
800x600
4
23
600
1
SVGA(75Hz)
800x600
3
21
600
1
SVGA(85Hz)
800x600
3
27
600
1
XGA(60Hz)
1024x768
6
29
768
3
XGA(70Hz)
1024x768
6
29
768
3
XGA(85Hz)
1024x768
3
36
768
1
1280x1024(60Hz)
1280x1024
3
38
1024
1
Table 5.10. VGA vertical timing specification.
46
DE2-70 User Manual
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
VGA_R[0]
PIN_D23
VGA Red[0]
VGA_R[1]
PIN_E23
VGA Red[1]
VGA_R[2]
PIN_E22
VGA Red[2]
VGA_R[3]
PIN_D22
VGA Red[3]
VGA_R[4]
PIN_H21
VGA Red[4]
VGA_R[5]
PIN_G21
VGA Red[5]
VGA_R[6]
PIN_H20
VGA Red[6]
VGA_R[7]
PIN_F20
VGA Red[7]
VGA_R[8]
PIN_E20
VGA Red[8]
VGA_R[9]
PIN_G20
VGA Red[9]
VGA_G[0]
PIN_A10
VGA Green[0]
VGA_G[1]
PIN_B11
VGA Green[1]
VGA_G[2]
PIN_A11
VGA Green[2]
VGA_G[3]
PIN_C12
VGA Green[3]
VGA_G[4]
PIN_B12
VGA Green[4]
VGA_G[5]
PIN_A12
VGA Green[5]
VGA_G[6]
PIN_C13
VGA Green[6]
VGA_G[7]
PIN_B13
VGA Green[7]
VGA_G[8]
PIN_B14
VGA Green[8]
VGA_G[9]
PIN_A14
VGA Green[9]
VGA_B[0]
PIN_B16
VGA Blue[0]
VGA_B[1]
PIN_C16
VGA Blue[1]
VGA_B[2]
PIN_A17
VGA Blue[2]
VGA_B[3]
PIN_B17
VGA Blue[3]
VGA_B[4]
PIN_C18
VGA Blue[4]
VGA_B[5]
PIN_B18
VGA Blue[5]
VGA_B[6]
PIN_B19
VGA Blue[6]
VGA_B[7]
PIN_A19
VGA Blue[7]
VGA_B[8]
PIN_C19
VGA Blue[8]
VGA_B[9]
PIN_D19
VGA Blue[9]
VGA_CLK
PIN_D24
VGA Clock
VGA_BLANK_N
PIN_C15
VGA BLANK
VGA_HS
PIN_J19
VGA H_SYNC
VGA_VS
PIN_H19
VGA V_SYNC
VGA_SYNC
PIN_B15
VGA SYNC
Table 5.11. ADV7123 pin assignments.
47
DE2-70 User Manual
5.8 Using the 24-bit Audio CODEC
The DE2-70 board provides high-quality 24-bit audio via the Wolfson WM8731 audio CODEC
(enCOder/DECoder). This chip supports microphone-in, line-in, and line-out ports, with a sample
rate adjustable from 8 kHz to 96 kHz. The WM8731 is controlled by a serial I2C bus interface,
which is connected to pins on the Cyclone II FPGA. A schematic diagram of the audio circuitry is
shown in Figure 5.14, and the FPGA pin assignments are listed in Table 5.12. Detailed information
for using the WM8731 codec is available in its datasheet, which can be found on the manufacturer's
web site, or in the Datasheet/Audio CODEC folder on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM.
1u
C39
VCC33
1u
R99
4.7K
R100
4.7K
5
2
4
1
3
C38
LINE IN
NCL
R
NCR
L
GND
J11
PHONE JACK B
VCC33
R108
R109
2K
2K
R101
R102
4.7K
4.7K
AGND
AGND
AGND
J10
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
R104
C41
680
10u
AGND
C42
R105
1n
47K
AGND
A_VCC33
J12 LINE OUT
AGND
AGND
AGND
PHONE JACK G
29
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
EXPOSED
DACDAT
DACLRCK
ADCD AT
ADCLRCK
HPVDD
LHPOUT
RHPOUT
WM8731
MBIAS
VMID
AGND
AVDD
ROUT
LOUT
HPGND
PHONE JACK P
NCL
R
NCR
L
GND
XTI/MCLK
XTO
DCVDD
DGND
DBVDD
CLKOUT
BCLK
5
2
4
1
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
AUD_XCK
AUD_BCLK
AUD_DACDAT
AUD_DACLRCK
AUD_ADCD AT
AUD_ADCLRCK
1u
SCLK
SDIN
CSB
MODE
LLINEIN
RLINEIN
MICIN
U13
A_VCC33
AGND
C40
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
I2C ADDRESS READ IS 0x34
I2C ADDRESS WRITE IS 0x35
MIC IN
330
NCL
R
NCR
L
GND
R103
5
2
4
1
3
I2C_SDAT
I2C_SCLK
AGND
C43
100u
C44
A_VCC33
100u
R106
R107
47K
47K
AGND
AGND
Figure 5.14. Audio CODEC schematic.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
AUD_ADCLRCK
PIN_F19
Audio CODEC ADC LR Clock
AUD_ADCDAT
PIN_E19
Audio CODEC ADC Data
AUD_DACLRCK
PIN_G18
Audio CODEC DAC LR Clock
AUD_DACDAT
PIN_F18
Audio CODEC DAC Data
AUD_XCK
PIN_D17
Audio CODEC Chip Clock
AUD_BCLK
PIN_E17
Audio CODEC Bit-Stream Clock
I2C_SCLK
PIN_J18
I2C Data
I2C_SDAT
PIN_H18
I2C Clock
Table 5.12. Audio CODEC pin assignments.
48
AGND
DE2-70 User Manual
5.9 RS-232 Serial Port
The DE2-70 board uses the ADM3202 transceiver chip and a 9-pin D-SUB connector for RS-232
communications. For detailed information on how to use the transceiver refer to the datasheet,
which is available on the manufacturer’s web site, or in the Datasheet/RS232 folder on the DE2-70
System CD-ROM. Figure 5.15 shows the related schematics, and Table 5.13 lists the Cyclone II
FPGA pin assignments.
RXD
R44
330
R45
330
LEDR
UART_RXD
J2
TXD
LEDG
UART_TXD
U7
UART_RXD
UART_RTS
UART_TXD
UART_CTS
C9
C10
12
9
11
10
1u
1
3
4
5
2
6
1u
VCC33
BC33
C11
C12
0.1u
1u
1u
R1IN
R2IN
T1OUT
T2OUT
13
8
14
7
RXD
RTS
TXD
CTS
C+ ADM3202
C1VCC
C2+
C2GND
V+
V-
16
15
VCC33
R1OUT
R2OUT
T1IN
T2IN
5
9
4
8
3
7
2
6
1
10
11
VCC33
RS232
BC32 0.1u
Figure 5.15. MAX232 (RS-232) chip schematic.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
UART_RXD
PIN_D21
UART Receiver
UART_TXD
PIN_E21
UART Transmitter
UART_CTS
PIN_G22
UART Clear to Send
UART_RTS
PIN_F23
UART Request to Send
Table 5.13. RS-232 pin assignments.
5.10 PS/2 Serial Port
The DE2-70 board includes a standard PS/2 interface and a connector for a PS/2 keyboard or mouse.
In addition, users can use the PS/2 keyboard and mouse on the DE2-70 board simultaneously by an
plug an extension PS/2 Y-Cable. Figure 5.16 shows the schematic of the PS/2 circuit. Instructions
for using a PS/2 mouse or keyboard can be found by performing an appropriate search on various
educational web sites. The pin assignments for the associated interface are shown in Table 5.14.
49
DE2-70 User Manual
VCC5
VCC5
VCC5
VCC5
R46
R47
R172
R173
2K
2K
2K
2K
J3
TOP
R48
R49
R174
R175
BAT54S
BAT54S
KBCLK
MSCLK
VCC33
VCC33
6
5
3
1
9
10
11
PS2
BC34
BC35
VCC33
8
2
2
1
BAT54S
2
BAT54S
1
D96
1
2
3
5
6
8
MSDAT
3
3
3
D95
2
D10
1
KBDAT
120
120
120
120
VCC5
D9
2
1
3
PS2_KBDAT
PS2_KBCLK
PS2_MSDAT
PS2_MSCLK
VCC33
0.1u
0.1u
Figure 5.16. PS/2 schematic.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
PS2_KBCLK
PIN_F24
PS/2 Clock
PS2_KBDAT
PIN_E24
PS/2 Data
PS2_MSCLK
PIN_D26
PS/2 Clock (reserved for second PS/2 device)
PS2_MSDAT
PIN_D25
PS/2 Data(reserved for second PS/2 device)
Table 5.14. PS/2 pin assignments.
5.11 Fast Ethernet Network Controller
The DE2-70 board provides Ethernet support via the Davicom DM9000A Fast Ethernet controller
chip. The DM9000A includes a general processor interface, 16 Kbytes SRAM, a media access
control (MAC) unit, and a 10/100M PHY transceiver. Figure 5.17 shows the schematic for the Fast
Ethernet interface, and the associated pin assignments are listed in Table 5.15. For detailed
information on how to use the DM9000A refer to its datasheet and application note, which are
available on the manufacturer’s web site, or in the Datasheet/Ethernet folder on the DE2-70
System CD-ROM.
50
DE2-70 User Manual
N_VCC33
R72
N_VCC33
4.7K
25MHZ
ENET_RESET_n
SPEED
ACT
ENET_CS_n
NGND
L1
C17
BC36
BC37
R70
10u
0.1u
0.1u
6.8K
U9
N_VCC33
BGGND
RXGND
SD
GND
X1
X2
VDD
TEST
PWRST#
LED1
LED2
CS#
ENET_D[0..15]
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
BEAD
R71
D1
MNT0
MNT1
GREEN
RJ45INTLED
CHSG
8
NGND
N_VCC25
CHSGND
CHSGND
TX+
TX-
R73
R74
R75
R76
49.9
49.9
49.9
49.9
C19
C18
0.1u
0.1u
NGND
R77
120
SPEED
R78
120
ACT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
BGRES
RXVDD25
RX+
RXRXGND
TXGND
TX+
TXTXVDD25
SD7
SD6
SD5
t
DM9000A-8/16bi
DM9000AE
IOW#
IOR#
INT
GND
CMD
GP1/SD8
VDD
GP2/SD9
GP3/SD10
GP4/SD11
GP5/SD12
GP6/SD13
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
ENET_IOW_n
ENET_IOR_n
ENET_INT
ENET_CMD
ENET_D8
ENET_D9
ENET_D10
ENET_D11
ENET_D12
ENET_D13
NGND
ENET_D14
ENET_D15
ENET_D0
ENET_D1
ENET_D2
ENET_D3
ENET_D4
ENET_D5
ENET_D6
ENET_D7
Figure 5.17.
N_VCC33
SD4
SD3
GND
SD2
SD1
SD0
EEDIO
EEDCK
EEDCS
WAKE/SD15
VDD
LED3/SD14
9
BEAD
RX+
RX-
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
N_VCC33
D2
SMNT0
10
TD+
TDCTT
CTR
RD+
RD-
1
2
4
5
3
6
D4 YELLOW
SMNT1
12
D3
13
N_VCC33
L2
N_VCC25
14
11
16
15
4.7K
J6
Fast Ethernet schematic.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
ENET_DATA[0]
PIN_A23
DM9000A DATA[0]
ENET_DATA[1]
PIN_C22
DM9000A DATA[1]
ENET_DATA[2]
PIN_B22
DM9000A DATA[2]
ENET_DATA[3]
PIN_A22
DM9000A DATA[3]
ENET_DATA[4]
PIN_B21
DM9000A DATA[4]
ENET_DATA[5]
PIN_A21
DM9000A DATA[5]
ENET_DATA[6]
PIN_B20
DM9000A DATA[6]
ENET_DATA[7]
PIN_A20
DM9000A DATA[7]
ENET_DATA[8]
PIN_B26
DM9000A DATA[8]
ENET_DATA[9]
PIN_A26
DM9000A DATA[9]
ENET_DATA[10]
PIN_B25
DM9000A DATA[10]
ENET_DATA[11]
PIN_A25
DM9000A DATA[11]
ENET_DATA[12]
PIN_C24
DM9000A DATA[12]
ENET_DATA[13]
PIN_B24
DM9000A DATA[13]
ENET_DATA[14]
PIN_A24
DM9000A DATA[14]
ENET_DATA[15]
PIN_B23
DM9000A DATA[15]
ENET_CLK
PIN_D27
DM9000A Clock 25 MHz
ENET_CMD
PIN_B27
DM9000A Command/Data Select, 0 = Command, 1 = Data
51
N_VCC33
DE2-70 User Manual
ENET_CS_N
PIN_C28
DM9000A Chip Select
ENET_INT
PIN_C27
DM9000A Interrupt
ENET_IOR_N
PIN_A28
DM9000A Read
ENET_IOW_N
PIN_B28
DM9000A Write
ENET_RESET_N
PIN_B29
DM9000A Reset
Table 5.15. Fast Ethernet pin assignments.
5.12 TV Decoder
The DE2-70 board is equipped with two Analog Devices ADV7180 TV decoder chips. The
ADV7180 is an integrated video decoder that automatically detects and converts a standard analog
baseband television signal (NTSC, PAL, and SECAM) into 4:2:2 component video data compatible
with the 8-bit ITU-R BT.656 interface standard. The ADV7180 is compatible with a broad range of
video devices, including DVD players, tape-based sources, broadcast sources, and
security/surveillance cameras.
The registers in both of the TV decoders can be programmed by a serial I2C bus, which is
connected to the Cyclone II FPGA as indicated in Figure 5.18. Note that the I2C address of the TV
decoder 1(U11) and TV decoder 2(U12) are 0x40 and 0x42 respectively. The pin assignments are
listed in Table 5.16. Detailed information on the ADV7180 is available on the manufacturer’s web
site, or in the Datasheet/TV Decoder folder on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM.
52
DE2-70 User Manual
V_VCC33
V_VCC18 AV1_VCC18
1
R89
36
R90
0.1u
C26
23
29
30
AIN1
AIN2
AIN3
31
RESET
26
VREFN
25
VREFP
13
XTAL
12
XTAL1
32
ALSB
18
PWRDWN
39
TD1_RESET_n
VGND
0.1u
C27
C28
0.1u
C29
0.1u
28MHZ
I2C ADDRESS IS 0x40
V_VCC33
I2C_SCLK
I2C_SDAT
SCLK
SDATA
27
20
0.1u
C30
R91
10n
ELPF
19
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
17
16
10
9
8
7
6
5
VS/FIELD
HS
SFL
37
39
2
INTRQ
LLC
38
11
TEST_0
22
ADV7180
1.74K
RN44
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
R92
R93
47
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
120
120
TD1_D0
TD1_D1
TD1_D2
TD1_D3
TD1_D4
TD1_D5
TD1_D6
TD1_D7
TD1_VS
TD1_HS
TD1_CLK27
3
15
35
40
41
21
24
28
34
33
AVDD
PVDD
J8
DVDDIO
DVDDIO
3
DVDD
DVDD
U11
1
4
14
36
C31
D83
BAT54S
TD1_D[0..7]
PV1_VCC18
DGND
DGND
DGND
DGND
EXPOSED
AGND
AGND
AGND
2
V_VCC33 VGND
VGND
V_VCC33
V_VCC18
1
36
C32
0.1u
23
29
30
AIN1
AIN2
AIN3
TD2_RESET_n
31
RESET
C33
0.1u
26
VREFN
C35
0.1u
25
VREFP
13
XTAL
12
XTAL1
32
ALSB
18
PWRDWN
RCA JACK
R95
VGND
39
C34
0.1u
28MHZ
I2C ADDRESS IS 0x42 V_VCC33
SCLK
SDATA
1
4
27
20
10n
ELPF
19
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
17
16
10
9
8
7
6
5
VS/FIELD
HS
SFL
37
39
2
INTRQ
LLC
38
11
TEST_0
22
ADV7180
0.1u
C36
RN45
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
R97
R98
3
15
35
40
41
21
24
28
I2C_SCLK 34
I2C_SDAT 33
AVDD
PVDD
R94
DVDDIO
DVDDIO
DVDD
DVDD
3
U12
14
36
C37
D84
BAT54S
J9
TD2_D[0..7]
PV2_VCC18
AV2_VCC18
DGND
DGND
DGND
DGND
EXPOSED
AGND
AGND
AGND
2
V_VCC33 VGND
VGND
Figure 5.18.
TV Decoder schematic.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
TD1_D[0]
PIN_A6
TV Decoder 1 Data[0]
TD1_D[1]
PIN_B6
TV Decoder 1 Data[1]
TD1_D[2]
PIN_A5
TV Decoder 1 Data[2]
TD1_D[3]
PIN_B5
TV Decoder 1 Data[3]
TD1_D[4]
PIN_B4
TV Decoder 1 Data[4]
TD1_D[5]
PIN_C4
TV Decoder 1 Data[5]
TD1_D[6]
PIN_A3
TV Decoder 1 Data[6]
TD1_D[7]
PIN_B3
TV Decoder 1 Data[7]
TD1_HS
PIN_E13
TV Decoder 1 H_SYNC
TD1_VS
PIN_E14
TV Decoder 1 V_SYNC
53
R96
1.74K
47
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
120
120
TD2_D0
TD2_D1
TD2_D2
TD2_D3
TD2_D4
TD2_D5
TD2_D6
TD2_D7
TD2_VS
TD2_HS
TD2_CLK27
DE2-70 User Manual
TD1_CLK27
PIN_G15
TV Decoder 1 Clock Input.
TD1_RESET_N
PIN_D14
TV Decoder 1 Reset
TD2_D[0]
PIN_C10
TV Decoder 2 Data[0]
TD2_D[1]
PIN_A9
TV Decoder 2 Data[1]
TD2_D[2]
PIN_B9
TV Decoder 2 Data[2]
TD2_D[3]
PIN_C9
TV Decoder 2 Data[3]
TD2_D[4]
PIN_A8
TV Decoder 2 Data[4]
TD2_D[5]
PIN_B8
TV Decoder 2 Data[5]
TD2_D[6]
PIN_A7
TV Decoder 2 Data[6]
TD2_D[7]
PIN_B7
TV Decoder 2 Data[7]
TD2_HS
PIN_E15
TV Decoder 2 H_SYNC
TD2_VS
PIN_D15
TV Decoder 2 V_SYNC
TD2_CLK27
PIN_H15
TV Decoder 2 Clock Input.
TD2_RESET_N
PIN_B10
TV Decoder 2 Reset
I2C_SCLK
PIN_J18
I2C Data
I2C_SDAT
PIN_H18
I2C Clock
Table 5.16. TV Decoder pin assignments.
5.13 Implementing a TV Encoder
Although the DE2-70 board does not include a TV encoder chip, the ADV7123 (10-bit high-speed
triple ADCs) can be used to implement a professional-quality TV encoder with the digital
processing part implemented in the Cyclone II FPGA. Figure 5.19 shows a block diagram of a TV
encoder implemented in this manner.
TV Encoder Block
(Cyclone II 2C70)
Clock
Timing
Y
U
V
Sync
Gen
SIN
COS
Tables
10-bit VGA DAC
DSP Block
(Calculate
Composite)
O (Composite)
= Y + U.cos + V.sin
DAC
or Y (S-Video)
10-bit
or RCA_Y
DSP Block
S-Video
(Y/C)
C = U.cos + V.sin
(S-Video)
DAC
or RCA_Pb
10-bit
RCA_Pr
10-bit
DAC
Figure 5.19. A TV Encoder that uses the Cyclone II FPGA and the ADV7123.
54
DE2-70 User Manual
5.14 Using USB Host and Device
The DE2-70 board provides both USB host and device interfaces using the Philips ISP1362
single-chip USB controller. The host and device controllers are compliant with the Universal Serial
Bus Specification Rev. 2.0, supporting data transfer at full-speed (12 Mbit/s) and low-speed (1.5
Mbit/s). Figure 5.20 shows the schematic diagram of the USB circuitry; the pin assignments for the
associated interface are listed in Table 5.17.
Detailed information for using the ISP1362 device is available in its datasheet and programming
guide; both documents can be found on the manufacturer’s web site, or in the Datasheet/USB folder
on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM. The most challenging part of a USB application is in the design
of the software driver needed. Two complete examples of USB drivers, for both host and device
applications, can be found in Sections 6.4 and 6.5. These demonstrations provide examples of
software drivers for the Nios II processor.
H_VCC5
H_VCC5
58
52
40
26
14
4
H_OC1
H_PSW1
OTG_DM1
OTG_DP1
42
35
49
50
R116
R117
22
22
ID
OTGMODE
VBUS
CP_CAP2
CP_CAP1
48
45
55
54
53
R118
R119
GL
39
R120
330
TEST2
TEST1
TEST0
60
59
23
R121
R122
R123
10K
10K
100K
CLKOUT
38
X1
X2
43
44
1
2
3
C49
47p
47p
5
6
USB A-TYPE
BC66 0.1u
4.7K
4.7K
C50
R114
R115
15K
15K
U_VCC33
0.1u
GOOD
O_VCC5
U_VCC33
LEDB
U_VCC33
OTG_FSPEED
OTG_LSPEED
R124
R125
O_VCC5
D87
D88
BAT54S
1.5K
1.5K
BAT54S
J14
3
2
L11
BEAD
O_VCC5
D-
1
4 VBUS
C52
C53
47p
47p
R126
22
C54
47p
Figure 5.20. USB (ISP1362) host and device schematic.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
OTG_A[0]
PIN_E9
ISP1362 Address[0]
OTG_A[1]
PIN_D8
ISP1362 Address[1]
OTG_D[0]
PIN_H10
ISP1362 Data[0]
OTG_D[1]
PIN_G9
ISP1362 Data[1]
OTG_D[2]
PIN_G11
ISP1362 Data[2]
OTG_D[3]
PIN_F11
ISP1362 Data[3]
55
5
USB B-TYPE
BC68 0.1u
12MHZ
D+
GND
6
DREQ2
DACK2
DREQ1
DACK1
22
22
C48
1
25
29
24
28
R112
R113
U_VCC5
2
OTG_DREQ1
OTG_DACK1_n
OTG_DREQ0
OTG_DACK0_n
41
36
46
47
J13
1
2
3
4
3
CS
WR
RD
INT2
INT1
RESET
56
BAT54S
1
21
22
20
31
30
32
ISP1362
VDD_5V
H_OC2
H_PSW2
H_DM2
H_DP2
H_VCC5
2
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
BEAD
D86
BAT54S
3
18
17
16
15
13
12
11
10
8
7
6
5
3
2
64
63
33
34
DGND
DGND
DGND
DGND
DGND
DGND
OTG_D15
OTG_D14
OTG_D13
OTG_D12
OTG_D11
OTG_D10
OTG_D9
OTG_D8
OTG_D7
OTG_D6
OTG_D5
OTG_D4
OTG_D3
OTG_D2
OTG_D1
OTG_D0
R111
4.7K
OTG_CS_n
OTG_WE_n
OTG_OE_n
OTG_INT1
OTG_INT0
OTG_RESET_n
L10
H_SUSPEND/H_SUSWKUP
H_SUSPEND/D_SUSWKUP
AGND
A1
A0
57
37
27
19
9
1
U_VCC33
62
61
51
OTG_A1
OTG_A0
D85
3
U_VCC5
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
U14
1
2
U_VCC33
OTG_D[0..15]
DE2-70 User Manual
OTG_D[4]
PIN_J12
ISP1362 Data[4]
OTG_D[5]
PIN_H12
ISP1362 Data[5]
OTG_D[6]
PIN_H13
ISP1362 Data[6]
OTG_D[7]
PIN_G13
ISP1362 Data[7]
OTG_D[8]
PIN_D4
ISP1362 Data[8]
OTG_D[9]
PIN_D5
ISP1362 Data[9]
OTG_D[10]
PIN_D6
ISP1362 Data[10]
OTG_D[11]
PIN_E7
ISP1362 Data[11]
OTG_D[12]
PIN_D7
ISP1362 Data[12]
OTG_D[13]
PIN_E8
ISP1362 Data[13]
OTG_D[14]
PIN_D9
ISP1362 Data[14]
OTG_D[15]
PIN_G10
ISP1362 Data[15]
OTG_CS_N
PIN_E10
ISP1362 Chip Select
OTG_OE_N
PIN_D10
ISP1362 Read
OTG_WE_N
PIN_E11
ISP1362 Write
OTG_RESET_N
PIN_H14
ISP1362 Reset
OTG_INT0
PIN_F13
ISP1362 Interrupt 0
OTG_INT1
PIN_J13
ISP1362 Interrupt 1
OTG_DACK0_N
PIN_D12
ISP1362 DMA Acknowledge 0
OTG_DACK1_N
PIN_E12
ISP1362 DMA Acknowledge 1
OTG_DREQ0
PIN_G12
ISP1362 DMA Request 0
OTG_DREQ1
PIN_F12
ISP1362 DMA Request 1
OTG_FSPEED
PIN_F7
USB Full Speed, 0 = Enable, Z = Disable
OTG_LSPEED
PIN_F8
USB Low Speed, 0 = Enable, Z = Disable
Table 5.17. USB (ISP1362) pin assignments.
5.15 Using IrDA
The DE2-70 board provides a simple wireless communication media using the Agilent HSDL-3201
low power infrared transceiver. The datasheet for this device is provided in the Datasheet\IrDA
folder on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM. Note that the highest transmission rate supported is 115.2
Kbit/s and both the TX and RX sides have to use the same transmission rate. Figure 5.21 shows the
schematic of the IrDA communication link. Please refer to the following website for detailed
information on how to send and receive data using the IrDA link:
http://techtrain.microchip.com/webseminars/documents/IrDA_BW.pdf
56
DE2-70 User Manual
The pin assignments of the associated interface are listed in Table 5.18.
U6
VCC33
IRDA_RXD
IRDA_TXD
VCC33
R41
R42
R43
120
120
47
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
GND
NC
VCC
AGND
SD
RXD
TXD
LEDA
SHIELD
IrDA
Figure 5.21. IrDA schematic.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
IRDA_TXD
PIN_W21
IRDA Transmitter
IRDA_RXD
PIN_W22
IRDA Receiver
Table 5.18. IrDA pin assignments.
5.16 Using SDRAM/SRAM/Flash
The DE2-70 board provides a 2-Mbyte SSRAM, 8-Mbyte Flash memory, and two 32-Mbyte
SDRAM chips. Figures 5.22, 5.23, and 5.24 show the schematics of the memory chips. The pin
assignments for each device are listed in Tables 5.19, 5.20, and 5.21. The datasheets for the memory
chips are provided in the Datasheet/Memory folder on the DE2-70 System CD-ROM.
57
DE2-70 User Manual
DRAM_D[0..31]
DR_VCC33
DRAM0_A[0..12]
DR_VCC33
A0
D0
D1
A1
D2
A2
A3
D3
A4
D4
D5
A5
A6
D6
A7
D7
A8
D8
A9
D9
A10
D10
A11
D11
SDRAM 16Mx16
A12
D12
CLK
D13
CKE
D14
LDQM
D15
UDQM
DRAM1_WE_n
DRAM1_CAS_n
DRAM1_RAS_n
DRAM1_CS_n
DRAM1_BA0
DRAM1_BA1
16
17
18
19
20
21
nW E
nCAS
nRAS
nCS
BA0
BA1
VSS
VSS
VSS
28
41
54
DR_VCC33
DR_VCC33
R1
4.7K DRAM0_WE_n
R2
4.7K DRAM0_CAS_n
R3
4.7K DRAM0_RAS_n
R4
4.7K DRAM0_CS_n
R5
4.7K DRAM0_CKE
Figure 5.22.
SDRAM1
R7
4.7K DRAM1_WE_n
R8
4.7K DRAM1_CAS_n
R9
4.7K DRAM1_RAS_n
R10
4.7K DRAM1_CS_n
R11
4.7K DRAM1_CKE
SDRAM schematic.
58
3
9
43
49
23
24
25
26
29
30
31
32
33
34
22
35
36
38
37
15
39
6
12
46
52
28
41
54
SDRAM0
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
nW E
nCAS
nRAS
nCS
BA0
BA1
DRAM1_A0
DRAM1_A1
DRAM1_A2
DRAM1_A3
DRAM1_A4
DRAM1_A5
DRAM1_A6
DRAM1_A7
DRAM1_A8
DRAM1_A9
DRAM1_A10
DRAM1_A11
DRAM1_A12
DRAM1_CLK
DRAM1_CKE
DRAM1_L DQM0
DRAM1_UDQM1
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
16
17
18
19
20
21
DRAM_D0
DRAM_D1
DRAM_D2
DRAM_D3
DRAM_D4
DRAM_D5
DRAM_D6
DRAM_D7
DRAM_D8
DRAM_D9
DRAM_D10
DRAM_D11
DRAM_D12
DRAM_D13
DRAM_D14
DRAM_D15
6
12
46
52
DRAM0_WE_n
DRAM0_CAS_n
DRAM0_ RAS_n
DRAM0_CS_n
DRAM0_BA0
DRAM0_BA1
2
4
5
7
8
10
11
13
42
44
45
47
48
50
51
53
VDD
VDD
VDD
A0
D0
A1
D1
A2
D2
D3
A3
A4
D4
A5
D5
D6
A6
D7
A7
A8
D8
A9
D9
D10
A10
A11
D11
SDRAM 16Mx16
A12
D12
CLK
D13
CKE
D14
LDQM
D15
UDQM
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
23
24
25
26
29
30
31
32
33
34
22
35
36
38
37
15
39
VSS
VSS
VSS
DRAM0_A0
DRAM0_A1
DRAM0_A2
DRAM0_A3
DRAM0_A4
DRAM0_A5
DRAM0_A6
DRAM0_A7
DRAM0_A8
DRAM0_A9
DRAM0_A10
DRAM0_A11
DRAM0_A12
DRAM0_CLK
DRAM0_CKE
DRAM0_L DQM0
DRAM0_UDQM1
U2
1
14
27
3
9
43
49
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDD
VDD
VDD
U1
1
14
27
DRAM1_A[0..12]
2
4
5
7
8
10
11
13
42
44
45
47
48
50
51
53
DRAM_D16
DRAM_D17
DRAM_D18
DRAM_D19
DRAM_D20
DRAM_D21
DRAM_D22
DRAM_D23
DRAM_D24
DRAM_D25
DRAM_D26
DRAM_D27
DRAM_D28
DRAM_D29
DRAM_D30
DRAM_D31
DE2-70 User Manual
SRAM_DQ[0..31]
SRAM_DPA[0..3]
SRAM_A[0..18]
4
11
20
27
54
61
70
77
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
VDDQ
SSRAM 512Kx36
IS61LPS51236A-200TQLI
17
40
67
90
Figure 5.23.
DQA0
DQA1
DQA2
DQA3
DQA4
DQA5
DQA6
DQA7
DQPA
52
53
56
57
58
59
62
63
51
SRAM_data0
SRAM_data1
SRAM_data2
SRAM_data3
SRAM_data4
SRAM_data5
SRAM_data6
SRAM_data7
SRAM_datapar0
DQB0
DQB1
DQB2
DQB3
DQB4
DQB5
DQB6
DQB7
DQPB
68
69
72
73
74
75
78
79
80
SRAM_data8
SRAM_data9
SRAM_data10
SRAM_data11
SRAM_data12
SRAM_data13
SRAM_data14
SRAM_data15
SRAM_datapar1
DQC0
DQC1
DQC2
DQC3
DQC4
DQC5
DQC6
DQC7
DQPC
2
3
6
7
8
9
12
13
1
SRAM_data16
SRAM_data17
SRAM_data18
SRAM_data19
SRAM_data20
SRAM_data21
SRAM_data22
SRAM_data23
SRAM_datapar2
DQD0
DQD1
DQD2
DQD3
DQD4
DQD5
DQD6
DQD7
DQPD
18
19
22
23
24
25
28
29
30
SRAM_data24
SRAM_data25
SRAM_data26
SRAM_data27
SRAM_data28
SRAM_data29
SRAM_data30
SRAM_data31
SRAM_datapar3
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
VSSQ
MODE
ZZ
OE_n
CLK
GW_n
BWE_n
ADV_n
ADSC_n
ADSP_n
CE1_n
CE2
CE3_n
BWA_n
BWB_n
BWC_n
BWD_n
VSS
VSS
VSS
VSS
SRAM_MODE
31
SRAM_ZZ
64
SRAM_outen_n
86
SRAM_clock
89
SRAM_globalw_n 88
SRAM_writeen_n 87
SRAM_advance_n 83
SRAM_adsconttroler_n85
SRAM_adsprocessor_n
84
SRAM_chipen1_n 98
SRAM_chipen2
97
SRAM_chipen3_n 92
SRAM_byteen_n0 93
SRAM_byteen_n1 94
SRAM_byteen_n2 95
SRAM_byteen_n3 96
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
NC/A19
NC/A20
SR_VCC33
5
10
21
26
55
60
71
76
37
36
35
34
33
32
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
81
82
99
100
43
42
39
38
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
U3
SRAM_addr0
SRAM_addr1
SRAM_addr2
SRAM_addr3
SRAM_addr4
SRAM_addr5
SRAM_addr6
SRAM_addr7
SRAM_addr8
SRAM_addr9
SRAM_addr10
SRAM_addr11
SRAM_addr12
SRAM_addr13
SRAM_addr14
SRAM_addr15
SRAM_addr16
SRAM_addr17
SRAM_addr18
15
41
65
91
SR_VCC33
SRAM_BE_n[0..3]
SSRAM schematic.
FLASH_D[0..14]
FLASH_A[0..21]
F_VCC33
U5
FLASH_A0
FLASH_A1
FLASH_A2
FLASH_A3
FLASH_A4
FLASH_A5
FLASH_A6
FLASH_A7
FLASH_A8
FLASH_A9
FLASH_A10
FLASH_A11
FLASH_A12
FLASH_A13
FLASH_A14
FLASH_A15
FLASH_A16
FLASH_A17
FLASH_A18
FLASH_A19
FLASH_A20
FLASH_A21
FLASH_WE_n
FLASH_RESET_n
FLASH_WP_n
FLASH_RY
FLASH_CE_n
FLASH_OE_n
FLASH_BYTE_n
31
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
54
19
18
11
12
15
2
1
56
55
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
13
14
16
17
32
34
53
WE#
RESET#
WP#ACC
RY/BY#
CE#
OE#
BYTE#
VIO
VCC
29
43
DQ0
DQ1
DQ2
DQ3
DQ4
DQ5
DQ6
DQ7
DQ8
DQ9
DQ10
DQ11
DQ12
DQ13
DQ14
DQ15/A-1
35
37
39
41
44
46
48
50
36
38
40
42
45
47
49
51
FLASH_D0
FLASH_D1
FLASH_D2
FLASH_D3
FLASH_D4
FLASH_D5
FLASH_D6
FLASH_D7
FLASH_D8
FLASH_D9
FLASH_D10
FLASH_D11
FLASH_D12
FLASH_D13
FLASH_D14
FLASH_D15_A-1
FLASH 8Mx8
RFU0
RFU1
RFU2
27
28
30
VSS
VSS
33
52
F_VCC33
R32
4.7K
FLASH_RY
R33
4.7K
FLASH_CE_n
Figure 5.24.
Flash schematic.
59
DE2-70 User Manual
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
DRAM0_A[0]
PIN_AA4
SDRAM 1 Address[0]
DRAM0_A[1]
PIN_AA5
SDRAM 1 Address[1]
DRAM0_A[2]
PIN_AA6
SDRAM 1 Address[2]
DRAM0_A[3]
PIN_AB5
SDRAM 1 Address[3]
DRAM0_A[4]
PIN_AB7
SDRAM 1 Address[4]
DRAM0_A[5]
PIN_AC4
SDRAM 1 Address[5]
DRAM0_A[6]
PIN_AC5
SDRAM 1 Address[6]
DRAM0_A[7]
PIN_AC6
SDRAM 1 Address[7]
DRAM0_A[8]
PIN_AD4
SDRAM 1 Address[8]
DRAM0_A[9]
PIN_AC7
SDRAM 1 Address[9]
DRAM0_A[10]
PIN_Y8
SDRAM 1 Address[10]
DRAM0_A[11]
PIN_AE4
SDRAM 1 Address[11]
DRAM0_A[12]
PIN_AF4
SDRAM 1 Address[12]
DRAM_D[0]
PIN_AC1
SDRAM 1 Data[0]
DRAM0_D[1]
PIN_AC2
SDRAM 1 Data[1]
DRAM_D[2]
PIN_AC3
SDRAM 1 Data[2]
DRAM_D[3]
PIN_AD1
SDRAM 1 Data[3]
DRAM_D[4]
PIN_AD2
SDRAM 1 Data[4]
DRAM_D[5]
PIN_AD3
SDRAM 1 Data[5]
DRAM_D[6]
PIN_AE1
SDRAM 1 Data[6]
DRAM_D[7]
PIN_AE2
SDRAM 1 Data[7]
DRAM_D[8]
PIN_AE3
SDRAM 1 Data[8]
DRAM_D[9]
PIN_AF1
SDRAM 1 Data[9]
DRAM_D[10]
PIN_AF2
SDRAM 1 Data[10]
DRAM_D[11]
PIN_AF3
SDRAM 1 Data[11]
DRAM_D[12]
PIN_AG2
SDRAM 1 Data[12]
DRAM_D[13]
PIN_AG3
SDRAM 1 Data[13]
DRAM_D[14]
PIN_AH1
SDRAM 1 Data[14]
DRAM_D[15]
PIN_AH2
SDRAM 1 Data[15]
DRAM0_BA_0
PIN_AA9
SDRAM 1 Bank Address[0]
DRAM0_BA_1
PIN_AA10
SDRAM 1 Bank Address[1]
DRAM0_LDQM0
PIN_V9
SDRAM 1 Low-byte Data Mask
DRAM0_UDQM1
PIN_AB6
SDRAM 1 High-byte Data Mask
DRAM0_RAS_N
PIN_Y9
SDRAM 1 Row Address Strobe
DRAM0_CAS_N
PIN_W10
SDRAM 1 Column Address Strobe
60
DE2-70 User Manual
DRAM0_CKE
PIN_AA8
SDRAM 1 Clock Enable
DRAM0_CLK
PIN_AD6
SDRAM 1 Clock
DRAM0_WE_N
PIN_W9
SDRAM 1 Write Enable
DRAM0_CS_N
PIN_Y10
SDRAM 1 Chip Select
DRAM1_A[0]
PIN_T5
SDRAM 2 Address[0]
DRAM1_A[1]
PIN_T6
SDRAM 2 Address[1]
DRAM1_A[2]
PIN_U4
SDRAM 2 Address[2]
DRAM1_A[3]
PIN_U6
SDRAM 2 Address[3]
DRAM1_A[4]
PIN_U7
SDRAM 2 Address[4]
DRAM1_A[5]
PIN_V7
SDRAM 2 Address[5]
DRAM1_A[6]
PIN_V8
SDRAM 2 Address[6]
DRAM1_A[7]
PIN_W4
SDRAM 2 Address[7]
DRAM1_A[8]
PIN_W7
SDRAM 2 Address[8]
DRAM1_A[9]
PIN_W8
SDRAM 2 Address[9]
DRAM1_A[10]
PIN_T4
SDRAM 2 Address[10]
DRAM1_A[11]
PIN_Y4
SDRAM 2 Address[11]
DRAM1_A[12]
PIN_Y7
SDRAM 2 Address[12]
DRAM_D[16]
PIN_U1
SDRAM 2 Data[0]
DRAM_D[17]
PIN_U2
SDRAM 2 Data[1]
DRAM_D[18]
PIN_U3
SDRAM 2 Data[2]
DRAM_D[19]
PIN_V2
SDRAM 2 Data[3]
DRAM_D[20]
PIN_V3
SDRAM 2 Data[4]
DRAM_D[21]
PIN_W1
SDRAM 2 Data[5]
DRAM_D[22]
PIN_W2
SDRAM 2 Data[6]
DRAM_D[23]
PIN_W3
SDRAM 2 Data[7]
DRAM_D[24]
PIN_Y1
SDRAM 2 Data[8]
DRAM_D[25]
PIN_Y2
SDRAM 2 Data[9]
DRAM_D[26]
PIN_Y3
SDRAM 2 Data[10]
DRAM_D[27]
PIN_AA1
SDRAM 2 Data[11]
DRAM_D[28]
PIN_AA2
SDRAM 2 Data[12]
DRAM_D[29]
PIN_AA3
SDRAM 2 Data[13]
DRAM_D[30]
PIN_AB1
SDRAM 2 Data[14]
DRAM_D[31]
PIN_AB2
SDRAM 2 Data[15]
DRAM1_BA_0
PIN_T7
SDRAM 2 Bank Address[0]
DRAM1_BA_1
PIN_T8
SDRAM 2 Bank Address[1]
DRAM1_LDQM0
PIN_M10
SDRAM 2 Low-byte Data Mask
DRAM1_UDQM1
PIN_U8
SDRAM 2 High-byte Data Mask
61
DE2-70 User Manual
DRAM1_RAS_N
PIN_N9
SDRAM 2 Row Address Strobe
DRAM1_CAS_N
PIN_N8
SDRAM 2 Column Address Strobe
DRAM1_CKE
PIN_L10
SDRAM 2 Clock Enable
DRAM1_CLK
PIN_G5
SDRAM 2 Clock
DRAM1_WE_N
PIN_M9
SDRAM 2 Write Enable
DRAM1_CS_N
PIN_P9
SDRAM 2 Chip Select
Table 5.19. SDRAM pin assignments.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
SRAM_A[0]
PIN_AG8
SRAM Address[0]
SRAM_A[1]
PIN_AF8
SRAM Address[1]
SRAM_A[2]
PIN_AH7
SRAM Address[2]
SRAM_A[3]
PIN_AG7
SRAM Address[3]
SRAM_A[4]
PIN_AG6
SRAM Address[4]
SRAM_A[5]
PIN_AG5
SRAM Address[5]
SRAM_A[6]
PIN_AE12
SRAM Address[6]
SRAM_A[7]
PIN_AG12
SRAM Address[7]
SRAM_A[8]
PIN_AD13
SRAM Address[8]
SRAM_A[9]
PIN_AE13
SRAM Address[9]
SRAM_A[10]
PIN_AF14
SRAM Address[10]
SRAM_A[11]
PIN_AG14
SRAM Address[11]
SRAM_A[12]
PIN_AE15
SRAM Address[12]
SRAM_A[13]
PIN_AF15
SRAM Address[13]
SRAM_A[14]
PIN_AC16
SRAM Address[14]
SRAM_A[15]
PIN_AF20
SRAM Address[15]
SRAM_A[16]
PIN_AG20
SRAM Address[16]
SRAM_A[17]
PIN_AE11
SRAM Address[17]
SRAM_A[18]
PIN_AF11
SRAM Address[18]
SRAM_DQ[0]
PIN_AH10
SRAM Data[0]
SRAM_DQ[1]
PIN_AJ10
SRAM Data[1]
SRAM_DQ[2]
PIN_AK10
SRAM Data[2]
SRAM_DQ[3]
PIN_AJ11
SRAM Data[3]
SRAM_DQ[4]
PIN_AK11
SRAM Data[4]
SRAM_DQ[5]
PIN_AH12
SRAM Data[5]
SRAM_DQ[6]
PIN_AJ12
SRAM Data[6]
SRAM_DQ[7]
PIN_AH16
SRAM Data[7]
62
DE2-70 User Manual
SRAM_DQ[8]
PIN_AK17
SRAM Data[8]
SRAM_DQ[9]
PIN_AJ17
SRAM Data[9]
SRAM_DQ[10]
PIN_AH17
SRAM Data[10]
SRAM_DQ[11]
PIN_AJ18
SRAM Data[11]
SRAM_DQ[12]
PIN_AH18
SRAM Data[12]
SRAM_DQ[13]
PIN_AK19
SRAM Data[13]
SRAM_DQ[14]
PIN_AJ19
SRAM Data[14]
SRAM_DQ[15]
PIN_AK23
SRAM Data[15]
SRAM_DQ[16]
PIN_AJ20
SRAM Data[16]
SRAM_DQ[17]
PIN_AK21
SRAM Data[17]
SRAM_DQ[18]
PIN_AJ21
SRAM Data[18]
SRAM_DQ[19]
PIN_AK22
SRAM Data[19]
SRAM_DQ[20]
PIN_AJ22
SRAM Data[20]
SRAM_DQ[21]
PIN_AH15
SRAM Data[21]
SRAM_DQ[22]
PIN_AJ15
SRAM Data[22]
SRAM_DQ[23]
PIN_AJ16
SRAM Data[23]
SRAM_DQ[24]
PIN_AK14
SRAM Data[24]
SRAM_DQ[25]
PIN_AJ14
SRAM Data[25]
SRAM_DQ[26]
PIN_AJ13
SRAM Data[26]
SRAM_DQ[27]
PIN_AH13
SRAM Data[27]
SRAM_DQ[28]
PIN_AK12
SRAM Data[28]
SRAM_DQ[29]
PIN_AK7
SRAM Data[29]
SRAM_DQ[30]
PIN_AJ8
SRAM Data[30]
SRAM_DQ[31]
PIN_AK8
SRAM Data[31]
SRAM_ADSC_N
PIN_AG17
SRAM Controller Address Status
SRAM_ADSP_N
PIN_AC18
SRAM Processor Address Status
SRAM_ADV_N
PIN_AD16
SRAM Burst Address Advance
SRAM_BE_N0
PIN_AC21
SRAM Byte Write Enable[0]
SRAM_BE_N1
PIN_AC20
SRAM Byte Write Enable[1]
SRAM_BE_N2
PIN_AD20
SRAM Byte Write Enable[2]
SRAM_BE_N3
PIN_AH20
SRAM Byte Write Enable[3]
SRAM_CE1_N
PIN_AH19
SRAM Chip Enable 1
SRAM_CE2
PIN_AG19
SRAM Chip Enable 2
SRAM_CE3_N
PIN_AD22
SRAM Chip Enable 3
SRAM_CLK
PIN_AD7
SRAM Clock
SRAM_DPA0
PIN_AK9
SRAM Parity Data[0]
SRAM_DPA1
PIN_AJ23
SRAM Parity Data[1]
63
DE2-70 User Manual
SRAM_DPA2
PIN_AK20
SRAM Parity Data[2]
SRAM_DPA3
PIN_AJ9
SRAM Parity Data[3]
SRAM_GW_N
PIN_AG18
SRAM Global Write Enable
SRAM_OE_N
PIN_AD18
SRAM Output Enable
SRAM_WE_N
PIN_AF18
SRAM Write Enable
Table 5.20. SSRAM pin assignments.
Signal Name
FPGA Pin No.
Description
FLASH_A[0]
PIN_AF24
FLASH Address[0]
FLASH_A[1]
PIN_AG24
FLASH Address[1]
FLASH_A[2]
PIN_AE23
FLASH Address[2]
FLASH_A[3]
PIN_AG23
FLASH Address[3]
FLASH_A[4]
PIN_AF23
FLASH Address[4]
FLASH_A[5]
PIN_AG22
FLASH Address[5]
FLASH_A[6]
PIN_AH22
FLASH Address[6]
FLASH_A[7]
PIN_AF22
FLASH Address[7]
FLASH_A[8]
PIN_AH27
FLASH Address[8]
FLASH_A[9]
PIN_AJ27
FLASH Address[9]
FLASH_A[10]
PIN_AH26
FLASH Address[10]
FLASH_A[11]
PIN_AJ26
FLASH Address[11]
FLASH_A[12]
PIN_AK26
FLASH Address[12]
FLASH_A[13]
PIN_AJ25
FLASH Address[13]
FLASH_A[14]
PIN_AK25
FLASH Address[14]
FLASH_A[15]
PIN_AH24
FLASH Address[15]
FLASH_A[16]
PIN_AG25
FLASH Address[16]
FLASH_A[17]
PIN_AF21
FLASH Address[17]
FLASH_A[18]
PIN_AD21
FLASH Address[18]
FLASH_A[19]
PIN_AK28
FLASH Address[19]
FLASH_A[20]
PIN_AJ28
FLASH Address[20]
FLASH_A[21]
PIN_AE20
FLASH Address[21]
FLASH_DQ[0]
PIN_AF29
FLASH Data[0]
FLASH_DQ[1]
PIN_AE28
FLASH Data[1]
FLASH_DQ[2]
PIN_AE30
FLASH Data[2]
FLASH_DQ[3]
PIN_AD30
FLASH Data[3]
FLASH_DQ[4]
PIN_AC29
FLASH Data[4]
64
DE2-70 User Manual
FLASH_DQ[5]
PIN_AB29
FLASH Data[5]
FLASH_DQ[6]
PIN_AA29
FLASH Data[6]
FLASH_DQ[7]
PIN_Y28
FLASH Data[7]
FLASH_DQ[8]
PIN_AF30
FLASH Data[8]
FLASH_DQ[9]
PIN_AE29
FLASH Data[9]
FLASH_DQ[10]
PIN_AD29
FLASH Data[10]
FLASH_DQ[11]
PIN_AC28
FLASH Data[11]
FLASH_DQ[12]
PIN_AC30
FLASH Data[12]
FLASH_DQ[13]
PIN_AB30
FLASH Data[13]
FLASH_DQ[14]
PIN_AA30
FLASH Data[14]
FLASH_DQ15_AM1
PIN_AE24
FLASH Data[15]
FLASH_BYTE_N
PIN_Y29
FLASH Byte/Word Mode Configuration
FLASH_CE_N
PIN_AG28
FLASH Chip Enable
FLASH_OE_N
PIN_AG29
FLASH Output Enable
FLASH_RESET_N
PIN_AH28
FLASH Reset
FLASH_RY
PIN_AH30
LASH Ready/Busy output
FLASH_WE_N
PIN_AJ29
FLASH Write Enable
FLASH_WP_N
PIN_AH29
FLASH Write Protect /Programming Acceleration
Table 5.21. Flash pin assignments.
65
DE2-70 User Manual
Chapter 6
Examples of Advanced Demonstrations
This chapter provides a number of examples of advanced circuits implemented on the DE2-70
board. These circuits provide demonstrations of the major features on the board, such as its audio
and video capabilities, and USB and Ethernet connectivity. For each demonstration the Cyclone II
FPGA (or EPCS16 serial EEPROM) configuration file is provided, as well as the full source code in
Verilog HDL code. All of the associated files can be found in the DE2_70_demonstrations folder
from the DE2-70 System CD-ROM. For each of demonstrations described in the following
sections, we give the name of the project directory for its files, which are subdirectories of the
DE2-70_demonstrations folder.
Installing the Demonstrations
To install the demonstrations on your computer, perform the following
1. Copy the directory DE2_70_demonstrations into a local directory of your choice. It is
important to ensure that the path to your local directory contains no spaces –
otherwise, the Nios II software will not work.
6.1 DE2-70 Factory Configuration
The DE2-70 board is shipped from the factory with a default configuration that demonstrates some
of the basic features of the board. The setup required for this demonstration, and the locations of its
files are shown below.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions



Project directory: DE2_70_Default
Bit stream used: DE2_70_Default.sof or DE2_70_Default.pof
Power on the DE2-70 board, with the USB cable connected to the USB Blaster port. If
necessary (that is, if the default factory configuration of the DE2-70 board is not currently
stored in EPCS16 device), download the bit stream to the board by using either JTAG or AS
programming

You should now be able to observe that the 7-segment displays are displaying a sequence of
characters, and the red and green LEDs are flashing. Also, Welcome to the Altera DE2-70
is shown on the LCD display
66
DE2-70 User Manual

Optionally connect a VGA display to the VGA D-SUB connector. When connected, the
VGA display should show a pattern of colors


Optionally connect a powered speaker to the stereo audio-out jack
Place toggle switch SW17 in the UP position to hear a 1 kHz humming sound from the
audio-out port. Alternatively, if switch SW17 is DOWN, the microphone-in port can be
connected to a microphone to hear voice sounds, or the line-in port can be used to play audio
from an appropriate sound source
The Verilog source code for this demonstration is provided in the DE2_70_Default folder, which
also includes the necessary files for the corresponding Quartus II project. The top-level Verilog file,
called DE2_70_Default.v, can be used as a template for other projects, because it defines ports that
correspond to all of the user-accessible pins on the Cyclone II FPGA.
6.2 TV Box Demonstration
This demonstration plays video and audio input from a DVD player using the VGA output, audio
CODEC, and one TV decoder (U11) on the DE2-70 board. Figure 6.1 shows the block diagram of
the design. There are two major blocks in the circuit, called I2C_AV_Config and TV_to_VGA. The
TV_to_VGA block consists of the ITU-R 656 Decoder, SDRAM Frame Buffer, YUV422 to YUV444,
YCrCb to RGB, and VGA Controller. The figure also shows the TV Decoder (ADV7180) and the
VGA DAC (ADV7123) chips used.
As soon as the bit stream is downloaded into the FPGA, the register values of the TV Decoder chip
are used to configure the TV decoder via the I2C_AV_Config block, which uses the I2C protocol to
communicate with the TV Decoder chip. Following the power-on sequence, the TV Decoder chip
will be unstable for a time period; the Lock Detector is responsible for detecting this instability.
The ITU-R 656 Decoder block extracts YCrCb 4:2:2 (YUV 4:2:2) video signals from the ITU-R 656
data stream sent from the TV Decoder. It also generates a data valid control signal indicating the
valid period of data output. Because the video signal from the TV Decoder is interlaced, we need to
perform de-interlacing on the data source. We used the SDRAM Frame Buffer and a field selection
multiplexer(MUX) which is controled by the VGA controller to perform the de-interlacing operation.
Internally, the VGA Controller generates data request and odd/even selected signals to the SDRAM
Frame Buffer and filed selection multiplexer(MUX). The YUV422 to YUV444 block converts the
selected YCrCb 4:2:2 (YUV 4:2:2) video data to the YCrCb 4:4:4 (YUV 4:4:4) video data format.
Finally, the YCrCb_to_RGB block converts the YCrCb data into RGB output. The VGA Controller
block generates standard VGA sync signals VGA_HS and VGA_VS to enable the display on a VGA
67
DE2-70 User Manual
monitor.
ITU-R 656
Decoder
DLY0
DLY1
Locked
Detector
I2C_SCLK
I2C_SDAT
I2C_AV
Config
Request
VGA
Controller
To Control the
Initiation
Sequence
VGA_Y
YUV 4:2:2
TD_VS
Even
DLY2
MUX
TD_HS
Odd
Odd 4:2:2
TV
Decoder
7180
Data Valid
SDRAM
Frame
Buffer
Even 4:2:2
Initiation
Delay
Timer
YUV 4:2:2
YUV 4:2:2
To
YUV 4:4:4
RGB
VGA_HS
VGA_VS
VGA
DAC
7123
10-bit RGB
TD_DATA
YUV 4:2:2
YCbCr
To
RGB
Figure 6.1. Block diagram of the TV box demonstration.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions



Project directory: DE2_70_TV
Bit stream used: DE2_70_TV.sof or DE2_70_TV.pof
Connect a DVD player’s composite video output (yellow plug) to the Video-IN 1 RCA jack
(J8) of the DE2-70 board. The DVD player has to be configured to provide
o NTSC output
o 60 Hz refresh rate
o 4:3 aspect ratio
o Non-progressive video

Connect the VGA output of the DE2-70 board to a VGA monitor (both LCD and CRT type
of monitors should work)

Connect the audio output of the DVD player to the line-in port of the DE2-70 board and
connect a speaker to the line-out port. If the audio output jacks from the DVD player are of
RCA type, then an adaptor will be needed to convert to the mini-stereo plug supported on
the DE2-70 board; this is the same type of plug supported on most computers

Load the bit stream into FPGA. Press KEY0 on the DE2-70 board to reset the circuit
Figure 6.2 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
68
DE2-70 User Manual
Line Out
Speaker
Line In
VGA(LCD/CRT)Monitor
CVBS S-Video
YPbPr Output
Video In
Audio Output
VGA Out
DVD Player
ITU-R 656
YUV 4:2:2
Decoder
DE-interlace
Figure 6.2. The setup for the TV box demonstration.
6.3 TV Box Picture in Picture (PIP) Demonstration
The DE2-70 board has two TV decoders and RCA jacks that allow users to process two video
sources simultaneously using the 2C70 FPGA. This demonstration will multiplex two different
video source signals from the TV decoders and display both video signals on the LCD/CRT monitor
using picture in picture mode (PIP mode : One picture is displayed on the full screen and the other
picture is displayed in a small sub window). Also, users can select which video is displayed in
main/sub window via a toggle switch.
Figure 6.3 shows the basic block diagram of this demonstration. There are three major blocks in the
circuit, called Composite_to_VGA, PIP_Position_Controller, and VGA_Multiplexer. The
Composite_to_VGA block consists all of the function blocks in the TV box demonstration project
69
DE2-70 User Manual
described in the section 6.2. The Composite_to_VGA block takes the video signals from the TV
decoders as input and generate VGA-interfaced signals as output. The circuit in the FPGA is
equipped with two Composite_to_VGA blocks converting the video signals from the TV decoder 1
and TV decoder 2 respectively. To display two video signals in PIP mode on the LCD/CRT
monitor, the output VGA data rate of the Composite_to_VGA block for the sub window must be two
times as fast as the rate of the Composite_to_VGA block for the main window. In addition, the
output timing of the VGA interface signal from the Composite_to_VGA block is controlled by the
pip_position_controller block that determines the stating poison of the sub window. Finally, both of
the two VGA interfaced signals will be multiplexed and sent to the LCD/CRT monitor via the
VGA_multiplexer block.
Video in 1
or
Video in 2
TD data
TV decoder
(Sub window)
TD_clock
VGA data
Composite_to_
VGA
(Sub window)
PiP_position_
controller
Control
signal
TD_clock_
PLL
Video in 2
or
Video in 1
54Mhz
TD_clock
(27Mhz)
TV decoder
(Main window)
TD data
VGA DAC
VGA data(Sub)
VGA
data(Main)
Composite_to_
VGA
(Main window)
VGA data
VGA multiplexer
Figure 6.3. Block diagram of the TV PIP demonstration.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions



Project directory: DE2_70_TV_PIP
Bit stream used: DE2_70_TV_PIP.sof or DE2_70_TV_PIP.pof
Connect composite video output (yellow plug) of DVD player 1 and DVD player2 to the
Video-in 1 and Video-in 2 RCA jack (J8 and J9) of the DE2-70 board respectively. Both
DVD players must be configured to provide
o 60 Hz refresh rate
o 4:3 aspect ratio
o Non-progressive video

Connect the VGA output of the DE2-70 board to a VGA monitor (both LCD and CRT type
of monitors should work)

Connect the one audio output of the DVD player to the line-in port of the DE2-70 board and
connect a speaker to the line-out port. If the audio output jacks from the DVD player are of
70
DE2-70 User Manual
RCA type, then an adaptor will be needed to convert to the mini-stereo plug supported on
the DE2-70 board; this is the same type of plug supported on most computers


Load the bit stream into FPGA.
The detailed configuration for switching video source of main and sub window are listed in
Table 6.1.
Figure 6.4 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
VGA(LCD/CRT)Monitor
VGA Out
To
TV_to_VGA
PIP_Control
Figure 6.4. The setup for the TV box PIP demonstration.
Configuration
VGA Display Mode
SW[17] = OFF;
Signal display mode
71
Video source
Video in 2
DE2-70 User Manual
SW[16] = OFF
SW[17] = OFF;
Signal display mode
Video in 1
SW[16] = ON
SW[17] = ON;
Main window: Video in 2
PIP display mode
SW[16] = OFF
Sub window : Video in 1
SW[17] = ON;
Main window: Video in 1
PIP display mode
SW[16] = ON
Sub window : Video in 2
Table 6.1. The setup for the TV box PIP demonstration
6.4 USB Paintbrush
USB is a popular communication method used in many multimedia products. The DE2-70 board
provides a complete USB solution for both host and device applications. In this demonstration, we
implement a Paintbrush application by using a USB mouse as the input device.
This demonstration uses the device port of the Philips ISP1362 chip and the Nios II processor to
implement a USB mouse movement detector. We also implemented a video frame buffer with a
VGA controller to perform the real-time image storage and display. Figure 6.5 shows the block
diagram of the circuit, which allows the user to draw lines on the VGA display screen using the
USB mouse. The VGA Controller block is integrated into the Altera Avalon bus so that it can be
controlled by the Nios II processor.
Once the program running on the Nios II processor is started, it will detect the existence of the USB
mouse connected to DE2-70 board. Once the mouse is moved, the Nios II processor is able to keep
track of the movement and record it in a frame buffer memory. The VGA Controller will overlap the
data stored in the frame buffer with a default image pattern and display the overlapped image on the
VGA display.
72
DE2-70 User Manual
Philips
ISP1362
Host
Port
Nios II
CPU
USB
Mouse
Altera
System
Interconnect
Fabric
VGA
Controller
ADV7123
Frame
Buffer
Figure 6.5. Block diagram of the USB paintbrush demonstration.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions
Project directory: DE2_70_NIOS_HOST_MOUSE_VGA
Bit stream used: DE2_70_NIOS_HOST_MOUSE_VGA.sof
Nios II Workspace: DE2_70_NIOS_HOST_MOUSE_VGA\Software


Connect a USB Mouse to the USB Host Connector (type A) of the DE2-70 board
Connect the VGA output of the DE2-70 board to a VGA monitor (both LCD and CRT type
of monitors should work)


Load the bit stream into FPGA
Run the Nios II and choose DE2_70_NIOS_HOST_MOUSE_VGA as the workspace. Click
on the Compile and Run button

You should now be able to observe a blue background with an Altera logo on the VGA
display


Move the USB mouse and observe the corresponding movements of the cursor on the screen
Left-click mouse to draw white dots/lines and right-click the mouse to draw blue dots/lines
on the screen.
Figure 6.6 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
73
DE2-70 User Manual
VGA Monitor
USB
Driver
VGA
Controller IP
On-Chip Video
Frame Buffer
Figure 6.6. The setup for the USB paintbrush demonstration.
6.5 USB Device
Most USB applications and products operate as USB devices, rather than USB hosts. In this
demonstration, we show how the DE2-70 board can operate as a USB device that can be connected
to a host computer. As indicated in the block diagram in Figure 6.7, the Nios II processor is used to
communicate with the host computer via the host port on the DE2-70 board’s Philips ISP1362
device.
After connecting the DE2-70 board to a USB port on the host computer, a software program has to
be executed on the Nios II processor to initialize the Philips ISP1362 chip. Once the software
program is successfully executed, the host computer will identify the new device in its USB device
list and ask for the associated driver; the device will be identified as a Philips PDIUSBD12 SMART
Evaluation Board. After completion of the driver installation on the host computer, the next step is
to run a software program on the host computer called ISP1362DcUsb.exe; this program
communicates with the DE2-70 board.
In the ISP1362DcUsb program, clicking on the Add button in the window panel of the software
causes the host computer to send a particular USB packet to the DE2-70 board; the packet will be
received by the Nios II processor and will increment the value of a hardware counter. The value of
the counter is displayed on one of the board’s 7-segment displays, and also on the green LEDs. If
74
DE2-70 User Manual
the user clicks on the Clear button in the window panel of the software driver, the host computer
sends a different USB packet to the board, which causes the Nios II processor to clear the hardware
counter to zero.
Figure 6.7. Block diagram of the USB device demonstration.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions








Project directory: DE2_70_NIOS_DEVICE_LED\HW
Bit stream used: DE2_70_NIOS_DEVICE_LED.sof
Nios II Workspace: DE2_70_NIOS_DEVICE_LED\HW\Software
Borland BC++ Software Driver: DE2_70_NIOS_DEVICE_LED\SW
Connect the USB Device connector of the DE2-70 board to the host computer using a USB
cable (type A  B).
Load the bit stream into FPGA
Run Nios II IDE with HW as the workspace. Click on Compile and Run
A new USB hardware device will be detected. Specify the location of the driver as
DE2_70_NIOS_DEVICE_LED\D12test.inf (Philips PDIUSBD12 SMART Evaluation
Board). Ignore any warning messages produced during installation

The host computer should report that a Philips PDIUSBD12 SMART Evaluation Board is
now installed

Execute the software: DE2_70_NIOS_DEVICE_LED\SW\ISP1362DcUsb.exe on the host
computer. Then, experiment with the software by clicking on the ADD and Clear buttons
Figure 6.8 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
75
DE2-70 User Manual
PC
USB
Driver
7-SEG
Control
Accumulator
Figure 6.8. The setup for the USB device demonstration.
6.6 A Karaoke Machine
This demonstration uses the microphone-in, line-in, and line-out ports on the DE2-70 board to
create a Karaoke Machine application. The Wolfson WM8731 audio CODEC is configured in the
master mode, where the audio CODEC generates AD/DA serial bit clock (BCK) and the left/right
channel clock (LRCK) automatically. As indicated in Figure 6.9, the I2C interface is used to
configure the Audio CODEC. The sample rate and gain of the CODEC are set in this manner, and
the data input from the line-in port is then mixed with the microphone-in port and the result is sent
to the line-out port.
For this demonstration the sample rate is set to 48 kHz. Pressing the pushbutton KEY0 reconfigures
the gain of the audio CODEC via the I2C bus, cycling through one of the ten predefined gains
(volume levels) provided by the device.
76
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 6.9. Block diagram of the Karaoke Machine demonstration.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions




Project directory: DE2-70_i2sound
Bit stream used: DE2-70_i2sound.sof or DE2-70_i2sound.pof
Connect a microphone to the microphone-in port (pink color) on the DE2-70 board
Connect the audio output of a music-player, such as an MP3 player or computer, to the
line-in port (blue color) on the DE2-70 board



Connect a headset/speaker to the line-out port (green color) on the DE2-70 board
Load the bit stream into the FPGA
You should be able to hear a mixture of the microphone sound and the sound from the music
player

Press KEY0 to adjust the volume; it cycles between volume levels 0 to 9
Figure 6.10 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
77
DE2-70 User Manual
MP3/Any Audio Output
Speaker
Microphone
Clock/Data
Frequency
Generator
Figure 6.10. The setup for the Karaoke Machine.
6.7 Ethernet Packet Sending/Receiving
In this demonstration, we will show how to send and receive Ethernet packets using the Fast
Ethernet controller on DE2-70 board. As illustrated in Figure 6.11, we use the Nios II processor to
send and receive Ethernet packets using the DM9000A Ethernet PHY/MAC Controller. The
demonstration can be set up to use either a loop-back connection from one board to itself, or two
DE2-70 boards connected together.
On the transmitting side, the Nios II processor sends 64-byte packets every 0.5 seconds to the
DM9000A. After receiving the packet, the DM9000A appends a four-byte checksum to the packet
and sends it to the Ethernet port.
On the receiving side, the DM9000A checks every packet received to see if the destination MAC
78
DE2-70 User Manual
address in the packet is identical to the MAC address of the DE2-70 board. If the packet received
does have the same MAC address or is a broadcast packet, the DM9000A will accept the packet and
send an interrupt to the Nios II processor. The processor will then display the packet contents in the
Nios II IDE console window.
Figure 6.11. Packet sending and receiving using the Nios II processor.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions








Project directory: DE2_70_NET
Bit stream used: DE2_70_NET.sof
Nios II Workspace: DE2_70_NET\Software
Plug a CAT5 loop-back cable into the Ethernet connector of DE2-70
Load the bit stream into the FPGA
Run the Nios II IDE under the workspace DE2_70_NET
Click on the Compile and Run button
You should now be able to observe the contents of the packets received (64-byte packets
sent, 68-byte packets received because of the extra checksum bytes)
Figure 6.12 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
79
DE2-70 User Manual
10/100Mbps
CAT 5 Cable
Loopback
Device
Ethernet
Driver
Figure 6.12. The setup for the Ethernet demonstration.
6.8 SD Card Music Player
Many commercial media/audio players use a large external storage device, such as an SD card or
CF card, to store music or video files. Such players may also include high-quality DAC devices so
that good audio quality can be produced. The DE2-70 board provides the hardware and software
needed for SD card access and professional audio performance so that it is possible to design
advanced multimedia products using the DE2-70 board.
In this demonstration we show how to implement an SD Card Music Player on the DE2-70 board,
in which the music files are stored in an SD card and the board can play the music files via its
CD-quality audio DAC circuits. We use the Nios II processor to read the music data stored in the
SD Card and use the Wolfson WM8731 audio CODEC to play the music.
80
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 6.13 shows the hardware block diagram of this demonstration. The system requires a 50
MHZ clock provided from the board. The PLL generates a 100-MHZ clock for NIOS II processor
and the other controllers except for the audio controller. The audio chip is controlled by the Audio
Controller which is a user-defined SOPC component. This audio controller needs an input clock
running at 18.432 MHZ. In this design, the clock is provided by the PLL block. The audio controller
requires the audio chip working in master mode, so the serial bit (BCK) and the left/right channel
clock (LRCK) are provided by the audio chip. The 7-segment display is controlled by the Seg-7
Controller which also is a user-defined SOPC component. Two PIO pins are connected to the I2C
bus. The I2C protocol is implemented by software. Four PIO pins are connected to the SD CARD
socket. SD 1-Bit Mode is used to access the SD card and is implemented by software. All of the
other SOPC components in the block diagram are SOPC Builder built-in components.
Figure 6.13. Block diagram of the SD music player demonstration.
Figure 6.14 shows the software stack of this demonstration. SD 1-Bit Mod block implements the
SD 1-bit mode protocol for reading raw data from the SD card. The FAT16 block implements
FAT16 file system for reading wave files that stored in the SD card. In this block, only read function
is implemented. The WAVE Lib block implements WAVE file decoding function for receiving
audio signal from wave files. The I2C block implements I2C protocol for configuring audio chip.
The SEG7 block implements displaying function for display elapsed playing time. The Audio block
implements audio FIFO checking function and audio signal sending/receiving function.
81
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 6.14.
Software Stack of the SD music player demonstration.
The audio chip should be configured before sending audio signal to the audio chip. The main
program uses I2C protocol to configure the audio chip working in master mode, the audio interface
as I2S with 16-bits per channel, and sampling rate according to the wave file content. In audio
playing loop, the main program reads 512-byte audio data from the SD card, and then writes the
data to DAC FIFO in the Audio Controller. Before writing the data to the FIFO, the program have
to make sure the FIFO is not full. The design also mixes the audio signal from the microphone-in
and line-in for the Karaoke-style effects by enabling the BYPASS and SITETONE functions in the
audio chip.
Finally, users can obtain the status of the SD music player from the 2x16-LCD module, the 7
segment display and the LEDs. The top and bottom row of the LCD module will display the file
name of the music that is playing on the DE2-70 board and the value of music volume, respectively.
The 7 segments display will show how long the music file has been played. The LED will indicate
the audio signal strength.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions





Project directory: DE2_70_SD_Card_Audio_Player
Bit stream used: DE2_70_SD_Card_Audio_Player.sof
Nios II Workspace: DE2_70_SD_Card_Audio_Player\Software
Format your SD card into FAT16 format
Put the played wave files to the root directory of the SD card. The provided wave files must
have a sample rate of either 96K, 48K, 44.1K, 32K, or 8K. Besides, the wave files must be
stereo and 16 bits per channel. Also, the file name must be short filename.



Load the bitstream into the FPGA on the DE2-70 board.
Run the Nios II IDE under the workspace DE2_70_SD_Card_Audio_Playe\Software
Connect a headset or speaker to the DE2-70 board and you should be able to hear the music
played from the SD Card
82
DE2-70 User Manual
 Press KEY3 on the DE2-70 board can play the next music file stored in the SD card.
 Press KEY2 and KEY1 will increase and decrease the output music volume respectively.
.
Figure 6.16 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
Speaker
Lock
SD Card
Driver
SD Card
with music fils(wav)
Audio CODEC
Controller
On-Chip
Audio
PCM Buffer
Figure 6.16. The setup for the SD music player demonstration.
6.9 Music Synthesizer Demonstration
This demonstration shows how to implement a Multi-tone Electronic Keyboard using DE2-70
board with a PS/2 Keyboard and a speaker.
PS/2 Keyboard is used as the piano keyboard for input. The Cyclone II FPGA on the DE2-70 board
serves as the Music Synthesizer SOC to generate music and tones. The VGA connected to the
DE2-70 board is used to show which key is pressed during the playing of the music.
83
DE2-70 User Manual
Figure 6.15 shows the block diagram of the design of the Music Synthesizer. There are four major
blocks in the circuit: DEMO_SOUND, PS2_KEYBOARD, STAFF, and TONE_GENERATOR. The
DEMO_SOUND block stores a demo sound for user to play; PS2_KEYBOARD handles the users’
input from PS/2 keyboard; The STAFF block draws the corresponding keyboard diagram on VGA
monitor when key(s) are pressed. The TONE_GENERATOR is the core of music synthesizer SOC.
User can switch the music source either from PS2_KEYBOAD or the DEMO_SOUND block using
SW9. To repeat the demo sound, users can press KEY1.
The TONE_GENERATOR has two tones: (1) String. (2) Brass, which can be controlled by SW0.
The audio codec used on the DE2-70 board has two channels, which can be turned ON/OFF using
SW1 and SW2.
Figure 6.17 illustrates the setup for this demonstration.
Figure 6.17.
Block diagram of the Music Synthesizer design
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions

Project directory: DE2_70_Synthesizer
84
DE2-70 User Manual



Bit stream used: DE2_70_Synthesizer.sof or DE2-70_Synthesizer.pof
Connect a PS/2 Keyboard to the DE2-70 board.
Connect the VGA output of the DE2-70 board to a VGA monitor (both LCD and CRT type
of monitors should work)





Connect the Lineout of the DE2-70 board to a speaker.
Load the bit stream into FPGA.
Make sure all the switches (SW[9:0]) are set to 0 (Down Position)
Press KEY1 on the DE2-70 board to start the music demo
Press KEY0 on the DE2-70 board to reset the circuit
Table 6.2 and 6.3 illustrate the usage of the switches, pushbuttons (KEYs), PS/2 Keyboard.

Switches and Pushbuttons
Signal Name
Description
KEY[0]
Reset Circuit
KEY[1]
Repeat the Demo Music
SW[0]
OFF: BRASS, ON: STRING
SW[9]
OFF: DEMO, ON: PS2 KEYBOARD
SW[1]
Channel-1 ON / OFF
SW[2]
Channel-2 ON / OFF
Table 6.2. Usage of the switches, pushbuttons (KEYs).

PS/2 Keyboard
Signal Name
Description
Q
-#4
A
-5
W
-#5
S
-6
E
-#6
D
-7
F
1
T
#1
G
2
Y
#2
H
3
J
4
85
DE2-70 User Manual
I
#4
K
5
O
#5
L
6
P
#6
:
7
“
+1
Table 6.3. Usage of the PS/2 Keyboard’s keys.
C D E F G A
B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B
Line Out
VGA(LCD/CRT)Monitor
Speaker
VGA Out
Keyboard Input
Keyboard
Music
Synthesizer
Algorithms
for Audio
Processing
Figure 6.16. The Setup of the Music Synthesizer Demonstration.
86
DE2-70 User Manual
6.10 Audio Recording and Playing
This demonstration shows how to implement an audio recorder and player using the DE2-70 board
with the built-in Audio CODEC chip. This demonstration is developed based on SOPC Builder and
NIOS II IDE.
Figure 6.18 shows the man-machine interface of this demonstration. Two push buttons and six
toggle switches are used for users to configure this audio system: SW0 is used to specify recording
source to be Line-in or MIC-In. SW1 is to enable/disable MIC Boost when the recoding source is
MIC-In. SW2 is used to enable/disable Zero-Cross Detection for audio playing. SW3, SW4 and
SW5 are used to specify recording sample rate as 96K, 48K, 44.1K, 32K, or 8K. The 16x2 LCD is
used to indicate the Recording/Playing status. The seg7 is used to display Recording/Playing
duration with time unit in 1/100 second. The LED is used to indicate the audio signal strength.
Table 6.4 summarizes the usage of toggle switches for configuring the audio recorder and player.
Record/Play Status
Record/Play Duration
Signal Strength
Play
Record
Sample rate
Audio Source
MIC Boost
Zero-Cross Detect
Figure 6.18.
Man-Machine Interface of Audio Recorder and Player.
Figure 6.19 shows the block diagram of the design of the Audio Recorder and Player. There are
hardware part and software part in the block diagram. The software part means the Nios II program
that stored in SSRAM. The software part is built by Nios II IDE in C programming language. The
87
DE2-70 User Manual
hardware part is built by SOPC Builder under Quartus II. The hardware part includes all the other
blocks. The “AUDIO Controller” is a user-defined SOPC component. It is designed to send audio
data to the audio chip or receive audio data from the audio chip.
The audio chip is programmed through I2C protocol which is implemented in C code. The I2C pin
from audio chip is connected to SOPC System Interconnect Fabric through PIO controllers. In this
example, the audio chip is configured in Master Mode. The audio interface is configured as I2S and
16-bit mode. A 18.432MHz clock generated by the PLL is connected to the XTI/MCLK pin of the
audio chip through the AUDIO Controller.
SOPC
50M Hz
RESE_N
NIOS II
Clock
to
SDRAM
SRAM
PLL
Figure 6.19.
System Interconnect Fabric
JTAG
UART
SDRAM
Controller
SDRAM
SRAM
Controller
SRAM
PIO
LED/KEY/SW/I2C
LCD
Controller
LCD
SEG7
Controller
SEG7
AUDIO
Controller
AUDIO
Store
Audio
Data
Nios II
Program
Block diagram of the audio recorder and player.
Demonstration Setup, File Locations, and Instructions








Hardware Project directory: DE2_70_AUDIO
Bit stream used: DE2P_TOP.sof
Software Project directory: DE2_70_AUDIO\software\project_audio
Software Execution File: DE2_70_AUDIO\software\project_auido\audio\debug\audio.elf
Connect an Audio Source to the LINE-IN port of the DE2-70 board.
Connect a Microphone to MIC-IN port on the DE2-70 board.
Connect a speaker or headset to LINE-OUT port on the DE2-70 board.
Load the bit stream into FPGA. (note *1)
88
DE2-70 User Manual




Load the Software Execution File into FPGA. (note *1)
Configure audio with the toggle switches.
Press KEY3 on the DE2-70 board to start/stop audio recoding (note *2)
Press KEY2 on the DE2-70 board to start/stop audio playing (note *3)
Note:
(1). Execute DE2_70_AUDIO\demo batch\audio.bat will download .sof and .elf files.
(2). Recording process will stop if audio buffer is full.
(3). Playing process will stop if audio data is played completely.
Toggle Switches
0 – DOWN Position
1 – UP Position
SW0
Audio is from MIC
Audio is from LINE-IN
SW1
Disable MIC Boost
Enable MIC Boost
SW2
Disable Zero-cross Detection
Enable Zero-cross Detection
SW5
SW4
SW3
(0 – DOWN;
(0 – DOWN;
(0 – DOWN;
1- UP)
1-UP)
1-UP)
0
0
0
96K
0
0
1
48K
0
1
0
44.1K
0
1
1
32K
1
0
0
8K
Unlisted combination
Sample Rate
96K
Table 6.4. Toggle switch setting for audio recorder and player.
89
DE2-70 User Manual
Chapter 7
Appendix
7.1 Revision History
Version
Change Log
V1.0
Initial Version (Preliminary)
V1.01
1. Add appendix chapter.
2. Modify Chapter 2,3,4,5,6.
V1.02
Modify Figure 6.8
V1.03
Modify clock frequency of the VGA DAC
V1.04
Modify Section 5.4
7.2 Copyright Statement
Copyright © 2008 Terasic Technologies. All rights reserved.
90