Tools of the Trade - Crescent Hardwood Supply

Tools of the Trade - Crescent Hardwood Supply
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
TOOLS OF
THE TRADE
WHAT CONTRACTORS NEED FOR HARDWOOD FLOORING
INSTALLATION, SANDING AND FINISHING
Introduction:
A Tour of the Trade’s Tools
B
ecoming a hardwood flooring contractor
requires more than a truck, an answering
machine and a business card. Professional
floor mechanics must also be equipped with tools.
But, which tools? For what purposes? This publication is intended to walk a contractor through the
tools needed on the jobsite.
Setting yourself up with the tools required to install,
sand and finish a floor, from start to finish, is no small
task. True, you can opt to rent some pieces, but most
professionals prefer to purchase their own high-quality
tools, renting only infrequently used items. Contractors
who consistently rent equipment are spending money
that could go toward their own new equipment. Moreover, rental equipment often is noticeably used and
may have improper settings from the previous rental.
Thus, owning one’s equipment is the best option. Most
quality distributors have lease/purchase plans available to help spread out the cost.
The range of tools for the hardwood flooring trade is
considerable. The equipment list runs far beyond nailing and sanding machines; indeed, it seems every step
of the process demands a unique tool. There are edgers
and disc polishers. There are saws — scrollsaws, jigsaws, handsaws, table saws, band saws, jamb saws,
portable electric saws, miter saws and radial saws.
There are specialty tools — routers, nail sets, scrapers,
tape applicators, files, planes, and power boosters.
Even within a tool category, there are choices. A
pinless moisture meter or probe moisture meter?
Manual nailer or pneumatic nailer? Belt sander or
drum sander? Finding the kind of tools you are most
comfortable with — through on-the-job experience,
and maybe even trying them out at a National Wood
Flooring Association training seminar — is a starting
point for building your inventory. Also, your distributor is an excellent resource and starting point for
learning about various tools and products. Distributors often work with manufacturers to educate contractors through “demo days” or workshops. Consult
your local distributor for more information.
Safety first
One of the most important tools any contractor has
is his own common sense. Safety on the job is a foremost concern for contractors, because accidents
with power tools can be critical, even disabling or
deadly. No amount of experience or expertise
exempts you from the safety risks inherent in using
the tools required to install wood floors.
The good news is: These risks are easily managed.
Start with these general guidelines:
✱ Never work when you are tired.
✱ Never work under the influence of alcohol, drugs
or medications.
✱ Work when others are nearby, if possible.
✱ Do not work on a cluttered floor.
✱ Use proper lighting and ventilation.
✱ Make sure that the electrical power and wiring at the
jobsite is sufficient to operate all machines safely.
✱ Know your insurance company’s policy on cover-
Safety first: Operating any tool involves understanding
the manufacturer’s guidelines.
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
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NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
age related to accidents or other jobsite situations.
✱ Wear proper work clothing and shoes. Do not
wear loose clothing that could get caught in a
machine.
✱ Wear approved hearing protection and dust and
fume respirators.
✱ Read and fully understand the owner’s manuals
that are supplied with the equipment.
✱ Use tools only as intended.
✱ Use all tool and machine safety guards.
✱ Turn off and unplug electrical tools and machines
when making adjustments and attaching accessories.
✱ Turn off all sources of ignition (furnace, hot water, etc.)
when using flammables (finishes, sealers, fillers, etc.).
✱ Use ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) on
electric tools to avoid electric shock.
✱ Keep all your electric cords in good condition.
✱ Carry and read MSDS (Material Safety Data
Sheets) for all products.
This manual is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the tools for hardwood flooring installation. It discusses the specific tools and materials
required, how they function, how they’re used in the
trade, and general safety and maintenance issues
related to each.
It should be noted here that this manual is not
intended to teach you how to use these tools — for
this you must consult the owner’s manual and get
proper education to operate each tool and understand its warnings. Nor is this an attempt to teach
the installation of wood flooring. That is best done
through the national and regional seminars offered
by NOFMA (National Oak Flooring Manufacturers
Association) and the NWFA. Tools of the Trade
should help you determine if you have all of the tools
necessary to get started or improve your existing
business.
Creating A Safe
Working Environment
T
he professional floor mechanic arrives at the
jobsite with more than just heavy hardware:
He or she has protective wear, too, all with eye,
ear and respiratory safety in mind. Outfitting for the
job means outfitting for safety, with protective
glasses or goggles, dust and vapor respirators for
respiratory protection and ear plugs or ear muffs for
hearing protection.
Here is a look at each of the safety precautions:
Eye protection
Job sites are rife with opportunities for eye injury.
These injuries happen literally in the blink of an eye
— in the time it takes a piece of wood or metal, or a
drop of finishing material to fly from the work area to
your face — and range from minor injuries to permanent disabilities. Adopting a habit of always wearing
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TECHNICAL
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eye protection, either glasses, goggles or a face
shield, greatly reduces the risk of eye injury.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) regulations require eye protection when using most
power tools.
Glasses: Glasses should meet performance standards set by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), called ANSI Z87.1-1989 or Canadian
code CSA Z94.3.
Many of today’s safety glasses resemble athletic
fashion eye wear more than “Buddy Holly” glasses.
Safety eye wear catalogs are jammed with styles and
color choices; it should be easy to find a pair that fits
well and looks good, and is light and comfortable
enough to wear all day. Normal glasses or contact
lenses do not qualify as protective eyewear.
Goggles: Goggles are best for some conditions:
Polycarbonate lenses in goggles, safety glasses and
face shields all have the same impact resistance. But
goggles seal off the eye socket more effectively than
either spectacles or face shields, and because they fit
tightly against the face all the way around, they distribute impact force more evenly. Even though face
shields and glasses are available with brow guards
that keep out material from above, they don’t offer
the same level of protection that goggles do.
Hardened glass was once the material of choice
for safety eye wear, and is still available. However,
plastics (principally polycarbonate) a tremendously
resilient material, are now more widely used.
Although plastic resists impact better, hardened
glasses may still be the right choice if materials at
the job site are harmful to plastics.
Hearing protection
If you have to shout to be heard, the noise level is
probably more than 90 decibels, and you need hearing protection. Prolonged exposure to these sound
levels can result in hearing loss. There are too many
flooring contractors who never knew about audio
hazards when they started in this business. They
now have 30 to 70 percent loss of hearing, and some
of them are only in their 30s.
The most effective way to combat high noise levels
— and the only one for most in the construction
trades — is to use ear protection. Unfortunately,
wads of cotton offer little or no actual hearing protection. You will need legitimate ear plugs or ear muffs.
Ear plugs: Earplugs are effective and inexpensive,
and come in two forms: foam inserts and premolded
plugs. Premolded plugs are reusable, flanged plugs
that are simply inserted into the ear. Foam inserts
are rolled and compressed into tiny cylinders that,
once inserted, slowly expand to provide a custom fit.
Earplugs should be cleaned with soap and water
after use, and most plugs should be discarded after
several uses.
Ear muffs: Ear muffs are bulkier than other alternatives, but they can be as effective as foam inserts.
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
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too, that dust from some wood species have been
known to affect wood workers.
For the proper respiratory protection to wear
when applying finish. always refer to the finish
manufacturer’s Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS). Most require use of an organic vapor respirator, with the appropriate cartridge inserted.
Muffs consist of dome-shaped protectors that fit over
the external ear; they keep out sound with a cushion
or pad sealing them against the head. Sony Walkman® headphones and similar devices are not considered ear protection.
Respiratory protection
Respiratory protection is needed when sanding, as
well as when applying finish.
Wood dust is widely recognized as a potential
health hazard. Dust and chips are most likely to
directly affect your eyes, skin and respiratory system. Glasses or goggles can protect you against flying debris, but won’t prevent dust from settling on
your skin or in your lungs.
Sensitivity to dust varies from person to person. It
can cause irritation of the upper respiratory tract,
inflammation of the nasal tract, tightness of the
chest, shortness of breath, dizziness, asthma and
mucosal irritations.
The adverse effects of dust can be partially dealt
with by keeping the work area as clean as possible,
and ensuring proper ventilation. Full protection,
however, requires the use of a dust respirator.
Dust respirators range from simple disposable
types to more sophisticated models with replaceable
filter cartridges. Wearing any dust respirator is a vast
improvement on wearing none at all. Remember,
Knee pads
Much of the work in installing flooring is executed
close to the ground. That is, you will be spending a
fair amount of time on your knees. Knee pads will
ease the related strain and pain. On nail-down
installations, avoid hard plastic versions that will
damage the floor. “Hard” pads can “burnish” a
freshly sanded floor and cause shiny spots. Instead,
look for contractor-grade pad that are adjustable
and fit well, with soft non-marring outer surfaces.
Work shoes
Shoes are as much a safety feature as goggles and a
dust respirator. Athletic shoes won’t do the job of
protecting your toes and feet in case something is
dropped. Cleated shoes should never be worn on
prefinished wood floors.
MATERIALS LIST FOR THE VEHICLE
Here are the recommended items for carrying to the jobsite in your van:
Maps
Notebook
Change order cards/color signoff sheets
Fire extinguisher
First aid kit
MSDS/DOT sheets
Moldings, 3⁄4-inch and 1⁄ 2-inch
Wood filler/putty/floor patch
Extra abrasives
Tape and masking materials
Steel wool or pads
Slip tongues/splines
Shingles/shims
Felt paper
Trowels
Mastic/glue/adhesives
Stain
Finishes (as ordinances or OSHA allow)
Applicators, brushes, rags
Approved container for soiled rags
Installation
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Sanding
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Finishing
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Note: Stains, finishes, applicators and soiled rags should only be transported — never stored in the vehicle.
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WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
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TOOLS CHECKLIST
Here is a basic list of tools to outfit the professional flooring contractor. Some
may be supplied by the company, others you may have to supply yourself.
Installation
Eye protection
■
Knee pads
■
Respirator
■
Ear plugs
■
Moisture meter
■
Nailing machines
■
Assorted nails, cleats, pins
■
Air tank, hoses and fittings
■
Jig saw
■
Band saw
■
Reciprocating saw
■
Table saw
■
Hand saw
■
Jamb saw
■
Circular saw
■
Miter box with saw
■
Chalk line
■
Staplers
■
Squares
■
Level/straight-edge
■
Compass and protractor
■
Scrapers, blades and files
■
Pry bar
■
Drills and bits
■
Router and bits
■
Hammers
■
Chisels
■
Nail sets
■
Pliers and wrenches
■
Nail pullers
■
Screwdrivers
■
Rule or tape
■
Block plane
■
Utility knife
■
Electric tester
■
Keel or crayon
■
Fans
■
Brooms
■
Drop cord light
■
General purpose oil (non-detergent
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for pneumatic tools)
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Extension cord, adequate length, grounded
■
Electric plugs, adapters
■
Electrical tape
■
Vacuum cleaner
■
Plastic bags for waste
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Sanders
Edgers
Oscillating sanders
Buffers
Sander cords
Sander bags
Applicators, brushes
Trowels
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NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
Moisture Meters
M
Operation
There are two main types of moisture meters. Probe
types have small probes or pins that need to be
inserted into the material to determine moisture content. Pinless meters require no penetration of the
material. The two types of meters measure different
properties to determine moisture content.
Probe-type moisture meters: The probe device measures electrical resistance across the two or more small
pins, which are inserted into the wood. The higher the
moisture content, the lower the resistance and thus
the greater current flow and higher content reading.
9.0
oisture meters are portable electric or electronic devices that measure the amount of
moisture in wood flooring and subfloors;
some will even measure moisture in concrete. Determining moisture content levels is crucial to quality
control in the flooring installation process. Excess
moisture in the flooring lumber, subfloor or concrete
slab in particular will have adverse effects on the
installed flooring, both short and long-term. Moisture meters are therefore an essential tool for every
professional floor mechanic.
Wood is constantly gaining and releasing moisture to and from the surrounding air. As it does so,
its shape and size is likely to change slightly. When
dried wood reaches a level of balance with its surrounding atmosphere — that is, it is neither taking
in or giving off moisture — it has reached its equilibrium moisture content, or EMC. Moisture content is
expressed as percentage of the wood’s dry weight.
Six percent moisture content means that 6 percent
of the board’s dry weight is water.
Although it varies slightly with relative humidity,
an optimal moisture content is between 6 and 9 percent for most areas of North America. Before
installing, the wood flooring’s moisture content
should be at the level expected under normal living
conditions, and the difference between the moisture
contents of the wood flooring and the subfloor
should be no more than 4 percentage points. In
other words, if the average EMC for the wood is 9
percent, the subfloor should be no more than 13
percent.
Moisture meters can also be used to assess water
damage, and to determine when subsequent coats of
finish can be applied. Readings should be taken in
several locations on the floor rather than just a single one. For more information on the effects of moisture on wood flooring, consult Water and Wood: How
Moisture Affects Wood Flooring, publication A100 in
this series. Contact the National Wood Flooring Association, 233 Old Meramec Station Road, Manchester,
MO 63021. The toll-free number in the United States
is 800/422-4556. In Canada it’s 800/848-8824.
Local and international call 314/391-5161.
A probe-type moisture meter
Probe-type meters are fast and easy to use, and
are offered with different measurement indicators:
some units have L.E.D. display lights indicating different moisture levels, while other units have analog
or digital displays and some allow the use of different probes for an assortment of pin sizes.
Some meters also have insulated pins, which
allows testing for moisture content at specific depths
within the wood.
Pins should be inserted as fully as possible, in
line with the grain. With moisture content levels
below 10 percent, minimal insertion or mere contact
with the wood may be enough: Consult the meter’s
manufacturer for details.
Pinless moisture meters: The pinless models are
also referred to as “non-destructive” moisture
meters, because they don’t leave any small holes in
the wood. Pinless meters work by transmitting lowfrequency signals from rubber electrodes at the base
of the instrument into the wood, measuring an area
beneath the footprint of the meter. Instruments are
calibrated to translate this measurement into moisture content by weight, which is displayed on the
analog or digital dial.
Signal penetration may be up to one inch deep for
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
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NATIONAL
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PUBLICATION
No.
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Saws
W
A pinless moisture meter
both hardwood and softwood. The meter can be used
to identify pockets of moisture in a wood block or
plank. Measurements can also be taken through
coatings without damage to the surface.
Options
The best moisture meter for your toolbox is one that
combines accuracy with flexibility of use and the features you need. Here are some of the available features to consider:
• A built-in thermo-hygrometer to measure ambient
temperature and relative humidity.
• The capability to measure a wide moisture content range, from at least 5 to 30 percent.
• The ability to take readings from concrete.
• The necessary adjustment tables for various
species.
• An easily readable indicator.
• On probed meters, the ability to use external
probes, and a selection of pin sizes.
• A carrying case.
Be aware, however, that no meter offers all these
features.
hen selecting a saw, it’s best to keep in
mind that a saw is only as good as its
blade. The blade must be sharp enough to
do the job, but it must also be the right type for the
work. The teeth on blades designed for ripping wood
(cutting with the direction of the grain) are angled for
a more aggressive cut. Blades designed for crosscutting (cutting across the grain) have a less aggressive
tooth design.
Saw blades are available in steel, carbide and diamond-toothed designs. Carbide lasts longer than
steel, and diamond lasts longer than carbide, but as
blade materials get harder, cuts become less “clean.”
In many situations, the extra blade life may justify
giving a little on the quality of cut. But in some
instances, a clean cut may be most important.
Hand saws
Hand saws make quick work of
small sawing jobs, and
cut down on jobsite noise and
dust. They are
practical and affordable, and are a worthy complement to a floor mechanic’s fleet of power saws. Some
of the available types:
Standard hand crosscut and rip saws: For basic
straight cuts.
Backsaws: A shorter, fine-toothed saw, commonly
used with miter boxes. The blade on a backsaw is
supported by a U-shaped band of metal, which is
also used as a guide for miter boxes.
Coping saws: Used for fine, intricate cuts, as well
as curved or circular cuts. Their thin blades are held
by a high arched back with a handle.
Hacksaws and mini-hacksaws: Similar to coping
saws, with longer, deeper fine-toothed blades and
less back clearance, though not usually used on
wood. They are more effective in cutting metals and
plastics.
Jamb saws: Have an offset handle that allows the
saws to be used for undercutting door jambs.
Power saws
There are three basic types of power saws: circular
saws, reciprocating-type saws, and band saws. All
are highly productive, and are available in different
configurations for different jobs.
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© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
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Circular power saws
Band saws
Circular saws are basically an electric motor with a
circular blade attached to its arbor. Their forte is
making fast, straight cuts. Blades range from less
than five to more than eight inches in diameter, and
feature tooth designs for many kinds of materials —
hardwood, softwood, plywood, oriented strand board
(OSB), even masonry and tile. The blade angle, or
tilt, is usually adjustable. Different horsepower ratings abound, but remember: The higher the power,
the heavier the saw. Portable circular saws cut from
the bottom, so for the best quality cuts, keep the face
of the board down. The following saws, however, cut
from the top down, so keep the face of the board up
when making cuts.
Power miter saws: A circular saw in a miter box,
used for angle cutting of molding and trim. Compound miter saws incorporate blade tilt. With plunging miter saws, the blade and motor pivot from a
point behind the fence, allowing the blade to be lowered for quick, precise cuts.
Jamb saws: A saw with the blade mounted horizontally. The blade “height” is adjustable relative to
the shroud/base of the unit. Jamb saws are particularly useful for sawing off baseboards and door
jambs and casings to allow flooring to be slipped
underneath. This can assist in allowing for expansion of flooring.
Radial arm saws: A base-mounted circular saw
that travels on an overhead arm across the cutting
area. Most models allow for swinging, tilting, raising
and lowering motions to adjust the cutting direction.
Table saws: A stationary circular saw that cuts
up from under a table. Blade height and angle is
adjustable on most models. Precision rip cuts are
made by adjusting a guide fence to the desired
width. Crosscutting is accomplished by guiding
pieces past the blade with the miter gauge, which
can be adjusted for cuts of different angles.
Band saws cut with an endless band blade traveling
around an upper and a lower wheel. They are capable of high-production guided cuts, resawing (cutting
thinner boards from one thick one), and freehand
scrolling cuts, when equipped with a fine blade. They
work extremely well on parquet floors.
Band saws cut down, so saw with the face of the
board up.
Reciprocating-type saws
Saber saws, reciprocating saws and scroll saws all
operate on the same principle: a small, straight blade
that moves in an up-and-down or back-and-forth
motion. These saws cut in one direction – up – so cut
with the face of the board down.
Saber/jig saws: A reciprocating-type saw, this is
used vertically for intricate and scrolling cuts at slow
speeds.
Reciprocating saws: A larger, more powerful version
of the saber saw. It’s often used for removing flooring
and joists, or sawing through walls and ceilings.
Scroll saws: A table-mounted reciprocating-type
saw, also used for odd-shaped cuts.
Safety considerations
Saws may be the most dangerous tool you will use.
Always follow these guidelines when operating any
kind of saw:
✱ Read and understand the warnings and operational instructions that are provided by the manufacturer of your saw.
✱ Never remove or disable safety guards supplied
with any type of saw.
✱ Keep the cord clear of the blade’s path.
✱ Make sure that the saw is grounded properly.
Avoid working in damp places.
✱ Make all adjustments and change the blade with
the saw disconnected from the power source.
✱ Set the circular blade depth to no more than 1⁄ 4
inch greater than stock thickness.
✱ Make sure the base is adjusted correctly and
locked securely. Check the locking mechanisms
periodically while working.
✱ Make sure the saw is equipped with the appropriate blade for the job.
✱ Never reach under the work or allow your hands
to line up with the saw cut (in front or back of the
saw).
✱ Be sure to wear protective glasses and ear protection.
✱ Allow the blade to come up to full speed before
starting the cut.
✱ Allow the blade to come to a complete stop before
removing cut pieces or waste from the saw.
✱ Remove dust from the saws occasionally to promote air flow and lubrication, and to prevent fires.
✱ Always use a push stick for table sawing.
Reciprocating saw
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
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PUBLICATION
here are varying styles of machines. The
ratchet-style and spring-loaded fasteners are
struck with a mallet to release each nail. The
pneumatic nailers shoot fasteners into wood (some
are designed to nail into concrete) with the impact of
a mallet or the pull of a trigger and the help of an
attached air compressor.
These machines are available in both side (45degree), and face (90-degree, for work against walls)
configurations. And through use of changeable
adaptor plates, they can be adjusted for installing
varied thicknesses of flooring.
The nailing machines serve to reduce nailing time
to an absolute minimum, and eliminate time spent
reaching for nails. Nailers works as fast as the user
can position the machine.
Ratchet nailers: Because they can operate with
multiple strikes, ratchet-style nailers are easier for
novices to use, but perhaps not as fast as experienced professionals would like.
Spring-loaded nailers: Spring-loaded machines
operate on the one-strike, one-nail principle.
Pneumatic fasteners: Pneumatic machines, also
known as air nailers, require compressed air to operate. Therefore, they also require more safety consciousness.
A300
Different applications require different types of fasteners. They allow for wood movement in the most
efficient way.
Cleats are barbed nails with a T- or L-hooked
head. Most are proprietary designs, for use only with
a specified type of nailer. Their thin rectangular
shape guards against wood splitting.
Some nailing machines use staples, rather than
cleats and these, too, have been proven to be effective fasteners.
Case nails, cut nails, finish nails and screws are
also used to fasten wood flooring. Hand nailing is
especially useful for the first and last few rows of
flooring in a room, when there isn’t room to employ a
nailing machine. Screws are sometimes used to fasten plank flooring.
Compressors
There are many air compressors on the market
designed for jobsite operation of pneumatic staplers
and nailers. When choosing a compressor, select the
proper size to produce adequate air volume (cubic
feet per minute) and air pressure (pounds per square
inch) for your pneumatic floor stapler or nailer.
A one-horsepower electric compressor with a
four-gallon tank will produce about three cubic feet
per minute of air volume at 90 pounds of
pressure. It weighs less than 50 pounds and
draws very few amps of electricity, and it is
adequate for running one tool at medium
speed.
A 1.5- to 2-horsepower electric compressor with a five-gallon tank produces approximately six cubic feet per minute at 90
pounds per square inch. Weighing less than
70 pounds and operating on a 15-amp circuit
breaker, this compressor is adequate for one
fast tool operator or two at medium speed.
A 1.5- to 2-horsepower electric compressor with an eight-gallon tank weighs about
125 pounds and is adequate for two fast tool
operators.
You may need to sacrifice portability for
volume, but when in doubt, select the larger
unit. When you’re on the job, you don’t want
to be forced to wait for the compressor to
catch up.
Pneumatic nailer
10
No.
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Nailing Machines
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TECHNICAL
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Air-line accessories
Pneumatic tools need dry, clean and
regulated air pressure to operate at
peak performance. To ensure that,
follow these steps:
• For dry air, drain the compressor
at the end of each day.
• For clean air, install an air filter
at the compressor outlet to catch
dust and grit before it gets into your
tool.
• To regulate the air pressure,
install an air-pressure regulator after
the air filter. The pressure in the tank
will fluctuate within the setting of the
pressure switch — normally 100 to
125 pounds per square inch. The
regulator controls the air pressure in
the air line. It should never be set
higher than the pressure needed to
operate the tool properly.
• Use the correct hoses and couplers. Pneumatic staplers and nailers need instant air volume to
operate properly. The chambers of
the tools must completely refill after
each shot, but many hoses and
quick-disconnect couplers do not
provide adequate air flow. Most
pneumatic staplers and nailers
operate best with 3⁄ 8-inch hoses and
quick-disconnect couplers with 5⁄ 16inch minimum orifices.
• Follow the tool manufacturer’s
Manual nailer
instructions for oiling the tool. Many
tools have special O-rings and seals
that certain oils will damage, causing the tool to
malfunction.
Safety considerations
Most of the safety issues surrounding nailing
machines are rather obvious. Nonetheless:
✱ Read and understand the warnings and operational instructions that are provided by the manufacturer of your nailer.
✱ Always wear safety glasses, ear protection and
safety shoes.
✱ Never use a hammer with a loose head or splintered handle.
✱ Replace worn or damaged parts on your nailer
immediately.
they are not in use.
✱ Don’t leave plugged-in air tools unattended.
✱ Make it a habit to check the condition of your
hoses and fittings frequently. Faulty components
can lead not only to tool inefficiency, but also to
jobsite hazards.
✱ Always respect the power of air under high pressure.
✱ Be certain the drive belt cover is secure and intact.
✱ Be conscious of the whereabouts of your co-workers.
✱ Use the proper mallet: Rubber to metal or metal to
rubber, never metal to metal or rubber to rubber.
Some additional safety guidelines for using
pneumatic tools:
✱ Never override the built-in safety features.
✱ Always disconnect the air supply before making
adjustments, servicing the tool, clearing a jam or
moving the tool to a different work area.
✱ Always disconnect tools from the air supply when
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
11
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
Sanding Machines
H
ardwood flooring contractors have a choice
when it comes to sanding machines — using
a drum sander or a belt sander. Like many
other decisions, the use of either is a matter of personal preference.
Drum and belt sanders
Drum sanders and belt sanders are both large,
heavy walk-behind electric sanding machines
designed for high production. They are the sanding
workhorse of your tool arsenal, usually available in
widths of 8, 10 or 12 inches. Most have integrated
dust collection. They are used for sanding wood over
large, open areas, as well as removing old stain or
finish.
Belt sanders (below) are of a newer design than
drum sanders, with abrasive belts traveling over a
main powered roller or drum (not to be confused
with drum sanders, right) and a smaller tensioning
roller located above. The drum, which brings the
abrasive into contact with the floor, has a soft rubber
surface.
Abrasive belts are easy to change. They literally
slip on and off when the tension is loosened. The
continuous abrasive belts and solid drum feature
adjustments to align the tracking of the belt.
Drum sanders have just a single drum, on which
a sheet of abrasive is placed. A cam slot running the
width of the drum holds and tensions the abrasive
Drum sander
sheet. These sanders are more common than the
belt version, but loading paper can be somewhat
more difficult for the novice.
Drum levels are adjustable, and most users set
them so there is greater pressure on the motor drive
belt side.
Safety considerations
Standard safety precautions apply for both kinds of
sanding machines:
✱ Proper electrical connections are essential. Refer
to manufacturers’ guidelines.
✱ Read and understand the warnings and operational instructions that are provided by the manufacturer of your sanding machine.
✱ Eye and ear protection and a dust respirator are
recommended.
✱ Safe work shoes (with laces tied!) are important.
✱ Make sure you are always in complete control of
the tool.
✱ Keep the cord away from the drum and out from
underfoot and off your shoulders.
✱ Keep an eye on the dust collection bag. Empty it
often in the proper container.
✱ Always empty dust collection bags before transporting the machine or leaving it at the jobsite —
even when you take a break for lunch.
Belt sander
12
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
Disc Polishers, Buffers and
Oscillating Machines
D
isc machines use circular sanding paper,
screens, pads or polishing brushes — sizes
vary from around 15 to more than 22 inches.
They are walk-behind machines that abrade in a circular pattern. There are also oscillating machines
available which move in an oval or back-and-forth
pattern. Oscillating machines provide a less aggressive cut, but with more random and harder-to-see
scratch patterns.
Disc machines run at low speeds, usually in the
175-rpm range, and are used for finish sanding,
screening, screening between finish coats, and lowspeed buffing. Some models are designed for dedicated use as either sanders or polishers — be sure to
match the machine with your main application.
These machines generally do not have integrated
dust collection, although the newest models incorporate this feature as a system.
One of the primary uses of these machines is to
blend drum or belt sander and edger marks to get
rid of the “picture frame” effect around a room. Some
finish manufacturers also recommend using buffer
screens or pads after sealer or finish application to
smooth imperfections and to lightly abrade the surface for better adhesion between coats. However,
other finish suppliers recommend different methods.
As always, rely on the recommendations made by
the manufacturer of the finish you are applying.
Disc polisher
Smooth, sweeping motions
Disc polishers can be difficult for beginners to operate. On start-up, they tend to “kick” to one side, usually the left. It’s best to practice initially with a
polishing pad in the middle of a large room. Start
with the handle at waist height. You will notice that
as you raise it, it will move to the right. And as you
lower it, it moves to the left. An easy way to remember this is raise-right (R-R) and lower-left (L-L).
Safety considerations
✱ Read and understand the warnings and operational instructions that are provided by the manufacturer of your machine.
✱ As buffing and polishing can potentially launch
small projectiles and kick up dust, eye protection
is required and a dust respirator is recommended.
✱ Make sure you are always in complete control of
the tool.
✱ Do not let go of the buffer’s handles until the
machine has stopped rotating.
✱ Unplug the machine when you are adjusting the
machine or attaching paper.
✱ When attaching paper to the machine, carefully
center the abrasive.
✱ Use the same caution you would apply to other
electrical tools: Keep the cord out of the pad, out
from underfoot and off your shoulders.
Oscillating polisher
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
13
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
Edgers
E
dgers, or spinners, are small circular sanding machines
designed to reach the areas
where bigger machines can’t. Several
types of edgers are available, most
consisting of a seven-inch shrouded
disc connected to a large motor. Two
wheels on the shroud hold most of
the machine’s weight; each is
adjustable to vary the depth and
angle of cut. The spinner plate, a rubber-faced disc, is set to hold the
sandpaper disc at a slight angle to
the floor.
The offset edger drives a smaller
disc, three to seven inches in diameter and offset from the motor, with a
belt-and-pulley arrangement. This
Offset edger
configuration allows reaching under
difficult areas like cabinet toe kicks and radiators, or
between stair spindles.
Some companies now offer integrated dust collection for edgers, directly connecting a portable vacuum system to the edger to gather sawdust as it is
produced.
An edger can be set to cut on the left, right or
near center of the leading edge of the paper. The best
place to adjust the edger is to the right side of the
disc, at approximately 1 o’clock. The pad contact
should be about one inch in length.
Because edgers usually cut more aggressively on
the right side of the disc, they should be moved
along the floor from the left to the right, in semicircular, or other similar, motions.
Never apply weight or bear down on the edger to
produce extra cutting power. This is not only hard on
the machine; it almost always results in ugly “dish”
markings in the floor.
Safety considerations
✱ Read and understand the warnings and operational instructions that are provided by the manufacturer of your edger.
✱ Edgers create dust and are capable of kicking up
harmful objects; eye and ear protection and a
dust respirator are musts.
✱ Maintain control of the tool.
✱ Unplug the machine when you are not working
with it.
✱ When not in use, always store the edger on its
side, with the spinner plate out of touch with the
floor.
✱ Keep the cord away from the sanding disc and
out from underfoot.
✱ Keep an eye on the dust collection bag. Empty it
often in the proper container.
✱ Always empty dust collection bags before transporting the machine or leaving it at the jobsite —
even when you take a break for lunch.
Edger sander
14
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
Vacuums, Fans and Brooms
Specialty Tools
eeping the work area clean and cool not only
makes your job more pleasant; it also enhances
the quality of the work you’ll do. Heavy-duty
vacuums, brooms and fans may sound like basic tools,
but don’t discount them as inconsequential.
K
I
Vacuums
Routers
A powerful vacuum is essential for cleaning up
wood dust and other debris, especially in the finishing phases. Dust and waste may be stored in bags
or tanks for easy disposal, and the vacuum contents
must be emptied after each use. One feature to look
for are wheels of large-enough diameter to prevent
damage or marring to the flooring. Some manufacturers have systems that link their vacuums directly
to dust-producing tools, to collect dust and debris
right at its source.
Routers are popular general-purpose power tools, yet
extremely dangerous to handle. They are, essentially,
motors with a cutting bit on an arbor, and handles.
A wide range of bits and jigs are available, and on
many models the cut depth is adjustable while in
use. The result is a very versatile part of your tool
collection.
In flooring applications, routers are often used for
removing wood for decorative inlay and borders. Special bits also allow them to cut grooves on end joints
for tongue-and-groove strip fits and molding.
For engineered (laminated) flooring products,
check with the flooring manufacturer for the proper
bits to use.
Fans
Although many high-powered portable utility fans
are available, most users still stick by their box-style
department store models. You don’t really need all
that power if you are merely using it to cool the
work area. Besides, too much wind kicks up too
much dust. If you are using fans to assist in drying
finishing materials, the best solution is to actually
point them away from the finished floor to enhance
air movement. Too much direct air may distort the
finish surface, or introduce unwanted contaminants
that stick to the wet finish.
Brooms
n addition to the tools specific to flooring installation, your inventory should also include a range
of specialty and miscellaneous tools. These extras
will solve problems that may arise, and will make
your job easier and safer. Here are some of them:
Laid flooring end-jointer
A power tool for multiple-board repairs on strip and
plank flooring. Uses a plunge router and a mobile
adjustable template for fast and accurate end-joint
cutting. An alternative to manual techniques, such
as the hammer-and-chisel method.
This type of tool takes advantage of a flooring
mechanic’s body weight to hold the adjustable template to the floor, allowing the plunge router to cut
and move laterally, creating a 90-degree end-joint,
minimizing chisel work.
Basic but very effective, a high-quality push broom
is still the most convenient choice for moving and
gathering sawdust and other matter. Augment it
with a matching hand sweeper and a dust pan, and
you’re all set. Many old pros, in fact, prefer using a
natural bristle (horsehair) broom. They push more
dust with each sweep, and don’t kick up as much
dust as with thin synthetic counterparts.
Safety considerations
Use of fans and vacuums should follow that for any
electrical appliance.
✱ Don’t use them near water (unless your vacuum
is rated for it).
✱ Always make sure cords and extension cords are
in good working condition.
✱ Empty the dust bag on vacuum cleaners often.
✱ Always empty dust collection bags before transporting the machine or leaving it at the jobsite —
even when you take a break for lunch.
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
15
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
Files
Files come in a variety of shapes and tooth configurations for several different uses. Their general purpose is to remove small amounts of material from
whatever surface they are designed for. A typical
application is smoothing or sharpening scrapers.
Files should always be used with a properly sized
handle.
Spline-groove router bits
Used to cut a 1⁄ 4-by-1⁄ 4-inch spline groove in 3⁄ 4-inch
flooring. Can be used for border installations, nosings, headers or other areas where a new tongueand-groove joint is needed.
Nail sets
Nail sets are small, hardened steel devices used to
drive nails below the surface of the wood. When
hand nailing tongue-and-groove flooring, use the nail
set on its side to avoid damaging the corner of the
flooring strip.
Taping machines
These devices apply tape to floors, usually sports
floors, to create lines. Most models are rolled along
on small wheels, and use guides to lay a precise line
of tape. Radius rods are used for circular patterns.
They apply two strips of tape at the same time for
painted lines.
Power boosters
Power boosters are safe, inexpensive ways to protect
your expensive floor-sanding equipment from lowvoltage power siutations.
Use a power booster to centrally connect your
installation, floor sanding and vacuum equipment.
Use a booster whenever extra-long power cords are
necessary (more than 75 feet), when drawing power
from temporary power poles or when the local power
it cut with excessive demands.
Use a booster to run 220-volt sanders and 115volt edgers, buffers and vacuums. Professional
equipment requires no less than 30-amp breakers
and should be on 10-3 cable. Boosters should be
placed no more than 75 feet from your equipment.
Appliance movers
There are several different methods for moving heavy
appliances. One of the most basic is to place a series
of thick plastic sheets under the appliance, and slide
it out of the room. Dollies and hand trucks also work
well, but beware of debris in the wheels that could
damage a new wood floor when moving appliances
back into a newly finished room. One of the latest
innovations is a device that uses air bags under the
appliance and a blower motor to lift it off the floor,
allowing it to be easily moved.
Planes
Planes are tools with knives that protrude below a
flat surface and at an angle, for removing wood in
passes. Block planers are designed for general surface smoothing and squaring. Jack or joiner planers
are larger, for removing more material along the
grain of the wood. Some small electric planers are
also available.
Electric testers
Scrapers
Scrapers are essentially knives. They come in a variety of designs, from wide-blade spatula-like versions,
to razor blade holders for taking paint and tape off of
windows. You will find them valuable in many situations. Many scrapers have two-handed handle configurations for leverage and control.
16
Electric testers check for the presence and amount
of current in an outlet. They are used to determine if
a certain machine can be safely run from that outlet
— too little power will burn out an electric motor.
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
Applicators
Material Safety Data Sheets
he first place to look for guidelines on how to
properly apply a sealer, finish, filler or adhesive
is the manufacturer’s recommendations. Certain materials may only be compatible with one or a
few types of applicators, and even then, only effective
when applied a certain way.
T
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are issued by
manufacturers. They list the hazardous characteristics of each material. They also list emergency procedures should an accident occur. Some states require
that these sheets be present wherever these materials are used or transported.
Trowels
Safety considerations
Trowels are rectangular metal devices with a handle.
Trowels with notches on the edges are used for
application of adhesives. Different adhesives will
require different notch configurations. Some contractors use trowels without notches for application
of finishes and fillers.
✱ Read and understand the warnings and operational instructions that are provided by the manufacturer of your materials.
✱ Care should of course be taken to keep all chemicals out of eyes, off of skin, and out of the lungs.
Therefore, eye protection, rubber gloves and dust
masks or respirators should always be worn
when applying finishes.
Finish applicators
Finishes are applied with a wide range of tools. Be
aware that some finishing material will dissolve some
applicators. Always check the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Cut-in pads and small brushes are used for tight
areas and edges.
Applicator bars are wide (12, 18 and 24 inches),
thin bars around which coater sleeves are slid.
Applicator bars have swivel handles with extension
handles attached. Used primarily with water-based
finishes.
Lambswool applicators are natural or synthetic
cloths that are wrapped around wooden blocks with
extension handles, predominantly used for applying
solvent-based finishes.
Squeegees are useful for applying fillers and some
finishes.
Rollers are made of synthetic materials or natural
fibers, such as mohair, and are used to spread solvent- and water-based finishes.
Brushes can be made from natural, china-bristle,
foam or other synthetic products. Consult the finish
manufacturer for recommendations on compatible
brush types.
Tank or reservoir-type applicators are available for
use in large areas, such as gymnasiums.
Spare Parts
I
t would be impossible to carry every spare part
you might need to keep your tools running on the
job. There are, however, some basic parts and
accessories for every tool. Keeping a supply handy
can save you time and money on the job.
For electric tools in general, it’s helpful to have
some basic items: electrician’s tape, spare plugs and
brushes, extension cords, soldering iron and solder.
For others, here is what to keep back in the vehicle:
Moisture meters: Spare probe tips, external probe,
batteries.
Saws: A variety of blades.
Nailing machines: O-rings, a spare length of air
hose, extra drive blades and pins, springs
and fittings.
Vacuums: An ample supply of waste bags.
Belt and drum sanders: Extra drive belts.
Disc polishers/oscillating machines/edgers:
Spare disc pads.
Finish applicators: Long handles.
Edgers: Spare spinner plate, wheels.
Also, duct tape, wire and a needle and thread
(for bags) are smart back-up choices.
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
17
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A300
INDEX
Applicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
applicator bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
brushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
cut-in pads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
finish applicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
lambswool applicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
reservoir-type applicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
squeegees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
trowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Belt sanders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Compressors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
air-line accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
air-pressure regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
safety considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Disc polishers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Drum sanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Dust respirators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 12, 13, 14, 17
Edgers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Electric testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
End-jointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Eye protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17
glasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
goggles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
when applying finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
when using nailers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
when using sanding machines. . . . . . . . . 12, 13, 14
when using saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
case nails, cut nails, finish nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
cleats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
staples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Hearing protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14
Knee pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). . . 4, 5, 17
Materials list for the van. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Moisture meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
pinless. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
probe type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Nailing machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
pneumatic fasteners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
ratchet nailers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
spring-loaded nailers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Offset edger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Oscillating machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Pneumatic fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Power boosters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Respiratory protection . . . . . . . . . 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 17
Routers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
18
Safety
alcohol, drugs, medications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
electrical power and wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ground fault circuit interrupters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
lighting and ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS),. . . . . . . . 5, 17
nailing machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
proper clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 5
safety guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 9
sanding machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 13, 14
saws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Safety guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 9
Sanding machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 13, 14
belt sanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
disc polishers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
drum sanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
dust collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 13, 14
edgers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
offset edger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
oscillating machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
spinner plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Saws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 9
backsaws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
band saws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
circular saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
coping saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
cross-cut and rips saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
hacksaws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
hand saws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
jamb saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 9
power miter saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
power saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 9
radial arm saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
reciprocating saws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
saber/jig saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
scroll saws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
table saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Spare parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Specialty tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 16
applicance movers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
electric testers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
end-jointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
nail sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
planes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
power boosters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
scrapers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
spline-groove router bits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
taping machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Taping machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Tools checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Trowels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Vacuums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Work shoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 11
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
NATIONAL
WOOD
FLOORING
ASSOCIATION
TECHNICAL
PUBLICATION
No.
A200
SOURCES AND CREDITS
NWFA
TECHNICAL AND EDUCATION COMMITTEE
• John Hoopes, 3M Company, committee chair
THE FOLLOWING COMPANIES AND INDIVIDUALS
CONTRIBUTED INFORMATION FOR THIS
PUBLICATION, SERVED AS REVIEWERS, OR BOTH:
• BonaKemi USA,
Mike Hodges
• Coley Armstrong, Basic Coatings
• Joe Audino, Rode Brothers Floors
• Don Bollinger, Wood Floor Products
• Daniel Boone, National Wood Flooring Association
• Jeff Buysse, Minuteman International
• Don Conner, Harris-Tarkett Inc.
• Tom Conser, The Roane Company
• Tom Derleth, Indiana Hardwood Specialists
• Galen Fitzel, 3M Company
• Jim Garth, Dynamic Laser Applications
• John Goss, Woodwise/Design Hardwood Products
• Kevin Hacke, Maple Flooring
Manufacturers’ Association
• Dura Seal,
Bill Costello
• Erickson’s Flooring and Supply,
Dick Walters
• Floor Style Products,
Brian Mattson
• Galaxy Floor Sanding Machines,
Jim Tasikas
• Golden State Flooring Company,
Chris Coates
• McSwain Hardwood Floor Company,
Jonny and Ralph McSwain
• Magee Industries,
Kenn Parr
• Woody Hilscher, BonaKemi USA
• John Mayers, Dura Seal
• Tim McCool, Dri-Tac Adhesives Group
• Mickey Moore, National Oak Flooring
Manufacturers’ Association
• Neil Moss, Hartco Flooring
• Bob Vanderlinden, Bruce Hardwood Floors
• Porta-Nails Inc.,
Jerry Coleman
• Powernail Company,
Bill McLaughlin
• Primatech,
Richard Poirier
• Rode Brothers Floors,
Greg Rudolph
• Squar-Buff,
John Kelleher
• Stanley-Bostitch,
Chris Dutra and Lew Oliver
• Start to Finish Hardwood Floors,
Mike Osborn
• Treska Products,
Larry Dean
ILLUSTRATIONS FOR THIS PUBLICATION WERE
CREATED AND/OR COLORIZED BY:
• Victor Klouse, Clarke Industries
• Kay Lum, Athletic Business Publications
• Michael Roberts, Athletic Business Publications
© 1996 NATIONAL WOOD FLOORING ASSOCIATION
19
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