Know Where Your Electric Baseload Dollar Goes

Know Where Your Electric Baseload Dollar Goes
ELEC 5
STERNER
Know Where Your
Electric Baseload Dollar
Goes
ELEC 5
Thursday, May 25, 2006
10:40 – 12:20
A. Tamasin Sterner
Pure Energy
What does my energy bill pay for?
* "Other" represents an array of household products, including stoves, ovens, microwaves, and small
appliances. Individually, these products account for no more than about 2% of a household's energy
bills.
Source: http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=products.pr_pie&layout=print
“In the last two decades, monthly electricity
use by the average residential customer of
PPL Electric Utilities has risen by 17 percent.”
Note: Much of the increased use in electricity
is probably for baseload end users such as
personal electronics.
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Electric Baseload Savings Introduction
What does Baseload mean?
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Baseload is the base electric load – the portion of a customer’s electricity use that is pretty
constant all year – made up of the lights and appliances that are used all year. Air
conditioning and heating are not considered baseload in most climates.
Baseload does show some variation throughout the year. Lights and water heaters are on
more in the winter months, and refrigerators, well pumps and dehumidifiers use more in the
summer months.
Baseload is usually figured by looking at the previous 12 months electricity use, taking the
lowest three months, calculating the average monthly use for that period and multiplying it by
12 months to get the annual baseload use.
Why do we look at Baseload?
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The greater the use, the greater the savings potential. If the baseload use is low, the savings
potential for reducing baseload use is low. If the baseload use is high, the savings potential
for reducing baseload use is high.
Baseload use is affected by the number of people in the household, the size and efficiency of
the lighting and appliances; and strongly by the habits of the people using the lighting and
appliances.
Some people use more electricity for their lighting and appliances than they do for their
heating and air conditioning.
Occupant education is a key to a successful Baseload program. Putting costs on behaviors is
very important. A good “cost per use” chart can help the weatherization contractor assign
costs on appliance behaviors. If the contractor knows the wattage of an appliance, and also
knows how long or how often an appliance is used, she/he can calculate the approximate cost
to use the appliance.
What is the savings potential for Baseload work?
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Each household needs to be addressed individually because lighting and appliance use is so
site specific.
If a household of four without an electric water heater uses more than 600 kWh a month, there
is a good chance the baseload can be reduced.
If a household of four with an electric water heater uses more than 1,000 kWh a month, there
is a good chance the baseload can be reduced.
How do we focus our efforts to reduce electric Baseload use?

Familiarity with low, mid and high use ranges helps focus efforts. Savings follows use. People
have appliances and lighting that use electricity all year round. Some families use these
things very little and some families use them a lot. Medium and large loads that are connected
all the time, such as refrigerators and water heaters, are the ones that usually can be replaced
or modified to make the largest difference in the electric baseload use.
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Feel free to laminate this page and use it when doing a Baseload Audit.
Preparing for a Baseload Audit and/or Energy Education Visit
1. Get the customer’s kWh Information from their electric utility whenever possible.
2. Familiarity with low, mid and high use ranges helps focus efforts. Use the information from the
utility usage printout to help focus your work in areas with the greatest potential to save
electricity. For example, compare the annual baseload with the chart below. Does it look like
the household uses a lot of electricity? If not, you won’t need to spend as much time in the
house because there is little potential for savings. This can direct you to areas that have the
greatest potential for savings opportunities. Savings follows use.
3. Focus on the things THIS household uses. If there is high electricity use, the problem might
be:
 WASTE – the family members are making wasteful choices. Or,
 PROBLEMS WITH THE STRUCTURE – attic insulation is inadequate or the attic floor
needs to be air sealed. Or,
 PROBLEMS WITH THE APPLIANCES, EQUIPMENT OR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
IN THE HOUSE – the water heater leaks or the cooling or heating system has
problems.
When making the initial contact, ask for the number of people in the household.
Annual End Use Consumption Ranges (kWh)
Typical Electricity Users
Low
Mid
High
Domestic hot water, 1-3 people
Domestic hot water, 3-6 people
2500
4000
4500
6000
6000
8000
Refrigerator, freezer, each
500
900
1500
Clothes dryer
400
900
1200
Indoor lighting
300
900
1200
Cooking
200
400
750
Clothes washer
125
300
700
TV / VCR / DVD
150
350
600
Outdoor lighting
50
250
500
Miscellaneous
100
200
400
Dishwasher (not incl. hot water)
100
200
350
Stereo, other electronics
75
200
300
Hair dryer / curling iron
25
50
75
4,525 to
6,025
(avg. 14
kWh /day)
9,150 to
10,950
(avg. 28
kWh/day)
13,575 to
15,575
(avg. 40
kWh/day)
Subtotals
Sources: John Krigger, Chris Dorsi “Residential Energy: Cost Savings and Comfort for Existing Buildings” and Rana
Belshe, 2003, modified.
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How can we be even more accurate auditors?
Sometimes, information on the appliance nameplate is helpful.
When is Nameplate Data Useful?
 When the capacity or size of the appliance needs to be known so a comparable
replacement size can be ordered
 When an ice maker was installed after the refrigerator sale (can increase the listed
energy use by about 20%)
 To find the manufacture year, which may help determine the Federal or State standards
the appliance was made to meet
 To find a model and/or serial number to use for database or website research
 To find the designed wattage, amps, horsepower or volts of the appliance in order to
calculate or infer annual use – non-thermostatically controlled electric resistance space
heaters, pumps, furnace blower motors
 To determine manufactured EER of a room AC unit (EER = Btu/hr. divided by Watts)
Amana refrigerator and nameplate
When is Nameplate Date Not Useful?
 When the appliance is controlled by anything that turns it on and off, such as a
thermostat or humidistat; the load is variable (i.e., the refrigerator is set to cool to a
very low temperature; the kitchen is unusually warm; the dehumidifier is set to very dry
setting)
 When the appliance has a motor or circulator that is variable speed and/or goes on or off
 When the appliance has a remote or digital display as it has “on”, “off” and “standby” use
 When the appliance is old or has become less efficient than when manufactured
 House voltage level is higher than 126 volts or lower than 112 volts
Bottom Line: Check the appliance with a wattmeter whenever possible.
5
Whirlpool dehumidifier and nameplate
DeLonghi electric space heater, 1500 watts. It has three settings that are supposed to use 1500, 900 and 600
watts. On high, it used around 1520 watts and on medium and low it used around 737 watts.
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The monthly cost of operating lights and some appliances can be calculated by
multiplying:
Wattage of the appliance x hours per month used x .001 = kWh per month for that
appliance.
kWh per month x the cost per kWh = cost per month to use that appliance.
Example: Three one hundred watt light bulbs that are on for an average of five hours per
day will cost:
300W x 5 hrs/day x 30 days /month x .001 = 45 kWh per month
45 kWh per month x .10 kWh (10 cents a kWh for this example) = $4.50 per month
If the appliance label is missing the wattage information but lists the amps and volts, the
watts can be calculated this way:
Watts = Amps x Volts (117 avg.)
So:
Amps = Watts / Volts
And:
Volts = Watts / Amps
Electrical Appliance Metering Equipment
This is a list of Watt meters that can be used to meter refrigerators and other appliances and
electrical equipment.
PRODUCT
Watts Up? Pro
WEBSITE
www.professionalequipment.com
Kill A Watt
www.p3international.com
ECM-1200
www.brultech.com
EML 2000
www.electricitymetering.com
Plug Logger
www.dentinstruments.com
Watt Stopper
www.wattstopper.com
Brand Electronics
www.brandelectronics.com
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WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
If Auditors have an idea when in time an appliance’s energy consumption began to be
regulated, they can use this information to help decide if an appliance ought to be
replaced, even without metering the actual use.
Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Standards
In the 1970’s and 1980’s, some states began to set standards for energy use for certain
products if they were purchased and used in their states. Starting in 1987, the U.S.
government began to set efficiency standards for how much energy certain products could
use. Over the years, the list of products has grown to include lighting, refrigerators, water
heaters, air conditioners, clothes washers and furnace fans. For example, as a result of these
standards, a typical new refrigerator today uses less than one-third as much energy as a
typical one sold in the early 1970’s.
The reasons for the national energy efficiency standards include:
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Reduce peak electricity generation needs
Reduce consumer energy bills
Cut global warming pollution
Help wean the U.S. from imported energy sources
President Bush signed into law the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which offers consumers and
businesses tax credits beginning in 2006 for purchasing fuel efficient hybrid vehicles and
energy efficient appliances and products. The products include items used to make
residences more energy efficient, such as insulation, high efficiency windows, heating and
cooling systems, as well as photovoltaic and solar water heating systems. The Energy Policy
Act of 2005 also set standards for these residential products:
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Ceiling fan light kits
Dehumidifiers
Compact Fluorescent light bulbs
Torchiere lighting fixtures
This year, some groups are working toward new standards for 15 additional products. The
proposed standards would first be enacted by states and go into affect starting in 2008. Each
recommended standard would result in significant energy savings and be very cost-effective
and would have a cost-benefit ratio of at least 4.5 to 1: for every $1 consumers or
businesses invest in improved efficiency, they will save $4.50 on energy bills over the life of
the product.
Residential Baseload Products affected by the Proposed Standards
Compact audio products (systems that have more than one of the following functions:
radio tuner, tape player, CD player and MP3 player) would have a cost-benefit ratio of 22.9,
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meaning that the user would save $22.90 in energy costs over the life of the product, even
though the new product will cost $1 more to purchase.
These audio products, similar to other personal electronic devices, have three main power
modes: on, standby and off. Many products spend a lot of time in standby mode – not “on”
but energized so they can receive a signal from a remote control. Only 28% of compact
audio systems manufactured in 2004 met ENERGY STAR specifications, which require a
standby power level of 4 W or less if the product has a clock display, and 2 W or less if there
is no clock. These specifications mean the product costs about $1 more to buy, but the extra
$1 is paid back in energy savings in about 3 months.
DVD players and recorders would have a cost-benefit ratio of 4.6. Right now, the ENERGY
STAR require that the unit must have a maximum standby energy level of 3 W or less.
According to DOE, the current average standby energy use of DVD players is 26.5 kWh per
year. Under the proposed regulations, the increased cost of buying a more efficient DVD
player is $1 and pays for itself in energy savings within one year.
Bottle-Type Water Dispensers are commonly used in both homes and offices to store and
dispense hot and cold drinking water. The type that dispenses both hot and cold water tend
to be much less efficient than the type that dispenses just cold water because they must
maintain two tanks at two temperatures in a small space. Adding insulation between the two
tanks can reduce standby energy waste. This would add $12 to the cost of the unit and
would pay for itself in energy savings in about 6 months.
Incandescent Reflector Lamps are very common light bulbs used in recessed can light
fixtures. There are specified efficacy requirements now (i.e., lumens per Watt must exceed
specified minimum values) but some bulbs and some manufacturers have not met these
requirements yet, so this is being recommended again.
Pool pumps are baseload products in some climates where pools are in operation all or
most of the year and can be among the largest consumers of electricity in the residential
sector. For example, in California, pool pumps consume an average of 2,600 kWh per year,
which is typically about 44% of the total electricity consumption of a California household. A
new, energy efficient pool pump would cost about $85 more but would save about 260 kWh
per year, which would cover the additional cost in a bit less than 4 years.
Portable Electric Spas (Hot Tubs) are electrically heated, self contained tubs. Standby
energy consumption represents 75% of the energy used by hot tubs and refers to the energy
used to maintain the temperature when it is not being used. Improved covers and insulation
can improve efficiency up to 30%. Also, low wattage pumps can save 15% of standby energy
consumption of a typical hot tub. These improvements will cost about $100 which is
recovered by energy savings within 4.3 years.
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A Brief History of Appliance Standards
Products Included in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987
Refrigerators-freezers
Clothes washers
Room air conditioners
Clothes dryers
Central air conditioners and heat pumps
Dishwashers
Furnaces and boilers
Ranges and ovens
Water heaters
Pool heaters
Direct-fired space heaters
Fluorescent lamp ballasts
Freezers
Televisions
Products Added in the Energy Policy Act of 1992
Fluorescent lamps
Showerheads
Incandescent reflector lamps
Faucets and aerators
Electric motors (1-200 hp)
Toilets
Commercial packaged air conditioners and
Distribution transformers
heat pumps
Commercial furnaces and boilers
Small electric motors (<1 hp)
Commercial water heaters
High-intensity discharge lamps
Products with Standards Set in the Energy Policy Act of 2005
Residential:
Ceiling fan light kits
Dehumidifiers
Compact fluorescent lamps
Torchiere lighting fixtures
Commercial and Industrial:
Air conditioners and heat pumps
Clothes washers
Distribution transformers (low voltage)
Exit signs
Fluorescent lamp ballasts
Ice makers
Mercury vapor lamp ballasts
Pedestrian traffic signals
Pre-rinse spray valves
Refrigerators and freezers
Traffic signals
Unit heaters
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Computers & Home Office Equipment (from BC Hydro)
The number of homes with computer equipment continues to grow at a. Today there are many energy
saving or "power management" features available in all types of computers and home office
equipment.
When choosing equipment, look for the ENERGY STAR mark, which indicates more-efficient types of
equipment. BC Hydro and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) endorse the ENERGY STAR program
of the US Environmental Protection Agency, which establishes minimum standards and power
management guidelines for computers and office equipment.
Your computer or other home office equipment may already incorporate some of this technology.
Read the owner's manual for each piece of equipment you use. Information on power management
features is often provided in a chapter dedicated solely for this purpose. It is important to understand
what features your equipment offers and how they operate. In many cases, power management
features can be set to minimum or maximum levels depending on your specific uses. Here are some
additional tips for conserving energy with computers and home office equipment. We recommend you
share these suggestions with others who use your equipment.
General Tips
Computers
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Turn your computer off when not in use. This is the single most important thing you can do
to reduce energy consumption. Much of the energy use associated with computers is wasted
because PCs are often left on when not in use, including nights, weekends, and even
extended periods of inactivity during the day. Most experts agree that turning your computer
on and off will have no significant effect on its operation or life.
Turn off your display device or monitor. If you must leave your computer on for network
applications or other purposes, it makes sense to turn off monitors. Monitors consume a
significant portion of the energy used by PCs. Trends toward larger displays, more color, and
higher resolution has increased the amount of energy required to operate monitors. Note that
a screen saver does not reduce energy consumption.
Use a laptop. A typical laptop computer has a maximum power consumption of 15 watts, and
extensive power management capabilities. A typical desktop PC, with display, consumes
about 10 times that or 150 watts, and has limited power management features. The potential
energy savings from substituting PCs with portable laptops are large, up to 90% or more.
Printers
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Turn printers off when not in use. This tip bears repeating. Printers are typically left on for
extended periods of time but are active only for only a small percentage. This means
conventional printers can waste a significant amount of energy.
Laser printers consume a great deal of energy. It costs less to buy an ink-jet printer and
they are clearly the winners in terms of energy savings. Although they generally have lower
print quality, recent advances in ink-jet technology have substantially improved print quality
and speed. Ink-jet printer speeds are comparable to those of laser printers. However, they are
not designed for high volumes, and the cost of ink/toner cartridges may mean higher operating
costs per page than for laser printers. Color ink-jet printers, because of the way they operate,
are not significantly more efficient than color laser printers.
Select a printer with power management capability. Printers with automatic "power down"
features can reduce electricity use by over 65%. These printers automatically power down to
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15 - 45 watts, depending on the number of pages per minute produced, after specified periods
of inactivity.
What to look for when making a purchasing decision
As mentioned earlier, many manufacturers of computers and home office equipment now offer
energy-saving power management features. Products incorporating this technology are most easily
recognized by the ENERGY STAR label, located directly on the product itself. If you are unsure about
the power management features of a particular product, ask the retailer if the product you are
considering qualifies as an ENERGY STAR rated product. Ask to see the power management
specifications of the equipment you are buying. Some other benefits of equipment with power
management features are:
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Because of built-in "power down" modes, and by remembering to turn off your equipment
when not in use, computers and home office equipment can last up to ten times longer than
conventional products.
Products using power management features generate up to 25% less heat and tend to be
quieter than conventional products.
The chart below illustrates the potential energy savings between conventional computers and home
office equipment, and products that feature power management technologies.
Average Annual Energy Consumption*
Equipment
Energy Potential
Conventional
Saving Energy
Products
Products Savings
Desktop
PCs
250 kWh
125 kWh
50%
Fax
Machines
150 kWh
65 kWh
55%
Laser
Printers
375 kWh
135 kWh
65%
Copier
(Medium)
600 kWh
270 kWh
55%
Copier
(Large)
1400 kWh
600 kWh
55%
*Based on using equipment 5 hours a day.
Tips for the home office
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Turn equipment off when it is not in use (except your fax machine). A computer and monitor left on
continuously can consume $147 worth of electricity a year (assuming that sleep mode is not used, at
6.4 cents/kWh). By turning them off when you're not using them, you could save $100 per year
(assuming the computer is on 10 hours/day for 228 days/year, at 6.4 cents/kWh).
It is a myth that computers use large amounts of energy when starting up, or that constant start-ups
damage components or lead to electrical surges. It is much more cost-effective to shut the computer
down when you are finished using it, and doing so actually reduces wear on your system.
If your computer must be left on when you are not using it make sure that you enable the ENERGY
STAR power-management feature on your computer for "sleep" mode. Set it to turn the monitor off after
10 minutes and the computer off after 20 minutes. At full power your computer and monitor could
draw over 250 watts of power; in "sleep" mode, 15 watts. Screen savers do not save energy
and can prevent your computer from "sleeping."
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Reduce the brightness level of the screen to the lowest level you find comfortable.
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Fluorescent desk lamps consume about a quarter of the energy of an incandescent unit, with
the same light output, and last about eight times as long.
Lots of equipment has chargers, such as laptops, cell phones and digital cameras. When they
are not charging, unplug them, as they draw some power whenever they are plugged in.
Buying computers and office equipment
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Look for the ENERGY STAR symbol on all your new office equipment. That symbol identifies
the most energy efficient models. While saving energy, your equipment will run cooler which
can make it last longer. The ENERGY STAR web site, www.energystar.gov has lists of
manufacturers and models, along with energy consumption data.
Buy a flat-screen monitor. They use considerably less energy and are not as hard on your
eyes.
ENERGY STAR laser printers can cut the equipment's energy use by 60% by automatically
placing the printer into "sleep" mode.
ENERGY STAR labeled fax machines have a power-management feature to cut the energy
costs associated with fax machines by almost 40%.
ENERGY STAR labeled scanners can cut electricity use by up to 50% and yet do not cost any
more than standard scanners. Entering "sleep mode" when idle may also extend the life of the
light source.
Source: http://www.bchydro.com/powersmart/elibrary/elibrary707.html
When to Turn Off Personal Computers, from the U.S. Dept. of Energy
If you're wondering when you should turn off your personal computer for energy savings, here are
some general guidelines to help you make that decision.
Personal computers use about the same amount of energy to startup as they use when they are on
for about two seconds. For energy savings, consider turning off
 the monitor if you aren't going to use your PC for more than 20 minutes
 both the CPU and monitor if you're not going to use your PC for more than 2 hours.
Note: Screen savers are not energy savers. Using a screen saver may in fact use more energy than
not using a screen saver, and the power-down feature may not work if you have a screen saver
activated. In fact, modern color monitors do not need screen savers at all.
Source: http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/appliances/index.cfm/mytopic=10070
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Typical Cost per Use Based on $.085 per kWh
Use
Time, Quantity or Cycle
Cost
Shower
Shower
Bath
Per minute, 6 gallons per min. head
Per minute, 2.5 gpm head
Per inch (equals 5 gals)
8 cents
3 cents
5 cents
Hair dryer, 1500 watts
Curling iron
Per hour
Per hour
13 cents
1 cent
Laundry, hot wash and rinse
Laundry, warm wash and rinse
Laundry, cold wash and rinse
Laundry, hot wash, cold rinse
Laundry, warm wash, cold rinse
Dryer, 1 load
Per load
Per load
Per load
Per load
Per load
45 minutes
72 cents
54 cents
4 cents
40 cents
31 cents
23 cents
Dishes
Dishwasher
Dripping hot water faucet
By hand, water running
Each load
1 drop per second
36 cents
27 cents
80 cents a day
Waterbed heater
per day, average
43 cents
Drip coffee maker
Drip coffee maker
Crock pot
Toaster oven
Microwave
Range, stove top
Range, oven
one pot, brew cycle
one pot, warmer, each hour
3 hours
40 minutes
10 minutes
30 minutes
1 hour, 350 degrees
2 cents
1 cents
6 cents
9 cents
2 cents
4 cents
18 cents
Window air conditioner
Window air conditioner
Box window fan
Ceiling fan, no lights
Attic fan
8,000 BTU, 4 hours
24,000 BTU, 4 hours
7 hours
7 hours
7 hours
17 cents
68 cents
14 cents
4 cents
34 cents
100 watt incandescent bulb
100 watt incandescent bulb
27 watt fluorescent bulb (equals 100)
27 watt fluorescent bulb (equals 100)
10 hours
100 hours
10 hours
100 hours
9 cents
85 cents
2 cents
21 cents
Space heater, 1500 watt
Space heater, 1500 watt
Dehumidifier
Furnace blower motor/fan, 1/2 H.P.
Furnace blower motor/fan, 1/3 H.P.
Furnace blower motor/fan, 1/4 H.P.
Furnace burner motor
Hot water circulating pump
1 hour
8 hours
24 hours
8 hours
8 hours
8 hours
per day
per day
14 cents*
$1.02*
45 cents
33 cents
29 cents
26 cents
19 cents
10 cents
Water pump, shallow well
Water pump, deep well
per day
per day
8 cents
15 cents
Computer
Printer (wattage varies from 3 - 300 watts)
Fax machine (wattage varies form 15 to 500.)
TV, color
Fish tank, 50 gals, with light filter and heater
1 hour
3 cents
Varies
Cost is low
13 cents
16 cents
6 hours
per day
* Each degree the heater thermostat is setback saves 1% of the heating cost. If it is a turndown due to a more
comfortable home, each degree the thermostat is turned down saves 3% of the heat costs.
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Source: John Krigger and Chris Dorsi 2004.. “Residential Energy: Cost Savings and Comfort for
Existing Buildings”. Saturn Resource Management, Inc. Helena, MT.
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Typical Wattages for End Uses
End Use
Typical
Wattage
Air conditioner, central
Air conditioner, room
Air filter
Appliance timer
3,000 to 4,500
850 - 2,000
60
2
Aquarium heater
Bathroom fan, high efficiency
Bathroom fan, standard
Battery charger
Blender
Block heater
Box fan
Bread maker
Can opener
CD player
Ceiling fan
Circular saw
Circulator pump
Clock radio
Clothes dryer
100
15
75
100
380
600 - 1,500
75
600
100
12
150
1,150
105
4
4,500 – 5,500
Clothes washer, cold water
Coffee maker
Computer and monitor
Computer, laptop
CPAP
Crock pot
Curling iron
Dehumidifier
Digital satellite system
Dishwasher
DVD player
Electric blanket
Electric space heater
Fax machine
Food dehydrator
Food processor
Freezer
Furnace fan
360
1,500 brew, 50
warm
200 – 250 each
54
12
100
40
250 – 400
14
450 – 1,200
14
175
1,500
500
875
690
330 - 600
190 – 375
End Use
Garage door opener
Garbage disposal
Halogen torchiere
Hot tub, heater and
pump
Humidifier, no heater
Iron
Juicer
Microwave oven
Mixer
Oil burner
Oxygen concentrator
Pressure cooker
Printer, desk jet
Printer, laser jet
Radon fan
Range stove top
Range, oven
Refrigerator
Refrigerator ice maker
heater
Roof and gutter cable
Sander
Scanner
Security light, HPS
Security light, mercury
Sump pump
Table saw
Toaster
Toaster oven
TV, big screen, 48”
TV, solid state
TV, tube type
Vacuum cleaner
Video games
Water heater
Waterbed heater
Well pump
Whole house fan
Typical
Wattage
230
420
300
5,560
120
1,000 – 1,600
90
1450
120
450
420 – 575
1,300
48
300
15 to 150
1,600 – 2,100
3,500
450 – 625
700
7 watts / foot
290
100
70
175
200
1,380
1,150
1,200
250
100
210
350
80
4,500
150 - 300
1,000
500
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Unit Conversion Tables
Speed
Convert from
To
Formula
Meters Per Second (mps) Miles Per Hour (mph)
mps x 2.24
Miles Per Hour (mph)
Meters Per Second (mps)
mph x 0.447
Knots
Miles Per Hour (mph)
knots x 1.15
Meters Per Second (mps) Kilometers Per Hour
mps x 3.6
Length
Convert from
To
Formula
Meters
Feet
meters x 3.28
Feet
Meters
feet x 0.305
Kilometers
Miles
Kilometers x 0.621
Miles
Kilometers
Miles x 1.609
Area
Convert from
To
Formula
Square Meters
Square Feet
sq. meters x 10.76
Square Feet
Square Meters
sq. feet x 0.093
Power
Convert from
To
Formula
Kilowatts
Watts
Kilowatts x 1000
Watts
Kilowatts
Watts x 0.001
Megawatts
Kilowatts
Megawatts x 1000
Kilowatts
Megawatts
Kilowatts x 0.001
Watts
Btu/hour
Watts x 3.413
Btu/hour
Watts
Btu/hour x 0.293
Kilowatts
Btu/hour
Kilowatts x 3414
Btu/hour
Kilowatts
Btu/hour x 0.000293
Watts
Horsepower
Watts x 0.00134
Horsepower
Watts
Horsepower x 746
Kilowatts
Horsepower
Kilowatts x 1.34
Horsepower
Kilowatts
Horsepower x 0.746
Energy
Convert from
To
Formula
Watt-hours
Kilowatt-hours
Watt-hours x 0.001
Kilowatt-hours
Megawatt-hours
Kilowatt-hours x 0.001
Watt-hours
Btu
Watt-hours x 3.414
Btu
Watt-hours
Btu x 0.293
Kilowatt-hours
Btu
Kilowatt-hours x 3,414
Btu
Kilowatt-hours
Btu x 0.000293
Watt-hours
Horsepower-hours
Watt-hours x 0.00134
Horsepower-hours
Watt-hours
Horsepower-hours x 746
Kilowatt-hours
Horsepower-hours
Kilowatt-hours x 1.34
Horsepower-hours
Kilowatt-hours
Horsepower-hours x 0.746
17
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