Operation and Maintenance Manual
SEBU7040-05
October 2012
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
3176C and 3196 Marine Engines
2XR1-Up (Engine)
6BW1-Up (Engine)
SAFETY.CAT.COM
i05086812
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe
basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous
situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards, including human factors
that can affect safety. This person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform
these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you
verify that you are authorized to perform this work, and have read and understood the operation,
lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially
presented.
A non-exhaustive list of operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels
on the product and in this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. You must
not use this product in any manner different from that considered by this manual without first
satisfying yourself that you have considered all safety rules and precautions applicable to the
operation of the product in the location of use, including site-specific rules and precautions
applicable to the worksite. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not
specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you
and for others. You should also ensure that you are authorized to perform this work, and that the
product will not be damaged or become unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair
procedures that you intend to use.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you
start any job. Cat dealers have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Caterpillar recommends using Cat replacement parts or parts with equivalent specifications including, but not limited to, physical
dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
In the United States, the maintenance, replacement, or repair of the emission control devices and
systems may be performed by any repair establishment or individual of the owner's choosing.
SEBU7040-05
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 67
Reference Information Section
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Engine Ratings ................................................... 104
Safety Messages .................................................... 6
Engine Performance and Performance Analysis
Report (PAR) ..................................................... 106
General Hazard Information ................................... 7
Customer Service ............................................... 107
Burn Prevention .................................................... 10
Reference Materials ............................................ 109
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Index Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 13
Index .................................................................... 112
Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 13
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 13
Engine Starting ..................................................... 14
Engine Stopping ................................................... 14
Electrical System .................................................. 14
Engine Electronics ................................................ 17
Product Information Section
General Information .............................................. 18
Product Identification Information ........................ 22
Operation Section
Towing Information ................................................ 25
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 26
Features and Controls .......................................... 30
Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 41
Engine Starting ..................................................... 46
Engine Operation .................................................. 50
Transmission Operation ........................................ 53
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 54
Engine Stopping ................................................... 56
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 58
Maintenance Recommendations .......................... 66
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Cat
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency in electronic media delivery.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Cat dealer for the latest available
information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by fuel consumption, service hours and/or calendar
time maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance
schedule are referenced to detailed instructions that
follow.
SEBU7040-05
Use fuel consumption or service hours to determine
intervals. Calendar intervals shown (daily, annually,
etc.) may be used instead of service meter intervals
if they provide more convenient schedules and
approximate the indicated service meter reading.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. Each level and/or individual
items in each level should be shifted ahead or back
depending upon your specific maintenance practices,
operation and application. We recommend that
the maintenance schedules be reproduced and
displayed near the engine as a convenient reminder.
We also recommend that a maintenance record be
maintained as part of the engine's permanent record.
See the section in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Records” for information
regarding documents that are generally accepted as
proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorized Cat
dealer can assist you in adjusting your maintenance
schedule to meet the needs of your operating
environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs are best left to trained personnel or
an authorized Cat dealer. Your Cat dealer offers a
variety of options regarding overhaul programs. If
you experience a major engine failure, there are also
numerous after failure overhaul options available
from your Cat dealer. Consult with your dealer for
information regarding these options.
SEBU7040-05
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories
contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands
after handling.
5
Foreword
6
Safety Section
Safety Messages
SEBU7040-05
Safety Section
Electrical Shock Hazard (1)
i05162739
Safety Messages
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
There may be several specific safety messages on
an engine. The exact location of the hazards and
the description of the hazards are reviewed in this
section. Please become familiarized with all safety
messages.
Ensure that all of the safety messages are legible.
Clean the safety messages or replace the safety
messages if the words cannot be read or if the
pictures are not visible. When the safety messages
are cleaned, use a cloth, water, and soap. Do not use
solvent, gasoline, or other harsh chemicals to clean
the safety messages. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures
the safety messages. The safety messages that are
loosened could drop off the engine.
Replace any damaged safety messages or missing
safety messages. If a safety message is attached to
a part of the engine that is replaced, install a new
safety message on the replacement part. Any Cat
dealer can provide new safety messages.
Illustration 1
g00887196
A safety message for the electronic unit injector is
located on each side of the valve cover base near the
front of the engine.
Do not operate or work on this engine unless you
have read and understand the instructions and
warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the
warnings could result in injury or death. Contact
any Caterpillar dealer for replacement manuals.
Proper care is your responsibility.
Type 1
The safety messages that are on the engine may
look like the safety messages that are illustrated and
described below.
Electrical shock hazard. The electronic unit injector system uses 90-120 volts.
The ECM sends a high voltage signal to the injector
solenoid. To help prevent personal injury, disconnect
the electronic unit injector enable circuit connector.
Do not come in contact with the electronic unit
injector terminals while the engine is running.
Type 2
The safety messages that are on the engine may
look like the safety messages that are illustrated and
described below.
SEBU7040-05
7
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Additional Messages
The following safety messages may be located on
the heat exchanger.
Illustration 4
g00887228
i04074884
General Hazard Information
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Illustration 2
g03316940
Universal Warning
Illustration 5
Illustration 3
g01370904
The safety message is located on the valve cover
base toward the front of both sides of the engine.
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in injury or death. Contact any Cat dealer for replacement manuals.
Proper care is your responsibility.
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag to the start
switch or controls before the engine is serviced or
repaired. These warning tags (Special Instruction,
SEHS7332) are available from your Cat dealer.
Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
each operator control station. When appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
• Filler caps
8
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
SEBU7040-05
• Grease fittings
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
is performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Pressure taps
• Breathers
• When starting a new engine or an engine which
• Drain plugs
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two
bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of
the cover plate or the device. Before removing the
last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to
relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.
has not been started since service has been
performed, make provisions to stop the engine if an
overspeed occurs. Shutting down the engine may
be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply
and/or the air supply to the engine.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.
Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that
is damaged or repair the equipment.
• Start the engine with the operator controls. Never
short across the starting motor terminals or the
batteries. This method of starting the engine could
bypass the engine neutral start system and/or the
electrical system could be damaged.
Pressurized Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out which could result in
personal injury.
Illustration 6
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
nozzle is deadheaded and used with effective chip
guarding (if applicable) and personal protective
equipment. The maximum water pressure for
cleaning purposes must be below 275 kPa (40 psi).
Always wear eye protection for cleaning the cooling
system.
Fluid Penetration
Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
Illustration 7
g00687600
SEBU7040-05
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
9
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Inhalation
Containing Fluid Spillage
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication, PECJ0003, “Caterpillar Shop Supplies and
Tools Catalog” for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend or strike high-pressure lines. Do not
install lines, tubes, or hoses that are damaged.
Repair any fuel lines, oil lines, tubes, or hoses that
are loose or damaged. Leaks can cause fires.
Inspect all lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do
not use bare hands to check for leaks. Always
use a board or cardboard for checking engine
components for leaks. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
Illustration 8
g02159053
Exhaust
Use caution. Exhaust fumes can be hazardous to
your health. If you operate the equipment in an
enclosed area, adequate ventilation is necessary.
Asbestos Information
Caterpillar equipment and replacement parts that
are shipped from Caterpillar are asbestos free.
Caterpillar recommends the use of only genuine
Cat replacement parts. Use the following guidelines
when you handle any replacement parts that contain
asbestos or when you handle asbestos debris.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there
are several guidelines that should be followed:
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
• Wire that is exposed in reinforced hose
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
Ensure that all of the clamps, the guards, and
the heat shields are installed correctly. Correct
installation of these components will help to prevent
these effects: vibration, rubbing against other parts,
and excessive heat during operation.
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
10
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
SEBU7040-05
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations
for the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal
of asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Softwrap
Keep the engine room ventilation operating at full
capacity. Wear a particulate respirator that has been
approved by the National Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH). Wear appropriate
protective clothing in order to minimize direct contact.
Use good hygiene practices and wash hands
thoroughly after handling Softwrapmaterial. Do not
smoke until washing hands thoroughly after handling
Softwrap material. Clean up debris with a vacuum
or by wet sweeping. Do not use pressurized air to
clean up debris.
Reference: The applicable material safety data
sheets can be found at the following web site by
searching by the part number or the name of the
product:
http://dsf2ws.cat.com/msds/servlet/
cat.cis.ecs.msdsSearch.controller.
UserIdentificationDisplayServlet
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
i02088921
Burn Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance
is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure in
the appropriate system before any lines, fittings or
related items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant. Any contact with
hot coolant or with steam can cause severe burns.
Allow cooling system components to cool before the
cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool. Ensure
that the filler cap is cool before removing the filler
cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch with
a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in order
to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components
to contact the skin.
If the application has a makeup tank, remove the cap
for the makeup tank after the engine has stopped.
The filler cap must be cool to the touch.
Batteries
The liquid in a battery is an electrolyte. Electrolyte is
an acid that can cause personal injury. Do not allow
electrolyte to contact the skin or the eyes.
Illustration 9
g00706404
Do not smoke while checking the battery electrolyte
levels. Batteries give off flammable fumes which can
explode.
SEBU7040-05
11
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Always wear protective glasses when you work with
batteries. Wash hands after touching batteries. The
use of gloves is recommended.
i04363128
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
All fluids that are captured in the fluid spill
containment basin should be cleaned up immediately.
Failure to clean up spilled fluids can cause a fire. Fire
may cause personal injury and property damage.
Store fuels and lubricants in properly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray from a failed line,
tube, or seal. Exhaust shields must be installed
correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Illustration 10
g00704000
Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) may be
needed.
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Always perform a Walk-Around Inspection, which
may help you identify a fire hazard. Do not operate
a product when a fire hazard exists. Contact your
Caterpillar dealer for service.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within 15 minutes after an
emergency shutdown.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Caterpillar dealer for additional
information about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil, and
debris from the engine. Do not allow any flammable
materials to accumulate on the engine.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Properly
route and securely attach all electrical wires. Check
all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires that are
loose or frayed before you operate the engine. Clean
all electrical connections and tighten all electrical
connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and properly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. Properly route all hoses. The lines
and hoses must have adequate support and secure
clamps. Tighten all connections to the recommended
torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Properly install all oil filters and all fuel filters. The
filter housings must be tightened to the proper torque.
12
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
SEBU7040-05
Improper jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. Charging a frozen
battery may cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Illustration 11
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Ether
Do not use ether as a starting aid. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Starting the
Engine” for information about starting the engine.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike
high-pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
bent or damaged.
Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks
can cause fires. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
repair or for replacement parts.
Check lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use
your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
Illustration 12
g02298225
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
• Wires are exposed.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
• Portions of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
SEBU7040-05
13
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly in order to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
i03560601
i01359666
Before Starting Engine
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Support the component properly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or to
the controls.
i01372247
Mounting and Dismounting
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work properly, if equipped.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
14
Safety Section
Engine Starting
SEBU7040-05
i03941639
Engine Starting
SMCS Code: 1000
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished
by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or
shutting off the air supply to the engine.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine.
i05082933
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine with the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Starting the Engine” for information about
starting the engine. Know the correct procedure to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Know the correct procedure to prevent personal
injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
properly, check the water temperature gauge and the
oil temperature gauge during the heater operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
that can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a ventilated area.
If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
i01462046
Engine Stopping
SMCS Code: 1000
Electrical System
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark may cause the combustible
gasses that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
Connect the negative jump-start cable last from the
external power source to the negative terminal of the
starting motor. This connection sequence helps to
prevent sparks from igniting any combustible gasses
which batteries may produce. If the starting motor is
not equipped with a negative terminal, connect the
jump-start cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is operated. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started. See
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Starting” for specific starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
Properly ground the electrical system for the vessel
and the engine. Proper grounding is necessary for
optimum engine performance and reliability. Improper
grounding will result in uncontrolled or unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Uncontrolled or unreliable electrical circuit paths
may result in damage to main bearings, crankshaft
bearing journal surfaces, and aluminum components.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths may also cause
electrical noise. Electrical noise may degrade the
performance of the vessel and of the radio.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Connect the starting motor directly to the negative
battery terminal. Connect the alternator to the
negative battery or negative terminal for the starting
motor. The alternator and the starting motor must
meet marine isolation requirements.
Note: All electrical connections must meet or exceed
the American Boat and Yacht Council Standard E-11.
SEBU7040-05
Use a bus bar with a direct path to the negative
battery terminal for low current components that
require a negative battery connection. Connect the
bus bar directly to the negative battery terminal.
Note: All return paths to the negative battery must be
able to carry any likely fault currents.
The use of a bus bar ensures that the electronic
control module (ECM) and the components
connected to the ECM have a common reference
point.
Refer to Special Instruction, REHS1187, “Marine
Engine Electronic Installation Guide” for additional
information on grounding procedures.
15
Safety Section
Electrical System
16
Safety Section
Electrical System
SEBU7040-05
Negative Battery Connection for
Multiple Engines
g03171056
Illustration 13
(1) Starting motor
(2) Electronic control module (ECM) battery
negative battery connection or customer
connector for one engine
(3) Grounding strap for the cylinder block
(4) ECM battery positive connection or
customer connector for one engine
(5) Battery disconnect switch
(6) Battery (12V or 24V)
Install the battery disconnect switch (5) as close as
possible to the battery positive (+) but outside of the
battery enclosure.
Note: If multiple bus bars are used to connect
components to the negative battery, a common
reference should be provided. All bus bars must be
wired together for proper engine synchronization for
multiple engine operations.
(7) Direct current (DC) main negative battery
bus
(8) DC grounding bus
(9) Vessel bonding circuit
SEBU7040-05
17
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
i02784356
Engine Electronics
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Engine Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control: WARNING, DERATE, and
SHUTDOWN. These engine monitoring modes have
the ability to limit engine speed and/or the engine
power.
Many of the parameters that are monitored by the
ECM can be programmed for the engine monitoring
functions. The following parameters can be monitored
as a part of the Engine Monitoring System:
• Operating Altitude
• Engine Coolant Level
• Engine Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Engine Speed
• Fuel Temperature
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
• System Voltage
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and display
modules that are available for Caterpillar Engines
will work in unison with the Engine Monitoring
System. Together, the two controls will provide the
engine monitoring function for the specific engine
application. Refer to the Troubleshooting Manual for
more information.
18
Product Information Section
General Information
SEBU7040-05
Product Information
Section
General Information
i01110258
Model View Illustrations
SMCS Code: 1000
The following model views show typical 3176C and
3196 Marine Engine features. Due to individual
applications, your engine may appear different from
the illustrations.
g00103095
Illustration 14
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Aftercooler drain
Oil cooler drain plug
Aftercooler
Oil filler
Drain plug for the water temperature
regulator
(6) Lifting eye
(7) Fuel priming pump
(8) Aftercooler condensate drain valve
(9) Service hour meter
(10) Oil filter
(11) Emergency stop button
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Oil drain plug
Fuel filter
Cooling system filler cap
Crankshaft vibration damper
Fuel transfer pump
SEBU7040-05
19
Product Information Section
General Information
g00585871
Illustration 15
(17) Vacuum regulator element
(18) Engine crankcase breather
(19) Closed crankcase ventilation system
(CCV)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
Auxiliary water pump
Electronic control module
Engine air cleaner element
Air cleaner service indicator
i05162828
(24) Water cooled turbocharger
• Torque rise shaping
Product Description
• Injection timing control
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 4491
• System diagnostics
The Cat 3176C and 3196 Marine Engines provide
the following features:
Electronic unit injectors combine the metering of
fuel (duration and timing) and the injection of fuel.
Electronic unit injectors produce very high injection
pressures.
• Four cycle
• Direct fuel injection
• Electronic unit injection
• Turbocharged
• Raw/Sea water aftercooled or separate circuit
aftercooled (SCAC)
The electronic engine control system provides the
following features:
• Engine monitoring
• Electronic governing
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
amount of fuel that is injected by varying the signals to
the electronic unit injectors. High injection pressures
help to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
The use of this type of electronic unit injector
helps to provide precise control of injection timing.
The injection timing varies with engine operating
conditions thus optimizing engine performance for
starting, emissions, noise, and fuel consumption.
The timing advance is achieved through the precise
control of electronic unit injector firing. Engine rpm
is controlled by adjusting the firing duration. A
speed/timing sensor provides information to the ECM
for detection of cylinder position and engine rpm.
20
Product Information Section
General Information
SEBU7040-05
• Gear driven centrifugal pump
Expected engine life is generally predicted by
the average power demanded, based on fuel
consumption of the engine over a time. Reduced
hours of operation at full throttle and/or operating at
reduced throttle settings result in a lower average
power demand. Reduced hours of operation will
increase the length of operating time before an
engine overhaul is required
• One water temperature regulator which regulates
Engine Specifications
The engine has built-in diagnostics that are used in
order to ensure that all of the components function
properly.
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
the engine coolant temperature
• Oil cooler
• Auxiliary water pump or a separate circuit
aftercooled (SCAC)
• Raw/Sea water aftercooler
The engine lubricating oil, that is supplied by a gear
type pump, is cooled. The engine lubricating oil is
also filtered. Bypass valves provide unrestricted flow
of lubrication oil to the engine components during
the following conditions:
• High oil viscosity
• Plugged oil cooler or plugged oil filter elements
Cylinder and valve locations
Note: Most illustrations represent typical right-hand
service. The 3176C and 3196 Marine Engines are
also available with left-hand service. The following
items will be located on the left side for left-hand
service:
Table 1
(paper cartridge)
• Fuel filter
• Oil filter
(A) Exhaust valve. (B) Inlet valve.
3176C Marine Engine Specifications
Cylinders and Arrangement
125 mm (4.9 inch)
Stroke
140 mm (5.5 inch)
Compression Ratio
16:1
Aspiration
TA(1)
Displacement
• Oil level gauge
Firing Order
Rotation (viewed from flywheel)
Several manufacturers offer marine transmissions
through local distributors. Lubrication oil for the
marine transmission can be cooled by an optional
engine mounted transmission oil cooler (certain
engine ratings).
Engine Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants.
6 In-Line
Bore
• Oil filler
Marine Transmissions
g00275578
Illustration 16
10.3 L (629 cu in)
1-5-3-6-2-4
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.38 mm (.015 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.76 mm (.030 inch)
(1)
Turbocharged Aftercooled
SEBU7040-05
21
Product Information Section
General Information
Table 2
3196 Marine Engine Specifications
Cylinders and Arrangement
6 In-Line
Bore
130 mm (5.1 inch)
Stroke
150 mm (5.9 inch)
Compression Ratio
16:1
Aspiration
TA(1)
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (viewed from flywheel)
12 L (732 cu in)
1-5-3-6-2-4
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.38 mm (.015 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.76 mm (.030 inch)
(1)
Turbocharged Aftercooled
22
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU7040-05
Product Identification
Information
i05163183
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Cat engines are identified with serial numbers,
with performance specification numbers, and with
arrangement numbers. In some of the cases,
modification numbers are used. These numbers
are shown on the Serial Number Plate and the
Information Plate that are mounted on the engine.
Cat dealers need these numbers in order to
determine the components that were included
with the engine. This information permits accurate
identification of replacement part numbers.
Serial Number Plate
Illustration 17
g00104547
The Serial Number Plate is on the side of the cylinder
block. The following information is stamped on the
Serial Number Plate: engine serial number, model,
and arrangement number.
Information Plate
Illustration 18
g00755014
The Information Plate is on the valve cover. The
following information is stamped on the Information
Plate: maximum altitude for engine operation,
horsepower, high idle, full load rpm, fuel settings, and
other information.
SEBU7040-05
23
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
i02507433
Declaration of Conformity
SMCS Code: 1000
Illustration 19
g01255404
24
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU7040-05
i04602210
Reference Information
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Information for the following items may be needed
to order parts for your marine engine. Locate the
information for your engine. Record the information
on the appropriate space. Make a copy of this list for
a record. Keep this information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial Number ____________________________________
Engine Arrangement Number ___________________________
Modification Number ______________________________________
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
Performance Specification Number ____________________
Primary Fuel Filter Number ______________________________
Water Separator Element Number _____________________
Secondary Fuel Filter Element Number ______________
Lubrication Oil Filter Element Number ________________
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element Number ___________________
Supplemental Coolant Additive Maintenance Element
Number (Optional) _________________________________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element Number ____________________________
Alternator Belt Number ___________________________________
SEBU7040-05
25
Operation Section
Towing Information
Operation Section
• Maintain the marine transmission oil level at the
Towing Information
Continuous Back Driving
normal propulsion level or maintain the marine
transmission oil level at the “FULL” mark.
i01052770
Marine Towing
SMCS Code: 1000
The vessel should be towed under the following
conditions:
• The vessel is disabled.
• The vessel can not continue to maneuver.
NOTICE
Reverse rotation of the propeller shaft can cause
engine damage. To help prevent reverse rotation of
the propeller, secure the propeller. Lock the propeller
shaft, when possible.
During towing, the propeller of a vessel will rotate
through the water. This rotation is called back driving.
NOTICE
Rotation of the propeller shaft without proper lubrication for long periods of time will damage the propeller
shaft bearings. If pressurized oil cannot be supplied to
the propeller shaft bearings while the vessel is being
towed, the propeller shaft must be secured in order to
help prevent shaft rotation.
Towing Procedure
Under the following conditions, back driving is
permitted for most marine transmissions:
• The towing speed does not exceed the normal
maximum propulsion speed of the vessel that is
being towed.
Perform the following items for these continuous
back driving circumstances: long trips, delivering a
vessel by towing, and towing a vessel home on a trip
that will last more than one day.
• Ensure that the marine transmission is in
NEUTRAL while the vessel is being towed.
• Start the engine. Run the engine for at least three
minutes. Perform this procedure during every 12
to 14 hours.
• Maintain the marine transmission oil level to the
input shaft on the centerline of the engine.
Securing the Propeller
There are several ways to help prevent the propeller
shaft from rotating. The correct method depends on
the turning force of the propeller and the construction
of the propeller shaft tunnel. Use the method that is
best suited for the vessel.
To minimize the force on the propeller, tow the vessel
at a slow speed.
Wrapping the Propeller Shaft
1. On small vessels, wrap a heavy rope around the
propeller shaft.
Note: The number of wraps that is needed will
depend on the mass of the propeller and the mass of
the propeller shaft.
2. Secure the rope in the opposite direction of the
shaft rotation.
Securing the Companion Flange
• The marine transmission is properly lubricated.
1. Remove one or more bolts from the coupling on
the companion flange.
Intermittent Back Driving
2. Bolt a chain to the companion flange.
Perform the following items for short trips and for
towing purse boats in seining operations.
3. Wrap the chain several times around the propeller
shaft.
• Ensure that the marine transmission is in
4. Secure the loose end of the chain at a right angle
to the propeller shaft. Secure the chain in the
opposite direction of the shaft rotation.
NEUTRAL while the vessel is being towed.
• Start the engine. Run the engine for at least three
minutes. Perform this procedure during every 24
hours.
26
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU7040-05
Lifting and Storage
Engine and Marine Transmission
Lifting
i05163194
Product Lifting
SMCS Code: 7000; 7002
Illustration 21
Illustration 20
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance. Lifting fixtures also help to
provide safety.
g00103228
NOTICE
Do not use the eyebolts that are on the marine transmission housing to lift the engine.
To remove both the engine and the marine
transmission, use the lifting eyes that are on the
engine. Use an adjustable lifting beam to lift the
engine. All supporting members (chains and cables)
should be parallel to each other. The chains and
cables should be perpendicular to the top of the
object that is being lifted. Consult your Cat dealer or
consult the OEM for information regarding fixtures for
proper lifting of your complete package.
Marine Transmission Lifting
To remove the marine transmission ONLY, use the
eyebolts that are on the marine transmission housing.
Refer to the OEM for proper lifting instructions (if
equipped).
If a component resists removal, ensure that all of the
nuts and bolts have been removed. Ensure that no
adjacent parts are interfering.
i04986396
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Product Storage
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for the specific
engine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your Cat
dealer for information regarding fixtures for proper
engine lifting.
SMCS Code: 7002
Note: If the engine will be stored for more than 1
year, contact your local Cat dealer for the preferred
procedure.
SEBU7040-05
Engine
Storage (Less Than One Year)
If an engine is not used, oil can run off the following
parts that normally receive lubrication: cylinder walls,
piston rings, main bearings, connecting rod bearings,
crankshaft, and gears.
This lack of lubricant allows corrosion to begin to
appear on the metal. This condition is worse in areas
of high humidity.
When the engine is started again, metal to metal
contact will cause wear before the surfaces receive
oil. To minimize this wear, use the starter to turn the
engine with the throttle in the FUEL OFF position.
When oil pressure is shown on the pressure gauge,
start the engine.
1. Clean the engine of any dirt, rust, grease, and oil.
Inspect the exterior. Paint areas that contain paint
damage with a good quality paint.
2. Remove any dirt from all air cleaners. Check all
seals, gaskets, and the filter element for damage.
3. Apply lubricant to all points in this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
4. Drain the crankcase oil. Replace the crankcase oil
and change the oil filters. For the proper procedure,
refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”.
5. If the engine is equipped with an air starting
motor, fill the reservoir with a mixture of 50
percent volatile corrosion inhibitor (<nomen>VCI
</nomen>) and 50 percent engine oil.
6. Add VCI to the crankcase oil. The volume of VCI
in the crankcase oil should be 3 to 4 percent.
Note: If the engine crankcase is full, drain enough
engine oil so the mixture can be added.
7. Remove the air filter elements. Turn the engine at
cranking speed with the throttle control in FUEL
OFF position. Use a sprayer to add a mixture of
50 percent VCI and 50 percent engine oil into the
air inlet or turbocharger inlet.
Note: The mixture of VCI can be added to the inlet
by removing the plug for checking turbocharger
boost pressure. The minimum rate of application
is 5.5 mL per 1 L (3 oz per 1000 cu in) of engine
displacement.
27
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
8. Use a sprayer to apply a mixture of 50 percent
VCI and 50 percent crankcase oil into the exhaust
openings. The minimum application rate for the oil
mixture is 5.5 mL per L (3 oz per 1000 cu in) of
engine displacement. Seal the exhaust pipe and
seal any drain holes in the muffler.
9. Remove the fuel from the secondary fuel filter
housing. Alternately, empty and reinstall the
spin-on fuel filter element in order to remove any
dirt and water. Drain any sleeve metering fuel
pump.
Clean the primary fuel filter. Fill with calibration
fluid or kerosene. Install the primary fuel filter and
operate the priming pump in order to send clean
oil to the secondary filter and the engine.
Open the fuel tank drain valve in order to drain
any water and dirt from the fuel tank. Apply a
spray of calibration fluid or kerosene at the rate
of 30 mL per 30 L (1 oz per 7.50 gal US) of fuel
tank capacity in order to prevent rust in the fuel
tank. Add 0.15 mL per L (.02 oz per 1 gal US) of
commercial biocide such as Biobor JF to the fuel.
Apply a small amount of oil to the threads on
the fuel tank filler neck and install the cap. Seal
all openings to the tank in order to prevent
evaporation of the fuel and as a preservative.
10. Remove the fuel nozzles or spark plugs. Apply
30 mL (1 oz) of the mixture of oils (50 percent VCI
oil and 50 percent engine oil) into each cylinder.
Use a bar or a turning tool in order to turn over
the engine slowly. This action puts the oil on the
cylinder walls. Install all fuel nozzles or spark
plugs and tighten to the correct torque.
11. Spray a thin amount of the mixture of oil (50
percent VCI oil and 50 percent engine oil) onto
the flywheel, the ring gear teeth, and the starter
pinion. Install the covers in order to prevent
evaporation of the vapors from the VCI oil.
12. Apply a heavy amount of Cat Multipurpose
Grease (MPGM) to all outside parts that move,
such as rod threads, ball joints, linkage, etc.
Note: Install all covers. Ensure that tape has been
installed over all openings, air inlets, exhaust
openings, the flywheel housing, the crankcase
breathers, the dipstick tubes, etc.
Ensure that all covers are airtight and
weatherproof. Use a waterproof weather resistant
tape such as Kendall No. 231 or an equivalent. Do
not use duct tape. Duct tape will only seal for a
short time.
28
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
13. Under most conditions, it is best to remove the
batteries. As an alternative, place the batteries
in storage. As needed, periodically charge the
batteries while the batteries are in storage.
If the batteries are not removed, wash the tops
of the batteries until the tops are clean. Apply an
electrical charge to the batteries in order to obtain
a specific gravity of 1.225.
Disconnect the battery terminals. Place a plastic
cover over the batteries.
Note: For additional information, refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test Procedure”.
14. Loosen all belts.
15. Place a waterproof cover over the engine. Ensure
that the engine cover is secure. The cover should
be loose enough to allow air to circulate around
the engine in order to prevent damage from
condensation.
16. Attach a tag with the date of storage to the engine.
17. Remove the waterproof cover at 2 month or 3
month intervals in order to check the engine for
corrosion. If the engine has signs of corrosion,
repeat the protection procedure.
Conventional Coolant System
Completely fill the cooling system before storage.
Water or water which is mixed with supplemental
coolant additive (SCA) is not an approved coolant
for use with Cat C7-C32 Marine Engines which are
cooled with heat exchangers. Cat C7-C32 Marine
Engines which are cooled with heat exchangers
require a minimum of 30 percent glycol in order to
prevent cavitation of cooling system components.
A minimum of 50 percent glycol is very strongly
recommended.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” or refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluids
Recommendations” for more information about
coolants.
Raw Water System
Completely drain the raw water system by removing
all the drain plugs from the raw water pump, the water
shielded manifolds, the heat exchanger bonnets, and
the aftercooler.
After the system has been drained, inspect all
zinc plugs (normally painted red) for damage from
corrosion.
SEBU7040-05
Note: To ensure complete drainage and evaporation
during storage, DO NOT install the drain plugs and
zinc plugs. Place all removed plugs in a cloth bag
and fasten the bag to the engine for storage.
Removal from Storage
1. Remove all outside protective covers.
2. Change the oil and filters.
3. Check the condition of the fan and alternator
belts. Replace the belts, if necessary. Refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace” or refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Belts Inspect/Replace” for the correct procedure.
4. Replace the fuel filter elements.
5. Remove the plastic covers from the air cleaner
elements.
6. Use a bar or a turning tool in order to turn the
engine in the normal direction of rotation. The
procedure ensures that no hydraulic locks or
resistance exist.
7. Before starting the engine, remove the valve cover
or covers. Put a large amount of engine oil on the
camshaft, cam followers, and valve mechanism in
order to prevent damage to the mechanism.
8. Pressure lubricate the engine before starting the
engine. Pressure lubrication of the engine ensures
immediate lubrication. Pressure lubrication of the
engine prevents damage to the engine which
might otherwise occur at start-up. If the engine is
not equipped with a prelube pump, contact your
Cat dealer for information about lubrication of the
engine before the engine is started.
9. Check the condition of all rubber hoses. Replace
any worn hoses. Replace any damaged hoses.
10. Before start-up, test the cooling system for a 3 to 6
percent concentration of coolant conditioner. Add
liquid coolant conditioner or a coolant conditioner
filter, if equipped.
Test the coolant mixture for proper nitrite level. If
necessary, adjust the coolant mixture.
Prime the engine with clean diesel fuel before
starting.
11. If the engine is equipped with a fresh water
system, ensure that the system is clean. Ensure
that the system is full. Ensure that the system
has the correct amount of supplemental cooling
system conditioner.
SEBU7040-05
If the engine is equipped with a raw water system,
install all of the drain plugs and zinc plugs. Fill
the system. It may be necessary to prime the raw
water system pumps before operation.
12. On the first day of operation, check the entire
engine several times for leaks and correct
operation.
13. Refer to Special Publication, SEBU5898, “Cold
Weather Recommendations Operation and
Maintenance” when the temperature is less than
−12° C (10° F) at the time of removal from storage.
Marine Transmission Storage
Storage Procedure
1. Thoroughly clean the transmission.
2. Paint the transmission with a good quality paint.
3. If the transmission will be stored for more than 6
months, VCI oil will provide additional protection
against moisture. Add VCI oil at a rate of 2 percent
of the lubricating oil capacity.
4. Operate the transmission for a short period in
order to circulate the oil.
5. Seal all of the openings with covers and/or tape.
6. Use a multipurpose grease to coat all of the
external moving parts such as the linkage, etc.
7. Store the transmission under a waterproof cover.
Procedure After Storage
1. Remove the waterproof cover. Clean the
transmission.
2. Install a new transmission oil filter.
3. Ensure that there is no water in the oil and that
the oil level is correct.
29
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
30
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU7040-05
Features and Controls
i01491446
Cold Start Strategy
SMCS Code: 1450; 1456; 1900
The ECM will set the cold start strategy when the
coolant temperature is below 18 °C (64 °F).
When the cold start strategy is activated, low idle rpm
will be increased to 1000 rpm and the engine's power
will be limited.
Cold mode operation will be deactivated when any of
the following conditions have been met:
• Coolant temperature reaches 18 °C (64 °F).
• The engine has been running for fourteen minutes.
Cold mode operation varies the fuel injection amount
for white smoke cleanup. Cold mode operation also
varies the timing for white smoke cleanup. The
engine operating temperature is usually reached
before the walk-around inspection is completed. The
engine will idle at the programmed low idle rpm in
order to be put in gear.
NOTICE
A machine equipped with this electronically controlled
engine should not be moved until it is out of Cold Mode
operation.
If the machine is operated while in Cold Mode operation power will be noticeably reduced.
After the cold mode is completed, the engine should
be operated at mid-speed to low speed until normal
operating temperature is reached. The engine will
reach normal operating temperature faster when
the engine is operated at low speed and low power
demand.
SEBU7040-05
31
Operation Section
Features and Controls
i01738754
Engine Monitoring System
(EMS)
SMCS Code: 7490
g00788015
Illustration 22
(1) Main unit
(2) Tachometer (unit)
The Caterpillar Engine Monitoring System (EMS) is
an option. The engine parameters are displayed in
both digital display and analog. The EMS display is
for electronically controlled engines.
The EMS includes three individual gauge units. The
units can be installed in various combinations. The
main unit must be used if any of the units are used.
For information on installation and troubleshooting,
refer to Installation Guide, SENR5002.
(3) Quad gauge
32
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU7040-05
EMS Main Unit
Table 3
Abbreviation
Illustration 23
Spd
Engine Speed
GA-1
Engine Oil Pressure
GA-2
Coolant Temperature
GA-3
Battery Voltage
GA-4
Fuel Pressure
Boost
Boost Pressure
IAirT
Inlet Air Temperature
FuelT
Fuel Temperature
AccrP
Auxiliary Pressure
AccrT
Auxiliary Temperature
Fuel
Fuel Rate
Hrs
Engine Hours
Load
Percent of Engine Load
(speed and derate)
g00595165
(4) Engine oil pressure
(5) Engine coolant temperature
(6) Fuel pressure
(7) Inlet manifold temperature
(8) Fuel temperature
(9) Engine coolant level
(10) Battery voltage
(11) Active engine derate
(12) Auxiliary temperature
(13) Auxiliary pressure
Parameter
Note: For detailed information on the exact
parameters for your engine, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Gauges and Indicators”.
Quad Gauge Unit
The Engine Monitoring System provides warning
lamps. Refer to Illustration 23. The Engine
Monitoring System provides a LCD display for engine
parameters. When the scroll switch is depressed,
the parameters will scroll on the screen. The EMS
displays the real time value for the parameter that is
selected. The default is engine speed.
The parameters are abbreviated on the LCD display.
Table 3 lists the parameters.
Illustration 24
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
g00595166
Engine oil pressure
Engine coolant temperature
Battery voltage
Fuel pressure
The quad gauge unit displays the following
information: engine oil pressure, engine coolant
temperature, battery voltage, and fuel pressure
SEBU7040-05
33
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Note: The gauge needles may not always return to
zero position when the engine is not running.
Note: For detailed information on the exact
parameters for your engine, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Gauges and Indicators”.
Tachometer Unit
i01741580
Gauges and Indicators
SMCS Code: 7450
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the literature that is
from the OEM of the vessel.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
a potential problem with a gauge or with the
engine. Problems may also be indicated by gauge
readings that change even if the readings are within
specifications. Determine the cause of any significant
change in the readings and/or correct the cause of
any significant change in the readings. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.Caterpillar requires
two lamps in addition to the gauge package that is
normally provided.
Illustration 25
g00788023
(18) Tachometer
The tachometer displays the engine speed (rpm) on
an analog gauge.
Note: For detailed information on the exact
parameters for your engine, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Gauges and Indicators”.
Communication Data Link
The EMS provides two pins that are connected to
the data link. The data link is available to share data
with other modules. The ECM processes engine
parameters. The parameters will then be transmitted
to the EMS through the data link. The EMS receives
the information. The information is then displayed
on various gauges.
For additional information, refer to the
Troubleshooting Manual, “Cat Data Link
Circuit-Test”.
The “Diagnostic” lamp is yellow or amber. The
“Diagnostic” lamp will communicate the status of the
electronic system of the engine.
The “Warning” lamp is red. This red “Warning” lamp
warns the operator of engine problems.
The following conditions are some examples of the
problems:
• low oil pressure
• high coolant temperature
• low coolant level
• high inlet air temperature
NOTICE
Be ready to activate the engine shutoff manually, if
there is no oil pressure . Damage to the engine will
result if the engine continues to run without the correct
oil pressure.
Engine Oil Pressure – This gauge
indicates the engine oil pressure.
A lower oil pressure reading is normal at low idle. If
the load is stable and the gauge reading changes,
perform the following procedure:
1. Remove the load.
34
Operation Section
Features and Controls
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
3. Shut down the engine, and allow time for the oil to
settle back into the engine oil pan.
4. Check the oil level. Maintain the oil level at the
proper amount.
The diagnostic lamp will turn on if the oil pressure
drops below a safe range. A safe range for the oil
pressure is determined by the engine protection
package. The diagnostic code will be logged in the
Engine Control Module (ECM).
Engine Oil Temperature – This gauge
indicates the engine oil temperature.
Maximum oil temperature at rated speed
with a full load is 104°C (220°F).
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 87 to 98°C
(189 to 208°F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system is
102°C (216°F). Higher temperatures may occur under
certain conditions. The water temperature reading
may vary according to load. The reading should
never exceed the boiling point for the pressurized
system that is being used.
If the engine is operating above the normal range
and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
1. Reduce the load and the engine speed.
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
3. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed. When the throttle control lever is
moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
NOTICE
Engine overspeed may cause serious damage.
Keep the tachometer indicator in the green operating
range.
Note: The high idle rpm and the full load rpm are
stamped on the Information Plate.
SEBU7040-05
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or of discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “0”(zero).
Service Hour Meter – This gauge
indicates the total number of clock hours
of engine operation. Hours of operation
are logged in the ECM. A service tool is needed to
retrieve the hours from the ECM. A Service Hour
Meter may be installed on the engine.
Fuel Pressure – This gauge indicates
fuel pressure to the electronic unit injectors
from the fuel filter. The indicator should
indicate the “NORMAL” range. Typical fuel pressure
at low idle is 410 kPa (60 psi). Typical operating fuel
pressure is 500 kPa (73 psi). Minimum fuel pressure
at rated speed is 400 kPa (58 psi). Minimum fuel
pressure is 160 kPa (23 psi) when the engine is
under load. A decrease in fuel pressure usually
indicates a plugged fuel filter.
Inlet Air Temperature – This gauge
indicates inlet manifold air temperature. As
the inlet air increases in temperature the
following conditions occur: expansion of the air, less
oxygen in the cylinders, and less available power.
If the temperature of the inlet air is too high during
full speed and load operation, the engine may be
overfueled. Maximum inlet manifold air temperature
is 85°C (185°F).
Exhaust Stack Temperature – This
gauge indicates exhaust gas temperature.
Maximum exhaust temperature is
approximately 575°C (1065°F).
i03948411
Marine Power Display
SMCS Code: 1900; 7400; 7402; 7450; 7451
The Caterpillar Marine Power Display is an
attachment that is available from your Caterpillar
dealer. The Caterpillar Marine Power Display will
supply the current engine and transmission data if
the sensors are installed. The Caterpillar Marine
Power Display will supply the current data for the
transmission. The screens can be customized. The
screens can display various engine parameters. The
parameters are described in the following text.
Refer to Special Publication, LEBM0189, “Marine
Power Display Operator's Guide” for additional
information regarding the marine power display.
SEBU7040-05
35
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Operating Information
Diagnostic Data
There are three modes of display for the engine
data: Analog, digital, and bar graph. The following
parameters are displayed: Engine Speed, Percent
Load, Boost Pressure, Coolant Temperature, Oil
Pressure, Oil Temperature, Fuel Rate, Fuel Pressure,
Fuel Temperature, Inlet Manifold Temperature,
Transmission Temperature, Transmission Pressure,
Engine Hours, and Battery Voltage.
All diagnostic messages from the engine Electronic
Control Module (ECM) are indicated by both a visual
alarm and an audible alarm. Diagnostic indicators will
not be shown when there are no active diagnostic
codes. The diagnostic indicator will appear in the
upper left corner of the screen. A window that
describes the diagnostic code will appear in the
center of the screen, and the audible alarm will
sound. Press alarm acknowledgment (1) in order to
silence the alarm. Press alarm acknowledgment (1)
again in order to scroll through the diagnostic codes
or remove the diagnostic codes. The diagnostic code
indicator will remain on the screen until the fault is
corrected.
Note: The Oil Temperature and the Inlet Manifold
Temperature will be displayed if the engine is
equipped with the appropriate sensors.
Display Modes
Note: The loss of signal to the display will result in
a Diagnostic Code with the description ““NO DATA
LINK””.
Marine Power Display
Configuration And Operation
The Caterpillar Marine Power Display can be
programmed for three users with five screens for
each user. Three users can set up the Caterpillar
Marine Power Display for the preferences of each
user.
Illustration 26
g01768017
(1) Alarm acknowledgment
(2) Screen display
(3) Arrow keys
Day Mode – The normal display is a white
background with black letters and gauges. Press and
hold down screen display (2) in order to display the
slide bar that adjusts the contrast. Use arrow keys
(3) to adjust the contrast.
Night Mode – Press screen display (2) in order to
change the display. The display will have a black
background with red letters and gauges. Press and
hold down screen display (2) again in order to display
the slide bar that adjusts the brightness. Use arrow
keys (3) to adjust the brightness. Press screen
display (2) again in order to display the slide bar that
adjusts the contrast while the Backlight is on. Use
arrow keys (3) to adjust the contrast. Press screen
display (2) in order to exit the bar that adjusts the
contrast.
The buttons have multiple functions that are
dependent on the screen that is displayed.
Reference: See Operator Manual, LEBM0189,
“Marine Power Display” for the functions of the
buttons.
“System Information”
When power is first applied, scroll through the
screens until the “System Information” screen is
shown. This screen allows the following parameters
to be configured: “User Name”, “Unit Location”,
“Display Units”, and “Vessel Speed”. A menu
driven screen is located in the upper right corner
of the Marine Power Display screen. Press alarm
acknowledgment (1) in order to display the functions
of the buttons.
Reference: See Operator Manual, LEBM0189,
“Marine Power Display” in order to configure the
parameters.
36
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU7040-05
Gauge Screens
The gauge screens can be configured with three
different sizes of three types of gauges. Each user
can configure the screens to display the engine data
according to individual preferences. Each user can
configure the screens to display the engine data in
the following formats: analog, digital, and bar graph.
Note: Consult your Caterpillar Dealer in order to
customize the screens of the Caterpillar Marine
Power Display.
i01060008
Overspeed
SMCS Code: 1900; 1907; 1912; 7427
An overspeed condition is detected by the Electronic
Control Module (ECM). If the engine speed exceeds
2500 rpm, the ECM will shut off the electronic unit
injectors. The electronic unit injectors will be shut
off until the engine speed drops below 2500 rpm. A
diagnostic fault code will be logged into the ECM
memory and the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will indicate
a diagnostic fault code.
SEBU7040-05
37
Operation Section
Features and Controls
i01110843
Sensors and Electrical
Components
SMCS Code: 1900; 7400
Sensor Locations
g00104780
Illustration 27
(1) Fuel pressure sensor
(2) Oil pressure sensor
(3) Air pressure sensor for the inlet manifold
(4) Air temperature sensor for the inlet
manifold
(5) Coolant level sensor
(6) Fuel temperature sensor
(7) Coolant temperature sensor
(8) Primary speed/timing sensor
(9) Backup speed/timing sensor
(10) Atmospheric pressure sensor
Failure of Sensors
• Sensor output is open.
All Sensors
• Sensor output is shorted to “- battery” or “+ battery”.
A failure of any of the sensors may be caused by one
of the following malfunctions:
• Measured reading of the sensor is out of
specification.
38
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU7040-05
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
Atmospheric pressure sensor (10) measures the
atmospheric pressure in the crankcase. A signal is
sent to the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
Table 4
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
Operating pressure range for the
atmospheric pressure sensor
0 to 116 kPa
(0 to 16.8 psi)
Coolant Temperature Sensor
The coolant temperature sensor (7) monitors engine
coolant temperature. This feature is used for engine
system diagnostics with an output from the Electronic
Control Module (ECM). The output of the ECM can
indicate a high coolant temperature through a relay or
a lamp. In addition, the sensor activates the cold start
strategy which improves the startability of the engine.
Enabled – The system will monitor the input from the
coolant level sensor. The system is programmed with
this value when the engine is shipped by Caterpillar.
Disabled – The system will monitor the input from
the coolant level sensor. All of the diagnostics that
are associated with the coolant level sensor will be
disabled.
Failure of the Coolant Level Sensor
A failure of the coolant level sensor may occur under
the following conditions:
• The coolant level sensor is open.
• The coolant level sensor is shorted to ground.
• The coolant level sensor is shorted to supply.
The failure of the coolant level sensor will not cause
a shutdown of the engine or any horsepower change.
The minimum coolant temperature that will activate
the alarm is 106°C (223°F). The switch opens as the
coolant cools. A resetting procedure is not required.
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
Failure of the Coolant Temperature
Sensor
The engine oil pressure sensor (2) can detect engine
oil pressure for diagnostic purposes. The engine oil
pressure sensor sends a signal to the Electronic
Control Module (ECM).
If one of the following conditions exist, a failure of the
coolant temperature sensor may have occurred:
Low Oil Pressure Warning
• Sensor output is shorted to ground or supply.
The setpoint is dependent upon the engine rpm. The
fault will be active and logged only if the engine has
been running for more than 15 seconds.
• Measured reading of the coolant temperature is
Very Low Oil Pressure Warning
• Sensor output is open.
out of specification.
The ECM will detect the failure of the coolant
temperature sensor. The diagnostic lamp will
warn the operator about the status of the coolant
temperature sensor. The coolant temperature related
strategies will be disabled. The failure of the coolant
temperature sensor will not cause a shutdown of the
engine or any horsepower change.
Coolant Level Sensor
The coolant level sensor (5) monitors the engine
coolant level. The sensor will detect coolant level.
The coolant level sensor provides information to the
ECM. The output from the ECM can indicate a low
coolant level through a relay or a lamp. Coolant must
be added to the cooling system in order to correct
the condition. See the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for more information.
The system can be programmed with one of the
following options:
The very low oil pressure setpoint is dependent upon
the engine rpm. If Derate mode is selected, the ECM
will derate the engine power. The engine horsepower
will be limited.
Failure of the Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
If one of the following conditions exist, a failure of the
engine oil pressure sensor may have occurred:
• The engine oil pressure sensor is open.
• The engine oil pressure sensor is shorted to
ground or supply.
• Measured reading of the oil pressure is out of
specification.
SEBU7040-05
39
Operation Section
Features and Controls
The ECM will detect the failure of the engine oil
pressure sensor. The diagnostic lamp warns the user
about the status of the engine oil pressure sensor.
The oil pressure related strategies will be disabled.
The failure of the engine oil pressure sensor will not
cause a shutdown of the engine or any horsepower
change.
Fuel Pressure Sensor
Fuel pressure sensor (1) monitors the fuel filter outlet
pressure. Low fuel pressure or high fuel pressure
will not cause a shutdown of the engine or any
horsepower change. Fuel pressure that is outside of
the normal range will affect the engine performance.
If the fuel filter outlet pressure is low, the fuel filter
may need to be replaced.
Table 5
Fuel Pressure Sensor
Minimum allowable pressure of the
fuel transfer pump at full load speed
415 kPa
(60 psi)
Minimum allowable pressure in the fuel
manifold at full load speed
276 kPa
(40 psi)
Fuel Temperature Sensor
Fuel temperature sensor (6) monitors the fuel
temperature. Fuel temperature is monitored in order
to adjust the fuel rate so that the engine will deliver
consistent power. The fuel temperature sensor can
also be used to warn the operator of excessive fuel
temperature. A high fuel temperature can adversely
affect the engine performance.
Table 6
Fuel Temperature Sensor
Operating range of the fuel temperature
sensor for activation of the power
correction by the ECM
30 to 70°C
(86 to 158°F)
Note: The air temperature sensor for the inlet
manifold will be affected by the heat that is conducted
from the inlet manifold. This is true when the engine
is idling and after the engine is shut off. This warm-up
is due to the lack of coolant circulation through the
engine. The reading from the air temperature sensor
for the inlet manifold may be significantly higher
than the actual temperature of the air inside the inlet
manifold until the inlet manifold cools.
Air Pressure Sensor for the Inlet
Manifold
The air/fuel ratio control utilizes actual engine
speed and actual boost pressure (inlet manifold air
pressure) in order to control the transient smoke
level. When the throttle is increased and when the
engine demands more fuel, the fuel limit is controlled
in order to reduce overall smoke levels of the engine
exhaust.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls
injection timing and the amount of fuel that is injected.
Note: The air pressure sensor for the inlet manifold
(3) is located on the top right side of the engine. The
sensor is located in front of the air pressure sensor
for the inlet manifold.
The boost pressure is determined from the difference
in pressure between the air pressure sensor for the
inlet manifold and the atmospheric pressure sensor
(crankcase pressure).
Failure of the Air Pressure Sensor for the
Inlet Manifold
A failure of the air pressure sensor for the inlet
manifold may have occurred if any of the following
conditions are present:
• The output of the air pressure sensor for the inlet
manifold is open.
Air Temperature Sensor for the
Inlet Manifold
The air temperature sensor for the inlet manifold
(4) measures the inlet manifold air temperature.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors the
signal from the air temperature sensor for the inlet
manifold. The output of the ECM can indicate high
inlet manifold air temperature through a relay or
a lamp. The air temperature sensor for the inlet
manifold will not cause a shutdown of the engine or
any horsepower change.
• The output of the air pressure sensor for the inlet
manifold is shorted to ground or to supply.
• The reading of the air pressure sensor for the inlet
manifold is out of specification.
The ECM will detect the failure of the air pressure
sensor for the inlet manifold. The operator will be
warned of the problem through the diagnostic lamp.
The strategies that are related to the boost will be
disabled. The failure of the air pressure sensor for
the inlet manifold will not cause a shutdown of the
engine or any horsepower change.
40
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Speed/Timing Sensor
If the ECM can not receive a signal from the primary
speed/timing sensor (8), the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp
will indicate a diagnostic fault code which will be
logged in the ECM memory.
The backup speed/timing sensor (9) is used when
the ECM does not receive a signal from the primary
speed/timing sensor (8). The backup speed/timing
sensor will be used until the primary speed/timing
sensor is replaced.
Failure of the Speed/Timing Sensor
A failure of the speed/timing sensor may have
occurred if one of the following conditions occur:
• The output of the speed/timing sensor has opened.
• The speed/timing sensor is shorted to ground.
• The speed/timing sensor is shorted to supply.
• The speed/timing sensor is missing pulses.
• The speed/timing sensor has extra pulses.
Intermittent failure causes erratic engine control. The
ECM will detect a failure of the primary speed/timing
sensor. The operator will be warned through the
diagnostic lamp.
Marine Transmission Oil Pressure
Monitoring the transmission oil pressure is a
programmable option. The Electronic Control Module
(ECM) monitors transmission oil pressure with a
sensor. The sensor is located on the high pressure
side of the transmission. High transmission oil
pressure is detected for diagnostics, similar to the
monitoring of the engine oil pressure.
The output from the ECM monitors the transmission
oil pressure. The maximum allowable transmission
oil pressure is 700 to 2963 kPa (102 to 430 psi). The
output of the ECM can indicate high oil pressure
through a relay or a lamp.
Marine Transmission Oil
Temperature
The transmission oil temperature sensor measures
the temperature of the transmission oil. The Electronic
Control Module (ECM) uses this information to
diagnose a problem. The information is also used
to warn the operator of excessive transmission
temperature.
SEBU7040-05
The output from the ECM monitors the transmission
oil pressure. The maximum allowable transmission
oil temperature is 50 to 120°C (122 to 248°F). The
output of the ECM can indicate high transmission oil
temperature through a relay or a lamp.
SEBU7040-05
41
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
Engine Diagnostics
i01463253
Diagnostic Lamp
i01563934
Self-Diagnostics
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902; 7451
The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp is used to indicate the
existence of an active fault by flashing codes.
Caterpillar Electronic Engines have the capability to
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system
detects an active problem, the “DIAGNOSTIC”
lamp is activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved by
using the following components:
When the ignition switch is first turned on, the
“DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will go through the following
procedure:
• Caterpillar electronic service tools
• The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will turn off.
• “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp
• The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will come on again and
Note: The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp must be installed by
the OEM or by the customer.
• The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will come on and
the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will remain on for five
seconds. This checks the operation of the lamp.
the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will flash codes for any
active diagnostic codes. Not all diagnostic codes
have a unique flash code.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided by the
OEM for more information on retrieving engine
diagnostic codes.
• The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will turn off for five
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first. If a code
is active, the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will flash the flash
code at five second intervals.
A fault diagnostic code will remain active until the
problem is repaired. The electronic control module
will continue flashing the flash code at five second
intervals until the problem is repaired.
seconds.
• The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp repeats all active
diagnostic codes.
Logged codes represent the following items:
i02509503
• Recorded events
Diagnostic Flash Code
Retrieval
• Performance history
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
“Diagnostic” Lamp
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
Use the following procedure to retrieve the diagnostic
codes if the engine is equipped with a “DIAGNOSTIC”
lamp:
• Intermittent problems
Use the “DIAGNOSTIC” Lamp or a Caterpillar
electronic service tool to determine the diagnostic
flash code.
1. Turn the ignition key to the ON position. The
engine does not need to be started in order to view
codes. The engine does not need to be running
while the ignition switch is in the ON position.
The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp flashes on and off at
five second intervals.
42
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU7040-05
• When the ignition key is in the ON position, the
lamp is checked for proper operation. Active
codes are displayed at this time. Code 34 will
not be displayed.
Note: The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will flash for five
seconds. The lamp will stay on if there is an active
diagnostic code.
2. The diagnostic codes will always be flashed.
There is no toggle switch that will shut off the lamp.
3. The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will flash in order to
indicate a two-digit code. The sequence of flashes
represents the system diagnostic message.
Each digit of the two-digit code is determined by
counting the number of flashes. The lamp flashes
at a rate of two times per second. The lamp will
pause for one second between digits. The lamp
will pause for two seconds between codes.
Table 7 indicates the potential effect on the engine
performance with active flash codes. Table 7 also
forms a list of Electronic diagnostic codes and
descriptions.
For further information or assistance for repairs,
consult an authorized Caterpillar dealer.
Table 7
Diagnostic Flash Codes for 3176C and 3196 Marine Engines
Effect On Engine
Performance
Diagnostic Flash Code
Engine
Misfire
Low
Power
Reduced
Engine
Speed
Suggested Action by the Operator
Shut
down the
Engine(1)
Service(2)
Schedule
Service
for the
Engine.(3)
13
Fault of the Fuel Temperature Sensor (4)
X
17
Battery Voltage Below Normal(4)
X
21
Sensor Supply Voltage Above Normal or Below
Normal(4)
24
Oil Pressure Sensor Fault(4)
25
Fault of the Sensor for the Inlet Manifold Air Pressure(5)
26
X
X
X
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
X
X
Fault(4)
X
27
Coolant Temperature Sensor
X
28
Check The Adjustment of the Throttle Position Sensor.
32
Throttle Position Sensor Fault
34
Engine RPM Signal Fault
35
Engine Overspeed Warning
X
38
Fault of the Sensor for the Inlet Manifold Air
Temperature (4)
X
42
Check The Calibration of the Timing Sensor.
Fault(4)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(continued)
SEBU7040-05
43
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
(Table 7, contd)
Diagnostic Flash Codes for 3176C and 3196 Marine Engines
Effect On Engine
Performance
Diagnostic Flash Code
Engine
Misfire
Suggested Action by the Operator
Low
Power
Reduced
Engine
Speed
Shut
down the
Engine(1)
Service(2)
X
X
X
X
Schedule
Service
for the
Engine.(3)
46
Low Oil Pressure Warning
51
Intermittent Battery Power to the ECM
X
X
52
Personality Module Fault
X
X
X
X
53
ECM Fault
X
X
X
X
56
The Following Parameters Must Be Checked:
Customer and System
X
X
X
59
Incorrect Engine Software
X
X
X
61
High Coolant Temperature Warning
62
Low Coolant Level Warning
X
63
Low Fuel Pressure
X
64
Warning for High Inlet Manifold Air Temperature
X
65
Warning for High Fuel Temperature
X
67
Fault of the Marine Transmission Oil Temperature
X
72
Fault of Cylinder 1 or Cylinder 2
X
X
X
73
Fault of Cylinder 3 or Cylinder 4
X
X
X
74
Fault of Cylinder 5 or Cylinder 6
X
X
X
81
Warning for High Marine Transmission Oil Temperature
X
86
Warning for High Marine Transmission Oil Pressure
X
(1)
X
X
X
X
Operate the engine cautiously. Get immediate service. Severe engine damage may result.
(2) The operator should go to the nearest location for service.
(3) The operator should investigate the problem at a convenient time.
(4) The Diagnostic Flash Codes reduce the effectiveness of the Engine Monitoring feature.
(5) These Diagnostic Flash Codes may affect the system only under specific environmental conditions such as engine start-up at cold
temperatures, etc.
X
44
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
SEBU7040-05
i03840813
Fault Logging
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be
logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes that
have been logged in the memory of the ECM can
be retrieved with Caterpillar electronic service tools.
The codes that have been logged can be cleared
with Caterpillar electronic service tools. The codes
that have been logged in the memory of the ECM
will be automatically cleared from the memory after
100 hours. The following faults cannot be cleared
from the memory of the ECM without using a factory
password: overspeed, low engine oil pressure, and
high engine coolant temperature.
i00074446
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
If the diagnostic lamp starts to flash codes during
normal engine operation, the system has identified
a situation that is not within the specification. Check
the following conditions:
• Engine oil pressure
• Coolant temperature
• Coolant level
• Transmission oil pressure
• Transmission oil temperature
Use an electronic service tool to retrieve the
active diagnostic code. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for one of the following
necessary actions of the operator:
• Shut down the engine.
• Service the engine.
• Schedule service for the engine.
Note: If low engine oil pressure occurs, the mode
for engine monitoring is programmed to “DERATE”.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will limit the
maximum engine rpm until the oil pressure problem
is corrected. If oil pressure is registering in the normal
range, the engine may be operated at the rated
rpm and load. However, maintenance should be
performed as soon as possible. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected
as soon as possible. If the cause of the active
diagnostic code is repaired and there is only one
active diagnostic code, the active diagnostic code
will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information on the
relationship between these active diagnostic codes
and engine performance.
SEBU7040-05
45
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
i01456915
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
If the diagnostic lamp starts to flash codes during
normal engine operation and the diagnostic lamp
shuts off, an intermittent fault may have occurred. If
a fault has occurred, the fault will be logged into the
memory of the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
i05163210
Configuration Parameters
(Customer Specified
Parameters)
SMCS Code: 1000; 1900; 1901; 1902
Customer specified parameters that will enhance
the fuel efficiency can be programmed into the
Electronic Control Module (ECM). Some parameters
may affect engine operation. The customer may
program the following engine-related parameters
may be programmed with Cat electronic service
tools to customize engine operation to the specific
application:
• Low Idle
• Engine Rating
• Vessel ID
• Engine Monitoring Mode
• Maintenance Indicator Mode
• Customer Specified Password
• Engine Location
• Transmission Oil Set Points
• Air/Fuel Ratio
• Maximum Trolling Speed
• Coolant Level Sensor – Enable/Disable
The customer specified parameters can be changed
as often as needed. Password protection is provided
so that the customer can change the parameters.
Ensure that a record of the parameters is kept in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual. For detailed
instructions on programming the engine for optimum
performance and for optimum fuel economy, consult
your Cat dealer.
46
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU7040-05
Engine Starting
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
i04363611
Before Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400; 1450
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date.
• For the maximum service life of the engine, make
a thorough inspection before starting the engine.
Look for the following items: oil leaks, coolant
leaks, loose bolts, and trash buildup. Remove trash
buildup and arrange for repairs, as needed.
• Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and
for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for
cracks, breaks, and other damage.
• Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for
worn wires or frayed wires.
• Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water
separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve.
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been run for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air space will be
left in the housing. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
• All of the guards must be put in place. Check for
damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair
any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards
and/or missing guards.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the high current drain that
is created when the electric starting motor (if
equipped) is engaged. Check electrical cables
and check the battery for poor connections and
for corrosion.
• Reset any of the shutoff components or alarm
components.
• Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the
oil level between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL”
mark on the oil level gauge.
• Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant
level in the coolant recovery bottle (if equipped).
Maintain the coolant level to the “FULL” mark on
the coolant recovery bottle.
• If the engine is not equipped with a coolant
recovery bottle, maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe. If
the engine is equipped with a sight glass, maintain
the coolant level in the sight glass.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if
equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow
diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red
piston locks in the visible position.
• Open the valve for the sea water on the engine
jacket water heat exchanger (if equipped).
• Place the marine transmission in NEUTRAL.
i03954049
Cold Weather Starting
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1450; 1453; 1456; 1900
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
Refer to the Owners Manual of the OEM for your
type of controls. Use the following procedure in order
to start the engine.
SEBU7040-05
DO NOT USE ETHER (starting fluids) unless
specifically instructed to do so. If the engine is
equipped with an Air Inlet Heater (electrically or
fuel ignited manifold heater), DO NOT use ether
(starting fluids) at any time. The use could result
in engine damage and/or personal injury.
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
10°C (50°F) from the use of a cylinder block coolant
heater or from other means that are used to heat the
crankcase oil. Some engine applications use a jacket
water heater to improve startability. The jacket water
heater will help reduce white smoke and misfire
during start-up in cold weather.
NOTICE
When using ether (starting fluid), follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully, use it sparingly and spray
it only while cranking the engine. Excessive ether can
cause piston and ring damage. Use ether (starting fluid) for cold weather starting purposes only.
For engines that are not equipped with an Air Inlet
Heater, use ether when temperatures are below 0°C
(32°F). If the engine is equipped with an injection
system for starting fluid, crank the engine. Depress
the ether switch for 3 seconds. Additional injections
may be necessary in order to start the engine.
Note: If the engine has not been run for several
weeks, fuel may have drained. Air may have moved
into the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters have
been changed, some air will be left in the filter
housing. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” (Maintenance Section)
for more information on priming the fuel system.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
47
Operation Section
Engine Starting
The “CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will
flash while the engine is cranking. The lamp
should turn off after proper engine oil pressure
is achieved. If the lamp fails to flash, notify your
authorized Caterpillar dealer. If the lamp continues
to flash, the Electronic Control Module (ECM) has
detected a problem in the system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diagnostic
Flash Code Retrieval” for more information.
3. Push the start button or turn the ignition switch to
the START position in order to crank the engine.
Do not push down or hold the throttle down
while the engine is cranked. The system will
automatically provide the correct amount of fuel
that is needed to start the engine.
4. If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds,
release the start button, or the ignition switch. Wait
for 2 minutes in order to allow the starting motor to
cool before attempting to start the engine again.
NOTICE
Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds after the
engine starts. Do not increase engine speed until the
oil pressure gauge indicates normal. If oil pressure
is not indicated on the gauge within 15 seconds, DO
NOT operate the engine. STOP the engine, investigate and correct the cause.
Note: The “CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC” lamp
may come on after the engine is started. If the lamp
comes on, the Electronic Control Module (ECM) has
detected a problem with the system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diagnostic
Flash Code Retrieval” for more information.
5. Allow the engine to idle for approximately
3 minutes. Idle the engine until the water
temperature gauge has begun to rise. Check all
gauges during the warm-up period.
Note: The oil pressures and fuel pressures should
be in the normal range on the instrument panel. Do
not apply a load to the engine or increase engine rpm
until the oil pressure gauge indicates at least normal
pressure. Inspect the engine for leaks and/or unusual
noises.
1. Place the transmission in NEUTRAL. Disengage
the flywheel clutch in order to allow the engine to
start faster and reduce the drain on the batter.
Starting the Engine
2. Turn the ignition switch to the ON position.
SMCS Code: 1000; 1450
i05164655
This start procedure may be used for all engines that
are not equipped with an Air Inlet Heater regardless
of ambient temperature.
48
Operation Section
Engine Starting
Refer to the Owner's Manual of the OEM for your
type of controls. Use the following procedure to start
the engine.
1. Place the transmission in NEUTRAL. Disengage
the flywheel clutch in order to allow the engine to
start faster. This also reduces the draining of the
battery.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
The “CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will
flash while the engine is cranking. The lamp
should turn off after proper engine oil pressure
is achieved. If the lamp fails to flash, notify your
authorized Caterpillar dealer. If the lamp continues
to flash, the Electronic Control Module (ECM) has
detected a problem in the system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diagnostic
Flash Code Retrieval” (Operation Section) for
more information.
SEBU7040-05
Engine Starting with the Air
Starting Motor
1. Open the drain valve and close the drain valve in
order to drain condensation and oil carryover. This
drain valve is located on the bottom of the air tank.
2. Check the air supply pressure. The air starting
motor requires a minimum of 620 kPa (90 psi) air
pressure to operate properly. The maximum air
pressure must not exceed 1034 kPa (150 psi).
3. Push the start button or turn the keyswitch to the
START position in order to crank the engine.
Do not push down or hold the throttle down
while the engine is cranked. The system will
automatically provide the correct amount of fuel
that is needed to start the engine.
4. If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds,
release the start button, or the keyswitch. Wait for
2 minutes in order to allow the starting motor to
cool before attempting to start the engine again.
Illustration 28
g00104406
Air Valve
3. Press the air valve or press the start button for
the engine in order to crank the engine. After the
engine starts, release the air valve or release the
start button.
Note: The “CHECK ENGINE/DIAGNOSTIC” lamp
may come on after the engine is started. If this occurs,
the ECM has detected a problem with the system.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval” (Operation
Section) for more information.
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
NOTICE
Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds after the
engine starts. Do not increase engine rpm until the oil
pressure gauge indicates normal. If oil pressure is not
indicated on the gauge within 15 seconds, DO NOT
operate the engine. STOP the engine, investigate and
correct the cause.
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
5. Allow the engine to idle for approximately
3 minutes. Idle the engine until the water
temperature gauge has begun to rise. Check all
gauges during the warm-up period.
Note: Oil pressures and fuel pressures should be in
the normal range on the instrument panel. Do not
apply a load to the engine or increase engine rpm
until the oil pressure gauge indicates at least normal
pressure. Inspect the engine for leaks and/or unusual
noises.
i03640789
SMCS Code: 1000; 1401; 1402; 1900
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
If the installation is not equipped with a backup
battery system, it may be necessary to start the
engine from an external electrical source.
For information on troubleshooting the charging
system, refer to Special Instruction, REHS0354,
“Charging System Troubleshooting”.
SEBU7040-05
Many batteries which are considered unusable are
still rechargeable. After jump starting, the alternator
may not be able to fully recharge batteries that
are severely discharged. The batteries must be
charged to the proper voltage with a battery charger.
For information on testing and charging, refer to
the Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
Procedure”.
NOTICE
Use a battery that is sourced with the same voltage as
the electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach the negative battery cable last
and remove the negative battery cable first.
When an external electrical source is used to start the
engine, turn the control switch on the generator set to
the “OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF
before attaching the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before jump start cables are attached to the engine that is being started.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
charging or starting source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the charging or
starting source. Connect the other negative end
of the jump start cable to the stalled engine block
or to the chassis ground. This procedure helps to
prevent potential sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
4. Charge the batteries. The engine will not continue
to run after starting if the batteries have not been
charged.
5. Start the engine.
6. Immediately after the stalled engine is started,
disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order.
Refer to the Electrical Schematic for your engine.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for more information.
49
Operation Section
Engine Starting
i01646248
After Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
Note: Ensure that the self test for the monitoring
system (if equipped) is completed before operating
the engine under load.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
50
Operation Section
Engine Operation
SEBU7040-05
Engine Operation
i05073629
Engine Operation
SMCS Code: 1000
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The engine can reach normal operating temperature
in less than the time for a walk-around inspection of
the engine.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after
the engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low-power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine
at no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Engine Speed Governing
The engine speed governor monitors the throttle
position and the actual engine speed in order to help
control the following items: engine speed, response,
torque output, and smoke limiting. The engine speed
governor also helps to maintain constant engine
speed.
The engine speed is controlled by the governing
of the fuel injection duration of the electronic unit
injectors. Throttle input is used to calculate the
desired engine speed.
Engine Synchronization
Engine synchronization connects the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) of the port engine and the
ECM of the starboard engine to a common throttle.
Engine synchronization increases the convenience
of the operator and the control of the vessel. This
feature is standard in marine applications.
The engine synchronization enables either throttle
to be used in a backup situation. The operator can
use a switch to transfer the control of both engines to
either the port throttle lever or starboard throttle lever.
Refer to the Installation Guide for more information
on engine synchronization.
Engine and Marine Transmission
Operation
Transmission Selector Lever
Power is transferred from the engine through the
marine transmission to the propeller shaft. The
marine transmissions can be operated by using one
of the following methods:
• Mechanical
• Hydraulic
• Pneumatic
• Electrical
A control valve directs the flow of oil to the forward
clutch or to the reverse clutch. The control valve
is operated by a transmission selector lever. The
transmission selector lever can be manually operated
or remotely operated.
Normally, the marine transmission is operated from
the pilot house. The controls of the pilot house
must be adjusted in order to permit full travel of the
transmission selector lever. This will also permit full
engagement of the clutch plates.
When the remote controls are properly adjusted,
periodic clutch adjustment is not required.
Moving and Getting Underway
For the best performance and the maximum service
life, shift the transmission in the following manner:
1. Fully engage the marine transmission selector
lever in the desired direction of travel.
2. Wait for at least 3 seconds in order to allow the
clutch to engage completely before increasing the
rpm of the engine.
3. Gradually increase engine rpm.
NOTICE
Operate the marine transmission controls ONLY with
the engine running. A rotating propeller shaft with an
engaged clutch is not lubricated sufficiently when the
engine is not running, and may be damaged.
SEBU7040-05
Docking and Reverse Travel
NOTICE
Do not shift across the NEUTRAL position without a
few seconds delay. The engine torque must be able
to overcome the propeller and drive inertia, the marine transmission inertia, and the propeller slip stream
torque.
A direct through-shift will cause severe shock loads
to the engine, marine transmission and hull. Also, it
can cause the engine to reverse its rotation (run backwards). If the engine reverses rotation, the engine and
marine transmission oil pumps will be running opposite normal rotation. Oil will not reach the bearings,
and severe engine damage will occur.
When reversing direction of travel (propeller rotation),
reduce engine rpm to low idle. Place the transmission
selector lever in the NEUTRAL position for approximately one second to allow the clutch plates to completely disengage and the propeller to stop turning.
Move the transmission selector lever to the other direction and allow one second for the clutch to become
fully engaged before increasing engine rpm.
1. Reduce engine rpm to a low idle.
2. Move the transmission selector lever to the
NEUTRAL position. Wait for one second so that
the clutch plates will disengage and the propeller
will stop turning.
3. Move the transmission selector lever to the
engaged position. Wait for at least one second
so that the clutch will completely engage before
the engine rpm is increased. The rotation of the
marine transmission should not be changed at full
engine rpm.
Stopping the Vessel Temporarily
Use the following procedure for a temporary stop
while the engine is running:
1. Reduce engine rpm to low idle.
2. Shift the marine transmission to the NEUTRAL
position.
3. To resume travel, shift into the FORWARD position
or the REVERSE position at low idle. Wait for at
least one second so that the clutch will completely
engage before the engine rpm is increased.
Gradually increase the engine rpm.
51
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Slow Vessel Mode
Activating the slow vessel mode switch reduces the
low idle to 550 rpm. The slow vessel mode should
only be used for the following operations:
• Docking
• Tight maneuvering
• Slow vessel operation in no-wake zones or similar
circumstances
NOTICE
Excessive use of the slow vessel mode may cause
battery discharge from some alternators.
Trolling Mode Strategy
This strategy limits the engine speed in order to help
avoid high loads on the transmission during trolling.
During trolling, moving the engine throttle to full
throttle will cause the speed of the engine to change
from a programmable low idle speed to a maximum
programmable trolling speed. The maximum
programmable trolling speed is a customer specified
parameter.
Table 8
Programmable Range
Minimum
Default
Maximum
900 rpm
900 rpm
1200 rpm
The trolling mode will only be activated or deactivated
by the Electronic Control Module (ECM) when engine
speed is within 50 rpm of the programmed low
idle engine speed. The trolling mode can also be
activated when the engine is not running.
i01060957
Fuel Conservation Practices
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Caterpillar's design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
52
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. The fuel lines should be repaired if there is
evidence of failure.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbochargers are operating
correctly so that the proper air/fuel ratio is
maintained. Clean exhaust indicates proper
functioning.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One defective battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belt should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• When possible, utilize the heat of the jacket water
system and the energy from the heat of the exhaust
system.
• Keep keel coolers, heat exchangers, and water
pumps clean. Keep the components in good repair.
• Ensure that all of the accessory pumps are
repaired. The pumps should operate efficiently.
• Do not exceed the maximum oil level.
• Never operate without water temperature
regulators.
Water temperature regulators regulate the
temperature of the coolant. Water temperature
regulators help to provide efficient operating
temperatures. Cold engines consume excessive
fuel. Water temperature regulators also help prevent
engine overheating.
Cruising Speed
The recommended cruising speed of the engine is
300 to 400 rpm below the rated speed of the engine.
SEBU7040-05
Operating at the recommended cruising speed will
help to provide the maximum engine service life and
the most economical operation.
SEBU7040-05
53
Operation Section
Transmission Operation
Transmission Operation
i05163215
Transmission Operation
SMCS Code: 3030; 3101
Transmission Selector Lever
Power is transferred from the engine through the
marine transmission to the propeller shaft. The
marine transmissions can be operated by using one
of the following methods:
• Mechanical
• Hydraulic
• Pneumatic
• Electrical
A control valve directs the flow of oil to the forward
clutch or to the reverse clutch. The control valve
is operated by a transmission selector lever. The
transmission selector lever can be manually operated
or remotely operated.
Normally, the marine transmission is operated from
the pilot house. The controls of the pilot house
must be adjusted in order to permit full travel of the
transmission selector lever. This will also permit full
engagement of the clutch plates.
When the remote controls are properly adjusted,
periodic clutch adjustment is not required.
Moving and Getting Underway
For the best performance and the maximum service
life, shift the transmission in the following manner:
1. Fully engage the marine transmission selector
lever in the desired direction of travel.
2. Wait for at least 3 seconds in order to allow the
clutch to engage completely before increasing the
rpm of the engine.
3. Gradually increase engine rpm.
NOTICE
Operate the marine transmission controls ONLY with
the engine running. A rotating propeller shaft with an
engaged clutch is not lubricated sufficiently when the
engine is not running, and may be damaged.
54
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU7040-05
Cold Weather Operation
i02237624
When No. 2 diesel fuel is used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
• Starting aids
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1280
• Engine coolant heaters
The following fuels are the grades that are available
for Caterpillar engines:
• Fuel heaters
• No. 1
• No. 2
• Blend of No. 1 and No. 2
No. 2 diesel fuel is the most commonly used fuel.
Either No. 1 diesel fuel or a blend of No. 1 and No. 2
is best suited for cold weather operation.
Quantities of No. 1 diesel fuel are limited. No. 1 diesel
fuels are usually available during the months of the
winter in the colder climates. During cold weather
operation, if No. 1 diesel fuel is not available, use No.
2 diesel fuel, if necessary.
There are three major differences between No. 1 and
No. 2 diesel fuel. No. 1 diesel fuel has the following
properties:
• Lower cloud point
• Lower pour point
• Lower rating of kJ (BTU) per unit volume of fuel
When No. 1 diesel fuel is used, a decrease in power
and in fuel efficiency may be noticed. Other operating
effects should not be experienced.
The cloud point is the temperature when a cloud of
wax crystals begins to form in the fuel. These crystals
can cause the fuel filters to plug. The pour point is
the temperature when diesel fuel will thicken. The
diesel fuel becomes more resistant to flow through
fuel pumps and through fuel lines.
Be aware of these values when diesel fuel is
purchased. Anticipate the average ambient
temperature of the area. Engines that are fueled in
one climate may not operate well if the engines are
moved to another climate. Problems can result due
to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the type of fuel that
is being used.
• Engine oil pan heaters
• Fuel line insulation
For more information on cold weather operation,
see Special Publication, SEBU5898, “Cold Weather
Recommendations”.
SEBU7040-05
55
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
i00078412
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1280
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after operating the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,
and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent
water and/or sediment from being pumped from the
fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank.
Fuel Filters
It is possible that a primary fuel filter is installed
between the fuel tank and the engine fuel inlet.
The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel
filter is important in cold weather operation. The
primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most
common components that are affected by cold fuel.
The micron rating and the location of the primary fuel
filter should only be low enough to protect the fuel
transfer pump. A primary filter with a low micron rating
can be plugged by wax crystals in cold weather.
Note: Refer to the Parts Manual for this engine in
order to determine the part numbers that are required
for the fuel filters.
56
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU7040-05
Engine Stopping
i01057256
Manual Stop Procedure
i03353845
Emergency Stopping
SMCS Code: 1000; 7418
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
Emergency Stop Button (If
Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1000; 7418
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
If the engine has been operating at high rpm and/or
high loads, run at low idle for at least three minutes
to reduce and stabilize internal engine temperature
before stopping the engine.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Follow the OEM recommendations
or the instructions for stopping the vessel.
1. Reduce the engine rpm to low idle. Shift the
marine transmission to the NEUTRAL position
and secure the vessel.
2. Increase the engine rpm to no more than 50
percent of the rated rpm for three to five minutes
in order to cool the engine. Reduce the engine
rpm to low idle.
Illustration 29
g00104303
Typical emergency stop button
The emergency stop button is in the OUT position for
normal engine operation. Push the emergency stop
button. The engine will not start when the button is
locked. Turn the button clockwise in order to reset.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” for the location and the
operation of the emergency stop button.
3. Check the marine transmission oil level. Follow
the instructions for the marine transmission or the
OEM of the vessel for the procedure to maintain
the marine transmission oil level.
4. Turn the start switch to the OFF position.
SEBU7040-05
57
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
i02702528
After Stopping Engine
SMCS Code: 1000
• Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back into
the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL” mark on
the oil level gauge.
• If necessary, repair any leaks.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments or tighten
loose bolts.
• Note the service hour meter reading. Perform
the maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic that
is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure
to do so can cause engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
Maintain the cooling system at 13 mm (0.5 inch)
from the bottom of the pipe for filling. The cooling
system can also be maintained between the
“COLD FULL” mark and the “LOW ADD” mark on
the coolant recovery bottle (if equipped).
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check
the coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, drain the
keel cooling system (if equipped).
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
58
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU7040-05
Maintenance Section
Table 11
Cat Lubricants
Refill Capacities
i00072100
Refill Capacities
Diesel
Engine
Oil-Ultra Low
Sulfur
Cat DEO-ULS
Cat Cold Weather
DEO-ULS
Diesel
Engine Oil
Cat DEO
SMCS Code: 1000; 1348; 1395; 7560
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for more
information.
Table 9
Refill Capacities (Approximate)
Engine Crankcase Standard
Sump
Liters
Quarts
28
30
Cooling System
SAE 10W-30
SAE 0W-40
SAE 15W-40
SAE 10W-30
Note: Non-Cat commercial oils are second choice
oils for your engine.
NOTICE
Caterpillar does not warrant the quality or performance of non-Cat fluids.
The three current Caterpillar ECF specifications are:
Cat ECF-1-a, Cat ECF-2, and Cat ECF-3. Each
higher Cat ECF specification provides increased
performance over lower Cat ECF specifications.
A commercial oil must meet the following standards
to be considered an equivalent of a Cat Diesel
Engine Oil:
Table 12
Cat Engine Crankcase Fluids (ECF) Definitions
Table 10
Refill Capacities (Approximate)
Compartment or System
Engine and Expansion
(1)
SAE 15W-40
Commercial Oil
Lubrication System
Compartment or System
Viscosity Grade
Tank(1)
Liters
Quarts
45
48
The following capacities are for engines that have expansion
tanks that are installed in the factory. Cooling systems which
are installed by the OEM for the vessel may differ. Refer to
the OEM specifications.
Cat Performance
Requirement
Cat ECF Specifications
Requirements
Cat ECF-3
API CJ-4 Oil Category performance
requirements
API CI-4 / CI-4 PLUS Oil Category
performance requirements
Cat ECF-2
Oils of sulfated ash > 1.50
percent are not allowed
i05163682
Fluid Recommendations
API CH-4 Oil Category
performance requirements
SMCS Code: 1280; 1348; 1395; 7560
Diesel Engine Oil
Cat Diesel Engine Oil (Cat DEO)
Due to significant variations in the quality and in
the performance of commercially available oils,
Caterpillar makes the following recommendations:
Passing standard Cat C13 engine
test per API requirements
Cat ECF-1-a
For oils that are between 1.30
percent and 1.50 percent sulfated
ash, passing one additional
Cat 1P SCOTE test (“ASTM
D6681”) is required
Oils of sulfated ash > 1.50
percent are not allowed
SEBU7040-05
59
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
In selecting oil for any engine application, both of the
following must be satisfied: the oil viscosity and the
category of oil performance or the specification for oil
performance . Using only one of these parameters
will not sufficiently define oil for an engine application.
The proper SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the following temperatures: minimum ambient
temperature during cold engine start-up and
maximum ambient temperature during engine
operation.
Refer to Table 13 (minimum temperature) in order
to determine the required oil viscosity for starting a
cold engine.
Refer to Table 13 (maximum temperature) in order
to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Note: Use the highest oil viscosity that is available to
meet the requirement for the temperature at start-up.
Table 13
Lubricant Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures for Cat Diesel Engines
Oil Type and Performance Requirements
Viscosity Grade
Cat ECF-1-a, Cat ECF-2, Cat ECF-3
°C
°F
Min
Max
Min
Max
SAE 0W-30
−40
30
−40
86
Cat Cold Weather DEO-ULS
Cat ECF-1-a, Cat ECF-2, Cat ECF-3
SAE 0W-40
−40
40
−40
104
Cat DEO-ULS
Cat ECF-1-a, Cat ECF-2, Cat ECF-3
SAE 5W-30
−30
30
−22
86
Cat DEO-ULS SYN
Cat DEO
Cat ECF-1-a, Cat ECF-2, Cat ECF-3
SAE 5W-40
−30
50
−22
122
Cat ECF-1-a, Cat ECF-2, Cat ECF-3
SAE 10W-30
−18
40
0
104
Cat DEO-ULS
Cat DEO
SAE 10W-40
−18
50
0
122
SAE 15W-40
−9.5
50
15
122
Note: A cold soaked start occurs when the engine
has not been operated recently, allowing the oil
to become more viscous due to cooler ambient
temperatures. Supplemental heat is recommended
for cold soaked starts below the minimum ambient
temperature. Supplemental heat may be necessary
for cold soaked starts that are above the minimum
temperature depending on factors such as parasitic
load.
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels
The use of Cat S·O·S Services oil analysis is
recommended strongly for determining oil life.
The minimum required Total Base Number (TBN)
for oil depends on the fuel sulfur level. The TBN for
new oil is typically determined by the “ASTM D2896”
procedure. For direct injection engines that use
distillate fuel, the following guidelines apply:
60
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU7040-05
S·O·S Services Oil Analysis
Table 14
TBN recommendations for applications
in Cat Engines
Fuel Sulfur Level
percent (ppm)
Cat Engine Oils (1)
TBN of
Commercial
Engine Oils
0.05 percent
(500ppm)
Cat DEO-ULS
Cat DEO
Min 7
>0.05-0.2
percent (>5002000 ppm) (2)
Cat DEO-ULS
Cat DEO
Min 7
Above 0.1
percent (above
1000ppm) (3)(4)
Caterpillar has developed a maintenance tool
that evaluates oil degradation. the maintenance
management also detects the early signs of wear
on internal components. The Caterpillar tool for oil
analysis is called S·O·S oil analysis and the tool
is part of the S·O·S Services program. S·O·S oil
analysis divides oil analysis into four categories:
• Component wear rate
• Oil condition
Cat DEO
(5)
Min 10
(1)
Cat DEO-ULS applies to Cat DEO-ULS SAE 15W-40,
SAE10W-30 and Cat DEO Cold Weather SAE 0W-40. Cat
DEO applies to Cat DEO SAE 15W-40 and SAE 10W-30.
(2) Use of an oil analysis program to determine oil drain intervals
is strongly recommended if fuel sulfur is between 0.05% (500
ppm) and 0.5% (5000 ppm).
(3) Use of an oil analysis program to determine oil drain intervals
is required if fuel sulfur is above 0.5% (5000 ppm).
(4) For fuels of sulfur levels that exceed 1.0 percent (10,000
ppm), refer to TBN and engine oil guidelines given in Special
Publication, SEBU6251, “Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations”, “Engine Oil”.
(5) Cat DEO-ULS may be used if an oil analysis program is
followed. High fuel sulfur levels may reduce the oil drain
intervals.
Note: For PC (Precombustion Chamber) diesel
engines, the minimum new oil TBN must be 20 times
the fuel sulfur level.
For regions in the world where fuels of high sulfur
that exceed 1.0 percent (10,000 ppm (mg/kg))
are available and allowed for use by law, use the
following guidelines:
• Choose multigrade oil with the highest TBN that
meets one of these specifications: Cat ECF-1-a,
Cat ECF-2, or Cat ECF-3.
• Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that
the oil analysis includes the condition of the oil
and a wear metal analysis. Cat S·O·S Services oil
analysis is required.
For more information, refer to Special Publication,
SEBU6251, “Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations”.
• Oil contamination
• Identification of oil
These four types of analysis are used to monitor
the condition of your equipment. The four types of
analysis will also help you identify potential problems.
A properly administered S·O·S oil analysis program
will reduce repair costs and the program will lessen
the impact of downtime.
The S·O·S Oil Analysis program uses a wide range
of tests to determine the condition of the oil and the
crankcase. Guidelines that are based on experience
and a correlation to failures have been established
for these tests. Exceeding one or more of these
guidelines could indicate serious fluid degradation
or a pending component failure. A trained person at
your Cat dealership should make the final analysis.
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Cat
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
in order to obtain additional information about S·O·S
Services oil analysis. You can also contact your local
Cat dealer.
Fuel
Note: Caterpillar strongly recommends the filtration
of fuel through a fuel filter with a rating of four
microns(c) absolute or less. This filtration should be
located on the device that dispenses the fuel to the
fuel tank for the engine. This filtration should also be
located on the device that dispenses fuel from the
bulk storage tank. Series filtration is recommended.
SEBU7040-05
61
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
(Table 15, contd)
NOTICE
In order to meet expected fuel system component life,
4 micron(c) absolute or less secondary fuel filtration is
required for all Cat Diesel Engines that are equipped
with unit injected fuel systems. All current Cat Diesel
Engines are factory equipped with Cat Advanced Efficiency 4 micron(c) absolute fuel filters.
Caterpillar Specification for Distillate Fuel for
Nonroad Diesel Engines
Specifications
Requirements
Copper Strip
Corrosion
No. 3
maximum
Caterpillar does not warrant the quality or performance of non-Cat fluids and filters.
Distillation
For more information, refer to Special Publication,
SEBU6251, “Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations” or consult your Cat dealer for
further information.
Note: Diesel fuel used to operate a Cat Marine
Diesel Engine must also meet the “Cat Specification
for Distillate Diesel Fuel for Off-Highway Diesel
Engines”. The acceptability of these fuels for use is
determined on a case by case basis. A complete
fuel analysis is required. Consult your Cat dealer for
further information.
NOTICE
The footnotes are a key part of the “Caterpillar Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel for Off-Highway Diesel
Engines” Table. Read ALL of the footnotes.
Table 15
“ISO
2160”
“D86”
“ISO
3405”
“D93”
“ISO
2719”
“D6468”
No
equivalent
test
“D287”
No
equivalent
test
6 °C (10 °F)
minimum
below ambient
temperature
“D97”
“ISO
3016”
(3)
“D5453”
or
“D2622”
ISO
20846
or
ISO
20884
-
-
10% at 282 °C
(540 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C
(680 °F)
maximum
legal limit
Thermal
Stability
Minimum
of 80%
reflectance
after aging for
180 minutes
at 150 °C
(302 °F)
API Gravity (2)
Pour Point
Sulfur
30 minimum
45 maximum
Caterpillar Specification for Distillate Fuel for
Nonroad Diesel Engines
Specifications
Requirements
ASTM
Test
Aromatics
35% maximum
“D1319”
“ISO
3837”
Ash
0.01%
maximum
(weight)
“D482”
“ISO
6245”
Carbon
Residue on
10% Bottoms
0.35%
maximum
(weight)
Cetane
Number (1)
Cloud Point
40 minimum
(DI engines)
35 minimum
(PC engines)
The cloud
point must
not exceed
the lowest
expected
ambient
temperature.
ISO Test
“D524”
“ISO
4262”
“D613”
or
“D6890”
“ISO
5165”
“D2500”
“ISO
3015”
Kinematic
Viscosity
ISO Test
“D130”
Flash Point
Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel
ASTM
Test
1.4 cSt
minimum
and 20.0 cSt
maximum
as delivered
to the fuel
injection
pumps
1.4 cSt
minimum
and 4.5 cSt
maximum as
delivered to
the rotary
fuel injection
pumps
Water and
Sediment
0.05%
maximum
“D1796”
or
“D2709”
“ISO
3734”
Water
0.05%
maximum
“D6304”
No
equivalent
test
(continued)
(continued)
62
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU7040-05
Fuel Additives
(Table 15, contd)
Caterpillar Specification for Distillate Fuel for
Nonroad Diesel Engines
Specifications
Requirements
ASTM
Test
ISO Test
Sediment
0.05%
maximum
(weight)
“D473”
“ISO
3735”
Gums and
Resins (4)
10 mg per 100
mL maximum
“D381”
“ISO
6246”
(1)
Alternatively, to ensure a minimum cetane number of 35 (PC
engines), and 40 (DI engines), distillate diesel fuel should have
a minimum cetane index of 37.5 (PC engines), and 44.2 (DI
engines) when the “ASTM D4737-96a” test method is used. A
fuel with a higher cetane number may be required for operation
at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
(2) Via standards tables, the equivalent kg/m 3 (kilograms per cubic
meter) using the “ASTM D287” test method temperature of
15.56° C (60° F) for the minimum API gravity of 30 is 875.7
kg/m3, and for the maximum API gravity of 45 is 801.3 kg/m 3.
(3) Certain Cat fuel systems and engine components can operate
on fuel with a maximum sulfur content of 3%. Contact your Cat
dealer for guidance about appropriate maintenance intervals
and fluids for engines operating on fuel with sulfur levels
between 0.1% and 3%.
(4) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
Biodiesel
A biodiesel blend of up to 20 percent may be
used in the engine when the fuel blend meets
the recommendations in table 16 and meets the
recommendations in Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Biodiesel”. A blend of greater than 20 percent
biodiesel may be acceptable in some cases. See
your Cat dealer for more information.
Note: A complete Cat S·O·S Services oil analysis
program is recommended strongly when using
biodiesel blends above 5 percent.
Table 16
Biodiesel Blends for Cat Commercial Diesel Engines
Biodiesel blend
stock
Final blend
Distillate diesel
fuel used for
blend
Caterpillar
biodiesel
specification,
“ASTM D6751”
or “EN14214”
B20: “ASTM
D7467” and
“API” gravity
30-45
Caterpillar
distillate diesel
fuel specification,
“ASTM D975” or
“EN590”
Cat Diesel Fuel Conditioner
Cat Diesel Fuel Conditioner is a proprietary
formulation that has been extensively tested for
use with distillate diesel fuels for use in Cat Diesel
Engines. Cat Diesel Fuel Conditioner is a high
performance diesel fuel conditioner for use with
lower quality fuels that do not meet the minimum
requirements of any of the following:
• “Caterpillar Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel”
• National Conference on Weights and Measures
(NCWM) Premium Diesel definition (refer to the
2004 or newer National Institute of Standards &
Technology (NIST) Handbook).
• EN590 (non-arctic)
• ASTM D975
Cat Diesel Fuel Conditioner is the only fuel
conditioner/additive available to the end user that is
tested and approved by Caterpillar for use in Cat
Diesel Engines.
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Cat
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
for information about the use of Cat Diesel Fuel
Conditioner.
Cat Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Note: Cat Diesel Fuel System Cleaner is the only
fuel system cleaner available to the end user that is
tested and approved by Caterpillar for use in Cat
Diesel Engines.
Cat Diesel Fuel System Cleaner is a proven
high performance detergent product designed
specifically for cleaning deposits that form in the fuel
system. Deposits in the fuel system reduce system
performance and can increase fuel consumption. Cat
Diesel Fuel System Cleaner addresses the deposits
formed due to the use of degraded diesel fuel, poor
quality diesel fuel, and diesel fuel containing high
quantities of high molecular weight compounds. Cat
Diesel Fuel System Cleaner addresses deposits
formed due to the use of biodiesel, biodiesel blends,
and biodiesel that does not meet the appropriate
quality specifications. Continued use of Cat Diesel
Fuel System Cleaner is proven to inhibit the growth
of new deposits.
SEBU7040-05
Caterpillar strongly recommends that Cat Diesel
Fuel System Cleaner be used with biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. Cat Diesel Fuel System Cleaner is
suitable for use with biodiesel/biodiesel blends that
meet Caterpillar biodiesel recommendations and
requirements. Not all fuel cleaners are suitable for
use with biodiesel/biodiesel blends. Read and follow
all applicable label usage instructions. Also, refer to
Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Cat Commercial
Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”, “Distillate
Diesel Fuel”, article and also refer to the “Biodiesel”
article, which includes Caterpillar biodiesel
recommendations and requirements.
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
There are many different types of fuel additives that
are available to use. Caterpillar does not generally
recommend the use of fuel additives.
In special circumstances, Caterpillar recognizes
the need for fuel additives. Use fuel additives with
caution. The additive may not be compatible with
the fuel. Some additives may precipitate. This action
causes deposits in the fuel system. The deposits
may cause seizure. Some additives may plug fuel
filters. Some additives may be corrosive, and some
additives may be harmful to the elastomers in the
fuel system. Some additives may damage emission
control systems. Some additives may raise fuel sulfur
levels above the maximum levels that are allowed
by the following agencies: EPA and other regulatory
agencies. Contact your fuel supplier for those
circumstances when fuel additives are required.
Your fuel supplier can make recommendations for
additives to use and for the proper level of treatment.
Note: For best results, your fuel supplier should treat
the fuel when additives are needed.
Cooling System
Note: Refer to Special Publication , SEBU6251, “Cat
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
for complete information about the proper fluids for
use in the cooling system.
63
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
The cooling system operates under pressure
which is controlled by the radiator pressure cap.
Removing the cap while the system is hot may allow the escape of hot coolant and steam, causing
serious burns.
Before you remove the radiator cap, allow the system to cool. Use a thick cloth and turn the radiator
cap slowly to the first stop to allow pressure to escape before fully removing the cap.
Avoid contact with coolant.
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely in order to prevent damage caused by freezing coolant.
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at
the proper operating temperature. Cooling system
problems can develop without water temperature
regulators. Removing the regulators allows some
coolant to bypass the radiator, potentially causing
overheating.
64
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU7040-05
Coolant Recommendations
Table 17
Coolant Recommendations for use in Cat Diesel Engines
Service
Hours(1)(2)(3)
Required
Maintenance
12000 hours
or 6 years
Add Cat ELC
Extender at 6000
service hours
or one half of
service life
Cat ELI (Cat Extended Life Inhibitor)
12000 hours
or 6 years
Add Cat ELC
Extender at 6000
service hours
or one half of
service life
Cat EC-1 specification and “ASTM D6210” and
Organic Additive Technology (OAT) based on a combination
of a monocarboxylic acid and a dicarboxylic acid
Phosphate, borate, and silicate free
Tolyltriazole: minimum typical concnetration of 900 ppm
Nitrite: minimum typical concentration of 500
ppm in new coolants
6000 hours
or 6 years
Add Extender at
3000 service hours
or one half of
service life
3000 hours
or 3 years
SCA
(Supplemental
coolant additive)
at maintenance
intervals
“ASTM D6210” and
Min requirements for fully
Nitrite (as NO2) concentration: Minimum of 1200 ppm (70
formulated Heavy Duty grains/US gal) and maximum of 2400 ppm (140 grains/US gal)
Commercial coolants
Silicon concentration: minimum of 100 ppm and
maximum of 275 ppm
3000 hours
or 2 years
SCA at
maintenance
intervals
“ASTM D4985” and(1)
Min requirements for
Nitrite (as NO2) concentration: Minimum of 1200 ppm (70
Commercial coolants
grains/US gal) and maximum of 2400 ppm (140 grains/US gal)
requiring SCA precharge
Silicon concentration: minimum of 100 ppm and
maximum of 275 ppm
3000 hours
or 1 year
SCA at initial
fill and SCA at
maintenance
intervals
Recommendations
Product
Cat ELC (Cat Extended Life Coolant)
Preferred
Min requirements
Acceptable
Cat DEAC (Cat Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant)
(1)
New Coolants at 50 volume percent diluted. Coolants that are prediluted at the coolant manufacturer must be diluted with water that
meets Reagent 4 “ASTM D1193” requirements.
(2) Maintain the in-service coolant at the given limits.
(3) When referring to the service hours, use the interval that occurs first. These coolant change intervals are only achievable with annual
S·O·S Services Level 2 coolant sampling analysis.
Table 18
Special Requirements
Cat C7-C32 Marine Engines with heat exchangers
Cat diesel engines equipped with air-to-air
aftercooling (ATAAC)
Minimum of 30% glycol is required. 50% Glycol
is recommended. Water alone or water with SCA
or with ELI is NOT allowed.
SEBU7040-05
NOTICE
Use Only Approved SCAs and Extenders
Conventional coolants require the maintenance addition of SCA throughout the expected life of the
coolants. Do NOT use an SCA with a coolant unless
approved specifically by the coolant supplier. The
coolant manufacturer is responsible for ensuring
compatibility and acceptable performance.
To help ensure expected performance, EC-1 coolants
require the one time maintenance addition of an extender at coolant service mid-life. Do not use an extender with a coolant unless the extender has been
approved specifically for use by the coolant manufacturer. The coolant manufacturer is responsible for ensuring compatibility and acceptable performance.
Failure to follow these recommendations can result in
shortened cooling system component life.
Cat ELC can be recycled into conventional coolants.
For more information, refer to Special Publication,
SEBU6251, “Cat Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations”.
Cat S·O·S Services Coolant Analysis
Testing the engine coolant is important to ensure
that the engine is protected from internal cavitation
and corrosion. The analysis also tests the ability of
the coolant to protect the engine from boiling and
freezing. S·O·S coolant analysis can be done at your
Cat dealer. Cat S·O·S coolant analysis is the best
way to monitor the condition of your coolant and your
cooling system. S·O·S coolant analysis is a program
that is based on periodic samples.
Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids
Recommendations” or contact your Cat dealer for
additional information concerning the S·O·S program
for coolant analysis.
65
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
66
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
SEBU7040-05
Maintenance
Recommendations
1. Stop the engine.
2. Wait for ten minutes.
i02909163
System Pressure Release
SMCS Code: 1250; 1300; 1350; 5050
Coolant System
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Fuel Lines (If Equipped)
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that
are between the high pressure fuel pump and the
high pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly charged
with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air pressure from the fuel system.
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
SEBU7040-05
67
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i05161771
Maintenance Interval Schedule
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500
Ensure that all safety information, warnings,
and instructions are read and understood before
any operation or any maintenance procedures
are performed. The user is responsible for the
performance of all maintenance including the
following procedures: all adjustments, the use of
proper lubricants, fluids, filters, and the installation
of new components due to normal wear and aging .
The performance of this product may be diminished if
proper maintenance intervals and procedures are not
followed. Components may experience accelerated
wear if proper maintenance intervals and procedures
are not followed.
Note: Use whichever of the following that occurs
first in order to determine the maintenance intervals:
fuel consumption, service hours, and calendar time
. Before each consecutive interval is performed, all
maintenance from the previous intervals must be
performed.
Products that operate in severe operating conditions
may require more frequent maintenance.
When Required
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ...............................
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Coolant - Change ..................................................
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ..............................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace ........................................
Engine Oil Level Gauge - Calibrate ......................
Engine Storage Procedure - Check ......................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
68
70
71
71
74
78
83
87
88
Daily
Coolant Level - Check .......................................... 74
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 80
Engine Oil Level - Check ...................................... 82
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ................................................................... 89
Fumes Disposal Filter Service Indicator - Check .. 93
Transmission Oil Level - Check .......................... 100
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 101
Between 250 Service Hours and 1000 Service
Hours (or between first and fourth oil change)
Engine Valve Lash - Check ................................... 87
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect ........................... 87
Every 1900 L (500 US gal) of Fuel or 50
Service Hours
Zinc Rods - Inspect/Replace ............................... 102
PM Level 1 - Every 9500 L (2500 US gal) of
Fuel or 250 Service Hours or 1 Year
Aftercooler Condensate Drain Valve Inspect/Clean ......................................................
Alternator - Inspect ...............................................
Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect .............................
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ..........................
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ..............................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add .................................................
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean .....................
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ..................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ..............................................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ..............
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain .................
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
68
69
69
70
71
76
81
84
85
88
90
91
94
Every 28 500 L (7500 US gal) of Fuel or 750
Service Hours or 1 Year
Fumes Disposal Filter Element - Replace ............ 92
Every 38 000 L (10 000 US gal) of Fuel or
1000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ............................... 68
Heat Exchanger - Inspect ..................................... 94
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 100
PM Level 2 - Every 114 000 L (30 000 US gal)
of Fuel or 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace ...........
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect .................
Engine Mounts - Inspect .......................................
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect ......
Engine Valve Lash - Check ...................................
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect ...........................
75
77
82
87
87
87
Every 190 000 L (50 000 US gal) of Fuel or
5000 Service Hours
Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 100
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 102
Every 380 000 L (100 000 US gal) of Fuel or
10 000 Service Hours
Overhaul Considerations ...................................... 97
68
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Condensate Drain Valve - Inspect/Clean
SEBU7040-05
i02456287
i04363377
Aftercooler Condensate Drain
Valve - Inspect/Clean
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
SMCS Code: 1063-042-DN
Note: An aftercooler that circulates fresh water
or treated water may require cleaning less often
than an aftercooler which circulates salt water.
The maintenance interval for an aftercooler which
circulates fresh water or treated water should be
evaluated when the aftercooler is cleaned and tested
after the first 1000 hours of engine operation. The
interval will vary depending on operating conditions.
SMCS Code: 1064-070; 1064-081
Clean the Aftercooler Core
Remove the core. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Aftercooler - Remove” for the
procedure.
Illustration 30
g00103601
(1) Drain lines. (2) Adapter. (3) Valve. (4) Plunger. (5) Valve seat.
The turbocharger boost pressure forces plunger (4)
to move down to valve seat (5). The plunger must
close against the seat at a pressure of 27.5 kPa
(4 psi). When the engine is stopped, the absence
of boost pressure allows the plunger to rise to the
open position, which allows condensation from the
aftercooler to drain out.
The plunger must be able to move freely in order to
close the system when the engine is running. The
plunger must be able to move freely in order to allow
condensation to drain from the aftercooler when
the engine is stopped. Residue from normal engine
operation could cause the plunger to stick.
1. Remove valve (3) from adapter (2). Check the
valve in order to determine if plunger (4) moves
freely. If the plunger does not move easily, clean
the valve with solvent.
2. Remove drain lines (1). Check the lines for
plugging. Clean the lines, if necessary. Pressure
air or a flexible rod with a small diameter can be
used to clean the lines.
3. Reassemble the aftercooler condensate drain
valve. Refer to the Specifications, SENR3130,
“Torque Specifications” for the correct torque
values .
1. Turn the aftercooler core on one side in order
to remove debris. Remove the debris that is
accessible.
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleaner
can attack the internal metals of the core and cause
leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of
cleaner.
2. Back flush the core with cleaner.
Caterpillar recommends the use of Hydrosolv
liquid cleaner. Table 19 lists Hydrosolv liquid
cleaners that are available from your Cat dealer.
Table 19
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1)
Part
Number
Description
1U-5490
Hydrosolv 4165
19 L (5 US gallon)
174-6854
Hydrosolv 100
19 L (5 US gallon)
(1)
Size
Use a two to five percent concentration of the cleaner at
temperatures up to 93°C (200°F). Consult your Cat dealer for
more information.
3. Steam clean the core in order to remove any
residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.
Remove any other trapped debris from the inside
and from the outside of the core.
Note: Do not use high pressure when the fins are
cleaned. High pressure can damage the fins.
4. Wash the core with hot, soapy water.
SEBU7040-05
5. Flush the core thoroughly in order to remove
residue and remaining debris. Flush the core with
clean, fresh water until the water that is exiting the
core is clear and free of debris.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
nozzle is deadheaded.
6. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
the reverse direction of the normal flow.
Test the Aftercooler Core
1. Inspect the core for trapped debris and
cleanliness. If necessary, remove the debris and
repeat the cleaning procedure.
69
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect
i02676048
Alternator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1405-040
Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection
of the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and proper battery charging. Inspect the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure proper battery performance and/or
proper performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
proper operation. If the batteries are properly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. The battery will
not crank the engine, even if the engine is warm.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time
or if the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully charge. A battery with a low charge will
freeze more easily than a battery with a full charge.
2. Inspect the core for damage and perform a
pressure test in order to detect leaks. Many shops
that service radiators are equipped to perform
pressure tests.
Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect
3. Plug both ends of the aftercooler core and
pressurize the core to 205 kPa (30 psi). Submerge
the core in water. Look for bubbles which are
being emitted from the core. The bubbles are
evidence of leaks.
Impellers require periodic inspection and seals
require periodic inspection. Impellers have a service
life that is limited. The service life depends on the
engine operating conditions.
4. If any leaks are found, do not attempt to repair the
core.
Install a core that is clean and a core that passes the
pressure test in step 3. Refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly Manual, “Aftercooler - Install” for the
procedure.
For more information on cleaning the core, consult
your Cat dealer.
i01059376
SMCS Code: 1371-040; 1371
Inspect the components of the pump more frequently
when the pump is exposed to debris, sand, or other
abrasive materials. Inspect the components if the
pump is operating at a differential pressure of more
than 103 kPa (15 psi).
Check the following components for wear and check
the following components for damage:
• Cam
• Impeller
• Seals
• Wear plate
If wear is found or if damage is found, replace
the components which are worn or replace the
components which are damaged. Use the proper
repair kit for the pump. Refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly for more information on servicing the
auxiliary water pump.
70
Maintenance Section
Battery - Replace
SEBU7040-05
i02153996
Battery - Replace
8. Connect the cable from the ground plane to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
SMCS Code: 1401-510
i02601752
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
SMCS Code: 1401-535-FLV
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
1. Turn the key start switch to the OFF position.
Remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the
245-5829 Coolant Battery Tester Refractometer.
2. Turn OFF the battery charger. Disconnect the
charger.
3. Keep the batteries clean.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the ground plane. Disconnect
the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the starting motor.
Disconnect the cable from the POSITIVE “+”
battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the key start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of baking soda and
1 L (1 qt) of clean water
• A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L
(1 qt) of clean water
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with 5N-5561
Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or MPGM.
SEBU7040-05
71
Maintenance Section
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
i01492654
Adjustment
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
SMCS Code: 1401; 1402-029
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
Illustration 31
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
1. Remove the belt guard.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal at the
battery that goes to the start switch. Ensure that
the cable cannot contact the terminal. When four
12 volt batteries are involved, the negative side of
two batteries must be disconnected.
3. Tape the leads in order to help prevent accidental
starting.
4. Proceed with necessary system repairs. Reverse
the steps in order to reconnect all of the cables.
g02533519
(1) Adjusting nuts
(2) Mounting bolt
2. Loosen the mounting bolt and the adjusting nuts.
3. Turn the adjusting nuts to increase or decrease
the belt tension.
4. Tighten adjusting nuts . Tighten the mounting bolt
. Refer to the Specifications, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for the proper torques.
5. Reinstall the belt guard.
If new belts are installed, check the belt adjustment
again after 30 minutes of engine operation at the
rated rpm.
i05163782
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
Replacement
SMCS Code: 1357-025; 1357-040; 1357-510
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only one
belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to carry
more load because the older belts are stretched. The
additional load on the new belt could cause the new
belt to break.
Inspection
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belt for wear and for cracking. Check the belt tension.
Adjust the belt tension in order to minimize belt
slippage. Belt slippage will decrease the life of the
belt.
To check the belt tension, apply 110 N (25 lb) of force
midway between the pulleys. A correctly adjusted
belt will deflect 13 to 19 mm (0.50 to 0.75 inch).
Refer to the Service Manual for more information on
the procedures for the following topics: belt removal
and installation of the belt.
i04538352
Coolant - Change
SMCS Code: 1350-044; 1352; 1395-044; 1395
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” for the correct intervals
for changing the coolant.
72
Maintenance Section
Coolant - Change
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Drain the Cooling System
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Cat Dealer
Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication,
PECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools Catalog” for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids
on Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Ensure that the engine will not start when the
cooling system is drained.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
3. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).
If the cooling system is not equipped with a drain
valve, remove one of the drain plugs.
Note: If equipped, be sure to drain the heater and
any related supply and return lines.
Allow the coolant to drain.
SEBU7040-05
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by
Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Cat dealer or
consult Cat Dealer Service Tool Group:
Inside USA: 1-800-542-TOOL
Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL
Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL
International: 1-309-578-7372
Flush
Systems Filled with Cat ELC, Cat ELI, or a
Conventional Coolant that Meets the Cat
EC-1 Requirements and the Standards
of ASTM D6210
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on the proper
torques.
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. Close the drain valve
(if equipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the
drain plugs. Refer to the Specifications Manual,
SENR3130, “Torque Specifications” for more
information on the proper torques.
SEBU7040-05
Systems Filled with Cat DEAC,
Conventional Coolant which does not
Meet the Cat EC-1 Requirements, or
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA)
and Water
3. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
4. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on the proper
torques.
73
Maintenance Section
Coolant - Change
9. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. If equipped, be sure to
flush the heater and any related supply and return
lines. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean
the drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on the proper
torques.
Fill the Cooling System
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
5. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean
water and Cat Fast Acting Cooling System
Cleaner.
1. Fill the cooling system. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for more information on cooling system
specifications Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities” for
information about the capacity of the cooling
system. Do not install the cooling system filler cap.
6. Choose 1 of the following options.
• Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per 15 L (4 US gal)
of the cooling system capacity.
• For cooling systems with heavy deposits or
plugging, add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per
3.8 to 7.6 L (1 to 2 US gal) of the cooling system
capacity.
7. Install the cooling system filler cap.
8. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
of 30 minutes. For cooling systems with heavy
deposits or plugging, run the engine for 90
minutes. The coolant temperature should be at
least 82 °C (180 °F).
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
to completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for 1 minute in order to purge the air from the
cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sight
glass (if equipped).
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap.
Only install the used filler cap if the gasket is not
damaged. Use a 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump to
pressure test a reinstalled cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
74
Maintenance Section
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
SEBU7040-05
i04862631
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
SMCS Code: 1352-544-NL
Note: Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” (Cooling System)
for the maintenance interval for the addition of the
coolant extender.
Cat ELC (Extended Life Coolant) and Cat ELI
(Extended Life Inhibitor) do not require the frequent
additions of any supplemental cooling additives. The
Cat ELC Extender will only be added one time.
Note: Do not use conventional supplemental coolant
additive (SCA) with Cat ELC or with Cat ELI.
Check the cooling system only when the engine is
stopped and cool.
1. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. If necessary, drain enough coolant from the
cooling system in order to add the Cat ELC
Extender.
3. Add Cat ELC Extender according to the
requirements for the cooling system capacity.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities” for the coolant capacity.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gaskets on the cooling system filler cap. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.
For further information, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, , “Fluid Recommendations”.
i04550124
Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam
and alkali.
At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot
and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.
Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to
relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
touch with your bare hand.
Coolant Level - Check
SMCS Code: 1395-082
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
Engines That Are Equipped with a
Coolant Recovery Tank
Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when
the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing
burns.
Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.
Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Cat Dealer
Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication,
PECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools Catalog” for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids
on Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Illustration 32
g00103638
(1) Filler cap
(2) “COLD FULL” mark
(3) “LOW ADD” mark
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark (2) on the coolant recovery tank.
2. Loosen filler cap (1) slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
SEBU7040-05
75
Maintenance Section
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace
3. Pour the proper coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities” for information about coolants.
Do not fill the coolant recovery tank above “COLD
FULL” mark (2).
4. Clean filler cap (1) and the receptacle. Reinstall
the filler cap and inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines That Are Not Equipped
with a Coolant Recovery Tank
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the proper level in the sight glass.
i04240223
Coolant Temperature
Regulator - Replace
SMCS Code: 1355-510
Replace the water temperature regulator before the
water temperature regulator fails. Replacing the
water temperature regulator reduces the chances for
unscheduled downtime.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a
partially opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear
of the cylinder liner.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
NOTICE
Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
system and require operating the engine with a water
temperature regulator installed.
If the water temperature regulator is installed incorrectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder head
damage. Ensure that the new water temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that
the water temperature regulator vent hole is open.
Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or
cylinder head surface.
Illustration 33
g00103639
Typical filler cap gaskets
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect
the condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
76
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Cat Dealer
Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication,
PECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools Catalog” for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids
on Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Note: If replacing only the water temperature
regulator, only drain the coolant to a level that is
below the water temperature regulator housing.
Refer to two articles in the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Water Temperature Regulator Remove and Water Temperature Regulator - Install”
for the replacement procedure or consult your Cat
dealer.
i02456600
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
SMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081
SEBU7040-05
Use the 8T-5296 Coolant Conditioner Test Kit
or use the 4C-9301 Coolant Conditioner Test Kit
in order to check the concentration of the SCA.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information.
Water and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended eight percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296
Coolant Conditioner Test Kit. Refer to the Special
Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar Commercial
Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations” for more
information.
S·O·S Coolant Analysis
S·O·S coolant samples can be analyzed at your
Caterpillar dealer. S·O·S Coolant Analysis is a
program that is based on periodic samples.
Level 1
Level 1 is a basic analysis of the coolant. The
following items are tested:
• Glycol Concentration
• Concentration of SCA
• pH
• Conductivity
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Note: Test the concentration of the Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) or test the SCA concentration
as part of an S·O·S Coolant Analysis.
Test for SCA Concentration
Coolant and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
The results are reported, and recommendations
are made according to the results. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for information on the benefits of
managing your equipment with an S·O·S Coolant
Analysis.
Level 2
This level coolant analysis is recommended when the
engine is overhauled. Refer to this Operations and
Maintenance Manual, “Overhaul Considerations” for
further information.
SEBU7040-05
77
Maintenance Section
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
i03175962
Crankshaft Vibration Damper
- Inspect
SMCS Code: 1205-040
Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure
of the crankshaft vibration damper can increase
torsional vibrations. This can result in damage to
the crankshaft and to other engine components. A
deteriorating damper can cause excessive gear train
noise at variable points in the speed range.
The damper is mounted to the crankshaft which is
located behind the belt guard on the front of the
engine.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
Illustration 34
g01134779
Viscous vibration damper
3. Add the proper amount of SCA. Refer
to the Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids
Recommendations” for more information on SCA
requirements.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gaskets of the cooling system filler cap. If the
gaskets are damaged, replace the old cooling
system filler cap with a new cooling system filler
cap. Install the cooling system filler cap.
Typical example
(1) Crankshaft pulley
(2) Weight
(3) Case
Inspection
Inspect the damper for the following conditions:
• The damper is dented, cracked, or fluid is leaking
from the damper.
• The paint on the damper is discolored from
excessive heat.
• The damper is bent.
• The bolt holes are worn or there is a loose fit for
the bolts.
78
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
• The engine has had a crankshaft failure due to
torsional forces.
Replace the damper if any of these conditions exist.
SEBU7040-05
Note: Use the information about cleaning the air
cleaner element for maintenance of the vacuum
regulator filter.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Removal and Installation
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace” for information
on removing and on installing the belt. Refer to
the Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Vibration
Damper and Pulley - Remove and Install” for
information on removing and installing the damper.
i05163931
Engine Air Cleaner
Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace
(Air Cleaner Element and
Vacuum Regulator Filters)
SMCS Code: 1051; 1054-040; 1054-070; 1054-510
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Your Cat dealer has the proper air
cleaner elements for your application. Consult your
Cat dealer for the correct air cleaner element.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for
accumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirt
and debris, as needed.
• Operating conditions (dust, dirt, and debris) may
require more frequent service of the air cleaner
element.
• The air cleaner element may be cleaned up to six
times if the air cleaner element is properly cleaned
and inspected.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Replace the dirty paper air cleaner elements with
clean air cleaner elements. Before installation,
thoroughly check the air cleaner elements for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.
Illustration 35
g03317242
(1) Vacuum regulator filter element
(2) Engine air cleaner element
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Illustration 36
g03317283
(3) Cover
(4) Air cleaner element
(5) Turbocharger inlet
1. Remove the air cleaner cover. Remove the air
cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Air Cleaner Elements”.
2. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep out
dirt.
3. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
SEBU7040-05
79
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
4. Remove the tape for the air inlet. Install an air
cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
5. Install the air cleaner cover.
6. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Cleaning the Air Cleaner Elements
NOTICE
Caterpillar recommends certified air filter cleaning services that are available at Caterpillar dealers. The
Caterpillar cleaning process uses proven procedures
to assure consistent quality and sufficient filter life.
• Pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
Pressurized air can be used to clean air cleaner
elements that have not been cleaned more than two
times. Pressurized air will not remove deposits of
carbon and oil. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi).
Observe the following guidelines if you attempt to
clean the filter element:
Do not tap or strike the filter element in order to remove dust.
Do not wash the filter element.
Use low pressure compressed air in order to remove
the dust from the filter element. Air pressure must not
exceed 207 kPa (30 psi). Direct the air flow up the
pleats and down the pleats from the inside of the filter
element. Take extreme care in order to avoid damage
to the pleats.
Do not use air filters with damaged pleats, gaskets, or
seals. Dirt entering the engine will cause damage to
engine components.
The air cleaner element can be used up to six times if
the element is properly cleaned and inspected. When
the air cleaner element is cleaned, check for rips or
tears in the filter material. The air cleaner element
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
Use clean air cleaner elements while dirty elements
are being cleaned.
NOTICE
Do not clean the air cleaner elements by bumping or
tapping. This could damage the seals. Do not use elements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Damaged elements will allow dirt to pass through. Engine
damage could result.
Visually inspect the air cleaner elements before
cleaning. Inspect the air cleaner elements for damage
to the seal, the gaskets, and the outer cover. Discard
any damaged air cleaner elements.
There are two common methods that are used to
clean air cleaner elements:
Illustration 37
g00281692
Note: When the air cleaner elements are cleaned,
always begin with the clean side (inside) in order to
force dirt particles toward the dirty side (outside).
Aim the hose so that the air flows inside the element
along the length of the filter to prevent damage to the
paper pleats. Do not aim the stream of air directly at
the air cleaner element. Dirt could be forced further
into the pleats.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Air Cleaner Elements”.
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for cleaning
air cleaner elements which require daily cleaning
because of a dry, dusty environment. Cleaning with
pressurized air is recommended prior to vacuum
cleaning. Vacuum cleaning will not remove deposits
of carbon and oil.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Air Cleaner Elements”.
80
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
Inspecting the Air Cleaner Elements
SEBU7040-05
Place the air cleaner element into a box for storage.
For identification, mark the outside of the box and
mark the air cleaner element. Include the following
information:
• Date of cleaning
• Number of cleanings
Store the box in a dry location.
i00072989
Illustration 38
g00281693
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 7452-040
Inspect the clean, dry air cleaner element. Use a 60
W blue light in a dark room or in a similar facility.
Place the blue light in the air cleaner element. Rotate
the air cleaner element. Inspect the air cleaner
element for tears and/or holes. Inspect the air cleaner
element for light that may show through the filter
material. If it is necessary in order to confirm the
result, compare the air cleaner element to a new air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Do not use an air cleaner element that has any tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Do not use an air
cleaner element with damaged pleats, gaskets, or
seals. Discard damaged air cleaner elements.
Illustration 40
Storing Air Cleaner Elements
g00105037
Service Indicator
If an air cleaner element that passes inspection will
not be used, the air cleaner element can be stored
for future use.
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential
gauge for inlet air pressure. The gauge reads the
difference between inlet air pressure before the air
cleaner element and after the air cleaner element.
As the air cleaner element becomes dirty, the
pressure differential rises. If your engine is equipped
with a different type of service indicator, follow
the recommendations for the vessel or follow the
recommendations in the air cleaner OEM in order to
service the air cleaner element.
A service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
Illustration 39
g00281694
Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as a
protective covering for storage. An air flow restriction
may result. To protect against dirt and damage,
wrap the air cleaner elements in Volatile Corrosion
Inhibited (VCI) paper.
SEBU7040-05
81
Maintenance Section
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean
Service the Air Cleaner Element
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
Illustration 41
g00103777
Typical Service Indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or replaced when the
yellow diaphragm enters the red zone or the red
piston locks in the visible position. If the service
indicator appears red at any time, clean the air
cleaner element or install a new air cleaner element.
Test the Service Indicator
Service indicators are important instruments.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the
air can split the filter material. Unfiltered air will
drastically accelerate internal engine wear. Your
Caterpillar dealer has air filter elements in order to
service this unit. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
the correct air cleaner element.
If the service indicator appears red at any time, clean
the air cleaner element or install a new air cleaner
element. Clean the air cleaner element or replace the
air cleaner element at 250 hour intervals.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
more information on servicing the air cleaner element.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
i01102895
should reset in less than three pushes.
engine is accelerated to the engine rated rpm.
The yellow core should latch approximately at the
greatest vacuum that is attained.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be plugged.
Engine Crankcase Breather Clean
SMCS Code: 1317-070
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty (if
applicable). Replace the service indicator annually
regardless of the operating conditions. Replace the
service indicator when the engine is overhauled, and
whenever major engine components are replaced.
Note: When a new service indicator is installed,
excessive force may crack the top of the service
indicator. Tighten the service indicator to a torque
of 2 N·m (18 lb in).
Illustration 42
Typical example
(1) Hose clamp
(2) Four bolts
(3) Breather cover
g00580871
82
Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Inspect
SEBU7040-05
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
If the crankcase breather is not maintained on a
regular basis, the crankcase breather will become
plugged. A plugged crankcase breather will cause
excessive crankcase pressure that may cause
crankshaft seal leakage.
1. Loosen hose clamp (1) and remove the hose from
breather cover (3).
2. Loosen four bolts (2) for the breather cover and
remove breather cover (3).
3. Remove the breather element and wash the
breather element in solvent that is clean and
nonflammable. Allow the breather element to dry.
Illustration 43
g00105043
(1) Oil level gauge. (2) Oil filler cap.
4. Install a breather element that is clean and dry.
Install breather cover (3) and install bolts (2).
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual
for the proper torques.
5. Install the hose. Install hose clamp (1). Refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the
proper torques.
i02456872
Engine Mounts - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1152-040; 1152
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
proper bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Improper mounting of the engine
Illustration 44
g00110310
(Y) “ADD” mark. (X) “FULL” mark.
1. Maintain the oil level between “ADD” mark (Y) and
“FULL” mark (X) on oil level gauge (1). Do not fill
the crankcase above “FULL” mark (X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove oil filler cap (2) and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Reinstall the oil filler cap.
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to Special Publication, SENR3130,
“Torque Specifications” for the recommended
torques. Refer to the OEM recommendations for
more information.
i00573217
Engine Oil Level - Check
SMCS Code: 1348-535-FLV
Check the oil level after the engine has stopped.
SEBU7040-05
83
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Level Gauge - Calibrate
i01708884
Engine Oil Level Gauge Calibrate
SMCS Code: 1326-524; 1326
3. Pour 20.8 L (22 qt) of engine oil into the engine
crankcase. Allow enough time for the engine oil to
drain into the engine crankcase. Approximately 20
minutes should be allowed. Check the engine oil
level. Wait for a few minutes. Check the engine
oil level again. Proceed after the engine oil level
stops changing.
4. Mark the engine oil level on the engine oil level
gauge. Use a marking pen in order to engrave
“ADD” mark (Y).
Illustration 45
g00882677
(Y) “ADD” mark. (X) “FULL” mark. (Z) “Effective Length”.
(Z-LH Service Engines) 642 mm (25.3 inch)
(Z-RH Service Engines) 479 mm (18.9 inch)
The engine is shipped with an engine oil level gauge
that is not marked. The engine oil level gauge is not
marked because the angle of the installation and
the side for servicing the engine oil can be different
for each engine. The angle of the installation and
the side for servicing the engine oil will affect “ADD”
mark (Y) and “FULL” mark (X) that is engraved on
the engine oil level gauge.
The engine oil level gauge should be calibrated after
the engine is installed in the vessel. Use the following
procedure in order to verify that “ADD” mark (Y)
is correct. Use the following procedure in order to
establish actual “FULL” mark (X) on the engine oil
level gauge. Refer to table 20 and table 21 in order
to determine the location for the “ADD” and “FULL”
marks for a particular installation.
5. Pour 3.8 L (4 qt) of engine oil into the engine
crankcase. Allow enough time for the engine oil to
drain into the engine crankcase.
6. Mark the engine oil level on the engine oil level
gauge. Use a marking pen in order to engrave
“FULL” mark (X).
7. Start the engine. Ensure that the lubrication
system is filled. Inspect the lubrication system for
leaks.
8. Stop the engine and allow enough time for the
engine oil to drain into the engine crankcase.
9. Check the engine oil level on the engine oil level
gauge. If the engine oil level is not at calibrated
“FULL” mark (X), fill the sump to the calibrated
“FULL” mark. Record the amount of oil that is
added. This additional engine oil is the system
capacity plus the engine oil in the sump. This
additional engine oil is the amount of engine oil
that is required when the engine oil is changed.
Record the engine oil capacity for the system for
future changes of the engine oil.
NOTICE
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
more information on lubricant specifications.
3176C and 3196 Marine Engine Dipstick Markings
1. Operate the engine until normal operating
temperature is achieved. Stop the engine.
Remove one of the drain plugs for the engine
crankcase. Allow the engine oil to drain.
• The engine is installed with a 0 degree slant angle.
2. Remove the used engine oil filter. Install the new
engine oil filter. Install the drain plug for the engine
crankcase. Tighten the drain plug for the engine
crankcase to 70 ± 14 N·m (50 ± 10 lb ft).
Note: The engine may be equipped with auxiliary
engine oil filters. Volumes that are different from the
standard amounts may be required. Refer to the
OEM specifications.
Note: Use the following tables if these conditions
exist:
• No auxiliary engine oil filters are used on the
engine.
84
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
SEBU7040-05
Table 21
Table 20
3176C and 3196 Marine Engine
Oil Gauge Markings (mm)
LH Service (1)
3176C and 3196 Marine Engine
Oil Gauge Markings (mm)
RH Service (1)
Tilt Angle(2)
LH Service
“ADD” Mark
Y
LH Service
“FULL” Mark
X
Tilt Angle(2)
RH Service
“ADD” Mark
Y
RH Service
“FULL” Mark
X
-15°
120 mm (4.7 inch)
133 mm (5.2 inch)
-15°
25 mm (1.0 inch)
44 mm (1.7 inch)
-13°
113 mm (4.4 inch)
125 mm (4.9 inch)
-13°
37 mm (1.5 inch)
55 mm (2.2 inch)
-11°
110 mm (4.3 inch)
124 mm (4.9 inch)
-11°
48 mm (1.9 inch)
65 mm (2.6 inch)
-9°
106 mm (4.2 inch)
118 mm (4.6 inch)
-9°
57 mm (2.2 inch)
73 mm (2.9 inch)
-7°
100 mm (3.9 inch)
110 mm (4.3 inch)
-7°
65 mm (2.6 inch)
81 mm (3.2 inch)
-5°
93 mm (3.7 inch)
106 mm (4.2 inch)
-5°
72 mm (2.8 inch)
88 mm (3.5 inch)
-3°
87 mm (3.4 inch)
99 mm (3.9 inch)
-3°
79 mm (3.1 inch)
96 mm (3.8 inch)
-1°
82 mm (3.2 inch)
93 mm (3.7 inch)
-1°
86 mm (3.4 inch)
102 mm (4.0 inch)
0°
79 mm (3.1 inch)
89 mm (3.5 inch)
0°
89 mm (3.5 inch)
106 mm (4.2 inch)
1°
73 mm (2.9 inch)
85 mm (3.3 inch)
1°
94 mm (3.7 inch)
110 mm (4.3 inch)
3°
68 mm (2.7 inch)
81 mm (3.2 inch)
3°
101 mm (4.0 inch)
116 mm (4.6 inch)
5°
63 mm (2.5 inch)
74 mm (2.9 inch)
5°
107 mm (4.2 inch)
122 mm (4.8 inch)
7°
54 mm (2.1 inch)
67 mm (2.6 inch)
7°
115 mm (4.5 inch)
125 mm (4.9 inch)
9°
47 mm (1.9 inch)
61 mm (2.4 inch)
9°
121 mm (4.8 inch)
136 mm (5.4 inch)
11°
127 mm (5.0 inch)
140 mm (5.5 inch)
11°
38 mm (1.5 inch)
52 mm (2.0 inch)
13°
134 mm (5.3 inch)
145 mm (5.7 inch)
13°
30 mm (1.2 inch)
43 mm (1.7 inch)
15°
135 mm (5.3 inch)
150 mm (5.9 inch)
15°
19 mm (0.7 inch)
36 mm (1.4 inch)
(1)
(2)
(Z-LH Service Engines) 642 mm (25.3 inch).
The tilt angles in this chart are the engine installation angles
for the vessel. A positive angle indicates that the front of the
engine is raised.
(1)
(2)
(Z-RH Service Engines) 479 mm (18.9 inch).
The tilt angles in this chart are the engine installation angles
for the vessel. A positive angle indicates that the front of the
engine is raised.
i04237495
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
SMCS Code: 1348-554-SM
In addition to a good preventive maintenance
program, Caterpillar recommends using S·O·S oil
analysis at regularly scheduled intervals. S·O·S oil
analysis provides infrared analysis, which is required
for determining nitration and oxidation levels.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
SEBU7040-05
Before you take the oil sample, complete the Label,
PEEP5031 for identification of the sample. In order
to help obtain the most accurate analysis, provide
the following information:
85
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
i04363400
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SMCS Code: 1318-510
• Engine model
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, mixed oil sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
properly.
Caterpillar recommends using the sampling valve
in order to obtain oil samples. The quality and the
consistency of the samples are better when the
sampling valve is used. The location of the sampling
valve allows oil that is flowing under pressure to be
obtained during normal engine operation.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
The 169-8373 Fluid Sampling Bottle is
recommended for use with the sampling valve. The
fluid sampling bottle includes the parts that are
needed for obtaining oil samples. Instructions are
also provided.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
If the engine is not equipped with a sampling valve,
use the 1U-5718 Vacuum Pump. The pump is
designed to accept sampling bottles. Disposable
tubing must be attached to the pump for insertion
into the sump.
For instructions, see Special Publication, PEGJ0047,
“How To Take A Good S·O·S Oil Sample”. Consult
your Cat dealer for complete information and
assistance in establishing an S·O·S program for your
engine.
Drain the Engine Oil
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Cat Dealer
Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication,
PECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools Catalog” for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids
on Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil
to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
sump, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.
86
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU7040-05
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should be
cleaned and installed. Tighten the oil drain plugs to
70 ± 14 N·m (50 ± 10 lb ft).
3. Clean the sealing surface of the filter mounting
base. Ensure that all of the old oil filter gasket is
removed.
Replace the Oil Filter
4. Apply clean engine oil to the new oil filter gasket.
NOTICE
Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar specifications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by
Caterpillar could result in severe engine damage to
the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of
the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering
the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters
recommended by Caterpillar.
1. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 Chain
Wrench.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a 175-7546 Oil Filter
Cutter. Break apart the pleats and inspect the
oil filter for metal debris. An excessive amount
of metal debris in the oil filter may indicate early
wear or a pending failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Caterpillar dealer in order
to arrange for a further analysis if an excessive
amount of debris is found in the oil filter.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter until the
oil filter gasket contacts the base. Tighten the oil
filter by hand according to the instructions that are
shown on the oil filter. Do not overtighten the oil
filter.
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and
Recommendations” or to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for more information on lubricant specifications.
Fill the crankcase with the proper amount of oil.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” or to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter or system, extra
oil must be added when filling the crankcase. Follow
the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. If
the extra oil is not added, the engine may starve for
oil.
NOTICE
To help prevent crankshaft or bearing damage, crank
engine to fill all filters before starting. Do not crank
engine for more than 30 seconds.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW
IDLE” for two minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.
Illustration 46
Typical filter mounting base and filter gasket
g00103713
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the
oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD”
and “FULL” marks on the oil level gauge.
SEBU7040-05
87
Maintenance Section
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect
i05164102
i04242309
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Clean/Inspect
Engine Valve Lash - Check
SMCS Code: 1905-040; 1905-070; 1907-040;
1907-070
The initial valve lash adjustment on new engines,
rebuilt engines, or remanufactured engines is
recommended at the first scheduled oil change. The
adjustment is necessary due to the initial wear of
the valve train components and to the seating of the
valve train components.
SMCS Code: 1105-535
The maintenance is recommended by Caterpillar as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule to help provide maximum engine life.
Illustration 47
g03317333
Note: Only qualified service personnel should
perform this maintenance. For procedures on
adjusting the valve lash and adjusting the valve
bridge, see System Systems Operation/Testing and
Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust”.
Consult your Cat dealer for assistance.
Primary speed/timing sensor (1) and Secondary speed/timing
sensor (2)
1. Remove the speed/timing sensors from the front
housing. Check the condition of the plastic end
of the speed/timing sensors for wear and/or
contaminants.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
2. Clean the metal shavings and other debris from
the face of the speed/timing sensors.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
3. Install the sensors.
i01597115
i02703023
Engine Storage Procedure Check
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1109-040
SMCS Code: 1000-535
Caterpillar recommends storage procedures and
start-up procedures for all engines that are stored
for more than 1 month. These procedures provide
maximum protection to internal engine components.
Refer to Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage
Procedure For Caterpillar Products” for information
on these procedures.
An extension of the oil change interval to 12 months
is permitted if you follow the required procedures for
storage and start-up. This extension is permitted if the
following intervals in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” have not
been reached:
• Operating hours
• Fuel consumption
When inspecting the valve rotators, protective
glasses or face shield and protective clothing
must be worn, to help prevent being burned by
hot oil or spray.
Engine valve rotators rotate the valves when the
engine runs. This helps to prevent deposits from
building up on the valves and the valve seats.
Perform the following steps after the engine valve
lash is set, but before the valve covers are installed:
1. Start the engine according to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Starting” (Operation
Section) for the procedure.
88
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU7040-05
2. Operate the engine at low idle.
3. Observe the top surface of each valve rotator. The
valve rotators should turn slightly when the valves
close.
NOTICE
A valve rotator which does not operate properly will
accelerate valve face wear and valve seat wear and
shorten valve life. If a damaged rotator is not replaced,
valve face guttering could result and cause pieces of
the valve to fall into the cylinder. This can cause piston
and cylinder head damage.
If a valve fails to rotate, consult your Caterpillar
dealer.
i00103413
Fuel System - Prime
SMCS Code: 1250-548; 1258-548
Note: DO NOT remove plug (1) in the fuel filter base
in order to release air from the fuel system during
periodic service of the fuel filter. Periodic removal of
the plug will result in increased wear of the threads
in the fuel filter base. This can lead to fuel leakage.
However, the plug in the fuel filter base can be used
to bleed air from the fuel system if the engine runs
out of fuel.
1. Open fuel priming pump (2) and operate the fuel
priming pump until a strong pressure is felt on
the fuel priming pump and until the check valve
“clicks”. This procedure will require considerable
strokes. Lock the fuel priming pump.
2. Crank the engine after pressurizing the system.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
3. If the engine does not start, open fuel priming
pump (2) and repeat Steps 1 and 2 in order to
start the engine.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
i04938892
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
SMCS Code: 1260-510-FQ; 1263-510-FQ
Water in the fuel can cause the engine to run rough.
Water in the fuel may cause an electronic unit injector
to fail. If the fuel has been contaminated with water,
the element should be changed before the regularly
scheduled interval.
Illustration 48
g00105140
Plug (1), Fuel Priming Pump (2), and Fuel Filter (3)
Priming the fuel system fills the fuel filters. Priming
the fuel system also removes air from the fuel
system. This procedure is used primarily when the
engine runs out of fuel.
The primary filter/water separator also provides
filtration in order to help extend the life of the
secondary fuel filter. The element should be changed
regularly. If a vacuum gauge is installed, the
primary filter/water separator should be changed at
50 to 70 kPa (15 to 20 inches Hg).
Replace the Element
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
SEBU7040-05
89
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Dealer Service Tool Catalog” for tools and supplies suitable to
collect and contain fluids on Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Inspect the O-ring for damage and for
deterioration. Replace the O-ring, if necessary.
5. Lubricate the O-ring with clean diesel fuel.
6. Install bowl (2) on a new element. Tighten the
bowl by hand. Do not use tools in order to tighten
the bowl.
NOTICE
The primary filter/water separator may be prefilled with
fuel to avoid rough running/stalling of the engine due
to air. Do not fill the secondary filter with fuel before
installation. The fuel would not be filtered and could
be contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel system parts.
7. Lubricate the top seal of element (1) with clean
diesel fuel. Install the new element on the
mounting base. Tighten the element by hand.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the vent plug is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel system.
1. Close the main fuel supply valve.
8. Open the main fuel supply valve.
9. Start the engine and check for leaks. Run the
engine for 1 minute. Stop the engine and check
for leaks again.
Illustration 49
g01453091
(1) Element
(2) Bowl
(3) Drain
2. Remove element (1) from the element mounting
base while bowl (2) is attached.
3. Dispose of the contents of the filter. Remove bowl
(2) from element (1). The bowl is reusable. Do not
discard the bowl. Dispose of the used element.
Detecting leaks is difficult while the engine is
running. The primary filter/water separator is
under suction. A leak will allow air to enter the fuel.
The air in the fuel can cause low power due to
aeration of the fuel. Ensure that the components
are correctly installed to prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
i02927285
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SMCS Code: 1260-543; 1263-543
4. Remove the O-ring from the gland of the bowl.
Clean the following components:
• Bowl
• O-ring
• Mounting base
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
90
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
SEBU7040-05
i00581566
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
SMCS Code: 1261-510-SE
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Illustration 51
g00103835
(1) Plug. (2) Fuel priming pump. (3) Fuel Filter.
1. Stop the engine.
Illustration 50
g01453091
(1) Element
(2) Bowl
(3) Drain
Bowl (2) should be monitored daily for signs of water.
If water is present, drain the water from the bowl.
2. Turn off the start switch or disconnect the battery
(starting motor) when maintenance is performed
on fuel filters.
3. Shut off the fuel tank supply valve to the engine.
NOTICE
Use a suitable container to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
1. Open drain (3). The drain is a self-ventilated drain.
Catch the draining water in a suitable container.
Dispose of the water properly.
4. Unlock fuel priming pump (2) in order to relieve
residual pressure in the fuel system.
2. Close drain (3).
5. Remove used fuel filter (3). Use a cloth or use a
container in order to catch excess fuel.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system.
6. Clean the gasket sealing surface of the fuel filter
base. Ensure that all of the old gasket is removed.
7. Apply clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter gasket.
SEBU7040-05
91
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
i05111531
NOTICE
Do not fill the secondary fuel filter with fuel before installing. The fuel would not be filtered and could be
contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel system parts.
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
8. Install new fuel filter (3). Tighten the fuel filter until
the gasket contacts the base. Tighten the fuel
filter by hand according to the instructions that are
shown on the fuel filter. Do not overtighten the fuel
filter.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Note: DO NOT remove plug (1) in the fuel filter base
in order to release air from the fuel system during
periodic service of the fuel filter. Periodic removal of
the plug will result in increased wear of the threads in
the fuel filter base.
9. Operate fuel priming pump (2) until a strong
pressure is felt on the fuel priming pump and
until the check valve “clicks”. This procedure will
require considerable strokes. Lock the fuel priming
pump.
10. Open the fuel tank supply valve.
11. Start the engine according to the normal operating
procedures. Immediately increase the engine rpm
between 1000 to 1200 rpm with no load. The
engine will begin to misfire briefly until air from
the fuel filter is purged. No damage to the engine
will occur.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
12. If the engine stalls during the purging of the air,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fuel System - Prime” in the Maintenance Section
for more information.
SMCS Code: 1273-543-M&S
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Cat Dealer
Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication,
PECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools Catalog” for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids
on Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system. Condensation
occurs during the heating and cooling of fuel. The
condensation occurs as the fuel passes through the
fuel system and the fuel returns to the fuel tank. This
causes water to accumulate in fuel tanks. Draining
the fuel tank regularly and obtaining fuel from reliable
sources can help to eliminate water in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Note: Failure to close the drain can allow air into
the system, which could have detrimental results to
performance.
Check the fuel daily. Drain the water and sediment
from the fuel tank after operating the engine. Drain
the water and sediment from the fuel tank after the
fuel tank has been filled. Allow 5 to 10 minutes before
performing this procedure.
92
Maintenance Section
Fumes Disposal Filter Element - Replace
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This procedure will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
SEBU7040-05
i05165128
Fumes Disposal Filter Element
- Replace
SMCS Code: 1074
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank during the following conditions:
• Weekly
• Oil change
• Refill of the tank
This procedure will help prevent water or sediment
from being pumped from the storage tank into
the engine fuel tank. A four micron(c) absolute
filter for the breather vent on the fuel tank is also
recommended.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
Illustration 52
g03317973
Typical example of the fumes disposal filter
(1) Crankcase breather
(2) Fumes disposal filter base and fumes disposal filter
(3) Air cleaner
The fumes disposal filter requires the replacement of
the fumes disposal filter. The service interval of the
fumes disposal filter will be affected by the following
items:
• Engine load
• Soot concentration
• Condition of the engine
The fumes disposal filter is equipped with a service
indicator. If the fumes disposal filter becomes
plugged prior to the normal service interval, increased
restriction of the filter will cause the vacuum to
become positive. When the pressure continues to
rise, the service indicator will show through the cap.
The service indicator indicates the need for the fumes
disposal filter to be changed. Reset the service
indicator by using the following procedure:
SEBU7040-05
93
Maintenance Section
Fumes Disposal Filter Service Indicator - Check
Resetting the Service Indicator
Note: The canister (8) may be difficult to remove
while the engine is operating. The canister has
negative air pressure while the engine is operating
which creates a vacuum.
2. Lower the canister (8) in order to expose the
element. There may be oil in the bottom of the
canister. Avoid spilling the oil.
3. Remove the filter element by pulling down.
Dispose of the used element properly.
4. Remove the O-ring assembly on the top end cap
of the used element.
Illustration 53
g03317975
5. Replace the O-ring seal on the bottom of the filter
base assembly.
6. Install the new O-ring on the top end cap of the
element. Install the element into the correct place.
1. Remove the plastic cover (4).
2. Push down on the service indicator (5).
7. Replace the canister (8) and align the canister
with the boss on the filter base assembly (6).
3. Replace the cover (4).
4. Replace the fumes disposal filter by using the
following procedure:
Replacing the Fumes Disposal
Filter
8. Clamp the latches (7) in the closed position.
i04434870
Fumes Disposal Filter Service
Indicator - Check
SMCS Code: 1074-535-IND; 1317-535-IND
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Note: When possible, perform the maintenance while
the engine is off.
Illustration 55
Typical example
(1) Plastic cover
(2) Service indicator
Illustration 54
g03317977
1. Release the latches (7) that hold the canister to
the filter base assembly (6).
g01768374
94
Maintenance Section
Heat Exchanger - Inspect
SEBU7040-05
The fumes disposal filter is equipped with a service
indicator. If the fumes disposal filter becomes
plugged, increased restriction of the filter will cause
the crankcase pressure to become positive. When the
pressure continues to rise, the service indicator will
show through the plastic cover. The service indicator
indicates the need for the fumes disposal filter to be
changed. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fumes Disposal Filter - Replace” topic for
more information.
An operator that is familiar with the normal operating
temperature of the coolant can determine when
the coolant temperature is out of the normal range.
Inspection and maintenance of the heat exchanger is
required if the engine is overheating.
Note: Check the service indicator when the engine is
running at low idle.
Your Cat dealer has the equipment and the personnel
in order to measure the pressure drop across the
heat exchanger.
i05162232
Heat Exchanger - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1379-040
Note: The maintenance interval for the heat
exchanger will vary depending on operating
conditions and environment. The maintenance
interval should be evaluated at the following intervals:
• At the interval stated in this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”
• After the first 1000 hours of engine operation.
• At least once every 2 years
The raw/sea water that is circulated through the heat
exchanger and the amount of operating time of the
vessel affects the following items:
• Cleanliness of the heat exchanger plates
For information on maintenance of the heat
exchanger and cleaning of the heat exchanger, refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, “Heat Exchanger Disassemble”.
Consult your Cat dealer for more information.
i04301694
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
SMCS Code: 7554-040; 7554-510
Hoses and clamps must be inspected periodically
in order to ensure safe operation and continuous
operation of the engine. Take proper safety
precautions before inspecting or replacing hoses and
clamps.
Note: Always use a board or cardboard when the
engine components are checked for leaks. Leaking
fluid that is under pressure can cause serious
injury or possible death. Leaks that are the size
of a pin hole are included. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General Hazard Information”
for more information.
• Effectiveness of the heat exchanger system
Inspect the Hoses and the Clamps
Operating the engine in water that contains
silt, sediment, salt, algae, or other significant
contaminants will have an adverse effect on the heat
exchanger system. In addition, intermittent use of
the vessel will adversely affect the heat exchanger
system.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions. Replace any hose which exhibits
any of the following conditions. Failure to replace a
hose which exhibits any of the following conditions
may result in a hazardous situation.
The following items indicate that the heat exchanger
may require cleaning:
• Hoses which are cracked
• Hoses which are soft
• Increased coolant temperature
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Engine overheating
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Excessive pressure drop between the water inlet
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
and the water outlet
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
SEBU7040-05
• Hoses which exhibit signs of leakage which are not
the result of loose couplings or clamps
Inspect all clamps for the following conditions.
Replace any clamp which exhibits signs of any of the
following conditions.
• Cracking
• Looseness
95
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Cooling System
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
• Damage
Inspect all couplings for leaks. Replace any coupling
which exhibits signs of leaks.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen
which can result in leaks. A constant torque hose
clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps.
Personal injury can result from removing hoses or
fittings in a pressure system.
Failure to relieve pressure can cause personal injury.
Do not disconnect or remove hoses or fittings until all pressure in the system has been relieved.
1. Stop the engine.
2. Allow the engine to cool.
3. Before servicing a coolant hose, slowly loosen the
filler cap for the cooling system in order to relieve
any pressure.
4. Remove the filler cap for the cooling system.
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Replace
hoses that show signs of leakage. Replace hoses
that show signs of damage. Replace hose clamps
that are cracked or damaged. Tighten or replace
hose clamps which are loose.
5. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
Drain the coolant into a suitable clean container.
The coolant can be reused.
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
6. Remove the hose clamps.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Cat Dealer
Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication,
PECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools Catalog” for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids
on Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
7. Disconnect the old hose.
8. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
9. Install hose clamps which have been inspected or
install new hose clamps. Refer to Specifications,
SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”, “Hose
Clamps” for information about selecting and
installing the proper hose clamps.
10. Refill the cooling system.
11. Clean the filler cap for the cooling system. Inspect
the gaskets on the filler cap. Replace the filler cap
if the gaskets are damaged. Install the filler cap.
12. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
96
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Fuel System
Personal injury can result from removing hoses or
fittings in a pressure system.
Failure to relieve pressure can cause personal injury.
Do not disconnect or remove hoses or fittings until all pressure in the system has been relieved.
SEBU7040-05
5. Install hose clamps which have been inspected or
install new hose clamps. Refer to Specifications,
SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”, “Hose
Clamps” for information about selecting and
installing the proper hose clamps.
6. Carefully inspect the engine for any spilled fuel.
Make sure that no fuel remains on or close to the
engine.
Note: Fuel must be added to the fuel system ahead
of the fuel filter.
7. Refill the fuel system. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
information about priming the engine with fuel.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over any disconnected fuel system components.
Note: High-pressure fuel lines may be installed
between the high-pressure fuel pump and the fuel
injectors. High-pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure. Do not check the
high-pressure fuel lines with the engine or the starting
motor in operation. Wait for 10 minutes after the
engine stops before you perform any service or repair
on high-pressure fuel lines. Waiting for 10 minutes
will to allow the pressure to be purged.
1. Drain the fuel from the fuel system to a level that
is below the hose that is being replaced.
2. Remove the hose clamps.
3. Disconnect the old hose.
4. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
8. Start the engine. Inspect the fuel system for leaks.
Lubrication System
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
1. Drain the oil from the lubrication system to a level
that is below the hose that is being replaced.
2. Remove the hose clamps.
3. Disconnect the old hose.
4. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
5. Install hose clamps which have been inspected or
install new hose clamps. Refer to Specifications,
SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”, “Hose
Clamps” for information about selecting and
installing the proper hose clamps.
6. Refill the lubrication system. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Oil Level - Check” in order to ensure that the
lubrication system is filled with the proper amount
of engine oil.
7. Start the engine. Inspect the lubrication system
for leaks.
Air System
1. Remove the hose clamps.
2. Disconnect the old hose.
3. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
SEBU7040-05
97
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
4. Install hose clamps which have been inspected or
install new hose clamps. Refer to Specifications,
SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”, “Hose
Clamps” for information about selecting and
installing the proper hose clamps.
When an engine's oil consumption has risen to three
times the original oil consumption rate due to normal
wear, an engine overhaul should be scheduled.
There may be a corresponding increase in blowby
and a slight increase in fuel consumption.
Note: The bellows and the V-clamps that are used
on the bellows should never be reused.
Overhaul Options
5. Start the engine. Inspect the air lines for leaks.
i02378613
Before Failure Overhaul
A planned overhaul before failure may be the best
value for the following reasons:
Overhaul Considerations
• Costly unplanned downtime can be avoided.
SMCS Code: 7595-043
• Many original parts can be reused according to the
Reduced hours of operation at full load will result in a
lower average power demand. A decreased average
power demand should increase both the engine
service life and the overhaul interval.
standards for reusable parts.
• The engine's service life can be extended without
the risk of a major catastrophe due to engine
failure.
The need for an overhaul is generally indicated by
increased fuel consumption and by reduced power.
• The best cost/value relationship per hour of
The following factors are important when a decision
is being made on the proper time for an engine
overhaul:
After Failure Overhaul
• The need for preventive maintenance
• The quality of the fuel that is being used
• The operating conditions
• The results of the S·O·S analysis
extended life can be attained.
If a major engine failure occurs and the engine must
be removed from the hull, many options are available.
An overhaul should be performed if the engine block
or the crankshaft needs to be repaired.
If the engine block is repairable and/or the crankshaft
is repairable, the overhaul cost should be between 40
percent and 50 percent of the cost of a new engine
with a similar exchange core.
Oil Consumption as an Overhaul
Indicator
This lower cost can be attributed to three aspects:
Oil consumption, fuel consumption, and maintenance
information can be used to estimate the total
operating cost for your Caterpillar engine. Oil
consumption can also be used to estimate the
required capacity of a makeup oil tank that is suitable
for the maintenance intervals.
• Caterpillar dealer exchange components
Oil consumption is in proportion to the percentage
of the rated engine load. As the percentage of the
engine load is increased, the amount of oil that is
consumed per hour also increases.
To minimize downtime, Caterpillar Inc. recommends
a scheduled engine overhaul by your Caterpillar
dealer before the engine fails. This will provide you
with the best cost/value relationship.
The oil consumption rate (brake specific oil
consumption) is measured in grams per kW/h (lb per
bhp). The brake specific oil consumption (BSOC)
depends on the engine load. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance in determining the typical oil
consumption rate for your engine.
Note: Overhaul programs vary according to the
engine application and according to the dealer that
performs the overhaul. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for specific information about the available
overhaul programs and about overhaul services for
extending the engine life.
• Specially designed Caterpillar engine features
• Caterpillar Inc. remanufactured exchange
components
Overhaul Recommendation
98
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
SEBU7040-05
If an overhaul is performed without overhaul service
from your Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the following
maintenance recommendations.
• Valve rotators
Rebuild or Exchange
Caterpillar Inc. recommends the installation of new
parts at each overhaul period.
Cylinder Head Assembly, Cylinder Packs, Oil
Pump, and Fuel Transfer Pump
These components should be inspected according to
the instructions that are found in various Caterpillar
reusability publications. The Special Publication,
SEBF8029 lists the reusability publications that are
needed for inspecting the engine parts.
• Crankshaft seals
Inspect these parts while the engine is disassembled
for an overhaul.
Inspect the crankshaft for any of the following
conditions:
• Deflection
If the parts comply with the established inspection
specifications that are expressed in the reusable
parts guideline, the parts should be reused.
• Damage to the journals
Parts that are not within the established inspection
specifications should be dealt with in one of the
following manners:
Check the journal taper and the profile of the
crankshaft journals. Check these components by
interpreting the wear patterns on the following
components:
• Salvaging
• Repairing
• Replacing
Using out-of-spec parts can result in the following
problems:
• Unscheduled downtime
• Costly repairs
• Damage to other engine parts
• Reduced engine efficiency
• Increased fuel consumption
Reduced engine efficiency and increased fuel
consumption translates into higher operating costs.
Therefore, Caterpillar Inc. recommends repairing
out-of-spec parts or replacing out-of-spec parts.
Inspection and/or Replacement
Crankshaft Bearings, Valve Rotators, and
Crankshaft Seals
The following components may not last until the
second overhaul.
• Thrust bearings
• Main bearings
• Rod bearings
• Bearing material that has seized to the journals
• Rod bearing
• Main bearings
Note: If the crankshaft is removed for any reason,
use the magnetic particle inspection process to check
for cracks in the crankshaft.
Inspect the camshaft for damage to the journals and
to the lobes.
Note: If the camshaft is removed for any reason, use
the magnetic particle inspection process to check for
cracks in the camshaft.
Inspect the following components for signs of wear or
for signs of scuffing:
• Camshaft bearings
• Camshaft followers
Caterpillar Inc. recommends replacing the crankshaft
vibration damper.
Oil Cooler Core and Aftercooler Core
During an overhaul, Caterpillar Inc. recommends the
removal of both the oil cooler core and the aftercooler
core. Clean the oil cooler core and the aftercooler
core. Then, pressure test both of these cores.
SEBU7040-05
99
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
NOTICE
Do not use caustic cleaners to clean the core.
Caustic cleaners can attack the internal metals of the
core and cause leakage.
Note: Use this cleaning procedure to clean the oil
cooler core and the aftercooler core.
1. Remove the oil cooler core and the aftercooler
core.
2. Remove any debris from the oil cooler core and
the aftercooler core. To remove debris from the oil
cooler core, turn the oil cooler core onto one end.
To remove debris from the aftercooler core, turn
the aftercooler core upside-down.
3. Flush the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core
internally with cleaner in order to loosen foreign
substances. This will also help to remove oil from
the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core.
Note: Caterpillar Inc. recommends the use of
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners. Table 22 lists the
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners that are available from
your Caterpillar dealer.
Table 22
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1)
Part
Number
Description
1U-5490
Hydrosolv 4165
19 L (5 US gallon)
174-6854
Hydrosolv 100
19 L (5 US gallon)
(1)
Size
Use a two to five percent concentration of the cleaner at
temperatures up to 93°C (200°F).
4. Use steam to clean the oil cooler core and the
aftercooler core. This removes any remaining
residue from the cleaner. Flush the fins of the oil
cooler core and the aftercooler core. Remove any
other trapped debris.
5. Wash the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core
with hot, soapy water. Rinse the oil cooler core and
the aftercooler core thoroughly with clean water.
6. Dry the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core
with compressed air. Direct the air in the reverse
direction of the normal flow.
7. Inspect the components in order to ensure
cleanliness. The oil cooler core and the aftercooler
core should be pressure tested. Repair the oil
cooler core and the aftercooler core, if necessary.
Install the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core.
For more information about cleaning the cores,
consult your Caterpillar dealer.
Obtain Coolant Analysis
The concentration of supplemental coolant additive
(SCA) should be checked regularly with test kits
or with S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1). Further
coolant analysis is recommended when the engine
is overhauled.
For example, considerable deposits are found in the
water jacket areas on the external cooling system, but
the concentrations of coolant additives were carefully
maintained. The coolant water probably contained
minerals that were deposited on the engine over time.
A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to verify
the condition of the water that is being used in the
cooling system. A full water analysis can be obtained
by consulting your local water utility company or
an agricultural agent. Private laboratories are also
available for water analysis.
Caterpillar Inc. recommends an S·O·S Coolant
Analysis (Level 2).
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)
An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) is a
comprehensive coolant analysis which completely
analyzes the coolant and the effects on the cooling
system. An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides
the following information:
• Complete S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1)
• Visual inspection of properties
• Identification of metal corrosion
• Identification of contaminants
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
• Identification of built up impurities (corrosion and
scale)
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level II) provides a report of
the results of both the analysis and the maintenance
recommendations.
100
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
SEBU7040-05
For more information about coolant analysis, see
your Caterpillar dealer.
i00651416
Starting Motor - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1451-040; 1453-040
Caterpillar Inc. recommends a scheduled inspection
of the starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the
engine may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for proper operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Service Manual for more
information on the checking procedure and for
specifications or consult your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance.
i04237689
Transmission Oil Level - Check
SMCS Code: 3030-535-FLV
Check the marine transmission oil level according to
the instructions that are provided by the OEM of the
transmission or the OEM of the vessel.
For the lubrication requirements of the transmission,
refer to the recommendations on the nameplate or
the service information for the transmission.
Marine Transmission Operation,
Maintenance, Warranty, and Parts
Support
For information on maintenance and operation of the
marine transmission, consult your Cat dealer and/or
the OEM dealer of the transmission.
All support for the warranty of the transmission will be
the responsibility of the OEM. All parts support for the
transmission will be the responsibility of the OEM.
This parts support includes both the installation of
parts and the resolution of any service problems.
i01539769
Turbocharger - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1052-040
Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended
for the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side).
Any fumes from the crankcase are filtered through
the air inlet system. Therefore, by-products from oil
and from combustion can collect in the turbocharger
compressor housing. Over time, this buildup can
contribute to loss of engine power, increased black
smoke and overall loss of engine efficiency.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
replaced.
An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Note: Turbocharger components require precision
clearances. The turbocharger cartridge must
be balanced due to high rpm. Severe Service
Applications can accelerate component wear.
Severe Service Applications require more frequent
inspections of the cartridge.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, repair
and replacement, consult your Caterpillar dealer.
Refer to the Service Manual for this engine for the
procedure and specifications.
SEBU7040-05
101
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
Cleaning and Inspecting
1. Remove the exhaust outlet piping and remove
the air inlet piping from the turbocharger. Visually
inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean
the interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt
from entering during reassembly.
2. Turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel
by hand. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect
the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for
contact with the turbocharger housing. There
should not be any visible signs of contact between
the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of
contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the
compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing,
the turbocharger must be reconditioned.
3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness.
If only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt
and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the
wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger
oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
4. Use a dial indicator to check the end clearance
on the shaft. If the measured end play is greater
than the Service Manual specifications, the
turbocharger should be repaired or replaced.
An end play measurement that is less than the
minimum Service Manual specifications could
indicate carbon buildup on the turbine wheel. The
turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning
and for inspection if the measured end play is less
than the minimum Service Manual specifications.
5. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for
corrosion.
6. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard
shop solvents and a soft bristle brush.
7. Fasten the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet
piping to the turbocharger housing.
i02706582
Walk-Around Inspection
SMCS Code: 1000-040
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only require a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the proper place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine or deck is
a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning
or high pressure water.
• Ensure that the cooling lines are tight and ensure
that the cooling lines are properly clamped. Check
for leaks. Check the condition of all pipes.
• Inspect the water pumps for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant
in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount
of leakage to occur as the engine cools down and
the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
water pumps and the installation of water pumps
and/or seals, refer to the Service Manual for the
engine or consult your Caterpillar dealer.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the valve cover.
102
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU7040-05
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps.
• Inspect the piping for the air inlet system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator belt and the accessory drive
belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
• Drain the water and the sediment from fuel tanks
on a daily basis in order to ensure that only clean
fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Inspect the ECM to the cylinder head ground strap
for a good connection and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges which are cracked and replace any gauges
that can not be calibrated.
i03543200
Water Pump - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1361-040
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in cracks in
the cylinder head, a piston seizure or other potential
damage to the engine.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. If leaking
of the water pump seals is observed, replace all of
the water pump seals. Refer to two articles in the
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump
- Disassemble and Water Pump - Assemble” for
the disassembly and assembly procedure. If it is
necessary to remove the water pump, refer to two
articles in the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Water Pump - Remove and Water Pump - Install”.
Inspect the water pump for wear, cracks, pin holes
and proper operation. Refer to the Parts Manual
for the correct part numbers for your engine or
consult your Caterpillar dealer if repair is needed or
replacement is needed.
i02456923
Zinc Rods - Inspect/Replace
SMCS Code: 1388-040; 1388-510
Corrosion in sea water circuits can result in premature
deterioration of system components, leaks, and
possible cooling system contamination. The cause
for the premature corrosion may be the lack of zinc
rods in the sea water system.
Zinc rods are inserted in the sea water cooling
system of the engine in order to help prevent the
corrosive action of salt water. The reaction of the zinc
to the sea water causes the zinc rods to deteriorate.
The zinc rods deteriorate instead of engine parts
for the cooling system that are more critical. Rapid
deterioration of zinc rods may indicate the presence
of uncontrolled electrical currents from improperly
installed electrical attachments or improperly
grounded electrical attachments.
The zinc rods must be inspected at the proper
intervals. The zinc rods must be replaced when
deterioration occurs.
Inspect the Zinc Rods
The zinc rods are red for easy identification. Table
23 shows the locations of the zinc rods and the
quantities of the zinc rod:
Table 23
Locations of the Zinc Rods
Location
Quantity
Right Heat Exchanger Bonnet
2
Left Heat Exchanger Bonnet
1
Transmission Oil Cooler
2
Fuel Cooler
2
SEBU7040-05
103
Maintenance Section
Zinc Rods - Inspect/Replace
1. Remove the zinc rod.
Illustration 56
g00104048
2. Tap the zinc rod lightly with a hammer. If the zinc
rod has deteriorated, or if the zinc rod flakes,
install a new zinc rod.
Replace the Zinc Rods
Illustration 57
g00104049
1. Unscrew the old zinc rod or drill the old zinc rod
from the plug. Clean the plug.
2. Apply 9S-3263 Compound to the shoulder of
a new zinc rod. Apply the compound only to the
shoulder of the zinc rod. Install the zinc rod into
the plug.
3. Coat the external threads of the plug with
5P-3413 Pipe Sealant. Install the zinc rod.
Refer to Special Publication, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on torque
specifications.
104
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings
SEBU7040-05
Reference Information
Section
i05037211
Engine Rating Definitions
SMCS Code: 1000
Engine Ratings
The use of the vessel must be known for the rating to
match the operating profile.
i00727327
In selecting a rating for a specific application, the
most important consideration is the time that is spent
at full throttle. These rating definitions identify the
percent of time at full throttle. The definitions also
identify the corresponding times below rated rpm.
All engine ratings are in compliance with the following
standard ambient air conditions of “SAE J1349”:
A (Unrestricted Continuous) – Vessels operating
at rated load and rated speed up to 100% of the time
without interruption or load cycling (80% to 100% load
factor). Typical operation is 5000 service hours to
8000 service hours per year. Typical applications may
include the following vessels: freighters, tugboats,
and bottom drag trawlers.
Engine Rating Conditions
SMCS Code: 1000
• 99 kPa (29.3 inches of Hg)
• 30 percent relative humidity
• A temperature of 25 °C (77 °F)
Ratings relate to the standard conditions of
“ISO8665”, of “ISO3046/1”, of “DIN6271”, and of
“BS5514”.
The engine ratings are based on the following fuel
specifications:
• Low heat value (LHV) of the fuel of 42 780 kJ/kg
(18,390 Btu/lb) at 29 °C (84 °F)
• Gravity (API) of 35 degrees at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Specific gravity of .849 at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Density of 850 kg/m3 (7.085 lb/US gal)
The engine ratings are gross output ratings.
Gross Output Ratings – The total output capability
of the engine that is equipped with standard
accessories.
Standard accessories include the following
components:
• Oil pumps
• Fuel pumps
• Water pumps
Subtract the power that is required to drive auxiliary
components from the gross output. This will produce
the net power that is available for the external load
(flywheel).
B (Heavy Duty) – Vessels operating at rated load
and speed up to 80% of the time with some load
cycling (40% to 80% load factor). Typical operation
is from 1000 service hours to 3000 service hours per
year. Typical applications may include the following
vessels: cold-water trawlers, purse seiners, crew
boats, supply boats, ferries, and towboats.
C (Maximum Continuous) – Vessels operating at
rated load and rated speed up to 50% of the time with
cyclical load and speed (20% to 80% load factor).
Typical operation is from 2000 service hours to 4000
service hours per year. Typical applications may
include the following vessels: ferries, harbor tugs,
fishing boats, offshore service boats, displacement
hull yachts, and short trip coastal freighters.
D (Intermittent Duty) – Vessels operating at rated
load and rated speed up to 16% of the time (up to
50% load factor). Typical operation is from 1000
service hours to 3000 service hours per year. Typical
applications may include the following vessels:
offshore patrol boats, customs boats, police boats,
fishing boats, fire boats, and harbor tugs.
E (High Performance) – Vessels operating at rated
load and speed up to 8% of the time (up to 30% load
factor). Typical operation is from 250 service hours
to 1000 service hours per year. Typical applications
may include the following vessels: pleasure craft,
harbor patrol boats, harbor master boats, fishing
boats, and patrol boats.
NOTICE
Operating engines above the rating definitions can result in shorter service life before overhaul.
SEBU7040-05
105
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings
For more information about the engine rating, refer
to your Application and Installation Guide or contact
your Cat dealer.
i00899220
Marine Classification Society
Certification Requirements
SMCS Code: 1000
The major seafaring nations have established
technical groups called marine classification
societies. Caterpillar Inc. has maintained standards
and quality under the guidelines that are set forth by
the 14 major marine classification societies that are
listed. For more information, refer to Engine Data
Sheet, 103.1 and Engine Data Sheet, 103.1.1 in the
Caterpillar Technical Manual.
ABS – American Bureau of Shipping (USA)
BV – Bureau Veritas (France)
CCG – Canadian Coast Guard (Canada)
CCRS – China Corporation Register of Shipping
(Taiwan)
CCS – China Classification Society (China)
CR – Croatian Register of Shipping (Croatia)
DnV – Det norske Veritas (Norway)
GL – Germanischer Lloyd (Germany)
KR – Korean Register of Shipping (Korea)
LR – Lloyd's Register of Shipping (Great Britain)
NK – Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Japan)
PR – Polish Register (Poland)
RINa – Registro Italiano Navale (Italy)
RS – Maritime Register of Shipping (Russia)
106
Reference Information Section
Engine Performance and Performance Analysis Report (PAR)
Engine Performance and
Performance Analysis
Report (PAR)
i04537530
Engine Performance
SMCS Code: 1000
Today's marine operator is concerned with
performance, cost of operation and satisfactory
engine life. Traditionally, poor performance of the
vessel is believed to result from a lack of engine
performance or from a loss of engine performance. In
fact, the engine is only one of numerous factors that
influence the overall performance of a vessel.
Several factors determine the power demand on an
engine. The engine does not have control over the
demand that is caused by the vessel design. The
vessel design includes the following features:
• Hull
• Propeller
• Drive train
Those features also affect the amount of power that
is available to perform additional work. For example,
those features affect the power that is used to drive
an auxiliary pump.
If a problem with the performance of the vessel
occurs, consider the following effects on power
demand:
• Loads
• Condition of the vessel
• Vessel design
• Condition of the drive train
• Condition of the propeller
Deterioration of the engine systems decreases the
ability of the engine to produce power and vessel
speed. Engine systems include the cooling system,
the lubrication system, the fuel system, etc. The
engine is not likely to be the cause of poor fuel
economy without excessive exhaust smoke and/or
the loss of power.
If you have a valid problem with the engine's
performance, consult an authorized Cat dealer for
assistance.
SEBU7040-05
If the engine is covered by a warranty, the Cat
warranty will cover the cost in order to solve a valid
deficiency of the engine's performance. However, if
the engine is not at fault, all costs that are incurred
will be the responsibility of the owner.
Note: Adjustment of the fuel system outside
Caterpillar specified limits will not improve fuel
efficiency. Adjustment of the fuel system outside
Caterpillar specified limits could also result in damage
to the engine.
Cat engines are manufactured with state-of-the-art
technology. Cat engines are designed to help provide
two characteristics in all applications:
• Maximum performance
• Fuel efficiency
To ensure optimum performance for the service life
of the engine, follow the recommended operation
procedures that are described in this manual. Also,
follow the preventive maintenance procedures that
are described in this manual.
Performance Analysis Report
(PAR)
To verify the condition of the propulsion system,
Caterpillar has developed the Performance Analysis
Report (PAR) for marine engines.
A PAR is an in-vessel test procedure that is performed
by a Caterpillar analyst under operating conditions.
The test compares the performance of all marine
engine systems to the original testing specifications.
When a PAR is conducted at Sea Trial, an installation
of high quality can be ensured. The PAR will confirm
the matching of the following components for
optimum performance and for fuel efficiency: hull,
rudders, propeller, marine transmission, ventilation,
and cooling systems.
Caterpillar recommends scheduling a PAR in order
to maintain optimum performance.
A periodic PAR can define deterioration of the
propulsion system. A PAR can assist in repairs, in
overhauls, and in maintenance schedules. This will
help to provide the most economical, efficient cost
of operation.
SEBU7040-05
107
Reference Information Section
Customer Service
Customer Service
i03910803
Customer Assistance
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
USA and Canada
When a problem arises concerning the operation or
the service of an engine, the problem will normally be
managed by the dealer in your area.
Your satisfaction is a primary concern to Caterpillar
and to Caterpillar dealers. If you have a problem that
has not been handled to your complete satisfaction,
follow these steps:
1. Discuss your problem with a manager from the
dealership.
2. If your problem cannot be resolved at the dealer
level, use the phone number that is listed below to
talk with a Field Service Coordinator:
1-800-447-4986
The normal hours are from 8:00 to 4:30 Monday
through Friday Central Standard Time.
3. If your needs have not been met still, submit the
matter in writing to the following address:
Caterpillar Inc.
Marine Center of Excellence
Manager, Customer Service
111 Southchase Blvd
Fountain Inn, SC 29644
Please keep in mind: probably, your problem will
ultimately be solved at the dealership, using the
dealership facilities, equipment, and personnel.
Therefore, follow the steps in sequence when a
problem is experienced.
Outside of the USA and of Canada
If a problem arises outside the USA and outside
Canada, and if the problem cannot be resolved at the
dealer level, consult the appropriate Caterpillar office.
Latin America, Mexico, Carribean
Caterpillar Americas Co.
701 Waterford Way, Suite 200
Miami, FL 33126-4670
USA
Phone: 305-476-6800
Fax: 305-476-6801
Europe, Africa, and Middle East
Caterpillar Overseas S.A.
76 Route de Frontenex
P.O. Box 6000
CH-1211 Geneva 6
Switzerland
Phone: 22-849-4444
Fax: 22-849-4544
Far East
Caterpillar Asia Pte. Ltd.
7 Tractor Road
Jurong, Singapore 627968
Republic of Singapore
Phone: 65-662-8333
Fax: 65-662-8302
China
Caterpillar China Ltd.
37/F., The Lee Gardens
33 Hysan Avenue
Causeway Bay
G.P.O. Box 3069
Hong Kong
Phone: 852-2848-0333
Fax: 852-2848-0440
Japan
Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd.
SBS Tower
10-1, Yoga 4-Chome
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-8530
Japan
Phone: 81-3-5717-1150
Fax: 81-3-5717-1177
Japan
Caterpillar Power Systems, Inc.
SBS Tower (14th floor)
4-10-1, Yoga
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0097
Phone: 81-3-5797-4300
Fax: 81-3-5797-4359
Australia and New Zealand
Caterpillar of Australia Ltd.
1 Caterpillar Drive
Private Mail Bag 4
Tullamarine, Victoria 3043
Australia
Phone: 03-9953-9333
Fax: 03-9335-3366
108
Reference Information Section
Customer Service
SEBU7040-05
i01028392
Ordering Replacement Parts
SMCS Code: 4450; 7567
When replacement parts are required for this
product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar
replacement parts or parts with equivalent specifications including, but not limited to, physical
dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are available
from Caterpillar dealers throughout the world.
Caterpillar dealers' parts inventories are up-to-date.
The parts stocks include all of the parts that are
normally needed to protect your Caterpillar engine
investment.
When you order parts, please specify the following
information:
• Part number
• Part name
• Quantity
If there is a question concerning the part number,
please provide your dealer with a complete
description of the needed item.
When a Caterpillar engine requires maintenance
and/or repair, provide the dealer with all the
information that is stamped on the Information Plate.
This information is described in this Operation and
Maintenance Manual (Product Information Section).
Discuss the problem with the dealer. Inform the
dealer about the conditions of the problem and the
nature of the problem. Inform the dealer about when
the problem occurs. This will help the dealer in
troubleshooting the problem and solving the problem
faster.
SEBU7040-05
109
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
Reference Materials
• Maintenance log
i00912149
Maintenance Records
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Caterpillar Inc. recommends the retention of accurate
maintenance records. Accurate maintenance records
can be used for the following purposes:
• Determine operating costs.
• Establish maintenance schedules for other engines
that are operated in the same environment.
• Show compliance with the required maintenance
practices and maintenance intervals.
Maintenance records can be used for a variety of
other business decisions that are related to engine
maintenance.
Maintenance records are a key element of a
maintenance program that is well managed. Accurate
maintenance records can help your Caterpillar dealer
to fine tune the recommended maintenance intervals
in order to meet the specific operating situation. This
should result in a lower engine operating cost.
Records should be kept for the following items:
Fuel Consumption – A record of fuel consumption
is essential in order to determine when the load
sensitive components should be inspected or
repaired. Fuel consumption also determines overhaul
intervals.
Service Hours – A record of service hours is
essential to determine when the speed sensitive
components should be inspected or repaired.
Documents – These items should be easy to
obtain, and these items should be kept in the engine
history file. All of the documents should show this
information: date, service hours, fuel consumption,
unit number, and engine serial number. The following
types of documents should be kept as proof of
maintenance or repair for warranty:
Keep the following types of documents as proof of
maintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types of
documents as proof of repair for warranty:
• Dealer work orders and itemized bills
• Owner's repair costs
• Owner's receipts
110
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
SEBU7040-05
i01176304
Maintenance Log
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Table 24
Engine Model
Customer Identifier
Serial Number
Arrangement Number
Service
Hours
Quantity
Of Fuel
Service Item
Date
Authorization
SEBU7040-05
111
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
i00576062
Reference Material
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
The following literature can be obtained through any
Caterpillar dealer.
• Special Publication, SEBD0518, “Knowing Your
Cooling System”
• Special Publication, SEBD0970, “Coolant and Your
Engine”
Miscellaneous
Lubricants
• Service Manual, REG1139F, “Service Manual
• Special Publication, PEHP6046, “Data Sheet -
• Service Manual, RENR1215, “3176C and 3196
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oils (DEO) (CG-4 and
CF-4) (North America and selected International)”
• Special Publication, PEHP1026, “Data Sheet
- Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (CF-4)
(International only)”
• Special Publication, PEHP0003, “Data Sheet Multipurpose Lithium Complex Grease (MPG)”
• Special Publication, PEHP0002, “Data Sheet
- Multipurpose Lithium Complex Grease with
Molybdenum (MPGM)”
• Special Publication, PEHP0017, “Data Sheet -
Special Purpose Grease (SPG) Bearing Lubricant”
• Special Publication, PECP4025, “One Safe
Source”
• Special Publication, SEBD0640, “Oil and Your
Engine”
• Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU5898,
“Cold Weather Recommendations”
• Special Publication, PEDP1129, “Listen To Your
Oil”
• Special Publication, PEHP6001, “How To Take A
Good Oil Sample”
Fuels
• Special Publication, SEBD0717, “Diesel Fuels and
Your Engine”
Coolants
• Special Publication, PEHP4036, “Data SheetCaterpillar Coolant”
• Special Publication, PEHP5033, “S·O·S Coolant
Analysis”
• Special Publication, PECP4025, “One Safe
Source”
Contents Microfiche”
Marine Engines”
• Specifications, SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”
• Special Publication, LEDM5615, “Caterpillar
Marine Parts and Service Locations Directory”
• Special Publication, LEXM0683, “Pleasure Craft
Storage Guide”
• Special Publication, SEBF8029, “Index to
Guidelines for Reusable Parts and Salvage
Operations”
• Special Publication, SEBF8062, “Guideline for
Reusable Parts - Cleaning and Inspection of Air
Filters”
• Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage
Procedure for Caterpillar Products”
• Special Publication, NEHS0526, “Service
Technician Application Guide”
• Special Instruction, SEHS8622, “Using the FT1984 Air-To-Air Aftercooler Leak Test Group”
• Special Instruction, SEHS8742, “Using the 8T-8697
Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP)”
• Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
Procedure”
• Special Instruction, SEHS7332, “Do Not Operate
Tag”
112
Index Section
SEBU7040-05
Index
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Condensate Drain Valve Inspect/Clean.......................................................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ................................
Clean the Aftercooler Core ................................
Test the Aftercooler Core ...................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Auxiliary Water Pump - Inspect .............................
49
57
68
68
68
69
69
69
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 70
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 70
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 71
Before Starting Engine .................................... 13, 46
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace............................... 71
Adjustment ......................................................... 71
Inspection........................................................... 71
Replacement...................................................... 71
Burn Prevention..................................................... 10
Batteries............................................................. 10
Coolant............................................................... 10
Oils..................................................................... 10
C
Cold Start Strategy ................................................
Cold Weather Operation........................................
Cold Weather Starting ...........................................
Configuration Parameters (Customer Specified
Parameters) .........................................................
Coolant - Change ..................................................
Drain the Cooling System ..................................
Fill the Cooling System ......................................
Flush ..................................................................
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add...............................
Coolant Level - Check ...........................................
Engines That Are Equipped with a Coolant
Recovery Tank .................................................
Engines That Are Not Equipped with a Coolant
Recovery Tank .................................................
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace ............
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add..................................................
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................
S·O·S Coolant Analysis......................................
Test for SCA Concentration ...............................
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect .................
Inspection...........................................................
Removal and Installation....................................
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........
30
54
46
45
71
72
73
72
74
74
74
75
75
76
77
76
76
77
77
78
13
Customer Assistance...........................................
Outside of the USA and of Canada..................
USA and Canada .............................................
Customer Service ................................................
107
107
107
107
D
Declaration of Conformity ......................................
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval ...........................
“Diagnostic” Lamp..............................................
Diagnostic Lamp....................................................
23
41
41
41
E
Electrical System ................................................... 14
Grounding Practices .......................................... 14
Negative Battery Connection for Multiple
Engines ............................................................ 16
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 56
Emergency Stop Button (If Equipped) ............... 56
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace (Air Cleaner Element and
Vacuum Regulator Filters) ................................... 78
Cleaning the Air Cleaner Elements.................... 79
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 78
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 80
Service the Air Cleaner Element........................ 81
Test the Service Indicator................................... 81
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean...................... 81
Engine Diagnostics................................................ 41
Engine Electronics................................................. 17
Engine Monitoring System (EMS) ......................... 31
Communication Data Link.................................. 33
EMS Main Unit ................................................... 32
Quad Gauge Unit ............................................... 32
Tachometer Unit................................................. 33
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 82
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 85
Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 85
Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 86
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 86
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 82
Engine Oil Level Gauge - Calibrate ....................... 83
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 84
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 84
Engine Operation................................................... 50
Docking and Reverse Travel.............................. 51
Engine and Marine Transmission Operation...... 50
Engine Speed Governing................................... 50
Engine Synchronization ..................................... 50
Slow Vessel Mode.............................................. 51
Trolling Mode Strategy....................................... 51
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Codes ... 44
Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic
Codes .................................................................. 45
SEBU7040-05
Engine Performance............................................ 106
Performance Analysis Report (PAR)................ 106
Engine Performance and Performance Analysis
Report (PAR) ..................................................... 106
Engine Rating Conditions .................................... 104
Engine Rating Definitions .................................... 104
Engine Ratings .................................................... 104
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect....... 87
Engine Starting ................................................ 14, 46
Engine Stopping .............................................. 14, 56
Engine Storage Procedure - Check....................... 87
Engine Valve Lash - Check ................................... 87
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect ............................ 87
F
Fault Logging......................................................... 44
Features and Controls ........................................... 30
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............. 11
Ether .................................................................. 12
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 12
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ................................... 12
Fluid Recommendations........................................ 58
Cooling System.................................................. 63
Diesel Engine Oil ............................................... 58
Fuel .................................................................... 60
Foreword ................................................................. 5
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 5
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 54
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 51
Cruising Speed .................................................. 52
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 55
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 55
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 55
Fuel System - Prime .............................................. 88
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ............................................... 88
Replace the Element.......................................... 88
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................... 89
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............... 90
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 91
Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 91
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................ 92
Fuel Tank ........................................................... 91
Fumes Disposal Filter Element - Replace ............. 92
Replacing the Fumes Disposal Filter ................. 93
Resetting the Service Indicator .......................... 93
Fumes Disposal Filter Service Indicator - Check... 93
G
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 33
113
Index Section
General Hazard Information .................................... 7
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 9
Dispose of Waste Properly ................................ 10
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 8
Inhalation ............................................................. 9
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ..................................... 9
Pressurized Air and Water ................................... 8
Softwrap............................................................. 10
General Information............................................... 18
H
Heat Exchanger - Inspect ......................................
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ...................
Inspect the Hoses and the Clamps ....................
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ..................
94
94
94
95
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 26
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 67
Maintenance Log .................................................. 110
Maintenance Recommendations ........................... 66
Maintenance Records.......................................... 109
Maintenance Section ............................................. 58
Manual Stop Procedure......................................... 56
Marine Classification Society Certification
Requirements .................................................... 105
Marine Power Display............................................ 34
Diagnostic Data.................................................. 35
Display Modes ................................................... 35
Marine Power Display Configuration And
Operation ......................................................... 35
Operating Information ........................................ 35
Marine Towing ....................................................... 25
Securing the Propeller ....................................... 25
Towing Procedure .............................................. 25
Model View Illustrations......................................... 18
Mounting and Dismounting.................................... 13
O
Operation Section.................................................. 25
Ordering Replacement Parts ............................... 108
Overhaul Considerations ....................................... 97
Oil Consumption as an Overhaul Indicator ........ 97
Overhaul Recommendation ............................... 97
Overspeed ............................................................. 36
114
Index Section
SEBU7040-05
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Information Plate................................................
Serial Number Plate...........................................
Product Description ...............................................
Engine Service Life ............................................
Engine Specifications.........................................
Marine Transmissions ........................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
Product Lifting........................................................
Engine and Marine Transmission Lifting ............
Marine Transmission Lifting ...............................
Product Storage.....................................................
Engine................................................................
Marine Transmission Storage ............................
22
22
22
19
20
20
20
22
18
26
26
26
26
27
29
R
Reference Information ........................................... 24
Record for Reference......................................... 24
Reference Information Section ............................ 104
Reference Material ............................................... 111
Coolants............................................................ 111
Fuels ................................................................. 111
Lubricants ......................................................... 111
Miscellaneous ................................................... 111
Reference Materials ............................................ 109
Refill Capacities..................................................... 58
Cooling System.................................................. 58
Lubrication System ............................................ 58
S
Safety Messages ..................................................... 6
Additional Messages............................................ 7
Type 1 .................................................................. 6
Type 2 .................................................................. 6
Safety Section ......................................................... 6
Self-Diagnostics..................................................... 41
Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 37
Air Pressure Sensor for the Inlet Manifold ......... 39
Air Temperature Sensor for the Inlet Manifold ... 39
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor ........................... 38
Coolant Level Sensor......................................... 38
Coolant Temperature Sensor ............................. 38
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor............................... 38
Failure of Sensors.............................................. 37
Fuel Pressure Sensor ........................................ 39
Fuel Temperature Sensor .................................. 39
Marine Transmission Oil Pressure ..................... 40
Marine Transmission Oil Temperature ............... 40
Sensor Locations ............................................... 37
Speed/Timing Sensor ........................................ 40
Starting Motor - Inspect ....................................... 100
Starting the Engine ................................................ 47
Engine Starting with the Air Starting Motor ........ 48
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 48
System Pressure Release .....................................
Coolant System..................................................
Engine Oil ..........................................................
Fuel System .......................................................
66
66
66
66
T
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Towing Information ................................................ 25
Transmission Oil Level - Check ........................... 100
Marine Transmission Operation, Maintenance,
Warranty, and Parts Support .......................... 100
Transmission Operation ........................................ 53
Moving and Getting Underway........................... 53
Transmission Selector Lever ............................. 53
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 100
Cleaning and Inspecting .................................. 101
Removal and Installation.................................. 100
W
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 101
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ................................................... 101
Water Pump - Inspect .......................................... 102
Z
Zinc Rods - Inspect/Replace ............................... 102
Inspect the Zinc Rods ...................................... 102
Replace the Zinc Rods..................................... 103
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2012 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved
Cat, Caterpillar, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the Power edge
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks
of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.
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